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Full text of "A twentieth century history of Trumbull County, Ohio; a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principal interests"

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Trumbull County 







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History of Cleveland, Whittlesey's History of Clevelaiid, 
Mathews' History of the "Western Reserve, the reports of the 
Ohio Arehseologieal Sot-iety, tlie Historieal Collection of the 
Mahoning Valley Association, particularly the c]ia])ter on War- 
ren prepared by LeAvis Morris Iddings, the works of lion. B. A. 
Hinsdale, Hon. Jas. A. Garfield, the Memorial to the Pioneer 
Women of the Westei'n Reserve, and many others. 

She has taken great pains to verify all dates, names ami 
facts and yet she knows there will be errors. She therefore 
begs those of critical minds to do some work of the same char- 
acter before passing tinal .indgment on this. 





In writiug this History of Trumlmll County tlie author 
has not attemjited to present exhaustively any one of its many 
interesting and important features nor on the other hand to 
make of it an encyclopedia. She has aimed to tell in a simple 
^vay the simple story of an earnest, honest people, believing 
that when such homely facts are known the readers will be 
lietter able to rmderstand the historical significance of the past 
and the conditions of today. She used as far as possible orig- 
inal MSS., letters, ])ictures and maps, but in the main does not 
feel that the volume contains much which is truly new. Even 
that which has heretofore been unpublished will probably be of 
more interest to the next historian than to the readers of today. 
She has done away with footnotes and has quoted liberally 
from all printed matter obtainable on the subject. She has 
tried to show what part women jilayed in the early settlement 
of the county and their standing today. For ages men have 
written books and naturally have so well portrayed the doings 
of men that the world understands them. ^Vhen women write 
as generally, then will women's jiart in history be e(iually clear. 
She is indebted to the Western Keserve Historical Society for 
many valuable books and ])apers ; to Mr. H. K. ]\Iorse of Poland 
and Mr. "Whittlesey Adams of Warren for prepared material 
and important facts; to the descendants of the early families 
who were untiring in assisting her to corroborate and elucidate 
statements, — ]jarticularly was this true of ]iliss Elizabeth 
Iddings of Warren. She has (pioted bodily and used ideas and 
facts from Howe's Historical Collection, Williams' History of 
Trumbull County, Portage County History, Kennedy's Early 


Eeasox fok Colonization'. — C'oi.i^Misrs. — Jsauiclla. — I'ilgiiims. — 


Spain. — PouTrGAi,. — Fuanck. — England. — The Vikginia C'iiaetlr 4 


Connecticut Constitution. — Ciiauteu of 1GG2. — Ciiakteu Oak. — 
Connecticut in Pennsylvania. — -Connecticut Massacee and 
Loss OF Claim. — Charles II"s Geogeapiiy. — Connecticut Ee- 




— Second Comjiittee. — Oeiginal Puuciiasees. — Quantity of 
Land ok the Eeseeve. — Xatul'al Resources. — Men who pre- 
ceded Connecticut Settlers. — Garfield's Speech 13 


Yankees. — Pennsylv.vnia Dutch. — Scotch Irish. — Salt Speings. 

— JuD(iE SAiiuia. 11. Parsons 23 


List of Lirkitoes and Surveyors of Connec;ticut Land Coii- 
PANY. — The Wo.AiEN OF THE Party. — Details of the Trip. — 
Schenectady. — Eoet Oswego. — Canandaigua. — Buffalo. — 
Council with the Indians at Buffalo Creek. — Whiskey and 
THE Surveying Party. — Coxneaut. — July 4th, 179(j 37 


Indian Council at Coxneaut. — Tin-: Start of the Sueveyoes. — 
Setting the Coenee Post. — Running the Paeallel. — Si-ii- 
jier at Cleveland. — Retuen Hojie. — Wixtice at Clevelaxd. — 
WixTEE at Coxneaut. — Starvation 3.5 



Setii Pkask. — SruvEYixG Pakty of 1797. — Tkip Orx. — Suji-aiei! 
SrifVEY. — ^Irc'it Sickness. — Fiust Hauvest. — Aiizi Atwatek. 
liELTl.'X IIi):\iE -li 

KiXGSBURy's Deed. — SorxHERx Poktion of Couxty Settled First. 


Edwards.— DoAX'. — Carter. — Honey. — Harmox. — Lovelaxd. — 
Morgan. — Harpersfield. — Coxxeaut. — Thorpe. — Tappax. — 
HuDsox. — Caxfield. — Sheldox. — AValworth. — Paixe. — At- 

W.iTER. Ha I.E. CA:\lP]iF,LE. ^llI,ES 48 


How THE First Settlers Cajie. — Carryixg Cuildrex ix* Aproxs. — 
The B.vby's Cry. — Seeds and Plaxts. — Chestnut STUjrps as 
Stoyes. — First Ovex's. — First Laiixdries. — Early Houses. — 
WiXTER Evenings. — Dishes. — Bric-a-brac. — Chairs. — Finan- 
cial Depexdexce. — Books. — First Schools. — Pies. — Clotii- 
ixG. — Big Fajiilies. — Woincx's Siioics. — Horseback to 
Church. — Sleepixg ox Husiia\ii"s ({rave. — BiiEAD-iiAicixc. — 
Bears. — Whiskey 60 



OE Park. — Lane. — Case. — Kino. — Leavitt. — Fajiilies of 
THESE Men. — Adgate. — Early Houses. — County •\mthout 
Law. — Forjiatiox" of County 73 

chaptfr xn. 

First Court IldisE. — Oruuxal Subscriptiox List for Same. — 
Brick Poxu. — Secoxd CIoirt House. — Sale of First Court 
House. — Court Crier. — First Jail in Warrex. — Second Jail. 
— Debtor's Rooji. — Third Jail. — Fourth Jail. — County" Seat 
War 90 

(il.M'TKi; XIII. 

Ja.\ii:s Scott IIousi:. — .Mrs. Scott ank Indians. — iliis. Rowe. — 
Mrs. Justus Sjiith. — Mi.'s. 'J'od. — ({raeter House. — Parsox's 
Ho.ME. — .Mrs. Edwards" Weddinc;. — Rawdon House. — Castle 
William. — Lane House. — ^Home of ILiNRY and ^Lvry Stiles. 
— Stevens-Crowell Place. — Webb Pj!operty. — Dana's Insti- 
TU'i'E. — I'cASE Home. — Iddings Home. — South Street Social 
Ci:xTi;it. — liiDiN'fis ^Iap 99 



Early Letters. — Eihst ^Iail Iioutk. — Fikst Postmastek. — Gex- 
EKAL Perkins axd Mail Routes. — Eleazer Gilsox. — Asael 
Adams as Mail Carrier. — Carrying Bullets to General Per- 
Kixs. — Advertised List. — List of Warren Postmasters. — 
Presidential Office J".M 


Indian Paths. — First Roads. — Coaches. — Ferries. — Lotticry. — 

Canals. — Railroads 127 


Introduction. — Biour aimiical Sketches. — Stories. — List of 

Judges 1 ^"- 


Indians as Warriors. — State iliLiTiA. — Soldiers of ISl','. — Sol- 
diers OF isiil. — \\'arrk\ Benevolent Society' Ui4 


Connecticut Law. — ilissioNARiEs. — First Church in Old 
Trujibull County. — First Preaching. — Baptist Church. — 
Presbyterian Church — Christ Church (Episcopal). — Cen- 
tral Christian Church. — First Methodist F^piscopal 
Church. — St. JIary's Church (Roman Catholic). — German 
Lutheran Church. — Zion Reformed Church. — Tod Avenue 
Methodist Episcopal Church. — Christian Science Church. 
— Grace United Ev.vngelical Church. — Second Christian 
Church "^35 


School Lands in Western Reserve. — First Schools and Teach- 
ers IN Warren. — Warren Academy'. — School Discipline. — 
Select Schools. — Beginning of Public School Systeji. — 
Eably Teachers and Superintendents. — Reminiscences. — 
L'ncomfortable Schoolhouses. — Old-time Pedagogy'. — War- 
ERS. — Bo.yrd of Education. — Superintendents. — Alumni of 
Warren High School ■.'84 


Fraternity of Trumbull County Physicians. — Theodore Shep- 

ard, "pliysician." — wo,men in the profession. mulvculous 

Cures. — John W. Seely. — John B. Harmon. — Daniel B. 
Woods. — Physicians of Lati:r Ti.mes. — ^Iedical Notes :!i.'i 


Masoxs. — Odd 1-'j;llo«>-. — Kxiuhts of 1'ytiiias 337 


Old Wksteux Eesekve Bank. — FuiST X'atioxal Baxk. — Wareex" 
Savixgs Baxk. — Commercial X'atioxal Baxk. — Uxiox' Xa- 
xioxAL Baxk. — Secoxd Xatioxal Baxk. — Trumbull Xa- 
TioxAL Baxk. — Westerx Eeserte Xatioxal Bax'k. — Farmers' 
Baxkixg Comi'axy of West Farmixgtox. — Dollar Savixgs 
Baxk CoiirAxv of Xiles. — First Xatioxal Baxk of Cort- 
laxd. — X'oRTii Bloo:\ifielu Baxkixg Compaxy oil 


First Xewsp-U'er ox Westerx Eeserve^ "Trump of Fame." — 
Chaxged to "Westerx Eeseeve Chroxicle.'" — Peculiar Clip- 
PixGs FROii "Trump of Fame." — "Trumbull Couxty AYhig." 
— "Trumbull Couxty Democrat." — "Warrex Daily* Chrox- 
icle." — "Xews Letter." — "TheCoxstitutiox.'" — "TheWarrex" 
Eecord."" — "Westerx Eeserve Democrat." — "AYarrex" Trib- 
uxE." — "The Liberty Herald." — "The Cortlaxd Gazette.'" — 
— "Cortlaxd Herald." — "Xiles Ixdepexdext." — "Xiles 
Xews" 3-36 


First Bury^x'g Grouxd ix^ Westerx Eeserte. — Wareex Cemetery 
axd its Distix-guished Dead. — Coffixs axd Hearses. — Oak- 
■\vood Cemetep.y 369 


Agiucultural Fairs. — First ^Iills 374 


Warkex Debatixg Society^. — Members axd Descexdaxts. — Public 
Library. — Circulatixg Libiliry. — Warrex Library Associa- 
tion. — The Carnegie Library. — Trumbull County Artists. . 379 


Fire Department. — Fire of 1846. — Peoiitive ^Methods of Fire 
Protectiox'. — Fire Companies axd Apparatus. — "The GRE_i.T 
FiRi:." — City Hall axd Paid Departmext 388 


Germax Ameeicax' Fa'Milies of Trumbull Couxty'. — Dax*iel 
Bischoff. — Christianar. Voit. Dietz, Siialer. Derr, Goerixg. 
Hucke, Waldeck, Koehler, etc 396 



JuxATiiAX Brace. — Oviatt Fajiii.y. — Otiieu Settleks. — .Schools 
AXD Churches. — Phaeaxx. — ""B.vttee of the Sxakes."" — Tok- 
XADO 401 


BaZETTA AXD THE CoUXTY SeAT. — FlKST Setteeks. — P'llisr Oi;- 

cHAi;i). — Bacoxshurc oi; Corteaxi). — Schools axu ('i[n;ciii;s. . lo^; 


Fuisr Pi;oi'iiiEroi;s. — Graxd River axd BLOOiEFna.D Swamps. — 
Ferry FAnrn.Y. — A Pioxeei! Doc;. — ^Fex axd Wojiex of Note. 
— Browx F-V-\iily. — Schools axd Churches 113 


"The Greex." — First Persoxs axd Ex'exts. — Miles axd Blast 

FuRXA('E. — Schools axd Te.vciiers. — Churches ^24 


GEiniAx Settlers. — Baughmax. Sagei; axd B.vrbe. — Schools. — 
^Fexxoxitk axd Otiiei! Religious Or(;axi/;aii(ixs. — Te.m- 


The Rutax' Family. — .V Pet Deer. — William Woodkow. — ^Irs. 
AYalker's Exi'ERiExcE WITH A Bear. — Eai;ly Sciiool Teach- 
ers. — Churches 433 


Origixai. ( )wxE!;s ,\xd Xa:\ie. — The AVolcotts. — Taftsville. — AIrs. 
James Stull. — Lee Family. — The Hydes. — Other Pioxeees. 
— Charles A. Daxa. — Schools. — Faemixgtox' — 
SuBSCRii'Tiox List for Preachers. — Church Societies 441 


Salt Maxufacture b\' Ixdians. — ilRS. Asa Foote. — "Tyrrell 
Hill."" — Ax" Importaxt ^[axufacturer. — The Morrow, Bald- 



Caxadlvx IiuMiGRAXTs. — TuE Wakefields, Harrixgtoxs axd 
Other Pioxeeks. — Character of First Settlers. — Pioxeer 
Ixcidexts. — Epitaphs. — R. C. Rice"s Rejiixiscexces. — For- 
3IATI0X OF the Towxsiiip. — Calvixist Pioxeers. — First 
Churches. — A Bear Story. — Attexdixg the Cokwix Meet- 
ix'G. — The Schools of Greexe.^ — The Harrixgtoxs School. .. 4.5S 



J'KL'rox Family. — Tin-; liiLDKits. — C'alvix Coxic. — OxiiEii Early 
Familiks. — John Bkowx, Jk. — A Gkkat Ixvextoi!. — Piiysi- 
ciAxs. — Schools and Teachers. — Eeligious Ohgaxizatioxs. . . 474 


Brii(iniLL, Bi!ock\v.vy's Hill, Dutch IUdge. — The KuAixAnD axd 
lUsHXELL Families. — Arhival of Elaji Joxes. — First 
EvEXTs. — Teachers of the First Schools. — CiirRcii C'om- 
Mixiox ]x A (iitovK. — Faxxy Daxa GA(iE. — Oraxgeville 484 


JoHX Hart Adgate. — Daxiel IIaxk. — A Xoted Hotel. — Seely 
Family. — Barber Kixg. — Uatliffs. — IJeeves Family. — The 
J-Ieatox Stove. — Ewalt. — Kexxedy. — Schools .\xd Teachers. 
— IIdwi.axh FLA(i Stoxe. — Churches 493 


Samuel Tylee. — William Bukxett. — Other Early Fa:\iilies.^ 
AsAEL Adams* School. — Irox axd Coal. — Peluhous Orijaxiza- 



Captaix" Bradley's FAiiiLY. — Two ^Iechaxics. — The Hixe 

]'-UiTY. — Schools axd Churches 508 


.ToHX Tvixs:\iAx. — A Party of Fa:mous ^[ex. — A Cheerful. Exer- 
■ :etic Womax. — KixsiiAX ^[iLL. — Dr. Allex. — .V Cextury-old 

Fn;sr Siri'Ti.icRs. — (iiRAiM), CiiriicHiLL axd SoDoii. — The Piio:\ii- 


Residexts. — Schools. — First Church Op.gaxizatioxs. — Lib- 
erty' Churchi:s 523 


S^u\r.l. 11i)mi:sti:ai)s ix the P.iigixxixc. — A IjAxd Deal. — Bailey's 

(■(ii;xi;i;s. — \Vi:i.l Knowx Fa.\[ilii:s. — Schools. — Religiox. . . . 538 


'I'uh'H WD Kuri'i. \xi). — First Settlers axd Evexts. — Teachers and 

S( liooLiioi sEs. — Oil Si'eculatiox. — •"Dixie." — The Churches 545 


ClIAl'TI-:!! XLVIL— :\[ES()POTAilIA. 

The Xajie. — Si'Eiiiiv Fa.mii.y. — Tin: (irii.Ds. — Thacy. — Pioneer 
I)evel()I'.mi:xt. — Fii;sr TiCAciiixd ami Pi!i:a('iuxi; 

CHAPTKi; X LVl 1 1 .—X EWTOX'. 

X'lcwTdx Falls. — "PincETOWX." — Jesse IIalliday. — l)i;. Pjkoxsox. 
— X'ewtox Falls Villaci:. — S(;iiools. — Ciirucir ()ni;\\iy.\- 
Tioxs ,"'i:)7 


Yaxkee Settlers. — '1'iie Xortox Family. — Ax Uxtrofessiox.vl 
Physiciax. — AViriTE. — 'I'ue SfiiooLS. — IiKLIciox axii its Ad- 



TiiOiiAs GiuDixcs" Xarrative. — The Arrival of the First Set- 

K. Peltox"s Article. — Sad and Bomantic Incidex'ts of Pio- 
neer Life. — Veenox''s X'otable Families. — First Methodist 

Class ix' Eeserve. — Other ('HrRciiEs. — Verxox' Schools.... .573 


First Evexts. — Batiisheba Burr. — Hctchixs. — Woodford. — 
Wheeler. — Ijartholojiew. — Betts. — Huiiisox. — Bai.dwix. — 
^Mackey. — 'I'liE Schools axd CiirRciiEs ."iS9 

('II .\ P'llTi; LT L— W I^ATJ I ERSFIELD. 

liARiiox Fa.milv. — (Jhltown. — Mineral IIidge. — Xiles. — Iron' 
JLvnufacture. — The Eatox Family. — Founding axd Growth 
OF X'lLEs. — William McKixley. — Schools axd Churches. . . . 599 


Civil Lists. — State Senators. — il embers of Coxoress. — State 
Eerresextatives. — ( ;ovi;rnoi;s vuom Truvibull County. — ilis- 
cellaxeous X'otes 613 



Reasons for Colonization. — Columbus. — Isabella. — Pilgrims. 
— Puritans. 

Desire for money and desire for religious liberty, in the 
ratio of ninety-nine to one, were the means of colonizing the New 
World. Women as well as men have had a hand in this coloniza- 
tion, but whereas the motive in men has been largely commer- 
cial, in women it has been largely religious. 

When Columbus had declared his belief in a roimd world 
and had explained to leading men the great commercial advan- 
tages awaiting the nation which would finance his scheme, he 
was ridiculed. Few men believed he could find the gold of the 
east by sailing west. Columbus, as man has always done when 
he has utterly failed with men, turned to a woman — a queen. To 
be sure, he told her of the eastern gold which would be hers and 
of the fame which would come to Spain but he dwelt at great 
length on the opportunities she had for planting her religion in 
a new world. 

History tells us that, because of her devotion to her church, 
she sold her jewels and raised the necessary money. At any 
rate, we know she herself contributed more than half the money 
he needed, and made the town of Palos give him two vessels. 
The discoveries he made did reflect credit u^Don her kingdom, 
and through the upper parts of South America and most of 
the West India Islands, Spanish is the language spoken, and 
the Roman Catholic religion is the universal religion. That 
religion, especially its ritual, is making itself felt in the United 
States today in ways we hardly recognize. That church mod- 


Vol. I— 1 


itied the forms of the j^agau worshiij and adopted them as their 
own. The Anglican ohureh follows moderately niauj- of these 
forms, while the ordinary Protestant church follows today at 
a respectful distance. Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, and 
so on, read the Psalter, sing the Gloria, say the Creed, repeat 
the Lord's Prayer, and take on other forms to make the service 
attractive and effective. Three or four churches other than 
Catholic and Episcoi>al in AVarren, in this year (1909) had ap- 
propriate services during Holy Week. The vestments of the 
Episcopal priest are fashioned a little more and more after his 
Romish brother, while the garments of Protestant clergymen 
distinguish them often from their fellow men. In fact, if the 
Pilgrims, as they stepped u])ou the rock, could have had a 
vision of the church of today, with its staiued glass, its organ, 
its choir, its forms and ceremonies, possilily they would have 

The Puritans came to this country seeking religious lib- 
erty. These Puritans were both men and women, they had 
been born in a constitutional monarchy where the established 
church was powerful, and the man became the monarch of the 
family, and the man preacher, the ruler of the community. On 
tlie rocky coast of New England the Puritan mother helped to 
carve out the nation, as well as did the Puritan father. She 
loved religious liberty as well as did he, but she spoke and acted 
at second hand. If she felt so strongly that she let her voice be 
heard, she endangered her life and was sometimes hung or 
Imrned as a witch or disturber. As we look back at the early 
Massachusetts days, we marvel at those early women. Accus- 
tomed to a mild climate, they bore the severities of their new 
home with utmost patience and resignation. They bore and 
buried their children, in great numbers, and most of them 
yielded up their lives when young. Hundreds of grave-stones 
in New England, with only a little moditication, testify that 
"Mary Anne Smith died at the age of twenty-six, leaving eight 
children to the tender mercy of God." 

Peo])le of today are not alone in wondering how the Puritan 
could think he had religious liberty in his new home, for some 
of the Massachusetts residents at the time also thought so. To 
have more liberty and a larger chance for making money, these 
dissatistied people moved on into Connecticut. 

Still later, commercialism and religion, the latter 's voice 
somewhat weakened, allured Connecticut jieople to Pennsyl- 

iiisToiiv OF T]!r:\ii;rLL cotxty 3 

vania. Here other men, also with hive of money and i-cligioii, 
met them and after confiiet turned them haek. nr rather the 

Later, the C'onneetieut ]ieopk' made another effort, going 
in the eastern corner of the North-West Territory, where they 
aeenmuhited property and modified their religion and lieeame 
powerful and prosperous, as we shall see. 


Spain. — Portugal. — France. — England. — The Virginl\ 

Columbus was not the first mau to believe the world was 
round, but he really believed it, and was anxious to prove what 
was then a theory. In AugiLst, 1492, with three small vessels 
and about one hundred men, some of them criminals, he set sail, 
and on October 12th sighted land, one of the Bahamas. Later 
he discovered Cuba. He returned home in January. Isabella 
and Ferdinand, and in fact all Spaniards were overjoyed at 
the success of the enterprise. The Queen hastened to the Pojie, 
Alexander VI, and asked him to grant to vSpain dominion over 
this new land. 

When in the beginning Columbus had tried to interest the 
Portugnese in his adventure, that country had pretended it be- 
lieved nothing in the theory, but true to their reputed natures, 
while denying his claim, these people started out sailors to make 
the voyage, thus hoping to obtain the glory themselves. These 
sailors, however, had not the faith of Colmnbus, and, soon be- 
coming disheartened, turned back. However, when Columbus 
returned, Portugal was chagrined and immediately sent an ex- 
pedition to India, via Cape Hope, and thus De Gama, in 1498, 
reached the land all were seeking, before any European. These 
facts would be of no interest to the readers of this history, ex- 
cept that Pope Alexander believed Portugal as well as Spain 
had reached the "Golden Land," and "drawing a meridian one 
hundred leagues west of the Azores, decreed that all new lands 
west of this line should belong to Spain, and those east to 

Columbus died without knowing that he had discovered a 
new world. On his second voyage he visited Porto Rico, which 
island, four hundred years later, was a part of the United 

Spain and Portugal owned the land in the new world, pro- 



vided the people who lived here (erroneously nnmed Indians) 
had no claim to the forests over which their fathers liad roamed 
many centuries before either Portugal or Spain had heard of a 
round world or a short passage to India, and provided the 
Norsemen were not exj^loring with the idea of colonizing, which 
they were probably not. 

Stupid, penurious Henry VII was quite disturbed by Colum- 
bus' success, and in 1497 sent John Cabot after India's gold, and 
the next year sent Sebastian Cabot, the son, on the same errand. 
The father landed on the North American coast and the son in 
the territory' of the United States. Neither found treasure of 
any kind, and so England discontinued her voyages although 
upon these two expeditions England later laid claim to a goodly 
part of the land east of the Mississippi. 

Spain for many years sent explorers or colonies to the 
new Avorld, sometimes to South America and the Islands, some- 
times to Mexico, to Florida, to California and the country in 
between. However, about one hundred years from the time of 
Columbus' first voyage it became imderstood that Spain would 
confine herself to the southern part of the Northern continent. 

France was slow in attempting to colonize in the western 
hemisphere. It was more than one hundred and fiftj' years from 
Columbus' first voyage before the Huguenots, for religious rea- 
sons, fled from France to make a new home in Florida. As this 
land was claimed by the Spanish, the Spanish Christians slew 
the French Liberal Christians, and were in turn hanged by the 
French Regular Christians. Oh ! the agony, the bloodshed, the 
torture inflicted by those supposing themselves to be the fol- 
lowers of the gentle, loving, the non-resisting Jesus. 

In 15.35 the French sailed into the St. Lawrence and from 
that time on made excursions in all directions. In 1605 there 
was a permanent settlement in Nova Scotia. In 1660 they were 
on Ijake Superior, in 1673 on the upper Mississippi, in 1679 
La Salle launched a boat of sixty tons, the "Griffin," on Lake 
Erie, and proceeded up the lakes. In 1682 he was at the mouth 
of the Mississipjii. In fact, on the border of the land claimed 
by the English, the French military posts were numerous and 
were constantly encroaching. 

We remember that it was Isabella who started Columbus 
on the discovery of the new land, and it was Elizabeth who 
really began the planting of the English in the western world. 

As we have seen, Henry VII was a stingy fellow and too 


self-centered to see beyond his borders. It is hardly for us, 
TrnnibuU Coiinty descendants of the New England pioneers, to 
dwell on Jlenry's penuriousness, because this trait our ancestors 
brought with them into New England, on into New Connecticut, 
and the great-great-grandchildren of Trumbull County, as a 
rule, hold on to the purse strings rather closely. They not only 
do not sell all that they have and give to the poor, but many 
of them think themselves the poor without reason. However, 
Trumbull County is not the only spot on earth where peojile 
are saving or where the church doctrine is not followed to the 

Henry VIII had to give umch time to what for politeness 
is called "domestic affairs," but what in reality was a licentious 
life. He divorced and killed wives, and in the name of the 
church tortured and dispatched Christians. 

Many historians try to belittle Elizabeth, saying the success 
of her reign was due not to her own ability, but to the wise men 
she drew around her. If this be true, does that fact itself not 
show a sagacious mind ? It has been said that she was not 
virtuous. That is what the world says of any woman who has 
ability and talent, and uses them in a new line. It is the thing 
women, as a whole, least deserve and most dread. Elizabeth 
knew what they said, — she did not care. Wise was she, far wise 
above her generation. She may have had lovers in the insinu- 
ating sense, but she judiciously avoided a husband. She was 
a woman, and in that far-away time, heads rolled off of shoul- 
ders easily at a wave of a majestic hand and she did not like 
it. The position of heads was quite normal during her reign. 
She knew husbands could not be divorced without punishment, 
whereas lovers could be set aside easily; the quieter, the better. 

At any rate, Elizabeth had time for things other than do- 
mestic (here, domestic is as applied usually to men), and one of 
these things was colonizing the new world. She granted charters 
to Sir Hmuphrey Gilliert, and she and Sir Walter Ealeigh real- 
ized that the new world was the place to cripple Spain. With 
the assistance of Sir Thomas Drake, a gentleman in those days, 
a pirate in ours, she made the beginning. 

Of course, colonizing was a new business and she did not 
know that idle gentlemen, degenerate second sons, laborers who 
refused to labor, with no women, never had successfully made 
homos in the wilderness, or anywhere else. 

The cai'ly expeditions of England are so well known to all 


wliu can read at all that tliey are not repeated here. These 
three countries are mentioned in this work lieeause indirectly 
they had a bearing on Trnmbiill County. 

James I granted charters to the Loudon and the Plymouth 
Companies in 1606. The Plymouth Company was given tlie 
land from Nova Scotia to Long- Island running indefinitely 
westwards, while the London Company was given the land from 
the Potomac to Cape Fear, the intermediate portion being opeu 
to both. 

In 1(309 a new charter was granted l)y James to the London 
Company, extending the coast line two Imndred miles lielow and 
above the present Old Point Comfort. The northern line then 
began a little above the center of the New Jersey coast and 
ran at an angle of al)out forty-five degrees, touching near Buf- 
falo, on through Lake Huron, Lake Superior "up into the lands 
throughout from sea to sea and northwest." This covered 
nearly one-half of the North American Continent. Therefore, 
in 16(t9, the land wliich later became Trumbull County belonged 
to England. To be sure it was granted to the London Company, 
and claimed by Virginia, so called in lionor of the Virgin queen. 

The ))eo]^le of Trumliull County owe a great debt to the 
London (/'ompany, for it succeeded in doing what Elizabeth 
began to do — held l»ack the Sjianish nation, and established a 
self-government wliicli a people belonging to a constitutional 
monarchy could do and which a people belonging to an absolute 
monai'chy could not do. The rulers of Spain were real rulers, 
not leaders; people had no voice whatever in their own govern- 
ment. The rulers of England were not all powerful. The Vir- 
ginians were conformers and therefore did not displease the 
king, as did the northern folks. Hence it kept its charter, while 
Massachusetts' was revoked in the latter ]iart of the eighteenth 


Connecticut Constitution. — Charter of 1662. — Charter Oak. 
— Connecticut in Pennsylvania. — Connecticut Mas- 
sacre and Loss of Claim. — Charles 11 's Geog- 
raphy. — Connecticut Reserves 
Part of Her Grant. 

The Connecticut constitution was drawn \\-p in 1639 by the 
men of the three settlements or towns, Hartford, Wethersfield, 
and AVindsor. It jorovided for a government by the people and 
did not mention king or parliament. Other towns later or- 
ganized nnder the title of New Haven. It was in this colony 
that the laws were so strict as to be called the "Bine Laws," al- 
though these laws did not compare in severity with manj' laws 
of Old England. On April 23, 1662, Charles 11 confirmed all 
Connecticut charters and deeds, and because he hated the New 
Haven colony (it had defied him and denied him certain re- 
quests) he turned it in as Connecticut under this charter. The 
convej'ance gave to Connecticut ' ' all the territory of the present 
state and all of the lands west of it, to the extent of its breadth, 
from sea to sea." This really gave to Connecticut aside from 
the home state, the upper third of Pennsylvania, about one-third 
of Ohio, and parts of what has become Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, 
Nebraska, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and California. This 
United Connecticut became prosperous and tranquillity seemed 
near when Andros, the governor of Massachusetts, appeared in 
the state and demanded their charter. The question of releasing 
this valuable document was considered for hours, eloquent argu- 
ments were made, the hardships of early settlers were depicted, 
but even when night fell the governor was still demanding. No 
Tungsten burner lighted the room in which the council was held, 
but the best of the time — the tallow dip — was there. Suddenly 
there was darkness. When the dips were set sputtering again 


the cliarter could not be found. Some patriot, or patriots, had 
spirited it away and had liid it in the hollow of an oak tree where 
it remained till Massachusetts rebelled against Andros, when 
it was triumphantly produced. On Sundays, on Thanksgiving, 
and on Fourth of July, Avhen the early settlers of New Con- 
necticut had time to think or to hear orations, their hearts 
swelled with gratitude as they recalled that the charter which 
gave them the laud upon which they had built their homes had 
been preserved to them by Yankee wit and courage, and the 
"Charter Oak" was ever held in reverence. 

Modern historians are cruel. Not only do they declare that 
there was no William Tell, no apple, no arrow, but that Poeo- 
hontas did not leap forth from the darkness and save the life 
of John Smith. Instead of the latter they give us the picture 
of a wise, beautiful, gentle, loving Indian girl doing many good 
deeds for the white people, as well as her own, and who in turn 
was loved for her devotion and her bravery. Pshaw ! that pic- 
ture does not replace the other. Too many women have been 
good, wise and devoted to this great country, in the beginning, 
later and at this minute, to have "special mention." But more, 
the historian insinuatingly whispers that the hollow oak may 
have held nuts, leaves, dead branches, toads, scpiirrels, but no 
parchment — no paper upon which the chesty king in 1662 had 
placed his name and seal. Anyway, even if the story was ethe- 
real, the charter itself was not. 

The western land held out hope for the Connecticut folks 
and land companies were formed to establish settlements in 
northern Pennsyh^ania, then more or less of a wilderness. When 
the companies were ready, men and women set out to make 
new homes in the beautiful valley of the Wyoming. They sought 
property and liberty, but thej' found others ahead of them who 
wanted the same things. Seven times did the Connecticut emi- 
grants attempt to make a settlement. Each time they were 
unsuccessful, being driven out by whites and Indians, and twice 
massacred. The life of a pioneer is a hard life at best, but for 
men and women to be cold, hungry, lonely and fearful most of 
the time, as they struggled for existence, and to be killed at the 
end, seems horrible when we know how the fertile land, plenty 
of it for themselves, their children, and their children's childreu, 
stretched out invitingly before them. 

Sometimes husliands settled their families in this valley 
and went out to tight or to hunt, and the women did the work 


of both, their children hanging to their skirts, while they 
listened as they labored for the whoops of the dreaded red man. 
So busy were these frontiersmen during the Revolutionary 
War that they neglected the Avarniug of the wives at home. 
When at last, they reluctantly returned, they found themselves 
wholly unprepared for what awaited them. They proceeded 
innnediately to construct fortresses, while the women engaged 
in the numly occuj^ation of making the powder.' However, both 
efforts were to no purpose, for instead of keeping within the 
liarricades, the men, about three hundred, marched boldly forth 
to meet twelve hundred Indians, Tories and British. One hun- 
dred and sixty were killed outright, while one hundred and 
forty escaped, nearly all to be recaptured. These unfortunates 
were tomahawked or tortured to death. Some were pinned 
down with ])itch-forks onto blazing logs, or made to run through 
crackling tires till they fell fainting and were burned to death. 
One hundred and fifty widows and nearly six hundred orphans 
were made that day. AVhen women realized what was happen- 
ing they seized their children and started for the east, through 
the "Dismal Swamp." In one of these groups there were 
nearly one hundred women and children and only one man. 
Alfred Mathews in "Ohio and Her Western Reserve" savs: 

"All were without food, many scarcely clothed, but 
they pressed on, weak, trembling and growing constantly 
worse from this unaccustomed labor through the thicket, 
mire and ooze. One l)y one the weakest gave out. Some 
wandered from the path and were lost; some fell from 
exhaustion, some from wounds received in battle, but the 
majority maintained life in some miraculous way and 
pressed on. The only manna in that wilderness was 
whortleberries, and these they plucked and eagerly de- 
voui-ed, without ])ausing. ( 'hildren were born and children 
died in that fearful forced march. One babe that came into 
the world in this scene of terror and travail was carried 
alive to the settlements. At least one which died was left 
n]ion the ground, while the agonized mother went on. 
There was not time nor were there means to make even a 
shallow grave. One woman bore her dead babe in her arms 
twenty miles rather than abandon its little body to the 


A court, organized by Congress under the Articles of Con- 
federation entered into Ijy the states during the Eevolution, 
sat at Trenton, New Jersey, in 17S7, to consider the dispute 
between Connecticut and Pennsylvania as to boundary. The 
decision was for Pennsylvania. 

AVhen the autlior was a young girl she acconiiianied her 
father as he went from county seat to county seat in the dual 
capacity of common pleas and circuit .judge. Being thus thrown 
for weeks together with judges and lawyers, she soon learned, 
to her surprise, that printed, high judicial decisions were not 
always so clearly and firmly worded as to make differences of 
opinion among lower judges impossible, and, further, that con- 
ditions and circumstances, iiersonal and political, entered into 
decisions in many cases. Tlie ruling in regard to the right of 
Connecticut to the western lands is a fair sample. She had 
charters for land in New York, but Charles had also given the 
same land to New York. Ilis geograpliy was as shady as was 
the spelling of our first president. New York and Connecticut 
began to settle their differences in 1683 and finished in 17^'^. 
In 1787, Connecticut was possessed of her charter, shorn of all 
east of the western Pennsylvania line. But she had that. It 
was now her turn. The general government was begging the 
states to relinquish their titles, but Connecticut, cocpiettishly or 
mulishly, held l)ack. At last she agreed, reserving for herself 
the portion of land which was bordered on the north by the 
lake, east by the Pennsylvania line, south by the 41st parallel, 
and on the west by a line a hundred and twenty miles west of 
the Pennsylvania west line. That this request was granted 
rather strengthens the thought that the judges knew they had 
been a little unfair in their first decision, and wished to make 
amends. Otherwise why should Connecticut he the exception 
to all other states. 

Connecticut, after all this trouble and uncertainty of years, 
was at last victorious and she possessed the thing, or part of 
the thing, for Avhich she had contended. 

The stories of states ai'e not unlike the stories of people. 
Connecticut was barely relieved of a great anxiety — that of a 
possible loss of her land, — before she was beset by another one. 
She owned the land, but what should she do with it. An un- 
broken wilderness, hundreds of miles away, was not money in 
the purse. She had seen the Indians driven farther and farther 
away, she had had a peculiar experience herself of owning and 


being deprived of, she had seen reversal of decisions, beside 
she realized the approaching- power of central government and 
knew that individual communities might have to suffer for the 
good of the whole. She said to herself, "If I am not to be 
undone even at this late day, I myself must be up and doing." 


Committee Appointed by Connecticut Legislature. — Fire 
Lands. — Second Committee. — Original Purchasers. — 
Quantity of Land on the Reserve. — Natural 
Resoxtrces. — Men who Preceded Connecti- 
cut Settlers. — Garfield's Speech. 

The legislature in 1786 api^ointed a committee of three to 
dispose of this far western land. The price was placed at fifty 
cents per acre, the territory was to be divided into townships 
six miles square. The general assembly agreed to make a grant 
of a township to each purchaser, his heirs and assigTis. In 
each township was reserved five Inmdred acres of good land for 
the sujjport of the "Gospel minister," five hundred acres for 
"the sujjport of the schools forever," and two hundred and 
forty acres in "fee simple to the first Gospel minister who shall 
settle in such town." 

It was also agreed to survey the tract into tiers and ranges. 
No. 1 to be what is now the upper eastern corner of Ashtabula 
county. The legislature of the following year substantially 
ratified this, making a few minor changes such as placing No. 1 
township at the southeast corner, now known as Poland, and 
making the townships five miles square. Before the survey was 
made Judge Samuel H. Parsons bought the Salt Spring tract. 
Although reference is made to tier and range as if there had 
been a survey, there had not been. This was in 1788 and was 
the only sale made by the commissioners. This deed is recorded 
in Warren. 

During the Revolutionary war the British destroyed prop- 
erty belonging to Connecticut land owners and they demanded 
reimbursement from the legislature. This was considered by 
that body in 1791 and in 1792, and 500.000 acres were set off 
for these sufferers, or their heirs, and this tract was known at 
first as "The Sufferers' Land," later as "Fire Lands," as most 
of the property destroyed had been burned. 



The !^lll■e■\TC^ness of Conueetieiit is seen even in this traus- 
aetiou. She gave to those needing and deserving help, as men 
usually give alms, that is, she gave that for which she cared 
least, the land that was farthest away. Neither did she include 
the islands lying near and belonging jDroperly to the territory. 
Every emigrant as he journeyed to his new home in the "Fire 
Lands" helped to make a roadway for the later settlers, and 
every acre cleared and every cabin erected on these "Fire 
Lauds" added to the value of the laud to the east awaiting 

Thus, the present counties of Huron and Erie, although 
belonging to the Western Reserve, brought no substantial gain, 
unless caucelling moral obligations be considered substan- 
tial gain. 

In 1795 Connecticut had grown desperate over her "White 
Elephant" and determined to dispose of it. After formally 
resolving to sell it, the legislature selected a committee of eight, 
one from each county, to transact the business. They were 
John Treadwell, Hartford county; James Wadsworth, New 
Haven county; j\larvin Wait, New London; William Edmonds, 
Fairfield; Thomas Grosvenor, Windham; Aaron Austin, Litcli 
field; Elijah Hubbard, Middlesex; and Sylvester Gilbert, of 
Tolland county. It will be seen that the names of these men and 
these towns were used in many ways in New Connecticut, as 
were also the names of the purchasers. At this time, several 
individuals Avished to buy land for themselves or their friends, 
but the land company feared that some of them who were not 
from Connecticut were not financially responsible, while the 
price others offered was not sufficient. Among the latter were 
Zepheniali Swift, author of Swift's Digest, ex-chief justice of 
Connecticut. He offered a million dollars for the tract. This, 
however, was not entirely individual, as some of his friends 
were interested. 

These eight men sold this tract of land to the following 
pjersons for the following amounts : 

lilSTOltY OF TJtr.MJU'LL CorXTY 15 

Josepli Ilowland and Daniel L. ('oit. . . . $o(),-lrGl 

Eliam Morgan and Daniel L. e'oit 51,402 

Caleb Atwater L'-J.S4(i 

Daniel Holbrook SJ.ji) 

Joseijh AVillianis l.l/J.'!] 

AVilliam Law lo.fjOd 

William Judd l(),2.j(l 

Elisha Hyde and Uriah Tracy ')7,m) 

James Johnston .")(),()()() 

Samnel Mather, Jr ]H,4()1 

Epbraim Kirby, Elijah Boarduian, and 

Urial Holmes, Jr (i(),()()(i 

Solomon Griswold 1(1,0(10 

Oliver Phelps and Cxideon Granger, Jr. . S(),(JOO 

William Hart ;!0,4(j2 

Henry Champion, 2d 85,675 

Ashei" Miller ;'.4,000 

Robert C. Johnson (i0,000 

Ephraim Eoot 42,000 

Nehemiah Hubbard. Jr 19,039 

Solomon Cowles 10,000 

Oliver Phelps 168,185 

Ashael Hathaway 12,000 

John Caldwell and Pelig Sanford 15,000 

Timothy Burr .' 15,231 

Luther Loomis and Ebenezer King, Jr. 44,318 
AVilliam Lyman, John Stoddard, and 

David King 24,730 

Moses Cleaveland 32.600 

Samuel P. Lord 14.092 

Roger Newbury, Enoch Perkins and 

Jonathan Brace 38,000 

Ejihraim Starr 17,415 

Sylvanus Griswold 1,683 

Jozeb Stocking and Joshua Stow 11,423 

Titus Street 22,846 

James Ball, Aaron Olmstead and John 

Wiles 30,000 

Pierpoint Edwards ()0,000 

Amounting to $1,200,000 


The early diaries show some little differences in names and 
amounts but the above is in a "Book of Drafts" in the record- 
er's office, at Warren. This list was prepared by Hon. T. D. 
Webb, and given out by Joseph Perkins of Cleveland. Both men 
were accurate and painstaking. The total is always the same 
in all lists. 

These men formed themselves into the Connecticut Land 
Company, and so careful were they as to the letter of the law, 
so exacting as to the carrying out of their obligations, and such 
personal standing had they, that, whereas in tracing titles in 
most places in the United States one must go back to the grants 
made by the rulers of the old world, in northeastern Ohio it is 
sutBcient to go back only to the Connecticut Land Company. 

In the beginning this territory was supposed to contain four 
million acres, but it was found later that early maps and sketches 
had been defective ; that Lake Erie made a decided southern dip 
so that part of the land proved to be water with some air 
thrown in. 

Here is given a table prepared by Judge Frederick Kins- 
man, who was very accurate in all statements. 

Quantity of Land in the Connecticut Western 
lieserve by Survey. 
Connecticut Land Company, land east of 

the Cuyahoga River, etc 2,002,970 

Land west of the Cuyahoga River, exclu- 
sive of surplus Islands 827,291 

Surplus land (so called) 5,286 

Islands Cunningham or Kelley's. . . .2,749 

Islands Bass or Bay No. 1 1,322 

Islands Bass or Bay No. 2 709 

Islands Bass or Bay No. 3 709 

Islands Bass or Bay No. 4 403 

Islands Bass or Bay No. 5 32 5,924 

Amount of Connecticut Land Company 

land in acres 2,841,471 

Parsons 's, or "Salt Spring Tract" in 

acres 25,450 

Sufferers' or Fire Lands 500.000 

Total nmiiber of acres in the Con- 
necticut Western Reserve 3,366,921 


The $1,200,000 received in payment was placed by Con- 
necticut in its school fund and has always there remained. 

Connecticut having obtained by grant, having retained by 
diplomacy and ^persistence, and having sold to her satisfaction 
her western land, watched with pride its development. At this 
writing a larger part of the Western Reserve, particularly the 
eastern section, is ([uite as much like New England as Con- 
necticut itself. 

What was the nature of this new Connecticut ? It was heavy 
with excellent timber, oak, elm, maple, hickory, walnut, l^eech, 
etc. It was bounded on one side by a great blue lake deep 
enough to carry the trans-atlantic steamers of today, and con- 
taining more fish in pro])ortion to its size than any known body 
of water in the United States. 

It had several naviga))le rivers and numerous creeks and 
rivulets. The climate was temperate, a little colder in winter 
perhaps than the home state and possibly warmer in summer. 
The surface soil was a rich sandy loam in the northern portion, 
limning a little heavier with clay at the southern jjart. 

Within this territory was tine sandstone for building pur- 
poses and excellent flagging for walks, as the towns of today 
will testify. 

Bituminous coal (now nearly exhausted) of the finest 
qualit}' lay waiting to be mined. 

The soil was adai)ted to fruit growing and the very strip 
of land over which the Cleveland surveyors passed is now almost 
covered with vineyards. The maple tree stood ready for service 
and today, in the northeastern ]iortion, is made the finest maple 
s_yrup in the world. 

The woods abounded in game and the streams in fish. 

The land in some places was low and wet and, in others, flat 
and iminteresting, while there were rolling, hilly spots with 
touches of exquisite scenery. 

Nature had done well by this part of the world and now 
man was to demonstrate what he could do on such a foundation. 
"The folks back home" — the land company — had bought this 
territory as the boys trade marbles, ''unsight, unseen." New 
Englanders knew nothing of the flat fertile middle west. Their 
country was a stony one and to them trees meant fertility. The 
Western Reserve was a forest ; that satisfied them. 

Some writers of the New Connecticut history say that into 


this vast forest, into tliis wild region, tlirough wliose woods and 
over whose hills no white man's foot had passed, came the 
advance guard, the surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company. 

This statement is an exaggeration. White men were here 
when the first surveyor arrived, and had been here, as travelers, 
missionaries, soldiers, and traders long before. 

Possibly LaSalle with his party, going east and west, in 
1682-83, walked the shores of Lake Erie. French forts were at 
Niagara, Presque Isle (Erie), and at the mouth of the Maumee; 
it is more probable that he took the north shore however, since 
the Indians of that region were his friends. 

The journals, diaries, survey books, etc., which are now 
being brought to light, show that in many parts of the Resei-ve 
timber was felled by a white man's ax at a very early day. In 
1840 Col. Charles Whittlesey, who wrote an early history of 
Cleveland, says he examined a stump of an oak tree, in Cantield, 
which was two feet ten inches in diameter and "about seven 
inches from the center were marks of an ax, perfectly distinct, 
over which one Irandred and sixty layers of annual growth had 
accumulated." Mr. Whittlesey procured a portion of the tree 
extending from the outside to the center on which the ancient 
and modern marks of the ax are equallj' plain; the tools being 
of about the same breadth and in equally good order. "The 
Canfield tree must be considered a good record as far back as 
1660." This block may be seen now in the Western Reserve 
Historical Society, in Cleveland. 

Mr. Jason Hubbell, of Newburg, reported the finding of like 
marks which he estimated to have been made in 1690. 

Mr. Lapham, of Willoughby, felled a tree in 1848 which 
was seen by many people of that time and the stmnp of which 
was in 1867 standing near the railroad track one mile and a half 
west of Willoughby. This showed 400 rings outside the cut, indi- 
cating it to have been chopped in 1448 or forty-four years before 
Columbus' landing at San Salvador. Mr. Whittlesey says some 
trees form two terminal buds a year and if this were so it would 
bring the date about 1648 or near the time of the other marks. 

The early surveyors and settlers were usually good woods- 
men; even if any one was not expert with the ax he appreciated 
good work in others. Being able to make the cleanest cut in 
felling a tree in the early days of the last century called forth 
as much admiration as the management of a ln;ge industrial 
plant, or the fomiing of a great trust. There was no chance 


therefore, of these ax marks being confused with those of the 
Indians. The "squaw axes" given tlie Indians between 1608-20 
had different length of bit and the marks the red men made were 
entirely different in character. In fact, no matter how much we 
may sympathize with the Indian in the loss of his hunting 
grounds and the destruction of his tribe we must admit that they 
did not take kindly to agriculture or manual labor, and few, if 
any, ever excelled in these directions. If they had, some of us 
w'ho now have blue eyes might have had black ones, or we might 
now be wearing feathers in our hair instead of on our hats. 

Jesuits were among the Iroquois Indians in New York as 
early as 1656, but it does not seem, even if they penetrated as 
far as Trumbull County, that thej' could have chopped so many 
trees because the number found two hundred years later was 
too great for travelers to have made. Just why the Norsemen 
landed on our New England coast, when they were there, how 
long they really stayed, will never be known, neither will the 
time when the white men visited the Ohio Lake region lie deter- 
mined, how long they staid, why they came, when they left. But 
we know that they, like the Norsemen, were here. 

A. T. Goodman in a tract of the Western Eeserve Historical 
Society says: "The earliest known occupation of the territory 
embraced within the limits of the state of Ohio by any collective 
body of white men was by the French in 1680." From tliat time 
until the conquest of Canada by the French, FrencJi traders 
were scattered throughout the territory, building a post, station 
or store at almost every Indian town. English traders first 
made their appearance in the Ohio country in 1699-1700. From 
that time until 1745, we hear of them at various towns and sta- 
tions. In 1745 they built a small fort or block house among the 
Hurons on the north side of Sandusky Bay, the extreme of the 

For many years previous to the coming of the surveyors of 
the Connecticut Land Comjiany, men who made a business of 
trading with the Indians bringing to them provisions, trinkets 
and Avhiskey, taking in exchange furs, hides, etc., were staying 
— one could hardly call it living — between Pittsburg and the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga. Some of those men had married squaws 
and had children. Some traders brought their wives with them 
but they did not remain long, for the Indians preferred to trade 
with squaw men, as they were at least connected witli the tribe. 
Besides, the hardships attending a frontier life and the lack of 


compauiousliip were a double burden wliick women were not 
willing to endure when there was no promise of home. Some 
of the diaries of the first settlers which the author has examined 
state that the travelers came upon a cabin in the lower part of 
the Eeserve, and saw a white woman at work. 8he gave a cry 
of joy at the sight of men just fresh from civilization and with 
trembling lips and moist eyes begged them to partake of refresh- 
ments, saying she had not seen the face of a white woman in 
three years. 

The Moravians were now and then in northern Ohio, at 
Sandusky, on the Lake islands, and for about a year, 1786-87, on 
the east side of the Cuyahoga river. They were forced to leave 
during hostilities. 

The presence of the French in the Northwest Territory was 
distressing to the English. The Frenchman, principally because 
he was an explorer and not a colonizer, attached himself to the 
Indians. He did not buy land for beads and spoil the hunting 
grounds. He, apparently, was no menace to the roving red 
men, and, hence, became an ally. This condition was bravely 
met and, as we have said elsewhere, we should be grateful to 
the Cavalier. 

Just here the author wishes to introduce an interesting bit 
of history which applies only indirectly to the Western Eeserve. 
James A. Garfield, when a representative in Congress, made an 
address for the Historical Society at Burton, Geauga county, in 
which he said : 

"The cession of that great Territory under the treaty 
of 1783, was due mainly to the foresight, the courage and 
the endurance of one man, who never received from his 
country any adequate recognition for his great sei'vice. 
That man was George Rogers Clark; and it is worth your 
while to consider the work he accomplished. Born in Vir- 
ginia, he was in early life a surveyor, and aftenvards served 
in Lord Dunmore's war. In 1776 he settled in Kentucky, 
and was in fact the founder of that commonwealth. As the 
war of the Revolution progressed, he saw that the pioneers 
west of the Alleghanies were threatened by two formidable 
dangei's: first by the Indians, many of whom had joined the 
standard of Great Britain ; and second, by the success of the 
war itself. For. should the colonies obtain their independ- 
ence while the British held jjossession of the Mississippi 


valley, the Alleghanies would be the western boundarj' of 
the Dew Re])ul>hc', and the pioneers of the west would remain 
subject to Great Britain. 

"Inspired by these views, he made two journeys to Vir- 
ginia to represent the case to the authorities of that colony. 
Failing to impress the house of burgesses with the impor- 
tance of warding off these dangers, he appealed to the gov- 
ernor, Patrick Henry, and received from him authority to 
enlist seven companies to go to Kentucky subject to his 
orders, and serve for three months after their arrival in the 
west. This was a public commission. 

"Another document, bearing date Williamsburg, Janu- 
ary 2, 1778, was a secret commission, which authorized him, 
in the name of Virginia, to caj^ture the military jjosts held 
by the British in the northwest. Armed with this authority, 
he proceeded to Pittsburgh, where he obtained ammunition, 
and floated it down the river to Kentucky, succeeded in 
enlisting seven comjianies of pioneers, and in the month of 
June, 1778, commenced his march through the untrodden 
wilderness to the region of the Illinois. With a daring that 
is scarcely equaled in the annals of war, he captured the gar- 
risons of Kaskaskia, Saint Vincent and Cahokia, and sent 
his prisoners to the governor of Virginia, and by his energy 
and skill won 'over the French inhabitants of that region to 
the American cause. 

"In October, 1778, the house of burgesses passed an act 
declaring that 'all the citizens of the commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia, who are already settled there, or shall hereafter be 
settled on the west side of the Ohio, shall be included in the 
District of Kentucky, which shall be called Illinois County.' 
In other words, GeoT'ge Rogers Clark conquered the Ter- 
ritory of the Northwest in the name of Virginia, and the 
flag of the Republic covered it at the close of the war. 

"In negotiating the treaty of peace at Paris, in 1783, 
the British commissioners insisted on the Ohio river as the 
northwestern boundary of the United States; and it wjis 
found that the only tenable ground on which the American 
commissioners relied, to sustain our claim to the Lakes and 
the Mississippi as the boundary, was the fact that George 
Rogers Clark had conquered the country, and Virginia was 
in undisputed possession of it at the cessation of hostilities. 

"In his 'Notes on the Early Settlement of the North- 


west Territory' Judge Burnet says: 'That fact (the cap- 
ture of the British posts) was confirmed and admitted, and 
was the chief ground on which the British commissioners 
reluctantly abandoned their claim.' 

"It is a stain upon the honor of our country, that such 
a man — the leader of pioneers who made the first lodgment 
on the site now occupied by Louisville, who was in fact the 
founder of the state of Kentucky, and who by his personal 
foresight and energy- gave nine great states to the republic 
— was allowed to sink under a load of debt incurred for the 
honor and glorv of his countrv. " 


Yankees. — Pennsylvania Dutch. - — Scotch-Irish. — S.vlt 
Springs. — Judge Samuel H. Parsons. 

Although the Frenchman (both Protestant and Roman 
Catholic), the Spaniard, the Dutchman, the Quaker, and the 
English (Cavalier and Puritan) colonized the new world, we 
are apt to think of the early inhabitant as the Massachusetts 
Puritan alone. Somehow the Puritan, esjaecially the Pilgrim, 
with his plain, dark clothes, his high hat and his determined 
countenance, imj^resses itself deeply upon our sub-consciousness. 
Just so do we give all the credit of the successful settling of the 
Western Reserve to the Connecticut emigrants. This is entirely 

There were two ways to enter New Connecticut, namely, 
through New York state to Buffalo and along Lake Erie, or 
through Pennsylvania to Pittsburg, to the Beaver and up the 
Mahoning. From the state of Pennsylvania came the Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch (a mixture of GeiTQan, English, with sometimes a 
little Holland blood thrown in) and the Scotch-Irish, together 
with the New Yorker, all three .ioined with the Connecticut 
Yankee in the making of the new state. Some of the truest and 
most helpful citizens were the Scotch-Irish, some of the most 
frugal and industrious were the Pennsylvania Dutch. The 
Yankee considered himself superior to his neighbors, who said 
"du bisli" or had a brogue. His education as a rule was better, 
his family longer established in these United States, and he 
believed himself responsible for the development of the country. 
On the other hand, the early Dutch Pennsylvanian saw faults 
in his Yankee neighlior and commented upon the same. The 
early Dutch housewife would say to her neighbor, when inviting 
her to stay to a meal, "It's not much we have, but anything is 
better than the Aveak tea and crackers of the Yankees." The 



''Dutolimeu" were frugal, neat, indiiytrious, but liked good liv- 
ing. Early settlers in Pennsylvania uniforml^v testify to the 
good cooking of Pennsylvania Dutch women. A Trumbull 
County man, now tifty years old, who as a boy taught school in 
western Pennsylvania, refers to those days of boarding around 
with pleasure Ijecause of the good eating. A prominent citizen 
of Warren, whose grandparents were Pennsylvania Dutch, and 
whose mother and wife were both excellent housekeepers, gives 
credit to both for being successes as home makers and cooks, 
but usually ends with "but no one ever quite came up to grand- 
mother. ' ' 

It was the Scotch-Irish who made the mirth for the pioneers, 
particularly at "frolic times," as house-raisings, log-rollings, 
and like occasions were called. They cared less for money than 
did the Yankee or the German and did not leave land fortunes 
to their descendants. They did, however, one thing for which 
they are never given credit. They, and not the men from the 
state of the Blue Laws, were first in establisliing and maintain- 
ing churches. 

Lest we may be tossing our heads in pride, we who trace 
back to the Connecticut forefather, let us see what others thought 
and think of us. W. H. Hunter of Chillicothe, in an address at 
Philadelphia on "Influence of Pennsylvania on Ohio," says: 

"The claims made for the Puritan settlement at Mari- 
etta give us an example of Puritan audacity ; the New Eng- 
land settlements on the Western Eesen^e give us examples 
of Yankee ingenuity. In Connecticut he made nutmegs of 
wood ; in Ohio he makes maple molasses of glucose and hick- 
ory bark. In New England the Puritan bored the Quaker 
tongue with red-hot poker ; in Ohio he dearly loves to roast 
Democrats. The Eeserve was the home of crankisms. 
Joseph Smith started the Mormon Church in Lake county. 
And there were others, some of whom the northern Ohio 
emigrant took with him to Kansas." 

The Connecticut j)ioneer impressed himself on the Western 
Reserve history because he was a college man. He became the 
surveyor, the lawyer, the judge, the legislator, the governor, 
because he was mentally equipped for such positions. Almost 
every leading jurist of that day was a Yale graduate. 

It is known that for many years before the organization of 


the Connecticut Laud Couipauy, a.s early as 1755, peo])le had 
traveled from Peuusylvauia to Salt Si^rings, near what is now 
Niles aud Warren, for tlie purpose of making salt. Long vats 
and kettles showing much wear and little care were early found 
by traders and exi^lorers. Men who were identified with the 
early times have written of seeing travelers with kettles thrown 
over the back of a horse on their way to tlie springs. Salt was 
expensive, costing according to some authorities six dollars a 
bushel, others sixteen dollars a barrel. The water here was only 
brackish and cost of making too expensive to be protitable, 
although many persons attem]:)ted to make it. Some of the Salt 
Sjiring kettles were later found in a spot near Braceville whore 
the Indians used them for making maple sugar. 

So far as we know there was never anything very good 
came out of the Salt Spring region. The first man who owned 
the tract, Judge Parsons, was drowned. A man stationed in one 
of the cabins to watch the goods belonging to a Beaver firm was 
killed. Tlie white men who constructed cabins there were in 
constant fear of the Indians and were not financially repaid for 
their trouble. "The Pennsylvanians who Jiad recourse to it 
during the Eevolution erected cabins there. In 1785 Col. Brod- 
head, commanding the troops at Fort Pitt, had orders to dis- 
possess them and did so. The Indians soon burned the cabins 
tliey had erected." Here occurred the first murder on the 
Reserve and here, time and again, in the latter part of the 
nineteentli century, people liave had hope of makiug fortunes 
from tlie mineral water, only to give it up in despair later. 
A year or so ago (1906 or '07) did the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 
acquire the land, and now, where once men, white and red, 
boiled water into salt while they drank whiskey and fought, 
where women and children suffered from fear of the red man, 
where men invested time and money to no purpose, runs a great 
trunk line, and men and women sleep and eat as they pass over 
the spot where so much unhappiness has been, and never think 
of Indians or murder or even salt, for the latter is served them 
by black men without cost. 

General Samuel H. Parsons, of Connecticut, whose father 
was a distinguished clergyman, and whose mother (a descendant 
of Henry Wolcott) was a strong character, was the first lawyer 
of the Western Reserve, and the first purchaser of land in 
Trumbull County. He was an early friend of John Adams, a 
graduate of Yale, took an active interest in colonial iDolitics. and 


became one of tlie boldest of America's generals. Old records 
in the hands of the family attribute to him the planning of the 
siege of Ticonderoga, which -was the first hostile move in the 
war of the Kevolution. Congress, in 1785, appointed him as 
one of the commissioners to treat with the Indians for cessions 
of land. Cincinnati stands on one of the portions ceded. Two 
years later he was appointed judge for the territory of the 
United States northwest of the Ohio River, and in 1789 became 
chief justice of the Northwest Territory. Having traveled 
through this county he was familiar with the land, and finally 
bought from the commissioners appointed by the Connecticut 
legislature to sell land, a tract situated in the townships now 
kno-RTi as Ijordstown, Weathersfield, Jackson, and Austintown. 
The deed to this twenty-five thousand acres is now on record in 
the Trumbull County court house, and all records and maps 
agree as to its boundaries. He chose this spot, undoubtedly, 
because the Indians and traders had cleared land round about, 
because the springs found there contained brackish water from 
which he hoped later to manufacture salt, and because Pittsburg 
was comparatively near at hand and stores could be gotten at 
Beaver and other points on the river. He, however, never occu- 
pied this purchase. He was drowned as above stated in the 
Beaver river, probably at the Falls, when returning east. Little 
or no money had been actually paid down for the land, but his 
heirs claimed it nevertheless. From Webb's manuscript we 
learn : 

"And although the Connecticut Land Company ran 
their township and range line regardless of this claim, and 
although they, in their proceedings at the time called it only 
a 'pretended claim,' yet, in making partition of their lands, 
they reserved land enough in the townships Nos. 2 and 3, in 
the third and fourth range, to satisfy this claim, which they 
never aparted and which they ultimately abandoned to the 
heirs and as^-igns of General Parsons." 


PANY. — The Women of the Paety. — Details of the Trip. 
— Schenectady. — Foet Oswego. — Canandaigua. — 
— Buffalo. — Council with the Indians at 
Buffalo Ceeek. — Whiskey and the 
SuEVEYiNG Paety- . — Conneaut, 
July i, 1796. 

The rules aud regiilatious of the Cuuuecticut Laud Compauy 
are of great iuterest. Every possibility of misuuderstaudiug is 
provided for, miuor details are mentioued, and the document 
shows the workmanship of the careful, conservative New Eng- 
land mind. 

The directors of the company were Oliver Phelps, Henry 
Champion, Roger Newberry, and Samuel Mathews, Jr. 

Following is a list of the sui*\'eyiug party of 1796 : 

General Moses Cleaveland, Superintendent. 

AugTistus Porter. Principal Surveyor and Deputy Superin- 

Seth Pease, Astronomer and Surveyor. 

Amos Spafford, John Milton Holley, Richard M. Stoddard 
and Moses Warren, Surveyors. 

Joshua Stow, Commissary. 

Theodore Shepard, Physician. 


.Joseph Tinker, Boatman. 
Heurj;e Proiulfoot. 
Samuel Forbes. 
Stephen Benton. 
Samuel Hungerford. 
Samuel Davenport. 
Amzi Atwater. 
Elisha Ayres. 
Norman Wilcox. 
George Gooding. 
Samuel Agnew. 
David Beard. 
Titus V. Munson. 

Charles Parker. 
Nathaniel Doan. 
James Halket. 
Olney F. Rice. 
Samuel Barnes. 
Daniel Shulay. 
Joseph Mclntyre. 
Francis Gray. 
Amos Sawtel. 
Amos Barber. 
WilHam B. Hall. 
Asa Mason. 
Michael Coffin. 


Thomas Harris. Ezckiel Morly. 

Timothy Dunham. Luke Hanchet. 

Shatlrac-h Benham. James Hamilton. 

Wareham Shepard. John Lock. 

John Briant. Stephen Burbank. 
Joseph Landon. 

We are told in several origiual manuscripts that this party 
consisted of fifty, but as the above numbers only forty-six, Gun, 
who was to have charge of the stores at Conneaut, Stiles, who 
was to have like position at Cleveland, Chapman and Perry, who 
were to furnish fresh meat and trade with the Indians, must be 
added. In some of the original records the full list of the men 
are given with these words "and two females." So unused 
were makers of books and keepers of records to giving a 
woman's name, unless she were queen or some one quite extra- 
ordinary, that this seemed nothing unusual. 

These ' ' two females, ' ' who made the first real homes on the 
Eeserve, were Ann, the wife of Elija Gun, and Tabiatha, the 
wife of Job Stiles. Not only did they keep house, one at Con- 
neaut and the other at Cleveland, but they kept them so well that 
the srarveyors took themselves there upon the slightest pretext. 
They also had an oversight and care of the company. 

Here is given the instructions of the directors to their agent. 

To Moses Cleaveland, Esq., of the County of Windham, and 
State of Connecticut, one of the Directors of the Con- 
necticut Land Company, Greeting: 
We, the Board of Directors, of said Connecticut Land 
Company, having appointed you to go on to said land, as 
Superintendent over the agents and men, sent on to survey 
and make locations on said land, to make, and enter into 
friendly negotiations with the natives who are on said land, 
or contiguous thereto, and may have any pretended claim 
to the same, and secure such friendly intercourse amongst 
them as will establish peace, quiet, and safety to the survey 
and settlement of said lands, not ceded by the natives under 
the authority of the United States. You are hereby, for the 
foregoing purposes, fuUj' authorized and empowered to act, 
and transact all the above business, in as full and ample a 
manner as we ourselves could do, to make conti'acts in the 
foregoing matters in our behalf and stead; and make such 
drafts on our Treasury, as may be necessary to accomplish 
the foregoing object of your appointment. And all agents 


and meu by us employed, and seut on to survey and settle 
said land, to be obedient to your orders and directions. And 
you are to be' accountable for all monies by you received, 
conforming your conduct to such orders and directions as 
we may, from time to time, give you, and to do and act in all 
matters, according to your best skill and judgment, which 
may tend to the best interest, prosperity, and success of 
said Connecticut Land Company. Having more particu- 
larly for your guide the Articles of Association entered 
into and signed by the individuals of said Company. 

Pittsburg and Canandaigiia were the outlying posts for 
travelers to the Western Beserve. The Connecticut Land Com- 
panj' instructed the surveying party to gather at Cauandaigua 
and proceed. 

Several of the journals of these young men are in the pos- 
session of the Western Eeserve Historical Society and the 
entries in some of them whicli have never been published are 
curious. Mr. Seth Pease says under several dates in close suc- 
cession, "I began my journey, Monday, May 9, 1796. Fare 
from Suffield to Hartford, six shillings; expenses four shillings 
six pence. * * * At breakfast, expense two shillings. Fare 
on my chest from Hartford to Middletowu, one shilling, six 
pence. ' ' In telling about his trijD to New York he says, ' ' Passage 
and liquor 4 dollars and three fjuarters." When he arrived in 
New York we find the following entry: "Ticket for play 75c; 
Liquor 14c; Show of elephants, 50c; shaving and combing, 13c." 
Apparently Mr. Pease was seeing New York. 

It will pay the reader to take a map and follow their route 
from Connecticut to Schenectady, up the Mohawk river into 
Oneida lake, on to the Oswego I'iver, into Ontario lake, along 
the southern shore of this lake to Cauandaigua, and then to 
Buffalo, from there touching at least once at Presque Isle 
(Erie), on past the Pennsylvania line. They rowed, sailed and 
walked the shore. Sometimes part of them turned back to help 
bring up those delayed, or went ahead of the party to counsel 
with military officers or to make necessary preparations for the 
party. It was a tedious trip. 

The four batteaux filled with provisions, baggage and men 
were heavy, while most of the men were unused to river Ijoating. 
One of them records that pulling up the Mohawk was as hard 
work as he ever did in his life. It was a relief when thev began 


goiug down the Oswego and came to Fort Stauwix (Rome, X. Y.) 
Here Mr. Stow procured the necessary papers to allow the party 
to pass Fort Oswego, which was in the hands* of the British. 
At this very time an agreement had been reached which pro- 
vided that Americans could have access to the Lakes. The party 
therefore rapidly proceeded only to find they had been too 
sangiiine. The officers in charge of the fort had no new orders 
from Fort Niagara, the old ones being to allow no Americans 
to 23ass, and consequently the party, somewhat disappointed, put 
into a little bay in the river. The land was low, the soldiers at 
the fort were many of them ill and djang, and the surveyors, 
ready and anxious for work in the far west, were not pleased at 
tlie thought of lying idly in this unwholesome spot until a mes- 
senger could go to Niagara and return. Tlie directors of the 
Land Company had anticipated this trouble as said above, and 
had instructed Mr. Stow, who was the commissary, not to pass 
the fort if there was opposition. The situation was trying to 
Mr. Stow. Since he disobeyed orders and brought the i^arty 
through successfully, we consider him an intelligent, faithful 
employee. Had the winds been a little stronger, the waves a 
little higher, conditions a little less favorable, so that the boats 
and the passengers had been lost, he would always have been 
referred to as a guilty, incompetent hireling. Luck, daring, 
courage, and brains often make success. 

The officers of the fort at Oswego kuew that the party 
arrived in four boats, consequently when Mr. Stow, with one 
boat, went by the fort, he was not disturbed. These officers did 
not observe he carried provisions, they only thought he was 
going to Fort Niagara to ol)tain pennission for the party to 
move on. The guard not lieing on the outlook, the three otlier 
boats passed the fort under the protection of night. The party 
now was all safely on Lake Ontario. They had been hindered 
and bothered in many ways but now they believed their troubles 
to be over. However, as is so often the case when people are 
sang-uine, the worst they were to see was near at hand. A storm 
came u]) quickly and violently, throwing the three lioats into 
Sodus Bay, where one of them was utterly disabled and where 
the whole party, almost miraculously, escaped drowning. One 
can imagine the anxiety of Mr. Stow, who had gone on to Iron- 
dequoit (the port for Rochester) when he learned that the three 
boats following him had lieen lost and nothing saved but an 
oar and a gun, thrown on shore at Sodus Bay. Either he or 


Anguster Porter (accounts disagree) with, some men turned 
about from Irondequoit to go to Sodus to learn how the ship- 
wreck occurred. Thej^ were overjoyed to meet Captain Beard, 
who told them that instead of all being lost except the oar and 
gun, the oar and g-un M'ere the only tilings Avhich really were 
lost. One of the boats, however, was useless and was aban- 
doned, but necessary rearrangements were made and the party 
proceeded on its way to Irondequoit, Canaudaigua and the new 

We next see them at Buffalo. The Indians were expecting 
them, and like all traders they were wondering what they dare 
demand ; that is, how much they could get for their right to tlie 
land. It's a wise man who offers neither too much nor too 
little. A man who preceded the party with the horses was forced 
to pay three dollars for pasture. Since the grass was neitlier 
cared for nor used by anybody, this was rather a large amount. 

In our day of rapid transportation it fairly exasperates us 
as we watch the slow movement of this party of surveyors. 
"V\'Tien they arrived at Buffalo, some of the party went to Fort 
Niagara, probably on business, some took a look at the Falls, 
while Holly, under the date of June 18th, says, "Porter and 
myself went on the Creek (Buffalo) in a bark canoe a fishing 
and caught only three little ones." It seems that although the 
streams were full of iish, these water animals were as capricious 
then as now. 

Finally, the council with the red men was had, and pictur- 
esque scene it was. On the shore of the lake, under the starry 
June sky, the white men, forerunners of the Western Reserve, 
with joy in their faces and ho]ic in tlieir hearts, sat around tlie 
blazing tire pre]iared Ijv tlie red men. Speeches were made on 
both sides, and diplomatic messages exchanged, and while part 
of the Indians performed a swinging dance, the rest grunted an 
accompaniment from their sitting position on the ground. Nego- 
tiations were not completed then — not at all ; it was too soon. The 
Indian was "long on time" and short on whiskey. They must 
get drunk of course. What was the good of a treaty without a 
l)Ow-wow.' What was the good of the white man except for his 
whiskey ? So pow-wow and whiskey it was, but fortunately tli(M'e 
were no bad results. 

On June 23rd, "after nmch talking on the part i>f the 
Indians, Cleaveland offered Capt. Brant 500 pounds New York 
currency, which equals $1,000, provided he would peacefully 


relinquish his title to the western laud. This sum was not large 
enough to ijlease the captain, but after much parley he finally 
agreed to it, provided Cleaveland would use his influence with 
the United States and obtain from the government the sum of 
$500 annually for his tribe. In case he could not accomplish 
this he was to promise that the Land Company would pay an 
additional $1,500 in cash." 

Whether this agreement was kept, and whether either the 
government or company paid this sum is not known to the 
author, but as white men were treating with Indians we presume 
this money is the last they saw. 

Cleaveland then gave two beef cattle and 100 gallons of 
whiskey to satisfy the eastern Indians, and a feast followed. 
The western Indians were also given provisions to help them 
home and all had been provided for during the council. It is 
greatly to the credit of the Connecticut Land Company, and a 
source of mucli satisfaction to the residents of the Western 
Eeserve today that the title to the land was not stolen but was 
bought and paid for, even if the price was low; further, that 
possession of the new country was given and taken under the 
best of feeling and without one drop of bloodshed. To be sure, 
our forefathers must have had a little larger supply of whiskey 
than the sentiment of today would allow them, when we remem- 
ber they gave away one hundred gallons and had plenty for all 
summer, but history must be studied from its own time. Whis- 
key was as plentiful during the early days of the colonization as 
was food. To be sure, it was not our adulterated stuff of today, 
but it was whiskey and it did what alcohol always has done 
and always will do to men. Its stimulating qualities sometimes 
relieved the lonesomeness and fatigue, but the depression follow- 
ing surely more than overbalanced the good. All of the mis- 
understandings among travelers and early settlers and Indians 
were caused more or less by whiskey. The women in the early 
settlements abhorred it. They feared to have their husbands 
take it lest trouble should follow. Anxiously these women in 
their own cabins, with wolves howling near outside, and babies 
huddled close within, awaited the coming of the husband who 
had been to an adjoining clearing, not knowing what had hap- 
pened to him because of his fondness for whiskey or because of 
the Indians. These women saw their neighbors succeed and 
become prosperous ])ecause of their self-control, while they 
remained poor because of the "fruit of the corn." Many and 


man}' an overworked wife who liad looked forward to a log- 
rolling for Aveeks went home from the same with weeping eyes 
and heavy heart, her hnsbaud too drunk to gxiide the horse or 
act as her protector. Some people believe that there was not as 
much drunkenness then as now and w'ill bring proof to bear upon 
it. This is not the place to discuss the temperance question, but, 
when we know that in range one, number one, Poland, there 
were eighteen stills, that ministers were sometimes paid in whis- 
key, we can scarcely believe that the drunkenness of to-day is 
greater. Then, as now, women were temperate; then, as now, 
they suffered from drunkenness, and its consequences; then as 
now, they persuaded and l^egged their very own to desist ; then, 
as now, they wept and prayed, and !hen, as now, a few were 
heeded, while more were not. 

One Trumbull County woman whose husband took too much 
at stated intervals, when he came in in that condition, obliged 
him to sit in a straight-back chair till he was sober. If he started 
to move, she, at her word, raised a stick of wood as if to strike 
him, when he immediately resumed his seat. He finally declared 
there was no use in drinking if one had to sit still until sober, 
and he reformed. As a rule, however, the stick, in a real or 
metaphorical sense, was, and is, in the hand of man. 

At last the surveyors had reached their destination. Even 
though they were adults, they had said good-bye to their home 
friends with thick throats and heavy hearts. They had paddled 
slowly the New York rivers, had outwitted the British officers, 
had suffered shipwreck, had endured the discomforts of long 
slow travel, had successfully treated with the Indians, and now, 
in the afternoon of a smnmer day, they had come upon the 
"promised land." The blue waters of the lake lapped the shore, 
the creek sluggishly sought its Ijay, the great forest trees were 
heavy with bright green leaves, the grass was thick and soft, the 
sky was blue, and the lowering sun bathed the landscape with 
delicate reds and yellows. It was the Fourth of July, Inde- 
pendence Day, for which their fathers, twenty years before, had 
fought, and for which they themselves held holy reverence. 
They bad double reason to rejoice, and they shouted, sang, fired 
gnns across the water, adding an additional salute for the new 
territory. They drank water from the creek and whiskey from 
the jug; they named the spot Fort Independence, and drank 
toasts to the president of the United States, the state of Con- 
necticut, the Connecticut Land Company, the Fort of Independ- 


ence aud "the fifty sons aud daughters who have entered it this 
day." When the camp fires had died down, and tlie stars above 
were thick and bright, tliey went to sleep in the new laud which 
was shortly to be broken up into thirteen counties, or parts of 
counties (Ashtabula, (leauga, Cuyahoga, Lake, Trumbull, 
Mahoning, Portage, Summit, part of Medina, part of Ashland, 
Erie, Huron aud Lorain). If anyone had dreamed that night 
that in one hundred and thirteen years these thirteen counties 
would have almost as much influence in the world as the thirteen 
original colonies had at that time; that most of the huge forests 
would be supplanted by cultivated fields and prosperous towns; 
that Indian paths would l)e macadam roads ; that over tiny wires 
one could talk to any part of this New Country as easily as they 
could talk to each other that night on the lake shore ; that school- 
houses and churches would be thick throughout that region; and 
that lioth would be free ; that over the very spot where they lay 
sleeping, jiowerful engines would carry sleejjing passengers at 
the rate of sixty miles an hour; that vehicles without horses 
would spin along the lake front from Buffalo creek to the 
Cuyahoga in less time than it took them to put their camp in 
order; that mountains of ore would lie in the lake ships a few 
miles from them ; that no man wilder than they would be east of 
the Mississippi; that the wildest animals would lie the youthful 
bull or the aged house-dog; that in the nearljy valleys would be 
some of the most w^onderful industrial plants in all the world, 
and that hundreds of men would have sufficient money to buy 
and pay for the whole AVestern Reserve without inconvenience; 
that on this territory would stand the sixth largest city 
in the United States; that slavery would not exist; that women 
would have a voice in making the school laws, and that men 
would float or fly through the air above their heads in machines 
made for flying, — if any one of the party had dreamed any or 
all of these things, and related them in the morning, he would 
have been declared untruthful or as suffering too much from 
that taken from the gurgling jug. 



Indian Council at Conneaut. — The Start of the Surveyors. — 

Setting the Corner Post. — Running the Parallel. — 

Summer at Cleveland. — Return Home. — 

Winter at Cleveland. — Winter 

AT Con n eaut. — Starvation. 

()d the morning of the otli of July, two boats init l»ark to 
Fort Erie for some sui)])lies wliieli had been left there. The 
surveyors began preparations for the field. On the following 
day the Indians, who naturally liked pow-wows, and to whom a 
party of settlers was a curiosity, asked for another oouueil. 
Both sides were in a happy mood. The Indians made speeches 
full of praise to General Cleaveland, and Paqua presented him 
with a pipe of peace. This pipe is still in the possession of the 
family. Although it is hard for a New Englander to "roll out 
iionied words," still the general did the best he could, and made 
up his deficiency in flattery with i)resents. He gave them a 
string of wampum, silver trinkets, and like things, besides $25 
worth of whiskey. On this date, the 7th, the members of the 
surveying party left Conneaut. They were ambitious not only 
to do their work quickly, but well. Joyously they started into 
the unknown wilderness. Porter, Pease and Holley ran the first 
east line. They found the north corner of Pennsylvania, and 
ran down five or six miles west of that line. 

Moses Warren and party had a line farther west. Before 
the summer was over, it is written of Warren, sometimes, "he 
was a little less energetic," and other times, "he is indolent." 
He was eitlier ease-loving, or slow. However, the author owes 
him a debt of gratitude because he wrote a full, clear hand and 
was a good speller. Manuscripts of long ago try the patience of 
the readers of to-day. Both Pease and Holley left copious 
notes. From tliem we learn that the first line they ran caused 
them much trouble and many vexations. The land was not only 


covered with huge trees, but witli smaller ones and with thick 
underbrush. It was impossible to siglit at long range. The 
spring luid been a wet one, the streams swollen, and the swamps 
sometimes impassable. The land lay flat, and on the whole was 
uninteresting. The horses often wandered off at night and 
precious morning time was spent corralling them. Sometimes 
the surveyors waded the swamps and streams, sending the cooks, 
supplies, horses, and laborers around. This always brought 
about delay and more or less distress. As the surveyors took 
the shortest route, they arrived first and, wet, tired, and hungry, 
they were obliged to wait for tlie rest of the party, whose long 
route made them sometimes hours late. Mr. Stow, the commis- 
sary, had his trials, first, in finding it hard to obtain fresh sup- 
plies, and second, in reaching the various parties in the field. 
Very often we find notes like these: "Ate our last breakfast," 
or, "Only one more dinner left," or, "Had less than a half of 
pint of nun left." 

The mosquitoes and gnats were troublesome. The surveyors 
complained of "earth gas," and tliey attributed the fever and 
ague which came later to this gas, but almost always at the same 
time mentioned the presence of mosquitoes. 

The plan was to find the 41st parallel at the Pennsylvania 
line, and then run west one hundred and twenty miles. From 
this base line, five miles apart, lines were to be run nortli. and 
later cross lines, parallel with the base line, thus making twenty- 
four townships across, and twelve in tlie deepest place. 

These townships were niunbered as ranges, and from the 
l^ase lines up as towns. Before towns or hamlets were named, 
they were called by number. Poland was range 1, number 1, 
Cleveland range 12, number 7. Ag-ain and again do we read in 
diaries and papers, "Went to number 4; stopped at Quinby's." 
Number 4 was not only township 4, but it was range 4. 

As the Porter-HoUey-Pease party proceeded south they, or 
their workmen at least, realized that New Connecticut was not 
a Paradise. The monotonous records show change when they 
reached the middle-east of tlie present Trumbull County. When 
they ai'rived at what is now Brookfield they could see the Penn- 
sylvania hills with the valleys in between, and they note that 
this is the first time they have seen "over the woods," and they 
feel cheered. The rest of the route south was a little less trou- 
blesome and more interesting. Once they thought they heard 
the tinkle of a cow 1iell, and hastened to find it, without success. 


Tliey tliought they had just imagined the sound, but their ears 
bad not deceived them, for there was then a family living in 
that vicinity. When they reached the Mahoning river tliey saw 
some traders in a boat, near the present sight of Youngstown. 
They talked with them and learned that supplies could be had at 
Beaver, and that these traders were on their way to Salt 
Springs, whose praises they sang. 

Finally, on July 23rd, they set up a wooden post at the 
intersection of the 41st parallel and the Pennsylvania line, south- 
east corner of Poland. 

They had been seventeen days running this line. Surely 
they had not been idle, and they had overcome grievous 
obstacles. Their poor instruments showed variations, and they 
did not have time to prove their work. When the whole survey 
was tinished, they were half a mile out of the way. It was 
intended that each township should have sixteen thousand acres 
of land, and not one of them has just exactly that amount. 

Moses Warren, and the other sui^-eyors, came up with the 
Pease-Porter party on the 23rd, and they separated, beginning 
five miles apart, and ran the line back to the lake. The return 
trip was about the same, except that the laborers showed less 
inclination to work, and the cooks became a little more irritable. 

On the 5th of July the laborers began the erection of a crude 
log house on the east side of Conneaut creek, which was used for 
a storehouse. It is referred to in the early history as "Stow 
Castle." A second house was later erected as a dwelling for 
the surveyors. It was then expected that Conneaut would be 
the headquarters. 

As soon as all was under way. General Cleaveland started 
by lake for the Cuyahoga river. He reached his destination the 
day before the corner ])ost was set in Poland, July 22nd. Among 
those accompanying him were Stow, the commissary, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Stiles. There is no record of how this spot pleased the 
party, although several writers have drawn imaginary pictures 
and noted possible thoughts. So far as the writer knows, Moses 
Cleaveland did not commit to paper his first impression. Tnie 
it is, that many a purchaser of New Connecticut land, who 
intended to settle near the present sight of Cleveland, when they 
saw the desolate sand of the lake shore and felt the chilly winds, 
retraced their steps onto the Hiram hills, to the Little Mountain 
disti'ict, or the ridges of Mesopotamia, Middlefield or Bloomfield. 

The running of the parallels was troublesome, the work was 


not finished the first summer as there was not time to do that and 
to ])lat the Clevekiud vicinity. As the Chagrin river was not on 
any of the maps, it gave most of the surveyors some trouble. 
Tliey all took it for the Cuyahoga, of course. The field work 
was destructive to shoes and clothes, and, as said before, food 
was not always certain. Part of the laborers early became dis- 
satisfied with only hard work and little pay, and the company, 
to ease things, promised them pieces of land and other rewards. 
Some of them were early discharged, and others left. 

On September 16th, Holley writes, "Encamped a little east 
of the Chagrin river. Hamilton, the cook, was very cross and 
lazy. AVas on the point of not cooking any supper, because the 
bark would not peel and he knew of nothing to make bread upon. 
Davenport wet some in the bag. ' ' 

Thursday, Septeml)er 22nd, "lie discovered a bear swim- 
ming across the river." "Munson caught a rattlesnake which 
was boiled and ate." 

September 28th, "1 carved from a beech tree in Cuyahoga 
town, 'Myron Holley, Jr.,' and on a birch, 'Milton Holley, 1796. 
September 26, 1796, Friendship.' " Apparently the young man 
was getting homesick. 

October 16th, "Came to camp in consequence of hard rain; 
found no fire; were all wet and cold, but after pushing about 
the bottle and getting a good fire and supper we were as merry 
as grigs." 

During the summer a cabin was put up for Stiles on lot 53, 
east side of Bank street, where the store of Kinney & Leven now 
stands. A house for the suiweyors and a house for stores was 
erected near the mouth of the Cuyahoga. These were the first 
houses built within the present district of Cleveland for per- 
manent occuiiancy. There had been a number of buildings 
erected by traders, by companies, by missionaries, and so forth, 
but they were put together for temporary purposes and were 
destroyed either by the wind and weather, or by the Indians. 
The latter seemed always to rejoice when a chance was offered 
to burn a vacant building. Colonel James Hillman, who figured 
conspicuously in the early history of Trumbull County, said he 
erected a small cabin on the river near the foot of Superior 
street in 1786. A })arty of Englishmen who were wrecked on the 
lake, built a cabin in which they lived one winter, probably '87. 
In 1797, as we sliall see, James Kingsbury occupied a dilapidated 


building, put up before '86, for proteetino- flcniv wliirh was 
liroiight from Pittsburg lor Detroit people. 

The cold fall days warned the party tliat they must stop 
work. They were not satisfied with the results, and neitliei' was 
the Land Company. The latter had spent $14,000 and a]>par- 
ently had little to show for it. The southern boundary of their 
territory had not been run west after the fourth range. A large 
tract had not been surveyed at all. All of the territory "east of 
C'uyahoga, Avest of the fourth meridian, and south of the sixth 
parallel" was still not touched. None of the six townships 
intended for sale were ready except in the neighborhood of 
Cleveland. However the surveyors had done the best they could 
under the conditions, and one can read between the lines of their 
ordinary surveyor notes an intense desire to be at home. Holley 
says, "Tuesday. Oct. 18th, we left Cuyahoga at three o'clock 
and seventeen minutes for home. Left Job Stiles and wife and 
Joseph Landon with provisions for the winter." Porter, Holley 
and Shepard rowed along the lake shore by moonlight. Pease 
walked, taking notes of the coast. (Pease Avas a poor sailor.) 
The pack horses Avere to go back to GeneA^a. Atwater and others 
took them by land. So anxious were these young men to reach 
home that they arose one morning at 2 :00 a. m. and another 3 :00 
a. m. and arriA^ed at Conneaut on Friday, the 21st. They left 
Fort Erie October 23rd at 1 :30 a. m. and arriA^ed at Buffalo at 
10:30, where they struck a fire "and were asleep in less than 
thirty minutes." As they proceeded and their desire for home 
increased, their hours of travel were longer. Once they rowed 
all night. They reached Irondecjuoit Friday, the 27th. Here 
somehow they got out of the channel and had to .iump into the 
water up to their waists and push the boat thirty rods. Wading 
in water waist deep the last of OctoVier is not pleasant, nor very 
safe. They reach Canandaigua the 29th and separated. "When 
we remember that Holley was only eighteen years old, and all 
of them were young men with education, or older men without 
experience or ediication, we believe that most of them did their 
duty "in that state of life which it should please God to call 
them." Porter was the chief surveyor, as we haA-e seen. Neither 
he, nor Holley, returned with the party the next year. They 
became brothers-in-law later. Holley settled at Salisbury, Con- 
necticut, and his son Alexander H. became goA-ernor. ^[oses 
Cleaveland did not return either. He retained his interest, more 
or less, in the liistorA" of the "Western Reserve. At one time he 


pnrcliased an interest in the Salt Spring Tract, of Parsons. 
Some of his family, however, later settled here and among his 
relatives was Mrs. Chas. Howard, whose children now live in 

If all who had come to the Eesei-ve had returned we could 
say "Here endeth the first lesson." When the winter set in, 
there were in Cleveland Joh Stiles and his wife. Richard Lan- 
don, one of the surveying party, had expected to spend the win- 
ter with them. It is not known when or for what reason he left. 
Edward Paine, for whom Painesville was named, took his place 
in this cabin. It is a tradition that in this cabin, during the 
winter, a child was born, the mother being attended only by a 
squaw. Of this, however, we are not absolutely sure. Supplies 
had been left in Cleveland, and the Indians were exceedingly 
good to the settlers, so even if it was a hard winter for the three, 
thei'e were some mitigating conditions. Mi*, and Mrs. Stiles were 
there until 1800, and Mrs. Stiles, who is described as a capable, 
courageous woman, lived to a good old age. 

Aside from a few people at Fort Erie, there were no white 
people between Buffalo and "the French settlement on the 
River Raisin," except those at Cleveland and Conneaut. Soon 
after General Cleaveland and partj^ arrived at Conneaut, James 
Kingsbury, his wife and three children, appeared. He was the 
first "independent adventurer" who took up his residence on 
the Reserve. They had come from New Hampshire, stopping 
possibly in New York for a little time. His wife was Eunice 
Waldo, a woman of strong and pleasing personality. In the 
early fall, the Land Company cleared about six acres of land, 
sowed it to wheat, and this was probably the first wheat raised 
by white men in old Tmmbull County. Kingsbury is credited 
as being the first to thrust a sickle into the wheat field, planted 
on the soil of the Resei've. Just what Kingsbmy did through 
the summer, we are not told, but when all the surveying party 
had disappeared, he and his family occupied one of the cabins, 
presumably "Stow Castle," Mr. and Mrs. Gun, the other. It 
was dreary enough at Conneaut Creek when the winter settled 
down. For some reason, Mr. Kingsbury foimd it necessary to 
go back to New Hami)shire. He went all the way on horseback 
to Buffalo. He expected to be gone at the latest six weeks. His 
trip was uneventful, but as soon as he reached his destination he 
was taken witii a fever, probably the kind with which the sur- 
veyors had suffered, and it ran a long course. He had left with 
liis family a nephew thirteen years old, a cow and a yoke of 


oxen. During the early part of his stay, the Indians furnished 
the family with meat, and Air. and Mrs. Gun were kind to them. 
Even when the husband's fever subsided his great weakness ren- 
dered it impossible for him to travel, and his anxiety as to his 
famih' retarded his progress. There being no communication 
at any time, j\Irs. Kingsbury had the same anxiety for him, and 
in addition she was starving to death. At this crisis a son was 
born to her, Mrs. Gun being with her at that time. As this child 
is reported to be the tirst child born on the Western Reserve, we 
are led to think that the families of Kingsbury and Stiles became 
mixed in the minds of some recorders, and that there was no 
child born during that winter at Cleveland, and that this was 
the first. Before Air. Kingsbury was able to travel, he set out 
and reached Buffalo the 3rd of December. This winter was a 
severe one, and the snow was over five feet deep in the lake 
region. However, Mr. Kingsbury, with an Indian guide, trav- 
eled toward his family. His horse became disabled, but he stag- 
gered along, reaching cabin Christmas eve. Mrs. Kingsburj^ 
had recovered enough to be up and had decided to leave with her 
family for Erie Christmas day. "Toward evening a gleam of 
sunshine broke through the long clouded heavens, and liglited 
up the surrounding forest. Looking out she beheld the figiire 
of her husband approaching the door." So weak was she that 
she relapsed into a fever, and her husband, nearly exhausted, 
was obliged the first minute he could travel, to go to Erie for 
provisions. The snow was so deep he could not take the oxen, 
and he drew back a bushel of wheat on the sled. This they 
cracked and ate. Presently the cow died, and the oxen died from 
eating poisonous boughs. The low state of the mother's health 
and the death of the cow caused the starvation of the two- 
months-old baby. Tales have appeared in newspapers in regard 
to this incident which stated that as Mr. Kingsbury entered his 
door on his return trip he saw the baby dead on its little couch, 
and the mother dying. This, as we have seen, is not so. The 
child did not die until a month after Air. Kingslniry reached 

A reliable old man who was about eighty-four years old in 
1874-, in talking of the hardships of the people of Xew ('(innecti- 
cut, said, "But the hardest day's work I ever did was the one in 
which I got ready to bury my boy." There were then no hearses, 
no coffins, no undertakers, no grave-diggers, but there were ten- 
der, loving friends, all of whom were ready to do all in their 

43 ■ IIISTOKV OF '^li^^rRULL couxty 

power. But here was Mr. Kingsl)iuy, entirely alone (when the 
Gnus left, we do not know) and obliged to do everything there 
was to be done for his l)al)y. He, and his thirteen-year-old 
nephew, found a box and, laying the body in it, carried it to the 
top of a hill, where Mrs. Kingsbury, on her bed, could raise her- 
self enougli to see the body lowered to the grave. When this 
sad duty had been performed, and Mr. Kingsbury returned to 
the house, he found his wife unconscious and for two weeks 
seemed to take no notice of anything going on. Mr. Kingsbury, 
still feeble, was nearly 'discouraged, when suddenly the severe 
north winds were supj^lanted by southern breezes, and in the 
atmosphere was a slight promise of spring. Early in March, 
when lie was hardly alile to walk, he took an old rifle which his 
uncle had carried in the War of the Revolution, and went into 
the woods. Presently, a pigeon appeared. He was no marks- 
man and did not feel at all sure he could hit it with a good gun. 
He was so anxious, however, to get something which was nour- 
ishing for his wife that the tears fairly came to his eyes when 
he saw the bird fall. He made a broth and fed her, and saved 
her life. From this on the family all grew slowly better, and 
when the surveying party came back in the s])ring, they accom- 
panied it to Cleveland and occupied the cabin earlier referred 
to. Mr. Kingsbury later put up a cabin on the east side of the 
public square. In the fall of that year he had a comfortable 
cabin built, further to the east. Here his family was pretty 
well, much better than the settlers who were near the mouth of 
the Cuyahoga. Later he built quite a nice frame dwelling. The* 
first eroj) he raised was on the ground near the square. He 
had three children, Mrs. Sherman, Amos, and Almon. He lived 
to be eighty years old, and his wife seventy-three. He had a 
military commission in New Hampshire, with the rank of colonel. 
In 1800 lie was appointed judge of the court of quarter ses- 
sions of the peace for the County of Trumbull. In 1805 he 
was elected a member of the legislature. His letters written 
to Judge Kirtland of Poland at this time, now in the pos- 
session of Mr. H. K. Morse, are most dignified and business- 
like. He was a close friend of Commodore Perry and General 
Harrison. It is said the day before the battle of Lake Erie, he 
was with Perry wlien the latter asked him what he thought ought 
to be done. The .iudge replied, "Why, sir, I would fight." From 
all accounts it seems that Judge and Mrs. Kingsbury were exem- 
]ilary citizens and that the suft'ovings and distresses which came 


to them tlieii" first winter in the new hmd were wiped out by the 
happy, joyous years which followed. It is a pleasant fact to 
record that the three women who came to the Western Reserve 
the first winter of its existence courageously bore the hardships, 
sliared the sorrows, and conducted themselves in an exemplary 
manner. The Connecticut Land Company realized this and pre- 
sented to Mrs. Gun one one-hundred-acre lot, to ]\Irs. Stiles one 
city lot, one ten-acre lot and one one-liundred-acre lot. The com- 
pany also gave to James Kingsljury and wife one one-hundred- 
acre lot. 


Seth Pease. — Surveying Party of 1797. — Trip Out. — Summer 

Survey. — Much Sickness. — First Harvest. — 

Amzi Atwater. — Return Home. 

The principal surveyor of tlie party of 1797 was Seth Pease, 
wlio had occupied tlie position of astronomer and surveyor the 
year before. He was born at Suffield, 1764, married Bathsheba 
Kent, 1785, died at Philadelphia, 1819. From Pease Genealogi- 
cal Record we learn : "He was a man of sterling worth, accurate 
and scientific. He was surveyor general of the United States 
for a series of years and afterAvards was a.ssistant postmaster 
genei'al under Postmaster General Gideon Granger (his brother- 
in-law) during the administration of Jefferson and Madison." 
He was a brother of Judge Calvin Pease, of whom we shall hear 
much later. He has descendants living in the central part of 

Early in the spring he organized a party and proceeded 
west. Of tliose who accompanied him, the following had been 
with liim the year before: Richard M. Stoddard, Moses Warren 
(who des]iite the report of his easy-going ways must have satis- 
fied the company or he would not have been re-employed), Amzi 
Atwater. Joseph Landon, Amos Spaiford, Warham Shepard. as 
surveyors. Employed in other capacities, Nathaniel Doan, Eze- 
kial Morley, Joseph Tinker, David Beard, Charles Parker. Mr. 
Pease not only had the management of the party but the care 
of the funds as well. He left his home on the 3rd day of April 
and had more inconvenience than the party of the first year 
because the company was not so willing to keep him in funds. 
He says but for the financial help of Mr. Mathers he would have 
been many times greatly embarrassed. Six boats started up the 
Mohawk on A])T'il 20tli, and on April 25th were re-enforced at 
Fort Schuyler by Pliideas Baker and Mr. Hart's boat. They 
received other recruits at several places, and on April 30th Mr. 



Pease obtained his truuJv, whieli he had left at Tliree Rivex" Point 
the year before. Arriving at Iroudequoit, May 4th, others 
joined the party. On j\Iay 6th he interviewed Augustus Porter, 
hoping to get him to talvo charge of the party for the summer. 
In this he was not successful. One of the party got homesick 
on the following day and deserted. The}" proceeded from Canan- 
daigua in two parties, one going by laud and the other by the 
lake, and arrived at Fort Niagara on May 14th. The following 
day boats went back to Iroudequoit for the rest of the stores. 
"When the lake party reached Buffalo on May 19th, they found 
the land party had been there two days. They reached Conneaiit 
on ]\Iay 26th and put the boats into the creek. In the night a cry 
was raised that during the storm the boats had broken loose 
and gone out into the lake. Fortunately, this proved to be a 
mistake. On May 29th Spafford began sni-^-eying, reaching the 
Cuyahoga June 1st. The Kingsbury family was found in a very 
low state of health at Conneaut, but the Stileses and Mrs. Gun 
very well at Cleveland. Mr. Gun was at that date back in 
Conneaut. On the third day of June, in attempting to ford the 
Grand river, one of the land jiarty, David Eldredge,was drowned. 
We find the following entry: "Sunday, June 4th. This morning 
selected a piece of ground for a burying ground, the north parts 
of lots 97 and 98 ; and attended the funeral of the deceased with 
as much decency and solemnity as could be ^xpected. Mr. Hart 
read church service. The afternoon was devoted to washing." 
Thus have life and death always gone hand in hand. 

One of the tirst things they did was to make a garden, and 
clear and fence a bit of land. The surveying then began in 
earnest, with headqiiarters at Cleveland. Provisions seem to 
have been delivered more promptly and carefully than the year 
before, but there was more sickness among the men. On the 
25th of June Mr. Pease and his party began the survey of the 
lower line of the Reserve, which was not finished the year before. 

We find this curious and interesting notation of Amzi 
Atwater: "In passing down this stream (Oswego), which had 
long been known by boatmen, Ave passed in a small inlet stream 
two large, formidable looking boats or small vessels which re- 
minded us of a sea-port hai'bor. We were told that they were, 
the season before, conveyed from the Hi;dson river, partly by 
water and finally on wheels, to be conveyed to Lake Ontario ; 
that they were built of the lightest material and iutended for no 
other use than to have it published in Europe that vessels of 


these dimensions liad passed those waters to aid land specu- 

Ml. Atwater was one of the surveyors who took up his 
home on the Western Reserve and proved to be a helpful citizen. 
He was born in New Haven in 1776. His parents were poor and 
his father lost his health in the Revolutionary war. He learned 
to read and write, but was early hired out to his uncle for $60 
a year. At one time he went to visit his uncle, Rev. Noah 
Atwater, who was a successful teacher of young men. Upon 
invitation he spent the winter there, studying surveying. His 
title in the first Connecticut Land Company's employees was 
that of "explorer's assistant." He started from Connecticut, 
on foot and alone, to meet Shepard at CanandaigTia. He had 
charge of the cattle and the pack horses and went the entire dis- 
tance by land. He served in almost every capacity. When the 
survey was finished here, he worked at his profession in the east, 
and in 1800, accompanied by his brother, came to Mantua. He 
bought a farm on the road between Mantua and Shalersville, on 
tlie Cuyahoga, and here he lived and died. Judge Ezra B. 
Taylor, of Warren, now in his eighty-sixth year, remembers 
Judge Atwater well, having tirst seen him when he was a boy 
thirteen years old. He describes him as a gentle, dignified, influ- 
ential person, who was known to almost all the early residents 
of Portage county. He died in 1851 at the age of 76. 

From the beginning of August, about half the record is 
given to the sickness of the party. Mr. Pease is obliged to dis- 
continue his journal because of his fearful chills and fever. 
Warren seems to have esca^ied, or, at least, he does not mention 
it. During this simuuer, occasional prospectors appeared at 
Conneaut, at Cuyahoga, and the places in between. "The three 
gentlemen we saw the other day going to Cleveland hailed us. 
As they contemplated becoming settlers, we furnished them with 
a loaf of bread." Genei'ous ! 

iSunday, October 8. "Opened second barrel of pork. Found 
it very poor, like the first, consisting almost entirely of head and 
legs, with one old sow belly, teats two inches long, meat one 
inch thick. ' ' 

The pai'ty was at Conneaut October 22nd, on their way 
home. There they met Mr. John Young, of Youugstown, who 
brought them word of the drowning of three acquaintances at 
Chautauqua, the murdering of a man on Big Beaver, and like 
news. The party, in several divisions, then proceeds eastward, 


arriviug iu Buffalo Xovembei- (i. 1'lie wiuter snows luul Ix'guu. 
Tlie party continued to Canandaigua and disperseil, Mr. Pease 
remaining- some time to bring up the work. 

Tliis practically finished the survey. The facts in icgard 
to the distribution of land, the Connecticut Land Coini)any, and 
so forth are of great interest, l)ut tliere is not space to tell of 
them here. How, and by whom, and when, these lands were 
purchased will, in part, be told later. 


Kingsbuey's Deed. — Southern Portion of County Settled 
First. — Pioneers of '98- '99. — John Young. — James Hill- 
man. — Edwards. — Doan. — Carter. — Honey. — Harmon. — 
Loveland. — Morgan. — Harpersfield. — Conneaut. — 
Thorp. — Tappan. — Hudson. — Canfield. — Shel- 
don. — Walworth. — Paine. — Atwater. — 
Hall. — Campbell. — Mills. 

James Kingsbiiiy may be considered the first permanent 
settler in old Trumbull county. Stiles and Gun were ahead of 
him with the party, but Gun only stayed a little while, three or 
four years, and it is not sure that Stiles intended to stay when 
he came. It is undoubtedly true that the Kingsbury baby that 
starved to death was the first white child born to i^ermanent 

That Kingsbury proved later to be a valued citizen we have 
seen. There is now in the possession of Mr. H. K. Morse, of 
Poland, the following which was found among the papers of 
Judge Turhand Kirtland, Mr. Morse's grandfather: 

"May 18, 1811. Eec'd, Cleveland, of Turhand Kirtland 
a deed from the trustees of the Connecticut Land Company 
for 100 acres, lot No. 433, being the same lot of land that 
was voted by said company to be given to said Kingsbury 
and wife for a compensation for early settlement, and 
sundry services rendered said company with me. 

' ' James Kingslniry. ' ' 

After the Connecticut Land Company had withdrawn its 
surveyors, the emigrants who appeared settled in isolated spots. 
This was because they bought their land in large amounts and 
the Connecticut Land Company scattered them as much as possi- 
ble. Old Trumbull County, therefore, was not settled in the 


usual way, a few peojile gathering iu a little liamlet and working 
out from there. That this was true worked great liardsliips. 
Settlers were lonesome, far awaj' from the base of supplies, had 
to grind their own corn and grain, found trouble in procuring 
domestic animals, in having implements repaired, or in securing 
the services of a physician, became sick and discouraged or, as 
metaphysicians say to-day, discouraged and sick, and returned 
to their old homes; others kept no records, wrote few letters to 
those in the east, took no interest in politics or religion, and 
hence their names are not preserved. They lived quiet, unevent- 
ful lives, and when they were gathered to their fathers the world 
knew them no more. The number of those coming in 1798 and 
1799 was small, and of these little is known. Unlike the sur- 
veyors when they went back, it was not to write reports for 
directors of a land company, but to get their families, and after 
the}^ were iu their new homes they were too much occupied to 
keep diaries and, having few or no mails, wrote few or no letters. 
Summer days were too jii-ecious to use in writing and winter 
ones, in dark cabins, too dismal to want to tell of them. It was 
expected that the northern part of the Western Reserve would 
be settled Ijefore the southern, but the opposite was true. The 
road from Pittsburg was less hard to travel than the one from 
Canandaigna; the lake winds were too severe to be enjoyed; 
the bits of land cleared long before, lying in the lower part, 
seemed very inviting to those who had attenii)ted to remove the 
huge trees covering almost the entire section. All these things 
combined to draw settlers nearer the -list parallel. 

Of the tirst settlers, some men walked the entire way from 
Connecticut; some rode horseback j^art way, sharing the horse 
with others; some rode in ox carts; some drove oxen; some 
came part way l)y land and the rest by water; some came on 
sleds in mid-winter ; some plowed through the mud of s]iring, or 
endured the heat of summer; some had bleeding feet, and some 
serious illnesses. Sometimes it was a bride and groom who 
started alone; sometimes it was a husband, wife and children; 
sometimes it was a group of neiglil)ors who made the party. 
Children were bom on the way and people of all ages died, and 
were buried where they died. But after they came, their experi- 
ences were almost identical. 

John Young, a native of New Hampshire, who emigrated to 
New Yoi'k and in 1792 married Mary Stone White, a daughter of 
the first settler of the land on which Whitestown now stands, 


came to the lower part of Trumbull County in 1796 ; this was the 
j-ear Kingsburj' was at Conneaut. He began his settlement, 
calling it Youngstown. Pie removed his family, wife and two 
children to the new house in 1799. That year a son was born 
to them. AYilliam, and in 1802 a daughter, Mary. His oldest son, 
John, says : 

"In 1803 our mother, finding the trials of her country 
life there, with the latch-string always out and a table free 
to all, too great with her young family, for her powers of 
endurance, our father, in deference to her earnest entreaties, 
closed up his business as best he could and returned with his 
family to Whitestown and to the home and farm which her 
father had provided and kept for them." 

He therefore spent but seven years in the town which bears 
bis name and which is known throughout the United States as 
a great industrial center. He, however, returned occasionally 
for a visit, probably the last time in his own sleigh in 1814. It 
is supposed that Mr. Young's brother-in-law, Philo White, and 
Lemuel Storrs were equally interested in the land purchased. 
However, the contract with the Connecticut Land Company was 
made alone to Mr. Young. 

James Hillman was early at Youngstown. Three different 
stories in regard to the friendship of Young and Hillman are in 
existence. The most common one is that Hillman was on the 
river in a canoe and seeing smoke on the bank of the river landed 
and found Mr. Young and Mr. Wolcott. He visited with them 
a few days (people were not in such a frantic liuriy as they are 
now), and then he persuaded them to go down to Beaver, where 
his headquarters were, to celebrate the Fourth of July. This 
they did, and upon their return Mr. Hillman came with them, and 
from tliat time they lived in close friendship. 

Another tradition is that Hillman brought Young up the 
river from Pittsburg and that Hillman was induced to take up 
his residence with Young. Still another, that Young stopped at 
Beaver on his way west for supplies or rest, and that Hillman, 
whose business was transporting passengers and trading with 
Indians and frontiersmen, carried Young up the river, and that 
from their acquaintance came a friendship which resulted in 
Hillman locating there. The first story seems to be the generally 
accepted one. 


The first house erected as a settler's dwelliug iu the Mahon- 
ing Valley was Young's. This was in the neighhorhood of 
Spring Common, ijrobably on Front street. Mr. l^oung also 
erected a cabin back of the residence of Mr. Cliarles Wanamaker 
on South Main street, in Warren. In this neighborhood the 
Indians liad cleared laud and here he sowed a crop, and when it 
was harvested he put it into this cabin and left it until the snow 
came, when it was easily transported by sled. 

Eoswell M. Grant, the uncle of Ulysses Grant, under the 
date of September 7, 1875, sent a letter to the Pioneers Associa- 
tion of Youngstown for its celebration on September 10th, which 
contained some facts in regard to James Hillman. He says that 
Hillman was a native of Northumberland county, Pennsj^vania, 
although his father lived on the Ohio river. James was in the 
Eevolutionary war and was captured at Georgetown. "After 
his return he went to a corn-husking, where he met a Miss 

Catherine . After dancing with her for some time he 

proposed marriage. A scjuire being present, they were married 
the same night. I have heard Mrs. Hillman many a time say 
she never had a pair of shoes or stockings until after her mar- 
riage, and I have often heard them both say that she had neither 
slioes nor stockings wlien they were married." Mr. Graut then 
tells a story of Mr. Young being carried up from Pittsburg by 
Hillman. "Mrs. Hillman went with them. After they arrived 
at Y^onngstown, John Y^oung offered Mrs. Hillman her choice of 
six acres, any place she would choose it in the town plot, if she 
would remain. She did so. Mrs. Hillman took her six acres 
east of the spot where William Eayen's house stood. James 
Hillman helped John Young to lay out the town. He understood 
the Indians and they understood him. A\nien trouble arose 
between the white and the red man he would volunteer to settle 
it provided he could go alone to do it. In this way he did efficient 
service to both, and did for the -pioneer what no other settler 
seemed able or willing to do." 

The first settlement in present Geauga county was at Burton 
in the year 1798 when three families came from Connecticut. 

As we have seeu. Job Stiles and his wife and Edward Paine 
spent the winter of '96 at the mouth of the Cuyahoga. The next 
year James Kingsbury and his family were there, together with 
Major Lorenzo Carter and Ezekiel Holley and their families. 
In 1798 Eodolphus Edwards and Nathaniel Doan and family 
came. The early manuscripts show that it took Mr. Doan ninety- 


two days to make the journey from Chatham, Connecticut. The 
fever, and fever and ague, were if anything worse during this 
j-ear of "98 than in '97. The Doan family consisted of nine 
persons, and only one of them had strength enough to bring 
water to the others. This was Seth Doan, a boy of tliirteen. 
Tlie fever and ague which ijrevailed in Trumbull County in the 
'50s and '60s was intermittent. Chills would occur every other 
day for a stated period, and then cease, beginning again on their 
every-other-day schedule at the end of a certain interval. But 
among the Cleveland people a patient was considered foi-tunate 
if he had onl j' one attack a day ; some had three. 

At one time none of the Doan family could leave the house 
and they had only turnips to eat. It was about this time that 
Judge Kingsbury and his family did great good in nursing and 
caring for the sick. The Carter family did not seem to. suffer as 
much as did the family of Mr. Doan. Howe says, "destitute of 
a physician and with a few medicines, necessity again taught 
them to use such means as nature had placed within their reach. 
For calomel, they substituted pills from the extract of the bark 
of the butternut, and, in lieu of cjuinine, used dog-wood and 
cherry bark." Probal)ly because of this malarious condition, 
and because of the severe winds, the colony at the mouth of the 
Cuyahoga did not grow, and from January, 1799, to April, 1800, 
Major Carter's family was the only one living there. The others 
had moved back onto the hills and into the country. 

A^Hien John Doan came west he had six children, the 
youngest three years old. They separated at Buffalo, the father 
and one son taking the Indian trail and carrying part of the 
goods on the backs of the horses and oxen. They followed the 
tirst road made along the lake shore, but there were no bridges. 
"The mother with tlie other children made the trip from Buffalo 
by water. She was accompanied by an Indian and several white 
men who had been engaged to assist her on the journey. They 
came in a row-boat propelled by oars at times, and again by a 
tow-line carried on the liank. Besides their furniture and house- 
hold goods, they carried a box of live geese, which were declared 
to be 'the first domesticated birds of the kind ever brought into 
Ohio.' At the mouth of tlie Grand river the boat was over- 
turned, throwing mother, children, goods and box overboard. 
By good fortune, the water was shallow, and while the red men 
carried the children ashore, the white men and Mrs. Doan saved 
the goods. The geese floated out into the lake, but in some way 


became freed from their prison and, swimmiug ashore, were 
recaptured. At Grand river ^Ir. Doan met them, and the boat 
was taken on to Clevehmd without further adventures. Mrs. 
Doan, however, had no further desire for marine travel and 
came by land." 

One of the very first settlers in old Trumbull County was 
Abram S. Honey, who came to Mantua in 1798. He erected a 
log cabin, cleared a spot of ground, put in a small crop of wheat 
which was next year harvested by his brother-in-law, Rufus 
Edwards. He was about midway between the Cleveland and 
Youngstown settlements. 

Elias Harmon arrived at the clearing which Honey had 
made, in 1799. He, however, did not stay long, but moved on to 
Aurora. He suffered great privations on his trip (see Hudson's 
Story) and this continued until he had been in Aurora some 
little time, when conditions were made easier for everybody. 
Wlien Portage county was set off he became its first treasurer. 

Among the first to settle in these northeastern Ohio forests 
was Amos Loveland, who had been a soldier in the Revolution, 
and was engaged in surveying on the Reserve as early as 1798. 
He selected a piece of land in what is now a corner of Trumbull 
County, and decided to locate upon it. He returned to Vermont 
in the fall of the year, and in December started westward with 
his family of seven, and all his worldly goods packed on two 
sleds, each of which was drawn by a team of horses. They 
traveled days and encamped at night when better accommoda- 
tions did not offer. They crossed the Susquehanna river on the 
ice, and when the snow disappeared soon after, the sleds were 
traded for a wagon, for the rest of the journey, which occupied 
altogether four months. It was April before they arrived at 
the piece of woodland which he expected to transform into a 

James Kennedy in his "A History of the City of Cleveland" 

"Jacob Russell came from Connecticut to Cleveland 
with an ox-team, his wife riding their only horse. Leaving 
her, he returned for their children, and one of these, in re- 
cently relating their adventures, said: 'Our journey was 
attended with the greatest suffering. My youngest sister 
was sick all the way, dying three days after her arrival. 
Father then was taken down with ague, so our house was 


built slowly. With the greatest difficulty mother hewed with 
au adz the stub ends of the floor boards and put them down 
with the little help father could give her. We moved in, 
towards the close of November, our house possessing neither 
door nor window. At that time two of the children were 
sick with ague. Father worked when the chills and fever 
left him through the day, putting poles together in the form 
of bedsteads and tables.' 

"The Morgan family came in a covered wagon, drawn 
by a yoke of oxen and a span of horses. A girl eight years 
of age rode one of the horses, and guided the lead team the 
greater part of the way between Allegheny and Cleveland. 
The road was simply a trail through the woods, the under- 
brush between the trees having been cut away sufficiently 
to allow a wagon to pass. Three months were consumed in 
this journey, including a two weeks' stop because of sick- 

The first to settle in what became afterwards Ashtabula 
county were Alexander Harper, William McFarland, Ezra 
Gregory. They established themselves and named the new home 
Harpersfield. They left (Harpersfield, Conn.) the 7th of March 
and arrived the last of June. Their trip was one of the most 
tedious ones of which we have record. Why they did not at 
several different points turn I'ound and go home, we cannot see. 
The following winter, that of '98 and '99, they suffered great 
hardships, and came near perishing from hunger. At times 
they only had six kernels of parched corn for each person. How- 
ever, Colonel Harper had two strong, willing boys, James and 
William, who went to Pennsylvania for bags of corn, carrying 
them on their backs. Once the ice broke through, wetting the 
provisions and themselves, but William rescued the grain, car- 
ried it into the woods where he had ordered his brother and 
friends to precede him and build a fire. When he reached them 
with the provisions, his clothes stifHy frozen, he found they had 
succumbed to the cold and were lying down, asleep. He built 
a fire, aroused them, dried the grain and himself, and all reached 
home safely. 

"Thomas Montgomery and Aaron Wright settled in Con- 
neaut in the spring of 1799. Robert jMontgomeiy and family, 
Levi and John IMontgomery, Nathan and John King, Samuel 
Barnes and family came the same season." Howe tells us that 


twenty or thirty Indian cabins were standing wlien tlie settlers 
arrived. If this were true, they were built in the winter of '97, 
because none of the surveyors mention any buildings except 
those constructed bj^ the company. Howe also tells the story 
of an Indian girl saving the life of a young white man prisoner 
by pleading for him as he was tied to the stake. She not only 
pled, but paid furs and a small sum of money as well. He ob- 
serves, "An act in the lowly Indian maid which entitled her 
name to be honorably recorded with that of Pocohantas among 
the good and virtuous of every age." The author is inclined to 
believe that this visionary tale was exactly like that of Poco- 

In May, 1799, Joel Thorpe and his wife Sarah came to the 
Reserve from Milford, Connecticut. They came in an ox cart, 
and cleared a bit of ground in a very rich valley. Like all the 
other emigrants of that year, they fell short of provisions, and 
the father started for a settlement aboiit twenty miles distant 
in Pennsylvania for food. The oldest Thorpe child was eight 
years old, and there Avere two younger. Mrs. Thorpe dug roots, 
upon which they subsisted for a time. The oldest son, Basil, 
having seen some kernels of corn between the logs, spent hours 
of time trying to secure them, without success. Mrs. Thorpe 
opened up a sti'aw bed, and the few grains of wheat she found 
there she boiled and ate. She had learned to shoot at a mark, 
and it was well she had. Standing in the door one day in utter 
despair, she saw a wild turkey flying near her. Procuring her 
gun, she quietly waited until the bird began wallowing in the 
loose dirt of the potato patch, when she crept over logs until 
she was near it. Raising her trembling arm, "she fired; the 
result was fortunate; the turkey when cooked saved the family 
from stai'vation. Mrs. Thorpe married three times." As 
society believed in the early days that women who were not 
married were disgraced, we conclude that Howe, the historian, 
added this last sentence to show that she received her reward 
of merit. 

One of the earliest settlers of old Trumbull County was 
Hon. Benj. Tappan, who arrived in June, 1799, and settled where 
Ravenna now stands. A Mr. Honey, as we have seen, had pre- 
ceded him, but there were few others. On the way from Con- 
necticut he fell in with David Hudson, and they came on together 
to the mouth of the Cuyahoga river. They went up that river 
as far as Boston. Mr. Hudson stayed at Hudson. Mr. Tappan 


left his goods and his family at Boston, and cut a road tlirough 
to his new home. With the man who accompanied him he built 
a dray, yoked on his oxen, and took part of his goods from 
Boston to his camp. When he went back for the second load 
The man who had been left in charge of the tent had joined Mr. 
Hudson's party. Mi-. Tappan had all sorts of discouraging 
things happen him. The weather being wann and wet, 
one of his oxen died from fly bites, he was left with his 
goods in the wilderness, and he had no money. One of his 
men went to the commandant at Fort Erie, a hundred 
miles distant, to get a loan of money. He himself did what most 
people did who lived in this part of Trumbull County, went to 
James Hillman, at Youngstown, with his troubles. Hillman 
encouraged him, sold him an ox on credit at the usual price. 
All tins made such delay that he had not time to plant a crop. 
He therefore had to depend upon his own gun for meat, except 
as he bought some of the Indians. He had to travel to western 
Pennsylvania for his supplies. He lived in a sort of a bark 
house until his log cabin was finished, which was January 1, 1800. 
Mr. Tappan proved to be not only a good citizen for Ravenna 
and vicinity, but to the state as well. His later biography is 
given imder Bench and Bar. 

Mr. Hudson and his party, traveling by water, had a serious 
time. The Niagara river was filled with ice and their boat had 
to be pulled by ropes by men on shore to keep it from drifting 
down Avith the current. The lake was also dangerous from large 
cakes of ice. He had fallen in with Elias Harmon, and when 
the party was off the Ashtabula shore their boats were driven 
in and Mr. Hai-mon's badly damaged. They, however, repaired 
this, put baggage and supplies in it, and the party, including 
Harmon, Tappan, and Hudson, arrived in Cleveland June 8, 
1799. The river was so low, because of the drought, that they 
had to drag their boats over shallow places. The surveyors had 
described the water near the Hudson purchase to be the depth 
they had found the water of the Cuyahoga. So when they began 
dragging the boat they thought they had reached their land. 
The party went ashore, tried to locate lines, and after wasting 
nearly a week, found thej' were a good ways from their destina- 
tion. The cattle belonging to Tappan and Hudson came over- 
land. They got out of their way, and instead of going direct 
to Hudson, went south to the Salt Spring tract, but, after many 
narrow escapes in their wanderings, reached the Cuyahoga, at 

HisTOKY OF 'jM;r:\ir>rLL corxTY 57 

Boston, where the boats were left. While the}- were fixing yokes 
for the oxen, and making a primitive road, the Indians stole part 
of their provisions "from the boats. This gave ^Ir. Hudson grave 
fears of their being able to get through the winter. He therefore 
turned about, hoping to meet his man who was coming with 
stores, and did find him, on July 2nd, "lying at his ease near 
Cattaraugus." He got back to his party in time to save them 
from suli'ering. His own account of that summer in old Trum- 
bull County, of his returning east for his family in the damaged 
boat which he had 2:)urchased of Harmon, and which was so 
leaky that it had to be bailed all the time it was on the lake; 
of his reaching his home, getting his family and his party, and 
returning the following year, reads like the most interesting 
romance. He was the founder of Hudson, had much to do with 
the Western Eeserve College, and was a strong, able, honest 
man. He has direct descendants residing in Hudson now. His 
daughter ^faria married Harvey Baldwin, both of whom were 
vitally interested in the college which lately became the Western 
Reserve University at Cleveland. The daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Baldwin married Edwin Gregory, who was an educator of a good 
deal of i^rominence, being princii)al of the Rayen School of 
Youugstown for many years. 

David Daniels, of Salisbury, Connecticut, ought to be men- 
tioned in this list of pioneers, since he came to Palmyra in 1799, 
and made preparation for his family, which he brought the 
following year. 

Ebenezer Sheldon, like Daniels, came in 1799, and prepared 
the way for his family. They started from Connecticut iu the 
early spring of 1800, and came, as did most of the settlers of 
that year, in a wagon drawn by oxen. They led their horses. 
They had no special adventures in the beginning, but were 
overtaken by a storm in the woods west of Warren and 
miraculously escaped death. Timber fell all about them to 
sucli an extent as to hem them in. They had to stay all night 
in the woods and were not released the next day imtil they got 
assistance to cut the road. One of the Miss Sheldons became 
the wife of Amzi Atwater, whom we remember was one of the 
surveyors of tlie Connecticut Land Comioany. 

Hon. John Walworth, a native of New London, Connecticut, 
who had sjient several years in travel, was small of stature and 
supposed to have tuberculosis, visited Cleveland in 1799. He 
was then living in the neighborhood of Cuj-nga lake. New York. 


Upon Ills return, he went to Connecticut, and bought 2,000 acres 
of laud in number 11 in range 8 (Painesville). Late in February 
of 1800, lie started for his new home. Others joined him, so 
that the party filled two sleighs when they reached Lake Erie. 
They drove on the ice, stopping on the shore at Cattaraugus 
creek for one night. They reported that women and children 
and all had a comfortable night. Just how this could have been 
in the wind and the snow, we do not understand. Leaving his 
family at Erie, he went back to BuiTalo for his goods, and all 
came safely to their new home. Judge Jesse Phelps, Jared 
Woods, Ebenezer Merry, Charles Parker and Moses Parks were 
living in Mentor. It was about the 1st of April when the family 
was settled and General Edward Paine, who had made his head- 
quarters at Cleveland, took up his residence there. 

One of the earliest townships settled was Atwater. Early 
in the spring, April, 1799, Capt. Caleb Atwater, Jonathan 
Merrick, Peter Bonnell, Asaliel Blakesley, and Asa Hall and his 
wife arrived in Atwater. In the fall all of them except Hall and 
his wife returned to the east. For two whole years these people 
were the only white people in Atwater. Their nearest neighbor, 
Lewis Ely, lived in Deerfield. In the spring of the following 
year a child was born, Atwater Hall, who was the first child 
born inside of the present Portage county. 

The first actual settler in Deerfield was Lewis Ely, who came 
with his family in July, 1799. A few months later, Alva Day, 
John Campbell and Joel Thrall walked from Connecticut, arriv- 
ing in March of 1800. They suffered many hardships going over 
the mountains in the snow. It does not seem possible that they 
could have walked all that distance at that season, but they did. 
John Campliell did not know that his hard experiences were 
soon to be forgotten in his joy. In that very year he married 
Sarah, the daughter of Lewis Ely. This was the first marriage 
among white people recorded within the present limits of 
Portage county, although at that time it was in Trumbull. There 
were no ministers in that neighborhood, and Calvin Austin, of 
Warren, a justice of the peace, was asked to perform the service. 
Now, it happened that Justice Austin did not know any set form 
for mari-iage. Calvin Pease offered to teach him a proper 
sei'vice. They did not sit down by some good fire and prepare 
for this wedding. Somehow the people of this time had to do 
so much walking they continued it when they did not have to. 
So these two Calvins walked together through the woods in drear 


November tweuty-odd miles, one teacliiug, cue reciting as they 
went. Now, as we will see in the chapter on Bench and Bar, 
Calvin Pease had a great sense of humor and was a tease with 
all. When, therefore, Mr. Austin had in a dignitied manner I'e- 
jieated this service, concluding with "I pronounce you man and 
wife, and may God have mercy on your souls," the assembled 
guests were astonished, and Mr. Pease suppressed his laugh, too, 
with great difficulty. Her great-granddaughter remembers this 
bride when she was nearly eighty. She was tall, straight for 
her age, wore a dark brown frontpiece of hair under her suowy 
cap and a dark brown delaine dress with pink roses, a tichu-like 
cape of the same material was about her shoulders, with some- 
thing white at the throat. She was rather sober of face and 
never held or kissed this great-granddaughter. But people did 
not show inward love in outward expression then; besides if she 
had held and kissed her grandchildren and her great-grand- 
children she would have had no time for anything else, for the 
age of race suicide had not begun. 

It was the intention not to mention in the list of "the first 
settlers" any one arriving after 1800, but the family of Mills, 
which came very early in that year, have been so identified with 
the early settlement that exception is made with them. Three 
brothers, Delaun, Asehel, and Isaac, came in covered wagons, 
the usual way. The trij) was more expensive than they expected 
and they had less than twenty-five cents among them when they 
arrived. At that time the northern jjart of Portage was being 
surveyed vmder Amzi Atwater, and these men engaged to work 
as ax-men under the surveyors. Isaac was not married and 
after a time went back to the east. Delaun and Asehel settled 
on the road running west from the center of Nelson, now Portage 
countj*. All the old diaries of early travelers who went to 
Burton. Painesville, etc., have this statement, "Stopped at Mills 
for dinner," or "Fed horses at Mills," or "Stayed several days 
at Mills." Delaun received the title of captain and was a great 
hunter, of both animals and Indians. He was the Daniel Boone 
of old Trumliull County. Wonderful, indeed, are the stories 
told of his adventures. His children were Methodists, and it 
is not hard to close your eyes and hear the rather sweet voice 
of Albert ]\[ills leading the Sunday school with "There'll be 
something in Heaven for children to do." The son Homer still 
lives on the old home farm. 


How THE First Settlers Came. — Carrying Children in Aprons. 

The Baby's Cry. — Seeds and Plants. — Chestnut Stumps as 

Stoves. — First Ovens. — First L.\undries. — Early 

Houses. — Winter Evenings. — Dishes. — Bric-a-Brac. — 

Chairs. — Financial Dependence. — Books. — First 

Schools. — Pies. — Clothing. — Big Families. — 

Women's Shoes. — Horseback to Church. — 

Sleeping on Husband's Grave. — 

making. — Bears. — ^AVhiskey. 

Before we proceed with tlie history of Trumbull County 
after 1800, let us take a look at the home life of the people who 
lived iu New Connecticut in the first early days. 

There were no steam cars, street cars, automobiles or 
coaches. No large boats came this way, since even on tlie lake 
there were no natural liarbors to admit them. Men who had 
the most money and had therefore bought large tracts of land 
arrived during the summer days, located their land, cleared a 
spot for the house, and returned home. If they were very 
wealthy they left a man or two to stay through the winter to 
construct the cabin and care for a few domestic animals. The 
following spring they brought their families and began a new 
life. Such cases were few, because a small number of emigrants 
were rich. Most of the travelers came in family or neighborhood 
groups, with an ox cart for the baggage, and a horse or two. 
There was seldom place for all to ride and they took turn about. 
A large percent came by horseback. Sometimes a woman would 
ride, carrying a baby and utensils for cooking, while the husband 
would walk, leading another horse on which was piled the 
baggage. Often a husband and wife, newly married, w^ould ride 
horses, or one horse, to the new home. Sometimes men used 
boats as far as streams were navigable, walking the rest of the 
way. Sometimes men walked all the way. Sometimes women 



came in pairs without men, walking the entire distance. Some- 
times women carried babies on their backs while the husband 
carried the provisions on liis. "When it came niglit they would 
sleep on the ground, with no covering if it were pleasant, under 
the trees or large pieces of bark stuck on poles, if it were rainy. 
Eecord is given of women who came alone (except as they would 
fall in with parties now and then), carrying a baby or leading 
a child. In this latter case the trip was exceedingly hard. In 
the beginning she was in civilization, where she could easily find 
shelter and lodging. However, as she proceeded, and grew more 
weary and more lonesome, hamlets were farther apart, until 
houses almost disappeared. It is recorded tliat several women 
carried their babies in their aprons all the way from New 
England. The apron was worn almost as much as the dress, 
colored cottons for hard work, white for home dress-up, and 
among the wealthy silk for visiting. They were used for many 
purposes for which we Avould never think of using them today. 

When women came alone it was usually because they were 
exceedingly i^oor and had inherited laud in the new country, or 
because the husband had preceded them to prepare a place for 
them. Many a pioneer motlier, when she reached the spot of 
land belonging to her or to her husband, saw the wild country, 
remembered her abiding place "liack home," covered her face 
with her hands, sat down on the fresh hewn logs, or made her 
way into the forests, and gave way to her feelings in floods of 
tears. As soon as this first disap])ointment was over, she turned 
her attention to her duty. If any women, anywhere, in all the 
wide world, ever did the courageous things, the right things, it 
was the women who came to New Connecticut and helped to 
transform it from a wilderness to one of the most pros])erous 
spots of the world. 

As there were some women who came in rather comfortable 
ox-carts, so there were some women who had homes awaiting 
them, but this percent was so small that it is hardly to be con- 

Mr. Ephraim Brown, of North Bloomfield, one of the early 
wealthy men, came one season, left men here to build his house, 
while he went back for the winter. There were no women in 
that neighborhood. One Sunday morning in June of the follow- 
ing year as his men, with some neighbors, were sitting in the 
sun in the opening about the house, they heard a sound. They 
all listened. Thev recognized a baby's cry. One of the men 


said afterwards, "That was tlie sweetest sound I ever heard in 
my life." Of course, he did not mean that the distressed baby's 
voice "was so pleasant, but he knew that where a babj' was, a 
mother was, and where a mother was a real home would be. 

Great traveling preparations were made by the emigrants. 
One woman in Connecticut baked her oven several times full of 
bread, dried it, rolled it, and packed it in sacks that it might 
serve for food on the journey. 

Upon arrival, families sometimes slept in the ox-cart, but 
more often slept under bark roofs, keeping their clothing and 
provisions near by in hollow trees. One of the first things these 
pioneers did, if they came in the early spring, was to clear a 
little patch and start a garden. Men struggled for a chance to 
make garden then as boys and men struggle now not to make 
them. Almost all of them brought seeds, and so carefully did 
they have to plan not to have heavy baggage, nor to be burdened 
with small bundles, that apple seeds were sometimes brought 
in the hollow cane which they used for a staff. 

The second act was preparing logs for the house. Some of 
these buildings had no chimney, no doors, no windows. It is 
surprising to find in how many cases this was true. 

Women cooked meals at the side of chestnut stiunps for 
weeks and months at times. In many cases men were so occupied 
in other directions that they gave little attention to domestic 
conveniences of any kind. Eecord is had of several women who, 
in despair, made ovens of clay and mud in which to bake bread. 
Before that, they had had to stir their In-ead on a fresh hewn 
log and wrap it around a stick or a corncob. Their children 
were set to holding it and watching it as it baked and browned. 
Children, in those days, were like children in these, and some 
of them carefully watched the bread, baked it evenly, while 
others who dropped it in the aslies or burned it were chastised 
for their carelessness. The result was the same in those days 
as now : the careless child did not gTOw any more careful, and 
the careful child did most of the bread-baking. 

One of the sturdy foremothers in Trumbull County, a 
Farmington woman, who had a poor fireplace in her dingy cabin 
and who loved to prepare good things to eat for her family, 
became desperate because her husband procrastinated in build- 
ing an oven for her. She said she had baked bread and done 
all of her cooking in one big iron kettle and she was tired of it. 
She, therefore, fashioned some bricks of mud, burned them in 


some way, and constructed au oven which was such a success 
that people traveling- her way stopped to see it. 

Men and women, by temperament and environment, were 
the same in that day as they are now, and some husbands were 
thrifty, loving, temperate and just, and some were quite the 
opposite ; some women were clinging, tender and childish, while 
the majority were not. The forefather was really the monarch 
of the famih', and when the food was low it was he who braved 
the stoims and the cold to bring provisions from Pennsylvania ; 
nevertheless, he was neglectful of the smaller things. 

On manj' farms, in Trumbull and adjacent counties, until 
within a few years, there were no cisterns. All water had to be 
caught in tubs as it fell from the roof on a flatboard leading 
into barrels and tubs. These receptacles naturally must stand 
near the house, and the mosquitos hatched therein were con- 
veniently near their feeding grounds. AVomen carried their 
clothes to the nearby creeks and washed them, laying them on 
the grass to dry. The well was often far from the house. If 
there chanced to be a spring, the stal)]e was often put nearer 
to it than the house. 

Within the recollection of the writer, a farmer who kept 
five men and whose wife did the work, either thoughtlessly or 
purposely neglected to keep her supplied with sufficient wood. 
Several times the housewife threatened to get no dinner unless 
wood was brought for her. This threat was not effective. She 
knew and the men knew that there was plenty of cold food in 
the pantry Avith which they could satisfy themselves. One day 
when the husband came to dinner with the hired hands he was 
obliged to step over two rails of his choice fence which were 
sticking out the doorway, the other ends being in the stove fur- 
nishing fuel for the dinner. As this rail fence was his pride 
and as rail splitting was hard work, he always thereafter dele- 
gated one of his men to keep the wood box full. 

We have seen that most of the log houses had no doors 
or windows. Blankets and quilts often served the places of 
doors. Bears sometimes walked in under them ; wolves some- 
times ventured so near that if there was a loft and the men 
were away, women took their children and climbed into the loft. 
Sometimes they built tires in front of these blanket doors, or 
stood outside and waved pieces of burning wood, or set fire to 
a little powder, to frighten these dangerous animals. Indians 
were especially attracted toward the quilt doorways. As we 


know, they walked very quietly, and many an early housewife 
has been badly frightened as she realized that Indians were 
examining her quilt from the outside. 

It was not possible, often, to tiuish a house immediately. 
Sometimes the roof was not on for a long time in summer. The 
time in warm weather was i^recious and a settler could build 
his house when he had nothing else to do. As soon as possible 
they hung the doors. After a time they made windows, but not 
of glass, — only greased paper. 

The chimneys were usually built outside and, under certain 
climatic conditions, smoked badl.y. 

After a time there was a floor, and women and children, on 
winter evenings, helped to stuff the cracks between the logs 
with anything suitable that they could procure, while the father, 
and sometimes the mother, smoothed with the adz the inside of 
the logs. As a rule, this j^rimitive log house had but one room. 
Poles were stuck in between the logs and furnished the bedstead, 
while the cord for the same was made of strips of elm bark. 
Ticks were usually filled with straw. As soon as it was possible 
a loft was made, and here, in summer, and sometimes in winter, 
the children and the hired men slept. In reading of the early 
self-made men of this country, it is almost universally stated 
that when children they used to wake in the morning to find 
snow on their bed. Access to these lofts was had by ladder 
usually; occasionally^ by rude steep stairs. As a rule, there was 
a hatch door to keep the cold from the room below. Sometimes 
when there was no loft, a corner of the cabin was screened off 
by cotton curtains. 

Dishes were often of wood. However, each foremother 
seemed to find a way to bring something to her new crude home 
which she loved. The early German women, and the New Eng- 
land women as well, often brought a favorite bulb or a cutting 
from a plant at home, and these they nursed and nourished, and 
by exchanging with each other had some lovely gardens in this 
wilderness. A woman of Champion had some peonies which 
have bloomed in that town for seventy years. 

Sometimes they brought a few pieces of silver, or a picture. 
One of the plainest women in Portage county, who was a fore- 
mother, brought a looking glass. This her granddaughter still 
cherishes. They struggled to make the interior of their dingy 
cabins look homelike. Rude shelves were put over fireplaces, 
and upon these they set their pewters, which, despite all other 


hard work, they faithfully polished with wood ashes. They had 
no rocking chairs. The stools were made with three legs, since 
it was easier to adjust them on the rough floors. Thej- could 
work at nothing in the evening which required close attention, 
since the flicker of the log or small tallow dip furnished meager 
light. However, every evening was full of duties, for they 
dipped candles, i^laited straw for hats, shelled corn and cracked 
nuts. They also si)un, sometimes far into the night. As Hon. 
Thomas D. Wehb, of Warren, observed his wife spinning one 
evening, he made a calculation of her steps, and when she had 
finished he told her she had walked as far as from AVari'en to 
Leavittsburg and back; that is six miles. 

Most of the pioneer mothers who really clothed aud fed 
the iieojile of the AVestern Reserve had to beg for all the money 
they had, and the forefather took great pride in thinking how 
well he supported his wife. He did uot know it, hut the Yankee 
settler, when he married a young, virtuous, strong, capable 
woman, made the best bargain any man ever made. Sometimes 
a woman, inheriting a strong feeling of independence from her 
independent father, stood uji, in what seems to us now, a feeble 
way, and demanded a small part of what was due her. Such a 
woman was said to "wear the breeches," and her husband was 
termed "hen-pecked." Next to drunkenness and infidelity, the 
women who first lived in greater Trumbull County suffered more 
from financial dependence than from any other one thing. 

The pleasures were visiting, church-going and house-raising. 
There were no undertakers and no nurses. The housewives 
knew the medicinal value of herbs, and when left alone did good 
service. The community was like a great independent family, 
one man ingeniously making ax helves, while another ])ulled, or 
rather screwed out the teeth with a turn-screw, and each heliied 
the other when in trouble. If a man was sick, his neighbors 
raised his house or gathered his crop. A pioneer who had 
nursed the sick and shared the sorrows of his friends in the 
early days, died at extreme age, and some of his young neighbors 
could not leave plowing to go to the funeral. In the old days 
it was friendship first, money afterwards. 

People were baptized in streams when the ice had to be cut. 

Books were few and reading not indulged in to any great 
extent. In fact, it was considered almost wicked to waste day- 
light in study. Occasionally, a lioy who had determined to 
become a iirofessioual man did most of his studying winter 


evenings by the light of the log fire, and hunted the neighbor- 
hood for miles aronnd for the worn and tattered volumes which 
were there. 

"When the schoolhouses began to appear, the smaller chil- 
dren attended in summer, and most of the smaller ones, and the 
older ones, in winter. They walked miles to school, wore no 
woolen underclothing, the girls cotton dresses, the boys no 
overcoats. They carried their dinner in a pail or basket, and 
often ran most of the way. They studied or not, learned or not, 
got whipped or not, as they cared to and deserved, but at noon 
they ate their half-frozen dinners in front of the blazing logs. 
The only tiling the early settlers of Trumbull County had was 
plenty of firewood. 

Neighbors would sometimes gather in schoolhouses where 
the men held debates. Xo one any more thought of asking a 
woman to debate a tiuestion than they would have thought of 
urging her to become a candidate for governor. In some com- 
munities these debates were on a religious subject. The question 
of atonement, fore-ordination, sprinkling, immersion and like 
topics were debated to such a degree that friendships were 
broken and communities divided and disturbed temporarily. 
Other questions less serious were "Which is the worst, a scold- 
ing wife or a smoking chimney?" or "How many angels can 
stand on the point of a needle?" 

And here in this new country, where all started nearly eciual, 
some men became leaders, others were lost sight of. Some 
accumulated property and assumed a certain superiority (as 
most moneyed men are boimd to do), while others, struggle as 
they might, never held to that which they bought and died own- 
ing nothing, or worse, owing much. Stories are told how some 
of the original land owners became rich by pressing hard men 
who owed them, and how the same bits of laud came back to 
them, time after time, with improvements, because payments 
could not be kept up. Tne people of old Trumbull County were 
better than their Connecticut ancestors, in that they did not 
bring the w^hipping post and the ducking stool, did not burn 
witches, and did not tortare, physically, heretics, but in the 
matter of money they followed closely their progenitors. 

One of the early settlers writes that the members of his 
family were great readers and, being unable to procure many 
books, read those which they had through repeatedly. He him- 
self read "Pilgrim's Progress" twice without stopping. 


In the begiuuiug they had few pastries aud pies. Joshua 
K. Giddings says : "The first mince pie I ever ate on tlie Eeserve 
was composed of pmapkin instead of apple, vinegar in tlie place 
of wine or cider, bear's meat instead of beef. Tlie whole was 
sweetened with wild honey instead of sugar, and seasoned with 
domestic pepper, iiulverized, instead of cloves, cinnamon and 
allspice. And never did I taste pastry with a licttcr relish." 
The pie soon became a necessity in the household, hi the carlx- 
winter the housewife would bake fifty or more luince jiies aud 
put them in a cold room where they would often freeze, and then 
they were brought out as occasion needed and Avanucd. The 
woman who made the oven of bricks once had it full nf jiies, 
cooling, when the Indians came in the night and canicd them oft. 

Cooking was interfered with in the early time in the spring- 
by the leeks, which rendered the milk almost undriiikable. The 
remedy for this was the serving of onions at meals, since one 
bite of an onion disguised the taste of the leek. 

Women not only were the cooks and housekeepers, as we 
have seen, but they spun cotton, occasionally mixing it with a 
linen which they always spun for smnmer clothes. They not 
only spun the liax, but hetcheled it. They carded the wool, spun 
it, wove it, and made it into garments. Some of the early men 
and boys wore suits of buckskin which, over a flax shirt, made 
up a full-dress suit. One writer says that once when a pair of 
scissors was lost, his mother cut out a buckskin suit with a 
broad-ax. Another woman cut wool from a black sheep, carded, 
spun, wove it, and made a suit in three days for a sudden 

There were three occupations open to women, and even these 
were not open practically the first few years of laioneer life 
here. They were teaching, tailoring, and housework, and the 
remuneration was exceedingly small. One of the earliest 
teachers (all were paid by the patrons of the school) received, 
in compensation, calves, corn, a bureau, the latter being still 
preserved by her family. One man paid her in a load of corn, 
another by carrying this corn to Painesville and exchanging it 
for cotton yarn, while the third, a woman, wove the yarn into a 
bedspread. This spread is iireserved with the bureau. 

Women were good nurses and in many cases they worked 
side by side with a doctor. Again and again do we read of 
women walking through snow and cold to be with other women at 
the birth of children or to encoui'age them during the illness 


of member.s of their family. These women often rode miles 
liorsebaek; sometimes they were so helpful that the doctor 
begged them to help him and carried them beliind him on liis 
horse. There are authentic cases of women not only going in 
the cold on horseback, but swimming streams and arriving at 
the destination with frozen clothes. Occasionally, a woman 
would be more capalile or more ambitious tlian her husband or 
her neighbors, and by extra hours of weaving would pay the 
taxes on the property, or make a payment on the principal. 
(iirls of fourteen and fifteen sometimes became expert spinners 
and weavers. One in particular was able to weave double cover- 
lets at that age. There were no poorhouses, nor hospitals, and 
women, suddenly bereaved of husbands, were talven into other 
families, while men, losing wives, were looked after by tlie women 
of the neighborhood. Children left alone were cared for in the 
families as if they belonged there. Hardly a family existed 
wliicli did not have attached to it a dependent or unfortunate 
person. Some women, feeling that they had a right to a certain 
percent of the earnings, demanded a calf or a sheep, which as 
it grew gave them a little revenue ; or asked for a small portion 
of a crop from which they had their "pin" money. 

In 1814 it took seventy-two bushels of corn to buy a 
woman's dress. 

Under the hardships and exposures, with the long hours 
of work and the large families, women died early, and most men 
had two wives. Occasionally a father and mother would both 
die and leave the children to care for themselves. Several cases 
are given in early records and letters of girls who reared their 
little brothers and sisters in their primitive cabins. One such 
girl, eleven years old, kept house for three younger children and 
was herself married at sixteen to a boy aged nineteen. The 
community watched over these young folks and called them "the 
babes in the woods." They had six girls and seven boys. Fami- 
lies were large in those days, but, although people had many 
children, the ])erc('ii1 which grew to mature years is so small 
as to he startling. 

When chui'ches began to be Iniilt women contributed in work, 
not only in furnishing but even in raising the building. One 
woman solicited small donations of wool from people of the 
vicinage and wove a carpet for the church. 

Although women spim and wove the clothes which they and 
tlicii' families wore, even to the men's caps, they did not make 

iiist()i;y of Tiir.Air.FLL rorxTY (si) 

shoes. Therefore, when shoes wore out, they sometimes went 
without them. In any ease, they were careful of them. In the 
"Pioneer "Women of the Western Reserve" many times shoes 
are mentioned as being most desired belongings. "Women wlio 
walked to "Warren from Howland put theirs on under the elm tree 
in front of Harmon Austin's residence. Those who came from 
Lordstown, if they came to market, stopped on the bank of the 
river for this same purpose, and if to church. tlie>- sometimes 
waited until they got nearer the meeting house. Jn one town- 
ship we read that it was not an unusual thing to see women 
sitting on the church steps putting on their shoes and stockings. 
In another place we read: ""We always put on our shoes in the 
preacher's barn." tSometimes a woman would have two pairs 
of shoes, or two or three dresses, in which case she gladly loaned 
tliem to her less fortunate neighbor. 

A woman in Mecca, who was exceedingly enterpiising, 
raised silk worms and si)un silk to get extra money. 

Many of the women were devoted Christians and traveled 
many miles on Sunday by horseback, sometimes taking two chil- 
dren with them, to attend services. These same women all(AV('(l 
little or no work to be done on Sunday. Cows, of course, must 
be milked, and stock fed, but no cooking was permitted. Beds 
were aired all day and made i;p after sundown. 

Although people did their duty, there was more sorrow 
then than novr, more discomfort then than now, less freedom 
then than now. There was less o]ien expression of love, and 
more repressed feeling of all kind. Women were tired and worn 
out, and, in many cases, scolded. Men were sometimes ovei'- 
bearing, sometimes di'unken, and occasionally cruel. A very nice 
woman living in the early days of old Trumbull County, when 
(piite yoimg, lost her husband. She continued to reside for a 
little time in her lonesome cabin, but later was induced to marry 
a man of the neighborhood who had several children. Aftei- a 
time he became very abusive and she was afraid he would take 
her life. Because of superstition he was afraid to go into a 
graveyard after dusk. The only place, therefore, that she was 
absolutely safe was in the cemetery, and many a night she slei)t 
in })eace on her first husband's grave. 

Assistant Attorney General of the United States. Frank R. 
Ilutchins, in writing of the early life, says: "The principal 
recreations for men were hunting, fishing and trapjiing. while 
for the women — well, poor souls, they didn't have any." 


Mr. M. K. Morse, of Poland, says he lias a feeling of sadness 
every tiiiic lie thinks of the women pioneers. His stepmother, 
ol Avhoni hv was very fond, was the hardest worker they had 
oil the i)lace. and when he tells what the men did each day this 
is a strong statement. His grandfather and his father were 
eiiergotie, resonrcefnl. enterjirising and diligent men. Mr. 
^Mor^e tells of their every-day table reaching clear across the 
room, twcnty-tixe iieo])le sitting down at the first table, while 
sometimes it was half filled the second time. The mother had 
lielp, of ('(nirsc. l)nt wjiat were two or three pairs of hands with 
one head, to manage such a ]iarty as this. He says they ate 
their lireakfast aliont four u'cl<ick and their supper late. Often 
the women were still at work at eleven o'clock at night. 

Anotlier gentleman, two years younger than Mr. Morse, in 
making a s])ee(h at a ]iioneer lennion, said he never remembered 
going to bed as long as he lived at home that his mother was 
not working, and no matter liow early he arose she was always 
at woi-k ahead of him. A dozen men's voices shout: Here! 
Hei'e ! Here! 

The first comers among women suffered cold, hunger and 
loneliness. Their followers had more comforts, but work was 
inei'ea^eil. Fj\'eii the third generation put in long, laborious 

( )ne auibitioiis woman Avho wanted to make a rag carpet and 
whose duties ke]it her liusy all day, used to rise at three o'clock 
and go (|uietly onto the porch, where she sewed an hour and a 
half liefoi-e the men of her family (she had no daughters) 
l)estirred themsi'lves. in the afternoon she again had about an 
hour and a half on tliice thiys in the week, and at this time in 
sunmier slu' sat in an entryway, but nearby she kept a camphor 
bottle which she was oliliged to smell now and then to keep 
herself awake. .\s she sewed great balls of cherry colored rags 
which weic to be strijied with darker red and black, she would 
say gently, "I must be getting old; I'm so sleepy." Eighteen 
liours of work and six hours of sleep day after day might have 
ex]ilaine(| it. .\s Hnished, the carpet was beautiful, and when 
the men ot the family walked thereon -^-ith muddy boots she 
would iijjhraid them. The husl)and Avould say, "Well, it beats 
things all hollow tlie way mother jaws about that carpet. A 
])erson might think it cost something." Cost something! 

.\)norig the early troubles of the housewife was the getting 
of the inateiial for bread-making. Mills were far distant; at 


first, iu Peuusylvania, then Youugstinvij, "Warreu and Cleveland. 
Many families utilized a hollowed stump with a long pole from 
which a stone was suspended for grinding corn and grain. The 
hand mills which came later required two hours' grinding to 
supialy one person with food for one day. Sometimes wheat 
would get wet, or was not properly harvested, and bread would 
run despite the greatest efforts of the liousewife. Baking 
powder was unknown, and sour milk and saleratus was used for 
light-breads ; the latter was made by the housewife herself from 
ashes. The bread was that known as "salt-rising" or "milk- 
rising," and required no hop yeast. Tliis would ferment too 
long and spoil, and the emptins would have to be made again. 
As cows became more numerous, the churning and cheese- 
making grew heavier. There was no ice in summer, and churn- 
ing would sometimes occupy half a day. Cheese was made in 
huge tubs or hollowed logs on the floor, and we wonder how 
women ever could stoop over and stir curd by the hour as they 
were obliged to do. They dried the wild berries, and later the 
apples, peaches and other fruits ; they rendered their lard, dried 
and corned their beef, put in pickle their pork, aud when winter 
closed down, after 1800, almost every cabin had provisions 
enough to keep the family from want, aud most of this had 
been prepared by the housewife. 

Bears were very plenty in this country up to 1815. After 
that their immbers lessened. They were i)robably the least 
ferocious of any of the wild animals here, and yet so long have 
we thought of bears as devouring i)eople that almost everybody 
who has ever written anything of Trumbull County has related 
bear stories in connection with the pioneer settler. These ani- 
mals loving berries aud honey, occasionally carried off pigs, but' 
as a rule ran away from men, women and children. Children 
were always afraid of them, but some women were not. ]\Iar- 
garet Cohen Walker, of Champion, seeing a bear near the house, 
chased it to a uearliy tree, when it jumped into the hollow. 
Quickly she returned to the house, got a shovel of coal, l)uilt a 
fire, aud burned both bear and tree. A woman in Braceville 
Avorking in her kitchen, was greatly startled l)y seeing a bear 
jump into her room and run under the bed. It was being chased 
liy some farmers from Nelson. 

The free use of liquor was more or less distasteful to all 
early women and to some men. We know of some early belles 
who deplored the fact that some men were so drunk at balls that 


tliey could not dance. In isolated spots the women took a stand 
against whiskey and wine as early as 1805. A man, at the 
solicitation of his wife, determined to do away with whiskey 
at a barn raising. When the linsljand gave out the word, the 
men who were ready for work declared they would do nothing 
without liquor. The wife promised them coffee and an extra 
meal, but it was no use. The husband was just about to give in 
when the wife said: "Just as you like, gentlemen; you can go 
without whiskej' or we can go without the barn." They went 
away. A few days later part of them, with others, raised the 
building without whiskey, and consequently without a tight or 
accident. Wine was always served at weddings. The first 
women who refused it on those occasions were considered as 
insulting to the hostess, and they "were treated rather coldly 
by their convivial friends." Soon a few men realized how 
harmful the habit was becoming and i-e fused to serve it. One 
of these men was Mr. Morse, of Poland; another, Ephraim 
Brown, of Bloomfield; and Jas. Heaton, of Xiles. These men 
had to endure much harsh criticism. 

So the shacks of bark became the log hut ; the hut became 
the cabin, the cabin had two stories, and later was covered with 
clapboards and painted red or white. The chestnut stump was 
supplanted by open fire inside, the fireplace then had a crane, 
later came the brick oven, followed by the stove with the elevated 
oven, and then the range. The laundry was moved from the 
creek to the porch or the back room, and now the windmill pumps 
the water, and the windmill or electricity runs the washing ma- 
chine. The men went to the woods for meat, while now the meat 
man takes it to the most isolated farm in Trumbull County, while 
in the towns it is brought to your kitchen ready for the coals. 

Then, people after weary miles of travel camped alone in 
tlie wilderness, or at hamlets as the blowing of a horn heralded 
their a|)p]'oach the entire settlement turned out to welcome them, 
while now farmers can ride their bicycles over fine roads to near- 
by railway stations, go to the county seat and pay their taxes. 
sell a ci-o]! and lie back for dinner. Then women longed for a few 
hours (if visiting; now, they can have conversations over their 
own wire without having to exert themselves at all. And who 
knows how nutch of the prosperity of our time is due to these 
frugal, courageous forefathers and foremothers who sowed so 
carefullv? m 


Showing the old Democrat office and the homestead of Mrs. Charlotte 

Smith. This from a painting by Richard Rawdon, and now 

owned by Miss Franc Potter. 


Early Settlers of AVarrex. — Quixby. — Storer. — McMahun. — 

Cost of Park. — Lane. — Case. — King. — Leavitt. — 

Families of These Men. — Adgate. — Early 

Houses. — County Without Law. — 

Formation of County'. 

"We have seeu how, in the two years following the aiipear- 
anee of the surveyors, people eame into the Western Reserve 
making homes and really blazing the way for the army which 
afterwards was to follow in s(|iiads, companies, and liattalious. 
We can no longer follow ])ersonally these settlers, but mnstibe- 
giu to take iij) the coimnnnities, the einbiyo towns. 

The settlements in the northern part of the region did not 
grow very fast. Although i)ioueers were at Youngstown and 
Cleveland early and about the same time, tlie latter did not grow 
at all and the former grew slowly. In 18tll Warren was )iy far 
the largest settlement on the Reserve. We will therefore take up 
its story. 

In 1798 Ephraim (^tuinby (his grandson, George (j)uinliy, 
now resides in Warren) and Richard Storer, residents of Wash- 
ington county, Pennsylvania, having heard of the new terri- 
tory opened up to purchasers, came on horseback to "have a 
look." It was fall, the creeks were swollen, and the trip a iiard 
one. They speak of Yellow Creek in Poland, the woods beyond 
Salt Springs, more dense Avoods, and then numlier 4. As we have 
seen, people had been at Salt Springs, traders had i)asscd back 
and forth through number 4, Indians had cleared spots of land 
there, but no white settlers were yet established. A hale old feb 
low of about sixty years, known as old Merriman. lived in close 
com])anionship with the Indians, but he was in no sense a resi- 
dent. James McMahon was a "s(|uatter." He liad a wife, two 
or three children, and Ji-ved in a sort of a shack wliicli stood 
where the Second National Bank now stands. Pearly settlers do 



uot seem to have respected him very highly. As related in the 
last chapter, John Yoimg had built a cabin back of the present 
\\'anamaker residence at the south end of the present Main 
street bridge, and here Quiubj' and Storer took up their resi- 
dence. They were not the tirst to occupy this place when Mr. 
Young was absent. Men who were trading with the Indians and 
the whites at Detroit, planned to stay all night, or several nights 
in this building, going and coming from Pittsburg. There were 
several clearings here then, one covering about twenty acres 
Avhere the lower i^art of the present "Flats" is, and some sixty 
acres on the laud so long known as the Fusselman fami. Al- 
though this Avas uot a very pleasant part of the year the two men 
seemed to be well satisfied and each decided on the purchase of 
property. Mr. Quiuljy selected 441 acres of land in Lots 28 and 
35. This really included a goodly part of what is now Warren, 
running south aud west. For this he ]iaid $3.69 per acre, so that 
our present court-house yard cost him about $16.00. j\Ir. Quinby 
and Mr. Storer went home for the winter, aud returned about the 
middle of April, 1799. This is the real date of the settlement of 
A^'arreu. Aside from ^Ir. Quinl)y and Mr. Storer, AVilliam Fen- 
ton, wife aud child, Francis Carlton and his children, John, Will- 
iam, Margaret and Peter, came with them. We presume Mrs. 
Carlton accomi^anied Francis, since it is not at all likely that he 
would bring his children into the wilderness without a mother. 
Her name is not mentioned. William Fenton and his family 
lived in the cabin where McjMahon had lived, the latter moving 
into the southwest corner of Howlaud. As no streets were laid 
out, as the whole level of the land has been changed, it is not 
absolutely certain whether this cabin stood where the Second 
National Bank now stauds, or on the river bank back of the 
present Byard & Voit store. .Vt any rate, it is not far distant 
from either. AVherever it stood, it was the first building erected 
in wliat is now the business portion of the town. Mr. Storer put 
Ti]) a cabin on the old Fusselman ground, and Mr. Quinby erected 
a log building about where the ]\Iaiu Street Erie Station stands. 
This dwelling had two rooms, bedroom and kitchen. A third 
room was raised during this first summer but it was not fur- 
nished mitil the next year and was used as a jail. 

Ephraim Quinby was boru in New Jersey in 1766; married 
Ammi Blackmore of Brownsville in 1795 ; settled in Washington 
county and founded Warren in 1799 as above stated. He was 
a man of great integrity, interested in the prosperity of the new 

Showing old engine house and site where city hall now stands. 


country and oonueeted with all of the early history of Warren. 
That this fonnder and liliilanthropist should have been forgot- 
ten by the descendants of his companions is almost inexcusable. 
He gave land upon which the court liouse stands, upon which 
the first jail and the first city buihbng were built, the whole tract 
that skirts the river fi'om tlic west side of tlu' Market Street 
Inidge to tlie (L)uinby homestead hnid, and yet not one monu- 
ment, park, bronze tablet, or street, except a small, unimportant 
one, liears his name. The ])resent Tod avenue ran through his 
farm and should have been called Quinby street. Home time 
ago an effort was made t(t change Parkman street to Quinby. 
People residing on that street objected. They were new peo])le 
and had not been taught by the press and the older citizens who 
Mr. Quiu1)y was or how iinicli tlieii- town Avas indelited to him. 
For many years the land west of the river, in the neighborhood 
of West ^larket street, was known as Quinby Hill, but even 
that term has been ol)literate(l ))y "the West Side." It would 
seem exceedingly a]ipropriate to call the land lietween the river 
and Main street, upon which the city hall and the monument 
stand, Quinby Park. 

After Mr. Quinby took up his residence in Warren he had 
eight children, E]iza))etli, William, Mary G., James, Warren, 
Ephraim, Charles A. and George. Ammi Quinl)y died in 1833. 
Nancy, the oldest daughter, married Joseph Larwell, of Wooster, 
and lived to be more than a hnndr('(l years old. Mary married 
^Ir. Spellman and lived at Wooster. She was the second child 
born in Warren township. Elizabeth, who married Dr. Heaton, 
lived and died in AVarren. William was recorder of Trumbull 
County and a merchant; lived all his life in Warren, .lames 
was a merchant, and lived in New Lisbon. George lived in Woos- 
ter and acquired a great fortune. Warren and Samuel lived 
in Warren, as did also Charles. Ei)liraim Quinby was not only 
a real estate dealer and a farmer, but an associate judge. He 
w^as one of the original stockholders in the Western Eeserve 
Bank. He and his family were memliers of the early Baptist 
cliurch, and but for his intiuence and that of his family connec- 
tions this church might have gone out of existence. 

Ephraim Quinby's children and his grandchildren mar- 
ried into some of the oldest families in the coimty, and he 
lias today a large number of collateral descendants. I lis 
son Samuel was a very ])ros]ierous man and occupied the 
same jilace in the communit>' as liis father had befort^ 

76 HISTORY OF Tr>r:\iBrLL corxTY 

him. He was a member of several of the early Inisiness 
houses, was publisher of the Tiunq) of Fame, was the receiver 
of monies derived fiMn;tlie sale of public lands, and when the 
land office for this di.trict ^^iis at Wooster, Ohio, he lived there, 
lie returned to AVarren in 1840. He was secretary and 
treasurer of the Ohio and Pennsylvania Canal and was director 
of the Western Eeserve Bank in 1817. He was always interested 
in politics, was state senator in '44 and '45 and again in '62 and 
'63. In 1819 he married Lucy Potter of Steubenville, Ohio. He 
had two daughters. Elizabeth (who married William Stiles, Lucy 
Stiles Cobb being her daughter, and Elizabeth Cobb, her grand- 
daughter) and Abagail Haymaker, who is still living in Wooster. 
Mrs. Lucy Quinby died and ]\h'. Quinby in 1847 married Emma 
Bennett Brown, a widow, and a sister of Mrs. C. W. Tyler, wlio 
was the widow of Calvin Sutliff, and Mrs. Emily Bennett 

George H. Quinby was a son by the second marriage and 
has lived all his life in Warren, and until within a few years 
in tb.e old Quinby home. 

The mother of Ephraim (|)uiiiby was Miss Ritteuhouse. 
Her people built and oi)erated the first printing press west of 
the Alleghany mountains. They made telescopes, light-houses, 
etc. She was interred in the Oakwood cemetery among the first 
who were laid away there. 

The second party to come to Warren was also from Wash- 
ington county. It consisted of Henry Lane Sr., two of his 
grandchildren, the children of Benjamin (Benjamin Lane and 
Lina Lane Greiner live in Warren now), John Lane. Edward 
Jones, ste])son of John Lane, and Meshack Case (the blisses 
Mary and Harriet Stevens, the grandaughters of Mr. Case, 
have resided in Warren all their lives). Of these two parties, 
Mr. <|)uinl)y, Mr. Lane and Air. Case, afterwards, by themselves 
and their descendants, figured prominently in the development 
of ^Varren. Henry Lane Sr., who died in 1844 at the age of 78, 
liought land in the lower part of town, a ]iortion of which has 
licen in the family ever since. The sou, John Laue, and Edward 
Jones, planted corn and lived in the Young cabin. Air. Case 
made no selection of land at this time. His decisions and those 
of his son and grandson were usually judicious and were not 
arrived at without careful thought. He returned to Washington 
county but came back again in August, when he bought 198 acres 
of Kicliard Storer. He cleared two acres of land and put up a 


cabin, went back to Wasliington county in September for his 

.Mr. Ebenezer King Jr., Mr. John Leavitt, and William 
Crooks and wife, all of Connecticut, the two former owning land 
in this new country, came during the summer of 1799. King and 
Leavitt made only a short stay. These were the first settlers 
from Connecticut. Crooks raised a cabin, made a clearing, in 
the western part of the present Warren township, and sowed 
wheat. This is supposed to have been the first wheat raised in 
the townshi}), probably within the present limits of Trumliull 
County. In the fall, Mr. Henry Lane Sr. brought with him his 
son, Benjamin, a boy of fourteen. On the horse which the lad 
rode were one hundred little apple trees, which were imme- 
diately set out. These bore apples for many years, and some 
are still standing, one in the yard of ]Mr. Charles Wanamaker on 
South Main street. Mr. Lane and both his sons went home for 
the winter. The Young cabin, which was now occupied more or 
less most of the time, was taken possession of in the fall by 
Edward Jones, whose wife had joined him. Up to this time all 
the settlers had been from Washington county, Pennsylvania. 
In September, Benjamin Davison (the great-grandfather of Mr. 
S. C. Iddings) of Huntingdon, Huntingdon county, Pennsyl- 
vania, bought land below the Fusselman farm next to Mr. Case. 
He ]iut u}) a cabin and went home when the weather became cold. 

Sometime during- this year, range number ■! began to be 
called Warren in honor of Closes Warren, the surveyor who ran 
the third range line. 

*^)uinby and Storer in- the autumn went to Washington 
county for their families and as soon as the ground was thor- 
oughly frozen, returned with them. During the last days of 
the yeai' of 1799 i)eople living in Warren were, Ephraim Quinby, 
his wife Aimni, children Nancy, Samuel and William (William 
six months old, rode with mother) ; Bichard Storer, his wife and 
three children; Francis Carolton, John, William, Margaret and 
Peter, his children; William Fenton, wife and two children; 
Edward Jones and wife; William Crooks and wife; Jonathan 
and Josiah Church. There were two or three workmen who are 
mentioned as "hands," but when counting all, there were not 
more than thirty people. Warren is situated so far east in the 
township that people on the west edge of Ilowland have l)een 
associated from the beginning with Warren people. In 1799 
,Tohn H. Adgate settled in the southwest corner of Howland 


township, and from that day to this some of his descendants 
have lived in that ueighl)orhood. His grandson John is asso- 
ciated with his son Frank in the greenhouse business. The 
early Adgates had large families and these descendants married 
into old families, so that there have been at times over fifty 
people living in Trumbull County who were connected with the 
early Adgate family. 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Jones bought land on the west side 
of the river where some of the Dallys lived for many years. 
Here was born the first child in the township, possibly in the 
county. Her name was Hannah, and her grandmother was Mrs. 
Henry Lane, who was a widow when Mr. Lane married her. 
Some writers say that a son of Mr. Jones was the first white 
child born in this territory, but this is an error. Hannah mar- 
ried William Dutchin and died early, 1820. 

In the springtime of 1800 came Henry Lane Sr., his wife, 
and their children, John, Benjamin, Asa, Catharine, Annie, and 
Henry Jr., who was one of the older of the children and who 
was married. At this time came also Charles Dally, Jennie, his 
wife, and several children; Isaac Dally, Effie, his wife, and sev- 
eral children; John Dally, wife and child; Meshack Case, Mag- 
dalen, his wife, Elizabeth; Leonard, Catherine, Mary, Sarah. 

Henry Lane was a remarkable man for his time. He had 
the respect of his associates, was elected to the legislature, and 
materially aided in the development of "Warren. He was 
a man of remarkable physical strength. It was said 
he could whip any man in the county, and that whenever 
anybody got a little too full of whiskey and offered to 
"clean out" the crowd, he always excluded Henry Lane. 
He was present at the Salt Springs tragedy but took no 
part in it. Un several occasions when the Indians were dis- 
turl)ing-, he was in the party resenting the attack. At one time 
he had been after the Indians and learning that they were in 
a very bad mood, he returned to his house (which was nearer 
to the Salt Spring trail than those of some other settlers) to 
look after his family. Gathering them together the wife remem- 
bered that one of the children had been in the garden. She 
therefore ran, found her asleep, picked her up, and they all pro- 
ceeded. A little way from the house was a cornfield, and here 
the family hid, and when they came to realize it one of the little 
girls was missing. The mother felt sure that she too was in the 
garden, so the father left the family in the field and went back 


for the little giil. Sure enough she had been sleeping in the 
garden, but the Indians, as soon as .Mr. and Mrs. Lane were out 
of reaeh, had scalped her. It does not seem possible to us of 
today, as we drive on the old state road over the shallow .Mahon- 
ing, that the time ever was when a gentle little girl, in la-r 
father's garden on the Itank of that river, could have lost her 
life at the hands of a red man with his tomahawk. ]\[r. Lane 
had to leave the body lying there in order to protect his family 
and, huddling them together, he bid them march to the fort 
(just where this was the writer does not know nor do the mem- 
bers of the family who tell this tale) l)etween two and three 
miles distant while he. Avith his gun in Jiand. walked backwards 
in order to keep his fyc on the enemy which was following. 
However, no harm came to the rest of the party. 

Of Henry Lane's children. Henry was connected with the 
early business life of Warren. Facts in regard to him will be 
found in the chapter on old homes. 

Asa returned to Pennsylvania in 182U and died there. 

Catharine married John Tait of Lordstown; Annie mar- 
ried Samuel Phillips of AiTstintown. John married Mary Cald- 
well of Mansfield, jiving there a short time and coming back to 
Weathersfield where he engaged in farming. He spent the last 
days in Warren. 

Benjamin, Avho came on horseback l)earing the apple trees, 
was not married until he was tifty-six. that is, in 18-H. His wife 
was Hannah Cook, an English woman. They had three children, 
Henry J., who lived on the old farm, was always interested in 
family traditions and now lives in Kansas ; Benjamin F., who 
married Mary Ackley of Bloomfield and has three daughters 
and a son; and Lina, who married Samuel Greiner and resides 
on Thorn street, this city. She has no children. Mrs. Lane died 
when Lina was a baby and Miss Tait, of Lordstown, gave her 
a mother's attention and a mother's love. 

]\Ir. Lane built an addition to the Young cabin. This was 
standing within the remembrance of jieople born as late as 1850. 

As the family of Meshack Case preserve their records, 
writers of the history of Trumbull County, from the beginning, 
have lieen able to quote from the mauuscrii^t of Leonard Case 
as follows : 

"The usual incidents attended the trip until crossing 
the south line of the Eeserve, at 41st north latitude. From 


there to Yellow Creek, in Poland, was a very muddy road, 
called the sv.amp. At Poland the settlement had been begun. 
Judge Turhand Kirtland and family were living on the 
east side, and Jonathan Fowler and his wife, who was a 
sister of the judge, kept tavern on the west side. Thence 
our way was through the woods to the dwelling of a family 
named Stevens, who had been there three years or more. 
At their house we stayed over night. The wife's name was 
Hannah, and with her our family had been previously ac- 
(piainted. She said that during those two years she had not 
seen the face of a white woman. Two children had been 
born in this family at the crossing of the river near 
Youugstown, before Ai^ril, 1800. Next morning we passed 
up the west side of the river (for want of means to cross it) 
to the place where James Hillman, who lived on the high 
ground over against Youngstown ; thence through the woods 
over the road made by the Connecticut Land Company, to 
the Salt Springs. At that place some settlers, Joseph Mc- 
Mahon among the rest, were engaged in making salt. From 
there we passed (through woods) to the cabin and clearing 
which Benjamin Davison had made on the north one-half 
of Lot 42 ; then on, one cjuarter of a mile, to a path that 
turned east to the Fusselman place, on the south one-half 
of Lot 35, and thence to the residence of Richard Storer. 
arriving there at -t :00 \). m. on the 14tli of April. After our 
])assage through the woods and mud, the leeks on the Indian 
field made a most beautiful appearance." 

The Case family was of Holland extraction, mixed with 
Irish blood. Of the family, Elizabeth married James Ellis, 
removed to Kentucky and when a widow returned here, where 
she passed the rest of her days. Catherine married Daniel Kerr 
of Painesville, where they were identiiied with the early history 
of that town. ]\fary married Benjamin Stevens, spent her whole 
life in Warren, was a teacher, a musician, an excellent mother 
and citizen. Sarah married Cyrus Bosworth and spent all her 
life in AYarrcn near the spot which her father chose for the 
family home. Jane died in childhood; Zophar resided in Cleve- 
land; Leonard was the best known of the family, probably be- 
cause of a misfortune which overtook him shortly after he came 
to Trumbull County. It was indeed a misfortime, because 
a1 that time it was a great thing for men to be able to perform 

(The original is tlie property ot Mr. Otting.) 




The "banking house" was that of Freeman and Hunt. 


hard physical labor. Leonard Case was lame aud soon made 
up hi« mind that if he was going to take a place in the world 
he would have to make unusual effort. He became a clerk in 
the land office, was associated with General Simon Perkins as 
clerk, read and studied constantly, prepared himself for survey- 
ing. The work which he did was so exact that John S. Edwards, 
the first county recorder, induced him to study law. This he 
did in addition to his I'egular work. He soon acquired a great 
deal of knowledge concerning the Connecticut Land Company, 
the Western Reserve, aud when he became collector of taxes of 
non-residents he added to his knowledge. In 181G when the 
Conmiercial Bank of Lake Erie was formed, Mr. Case was 
elected cashier. James Kingsbury, of whom we read in the 
first chapters of this history, recommended ^Ir. Case to this 
position because he wrote a good hand and was a good account- 
ant. Cleveland was then a small town and this did not occupy 
all his attention. He never was a trial lawyer, but he used his 
knowledge in adjusting business differences, particularly as to 
land, was frugal, and liought land so that at his death he was 
one of the rich men of Cleveland. He was at one time mayor 
of Cleveland, aud later an alderman. In 1820 the bank failed, 
but was afterwards reorganized and Leonard Case was its presi- 
dent. Among the first frame warehouses tliat were put up on 
the river front was one erected l)y Mr. Case. He had two sons, 
William, who was a student and somewhat of a rechise. and 
who died without marrying, and Leonard Jr., who iuherited the 
property of his father and displayed such business qualities as 
to add largely to it. He was a genial man, popular with a few 
friends and left a large amount of money to his relatives, besides 
endowing the Case School of Applied Sciences, Case Library, 
and contributing generously to philanthropic work in Cleveland. 
He never lived in Warren and is therefore not identified with 
Trumbull County history except through family connections. 

In the spring of 1800 Benjamin Davison, with his wife 
Annie, and a large family, settled in Warren. The names of 
these children were George Liberty, Mary, Prudence, Ann. Sam- 
uel, AYilliam, Walter, James, Betsey, Benjamin. Mary, the 
eldest daughter, married Samuel Chesney aud they liave three 
grandchildren and two great-graudchildren now living in 

About the same time John Leavitt. Avith his family settled 
in Warren, building a house on the west side of Main street. 


■wliioh afterwards was a tavern. One of his daughters Ijeeaiue 
Mrs. Robert Irwiu, an early Warren merchant, and another mar- 
ried Wlieeler Lewis. Humphrey, afterwards a lawyer, located 
in Steubeuville, and later became United States district judge. 
Albert, the youngest, lived in Warren, while John, the second 
son, in 1805, bought a farm about the center of Warren town- 
ship. He was known as "squire John," and was one of the 
early county treasurers. He died in 1815. Samuel Leavitt, 
who was the second of his generation to settle in Warren, came 
here to investigate in 1800, and purchased land near the farm 
of his nephew, John, Jr. Two years later Samuel In-ought 
his wife, who had been a widow, Abigail Kent Austin. The 
Leavitt family, the Austin family, the Parsons family and the 
Freeman family were connected through this marriage. ]\[r. 
and Mrs. Samuel Leavitt had one child, Lynda, who married 
Judge Francis Freeman. Their son, Samuel, who was long- a 
banker and business man in Warren, took his second name, 
Leavitt, from his mother. The wife of Samuel Leavitt died in 
1817, and he married Margaret Kibbee Parsons, the widowed 
mother of George Parsons Sr. Samuel Leavitt died in 1830, 
his first wife in 1816, and his second wife in 1861. 

On the Leavitt farm was the first race track in Truml)ull 
County. It was on the south side of the road opposite the pres- 
ent home of Nellie Austin Pendleton. The grandstand stood at 
the head of the Lovers Lane road and the judges could see 
down that lane for a long way. A great deal of rare sport was 
had on this course, Messrs. Llarmon, Leavitt and Collins being 
the most interested. The building of the canal spoiled this 
course. The judge's stand was left standing, and decaying 
dropped to pieces little by little. Many of the residents of 
Warren rememlier the lower part of this building in its last 
stages, not knowing what it was. Later, race tracks were located 
in other parts of the county, but the races were for trotting 
horses, and not for running. These tracks were a good way 
from town, and after a while the I'acing was done on Mahoning 
avenue. The horses started at a jjoint in the neighborhood of 
the old toll gate and stoi)ped about where the city hall now 
stands. This was a mile accurately measured. Because of the 
l)end in Mahoning ^Vvenue in front of the present Fitch pi'operty 
it was necessary to station a man there so that the time keeper 
at the lower end could know when the start was made. When, 
therefore, the flag was dro|)ped at the start, the man at the bend 

diopped a Hag also, and the timer at tin- rity hall tliiis knew the 
race was on. The first horse making a mile in three miimti'^ was 
one owned by Mi-. Cdllins. and the race took ]ilaee on tlii- trark. 
Tlie enlistment of the \; men in the army of tSC.O piit .-in end 
to these sports. After a time the Aiiiiiailtnral Socidy h.-id a 
track iu connection with the fairs. 

Enoch Leavitt was the third of the Leavitt.s whc liniu-lit 
his famil>- to Ohio, and he settle(l in Li'avittshui-g. lie was 
hiiried there iu 1815, and Enoch Leax'itt dr. was a s^ll^tantial 
citizen of Trmnbnll Connty. lie aeemnnlated ahout a thou- 
sand acres of land in Warren township, lie had six childi'eii 
and died when only lift>-two years old. 

In order to keep the information in reiiard to theM' early 
families clear, we mention here Henajah Anstin, who was the 
sou of .Vl)igail Kent Austin iiefore liei' marriage "t<i Sanuiel 
Leavitt, and a half hrother to Mrs. .Indge Francis Freeman. 
He married Olive Harmon, and after living in the neiiihliorhodd 
of Leavitt-^lmrg he mo\'ed into the house now occupied hy .M i->. 
Nellie Anstin Pendleton. r>enajali Austin was identified 
witli nmcli of the earl>- history of Truml)nll County. 
Twelve years he was commissioner. He was deputy sheriff 
one year, and sheriff two years. He had six children. 
Hiram, who died at ('harden, .lulius, who lived iu I'.race- 
ville. Faios. who lived at ^'ouu^stown, Amelia, who mar- 
ried S. .\. Fotter. I'x'ua.Jah, and iraruum. I'.eua.iah was 
one of the early doctor,-, hut practicecj (udy a little time hecause 
of ill health. Harmon was the must widelx^ known of all the 
family, lie wa^ horn at the old liomotead in 1^17. Ii\-ed there 
until lS7n. moved to Warren, where he died a few year~ ano. 
He married .Miner\'a Sackett (January il. 1S42). lie was intei-- 
e.-ite<l iu politics, in the welfare oi' the comnuniit>'. a leader iu 
the Disciple church, a ]irosperous husiness man. and proliahl>- 
at his home liave been entertained more public \isit(Us than al 
any house iu town save the Kinsman homestead. .Mrs. Austin 
Avas a beautiful character. She had the love aud re>pect of 
evei'>'one who knew hei-. Her children and intimate fiieuds 
adored her. She was courageous, conscientious, and capahh'. 
She had three children, Nellie, Harmou, aud Mary. The two 
younger live iu Cleveland, aud Nellie, Avith her husbaml. A\'. C. 
Pendleton, her sou Austin with his wife and children, now occupy 
the house built by Benajah and lately remodeled. 

Phiueas Letifingwell and his familv, who came to Warren 


in 18(1(1. were identified with the early history. There are, how- 
ever, none of his descendants here at this writing. 

The taxjiayers of Warren for the year 1804: were: 

Jolni Adgate ^leunaga, Calvin Austin, Samuel 

Burnett, Cornelius Barker, Jesse Powell, Joshua Brown, 
Steven Baldwin, Noah Broekway, "William Crooks, Robert 
Caldwell, Jonathan Crurch, Meshack Case, William Haniday, 
Toiiher Carnes, Charles Dailey, James Deimscumb, Isaac 
Dailey. Samuel Donalds, Nathan Dunn, Benjamin Davis, 
Jacob Earle, John Ewalt, Jessie Ellis, John Earle, William 
Fenton, Robert Freeman, James Grimes, William Gal- 
breath, William Hand, Henry Harsh, Reuben Harmon, 
Ezekial Hover, James Eaton, Jesse Holiday, Thomas Jef- 
ferson, John Kinney, George Loveless, Asa Lane, Henry 
Lane Sr., Henry Lane, Samuel Leavitt, Enoch Leavitt Sr., 
John Leavitt, Esq., Phencia Leffingwell, Asehel Mills, 
Delaun Mills, Isaac Mills, William Morman, William Mc- 
Williams, George McGat, William Netterfield, Joshua Ott, 
George Plielphs, Samuel Pew, Thomas Pricer, Ephraim 
and Samuel Quiuby, Joshua Quigley, John Reeves, James 
Stanford, B. Stowe, Nathaniel Stanley, William Vance, 
James Ward, Mr, Wetherby, Benjamin Williams. L^rial 
Williams, James Wilson, Francis Windall, Simon Perkins, 
John S. Edwards, David Robertson, Robert Irwin, Thomas 
Ross, Henry Wright, Samuel Cliesney, James Scott, Francis 
Carlton, Walter Brewster, Ebenezer Sheldon. Eiahraim 
Quinby's tax was the heaviest, $7.40; Walter Brewster's the 
lightest, 7 cents. 

From the time the first tract of land was l)ought l>y Parsons 
to 1800, a most unusual condition had existed in Old Trumbull 
County. In the beginning it belonged to Connecticut and Con- 
necticut had jurisdiction over it. After a time Connecticut sold 
it to a com]ia)iy, but naturally as that company was not a govern- 
ment, it conld not transfer its legal jurisdiction. The United 
States was asked to assume this jurisdiction, but it refused for 
ol)vious reasons. So, for nearly five years the people of Old 
Trunil)ull County were without law, or law-makers. This fact 
was not so strange as was the fact that the settlers proceedecT 
in exactly the same way they would have done had they had 
law. They bdught land, made contracts, got married, and col- 


lected mouies due them, -nitliout an\- sort of otfiL-er to autliorize 
the proceedings. Unee a tax collector came into this region, Init 
he was laughed at and advised to leave, which he gladly did. 
The governor of the state had erected several counties including 
portions of the Western Keserve, but he was not considered to 
have authority in the matter. So much irregularity and uncer- 
tainty had there been that finally, in April, 180U, the United 
States released all its claim to the laud of the Western Keserve, 
provided Connecticut would release all her claim of jurisdiction. 
The matter was finally settled on the 30th of May, IHOO. The 
niceties of the law question contained in this early history are 
apparent, and all lovers of law would do well to examine them. 
It is a temptation to note them here. 

On July 10, 1800, the whole tract of the Western Reserve 
was erected into a county, named Triunbnll for the governor of 
Connecticut. The Trumbull family was a noted one. Jonathan 
Trumbull was governor of Connecticut for fourteen years, Ijegin- 
ning 1769. It was from him that the term "brother Jonathan" 
was received. Benjamin Trumbull was a minister of reputation 
and published a History of Connecticut which was not onlv valu- 
able as to facts, but to style as well; John Trumbull was a poet, 
while another John Trumbull was a painter of good repute, liis 
most important works being those in the rotunda of the capitol 
at Washington. It was the Itrother of this painter, (niv. .Jona- 
than Trumbull Jr., for wIkhu the citizens of Xew Connecticut 
named the county. 

At the time of the erection of Trumbull County. Judge 
Samuel H. Parsons, Judge James M. Varnum, and Judge John 
Cleves SATumes were the judges, and these men, together with 
the governor, St. Clair, and the secretary, Winthrop Sargent, 
decided upon Warren as the county seat, and the governor ap- 
pointed the necessary officials. The selection of Warren was not 
made for any other reason than those which prevail in like selec- 
tions today, namely, that more men of influence lived in Warren 
tlian in Youngstown. Judge Young, to be sure, was a stroug 
character, but in things so large as great politics lie stood alone. 
John lieavitt, Ebenezer King, Judge Calvin Pease, and some 
otliers, who had land interests in the vicinity of Warren, were 
not only men of strength, but they came from Snffield, Connecti- 
cut, the home of Hon. Gideon Granger, then postmaster general 
of the LTnited States. The same soi't of strings were ]nilled in 
those days as now, and because of the help of Gideon Granger 


at this time and because of his family relation (he was a brother- 
in-law of Calvin Pease), the people of Trumbull county, in the 
vicinity of Warren, have always thankfully remembered him. 
There were no telegraphs, no regular mails, and Triunbnll 
County had been esta])lished some days before the people knew 
the fact, or AVai'ren ]ieo]ile knew that they were living at the 
count)' seat. 

John Stark Edwards, the tirst recorder of Trumbull, was 
one of the most brilliant men of that day. A sketch of hi.s life 
is given in Bench and Bar, since he was among- the most success- 
ful if not the most successful of the early attorneys. The fol- 
lowing refers to his domestic life and is given here, since the 
facts narrated occurred at this time. 

There has come into the possession of the writer a little 
book printed for ]n-ivate distribution only — "A Sketch of the 
Life of Louisa ]\Iaria Montgomery," by her granddaughter, 
Louisa Maria Edwards. It contains letters from the family of 
John S. Edwards, some of his own letters, letters of his wife 
and her family, and is one of the most entertaining and interest- 
ing volumes we have ever read. Mrs. Edwards spent a lifetime 
and a long one at that in the Mahoning Valley, was a woman 
of very strong character, and her association with ]\[rs. Perkins, 
Mrs. Tod, ]\Irs. Kinsman and other valiant pioneers showed how 
well she Avas thought of in the community. It seems after John 
Stark Edwards had spent the summer in Mesopotamia, cutting 
down a few trees "to let the sun in," he returned to Connecticut 
for the winter. In 1800, as Ave have seen, he was coimnissioned 
recorder of Trmubull County, holding the office until 1830. 

On June 1, 1801, "Avhile Avritiug this I am seated in a 
log house on an old bench and beside of a white oak table, 
all. fortunately, clean. * * * j foimd my settlement in 
a prosperous condition. Another year it will be able to sup- 
]iort itself." 

August, 1801. "[My settlement is doing finely. We have 
this day had a lecture, delivered by a clergvinan. There 
were about forty present." This is the first record we 
have of a lecture on the Western Beserve. 

July 7, 1802, "I have a large cross-leg table and chairs 
enough for all the family to sit on and one for a stranger 
Avho chances to visit me. We cook, eat, and drink in the same 


apartment. Food tastes as -well, and sleep is as sweet, in a 
log as in a frame house." 

July 1-4, 1803. "1 was in Warren on the 4th of July 
where I attended a ball. You may judge of my surprise at 
meeting- a very considerable company, all of whom were well 
dressed ■\\'ith neatness and in fashion, some of them ele- 
gantly. The ladies generally dressed well; some of then^ 
would have Iieen admired for their ease and grace in a New 
Haven ball room. It was held on the same spot of ground 
where four years since there was scarcely a trace of human 
hand, or anything within fifteen miles of it. We improved 
well the occasion; began at two o'clock in the afternoon on 
Monday and left the room a little before sunrise on Tues- 
day morning. We dance but seldom, which is our apology." 

"1 am heartily tired of living alone. I must and am 
determined T will be married. Things are likely to take 
such a course as will give us a tolera])le society in this place, 
where I must eventually settle down. ' ' 

"I am heartily tired of living alone and am determined 
to marry as soon as I can find a woman who will have me 
that will answer." Editor's Note. — Mr. Edwards seemed 
to be an exception to the men of his time, and in fact to 
some men of tliis time, since they are more apt to say, "I 
am heartily tired of living alone and am detennined to 
marry as soon as I can find a woman that suits me." 

His brother in writing to him in 1802 says, "The resolu- 
tion wluch you liave entered into to take a wife I highly ap- 
]:>rove. but I fear yoii Avill find it difficult to suit yourself. I 
cannot say that I know a girl whom I should seriously wish 
you to connect yourself with. There are hundreds and thou- 
sands of pretty, smirk-faced girls to be found, but they are 
far from being calculated to make you happy. Men of less 
refined notions who would not be shocked at trifling varia- 
tions from the extreme delicacy and high sense of dig-nity 
which appertain to a fine woman of character might rendei' 
themselves happy by such connection. But your ideas of 
women are such that would lead you to wish for a wife who 
would not only amuse or please you but who would make a 
dignified and highly enchanting companion." 

This portion of the letter is rpioted here to show how stilted 
was the style of letter-writing more than a hundred years ago, 


as well as bow useless is the advice of brother or family in love 
affairs. It seems tbis same brotber was looking for someone 
suitable for a wife in tbis wilderness, and bis descriptions of 
the different women be analyzes are very amusing. From the 
letters we judge that the family at home were really wishing to 
find just the proper person for their brotber, and there are long 
descriptions of the young women of that vicinity, most of them 
spoken of in the highest terms, but John Stark seems to stay in 
his Mesopotamia home. Finally, in desperation, his sister Hen- 
rietta writes, "I advise you, my dear bi'otber, to get you a wife 
where you are, for there is hardly anybody left here worth 
having." Again the family advice was not good. Mr. Edwards 
and Miss Morris were married on the 28tb of February, 1807. 
They went by stage to Philadelphia, then most of the way on 
horseback. Tlieir married life was happily spent, and people 
who saw them as they stopped at the "tavern" of Jared Firt- 
land said the}' never saw a handsomer couple. When they came 
to Warren they went to live with General and Mrs. Perkins until 
their own bouse was finished. Tbis bouse is now standing, is 
in good condition, and answers the description which Mr. Ed- 
wards wrote of it at the time. Upon Mr. Edwards' death it was 
purchased by Mr. Thomas D. Webb. (See chapter on old bouses.) 
In tbis house Mr. Edwards' three children were born, one onh' 
gi owing to manhood, Mr. William Edwards, the father of Louisa 
^Nlaria Edwards, a student of the early history of this country', 
lives in Youngstown. 

"Reading matter was scarce, and for want of lighter 
food, Mrs. Edwards perused her husband's law library, not 
a book here and there, but all it contained. She also assisted 
her husband in the Recorder's Office, and it is said the best 
written records of Trumbull County are by her pen." 

Miss Dwight visited Mrs. Edwards, probably in 1810, and 
married William Bell, then a Warren merchant. Winston 
Churchill, the author, is a great-grandson of tbis couple. 

In October, 1812, ^Ir. Edwards was elected to represent this 
district in Congress. The following January he started with 
Mr. George Parsons and Mr. William Bell for Put-in-Bay. 
whei'e he had business interests. They got as far as Sandusky 
when a thaw came on and they bad to return home. In fording 
the streams Mr. Edwards got wet, and became ver^' sick. They 
took refuge in a cabin, but the water was so high in all direc- 


tious that it was hardly safe for them to proceed. Mr. Bell left 
Air. Edwards with Mr. Parsons aud came into AVarren, and it 
was thought best to have Dr. Seely go to him. Airs, i^dwards 
was greatly distressed at the news brought her, but "commend- 
ing her little sleeping ones to their [Maker, she set fortii, hoping 
to nurse, comfort and restore her husband." They left Warren 
about eight o'clock. The night was dark, the floods had been 
excessive, the traveling bad, and many places dangerous. They, 
however, proceeded about nine miles. Setting out again before 
daybreak, tliey had got al)Out forty-five miles from Warren 
when they met tlie sleigh bearing the Ijody of Air. Kdwards. Air. 
Parsons alone was with him. Airs. Edwards wrote her sister. 
"We were then fourteen miles from a house, just before sun- 
down, in a snow storm, and we were oliliged to return that dis- 
tance to get even the shelter of a cabin. For hours after dark 
I followed that coffin. Aly dear sister, do >ou not wonder that 
I live to write you this?" Does not the reader wonder.' In 
fact, the hardest trials which the early pioneers had were those 
of sickness and death. Air. Edwards was buried in the old 
cemetery, still existing, on Alahoning avenue. Almost 
broken-hearted, Airs. Edwards found consolation in her 
i-eligiou and in the kindness demonstrated by her friends. 
She attempted to fill the place of both father aud 
mother to her children, and expected to return to New 
England, as her family wished hei' to do. The unsettled 
condition of the country made the settling of estates tedious, 
and before she really could get away, a year and a half, she 
married Air. Alontgomery, and spent the rest of her life in the 
neighborhood of YoungstoAni. Aliss Edwards, the granddaugh- 
ter, is authority for the followiiig, and no man or woman was 
ever more truthful than is she. In writing of her grandfather's 
death, she says: "He died .lanuary lii), 1813. His sisters, jNIrs. 
Johnson, whose home was at Stratford, Connecticut, and Hen- 
rietta Edwards, who was either at New Ilaven or Bridgeport, 
both dreamed that their brother was dead, one of them that liis 
death was caused by drowning. ]Mrs. Johnson was so frightened 
by her dream that slu' waked her husband to tell him. Then 
fell asleep and had the same dream again. The next word re- 
ceived from Ohio was of his death. The dream of each sister, it 
was found, occurred at the time of his death, though whethei' 
the night before or the night after cannot now be rememliered 
with certainty." 


First Court House. — Ukiginal Subsckiption List for Same. — 

Brick Pond. — Second Court House. — Sale of First 

Court House. — Court Crier. — First Jail is 

Warren. — Second Jail. — Debtors' Room. 

— Third Jail. — Fourth J.ul. — 

Coi^NTY Seat War. 

The facts in regard to the tirst court aud couuty otficers are 
given in the chapter on Bench and Bar. The first court of 
quarter sessions was lield between two corn cribs near the 
(LUiinby 2)lace (site of Erie depot). James Scott built a log 
house which stood on tlie corner of Malioning avenue and High 
street, and wlien finished, in 1805, it Avas used as a court house. 
Later, court was held in the third Hoor of a house built by Will- 
iam W. Cotgreave. and famiJiai-ly kun-wn at that time as "Castle 
William. ' ' 

We are fortunate in l)eiug able to publish for the first time 
the subscription list to the first court house built in TinunbuU 
County. The original paper is yellow and in some places not 
([uite legible. The OAvner prizes it highly and has it between 
two pieces of glass boiuid Avitli .cloth so that bntli sides can be 
seen. It is as follows : 

We. the subscribers, do each one severally for himself 
promise to pay to Bicliard Hayes, Eli Baldwin and William 
McCombs. commissioners of tlie County of Trumbull, aud 
their successors in said office, or to their order, the sums 
respectively annexed to our names to be appropriated to the 
erection oi' a court house in Warren for the use of the 
County of Trnmliull, to be paid one-third when the founda- 
tion of the building is laid, one-third when the walls are up, 
and the remainiug third wlien the building is completed, 
provided the walls of said court house shall be of brick. 

AVarren, August 25. 3809. 

irisToHY OF 'j'i;r.Mi;uj.L county 


Enoch Leavitt Jr. [ ?J .$5.00 

Pliiueha LefHng-Avell 5.00 

Ezekal Hawn \t]... 20.00 

William Anderson . 10.00 

Sanuu4 Leavitt.. . . 10.00 

(Mntilated) 5.00 

Seynionr .Vnstin . . . 26.00 

James Heed 5.00 

James ( )rr 5.00 

Adamson Bent ley. . I'li.OO 

*Samnel Pew 5.00 

■*Wm. Woodrow 6.00 

Thos. Costley 5.00 

Leonard C'rouinger. 4.00 

Abram Lane, Jr .... 3.00 

Asa Lane .'i.OO 

John l)rai)er 6.<J0 


Isaac Baldwin [.'] . . . 3.00 

Christ()])her Cook. . 2.0(1 
John S. Kidwards tV' 
('ai\'in Pease for 

* Simon Perkins. . . 200.00 
Thomas A. Tyler [?] 20(10 

.Vhrahani Lever. . . . 5.00 

James F. 2.00 


Jeremiah Brooks ))y 

Z. Weatherbee '. 60.00 

B. P. Harmon 5.00 

William :\rorrow. . . 20.00 

*Ben.i 'n Lane 25.00 

*.Tohn Ewalt 5.00 

and one bai'i'el of ])ork 

*(~)liver Brooks 10.00 

W. Bell (paid).... 27.00 

'James Heaton 

two hnndi-ed lbs. of Iron 
Noah Broekway. . . . 18.00 
Ebenezer Benedict . 5.00 

*E. Quinby $200.00 

Zebina Weatherbee. 100.00 

■('alvin Pease 100.00 

'(Jeorge Parsons.... 50,00 
William Andrews.. 50.00 

* James Scott 50.00 

Renben S. Clark. . . . 4S.75 
John Leavitt & Son. 1 ()().()( i 

Ashbel King 40.00 

Wm. W. itorrison. . 20.00 
Alexander (Irani [ ?] 5.00 

David Bell 50.00 

James (,)nigley 30.00 

John S. Edward 100.00 

Elisha Bnruett 30.00 

Koyal Pease 100.00 

Lemnel Reeves 20.00 

}»rark Westcoat 5.00 

Francis Freeman.. 20.00 

TIenry Lane 30.00 

Samuel Bacon 30.00 

Isaac Fithian [?| . . . 50.00 
William JTall...... 12.00 

Charles Dailey 20.00 

Jose])h Reeves 10.00 

*Sam'l Chesney 10.00 


James Harsli. . . , 

Moses Carl 

*Leonard Case. . . 
Robert Freeman. 
Rnliili Freeman. . 

AVe, the snbscril)ers do hereby assign over to James 
Scott of "Warren in the County of Trumbull, the within 
subscription and we do hereby engage to and with the said 

'" Have (lesc-eTidants now liviuo; in Trninlwn County. 


James Scott that on the written subscription and on this 

day assigned by us to the said James, there is nineteen 
liundred and ninety-eight dollars which by law is collectible 
according to the tenor and effect of the same. 
Warren, July 6, 1810. 

John S. Edwards, 
Sam. Leavitt, 
Zebina Weatheebee, 
James Quigley. 

The commissioners set aside a bond of $1,000 which 
Ephraim Quinby had given the treasurer of the count}'. This 
was all the county was willing to contribute toward the erec- 
tion of its first court house. The remainder was raised by sub- 
scription as seen alTove. 

The bricks for this court house were made from clay pro- 
cured on the land of .James Scott, the exact spot being where 
the present Elm Street school house stands. A large excavation 
was here which eventually filled with water. This was known 
by the children of 1860 as "the brick pond." In winter it af- 
forded a skating place for little folks and such older children as 
were not allowed to go onto the river. 

Isaac Ladd, the father of Irvin Ladd, who now lives on 
Mason street, was a fine carpenter and did the Avood-work for 
this building. The doorway is remembered by nearly a hun- 
dred persons living today in Trumbull County. It was a double 
door, with panes of glass, 8x9, in a sash on either side, and 
the frame over the door was part of a circle with glass cut in 
pieces of such shape as to fill in, that is, each pane was cut 
smaller at the bottom and flared like a fan. Mr. Ladd was the 
first man in "Warren to own a diamond for glass cutting. 

Although the subscrij^tion list was circulated in 1809. as- 
signing to Scott in 1810, the building was not completed imtil 
1815. It was a plain affair but answered the purpose. 

By ]836 this court house was in a somewhat dilapidated 
condition, and now and tiien the question of repairing or I'e- 
Iniilding Avas brought up. The mere mention of this improve- 
ment added ammunition to the county seat war, and the new 
court house was not begun mitil 1852 and was finished in 1854. 
In regard to this court house we quote from the county com- 
missioners' journal, March session. 1852: 


Tlinrsday Moriiiog- at 8 o'clock, March -itli. 

Board met pnrsnant to adjournment. President E. V. 
Kellogg, Thaddens Bradley and Abner Osborne. 

The subject of erecting a new court house and puljlie 
offices for Trumbull County was taken up and discussed at 
some length by Hon. Win. Porter, and Dr. Tracy Bron- 
sou of Newton against lion. John Crowell, Hon. M. ISut- 
lifC, Hon. John Hntchins, Hon. Mathew Birchai'd, B. F. 
Hoffman, Azor Aliell, and Garry C. Eeed, Escjrs., in favor 
of the project pending the question the board adjourns to 
Friday morning at 8 o'clock. 

Friday ^Morning, [March otli, 1852, at S o'clock. 

Board met ]iursuant to adjournment, present same as 

The question, shall a new court house and public offices 
be erected the present season was again taken up and after 
some discussion was decided in the affirmative. AVhereupon 
the connnissioners ordered the following entry to be made, 
to-wit : 

"Be it remembered tliat the Commissioners of Trum- 
bull County at their stated session held at Warren on the 
lirst Monday of March, A. P. lS,')i', having in accordance 
with their previous notice on ])etitiou an application of the 
citizens of said county, had under consideration the sub- 
ject of building a new court house and public offices for said 
county, do find it necessary for public convenience and for 
the ]ireservation of the records of the various offices of the 
county, and for the holding of the courts of said county, 
that a new court house and public offices therein be built 
and furnished. 

"And the said commissioners do thereupon at this their 
said March session order that a building for the purposes 
aforesaid be immediately erected. The l3uilding to be of 
the size of 60 by 90 feet in dimensions, to be built of good 
materials and of permanent construction, and according to 
specifications and plans hereafter to be determined upon by 
our board. 

"And for the ]mri>ose of carrying out the foregoing 
order, this board do here further order that Abner ( )sbonie, 
Esq., one of our board, to l)e a committee of one to visit 
and view such other court houses of approved form and con- 


strut'tion within tliis state, Avitli sueli architect as he may 
see fit to emi)loy for tiiat purpose, as he may deem ex- 
jiedient, niul to i)io('ure such plans, specifications and in- 
formation as may to him seem proi)er to present t(i onr 
board at our extra session to be lield for the further con- 
sideration of said subject on the 25th day of Marcli iust." 

And the said board do liere further order tliat for tlie 
purpose of meeting and defraying- the consequent expenses 
of the foregoing orders, tlie auditor and treasurer, by cir- 
culars addressed to holders thereof, immediately call in and 
collect the excess interest fund of said county, and that the 
same lie, and the same is hereby subjected to the purpose 
and object of building said court house and ]iubli(' otfices. 

Abuer Osborne was allowed fifty dollars to be used in visit- 
ing court houses in this vicinity, with a view of instructing the 
architect in regard to the plans. William Ernst was the archi- 
tect, and also superintendent of construction. An engraving, 
published in the Tnuiscripf of June 30, 1854-, was made by AVill- 
iam F. Porter, the father of Eugene Porter, and a man of fine 
artistic tenqierament and ability. ~Slv. Porter iiainted some 
vei-y creditable iiictures. but ill health ]irevented his following 
his profession. 

The stone for this building was obtained at the quarries in 
Coitsville, Vienna and Braceville. It cost .$23,658 when finished. 
The cost of the same building to(Uiy would be four or five times 
that much. 

Eichards tV' iiOgau, of i'olaiid, wert' the contractors. They 
disagreed during tiie construction and a case was begun in the 
^Nfahoning courts. .Ml the ])a])ers belonging to the construction 
of this cdurt house were taken to Youngstown to be used in the 
trial. The case, howe\er, was settled out of court, the papers 
were not returned to this county, and are now in the court house 
in Youngstown. filed somewhere. A search has lieen made for 
them for this history, hut tliey were not found. 

The first court house (that built in 1815) was sold to Isaac 
VonGorder and the home-made bricks were cleaned by him and 
his sons. These were used in erecting a block on South Park 
avenue, now owned and occupied by Louis Rentfle. 

Forty years ago, maybe later, the town crier w^as a neces- 
sary adjunct to court proceedings. His voice, calling for law- 
yers, witnesses or court officials, could be heard for blocks. A 

(Loaned by the Tribune.) 


JlISTOltY OF 'I'lMMlSILi. coi ^■^^ 95 

man -who was at tlie liar in the 60's and 7U'h sa> s tliat oiu' ot' tho 
young- Ja-ft^'ers, wishing to be advertised, would always git (uit 
of the oonrt room just liefore liis case was tn lie cilicd in onlci- 
that his name might be loudlj' shouted I'roiii the ii|»|>c'i- wiudow. 

The court house built in 1854 was so lia«lly (himageil hy tire 
on March 25, 1895, tliat it was taken down and the present one 
erected. Tliis new building cost, including furnishing and the 
house for the heating ajtparatus back of tlae jail, over !^"J()0,()()(). 
It is one of the handsomest buildings in the \"alley. 

The first jail in Warren was one of the rooms iu Ejilnaiui 
Quinby's house which stood near the site of the present Erie 
station on South .Main street. Although many jail rules were 
made at the time of its establishment, such as tixing the yard 
limits between the present Market and AVilliauis streets. Main 
street and Park avenue, with a few rods west of the jail, tlic 
room was used but little. Only one prisoner taken from there 
received a court sentence, — that, Daniel Sheln', of Youugstowu, 
who threatened the life of Judge Young and paid twenty-live 
dollars fine. 

A room in the lower part of ^\'illiam W. Cotgreave's house, 
which stood on the south side of the present Market street just 
east of the Warren Hardware Comiiany's store, Avas next used 
as a jail. 

In 18U1 the court a]iproved of specificatimis foi- the liuild- 
ing of a jail and the following year it was begun. It stood on 
the gTound now used as Monumental Park. It was nearly com- 
pleted in 1804, Avhen it burned clear to the ground. This build- 
ing was of logs, 32 feet by '22 feet. It had a room for debtors 
and for criminals. The delttors' room was the larger, having 
two windows, while the criminals' room liad only one. There 
were iron gratings Itefore all windows. Ilowevei', no debtor in 
Warren was ever confined therein, and it is not known that a 
debtor was ever confined in any Trumbull County jail. 

The prisoners for a time after the burning were incar- 
cerated in the old quarters at "Castle AVilliam."' 

A log jail was built about 1815 on the site of the jtresent 
structure. A contract was made for a new building, of brick, 
in 1822, and it was accepted by the commissioners, on the 9th 
of December, 1824. The contractor was paid $2,9411. 

In 1871 ]i]ans were made for the construction of a new 
jail, and the total cost was about $35,000. This is the present 
edifice which has been enlarged a little, and repaired inside. 


The following- is a list of men who have served as sheriffs: 
David Abbott, 1800 to 1804; Elijah Wadsworth, 1806; James 
Hillniaii, 1809; Trial Tamer, 1813; John Strnthers, 1815; Ben- 
jamin Austin, 1819; Lemuel Keeves, 1822; Andrew Bushnell, 
1826; Cyrus Bosworth, 1830; George Mygatt, 1834. Henry 
Smith succeeded Mr. Mj-gatt, and served until 1838; Warren 
Young, 1842; James Hezlep, 1846; Benjamin V. Robbins, 1848; 
\¥illiam Williams, 1850; Benjamin N. Robbins, 1852; Isaac 
Powers, 1854; H. R. Harmon, 'l858; A. B. Lj^nan, 1862; J. G. 
Butler, 1866; S. M. Laird, 1870; G. W. Dickinson, 1874; S. A. 
Corbin, 1878; S. F. Bartlett. 1882; John Hoyt, 1886; A. P. 
McKinley, 1890; J. H. Dillev, 1894; E. A. Bierv, 1898; F. E. 
Caldwell, 1902; W. A. Williams, 1906; Charles W. Moser began 
1906 and is still serving. 

As among early settlers, after farms were actually divided, 
troubles arose in regard to the line fence, so the interesting 
"AYar of Counties" centered ill county seats. As we have seen, 
Warren was the county seat of early Trumbull County. The 
settlement grew slowly along the lake and faster toward the 
41st ])arallel. The present spirit of Youugstown seems to have 
been in the first settlers. They detennined to have the county 
seat in the beginning, and rather than yield, kept up a constant 
warfare, battles occurring at longer and shorter intervals, some- 
times sti'ong and sometimes weak. AMien the jail, situated on 
Monumental Park, was burned in 1804, Yoimgstown was de- 
termined to have the county seat matter settled in its favor. 
However, there were other voices in the county and other people 
who had choices for location. Many people thought the town- 
ships of Windsor, Orwell, Colebrook, etc., w^ere about midway 
for location, and that the county seat should be established 
there. While people in the northern part of Trumbull County 
th.ought it should be established near the Pennsylvania line 
Judge Frederick Kinsman, of Warren, said his father, John 
Kinsman, greatly favored Girard. In 1805, by the setting off of 
Geauga County, which included the northern ])art of old Trum- 
bull County, Youngstown received an advantage because that 
village was not so far from the center of the county as it had 
been before. However, county and township lines were not ab- 
solutely certain and the towns of Windsor, Orwell, etc., men- 
tioned above, after the counties of Ashtabula and Portage were 
erected, were given back and forth to the disgust of the inhab- 

HISTORY OF Ti;r:\rBrLL coukty or 

itants. Politics of course entered into the county-seat war. The 
men elected to the legislature, and like offices, from Youngstown, 
fought for the county seat, and the residents of Warren hacl 
to paj' for the services of one or more influential men who went 
to the state capitol and looked after its interests. In the neigh- 
borhood of Youngstown were many aliens, and when it came to 
the election of 18U9, the c|uestion was brought up as to whether 
these aliens were entitled to vote. Mr. Leonard Case, of War- 
ren, and Mr. William Chidester, of Canfield, justices of the 
peace, took testimony in regard to these voters at Youngstown, 
Hubbard and Poland. Daniel Shehy, who had remembered his 
continement in the county jail, espoused the cause of the aliens 
and making long speeches, added to the excitement of the occa- 
sion. Before depositions could be taken, threats of arrest had 
to be made. This evidence taken was presented to the legis- 
lature at the time Trumbull's candidate, Thomas G. Jones, pre- 
sented himself. Eitlier the question of covmty seat had been 
overshadowed by the storming of the Irishman, or had spent its 
force naturally, for Avhen Jones was declared not eligible and 
Hughes and Elliott were given seats, the matter of county seat 
quieted and seemed to go to sleep. Although Y^oungstowu had 
won. it did not seem to profit in any way bj^ that winning. For 
two or tliree years nothing was accomplished by either jjarty. 
In 1811, Thomas G. Jones, still favorable to Warren, and Sam- 
uel Bryson, interested for Y^oungstown, were elected for rep- 
resentatives. Judge George Tod was a senator. At these elec- 
tions aliens were not allowed to vote. All this time, Warren 
had held en to the county seat and had consequently grown. 
Nothing transpired of importance in the county seat controversy 
until 1813, when the question again assumed proportions, but 
again Warren carried the day. In 1839 the county buildings 
were so dilapidated that Trumbull County asked permission to 
build a new court house. This was the signal for alarm. Y\iungs- 
town protested against putting any more money into the "tem- 
porary capital." Now politics entered into the question more 
than ever and there was hardly a gathering anywhere in the 
county at which the matter was not up for discussion. Finally, 
in the winter of 1845-46. Mahoning County was set off. Warren 
continued to be the capital of Trumbull, and new buildings were 
erected. An interesting thing now occurred which Trumbull 
Coimty people enjoyed since they were eliminated from the agi- 
tation — they had had enough. It had never occurred to the 


people at Yomigstown that when a new county was erected, the 
capital could be anywhere else than in their own city. However, 
after the county was set off, and the question seriously taken 
up, the center of the county was chosen and the court house was 
erected at Canfield. At this court liouse, in the '50s, '60s and 
early '70s, the bar of Trumbull and Mahoning gathered reg- 
ularly to try important cases. At each term of court the old 
enemies, the lawyers of Trumbull and Mahoning, agreed on the 
question of county seat. They had to drive ten miles to attend 
court and they wei"e tired of it. Youngstown was more con- 
venient for all parties save residents of Cantield. Youngstown 
became the couutj' capital in 1872 to the satisfaction of Trum- 
bull. In other words, Youngstown had become an industrial 
center before it accomplished its purpose. At this writing it is 
erecting a new $1,500,0000 court house to replace the one Iniilt 
in 1872. 

(Loaned by the Trilnme.) 



Jamks 8cott House. — Mrs. Scott and Indians. — Mrs. Kowe. — 
Mrs. Justus Smith. — Mrs. Tod. — Graeter House. — Par- 
sons Home. — Mrs. Edwards' Wedding. — Rawdon House. 
— Castle WiIjLiam. — Lane House. — Home of Henry 
and Mary Stiles. — Stevens-Crowell Place. 
— Webb Property'. — Dana's Institute. — 
Pease Home. — Iddings Home. — South 
Street Social C'enter. — 
Iddings Map. 

James Scott married Elizabeth Quigley and together they 
came to Warren in 1§()2. He paid one hundred doUars for the 
land extending- from the lot now owned by Miss Olive Harmon 
on High street to the home of the Misses Stevens on Mahoning 
avenue. He erected a log house about where the Packard 
homestead stands at the head of Main street, which, as we have 
seen, was used as a court house. Elisha Wliittlesey said he 
was admitted to practice in the upper room of this liouse. This 
he sold in 1815 to Mrs. Charlotte Smith for $700. Mr. Scott 
then erected a residence on High street where the home of Eliza 
and Olive Smith stands. Tliis Scott homestead stood in front 
of the present dAvelling, the well being about where the present 
steps are. 

The original l)uilding was of logs, but later a frame part 
was at+aclied. In those days there was no paint in the home 
market, and no lime for white-washing. Mr. Scott, however, 
used the clay found in this soil, and washed the outside of his 
house, making it a very soft whitish color. 

Mrs. Scott was very much interested in, and very kind to, 
the Indians. She always fed them when they asked for food, 
and they felt perfectly free to go to her house at all times. 
People wdio visited the Scott home were often startled at seeing 
two or three Indians standing in the room. The only intima- 



tiou they had had of tlieir coming was that sometimes their 
shadows were seen on tlie windows or in the doorway. Although 
they were powerful men, they were gentle, and as Mrs. Scott 
had very dark eyes, fair skin and high color, they admired her , 
very much. Once she had a severe illness which the doctors pro- 
nounced fatal. One of these Indians, learning of her condition, 
told her that if she would send away the white doctors and the 
white people, he would cure her. Since she had no hoj^e in any 
other direction, she complied. The Indian went into the woods, 
got herbs from the roots of which he made a tea. This he gave 
to her, burning the leaves and the remainder of the root and 
scattering the ashes in a ceremonial way. She recovered, and 
afterwards asked him to tell her what the medicine was. He 
kneAv no name for it which she would loiow, but promised when 
the spring came, he would take her into the woods and point it 
out to her. He, however, died before the spring came and the 
information was never obtained. 

Mr. and Mrs. Scott built the brick house which stood where 
the Trimibull Block now stands. In architecture it was much 
like the Harsh residence. It had two chjmneys on either end. 
When the house was old the swallows, at twilight, used to sail 
around and around these chimneys and then drop in. Children 
congregated in the neighborhood "to see tlie birds go to 
bed." "VAHien the youngest Scott child, Miss Margaret, died. Mr. 
and Mrs. Aaron Wentz occupied this house for years. It was 
torn down in 1898. James Scott died in January, 1846, aged 71. 
Mrs. "Wliittlesey Adams, Misses Eliza and Olive Smith and Mr. 
Wirt Abell are the grandchildren of Mr. and Mrs. James Scott, 
while Norman and Dean Adams Wliittlesey are their great- 

Mr. James Scott once killed a bear in one of the trees which 
stood in front of the First Baptist church. 

Lavinia Deaue was born in 1757 in New York. Her father, 
when he had completed his theological studies was obliged to 
go to England to be ordained. He was lost at sea. His wife 
died shortly after, and Lavinia was brought up in the family of 
her uncle, Silas Deane, who was a memlter of the first Conti- 
nental Congress. Miss Deane had the advantage of the best edu- 
cation of the time and knew the prominent politicians, or rather, 
statesmen, among whom was George AVashington. She mar- 
ried Peter Delamater Avho settled in New York. He was a 
Huguenot, and through persecution tied from France. When 


Mr. and Mrs. Delamater were liviug in Kingston, 1777, tliat 
town was burned and their house was the only one left stand- 
ing. Mr. Delamater went as a special emissary to France dur- 
ing the Revolutionary Avar, and was instrmueutal in securing 
certain measures which were favorable to the Americans. lie 
died in France. She, later, married Captain Rowe, avIio lived 
but a short time. When her only daughter, Charlotte, married 
Justus Smith, Mrs. RoAve became a member of that family. In 
the early, days of Warren Mahoning avenue ran Avest of the 
present street and on that road, back of Dr. Sherwood's home, 
Mrs. Rowe liA'^ed in a log house. 

Mr. Smith, haA'ing heard the wonderful tales of fertility of 
the soil of New Connecticut, journeyed westward, went to Cleve- 
land, expecting to locate. He found the mouth of the Cuyahoga 
river a dreary place eA'en at that date, 1811, and pushed on to 
Warren. He bought of James L. VanGorder the mill erected by 
Henry Lane Jr. and Charles Dally, known later as the upper 
mill. This stood where the present water works station is. Mr. 
Smith was a large owner of land and mills in Glens Falls, New 
York, and he paid $4,000 for this property, which was a large 
sum of money for that time. In 1812 Mrs. Rowe, Mrs. Smith 
and her children, joined Mr. Smith. He did not live very long. 
His Avidow purchased of James Scott the house he built on the 
Packard lot, and here she made her home. She was a woman 
of exce]3tional character, and business sense and integrity. She 
carried on, as proprietor, the business which her husband had 
left her, besides raising and caring for her family. She sold the 
land which still belongs to the First Presbyterian church for 
$500. Her sons, Henry W. and Charles, were two of the leading- 
citizens of Warren's early days. Not only did they occu])y a 
respected place in the community, but each had a wife of strong- 
character and were their equal in every way. Mrs. Henry 
W. Smith, iiee Stone, was one of the finest and strongest char- 
acters of her day. Her physical strength, coupled with her de- 
termined, consecrated character, made her a power in her home, 
her church, and society. Although her family were men and 
women of high standing, none of them surpassed her in cliar- 

Mrs. Charles Smith, ikw Scott, was de\'oted].y lo\'ed by her 
children. She was gentle, an exceptional housekeeper, an inter- 
esting companion, and a true friend to those whom she trusted 


aud admired. She lived to great age and was tenderly cared 
for by her daughters Eliza and Ulive. 

Jane Smith, the sister of Henry W. and Charles, married 
]\lr. Shaler and moved to New York, while Maria became Mrs. 
David Tod. These children all lived to old age, Mrs. Tod dying 
only a few years since. The grandchildren of Justus and Char- 
lotte Smith, now residing in Warren, are, Henry W., Jane 
(Smith) Lyttle, :Maria T. Smith, Helen R. Smith,— the children 
of Henry W. ; Margaret (Smith) Adams, Eliza aud Olive Smith, 
— the children of Charles. There are also- six great-grandchil- 
dren, and three great-great-grandchildren living here. 

The second house aliove the Presliyterian church was owned 
by Charles White from 1835 to 1860. It was once occupied by 
Eliza and Mary Wick, the latter being the mother of Henrietta 
C)'osman. In this house Stephen Foster visited and here he 
wrote some of his famous songs. Here, too, was Mr. White's 
cabinet shop wliere Edward Spear, the father of Judge William 
T. Spear, did business. The descendants of Edward Spear liv- 
ing in the city are Misses Abbie and Annie Hoyt. 

Immediately north of this building was the printing house 
of George Ilapgood, who edited the Chronicle from 1825 to 1841, 
when he became postmaster. The descendants of George X. 
Ilaiigodd and Adaline Adams Hapgood living in Trumbull 
Count> . l!«il», are Mrs. Sarah VanGorder, Mrs. B. J. Taylor. 
Mi-s. Helen Tayler McCurdy, George Hapgood Tayler, Addie 
Tayhn- Hecklinger, Lucy Tayler Page, Mathew B. Tayler, Mrs. 
.Jacob Ewalt. (leorge W. Hapgood, Mrs. F. D. Longiuore, Charles 
(). Ilapgood. Mr. and Mrs. George Hajigood have one child, 
grandchildren, great-grandchildren, and three great-great- 
grandchildren living in Warren. 

The next house was once the home of Governor Tod, later 
oecui)ied by Hon. John Ilutcliins, and now owned by George aud 
Harriet .lones. 

In is;!.') Augustus Graeter purchased from Mrs. Charles 
Smith foi- $2,(100 (nt)te the advance in value in property), the 
land lying between Dr. Harmon's property and the Presby- 
terian chuicli. I'sing the old log house, erected by 'Slv. Scott, 
lie consti-uctcd a tavern of goodly proportions. The old part of 
tlic lionsc which was used as a court house became the dining 
room. Tliis hostelry was known as the "Graeter House" and 
stood until 1S70, when it was purchased by Warren Packard, 
who erected his fine three-story home. Augustus Graeter was 

I Loant-a by the Tribune. ) 



a liiglily educated man who brought with him from his home in 
Germauy some money, llis wife, Sarah, lived at Allentown, 
Pennsylvania. She was a successful milliner and dressmaker 
and her business ability afterwards served her a good purpose. 
Mr. Graeter used most beautiful German, but Mrs. Graeter was 
Pennsylvania Dutch. The piano which slie brought with her was 
the first one brought over the mountains to Warren. ]\Ir. and 
Mrs. Graeter had a large family of children. Louise, Augustus 
and Adolphus were all musicians. Louise had special talent 
and Adolphus for many years kept a music store in Warren. 
The two youngest children still reside in this city, Fredericka, 
who married the youngest son of ReA-. N. P. Bailey, and Isabella, 
the wife of Frank M. Ritezel, editor of the Chronicle. ■Mrs. 
Bailey is the money order clerk in the postofiice. Some ])ictures 
have been drawn and painted of the old Graeter which 
are incorrect. In them a wing at the east of the house is repre- 
.sented as having two stories, whereas this building had no win- 
dows in the second story in front. This part of the house was 
not in the original building and one of the daughters of Mr. 
Graeter thinks it was one of the buildings erected at JNfecca at 
the time of the oil craze, and was bought by her father at the 
time the buildings were moved liere. 

The old Parsons house, which was long a land-mark, was 
built in 1816, and stood where the ojiera house now stands. It 
was considered a very beautiful residence, and cost $2,500, a 
goodly amoimt for those times. Mr. George Parsons lived in it 
until 1860, when he died. It had an attractive stone wall, with 
a little iron I'ailiug, and stone stejis. There was an aristocratic 
air about this building. Additions were made to the original 
house in 1830 and again in 18oo. Mr. Heman Harmon married 
a daughter of Mr. Parsons, and lived here until 185;). They had 
a large family of attractive children, all of whom mnnied. The 
widow of one, Heman, Cornelia Fuller Harmon, with her daugh- 
ter, Ella, are the only representatives of the family living now 
in Trumbull County. Mrs. Foster, Mrs. Bradshaw, and Mrs. 
Hawkins, all live in Indianapolis, while the widow of Calvin still 
lives in Youngstown. Under the date of October .'!, lS(i(l, the 
^Vestern Reserve Chronicle says: '"Mrs. Van R. ilumiihrey of 
Hudson, daughter of Judge Calvin Pease, attended the wedding 
of Miss Maggie Harmon and John Edwards. She was present 
at the wedding- of Mr. and Mrs. Heman Harmon, father and 
mother of the bride, and also of George Parsons and his wife 


(when it gets back to tbe grandfather they do not even mention 
the wife's name). She, Laura Pease, was only ten months old 
at the time and mud was so deep that women could not walk. 
Therefore, Mr. Parsons drove the horse, carried the baby, while 
Mrs. Pease sat behind him on the horse. Most of the women 
were thus conveyed to the wedding." 

Almost every settler was a hotel-keeper in that he lodged 
and fed all the needy, and most of the strangers who came his 
way. The law required that if pay was received for such g-uests, 
the host must have a license for a public house. For this reason 
the early court records show that Ephraim Quinby was recom- 
mended to Governor St. Clair by John S. Edwards "as a suit- 
able person to keep a house of public entertainment." Mr. 
Quinby paid four dollars to the county treasurer for this license. 
About the same time James Scott also received a license. 
Neither of these men really kept public house. 

The corner where the Second National Bank now stands was 
for many years the site of a hotel. In 1801 John Leavitt, who 
lived here, took boarders, and opened a regular hotel in 1803. 
This was the first hotel in town. Others who have kept hotel on 
this spot were Jesse Holliday, John Eeeves, Andrew McKinney, 
and Horace Rawdon. Horace Rawdon was the father of Calvin, 
Horace and Richard. The three sons lived all their lives in 
Warren. Two of them were much interested in military organ- 
izations and played the snare drum. They are all dead and lie 
buried in Oakwood. Horace, the fatlier, kept one of the most 
popular hotels in the early days. He was the last landlord to 
occupy the site of the present Second National Bank. In 1836 
this property was purchased by Henry W. and Charles Smith, 
who erected a two-story building thereon. This store was de- 
stroyed by fire and when rebuilt a third story was added. It was 
long occu]jied by Smith & McCombs. When Horace Rawdon 
kept the hotel, which was made of logs and weather-boarded, it 
was painted red and had the first brick chimney in the village. It 
also had a very creaky sign which could be heard at a great 
distance as it swung on a windy night. In this building dancing 
school was had, usually in the afternoon, attended by both men 
and women. Evelyn Rawdon, who married Mr. Hammond and 
lived in Bristol until a few years since, said that there was a 
dancing school in this hotel in 1824-25. Her sisters, Louisa Raw- 
don Dunlap and Lucy Rawdon Crane, with herself, attended. 
The girls went in the afternoon; the boys in the evening. Some- 



The figure is that of Jefferson Palm. The small building on the left, part 

of which only is shown, is the blacksmith shop of Hardy & Strong. 


times both classes weut together, on special occasious, carriages 
being sent for the girls, the boj's walking. They were sent home 
the same way. The boys escorted the girls to supper; the danc- 
ing master assigning the girl to the bo}'. Invitation to these 
dances were sometimes written in verse. 

The Pavilion was built about 1807. William "\V. Cotgreave 
was its proprietor and it was commonly known as "Castle Will- 
iam." The first story was built of logs and was designed and 
used for a jail until the county provided one. It was a queer- 
looking house, the east end being three stories high, built of 
brick, the west end, two stories, was frame. Pictures sometimes 
now reproduced in papers are taken from an old cut and are not 
correct. People who were children in the early days of the 
Pavilion say these pictures give no idea at all of the ancient 
building. Court was held here and the upper story was used for 
church, meetings, schools, shows, concerts, political meetings, 
literary entertainments, etc. It was bought in 1828 by James 
L. VanGordei*, and from that time was called the Pavilion. 
Mr. ^^anGorder was one of the early business men in Warren, 
having owned and built several mills, and much other property. 
When the canal was being built, he secured the contract for 
making the five locks in this vicinity and this paid him so much 
better than the hotel did, that he gave little personal attention 
to the tavern. It therefore was not as prosperous in its latter 
days and was destroyed in the fire of 1846. It stood upon the 
ground now occupied by the stores of I)..W. Hull, Hart, Kin- 
namau & Wolf, Fuller, Gunlefinger, and Greenwalt & Peck. Just 
previous to the burning of the building Cyrus VanGorder, a son 
of James L.. while in Xcw York ]iurchased some paper for the 
decorating of one room of this hotel. He paid one hundred and 
twenty-five dollars for it. It was hand made, and done in water 
colors. Before it was put on the wall the hotel burned, and it 
has been in the possession of the family ever since. A few years 
ago Mrs. John Kinsman, a granddaughter of James L. Van- 
Gorder, used it to paper her parlor. Ap]iarently it is in ;is good 
condition as when it was new. 

For about a century a hotel has stood on or near the ground 
occupied by the Park Hotel. Here, very early, Cyrus Bosworth 
Iniilt a tavern which was kept by Benjamin Towne, commonly 
called "Uncle Ben." This was one of the very best taverns of 
the county, ^[rs. Towne was a woman of great executive aliility 
and business judgment and of much assistance to her husband. 

106 HisTOi;^' OF Ti;r:\[BrLL couxty 

Her daughters who heljjed in this hotel home added to the pop- 
ularity of the place. Provision was bountifully served, horses 
well oared for, and even when trade was slack with other land- 
lords, this tavern was full. One of the early newspapers says, 
"Towne's Hotel had a ball room, and whenever there was a ball 
it never broke up until morning. Liquor was free those days 
everywhere and often the sons of wealthier people were too 
drunk to dance." Airs. Towne died in lS-t9 and Mr. Towne gave 
up the business a little later. Mr. Towne kept pigs, cows, and 
geese. These animals (as did the animals of other people) lived 
largely in the •'Court i f ouse Yard." His geese were his special 
pets. They jiaddled ail over the park and scrambled into the 
river when they wished to swim. They had a troublesome way 
of laying their eggs so far under the barn as to lie out of reach 
of men. Air. Irwin J^add, who, as a boy, must have been a 
"Johnnie on the spot," says Mr. Towne used to ask him to crawl 
inider the liarn aftei' these eggs and now and then gave him an 
egg as a reward. ,Mr. William Williams, commonly called 
"Billy," had a cabiui't sho]) north of the Towne Hotel. Billy 
would put a grain ot corn on a pin-hook, swing the string* out 
of his window, and capture one of the Towne geese. "Now and 
Then" in the ( 'lirtniiclc says, "It would rile the old gentleman 
a good deal but whether Billy owned up or not I never knew, 
but I expect he was led into the mischief by Ben Kiefer and 
David B. C4ilniore, who were his apprentices at this time." Those 
of us who remember g^enial "Billy Williams" walking dignifiedly 
to cliureh on Sunday with his wife, or, strictly speaking, a little 
ahead of her, or who knew by sight (piiet, gentle Mr. Gilmore, 
never would accuse them of tishing for geese with a jiin-hook. 
Certainly young blood runs riot. 

When Mr. Towne retired from the hotel Mr. and Mrs. 
Almon Chaiunan took charge and continued in the business 
many years. They were excellent hotel people, both of them, 
and when they retired they had a competency. They bought the 
house just west of the Episcopal church, and this property was 
left by will to Mrs. Chapman's niece, Mrs. Fred Adams. 

Phiueas Chase and his son-in-law, (ieorge Parks, were the 
ni-.\t landlords and they too made a business success of it. Aftei" 
many years Mr. Chase retired and Mr. Parks went into the 
grocery business. The latter resides on High street. 

The National House, having become dilapidated, a company 
was formed to construct a new one and upon its completion Clark 

(liOanecl by the Chronicle.) 

Showing small portion of the old part in use during stage-coach days. 


and Garrett became proprietors. After a time 'Sir. Clark re- 
tired and Mv. Garrett managed it alone. Mr. C". C. Clirvst was 
the next landlord and he was followed by Mr. John A. Fuller, 
the present manager. The biiilding is now owned ]iy ]\Ir. Orris 
K. Grinnnesey. 

One of the most i)opular of the stage houses in Warreu was 
that which stood on the corner of Main and South streets, where 
the Austin House now stands. It was built of wood and had an 
upper and lower porch. In the early days Mr. Paltzgroff kept 
this and later ]\fr. Shoenberger. In the height of the coaching 
history as many as eight coaches a day stop])ed there. At this 
time business looked well for Warren. Morgan Gaskill, a 
successful business man of Bellevernon, Pennsylvania, came 
here. He was the father of Mrs. Albert Wheeler and the gi'and- 
father of ]\Irs. Late Abell and Mrs. Howard IngersoU. He had 
a boat yard near the canal where he repaired boats and did other 
business. He finally bought a farm' in Champion, intending to 
settle down quietly for the rest of his life. Some Warren cit- 
izens, thinking that a new hotel was needed urged him to put 
his money into such a i)uil(liiig and to encourage liim they of- 
fered to furnish it if he should not have money enough to do so. 
The old hotel was therefore divided in two parts, one-half moved 
to the east on South street and the other south On Main street 
and a brick Ituilding known as the Gaskill House erected. The 
old luiilding on South was removed a few years ago, liut the 
)iait on Alain street still stands and is occupied by a second- 
hand store. It is in a very dilajiidated condition. The house 
was opened by a grand ball on December 23, 1853, which the 
])ai)e)s of that time describe as being "a splendid atfair." For 
a time a number of families of importance either lived or took 
their meals at this hotel and it was a gay place. It happened 
that Mr. Gaskill had made his investment at the wrong time. 
His friends who were so free to advise him to put his money into 
it did no more than they agreed and creditors crowded him and 
he lost the savings of years. The building of the Mahoning 
Eailroad detracted from the vahie of the property instead of 
adding to it as was expected. In the early sixties Mr. Shoen- 
berger was the proprietor and during liis time, as well as be- 
fore and after the third story was used for ))alls and (hinces. 
Some of tlie other proprietors were Stepihen Hott'man, J. Knous, 
Peter Fulk and Saumel Derr. Mr. Harmon Austin and Mr. 
Warren Packard bought the building in the seventies and P]nos 


Austin was the landlord. Mr. Austin was an exemplary man 
and a good landlord but he is remembered as the most forgetful 
man of the town. The stories told of him would fill this volume. 
He has brought his wife to church when he lived on the farm 
and on leaving forgotten her. He has taken her to Harmon 
Austin's in Leavittsburg, gone home to Newton Falls without 
her, and had to return. Once when sent for nutmegs he took a 
wheelbarrow to one of the stores. One day as he was preparing 
the meats for dinner and had blood on his white apron, he 
liappened to think of something he wanted up town. Without 
taking off his apron nor laying down his knife he ran through 
the street, as he was in a hurry to obtain the article. A stranger 
going to the train met him and seeing his bloody knife and apron 
ran hard to get out of his way, thinking him to be a crazy man. 
The Austin House was last used as a hotel by the Park Hotel 
people when their Ijuilding was being erected. The old hostelry 
still bears the name of the Austin House. It is owned by W. W. 
Dunnavant and is a tenement house. It is supposed to be a 
better ]iaying investment now than in the days of its glory. 

Few people living in Warren remember the Hope House. It 
stood where- the garage on East Market now is. It was the 
headquarters for teamsters during the building of the canal, as 
well as during' war times. Liquor was sold here as at all other 
liotels, and people who loved quarrels and tights had plenty of 
amusement. The teamsters who often had to sleep in their 
wagons or in their blankets on the floor quarrelled among them- 
selves too often to please the peace-loving citizens. 

At the time of the building of the canal two Texans, 
brothers, David and George Law, had the contract for the dig- 
ging of the canal near Warren. George was a very peaceful man 
but David A\as a fighter. The latter rode a big dun-colored mule 
and people who knew him at the time said that he could get off 
that mule and whip any Irishman who was working on his line. 
He was six feet in height and of powerful build and a Warren 
citizen says "Nothing nor nobody could head off George Law." 
In the late sixties and seventies this hotel was known as the 
Eagle House and it had not a very good reputation as a hostelry. 
Few people were seen there except on circus and "other big 
days." when accommodations were hard to obtain. Just when 
it disap])eared from view nor wliere it went no one seems to 

No matter how old, how^ decrepit, how indifferent men or 

(Loaned by tlie Tribune.) 

First a store, then a hotel. 


women may be, a love story attracts all. For this reason the 
tale of the building of the old American Plouse has been given 
over and over again in newspapers and magazines. James 
8cott had a large family of children, the daughters wei'e all at- 
tractive, one especially being spirited. In 1826 a young cabinet 
maker, named Lowe, who came to Warren to Avork, had a modest 
little shop on the northwest corner of Park and High streets. 
He soon fell in love with Miss Scott. She did not fancy him, 
and gave him to understand she did not care to have him call 
ui)on her. Stories told of this young girl make her say that she 
was the daughter of a rich man and could look down on his 
little shop from her window. This statement is so unlike any 
Scott descendant that the author discredits it. Since this was 
true it hurt Lowe's feelings very much. He then retorted by 
saying that he would put up a biiilding so high that he. could sit 
in his room and look down on her. He borrowed the money and 
began the work but when half done he died of smallpox. As Mr. 
Leicester King had loaned him the money for the enterprise, he 
was obliged to finish it in order to save himself. Mr. Isaac 
Ladd. one of the liest carpenters of that time, had the contract 
for the woodwork above the tirst story, which had already been 
com^ileted. Mr. King rented this building as a store until 1840, 
when it became a tavern and was known as the "American 
Honsie." There was considerable rivalry between the American 
House and the Gaskill House in the '60s. The location of the 
former was in its favor, but the good cooking of the German 
housewives connected with the latter balanced the location. Pro- 
prietors of the American House at different times have been 
William H. Newhard, Henry Lowe, Mr. McDermout, Edwin 
Eeeves, James EnsigTi, and Benjamin Gilbert. Of these men 
Mr. Reeves is the only one lining. This hotel had a ball room 
and for many years people met here for dances and enter- 
tainments. At the time of the building of the Atlantic & Great 
Western Railroad the American House was the headquarters of 
the engineers. During war times large bodies of soldiers were 
fed there. In 1869 or '70, Junius Dana purchased the building 
and it has been used as a Musical Institute ever since. It is now 
in poor repair and will, undoubtedly, before- long be removed. 
Its huge piillars running full length make it an imposing looking 

A wooden hotel built by Asael Adams standing at the corner 
of Market street and Park avenue for manv vears acccunnio- 


dated not only travelers but boarders as well. It had a great 
sign of four boards made in a square and fastened to a huge 
post ui)on which were large letters, "Franklin House." A long 
cord running from the front of the house to the stable connected 
with a bell which brought the hostler to the front of the house to 
take charge of the horses. The stable stood where the Lamb & 
Strong Building is now. Among the landlords best remembered 
were "Billy" Williams and Daniel Thompson, the father of Mrs. 
Dr. Sherwood. After the grading for the sewerage was done, 
the building was reached by a long flight of wooden stairs. This 
structure was removed to make way for the present Franklin 

Alanson Camp kept a hotel on Market street for many 
years. D. B. Gilmore and Jesse Pancoast, John Hoyt, and the 
Elliott brothers were among the landlords there. Very re- 
cently this building has been reconstructed and is the property 
of E. A. Voit, and Mr. Cliristianar; the proprietor is Frank 

The oldest building erected for mercantile puri)oses in the 
business part of Warren and now standing well preserved and 
unchanged in its appearance at the front, is the two-story brick 
buildiTig with stone front at No. 7 North Park avenue. It was 
erected by Asael Adams in 1836 for general mercantile i)urposes 
and was at that time the most complete mercantile building in 
northern Ohio outside of Cleveland. In the '60s the lower part 
was used for a postoffice ; the up])er part as a residence of Mr. 
and Mrs. Orlando Morgan. For a few years the McFarland 
Brothers had their undertaking establishment here. It is now 
owned by W. W. Dunnavant, who has a moving picture show, 
called "Dreamland." At this writing he is making a one-story 
addition to the rear, to accommodate his growing Imsiness. 

One of the oldest houses in town was that which stands on 
the river bank, on the site now occupied by William H. Baldwin. 
Henry Lane Jr., who gave the land for the first cemetery now 
on Mahoning avenue, lived here. The hopse was of logs, and 
Mrs. Lane, a lovely woman, who was veiy fond of flowers, had 
a beautiful garden there. When working with her flowers she 
destroyed the sight of one of her eyes. When the town began 
to name its streets, the street running directly east from the 
Lane home was called Lane street. What influence was brought 
to bear to blot out the name of this good old citizen is not 
known, but, within the recollection of the writer, Lane street 



Reproduced by Andrews for this history from an original taken about 1888. 

(LoaneJ hy the Chronicle.) 


TIISTOKY OF riM'MiillJ. ((UNT^- m 

became Belmont. This was for many xears the home of 
Mrs. James VanGorder, and her danghter Ann Mary, who late 
in life married Eev. Joseph Marvin. The wing of the house was 
the old log house whioh Henry Lane first ])nt up. It is a com- 
mon l)elief that part of this log structure is in the present build- 
ing, but Mr. Baldwin, who repaired it some years ago, says that 
there is no part of the log house left. If there were, it would 
probably be the oldest house standing. In 1807 Mrs. Lane went 
to Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, and Mary Reeves, her 
niece, who had been left motherless, returned with her. Miss 
Reeves was a cousin of the late John Reeves, of Rowland. She 
married Henry Stiles and lived, all her married life, a few rods 
from her aunt's home. She was the grandmother of Mrs. RoUa 
Cobb, Mr. Henry Quinby Stiles, Miss Harriet Jones, and Mr. 
George Jones, of Warren. Henry and Mary Stiles had a goodly 
sized family, all of whom were genial and friendly. The Stiles 
homestead, with its long, low jtorch, which all adult residents of 
that day well remember, was the rendezvous of the young people 
of this city. Mrs. Albert Watson, of Cleveland, who, as Lucy 
Morgan, used to be a gnest of the Stiles family, says that in no 
house in Warren did the yonug peoj^le ever have a merrier time. 
Horace Stevens, the brother of Benjamin and Augustus 
Stevens, was a hatter by trade. ]\Iiss Aurelia Pier, who lived in 
Vermont, was betrothed to him. She came west with Judge 
Leicester King and family. They came by water to Fairport, 
and Mr. Stevens, witli George Parsons, went to meet them. Mr. 
Stevens and Miss Pier were married at the home of Judge King. 
Mr. Stevens built the house which stood on the lot now owned 
by the Misses Hall on Mahoning avenue. Here their oldest 
child, Maiy, was born. Mr. Stevens afterwards branched out 
in business, sold his property to General Crowell, and moved to 
Newton Falls. At that time, because of the water power, Newton 
Falls was a thriving hamlet. Mr. Stevens ownecl the grist mill 
and the saw mill, which property has been purchased by the 
Hydro Electric Company since the writing of this history was 
begim. j\Iary Stevens married Ira Fuller at Newton Falls and 
came to AVarren to live. She had a large family of children ; all 
of those who reached adult age married. Six are now living 
and all are prosperous people. Her daughter and granddaugh- 
ter, Mrs. Cornelia Hamion and Miss Ella, are residents of War- 
ren. Mr. and Mrs. Fuller lived in Warren all their mari-ied 
life, most of the time on the northeast corner of Vine and Mar- 


ket streets. The office of Mr. Fuller, which stood on Vine street, 
is now on Atlantic street and is verj' old. It is used as a dwell- 
ing. ^Vheu Mr. Stevens retired from business, he returned to 
"Warren and made his home with Mrs. Fuller. The Stevens home 
stood on a lot on Mahoning avenue above referred to, which runs 
east almost to Harmon street. This proi^erty was offered for 
sale b)' John Crowell to "William Woodrow for .$325, twenty-five 
dollars to be paid outright and the rest when convenient. Mr. 
"Woodrow did not ]nirchase it, but Mr. James Dunlap bought 
and occupied it for many years. At the time he erected the 
present brick house it was moved on to South street, next to the 
corner of Elm street, where it now stands. It is one of our 
oldest houses and is still doing good service. 

The oldest dwelling lioi:se in tlie city which is in good re- 
pair is that occupied by Elizabeth, "William and Frank Iddings, 
on the north side of South street, between Vine and Pine streets. 
It was built by John S. Edwards in 1807 and stands on the spot 
it originally occupied. It was purchased by Hon. Thomas D. 
AVebb, and he, his children, and grandchildren have lived there 
ever since. He had three daughters, Laura, Elizabeth and Ada- 
line. Laura married Dr. Warren Iddings in 1846 ; the others 
never married. 

It was the intention of Mr. and Mrs. Edwards to use the 
house as two wings, erecting a main house between them. Mr. 
Edwards' early death prevented this. The house is a little 
larger than the original, Mr. "Webb having added a kitchen at the 
rear. It is in good condition. Miss Iddings has a number of 
pieces of fine old furniture which have withstood the wear of 
time. In 1844 or '45 Mr. White designed and made a sofa in the 
shop which stood north of the Presbyterian church. It was cov- 
ered with brocade haircloth purchased by him in New York City. 
It has stood in the parlor of Mr. Webb and the Iddings family 
ever since, and the wood, the haircloth, nor the sjirings show 

Another old house which has withstood the ravages of time 
is now owned by Timothy Case and stands just east of Edward 
Smith's house on Market street. This was built by Judge Calvin 
Pease before 1816. His office stood on the same lot but it was 
not of brick, as was the house, and was moved early to the lot 
next the corner of Vine street and made into the house where 
Frederick Shaler so long lived. Two men who have alwavs been 
much interested in the histoi"v of Trumbull Countv were born in 

niSTOKY OF Ti;r:\rBrLL county ]13 

this lioiise, one, Irwin Ladd, born in 182S, and the other, Arthur 
Woodrow, born many years later. 

The Pease house stood on a hill almost directly north of 
the Webb house. A sharp embankment led down to a small 
creek which ran through Harmon Austin's place on High street 
diagonally through the lots lietween, on to John Campbell's 
place on Market, and then into what was then Mr. Pease's land. 
It eventually crossed South street and emptied into the canal. 
This house was situated on the land known as the "Pease Addi- 
tion" and was kept in the family until a very few years ago. It 
was occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Orlando Morgan for a number of 
years. Mr. Pease had planted trees and bushes, and these bore 
fruit within the recollection of the children of the late '60s. 
However, none of these children ever had the faculty of passing 
the watchful eye of Mrs. ^Morgan and never enjoyed the pleasure 
of eating stolen fruit. 

The home of Hon. Richard Iddings, one of the staunchest of 
the early settlers, is in good repair today and stands east of 
the home of Miss Mary Iddings on Market street. After Mr. 
Iddings ceased to occupy it, it was sold to W. 0. Forrest and 
passed through the hands of several others. It now belongs to 
L.W. Sanford. Eichard Iddings came to "Warren in 1806. He was 
a tailor, and had his business over the store of Henry & Charles 
Smith. He was elected to the legislature in 1830, together with 
Rufus P. Siiaulding. His children were Lewis J., Morris, War- 
ren, Hiram and Elizabeth. Richard Iddings died in 1872. He 
married Justina Lewis, of Reading, Pennsylvania, a woman of 
sweet character, and at first they lived in a house where the 
Park Hotel now stands. Later they erected a house 
on the west side of the lot and in 18l2fl built the 
house which their children occupy. This is one of the 
oldest houses in the city. ^Nlrs. Iddings belonged to a 
substantial family of Reading, and in 1821 her sister 
Betsey came to live with her. The Iddings home was one of the 
most hospitable in the city. It was constantly full of guests and 
Mrs. Iddings and her sister made all feel welcome. Betsey 
Lewis was one of the strongest characters Warren has ever had. 
So far as we know she was the first woman suffragist in the 
town or county. She was a constant reader. ])erf.-etly familiar 
with all plrases of political (piestions, and aUhough gentle like 
lier sister, was sprightly and active both in body and mind. 
She was greatly interested in the questions which preceded the 


war, and died just as the war was i)reakiiig out. It is liard for 
us to realize it, but so muddy was Marlvet street in the days of 
the early thirties that when Mrs. Iddings and her sister wished 
to call on the neighbors across the street thev went on horse- 

Samuel Chesney, who was born in Juniata county. Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1778, came to Warren in 1803. He had taught school 
in Pittsburg before settling here and held the office of deimty 
postmaster for a long time, and was justice of the peace. Among 
the men who came late in the fall of 1799 was Benjamin Davison. 
He put up a cabin below the Fusselman farm, near Mr. Case, and 
went east, bringing his family the next May. There were ten 
cliildren. It was at this house that the boys who went to Salt 
Springs with the party at the time the Indians were killed, 
stopped at the end of their three-mile run. Samuel Chesney mar- 
ried Mary Davison and their first liome was on ^larket street, 
where Albert (lUarnieri now has his fruit store. This block is 
still owned by the family of Lewis Iddings and was built on the 
land of Mr. Chesney. For many years it was called the "Empire 
Block." Mr. Lewis Iddings married Jane Chesney. Their chil- 
dren are Miss Mary Iddings, Mrs. H. C. Baldwin, Mr. S. C. Id- 
dings, and Lewis M. Iddings, consular agent to Egypt. AMien 
Jane Chesney was a little girl she lived in this house and used 
to attend the Academy. The court house yard was dreadfully 
nuiddy and the streets almost impassable. A\Tien she got her 
first rubbers and was able to keep her shoes clean, it made such 
an impression upon her that she never forgot it. 

^^Tlen Jane Chesney married Lewis Iddings they moved 
into the house which the family now occupy, so that Mrs. 
Iddings' entire life was spent on Market street in this city. ^Mr. 
Samuel Chesney built a house on Chestnut street which is still 
standing, it was between Market and South streets on the 
side, })ut some years since was moved back to make room for a 
new building. Here Samuel Chesney died. 

.\t one time the fashionable part of town centered around 
the corner of 'Slam and South streets. Here lived Judge Francis 
Freeman, Samuel L. Freeman, John ]\IcCombs, Henry Smith. 
Charles Smith, and Mathew Birchard. The Birchard home- 
stead was veiy near the river, and was very attractive in its 
early days. Judge Birchard was a man of large acquaintance 
among public men. In 1841 he married Jane Elizabeth Weaver, 
daughter of Captain AVilliam A. Weaver. She was a gentle 

HisToiiY OF 'ririMisrij. rurxTv n5 

woman of t'lhicatidii and j)leasini>- luaiiiicrs. 'I'licii- daugiiter, 
Jane, was the leadei' anmng the girls of her time. She married 
Frank Mason, now consul genei-al to Paris. Mr. Ahisou was a 
son of Edson Mason, of Niles. Frani< and his wife, .huic, have 
spent the greatei- part of thf'ir married life aliioad. lie going into 
the eonsular service in 1S77. Mrs. I'>ircli;ird died in I'aris .since 
this woi'k was hegmi. "^riie jx'oplc (d' to(hi\'. when the)' pass the 
Birchard homesteath now owned Wy Jacnh l\nofsk\, and sec 
tlic \ard )iiled high witli junk, canned imagine imw attractixc 
tl is place was ill the early (hiys. 

.V sidewalk as wide as the genei'al sidewalk on Main street 
followed (hiwn tlie west si(h:' of the Main street nearly to llie 
canal bed. ( )n the edge cd' this walk was a row id' locust t ices. 
The first imuse below the iailroa<l track belonged to .Mr. I'ub 
lai'd; the second house was the pntperty (d' lieur\ W. Smith. 
Hei'e he au.d his large and attracti\'e family li\-ed for many 
years. After a time they niox'ed out onto the farm now owned 
liy tlie estate on the \'oungstowii Koad. and Mr. (loldstein, long 
a successful mercli;int in W'aricn, occupied this house, hater 
it was owned by Mi-s. Xaucy Dawson and upon .Mayor Dawson's 
death it became the i)i-o)>ei-ty of (he D. t^ ( ). IJailroad. In the 
oiiginal, it stood high, had basement rooms, a wide hall leading 
through it and was a \>'i'y attracti\'e place. The children of the 
late '(ids remember this jilace because of the apricot tree which 
stood in the back yard. When the railroad people secured it. 
they set it on the ground, turned it i|uarter about and no sem- 
blance of the old Inuldiug is left. It is still used foi' n i-aili'o;id 
station, althoiigli having been condemned by the city board of 
health. If I'ailroad ]ii-ouiises aie redeemeil. when this \-olume' is 
in the hands of the readers, a new station will occupy this site. 

The next house to the south was that owned by |)a\-id Tod 
and latei' became the homestead of M. B. Tayler. whose lai'ge 
and kindly family made the lumse seem more like a boarding 
school than a home. Nine girls in one bouse, with two l)oys 
thrown in, is something to nudxc the homes in apartments tod;i>" 
seem like playdujuses. 

The next and last house was the home (d' ('harles Smith. 
He, too, had a goodly f<unily, and being of a very sociable nature. 
had much company aside from the relations. So, in this I'ow 
lived the three children of Charlotte Smith, one cd' the staundi- 
est and best of Warren's early citizens. 

Mr. Leicester King built, about 1828, the house which is 


now ocenpied by the cliildren of Henry AV. Smith, fronting Mon- 
mneutal Park, on ]\Ialioning avenue. At the time this building 
was constructed it was thought to occupy the finest location in 
the city and opinion in regard to it has not changed. Its colonial 
hall, high ceilings, natural wood, are as acceptable now as then. 
It has been occu^ned only by three families in all these years, 
those of Mr. King, Mr. H. C. Belden and Mr. Smith. 

The home of Thomas and Charles Kinsman, standing be- 
tween the Smith and the Perkins home, is one of the old build- 
ings, and by many architects considered to be the finest of any 
home in the city. Certainly the southern exposure with its wide 
porch, its high pillars, is most attractive to persons driving up 
Mahoning avenue. This house remains about as it was built, in 
1835, having been repaired somewhat but not changed except the 
hall, which was extended clear through the house. Frederick 
Kinsman married Laura Pease, the brilliant daughter of Calvin 
Pease. His first wife, Olive Perkins, sister of Hon. Henry B. 
Perkins, whose children died in infancy, lived but a little time. 
F]'ederick and Cornelia Kinsman had five sons, and at their 
home have been entertaining more people of note, more old resi- 
dents coming back for visiting, and more of the town people, 
than in any other one house. Mr. Kinsman was a man very 
much interested in the early welfare of the city, was one of the 
associate judges, gave his advice and his opinion to all who 
asked for it and was most practical in that advice. He and his 
family were interested in the raising of fruits, vegetables and 
flowers, so that his place had a special attraction for friends 
and visitors. Mrs. Kinsman was a genial, capable, loving woman, 
and was one of the most popular persons Warren has ever had. 
Her sons adored her and she was for many years the leading 
worker in the Episcopal church and in town philanthropy in 
general. Mr. Kinsman long survived his wife, and four sons, 
John, Frederick, Thomas and Charles, are living, Henry, the 
youngest, dying before the father. 

Another old house is the one at the end of Pine street where 
the ]iver turns. It Avas owned at one time by Mr. Charles 
Smith, and was known among the children as the haunted house. 
The date of its erection is not exactly known. 

One of the early houses still in existence is that of General 
Siiiioi) Perkins. Its site was about the same as that of the 
7)resent Perkins homestead on ^Mahoning Avenue. It was a frame 
liouse, of ffood lines, and of medium size. Standing in the same 

(Loaned by the Tribune.) 



yard, east of the present office, stood General Perkins' office. 
Here is where he did so mnoh of tlie business for tiie Connecticut 
Land Company. After lie had lived in his home some years a 
Boston architect was employed to make some changes. At that 
time this architect built the house now occupied by .). P. Oilbert, 
at the corner of ^Mahoning avenue and Monroe street. .Vfter 
Mrs. Perkins' death, the homestead was closed for a numlier of 
years and about 1870 it was moved onto the farm udw owned 
by the Perkins estate, in Howland, just outside tiie city limits. 
The front is substantially the same now as then, but it has an 
addition. It is in tine repair. 

One of the other early houses still standing is that known 
as the Southwortli house, standing on the corner of Chestnut 
and South streets. This was built prior to ISKi, was occupied 
by Mr. and ^Irs. Silas Southwortli. Their nei)liew, Silas Davis, 
still lives in Trumbull County. 

Epliraim Quinby's tirst house stood on the site of the Erie 
depot, and was of logs ; the second house was a frame one, or at 
least partially frame, and stood on the lot occiipied by Mrs. Gif- 
ford on Highland Avenue, while the Quinby home familiar to 
the people of today was erected by Samuel Quinby at rather 
early date and stands on the high point of land at the head of 
Highland avenue, known until recently as "Quinby Hill." It is 
now the ]n-operty of John Long, who has lived all his life in 
Warren, and whose father lived here before him. 

Another old house is that standing on the northeast corner 
of Main and South streets. This was known as the old Free- 
man home. It was built by Judge Francis Freeman, occupied 
later by his daughter, Olive Freeman Eatlitf , by his son, Samuel 
L. Freeman, and lias since been used largely as a boarding 
house. The brick house standing at the east of the Freeman 
bouse was built, about 1848, for Samuel L. Freeman and occu- 
pied by him before moving into the house on the corner. All of 
these homesteads in this part of the city depreciated in value 
and were sold by the owners after the ^Eahoning Bailroad was 
established, the noise and the dirt making this section of the 
town undesirable as a residence section. 

Three of the old one-story wooden schoolhouses are still 
standing. That known as the north school is on the rear of Mrs. 
Eunice Hawkins' lot next to the Prospect street schoolhouse. 
The one on East High street was moved to the rear of General 
Eatlitf 's lot at the time he erected his brick dwelling and became 

lis 11IST()1!Y OF ■ri.TMIUI.L ('OrXiV 

])art 111' tlu' .stal)le. Tlie FtiUou street huildiiig now stands on 
C'liutou street, is used as a dwelling and is o^\^led by Mrs. Beahr. 

The lionse on tlie sontlieast corner of Park and High streets, 
formerly tlic iKunestcad of .lolin Harsh, was erected in the 
neigliborho(Kl of ISi^d. Its arciiilectnre was tlie conuiion one for 
hrick honses of that day. Tin- lot on which it stands is one of 
the most desiral>le in the city. 

The home of Lewis Hoyt, uii South street, now owned by 
liis daughters, Annie and Abbie, was built in 18JU. Oliver 
Brooks' house stood within a block of the Hoyt house^ on the 
north side of the same street. This was one of the early 
hospitable homes. A few years since it was moved to the rear 
t)f the lot, and now stands where it can be seen from Park 
avenue, and back of the house which the Seelys early occupied. 

Mr. Lewis AI. Iddings in c(mtributing "Sketch of the Early 
Days of Warren" to the "Mahoning Valley Ohio Historical Col- 
lection," made a ma]) which is so interesting and so accurate 
that we are repi-oducing ir here. ]\lr. Tddiugs is consular agent 
(practiually minister) to Kgy|)t, and is so far distant that we 
cannot ask his permission. He is greatly interested in the old- 
time historx because of his family connection, and we feel sure 
will l)e glad to have tin- leaders of this history in possession of 
this information, especially as the volume above referred to is 
out of jirint and this infonnation should be preserved. 

In the following ex])lanations, which correspond with the 
numbers on tlie map, the .streets are called by names, familiar 
to us now, although they were originally numbered — Main street 
being No. 1. High street No. 2, Market street No. 3, South street 
No. 4, Liberty street (Park avenue) No. 5. Mahoning avenue 
was considered to be only a continuation of No. 1. But neither 
numl)ers nor names were often used for many years. As is 
the case in smaller places today, in familiar conversation, local- 
ities were known by (he names of the persons li^•ing in the 

1. Mill nnd dam, but by Lane and l)all>- in 1S(I2, owned 
in ISp; by Mr. .lames [j. VanOoi-der. 

:!. The Ilein\' Lane house, now owned and occu]iied by 
Win. il. IJaldwin. 

.'!. The house of Mrs. Rowe. 

4. House of Mr. Jacob Harsh. 

."). House in which, at one time, lived a Mr. McParland. 




(\ House of Gen. {Simon Perkins (the lioiiie of Eliza P>. 
Perkins now is here). 

7. House built by George Phelps. 

8. House and blaeksmith-sliop of Mr. lieeves. 

S*. IjOo- house built by ]\Ir. James Scott, and torn down a 

short time since. For many years it was covered 

u\) in the (Jraeter House. 
111. House of Dr. John B. Harmon, now occupied by Dr. 

.lulian Flarmon. 
n. House of Mr. George Parsons; a new house in 181(5, or 

built so soon thereaftei' that it is with ])ropriety 

placed on the ma]"). 

12. The jail. 

13. House of Mr. .lames Scott. 

14. House of Mr. David I5ell. 

15. Cabin of "John Jerrodell." 

l(i. House and office of Judge Pease; house still stands. 

17. House of Mr. Richard Iddings. 

18. House of (4eorge ^fuil ( !). 

19. House of .INIaric Wescott. 

I'd. Foundations of tlie old Western Reserve Bank building. 

L'l. House and store of Asael Adams, where the Franklin 

Block now is. 

'2'2. The "Shook" lu)use. 

'2'A. House of j\lrs. AL'Williams. 

24. A shop kept by , occupied by ;\Ii-. Uhl. 

25. House of Capt. Oliver Brooks ; still stands. 

26. House of Mr. Thomas I). Webb; in good repair; occu- 

]ned by Elizabeth, Wm. and Frank Iddings. This 
house was Imilt in 1807 by [Mr. John S. Edwards, 
and is probably the oldest building in Warren, 
unless 46 is older. 

27. House of ^h-. Hake; still stands. 

28. House of Jonathan Rankin. 

'29. House and tanueiy (in the rear) of ]\rr. James 

80. House of Elihu Spencer, 
ol. House of Mr. Zebina Weatherbee. 

32. House of Mr. Samuel Chesney. 

33. A store occupied at one time by ]\Ir. A\'m. Bell and Mr. 

James Quigley. 

34. "Castle William," or the Cotgreave house. 


35. For many years the site of the first hotel in the place. 

36. In 1816 probabl.v a hatter's shop; afterward a store 

kept by Judge King. 

37. Four stores in which Wheeler Lewis, the Quinl^ys and 

the Austins were in business. 

38. House of Judge Calvin Austin. 
"39. House of Tony Carter. 

40. House of ^Iv. Jeduthen Eawdon. 

41. The Western Reserve Bank. (Union National Bank 

42 Little log house, in w^hich Geo. Loveless proliably 
opened the first store in Warren. 

43. The Leavitt House, for many years a hotel and hxter 

known as the AValter King place. 

44. Building, probably erected by Mr. Adamson Bentley, 

and in which he engaged in mercantile business. 
From this building the first number of the Trump 
of Fame, now the Westeru Reserve Chronicle. 
was issued in 1812. 

45. House in which, in 1816, lived Mr. Jeremiah Brooks 

(great-uncle of Mr. James Brooks). It was built 
l)y Mr. Ephraim Quinby during the first summer 
he was here, in 1799. Attached to it was the first 
jail in Trumbull County. In front of it (b) were 
the corncribs between w'hich the first court was 

46. House of Judge Francis Freeman, now the eastern 

end of the Austin House. 

47. Mill and carding machine. This last had just been 

erected by I^evi Hadley, and was sold in this year 
to ]\Ir. Benj. Stevens. 

48. House of one Morrow. 

49. House of James Ellis. 

50. House of Mr. Burnett. 
5L House of Mr. Quinby. 

52. The "old court-house,'' then in an unfinished state. 
a, b and c are explained on the map. 


Ear].y Letteks. — First ^Jaii. Koute. — Fiest Postmaster. — Gkx. 
Perkins and Mail Koutes. — Eleazer Uilson. — Asael 
Adams as Mail Carrier. — Carrying Bullets to 
Gen. Perkins. — Advertised List. — List 
OE AVaruen Postmasters. — Presi- 
dential Office. 

After the Connecticut suiveyois were really hard at work 
in 1796 the general tone of their diaries and notes is that of 
indifference or seriousness. They show the greatest joy at the 
aii])earance of a i)rosi)ector or at the return of some member of 
theii- i)arty from Buffalo bringing them letters. 

These early letters, folded without stamp or envelope, are 
dark with age and fairly worn out from the handling in re-read- 
ing at that time. The ver>- Hi'st settlers for months at a time 
had no way of knowing whether their family and friends k^ft 
back home were dead or alive. 

As soon as a viMage or hamlet ajipeared the thing most 
wanted, despite the fact that they had to send away for most of 
their luxuries, was the estal)lishnient of mail service. 

In April. 18()L Elijali "Wadsworth of Caufield aiiplied to 
Gideon Granger, ]iostmaster-general, for the establishment of 
a mail route between L^ittsbnrg and Warren. The reply was 
sent to "Ca]3tain Elijah Wa<lswortli, Warren, in the Connecticut 
Eeserve, near Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. If Captain Wadsworth 
should not be in Pittsburg. J)oct. iScott is requested to fonvard 
this by private hand." Altliongh this request of Captain AVads- 
wortli's was granted, the rtrst deli\'ery of mail in Wai'ren was 
Octolier oOth, that same year. General Simon Perkins was ap- 
pointed postmaster in 1801. He held the place twenty-eight 
years, when he was succeeded by IMathew Birchard. In 18tl7 IMr. 
Perkins, at the request of Postmaster-General Granger, explored 
the mail roirte between Detroit and Cleveland. In a letter to 



lion. Elislia Whittlesey, lie says, "On the tour 1 was ol)liged to 
go ont of the way to find a mail carrier, and I do not now recollect 
how long T was in getting to Cleveland ; l)ut from there to Detroit 
it was six days, all good weather and no delay. There were no 
roads or bridges or ferry boats. I do not recollect how I crossed 
the C'nyahoga, but at Black River, Huron, Sandusky and Mau- 
mee, in any time of high water, the horse swam alongside of a 
canoe. In the RIack Swani]) the water must have been from two 
to six inches deep for many miles. The settlements were a house 
at Black Kiver, perhaps two at Huron, two at Sandusky, ten or 
tifteen at Wai'reu. and a very good settlement at River Raisin." 
Mr. Pei'kins had a consuUatioii with the Indians, in which he 
asked ])ermission to make a ruad, repaii- it, sell land for that 
purjiose, and wanted the land a mile wide on each side of it for 
the government. The Indians gi'anted his request. General 
Perkins was a very busy man, and could not attend personally 
to the detail of i)ostoffice work. Among the men who served as 
his deputies were John Leavitt, who kei)t a boarding house at 
the corner of Main and Market streets ; (reorge Phelps, who lived 
where the Henry Smith homestead now is; George Parsons, Sam- 
uel Quinby and Samuel Chesney. Samuel Chesney ])robably held 
the position the longest of any of the men. The mail route when 
tirst established ran from Pittsburg ti) Beaver, Georgetown, Can- 
tield, Voungstown and Warren. The distance was eighty-six 
miles. Calvin I'ease wr.s postmaster at Youngstown and Elijah 
WadsAvorth at Cantield. 

Elea/.or (iilson was awarded the tirst contract to carry the 
mail. He was ])aid three dollars and fifty cents a mile, by the 
year, counting the distance one way. His son Samuel was, how- 
evei-, the real nuiil earlier, and walked the entire route often. 
The mail was iiot then heavy, and was sometimes carried in a 
bit of cotton cloth. Warren was for two years the terminus of 
this mail route. It was then extended to Cleveland. Joseph 
Burke of Euclid had the contract and his two sons did most of 
the woik, alternately. Their route was Cleveland, Hudson, Ea- 
\cniia. l)e<Mfield, Warren, Mesojiotamia, Windsor, Jefferson, 
Austinhurg, Har])ersfield, Painesville, Cleveland. They often 
walked, sometimes rode, crossed small streams on logs when pos- 
sible, but sometimes swam their horses or plunged into the 
streams themselves. 

Up to the time of the stage coach the experiences of the letter 
carrier differed little. To be sure, towards the end the roads 

nls'l'()l;^' (»F TiMMHrLi, coixtv 123 

were liettcr. tlic litmses nearer togetlier, there was less danger 
from wild aniinals and from Indians, but, on the other liand. the 
mails were heavier, the sto))s oftenei-, and tlie time consnnied, 
eonse(|nently, as h)n,n. 

Ml-. W'hitth'sey .\dams, the son of .\sael .\<lams Ji-., wlio is 
(■oiixci'sant with the early history of 'rnmihuli ( 'ounty, has i)re- 
]iare(l ihe foHowiiii;' at the re(|nest of tlie editor in regard to his 
fatiier's niai l-ca rryini;- days. 

.\saei .\daHis ,1 1-. (if Warren, who tan.i;ht srhodi in ( 'ieve- 
huid in ISO."). (•arr!e<! the Tnited States mail on liorsel)aek 
ilnrini;- thr \\ a r of 1^12 and ISl.'i, two xcars, from Cleveland 
to i'ittslin.r.i;. lie lef) I'itt shnr.y' e\<'ry Fiiday at (>:(»() a. m.. 
arri\'ed al ( ireersluir,^, Pennsylvania, iiy ,"):(l(l \>. ni., left at 
') :.'!ll p. Ml., anix'ed at (.'antleld (Hi Salnrday liy (i :<)() p. m., and 
ai'ri\ed at ('iex'eiand on .Monday li\ l():(l(l a. m. TlK'n, re- 
tniiiini;. he left Cleveland every Monday at 2:0(1 p. m., 
ai-rived at Canfield on Wednesday hy ():(!() a. ni., left at 7:00 
a. ni.. arrixcd at ( Jicershurg' the same da>' hy ():00 p. nr, left 
at 7 :0() p. 111. ; arrived at Pittshnrg on Tlinrsda>' hy (1:00 p. m. 

On his loop ronte from Pittslmi'g to ( 'leveland, he 
stnp])ed at the mily postoftices at that time on the route, 
which were, tirsi. l)ea\-er 'i'own. Xi'w Lishon. ( 'anfield, Deer- 
Held, ilartland. i>a\-eiina. iindsdii and (lallatin to Cle^'e- 
laiitl. and then letnrning hy a loop ronte to Pittslmrg In* the 
wa\ of .\nrora, Mantna, Palmyra, Canfield, New Lislwjn, 
(ri'eerslmrg. and ISeaver '^rown to Pittshni'o', onee a week. 
He receivecl a ,-alar>- of $lS(i per (piarter of a year during 
the eontinnanre of his contracl. to he paid in drafts on ]30st- 
niasters on the ronte. as ahox'e mentioned, or in money, at 
til!' option of tile postniaster-generai. (xideon (Iranger. He 
was also authorized to cai-ry newspapers, other than those 
(•on\-e\'ed in the mail, for his own emolument. 

Asael .\danis .Ir. of \\'arren had another mail contract 
from (iidcon (iranger. |iostmaster-general, dated October 18, 
isn. to carry the mail fr(un (Ireersburg, Pennsylvania, by 
the way of i*oland and Voungstown to AVari'eu, Ohio, and 
return with the mail hy the same I'onte once a week, at the 
rate of ^7^i) for every (juarter of a year for the tenn of three 
y^ears and three months. He was to leave Greersljurg every 
Saturday at 4:00 o'clock a. m., stopping at Poland and 
Youngstown, and arriving at Warren at 6:00 o'clock p. m. 


The only, postoffioes ou the route between Greer.sburg and 
AVarren were Poland and Youngstown. The said Asael 
Adams Jr. was allowed for his own emolument to carry 
news])apers out of the mail if a printing press should be 
established on the route. The mail route between Greers- 
burg and Warren was run in connection with the above men- 
tioned route from Pittsburg to Cleveland. The postmaster 
at Warren at that time was General Simon Perkins, and the 
postmaster at Canfield was Comfort S. Mygatt. 

Asael Adams Jr., the mail carrier, often while riding- 
one horse with the mail would lead another, loaded with 
merchandise and articles from Pittsburg for the pioneers in 
Ohio. Dense woods skirted both sides of the bad roads al- 
most the whole of the way from Pittsburg to Cleveland. 
Wolves, bears and other wild animals roamed through these 
great forests, and often in the dark nights made the lone- 
some journey of the belated mail carrier exceedingly un- 
pleasant. There were no bridges over rivers and streams, 
which were often very high. He would fasten the mail bag 
about his shoulders and swim his horse over the swollen 
rivers, often wet to the skin, and not a house within several 
miles distance. The pioneers at Warren and Youngstown 
and other places along the route would often order Asael 
Adams to jjurchase goods and merchandise for them in 
Pittsburg, which he would do, charging them for the money 
expended and for liringing the goods to the pioneers. 

Asael Adams Jr., while mail carrier, has in his account 
book Xo. 2 the following items charged, to-wit : 

Tliomas D. Webb (Editor of the Trump of Fume). Dr. 

To Imying at Pittsburg a keg of printer "s ink and bringing it to War- 
ren, $2.75. 

To putting up newspapers one niglit, ST^i; cents. 

To one loaf sugar, $2.25. 

To paid J. W. Snowden for printer's ink. $12.00. 
Leonard Case. 

To leading horse from Pittsburg, $1.50. 

To carriage of saddle from Pittsburg, .50. 

To balance for saddle, $4."5. 

To 2 boxes of wafers, 12 cents. 

To 1 circingle, $1.00. 
George Tod. 

To Duane's Dictionary, $6.75. 

To carriage of boots, 50 cents. 

To map of Canada, $1.00. 
Camden Cleaveland. 

To one large grammar, $1.00. 

One lb. tobacco and one almanac, 371-. cents. 

msToiiV OF ■I'lMMliCIJ. COUNTY 125 

Tobacco ami powder, 37 cents. 
James Scott, July 18, 1812. 

To leading horse from Pittsburg, $1.50. 
To three oz. indigo, 75 cents. 
To martingale hooks and buckle, .$1.25. 
To 2 lbs. tea, .$2.00. 
Comfort Mygatt, July 18, 1812. 
To one sword, $13.00. 
To one watch key, $1.00. 
To )Hiwdpr and shot, $1.50, 

Tlie foregoing are only a few of the entries nia<le in 
at'eount book No. '2 of Asael Adams, tiie mail carrier. 

During Septeml)er, 181l!, war was being waged with tiie 
British and Indians on the frontier, and most of our a))le- 
bodied men were away from home in the brigade under the 
command of General Simon Perkins in the defense of the 
Maumee valley. General Perkins sent word to Warren that 
■ his soldiers were without bullets and to send a supply of bul- 
lets immediately. The ladies of AVarren promptly moulded 
the lead into Imllets, jind Asael Adams Jr., who had just re- 
tuined from an all day's ride from Pittsburg carrying the 
mail, but who was caitable and willing to undertake the jour- 
ney, started at once, without waiting for sleep, to carry on 
horseback a bushel of leaden bullets through the dense for- 
ests to the aid of General Perkins' brigade. 

Asael Adams Jr. was born in Canterbury, Connecticut, 
in July, 1786, and came with his father, Asael Adams Sr., 
to Liberty township, Trumbull County, ()hio, in 1800, with 
his brother-in-law, Camden Cleaveland, a brother of ]Moses 

Numerous descendants and relatives of the persons 
named in the foregoing article now reside in Warren, Cleve- 
land and Youngstuwn. We mention a few only of the names, 
as follows : 

Mrs. Mary Perkins Lawton. Miss Lucy Hoyt. 

Mrs. Thomas H. Brieiiv. Miss Annie Hovt. 

Mrs. Wm."B. Kirkpatrick. ^Irs. Polly W. Eeid. 

Mrs. Sarah H. VanGorder. Miss Harriet Stevens. 

George VanGorder. Henry Q. Stiles. 

Miss Olive Smith. ^ ^^cy S. Cobli. 

Miss Eliza S. Smith. Miss Elizabeth L. Iddings. 

Norman W. Adams. Wm. T. Iddings. 

Mathew B. Tavler. Frank Iddings. 

l-?(; IIISTOHY OF riji.Mhri.L COl xty 

As the popiilatiou grew and new roads were opened u]). 
new postoffices were established throughout the county. In 
1828 Alexander Sutherland was postmaster at Newton. 

Erastus Lane, of Braceville, a letter carrier between War- 
ren and Cleveland, brought the news of Hull's surrender. 

Just liefore the coming of the stage coach, in some i)laces 
in tbe county, mail was carried by oxen. 

With tlie mail facilities of today, it is astonishing to see 
the list of advertised letters api)earing in the early newspapers. 
Letters for the most prominent peoi)le in the county were ad- 
vertised over and over again. It is still more astonishing that 
the reason for this was that each letter cost twenty-five cents, 
and the owner of the lettei's sometimes had not money with 
which to pay postage. 

Then, as now, there was dissatisfaction with postal -ervice; 
then there was reason. Under the date of ^larch l(3th, the 
editor of the ]Vcsfeni Beserrc Cliroiiich' complains of the 
wretched condition of the mails, saying, "Pai)ers mailed in 
Washington on the 4th of ^larch were not received here until 
the 13tli."" (Ill .January l', 1844, this same paper decided to 
establish a jiost route for distribution of the Clironiclr in 
Vienna. Biooktield, Hartford. Vernon, Kinsman, (lustavus. 
Oreen, Meso]K)tamia, Farmington, and Bristol. 

Among the ])eoi>le who have served as ]K(stmasters in War- 
ren are Simon Perkins, Mathew Birchard. John W. ( 'ollins. 
Comfort Patch, Henry Townsend, Jetferson Palm, David Tod. 
E. E. Wise, B. P. Hoffman, William Hapgood, Frank M. l^itezel. 
S. B. Palm, .lolin W. Camp])ell, George Braden. 

The AA'arren jjostoffice became first class iu lltuy; the salary 
of the postmaster is $3,000, the assistant's ^1,500. Rural free 
delivery^ is established out of Warren, Niles, Newton Falls, Cort- 
land. Once the mail carrier brought the mail weekly to the 
ca]iital of Trumlndl County, and now, each day. the rural car- 
liers deliver letters at the farmer's door. 


ImjIAX I 'at J is. — flllS'l- lioAii.S. CoAiUKS. FkHKIKS. I.OTTEin". 

Canals. — I-Jait.roads. 

\\ luMi the Western l-ieser\'c l.;niil Coinpan^' sent its sur- 
veyors to nortlid'rn ( )liio. there was not a roacl\va\" in that whoU' 
region. There were nnmltei's of Indian paths whieii h'll I'l'dni 
one Indian village to another, or from river to rivei'. and one 
or two general jiaths from Pittsburg to Cuyahoga or Sandusky. 
A path on the lake shore had been nsed hy traders, missionaries 
and soldiers, and along this route the first road in gi'eater 
Trumbull (^onuty was built. When it entered the timber, trees 
were girdled thiity-thi'ee feet each side, and for this reason old 
letters and pa|iers always r(d"er to it as "the girdled road." 

The Indians us(jd the creeks and streams when it was i)rac- 
tieal. but the most of their travel was (huu' on foot. From a 
map drawn by Heckewelder in 17J*(i we find nuuiercuis Indian 
l)atbs. The one running from Pittslun-g to the Salt Spring dis- 
trict is the same as i;i\-en in all early letters and documents 
which mention i-oads and paths. This path lies at an anyle of 
about forty-five degrees; noith of Salt S])rin,iis it turns diiectly 
west, and assumes a northwestern direction uidil it reaches the 
Moravian village which iu 17Si) stond ou the east side n\' the 
Cuyahoga, not far from the mouth. 

This Heckewelder map iu man>" \va>s is inaccurate, iiut, 
since the Moravians were \itall>" interested in and dex'oted to 
the Indians, and knew so unich of their lives and habits, we 
believe that these Indian paths are cori'ectlv dejiicted. 

So far as we know, the second road of any distance iu old 
TrumlniU County was laid out by Turhand Kirtland. It started 
in Poland, followed rather closely the Indian path to Salt 
Springs, thence into Warren, and north on what is now Ma- 
honing avenue. In Champion it turned oil' to the west above the 
Poor Farm, led through Southington, Xelson, Paikmau, (J rand 
Bivei'. Over this road tlie Indians walkeil, the eai'iy settlers 


]-\s IllS'l'Oi;^- OF TKIMBULL COL'XTY 

weut on liorsebaek, and the first stage coaches sometimes rattled 
and sometimes plowed the mud. It was at different times known 
as the ])lank road, the turnpike, the state road. Today part of 
it is covered with macadam, and automobiles fly over it in races 
between Pittsburg and Cleveland. 

Every mile of this road surveyed by Kirtland is not posi- 
tively known. For instance, on Mahoning avenue it lay further 
to the west than it does now, and this deviation might have been 
true in many other jslaces. Of course changes were necessarj' 
as land was sold, fenced and lines straightened. However, in 
all the early diaries, mention is made of going by road to 
Young's, then to Salt Springs, stopping at Quinby's in number 
4, and very often at Mills', which was in Nelson. 

As the common highways in Trumbull County have become 
"good roads" because of the agitation of the bicycle rider and 
automobile OT\Tier, so did the old Indian paths, because of the 
settlers, because of the mail carrier, and because of the neces- 
sity of commerce, grow better and better, although even until 
very recently at certain seasons they were at times almost im- 
passable. The ox-cart was after a time replaced by a stout 
wagon. In the beginning these wagons had boards laid across 
for seats, and canvas tops for covers, and people rode between 
Pittsburg and Cleveland in these uncomfortable conveyances. 

A little later the coaches, rather small and uncomfortable, 
l)ut on between points where travel was heaviest, were drawn 
by two horses. In pleasant weather they appeared on time, but 
in a greater part of the year they were irregular. An early 
advertisement in the old papers is to the etTect that "four horses 
will be used on coaches to insure punctuality." A little later 
the big stage coach, with the swinging springs and upholstered 
interior, with place for the baggage on the back, came into use. 
These conveyances were very comfortable in pleasant weather, 
and many a pleasant hour has been passed among friends, and 
many good acquaintances made during stage-coach trips. When 
the weather was bad the circumstances were different. The men 
passengers (lady i)assengers were few) were often obliged not 
only to get out and walk but to assist in prying the wheels from 
out the half-frozen mud. 

All through old Trumbull County may l)e seen at this day 
1)1(1 weatherbeaten buildings, sometimes deserted, which show 
by the wide ])orch, the tall pillars, that they were taverns where 
the stage coach stopped either for change of horses, for pas- 

(Loaned by the Tribune.) 



sengers. or for meals. The coming of the stage coach, announced 
by the blowing of a horn, was an event in manj- communities. 
The drivers were often men of strong and peculiar characters 
about many of Avhom strange and humorous tales are told. A 
mile before a town was reached they would liegin the tooting of 
the horn, and men would leave their business, children their 
l>lay or study, and sometimes the women their liomes, to gather 
around the coach when it drove to the tavern, that they might 
see who had arrived, who was to depart, and to learn tlie news 
from the outside world. 

In the ))eginning the coach lines were short, Init grew in 
length as the territory settled. The route was often circuitous, 
to take in the villages of importance. People going from Pitts- 
burg to Cleveland came to Warreu, then liaveuna, etc. To go 
hve miles or more out of the direct line was not noticed. It was 
passengers they were after, and they nmst be gotten from hamlet 
and town. Under the most favorable circumstances the coach 
between Warren and Ravenna could be run in three hours. 
There are. however, people living in Warren today who have left 
Kavenna at eight or nine o'clock in the nioniing and not reached 
AVarren till after the darkness had settled down. 

As the coach lines became more numerous, peo^jle traveled 
b\' horseliack or wagon from one line to another, or from their 
town to a line many miles distant, if they wanted to take an 
unusual trip. 

The following people petitioned the legislature in 1815 to 
in('iiij)orate a company to make a turnpike road from Warren 
ti> ])oints along the fourth range of townships to Lake Ei'ie: 
Benj. Ijane. Se>Tnour Austin, James Quigley, Isaac TIeaton, 
John Hayes, Jeremiah Brooks, Mark Wescott, John Dennison, 
E. Quinby, AVm. Anderson, Geo. Parsons, Francis Freeman, 
Earlier King, A. McKinney, Calvin Pease, Elihu Spenser, Ileze- 
kiah Knapp, E. B. Clark, Daniel Bell, Samuel Quinby, Linus 
Tracy, Mark Leavitt, Eliliu Whitney, Leonard Case, Simon 
Perkins, Zalmon Fitch, Adamson Bentley, John Leavitt and 
Thomas AVebb. 

This recpiest was granted, and the action of this company 
is on record. Francis Freeman Avas the treasurer. Tliose hav- 
ing it in charge were exceedingly painstaking in their work, held 
meetings often, sometimes in AVarren, sometimes at the home 
of E]:)hraim Brown in North Bloomfield, and sometimes farther 
up the line. This long, almost straight road from Lake Erie south 


through Bloomfield, Bristol, Champion, Warren, was one of 
the best roads Old Tmnibull County had. Later this was planked 
at least part of the way. Between Warren and Bloomfield (fif- 
teen miles) there was ten miles of plank road. Toll gates were 
established ; one of them was just north of Warren, in the neigh- 
borhood of the present "Poor Farm"; another one was in 
Bristol. The writer remembers to have ridden by the gate in 
Champion when a child in the late sixties, but whether they were 
exacting toll at that time or not she can not remember. In 1818 
the legislature was asked to allow a road to be made from Kins- 
man to Cleveland via Bloomfield. 

The first supervisor of highwa.\'s in old Trumbull County 
was Thomas Packard, a brother of AVilliam Packard and an 
imcle of Ellen Packard Campbell, now living in Warren. It 
seems strange that AVilliam J), and J. W. Packard, who were 
among those responsible, because of their automobile factory, 
for the good roads of Trumbull County, should lie the great- 
nephews of this first supervisor. 

In 1848, when Seabury Ford was nominated for governor 
at Columbus, some of the delegates going to that meeting had 
the hardest coaching trip of their lives. The two youngest mem- 
bers of that convention were Jacol) B. Perkins of Warren and 
Ezra B. Taylor of Ravenna. They went part of the way by 
<'oach, part of the way by wagon. It was Feln'uary. Many times 
they got out and w^alked, and, finally, when within eleven miles 
of Columbus, plastered with frozen mud and dirt, they aban- 
doned the coach and walked in. 

The first stage coach running between Erie and Cleveland 
was in 1818. 

On 27, 1827, an advertisement appeared in the 
Westeni Reaerve Cliroidch' showing that the stages, which had 
. been running from Warren to Youngstown, via Brookfield and 
Salem, to Erie, were then extended to Dunl^irk. 

In 1828 the fare on the stage coach from Warren to Youngs- 
town was 50 cents, and from Warren to Fairport was $1.75. 
"Now and Then," in the Chronicle, says that when Paltzgroff. 
Shoenberger, Fulk kept the hotel which then stood on the cor- 
ner of Main and South streets, there were as many as eight 
coaches a day running from Ashtabula to Wellsville, and they 
stopped at this hotel for meals. 

If any reader does not sympathize with the movement to 
save the American forests, he has only to study the history of a 

(Photo by Andrews from sketch of John W. Bell.) 



IN THE '70s. 


small portion of the United States to see how the i-uttini;- of the 
timber atTects the size of rivers, consequently traiis|iortation, 
and prosperity generally. 

In 180G the Legislature declared the Mahoning river navi- 
gable to Newton Falls. In 1829, navigable to Wan-en. "Flat 
boats were paddled frt)ni I'ittsburg as far as Warren in all sea- 
sons easily, except at two or three shoals, where light lifting 
was needed." 

The early settlers had no roads, no bridges. When they 
came to the stream they waded or swam. After a time enter- 
prising men, at the jilaces where the road crossed the river, car- 
ried passengers on flat boats for money. In the auditor's office 
of Trumbiall County we find the following: 

"At the general meeting of the board of commissioners 
in and for the County of Trumbull it was ordered that the 
sales for ferry license for the year 1811 shall be $4.00, and 
the pay allowed to receive for ferriage for each man and 
horse 12iv: cents, and 614 cents for each man or woman, 50 
cents for loaded wagon and team, 37Y_> cents for every other 
four-wheeled carriage, 18 cents for an empty cart and team 
or sled or sleigh and team, 5 cents for every horse, mare, 
mule or head of neat cattle, and IVl; cents for each head of 
sheep and hogs. 

"Wm. McCombs. Clerk." 

Today there are about twenty-five bridges spanning the 
Mahoning river in Trumlnill County. This number does not in- 
clude railroad bridges. All creeks and rivulets have small 
bridges and sluice ways. 

The early settlers soon learned that because of the nature 
of the soil and the heavy timl)er, roads might have impassal)le 
places even in the summer time, and that the easiest way to 
travel was by stream where it was possible. Therefore in 1807 
they decided to take some action for improving watei'U'ays or 
constructing new ones. 

They determined to improve the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas 
rivers, thus forming a means of communication between Lake 
Erie and the Ohio. They were to dredge, clear and deei)en the 
rivers, make a road so good between the two that loaded wagons 
could be driven over it. The estimated cost for this was $12,000, 
and the legislature sanctioned it, but did not provide for taxa- 


tion. allowiug instead the ruiiniug of a lottery Ijv which the 
funds c'onld be raised. There did not seem to be any question 
about this being the proper thing to do, and the men who had 
rharge of it were among the most influential citizens. They were 
►Samuel Huntington, Amos Spatford, John Walworth, Lorenzo 
Carter, James Kingsbury, Turhand Kirtland, Timothy Doan, 
Bezaleel Wells, Jonathan Cass, Seth Adams, Zachias A. Beatty 
and John Shorb. H. K. Morse of Poland has one of these orig- 
inal tickets of tliis lottery. It reads: 

"Cuyahoga ct Muskegon Navigation Lottery. THIS 
Ticket entitles the bearer to such prize as shall be drawn 
against its number (if called for within twelve months after 
the drawing is completed), subject to the deduction of 12iA 
per cent. No. 4472. 

(Signed) "J. Walworth, Agent for Board of 

Commissioners. ' ' 

There were 12,800 tickets, price $5 each. The iirst prize 
was for $5,000; two prizes of $2,500; five prizes of $1,000; ten 
prizes of $500; fifty prizes of $100; one hundred prizes of $50; 
three thousand four hundred prizes of $10. The Commissioners 
had great faith in this lottery, and tickets were expected to be 
sold in Massachusetts, New York, and in local Ohio towns. 
However, the public did not take much interest in this matter, 
and after putting off the drawing from time to time, the scheme 
was finally abandoned and the money returned to those who 
had paid it. 

As early as January, 1817, a resolution on the construction 
of the Lake Erie and Ohio Canal was introduced into the legis- 
lature. In 1819 the question was again up. In 1820 a survey 
was authorized, and in 1822 the legislature provided for the 
survey of four routes ; one was to run from Sandusky Bay to 
the Ohio river; one from Maumee river to the Ohio river; one 
from Cuyahoga, or Black river, by way of the Muskingum, to 
the Ohio, and one from the mouth of the Grand river, via the 
Mahoning, to the Ohio. The commissioners into whose hands 
this work was given, at the following session of the legislature, 
reported that any of these routes could be used, Init asked for 
more time to consider which was the most practical. At the 
session of 1823-24 they chose the one for the Scioto Valley, the 
Iji eking and upper Muskingaim. In the summer of 1824 two 


routes were determined upon, one from the .Maumee livcr to 
Cincinnati, and one starting at the mouth of the tScioto, to Cosh- 
ot'ton, and then up to the lake by three different routes, in 
1825 the canal commissioners were ordered to proceed on these 
two routes. When completed the western one was called the 
Miami Canal, and the eastern the Ohio. From Coshuctoii the 
Ohio canal followed the Tuscarawas, cut the old portage and 
followed the Cuyahoga to Cleveland, (ireat ]ireparations wei'e 
made for the opening of this canal. General LaFayette Avas iu 
tills country, and it was exjiected that the first shovel of earth 
would !)«' lifted by liim at the jiortage sunniiit. This was the 
vei'\' spot over which the men of 1799 came, which the ivulier 
settlers had attempted to make a good road for the carrying of 
baggage. Two counties received their names from this spot — 
Portage and Hummit. Unfortunately, (General LaFayette had 
promised to Ite in Boston cm July 4, 1S25, and the whole plan 
was changed. The first ground was broken July 4-, 1S2.J, at Jjick- 
ing sunnnit. (Jov. DeWitt Clinton, of Xew York, who had been 
so interested iu all canal projects, raised the first shovelful of 
earth, and ex-Governor Morrow i)f Ohio the second. Hon. Thos. 
Ewiug of Lancaster, Ohio, was tlie orator of the occasion. 
The canal was completed from Cleveland to .Vkron in 1^27, and 
in 1830 boats were running from Cleveland to tiie Ohio river. 
The ]\Iahoning Canal was a branch of the Oliio, running 
from Akron to Beavei'. From that point the river was used to 
Pittsburg. The residents of Portage and Trumliuil counties 
worked long and faithfully to secure this canal. Con\(-ntions 
were held in Warren and in Eavenna. and in 182(1 a bill for the 
incorporation of the Pennsylvania and Canal was ])i'e- 
pared. This was ])assed by the legislatui'e in 1827. and was to 
be elfective when the state of Pennsylvania would i)ass a like 
one. The date of Ohio's act was January Kl; of Pennsylvania's, 
April. Notwithstanding this good start, nothing was done until 
1833, wlien meetings were again held and the chartei' of 1827 
was renewed and g'ranted December 31, 1835. Pennsylvania had 
also renewed its old charter. The city of Philadelphia was al- 
lowed to have $780,000 of the stock, and in less than an hour 
from the time the books were opened this was all taken. The 
wliole amount of stock was to be a million dollars, and the re- 
mainder, $220,000, in a few weeks was taken liy people in Port- 
age and Trumbull counties. Tlie stockholders met Ma>' ;il, 1835, 
at New Castle. The survev was begim in June of ]835, near 


Kaveniui. TIh^ wliole length of tlie caual from its intersection 
witli tile Pennsylvania Canal below Ne\y Castle to its intersec- 
tion \A-itli tlie Ohio Canal at Akron covered 82 miles. Ditches 
led fi-oni some of the smaller lakes in western Portage county 
to the canal. These were known as "feeders." 

it was iiard work to finance this as the work went on, and 
the governor of Ohio had to come to the assistance of the com- 
pany, bnt in IS-td it was opened for business clear through. 

For twelve years this was a success, and then the building 
of the Cleveland & Pittsburg Railroad, running through Ra- 
venna (1851), interfered with it largely, and the construction 
of the Cleveland & Mahoning Road brought about its destmc- 
tion. Peo])l(' wuuld neither ride nor ship goods on a slow line 
when tliere was a faster one. and in 186:^ the state sold the stock 
which it had in the .Mahoning branch of the canal to the Cleve- 
land and JMahoning Railroad Company. A few boats ran occa- 
sionally after that to pick u]) a little business which was oE these 
railroads, but eventually the canal was al^andoned. It was com- 
pleted as far as Warren in T'^.'l!). The IVcsfrni Reserre Chron- 
IrJr of Isl-AX 2;], 1889. says: 

"On Thursday last, Alay L'.'Srd, our citizens were greeted 
with the arrival of a boat from Beaver. The packet On- 
tario. Cai)tain Bronson in charge, came into town in gallant 
style, amid the roar of the cannon and shouts and hearty 
fheers of our citizens. The boat was crowded with gentle- 
men from Pennsylvania and along the line, and accom- 
p.inied by four excellent bands of music. On arriving at the 
foot of ]\rain street they were greeted ))y the Warren band, 
and a jjrocession formed which marched through the square 
to the front of Towne's Hotel, where a neat and appropriate 
address was made to the ijassengers )iy John Crowell, Esq., 
mayor of the town. " " " The rest of the day was 
spent in hilarity, and on F"'riday the boat left for Beaver, 
carrying about forty citizens of Youngstown, who were 
liighly delighted with th.e excursion. * * * Arrange- 
ments had been made by ^lessrs. Clark & Co. for running a 
daily line of packets from this ]>lace to Beaver. Three boats, 
the Ontario, Huron and Hudson, are fitted up in superior 
style to carry fifteen tons of freight and sixty ])assengers, 
and to leave YVarreii daily at noon and arrive at Beaver 
next morning." 


The cuinmittee of aiTaugemeiits for this celebration were 
A. jM. Lloyd, Lieut. J. Ingersoll, C. C. Seely, James Hoyt and 
J. D. Tayler. So far as we know, no descendants of th.ese people 
are now living here excej^t James, the son of James lloyt, who 
now resides in the Hoyt homestead on Tod avenue, and Annie 
and Abbie Hoyt, nieces of James, and ALs. 'Slnvy A'anGorder 
Kinsman, a niece of 'Sir. Ingersoll. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon a banquet was served, over 
which Gen. J. AV. Seely presided, and the toasts were many and 
patriotic. One of them was "The Packet Ontario — the first boat 
that ever floated the waters of the Ohio and Pennsylvania 
Canal." F. J. Clark of Beaver offered the toast, "The Village 
of Warren — we admire it not more for its own beauty than for 
the liberality and enterprise of its citizens." The music which 
followed this toast was "In the Green Village," and was played 
by the Youngstown Band. 

"When the canal was completed to Akron there was another 
gala-day foi- Warren. Governor Porter of Pennsylvania came 
Avith the i>arty, and there was liardly standing room on the 
)»acket. The visitors landed, walked in the deep mud up to the 
court liouse, where Gen. Simon Perkins read an address of wel- 
come and Governor Porter and others replied. The party re- 
turned to the canal boat and proceeded to Akron. General See- 
ly, who had been so miicli interested in the canal from the be- 
ginning, was taken ill on the boat going to Akron, and died soon 
after arrival. General Seely was the great-grandfather of ^Irs. 
John (Mary Van Gorder) Kinsman. 

Warren was a lively place during the construction of the 
canal. In the first place, everybody was filled with enthusiasm 
and courage, and then it was necessarj' to em])loy a large num- 
ber of men for the work, and the lioarding of these men lirought 
(|uite a revenue to the little village. 

As soon as the canal was tinished warehouses were built 
along its banks. The main one stood on the east side of Main 
street, exactly oijposite the Warren Paint Company's factory. 
M. B. Tayler owned this business, in whole or part, and long- 
after the canal was abandoned his name, in large letters of a 
brownish-red color, still remained on the end of the warehouse. 
Mr. Tavler'.« sons, George and M. B., and his daughters, Mrs. 
H. T. McCurdy, Mrs. B.^L Taylor and Mrs. Lucy T. Page, still 
reside in Warren. Mr. William Minyoung aftei*wards conducted 
the business in this same building, and was a successful mer- 


chant, dfaling in flour, feed, etc. His daughter, Mrs. Predmore, 
and his son, AVilliam, live in Trurnl)nll County, the fomier in 

After the canal was abandoned there was always more or 
less water in the bed, which was south of town. The canal 
entered Warren about where the B. & O. road runs now, on the 
west side. There was a lock in the neighl)orhood of the Van- 
Gorder dam. and here the canal crossed the river. Because the 
canal bed inclined in a southerly direction, and because the river 
was near, water seeped through the lock, and when the river 
was high, ran over. In this stagnant water, which in the recol- 
lection of the writer was covered with a thick, green scum, 
mosquitoes bred, and spread malaria, so that Warren was for a 
time a malarious town. The general l)elief is that these mosqui- 
toes little by little traveled down from the Cuyahoga river, 
where they were a pest. The towns along the canal, after its 
opening, were infested with them, and after the abandonment 
were free from lioth mosquitoes and malaria. This back water, 
running from the VanGorder mill eastward, was used by chil- 
dren for skating in winter and for fishing in summer. Many a 
nice string of sunfish has been snatched from this water in a few 
hours' time by little folks of that day. 

Before the completion of the canal the farmers in this part 
of the country made cheese. These were cared for in ware- 
houses, and when cured were hauled to Pittsburg for market. 
Iron, nails, glass, cotton goods, and dry goods were exchanged 
in Pittsburg and brought back. Sometimes the Warren mer- 
chants, Henry and Charles Smith, particularly, when the river 
was high, wovdd buy a raft or flat-l)oat and load it "with cheese, 
whiskey, dried apples and wooden clocks and go to Eochester, 
Pennsylvania," and then float down the Beaver and Ohio to 
Cincinnati, selling their products as they went. 

The Mahoning Canal was not only a great advantage to 
the county seat of Trumbull County, but it was of great advan- 
tage to Niles and to Newton Falls, both of which were flourish- 
ing villages. It filled a temporary Avant, and it proved to the 
people of Trumbull County that if they had means for transport- 
ing their products they would become a very prosperous people. 
In one year, 1844, M.' B. Tayler bought and shipped 1.309.620 
pounds of cheese. 

In 1840 there was built in Warren a canal boat known as 
the Trumbull. It was made as large as could go through tiie 

(Loaned by the Chronicle.) 


JIJSTOKY OF Tifr.MHru: corXTY j:'.r 

locks, and the Presbyteriau clnucli luoniisfd its Suihl;i\ school 
scholars a ride to Youngstowii. ('onse(|ueiitly, on .Saturday 
moniing, July 4th, the diildreu gatliered at M. 15. Tayk-r's ware- 
house and were suii^rised to find the banks of the canal fairly 
lined with the residents of the town. When they were all aboard 
ttiere were so many of them that the deck was lilack and there 
was little place to sit or rest. The man who was steering could 
not see the bank, and every little while would run into it. Much 
time was consumed in backing ofl' until they got into slack water. 
They had a delightful time going down, went to Kayen's grove, 
where the pie, the cake, the ginger liread and lemonade were as 
free as air. The sun Avas getting low before they started for 
home. Surely somebody was short-sighted. They worked their 
way until they reached Girard, where the boat was sto]iiic<l. 
candles and potatoes secured. The latter were to serve as 
sticks for the former. By the light of these tallow dips the 
noble ship ]>i'oeeeded. Whether it was imagination, too much 
cake, or whether there was a motion to the boat is not known, 
but what is known is that nine-tenths of the gallant passengers 
suffered tortures from iiial dc iiu-r. 'Sir. Irwin Ladd, now in the 
eighties, then a boy, wearing his Sunday suit, was a passenger. 
He suffered less from sickness than many of liis boy friends. 
One of these. Fitch Adams, was desperately sick, and Irwin lield 
him in his arms, notwithstanding he realized that his Sunday 
suit, because of contact with Fitch, would never Ix' the same 
again. So greatly did young Adams appreciate this kindness 
that he said nothing would ever be too good for IiTvin, and 
nothing he could ever do would be too nnicli tn)uble for him to 
do. He was as good as his word. It was between one and two 
o'clock a. m. of July 5th when the Trumbull was made fast at 
Tayler's warehouse. It had been eight hours coming from 
Youngstown. Among some of the Warren residents who jiartici- 
pated in this voyage were '\^^littlesey Adams, Sarah IT. Van 
Gorder, James G. Brooks, all of whom are still living. 

. It is seen that the canoe, the horse and saddle, the stage 
coach and the canal were not sufficient, nor etHcient to take care 
of the travel and traftic of north-eastern Ohio. In 1827 plans 
were formulated for connecting Lake Erie with the Ohio 
river by railroad. The point of starting on the lake was not 
definitely fixed, but it was to be either in Lake or Ashtabula 
counties, and it was to touch the Ohio river somewhere in Colum- 

138 1118T01;Y of TliUMBULL COUNTY 

biana county. One million dollars was to be used in its construc- 
tion. A few men could see tbe advantage of this, but even after 
the result of having a canal was seen, there were conservatives, 
and the money was not raised. Eleven j'ears later a company 
luiown as the Ashtabula, Warren & East Liverpool R. R. Co. 
was formed for the same jmrpose, but this time there was added 
$500,000 to their capitalization. The panic of 1836 and '37 put 
an end to this plan. In the meantime the usual thing happened, 
that is, there was a compromise — the Ohio Canal was built. 
However, the stage coaches continued to run and men believing 
in railroads continued to work. 

The first railroad built running through Trumbull County 
was the Cleveland & Mahoning. The conception of this enter- 
prise was had at Warren. The charter was granted February 
22, 1848, but the work was not commenced until 1853. 

Mr. Wirt W. Abell, a grandson of James Scott, still resid- 
ing in Warren, was a member of the engineer corps which 
worked on this (Erie) railroad. He says the first engine for 
that road arrived in Warren from Cleveland on the Erie Canal, 
and was slid over on iron rails and set up on the track. Mr. W. 
S Crawford, who had lived in Gustavus but then resided in 
Girard, was the first conductor, and acted in that capacity for 
twelve or fifteen years. Junius Dana at one time had a nin on 
this road as conductor, but kept it only a little time. The first 
train run on this road was July 1, 1856, and on the 4th of July 
a special train was run from Warren to Cleveland. The east 
terminal of the road at that time was about where the Warren 
Electric & Specialty Company's building now stands. There 
were several coaches for the accommodation of ladies, and flat- 
cars, with boards across, for men. 

Among the Trumbull County directors at that time were 
Junius Dana, Jacob and Henry B. Perkins. Charles Smith and 
Frederick Kinsman. 

To ]\Ir. .lacob Perkins is due the success of this road, be- 
cause at several times when financial disaster seemed imminent 
lie eiicouiaged his business associates and, at one time, stood 
l)ersonally responsible for a large amount of indebtedness. He 
died in 1859, but the people of the Mahoning Valley, even to 
this third generation, feel grateful to him for his courage dis- 
played at that time. He did not foresee it, but this 
act of his added largely to his personal fortune. In 1860 the 
engines runniny' on the Mahoning Road had names, and one of 


these, the newest and best, was called "Jaool:) Perkins." The 
Cleveland & ^Mahoning road in the beginning was and is now a 
paying one, and after its consolidation, or, rather, its lease, its 
steady earnings were of great financial benefit to the lessor. 

In 1851 the Franklin & Warren Railroad Company was or- 
ganized, the purpose of which was to construct a railroad from 
Franklin (now Kent), Portage county, thi'ougli Warren, to 
Pennsylvania. There were a number of iilans for th(,> cnnstruc- 
tion of railroads which would eventually join with this, Init in 
the beginning only this short line was to l)e constiucted. It was 
broad-gauged, but after several years of trial the width was 
made standard. All attempts at wide or narrow gauge railroads 
have been failures. So far as the writer knows, the only living 
original director of the Atlantic & Great Western Railroad is 
E. B. Taylor of Warren. Lewis Iddings, H. B. Perkins and J. 
X. Tyler were a connnitee to investigate where the road should 
go through Warren. This road, like all other early i-ailroads, 
had its financial troubles, and was finally financed by an English 
company, foremost among whom was ^IcHenry. The road was 
finally completed, and the J^nglish i)arty came to New York City 
and made a trip over the route. The people of Trunilmll County, 
although exceedingly self-respecting, always have been devoid 
of airs. Wlien the English party arrived in Warren, at the 
small station standing on the east side of ]\[ahoning avenue, 
where Mrs. Dietrich now lives, many citizens were at the depot. 
Possibly there was a regularly appointed committee to receive 
the guests. General Thomas .1. McLaiu, who was a prominent 
citizen, a lawyer, a banker, a man of fine i^resence, extended a 
Avord of greeting on behalf of the townspeople. The Englishman 
replied and McHenry was loudly called for. He was so modest, 
imassuming or insignificant looking that he was not recognized, 
although he had been standing on the platform all the time. lu 
those days the Illustrated London Neivs was taken veiy largely 
by the ])eople of the United States, many copies arriving regu- 
larly in Warren. In the course of time, a I'eport of this railroad 
tri]) appeared and the citizens of Warren had a good deal of fun 
at the expense of General jMcLain, because in relating the sto|> 
at Warren, the rejiorter had said, among other things, •'Here 
(Warren) the jjeasantry was all out in its holiday attire. .-ukI 
one large peasant stepped foith and addressed us." 

After a time the Atlantic «S: Great Western Rt)ad, through 
various changes and leases, became the New York, Pennsylvania 


aud Ohio Railroad Company, and finally, the Cleveland-Mahon- 
ing Company and the Fi'anklin-Waircn Railroad Company were 
leased by the Erie. 

The Ashtabula & New Lisbon Railroad referred to above, 
had only constructed tliirty-five miles, when, in 1869, it was sokl 
to private jDarties and operated until 1872, when it was leased to 
the Erie. It was the third railroad constructed in Trumbull 

A small line of road known as the Lilierty & Vienna, which 
was built in 1868 and extended to Youugstown in 1870. became 
part of the Cleveland-Mahoning Valley Railroad Conijiany at the 
time of tlie consolidation. 

In 187U a company known as the Ashtabula. Youngstown 
and Pittsburg Raili-oad Company was chartered aud entered into 
contract with the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad 
Comjiany, to construct a line from the terminals of the Lawrence 
branch of the Pennsylvania road at Youngstown, to Ashtabula. 
A piece of road from Niles towards Ashtabula, and another part 
of the Liberty & Vienna Company from Youngstown to Niles, 
were purchased, a connecting link from Niles to Girard was 
consirncted in 1873. This was the tifth railroad built in 
Trumbull County and was a part of the Pennsylvania System. 

In 1870 a company was organized for the construction of 
the Krst narrow-gauge line in this ]iart of Ohio, if not in the 
state. The i>artially constructed Painesville and Hudson road 
was liought for $60,000, and in 1873 cars were running from 
Painesville to C^hardon. Later arrangements were made with 
the contractors wherel^y the road was completed to Niles, the 
1st of January, 187-1-, and a little later reached Youngstown. 
The road went into the hands of a receiver in 1877 and after 
some delay became the property of a new company, under the 
juuiu; of the Painesville & Youngstown Railroad Company. 
About $1,300,000 in stocks and mortgages was the price paid. 
Just as the broad-gauge had not proved satisfactory, so was tliis 
narrow-gauge imsatisfactory. Time could not be taken to shift 
freight or passengers from one car to another. The gauge had 
to be uniform to avoid delay. Within a few years this road came 
in conjunction with the B. & 0. at DeForest aud it was leased or 
bought by the B. & O. It is the outlet from the Valley to the 
lake of the B. S: 0. System. In its early days its nick name was 
the Peewee, but now it is known as the Lake division of the B. & 
0. There are two or three railroads which run through Trum- 


Lull County, crossing townships here and there, l)ut tliey were in 
no sense develoiied or financed by Trumlji;!! County men or 

In l.'!^81 the I'ittslnirg, Y'oung-stown & Chicago Kailroad 
Company was incorj^orated in Ohio, and a similar company 
incorporated in Pennsylvania. This road intended to run from 
Pittsburg, through Youngstown and Akron, to Chicago Junction. 
These comjtanies in the same year were consolidated. 

In 1882, the Pittsburg, Cleveland & Toledo Railroad Com- 
pany was incorporated, as was another company, which was to 
run a line from New Castle Jmiction to the Ohio state line. That 
same year these two companies were consolidated under the title 
of the Pittsburg, Cleveland & Toledo Railroad Company. The 
capitalization was $;sOO(),000. Chauncey II. Andrews was presi- 
dent, and W. J. Hitchcock and Lucian E. Cochran, all of Youngs- 
town. were associated with him. This road became the Pittsburg 
& Western Railroad Company, and later the B. & 0. Company 
purchased the controlling stock of the Pitts])urg & "Western and 
it liecame a part of the B. & 0. System. 


Introduction. — Biogkaphic4l Sketches. — Stories. — List of 

Note. — The first page of this chapter on Bencli and Bar was written by Hon. 
F. K. Hnti'hins., assistant attorney general of the United States. He also wrote the 
sketch of Ezra B. Taylor, his lifelong friend. The author of this volume wrote 
the rest of this chapter and is responsible for any errors contained therein, although 
Mr. Hutchins read it. 

When Counecticut sold to the Land Company, she parted, so 
far as she could, with all her rights, jurisdictional as well as to 
the soil, hut whether a state could transfer its jurisdiction over 
half its territory to a party of private land siieculators and con- 
fer upon them governmental jurisdiction, was a serious 

Certainly the purchasers never attempted to exercise any 
such governmental jurisdiction or to enact any laws. They made 
frequent applications to Connecticut to extend her jurisdiction 
and laws over the territory, and to the United States to accept 
jurisdiction, but all were refused. The purchasers and settlers 
repudiated the Ordinance of 1787 as extending to this territory 
because to accept it would be to admit a superior title in the 
United States, which would be fatal to that of Counecticut and 
therefore fatal to that of the Land Company, and the settlers. 

Subsequently, in 1800, acts of Congress and the Connecticut 
legislature confirined the title of Connecticut to the soil on the 
Reserve on the one hand, and relieved the United States of all 
jurisdiction over it on the other. And then, for the first time 
in its history, the Western Reserve came within any civil juris- 
diction, and its people were protected and governed by law. 
But from the time of this sale by Connecticut to the Connecticut 
Land Company, in 1795, to this acceptance of jurisdiction, in 
1800, the AVestern Reserve was absolutely without law or gov- 
ernment of any kind. There were no courts, no laws, no records, 
no magistrates or police, and no modes of enforcing or protect- 



ing land titles, contraots or personal riglits. It was a veritable 
"no-mau's land" so far as government and law was concerned. 
This was a poor place for lawyers, as it always is where people 
will behave themselves withont them. It was not even a ])ure 
democracy, for there the ])eople meet to enact laws and enforce 
lights. Here they did not and conld not. Some seventy miles 
of nnbroken wilderness of forest, lakes and swamps, seytarated 
the two settlements at Cleveland and Yonngstown. And yet, so 
trained in civil govei'iiment and obedience to law were the 
settlers that they felt no need of either. Lands wei-e bonght 
and sold, personal contracts were made, marriages solemnized, 
and personal rights respected as in the best governed societies, 
and all without government and withont law. In the same year 
(1800) that the Reserve came within civil jurisdiction, the whole 
was organized into one county, with the county seat at Warren. 
The first judges of the Northwest territory appointed by 
the president of the United States were Samuel Hoklen Parsons, 
James Mitchell Varnum, and John Cleves Symmes. Of these 
three, Judge Symmes is the best remembered because of his 
claim of a hollow earth, and because of his connection with the 
famous Harrison family. He was born in New Jersey, but early 
emigrated to this coujitry, where he became a valiant soldier. 
After armj' service he devoted himself to a theory, his own 
invention, which declared the earth to be hollow, open at the 
poles, and inhabitable within. His followers were more in num- 
ber than it is possible for us today to believe, and he even asked 
Congress to make an approi:)riation to test out his theory. It 
does not seem possible that a man who could believe in so foolish 
a theory, could have been a college graduate, a delegate to the 
Provincial Congress, active in framing the constitution of his 
own state (New Jersey), delegate to the Continental Congress 
in Philadelphia, and judge of the Northwest Territory. Gen. 
Lew Wallace, in his life of President Benjamin Harrison, says: 

"The wooing and winning of Anna Surnames by William 
Henry Harrison is not without romantic coloring. When 
Fort W^ashington was established at Cincinnati, Harrison 
was stationed there. Duty called the gallant captain to 
North Bend, and he liecame a guest at the Symmes resi- 
dence. It was not long until he succumljed to the black eyes 
of Miss Anna. She was at the time twenty years of age. 
small, graceful, intelligent and l>y general agreement beauti- 


fill, lie was twenty-two years of age, with a reputation 
well established as a gallant soldier. The two were mutu- 
ally pleased with each other, and an engagement followed, 
Avhich could hardly fail to be satisfactory to the father. 
The Judge, in fact, consented to the marriage ; but, hearing- 
some slanderous reports of the captain, he afterwards with- 
drew his consent. The lovers were in nowise daunted. 
They resolved to proceed with their engagement. Novem- 
ber 29, 1795, the day appointed for the wedding, arrived. 
Judge Synnnes, thinking the affair oft' or declining to be 
present, rode to Cincinnati, leaving the coast clear. 

"In the presence of the young lady's step-mother and 
many guests the ceremony was performed by Dr. Stephen 
Wood, a justice of the peace. 

"Undoubtedly the father of the bride was a person of 
great importance at that time. He was a high dignitary- 
of the United States government and proprietor of a tract 
of land ducal in ])r()])ortions. The lady was beautiful, 
young, charming, of Eastern education and manners. The 
bridegroom on his side had fought his way to a captaincy, 
Avhich was a much more influential argument in that day than 
this, especially in social circles. Witli these points in mind, 
it would not be strange if a reader, giving reign to his fancy, 
should picture the wedding as of exceeding splendor of cir- 
cumstance. It was the very reverse. To arrive at the facts 
the time and the condition of the people of the region must 
be considered. The west was in its densest wilderness. There 
were no luxuries. To be comfortable was to be rich. There 
Avas no aristocracy. Store goods were scarce and at prices 
out of reach. Weeks of travel were required to get to and 
from the mills. For summer wear the settlers depended in 
great part upon the fibre of thistle, a certain species of 
which, growing spontaneously in the woods, fell down and 
rotted in the winter and was gathered in the spring and 
cleaned and woven by the women. Indeed, the probabilities 
are that the company assembled to witness the marriage of 
Captain Harrison and Miss Anna Symmes would astonish 
polite circles of today. They arrived on horseback, each 
man carrying a rifle, a powder-horn and a pouch lined with 
patching and luillets. Traveling by narrow paths cut through 
tliickets of blackberry and alder bushes and undergrowth 
of every variety, each step taken might be into an ambush 


of Indians. Tliey moved in tlie mood and ready for instant 
combat. A wife, coming with her husband, rode behind him. 
They dismounted at the door, as it was winter; ten to one he 
wore buckskin for coat and breeches, and a coonskin cap, 
while she was gay with plaided linsey-woolsey of her own 
weaving, cutting and sewing. Her head was protected from 
the wind by a cotton handkerchief. Coarse shoes supplied the 
place of slippers. The wedding cake was of New England 
doughnuts. On- the sideboard there were jugs of cider, very 
hard at that, and whiskey none the worse for its home brew- 
ing, and they were there to be drank. The dancing, with 
which the fete was most likely rounded olf in the evening, 
was to a fiddle in the hand of a colored artist who knew the 
plantation jigs as a mocking bird knows his whistle. The 
pigeon-wing with which the best dancers celebrated the bal- 
ance all was cut with feet yellow with moccasins. Such was 
in probability the general ensemble of the wedding. 

"The bride may have had an outfit of better material. 
So recently from the east, she may have had a veil, a silk 
frock and French slippers. The bricjegroom, of course, 
wore his captain's uniform, glittering with bullet-buttons 
of burnished brass, and high boots becoming an aide in 
favor with his chief, the redoulital)le Anthony Wayne, whom 
the Indians were accustomed to descrilie as 'the warrior 
who never slept.' Taken altogether, the wedding celebrated 
at Judge Symmes' house that Xovember day, 1795, cannot 
be cited in proof of a charge of aristocratic i>retension on 
the part of the high contracting parties. 

"Sometime afterwards Judge Synunes met his son-in- 
law. The occasion was a dinner party given by (Jeneral Wil- 
kinson to General Wa^^le. 

" 'Well sir,' the judge said, in bad humor, 'I i;nderstand 
you have married x\nna.' 

" 'Yes, sir,' Harrison answered. 

" 'How do you expect to sup])ort her?' 

" 'By my sword and my own right arm,' was the re])ly. 

"The judge was pleased, became reconciled, and in true 
romantic form happily concluded the affair by giving the 
couple his blessing." 

Judges Parsons, Varnum and SjTumes, or any two of them, 
constituted a court of common law jurisdiction. Their commis- 


siou exteuclcd during good beliavior. The next lower court was 
the count}' court of common pleas and the general quarter ses- 
sions of tlie peace. The court of common pleas must consist of 
tliree judges, not more than seven, and their jurisdiction was 
concurrent in the respective counties with that of the supreme 
court. The general quarter sessions of the peace was obliged to 
hold three terms each year, was limited in criminal jurisdiction, 
and the lunnber in each county was determined by the govern- 
ment. "Single judges of the common pleas and single justices 
of quarter sessions were also clothed with certain civil and crim- 
inal ijowers, to be exercised outside of court. The ])robate court 
of each county had the jurisdiction ordinarily granted to it." 
Judge Henry Clay White, in Bench and Bar of Ohio, says: 

"The expenses of the system were defrayed in part by 
the national government and in part by assessment upon 
counties, but principally by fees which were payal)le to eveiy 
officer concerned in the administration of justice, from the 
judges of the general court downward." 

The quorum which is often noted in the early accounts of 
the history of Trumbull County consisted of five justices of the 
peace chosen from the county justices who were appointed by the 
territorial government. This quorum was required to meet 
three times a year (that is, every four months) and was called 
the "Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace." It is often called 
"The Primitive Court of the North- West Territory." Most of 
the diaries and books of the early sun'eyors and first settlers 
contain lively descriptions of the first court of quarter sessions 
for Trumbull County. It was held l)etween two corn-cribs on 
Main street, near the spot where the Erie station now stands, 
in 1800. August 25tli chanced to be a pleasant day, so there 
was no need of shelter. Some of the diaries call this spot the 
"Public Square" or "Common." As many men attending this 
session had to come on horseback, or on foot, court was not 
called until four o'clock in the afternoon. It lasted five days, and 
Calvin Pease, one of the most capable and brilliant men of that 
early time, reference to whom occurs in several places in this 
history, writes as follows : 

"Court of general quarter sessions of the peace, begun 
and holden at Warren, within and for said County of Trum- 


bull, on tilt' ioiirth Monday of August, in tlif year nf our 
Lord 1801). and of the independence of the United States the 
twenty-fifth. Present. John Young. Tuiiiand Kirthuid. 
Camden Clevehmd, .lames Kingsbury, and Eliphah't Austin, 
esquires, justices of the (quorum, and others, (heir associates, 
justices of the peace, holding .said court. The tolldwiug per- 
.sons were returned, and api)eaied on the grand jurv and 
were empaneled and sworn, namely: Simon Persons' ( fore 
man), Benjamin Stowe, Sanmel Menougii, Tlawley Tannei-. 
Charles Day, Ebenezer King, ^Vill^am Cecil, .loliii Hart Ad- 
gate, Henry Jjane, Jonathan Church, .Jeremiah Wilcox. .lolin 
Partridge Bissell, Isaac Palmei', George Pheliis, Samuel 
<.^)uinhy and Moses Parks. The coiirt appointed (ieorge 
Tod, Es(iuire, to prosecute the pleas of United States for the 
present session, who took the oath of office. The court or- 
dered that the private seal of the clerk shall ])e considererl 
the seal of the" county, and he affixed and recognized as such 
till a pu))]ic seal shall be procured. The court appointed 
.Vmos Spafford, Es(|., David Hudson, Es(p, Simon Perkins, 
Es(|.. .John Ylinei', Pjsq., Aaron Wheeler, Esq., Esward 
[certainly Edward] Paine, Esq., and Benjamin Davis, Esq., 
a connnittee to divide the Comity of Trumbull into town- 
shijjs, to descril>e the limits and boundaries of eacli tnwn- 
shi]), and to make report to the court thereof." 

AhlKuigh .ludge I'arsons was. so far as v.'e know, the tirst 
lawyer to take \\\> land in New Connecticut and to discharge his 
duties a.s a judge, .John S. Edwards was the first to really prac- 
tice his profession. He was a graduate of Yale College, 
studied law in New Haven in .Judge Peeve 's celebrated law 
school in fjitchfield. Conn. He was a<lmitted to pi-actice in 1799, 
being twenty-two years old. His father had ohtained the town- 
ship of Meso]>()tamia in the distribution of the land l)y the Con- 
necticut Land Comiiany, and young Edwards came into that 
unbroken district to prepare a settlement. His granddaughter, 
Louisa Edwards of Y'oungstown, still owns a farm in Mesopo- 
tamia. His son says: 

"AYhat other persons preceded him or went with him, 
or how long he stayed, or what he accomplished, 1 am not 
informed, but I have understood he was e.specially glad when 

*NoTE. — Undoubtedly a mispriut for Perkins. — Ed. 


lie got a few trees cut down and let in the sun. I know of no 
incident but only of his first night in Warren, to which he 
refers in after time with amusement. The place was the 
floor of a cabin, crowded with emigrants, and somewhat pro- 

He returned to Connecticut that fall, but came back in the 
sjjring and practiced law, which, of course, must have been such 
law as would pertain to drawing of papers necessary in the buy- 
ing and selling of land, the making of land contracts, etc., since 
there were no courts. ^Ylien the county seat was established, 
Governor St. Clair appointed him recorder of Trumbull County, 
and this office he held until the time of his death in 1813. He 
lived in Meso]jotamia until he moved to Warren. The following 
is a i|notation from his journal, dated Februaiy -ith, 1801: 

' ■ \Vt' have Iteeu, as it were, for about six weeks shut out 
from the world, during a greater part of which time the 
snow lias l)cen from two to thi"ee feet deep and the creeks 
and rivers almost impassable. Our mails have been veiy 
irregular. I live as formerly, but, having a stiller house 
and my business better arranged, am able to pa^' more atten- 
tion to my books and have, for the last six months, spent all 
my leisure time at them, aud shall coutinue so to do. Law 
Imsiness is generally very much increasing, and my share of 
it in i^articular. Though I live very much out of the way of 
business. I coumienced for the coming court as many suits 
as either of my brethren. [Probably means Tappan and 
Tod.] T have not as yet moved to Warren, but still have it in 
contemplation. Our country is rapidly improving. The pros- 
pects of the settlement al»out me seem to In-ighten. Next 
spring we elect our militia officers from a brigadier general 
down. The pul)lic mind begins to be considerably awakened 
at its near api^roach, and there will be a vast deal of heart- 
Imruing. ^Vs I shall seek for no promotion in that line, aud of 
course shall not receive any, T shall remain an idle spectator 
of the scene." 

On .luuc L"), ISO!), he says: ''The business of my pro- 
fession ahine is sutHcient to support me handsomely, inde- 
])eiulent of my recordership, and I have the satisfaction to 
believe that mine is the best of any of my brethren." 

On October 17, 1808, he writes: '"'The multiplicity of 


my employment and tlie constant attention which I am under 
the necessity of giving to my business leaves me but little 
leisure. * * * In my i)roi"ession am very successful, 
having much the largest share of the business within the 
circuit. ' ' 

January 22, 1810: "I have every success in my pro- 
fession which I have a right to expect. I am alMe to (lo con- 
siderably more than support my family, aud the style of my 
living is equal to that of any of the people about me. I 
am not in the way of receiving any of the honors of office ; 
and whether I could gain them if I wished I do not know. 
having never made the experiment." 

In this Mr. Edwards was mistaken. In lSt2 he was elected 
a member of Congress to represent the sixth district. This was 
the first congressional election after the division of the state 
into districts. At that time the district was composed of the 
counties of Trumbull, Ashtabula, Geauga, Cuyahoga, Portage, 
Columbiana, Stark, Tuscarawas, Wayne, Knox and Richmond. 
He did not live to take his seat. 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwards were both strong and unusual char- 
acters, and were so closely identified with all the early life of 
Trumbull County that those interested in that side of this history 
will find much which is of interest in regard to them in the earlier 

A few months after ]\Ir. Edwards arrived in New Connecti- 
cut lion. Benjamin Tappan appeared. Enroute he had many 
vicissitudes and misfortunes, under which most men would have 
succumbed ; some boats belonging to his party were thrown upon 
the lake shore in a storm, his first load of goods put in camp was 
stolen while he was transporting a load to the present site of 
Eavenna, one of his oxen was killed by being bitten by insects, 
and he found himself in a new country without food or money. 
He was born in Massachusetts, had a good education, was ad- 
mitted to the bar. In 1800 he returned to Connecticut and mar- 
ried Miss Nancy Wright, a member of a distinguished family 
and herself a strong character. He was attorney in many im- 
portant cases of the early times, and was admitted to the Ohio 
bar at the same time that llunting-ton, Edwards and Tod were. 
He traveled back and forth from Ravenna to Warren, attending 
court, and was one of the lawyers in the McMahon case. In 1803 
he was chosen to represent Tnimbull district in the Ohio senate, 


and served one year. Portage eouiity was formed from Trum- 
bull in 1807, and the act erecting this county designated his 
house as the place of holding the first court. It is a tradition, 
not wholly verified, that when the proper officers proceeded to 
his house on the morning court was to ojjen they found it burned 
to the ground. So the court of this county, like that of its 
mother, Trumbull, was first held with the ti'ees and the skies as a 
cover. Mr. Tappan's life from beginning to end was eventful, 
but after the year 18(18 its narrative does not belong in Trumbull 
County history. He Avas, however, aide-de-camp to General 
Wadsworth in the war of 1812, judge of the fifth Ohio circuit, 
United States judge for Ohio; and United States senator from 
1839-45. lie was a good linguist and compiled "Tapjian's Re- 

George Tod came to New Comiecticut in 18UU, about the time 
of Mr. Edwards' arrival. He was born in Suffield, Connecticut, 
in 1773; graduated from Yale in 1797; he taught school, read 
law, and was admitted to the bar in Connecticut. He married 
Miss Sallie Isaacs in 1797. She was a sister of Mrs. Ingersoll, 
whose husband was governor. Two of his children, Charlotte 
and Jonathan, were born in Cormecticut. He was appointed 
prosecuting attorney at the first term of court held in Trumbull 
County, Warren, in 1800. He was identified with almost evei^' 
important act connected with the settlement of the new country. 
He was townshi]:) clerk in 1802-03-01; senator from Trumbull 
County for 1804 and 1805 ; again in 1810 and 1811. In 1806 he 
was ajjpointed judge of the supreme court of the state to fill a 
vacancy, and the next year was elected by the legislature to the 
same place. He was lieutenant colonel in the war of 1812. He 
held the office of judge of the court of common pleas from 1815 
to 1829. and a few years later held the office of prosecuting attor- 
ney for one term. He was sixty-eight years old when he died 
in 1841. He was prosecuting attorney at the time of the indict- 
ment of Joseph Mc]\rahon foi' murder. 

No history nor even short historical sketch of the early 
Trumbull County has ever b^en written which did not refer to 
the murder connnitted at Salt Springs. Because this pertains 
largely to law, it is given here. 

Joseph McMahon, a trader and somewhat of a w^anderer. 
with his wife and children, lived in several dift'erent places in 
and adjoining Warren. At that time the Indians were very nu- 
merous in this part of the country, but gave the settlers little 


real trouble unless they were under the influence of ''tire-water." 
MeMahon was not of the same moral standing as were most of 
the other settlers in Warren. He lived here as early as 1797, 
and x^ossibh' earlier. In 1800 he lived at Salt Springs, and in 
July he, with two other white men, was engaged in making salt. 
The old Indian trail and the traders' path from Youugstown to 
Sandusky led bj' this spring. Indians, having been in Youngs- 
town, became intoxicated enough to be quarrelsome, and on their 
return stopped at Salt Springs with their squaws and papooses. 
A carousal Avas begun in which McMahon and the two white men 
joined. Bad blood was soon evident, and the Indians drove the 
white men away. After the men had gone the Indians began 
to tease McIMahon's wife, and threatened to kill her and her chil- 
dren. McMahon was working on an adjoining place. Mrs. Mc- 
Mahon took her children and went to her husband, stayed over 
night, and he returned with lier in the morning. The matter was 
talked over with the Indians who were encamped near them, and 
apparently a satisfactory agreement arrived at. McMahon re- 
turned to Storer's to work. However, the Indians again became 
abusive, and struck one of the McMahon children with the handle 
of his tomahawk. As this had been going on for four of five 
days. Mrs. McMahon again became alarmed, and started out to 
meet her husband. Again they stayed all night at the Storer's, 
and the matter was talked over. On Sunday McMahon came into 
Warren for consultation with the settlers, and about thirteen 
men and two boys returned with him to Salt Springs. Mr. Quinby 
led the party, and, when a little distance from the Springs, 
halted, expecting to leave the rest of the party while he went on 
to see the Indians. This he did. He talked with Captain George, 
a Tuscarawa, and Spotted John, a Seneca, who was partly white. 
They laughed off the matter, saying that the white men drank 
up all the Indians' whiskey and then would not let them have 
any of theirs, but agreed to do them no further harm. They 
agreed that McMahon and his family could return and would not 
be molested. McMahon had not obeyed orders, had not halted, 
and when [Mr. Quinby saw him coming and tried to stop him, he 
would not heed. Going on to Captain George, he asked him, 
"Are you for peace or war! Yesterday you had your men ; now 
I've got mine." A tomahawk w^as sticking in the tree and Captain 
George raised himself from his position, seized it, apparently 
to sink it in McMahon 's head. Mc]\Iahon was too near to shoot, 
but, jumping back, fired, hitting the Indian in the bi'east and 


killing Mm. McAIahon, greatly excited, seeing tlie Indians spring 
for their weaiaons, called on the whites to shoot, and Storer, see- 
ing that Spotted John was aiming at him from behind a tree 
where he, his sqnaw and papooses were hiding, fired. "tStorer's 
ball passed through Spotted John's hip, broke a boy's arm, 
passed under the cords in the neck of his girl and grazed the 
throat of his squaw." All was immediate confusion. The whites 
beat a hasty retreat, the two boys who had come with McMahon 
ran a distance of nearly three miles without stopping. The 
Indians buried the bodies — or, rather, half buried them — and 
departed, leaving the wounded squaw and her children. They 
locating their camp near Newton Falls. The wounded woman 
immediately set out for tlie residence of Hillman, who seemed 
to be the friend of all in distress, and covered the nine miles in 
an hour and a half. Both Indians and white men were greatly 
astonished over Avhat had happened. None of them expected it, 
unless it was McMahon. The white men had gone with him be- 
lieving to find that he was an aggressor. He was arrested, and 
taken to Pittsburg for safety. A little later, as the rendezvous 
had been on the Storer place, there was some talk of arresting 
Storer. Having learned of this, he disappeared. In talking with 
Leonard Case Sr., whose mind was very fair and judicial. Storer 
said he had gone to Salt Springs with the intention only of set- 
tling the difficulty. ' ' He had suddenly found himself in imminent 
and instant danger of being shot, without any iDossible means of 
escape. He had shot to save his own life." Storer, like many 
other citizens of this region, did not Imow that the United States 
had assumed legal jurisdiction over this territory, and not know- 
ing by whom he would be tried, feared to stay. He was a gentle- 
man, and never ceased to regret he had been drawn into this 
affair. He left Warren, after a few years' stay. "On Monday, 
Mrs. Storer mounted her two horses with her three children and 
what goods and clothing she could carry and started for her 
former home in AVashington county, Pennsylvania, alone, except 
that Mr. Mills of Nelson, Avho was on his way to Beaver, accom- 
panied her as far as the latter place. The rest of her property 
was left to such care as a few friendly neighbors could give it." 
James Hillman, who knew and understood the Indians as 
well as he did the whites, acted as peace maker, and finally per- 
suaded the Indians to take up their hunting, and the whites who 
had gathered at Quinby's to go back to their homes, and there 
was no further trouble. In Septem])er these men were tried at 


YouDgstown before Justice lluutingtoii. Ketiiiu J. Meigs and 
Governor St. Clair attended. George Tod acted as prosecutor, 
while McMahon was defended by John S. Edwards, Benjamin 
Tappan, who was the first attorney in the territory now known 
as Portage county, Kavenna, and ]\Ir. Sample, of Pittsburg. 
McMahon was not found guilty. This was the first case of any 
importance tried in old Trumbull County. The stories told by 
diaries, letters and word of mouth differ somewhat. We have 
rather lieen taught to think that McMahon should have been 
hung. Leonard Case says : 

"The writer has heard that (Mc'Mahon's) verdict se- 
verely criticised, but he has no doubt that it was in ac- 
cordance with the law as generally applied to murders — the 
evidence being as. there given. Moreover, those jurors would 
have compared favorably with the jurors selected to try 
like cases at the present day. Joseph and John Filles, two 
young men, who were at the Salt Springs during the fracas, 
some three days afterwards stayed at the house of the father 
of the writer. They both made a statement to us, whicli was 
never given in evidence, which would have been material to 
show George's motive. It was this. During the drunl^:en 
scrape George several times said that lie had killed nineteen 
white men and wanted to kill one more to make an even num- 
ber. But the Filles left for the Ohio, and were not at the 
McMahon trial." 

Storer Avas acquitted. Thus the first important trial on the 
Western Reserve, like the last one. created differences of opinion 
among the residents of the community, and judges were accused 
of unfairness. 

Among the early lawyers most familiar with the Western 
Reserve was Samuel Huntington. He was the nei^hew and 
adopted son of Gov. Samuel Huntington, a signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. Like most of the first lawyers of the new 
country, he was a graduate of Yale, and had been admitted to 
the practice of law in his native state. In 1800 he came to Ohio 
and lived at different times in Youngstown, Cleveland and 
Painesville. He held numerous offices, was a state senator from 
Trumbull County, judge of the supreme court and governor of 
the state. In 1801 he removed from Youngstown to Cleveland, 
although he was obliged to come to Warren througii the woods 


to attend conrt. He was perhaps tlie most fortuuate iu a tiuaii- 
cial way of any of the lawyers of his time. His house, built at 
Cleveh^ud, was the most spacious and comfortable of any of the 
homes on the Eeserve. He kept servants and had a governess 
for his children. He was finely educated in other directions than 
law, speaking French fluently. He had had advantage of travel 
and foreign study. He was a member of the convention which 
formed the state constitution, and for nearly half the session he 
was the only representative that Trumbull County had in that 
l)od\'. In spite of all these advantages, he still had to endui'e the 
hardships of the ordinary frontiersman. He rode his horse 
through swamps, swinnuing streams, carrying his law books 
with him. When these early lawyers went in some directions 
thej- were obliged to take an extra horse upon whicli they packed 
not only their books, their clothing, but provisions for themselves 
and their horses as well, because the Indians could not be de- 
pended upon to provide even horse feed. As there were no 
bridges, and as the streams were mncb fuller in those days than 
now, all early ministers and lawyers, in buying horses, had to be 
assured that tlie animals were good swimmers. Many of these 
early professional men ran great danger from flood, Indians and 
wild animals. .ludge Huntington once fought a pack of wolves 
within what is now the residence portion of Cleveland with an 
umbrella, and owed his deliverance to this implement and to the 
Heetness of his horse. A great portion of his life was spent in 
Trumbull County. 

It Avill be remembered that next tu Augustus Porter, the 
ranking surveyor and the only astronomer who accompanied 
Moses Cleaveland's party wa^ Seth Pease. His reports are in 
the possession of the Western Reserve Historical Society, and 
much of the valuable information which we have came from him. 
He did not settle permanently in New Connecticut. His brother 
Calvin, who was born in 1776 and came west in 1800. was one 
of the l)est beloved and able attorneys of that time. There is 
no record that he received a college education, as did most of his 
associates, but Gideon Granger, who was postmaster general 
under Jefferson, married his sister, and he was a student in 
Granger's office. Although he was not admitted to the bar until 
October, he was appointed first clerk of the court of quarter ses- 
sions held in August in Warren. Pie was elected president-judge 
of the court of common pleas of the third circuit, which included 
AVasliinglou. Belmont, Jefferson, Columbiana and Tnnnbull 


counties. lie was nut ((uite twenty-seven wlteu he was elected, 
yet he jvidicionsly discharged the duties of his office. In ISIG 
he entered ujion liis dut.y as a judge of the supreme conrt. At 
one time the legishiture passed an act providing that "justices 
of the peace shoukl have jurisdiction in civil cases to the amount 
of $50, without the right of trial by jury." The supreme court 
held that this was in coiitiict with the constitution of the United 
States, which declared ■"in suits of common law when the value 
in controversy shnll exceed $l'(l, the right of trial by jury shall 
he preserved." and also of the state constitution, which declares 
■"the right of trial liy jury shall be inviolate." This <!ecision 
created a great deal of discussion, and so incensed weie the mem- 
bers of the legislature that charges for impeachment were 
brought against Pease and Tod. There were three counts against 
Pease. The trial was had in the senate chamber of the capitol, 
eminent attorneys serving, and the judges were acquitted. From 
that day the right of the supreme court to pass on the constitu- 
tionality of laws lias seldom been even c(uestioned. Judge Pease 
was a senator in 1812. Tie was full of wit and humor, and when 
attending court, as well as at home, was plajdng pranks on his 
fellow law\-ers. It is said that he used to take the crutch of 
Tliomas ]). Welti), when the lawyers were away from home at 
court, and in the night hobble into the rooms of the other attor- 
neys, play ])ranks of all sorts in such a way that the persons 
teased believed AVel)l) to be the aggressor. In spite of this vein 
of humor, he was exceedingly dignitied on the bench. Judge 
Thui'man says of him: 

"One of the finest si)ecimens of manhood I ever saw was 
( 'alvin Pease, then chief judge of the supreme court, dressed 
in a way that would make a dude faint, the most perfect 
dress I ever saw on a man, and the nicest ruffles on his shirt 
bosom, looking the very heau-ideal of a gentleman of the 
olden times. By his side sat Peter Hitchcock. Now what a 
team was that! "Woe unto that man who had a bad cause 
and tried to palm it off onto them. "What great men they 
were ! Hitchcock was on the bench much longer than Pease, 
though Pease achieved a wonderful reputation and a de- 
served one, so much so that Thomas Ewing once said to me, 
that of all the judges he had ever appeared before, in his 
opinion Calvin Pease was the greatest." 

"Wlien Gen. Simon Perkins was wanting a name for 


liis new to'\\Ti, which was set upon a hill, he appealed to Mr. 
Oloott for one that should be significant, but upon which 
-Fudge Pease could not pun. 'Call it Akron, since it is on a 
summit' said Mr. Olcott, and the suggestion was accepted. 
Later General Perkins laughingly boasted to Judge Pease 
that his town had a name that could not be punned upon, 
namely, Akron. 'AJkron, Akron,' said Judge Pease. 'Oh, 
Acheron ! ' Now, Acheron in heathen mythology is the name 
of a river in hell." 

Virginia Eeid, a great-granddaughter of Elisha "Whittlesey, 
prepared the following at the request of the author : 

Elisha Whittlesey was born October 19, 1783, in Washing- 
ton, Connecticut. His father was a descendant of John "Wliit- 
tlesey, who came to this country from England about 1630. 

In Elisha 's early boyhood he worked on his father's farm 
and attended the district school. One of his early teachers was 
the Eev. Jeremiah Day, who was aftenvard president of Yale 

In 1792 the father of Elisha sold his farm and bought an- 
other in Salisbury, distant about 30 miles. This was a long 
journey in those days, and the thought of such a separation was 
so painful to both the Whittleseys and their friends that special 
services were held in the church, and on the day of their, depar- 
ture the "Farewell Anthem" Avas sung by a weeping crowd, as 
the wagons were about to start. 

While Elisha was still cjiiite a young boy he was sent to 
Danbury to stay in the family of his older brother Matthew and 
go to school. The day he reached Danbury was wet and gloomy, 
and, wet with the rain and spattered with mud, he says he was 
homesick for the first and only time in his life. 

At this time Mr. Comfort Mygatt lived in Danbury and was 
the father of a very charming little daughter, Polly. One day 
Polly was coming home from school in her father's sleigh when 
she saw Elisha struggling along through the snow. She per- 
suaded the man who was driving to stop and take him in. Mr. 
Wliittlesey said to the end of his life that he fell in love with 
Polly at that moment, and it is certain that the boy and girl 
friendshiy) thus formed ripened in after years into a very happy 

In 1803 ElLsha commenced the study of law, and in the 
March term of 1805 he was admitted to the bar. His first practice 


was in New Milfoixl, and was of short duration, for at that 
period he met two gentlemen from Caufield, Ohio, and npon con- 
versation with them the young- lawyer decided to cross the Al- 
leghanies and establish himself upon the borders of the great 
west. This at that time meant a long and difficult journey, and 
before lie left he i^ersuaded Polly jNIygatt that this would make a 
new and unusual wedding trip. They were married on the 5th 
of January, 1806, although Polly's father had some doubts as to 
tlie wisdom of trusting his daughter to Elisha Whittlesey, who, . 
he felt sure, would never amount to much. 

They set out on their journey the 3rd of June, 1807, and 
reached Caufield, Ohio, the 27th of the same month. The record 
of the trip, written afterward by Mr. Whittlesey, presents a 
most natural and life-like ]iicture of the country and the manner 
and custom of the people. He concludes witli this sentence: 
"The journey was ended on the 27th of June, in a clear day, and 
the sun set as regularly in the west as at Danbury. " 

Miss Jessie Bostwick accompanied them, and when they 
were within a short distance of Canfield she and Mrs. AVhittlesey 
insisted on stopping for a little while that they might arrange 
their hair and put on their new bonnets, brought with them from 
Connecticut for that purpose. They wished to enter the town in 
state, and were much surprised to find that it consisted only of 
a little group of log houses, with but very few people to witness 
their impressive entry. 

For the first year the young couijle lived in the same house 
with Mr. and Mrs. Cook Fitch, and so limited were their supi^lies 
that they had only four chairs for the two households, so that 
it reciuired some management to seat guests. 

On one occasion, after the birth of Mrs. "Wliittlesey's first 
child, she and Mrs. Fitch were alone in the house, each with her 
baby in her arms, when a jiarty of drunken Indians came and 
demanded food. Xeitlier woman dared to be left alone with the 
Indians, nor to lay down her child, so they went back and forth 
together, carrying the liabies and In'iugiug food xmtil their dis- 
agreeable guests were satisfied. After the Indians left Mvs. 
Whittlesey was still more anxious, for they took the road toward 
Warren, and she knew her husliand must be returning home that 
way. Fortunately, however, they did not meet, and he I'eached 
Canfield in safety. 

Mr. Whittlesey was admitted to the bar of Ohio by the 
supreme court, then sitting at Warren, in what was called the 


Graeter House, lie jn'actioed his profession with great energy 
from that date until he went to AV'ashington in 1841. He attended 
to his farm also, taught the district school for several years and 
at a later period received a nnmher of law students into his 
office, some of whom have since heen among the most distin- 
guished of our public men. 

In 1810 General Elijah AVadsworth ajjpointed him his aide- 
de-camp, and in 1812 he entered into the service of the United 
States in the war with Great Britain. He was later appointed 
brigade major and inspector under General Perkins, and re- 
mained in this position until the troops were discharged in 1813. 

The first civil office held by Mr. AVhittlesey was that of dis- 
trict or prosecuting attorney for the coimty of Trmnbull. He 
had many amusing experiences in his rides about the country, 
and that those were not the days of race suicide is proven by the 
fact that one morning when he stopped at a farm home he was 
greeted by the news that the mistress of the house had just pre- 
sented her husband with her twenty-first child. Mr. Whittlesey 
himself became the father of ten children, all but one of whom 
survived him. 

In 1820 and 1821 he was elected rejjresentative in the state 

He was tiist elected to the Congress of the United States in 
1822. and was seven times thereafter returned to his seat by his 
constituents, until in 1837 he resigned. During a great part of 
this time he was cliairmaii of the committee on claims. This 
cnnnnittee Avas oue of the most imiiortant of all the committees 
of the house, re((uiring a clear head, a deep sense of eqiiity, the 
strictest ])robity and the most jiatient industry. 

In 1822 he formed a law partnership with Eben Xewton. 
wiiich continued until he was appointed by President Harrison 
auditor of the treasury for the postoffice department. He did 
much good work in this office, which he held until 1843. 

In 1847 he was appointed general agent of the Washington 
Monument Association, which office he resigned in 1849, when he 
was a])pointed by President Taylor first comptroller of the treas- 
uiy. He held this office through the Taylor and Fillmore admin- 
istrations, but resigned when President Pierce was elected, as 
they were of opposing political parties; but the president was 
so strongly impressed with the value of his services that he in- 
sisted on his rcuiainiug in office. U]xjn the election of President 


Buclianan lie a,i;;iiii jireseiited liis resignation, \vliicli \va> ac^ 

Tn May, 1S()]. lie was again apjiointeil ctinijitrollcr l)> I'resi- 
(lent Lincoln, and on this oecasion many eonunendations were 
issned by the pnblic i)ress, in one of wliioli the wi'iter says : 

"The President of the United States has recalled to 
the otifice of coni])troller of the treasnry the lion, hjlisha 
Wliittlesey of Ohio, and that distiugnished scholar and 
statesman has accepted the jiost of honor and responsibility 
assigned to hini. lie is a remarkable and most woncU'rful 
man. It was he who i-edeemed the postoftice department 
from absolnte chaos, lie is endowed with talents which most 
admirably tit hini foi' the office of coniittroller, through 
whose hands every claim against the government of the 
United States, real or nnfonmled, must pass. Ko just claim 
was ever rejected by liim and no unjust one ever succeeded 
in obtaining access to the national treasury. Even the fa- 
mous Gardiner claim was not allowed l>y him, and only suc- 
ceeded for a time because of the iTiterference of a congres- 
sional commission. If he had remained in his i)lace during 
the last administration he would have rmqiiestionably have 
saved the country many millions of dollars which were stolen 
by the clespei'adoes who hail found their way into tlie 

"And the very highest compliment," says another 
writer, "was paid to him in the fact that those of more lax 
and careless political and tinancial ethics long derisively 
styled him the 'watch dog of the Treasury.' 

In 1855 'Sir. AVhittlest'y sutfered a great loss in the death of 
liis beloved "unfe. who had been his constant and devoted com- 
panion, so during his later years he was a lonely man. 

On January 7, ISfi.'l, he attended to business as usual, had 
an interview Avith the President, went to Georgetown to attend 
to some affairs there, and returned feeling somewhat fatigued. 
as he had not been in his usual health for a few days. As was 
his custom, lie wrote in his diary liefore retiring for the night, 
and as he laid aside the pen he was seized with an attack of 
a})oplexy. A servant hearing a slight sound in his room went to 
his assistance, but he was past mortal help. His son reached 
him in a few moments, but so brief was the time of his ]iassing 


that the ink was not yet dry on the last words he had written 
wlien all was over. 

In the patriotic de\otion of his life no man of his generation 
surpassed him. He loved the church, he loved his country and 
gloried as a Christian statesman in all the triumphs of one and 
in all the prosperity of the other. His name shall not be alto- 
gether forgotten. "The memory of the just is blessed, and the 
vighteous shall he held in everlasting remembrance." 

Although Judge Mathew Birchard was born in Massachu- 
setts, his father settled in Windham when he was only eight 
years old. He had academical advantages, and studied with 
Roswell Stone. He was admitted to the bar in 1817, and formed 
a partnership with David Tod. He was appointed postmaster in 
1829, was president-judge of the court of common pleas, resign- 
ing in 1836. He served three years as solicitor in the general 
land office at Washington, having been appointed by Jackson. 
Van Buren i)romoted him to the office of solicitor of the treasury, 
which place he held until 1841. He was elected to the supreme 
bench in 1842, two years of which time he was chief justice. In 
1853 he was elected by the Democrats as a representative to the 
general assembly. A contemporary says that his knowledge of 
law was very clear, that he prepared his cases with great care, 
and seemed to have the qualities which particularly adapted him 
for judicial life. As he lived in a strong Whig community, he 
had to overcome some prejudice, and labored under some dis- 

Hon. Milton Sutliff was the first man elected to the supreme 
bench who was born in Trumbull County. Vernon was his home, 
and he was born in the year 1806. He, too, was coimected with 
Gideon Granger, his mother being a cousin. She was' a woman 
of strong sense, resolution, and had a remarkable memory. She 
was a great reader, as was also his father. Milton comj^leted 
the college course at Western Reserve in two years. He had a 
magnificent constitution. As a yoimg man he taiight in the south 
and ))ecame very much impressed with the slavery question. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1824, and immediately began prac- 
ticing. He was elected to the Ohio senate in 1850. Here he had 
a chance to do much good work for the anti-slavery committee. 
In 1857 he was elected to the supreme bench of this state. He 
Avas a life-long student, a man of extraordinary oratorical 
} lowers, and a good citizen. At the close of his judicial life he 


began lu-aeticiug liis i)ioi'e,ssion iu Warreu, aud continued this 
until his deatli. In liis will lie left a sum of money to the youth 
of Warren, to be used for a j^lace of amusement. The wording 
of this clause of his will showed clearly that lie intended this to 
benefit both girls aud boys. For many years this money was 
not used, because it did not seem possible to establish a social 
hall such as the will called for. It was not understood exactly 
what was meant. Finally it was combined with the Carnegie 
Fund and iised in erecting a library. The lower room in this 
library is known as Sutliff Hall, and as this is being written, is 
used by the young men of the city as a gymnasimn. So, thirty- 
one years after the will of Milton Sutliff, conditions are such as 
to make it possible to carry out in part the provisions of the will. 

Trumbull Comity has had upon the supreme bench of Ohio 
Samuel Huntington, George Tod, Calvin Pease, Mathew 
Birchard, Milton Sutlilf and Wm. T. Spear. 

One of the most picturesque personalities of the Ti'umbull 
Bar was Gen. John Crowell. He was born in 1801 and, like most 
of the attorneys who began practice in the '20s and '30s, he was 
l)oor and self-educated. His father was a carpenter living in 
Ashtabula county. He worked on the farm most of the year, 
attending school a little while each winter. When he was twenty- 
two he walked to Warren from Eome to attend the acad- 
emy at Warren, of which E. R. Thompson was teacher. 
Here he studied irregularly until 1825, when he read law in the 
office of Hon. T. 1). A\'ebh. During this time he was a teacher in 
this same academy. He began the practice of his profession 
immediately ui)on his admittance, 1827. He also went into part- 
nership with George Hapgood, in the Western Reserve Chron- 
icle, and wrote most of the editorials and like articles. He was 
a successful debater, and greatly enjoyed it. He was elected to 
the senate in 1840, and to Congress in 1846-48. In 1852 he re- 
moved to Cleveland, and the rest of his life, which was very 
successful, was passed in Cuyahoga coimty. He married Eliza 
B. Estabrook, aunt of Miss Mary Estabrook, now residing iu 
Warren. His children were a credit to him; one of them, Julia 
Crowell, was always more or less attached to her Warren 
friends, and visited here occasionally as long as she lived. Al- 
though Gen. Crowell saw hard times in his youth, as he grew 
older and more successful he was somewhat pompous. He had 
the old-fashioned oratory, and one time in addressing a .iui'v he 
<|uoted Latin as follows: "Procul, procul, esto profani." Gen. 


Lucius V. Bierce, who was an attorney on the other side of the 
case, taking a piece of i^aper, wrote the following: 

' ' Procul, procul, esto prof ani, ' ' 

Cried Gen. John Crowell, with uplifted mani. 

' ' Proeul, procul, esto prof ani, 

If I 'm not a damn fool, pray tell me what am I. ' ' 

This was j^assed around among the lawyers, and when the 
General turned from the jury to address the judge, he was 
greatly confused to see the entire bar in laughter. We do not 
know whether he ever knew the cause of this merriment. 

Charles W. Smith, born in New Yorli in 1821, removed to 
Bazetta in 1835, was a successful lawyer of his day. He, like 
his cotemporaries, worked and studied in the common schools 
as he had opportunity, later teaching and reading law. He com- 
pleted his law studies in Medina county, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1846. He married Rachel Anne Park, a sister of S. W. 
Park, of Weatliersfield. He practiced law in Niles for three 
years, removed to Warren in 1850, was elected prosecuting attor- 
ney, and was twice mayor of the city of Warren. He was a cap- 
tain in the war of the rebellion, and at its close moved to Charles- 
ton, West Virginia. He was a member of the upper house of 
that state, and practiced there until his death, in 1878. His oldest 
daughter, Sophie, who married Charles A. Harrington, was his 
companion and helper during his life. We often see this close 
companionship between father and daughter, and this was one 
of the strongest. His youngest daughter, Angie, married a 
nephew of Senator Mahone of Virginia. 

Thomas D. Webb was a native of Windham, Connecticut, 
born in 1784. Mr. Webb, like most of the early Connecticut men 
who were lawyers and leaders, in early Trumbull County, was a 
college man, graduating from Brown in 1805. He studied law 
with Hon. Zephaniah Swift, who afterwards became chief justice. 
Mr. We])b was admitted to the bar in Connecticut, and came to 
Trumbull County in 1807, settling in Warren. Here he prac 
ticed law for tifty years. His practice was largely in connection 
with land claims. He established the first newspaper of Trum- 
bull county. The Trump of Fame. Hon. Asa Jones of Hartford, 
Trumbull County, has a bound copy of this paper. In 1813 he 
bought the house from the widow of John Edwards situated on 
South street and supposed to be the oldest house in the city, and 
there he spent the remainder of his life. His office was, as were 


most of the offices of the lawyers of that time, on his place. lu 
1813 he was appointed collector of internal duties for the eighth 
district of Ohio. The taxes displeased the residents, and one 
night the citizens gathered al)out his house demanding his ap- 
pearance, saying if he did not come out they would tear down 
the residence. Being convinced he was not at home, they de- 
parted without doing- any damage. He was twice elected to the 
state senate. He served, however, only two years, refusing to 
take the other term. He ran for Congress against Hon. Elisha 
Whittlesey, and was defeated only by a small majority. In 1811. 
while helping to raise a building in Howland, he injured his leg, 
and it was amputated above the knee. He died in IS*;.'). 

Mr. and Mrs. Webb lived all their married lives in tlieir 
home on South street, and there celebrated their golden wedding. 
Mr. Webb was quite an astronomer, and being very fond of 
mathematics he pursued tlie study of higher mathematics as far 
as Fluxions, a copy of which he owned. This was the only copy 
in town, and a rare book anywhere. In Mr. Webb's later years 
Judge George M. Tuttle occasionally studied this l)ook with Mr. 
Webb. It is not now in the jDossession of the family. It is 
feared it must have been sold with some of Mr. W^ebl)'s books at 
the time of his death. 

Miss Elizabeth Iddings says: 

' ' My own recollections of my grandfather are not many. 
One instance I distinctly remember, however. One evening- 
three of the grandchildren were at grandfather's, and I su]>- 
pose we made considerable noise. After awhile grandfather 
offered each of us a cent if we would sit quiet for an hour. 
My brothers did not manage to do it, but I kept quiet and 
got tlie cent. When my grandfather gave it to me he said, 
.solemnly, 'Elizabeth, I am a very old man. I am almost 
ninety.' This made a great impression on me, as he in- 
tended it should. I have laughed over it a good many times 
since, as he was only eighty-one when he died, and this must 
have been ten years before that time." 

Wniittlesey Adams was born in Warren in 1829. He gradu- 
ated from Yale in 1857, and was admitted to the bar in Spring- 
field in 1860. He intended to practice law, and in this he was 
encouraged by his uncle, Elisha Whittlesey. Although he found 
the study of law very pleasing, the practice was distasteful. He 


disliked controversy, and early turned his attention to insurance 
business, which he conducted very successfully for many years, 
still being- in the same business with his sons. 

In IHG-i he received the appointment as paymaster in the 
United States army. He was identified with all the early historj' 
of Warren, and is more conversant with the same now than prob- 
ably any othei' ])erson in Trumbull County. 

Judge Rufus P. Ranney was born in Massachusetts in 1813. 
His father took uj) land in Portage county in 1824. The family 
was poor, and young Kufus earned money by chopping wood and 
by doing other manual laljor, as well as by teaching, not only to 
get a rudimentaiy, but a college education, as well. He studied 
law with Giddings and Wade, and was admitted to the bar in 
1836. AMien Mr. (iiddings went to Congress, he was Mr. Wade's 
partner for ten years. When ^Ir. Wade became judge, Mr. Ran- 
ney removed to Warren, where he soon became the leader at the 
bar. He was one of Trumbull County's members of the constitu- 
tional convention in IS.')!). Here he did remarkable work, and 
at that time was elected by the legislature to the supreme bench. 
After the adoption of the constitution the people re-elected him 
to this position, which he held till 1856, when he resigned to 
take uj) his jjractice in Cleveland. He was one of the finest law- 
yers of his time. 

Rufus P. Spaulding was Ijorn in AVest Liljerty, ilassachu- 
setts, in 1798, just as the C'onnecticut Land Company was open- 
ing \ip the Reserve. ANHien he was fourteen his i^eople moved to 
Noi-wich. Connecticut. He graduated from Yale at nineteen and 
i-ead law with Judge Swift, chief justice of the state. When he 
first went west he practiced in Little Rock, Arkansas, where he 
remained one year and a half. He then moved to Warren, where 
he resided sixteen years, living jiart of the time at the head of 
Franklin street. He then went to Portage county, and his later 
history belongs to that county. He possessed a profound knowl- 
edge of the law, was a good debater, "while his digTiitied appear- 
ance heightened the effect of his argaiments." He turned from 
the Democratic to the Repul>lican party because of the slavery 
question. In 1S62 he was a representative in Congress. 

Ira Ij. Fuller, born in New York, came to Brookfield in 1833. 
Tieing then seventeen years old. He had the usual education 
in the common schools; was not a college graduate. Two years 
later he became clerk of the Warren postoffice, when David Tod 
was postmaster. He then read law, and was admitted to the bar 


in 1840. He nerved twd teiiiis as prosecuting attorne\ of tlie 
county, and for three years as probate judge, lie died in 1874. 
He was an estimable nian. l)ut because of his strong sympathy 
with tlie south during tlie war was severely criticized by his 
fellow attorneys, lie married Mary Stevens, the daughter of 
Horace Stevens, and had a large faiiiil\' of chiidreii. aH of whom 
prospered. .Additional information in regard to him and his 
family is given elsewhere in the liistory. 

John F. i'eaver is iiex'er to be foi'gotten by the yonngei' 
people of today who saw him, and by the i)eo])le who <rKl business 
with him. He was a nnicpie figure, — strong of liody and mind, 
wholly indilt'erent to his appeai'ance in dress, and rather brusque 
of manner. He was born in Pennsylvania, and like so many of 
the men of his age who came from that state, he o])tained his 
education under the greatest ditticnlties. It is tradition tiiat he 
was at one time a law iiailner of TTon. Edgar Cohen, a United 
States .senator from Pennsylvania. This is not wholly verified. 
He lived in Pittsburg for a time, where, by great industry, he 
made and saved money, but, not liking the city, he purchased a 
farm and mill ])]-oi)erty in Newton Falls in 1841, and for a time 
abandoned the actual ])ractice of law. His ability was recognized 
in his new home. He became state senator, serving three terms. 
His late life was exceedingly hap^iy because he had the respect 
of his fellow men, liad ]ilenty of means, had land of his own ui)on 
which lie could hunt, and IxM-ause he was an onmi\'orous reader 
and an unusual coiixcrsatioiudist. He was often spoken <if as 
"Old John Beaver," and ihe mention of his name almost always 
caused good feeling, lie died when he was 77 years old. 

Jonathan Ingersoll was educated for the L'nittd States 
navy, and when 1)ut a ))oy went on a cruise in the Old Constitu- 
tion, going almost around the world. He i-esigned from the navy 
in 1836, married Catherine Seely, a daughter of Dr. Sylvanus 
Seely, in 1838. Having i)re]iared himself for the law, lie ))egaii 
practice, and about U840 was clerk of the court of connuou )ileas, 
which office he held for seven years. He was then clerk of the 
supreme court of Trumbull Coimty. He died in 1875. 

Hon. John Hutchins, although he lived in Cleveland in the 
last years of his life, was i-eally identified with the history of 
Trumlmll County. His ancestors came from Connecticut in 
1800, making the journey with ox teams, and settling in Vienna. 
He had all the advantage of the men of his time in education, for, 
aside from common schools, he attended Western Eeserve Col- 


lege. He studied law with J)avid Tod, and was admitted in 1838 
in New Lisbon. Later he was elerk of the Trumbull Coimty 
court for five years. He had at ditf'erent times as his }iartners 
David Tod, B. F. Hoffman, J. L). Cox, Milton Hutliff and others. 
He succeeded Josln;a E. Giddings in Congress in 1858. serving 
fwo terms. He removed to Cleveland in 1868. 

Although R. W. Eatliii' was a soldier and a banker, he prac- 
ticed law for many years in Trumbull County. Like most of the 
young men of his time, he worked pai't of the year on the farm 
and attended school. He finished his law course with 
Wade & Ranney, and was admitted in 1846. During 
this law course he taught school in the little one-story 
schoolhouse which stood on High street near Elm, and upon 
which lot, many years after, he erected a beautiful 
home for himself and family. He was in partnership 
at one time with Judge B. F. Hoffman, with John Hutchins, with 
J. D. Cox, and William T. Spear, afterwards supreme judge. He 
was lieutenant-colonel of the Second Ohio Cavalry, did service 
in the Indian expedition in Kansas, was in Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee, later raised the 12th Ohio Cavalry Regiment, of which 
he was first lieutenant, and of which he afterwards became 
colonel. He was made brigadier-general for gallant service, and 
was severely wounded at Duck Creek, Tennessee. Upon his re- 
turn from the army he resumed the practice of law, and after- 
wai'ds became cashier of the Second National Bank. He married 
Olive, the sister of Samuel Freeman, for his first wife, and Jane 
Tod, the sister of Mrs. Samuel Freeman, for his second wife. 
He had two daughters by the second marriage, both of whom are 
living. He was greatly beloved and respected in the community. 

General M. D. Leggett and (leneral J. D. Cox were both 
lawA'crs of Trmnbull County, but were educators and soldiers as 
well. .VccouTits of their lives and works are fomid in other 

Mr. Selden Haines, the great-uncle of Judge D. R. (rilbert, 
was one of the early meml)ers of the bar. He graduated at Yale, 
and says: "In the spring of 18ol I located at Poland, then in 
Tiumbull County, hung out my shingle. The principal influen- 
tial members of the bar of Trumbull were AVhittlesey & Newton, 
of Canfield, Hine & Rockwell, of Yonngstown, Thomas D. Webb, 
Gen. R. Stone, R. P. Spaulding, Birchard & Tod, John Crowel! 
(of Wan-en), George Swift, of Kinsman. George Tod of Brier 
Hill was the i)residing judge. AVhittlesey & Newton always had 


the largest calendar of causes. Joshua R. Giddings attended' 
court in Trumbull. AVade was associated with him. At Poland 
I was on the direct route from Pittsburg to Cleveland, and, 
through the aid of the hotel keeper, I secured quite a business 
from Pittsburg and Philadelphia ; besides I was honored with 
the digiiity of .iustice of the peace. By the most rigid economy 
I secured a living. In addition to other positions, I connnanaed 
a regiment of riflemen for five years. My last official act as 
colonel was to command the escort that was called out by SheriiT 
Mygatt when he executed the extreme penalty of the law upon 
Ira Gardner, who murdered his step-daughter in Gustavus." 

Benjamin F. Hoffman came from Pennsylvania to Ohio in 
1833. He intended to teach school and survey land, l)ut instead 
he studied law in David Tod's office. It was not his intention to 
be a lawj-er, but he grew to like it, went to Cincinnati for a six- 
months' course. He was there admitted to the bar in 183(5, and 
formed a partnership with Hon. George Tod at Warren. When 
David Tod was elected to the senate he held the po- 
sition of i^ostmaster. I\Ir. Hoffman succeeded him as post- 
master. Mr. Hoffman was associated at different times 
with Hon. Mathew Birchard, Hon. John Hutchins and 
Colonel R. ^Y. Ratliff. He was elected ,iudge of the second sub- 
division of the ninth judicial district in 1856, was Governor 
Tod's private secretary in 18(il, and resided in Warren until 
1870. He is at this writing living in Pasadena, California, at 
the age of ninety-seven. 

Gen. L. V. Bierce was born in 1801. His father, a 
Connecticut farmer, moved to Xelson, Ohio, in 1816. 
Earned his living at Ohio Tniversity where he obtained 
his ediaeation. He was examined by Elisha AMiittlesey, 
John C. "\A'right and Thomas Webb. Judge George Tod 
became interested in him and appointed him i)rosecuting 
attorney in 1836. He mov(-d to Ravenna and lived 
there until 1837, when he went to Akron. Although he was 60 
years old when the war broke out, he raised two companies of 
marines. He boarded them for two days and partially clothed 
them and delivered them at the Washingion Navy Yard. Re- 
turning home he raised a company of one hundred men for the 
artillery service. He was too old to go himself. He was elected 
to Ohio senate by 3,000 majority. Being appointed assistant 
adjutant general of the Ignited States in 18()3, he disbursed over 


a million dollars. In 1S75 he gave his entire in'oiierty of 
$3(),UtlO to Akron for public biiildings. 

Joel W. Tyler was identified with the bar of the Western 
Reserve and lived in Warren in 1858, fonning a partnership 
with Judge Mathew Birchard. Two years later he was elected 
judge of the court of common pleas and said that he would hoUl 
his office until some man who was in the army was wounded or 
made unfit for service, when he would resign in his favor. He 
was elected for the second term and yielded his place to Judge 
Albert Yeomans, who was badly wounded in the army and who 
long held the office of probate judge. 'Sir. Tyler taught school, 
attended the Western Reserve Academy at Hudson, studied law 
with Tilden and Ranney of Ravenna ; practiced a while at Gar- 
rettsville, removed to Kent in 1851. He became interested in 
the Atlantic & Great Western Railway as an attorney, lived in 
Mansfield, then in Warren, and in 1865 moved to Cleveland, 
where he lived the rest of his life. 

Charles E. Glidden was born in Claremont, New Hampshire, 
in 1835. He studied law in Xew York state and at Poughkeei^sie. 
graduating at the Law College there in 1855. He removed to 
Poland that same year and was admitted to the bar in 1856 at 
Ravenna. He practiced law in Poland until 1862, when he was 
elected judge of the court of common pleas. His term expired 
in 1867. He then fonned a partnership with Hon. F. E. Hutch- 
ins and John M. Stull. He practiced until 1872, when he was 
again elected judge. At the expiration of his term, 1877, he 
resumed i^ractice in Warren, but his health soon failed and lie 
removed to Massachusetts, where, after a long illness, he died. 
He was married in 1856 to Mrs. Eliza K. Morse, of Poland. They 
had one son, Charles, who now lives in New England. 

Levi Sutliff was bom in Vernon in 1805. He belonged to a 
family of lawyers, being a brother of Milton and Calvin. Both 
his father and mother had unusual mental attainments. The 
getting of an education for young men of his time was exceed- 
ingly difficult. He did not study law until middle life. He was 
admitted to the bar in 1840. Ten years later he removed to 
Warren, having had rural practice before that. He formed a 
partnership with Judge Birchard, but soon retired to care for 
his property interests. Although a lawyer he is better known 
as a business man, as a slavery agitator and as a student. He 
married Miss Mary Plum, of Vernon, for a first wife, and Miss 
Phoebe L. Marvin, of Bazetta, for the second. He died in 1864. 


Mrs. Sutlift' and her (laughter. Miss I'hoel)^, lixe ii: Warren, 
while the youngest daughter, Mrs. Ed. Braiuard, lives in Toledo. 

Calvin G. Sutlift', a brother of Miltou and Levi, was born in 
Vernon in 1808. He was a partner of his brother, Milton, and 
afterwards formed a partnership with Hon. John llutehins. He 
had a tine mind, was very industrious, liad a good practice. In 
the midst of life, when he was forty-four, he died from a cold 
which he contracted when on business in Geanga county. He 
was a powerful man, jthysically, being six feet two inches high. 
He married Miss Hannah Bennett, of Hartford, in 1845. Mrs. 
Sutliff was a sister of Mrs. Samuel Quinby, and later married 
C. W. Tyler. Of her four children by her first marriage three 
are now living, [Mrs. Homer Stewart, of Warren, being one of 

Col. Koswell Stone was a lawyer of learning and distinction, 
of tine i^ersonal appearance. He was prosecuting attorney in 
1823. The legislature then appointed common pleas juilges, and 
Slone was slated for that nomination. Mrs. Stone was an accom- 
plished woman and for some time taught a school for young 
ladies, which was attended by Innue folks and foreigners as well. 
She still lives in Warren. Mr. Stone was identified with the 
bar in the sixties and was successful. His son, Fred Stone, is 
county auditor. Mention of jNlr. Stone and family is made 

Judge Albert Yeomans was born in Kinsman in 182(). He 
was educated in the district schools there and in the (irand 
River Institute at Austinburg. He studied law with (Icncral 
Crowell in Warren. He early entered the I'nion army and \va> 
badly wounded at the battle of Chickamauga. causing i)erma- 
nent lameness. In 18(i4 he was elected probate judge, and served 
until 1879. His term of office as judge was the longest of any 
in the history of Trumbull County. He was an invalid for some 
years before his death. He was twice married. His first chil- 
dren do not live in Trumbull County. His second wife, Amelia 
Adams, and two daughters, Mrs. George Bunting and ]\lrs. J. C. 
Oriel, survive him. 

Francis Edwin Hutchins, born in New Milford, Litchfield 
count3% Connecticut, September 16, 1826, was the second of 
three sons of Myron M. and ]\lary Porter Hutchinson. His 
father was the son of John Hutchinson, who claimed to be a 
lineal descendant of the royal governor of ^fassachusetts of that 


By the advice of his hiw i^receptor, ]Mr. Ilutehius dropfjed 
the last syllable of his name — much to his regret in later years — 
and has ever since been known by the name of Hutchins. 

In 1832 the family removed from Connecticut to Northfield, 
then in Portage county, Ohio, and in 1835 they went to western 
Michigan, where they remained till the fall of 1844. They then 
returned to Ohio, and settled in Youngstown. His education 
has been self-acquired. The whole time of his attendance at 
school, aside from a little while in Michigan, would not exceed 
one year. He was of studious habits, and thus educated himself. 

In the latter part of the season of 1845 he went one trip 
from Youngstown to Cleveland as driver of a canal boat, and 
I'eturned first as bowsman and then as steersman of the same 
boat, and the rest of the season he ran it as captain, as he did 
another boat the next summer. He worked some time in a 
foundry in shaping and dressing by liand the wood work of 
]iloughs. He spent one year in learning the carpenter trade, and 
then worked six months as a journeyman at that trade; and 
began reading law on a pecuniary capital of nineteen dollars due 
him from his employer, and for which he had to sue, and to dis- 
count the judgment obtained for seventeen dollars cash. 

He read law in Youngstown, and was admitted to the bar 
August, 1851, and on Decemlier 11, 1851, was married to Eliza- 
beth M. Sanderson. 

He continued the practice of the law in Youngstown until 
1859, when he removed to Warren, Trumbull County, where 
he has since resided. 

In 1864 he entered the "hundred days" service in the army 
as captain of Company A, 171st Eegiment, Ohio Volunteers, and 
was, for a time, the superintendent of the rebel prison on John- 
son's Island in Lake Erie; and from there was ordered to Cin- 
cinnati as judge-advocate of a military commission, in which 
capacity he served i;ntil attacked liy tyj^hoid fever, from which 
he was not entirely recovered at the expiration of his term of 

He was a delegate to the Republican convention which, in 
1896, nominated William McKinley for president. 

He had kno^rni Mr. McKinley well from the time the latter 
entei-ed the academy at Poland, before he went into the army. 
They were very warm ]3ersonal friends. He examined ]\IcKin- 
ley on his admission to the bar at Warren, and was very highly 
esteemed by him, jiersonally and as a lawyer. 


lie was uieiitioned for election as one of the jntlges of the 
suiireme court of Ohio, but partial and increasing deafness, the 
result of typhoid fever in tlie army, not only prevented this, but 
gi'eatly interfered with his practice; and so much so that Mc- 
Kinley said after liis nomination that, if elected, he was going 
to find some place for ISlv. Hutchins. 

A warm friendship and nuitual admiration existed between 
him and Hon. Luther Day, the father of Associate .Justice Will- 
iam R. Da}', of the United States Supreme Court. Judge Luther 
Day was on the bench in his district when Mr. Hutchins came 
to the bar; and he practiced before him several years in the 
supreme court and lower courts. 

In February, 1898, Mr. Hutchins was in Washington and 
called on his old friend. President McKinley. The great topic 
tlien was war with Spain for the benetit of Cuba. Congress and 
the people wanted it, but the president lield back, first because 
we were not ready for war, and, second, no justification for our 
hostile interference in the government of her own colonies by a 
friendly nation which would be held sufiicient by other nations 
had been formulated. On being asked by the president, ^Ir. 
Hutchins gave his views, wliich so impressed the president that 
he asked him to state them to Acting Secretary of State Day, 
and that was done. 

Upon calling later to take leave of the secretary, he re- 
cpiested Mr. Hutchins to formulate his views upon that subject 
in a letter to him. This was done in a letter of Februarv 13, 

Early in April the ])resident requested each member of his 
cabinet to submit his individual views of the causes which would 
justify our hostile interference with Spain with reference to 
Cuba. This was done. Secretary Day presenting the letter of 
Mr. Hutchins, as expressing his views. In his war message to 
Congress of April 11th the president, in stating the causes which 
in his opinion justified our hostile interference with Spain, 
copied almost verbatim from this letter of Mr. Hutchins. This 
has since become a part of the international law, as expounded 
by writers; and is copied as Mr. Hutchins wrote it, in Taylor on 
International Law, ])ages 421 and 4l!2. 

On June 1, 1898, Mr. Hutchins was, at tlie special re(|uest 
of President ]\IcKinley and Secretary of State William E. Day, 
appointed by Attorney-General Griggs as S])ecial assistant to 
the attornev-general, which office he still holds. As showing 


the estimation in which he has been held in that department, it 
may be added that he was directed by the attorney-general to 
examine the case and propose a bill in chancery to foreclose the 
government's lien of nearly sixty million dollars against the 
Central Pacific Railroad Company, for the subsidy bonds issued 
in aid of the construction of its road. When this had been jire- 
pared, the comjtany made a settlement, by which it was agreed 
that the corporation should be reorganized and the whole debt 
assumed by bonds secured by mortgage upon its whole property. 
As the attorney-general was about starting with President ]\Ic- 
Kinley on his western tour, these bonds were tendered to the 
treasurer of the United States for his approval and accei^tance, 
and the question of their sufficiency and acceptance had been 
referred to the attoruej'-general, who directed Mr. Hutchins to 
examine and report to the treasurer whether the coriioratiou 
had been proi)erly reorganized and incorporated in all the states 
and territories into which the road ran, and whether the bonds? 
were in accordance with the agreement and such as should be 
accepted. This he did, and upon his advice the bonds for this 
large sum were accepted by the treasurer and the matter closed. 
His business is much in the way of preparing the opinions of 
the attorney-general, when asked for by the president or the 
head of a department ; letters of instruction to the various dis- 
trict attorneys throughout the countiy, and in opinions upon the 
various legal (|uestious arising in the administration of the gov- 

Though now ])ast eighty-two years of age, and })artially 
hlind and deaf, he is still vigorous and active, and retains his 
mental faculties unabated. 

John M. Stull was oue of the most generous lawyers of 
Warren, had many friends, and Avas devoted and loved by the 
people of his own church, the Methodist. He was of German and 
Scotch-Irish lilood. His fatlier died when he was twelve years 
old. At nineteen he went to Hampden, Ohio, to learn the black- 
smith trade, and later opened a shop in Farmington. As Mr. 
Stull was always a delicate man, and lived many years beyond 
th.e time his friends expected him to, it has always been a won- 
der why he chose for his occupation one so hard as blacksmith- 
ing. He had a limited education, and if he had not. received 
injuries which made it impossible for him to continue at his 
trade lie would not liave become a lawyer. Overcoming many 
obstacles, he finally acquired an academic education. He went 


south to teach, and studied hnv when lie was twenty-seven years 
old, in KentiTcky. He Avas not admitted to the bar until he was 
thirty. He married P^hn-ilhi AV. AVoloott, Avhose tender eare and 
business sense helped him in tlie early years of his profession. 
His marriage was an exceedingly happy one, and the loss of 
his wife in 1S7S was a terrible bloAV to him. He had for partners 
at law at different times Judge Tuttle, Milton Sutliff, F. E]. 
Hutchins and Judge Glidden. He served as prosecuting attor- 
ney of the county, as mayor, and as state senator. He died in 
1907 in Florida, Avhere he had gone to escape the rigors of the 
winter. He is surA'ived by one daughter, Mrs. A. F. Hari'is, who 
resembles him in appearance and has much of his business 

Homer P]. Stewart has lived his entire life in Trumbull 
County. He was boin at Coitsville in 1845, before the formation 
of Mahoning county. He is a college man, graduating at 
Westminster, Pennsylvania, in 18G7. He attended the Albany 
Law School, having jirejiared himself in the oftice of Hon. Milton 
Sutliff, and became a member of the bar in 1869. In 1870 he 
entered into partnership with Judge Sutliff, which continued 
until the latter 's death in 1878. He married Kate L. Sutlitf, 
daughter of Calvin Sutliff, in 1870, and has three ciiildreu, 
Helen, now Mrs. Foster, and Homer and Milton. 

Charles A. Hariingtoii was born in Greene in 1824. At- 
tended Grand Kiver Institute antl Oberlin College. Taught dis- 
trict school and established a select school in Greene township 
which was very successful. This Avas in 18-16. At this time he 
began the study of law, and was admitted in 1849. In 1860 he 
was elected clerk of the court of common pleas. He was internal 
revenue assessor from 1867 to 1873. He was a partner of Will- 
iam T. Spear, later supreme judge, from 1873 to '79. In 1877 
he retired from actiA'e iiractice. Although 85 years old, he is a 
gieat reader and a student, and a delightful couA^ersationalist. 

Asa AV. Jones AA-as l)orn in Johusonville in 1838. He 
Avas educated in the schools of his neighborhood and attended 
the seminary at West Farmingtou. He studied law Avith Curtis 
& Smith at Warren, Ohio, and when twenty-one years old, 1859. 
was admitted. He was ai)pointed to fill an unexpired term as 
prosecuting attorney of Mahoning county, and later was elected 
to that office. In 1896 he was elected lieutenant gOA-ernor and 
served until 1900. He spent most of his professional life in 
Youngstown, Ohio, where he had a large and lucratiA^e practice. 


He lias lately retired, and lives on a farm in Hartford, near 

Julius i\^. Cowdrey was born in Mecca, spent early life on a 
farm, attended school in Cortland, Western Reserve Seminary, 
and graduated from Western Eeserve College in 1865. Studied 
law Avith Tuttle & Stull and later at the University of Michigan. 
He was admitted in 1868, located in Ilulibard in '69, removed 
to Niles in 1871, where he still continues to practice. 

Judge S. B. Craig was born in Braceville in 1844. He at- 
tended school in Warren and in Farmington, and earned monej- 
whicli enabled him to take a course in Allegheny College at 
Meadville. He gradiiated in 1871, immediately began the study 
of law with Hutchins, Glidden & Stull, was admitted in 1873, and 
began the practice soon. He served two terms as probate judge. 
He continues to practice, and devotes a part of his time to the 
People's Ice & Cold Storage Company, of which he is president. 

George M. Tuttle, who died in 1907 at the age of ninety- 
two years, was one of the most interesting characters at the 
Trumbull County bar. He was born in 1815 in Connecticut, 
and was a self-educated man. When young he worked on his 
father's farm. All his life he was much interested in mechanics. 
He made clocks and studied as he worked, whether at field work 
or shop work. He began the study of law in 1837 in Connecticut. 
During this time he clerked in the postoffice as well, but this 
double duty told on his health, and he had to cease all kinds of 
laljor. When his father's family moved to New York state he 
taught school. They did not remain long in New York, but came 
to Colebrook, Ashtabula. Here he continued his old habits of 
working and studying. He studied law with Wade & Eauney, 
of Jefferson. He was admitted to the bar in 1841, the next 
winter taught school and practiced law. In 1844 he removed to 
Warren, where he spent the rest of liis life. After he began 
active practice, he never ceased until 1902. He was long asso- 
ciated in business with Hon. Milton Sutliff. The latter made 
him his executor, and bequeathed to him a portion of his estate. 
His other partners were Judge Humphrey, Alexander McCon- 
nel, Wm. Whittlesey, John M. Stull, F. E. Hutchins and his 
son-in-law, Charles Fillius. He was elected common pleas judge 
in 1866, and served imtil 1872. He was a member of the consti- 
tutional convention of 1871. He was a great reader from his 
earlv childhood. He was one of four men possessed of the 


largest libraries in town, Mr. Perkins, Jutlge Taylor and C. A. 
Harrington being- the others. 

L. C. Jones came to the bar later than most of his cotempo- 
raries, bnt was snccessl'nl after he began practice. He was born 
in Hartford townsliiii in 1822, on Christmas day, and his parents 
were of Pnritan blood, having come from Connecticnt. Middle- 
aged people remember his mother, who lived to extreme age. 
She belonged to a family of longevity. Of her brothers and 
sisters, one died when over ninety, and one at one hnndred and 
two, the others between these two ages. Mr. Jones attended the 
Western Reserve College at Hudson. Paii of the time he sup- 
ported himself when he was getting his education, and learned 
the trade of painting chairs. Determining to be a doctor, he 
attended medical lectures at Colnm))ia College in Washington, 
D. C, and returned to Hartford, where he jiractieed medicine 
for nearly two years. .Although he had liked the study of medi- 
cine, he did not like the practice. He therefore engaged in mer- 
cantile business, but this, too, for various reasons, was as rm- 
satisfaetory to him as was medicine. Judge John Crowell urged 
Iiim to study law, and this he did. being admitted in 1854. He 
practiced in his home town nntil 18(J2, when he formed a part- 
nership with Ezra B. Taylor, which partnership continued for 
fourteen years. This was one of the most successful firms in the 
valley, and the records show Taylor & Jones to be the attorneys 
of most of the important cases of that time. He was a state 
senator for two terms, was registrar in bankruptcy for many 
years, was the hrst city solicitor of Warren, and accmnulated a 
goodly property. 

Judge William T. Spear has served almost continuously 
for a tiuarter of a century as judge of the supreme court of the 
state of Ohio. He was born in Warren, his father being Edward 
Spear Sr. and his mother Ann (Adgate) Spear. We have seen 
in the general history the position which Edward Spear occu- 
pied in the community, and the nujther was a strong character, 
a cousin of John Hart Adgate, one of the first settlers in War- 
ren. Mr. Edward Spear was a worker in wood, having been asso- 
ciated with Mr. White in a building north of the Presbyterian 
church. Here they had machinery which was run by horse 
power, and some of the old citizens of Warren remember how 
William nsed to conscientiously drive the horse that turned th^ 
capstan. This picture of his childhood was almost repeated by 
his son Lawrence, who nsed to drive the Jersey cow of the 


Xliyses IStevens, walkiug leisurely down the tree-covered Malion- 
mg avenue with his hands on the cow's hip. These two generally 
walked along and turned in at the very spot where, more than a 
generation before, the judge had driven his father's horse. 
Judge Spear obtained his education in the common school of 
Warren and in Junius Dana's Latin School. His sister, Mrs. 
Hoyt, was one of the most beloved women of her daj^ She and 
William were alike in looks and character. Her two daughters, 
-\.nnie and Abbie, still reside in Warren. Judge Spear learned 
the printer's business, beginning work in the office of the Trum- 
bull Count If WJiig. This later became the Whig and Transcript. 
James Dumar was editor and publisher. Mr. Spear followed 
the printing business, working in Pittsburg and two years in 
New York City. He finally concluded that the law opened a 
wider field, and l)egan studying with Jacob D. Cox, aftenvards 
general and governor. I{e graduated from the Harvard Law 
School in 1859, and was admitted to the bar the same year. He 
was first associated with J. D. Cox and Robert Ratlitf ; later 
with John C. Hutchins and C. A. Harrington. He spent three 
years in Louisiana practicing his profession in connection with 
the management of a cotton plantation. In 1864 he married 
Frances E. York, of Lima, New York. Mrs. Spear is a woman 
of fine education, taught in the Warren high school, and was a 
great addition to the society in which Judge Spear moved. She 
has been tiiily a helpmeet and a companion. They have four 
sons. Judge Spear was elected to the conunon pleas bench in 
1878, re-elected in 1883 ; elected supreme judge in 1885, and has 
served continuously since. Judge and Mrs. Spear reside in 

The fathei- and grandfather of Ezra B. Taylor, both bear- 
ing the name of Elisha. settled in Nelson in 1814. They had in- 
tended locating near the mouth of the Cuyahoga, but when they 
came to view their land the sand seemed so uninviting and the 
wind so fierce that they worked back onto the Nelson hills, and 
ehosG a lovely spot midway between the center of Nelson and 
the center of Hiram. Elislia married Amanda Couch, of Con- 
necticut, who died leaving one son, Samuel. He then married 
the yoimger sister, Thyrza. Mrs. Taylor was a woman of strong 
character, fine physique and a wonderful helpmeet for a pioneer. 
She had four boys and one girl. Ezra Booth, named for his 
uncle, the Methodist preacher, his family intending he should 
be a preacher, was born July 9. 1823. He woi'ked on the farm. 



attended the soliools in winter, sometimes in summer, and his 
mother made many sacriiices in order that he might have the 
education he desired. He read by the log fire and wallied many 
miles to borrow a book which he would hear was in the neighbor- 
hood. At an early age he taught school at the center of Nelson 
in the Academy. He studied law with Eobt. F. Paine, of Gar- 
rettsville, afterwards judge. He passed the examination in 
1845, and was admitted to the bar at Chardon. He was then 
twenty-two years old. He practiced one year in Garrettsville, 
and moved to the county seat, Ravenna, in 1847. Married Har- 
riet M. Frazer, daughter of Col. William A. Frazer, in 1849. 
She died in 1876. They had two children, Harriet and Hal K. 

Mr. Taylor entered into ]iartnership with Gen. Lucius V. 
Bierce after he had x^'i'ficticed a year alone, and as General 
Bierce was a strong man with a good practice, this was a great 
advantage to ^Iv. Taylor, and he improved it. He later had for 
his partners John L. Ranney and Judge Luther Day, the father 
of Judge William Day of the Supreme Court of the United 
States. In 1849 he was elected prosecuting attorney of Portage 

He came to Warren in 1861 and formed a jiartnership with 
L. C. Jones, which continued until 187(i. He was one of the 
"squirrel hunters," and Avas a private in the 171st Ohio Na- 
tional Guard. A^Hien he returned home he was elected colonel 
of the regiment. He was appointed judge in 1877 to till the un- 
expired term of Judge Frank Servis. hi 1880 he was elected 
to Congress to succeed James A. (lartield, who had been elected 
to the senate. General Garfield never took his seat in the senate, 
because he was nominated and elected to the jtresidency that 
same year. Judge Taylor, therefore, filled General Garfield's 
unexpired term, going to Washington in December, 1880. Major 
McKinley had been a member of the judiciary committee of the 
house, and took Garfield's place on the ways and means commit- 
tee when Garfield left that body. .ludge Taylor was ai)pointed 
a member of the judiciary conunittee in McKinley 's place, and 
he served on this committee as chairman when the Republican 
party was in power, always at other times as a member. He 
was a member of other committees of the house — commerce, 
claims, etc. He was a member of the conference committee, and 
was eijually responsible with Senator Slierman for the passage 
of the law known as the Sherman Anti-Trust Bill. He was the 
author of the bankruptcy bill ; assisted Speaker Reed in making 


the rules wliioh have been so severely criticised duriug- this 
present year. He gave, as chairman of this committee, the onl^^ 
majority report on the question of woman sutt'rage which has 
ever been given by any counuittee in the national house of repre- 
sentatives. Speaker Seed once made a minority report which 
Judge Taylor signed. The congressional speech which attracted 
the most attention was that on the Chinese question. After 
thirteen years' service he retired, for personal reasons. He 
entered into a partiiershi]) in 1884 with his son-in-law, George 
W. Upton, which existed until 1905, when a stroke of apoplexy 
caused the former to retire from active practice. 

In early life ]Mr. Taylor l)elonged to debating societies, and 
was much interested in public affairs, sucli as libraries, agricul- 
tural societies, etc. Once, when dining with General Hazen in 
Washington, the latter showed him a premium card which he 
received when living on his farm near Garrettsville for raising 
broom corn. This was signed by Ezra B. Taylor as secretary. 
Both at that time were yoimg men. These two men had many 
stories to tell that evening of their boyhood life on the farm 
(they lived within a few miles of each other), to the amusement 
of the other guests. 

Judge Taylor once told the writer that when he took up his 
duties as common pleas .iudge he was greatly troubled lest, in 
some doubtful or evenly balanced case, his personal opinion of. 
or feeling towards one of the parties or attorneys might uneou- 
scionsly tend to bias his judgment. But he was both glad and 
surprised to find that from the time he entered upon the trial 
of a cause it became to him a mere impersonal abstraction, in 
which he was hardly conscious that he knew the parties or their 
council; this fact quieted his fears. This is a rare trait, but on 
intimate acqiiaintance, and years of practice with him at the 
bar, and before him on the bench, the writer was confirmed in 
the belief that this was true. 

As a lawyer and judge, lie for many years before his retire- 
ment stood with the foremost of those in northeastern Ohio. Of 
fine })hysique, ]3leasant appearance and address, keen perception 
and (juick of thought, with a retentive memory and good com- 
mand of langnage, he was not an orator by any standard of the 
schools, save that of nature, but was always an interesting and 
persuasive advocate, commanding attention whenever he spoke ; 
and much because he never spoke unless he had something to 
.say, and his earnestness of look, tone and manner left with his 


hearers Jittle duiiitt of lii^. cuiivietioii that his cause was a good 
one. As a judge he stood among the best. His knowledge of 
the hiw and liow to apply it, with liis logical, reasoning mind and 
sound judgment and a conscientious desire to be right, fitted him 
for this. But i)erhaps his most sterling ((uality on the licnch was 
his keen sense of justice, fairness and right, withoul whirh few- 
causes ever safely jjassed through his hands. 

Judge Taylor is by nature optimistic. .VUliough ml off 
from his business associates by his illness, he declaics that these 
last four years of his life have been his hapi)iest ones. •' Kvei'y- 
l)ody is so good to me," he says. His vigor of mind continues, 
and his life-long philosophy is his strength. His only daughter, 
Mrs. Upton, has been his life-long companion and conira<U'. The 
relation e.xisting between these two persons is as ))eautifid as it 
is rare. 

The late Judge Elias PI Koberts, whose sudden death oc- 
curred November 2-1:, 1908, in Sharon, Pennsylvania, was 
the only circuit judge that Trumliull County ever had. 
He had recently been elected to this ofdce uuder the new 
law, and his loss will lie dee])ly felt by this court. For the past 
five years he had been judge of the court of conmion ])leas 
for the Warren district, and w;is one of the youngest men ever 
honored willi that distinction. He was a native of Wclisville, 
Columl)iaiia count}, and his higher literary studies were pur- 
sued at .Motuit I'nion College, .Vliiance, Ohio, fi-oiii which he 
graduated in the philosoiihical course in 1888. He taught scho()l 
for a number of years, being superintendent of the .\ewtoii 
Falls schools foi- four years, and (hiring his labors as a teacher 
he jirepared himself for the law. 

Judge Koberts was admitted to the bai- in 18!)|, and in Oc- 
tober of the following year entered the office of T. H. (xillmer of 
Warren, where he remained for four years, or until his election 
as prosecuting attorney in 189(i. His energetic yet conservative 
administration of this otfice stamped him as a lawyer of such 
lireadth and sound judgment that he received the apjiointment 
of the common ])leas judgeshi]) as successor to Judge T. J. (iill- 
mer, and at the fall election of liMlo he was elected for the regu- 
lar term. 

The following is a concise and truthful estimate: "Judge 
Roberts was a conservative but fearless man when it came to 
deciding cases, and had the ability to keep the courts going so 
that docket cases did not congest. As an orator he had few 


peers." He was a member of the Masonic order and several 
other fraternal organizations. He was just as jiopular in other 
courts of the subdivision as he was at home, and a case never 
came before him of whose merits he did not have some knowl- 

Judge T. I. Gillmer has lived his entire life in Trumbull 
County. He was born in 1844. His father died early, and he 
had tlie management of the estate and the care of his mother. 
He attended common and academic schools, and graduated from 
the Iron City Commercial College in Pittsburg in 1858. Alter 
reading law with Hon. John F. Beaver he was admitted in 1870. 
He practiced in Newton Falls until the death of Mr. Beaver. He 
moved to Warren in 1874, was elected prosecuting attorney in 
1875, became a partner of Hon L. C. Jones in 1880, was elected 
common pleas judge in 1886, discharging the duties of this office 
with great conscientiousness and ability. He retired from the 
judgeship in 1903 and formed a partnership with his son, E. 
I. Gillmer, which exists at this writing. In 1870 he married Helen 
Earl, and their married life was exceedingly hai^py. Mrs. Gill- 
mer, who died in 1908, was a devoted mother and a faithful wife. 
She and her husband were interested in educational and public 
affairs. She was a memlier and a worker in the Disciple church ; 
he was an officer and is now acting president of the Library As- 
sociation. Their oldest child, Elizabeth, is the wife of J. W. 
Packard. R. I. Gillmer and his daughter Katharine reside with 
the judge. Mr. Gillmer owns a farm in Newton township that 
was ]mrchased by his grandfather from the Connecticut Land 
Comjiany in 1807. 

Thomas H. Gillmer was born in Newton township in 1849. 
He had a common school education, and attended the Normal 
School at Lebanon. He began his ]irofessional life as a teacher, 
and studied law later with Ratlitf & Gillmer. He was admitted 
in 1878, and began to practice in Newton Falls. Later he moved 
to Warren and had an office with his cousin, T. I. Gillmer. He 
was elected prosecuting attorney, and for ten years or more has 
been a member of the school board, most of the time as presi- 
dent. He has l)een exceedingly prosperous in business, being- 
connected with many of the prominent manufactories of the 
city. He has been active in the organization of the 
Eepublican party in the county. He was a candidate 
for Congress after Stephen A. Northway's death, but was 
defeated by Charles Dick. He was connected with the First 


National Bank as an officer, and upon the merging- of tlie War- 
ren Savings Bank with tlie First National, under tlio title of the 
Union National Bank, he became us president. 

George AV. Upton was born in Sacramento, California, in 
1857. His father was at that time prosecuting attorney, and 
had been a member of the Michigan legislature, in which state 
he had stopped on his way west from his New York home. He 
was a member of the California legislature, and when George 
was eight years old the family moved to Oregon. Here the 
father became circuit judge, and later chief justice of the 
supreme court. 

George "W. was educated in the Portland schools, both }>uhlic 
and private. He was a teacher for a little time, and was of the 
party which surveyed the disputed islands lying between the 
United States and British Columbia. He was appointed cailet 
to West Point in 1876, where he spent four years. 

His father having been appointed comptroller of the 
treasury in 1877, the family moved to Washington. Here he 
attended Columbian Law School, graduated, and came to Warren 
in 1884. He entered into partnership with Judge Ezra B. Tay- 
lor, whose daughter. Harriet, he married, and this partnership 
continued until he went to South America, where he was engaged 
in business five years. He was appointed prosecuting attorney 
by Judge T. I. Gilhner in 1895, and served during the construc- 
tion of the present court house. Because of his mechanical turn 
of mind he now devotes himself to the practice of patent law. 

Charles Fillius was born at Hudson, Summit county, Ohio, 
in 1852. Aside from a common education, he graduated at 
Hiram College. He read law by himself in the beginning, and 
finally in the office of Marvin and Grant, attorneys-at-law in 
Akron, and was admitted to the bar in 1878. Mr. Fillius began 
practice at Cuyahoga Falls in 1879, and continued till he came 
to W^arren in 1882. He then married the daughter of Judge 
George Tuttle, and the two men formed a partnership which 
lasted twenty years, when Judge Tuttle retired. Mi*. Fillius 
has been identified with the general interests of the town, serving 
as one of the trustees of the Children's Home. He is director 
of the Western Reserve Bank, and is one of the main supports 
of the Christian church. 

He has been unfortunate in being- a Democrat in a commun- 
itv where the Eepublican party is dominant, otherwise he would 
have filled several high positions of trust and honoi*. Mr. and 


Mrs. Fillius have one sou, (Jeoige, who, like his father and 
grandfather, is a lawyer, just admitted. 

Lulie E. ^lackey was born in Vienna in 1870. She is a self- 
made woman, although like most self-made men she owes a great 
deal to her mother, who sympathized with her in her ambitions 
and who made some of her work jiossible. Her father was Ira 
B. and her mother Mina Mackey. She attended school in 
Vienna. Niles, and began teaching when she was sixteen. She 
took care of herself l)y luird work at the time she was studying 
stenography. Although she never mentions this fact, it is gen- 
erally known that she obtained the education in this line which 
made her siiccess possible by working early in the morning and 
very late at night. This sacrifice she had to make because her 
father died in 188!). Her mother, who is still living, lives with 
her at their country home lietween Niles and Girard. Here Miss 
^Mackey owns a large farm. In 1894 Miss Mackey was appointed 
court stenographer by T. I. Gillmer, upon the recommendation 
of two associate judges and the leading attorneys of Trumbull 
and Mahoning counties. She was the first woman to hold so 
responsible a place in this Judicial district, and made good to 
such an extent that she is^still serving, at the end of fifteen 
years. The salary and fees of this office are very good, and 
Miss Mackey has made g6od investments, so that she is not only 
successful in her calling but in the way in which the world 
speaks of success. Her court association led her to study law 
under Judge T. I. Gillmer, and in the offices of T. H. Gillmer. 
Hon. E. E. Eoberts and Prof. Kinkead of the Ohio University 
of Columbus. She was admitted to the bar in 1898, being sworn 
in by Judge AYilliam T. S])ear. Slie is the only woman attorney 
in Trumbull County. 

Charles ]\I. AYilkins, who has just begam his first term as 
common pleas judge, was born in Warren in 1865. His early 
education was olitained at tlie public schools, and later he at- 
tended Tjehigh ITniversity. His law preceptor was John J. 
Sullivan, and he was admitted in 1891. He was city solicitor in 
190l)-l!l()i;; prosecuting attorney 1903- '06. He resigned as solic- 
itor to acce))t the office of prosecuting attorney. He resigned from 
the office of prosecuting attorney to accept the appointment of 
judge. He had been elected judge in 1908, and would have taken 
his place January 1, 1909. Judge E. E. Eoberts, whose tei-m 
would have expired January 1, 1909, died before the expiration 
of that term, and Judge Wilkins was appointed to this vacancy. 

HiSTor;y of tku-aibull couxty i83 

Judge E. 0. Dilley was l)orn in 1861; educated iu the Cort- 
land schools and Hiram College; studied law with E. B. 
Leonard; was admitted to the bar in 1895. He is a member of 
the Knights of Pythias, the Maccabees, was elected probate 
judge in 1908 and assumed the duties of his office on February 
y, 1909. 

"William B. Kilpatrick, now mayor of Warren, was born in 
Ohio in 1877. He studied law with George P. Hunter, and was 
admitted to practice in 1901. He attended no school except the 
Warren high school, but has been a student of economic ques- 
tions. He is the only Democrat since the war time who has been 
elected to the office of mayor. He is a member of the Knights of 
Pythias and the Odd Fellows. He was a candidate for judge of 
common pleas court in 1908, and ran far ahead of his ticket in 
his own town. 

Judge Frank S. Chryst was born in Lordstown, educated in 
the common schools and graduated from Allegheny College in 
1880. He studied law with Jones & Gillmer, and was admitted 
in 1882. Was in partnership with Frank W. Harrington from 
1888 to 1891; was later a partner of Judge I). R. Gilbert. He 
Avas elected probate judge in 1902, sei'A'ing two tenns, from 1903 
to 1909. At this writing Judge Chryst has just moved into a 
new home on ^lonroe street, occupying a lot upon which stood 
one of the oldest houses in Warren. Here Mr. Porter, the 
grandfather of Joseph and Mary Porter, now residing in this 
city, lived, and it afterwards became the property of Miss Laura 
Harsh, whose father, John, and mother, Nancy, were among the 
very early settlers in Warren. 

Frank R. Cowdrey is a son of Julius X. Cowdrey, the two 
being in jiartuership at Niles, Ohio. Mr. Cowdrey was born in 
1878. studied law with his father, Julius N. Cowdrey, and was 
admitted in 1900. He Avas educated in the Niles schools and the 
Ohio Normal Fniversity at Ada. 

Josej^h Smith was born in 1870, educated in the Niles 
schools, and studied law with Hon. C. H. Strock. He Avas admit- 
ted to practice in Columbus in 1895. He is city solicitor of Niles, 
past W. M. of Mahoning Lodge 394, F. & A.'m., and past C. C. 
of Niles Lodge No. 138, K. of P. He was associated in business 
with Wm. H. Smiley for a little time before his death. 

R. K. Hulse was born in Bazetta, receiA^ed his early educa- 
tion in the Bazetta schools and the Seminary at Farmingtou 
until 1843. He then went to work for Mr. Belden in his carriage 


sboio iu Warreu. Here lie had access to a library kept by D. M. 
Ide, and, at the suggestion of Judge Birchard read Blackstone. 
He studied law witli Judge Yeomans. Was a member of the 
125th Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, served as corporal sergeant. 
1st sergeant, second lieutenant, first lieutenant and captain. 
After the war he comi^leted his studies, was admitted to the bar 
in 1877, and retired in 1902. He is a member of the Masonic 
order, and of the Methodist church. He has been a teacher or a 
scholar iu that church for fifty-seven years. He married Miss 
Hannah Payton in 1847. 

Mr. G. P. Gillmer was born in Newton township in 1872. 
He studied law with T. H. Gillmer, and was admitted to practice 
in 1902. He received his education in the public schools of New- 
ton Falls, at the Northern Indiana Normal University, at Val- 
paraiso, Ind., receiving the degree of B. S. He also attended 
Waynesburg College, Waynesburg, Pennsylvania, and received 
the degree of A. B. He resides in Niles, and is a trustee of the 
First Methodist church of that place. He is a Knight Templar, 
a Shriner, member of the 1. 0. 0. F. and the K. of P. 

Plon. Warreu Thomas was born in 1876, educated in the 
Cortland schools, studied law in the office of Tuttle & Fillius 
and was admitted to practice in 1899. He served two years in 
the Ohio house of representatives, was chairman of the judiciary 
committee of that body, and is now assistant attorney-general 
of the state. He resides in W^arren. He has actively engaged 
in politics in the last few years. 

Jay Buchwalter was born in Daltou, W^ayne county, Ohio, 
in 1874. He studied law with Tuttle & Fillius and was admitted 
to the bar iu 1901. He received his education in the common 
schools and at Mount Union College. He is interested in pol- 
itics, and has an active practice. He is affiliated with the Meth- 
odist church and interested in educational matters. 

EoUin I. Gillmer, who is associated with his father. Judge 
T. I. Gillmer, was born in Newton Falls in 1873. He attended 
the Warren schools, Hudson Academy, and University of Michi- 
gan. He was admitted to practice in 1897. He is now serving 
his second term as United States commissioner. He belongs to 
the Masons, the Elks, and is a member of the Episcopal church. 
He is the youngest of the four Gillmers now at the Trumbull 
County bar. 

D. M. Hine, who has been maj^or of Newton Falls and is 
attorney for that village at present, was born in Paris, Portage 


county. Pie obtained his education iu tlie common schools and at 
Mount Union. He taught for several years. I£e attended the 
Cincinnati Law School, graduating with honors in 181 CJ. Jle was 
admitted to the bar that same month, ^lav. He is a member of 
the Odd Fellows. 

A. E. AYonders graduated from the Warren high scliool in 
1896, and has spent all of his life in Warren. He studied in the 
office of Homer E. Stewart and at the Ohio State Law School. 
He was admitted to practice in 1900. He is a member of the 
Mahoning Lodge No. 29, I. 0. O. F., and Trumbull Encampment 
No. 47, I. 0. 0. F. :\lr. Wonders, like his father before him, is 
an ardent Methodist. He married Miss Mabel Izant, whose 
family likewise are devoted ]\Iethodists. 

Alcher L. Phelps, one of the youngest members of Trumbull 
County bar, was born in 1873. His early education was obtained 
in the Bristolville schools, and he later studied at the State Uni- 
versity in Columlnis. His law studies were pursued under the 
instruction of John J. Sullivan, George P. Hunter, while he also 
attended the law school at Columbus. He was admitted to the 
bar in Columbus iu 1897. He has served as city solicitor of the 
town of Warren, is a member of the Methodist church, as well 
as the Knights of Pythias, I. 0. 0. F., Elks, and Warren Com- 
mandery. Knights Templar. 

George T. Hecklinger, the grandson of the late M. B. Tay- 
ler, on his mother's side, and Daniel Hecklinger on the father's 
side, was born in Warren in 1875. He was educated in the public 
schools and Mercerburg College. Studied law at the Western 
Univer.sity of Pennsylvania. Was admitted in 1898. He is a 
member of the board of health, the Royal Arcanum, Odd Fellows 
and ]\rasons. He is a Methodist, as were his parents before him. 

William E. Tuttle is the third son of Judge George M. 
Tattle. He was born and lived all his life in Warren, Ohio. He 
graduated from the Warren high school, was admitted to the 
bar at Columbus iu the early '90s. His business is largely an 
office business, as he deals in real estate, municipal bonds, etc. 
He has an office in Youngstown, as well as in Warren. 

George W. Snyder was born in Hartford in 1839. He was 
educated in the common schools; he read law with L. C. Jones 
at Hartford, and was admitted to the bar in 1867. He located 
at Orangeville, and has held several positions in that village, — 
those of justice of the peace, mayor and piostmaster. 

AYilliam B. Morau was born in Leitrim covmty, Ireland, in 


184ti. With his parents he located in Trumbull County in 1852. 
He is sell-educated, and in early life taught school. He began 
the study of law in 1870, being with Hutchins, Tuttle & StuU in 
1872. He was admitted to practice iu 1874 and located in Ver- 
non. AVithin the last few years he moved to AYarren, that his 
family might have the advantage of the schools, and here he 
continues to practice. 

M. J. Sloan was born in Greene in 1844. He early enlisted 
in the army, serving two years. He attended school in Greene, 
Orwell, and Oberlin College. He earned the money to defray 
his expenses while in ()])erlin. He studied law and taught school, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1874. Most of his law reading 
was done with John C. Hale, of Elyria. He first located in 
Niles, then moved to Warren. He has been prominent in G. A. 
R. circles, was elected mayor in 1906. At present he is a mem- 
ber of the board of pardons for the state of Ohio. 

Washington Hyde was born in West Farmington in 1847, 
and belongs to one of the families who settled that town. He 
made great sacrifices to get his education at ihe Seminary in 
Farmington. During part of his course he rang the bell of the 
Seminary. He graduated in 1867, attended Michigan University 
in 1870, graduated from the law department of that college in 
1872. He was admitted to the bar the same year, and began 
practicing in AVarren. He was elected prosecutor in 1879, and 
re-elected in 1881. He is connected as a stockholder with several 
business enterprises of this city. 

John LaFayette Herzog was born in Warren in 1857. He 
obtained his education in the AVarren high school and studied 
law with Sutlift' cV: Stewart. He was admitted to practice in 
1878, and has spent his entire life in Warren. His practice has 
been largely of settling estates, and not much in the line of liti- 
gation. He has a fine knowledge of law, but is exceedingly 
modest and retiring. 

LaFayette Hunter was born in Howland in 1846. He at- 
tended school at Newton Falls, normal school at Hopedale. In 
1872 he went to commercial college in Cleveland. Took his law 
course at ^\.lbany. graduating in 3874, and was admitted to the 
bar the same year. He located at Warren, Ohio, where he has 
since practiced. He is commissioner of bankruptcy. 

Eobert T. Izant was born at Great Elm, Somersetshire. 
England, in 1855. He came to AVarren with his parents in 1872. 
and soon thereafter became clerk in the office of John M. Stull. 


He was admitted to the bar in 1878, aud practiced for a uumber 
of years. When the Tnmibull Building & Loan Association was 
formed he became treasurer of it, and lias devoted all liis time 
to that institution since, being largely responsible for its success. 
He married Sadee King of Kinsninn, and with her is a worker 
in tlie Methodist church. 

A. A. Drown Avas born in Nelson in 1850. Jle attended Icjcal 
schools and Hiram College. Read law with Taylor & Jones, was 
admitted to the bar in 1875, and has since contiiuied to i>ractice 
his profession, most of the time in Warren. 

David E. Clilliert was born in Vernon in ]84(;, moved with 
his parents to Gustavus in 185(). He attended district school 
and Oberlin College, lie began the study of law in 1871 with 
Taylor & Jones. \\c was admitted at Cantield in 1873. He 
began ]jractice in 1875; was associated with Judge Taylor in 
1880; lie served two terms as 2^robate judge, and continues the 
practice of law in the city. 

Emerson P>. Leonard received liis education in tlu' common 
schools, Penn Line, Pennsylvania, high school at Jeft'erson, and 
Kingsville Academy. Studied law with W. P. Holland (his 
brother-in-law), Jeft'erson, Uliio. Was admitted at Cleveland in 
1871. Was prosecuting attorney of Ashtabula county for two 
terms. He is now in active ]ii'actice at Warren. F. D. Templeton 
being his ])artiicr. 

M. 15. Leslie, nl' Hubbard, Avas boru in that town in 1851. 
He studied law with Judge George Arrell, and was admitted in 
1878. He Avcnt to school in Poland, and Avas .iustice of the peace 
three years. 

Mr. W. G. Baldwin is city solicitor. He studied law with 
John ]\I. Stull, and has made a si>ecialty of securing abstracts 
of titles. 

Wade li. Deemer Avas born in P^iwler, 18(i5. He earned 
the money for education i)y working as a machinist. He com- 
pleted his course of study in 188() at Ncav Lyme College. He 
studied law Avith C. H. Strock of Xiles, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1891. In 1892, May, he began practicing law at Girard, 
and in Octol)er of the same year married ^tyrtle C. Baldwin, of 

Clare Caldwell Avas born in AVarren in 1881. He graduated 
at the ATarren high school, took a course at Western Reserve 
College in Cleveland, graduating there, also from the Western 
Reserve Law School in 1905. Spent some time in Cleveland, 


and iu 1907 began ijraetifiug law in Niles, where lie now resides. 
He is the youngest man at the bar in Trumbull County at this 
writing, and Judge E. B. Taylor is the oldest. 

From the time the author was a little girl she has listened 
to the tales AAiiich lawyers loved to tell of another. Some of 
them might not be of general interest, and space would not allow 
the recording of many here, anyway. However, she ventures 
to give one of two. 

An attorney of rather doubtful reputation was defending 
a client for arson. The counsel for the defense was attempting 
to prove an alibi. The man, colored, was known not to be able 
to write. When he "was called ujDon in answer to question he 
said that he could not have burned the building because he was 
in Sharon that night. 

"How do you remember that it was that night?" asked the 
prosecuting attorney. 

"Because I remember writing to my mother that very day." 
"Writing to your mother?" ejaculated the prosecutor, as he 
handed the accused a pencil and paper, saying, "write 'Sharon, 
Pa., August 19th, 1881.' " The colored boy's eyes glistened. 
This was exactly what his lawj^er had said would happen. 
Clutching the pencil tightly and wetting it often, he produced 
the following: "Charon Pa. Aug 91. 1881." Handing it back 
triumphantly to the prosecutor, he w-as surprised when it was 
read to hear a general laugh. The prosecutor suggested, "Mr. 
Blank is a good writing teacher, isn't he?" "Fine," replied 
the boy. Whereuiion the coimsel for prisoner objected, the usual 
discussion took place, but the boy was convicted. 

The Germans who settled the lower part of Trumbull and 
upper part of Mahoning formed a community by themselves. 
They learned the English language slowly and imperfectly. In 
one case a large proportion of the jury was of these. One young, 
dapper fellow, because of his better knowledge of "English as 
she is spoke," was made foreman of the jurj'. This was in the 
days when verdicts were returned orally. After long deliberation 
this jury was unable to agree, and returned to the court room 
to so report. But the clerk, supposing they had agreed, pro- 
ceeded with the usual formula, and asked, "Gentlemen of the 
jury, have you agreed upon a verdict?" The dapper little fore- 
man pox)ped up and said: "Yaas." The clerk: "How do 
you find — for the plaintiff or for the defendant?" Foreman: 


"Vos is dot?" The clerk: "Win', how do you fiud by your 
verdict? Do you iind for the plaiutift' or for the defendant?" 
Foreman: "O, we ton't iind noddings for any o' dem fellers; te 
ohury has cot shplit." 

On another occasion two brothers of that community, Jake 
and John, went together to the county seat to pay their taxes 
and transact business. In the afternoon Jake wandered into 
the courtroom, just as they were impanelling a jury. The i-egu- 
lar panel being exhausted, Jake was called and sworn in as one 
of the talesmen. At the adjournment of the court the judge was 
very impressive in warning the jury that they must not talk 
among themselves about the meiits of the case, nor listen to 
others so talking, nor permit any person to speak to them of 
matters involved in the case. Jake took all this very literally. 
As he approached the hotel where they stopped John was on the 
steps waiting- for him, and called out, "Well, Chake, is you 
ready to go home?" Jake stopped and held ui> both hands 
warningly, and said: "Ton't slipeak mit me. Ton't shpeak 
mit me. I ish te chury." 

At one time one of the ])riests at St. Mary's "looked upon 
wine when it was I'ed in the cup" too often, until he could not 
get on without it. Ilis ])arishiouers lirst noticed that he was 
sometimes a little worse for drink, and then the townsjieople 
knew it. An attorney in town, who had no nose for news, was 
particularly gifted at minding his own business, had had occa- 
sion to hear the complaints from a client of the dissipation of 
this otherwise good priest. Because it came in a business way 
he remembered it. Very soon thereafter, when he was attending 
court in a nearliy town, a Catholic gentleman, devout of nature, 

asked him if it were true that Father drank to excess. 

The lawyer replied, "Personally I do not know, for I am not 
aequamted with him; Imt some of my friends at home tell me 
he does." It seems that proper church officials had decided to 
investigate the case of this priest, and the man was asking for 
a real purpose. The proceedings were begun, and, one morning, 
some weeks after, when the Warren lawyer was sitting in his 
l)ack office, the priest, in a good deal of temper, came hurriedly 
in. "1 understand," said the father, "that you have reported 
to headquarters that I am a drunkard." The lawyer, a resolute 
but gentle man, pursued his desk work for a few nitiments. and 
then, looking up. said, "I never saw you before. I never said 
Aon were a drunkard. I did, however, tell a man that Warren 

.190 nisToitY OF ti;umbi;ll county 

people said you drauk too muoli." AVhereupon the jjiiest laid 
his hand on the side of his large, red nose and said, "I want you 
to know, sir, that God made that nose." "Possibly," said the 
attorney, coolly, "but He never colored it." 

AVlien Judge Ezra B. Taylor, as a very young man, had lieeu 
practicing law a few years in Kavenna, his wife awakened one 
night by hearing burglars in the house. He therefore grabbed 
a pistol and went in the direction of the noise. The Imrglar, 
hearing him coming, jumped out tlie window, ran through the 
yiu'd, and cleared the side fence. Mr. Taylor discharged the 
revolver. Imt found no dead man in the vicinity when he exam- 
ined. A little time thereafter he was called to the jail to defend 
a man for burglar> . When they had talked the case over Mr. 
Taylor felt so sure that the man was guilty that he persuaded 
him to thus plead, in order to receive a light sentence. Mr. 
Taylor then talked seriously to the prisoner. He explained how 
easy it was for a man to lead a decent life and to be respected 
by his fellow citizens, and how wicked it was, as well as dan- 
gerous, to pursue the life of a criminal. Continuing, he said: 
"It is a horrible thing to be the cause of so much suffering to 
women and to children. Now, the other night my wife awakened 
me telling me, there was a burglar in the house, and that fright 
made her sick. Of course, I went after the man and shot at him, 
l)ut that's all the good it did. I probably did not come within 
rods of him." The prisoner smiled and said. y)icking np a hat 
with a hole in it. "You came near enough," jxiinting to the hole. 
That this man had been ]\Ir. Taylor's burglar made him all the 
more interested in his future. Before he left him the prisoner 
had promised to plead g-uilty, to serve his time, and to lead a 
decent life. After his sentence, when he had been home with his 
family but a few weeks, the driver of a stage-coach, or a car- 
riage, having a trunk of valuable things on the liack, rejjorted 
that on reaching his destination they were missing. After much 
search, the trunk with part of the goods being uiissiug, was 
found in the barn of a respected farmer, Avho stated he saw the 
prisoner take otf the trunk. The time server was therefore ar- 
rested, ]nit in jail, and he sent for Mr. Taylor. He protested 
that he was not guilty, and soon Mr. Taylor believed liim. He 
swore he had kv\)t his promise and would keep his promise. The 
case came to trial. Because of his past reputation, everything 
pointed to his cdnviction. The farmer was to go on the witness 
staud iiinii("diatel\- after the noon hour. As the time grew 

]1IST01!Y OF TlMMi;! LL (OlXl'V lill 

nearer and nearer he grew very i)ale aiul nervous, and when the 
court was convened in tlie afternoon he took the witness stand 
and confessed that he, himself, and not the i)risoner, was the 
guilty party. The hap})}' ending of this story is tliat the accused 
man went liack to his own township, established a good reputa- 
tion among his neighbors, was elected justice of the peace, which 
office lie held for many years, and AvJien lie died was held in 
high esteem by all who knew liiiii. 

An elderly man who used to )a;ictice at the Trumbull bar 
says: "I renu'inber the tirst time Judge Thurman came into 
our couuty to ]u)ld a session of the supreme court. Under the 
old constitution, judges of the supreme court went on the circuit 
also, and once a year one of tiieni, with two common pleas 
judges, heki a session of the supreme court in each county. The 
lawj'ers had gotten into a sort of slovenly, undignified course, 
not befitting the dignity of a court, .hidge Tluirman was six 
feet in height, of splendid physique, and one of the best dressed 
and best groomed men that I ever met. When he came into the 
courtroom that morning faultlessly attired, and with a dignity 
which matched his attire, witli immaculate shirt front, collar 
and cuffs, and took his seat between the other two judges, every 
lawyer was at attention; and when he took out his silver snuff- 
box and placed it open on the desk before him, and laid liis white 
cambric handkerchief l)eside it, adjusted his cuffs, opened the 
docket, and, with a glance around the room which took in every 
lawi'er present, said, 'If the gentlemen of the liar will give atten- 
tion, we will proceed with the call of the docket,' every lawyer 
did pay attention; and thereafter there was no lounging with feet 
on the trial table, uns(>emly levity or want of decorum: and no 
lawyer thought of ,-ul(lressiug the court without- rising to his 
feet. The couit was levohitionized iu half a minute, and the 
lawyei's on tlieir better behavior. And this continued. In fact, 
a court is such as a judge makes it." 

Here is given a list of the men who have served 'ibumbull 
County as Common Pleas Judges: 

1808— Calvin Pease. I,S37— Van R. Humphrey. 

1810— Benj. Buggies. 184-I^Eben Newton. 

1815— George Tod. 1847— Benjamin F. Wade. 

1830— Eeuben Wood. IS.')!- (Jeoi-ge Bliss. 
1833— Mathew Birchard. 


The above ^vere elected by the legislators. The constitution 
of 1S51 abolished associate judgeships, and judges were elected 
liy men of the subdivision of the district. Trumbull, with ]\[a- 
liouiug and Portage, made the second subdivision of the ninth 
judicial district. 

The Common Pleas Judges elected are: 

1852- '57— Luther Day. 188(i —Albert A. Theyes 
1857- '62 — Benjamin F. Hoft- (vice Spear.) 

man. 1887- '97 — Jos. E. Johnston. 

1862- '67— Charles E. Glidden. 1888 to date— Geo. F. Robin- 
1867- '72— George M. Tuttle. son. 

1868-'78— Philo^ B. Conant. 1893 —Geo. F. Eobinson. 

1871- '72— Charles E. Glidden. 1897-'99— Jas. B. Kennedy. 

1877 — Francis C. Servis. 1899 to date — Disney Eogers. 

1877- '80— Ezra B. Taylor. i903-'08— E. E. Eoberts. 

1878-'86— AVm. T. Spear. 1908 to date— Chas. M. Wil- 
1880- '87— George F. Arrell. kins. 

1886 — -T. J. Gillmer. 

There has never been but one ]ierson suffer the death pen- 
alty in Trumbull Count>-. That was Ira "West Gardner of Gus- 
tavus. He married Anna Buell, a widow, who had a beautiful 
tlaughter of sixteen, Frances Maria. Gardner in 1832 tried to 
seduce this girl, and was repulsed. Fearing him, she went to 
the home of a nearby neighbor, staying there for some little 
time. At last Gardner sent word to her that if she would return 
home she would be safe. Needing some clothing, she took advan- 
tage of this offer, and Gardner, meeting her at the gap of the 
fence. ]ilunged a butcher knife into her heart. 

He was tiied and convicted. Eoswell Stone was the prose- 
cuting attorney and Comfort jMygatt sheriff. He was escorted 
to the place of hanging by a great procession and band, Selden 
Haines lieing in couunand of the soldiers. People who had chil- 
dren away at scIkkiI brought them home to witness the execution. 
We now wonder liow these parents reasoned, but one of the 
young men who Avas thus brought many miles remembers that 
his father said he might never have another chance to see an- 
other hanging, and he was right. The children of the sixties 
were not like those of the thirties, for the former always shivered 
as they jiasscd the corner of South and Chestnut streets on the 
wav to ccnictcix-, and dare not look towards the tree from which 


Gardner is .supposed to have s\yiing'. Whether the tree was still 
standing at that time is not certain. Possibly ohildren are like 
men and horses, less afraid where many people are congregated. 
Sheriff Mygatt said that he did not believe he was going 
to be able to discharge his duty in the case of Gardner, but that 
he did work himself up to the point. He took the i)risoner in 
his own carriage, led by AA'arren's first band, Avhicli jilayed a 
dirge. The military organization formed a hollow square around 
the scaffold. Elder Mack, a Methodist minister, walked with 
Mr. Mygatt and the prisoner to the scaffold. A hymn was sung, 
in which the jirisoner joined, and he was then swung to a great 
overhanaing limb where he breathed his last. 


Indians as Wakriors. — State Militia. — Soldiers of 1812. — Sol- 
diers OF 18(31. — Wakren Benevolent Society. 

One of the hardest enemies any country has ever had was 
the Indian. He was treacherous, making contracts which he 
never thought to keep, and as tlie white man continued to despoil 
his hunting ground, he added liatred to his treachery. He did 
not come into the open, but credit upon the camp quietly at night 
and massacred the sleejiers. He shot from behind trees and 
bushes, on traveler and farmer. Because of his life in the open 
air he was strong, and he always carried his arms with him in 
his ordinary occupation. He knew how to get food from the 
forests with little trouble, and how to protect himself against 
cold and rain. The early settler of old Trumbull County soon 
learned to follow the red man's ways. He carried his gun to 
mill and to meeting, and, no matter how much the Indian might 
pretend friendship, he understood his nature, and dealt accord- 

Before Ohio was a state, militia organizations were estab- 
lished, but the time between the coming of the first pioneer and 
the organization of Ohio as a state was so short that there was 
no general militia organization in old Trumbull County. The 
Ohio constitution divided the state into four militaiy districts, 
and specific laws were passed in regard to them. Elijah J. 
Wadsworth of Canfield was elected major general of the fourth 
division, and Trumbull County was included in that. General 
Wadsworth issued his first division orders in April, 1804. In 
this order he divided the fourth division of militia into five regi- 
ments. The First Brigade, including Trumbull County, was 
divided into two regiments. Benjamin Tappan and Jonathan 
Sloan were appointed aides-de-camp to General Wadsworth. At 
the military election of 1804 the list of officers which the 1st and 
2nd Regiments elected included some names familiar to the 
people of Trumltull County. Among these are Captain Nathaniel 



King, Lorenzo Carter, Setli Harrington, Zoplier Case, Homer 
Hine, Eli Baldwin, John Strnthers, (xeorge Tod, Samuel T.ylee, 
William Bnshnell, James Heaton. John P^walt and John Camp- 

The New England peoi)le who, early in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, had gone to Canada to take advantage of the homestead 
law, as they saw a war with England approaching, eame into the 
northern ])ortion of Ohio, and their numbers increased each year 
until 1812. For that reason tlie fourth division was divided into 
four brigades. The connnanders were Gens. Miller, Beall. Miller 
and Paine. The Third brigade, which the readers of this history 
will be most interested in, was commanded by (leueral Simon 
Perkins. He was an efficient, brave officer. This Third Brigade, 
under General Perkins, consisted of three regiments, of which 
Wm. Raven, J. S. Edwards and Richard Hayes were lieutenant 
colonels. When Congress increased the United States army in 
1812 George Tod was appointed major of the Seventeenth United 
States Regiment. Governor Tod seemed to be a very versatile 
man. He was a scholar, a law maker, a .iudge, and a soldier, 
always holding high rank. 

General Perkins issued an order in April, 1812, to his lieu- 
tenant colonels, telling them to secure, by enlistment, twenty- 
three men to serve in the United States army as a detachment 
from the militia of the state. "If they cannot be secured by 
enlistment, thirteen are to be secured by draft." 

In reading the history of the war of 1812 it is strange to see 
how the delays and the jealousies and the intrigues and the pol- 
itics entered in exactly as they entered in at the time of the war 
of 1861, and as they will always enter in till men learn that the 
greatest thing in the world is love for one's fellow man. 

The first men in Trumbull County who saw the necessity' of 
armed forces drilled, and after the militia was formed they had 
regular appointed "training." These days of training were 
often made sort of holidays, and the whole comnmnity gathered 
in some spot to see their men, sometimes in uniform colored by 
liomo dyes and made by women of the family, go through the 
manoeuvre of arms. Some years later the sons of wealthy men 
of Ohio had select companies with real uniforms, brass buttons, 
and like things, which stirred the envy of homespun soldiers. 

The tirst company in the war of 1812, organized under the 
government through Gen. Simon Perkins, had for ca])tain John 
W^. Seely; ensign, James Kerr. 


Historians tell ns that President Madison, altliough a states- 
man, was not a war president, and his secretary of war was no 
l)etter. We are inclined to believe this the truth in regard to 
the latter, since lie trusted a war message to the mails of that 
time, instead of sending it by messenger. The consequence was 
that the British on the southern shore of Canada knew the dec- 
laration of wai' three days before General Hull had lieen notified. 
History also tells us that Hull did not advance on Maiden, as 
he was supposed to do. and as it is believed he ought to have 
done, at the time when his men were ambitious and anxious to 
tight. Historians are not at all reticent in regard to him, but 
say that he was not a traitor nor a coward, but "an iml)ecile 
caused by drunkenness." Anyway, be surrendered at a time 
when be need not have surrendered, gave to the Britisli the 
stores, the whole of Michigan, and left the western frontier of 
northern Ohio the prey to the blood-thirsty Indians and their 
allies. He himself was captured, but exchanged for thirty Brit- 
ish prisoners. He- was court-martialed and sentenced to be shot 
for cowardice, but was pardoned by President Madison. The 
terror which spread over old Trumbull County, at the news of 
this defeat, can be imagined. However, it did not take long for 
the hard-headed (leneral AVadsworth to act. He waited for no 
orders, but issued a connnand for men to rendezvous at Cleve- 
hui<l. Colonel Whittlesey says, "The orders were received in 
the Third and Fourth Brigades like the call of the Scottish 
chiefs to the highlands." As soon as the Trump of Fame liad 
confirmed the surrender of Hull, the men of Trumbull County 
who were physically able shouldered their guns ready to tight. 
They did not wait for any distinct orders. Exaggerated stories 
came from the mouth of the Cuyahoga by messenger. Women 
and children who had been in Cleveland and that vicinity, fright- 
ened to death, came hurrying into Trumbull County for safety, 
and bore witness to the truth. It happened to be Sunday when 
the messengers bearing the sad news reached Warren. Meetings 
which were in session dispersed, guns were cleaned, knives were 
shar])ened, and like ])reparations were made. Colonel Hayes' 
regiment nmstered at Kinsman's store. This included men from 
the east side of Trumbull County, and before August 26th the 
other regiments, under Colonel Eayen and Colonel Edwards, 
were on their way. In fact, so many men ruslied to the defence 
(if their country that General AVadswortli sent part of them back, 

TiisToiiY OF 'i'i;r:\rRT'LL cofxty Fir 

to their dLsgust. He said tlic> wi'i-e needed to judlect the iKtuu! 
property and home i)eopU'. (leneral Perkins was given connnand 
of the army at the front, antl reaehed Camj) Ilnron on Sei)teni- 
ber (ith. It is possible that the newly ui'ganized tioops were in 
their places ready to defend before anything was known dt cmii- 
ditions at the war department in Washington. These tr(((>))s 
were in the neighboi'hood of the malarions cnnnti) , and suffered 
tei'ril)ly from sickness. If tlie enemy had attacked tlieiii a( that 
time they would have l)een easily dvercome. 

On the 28th of September volunteers were caHed Inr to go the Indians, who Avere making tliemselves obnoxidus in 
the neiglilioi-hood, and on the next day an engagement took place 
in which six men were killed, ten were wounded. Among tlie 
latter was Joseph McMahon, of Salt Springs fame, lie escape(l 
deatli at that time, but was killed on the way lunne. 

A good many soldiers li-om Trumbull County were in the 
ranks when Harrison won his splendid victory in the fall of ISi:;. 

The men who lent their aid in establishing the civil govern- 
ment of old Trumbull County were the men who defended the 
frontier and helped to carry to successful termination the war. 
Among these was Elijah W'adswoith, who suffered greatly from 
personal debt, which he contracted for the government in raising 
the troo])s. This is a shameful statement for anyone to have to 
record, (ieneral Perkins, .Indge Tod, Calvin Pease, whose his- 
tory we have read, gave their s]ilendid talents to the govern- 
ment service. Eev. Josejth Badger was postmaster, chaplain 
and nurse. He manufactuied one of the old time hand-grinding 
mills and. fiom the meal he made, prepared mush which tilled 
the stomachs of the half-sick soldiers. Tie was ver\- popular 
anu)ng his men for like actions. 

Although the war of ^y^^2 maimed and killed many. <le- 
stroyed families and wiought gi-eat hardshijis, it brought the 
])et)])le of Trumbull Ciuudy to the idea that there must be general 
military organizations and tiiat each man must be willing to do 
liis duty as a soldier. Fi-om that time on the militia was more 
])o])ular, trainings wei'c had often, and ammunition was always 
ovl hand. 

It would be useless to attem]it to give the causes of the war 
of 18(>1, oi- anything more than a nu^ntion of the part which 
Trumbull County peoi)le took in it. The tirst men to go liom 
Trumbull County reported at Cleveland in the s})ring of ISIil 
in answer to Lincoln's call for troojjs. These men were largely 

198 iiisi'oKY OF 'ri!r:\ir5rLL county 

mert'liaiits and |)r()tVssioiial uien I'roin the towns. There were 
few fanners. Tlie company from Trinniiull County was known 
as "Company Jl." Its ('ai)tain was Joel F. Asper, the first lieu- 
tenant was George L. Wood. (His daughter, Grace Wood 
Sclnnidt, now resides in Warren. ) .\.fter the promotion of Wood 
to captain, Asper having been promoted to lieutenant-colonel, 
Holbert C. Case became first lieutenant, and James P. Brisbane 
second lieuteiumt. Among the non-commissioned officers who 
were mustered out at the time the company was were First Ser- 
geant Joseph Pollock, Sergeant John L. Davis, Sergeant John A. 
Chafl'ee, Sergeant John Pollock; Corporals Henry H. Pierce, 
David L. Ilerst, Samuel L. Vance; Privates Steven Buri'ows, 
Eeuben AV. liowei-, Setli J. Coon, William Hunter, William A. 
Leavens, Jacol) H. Mohler, Eurastus C. Palmer, George W. 
Parker, Samuel S. Pelton, Hiram Shaffer, William H. Tracey, 
Alfred Webster, Benjamin Wilson, Adison White, Henry A. 
Weir, (^f the non-connnissioned officers who were wounded, 
Sergeant Ellis Fox, Corporals Charles Glendening, Joseph Kin- 
caid. l)a\id Wintersteen, and Wagoner James Moser were re- 
lented. I^k'ven of this comi)any were killed in Imttle, ten died, 
si.K are not reported, forty-five were discharged before the ex- 
]tiration of service, and two were transferred. 

Coin])any H belonged to the 7th Ohio Eegiment, Volunteer 
Infantry. Tlicx gathered at Camp Taylor, marched into Cleve- 
land in citi/ciis' clothes, went to Cincinnati, where Camp Den- 
nison. a hdi rid )ilace, awaited them. It was so early in the war 
thai i)i()iier ])re})arations had not been made, and they suffered 
greatly fi'oin cold. Joel B. Tyler, of Ravenna, Ohio, was elected 
colonel, William Creighton, lieutenant colonel, and John S. Case- 
ment, major. General Casement was a ])opular, brave young 
officer, and is still living. He has l)een a pros]ierous man. is now 
as then optimistic and generous. This regiment went to West 
Virginia, camping at Clarksburg. They were ordered to march 
to Weston to procure $()5,f)0() in gold which had been left in the 
bank there. They then proceeded to Glenville, to reinforce the 
17tli Ohio. They were then ordered to establish communications 
with General Cox. A little later they had a conflict with General 
Floyd's forces, in which 120 men, killed, wounded and prisoners, 
wei'c left u]ion the field. Part of the regiment went to Gauley, 
and while there received a stand of arms from jieople of the 
Western Reserve. General Dyer assumed command in October, 
1^61, and the regiment started in pursuit of General Floyd. It 


soon was at the very front. During that winter tlie soldiers suf- 
fered greatly from cold, and General Lander, having died, was 
succeeded by General Shields. The first real battle which the 
7th participated in was that of "Winchester. In this battle, four- 
teen were killed, 51 wounded, and several taken prisoners. 
After this l^attle the 7th was ordered to Fredericksburg. This 
was 132 miles off, and was a nine-day march. In the battle of 
Shenandoah the 5tli and 7th Regiments fought under the cover 
of standing wheat, 3,000 men against 14,000. When they finally 
had to retreat the 7th Kegiment was in the rear guard, and it 
never broke line, but even sometimes halted to fire on the enemy. 
They went to join McClellan, and came under the command of 
General Banks. The 7th was present at the Battle of Antietam, 
but was held back as a reserve force, and did not have to fight 
much. In 1862 the ranks of this regiment, which originally had 
a thousand men, were reduced to less than three hundred. Two 
hundred men were added to their number, and they went into 
winter ciuarters, where they stayed until April, 1863, about two 
years from the time they had reported at Cleveland. The 7th 
JRegiment was in the hottest jtart of the dreadful fight of Chan- 
cellorsville. They held their position, fighting until ordered to 
retreat, and finally, when the federal forces withdrew, the 7th 
and two other regiments lirought up the rear. When one meets, 
in business, men who engaged in all the battles of the 7th, one 
cannot help but wonder how they ever survived such a terrible 
ordeal. At Chancellorsville this regiment lost 14 killed and 70 
wounded. On June 1st, after hard marching, they were at Gettys- 
l)urg. In this fight, one of the most terrible of the Civil war, they 
were hurried from point to point, but because of the constant 
change of position they lost only one man and 17 wounded. From 
Gettysburg they went to New York to quell the riots, and in 
August went into camp on Governor's Island. In September 
they were ordered to the western department, and Avere under 
General Hooker. They went into winter quarters in Alabama. 
Here they expected to have a little wannth and rest, Imt soon 
had to leave these good quarters for Lookout Mountain. If they 
could not have the comfort of camp, they at least had the joy of 
seeing the Union flag planted on this mountain. However, this 
was little satisfaction, because very soon they were engaged in 
the fight of Missionary Ridge, where Colonel Creighton, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Crane fell, and where the slaughter was terrible. 
The 7th lost 19 killed and 61 wounded. They returned to Bridge- 


port, and in .May orouri'ed the l)attlt' of Kooky Face liidge. This 
hattle was a victorious one, witli shght loss. Allien the three 
years were up, many of the soldiers of the 7th did not want to 
re-enlist, although some did. Those who did were put in with 
the 5th, and marched with Sherman through Georgia. The regi- 
ment was mustered out on July 8, 1864, and had served more 
than three years, during which time 1,80U men had served with 
it. It was in more than tw-enty hattles, "and only two hundred 
and forty men remained to bring home the colors, riddled by 
shot and shell. It had served east and west, was always in the 
van, and participated in the hottest battles of the war." 

The 19th Regiment had three companies, B, C and G, which 
were composed largely of men from Trumbull and Mahoning 
counties. This regiment reached Cleveland soon after the 7th 
had left. They went into camp at Columbus. Samuel Beatty 
was colonel. Company B was among those which were sent to 
Camp Goddard for drill. The 8th and 10th .ioined this 19th and 
made a brigade over which (xen. William S. Rosecrans was 
placed. This brigade w'as to do service in West Virginia, and 
it did its duty well. In the fall of this year there was reorganiza- 
tion of this regiment. Among the men well remembered in 
Trumbull County belonging to this regiment were Captain James 
M. Nash of Caniield, Lieutenant Henry M. Fusselmau, Second 
Lieutenants O. P. Shaffer, Henry D. Stratton. Oscar O. Miller. 
Job D. Bell, First Lieutenants Homer C. Reid, Asael Adams. 
Sergeant M. O. Messer, Captain Franklin E. Stowe, First Lieu- 
tenant George M. Hull, Second Lieutenant Jason Hurd. 

The 20tli Ohio Volunteer Infantry came into existence after 
the call for volunteers in May, 1861. Charles Whittlesey, a 
graduate of W'est Point, was made colonel. Manning F. Force 
was lieutenant-colonel. This regiment was under heavy fire be- 
fore Fort Donelson, and after the surrender of the fort was sent 
north in care of the prisoners, and was scattered. By the middle 
of March seven companies were called in, gathered on the Ten- 
nessee. In A}n-il these men were fighting at Pittsburg Landing, 
where they met considerable loss. Lieutenant-Colonel Force was 
in command. After the fall of Corinth the regiment was trans- 
ferred to Bolivar, and in August it, with two other regiments, 
repulsed General Armstrong Avith thirteen. Two companies, C 
and K, were captured. Because of the gallantry of the men at 
this time several officers were promoted. In the early winter 
of '62 the 20tli was assigned to duty under General Logan's 

JIISTOKY OF 'riilMIU LI, ('orXI'V -.'(U 

division. It went to Alempliis, and then tn Clinton, .larkson. 
Champion Hills. At the latter place it was in an advance posi- 
tion, but lield its i)lace in the veginieiit until the anunuuition 
gave out. It wa.s just about to charge in de.spei-ation when the 
65th Ohio relieved it. This regiment took an honoialile place in 
the Vicksburg canijiaign, and more than two tliii'ds of its men 
re-enlisted in 18()4. In March they were allowcil xctcran's fur- 
lough, and were in camp at Deunison May 1st. 'i'licy were trans- 
ferred to Clifton, Tennessee, and were in the battle of Kenesaw 
Mountain. Later, they fought at Atlanta, and marclied to the 
sea. They had some skirmishing aftei- that, but their liard days 
were over, and tlicir joy knew no Ixumds when they learned that 
Johnston was to surrender, 'i'liey particijiated in the grand 
review at AVashingloii. and were muster<Ml out at ( 'oiumbus (ui 
June 12th. 

The 23rd Regiment of Ohio \'oluiitcei-s, although recruited 
]ai-gel.y in Mahoning County, had nuuiy members well known in 
Trumbull County. It was organized at Camj) Chase in 1861. W. 
S. Rosecrans was colonel. Rutherford B. Hayes was major, and 
later became brigadier-general. This regiment fought at South 
Mountain, Antietam, Berr^-A-ille, North Mountain and Cedar 
Creek. It was mustered out at Cumberland in hSIi,"). Among the 
men known by Trumbull County people were William McKinley, 
Jr., who Avas second lieutenant, \)v. .John McCurdy, of ^'oungs- 
town. surgeon, ()scar Bosley. who lixcd manv vears in Warren, 
Charles W. McNabb. dared 'j). Porter. 

The 24th Ohio \'olunteer Infantry, which was organized 
uuder Lincoln's call for troo])s, had a company (F) of Trumbull 
County men. Its first encounter was near Cheat Mountain, Mr- 
ginia. A little later it was transferred from the east to the west 
division, and in April, 1862, was at Pittsburg Landing. It 
marclied through the deei) swamps to Saxannah, and rea<-lied the 
battle on the second day. All)ert S. Hall, a member of C'ompany 
F, was severely woimded here. The regiment ])articipated in 
several skirmishes from Pittsburg Landing to Corinth. In 
December, 1862, this regiment had only three hundred men. 
These men, however, wei* in the battle of Stone River and held 
an important post. Lieutenant Charles Harmon, of Wari'en. 
was killed on the first day of this fight. Among those who are 
well remembered by Trumbull County ]ieo])le were Lieutenant 
Harmon, John "W. Brooks, Albert S. Hall, Captain \\'arrington 
S. Weston, First Lieutenant Emerson Mciriti, Sergeant .lolin .L 


Zinsser, Corporal Aaron Robbins aud Leonard Blessing, Wallack 
A\'. Drake. Amzi C. Williams, Kicliard Elliott, William R. Spear, 
John Q. AVilson. 

One-half of the men belonging to the 105th Regiment came 
from Trumbull and Mahoning counties. It did valiant service 
in Kentucky; it marched from Covington to Louisville, and it 
was attached to tlie divisions commanded by Brigadier-General 
Jackson. The tirst battle was fought at Perrysburg. The regi- 
ment was in ]\[urfreesboro in March, and about fourteen miles 
from that place gave John Morgan a drubbing. This regiment 
\<'as in Chattanooga in September, took part in the maneuvering 
and participated in the battle of ^Missionary Ridge. It was in 
the Atlanta campaign, but was not in the heaviest of the fight, 
and was in the review of Generals Sherman and Schofield at 
Goldsboro. "The sight was imposing. Full twenty-five per cent 
of the men were bai'efooted. They were ragged and dirty. Manj' 
in citizens' dress and many in rebel uniform." They had a long 
march back into Virginia, sometimes covering thirty-five miles a 
day, and after the grand review in Washington, May 24, 1865, 
they were mustered out. Among the persons belonging to this 
regiment, well known in Trumbull County, were: Lieutenant- 
Colonel George T. Perkins, Dr. Charles X. Fowler, Marshall W. 
Wright (quartermaster). Adjutant Ambrose Robbins, Lester D. 
Tayler, Sergeant-Major, and John McHard, Porter Watson, 
AVilliam Doty, Daniel B. Stambaugh, Peter Hiinrod, Robert C. 
Porter, John E. Stambaugh, Fred Harrington, Hugh Lowrey, 
John A. Ewalt, James A. Crawford, Norval B. Cobb, Calvin L. 
Rawdon, Thomas Quigley, Chauncey M. Hunt, Captain William 
AVal'ace, Charles A. Brigden, Lucius Perkins. Calvin Rawdon 
was in the Mexican war, and entered the City of Mexico with 
Scott. He outlived all Mexican soldiers from Trumbull County. 

The 125th Regiment was the regiment known as Opdyke 
Tigers. It was organized at Camp Cleveland in 1862. It ar- 
rived in Kentucky early in January. Cn the 1st of February it 
started for Nashville, Tennessee, being eight days on the way. 
It was in advance of the march, had a number of small fights, and 
was ordered to rejiort to Murfreesboro in June. This was a ter- 
rible march. It was in the hottest part of the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, on the 19th and 20tli of Se])tember. It behaved with such 
bravery at that battle that it really saved the day. This regi- 
ment was discharged at Camp Chase in September, 1864. Colonel 
Emerson ()])dyke was the commanding officer; George L. Woods 


was the major. Albert Yeoioaus was captaiu of Company B, 
and other Trumbull County men among the officers and soldiers 
were Eigiey C. Powers, captain, First Lieutenant Elmer Moses, 
First Lieutenant Ralsey C. Rice. Company C — First Lieutenant 
Heman E. Harmon. The remaining soldiers of this regiment 
hold a reunion each year in Warren, and usually call upon Lucy 
Stevens Opdyke, who was and is so interested in the regiment 
because it was her husband's pride. Mis. Opdyke, although 
living in New York, is usually at the home of her sisters, the 
Misses Stevens, at the time of the reunion. 

The 171st Ohio Volunteers, National (luards, was mustered 
into service in 1864. Companies A, B, C, D, (i, II and I were 
from Trumbull County. The going away of this regiment was 
one of the events of war time in Warren. In the first place, it 
was late, and people were thoroughly aroused, and, in the second 
place, the men composing these companies were well known in 
social and professional life. Its first duty was on Johnson's 
Island, and it was ordered to Kentucky in June, really in defense 
of Cincinnati. ?iIorgau was really foraging for supplies and 
loot, but his boldness drove fear to the hearts of the })eople in 
his vicinity. They proceeded to Cynthiana to reinforce the ]68th 
Ohio. The>' were surrounded by the enemy, who largely out- 
numbered them, and after a hot fight were captured. The losses 
on l)oth sides were very heavy. The prisoners taken were made 
to travel double-quick most of the way for forty-five miles. They 
were afterwards paroled, returned to duty on Johnson's Islnnd 
and were mustered out at the end of the hundred days. The 
stubborn resistance of this regiment prevented Morgan from 
reaching Cincinnati. Joel F. Asper was the colonel, Ilemau E. 
Harmon lieutenant-colonel. Manning A. Flower majoi', F. C. 
Applegate surgeon. i\]nong the men well known in this county 
in this regiment were: George Stiles, Captain Frank E. Hutch- 
ins, Lieutenant Fred Kinsnu^n, Lieutenant Frank J. Mackey, 
Greoi'ge N. Hapgood, William A. Camp, James H. Smith, Henry 
J. Lane, Jefferson AYilson, Jules Vautrot, George W. Pond, AYill- 
iam B. Brown, Kirtland M. Fitch, Charles Burton, Amzi Hovt. 
William H. Brett, William H. Dana, E. C. Andrews, Phili]) Art- 
man, E. H. Ensign, Chai'les P. Fusselman. Eomeo II. Freer, 
Wallace Gilmer, George Holland, Henry Iddings, (leorge Jame- 
son, John Kinsman. Th.eodore McConnell, Henry A. Potter, Ed- 
ward K. Patch, B. H. Peck, William Peffers, Henry Eickseker, 
John Rush, Jr., Ezra V>. Tavlor, George II. Tavlcr, George Van- 


Grorder, An\zi C. Williamson, Hugh Watson, Edward Woodrow, 
John Woodrow and Washington Wel)l). Captain of ('ompany B 
was Eichard Odell Swindle)-; Company C, Joseph M. Jackson; 
Company 1), Evan jMorris; Comi)any, H, Harlan TIatcli: Coni- 
])any I, Cyrns jMason. 

The 197th Regiment was organized in response to the last 
one-year call by President Lincoln. It was inade xi\) from vet- 
erans of other regiments mostly, and was mustered out at Balti- 
more in 18()5. It was composed largely of young men. The 
captain of Company B was George B. Kennedy; Henry hidings, 
Alonzo Brooks, Wm. H. Brett, Charles F. Harrington, .losiah 
S. Katliff, Plumb Sutliff, were among the soldiers. 

The 2nd Ohio Volunteer Cavalry was recruited l)y Hon. B. 
F. Wade and Hon. John Hutchins in the summer of 1861. It 
was a cavalry regiment, and those ,ioining were from the best 
families and highest vocations in the community. In the early 
winter it went to Camp Denison, and early in '()2 to ^Missouri. 
It raided this state and engaged in an encounter with Quantrell's 
forces. Although this was a short encounter, our regiment was 
successful. Later it captured Fort Gibson. It was under the 
command of (Jeneral Blunt in the fall, and fought at Carthage, 
Newtonia. Cow Hill. Wolf Creek, White River, Prairie Grove, 
Ai-kansas. C'aptain V. Kautz, wlio was a son-in-law of Governor 
Tod, was made colonel of this regiment after Charles Doulileday 
had been ])romoted to brigadier-general. Colonel Kautz's brigade 
pursued John Morgan and captured him at Bluffington Island. 
It was in active service, joined Rosecrans' army, and when the 
time came for enlistment many men re-enlisted. It became a 
part of Sheridan's cavalry, and assisted in the capture of 
Early's army. It captured a large amount of horses, wagons, 
and so on, and i^articipated in the grand review at AVashingtou. 
It is estimated that this regiment marched 27,000 miles and par- 
ticipated in 97 engagements. As we have said, the colonels were 
Charles Doubleday, V. Kautz, A. B. Xettleton and Dudley Stew- 
art. Robert W. Ratlit¥ was lieutenant-colonel, George L. Pur- 
rington, Henry L. Burnett were among the majors. Gaylord B. 
Hawkins was the chaplain. L. D. Bosworth was second lieuten- 
ant, and among the non-commissioned officers and privates who 
were known in Trumbull County were Byron M. Peck, Frederick 
Brice, George W. Kennedy, ( )rin J. Chalker. 

The Second Cavalry, which was reciuited by B. F. Wade and 
IIf)ii. John Hutchins, was ranked as the (ith Ohio Cavalry. The 

iiis'roKY OF 'nnMBrij. cuixtv 305 

('anip at wliicii they recruited, near Warren, ^vn^i iiained Camp 
Ihitchiiis. People in the coimty were much interested in this 
regiment, and often went to see tlieni drill. Xeiirly one-third of 
the regiment belonged to Trumbnll County. It went to Camp 
Ciiase and then into Virginia, joined (Jeneral Fremont and pur- 
sued Jackson down the Shenandoah. Its first regular engage- 
ment was at Cross Keys. It was also (>ngaged at some other 
small ])laces, and came under the <'oumiand of Pope. It was 
fourteen days under lire at Kapitahannock. It wa.s at the second 
battle of Bull Run. It was very active against Lee, and partici- 
pated in the battle of (lettysburg. It did ]iicket duty when the 
army was in winter quarters, and it seemed to be always in the 
advance guard. It opened the engagement at Appomatox Court 
House, and it acted as (ieneral Grant's escort from Appomatox 
to Burksville Station. Among the men well remembered by the 
residents of Trumbull County Avere Priel H. riutchius, Charles 
R. Hunt, William AVoodrow. 

The 12th Cavalry was organized with Robert \V. Ratliff as 
commissioned colonel; Frank H. Mason was adjutant; the chap- 
lain was Thomas W. Roberts. Thi.s regiment continued the 
guard of the ])risoners on Johnson's Island, and the last of 
^larch. lS(i4, ])roceeded to Kentucky. Here it did service against 
^lorgan, Breckenridge, etc. The next year it was in Tennessee, 
and destroyed raih'oad connections and like work. It aided in 
the capture of .left' Davis. It was in seivice two years. Edward 
B. Reeves was in this regiment, as was .lohn Crawford, Ira 
AVilcox and (J. W. Bear. 

The 2nd Ohio Heavy ^Vrtillery was the nucleus of the 1st 
Ohio Heavy Artillery. William Rutan was a non-commissioned 
officer in Com])any (i, as was Isaac H. Bennett. Jacol) H. Bald- 
win and Isaac M. \Voodrow were among the privates. 

The 14th Ohio Independent Battery was organized by W;ide 
and Hutcliins, and entered into service in 8e])tember, 1861. It 
was captured iji its first engagement, Pittslnirg Lauding. Colonel 
Jerome B. Burrows sei'ved with it three years, and he was suc- 
ceeded by Setli M. Laird. Both are well known in this county. 
Among the officers well renuMubei'ed here were William Smith, 
Homer II. Stull, Walter B. King. Among the non-commissioned 
officers were Thomas Douglas and treorge Harsh. William 
Rutan was a ]irivate in this regiment, as was also Edward Spear, 
who was transferred. Captain J. B. Burrows aud First Lieu- 
tenant Edwai'd Spear, of the 14tli Ohio Independent Battery, 


recruited the lotli. It was attached to the army of the Tennessee. 
Edwtird Spear was captain; R. C. Darling was among the non- 
commissioned officers. Frank 0. Bobbins of Niles was one of 
tlie privates. The Warren Home Committee consisted of Henry 
B. Perkins, Junins Dana, Matliew B. Tayler, Charles R. Hunt, 
John M. Stull, James Hoyt. Charles S. Field, so long identified 
with the commercial interests of Warren, had charge of the en- 
rollment for the provost marshal. Ambrose M. Bobbins of Niles 
was clerk in the captain's department. Among the men of the 
early days who helped to raise money for Warren and who 
always kept the treasury full, were Charles R. Hunt, James 
Hoyt, John M. Stull, Humphrey Harsh, Alouzo Truesdell. 

On the edge of the Mahoning river, about where the Monu- 
ment stands, the first schoolhouse was erected, the first jail was 
built, and here stood the office of Mr. H. C. Belden. In the 
'40s a regular benevolent society was formed among the women 
of the town. Mrs. Heman Harmon was the president, Mrs. 
Sarah Spear Hoyt and Mrs. Betsey Opdyke Patch assistants. 
There were then no hospitals or charitable organizations, and 
the women of this society helped care for the sick, took care of 
the needy poor, and sewed for those who under sudden misfor- 
tune or distress needed help. When the war broke out this asso- 
ciation turned its attention to helping the soldiers, and Mr. 
Belden offered his office as headquarters for this work. Mrs. 
Heman Harmon turned over the care of her household to her 
oldest daughter, Maria, afterwards Mrs. Delano, and gave all her 
attention to this work. She was president, Mrs. Charles Howard 
was the vice-president and Mrs. Florilla Wolcott Stull the secre- 
tary. Here bandages were made for the soldiers, as was clothing 
of all kind, lint was scraped, fruits of all kinds canned, and 
everything i^ossible done for the boys who were at the front. 
Some women who could not attend these meetings worked at 
home, and no record was kept of the amoimt of work done or of 
the people Avho assisted in it. Elizabeth L. Iddings, who pre- 
pared the article on Pioneer AVomen, with the assistance of Mrs. 
Homer Reid, Mrs. H. C. Baldwin, Mrs. B. J. Tayler, Miss Har- 
riet Stevens, Mrs. Mary Perkins Lawton and Mrs. Homer Stew- 
art, has given a partial list of those who attended most fre- 
quently. It is as follows: Mrs. E. B. Taylor, Mrs. George N. 
Hapgood, Mrs. Frederick Kinsman, Mrs. Lewis Hoyt, Mrs. Ira 
Fuller, Mrs. H. C. Belden, Mrs. Henry Smith, Mrs. Cyrus Van 
Gorder, Mrs. Charles Harmon, Mrs. C. W. Tyler, Mrs. Calvin 



Sutliff, Mrs. Ellen Gilbert, Mrs. Eunice Hawkins, Mrs. J. B. 
Dunlap, Mrs. George VanGorder, Mrs. Oliver Patch, Mrs. Lewis 
Iddings, Mrs. Allison, Mrs. Bostick Fitch, Mrs. George Town- 
send, Mrs. Comfort Patch, ]\lrs. T. J. McLean, Mrs. E. E. Hoyt, 
Mrs. B. P. Jameson. But two of this list are living today — Mrs. 
Eunice Hawkins and j\irs. George VanGorder. 

Roster of Ex-Soldiers of Trumbull County. 

Name of Soldier. Co. Eeg't. 

1. Charles A. Brigdeu, L 105th O. V. I.. 

2. C. Edward Brigden, B, 23d .V. I.. . 

3. Irwin E. Brigden, A and G, 179th 

86th 0. V. I 

4. Galvin P. Barb, 1, 105th O. V. I 

5. David Bower, I, 105th 0. V. I 

6. Robert N. Holcomb, I, 105th 0. V. I. . 

7. Austin H. Belden, E, 196th O. V. I. . . 

8. Orman L. Kibbee, llth 0. V. B 

9. Job Reynolds, D, 2d 0. V. C 

10. George Stone, E, 6th 0. V. C 

11. Henry Combs, K, 6th 0. V. C 

12. R. B. Tracy, K, 6th 0. V. C 

13. Edwin R. Loveland, II, 41st 0. V. I. . . 

14. Frank S. Rigel, B, 6th O. V. C 

15. George AV. Wilcox, D, 2d 0. V. C 

16. Robert A. Wilcox, D, 2d 0. V. C 

17. Aliah R. Harshman, D, 2d 0. V. C. . 

18. Henrv Higlev, G, 2d O. V. C 

19. Edward Hirshfield, G, 73d Pa. V. C. . 

20. ? 

21. Caleb French, B, 125th O. V. I.. . 

22. Alonzo Rich, C, 177th 0. V. I.. . . 

23. Almond H. Clark, G, 86th 0. V. I. . 

24. Henry Hoffman, G, S6th 0. V. I. . . 

25. Chancy W. Bates, A, 18th 0. V. I. 

26. Auretus White, G, 18th 0. V. L. . 

27. Chester Linscott, G, 18th 0. V. L. 

28. James Sealey, C, 84th 0. V. L. . 

29. Wallace Tracv, C, 84th 0. V. I.. . 

30. John Combs, B, 23d 0. V. I 

. . Mesopotamia, 0. 
. . Mesopotamia, U. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. . Mesopotamia, O. 
. . Mesopotamia, 0. 
. . Mesopotamia, 0. 
..Mesopotamia, 0. 
..Mesopotamia, 0. 
. . Mesopotamia, 0. 
. . Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 

..Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, O. 
. . Mesoijotamia, 0. 
. . Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. . Mesopotamia, O. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. .Mesopotamia, 0. 
. . Mesopotamia, 0. 










Leiuv E. Bo.slev, B, 41st O. \'. 1.. . . 

Edwin Difford, 19th 0. V. I..- 

Alvin Williams, D, 197tli (). Y. 1.. . 
Liuman Easton, F, 39tli 0. Y. L. . . 
Lin 0. TTavens. A, ]00tli N. Y. Y. 1. 


Josei)li Jackson, A, (itii (). W 
Wells Bushnell, A, (itli 0. Y. 
Austin Berry, A, 6th 0. Y. ( 
George S. Keldon, A, 6th O. 
Daniel Rex. A, 6th 0. Y. C. 
Samuel Rex, A, 6th O. Y. C. . 
William Williams. K. 6th 0. 
Albert Smith, J, 105th (). Y. 
Robert Windram, I, 105th O. 
Thomas Andrews, I, 105th O. 
George Haine, I, 105th (). Y. 
James Edney, D, 2d O. \'. ( 
D. W. Waters, H, 7th ( ). \\ i. 

A. Kincaid, 25th 0. Bat 

A. (). Iluutlev, Barters, Ind. 
J. K. Wing, Major and Q. M. 
John S. ^IrAdoo, 4tli ind. Ba 

('. . . 

v.. . . 
V. V. 

Y. C 


Y. I.. 
Y. I.. 

s. s. 



. . Mesopotamia, 0. 
..Mesopotamia, 0. 
..Mesopotamia, 0. 
..Mesopotamia, 0. 
. . ^lesopotamia, 0. 

. .Bloomtield, O. 
. .Bloomfield. 0. 
. .Bloomfield, 0. 
. .Bloomtield, 0. 
. .Bloomfield, 0. 
. .Bloomfield, O. 
. . Bloomfield, ( >. 
. . Bloomfield, U. 
..Bloomfield, O. 
. . Bloomfield, O. 
..Bloomfield, O. 
. .Bloomfield, 0. 
..Bloomfield. 0. 
..Bloomfield, 0. 
..Bloomfield, O. 
. . Bloomfield. O. 
. .Bloomfield, U. 

and A. 

George C. Allen, I), 2d O. V. C. 
H. J. Wolcott, D. 2d. (). Y. C. 

196th O. Y. I 

Daniel Winchel. L, (Jtli (). Y. C. 
S. H. OhoiTee, 1, 6th O. Y.C. ... 
A. G. Pelton, E, 6th 0. \'. C . . . 
('. E. Stockwell, F, 39th O. A\ T.. 
Alfred T.amphen, G, 2d O. H. A 
William Horton, 14th O. Bat. . 
James Crozier, 25th (). Bat. . . . 
Smith Pimev. D, 104th O. Y. T.. 
Z. C. Hillman. E, 171st O. Y. T.. 
Edwin Winr-hel. G, 177th 0. Y. I 
D. E. Lillibridge. G, 177th and S6th 0. V. I. 

. Greensburg. 0. 

. Green sburg. 0. 
.Greensburg, 0. 
. Greensburg, 0. 
.Greensburg, O. 
.Greensburg, O. 
.Greensburg. 0. 
. Greensburg, O. 
.Greensburg. O. 
.Greensburg. O. 
.Greensburg, O. 
.Greensburg. 0. 
..Greensburg. 0. 



J. K. Nims, G, ITTtli and 86tli 0. V 
8. B. Hedges, A, 2d P. H. A.. 
Tlieodove Kerlin, U. S. Navy. 
A\'. S. Downs, Marine Brigade 
I'hester Tuttle, C, 125th 6. V 
Jason Case, C, 125th O. V. I. . 
Sidney Higgins, C, 125th 0. V. I.. 
QuincY Lattin, C, 125th 0. V. I.. 
Joseph Young, F, 198th O. V. I. 

A. A. Eavmond, I, 21st Mich. V. : 

John Kirkly, Mich. V. I 

Aron J. :Merritt, B, 105th 0. V. I. 
W. E. Lattiu, B, 105th 0. V 
J. S. Williams, B, 105th 0. ^ 
Lorenzo Sjiarks, B, 105tli 0. 
S. R. Sample, D, 2d 0. V. C. . . 
K. W. Ch'ane, D, 19th 0. V. C. . 
T. P. McCoy, E, 6th 0. V. C. . . . 

B. A. Jham, B, 29th 0. V. I 

I. S. Kithridge, B, 105th 0. Y. I 

. I. . . 
V. I 


. . Greensburg, O. 
. .Greensburg, O. 
. . Greensburg, 0. 
. .Greensburg, O. 
. . Greensburg, 0. 
. .Greensburg, 0. 
. .Greensburg, 0. 
. .Greensburg, O. 
. .Greensburg, 0. 
. . Greensburg, 0. 
. . Greensburg, 0. 
. . Greensburg, 0. 
. . Greensburg, 0. 

TriumiJi, 0. 

Triumph, 0. 

Triumph, 0. 

. . Greensburg, 0. 
. .Greensburg, 0. 
. . . .Gustavus, 0. 
. . Greensburg, 0. 


J. AV. Gleason, K, 7th Kansas Kinsman, 0. 

G. 11. Xickersou, G, 145th Pa Kinsman, 0. 

A. R. Grover, Staff, 12th Mass. ; 92(1 V. S. C. L.Kinsman, O. 

Robert Spencer, C, 2d Cav Kinsman, 0. 

Zahnon Mathews, G, 171st (). X. G Kinsman, 0. 

L. B. Fobes, G, 171st 0. N. G Kinsman, 0. 

A. Mathews, B, 125th 0. X. (i Kinsman, 0. 

John Wallace, G, 171st U. X. G Kinsman, O. 

J^ewis Sharp, F, 6th C*av I\insman, 0. 

Sam Vernon, G, l-45th Pa Ivinsman, O. 

Ethelbert Fobes, G, 171st 0. X. G Kinsman, 0. 

Dan Bidlake, 14th 0. Bat Kinsman, O. 

A. J. Kesler, B, 28th Pa Kinsman, O. 

John Gillis, B, 125th 0. V. I Kinsman, O. 

F. J. Fobes. B, 125th 0. V. I Kinsman, 0. 

Lyman Root, B, 125th 0. V. I Ivinsman, O. 

Allen Jones, Surgeon, 13th 0. V. I Kinsman, O. 

R. K. Ilulse, K, 125th 0. V. I Kinsman, O. 

]\Iarcus Christy, K, 100th Pa Kinsman, 0. 

Vol. 1—14 

210 IllSI'din OF TKl'MBULL COrXTY 

20. Richard Partridge, 2ytli O. V. I Kinsmau 

21. Homer Hnibert,^105th 0. V. I Kinsman 

22. George H. Griswold, G, 171st 0. N. G Kinsman 

23. J. W. Chase, B, 6th Cav Kinsman 

24. George W. Birrell, G, 171st 0. N. G Kinsman 

25. Isaac J. Allen, G, 171st 0. N. G Kinsman 

26. Wilton A. Christy, G, 171st 0. N. G Kinsman 

27. John M. Allen, G, 171st 0. N. G Kinsman 

28. James V. Betts, G, 111th Pa Kinsman 

29. A. R. Fordice, H, 14th Pa. I Kinsman 

30. A. C. Parker, A, 41st O. V. I Kinsman 

31. J. T. Brown, K, 67th O. V. I Kinsman, 

32. D. F. Allen, G, 171st 0. N. G Kinsman 

33. D. T. Gillis, G, 171st O. N. G Kinsman 

34. C. O. Fitch. B, 125th 0. V. I 

35. J. W. Betts Kinsman 

36. Nelson Root, C, 2d Cav Kinsman 

37. W. A. Thomas, G, 111th Pa Kinsman 

38. Absolom Betts Kinsman 

39. L. P. Andrews, Staff, 171st 0. N. G Kinsman 

40. Stephen Smith, G, 171st O. N. G Farmdale 

41. William Miller, Trumbull Guards Kinsman 

42. Daniel R. McCoshrick, G, 171st 0. N. G Kinsman 

43. Henry Frazier, 171st O. N. G Kinsman 

44. H. N.' Tracy, B, 125th 0. V. I Kinsman 

45. Thomas AVebber, G, 171st 0. N. G Kinsman 

46. R. J. Morf ord, C, 55th Pa Kinsman 

47. Wallace P. Losser, F, 2d 0. C Kinsman 

48. John Stoner, I, 105tli (). V. T Kinsman 

49. Wiliard Sandy, F, 2d (). Cav Kinsman 

50. I). K. McKinssie, F. 2d (). V. C. and 155tli. . .Kinsman 

51. Joe ]\Iarvin, G, 9th Ind. Cav Farmdale 

52. Daniel Burns, (i, 171st O. N. G Farmdale 

53. F. K. Alayborn, G, 15th X. J. Eng Farmdale 

54. I.. W. Roberts, G, 10th 0. Cav Farmdale 

55. Ij. G. Parsons, F, 7th Wis. Cav Farmdale 

56. 1). G. Brockway, K, 7th Kansas I Farmdale 

57. H. L. Perkins, 'g, 171st 0. N. G Farmdale 

58. Miles Gilder, G, 171st 0. N. G Farmdale 

59. Isaac M. Newton, G, 171st 0. N. G Farmdale 

(;o. Theron Peck, G, 171st 0. N. G Farmdale 

61. Philo Meacham, G, 171st 0. N. G Farmdale 







iiis'|'(»i;y of Ti;i':\iBrLi. coitnty 


62. H. L. Buniham, G, 171st (). N. G Kinsiimu, (). 

63. A. W. (lillis, G, 171st 0. N. G Kinsman, (). 

64. Alonzo H. Porter, G, 171st O. N. G Kinsman, (). 

65. W. ('. Kiehards, B, 12th Pa. I Kinsman, (). 

6{). .\hraham Angles, C, 2d U. H. A Kinsman, (). 

67. Wayne Sjiear, Trnmbnll Guards Kinsman, (). 

6i<. .loci Hawley. 


1. Henry Brown, i), 211tli Pa 

2. .lames 1). Burnett, F, 24tli O. V. 1. 

3. John A. Cai-mon, C, 125th 0. V. I. 

4. Leonard Deemington, A, 83d Pa. . 

5. Edsell R. Pell, C, 2d O. V. C 

6. Gassius M. Fell, B, 57th Pa 

7. George W. 8nvder, C. 84th 0. V. I 

8. W. S'. Trimbell, H, 145tli Pa 

9. Austin Marentain, G, 177th (). V. I 

10. If. M. Green, 1st Pa. H. Art 

11. .1. W. Hoffman, G, 78th Pa 

12. A. L. Jones, 0, 84th O. V. I 

. Or 
. Or 


ille, 0. 

ille, O. 

ille, O. 

ille, 0. 

ille, O. 

ille, O. 

ille, O. 

ille, O. 

ille, 0. 

ille, 0. 

ille. O. 

ille, O. 


1. W (i. .\lgei-, (', 2!)tli O. \^ I. . 

2. \j. B. Brainard, G 2!)th O. V. I. 
::. (i. 1). Brocket, C, 2!»tli O. V. I. 

4. \V. Chambers, G, 2!ltli O. V. I 

5. .1. Noble, (', 2()th O. V. I 

6. X. II. Baily, G, 29th O. V. I . . . 

7. Albert E. Brainard, Band, 29th O. V. 

8. Erastus Brainard, Band, 29th O. V. I 

9. Buell W. Brainard, Band, 29th O. V. 
10. E. R. Brainard, G, 125th O. V. I 
n. .1. i.loyd, K, 1st IT. E. B 

12. G. Montgomery, F, 24th O. V. I 

13. W. SulliVant, F, 24th O. V. I . . 

14. L. Petton, 6th O. V. G 

15. L. ,]. Morey, M, 6tli O. V. G. . . 

16. James Ellis, K, 6th O. V. G. . . . 

17. T. Church, F. 24th O.V. \ 

. (rusta\ 
. (Justav 
. Gust a V 
. (xustav 
. Gustav 
. Gustav 
. Gustav 
. Gustav 
. Gustav 
. Gustav 
. GvTstav 
. Grustav 












us. O. 
us, O. 
us, O. 
us. O. 







F. K. Lewis, 17tli 0. V. I Gustavus 

(K .lustin, C, 125tli 0. V. I Gustavus 

E. Hurch, K, 177tli 0. V. I. Gustavus 

Menry Giiler, D, 171st 0. N. G Gustavus 

Ro])ert Wallace, D, 171st O. N. G Gustavus 

John Smith, A, 103d Pa. I Gustavus 

.lames Smith, F, -l-7th Pa. I Gustavus 

lleury Chalk, I, 8th I. L. C Gustavus 

Peter Lauou, E, 13tli Mich. I Gustavus 

p]. Southwick, I), 27th Map. I Gustavus 

.). Loutzhiser, G, 171st O. N. G Gustavus 

— Sajasen, C, 83d Pa. I Gustavus 

.1 nmes Brimdon, E, 65th 0. V. I Gustavus 

— Henry. E, lOStli 0. V. I Gusta^^.ls 

William Johnson, F, 1st Oregon C Gustavus 

John Catlain, H, 52d III. I Gustavus 

Jolm G. Bryant, 6th O. V. C Gustavus 

Closes Bryant, 87th (). V. I Gustavus 

:\Fatt RileV. R. ■47th Ind. I Gustavus 


Weslev ('. Fishel, B, 125th 0. V. I. 
Warren II. Fishel, B, 125th 0. V. I 
Bockman, John, K, Stli 111. Cav. . . , 
Howard M. Hughes, G, 41st 0. V. I 
Alonzo W. Greer, H, 171st 0. V. I. 
Svlvester Harshmau, B, 125th 0. V. 
Andrew J. AVinters, K, -tlst 0. V. I 

8. S. M. Bowers, II, 171st 0. V. I. . . . 

!). Washington Strock, A, 17th 0. V. I 
1(1. James II. Snow, H, 171st (). V. I. . 

11. Adiron F. Osmer, H, 171st O. Y. I. 

12. ( )riel C. Osmer, H 171st S: D 196th 

13. Patrick Cox, D, 6th O.V.C 

14. Cyrus S. Thompson, I, I77tli ( ). V. I 

15. llenrv M. Kibbee, H, 171st O. V. I 

16. ( )rlando Bimdy, B, 125th O. V. I. 

17. Alexander France, B, 8()th (). V. I 
IS. .!.(). Lattimer, A, 29th O. V. I. . . 

19. Zuia J. Buck, 25th Art 

2(1. A. T. King, E. 53d Mass 






Farmington, 0. 

Farmington, 0. 

.Farmington, 0. 

Farmington, O. 

Farmington, 0. 

Farmington. O. 

Fannington, 0. 

Farmington, O. 

Farming-ton, 0. 

Farmington, O. 

.Farmington, O. 

. Farmington, 0. 

.Farmington, O 

Farming-ton, 0. 

Farmington, 0. 

Farmington, O. 

Farmington, 0. 

Farmington, O. 

Farmington, 0. 

Farmington, 0. 






W. J. Haine, I, lOotli U. V. I 

James Caldwell, D, 2d 0. V. C 

L. C. Wolcott, D, 2d O. V. e' 

Rodney Miller, H, 171st O. V. I 

Michael Clark, D, 6th O. V. C 

Albert Morrison, H, 171st O. V. I. . . . 

Joseph Radford, D, 2d 0. V. C 

William Barnes, I, 49th Pa 

Edwin Oatley, D, 2d 0. V. C 

William Wolcott, D, 6th 0. V. C 

J. W. Beldeu, D, 2d O. V. C 

Ariel Chapman, 11, 171st 0. V. I 

Chester Steele, F, 171st 0. V. I 

John W. Wilcox, H, 171st 0. V. I. . . . 

M. W. Griffith, II, 171st 0. V. I 

Harry Ford, G 177th and II 7th 0. V. 

William Lamlesson, D & H, 171st 0. V 

Chaimcv Dalney, D, 2d 0. V. C 

William D. Hickok, D, 2d 0. V. C. . . . 

William Harklerode, II, 171st 0. V. I 

Harmon Osborn, II, 171st 0. V. I. . . . 

George Thomas, B, lOStli 0. V. I. . . . 

H. P^ Tmuer, A, 29th O. V. I 

Edwin D. Lewis, B,' 105th 0. V. I. . . . 

Harlan H. Hatch, II, 171st 0. V. I. . . . 

George Harshman, Battery E, 5th N. Y 
H. Art., transferred to Battery L 
5th U. S. Lt. Art ". 

Silas Curtis, H, 171st O. V. I 

Amiel Kincaid, D, 2d 0. V. C 


Farmington, 0. 
Farmington, 0. 
Fannington, 0. 


1. A. A. House, A, 6th U. V. C. . . . 

2. H. H. Pierce, II, 7th 0. V. I 

3. M. B. Mayhew, D, 196th 0. V. I. 

4. C. B. Strickland, B, 41st 0. V. I. 

5. J. A. Sager, A, 6th 0. V. C 

6. M. Parringer, B. 125th 0. V. I. . 

7. B. II. Mayhew, B, 105th 0. V. C . 

8. L. Gale, Jr., A, 6th 0. V. C 

9. D. E. Cannon, H, 171st 0. N. G. 

N. Bristol, 0. 

.. ..Bristolville, 0. 

N. Bristol, O. 

... .Bristolville, O. 

N. Bristol, 0. 

. .. .Bristolville, 0. 

N. Bristol, O. 

N. Bristol, 0. 

N. Bristol, 0. 



10. \V. J. Urinnell, F, 2(ltli U. V. 

11. 11. F. Sager, A, (5tli 0. V. C. . 

12. J. H. Barton, F, 19tli (,). V. M 

13. .]. B. Johnstou, D, l2d U. V. C 

14. .1. B. Ramsdell, B, lOotli U. V. I 

15. .1. U. Nelsou, C, 19tli 0. V. I. . 

16. ,J. B. Hedges, C, 57th Pa 

17. S. C. Thorp. A, 6th (). V. C... 

18. S. S. Chu-, — , 14tli O. Art. . . 

19. J. C. Osborn, C, 125th 0. V. I. 

20. T. C. Hart, C, 2d O. V. C 

21. (). E. Davidson, E, 177th 0. V. 

22. Seth Hart, B, 105th 0. V. 1. . . 

23. C. W. Feutou, B, 6th O. V. C. 

24. S. O. Hart, B, 105th 0. V. 1 . . 

25. Lewis Struck, C, 196th 0. V. I . 

26. George M. Hull, C, 19th (J. V. I 

27. Alonzo Wiley, I, Mass. and 63d 0. 

28. Chauncy Trains. H, 171st 0. N. CI 

29. A. H. Bright, H, 171st O. N. G. . . 

30. Bradford Gale, Trumbull Guards 

31. H. H. Hescock, B, 105th (). V. I. . 

32. Frank Osborn, D, 196 O. V. I. . . . 

33. Josiah Osborn, ^, 64tli O. V. 1 . . . 

34. John G. Kagy, ■— , 64th O. V. 1. . . 
.35. J. A. Cummins, D, 2d, and K 6th 0. 
.36. Carlos P. Lyman, Capt., G, 100th U 

37. W. L. Hunter, Tawnes Co., Pa. Vol 

38. W. AV. Hale, A, 6th 0. V. C. . . . 

39. Daniel Cutting, G, 19th O. V. I . 

40. J. J. Sutlitt', D, 6t]i O. V. C... 

41. C. AV. Huntley, B, 6th O. V. C. . 

42. S. F. Huntley, E, 23d (). V. I . . . 

43. A. .]. Shiveley 

44. G. Fisher. C. 15th Pa. V. C 

West Mecc( 


. Bristolviile 
. .N. Bristol 
, .N. Bristol 

.X. Bristol 
, .N. Bristol 
, .N. Bristol 
. .N. Bristol 
, .N. Bristol 

.N. Bristol 

.N. Bristol 

.N. Bristol 
. Bristolviile 

.N. Bristol 
. Bristolviile 
. Bristolviile 
. Bristolviile 


\V. S. Hulse, B, 105th O. V. I 

W. M. Johnston, D, 6tli 0. V. C. . . 
Harry Mabannah, D, 105th 0. V. I. 
J. J. Winans, E, 2d 0. V. C 

.. ..W. Mecca, 0. 

....W. Mecca, 0. 

....W. Mecca, 0. 

. .. .W. Mecca. 0. 


5. John Sillev, I, 6th 0. V. C. . . . 

6. Alit Hillger, I, 6tli 0. V. C 

7. .Jolm Genger, I, 142d Pa 

8. George Henrv. A, 41st 0. V. I. 
[). T. H. Heury,"A, 41st U. V. I. . . 

10. Samuel Heury, A, 41st 0. V. I. 

11. Jolm Edgar, B, 76tli Pa. V. . . . 

12. Samuel Shaffer, I, 6th O. V. C . 

13. Sedrick Hulse, Navy 

14. Sidney Powers, — , 14th L. Mass. B 

15. Reuben Sanner, E, 177th Infantry 

16. H. C. Reynolds, H, 171st Infantry 

17. William Taylor, H, 171st Infantry 

18. George Huntley, E, 6th 0. V. C. .". 

East Mecca. 

John A. Chaffer, H, 7th O. V. I. 
James Chafee, I, 6th 0. V. C . . . 
Henrv Bettiker, G, 56th 1. V. I. . 

4. William Quiggh, C, 2d 0. V. C. . 

5. Norris Meaeham, B, 125th O. V. 




Mecca, 0. 
Mecca, 0. 
Mecca, O. 
Mecca, 0. 
Mecca, O. 
Alecca, 0. 
Mecca, 0. 
Mecca, 0. 
Mecca, 0. 
Mecca, 0. 
Mecca, 0. 
Mecca, 0. 
Mecca, 0. 
Mecca, 0. 

.Mecca, 0. 
.Mecca, 0. 
.Mecca, 0. 
.Mecca, 0. 
.Mecca, O. 


1. .). K. Elder, S, M, 2d 0. V. C. . . 

2. A. W. Bridges, D, 177th 0. V. I . 

3. R. D. Bebee, B, 87th 0. V. I. 

4. Merin Johnson, E, 18th Wis . 

5. J. P. Button, K, 41st 0. V. I 

6. John Law. D, 177th O. V. I. . 

7. John Regula, G, 9th U. S. I. . 

8. James K. Buell, B, 87th 0. V. I 

9. Ed Baldwin, Bat. C, 3d U. S. Art 

10. John M. Bebee, 25th 0. Battery 

11. Francis Cotton, B, 105th 0. V. I. 

12. James K. Dye, F, 145th Pa ... . 

13. John M. Smith, A, 41st 0. V. I. . 

14. James Tompkins, K, 41st 0. V. I 

15. Sam Fenn, B, 125th O. V. I. . . . 

16. George Murdock, B, 125th 0. V. 

17. Thomas Lontzenheim, B, 125th 

V. I. 

Johnstonville, U. 
Johnstonville, 0. 
Johnstonville, 0. 
Johnstonville, O. 
Johnstonville, 0. 
Johnstonville, 0. 
Johnstonville, 0. 
Johnstonville, 0. 
Mecca, 0. 

Johnston, 0. 

Johnston, 0. 

Johnston, O. 

.Latimer, (). 

. Latimer, O. 

Johnston, 0. 
. . .Farmdale, 0. 
Johnstonville, O. 












C. H. Roberts, D, 177tli 0. V. I Johnstonville, 0. 

Bennett Curtiss, I, 6tli 0. V. C Warren, 0. 

D. H. Shoft', A, 27tli Iowa Cortland, 0. 


Henry L. Beach, Baud, 29tli 0. V. I Burghill 

James Beach, C, 2d O. V. C Burghill 

Alvin Baker, D, 103d 0. V. I Burghill 

Job Biggin, A, 6th 0. V. C Burghill 

Morgan Brown, B, 125th O. V. I Burghill 

Uriah Burns, A, 169th Pa Kinsman 

A. R. Fell, D, 6th 0. V. C Burghill 

A. L. Fell, 0, 10th Pa. R Burghill 

Harry Giddings, B, 125th 0. V. I Vernon 

F. C. Hobart, G, 171st 0. V. I Kinsman 

Oscar Hobart, G, 171st 0. V. I Kinsman 

Clinton Hobart, G, 171st 0. V. I Kinsman 

James Hamilton, D, 177th 0. V. I Latimer 

David A. Hall, D, 177th 0. V. I Burghill 

Fayette Havnes, G, 171st 0. V. I Kinsman 

F. H. Knight, B, 125th O. V. I Burghill 

Frank Moran, E, 6th 0. V. C Burghill 

Monroe Mountain, — , 177th 0. V. I Burghill 

W. H. Mallvin, B, 76th Pa Burghill 

Samuel Mackey, E, 27th Iowa V. I Burghill 

James Reed, D, 24th Mass Burghill 


1. Nathan Smith, H, 20th 0. V.I... . 

2. J. A. Harwood, C, 125th 0. V. I.. 

3. M. D. Haughton, H, 171st 0. V. I. . 

4. Charley Harshman, B, 125th 0. V. I 

5. W. J. Helsley, G, 19th 0. V. I 

6. Daniel Brobts, H, 20th 0. V. I 

7. Jacob Shaffer, B, 105th 0. V. I.. . . 

8. H. A. Haughton, H, 171st 0. V. I. . . 

9. L. J. Haughton, H, 1 84th O. V. I. . . 

10. P. D. Hatch, C, 123d 0. V. I 

11. Ben Craver, C, 2d 0. C 

12. H. D. Mercer, D, 6th 0. V. C 

. . . Southington, 0. 
. . .Southington, 0. 
. . . Southington, 0. 
. . . Southington, O. 
..'.Southington, 0. 
. . . Southington, O. 
. . .Southington, 0. 
. . .Southington, 0. 
. . . Southington, O. 
. . . Southington, 0. 
. . . Soi;thington, O. 
. . .Southington, 0. 



13. Addison White, H, 7tli O.Y.I Soutliiuo-ton, 0. 

14. S. H. Nortou, B, -ilst 0. V. I Southington, 0. 

15. J. C. Fox, H, 7th 0. V. I Southington, O. 

16. S. Doty, G, 19th 0. A'. I Southington, 0. 

17. Charles Smith, 1), 125th ( ). X. I ■. Soutliiugton, ( ). 

18. A. H. Silveruail, E, 128tli 0. ^'. I Southington, (). 

19. J. Long, D, 125th 0. V. I Southington, ( ). 

20. Kiley White, H, 171st 0. X. G. ; H, 7th 

0. V. I Southington, O. 

Chit III pioii. 

1. John :\IurphT, C, 125th U. X. I. 

2. Hiram Shaffer, H, 7th 0. V. I. . 

3. Morris Osboru, H, 7th 0. V. I. . . 

4. Joseph Landers, C, 19th 0. V. I. 

5. Jacob Mesmer, I, 6th 0. V. C. . 

6. Henry Merwin, K, 75tli 111 

7. 0. K.' Anderson, H, 171st 0. N. G 

8. A. D. Prentice, B, 105th 0. V. I. 

9. J. N. Woodrow, G, 2d 0. H. A. . 

10. Thomas Mahany, 6th 0. V. C. . 

11. James Mahanv, Capt. Smith's Ind 

12. A. A. Harshm"an, E; 5th N. Y. H. 

13. W. L. Pierce. G, 2d 0. H. A 

14. Daniel Lodwick, B, 105th O. V. I 

15. Wesly Hale, I, 6th 0. C 

16. Evans William, — , 19th 0. V. I. . 

17. W. C. Balden, H, 7th 0. V. I 

18. Hiram Gilbert, K, C. R. C 


Marshall Davis, B, 105th 0. V. I 
J. E. Fanrot, B, 105th 0. V. I.. . . 
H. W. Jackson, B, 105th 0. V. I 

4. E. Hadsell, B, 105th 0. V. L.. 

5. L. Lake, B, 105th O. V. I 

6. W. J. Shaffer, B, 105th 0. V. I. 

7. Asa Crooks, I, 6th 0. X. C. . . 
James Havhusk, I, 6th 0. V. C. 
William Parks, E, 177th 0. V. I 


.Champion, (). 
.Champion, (). 
.Champion, (J. 
. Champion, 0. 
. Champion, (). 
.Champion, O. 
.Champion, 0. 
.Champion, 0. 
. . .Warren, 0. 

.Champion, (J. 
. Champion, 0. 
. . .Warren, 0. 
. Champion, 0. 
.Champion, 0. 
.Champion, 0. 
.Champion, 0. 

.Cortland, 0. 
.Cortland, 0. 
.Cortland, O. 
.Cortland, 0. 
.Cortland, O. 
. .Warren, 0. 
.Cortland, O. 
.Cortland, 0. 
.Cortland, O. 

■21S 11ISJ-()1;Y of 'riMMlil ll lolmy 

10. E. L. Ervitt, J), Jii-t U. \'. 1 Cortland, 0. 

11. A. Mavuard, F, 9tli 0. V. 1 Cortland, O. 

12. F. S. Esmond, C. Il25tli N. V Cortland, O. 

13. G. W. Weir, H, 134tli Pa Cortland, 0. 

14. S. L. Love, B, 136tli Pa Warren, 0. 

15. Benj. Battles, 6, 19th 0.\. 1 Cortland, O. 

16. W. H. Brown, I, 12th Mo. Cav Cortland, O. 

17. J. H. Sheldeu. G, 2d 0. H. A Cortland, O. 

18. G. F. Pinkertou, Trumbull Guards Cortland, 0. 

19. Jeuy Freer, Trumbull Guards Cortland, O. 

20. R. Winues-al. Trnniliull (Juards Cortland, O. 

< 'iililitltd. 

1. James A. Hardy, C, 19th U. \'. I Cortland, U. 

2. Eugene Lattin, B, 41st 0. V. 1 e'ortland, 0. 

3. Hugh Lowry, B, 105th 0. V. 1 Cortland, 0. 

4. Cassius M. Hadsell, — , 14th 0. V. B Cortland, O. 

5. Anthony Burrows, C, 125th O. V. T Cortland, 0. 

(i. ^V. N. Morev, K, 6tli N. Y. Cav Cortland, 0. 

7. J. P. Lake, F, 24th 0. V. T Cortland, 0. 

8. Joseph Bailv, Trumbull Guards Cortland, 0. 

9. W. P. Merry, Trumbull Guards Cortland, 0. 

10. A. V. Uutcher, A, 41st 0. V. 1. . . : C^ortland, 0. 

11. D. N. Gebhart, C, 19th Pa. Cav Cortland, 0. 

12. B. H. Lake, K, 41st 0. V. 1 : Cortland, O. 

13. H. D. Holcomb, D, 177th (X V. T Cortland, O. 

14. F. C. Tracele, — , 25th 0. B Cortland, O. 

15. A. Williamson, F, 24th 0. V. I Cortland, 0. 

16. J. W. Worting, C, 57th 111 Cortland, 0. 

17. G. H. Morey, A, 29th 0. V. 1 Cortland, 0. 

18. Samuel H. Spencer, Surgeon, 49th 0. V. I. . . . Cortland, 0. 

19. G. C. Gilbert, K, 13th N. Y Cortland, 0. 

J. B. Ramsdell Cortland. O. 


1. Kilev Hall, I), 6th O. ^^ C Cortland, 0. 

2. George Hayes, 1^, 6th 0. V. C Cortland, 0. 

3. Picton Hayes, I), 6th O. V. C Cortland, 0. 

4. Hiram Hull, G, 6th 0. V. C Cortland, 0. 

5. Amos Bowers. B, Lst Bat., Pa Fowler, 0. 





\V. \\achfiifeld, 1. 74tli Pa Fowler, O. 

E. X. I-5aklwiu, A, 171st 0. V. 1 Fowler, 0. 

James Waters, H, 171st O. \. i Fowler, O. 

H. D. Baldwiu, H, 171st U. V. 1 Tyrrell, 0. 

Ridiard Holetou, C, 27tli 0. V. I Fowler, ( ). 

H. Bettiker, G, 56t]i J.Y.I Fowler, ( ). 

A. McCorkle. A. I'lid A[im Cortland, (). 


1 . A. P. Kepiier, A. 41 st U. V. 1 Hartford 

■1. Edward Pforet, A, 41st 0. V. I Hartford 

:). J. N. Hill, A, 134th Pa Hartford 

4. B. F. Whirton, E, 6tli O. ^\ C Burgbill 

.'). Robert Gamble, D, 2nd 0. X. C Harti'ord 

ti. Corwiu S])eueer, TrmnbuU Guards Hartford 

7. Dwigbt Spencer, Trnnibnll Gnards Hartford 

8. M. Jobnston, Trmnlmll Gnards Hartford 

'■>. Setb Bartbolomew, Trumbull Guards Hartford 

1(1. l. J. Bates, Trumbull (Juards Hartford 

IL'. Jacob AVylaud, G, 84tli O.Y.] Hartford 

i:;. Adam Clark, I, 212tli Pa. H. A Hartford 

14. John jMessersmitb, K, 138tb Pa Hartford 

1.'). Truman Borden, — , 125th O. V. S Hartford 

l(i. John W. Burnett, C, 84tli ( ». A'. I Hartford 

17. John Beaver, I, 122d O. ^'. I Hartford 


1. George W. Brown. D. 2(1 (). V. (\; F, 

o."n. G 

2. Lewis B. Holt, I), 2d ( ). V. C 

:;. :\Iartin V. Oriah, K, 6tli 0. Y. C. . . . 

4. Erastus E. Oviatt, G, 19th G. X. I. 

0. Hobart L. Taft, G, 19th 0. V. I. . . . 

(i. Hiram H. Smith, F, 171st 0. N. G., 

7. Newton L. Taft, F, 171st O. N. G.. 

8. Weslev Craig, H, 20th 0. V. I. . . . 

9. Arial M. North, G, 19th O. X. I. , . . 

10. Cvres L. North, G, 19th O.V.I. ; G, 1 

11. William S. North, G, 19th 0. V. L. 

12. John Kellv, G, 19th 0. V. I 


Newton Falls, O. 

. . . .Braeeville, O. 

. . .Braeeville, 0. 

, . . .Braeeville, 0. 

, . . .Brace\'ille, 0. 

Newton Falls, O. 

, . . .Braeeville, 0. 

. . . .Braeeville, 0. 

. . . .Braeeville, 0. 

H.xV.Braceville, O. 

. .Braeeville, O. 

. .Braeeville, 0. 


13. Eiley D. Miller, G, 19tli 0. V. I Phalaux^ 

14. Lawrestou Lane, G, 19tli 0. V. I Newton Falls 

15. Jason Hurd, G, 19th 0. V. I Newton Falls 

16. Samuel Goodhart, H, 20tli 0. V. I Leavittsburg 

17. Lewis Long, B, 105th 0. V. L; C, r24th 

0. V. I Braceville 

18. Riley L. Rood, D, 7th U. S. I Phalanx 

19. Franklin A. Rood, F, 171st 0. N. G Phalanx 

20. Allian G. Rood, F, 171st 0. N. G Phalanx, 

21. H. D. Wright, D, 5th Mich. C Phalanx 

22. Joel N. Allen, D, 6th 0. V. C Braceville 

23. Isaac Price, G, 94th O. V. I Braceville 

24. George French, B, 125th 0. V. I Braceville 

25. William Smallsread, F, 171st 0. N. G.; G, 

19th O. V. I •. . . .Braceville 

26. Eli Fulwiler, D, 6th 0. V. C Braceville 

27. John O. McConnell, E, 2d 0. V. C Phalamx 

28. J. A. Wilson, D, 84th, and E, 60th 0. V. I ... . Braceville 

29. David Philips, E, 41st 0. V. I Phalanx 

30. John Smith, B, 105th 0. V. I Braceville 

31. Isaac H. Benedict, G, 2d 0. H. A Braceville 

32. James D. Thompson, D, 2d 0. V. C Leavittsburg 

33. Homer Dice, G, 2d 0. V. A Phalanx 

34. Sidnev Hickok, D, 6th 0. V. C Newton Falls 

35. John L. Wager, E, 6th, and I, 2d 0. V. C. . . . Braceville 

36. Reuben Mahurin, G, 26th 0. V. I Braceville 

37. Franklin B. Smith, B, 105th 0. V. I Phalanx 

38. Henry Everett, I, 93d N. Y. I Phalanx 

39. Philemau Perry, K, 6th 0. V. C Phalanx 

40. Ezra V. Miller, D, 171st 0. N. G Leavittsburg 

Warren ToiiusMp. 

1. A. W. Huight, C, 19th 0. V. I Leavittsburg, 0. 

2. E. J. Warner, G, 19th 0. V. I Leavittsburg, O. 

3. Milo Burnett, C, 19th 0. V. I Leavittsburg, 0. 

4. S. S. Williams, A, 171st 0. N. G Leavittsburg, 0. 

5. Robert Crout, — , Pa Leavittsburg, 0. 

6. Jacob Carson, B, 7th 0. V. I Leavittsburg, 0. 

7. A. L. Carson, C, 19th 0. V. I Leavittsburg, O. 

8. W. W. Wilson, C, 19th 0. V. I., and G, 2d H. A..Warren, 0. 

9. George Wilson, Sr AVarren, 0. 



10. Ellis Fox, H, Tth 0. V. I AVarren, O. 

11. Jacob Mover, G, 124tli 0. Y. I Wavreu, 0. 

V2. John Kinsmau, A, 171wt O. V. 1 AVarreu, O. 

13. George Harsh, 14th O. Bat Warren, O. 


L A. I). Bailey, F, 171st (». \M 

1^. George Wonders, F, 171st O. \. I. 

;]. W. Tronp, F, 171st 0. V. I 

4. B. F. lintz, F, 171st 0. V. 1 

5. William Piatt, F, 171st 0. V. I.. . . 
(i. Peter Grim, H, 20tli 0. ^M 

7. G. Buck, ir, 20th O. V. 1 

8. Peter Buck, H, 20th ( ). A\ I 

9. John Lawrence, H, 20tli 0. ^'. 1. . . 

10. Ensign Lawrence, II, 20tli (). \. I. 

11. Solomon Dustman, K, 7()th 0. \. I 

12. Albert H. McClerv, — , 171st 0. V. ] 

13. Uriah Carson, D, 19th C). V. I 

14. Philip DelaugJiter, I, 13th (J. V. I 

15. J. W. McMahon, E, Sdth 0. ^\ I.. . 

16. August Weehr, Navy 

17. J. W. Thatcher, — , 2(1 0. V. C 

Warren Ciiii — Flrsi Ward 

1. P. W. Patliff, Lnt. ("ol., 12tli 0. T 

2. :\I. J. Sloan, G, 86tli O. X.l 

3. G. Rawdon, B, 105th O. X.l 

4. P. L. Webb, G. 8Gtli O. \. I 

5. M. Woodford, E, 40th Wis 

(i. F. J. Mackev, A, 171st O. N. G. . . 

7. J. W. Masters, G, 19th 0. V. I. . . 

S. M. ilathews, B, 19th O. V. I 

9. Al Webb. A, 41st ( ). A\ I 

10. IT. A. Canfield, A. (ith (). V. G. .. 

11. 11. Merrill, B, 171st (). X. G 

12. James Trimlile, I, Gth (). V. G. . . 

13. David Lewis, F, (3th O. V. C 

14. H. J. Clark, G, 1st O. L. A 

15. W. W. Wallace, I, 105th O. V. I. 

Warren, 0. 

AVarren, 0. 

. . Lordstown, 0. 
. .Lordstown, O. 
. .Lordstown, (). 

Warren, O. 

. .Lordstown, O. 
. .Lordstown, O. 
. .Lordstown, 0. 
. .Lordstown, O. 
. . Lordstown, O. 
. .Lordstown, O. 
. .Lordstown, 0. 
. .Lordstown, 0. 
. . Lordstown, O. 
. .Lordstown, 0. 
. .Lordstown, O. 

. . Ak 
. .Ak 

reii, O. 

reu, 0. 

ren, O. 

ren, 0. 

ren, O. 

ren, 0. 

ren, 0. 

ren, O. 

ren, 0. 

ren, O. 

ren, O. 

ren, ( >. 

:illc. (). 

ri.ii. (). 

ron, (). 




•'! / . 



H. K. Harmon, C, 19th C). V. I . . . 

R. Sutcliff, II, 10th (). V. C 

A. C. Braiuard, C, 125th 0. V. I. 
A. J. Hathawav, G, 19th O. V. I. 
E. R. Wise, F, 11th Pa. Infantry 
J. Vautrot. Jr., C, 84th 0. V. I. . 
Frank Rowan, A, 171st O. V. I. . 
W. C. Winfield, F, 41st O. V. I. . 
Richard Rawdon, 0, lOStli (). V. I 

Edgar Jones, U. S. Navy 

George Van Gorder, A, 171st C). V 
J. J.^'Trnesdell, C, 19th 0. V. I. . 
A. Yeomans, B, 125th O. V. I. . . . 

R. C. Rice, B, 125th 0. V. I 

A. L. Wilson, C, 19th ( ). V. I ... . 
George Harsh, — , 14th (). V. I. . . . 
John Hunter, L, 14th (). V. B . . . 
W. H. Hana, A, 171st O. V. I. . . 

Rev. J. W. Campbell 

Will Spear, F, 24th ( ). V. I 

George Bear. G, 26th (). V. I 

H. P. Fox. I), 2d Map. I 

Will Camp, A, 171st O. V. I. ... 
George Pond, A, 171st O. V. 1. . . 
William Forbis, B, 105th 0. V. 1 
J. W. Grimasy, D, 143d O. V. I. 
C. (). Hart, C, 19th (). V. I 

E. B. Taylor, A, 171st ( ). X. G.. 
Thomas Brierly, C, 19th U. V. I. 

Will Brown, G, 6th O. V. C 

Ben Lain, D, 1st Pa 

W. AV. Drav, C, 19th 0. V. I.... 
John R. Frese, A, 2d 0. V. C . . . 
Frank Hutchins, A, 171st 0. V. I 
S. W. Peffer. E, 54th (). V. I... 

J. P. Frank. — , 6tli (). V. C 

Allen Jones, Surgeon. 13tli (). V. 
S. C. Thaver, B, 1st Minn. H. A 
Thomas Ilartlv, E, 75tli N. Y. V 

F. C. Fassett, — 25th N. Y. B. . 
Will Saunders, — , 53d Kv. T. . 

. .Akron, 
. . Akron, 
. . Akron, 
. . Akron, 
. .Akron, 
. . Akron, 
. .Akron, 
. . Akron, 
. .Akron, 
. . Akron, 
. . Akron, 
. .Akron, 
. . Akron, 
. . Akron, 
. .Akron, 
. .Akron, 
. Warren, 
. W'arren, 
. Warren, 
. Warren. 
. Warren, 
. Buffalo, 
. Buffalo, 
. Buffalo, 
. Buffalo, 
. Buffalo, 
. Warren, 
. Warren, 
. Warren, 

iiisToin- oi-- Ti.'rMi'.rij. (oi ntv -i-i^ 

J. G. Baldwin. D, I'd (). \'. 1 Ciiu-iimati, O. 

G. A. Gerhart. I, loOth X. V Ciiiciiinati. O. 

C. H. AVilliams, E, 4th N. il ("incimiati, O. 

A. p. Stiles, F, 22d Iowa AVarren, O. 

J. stiller Wavreii, ( ). 

Frank Rowan Warren, ( ). 

S. R. Rein, C, 177tli O. V. i Warren, (). 

W. Bartholomew. A, 171st O. V. 1 Warren, O. 

G. Raker Warren, ( ). 

J. Riley, E, lM (). 11. A Warren, (). 

(J. 8. Gardner. F. I(i4tli O. V. I Warren, (). 

.1. A. Bozel, A. 1(l4tli O. V. 1 Warren, ( ). 

James Lamb Warren, ( ). 

J. H. Dilley. J. (ith O. V. 1 Warren. ( ). 

F. W. Simons Warren, ( ). 

W. Coe Warren, ( ). 

J. F. Alcorn. C, 18tli Pa Warren, ( ). 

W. H. Oviate Warren. O. 

H. P. Fox Warren, (). 

L. E. Skiner, 7(itli Warren, O. 

Jonathan Lewis Warren, (J. 

W. H. Kirkpatriek Warren, 0. 

J. R. Lachman Warren, O. 

H. C. Reid Warren, 0. 

A. 0. Caldwell Warren. ( ). 

J. F. Wilson Warren. O. 

W. C. Stiles Warren. O. 

.1. B. Kingsley Warren. O. 

W. Herbert Warren, ( ). 

John Giohter Warren, ( ). 

\]'(irri'n Cifi/ — Si'((i)i(l Wdid. 

1. LI. J. Ado ate. G, i;»th O. \'. I Warren. ( ) 

2. C. H. Angstadt, G, 86th (). V. 1 Warren, O. 

3. J. W. Bell, U. S. Navy Warren, (). 

4. W. A. Birchard, U. S. Navv Warren, (). 

5. John W. Brooks, B, 24th O. V. I Warren, O. 

6. Alouzo Brooks, E, 196th 0. V. I Warren. O. 

7. Washington Brown, C, 19th 0. V. I Warren. 0. 

8. Thomas" Douglas. 14th O. Battery Warren, ( ). 

9. Amos Dillon, A, ]45th Pa AA'arren. ( ). 


10. E. H. Eusigu, A, 171st 0. V. I 

11. — Forsythe, — , Md 

12. Warren Fuller. C, Sltli 0. X. I 

13. T. C. Fusselman, A, 171st O. V 

14. Aaron Gilbert, K, 6th U. S. C. 

15. J. P. Gartner, B, l-25tli 0. V. I 

16. W. W. Henry, C, 19th 0. V. I. 

17. A. C. Hunt, H, 20th 0. A'. I. . . 

18. John S. Hovt, B, 84th 0. V. I. 

19. H. E. Hubler, A, 86th O. V. I. 

20. J. S. Kugler, I, 7th 0. V. I. . . 

21. H. X. Kellogg, I, 6tli O. Y. C 

22. W. H. Kirkpatrick, C, 59th 0. 

23. AV. P. Lease, I, 6th O. X. C. . . 

24. E. E. Lewis, A, 18th O. Y. I. 

25. Benjamin Lane, Pa. V 

26. C. C. McNutt, C, 125th O. Y. 1 

27. E. AV. Aloore, — , 14th O. B . . . 

28. John AlcConnell, B, 124th 0. Y. 

29. James B. Aliller, F, 24th 0. Y. I 

30. J. E. Lachman, Alusician, 46th 

31. J. AV. Alasters, C, 19th 0. A". I. 

32. H. L. Alusser, — , 14th O. B. . . . 

33. Isaac O^veny, H, 20th 0. Y. I. . 

34. George H. Peck, G, 19th 0. Y. I 

35. AV. H. Eaudon, H, 29th O. Y. I 

36. AVill Eeed, F. 171st 0. Y.I.... 

37. John L. Smith, C, 19th O. Y. I. 

38. Truesdell Allison, A, 171st 0. A 

39. Allen AValker, L 7th 0. A''. I. . . 

40. John AVilkins, G, 26th 0. A^ I. 

41. John N. AA'eeks, C, 19th 0. A". I 

42. H. B. AVeir. B, 86th O. Y. I. . . 

43. E. B. AVaketield, G, 177th (_). Y. I 

44. Benjamin Morgan, 27th U. S. I., Colored 

45. Thomas Greu, U. S. I., Colored 

46. (). A. Caldwell, ]), 2d O. V. C . . 

47. John 1). Aliller, C, 19th O. Y. I 

48. John AVilson, C, 19th O. V. I. . 
4i». Alvane Hemon, A, 25th IT. S. C 
50. Ferdinand Lewis, G, 7th X. A'. ( 

. .AVarren, 0. 

.AVarren, 0. 

. AVarren, O. 
, .AVarren, O. 
. .AVarren, 0. 
. .AVarren, 0. 
. .AVarren, O. 
. .AVarren, 0. 
. .AVarren, 0. 
. .AVarren, O. 
. .AVarren, 0. 
. .AA'^ari-en, O 
. .AVarren, 
. .AVarren 
. .AVarren 
. .AVarren 
. . AVarren 
. .AVarren, 
. .AVarren 
. .AVarren 
. .AVarren 
. .AVarren 
. .AVarren 
. .AVarren 
. . AVarren 
. .AVarren 
. .AVarren 
. .AVarren 
. .AA'arren 
. .AA'arren 
. .AVarren 
. .AVarren, 
. .AVarren, 
. . AA'arren, 
. .AA'arren. O 
. .AA'arren, O 
. .AVarren, O 
. . AVarren, 
. .AA'arren, O 
. .A\^arren, O 
. .AA'arren, 



51. AV. McCaudles, C, lltli Peuna. V. 

52. William P. Price, C, 77th Penn. . 

53. Eli Mock, A, 197tli 0. V. I 

54. James M. Powell, E, 23d 0. V. I. 
James Haybiisk, I, Gtli 0. V. C . . 
Amzi Williamson. F, 24th 0. V. I 
Aron Gilbert, K, Gth Reg. IT. S. C 
Benjamin T. Coal, C, lltli 0. V. I 
John R. Freas 









.Warren, O. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, O. 
.Warren, O. 
.Warren, O. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 

l]^arre)i City — Third Wend. 

1. .) 

F. Wilson, C, 19th 0. V. I 

Rudolp Rowe. A, 171st 0. V. I. . . . 
AVilliam Smiley, F. 24th 0. V. I. . . . 
Leonard Blessing, F, 24th 0. V. I. . 
Charles Hill (colored), A, 12th U. S. 
Samuel Feuton, E, 196tli Hancock V, 
Tom McGiiire, D, 124th 0. V. I 

Richard Little, Navv 

Homer C. Reid, I, 19th 0. V. I 
Sammie Miner, C, 19th 0. V. I 
JolmBahr, I, 37th O. V. I. . . . 
John Wilson, C, 19th 0. V. I. 
Jonas Rader, C, 19th 0. V. I. 
Henry Lane, A, 171st 0. V. I. 
Ben McKee, Trumbull Guards 
John H. Lamb. E. 19th and 7th — 
A. A. Truesdell. 19th 0. V. I. 
.\mos Wright, H, 20th O. V. I. 
Nick Selkirk. — , 6th 0. V. C. . 
R. P. McClelland, D, 211th Pa 
J. W^. McClelland. A, 139th Pa 
M. 0. Messer, C. 19th 0. V. I. 
W. G. Watson, I, B. 3d W. V. 

1st and 3d 0. V 

Henrv Ricksicker, A, 171st 0. ^^ 
John Slater, — , 2d 0. V. B. . . . 
James Gibson, K, 1st Iowa C . . 

A. F. Spear. — , Pa. V. I 

John Hammell. I, 6th 0. V. C . . 
John Reiter. H. 19th 0. V. C. . 




. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Wax'ren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. AVarren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 
. Warren 


.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 


30. Dana Mullen, Trumbull Guards Warren 

31. Wallace Heald, F, 47 th Wis. V. I Warren 

32. Amasa Hoyt, — , 19th — Warren 

33. James Gillet, G, — , 0. V. I Warren 

34. Crile Warren 

35. L. P. Gilder, — 150 V. B Warren 

36. J. Sampson, U. S. Navy AVarren 

37. D. Harklerode, F, 6tli O. V. C Warren 

38. William Peffers, Trumbull Guards Warren 

39. B. F. Parker, G, 2d 0. H. Art Warren 

40. W. C. Stiles, A, 6th 0. V. C Warren 

41. J. B. Kiugsley, C, 105th 0. V. S Warren^ 

42. James Moser, H, 7th 0. V. I Warren 

John Elliott, F, 121st Pa Warren 

James Charter Warren 

Lloyd Pardee, F, 5th Warren 

William Elliott, G, — Essex Warren 

Jake Lynn, A, 41st 0. V. I Warren 

AYalter Williams, — , 1st V. C Warren 

Wilson Boyd, 171st 0. V. I Warren 

Josiali J. Smith, 25tli 0. B Warren 

Edw. Bowder, F, 45th N. Y Warren 

J. M. Kerr, 4th V. (C. S. A.) Warren 

J. Leese, K., 55th Pa Warren 

G. Wonders Wai'ren 

A. D. Stiles, F, 22d Iowa Warren 

James Mill Warren 

J. W. Brooks Warren 

Alonzo Brooks Warren 


1. L N. Crooks, G, 6th 0. V. C Warren, 0. 

2. Samuel Crooks, I, 6th 0. V. C Warren, 0. 

3. Shelden Crooks, A, 41st 0. V. I Warren, 0. 

, 4. Isaac Swager, I, 6th 0. V. C Warren, O. 

5. Calvin L. Stevens, I, 6th 0. V. C Niles, O. 

6. Clisby Ballard, B, 105th 0. V. I Warren, 0. 

7. Enos Hake, G, 6th 0. V. C Niles, 0. 

8. Jacob Hake, I, 128th — Niles, 0. 

9. Samuel Hake, I, 105th 0. V. I Newburgh, 0. 

10. Merwin Tidd, I, 105th 0. V. I Warren, 0. 



11. Henry Tnttle, B, 1st U. S. I 

12. Jonathan Thompson, Trumbull Guar 

13. Josiah Ratliff, D, 19(3th 0. V. I. . . . 

14. Hiram Laughlin. C, 29th 0. V. I. . . 

15. Hugh Love^ C, 171st 0. N. G 

16. B. B. Harshmau, H, 20th V. V. I. . . 

17. Richard Waterman, D, 6th O. V. C. 

18. E. E. Entriken, C, 6th 0. V. C 

19. V. M. Hart, D, 2d 0. V. C 

20. Willis Eeed, C, 6th 0. V. C 

21. John Spear, E, 23d 0. V. 1 

22. John Elliott, F, 121st Pa 

23. W. W. Miller, D, 171st 0. N. G. . . . 

24. Sidney Hippie, F, 171st 0. N. G. . . 

25. Ed Eichmond, — , 6th 0. V. C 

26. W. J. Nanga, C, 101st P. V. I 

27. George W. Kennedy, C, 2d 0. V. C. 


. ...Niles, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, O. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
. Warren, O. 
.Warren, O. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
....Niles, 0. 
.Warren, O. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, 0. 
.Warren, O. 


1. Henry S. Truesdell, I, 6th O. V. I Vienna, 0. 

2. J. B. Kingsley, C, 105th 0. V. I.. . : Vienna, 0. 

3. J. H. Truesdell, Trumbull Guards Vienna, 0. 

4. Joel Hawley, C, 105th 0. V. I Vienna, 0. 

5. Samuel Ralston, B, 57th Pa Vienna, 0. 

6. Robert Sti-anahan, D, 171st 0. N. G Vienna, 0. 

7. John W. Davis, C, 105th 0. V. I Vienna, 0. 

8. James C. Nolan, B, 140th Pa Vienna, 0. 

9. William Y. Stewart, — , 2d Ky Vienna, 0. 

10. Warren Garrard, A, 46th 111" Vienna, 0. 

11. Edwin Tiiiesdell, Trumbull Guards Vienna, 0. 

12. I. D. Henrv, B, 102d Pa Vienna, 0. 

13. D. J. Powell, D, 211th Pa Vienna, 0. 

14. S. C. Wliitten, A. 76th Pa Vienna, 0. 

15. A. J. Bingham, G, 21st Pa. C Vienna, 0. 

16. Thomas Brannar, — , la. C. D. C Vienna, 0. 

17. Emory Tribby, B, 76th Pa Vienna, 0. 

18. John C. Dray, Trumbull Guards Vienna, O. 

19. Alfred Combs, H, 7th 0. V. I Vienna, O. 

20. Lucius Scoville, Trumbull Guards Vienna, 0. 

21. Edwin Boyd, D, 177th 0. V. I Vienna, 0. 



AVilliam J. Cozad, D, 100th Pa Vienna, 0. 

R. J. Stewart, C. 105th 0. X. 1 Vienna, 0. 


" 6. 








J. E. Bentley, H, 84th 111 Br 

Daniel W. Pritchard, E, ludejiendent Bat.. .Br 
W. N. Carter, F, 2d O. N. G Br 

A. B. Bear, B, 105th 0. X. L 

J. A. Fussehnau, A, 86th (). X. I. . 
Harrv Gregory, C, 171st ( >. N. G.. 

F. G. Peck, C, 2d (J. V. C 

John Waddel, I, 1st 0. B 

E. H. Fnsselman, (', 171st U. X. I 
AV. W. Redmond, L, 3d Pa. xVrt. . 
George Strnble, C, 2d O. V. C . . 
Cornelius McCambridge, D, 2d 111 
Thomas Redmond, L, 3d Pa. Art. 

William Ulp, C!, 6th 0. A^ C 

Henrv Patterson. B, 19th 0. V. I. 
David A. Williams, B, 84th 0. V. I 
James Baker, D, 211th P. X. I. . . . 

Freeman Aga, G, 6th 0. V. C 

L. C. Jenkins, F, 57th Pa 

Newton Toioish 

A. S. AVood, F, 171st 0. N. G.. . . 
E. E. AVood, F, 171st U. N. G. . . 
William Goodhart, H, 20th O. X. 
Charles Kistler, F, 171st 0. N. G 
G. L. Medley, G, 6th 0. X. C. . . . 
Amson Parker, F, 171st 0. N. G. 
C. E. Barber, F, 171st 0. N. G.. . 
J. IT. Gillett, F, 171st 0. N. G. . . 
H. JI. Dallev, F, 171st 0. N. G. . . 
Chai-les Medley, I, 128th 0. X. I. 
.John Loneliarger, H, 20tli (). V. I 
David Longenbarger, H, 20th 0. V. I 
Charles Flick, H, 20th 0. X. I.. . 
Erdly Hallock, F, 171st 0. N. G. 
Joshua Ramalia, F, 171st 0. N. G 





. Newton 
. Newton 
. Newton 
. Newton 
. Newton 
. Newton 
. Newton 
. Newton 
. Newton 
. Newton 
. Newton 
. Newton 
, Newton 

















'];i':\IBlLL COUATY 










George Alleu. (', 19tli 0. \. 1 

Ira Hine, F, 171st O. V. 1 

C. B. Leyde, F, 171st U. X. I 

J. M. Caleuder, — , 171st O. V. J. . . . 

B-obert Maekey, 2d O. V. C 

Robert Force, 6tli O. \'. (' 

J. H. Stewart, 21st (). \'. I 

P. M. Hardmau, H, 7tli (). V. I 

D. M. Bricker, H, 105tli O. V. I 

Washiugtou Brown, — , 15th Battery 






























WvatJii'istidd and Nilev. 

David Shelar, C, 105th 0. V. I X 

0. L. McCartv, C, 19th 0. V. I N 

T. J. McKay, C, 103d Pa X 

John W. Adams, G, 26th O. V. I N 

Edward Cormick, B, 171st O. N. G N 

Cyres C'ochran, B, 171st 0. N. G N 

W. y. Chambers, 0, 22d Pa N 

Richard Lauigan, — , Pa N 

Wallace Drake, F, 24th O.Y.l N 

John Miller, B, 171st 0. N. (f N 

J. J. Shaffer, B, 171st 0. N. G N 

W. E. Hughs, H, 20th O. V. I N 

Roliison Stewart, G, 19th 0. ^^ I N 

Jolm Linney. E, 6th O. ^". ( ' N 

Jonah AVoodou, F, 171st U. N. G X 

Albert Johnson, II, 67th (). V. I X 

James W. McBride, C, 214th Pa N 

Charles Coiley, C, 6tli G. V.J X 

Robert Howe, G, 11th Pa N 

Ed Cassidv, B, 4th 0. V. I N 

William Wheldou, 6th Pa. H. Art N 

Joseph Hickey. B,- 171st O. N. G N 

Scot Loekwood, K, 191st O. V. I N 

Lafayette Bear, B, 194th O. V. I N 

George F. Reiter, G, 19th O.Y.l N 

Julius N. Cowderv, B, 85th O. V.J N 

C. linger, G, 4th 0. V. I N 

William Mason, B, 171st O. V. I N 

A. P. Carlton, — , 2d 0. V. C Niles, 0. 
























































30. Ju.suph Miller, (Jth O. V. C 

31. Ave Van Wye, — , C, 19tli 0. V. I 

32. J. B. Luce, C, 125th 0. V. I 

33. James Wirenian, B, 171st 0. N. G 
31. Thomas D. Thomas, E, 26th 0. V. 

35. C. J. Callihan, — , 14th Pa. Cav . . . 

36. John Eager, B, 171st 0. N. G . . . . 
.•'7. Joseph Fisher, C, 19th O. V. I. . 

38. T. G. Stigleman, M, 6th 0. V. C. . 

39. G. L. Campbell, B, 171st O. N. G 

40. Hiram Ohl, C, 25th O. V. I 

41. Edgar Lockwood, I, 105th 0. Y. I. 

42. Thomas Smith, G, 34th lud 

43. Jacob Holzbach, C, 9th U. S 

44. Thomas J. AVilliams, B, 5th O. V 

45. M. G. Butter. B, 171st O. N. G. . 
46 John Nedge 

47. Jacob Neithemer, B, 181st U. N. G 

48. James B. :\rcRol)erts, 1), 198th O. T 

49. A. E. Lincoln. A, 41st 0. V. I 

50. Lemuel Hollowav, F, 16th 0. V. I. 

51. J. H. Tidd, E, 196th O. V. I 

52. Ed AVhitehouse, C, 105th 0. V. I. . 

53. Fred AVilson, A, 3d New Jersey I 

54. J). H. Mogee, G, 100th Pa. I. . ! . . 

55. Alex Mackev, B, 105th 0. V. I.. . . 

56. W. H. Patterson, B, 123 0. V. I. 

57. John L. Davis, N. 7th 0. V. I. . . 

58. Jacob Shelar, B, 171st O. N. G. . 

59. Ben Seagrass, G, 2d 0. H. A 

60. John A. Neis, B, 171st 0. N. G. 

61. Sam 11. AVhite, — , 15th O. N. G . . . 

62. C. W. Tallitzer, C, 19th O. V. I. . 

63. Henrv R. Swindler, B, 171st O. V 

64. B. L. Pierce, C, 171st O. V. L. . . 

65. Lafayette Seatou, C, 105th O. Y. 
iM\. Joseph Van Wye, B, 84th 0. \'. I. 
fi7. ( )scar Tibbitt. C, 105th 0. V. 1. . . . 

Henry Tnttle, B, 1st U. S 

68. T. B." Tait, 10th Army ( 'oust .... 

69. W. P. Parker. G. 19tb < ». V. L. . . 

...Niles, 0. 
...Niles, 0. 
...Niles, 0. 
...Niles, O. 
...Nile.s, 0. 
...Niles, 0. 
...Niles, 0. 
. . . Niles, O 
...Nile.s, O. 
...Niles, 0. 
...Niles, O. 
...Niles, 0. 
...Niles, 0. 
. . .Niles, 0. 
...Niles, 0. 
...Niles, O. 
...Niles, 0. 
...Niles, O. 
...Niles, O. 
...Niles, O. 
...Niles, 0. 
...Niles, O. 
...Niles, O. 

..Niles, O. 

..Niles, O. 

..Niles, O. 

..Niles, O. 

. .Niles, 0. 

..Niles, O. 

..Niles, O. 

..Niles. O. 

. .Niles, O. 

..Niles, O. 

..Niles, O. 

..Niles, 0. 

..Niles. 0. 

..Niles, O. 

..Nile-s, O. 

. .Niles, O. 

..Niles, O. 

..Niles. 0. 


70. Norman Potter, G, 19th 0. V. I Niles 

71. William Emery, G, Utli Pa. C Niles 

72. James Brogau, B, 171st 0. N. G Niles 

73. Lewis Woods, — , 7th 0. V. I Niles 

74. George Anderson, — , 129th Pa Niles 

75. A. B. Coble, Trumbull Guards Niles 

76. Truman Waldron, Navy Niles 

77. Lester Moore, A, 142d Pa Niles 

78. Thomas Willard, F, 76th 0. V. I Niles 

79. John Jenkins, — , 171st 0. N. G Niles 

80. Willis Beary, B, 171st 0. N. G Niles 

81. Frank Kingsley, B, 171st 0. N. G Niles 

82. Eli Ferguson, 13, 171st 0. N. G Niles 

83. Charles Holton, B, 171st 0. N. G Niles 

84. Charles McDermot, Navv Niles 

85. Henry Stroek, 5th 0. V. I Niles 

86. James Draa, B, 171st O. N. G Niles 

87. John Thomas, F, 13th Pa Niles 

88. Philip Artman, B, 171st 0. N. G Niles 

89. John E. Edwards, C, 105th 0. V. I Niles 

90. Eichard Lanigan, I, 8th Pa. I Niles 

91. S. L. Wood, I, 7th O. V. I Niles 

92. G. B. Lloyd, G, 87th Pa Niles 

93. A. A. Adams, — , 171st 0. V. I Niles 

94. Heniy Stein, — , 6th 0. V. C Niles 

95. Walter Williams Niles 





Mineral Bidge. 


Eli J. Ohl. K, 196th O. V. I 

Leander Kegavise, A, 86th O. V. I 
John B. Lewis, C, 19th 0. V. L. . . 
David Barringer, H, 20th 0. \. I.. 
Daniel T. Williams, B, 7th 0. \. I 

J. W. Cesna, H, 105th 0. V. I 

William Jones, C, 105th 0. V. I.. . . 
Thomas Jarrett, A, 105th 0. V. I 
James Parker, D, 171st 0. V. L. . . 

Evan Price, G, 19th 0. V. I 

Daniel Shvrie, B, 142d Pa 

Jacob White, C, 19th 0. V. I 

Michael Friegan, F, 24th 0. V. I. . 

. Minera 
. ^linera 


. Mineral 
. Mineral 
. Mineral 
. Mineral 
. Mineral 
. ^lineral 
. Mineral 
. Mineral 

Ridge, 0. 
Ridge, 0. 
Ridge, 0. 
eander, O. 
Ridge, O. 
Ridge, 0. 
Ridge, 0. 
Ridge, O. 
Ridge, 0. 
Ridge, 0. 
Ridge, 0. 
Ridge, O. 
Ridge, 0. 







Thomas Morris, A, 13th 0. V. I.. 

John Hood, E, 6th 0. V. C 

William H. JohnsoD, D, 115th O. Y 

John Crum, H, 20th 0. V. I 

Riley Carter, A, 113th 0. ^'. I 

E. R. Edwards, 20th 0. Bat 

John Elmer, Trumbull Guards . . . 
Casper Helwig, Trumbull Guards. 

John Bellard, G, 2d 0. H. A 

Sylvester Carter, B, 7th 0. V. I. . . 
William Ague, 25th 0. V. Bat. . . . 
W^illiam Bowman, F, 41st O. V. I.. 
Robert G. Roberts, D, 171st 0. N. ( 
Martin Turrell, F, 24th 0. V. I.. . . 

Henry Hood, F, 171st 0. N. G 

Samuel C. Patterson, 55tli Peun. . 

. . Miner 
. . Miner 
. . Miner 
. . Miner 
. . [Miner 
. . Miner 
. . Miner 
. . Miner 
. . Miner 
. .Miner 
. . Miner 
. .Miner 
. . Miner 
. . Miner 
. .Miner 
. . Miner 

Ridge, U. 

Ridge, O. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, O. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, 0. 

Ridge, O. 


J. W. Anderson, D, 2d 0. V. C Y'oungstown, 0. 

Lemuel Granger, G, 6tli 0. V. C Church Hill, 0. 

James H. Miller, G, 6th 0. V. C Sodom, 0. 

Isaac Granger, E, 19th 0. V. I Sodom, 0. 

Henry L. Green, G, 19th 0. V. I Churchill, 0. 

Levi Bearer, B, 19th 0. Y. I Girard, 0. 

A. L. Hood. C, 19th 0. V. I Girard, 0. 

David J. Williams, G, 26th 0. V. I Church Hill, 0. 

Alvan Gruver, B, 76th 0. V. T Sodom, 0. 

H. M. Boys, I. 105th 0. V. 1 Vienna, 0. 

M. J. Hood, C, 105th 0. ^' . I Sodom, 0. 

John P. Rosser, C, 105th 0. V. I Church Hill, 0. 

John B. Miller, C. 105th 0. V. I Girard, 0. 

Josiah Seachnil, C, 105th O. V. I Girard, O. 

John Geddis, C, 105th 0. V. I Sodom, 0. 

Josiah Oliver, 105th 0. V. I Youugstowu, 0. 

Thomas Guy, C, 150th 0. V. I Church Hill, 0. 

W. W. Guy, F, 150th 0. V. I '. . . .Church Hill, 0. 

George H. Bearer, D, 171st 0. N. G Girard, O. 

Jonathan Keifer, D, 171st O. N. G Girard, O. 

John Applegate, C, 171st 0. V. I Church Hill, 0. 

Vincent Hollenbeck, C, 171st 0. V. I Church Hill, 0. 



23. Beuj. R. Havis. — , 171st O. V. I 

24. Thomas Chiles, A, 197th O. \'. 1 

25. John J. Brisbme, — , loOth O. ^^ Art 

26. George W. Carnej', L, 4th Pa. V. Cav 

27. Thomas J. Miller," E, r)4th Pa. V. I. 

28. James W. Wood, H, 7th Pa. V. I. . 

29. Ales Mealey, G, 155tli Pa. V. I. . . . 

30. Sidney W. Wood, A, 9th Mich. V. I 

31. John E. Patterson. I, ll.^)t]i (). V. I 

32. Solon Darlina' 

Cluurli Hill. (). 

Cluurh 11 ill, (). 

Si.doni. <». 

Chun'h Hill, U. 

Church Hill, O. 

Church Hill, (). 

Church Hill, (). 

Girard. O. 

Church Hill, O. 
Girard. (). 

(Hi aid. 

1. A. J. Jewell. E. 177th (). V. I 

2. William Ward, Jr., 15tli O. Battery 

3. George Phillips, 1^, 171st 0. N. G 

4. Joseph Leavett. C, 19th 0. V. I. . 

5. F. N. Reapsummer, D, 171st 0. N 

6. Ambrose Eckmau, D. 171st 0. N. 

7. Fred C. Reinger, F, 12th Pa. C 

8. Thomas Craft, T, 56tli Pa. I. . . 

9. John Borth, D. 'il P. V. I 

10. Michael Carroll, 2d IJ. S. A. . . 

11. N. B. Carlton, 1), 171st O. V. I. 

12. Jacob Shaffer, 1, lOfitli O. V. I 

13. W. J. Read, C, 2d Md. V. [. . . . 

14. Fred Cauley. B. 8th O. V. I... 

15. Allen Patterson, (i. (ith ( ). V. C 

16. George Olliver. 11. 7th ( ). V. T. 

17. Jame"^^ McGrath, B, 171st O. V. I 

18. P. L. Rush, E, 2d 0. V. C 

19. Mathias Falkinstein, B, 84th (). \ 

20. Thomas J. Thomas, I, 7th ( ). V. I 

21. Sylvester Peunell, D, 6th 0. V. C 

22. Edwin A. Reep, D, 143d 0. V. I. 

23. James McEvoy, G, 76tli Pa 

24. Henry Britt, F, 3d Pa. C 

25. David T. Arner, D, 19th C. V. I. 

26. Nicholas Green, D, 171st O. V. I. 

27. Evan Morris. 171st O. V. T 

. . .Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . .Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . .Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 
.. .Gir 
. . .Gir 
. . . Gir 
. . . Gir 








N. J. Pound, B, 105th 0. V. I 

Eli C. Reed, A, lOSth O. V. I 

C. N. Clingan, B, 19tli 0. V. I 

Charles Hammond, D, 41st 0. V. I. 

John Pollock, H, 7th O. V. I 

William McKinley, C, 125th 0. V. I 
Daniel Murphv, F, 19th U. S. I. . . . 
M. B. White, B, 84th 0. V. I., and 

0. N. G 

John Sinclair, C, 105th 0. V. I 

John Sinclair, I, 19th 0. V. I 

H. W. Feidler, M, 5th Pa. C 

G. W. Feidler, — , 1st Pa 

H. A. Huff, M, 6th H. Art 

George W. Newton, 5th 0. V. I. .. 

Lemuel Marsteller 

A. Remalia, H, 7-th 0. V. I 

H. W^ Hescock, H. 7th 0. V. I 

IV . A. Loveless, B, 2d Mich. Cav. . . 

E. H. Jewell, C, 171st 0. N. G 

Eli McFall, C, 171st 0. N. G 

S. J. Hoover, C, 171st O. N. G 

]\[artin Warner 

John Doyle 

John Randell, C, 171st 0. N. G 

W. H. Portertield, C, 171st O. N. G 
L. W. Burnett, C, 171st O. N. G. . . . 
James Portertield, C, 171st 0. N. G 
A. G. Weirick, C, 171st 0. N. G 
IL L. Clingan, C, 171st 0. N. G 
L. T. Clingan, C, 171st 0. N. G 
Hugh Veach, C, 171st 0. N. G. 
Martin Bentley, C, 171st O. N. 

John Carroll, D, 1st Pa 

John Jackson, C, 171st 0. N. G 
W. J. Jackson, C, 171st O. N. G 
S. H. Tyler, C, 171st 0. N. G. 

D. D. Struble, D, 1st Pa. Rif . . 

Robert Nephew 

A. W. Hume, C, 171st O. N. G. 

. . . Hubbard, 
. . . Hubbard, 
. . . Hubbard, 
. . .Hubbard, 
. . .Hubbard, 
. . . Hubbard, 
. . . Hubbard, 

. Hubbard, 
. Hubbard, 
. Hubbard, 
. Hubbard, 
. Hubbard, 
. Hubbard, 
. Hubbard, 
. . . . Coalburgh, 
. . . . Coalburgh, 
. . . . Coalburgh, 
. .Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 
. Coalburgh, 
. .Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 
. . Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 
. . Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 
. .Hubbard, 



40. J. J. Bui-k, Cliaplain, S2d 0. V. I Hubbard, 0. 

41. G. R. Stevenson Hubbard, 0. 

42. D. J. Edwards Hubbard, O. 

43. L. L. Campbell, L, 2d Cav Hubbard, 0. 


Thomas Phelps, B, 19th 0. V. I. . . 
James S. Hoover, — , 171st O. N. G 
Benjamin Mathews, — , 19th 0. V. I 

L. S. Burnett 

John Waddell, I, 1st 0. V. L. A. . . . 

.Coalburgh, 0. 
.Coalburgh, 0. 
.Coalburgh, O. 
.Coalburgh, O. 
.Coalburgh, O. 


Connecticut Law. — First Missionaries. — First Church ix Old 
Trumbull County. — First Preaching. — Baptist Church. 
— Presbyterian Church. — Christ's Church (Episco- 
pal). — Central Christian Church. — First Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church. — St. Mary^'s Church 
(EoMAN Catholic). — German Lutheran 
Church. — Zion Reformed Church. — 
Tod Avenue Methodist Episcopal 
Church. — Christian Science 
Church. — Grace United 
Evangelical Chltrch. 
• — Second Chris- 

tian Church. 

AVht'ii tile ( 'oiiiH'ctirut fathers loaded their wagons for their 
iiew hoiue.s in Ohio they bronght with them their crowns and 
scepters, for each was inonarcli of liis family, but, be it to 
their credit, they left the whi])])ing post and ducking stool be- 
hind. After a time they wore the crown less often and the 
scepter was seldom seen. 

Those of us who have lived the New England life in Ohio 
know that most of our great-grandfathers never smiled, that few 
of our grandfathers caressed their wives or kissed their children, 
but we rejoice that the real change came before our time, for 
to be snuggled to sleep in our mother's arms, or kissed awake by 
our father's hps, is worth all else in the world. 

The children of our Connecticut ancestry had desire for re- 
ligious liberty, as had the Pilgrim fathers and mothers, as had 
the Connecticut pioneer or the tirst inhabitant of the "Western 
Reserve. They kept quiet on Sunday liecause it Avas more com- 
fortable than being beaten; they committed chapters of the Bible 
by heart for the same reason. But when the father and mother, 
with such of the grown people and children whose turn it was, 



liad (liivi'ii oft' to c'hureli aud were safely out of sight, pande- 
iiioiiiuiH veigiied. And it contimied till the child stationed at the 
ujjper window as sentinel sighted the returning carriage on the 
further hill. Then was the house tidied, then did the children 
take up their Bibles, and received the look of approval for their 
supposed good conduct. 

Some good came out of these Sunday disolioyances, for sev- 
eral men. who afterwards became orators and trial lawyers, first 
learned to speak before these home audiences, while one woman, 
a noted advocate in the temperance cause, dates her aliility 
to talk with ease to the days when she played church on Sunday 
morning, and insisted on iireaching a sermon with the hairclotli 
chair as a ]mlpit. Both men and women have said tliat these 
meetings were always ended by riot, but the haircloth chairs were 
made by hand, of seasoned wood, witli the best of glue and var- 
nish, and could stand any kind of use. 

Old men and women living today in Trumbull County, who 
have endured all kinds of hardships and seen grievous sorrows, 
look back u])on the Sundays of their childhood witli horror. The 
Sabbath began Saturday at sundown and closed Sunday at 
sundown. With the twilight a gloom settled upon the children 
(the older folks enjoyed a few hours of rest) which seemed in- 
tolerable. J5i1)le reading by one of the family was had. and long 
meaningless audible prayers Avere made. As the children knelt 
either on the bare floor or thin carpet, their knees ached, and it 
was impossible to be still. As a recreation they were allowed to 
read the Bible by the tallow dip or the flaming log. or go to bed. 

A man, at this writing aged eighty-six. as a child had a num- 
ber of brothers, and he says that, when lads, so forlorn and de- 
pressed wei-e they all on Sunday that they used to say they 
wished tlie>' A\ere dead. In order that they might surely know 
just when the day was really done, they climbed onto the huge 
woodpile, which was in their dooryard. to Avatch the setting sun. 
and when at last it disappeared the shout which went up from the 
stack of logs aud sticks was never surpassed by the whoop of the 
Indians who formerly occupied the territory. They jimiped or 
rolled from the ]nle. chasing each other, fought and played, out- 
side in summer, by the huge logs in winter, till the parents, ex- 
hausted with the tempest, sent them early to bed. Yes. the 
desire foi- religious liberty in the heart of the Puritan is finally 
rcalized by us. through our fathers and mothers. 

In October, 1793, the general assembly of Connecticut, as we 


have seen, authorized the sale of the land in what is northeastern 
Ohio, and at the same time enacted "that the moneys arising 
from the sale * * * be established a perpetual fund, the 
interest whereof is granted and shall be appropriated to the use 
and benefit of several ecclesiastical societies, churches, or con- 
gregations in all denominations in the state, to be by them ap- 
plied to the support of their respective ministers, or preachers 
of the gosi^el, and schools of education, imder such rules and 
regulations as shall be adopted bj" this or some future session of 
the general assembly." As this provision really amounted 
towards the establishment of a fund for the supporting of the 
church, it created a great deal of discussion and hard feeling. 
As is always the case, people saw great dangers ahead in attach- 
ing the church to the state. In some localities public meetings 
were held, and for two years a great deal of anxious thought was 
given to the matter, all for naught, because the lands were not 
sold. When, in 1795, the assembly passed a new act in regard to 
this western land, the provision for the ministers was left out, 
and when, a few months later, this land was bought by the Con- 
necticut Laud Company, the money which was to be applied to 
the ministers, as well as to the schools, was applied to the schools 

Who the first missionary was in the district of Old Trumbull 
County, or where the first sermon was preached, will probably 
never l)e known, because traveling priests visited the Indians 
and traders, while the Moravians devoted their energies to the 
Indians in particular. 

Little or no mention is made by the surveyors of any relig- 
ious services, except those of burial. The Connecticut Land 
Company, as we have seen, offered land to the first "gospel 
minister'" who should take up residence in the county. We 
always think of Massachusetts in the olden time as religious be- 
cause of the Puritans, and of Connecticut the same because of 
the Blue Laws. 

Dr. B. A. Hinsdale, in the Magazine of Western History, 

"The settlement of the Reserve was opened at a time 
when New England was at a low ebb. Old Connecticut did 
not at first send, as a rule, what she considered her best 
elements to New Connecticut. At a later day, the character 
of the emigration improved in respect to religion and 


morals, but the first emigratiou was largely made up of men 
wlio desired to throw oft' the heavy trammels ol' au old and 
strongly conservative community, where church and state 
were closely connected and where society was dominated by 
political and religious castes. vStill further, the east was at 
this time swept by au epidemic of land speculation, while the 
laxative moral infiueuce of a removal from an old and well- 
ordered society to the woods produced its usual effect." 

At first thought wo considered this statement of Mr. Hins- 
dale almost an exaggeration, l)ut, as we studied history further, 
we find that it was not the first emigrants who were devoted to 
the religion of their fathers, Init those who came later — our 
grandfathers, nut our great-grandfathers. 

So far as we actually know, William C. Wick preached the 
first sermon within the limits of old TnnnbuU County, in Septem- 
ber, 1799. He came from Washington, Pennsylvania. Records 
show he was ordained to preach in August. It may be he thought 
it wise to practice on the frontiersmen. Anyway, they gathered 
to hear him, and later, when he came to Youngstown and estab- 
lished a church, he had the support of the people. Youngstown 
has always been a church-going place. 

The best known of the early preachers was Eev. Joseph 
Badger. He was born in Massachusetts, was in the Revolutionary 
war, was a college graduate, and licensed to preach in 1786. He 
occupied a pulpit in Massachusetts, and accepted a call to the 
missionary field of the AYestern Reseiwe in 1800. The cold 
weather set in before he crossed the Pennsylvania mountains. 
He came slowly from Pittsburg and reached Youngstown De- 
cember 14th. The following day, Sunday, he preached to the 
inhabitants, who were glad to vary the monotony of their hard 
lives by any sort of service. He soon visited other townships on 
the Reserve, and Harvey Rice is the authority for saying that in 
the following year (1801) he visited every settlement, and nearly 
every family, in old Trumbull County. He, and the ministers 
who followed him, as well as the lawyers, spent much of their 
time in the saddle, crossing streams by wading or swimming, 
and on the whole their lives were hard. However, the ministers 
were w^ell received by the residents, even if they were not much 
in sympathy with what they taught, and the best that the pio- 
neers had in the way of food, or any kind of comforts, was 
theirs. What records the earlv missionaries left agree with 


L*roi'. Hinsdale '« stateiiicnt tliat the first people who came to this 
Eeserve were not so religions, so .service-loving, as we have al- 
ways supposed them to liave been. 

Jjeonard Case is authority I'or the statement that Eev. 
Henry Speers, from AVashington county, Pennsylvania, in JunC; 

1800, preached the first sermon at the county seat, Warren. This 
service was held below the Lane homestead, on what is now 
South Main street. About fifty persons were present, and Lewis 
.Morris Iddings says: "Lrobably at no time since has so large 
a proi>ortion of the inhabitants of A¥arren attended church on 
any one Sunday." Mr. Sjieers belonged to the Baptist denom- 

Jn Die I'all of L^Ol l\cv. Mv. Badger i-ctui-ned to Connecticut, 
and in 1802 brought his household effects and his family to 
northeastern Ohio. He took up his residence in Austinburg, 
built a log cabin, and resumed his labors. In 1809 he went east, 
severed his connection with the Missionary Society, and returned 
to the Reserve to continue his work. He had received seven dol- 
lars a week in the beginning from the Connecticut Society, but 
later this was reduced to six dollars. He was a Presbyterian 
in creed, im]iidsive of nature, but had the ability of controlling 
himself, so 1hat he was sup])osed to be much more patient than 
he really was. Like all successful ministers, he was fond of tell- 
ing and hearing stories. He was chaplain in the war of 1812 
luider Harrison, and died at Perrysburg, 1846, aged 89. 

The first church built in old Trumbull County was at Aus- 
tinburg. There is a tale oft told that this church was dedicated 
by breaking a bottle of whiskey over its spire, but if this was 
done, it was not done with the consent of the church people, but 
b>' a wag of a sailor, who climbed the steeple to do it for a joke. 
This eliureh association was organized October 21st, 1801, and 
the building was of logs. There Avere sixteen charter members. 

It was thought that the second church was organized in 
Hudson in 1802. It is known that in Mr. Badger's riding in 

1801. when he noted the irreligious tendency of the people, he 
said Hudson was the only spot where he found any deep, hearty 
religion. Here he organized a church of ten men and six women. 
It is strange that these two first churches had the same number 
of charter members. 

The exact date of the organization of the third church is not 
known. Most writers give Warren the credit for the third 
clnnvh. but, after careful investigation, the author of this work 

(Loaned by W. J. Kerr.) 



thinks the tliird ohiirch was iu Yonngstown, oi'ganized iu 1801, 
with Kev. William Wick as pastor. 

Tlie fourth church (Baptist) was established in Warren in 
1803. The Baptists Avere very strong in Western Pennsylvania 
and Ohio at tliis time. 

liiiptisi CJnircli. 

As stated aliove, Kev. Henry Speers. a Bai)tist, ])reached 
the tirst sermon in Warren on ,lune 8, 1800. 

in 1801 Eev. Thomas (1. Jones, of Shenango, Pennsylvania, 
hegan i (reaching every other Sunday in Warren. He is supposed 
to be the first minister avIio had a cliai'ge in the limit of present 
Trumbull County. Space will not ])ermit the naming of the 
formation of the churclies through old Trumbull County. Those 
given liere are within the limits of the present boundaries. 

In 180;! Isaac Dally, Effie Dally, Jane Dally, Samuel Bur- 
nett. Nancy Burnett, John Leavitt Jr., Caleb Jones, Mary Jones, 
Samuel Fortner and Henry Fortner organized a church, with the 
Rev. Charles B. Smith presiding. It was called "The Concord 
Baptist Church." and the Philadelphia Confession of Faith was 
adopted. Harry. Xellie, Winifred and George Ewalt are de- 
scendants of Isaac Dally. 

During that year (ISO.'!) the following five pei'sons were 
added to membership: Samuel (L)uinby, Samuel Hayden, Sophia 
liayden, William and Martha .Jackman. For two years after the 
organization, meetings for ]irayer and for conference were held 
in the houses of the members. 

Tn 180,j Elder Parklmrst, of the M\\\ Creek cliuicli (Youngs- 
town) )>reached here "and received into the chunh !iy baptism 
and the laying on of hands" John Reeves, John Dally and wife. 
William J. Kerr, in "One Hundred Years of Bajili^t History in 
Wari'en, ()hio." says: ".Tohu Reeves, at whose lionic in How- 
land many cluircli meetings and ])reaching services were held in 
the years to follow, ])roved to lie one of the most valuable mem- 
bers tlie church ever had. He was a member until liis death. 
1851. He was one of the six who refused to leave the church and 
faith in the schism of 1828. In the year 1805 he re])resented the 
Concord Baptist church as a delegate to the ]\lahouing Baptist 
Association, held in Mill Creek (Youngstown). He ])resented 
the letter and the credentials of the church, upon which the Con- 
cord churcli was received into the Mahoning Association." 


iu 1810 Adaius^oii Beutley ))ecauie the regular pastor, aud 
the cougregatiou gre\t under his teachings so that in 1821- '22 a 
church was built on High street where the Christian church now 
stands. The land upon which this church stood was deeded "by 
Ephraim (^uinby to the trustees of the Baptist church, called 
Concord, their heirs and assigns, to be used for Baptist church 
purposes only." (Kerr.) At this time there were twenty-six 
members, fourteen of whom were men. "A portion of tlie church 
membership was in Youngstown and vicinity, and for three or 
four years the church met half the time at that place." 

In 1815 thirteen members formed a new church at Austin- 

The early sessions of the Baptists were held in tlie gi-oves 
when the weather permitted, in the house, and sometimes in the 
court house. In summer many services were held at John 
Eeeves', but in inclement weather iu the house of .Jeremiah 
Brooks. The largest nvnnber of meetings were held here. This 
house stood about where the Mahoning Branch (Erie) railroad 
station now stands. 

In 1828 AValter Scott and J. C. Mitchell, "devout followers 
of Alexander Campbell, came to Warren 'to besiege and take the 
place.' " At tirst they were rather coldly received, but soon the 
Rev. Mr. Bentley, of the Baptist church, allowed them the use of 
his edifice, and the congregation soon taxed the capacity of the 
church. Among the converts made were almost tlie entire mem- 
bership of the Baptist church. In fact, this first Warren church, 
the Baptist, was taken possession of by tlie new congregation. 

At this time there was a great controversy among church 
people as to the right form of baptism, and different matters of 
doctrine. So much so that sometimes ill feeling was engendered 
between members of the same family, aud l)etween neighliors 
and foraier friends. This was true in regard to the Bai>tists and 
the l)isci])les, although no more so in these two churches nf War- 
ren than in all churches of that time. 

By this ett'ort of the two Disciples, the Bai>tist society was 
almost lost for fifteen years. The six people who clung to the 
Baptist faith were John Reeves and wife (Sarah (^)uinby), E])h- 
raim Quinby and wife, and two cUiughters. 

In 1834 seven persons met at the home of Rphraini (.Juinby, 
and the Baptist church was reorganized. Elder Ja'cob Morris 
being the presiding officer. John Reeves was their elected clerk, 
and held that office for many vears. Immediatelv after this 

(Loaned by W. J. Kfir. ) 



orgcmization foiii- jiersous were received into the climrli li\ let- 
ter. The Rev. ^Ir. ^NTorris became the pastor, serviny until is;;(i. 

Tn 1835 a resolution was passed withdrawing the hand of 
fellowship from all who hail dejjarted from the faith of the regu- 
lar Baptist ehureh in Warren, calied "Concord." hi this same 
year the churoli was inoorjiorated. In LSoli the Concord church 
united with the Beaver Baptist Association, of Beaver, I'euusyl 
vania, and three years later, when the Trumbull Baptist .\ssocia- 
tion was formed, it united with that. On the first of June the 
same year a Sunday school was organized, but its meetings were 
not always regular. 

Rev. Morris was followed hy Hev. Kolla .1. Sniitli. U'ev. 
.John Winters connected himself with the church in IS.'iS. His 
daughter, Eliza, married a son of John Reeves 8r., Lewis R. 
Reeves. They moved to Iowa, where ^Ir. Reeves became a law 
partner of" 8. T. ^liller, in Keokuk. Air. Reeves died there, as 
did also Mrs. Miller. After a time Eliza Winters Reeves mar- 
ried Mr. Miller, and later Abraham Lincoln appointed him as 
one of tlie justices of the sui)i'eme court. Airs. Miller, l)ecause 
of her official jiosition and mental attainments, was one of the 
leaders of Washington society. She never foi'got her old asso- 
ciates in the Baptist churches of this vicinity, and when meeting 
M^arren people always incpiired about them. 

During Mr. Winters' administration four thousand dollars 
W'as j-aised for the building of a church, Mr. John Reeves having 
given the land. It stood on the west side of Pine street, between 
High street and Mai'ket street. At this writing it is still stand- 
ing, but it is in a very dila))idateil condition, and suggests noth- 
ing of its early ap])earance. It h;is been us(m1 as a >liop. a 
laundry, and a second-hand store. 

During ^Ir. Winters' admiiii~;tration Xancy. the daughter of 
John Reeves, afterwanls .Mrs. 1. X. Dawson, united with the 
chun'h and continued to be a member for luoi'c than fifty-six 
years. She was one of W'.n-ren's nu)st respected and beloved 
citizens, sweet and gentle of manner, a devoted Avife, a loving- 
mother. She absolutely lefused to take any pai't in any difi'ei-- 
ings or dissensions which came into the church, and stood as a 
living example of her Master's teaching, "that ye love one an- 
other." The Chrnnich of September 5, 18-1:3, gives notice that 
the Baptist Association of Trumbull County will meet in the 
Methodist K])iscoi)al church the following (lay, polder Hall to 


Rev. Lewis Uanstead became pastor iu 1849, and remained 
four years. lie was popular and energetic, and many ])eople 
lironglit into the church through liis effort were long thereafter 
conscientious and faithful workers. Only one of this numlier is 
now living, Mrs. Abbie Haymaker. Rev. John D. Meeson 
served from 1852- '56. 

Rev. E. T. Bro\vii began his work in 185(), and in 1859 lie 
and Elder Knap]) conducted gos])el meetings and fifty-seven peo- 
j)le were baptized. .Vt this time the Baptist church was the iinest 
church in tlie cit\-, and the largest number of young men were 
members of the congregation. 

This church has sent out i)ut one missionary, Miss Sarah 
A. Fuller, who married Rev. ^Ir. Satterly, going with him to 
India. Mr. Satterly died two years later of cholera, and Mrs. 
Satterlv died on her homeward trip and was buried at sea. 

Alien O. Fuller and John T. Wilson followed the Rev. Mr. 
Brown. Rev. George Pierce served the congregation for tliree 
years. He was succeeded in 1869 by Rev. Robt. Telford. During 
Mr. Telford's administration, in 1870, Rev. George Balcomb, an 
evangelist, held special meetings. At this time forty-five people 
were converted and baptized. The services created great excite- 
ment, and the evangelist did not have the approval of conserva- 
tive church men or of liberal citizens. 

Rev. J. P. Stevenson, who served aliout three years, was 
very poinilar with his church and with Warren people generally. 
He married Nellie Brooks, who was a grand-niece of Jeremiah 
Brooks, at whose house the early church services were held. Her 
grandfather was Oliver Brooks, whose house on South street 
is still standing back of the first site. Her father was James 
Brooks, who did Inisiuess on ^Market street fifty-six years. She 
was a fine scholar, graduating in the class of 1873. ^Ir. Steven- 
son married for his second wife Miss Florence Tyler, daughter 
of N. B. Tyler, and they now reside in Des Moines, he being dean 
of the college there. Mr. Stevenson's place was supplied tem- 
porarily by Rev. A. G. Kirk, of New Castle, Pennsylvania. He 
was followed by Rev. W. T. Whitmarsh, who served until 1879, 
ard soon thereafter became an E])iscopalian. 

Rev. J. S. Hutson, who served from 1879 to 1885, was one 
of the most popular men in the church's history. He interested 
men, and under his leadershi]) the church grew in every way. 

Hev. J. S. Rightnour, 1). 1).. served from 188.5 to" 1890. 
During these years ])reparaticns were made for the building of 


a new chiiirli. A lot was purehased from Dr. Lyiiinii near the 
corner of Park avenne on High street. 

Rev. William Codville followed Mr. Riglitnoui- in ISDO. and 
in 1891, Aiignst olst, gronnd was broken for a new chiircli. 
Here, for the first time, so far as is laiown, women, who through 
all ages since the time of Christ have aided in every way His 
Church, were recognized in the preliminary services of the build- 
ing of a church. "The first shovel of dirt taken up was jiassed 
to Mrs. Uriah Hntchins, who, in turn, passed it to Mrs. l*h()el)e 
Sutliff, then to Elizabeth Quinby Stiles, and so on down the 

The name of the church was changed in 189o from C'oncord 
to the First Baptist. On this date the Baptist church of Mecca 
united with the Warren church. The First Baptist cliurch was 
dedicated in September, 1894, and the total cost was .$2o,000, 
and, as late as 1898, $9,500 was still due on it. In January, 1900, 
this debt was paid. Since that time $1,000 has been spent in im- 

The house wliich had been occupied by Dr. Lyman was 
moved to the west of the lot, and now serves as the home of 
the ministei'. 

Rev. Chester F. Ralston succeed Dr. Codville. He was a 
man of liberal views, and was successful in his work. Rev. F. 
Q. Boughton followed Mr. Ralston, and Rev. W. E. Barker is the 
present pastor. 

Among some of the old and prominent families connected 
with tlie Ba]3tist church we find the names Quinby, Reeves. Tyler, 
Sutliff, Haymaker, Fuller, Park, Stiles, Griswold, Dawson, Tut- 
tle, Hoyt, Gillmer and Harmon. Facts in regard to these 
families are to be found elsewhere. 

The church is now in a prosperous condition. About two 
j^ears ago Mr. and ]\Irs. A. G. Ward j^resented the congregation 
with a beautiful organ. 

This is not the place to make personal mention of late mem- 
bers of the church, but we make an exception in the case of Mr. 
George Day, who was one of the stanchest supporters of the 
church for many years, and who was likewise a faithful citizen. 
He has but lately passed away; we cannot but think of him as we 
write the facts connected with the church where he so long served 
as officer and instructor. 

Among the prominent men who have been sui^erintendents 
of the Sunday school are I. N. Dawson, U. H. Hutch ins, R. S. 

•>u\ His'i'OKY OF 'ri!r:\iP.i"LL ^ou^'TY 

Parks, (i. U. Griswold, .1. ('. Uniiiev. K. A. Parmer, George E. 
J)ay and G. W. Byard. 

Tlie |)resent officers <it' tlic rliui-cli are: 

Cli-rk, W. ,r. Kerr. 
Fiaanciul St'cri't;irv, li. i'. McCoy. Treasurer, Al. G. AVard. 

Board of Deaeons : 
M. J. Sloau. W. A. Heakl. K. T. Meade, 

W. J. Kerr, Charles Miller, A. G. Judd. 

Trustees : 
W. A. Heald, A. G. Judd, J. B. Phillips. 

Grant W. Byard, (i. R. Bateheller, 

Finance Board : 
.T. C. Oriole, A. G. Ward. A. 1). Griffith. 

W. G. Hurlbiirt. W. .1. Kerr. 

P lesbiltcridu Cliiircli. 

The Missionary ISociety of Coiinet'ticut iustriieted Rev. 
.Joseph Badger, tlie missionary elsewliere referred to, a Presby- 
terian, to preach in Warren. Tiiis he did in the homes of the 
different settlers, as did also Rev. William Wick of Youngstown 
and the Rev. Mr. Tait of western Pennsylvania. A Congrega- 
tional clinrch under the Union ])lan was organized on the 19th of 
November, 1803, nnder the name, ''The Church of Christ in War- 
ren, Ohio. " The following six persons were the organizing mem- 
bers: Thomas Prior, Betsey Prior, Thomas Ross, Rosalinda 
Ross, Polly Land and Elizabeth Davison. So far as we know no 
descendants of these early Presbyterians are now living in 
Warren except Mrs. H. C. Baldwin, Miss Mary and Mr. S. C. 
Iddings. Elizabeth Davison was their great-aunt. 

In the organization of churches at that early day, wiiat was 
called a "plan of union" was frequently adopted, and churches 
consisted of members from both the Presbyterian and Congre- 
gational bodies. The original document said that tliey were sol- 
emnly charged to "keep the covenant with each other, looking- 
for Divine assistance to the great Head of the Clnir<'li. to wiutse 
grace they were committed." 

From ISOi) to 1808 Rev. Jonathan Leslie was an occasional 
supply for the Church of Christ, Warren. In 1804 Thomas Rob- 
bins was chosen moderator. The Rev. James Duncan acted as 
stated supply for two yeai-s. In 1817 the Hamjishire ]\lissionary 
Society of Massachusetts sent as missionary Rev. Joseph Curtis, 
and he was reguarly installed in 1820. He was a faithful pastor, 
and the church ])rospered under his ministry. He ceased his 
ser\-ice because of failing health. It was not until October, 1808, 

(Loaned by the Tribune.) 



that they Jiad a reguhir pastor, and even then he. the h'ev. .hunes 
Boyd, alternated between Newton and Warren. 

During the years from ISoH-lSGO there was a division in 
the Presbyterian denomination Ifnown as the "old" school and 
the "new." (This same division occurred under other names in 
other denominations.) The Warren church in those years be- 
longed to the Presbytery of Trumbull, and the Synod of the 
Western Reserve was atfiliated with the "new" school. The 
W^arren church has lived to see not only the union of the "old" 
and the "new" school in 187U, but the healing of the Cumber- 
land division in UlOli and the di'awing together of all denomina- 

March 1, l8oU, the lot on which the Presbyterian church 
now stands was sold to Simon Perkins, Zalmon Fitch, Asael 
Adams, possibly others, by Charlotte Smith, for $(iO(l. The deed 
states that for the purpose of preventing obstructions to the 
view and preventing destruction by fire, no building should be 
south of or near the proposed church building. 

•Josiali Soule, the gi-andfather of ]\Irs. Howard Weir, helped 
to build this structure. The chui-ch was dedicated in 1832, Eev. 
Charles B. Storrs preaching the sermon, and the C'ongregational 
form of government was changed to Presbyterian in 1838. In 
1845 it was incoriiorated under the name of "The Fii-st Presby- 
terian Church." 

In 184f) the church was repaired and improved and the 
next year the lecture room, which was used for Sunday school 
and for many church meetings, was erected north of the church. 
This house, at the time the new church was built, was moved, and 
it now staiids on the west side of Mahoning avenue, just north of 
tlie water works station. It is used as a dwelling for two 

The old church edifice served its purpose until 1875, when 
it was torn down to make room for the present Imilding. The 
church organization, a strong one in the beginning, has at times 
stood still as far as membership was concerned, but of late years 
has grown phenomenally, and is now one of the strongest in 
the city. 

In the early days of the Presltyterian church Mr. Simon 
Perkins and Frederick Kinsman purchased for use in that 
church a violoncello. Mr. Ide, a partner of W. M. Porter, then 
a bookseller with a store where Masters Bros, now is, played 
this instrument. A goodly number of people in the church dis- 


approved of this kind of music, aud Mr. Thomas Pew, au uncle 
of H. S. and Jolm A. Pew, with a number of followers, went to 
the Methodist church. They said they did not have to have a 
fiddle to help worship God. During the '5Us this instrument was 
played by Junius Dana. 

The bell in the present Presbyterian chui-ch is the oldest 
church bell in the city. It was bought in 1832 by 
George Mygatt, aud was the only bell Warren had 
for many years. It announced the joys and the sorrows; 
it called out people in case of danger, fire, etc.; it 
was employed to wake people at six o'clock in the 
morning and to tell them that it was nine o'clock at night; it 
was rung when the people were called together in the interests 
of the Ashtabula-Warren turnpike; when the question of the 
academy was to be discussed, and when the Ohio and Pennsyl- 
vania Canal question was agitated. In case of death this bell 
used to toll slowly the number of strokes announcing the age 
of the person dead. It was used for the last time in a general 
public way to ring in the Fourth of July of Centennial year, 
and in a local public way when the voters in 1908 decided to per- 
mit no saloons in Trumbull County. 

The old church edifice stood very high. There was a long 
flight of steles leading up to it. The pulpit was high and the 
ceiling was high. To childish eyes the latter seemed quite near 
the sky. The pews had doors which swung open and shut with 
more or less noise ; in fact, the watching of these doors and the 
listening to the music was about all the attraction the old church 
offered to children. The aisles were decidedly inclined — so much 
so as to make the elderly and the fat breathe hard as they 
climl)ed them. Two huge cannon-stoves stood by the doors, but 
the lieat from them made little impression on the air of the large 
room. Foot-stoves were used there within the recollection of 
many residents of Trumbull County. Miss Anne Brown, of 
North Bloomfield, as a little child was a visitor in the family of 
Leicester King. She says she used to tease to prej^are Mrs. 
King's foot-stove for her use in church. Mr. Whittlesey Adams, 
the oldest living member of this church, who, when quite young, 
accompanied his mother to church each Sunday, remembers that 
he always carried the foot-stove, and that when his mother's feet 
were warm so that she could spare it, she lifted it over the pews 
to the people near her who had driven some distance to church 
and who had no foot-stove. Mr. Adams savs he remembers well 


the people attendiug that early ciiurch, and no picture is any 
more vivid to him than that of General Simon Perkins, who wore 
a military cape lined with scarlet, and on cold days, in chnrcii, 
wrapped one end of it around his head. 

Among the early influential families attending this church 
we find the names : Kinsman, Adams, Perkins, Iddings, Dickeys, 
Dana, Estabrook, Stiles, ;\JcLain, Stratton, Fitch. Ahell, Spear, 
Harmon, Howard, Woodrow, Harrington, Davisons, and 

Churches are somewhat like families in that they have 
serious squabbles and differences, important only to the mem- 
bers, and which are kept from the world so far as possible. ]\[ost 
families, most churches haA'e them, so none of us need feel dis- 
graced when ours are referred to. 

Rev. Nathan Purinton, who was pastt)r of the church from 
1840-1848, was a progressive man, and built up the church rap- 
idly. At one time, November, 1841, seventy-seven people joined 
the church, among whom was Mr. Whittlesey Adams. After a 
time Mr. Purinton ceased to please his peoj^le. This is not so 
recorded in the church record, b\it members of the church today 
wliose fathers and mothers were then active remember distinctly 
the troul)le, and letters and papers which have come into the 
Ijossession of the writer .substantiate the tales of today. 

One of the early mothers in the Presbyterian church, writing 
back east to her family, says: 

"I presume you have heard from some other letters of 
the great conflict we have had for several months past with 
Mr. Purinton, our minister. Nothing could be done with him 
but to starve him out. He is gone at last, very reluctantly, 
to St. Louis. A rich son-in-law has established themselves 
in mercantile l)usiness. He will not be likely to trouble us 
any more. ' ' 

Because there is nothing officially recorded, reports vary as 
to the cause of Mr. Purinton 's impeachment. Opinion is divided. 
Some informants say it was because he was a Mason, or sympa- 
thized with the Masons ; others that he chewed tobacco. Neither 
of these offenses is serious enough to produce a like result today. 
Therefore, whichever it was is immaterial; probably it was 
something doctrinal, since "the letter of the law" has created 
more discomfort to others tlian Masonrv or tobacco. 


Tilt' Rev. William C. Clark followed Mr. Purintoii. He was 
installed in 1848 and served until 1853. He was a popular man 
and gave up work l)e('ause of ill health. He died in Detroit in 

Four men served tlu' churcli fiom 18().'! to 1884, Henry Rich- 
ard Hoisington, Benjamin St. .John Page, Nathaniel P. Bailey, 
and Alexander .Jackson. Mr. Hoisington served four years, was 
acceptable to his people and during this time more than a hun- 
dred persons united with the church. At one time, under his 
supervision, noon-day ])rayer meetings were held, conducted 
chiefly b.y young men. Rev. Benjamin St. J. Page, who followed 
Mr. Hoisington was one of the most eccentric and sensational 
preachers the church has ever had. He drew outsiders to his 
meetings by giving out i)eculiar subjects, one of them being, the 
"Devil's Fence." He and the Eijiscopal rector held spirited dis- 
cussions on dancing. Most of the membej's added during his 
administration were by letter. 

Rev. Nathaniel P. Bailey served the church about ten years. 
He was greatly respected, a man of fine presence, and ability. 
His wife, a daughter of Mr. Comstock, who wrote "Comstock's 
Philosophy," was a woman of education and refinement. She 
and her children entered into the life of the town and were of 
great assistance to Mr. Bailey in his work. The membership of 
the church during his administration was 329; the Simday school 
had about 350 members, and was in a flourishing condition. Mr. 
Edward S. Kneeland was the superintendent. It was during Mr. 
Bailey's time that the new chi^rch was built and the Ladies' Aid 
Society earned $10,000, which was used in the building and fur- 
nishing. It was during his administration also that the first 
Woman's Missionary Society was organized. There were but 
six people present at the first meeting. Mrs. Olive Howard was 
made president. Only one of the charter members now survives, 
Mrs. Polly Stratton Reid. 

Rev. Alexander .Jackson came to the church in 1879 and sev- 
ered his connection in 1884. He was educated in the Universities 
of Glasgow and Edinburgh, finishing his divinity course in this 
country. He was active in service, forceful in preaching, but 
dictatorial in manner and methods. Although the people of Old 
Trumbull County were largely English and Scotch-Irish, they 
do not take kindly to the spirit of these countries, and in Warren 
churches Avhere ministers from these English countries have had 


charge tlu'ii' ways linvc not l)eeii satisfactory to the i)eoi)le they 
serve. ]\Ir. Jackson was no exception. During his pastorate the 
church did not grow, hut this might liave heen the ease under 
any niinistei- l)ecaus(' tlicrc is apt to he reaction after churcli 
huilding. Mr. .lackson was succeeded by the Rev. James D. 
Williamson, who scrvcil three years and who was greatly hon- 
ored and io\'cd hy his congregation. He was cultured, leflned, 
sympathetic and tactful. His congregation regretted very much 
his removal to Clexcland in ISSS. He was educated at the AVest- 
ern Reserve I'nivcisity (then Hudson College) and u|)on his 
reniovjd recommended a college friend, the Rev. W. L. Swan, to 
th(^ clinrcli. Mr. Swan served ten years. He was greatly re- 
s]>ected, and did good work in all directions. 

Rev. Samuel W . McFadtlen followed ]Mr. Swan. He was a 
young man and interested young i)eo])le in chui'ch work. He was 
engaged because of his ability as a ]ireaeher. In this respect he 
was a disappointment, not that he did not preach well, but his 
sennons had nothing unusual ahout tliem. Since leaving War- 
ren he has grown in his ])i-ofessioii and now has a fine church in 
Seattle, Washington. 

In 1!i()4 Rev. Franklin P. Reinhold, of Windsor Locks, Cou- 
neciicut, became pastor of the church. He has been the most 
successful minister the church has evei- had. lie believes that 
religion to lie effective nuist be ])ractical; lie believes in institu- 
tional churches; he believes that orthodoxy needs reforming; he 
is exceedingly liberal in his beliefs, going back to the simple 
teachings of Christ, trying to follow those teachings himself, and 
to show others Iioav to follow, lie is interested in the civic life 
of the connuunity, and raises his voice iu behalf of all good works. 
He is industrious, zealous, magnetic and has the power of con- 
veying these attributes to tlie members of his congregation. He 
is respected by all otliei' jiastors and congregations. 

The )>iesent edifice was erected in l(S7n, and was dedicated iu 
1S7S on the seventy-tiftli anniversary of tlie organization 
of the church society. Dr. Evans, of Youngstown, preached 
the sermon; Rev. Hoisington assisted in the sendee. 
The eldei-s at that time were: Edward Spear, William 
Woodrow, Samuel Dickey, Hezekiah Peck, Julius King, and 
Si)eucer Parish. Hezekiah Peck is the only one of these men 
now living in Warren; Julius King, the only other living mem- 
ber, resides in New York. The church, a handsome building, 
cost $52,000. There are three memorial windows, the iirst 


erected by the clinrcli iii inemoi'v of Mary Bishop Perkins, the 
second presented by the sons of Edward Spear in memory of 
their fatlier, and the third, Miss Estabrook's, purchased bj^ 
church organization and friends. Miss Estabrook conducted for 
many years a large Sunday- school class in this church. She was 
one of the best Biljle scholars of this vicinity and although a 
teacher in our schools, a member and officer in most of the im- 
portant organizations of the city, her first thought was given to 
and her best work was done for her church. Her death in 1907 
deprived the Presbyterian Association of a most valued worker. 

Mrs. Lucia A. 1). Park was one of the later members of the 
churcli who gave her thought and time to the welfare of the 
organization. She was particularly interested in the missionarj' 
work of the church, and her death, which occurred just before 
Miss Estabrook's, was greatly regretted by her fellow workers. 

The church has had twelve regularly installed ministers, and 
six ministers who have served as pul])it supplies for i)eriods of 
from six to eighteen months each : 

1803- Eev. Joseph Badger, (^)rganizer. 

1803-05 Eev. Thomas Bobbins, Supply. 

1805-08 Eev. Jonathan Leslie, Supply. 

1808-13 Eev. James Boyd. 

1813-16 Eev. James Duncan, Supply. 

1817-31 Eev. Joseph AV. Curtis. 

1831-32 Eev. George W. Hulin, Supply. 

1832-34 Eev. J. A. Woodruff, Supply. 

1834-39 Eev. Josiah Towne. 

1839-48 Eev. Nathan B. Purinton. 

1848-63 Eev. William C. Clark. 

1863-67 Eev. Henry E. Hoisington. 

1867-68 Eev. Benj."st. John Page, Supply. 

1869-79 Eev. Nathaniel P. Bailey, D. D. 

1879-84 Eev. Alexander Jackson, Ph. D. 

1885-88 Eev. James D. Williamson, D. D. 

1888-98 Eev. William L. Swan. 

1899-03 Eev. Samuel W. McFadden, D. D. 

1904- Eev. Franklin P. Eheinhold. 

In the early churches the question of selling pews was one 
which called forth much discussion. Church-goers always felt 
and still feel that it is hardly right to own pews and yet it is 


trying for people who are realh- interested in church work not 
to have a seat on the very occasions, nnusual services, when it 
is most wanted. The Chnniicle of 1844 contains the following: 

"Notice is hereby given to all who may wish to attend 
divine services at the Presbyterian church in Warren, hav- 
ing no seats of their own, that they are invited and requested 
to take seats wherever they may find one vacant, and it is 
hoped that those who have been detained from the House of 
God by the aforementioned cause, will banish those feelings 
. and accept the invitation so cordially given. 

"By request of the stockholders at their yearly meeting. 
January 1. 1844." 

In the Whici £ T lanscy'ipt under date December 29, 1853, we 
read "The pews of the Presliyterian church were offered for 
sale to the highest bidders." 

The following item shows humor on the part of an editor: 
A baby was found on the Presbyterian cln;reh stei)s the 1st of 
December, 1861, and the editor of the Clironiclp says "whoever 
lost such an article can call at the (.'ounty Tiitirniai'v and ])i'ove 
the property." 

Samuel Dickey's family, his jiarents, his children, liis grand- 
('hildren have all been ardent Presbyterians. Nancy Dickey, the 
mother of Samuel, in a letter to her friends in New Hampshire 
tells all about their life in their home, both the new one and the 
old, about their neighbors, and especially about their grand- 
child. Of their neighbors she says: "Rev. DuBois (Episcopal) 
is an excellent man and one of the very best of neighbors. * * * 
There have been donation parties this winter. Mr. Clark (Pres- 
byterian) had about $120 worth carried in. The Methodists and 
Baptists each had about the same. Mr. DuBois is rich. He car- 
ries in, or sends in, to the rest." Mr. Bailey was the first of the 
Presbyterian ministers who did not depend somewhat u])on 
being paid by gifts of hams, potatoes, wood, etc. Under the date 
of June 14, 1850, she says: "Our church has been thoroughly 
repaired, painted, and carpeted, shade trees set out around it 
and is now being enclosed with a ]iretty board fence. All of the 
churches here, except two. now have l)ells." Then the grand- 
mother's tenderness shows itself in the following, "Edward 
(Samuel's son) is now two years and eight months old: cannot 


talk very plain. lie learned his a, 1), c's in a week and is now- 
reading words of three letters." 

In November, 1908. the Presbyterian church celebrated the 
105th anniversary of the organization of the church in AVarren, 
and the thirtieth anniversary of the dedication of the ]iresent 
church building. 

Letters were read from people formerly identified with the 
church, and, as the names of the ministers who had served the 
church were called, the people who joined under that administra- 
tion arose. After this roll call, communion was served to the 
hirgest number of communicants within the history of the 

One of the workers of twenty-five years ago in the Presby- 
terian church was Julius King. His mother, lovingly known as 
'.'Auntie King," was a devoted church woman. She was 
a daughter of Jesse Halliday, the pioneer. Mr. King was 
not only active in the church but in the Sunday school. He and 
his wife were im])ortant factors in the church work. During his 
time the different churches in Warren took turns holding serv- 
ices in the district sehoolhouses nearby the city. On one occa- 
sion Mr. King was conducting a service in the Howland school- 
house, near the Reeves and Ewalt farms. He had chosen for the 
lesson the chapter containing the statement about the rich man 
and the Kingdom of Heaven. He had read this verse, and was 
ex])laining that it did not mean exactly what it said, namely that 
no rich man could enter into the Kingdom of Heaven since no 
camel could go through the eye of a needle, but that there was in 
the wall of Jerusalem a passage-way, or gate, known as the 
Needle's Eye, .md that a loaded camel could get through that 
oi)ening by having its burdens removed, by kneeling down, and 
by having someone pull and someone push. This seemed to be 
satisfactory to most of the persons present, but a gentleman 
named French, clearing his throat, spake as follows: "Well, 
Brother King, it seems to me even with your explanation, that 
it takes a deal of pushin' and a deal of pullin' to get a rich man 
into the Kingdom of Heaven " The author, who had been inter- 
ested in these rural meetings, having assisted in some of the 
services of her own church, and having come to this meeting to 
see how other denominations conducted theirs, laughed out loud 
and slid out the door near which .she happened to be sitting. 
What the rest of the discussion was is not knoAvn, but sure it is 
that Mr. King, from good business management and honest 

IIIS'I'OK'Y OF 'I'lMMl'.ILI. (Ol XTV 255 

effort, has since acc'iiiimlated eiiuiigli of tlie worldly goods to 
laake him nervous about this verse, if he still l)elieves as lie did 
then, and sure it is, no matter how he believes, his life has been 
such as to make him stand a better clKUice foi- ejiteriuii than 
many of his fellow men. 

Some of tile earlier records of the chuicli were destroyed in 
the fire of ISfiO which swejit the lower section of (lur city. Tlie 
Ijartial rect)rds show that 1,365 ])ersons have joined the church 
on confession and 1,175 by letter; o7S adults have been bai)tized 
and 542 infants. The present membership of the church is 67;> 
together with 7li additional ])ersons whose names are on the re- 
served roll, making a total of 745. The oldest living member of 
the church today is Mr. Whittlesey Adams. He .joined 
on Sunday, Xoveml)er 13, 1841, in connection with 7(i 
other persons during the pastorate of the Rev. Nathan B. Purin- 
ton. Since 1853 the church has raised for benevolent purjioses 
$89,764; since 1865 it has raised $170,453 for congi'egational 
expenses. Tlie earliest record of the Warren church which ay)- 
pears in the minutes of the general assemlily is one made in 
1823, a contribution of two (h)llars toward the comiuissioiu'rs' 
fund. At that time the church was a member of the Grand IJiver 
Presbytery, which was a part of the Synod of Pittsburg. 

The fifth anniversary of the pastorate of Mi'. Reinhold oc- 
curred June 1, 1909. During his ministry the organiza- 
tion has had a steady growth in its membershi]). over 
three hundred persons having been received into the church 
by him. The church is now the second hirgest in Ma- 
honing Presliytery and its Bible school with a mem- 
bership of ()1'0 also occupies the second ])hic(' among 
the Bible schools of tin' Mahoning Presbytery. Its Westminster 
Men's Club, organized Se))tember 22, 1905, was the lirst cliiirch 
men's club in AVarren, and its contril)utions to the enlarging life 
of the church and the city easily ccnistitute it one of the strong- 
est church organizations in this part of Ohio. Another of the 
unique features of this ciiurch's life is the sowing school for 
girls which lias just completed its iifth year of work. A well 
defined course of study is followed, covering a period of three 
years and modeled after the course in the Pratt Institute of 
Brooklyn. The school is under tlie direction of Mrs. Reinhold 
as su])erinteudent and a corps of eight teachers, and thus far 
fifteen girls have completed the work of the school and have been 
graduated. The other departments of the church having to do 


with orgauizations for women aud organizations for young peo- 
ple are thoroughly equipped and in excellent condition. 
The present officers of the church are : 


James E. Beebe. George W. Kneeland. 

Franklyn H. Cannon. Willis J. ilunson. 

James A. Estabrook. George M. Smith. 

John 0. Gorton. Homer E. Stewart. 

Ered C. March, Clerk. Charles F. Walker. 

H. Samuel Pew. Edward S. Kneeland. 

William Wallace. 

Charles F. Walker. Frank A. Millikan. 

John B. Estabrook. 

Ch fist Ch u rch (Episc opal) 

The first service held l)y the Episcopalians in AVarren was 
in 1813. The Bev. ]\rr. Serle conducted it and i^reached the ser- 
mon in the court house. Bishop Chase also held service in the 
court house at a little later date. At that time there were two 
communicants in AVarren, Mrs. Lavinia Kowe. and her daughter 
Mrs. Charlotte Smith. Mr. Justus Smith came to AVarren in 
1812 with his family, and Mrs. Eowe accompanied them. She 
lived in a small house back of the present residence of Dr. Sher- 
wood. Her father was an Episcopal minister and was lost at 
sea when going to England to be ordained. At that time the 
Anglican church had no bishoj) in America. Mrs. Eowe, m 
pleasant weather, often rode her horse to Canfield, fifteen miles 
distance, to attend services. The early bishops and clergymen 
who visited Warren were entertained in the homes of Mrs. Eowe 
and ]\Irs. Smith. Mrs. Eowe was the grandmother of Henry W. 
and Charles Smith. Her grandcliildren were brought up in the 
faith and were affiliated with her church, assisting in its suijport 
b(>th in Yoimgstown, where her granddaughter, Maria Tod, 
lived, and in Warren. Charles Smith was a vestr^^nan of Christ 
cliurch for inauy years. Her great-grandchildren, with one or 
two exceptions, were communicants, and ])art of them very active 
as workers today, while one great-great-granddaughter, Sally 
Tod Smith, has been the organist and soloist at Christ church 
for several years. 

Mr. Edward A. Smith, writing in the Union Church Neics, 
in 1891, savs: 

.^ ^ - ' « * if ' *'^ 

m <?:, 


The parish was orgauized by the Kev. Mr. Harrison, in 
1836, under its present name, (Christ church,) and was in- 
corporated by an act of the legishiture iu 1842, by petition 
]iresented by the Hon. Jolm Crowell. An original paper 
still in existence, drawn up for the purpose of effecting an 
organization of the parish, undated, supposedly 1836, reads 
as follows : 

Wt'. wliosc unines are hereunto aftixeil, deeply impressed with the iiupor- 
tauee of the Christian religion, and earnestly wishing to promote its holy 
influence in the hearts and lives of ourselves, our families and our neighbors, 
do hereby associate ourselves together nnder the name, style and title of the 
jiarish of Christ church, in the township of Warren, County of Trumbull, and 
state of Ohio, and b}' so doing do adopt the Constitution and Canons of the 
Protestant Episcopal church in the diocese of Oliio, in communion with the 
Protestant Episcopal church in the United States of America, Warren. 

Signed: — .John Crowell, Jacob H. Baldwin, wardens; Edward E. Hoyt. 
Wm. S. Knight, .John Supple, layman Potter, Henry Curtiss, vestry ; Charles 
Wolcot, Hiram Baldwin, .John Veon, il. B. Tayler, Oliver H. Patch, .James 
Hoyt, .John B. Canfield, Thos. H. Best, John L. Frazier, Henry W. Smith, 
Addison Weatherbee, Wm. Johnson, Samuel Cliesney, Edwin Leffingwell, E. P. 

^Ir. Harrison was rector of the parishes in Canfield and 
in Boardmau, then in Trumbull County, and gave to the 
church here some oversight and an occasional service. A 
subscription of a small sum of money was obtained for him 
in acknowledgment of his efforts, in April, 1837. It was 
signed by the following persons : — Jacol) H. Baldwin, John 
Crowell, 'j. D. Taylor, Lyman Potter, Wm. S. Knight, Thos. 
H. Best, James M. Scott, John Veon, Chas. Smith, Jonathan 
Tngersoll, Heniy "\V. Smith, Wm. Pew. John Supple. Addi- 
son Weatherliee and M. B. Tayler. 

After this time there seems to have been no activity in 
the parish until the summer of 1841, when it was reorgan- 
ized under the Eev. C. C. Townsend, who remained in charge 
for two years, in connection with that of St. Mark's church. 
Xewton Falls. The names of the vestry at about this time 
so far as can be learned were, S. D. Harris and C. J. Van 
Gorder. wardens; John Crowell. Geo. Parsons, Jr., U. B. 
^^^lite and Herman Canfield, vestrymen. Services were 
held in the old court house, and on one Christmas its gloomy 
interior was adorned with evergreens. 

In tlie Whic/ <£■ Transcript for A])ril 5, 1842. we read, "The 
wardens and vestry of Christ church will hold their first meeting 
under their charter of incorporation at the court house on Sat- 


iirday, April 16, 1842, at 2 :00 P. IL By the Order of the Vestry. 
Cyrus J. VanGorder, secretary." 

Between the administration of Rev. C. C. Townsend and 
Eev. DuBois, lay services were held in Colonel Hari'is' paint 
shop, which stood across the river near the end of the old bridge, 
and later in Mr. Barley's school room, the King Block. The 
first record we have of an Easter Monday election is that of 
18-16, when the parish register tells us that S. D. Harris, U. B. 
White were elected wardens, Wm. H. Weeks, C. J. VanGorder, 
George Parsons, Jr., John Crowell and William G. Barley, ves- 
trymen. From that time there has been no year when such elec- 
tions were not held. 

In 1846 a lot at the corner of Liberty street and Franklin 
alley was purchased of Br. Blatchley. In September the corner- 
stone of the church was laid without any formal ceremonies. 
This is to he regretted because within the last few years this 
building was razed and if the usual papers had been put in the 
coi'nerstoue we might have had some valuable data i^reserved for 
us. In the summer of 1848 the first services were held in this 
church, and in the fall of 1849 it was consecrated by Bishop Mc- 
Ilvaine. At the top of the steeple was a gilt cross, and of this 
the bishop did not approve. It is said, as he was reviewing the 
church, he remarked, "Gentlemen, you better remove that," but 
his advice was not taken and this emblem remained in its place 
as long as the steeple stood. 

Shortly after the consecration the Kev. Mr. BuBois entered 
upon his duties as pastor. His wife was the daughter of Bishop 
McI lvalue and both he and she were cultured, refined people. 
Possibly he was the most popular pastor the church has ever 
had. He lived on the west side where his neighbors greatly re- 
spected him. He had a boat in which he used to cross the river 
to attend to his chiirch duties and other business. His home was 
the center of society as far as church people were concerned. 
Older members of the parish have related to younger members 
the delightful times the early Episcopalians had at the BuBois 
home. He organized the Sunday school, a ladies' aid society 
and called together people of the parish to discuss matters per- 
taining to the parish. Through the generosity of his friends in 
the east he obtained a library for the Sunday school. 

The service of the Episcopal church is usually attractive to. 
folks outside and the first Christmas eve service (it is doubtful 
if the other Protestant churches at this time considered it reli- 


gioiis to celebrate (.'liristmas) during Mr. DuBois' administra- 
tion the cliurt'h was beautifully trimmed with evergreens and 
the music was remarkable. Judge lloft'niau and George Seeley 
plaj'ed the violins, Milton Palm the bass viol, Zeb. Weutworth 
the trombone. Dr. James A^anG order the French horn, and Ed. 
Reeves the flute. Of these musicians, two are now living, Judge 
Hott'man of California, aged 97, and Ed. Reeves, who resides at 
Mount Clemens, Michigan. In 1853 Mr. DuBois resigned, mov- 
ing to Zanesville, Ohio. 

As a rule the Episcopal church does not exist in I'ural dis- 
tricts in (Jliio. Towns, esijecially county seats, are largely re- 
cruited from the country. Consequently the Episcopal church 
does not gain members as do other churches from rural districts. 
In the case of Christ church parish a large percent of its mem- 
bership has drifted into the cities, and although large classes are 
confirmed each year they make up little more than the number 
lost by removals and deaths. In character this parish is one of 
the strongest in the state, but its parishioners are not regular 
attendants at its services and its congregations are small. 

Bishop Mcllvaine was one of the strongest characters the 
church has liad in its history. He was tall, straight, magnificent 
in appearance, possessed of great intellect, and oratorical 
powers. lie could not do aught but impress people with his per- 
sonality. In addition he had great executive ability, loved jus- 
tice and was fearless when it came to his duty. 

Bishop Bedell was greatly beloved by Ohio Episcopalians, 
was an exceedingly spiritual man, his presence being almost like 
a benediction. He was scholarly, interesting, and devoted. He 
performed his duties well as a bishop, imless he erred a little in 
discipline. Wiien there were factional quarrels in local churches, 
as there used to be in most local churches of most denomina- 
tions, particularly when they were small and struggling, he re- 
fused to take a hand or to issue any order in regard to it. Shak- 
ing his head he would say, ''You must settle your difficulties 

After the Rev. Mr. DuBois' departure, in 1853, Christ 
church had no rector for two years. Rev. Joseph E. Ryan then 
took chai'ge and served three years. 

Rev. Cornelius S. Abbott was very popular and successful. 
In 1860 the congregation had so increased under his management 
that measures were taken to enlarge the building. However, 
the great fire changed the plans and when the matter of enlarge- 


ment wa.s again taken ui), in the snninier of 1862, it was decided 
to build a new church iuf^tead of remodeling, so a lot on High 
street was purchased from ]\lr. J. F. Asper. Mr. J. H. Black- 
burn of Cleveland was the architect, and on Ascension day, 1863, 
the cornerstone was laid by Bishop Bedell, assistant bishop of 
the diocese, aiding the rector. Bishop Bedell also consecrated 
the building in April, 1865. AVheu the building conunittee made 
its report of monies collected and bills yjaid, they found they had 
$82.09 left, which was tui'ued over to the church treasury. This 
is such an unusual condition that it is worthy of record. One 
hundred and twenty-two persons contributed to the building of 
the church, and of the amounts pledged, less than tifty dollars 
was found not to be collected. This too was a remarkable fact. 
Eev. Cornelius Abbott was rector of the church from 1858 to 
1867. In 1864 the church on Park avenue was sold to the Ro- 
manists. On Easter Sunday, 1864, the last Sunday services were 
held in the old church, and Tuesday evening, of that same week, 
was the last mid-week service.' For a few months before the 
new church was entirely tinished, semnces were held in the room 
over Andrews & Weeks' store. 

The Rev. Charles T. Steck succeeded Mr. Abbott, serving 
eleven months. For a little time thereafter the parish was with- 
out a rector, and in March, 1869, Rev. Henry L. Badger took 
charge. He was a man of scholarly attainments and gentle man- 
ners, and the people of the parish were very much disai^pointed 
when the bishop of Nevada urged him to take up the missionary 
work in that territory. He stayed west several years, but the 
climate was not at all agreeable to him or his family, and later 
he had a parish in Portsmouth, Ohio. 

Rev. Thomas J. Taylor was the rector from October, 1871, 
to April, 1873. During his time the church did not grow or even 
hold its own. 

Rev. A. R. Kieft'er was the next minister and he served the 
longest of any one connected with the parish. He was energetic, 
able and ])ractical. Under his administration the church grew 
greatly. Partly because of ill health he resigned to take a parish 
at Colorado Springs, Colorado. During his charge a rectory 
was purchased, which now stands on the corner of Franklin and 
Vine streets, and the parish rooms were built. He was rector 
at Bradford, Pa., for many years and furnished the author 
some facts for this chapter. He died before the book was 


Rev. James A. Mathews, of Arkansas, took up the work in 
I880 and oontimied it a year and a half. P^'roni AVarren lie went 
to Illinois, and hitci' to Missmiri. where he died. Jh- was siic- 
oeeded by the Kev. 11. 1^. (ianihh', who served al)ont ,1 ye;ir. Mr. 
Gamble was prohahly the h'ast ]io]inlar of aii\- minis- 
ter Christ ehureh lias had. He went to Kuropc for a 
vacation, and while he was none members of the clinrch 
made some needed i-epairs. The walls were decorated, 
new carpets put down, the tablets at the l)ack of the eiiiircli \\\>nn 
which the commandments and the Lord's Pra>er were iiis( lilieil, 
w^ero removed, and a l)eantifnl stained-glass window, ]ireseiited 
by the children of Hon. Frederick Kinsman, was put in. .\p- 
pareutly Mi. Gamble lielieved the minister to be the head of the 
church and felt affronted that repairs were made in his absence, 
for we find in the parish books a record of this work done, end- 
ing with "The amdersigned is in no way responsil)le for these 
changes which were effected during his al)sence. JF. Lansdowne 

About ]892 a new rectory was l)uilt on High street. (Jen- 
erous donations were made by the aunts of the Misses [Tall, Mrs. 
Boardman and Mrs. Wade, of Xew Haven, Connecticut, who 
have done much for the church. 

Some years since a chapel which was not consecrated and 
which is used for Sunday school and all sorts of meetings, social 
as well as religions, was added to the church building on the west 
side. Very recently the ladies of the church built a substantial 
lirick house for the janitor in the rear of the chui'ch. wliii'h adds 
considerably to the church propei'ty. 

In the church ])roi)er are three memorial windows, one to 
Mr. and Airs. Orlando Morgan, the former having been vestr>- 
man of the church for many years and the latter a devoted 
church woman during all the years of her married life. One to 
Lizzie B. Hunt, a successful teacher in the primary department 
of the Sunday school, and long connected with the church, having 
come over from the Lutln'ran. Probably more yomig children 
were brought into the Sunday school and later became church 
members, through Mrs. Hunt's influence and teaching, than 
through any other one member of the church. The sons of Fred- 
erick Kinsman, as above stated, placed in the chance! a large 
beautiful window, in memory of the mother and father who wei-e 
among the most faithful su]iports of and workers in the <'hurch 
for vears. ^Ir. Kinsman was vestryman and officer in the 


cliiircli, gave a great deal i)f time and thought aud much money 
to the i^arish, while Mrs. Kinsman was one of the best church 
workers that any parish ever liad. Botli of these people were 
not only beloved in the cliurch Imt in the community. At the 
time of the presentation of tliis window, Eev. Frederick Kins- 
man, their grandson, preached the sermon. Lately he has been 
made bisho]) of Delaware. 

Too much credit camiot lie given the early vestrymen for 
the condition of the parish of Christ church. They were men of 
good education, possessed of business abiUty, conscientious 
church men, and exceedingly generous tinanciallj'. At the end 
of each fiscal year always they made up a goodly amount from 
their own pockets. Among these were John L. Weeks, who was 
lay-reader, superintendent of the Sunday school and always 
present at all services ; Mr. John H. McCombs, one of the war- 
dens, who was always at his place on Sunday and who assumed 
much responsibility; Judge George F. Brown, who at the close 
of the war moved to Mississippi ; ^fr. Charles Smith, who from 
the very beginning was connected with the church, as his mother 
and grandmother had been before him; Dr. John R. Woods, who 
acted as lay-reader; Mr. Orlando ^Morgan, who, although not a 
commmiicant, was always present at vestry meetings and at 
church; Lewis J. Iddings, whose daughter Miss Mary has been 
a communicant and consistent member since early womanhood, 
and whose son, Samuel, is now junior warden. 

Thomas J. McLain, who for many years was lay reader and 
superintendent of the Sunday school as well, and also one of 
the wardens, was a practical Christian, devoid of any small o] 
narrow traits of character, of sunny temperament, and full of 
kindness. When he left the city to enter the consular service of 
the United States, the parishioners greatly missed him. 

None of these men are now living. 

Edward A. Smith is the oldest communicant connected with 
the Episcopal churcli. He came to Warren in IS-lfi, attended the 
early services which were conducted by Mr. Harris, and has been 
identified with the church ever since. He is now senior warden, 
having been elected in the place of John L. Weeks, in 1875; he 
has therefore been serving in that capacity for thirty-four years. 
Mr. Smith's oldest son, named for his relative, Frederick Kins- 
man, is one of the vestrymen, and Mrs. Smith, all through her 
carlv womanhood, worked in the several societies, while the 


daughters have been comieeted witli both eliurch and Sunday 
school work for years. 

Among the names on the parish register -wliieh are famiUar 
to Trumbull Count}' jieople were the names of Smith, McCombs, 
Kinsman, Freeman, Hunt, Baldwin, Morgan, Porter, McNutt, 
Taylor, Hucke, Ratliff, Packard, Fitch, Bierce, Woods, Heaton, 
Vautrot, Iddings, AVise, McCounell. 

The following is a list of the rectors since Christ church was 
organized : Kev. J. L. Harrison, Rev. C. C. Towne, Rev. Geo. W. 
Dubois, Rev. Joseph E. Rvan, Rev. C. S. Abbott, Rev. Chas. T. 
Speck. Rev. Henry L. Badger, Rev. Thos. J. Taylor, Rev. A. R. 
Keifer, Rev. J. A.' ^Mathews, Rev. C. W. Hollister, Rev. Herbert 
D. Cone, Rev. A. A. Abbott, at present arch-deacon of the dio- 
cese, and Rev. Henry E. Cooke, who has recently resigned his 
position to devote his time to the raising of the AVilliam A. 
Leonard Bishop's fund. Rev. James S. Sherin has at this writ- 
ing just begun his work as pastor. 

The present bishop of this diocese is William A. Leonard, 
who was so long rector of St. John's church in Washington, at 
which more presidents of the United States have worshiped 
than in any other church in Washington. LTuder the supervision 
of Bishop Leonard, the diocese has grown greatly. 

The present officers of the church are as follows: 

Senior warden, Edward A. Smith ; junior warden, S. C. 
Iddings; members of the vestry, Thomas Kinsman, Fred- 
erick K. Smith, E. R. Wise, C.'W. Tyler, George D. Kirk- 
ham, W. George Lane, S. R. Russell, H. A. Sherwood. 

Central Chr'islhoi Church. 

Thomas Campbell was l)oin in Ireland in 17(i3. His father 
was a strict member of the Church of England and Thomas early 
showed interest in religioiis things. The formalities of the Eng- 
lish church did not satisfy him and he soon began to associate 
with a branch of the Presbyterian church which had seceded 
from the "Kirk of Scotland." In 1787 he married Jane Cor- 
ueigle, a French Huguenot, whose ancestors had been driven 
from France by Louis XIV. She was gifted with a strong men- 
tal and moral character, and was of great value to her husband, 
Thomas, in his life work. They had eight children. He not only 
preached, but taught school, and the extra labor impaired his 

2G-i inSTOIJY OF TnT':\rBrLL corxTY 

health so a sea voyage was prescribed for him. He lauded at 
Pliiladelphia, but, like other people with reform natures, he 
could not keep quiet and began preaching in Pennsylvania. 
Through his efforts there came into being at AVashington, Penn- 
sylvania, the "Christian Association." He had left his school in 
the hands of his only son Alexander, but in tlie fall his family 
joined him. In later years he visited the Western Reserve many 
times, especially when discord or misunderstanding arose among 
the early churches. He has been in Warren, as this church was 
one of the very early ones, strong from the lieginning. His son 
Alexander w^as born in Ireland in 1788. He, however, had a 
mixture of Irish-Scotch and French blood. He completed his 
course at the University of Glasgow. Having been reared in the 
strictest schools of the Presbyterians, he had a profound rever- 
ence for the word of God. He fitted into the life in western 
Pennsylvania where his father settled as though he had been 
born in this country. It is a beautiful thing to see how the minds 
of Alexander and his father, Thomas Campbell, ran together; 
how they eschewed creeds and taught what to them seemed the 
simple teaching of Jesus. For forty years he published a paper 
which at first was kno-mi as "The Christian Baptist" and later 
"The Millenial Harbinger." These contained editorial essays. 
The debates between his father and John Walker, in 1820, and 
between his father and W. L. ]\[cCalla in 1823, were published in 
this magazine and did a great deal in converting people to what 
was known then as "the simpler faith." Unlike most students, 
reformers, and preachers, he was a good business man. Al- 
though he traveled and preached at his own expense, entertained 
in his own home hundreds and lumdreds of people who came to 
see him in dilTerent capacities, yet he accumulated a great deal 
of wealth. He established the college at Bethany which secured 
for itself a national reputation, and he became identified with 
the people of West Virginia, where his home was. He was a 
member of the state legislature in 1829, acting on the judiciary 
committee, and was on intimate terms with Chief Justice Mar- 
shall, ex-President Madison, and had many contentions with 
John KaudoliDh. He had a most wonderful personal influence 
over people who came under him, but he never seemed to care 
for title or position. The doctrine which he and his father 
taught was easily espoused by the liberally inclined settlers. By 
outsiders they were known as "Campbellites." The belief of 
the Christian church began and spread from the Ohio valley into 

msi'OKY OK ■I'ldMiirLi. corN'ry -hi-) 

Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Kentnrky. Alexander 
Campbell held no offiee higlier than elder in iiis own congrega- 
tion. He has been in Warren often and his grandson ( W. ( ". 
Pendleton), liis great-grandson (Austin Pendleton) and liis 
great-great-grandehildren live here, also. 

Theology lias never wholly satisfied ])ractical ]ico)ilc. Keli- 
gioii lias. Eaeli seel tliat arises and lives docs so because its 
teachings are siniiilei-. 

The earnest Baiitist iieojilc wlm founded tlie first church in 
Warren liad an nnnsual man as a leader, Adainson Bentley. It 
seems that he did what hundreds of ministers are doing today 
— studied into new ideas and gave those same ideas to his con- 
gregation without name, until they believed largely as he be- 
lieved. He had occasion, after he had rend the discussions of 
Alexander Campbell with some early divines. Walker, McCalla, 
etc.; to go into Kentucky on business. He either made an excuse 
or accidentally stopi)ed at the West Virginia liinne of Alexander 
Campbell on his return and there imbilied more of the thought 
which seemed rational to him, and this in turn he gave his peo- 
ple. In the days of ^fr. Bentley peo]ile could not afford to pay 
a minister a snfificient sum for his supjiort and so ministers en- 
gaged in other occupations often. [Mr. Bentley was a merchant. 

Although Thomas and Alexander Camv)bell were devoted 
Christians and gave a lilieral inter] )retation of the Scri))tures to 
the world, it Avas not due to them alone that the church grew. 
The Western Hescr\c was th(> place, and the Ix'ginniug of the 
nineteenth century was the time, for the planting of such a 
church. The men who gathered on the Western Keserve were 
from all parts of the then civilized country. They had all shades 
of beliefs and the di.scussions which arose led to investigations 
so that the "Cauii)hellites" found many people not associated 
with any chui-ch, as well as ])eople dissatisfied with their own 
creed. These they ]iroceeded to enlighten as to gosj^el and gath- 
ered them into the fold. 

Walter Scott was born in Scotland, his father was a ]iro- 
fessor of music and cultured withal, his mother a persun of most 
pure and religions life. His sister was a lace maker and taught 
that art in Warren at one time. He came to Xew York after his 
parents' death to be with his uncle, George Tunes. lie had 
drifted away from his Presbyterian church through the influ- 
ence of a ]\Ir. Forrester, who prepared young men foi' the min- 
istry. Forrester immersed him. JTe at first opened a classical 


school aud later met Mr. Cami^bell in Pittsburg. He assisted 
Mr. Campbell in editing- "The Christian Baptist." In fact, it 
was he who proposed the word "Baptist," Mr. Campbell intend- 
ing to call the publication "The Christian." He was long asso- 
ciated with both Thomas (the father) and Alexander Campbell 
(the son). He was also associated with Sidney Rigdon, a Bai> 
tist minister of Pittsburg, who is ranked second to Bentley 
among the early Baptist ministers, and who is remembered by 
people of Trumbull County, more especially because of his advo- 
cacy of early Mormonism. 

A. S. Hayden, in the "Early History of the Disciples," is 
authority for the statement that in January, 1828, "the town 
(Warren) lay in si^iritual lethargy, jarofoundly ignorant of the 
tempest of spiritual excitement about to sweep over the place. 
Bentley had preached well and lived well, but he held not the 
key to the heart, nor was he skilled to awaken the music of the 
soul." At this time Brother Scott and Brother Mitchell came 
to Warren. It was their intention to bring about a revival and 
they did. Their meetings, at first held in the court house, were 
not well attended at all, and Mr. ]\Iitchell was quite disgusted at 
the way Mr. Scott conducted them. When he remonstrated with 
him, the older man told Mitchell that they would have to do 
something out of the ordinary in order to claim attention. The 
first audience was composed of a few elderly people aud a group 
of boys. He made the boys laugh, and then talked a little seri- 
ousness to them. The two men stayed at the house of Jeremiah 
Brooks. Through the Rev. j\lr. Bentley 's permission, the Bap- 
tist church was secured and this was crowded the first evening. 
From this time on conversions were made, immersions were had 
and the entire village was excited over the doctrine advanced by 
these men. When the evangelists went from their evening meet- 
ings, people would follow them to talk aliout their salvation. 
Sometimes the two men would be awakened in the night either 
by persons who wished to have their doubts cleared or by others 
wishing to be immei'sed. When the meetings were at an end Mr. 
Scott and his assistant had not only brought to the church peo- 
ple outside the Baptist church, but with a very few exceptions 
all the people inside the church, and the minister, Mr. Bentley, 
as well. R. J. Smith used to say that sinners at that time were 
ha]jtized and Baptists capsized. The congregation continued to 
occupy the house built by the liajitists, and on this lot the pres- 
ent Christian church stands. I^robably there never was, any- 


where, a case before, or since, where a congregation as old, as 
large, and as influential went over to another denomination, tak- 
ing elders, deacons, ministers, and meeting-house as well. 

The Eev. Adamson Bentley was born in 1785 in Allentown, 
Pennsylvania. lie came, when quite young, with his father to 
Brookfield. He became an ardent Bai)tist early in life and was 
a devoted student. He began to ])i-each when nineteen years, 
holding to the teachings of Calvin. In 1810 he settled in Warren 
and in May of that year was ordained. ( )ne year later he be- 
came the pastor of the church and served for twenty-one years. 
The writer of his biography says : 

"It is our fortune to be acipiainted with few persons in 
a lifetime who wield a personal influence so su]ireme. Tall, 
manly, graceful, with a countenance radiant with good na- 
ture, affable and dignified, he would stand among dignita- 
ries as his equals and condescend to the lowly with a gentle- 
ness which won the attachment of every heart." 

After the coming of Scott Mr. Bentley preached with fresh 
power and zeal. The next year he was chosen with Scott, Hay- 
den and Bosworth to travel about in the interests of the church, 
and in 1831 he removed to Chagrin Falls, where he died. He 
was one of the original trustees of Bethany College. ■ 

Among the early strong men of the Christian church was 
Cyrus Bosworth. He served in several official capacities, was 
sheriff of the county for two terms, and is said to have carried 
the news of Perry's victory to Pittsburg as express messenger. 
His first wife was an eastern woman, very helpful to him in his 
work, and his second wife was Sarah C. Case, a sister of Leon- 
ard Case. 

The Christian church in Bazetta was organized in 1848 ; in 
Brookfield in 1828; in Fowler in 1832; in Hartford, 1830; How- 
land, 1828; North Jackson, 1852; Xiles, 1842; Southington, 1828; 
and other churches in Trumlmll County were organized and were 
numerous, which fact strengthened the Warren church, because 
as farmers moved into town to educate their children, or to en- 
gage in Iiusiness, they naturally allied themselves with their own 

Among the people connected with the early church we read 
the names: Austin, Lamphear, Aledbnry, Sampson, Briscoe, 
Hutchins, King, Bosworth, Ratliff, Williams, Camp, Pond, Dally, 
Soule, Burnett, Brett, Ernst, Dunlap, Folsom, Scott. 


No history of the Christian ehiin-h should he written witli- 
out special mention heing made of Harmon and Mrs. Austin, 
who devoted mucli of their time during the years of their 
strengtii, mueh of their tliought, and their money, to the huikling 
up and maintaining of the Christian eliurcli. Knowing of the 
interest of Harmon and Minerva in the church, tlieir children 
gave a svnu of money to he applied toward the l)uilding of a 
parsonage. His father Benajah was identified with the early 
church and the early history of the town and when he first came 
here o'wned the Murburger farm, afterwards in 1812 buying tbe 
]ilace on the Leavittsburg road, on which his sou, his grand- 
daughter, his great-grandson and his great-great-grandeiiildren 
now live. Mrs. Austin was Minerva Sackett of Cantield. Her 
father helped to organize the Christian church of Cantield. and 
she, her family and her sisters devoted themselves to- the Warren 
church. Xellie Austin, marrjang a grandson of Alexander 
Campbell, united two strong Christian families. 

Plans for erecting a church edifice were considered in 1H20, 
but it was June 8, 1823, before the first services were held within 
these walls, and even then the structure was not completed. 
Robert Gordon did the brick Avork, and Isaac Ladd, the father 
of Irwin Ladd, had the contract for the woodwork. The latter 
says that this was the first building in "Warren where the seats 
were paneled, and the ends had turned knobs and ornamental 
pieces. Benajah Austin was one of the members of the build- 
ing committee. 

The church was a S(iiuire building, without towers or orna- 
ments. There was a gallery which was very high, and seats on 
the lower floor and in the gallery were on a level, so it was hard 
for those in the back ])art to see. Fourteen steps led up into a 
liigh pulpit box. In this box the minister could not be seen when 
sitting. Pews were held by pew-holders, the doors being locked. 
The backs of the ])ews were rather high, as were the pews in 
most of the early churches. The object of this in the beginning- 
was to keep the auditors from seeing their neighbors and to 
compel attention to the services, but the truth was that in many 
of the early churches the tired parishioners rested their heads 
on the back of these high pews and went to sleep. With high 
l)ews and sleeping parents the children who were so inclined to 
pinch and kick each other unseen had a splendid chance. In 
fact, some of the early Episcopal churches in Virginia had a 
woman with a switch whose duty it was to walk up and down the 


aisles slowly, tapping the obildreu over the head who were uot 
tliiuking about the artieles of faitii or jiossessed of j)roper 

Here is a list of siihserihers to this first Christian (•hiu-cli : 

We, the subscribers, severally agree to pay to .Jereniiali 
Brooks, Leicester King aud Adamson Bentley, or their suc- 
cessoi-s, trustees of the Baptist church in Warren, the sums 
set to our names for the purposes above specified, payable 
as follows: One-fourth when the cellar walls are completed; 
one-fourth when the walls are built and one-fourth when the 
house is enclosed ; the remainder, when the amount of funds 
raised are ex]iended. 

Warren. Fel)i-uary 15. ISi^o. 

Adamson Bentley $l2U() 

Leicester King 100 

Jeremiah Brooks 300 

Emery Thayer 20 

Oliver Brooks lt)() 

James Scott, in sawing ll.") 

Jacob Harsh 50 

John Gordon 10( i 

Eo1)ert Gordon 50 

(xeorge Hapgood 15 

Horace Stevens 15 

Ephraim Quinby 200 

William Heatou 25 

Mark Westcott, to be in woi-k 100 

Macajah Brooks 50 

Thomas D. Webli 100 

Zadok Bowen 30 

Archibald Beeves 10 

Isaac Heatou, in ]i)'oduce 75 

Jacob Drake SO 

Zeph. Jjuce. in hauling 25 

^[oses Earl, in ])riiduce 10 

John Eatliff, in ])r()duce 10 

Charles Vauwy. in hauling 25 

Jolm Clurg, one bbl. pork pd. in full 12 

Edward P'lint, to be paid in work 50 


Edward Week, to be paid in boards and pro- 
duce 50 

John W. Adgate, to be paid in hauling 15 

Benajah Austin 100 

In 1852 the house was remodeled, the spire was put on, seats 
were changed, pulpit cut down. 

After Mr. Beutley moved away, for four years there was no 
regular pastor. Marcus Bosworth and John Henrj' labored with 
a good deal of zeal and preached occasionally. In 1834 John 
Hartzell moved to the lower part of towm and was made asso- 
ciate elder with Cyrus Bosworth. During this time of the 
church history- such men as Zeb. Rudolph, J. H. Jones, Moss, 
Perky, Brockett, and Allerton were occasional speakers. John 
Smith had direct charge for about tw^o years. In 1847 J. E. 
Gaston took charge of the congregation and he served until 1851, 
when Isaac Errett became pastor, serving for four years. The 
Rev. Mr. Errett was one of the strongest men the church has 
ever had. He was followed by Joseph King, a graduate of 
Bethan}'^ College, who served for one year. During this time 
Calvin Smith and James A- Garfield frequently addressed the 
congregation. J. W. Errett was also a pastor, resigning in 1859. 
The next year Edwin Wakefield gave a portion of the year to 
the congregation. In 1861 J. W. Lamphear became pastor of the 
church, serving seven years, not in succession, however, since he 
was absent two years of that time. Some of the strongest men 
in the Christian church preached here occasionally, such as 
President Pendleton and B. A. Hinsdale. In 1870 J. L. Darsie 
became pastor; 1874, I. A. Thayer; 1881, George T. Smith. The 
last four pastors were E. B. Wakefield, J. M. VanHorn, M. L. 
Bates, and J. E. Lynn. 

During the pastorate of E. B. Wakefield, in 1889, the present 
church at a cost of $30,000 was erected. From the very begin- 
ning the congregation taxed the cai^acity of this building. Mr. 
Wakefield resigned to take a professorship at Hiram College, 
which he still holds. He was followed by Mr. VanHorn, during 
whose service the church grew and the parsonage was erected. 
The membership was doubled and a debt of $9,000 paid off. 

M. L. Bates was possibly the most emotional and brilliant 
pastor the cliurch has had of late years. Although he only 
served two years he added many members, 212 at one time. He 
also organized on a more active basis the missionary work. He 

(Loaned by the Tribune.) 



resigned to take a course at Coluin))ia University and is novr 
president of Hiram College. 

Five young peojale of fine eliaraoter have entered tlie Cliris- 
tian ministry from this ohureli : (Miarles S. ]\Iedbury, Howard 
Weir, and James Brown; Raymond ^IcCorkle is doing good mis- 
sionary woi'k in Japan, while Eva Raw is a missionary to Nan- 
kin, China. 

On November 8, 1908, tlie one liundred and fifth niniiver- 
sary of the founding of the Concord Baptist church was liad )jy 
this congregation with approi)riate services. Letters were read 
from tlie Revs. VanHorn, Darsie and Bates. Addresses were 
made by Messrs. LjTin," Wakefield, Reynard, and Dr. Codville. 
The latter, a Baptist clergj-man who had occupied the Baptist 
pulpit in Warren for many years, spoke feelingly on the present 
friendliness of the Baptist and Christian churches. It seemed as 
if this word was the thing most needed in this celebration. It is 
always easier for the man who has won the battle to feel kindly 
towards the man who has lost than it is for the man who has 
lost to feel kindly towards the man who has won. Today, within 
a block, stand two churches which were at one time one, both 
prosperous, occupying each a place in the connnunity, each bent 
on doing its duty in the way it shall see it. 

One of the early followers of Thomas Campbell said that 
the eai'ly Christian ministers were able to do their duty because 
of the guidance of the Heavenly Father and the devotion of the 
earthly wife. True was this not only of the Christian ministers 
bui of other denominations also. While the men were in the 
field preaching and exhorting, the women at home did their own 
work as mothers, and fathered the family and attended to the 
business interests as well. 

At the church anniversary exercises above mentioned, Mrs. 
Alice Briscoe Andrews read a paper on "The Mothers of the 
Church," which brought tears to the eyes of a large share of 
the listeners, the truth of the devotion of these early mothers 
was so plainly brought forth. 

The present membership of the Central Christian cliurch 
is l,OrjO, and its officers are : 

Pastor, Rev. J. E. Lynn. Elders, E. D. Snider, A. S. 
Brown, J. L. Cross, C. G. Pritchard and F. T. Stone. 
Deacons, Charles Fillius, M. L. Hyde, J. F. Reid, George C. 
Braden, E. M. Porter, F. H. Alexander, S. A. Corbin, B. W. 

■-';■-' iiisTOJtY OF Ti;i;.MJirj.L cuuxty 

Pond, J. H. Hall, J. E. LaclnnuD, H. M. Page, H. M. Mackey, 
B. C. Ferguson, Charles H. Sager, J. B. Mansell, J. D. 
Cook, D. W. Campbell, Albert Wyand, Austin Pendelton, 
AV. F. Rowe, F. W. Perry, John Ikerman, "W. G. Baldwin. 
Trustees, II. Q. Stiles, e'. K. Nasli, Henry Harwood, T. G. 
Dunbani, II. I>. AVeir and I. !.. Lane. 

Leicester King's I'aunly went to the Presbyterian chuix-h. 
They had a helx)er in the family who had been very 
good to Mrs. King at the time of some Presbyterian meeting, 
helping in the entertainment of delegates, etc., and when the 
early Disciples were going to have some out-of-town folks Mrs. 
King said to this housekeeper or cook, "You were so interested 
in my church meeting, tiiat I will entertain some of your 
people." In this way she came to know some of the Disciiile 
leaders and afterwards joined that church. The older mem- 
bers of the church say she was one of the strongest and best 
Avomen their congregation ever had. Mr. Harmon Austin, Sr., 
who was clerk of the church inany years, said that Mrs. King 
never allowed the contribution box to pass her without putting 
something in it. When she knew they were going to take regu- 
lar collections she was oi course prepared, but if something- 
came u]) unusual, and she had no money, she put in something- 
else ; whatever she happened to have in her pocket, her thimble, 
her handkerchief, or even a button. These she would redeem 
later. She said she never wanted to lose an opportunity of 
giving something, no matter how small, to every worthy cause. 

Leicester King was one of the prominent men in Warren. 
He was successful in business, belonged to a good family, but 
(lid not go into the Disciple church when his wife did. She died 
before he did, and when he returned from the cemetery on the 
day of her funeral, he went direct to the rivei» and was baptized, 
and became a member of the Christian church. 

First Methodist Episcopal Church. 

In the beginning of the settlement of Warren there seemed 
to be no place for the warm-hearted Methodists. Whether the 
Puritan spirit predominated, or whether the first preachers did 
not present the question in the right way, we do not know. But, 
throughout early Trumbull County the Methodist church either 
was jiot planted or did not grow when it was planted. How- 


ever, to Trumbull C'ouuty, to A'eruou town^slli]) esjiecially, 
belongs the distinetiou of liaviiiy organized tlie tii'st Methodist 
Episcopal church class npon the Western Beserve. 

John Bridle, one of the early settlers of Wai'veii and an 
ardent Methodist, regretted exceedingly that no Aiethodist 
church was established in Wairen. One day he said to his wife, 
"Mother, I cannot stand it here without my Methodist meetings. 
On the following Sunday he harnessed his horse to his dearborn 
and drove to Youngstown. The roads were so bad that it took him 
all day to get there. He stabled his horse and went to cjuarterly 
meeting- in the evening-. He brought before the presiding- elder 
the necessity and desirability of organizing- a church at Warren. 
The elder, after talking the matter over with him, said that he 
disliked to make the attempt, since the last man he sent to 
Warren to preach was rnn ont of town over Webb's Hill by 
some ungracious citizens. Mr. Bridle told him that the house 
in which he lived (standing- where the Warren dry goods store 
is) had a room in the second story large enough for a meeting- 
place, and he would assure any minister sent there perfect 
protection. The elder promised to send a minister in four 
weeks. At that time he came himself, Mr. Bridle kept his word, 
a meeting- was had and a class organized. Authorities differ 
as to the number and personnel of this class. This difference 
is probably due to the confusing of the jieople belonging- to the 
first class at the first meeting and those which joined witliin a 
few months. At any rate, John Bridle was appointed leader 
and some of the members of that early class were Ann Bridle, 
Lewis Reeves, Hannah Reeves, Romanta Brockway, Sarah 
Cohen, John Barnes, Josiah Soule, Sarah Barnes, Nancy Hud- 
son, Alexander Stewart and Xancy Harsh. Sarah Jane, 
the daughter of John Bridle, who married Thomas Tait, a 
Methodist minister, and is now, ;it the age of eighty-five, resid- 
ing in Niles, says that the first class was composed of five mem- 
bers, her father and mother, Josiah Soule, Nancy Harsh, and a 
woman who later moved to Garrettsville and whose name she 
cannot recollect. Of these early Methodists little is known and 
few descendants exist. Nancy Harsh's daughter, Laura Harsh, 
resides in Warren, is an ardent Afethodist, and a few years 
since presented the church with a beautiful cliandelier for the 
main room. Josiah Soule lived for many years on North Elm 
street, near the fair grounds. His daughtei-, Julia, resided in 
the same place until a few years ago. 


111 1820 Eev. Ezra Booth and Alfred Bronsou were in 
charge. Fradenburgh says of Ezra Booth: "He possessed a 
noble physique, six feet in heiglit, a large head, broad shoulders, 
and tine proportion. lu intellect he was far above the average." 
He was a conscientious scholar, and Dr. Charles Eliot once said 
to him, "If the Methodist church had a college, with a A^acant 
chair of history, that would be the place for you." "He was 
the soul of honesty, morality and sincerity." He married Dorcas 
Taylor, the sister of Elisha Taylor, of Nelson, whose house was 
the winter home of numberless circuit riders for many years. 
The grandchildren of the Taylors say that this family gave so 
much to the church as to impoverish themselves, and although 
only one of them is today a Methodist, they all say they are glad 
they did, because doing for the church they loved was their only 
extravagance, their only joy outside the home. 

Some of the meetings of the early Methodist class were 
held at the residence of Lewis Eeeves, who was the callage 
jailor. In those days the jailor, and not the sheriff, lived at the 
jail. The building in which Mr. Eeeves lived was the old log 
jail which stood on the present jail lot. 

In 1821 Benjamin Stevens was elected leader, and held that 
office for sixty-two years. The first sacrament was administered 
by Mr. Bronson and Father Bostick in a grove on the bank of 
the river. The first cjuarterly meeting was held in 1827. Charles 
Eliot was the presiding elder. This resulted in the conversion 
of many people. There were forty additions to the church. 

The preacliing for this denomination was generally held in 
the court house, at first irregularly, then on every other Satur- 
day evening; later, on Sunday evening. Eegular Sunday morn- 
ing services were established in 182-1, and about that time the 
academy, standing where the public library now stands, became 
the place of class and prayer meetings. In 1836 a protracted 
meeting, resulting in a good many converts, was held in this 
same place. Benjamin Stevens, Aaron B. Eeeves and Albert 
Van Gorder purchased from Thomas J. McLain Sr. for $400 
a lot for a church, and the following year, just eighteen years 
from the time of the first organization of the church, a meeting- 
house was erected on the liank of the river. This was approached 
by an alley, in later years running between the Hapgood's and 
Masters Brothers' stores. Then it was one of the most beau 
tiful spots in the town, overlooking the winding river, the park, 


From a painting by John W. Bell, now in the possession of his wife, 

Ella M. Bell. 


the lowlands- of the Perkins estate and the Quinhy Hill. The 
business houses erowded this hiter, so that tlie outlook was not 

When the excavation I'oi- this liuildinii- was lienui: it was 
found to have been an old cemetery, then sujjposcd to have 
been Indian, but it may possibly have been white nicii. as later 
investigation has shown that like cemeteries in other pai-ts of 
New Connecticut were probablj' cemeteries for white i)eo])le. 

This church was dedicated November 9, 1837, the ]ire;i!'lKMs 
on the circuit being Arthui' M. Brown and John Cram. IJev. 
John Luccock. D. I)., a former circuit rider, ]ireach('d the dcdi 
catory sermon. 

The building conunittee for this first church consisted of 
Benjamin Stevens, Albert Van Gorder, George Hapgood. A. 
B. Reeves and Isaac Van Gorder. William Logan and William 
D. Crawford were the contractors. In 1839 Warren was made 
a station and for the first time had a regular miuistei'. He 
was Rev. L. D. Mix. He received as his salary the first year, 
$115, apportioned to him as follows: Rent, $40; wood, $25; 
table expenses, $50. The membership at this time was about 125. 

This building was sufficient until 1866, when preparations 
were begun for a larger church. The old church was built some 
what after the lines of the First Presbyterian church, but 
neither the steps nor the steeple were as high. The choir sat 
in the gallery at the back part of the church, and during the 
singing the congregation turned aliout and faced the choir. The 
interior was as plain and lacking in ornamentation as was the 
First Presbyterian church, but either the writer had grown in 
size or had become accustomed to high walls; at any rate, the 
ceiling did not seem so high, nor the windows so tall. Some 
very eloquent, stirring semions were preached in that old house, 
and the women of that church for many years labored inces- 
santly to raise money for the new church. The quilting which 
they did was of such nicety as to give them a re])utation which 
has lasted through three generations. 

The ministers of this church were very outspoken during 
the war times, and some of their members who sympathized 
with the South, or who considered that politics should not he 
preached from the pulpit, severed their connection with this 
organization and went to other churches. 

Because the first preachers were circuit riders, and because 

27(5 llISTf)I!V OF ^I'lMMlU'LL COUXTY 

the Methodist church helieved in the itineracy of its ministers, 
early records were not made and there is no complete list of the 
men who have served as ministers in the First Methodist church 
of \\'arren. Among the fourscore or more were sucli noted 
men as Dr. Charles Eliot, theologian, editor and author; the 
elocjuent AVilliam Seahon; Dr. William Hunter, the Methodist 
hymn writer; John J. Steadman, the orator and great debater; 
Gaylord B. Hawkins, the accomplished scholar and educator; 
])]-. John Peet, the elocjuent and fearless wartime preacher. 
The present minister is Rev. W. B. Winters. 

The Warren [Methodist Episcopal church has entertained 
live annual conferences, large and important bodies of the 
denomination, namely : 

The old Erie conference, held July 28 to August 4, 1841, 
Bishop H. E. Roberts presiding. Albert Van Gorder. in the 
Warren Chro)ikie, calls the different church choirs togetlier 
to prepare for the conference music. July 9-16, 1851, Bishop T. 
A. Morris presiding. July 15-21, 1868, Bishop C. Kingsley 
presiding. East Ohio conference, September 22-28, 1880, Bishop 
Thomas Bowman presiding. This was a memorable session of 
the conference, and attracted an immense gathering of Meth- 
odists in AVarren on account of the great Grant-Conkling meet- 
ing, which was held here during the session of this conference. 
The last annual conference entertained by the church was held 
Septem])er l!)-24, 1894, Bishop J. M. Walden presiding. 

In 1851-52 this church was remodeled at an expense of 
one thousand dollars. Rev. G. B. Hawkins was pastor of the 
church then. At that time a new altar rail was put in and the 
church carpeted. Rose Hawkins, now Mrs. Leet, the daughter 
of the i)astor, remembers playing in the basement of this church 
when the repairs were being made, and how she admired the 
half-spheres which were used in making the balls which orna- 
mented the new cu])ola. 

Among the influential and early citizens who attended this 
church we find the names of Stevens, Van Gorder, Hunt, Alli- 
son, Stull, Marvin, Tayler. Potter, Gilmore, Hoyt. Patch, 
Hawkins, Jameson, Hall. 

The new church standing on High street, between Pine and 
Park avenue, was dedicated in June, 1874. The cost, including 
the lot, was $55,000, $7,500 of which was raised in three hours' 
time the dav the building was dedicated. In 1878 a tierce wind 

(Photo loaned by Freil Byard.) 



of the nature of a cyclone cut a path through Warren, doing 
much damage as far as trees and chimneys were concerned, and 
lifted the roof of the new Methodist church from its position. 
When this was replaced, slight changes were made in the 
interior, drop beams supplanting the plain ceiling. This build- 
ing is 110 feet long, 75 feet broad, with a front elevation of 65 
feet. For many years the steeple of the Methodist church was 
not completed. This was done at the same time these other 
repairs were made. 

The founders of the church recognized the importance of 
the religious training of the children, and immediately planned 
for the formation of Bible classes. The Sunday school i^roper 
was organized in 1827, under the direction of a board of man- 
agers composed of the following persons: Richard Brooks, 
Josiah Soule, L. M. Beeves, Alexander Anderson and Benjamin 
Stevens. One of the early day superintendents of the school 
was Judge Eufus P. Spaulding, who later became one of the 
prominent lawyers of Cleveland. 

At that time, the records inform us, there were "40 male 
scholars" and "-6.3 female scholars"; and 16 teachers — "7 
males" and "9 females." Happily society has outgrown the 
use of these terms applied to members of the human family. 
To-day the Sunday school is a large and flourishing institution, 
with an average attendance of 600. 

In the '80s the Methodists had the largest congregation 
and, the writer thinks, the largest Sunday school in the city. 
But of late years the Christian church has equaled if not sur- 
passed it in both directions. The membership now numbers 902. 

The officers of the church at present are : 


Ti-ustees— J. W. Masters, B. .J. Taylor, K. O. Brainard, W. J. Masters, C. E. 
Iiiman, Martin Hecklinger, R. T. Izant, A. E. Wonders, T. M. Sabin. 

Stewards— .John Pew, .J. H. Ewalt, F. B. Gilder, S. B. Craig, George Warner. 
C. C. Clawson. District Steward; B. .J. Taylor, Recording Steward; .Tay Buchwalter. 
Homer Robins, James Mahan, W. W. McFarland, .J. F. Button. 

Class Leaders — E. H. Masters, N. Lang, H. L. VanGorder. 

Leaders (confirmed as members of the Quarterly Conference, therefore mem- 
bers of the Official Board) — William Southwiek, D. M. Frum, Frank Mahan, L. K. 
Latimer, Charles Pew, R. B. Royce, Noah Dibble, L. G. Lease, Charles H. Adams, 
M. P. Gleason. George Hapgood. 

Among the members of the Methodist church who were 
workers for many years were Mr. and Mrs. John M. Stull. Mrs. 
Stull was Florilla Wolcott, of Farmington, and a woman of 


nuii.suall\ strong, sweet duiraeteiisties. She was a Presby- 
teriau, but when her hitsband became interested in the Meth- 
odist church she went with him. They were both fond of fun 
and they enjoyed a joke on each other c[uite as well as on out- 
siders. One day in a church meeting, when they were talking 
of the missionary work, Mr. StuU arose and said that one of 

their missionaries, Miss , had not been mentioned in 

the list of workers and that for his part he wished to commend 
her to the church members. He said he thought any woman 
who went to a strange country and worked for the church should 

receive some recognition, and in the case of Miss 

he felt this was particularly true, since her services were being 
rendered in such a hot country (he referred to India.) Hear- 
ing a snicker, he looked about and saw Mrs. StuU convulsed 
with laughter. Speaking outright, he said, "Frill, what are 
you laughing at!" Mrs. Stull replied, "Your remarks are 
rather pointed, since ^Tiss has been dead for years." 

St. Mdri/'s Clnircii (Bnuuin Catholic). 

Rev. Patrick O'Dwyer was the first priest to visit Warren. 
He came at long intervals. He was stationed in Cleveland from 
1837 to 18o9. Eev. John Conlon, pastor of Dungannon, visited 
this city as a station in 3849. From that time on "the spiritual, 
interests of the few Catholics of Warren were looked after by 
the resident pastors of the following places : Randolph, Akron, 
Summitsville, St. Cohuuba, Youngstown and Niles." 

In 1858 Rev. W. C) 'Connor liought a lot for a church on 
(^uinby Hill, near where the canal afterwards ran. In. 1862 
Rev. E. M. O'Callaghan, who had succeeded Father O'Connor, 
found the lot undesirable and sold it. In 1864 he liought the 
])ro])erty which had belonged to the Protestant Episcopal 
church, remodeled the building suitable for the Catholic services. 
Prior to the buying of this church mass had been celeln-ated in 
several private houses. 

In 1868 Rev. E. J. Conway was given this chaige, and he 
was the first resident priest. He built a house for the accom- 
modation of the priest at a cost of $1,000. He only sei-ved until 
1869, when Warren was made a mission of Niles. 

In October, 1870, Rev. E. J. Murphy had charge of the 
parish. He enlarged the priest's house and made other im- 

(Loaned liy the Tribune 



provemeuts. Diiriug his time there was a parish school, but 
upon his removal, in March, 187."], it was discontinued. 

In 1873 and in 1876 Warren Catholics were under the super- 
vision of the Niles church. 

In 1873 Rev. A. Paganini was resident priest, remaining 
two years. He went to Italy for a visit, and his cousin, J. 
Paganini, attended to the duties of the parish. Upon the former 
priest's return, in 1876, he took charge. While he was gone the 
cousin had improved the church xn'operty without authority, 
and plunged tlie parish into debt. The church was sold in 1876, 
while Bishop Gilmore was in Europe. The bishop was greatly 
distressed over this state of affairs and he raised money by loan 
to pay oft' the indebtedness, and the loan was repaid by the 
parishes throughout the diocese and also by several fairs at 
W^arreu. This is the only time that a parish in northei-n Ohio 
ever defaulted its financial obligations, and in this the people 
were not to blame. Rev. A. Paganini was removed in March, 
1876. He was succeeded in a few months by Rev. B. B. Kelley, 
who remained in charge until February, 1877. Since that time 
the pastors have been Rev. M. J. ^lurphy, 1877-1879; Rev. W. 
J. Manning, 1879-1882; Rev. F. M. Scullin, 1882-1884; Rev. D. 
O'Brien, from February to September, 1884; then the church 
became a mission of Niles until 1886. This was the fourth time 
that the Warren church had been put under the management 
of the Niles church. This was because there were few Catholics 
in Warren and because the town grew largely from the county, 
and the rural districts of Ohio are not. as a rule. Catholic 

In 1886 Rev. Ambrose A. Welier became ]»astor of the 
church. Father Weber was a German and greatly beloved by 
his people. He was gentle and conscientious. During his time 
the old church was improved somewhat, and his residence as 
well. He bouglit the large bell now in use, supplied the church 
with stations, neat furnishings, and a goodly supply of vest- 
ments. He bought, in September, 1895, for $1,700, six acres of 
land for a parish cemetery. This adjoins the city cemetery, 
on the Niles road, and is a great convenience to the Catholics 
of Warren, because before that they had to go to Niles for inter- 
ment. In May, 1891, he purchased a lot 70 feet by 202 feet, on 
High street, at the cost of $3,000. The last payment was made 
in February, 1900. In 1900 Father Weber bought the Park 


Avenue sfliool property from the Warren city board of educa- 
tion for $3,500. He intended to have a parochial school here. 
When Father Weber had hold of the pai'ish there were only 
thirty-five families connected with it. 

Rev. P. C. N. Dwyer succeeded Father Weber as pastor 
of the church. He began his services in July, 1901, and it is 
largely due to him that St. Mary's has such a commodious and 
substantial building. In March, 1902, this new church on High 
street was begun. The corner-stone was laid on July 20, 1902, 
the church was enclosed the same year, and in 1903 the first 
mass was said in the basement at Christmas time. The dedica- 
tion of the church was held on July 20, 1907. The total cost of 
the church property, including church building, lot and ]iarson- 
age, with all furniture and fixtures, was $60,000. 

The present officers of the church are Peter Boyle, John 
Mock Jr., M. J. Ryan and Charles ]\Iortz. The present member- 
ship is about 600. 

y^idii BcfoDiK.'d Church. 

Zion's Reformed church was organized October 26, 1891. 
The present Imilding was erected the following year, the corner- 
stone being laid July 30th. 

For many years St. Paul's Lutheran church, standing on 
Vine street, near Market, was used by a congregation under the 
same title, that is Zion Reformed church, in conjunction with 
the Lutheran congregation. This church was burned, and the 
two congregations separated, the first Zion Reformed church 
disbanding. This first church purchased a lot on which the 
pi'esent Zion church stands. They held their last communion on 
the 25th of August, 1872. After a time the trustees turned a 
lot which occu])ied about the same position on Pine street that 
the old church had occupied on Vine street over to the present 
organization. This new church cost $3,000. It had twenty-six 
charter members. The congregation was organized by Rev. 
C. W. Brugh, who served until 1896. He was followed by Rev. 
E. H. Laubach, who served two years. Rev. J. J. Gruber served 
eight years, that is, until 1904. Rev. George Th. Nevin Beam, 
who served five years, followed. The present pastor is Rev. 
Hange. The memJiership is 165. The elders of the church are 
Messrs. Martin Schneider, J. J. Deitz, Julius Ziegler; the dea- 
cons, Joseph S. Morrison, Charles E. Gilbert, John C. Schmidt. 


HISTORY OF Tl!r:\rF.rLL CorXTY 281 

The Sunday school in connection with the church was 
organized hy Rev. J. C. Horning in ]89-l-. The tirst meeting was 
held in the Y. M. C. A.; after that in the third floor of the old 
Opera House block; later in Odd Fellows hall, until the churcJi 
was dedicated. 

Tod Avenue Methodist Episeopal Churclt. 

The Tod Avenue Methodist Episcopal church was estalilished 
in 1897. L.W. LePage was apiwinted minister for West Warren 
at the conference held in September of that year. In 1898 the fol- 
lowing men were elected at the conference of the First Metliodist 
church, as trustees: B. F. Wonders, R. P. McClellan, A. R. 
Moore, C. L. Bailey, A. F. Spear and J. F. Wilson. These trus- 
tees purchased a lot at the corner of Tod avenue and Buckeye 
street from James M. Quinby and wife for .$900. The building- 
committee consisted of Rev. Mr. LePage, B. F. Wonders, A. R. 
]\Ioore and J. F. Wilson. The erection of the church began in 
April, 1898, and was dedicated in August of the same year. It 
cost $4,000. The pastors have been as follows: Rev. L. W. 
LePage, 1898-1900 ; Rev. W. H. Talmadge, 1900-1901 ; Rev. H. H. 
Scott, 1901-1904; Rev. S. L. Boyers, six months; Rev. L. C. 
Ilallock, iinished out Mr. Boyers' term of six months and served 
an additional year. Rev. F. H. Hill took charge in 1906 and still 

A parsonage was built in 1904, costing $1^,700. 

The present trustees of this church are A. L. Tavler, F. S. 
Gould, S. E. Wanamaker, Jesse Diehl, R. D. McCauley, B. F. 
Wonders, A. R. Moore, Mrs. Anna Hurd, Lewis Durst. So far 
as we know, Mrs. Hurd is the only woman holding a church 
position of this kind in Warren. The present membership is 260. 

CJiristiaii Science ChurcJi. 

In 1901 a Christian Science Society was organized in War- 
ren, the members meeting in private homes. On January 5, 
1902, the first public services were held in a room over the 
First National Bank, with Miss Ella Phelps as first reader. 
On ]\liss Phelps leaving town some six months later. Miss Lucie 
B. Ohl was elected first reader and Charles S. Adams, second 
reader. In October, 1903, meetings were discontinued, but were 
resumed a year later in a private house on High street. In 

•28-? llIS'r()l?Y (»F TlMMIU'Ll. COrXTY 

October, li*06, Air. Adams wa^ chosen first reader and Miss 
Matilda AAHiite, second reader. In November, 1906, the meet- 
ing place -was changed to a room on the second floor of the 
(Tillmer- Wallace Block, on Main street. In the following June 
Miss White moved to Youngstown, and Miss Jennie A. Terry, 
of Cortland, was chosen to fill her place. In December a front 
room on the first floor of the Opera House block was secured 
and sei'^fices held there and reading room ke^^t open every after- 
noon except Sunday. Tlie first reader now is Charles S. Adams, 
and the second, Mrs. Amelia Sommers. Though at present 
organized as a society, a church will eventually be formed under 
the name of First Church of Christ, Scientist, of Warren, Ohio. 
Mr. Adams is a great-great-grandson of Mrs. Rowe, the 
first Episcoi)alian and a son of Wliittlesey Adams, the oldest 

(iracc Vnlivd Kraii(i('liral Chiinli. 

in VM'l the Ohio Conference was urged to take up missions 
of the above church in cities. The conference appointed Rev. 
S. E. Wright, Rev. T. R. Smith, Rev. J. A. Grimm, and lay 
brethren, Hemian AV. Masters, M. B. Templin, G. W. Ripley 
and Levi Bear, to look after the interests of the mission in 
Warreu. Tlie only local man was Herman AV. Masters. This 
committee secured a lot on Belmont street for $700. In April, 
1903, Rev. H. D. Schultz was appointed to take charge of this 
mission. This church organization started, as did many of 
those of the early days, with a meeting in the couiihouse. The 
school board granted them permission to use the wooden build- 
ing then on Mercer street as a temporary place of meeting. 
The first services held there were the last Sunday in May. At 
that time a Sunday school of twenty-eight members was organ- 
ized, H. Blake Masters being the superintendent. Wlien the 
church organization was perfected the establishing members 
were Mr. and Mrs. H. W. Masters, G. W., Blake, John, Charles 
and James INIasters, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Morrow, Miss Sadie 
Morrow and H. D. Schultz. In Jime, ground was broken for 
the new church, and on the 23rd of August the corner-stone 
was laid. Those assisting in this ceremony were the Rev. Mr. 
Jester and Scott of the Methodist churches. Rev. Mr. Bates of 
the Disciple, Rev. Mr. Ralston of the Baptist, and Rev. Mr. 
Crowe of the Presbyterian. Three hundred and eight dollars 

T[]ST()liY OF 'I'lUMIULL CorXTY 283 

were secured on this occasion. The church was dedicated on 
Noveml)er L'2nd, by Bishop R. Dubbs, of liarrisburg, Pennsjd- 
vauia. It is a pretty little church, well heated, lighted and 
carpeted. The brethren in Reading, Pennsylvania, gave a bell, 
and Elmer Harold, of Leetonia, a iiijie di-gan. Tlie cost of the 
church was about $6,200. 

Rev. H. D. Schultz continued his pastorate for two years 
and a half. He was followed by J. H. Elder, who served one 
year. Rev. ,1. H. kSchweisberger was in charge two years, and 
the i)resent incumlient is Rev. J. Howard Sloan. 

SccuiuJ Cliristltiii ('JnircJi. 

In l!)U(i it was decided to erect a Christian churcli on the 
west side, in order that the nieni))ers living on that side might 
not have so far to walk, and because the Tod Avenue church, 
Methodist, was interesting the children in its Sunday school, 
as well as some of the members in the church itself. Therefore, 
in 1907, the second Christian church, corner West Market and 
^lulberry, was erected at a cost of $11,000, and was dedicated 
Ajn-il 14. 1907. The charter membership was composed of 
21 (i mem1)ers of the Central Christian churcli, who voluntarily 
left the home church they had helped to build for the new one 
all liad united in founding. Rev. C. (). Re^Tiard, the present 
pastor, began his work on dedication day. The membership 
at this date, March, 1909, is: Resident, 384; non-resident, 
thirty; total, 414. A Bible school with a weekly attendance of 
300, strong missionary and social organizations, together with 
a harmonious, x)rogressive spirit in tlie entire memljersliip, are 
factors that promise large usefulness for this church. 


School Lands in Western Reserve. — First Schools and 
Teachers in Warren. — Warren Academy. — School Dis- 
cipline. — Select Schools. — Beginning of Public School 
System. — Early Teachers and Superintendents. — 
Reminiscences. — Uncomfortable Schoolhouses. — 
Old-Time Pedagogy. — Warren Schoolhouses 
for Fifty Years. — Public School Teach- 
ers. — Board of Education. — Superin- 
tendents. — Alumni of Warren 
High School. 

WHien Connecticut passed laws in regard to the selling of 
its western lands it provided that in every township 500 acres 
of laud should be set apart for the support of schools. This 
act, however, was never effective, because only the Salt Spring- 
tract was disposed of by Connecticut itself. ^\Tien the state 
later authorized the sale of the land, it provided that the money 
arising from that sale should be held in the perpetual fund 
which should be used for the payment of ministers' salaries, the 
erection of churches of all denominations, and for school pur- 
poses. This action was disapproved of strongly, and finally, 
when the land actually was sold, the entire sum, as we have 
seen, was kept for the use of Connecticut schools. This was 
invested in such a way that the $1,200,000 became $2,000,000. 
This was a large sum for the early days, and all teachers and 
most text books pointed out this wonderful act of a conscientious 
and ]irogressive i:»eople. The generosity in regard to schools, 
however, applied only to the mother state. Either accidentally 
or purposely Connecticut sold the Western Reserve without pro- 
viding any kind of school fund, which was a drawback to coloni- 
zation. Many old residents today testify that their mothers 
who came into this wilderness nearly broke their hearts, not at 
the thought of bringing their children into the wilderness, but 


IirSTOlJV (>F 'I'ln'ilBrLL COUXTY 385 

that there was no chance of educating them, when they were 
here. The state of Ohio had made proper i^rovision for its 
schools, but this provision did not ai>]ily to three reservations, 
the Western Eeserve, the Virginia Military district and United 
States miUtary bounty hinds. It is easily seen, then, that these 
ini])ortant reservations were at a disadvantage. 

In 1807 Congress appropriated eighty-seven and one-half 
s(iuare miles in Tuscarawas and Holmes counties for schools 
of the three above mentioned districts, and lifty-nine square 
miles more in 1834. This last appropriation came from the 
northwestern part of the state. The Western Reserve therefore 
had 93,760 acres of land, the proceeds of which could apply 
to the maintenance of schools. It was found very hard to lease 
these lands, and consequently the legislature sold them in 1852. 
The result brought a quarter of million of dollars for the sup- 
port of schools in the Western Reserve. This is known as "The 
Irreducible School Fund," and is still used for the purpose 
which it was intended. All school treasurers report each year 
a certain sum, insigniticant, to be sure, in comparison with the 
general fund, but still a contrilmtion. For instance, in Warren 
for the school year 1908-0!) it amounted to $158.96. 

The first schoolhouse in the city of Warren stood on the 
])resent Monumental Park. It was of logs, as was also the sec- 
ond one, which was located in the neighborhood of the Park 
Hotel. The third sclmolliousc was a frame one, Iniilt north of 
the first structure. 

Mr. (leorge Parsons was the first teacher in the tirst school- 
house. Mr. John Leavitt was probably the first teacher of the 
second schoolhouse. This building soon became a dwelling house. 

So far as is known, the first woman who taught school was 
Miss Mary Case, the daughter of Leonard Case, Sr., and the 
mother of Misses Mary and Harriet Stevens. She was a very 
talented woman, had a sweet voice, sang in the early choirs, 
was a devoted student a]id In'ought her family uji to love study 
and culture. She married j\Ir. Benjamin Stevens, and together 
tliey lived a long, useful, happy, loving life. 

The second Avoman teacher was Miss Nancy Bostwick. She 
was the aunt of ]\Irs. ^lary B. Harmon and was the 
sister-in-law of Oliver Patch's mother. Her school was 
known as "A Young Ladies' Seminary." It was held in 
the third storv of Castle ^^'illiam. It is recorded that "she gave 


at least one publif exhibition, at wliit'h young ladies read essays 
and performed in general, as is nsual upon such occasions." 
Some of the early men teachers were George Parsons, John 
Leavitt, Alexander Sutherland. Samuel Forward, Colonel Cyrus 
Bosworth (who married Sarah Case) and a Mr. Olcott. The 
school of the latter was in existence about the time of Miss 
Bostwick's and was taught in a house which stood between the 
present McConnell's eating house and Perry's printing place. 
Mr. Olcott was a Yale graduate and a good teacher. 

On November 10, 1818, an advertisement apjjears in the 
Western Reserve Chronicle, of the grammar school to be opened 
in Warren in which Latin and Greek, English language, geog- 
raphy, arithmetic, geometry, philosophy and logic will l)e taught. 
Mr. Reed was teacher. The tuition for Latin and Greek and 
higher branches, $5; for arithmetic, grammar and geography, 
.$3. The committee was Adamson Bentley, J. B. Harmon, 
Jeremiah Brooks, Ephraim Quinby. 

In the early '20s Mr. Tower had a school in a frame Iniild- 
ing which stood where the Warren dry goods store now is, but 
faced Park avenue. Alwut this time Miss Norton, afterwards 
Mrs. General Curtis, of Sharon, taught in a building on East 
Market street that had been used as an office by Judge Calvin 
Pease. Here Miss McNeal also kept school. 

In 1837-38 a select school was held in a large frame building 
where the machine shop belonging to W. C. and Austin Pendle- 
ton now stands. Mr. Daniel Jagger was the teacher. He was 
a resident of Windham, and taught here again in 1840 in a 
store room which stood on the east part of the lot now owned 
liy the Warren Packard estate, corner of High and ^lahoning. 

In 1819 L. Andrews opened a school on Main street. 

About 1818 the Warren School Association was formed. 
The original trustees were James Quigley, Richard Iddings. 
Samuel Leavitt, Francis Freeman and George Parsons. These 
trustees erected the academy about 1820. There were four 
departments, two primary departments, one for girls and boys, 
jind two high schools, one for girls and boys. However, the 
boys and girls did not long stay separated, although the schools 
— the primary' and high schools — were separate. 

An advertisement for the Warren Academy-, April 22, 1828, 
says that the summer term will begin on the 12th day of ^lay, 
and the dejjartment for boys Avill be about as it was before. 

(iis'i'ditv OK Ti.M'.MBrij. corx'i'v -.'s: 

"In tiddition to this, arraugcniients have ))t't'n made wiiereby 
an apartment in the building will l)e approjiriated exclusively 
for the accommodation of girls, in which will he taught nil the 
useful and many of the ornamental branches of education." 

The first teachers were Messrs. Ciuiningham and Johnson. 
After that Rufns P. Spaulding, Eeuhen Case, Jacob Osborne, 
C'a])tain Thompson, Miss Clarissa Norton (^Irs. (Jeneral 
Curtis), David 1^. Cole, lval]ili Hickox, Irene Ilickox (Mrs. 
Scranton), John Crowell, Mr. Babbitt, Selden Haines, A. Cad 
walader, Mr. Harlow, Anderson Dana, Morris Iddings and 
Francis Gillette. The early accounts of this academy never 
seem to discoimt tlie al)ility of these teachers to teacli, but a 
great deal is said about tlieir ahility or inahility to govern. 
The right of people in authority to domineer over those under 
them in the state, in the school, in the home, was never for a 
minute doubted. In a history iniblished hy Williams & Brothei's, 
in 1882, we find the following: 

"Corporal ])unishment was at that time not only the 
usual, but the necessar.y way of enforcing obedience, even 
though it was an academy. Along one wall there was a 
bench about eighteen inches from the floor. Boys were pun- 
ished by being required to kneel and place their heads 
under this bench. A whole row might sometimes be seen 
thus bowed down and resting on their hands and knees. 
Vigorous and unexpected use of a long ruler as the master 
walked hack and forth among the repentant line sent one 
head here and another there, thumping against the wall. 
Anderson Dana, the father of Junius, l»oi-e the reputation 
of being one of the best of teachers." 

Francis Gillette was rigid in his discipline. He re(piired per- 
fect recitations. For one ei-ror in reciting, a jnipil received one 
stroke of the ruler. For the second, two, and so on. History 
records that John B. Harmon reached as high as sixty- four i-a]>s. 
Discipline grows less strict in each succeeding year. In 
the report of 1875, under the paragraph "Punishment" of the 
rules and regulations, we find: "In inflicting cori)oral ]nmish- 
ment — which should be resorted to only in cases of extreme 
necessity arising from flagrant and persistent disobedience — no 
other instrument shall be used but a common rod. The hands 
and liead shall be exempt." While nowadays, if a teacher whose 


pupil is most disobedient uses a ruler or a stick on his hand, 
or if he shakes a girl or slaps a boy, parents are outraged. 

Papers in the possession of old residents of AVarren show 
that in the early days of the academy studies were paid for 
separately. Bills still kei)t by descendants of the original 
parents who sent children to school read : Arithmetic, so much ; 
Geography, so much ; and so on. They were also credited with 
cord wood, because the pupils were obliged to furnish the fire. 

Mr. Lewis Morris Iddings, in "Sketch of the Early Days of 
AVavren. " says : 

■'AVhen the academy was completed, one of the first 
applicants for the position of head master was W. H. 
McGuffey, afterward celebrated as the compiler of Eclectic 
series of reading and spelling books and as president of 
Miami University, but then a young man living at Coits- 
ville. He presented himself before Dr. Eaton, George 
Swift and Mr. Olcott, who comprised the board of exam- 
iners. Mr. Swift, as well as Mr. Olcott, was a graduate of 
Yale College, and the examination was quite severe. Mr. 
McGuft'ey failed and was rejected. He afterwards said the 
mortification he felt acted as an incentive for further study, 
to which he attributed his success in life. * *' ** We 
can learn but little of the course of study pursued. It proli- 
ably comprised the ordinary branches of an English educa- 
tion, with 'small Latin and less Greek.' " 

This academy was a sm-ccessful school, and many of Trum- 
bull County's first citizens obtained their education there. 

Hon. T. J. McLain Jr., who spent most of his life in Warren 
and was one of the most respected and beloved citizens of that 
city, wrote a "Historical Sketch of the Schools of Warren," a 
copy of which is now possessed by the city school board. Mr. 
McLain attended these schools, aftei'wards was connected with 
his father in the banking business, was a member of the boards 
of education, vestryman in Christ <'luucb. and was for manj' 
years consul at Xassiui. the Island of New Providence. He 
says : 

"During the decade immediately jireceding the organ- 
ization of the present graded schools the i)rincipal instruc- 
tors in Warren were .Junius Dana, Prof. Brouson, William 


G. Darley, Martha Calendar (Mrs. E. E. Hoyt), Martha 
and Fannie Dickey, Lucy CUark, S. 1). Harris, Dr. J. E. 
Woods, and a Baptist clerg-jinan named Brown, wlio, by his 
persistent and merciless use of the rod, strap and ferule, 
acquired a reputation for brutality which has never been 
equaled in the history of our schools. Being now dead, we 
will say to his remains A\hat he never said to a pupil, 
' Requiescat in pace.' 

"About 1844 Prof. Bronsou established an Ejjiscopal 
Female Seminary." This stood on the west portion of the 
lot now owned by Mr. Judd, on South street. "The project, 
however, not proving a success, he soon abandoned it, and 
opened a select school for boys and girls in the basement 
of the old Methodist Episcopal church, on the river bank. 

"Junius Dana, who was the leading educator from ISiO 
to 1848, generally taught a select school in summer and a 
district school in mnter, part of the time alone, and on 
several occasions in connection with Daniel Jagger. The 
select schools were held in the McFarland block, in the 
academy, and in King's brick block on Main street. 

" W'm. U. Darley, an English gentleman, also taught 
a select school in King's block [now the Wallace-Gillmer 
block] from 1846 to 1849, which was largely attended and 
(pnte successful. 

"In 1844-45 three small frame sclioolhouses for dis- 
trict schools were built, one on the corner of School and 
Prospect streets, another on the north side of East High 
and the third south of the Canal, and were at the time 
regarded as an im])ortant adjunct to tlie educational facili- 
ties of the village. 

"Under the system of district schools then extant, the 
school taxes were not collected, as now, by being placed 
upon the duplicate, but the directors were empowered to 
collect them, and in case of refusal to pay they were author- 
ized to sue as in any other case of indebtedness. This gave 
rise sometimes to considerable litigation, and amusing 
instances are narrated in connection with such proceedings. 
At one time three of the wealthiest citizens in the village, 
dissatisfied with the schools, refused to pay their taxes; 
whereupon the directors levied iipon the harness of one. 


the fat calf of another, and the wagon of the third, exposing 
these articles at public sale, at the court house door to the 
highest bidder, to the infinite amusement of those taxjiayers 
who had cheerfully responded without process of law. This 
summary example, it is said, was potent for a long time in 
facilitating the collection of school taxes. 

"The studies pursued in the select and district schools 
of this time were reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, 
grammar, geography, history, algebra, geometry, astron- 
omy, natural philosophy, chemistry, botany and geology, 
with a moderate amount of Latin and Greek; the higher 
branches were mostly taught in the select schools. 

"About this time important changes were being made 
in the public school system of the state, with special refer- 
ence to the better regulation of schools in cities, towns and 
villages. And on February 21, 1849, a general act was 
passed by the legislature, the provisions of which seemed 
to meet the approval of many citizens of "Warren. John 
Hutchins delivered a jiublic lecture upon the subject, and 
on March 31, 1849, a legal call was made for an election 
to decide whether the village should adopt the above men- 
tioned act. This call was signed by six resident freeholders, 
namely, Mathew Birchard, Leicester King, John B. Harmon, 
R. P. Eanney, Milton Graham, L. J. Iddings. 

"The election was held at the court house on April 
10, 1849, B. F. Hoffman acting as chairman, Joseph Perkins 
as assistant chairman, and I. L. Fuller as clerk. The vote 
stood, for the law, 134; against the law, 22. So the law was 
adopted. On the 23rd of the same month, at an election, E. 
P. Eanney and George Tayler were elected to serve as mem- 
bers of the board of education for one year. M. Birchard 
and B. P. Jameson for two years, Joseph Perkins and John 
Hutchins for three years. The board organized on April 
30th by choosing M. Birchard for president, John Hutchins 
for secretary, and George Tayler for treasurer. School 
examiners were appointed as follows, namely: Julian 
Harmon for one year, Jacob Perkins for two years, Eev. 
W. C. Clark for three years. 

"After a very brief delay the board proceeded to 
organize a school under the law. A high school was estab- 
lished, under the charge of Miss Martha Dickey, in a two- 


story frame building, -vrliich stood on the site of tlie present 
brick structure on ]\Ionroe street. [Bj* the "present struc- 
ture" Mr. McLaiu meant the high school building which 
was torn down in 1882 to make room for the present build- 
ing.] The several frame school buildings, the property of 
the respective sub-districts under the old system, were 
utilized by the board, and other rooms were rented, so that 
six primary and secondary schools were opened during the 
smnmer months, taught respectively by Fannie Dickey, 
Mary Brown, Amanda Brown, Elizabeth A. Tuttle, Mary 
Tillotson and Francis James. The salaries paid the teach- 
ers at this time were $4 per week in the high school and 
$3.50 in others. The price of tuition for foreign scholars 
was fixed at $3 per term in the high school and $1.50 per 
teiTU in the primary. 

"The following course of study was established: For 
primary and secondary schools — Eclectic Spelling Books, 
Eclectic First, Second and Third Readers, "Wells' Elemen- 
tary Grammar, Thompson's Mental and Practical Arith- 
metic, Parley & Morse's Geography, and Wilson's History 
of the United States. 

"For the high school — McGuffey's Fifth Eeader. Man- 
daville's Course of Reading, Morse's Geography, AV ells' 
School Grammar, Thompson's Practical and Higher Arith- 
metic, Lumas' Algebra, Davies' Legrende Geometry. 
Davies' Surveying, Smith's Illustrated Astronomy, Par- 
ker's Natural Philosophy, Gray's Chemistry, Ackerman's 
Natural History, Cutler's Physiology, Wood's Botany, 
Wilson's American History, Hitchcock's Geology, Olen- 
dorff's French Grammar, Arnold's Latin and Greek series. 

"During the summer arrangements were perfected so 
that upon the lOtb of September, 1849, the first regiilar 
session of all the schools opened with the following corps 
of teachers, namely: M. D. Leggett, superintendent and 
principal of high school, with the salary of $700 per annum; 
Miss Lucretia Wolcott, assistant in the high school, with 
a salary of $200 per annum ; Miss Lucretia Pomeroy, prin- 
cipal of the grammar school, with a salary of $175 per 
annum ; ^Martha Dickey, M. A. Booth, Lucia Cotton, Francis 
Jane, Amanda Brown, Marietta Leggett, in the primary 
and secondary schools, at $3.50 per week. 

•jy,> iiisToi.'V OF Tj;r:\ii;rij. couxty 

•'At the flo^e of the tirst year ]\1. i). Leggett [who later 
was commissioner of patents] resigned tlie suijerintendeuey 
of the schools, and J. B. C-ox was elected to fill the vacancy, 
entering upon his duties September 1, 1851, and serving 
for three years nt a salary of $600 jier annum." 

In ISo.'i there were nine teachers emi)loyed in Warren in 
the schools, and the attendance was 5-42. "On September 1, 
1854, Eev. James Marvin assumed charge as superintendent, 
occupying that jjosition for eight years, at a salary of at first 
$900, then $1,000, and finally $1,200 jier annum." 

Mr. AVhittlesey says : ' ' The building occupied by the liigh. 
school was built originally for a two-story carjjenter shop, 
located on tlie south side of ]\lonroe street. After it had been 
occupied a short time it was divided into two buildings to be 
used as dwelling houses ; ' ' one of these parts is now owned and 
occupied by Mrs. Mae B. Camp ; the other half was moved to 
the east side of North Park avenue and owned bv Mrs. A. J. 

In 1839 the boys who attended ]\lr. Calendar's school were 
Samuel L. Freeman. Jefferson Palm, James ^IclNIillan and 
George Seely. 

In the early schools the ordinary branches were taught, but 
there were no special teachers. Music, drawing and pemuan- 
shiji were taught in s^iecial schools. Eunice Towne, the 
daughter of a Presbyterian minister, taught drawing and paint- 
ing. In 1844 M. J. A. Severance had a writing school, and the 
editor of the Chronicle says: ""We would advise all who are 
' deficient in the use of the pen to avail themselves of the oppor- 
tunity now presented to learn to write an elegant hand at a 
very small expense." 

About this time Mrs. L. L. Chamberlin opened a school in 
Warren to teacli "all the accomplishments necessary to female 
education." Samuel Quinby, John Hutchins and Edward Spear 
are given as reference. The year before — 1843 — Miss M. J. 
Eeynolds oi)ened a school for "Young Ladies." 

In ]845 Mr. and ]\lrs. Charles F. Bronson o]iened a school 
for young ladies, advertising that, "Foreign pupils may reside 
witli his family. Term 16 weeks. $100 per year, including 
l)oard, washing, fuel, lights and ordinary English education. 
All will be taught useful and ornamental branches." 


Martha and Frances (commonly failed Fannie) Dickey 
were among- the early teachers. In the fall of 1X45 these two 
young women had a school of sixty scholars. Their mother 
says in a letter written to relatives east: "Martha teaches in the 
village and boards at home. Mrs. Mason says her talent (night 
not to be wasted in the kitchen. Frances went seventeen weeks 
to Mr. Dana, he is a very good mathematician." One sentence 
which this mother writes to interested friends applies so directly 
to the teachers in our own school today that it is (|noted: 
"Martha and Frances are busying themselves this summer in 
altering their dresses and making new ones. ■ Martha 

looks much better since school closed." 

At the time that J. D. Cox was superintendent of tlic schnols 
he resided on Elm street, near the Lake Division of the I >. iJc ( ). 
railroad. He was supporting himself and his family on the 
magnificent sum of $600, and owned no overcoat. lie used to 
wear a cape about his shoulders. There was no street lighting 
at that time, at least not on Elm street, and the trees were so 
thick that when he got in the neigh bo I'hood of Scott street (that 
street was not cut through to p]lm in those days) he was obliged 
to feel his way, by the rail fence on the west side of the street. 
Mr. Cox was afterwards general in the army, governor of the 
state and secretary of the interior under Grant. 

Mrs. Ira P\;ller, whose father, Horace Stevens, lived for 
some time in the house which stood on the present lot of the 
Misses Hall's home, said she remembered attending a school 
taught by ]\liss Lathrop in the academy. She was led to school 
when the roads were dry, taken on horseback when it was not. 
It seems incredible that children living on Mahoning avenue 
would have to ride to school as near as the present public 
library. However, then there were no sidewalks, no pavements, 
and in spring the mud was deep enough to mire a child. Mrs. 
Fuller said she cherished a dainty needle book which Miss 
Lathrop gave her the day she went away to be married. She 
received a reward of merit card signed by Eufus Spaulding 
when she attended his schools. Among her childish friends 
were Emil\- Siiaulding, Olive Freeman, Elizabeth Van Gorder, 
Elizabeth Courtney, Elizabeth Collins and Mary Stevens. The 
last is the only one living; she resides almost next door to the 
old home of her cousin, Mary Stevens (Mrs. Fuller). 

Selden Haines, one of the early teachers of the old academy. 


in writing to Lis great-nephew. Judge D. R. Gilbert, under the 
date of October 21, 1882 (Mr. Haines was then eighty-two years 
old), gives some facts which we quote here: 

"My father left Connecticut in the fall of 1818 and 
settled in Vernon, where he died in 1849, aged eighty-five. 
In the summer of 1820 I began the study of Latin with 
Reuben Coe. In September, 1821, I came east to Gran- 
ville, Massachusetts, and spent a year preparing for col- 
lege. I was graduated at Yale College in 1826, in a class 
of 106 — the largest class that ever graduated at any Ameri- 
can college prior to the year 1837. I began the study of law 
in the office of Hooker & Talmadge. Talmadge was United 
States senator in after years. I was married in 1828, though 
'poor as a church mouse.' We landed at Vernon with noth- 
ing to do for a living, and nothing to do with. In the course 
of a few weeks I was engaged to teach in what was called 
Warren Academy — being nothing but a miserable brick 
shanty with two school rooms. In the meantime I pursued 
my study with John Crowell, since called Gen. Crowell, of 
Cleveland. I tried my best to give universal satisfaction 
Avith my pupils, and at the end of six months a majority 
of my patrons were grumbling. Judge Pease [Calvin], a 
prominent citizen, came to my rescue. He advised me not 
to try to please anybody but myself. The result was that I 
became quite popular with the pupils. I occupied the jaosi- 
tion about eighteen months and was succeeded by Hon. 
Francis Gillette, of Hax'tford, Connecticut, who was after- 
wards United States senator. He was the father of Gil- 
lette, a greenback member of Congress from Iowa. Among 
my pupils were four sons of Gen. Perkins; also Miss Maria 
Smith [Tod] and Miss Cornelia Pease [Kinsman], and Mrs. 
Simon Perkins, of Akron." 

The schoolhouses referred to by Mr. McLain as being an 
improvement on what preceded were the most dismal, uncom- 
fortable sort of buildings. Tlie one which was on Prospect was 
moved off in 1870 or 1871 onto the lot owned by Mrs. Eunice 
Hawkins, wliicli adjoined on the north the school property. It 
was remodeled and has been used ever since as a dwelling. 
The first teacher at Prospect school was George Maltby, of 
Southington, and the second, S. D. Harris, who was lay-reader 


in the Episcopal cliurch and afterwards was editor of the Ohio 
Farmer. He moved to Colnmbns. George Hapgood, Sr., many 
years editor of the Chronicle, taught here in 184:6. 

One of the other schoolhouses was moved onto Clinton 
street, and it is now" used as a residence. The author of this 
volume attended three of these schools. None of them were 
comfortable, but the one on Prospect street was the least invit- 
ing. It was set flatly on the ground, with no cellar, and conse- 
quently the floor had the same temperature as existed outside, 
with additional dampness. Scholars huddled around the old 
cannon stove in the corner, Imrning their copper-toed shoes 
and scorching the fronts of their clothes, to return to their 
seats and in a few moments be as cold as ever. Small jackets 
and shawls were worn by the children and the outer garments 
which hung in the entry were so cold that they had to be warmed 
at the fire before putting them on. The windows were pur- 
poseh' made so high that children could not see out when stand- 
ing by them. The seats were very low and imcomf ortable. So 
down in this pit, shivering and disconsolate, the little folks of 
tJie north part of the town had to turn up their faces to see 
a bit of sky, and to relieve themselves of the thought they 
were in prison. However, in this half-cellar, many young people 
learned to read and write, wIkj afterwards went out into the 
woi'ld and became not only useful, but famous. Notably among 
these was Kenyon Cox, the great artist. In one of these uncom- 
fortable seats he studied just enough to keep from being jiun- 
ished, and spent the rest of his time drawing pictures for the 
amusement of those who sat near him. The only things the 
writer can remember as being bearable about that "old north 
school" was the playgTound and the teacher. Her name was 
Hall, and she was a conscientious, tender developer of children. 

The High street schoolhouse. which stood on the lot where 
General Ratliff built a home, which is now owned by Charles 
Wood. It contained two rooms for the primary and secondary 
grades. The windows here were not so high, and the sun 
seemed to get into the building. It was not nearly so cheerless. 
Among the teachers who served for some time there 
were Gen. E. W. Ratliff, Miss Julia Stevens, a sister 
of ]\Irs. Ira Fuller (who married Mr.' Snook, a teachei", 
and whose children reside in Seattle, Wash.) ; and 
Mrs. Kennedv Andrews, who at that time was Miss Kennedy. 

•-'!ir, HisTOjn' OK TKr:\iBrLL county 

]\Irs. Andrews' daughter lias a picture of some of lier mother's 
pupils, which was always cherished. Mrs. Frank J. Mackey, 
DOW residing on Park avenue, as Carrie Shaler, was a success- 
ful school teacher and remembers all of the scholars she taught 
and has followed the lives of a great many of them. 

In these schools were held spelling matches, and the classes 
stood to recite in front of the teacher. Scholars who missed 
words in spelling were obliged to step down and let the success- 
ful scholar go ahead of him. The pupil who stood at the head 
of the class each day received a mark and on the following 
day began at the foot of the class to work his way up to the head 
again. At the end of the term the child having the largest 
number of "head marks" was given a prize. One of tlrese 
spellers, now in business in Warren, who received a number of 
these rewards for excellence in spelling, is noted for his incor- 
rect spelling today. 

The morning sessions of these scliools were opened with 
Bible reading, singing and prayer. In most cases, the teacher, 
turning her back to the pupils, knelt on the floor, with her elbows 
in the wooden chair, as she asked the Father's blessing on the 
saints and sinners alike over whom she exercised jurisdiction. 
During this morning hour, because of the position of the teacher, 
the small boy was more largely tempted than at any time 
during the day, and many were the wet paper wads and other 
liglit missiles which were thrown at the praying teacher. Be 
it to their credit, few girls indulged in this undignified pro- 
ceeding. But they giggled, sometimes out loud, and the gigglers 
were always equally punished with the real offenders. 

The water was brought from a near-by well, and stood in 
the pail during the session. The "teacher's pet," or the pupil 
in good standing, was allowed, in the middle of the morning 
and again in the afternoon, to pass this licjuid refreshment in 
a long-handled dipper. 

The only advantage these dingy, dark school rooms had 
over the later schools was that the aisles were necessarily short, 
and the terror Avhich overtook a pupil when on Friday after- 
noon he made his way to the platform to "speak his piece" 
was of short duration. In the intermediate department of the 
old high school, where the aisles were interminable, a pupil had 
time to have one or two attacks of "blind staggers" before he 
or she reached the platfoi'ui to recite "Gray's Elegy" or read 

lllSTOliY OF 'I'lJIMIU LL COrXTV 397' 

an essay on "Spring." After more than half a lifetime, with 
its sorrows of many kinds, the anthor still shivers at the thought 
of Friday afternoon, and when she sees the pupils of today, 
unoonseiously and naturally, without getting white and red by 
turns, without putting their fingers in their mouths, or twisting 
up the corners of their aprons, recite and sing and read, she 
wonders what was the matter with the old method wliicli was 
persecution and crucifixion. 

In isr)4. ]\Iay 1!), a meeting was held in "Empire Hall," 
Iddings lUock, the lower part of which is now occupied by Albert 
Guarnieri, to jirovide, by taxation, for money to build school- 
houses. Six thousand dollars was considered a sufficient sum. A 
month or two later the lot on Monroe street, together with the 
old building, was bought from Joseph Perkins for $1,40(1. 
(Whether Mr. Perkins had allowed the old trustees to put a 
building on his lot, or whether he was acting in an official 
capacity, is not certain.) The lot niton which the present Tod 
Avenue school stands was bought of Anna J. Gordon for $500. 
A year later, Edward E. Hoyt & Co. sold for $900 the lot upon 
which was a frame building, on Park avenue, lot now owned 
by William Henderson Company. The first Iniilding was 
repaired and made into two schools. 

The first school held on Quinby Hill (West Side) was in 
the dwelling of Petei' Gaskill. ]Iis wife, Dorcas, was 
the teacher. Her father was an educated Hishman, who 
taught the first select school in New Castle in 1825. Dor- 
cas attended the early Warren schools, receiving in 
struction from Eunice Towne, Daniel Jagger and Junius Dana. 
She fii-st taught at the age of thirteen. One of the first build- 
ings she occupied as a schoolhouse was on the property latei- 
owned by the first St. Mary's church. When the home of 
Edward Spear, Sr., stood where the Methodist church now is, 
she had a school there. At different times she taught in the 
session room of the old Presbyterian church, in the session 
room of the Methodist church, in the Odd Fellows' Hall, in 
the King Block, and later in a number of private dwellings. 
She was never sarcastic to her pupils and never critical of 
pupil, parent or condition. She lived until 1908, and never 
ceased to have an interest in the schools of the city. She taught 
about fiftv vears, and had the record for longest teaching, with 


the exception of Miss Lottie Sackett, who taught thirteen years 
in colleges and academies and forty years in the public schools. 

Miss Sackett is the daughter of one of the pioneers of 
Canfield, and spent most of her life in the family of her sister, 
Mrs. Harmon Austin, and is now retired as a teacher and makes 
her home with her niece, Nellie Austin Pendleton. Through 
her acquaintance in school and church, she probably knows more 
people in Warren and vicinity than any other one person. She 
began her teaching in the Warren schools under J. D. Cox, 
though she first taught in the family of Mr. Henry, in Austin- 
town. She taught under Mr. Leggett, Mr. Marvin, Mr. Cald- 
well and Mr. Moultou. For some time she had a private school 
at 301 High street. She also taught in Youngstown, in Alli- 
ance, in the Girls' Seminary at Mount Vernon, and in Hiram 

In 1855 $8,000 was raised by taxation, and a brick high 
school building was begun. Richard Craven and Soule & John- 
son were awarded the contract for the building and it was 
finished the following year. The Gibson family, for several 
generations, have been bricklayers, plasterers and contractors, 
and Eobert Gibson helped make the brick for this first school- 
house. In 1857 the first diplomas were granted. A i^ieture of 
this first school building, j^ublished in the Chronicle, speaks 
of the elegance of the building, its beautiful location, its appa- 
ratus for natural sciences, its splendid teachers ; states that the 
academic year will consist of three terms of fourteen weeks 
each and that at the close of the first and second term there will 
be a vacation of one week. "The second day of the county fair, 
Thauksgiviug day, the 25tli of December and the 1st of January 
will be regarded as liolidays." 

In 1859 the Warren school district was enlarged, taking 
in some of the township of Howland, and some of the district 
of west Warren. In 1864 a two-story brick schoolhouse was 
erected on the lot bought of Anna Gordon, and upon which 
the present Tod Avenue building stands. The amount voted for 
this building was $3,500. In 1862 the average monthly wages 
of the teachers in the state of Ohio was: males, $27.81; 
females, $16.05. 

So much interest and pride was there in the early schools 
that the pupils of those days always speak with the greatest 
deference and reverence of the first three superintendents, Gen- 


eral Leggett, General Cox and the Rev. Mr. Marvin. The latter 
resigned in 1862, when he becames a professor in Allegheny 
College at Meadville. Hugh J. Caldwell became superintendent 
in '63, serving three years. lie received the highest salary 
the third year of any of the four, was a good superintendent, 
later moved to Cleveland, where he became judge and where 
he still resides. 

The first three superintendents served ))efore the author's 
time, but Mr. Caldwell was the first superintendent under whom 
slie studied. She remembers him as a large, pleasant, firm 
man, who frightened herself and her companions nearly to 
death when he visited the schools. It was the same kind of 
fright as a child of today has of a policeman. After he had 
been in the room a little time the fear wore off, and then she 
laughed at him in her heart, and sometimes out loud, because 
he was so fat that it was hard for him to cross one leg on top 
of the other. If this pupil and that superintendent were to 
meet today the laugh would be on the other side. 

One of the early teachers in the high school was Frances 
York, now Mrs. William T. Spear. There never was a better 
teacher in the high school force. "VMien one of her sons entered 
college, his examinations were so perfect in English that the 
professors asked who Ms teacher had been and he proudly and 
quickly replied, "My mother." Miss York had exceptionally 
good health. Her fair complexion, her red cheeks, were attract- 
ive, and at a late Alumna; Association meeting one of her old 
pupils, a man, said that when the fire needed replenishing 
Miss York did not take the time of the boys to bring in the 
coal or replenish the fire, but did it herself. "I can see her 
now," said he, "walking down the aisle with a full pail of 
coal on lier arm, teaching as she went." She afterwards mar- 
ried William T. Spear, a sketch of whose life is given elsewhere, 
although he lias been a successful man, Mrs. Spear is just as 
strong a character as he, and would have been able to do just 
as much as he has, had she been a man. How do we know 
that the work which is known as "woman's work," known as 
the "small work," will not some day hold as exalted a place in 
the eyes of the world as the man's work, now known as the 
"greater work." 

Another teacher mider Superintendent Caldwell was Eoxy 
Wilcox. She taught here eight years, and endeared herself 


to the commuuity, esijeoially to one man, wlio waited at least 
twenty years for lier to be his wife. He was one of her pupils. 
As Eoxy Wilcox she had hosts of friends, and as Mrs. George 
Tayler she retained her old friends and has made and held 
many new ones. 

The breaking out of the war had its effect upon the schools, 
as well as n])on the business and home life. In Trumbull County 
it was liai'dly thought worth while to hold certain district schools 
in winter, because the attendance was so small. The older boys 
went to war, and for that reason the older girls had to do double 
duty at home and had no time for stud}\ On June 11, 1862, 
thirty young men were drawn from the classes of the city schools 
to go to war. 

The wooden buildings on Prospect street, High street and 
Park avenue (then Liberty street), having become a disgrace to 
the growing town, and the board of education apparently being- 
dilatory, if not negligent in regard to them, a spirited election 
took place in the summer of 1869, four new members being- 
elected. Almost immediately a new brick schoolhouse was 
erected on the Park avenue lot. The entire cost of completing 
and finishing this building was $8,000. Dr. Julian Harmon and 
M. B. Tayler were the building committee; the superintendent, 
I. N. Dawson. 

Early the next sjn-iug the High street lot was disposed of. 
the lot where the pi-eseut Market street building stands was 
purchased, and a building erected thereon. William Ernst and 
Joshua R. Seely were the contractors. The building commit- 
tee was Dawson and Harmon, Mr. Dawson acting as 
superintendent, also. 

The funds which had been voted were exhausted and another 
bond issue was made for $20,000. With this, new land was 
added to the Prospect street lot, and a brick house erected, 
being finished in 1872. Messrs. Downs, Elliott & Co. and Wil- 
kins & Sidells were the builders. T. J. ]\reLain and Julian 
Harmon were the building committee. 

The next year the same committee and the same contractors 
erected the building on Fulton street. 

During Mr. Caldwell's time an intermediate department was 
started in the high school building, third floor, and in 1874 
$3,000 were expended in repairs and improvements on the high 
school building. 


Although the term of service of the three superiu- 
tendents was long, the fourth, Mr. Caldwell's, rather short, 
the next three superintendents served altogether only four 
years— J. J. Childs, in 1867; William H. Pitt followed with a 
term of two years; and H. B. Furuass began his services on 
Sei)tember 1, 1869, staying only one year. Mr. Furuass was a 
strong man, and introduced some new systems into the sdiodl. 
He is I'emembered by the pupils of '6'.) and '70 l)y the sliii])ers 
which he wore often in the school room, rather than by his work. 

Ill 1871) .1. ( '. Barney became sujierintendent of the scli()t)is 
and served until ]876. He was aii excellent superintendent. 
J lis wife was pi-inci])ai of the high school. She was an excep- 
tional woman. She taught faithfully and carefully and endeared 
her pupils to her as slie taught. The children of the '7()s who 
were in the liigh school can see her now as she sat in her chair 
behind the table on the elevated platform, or as she walked 
back and forth with her delicate fingers handling her watch 
chain, wliile they parrotted, "The moral ipiality of an action 
resides in the intention," and additional pages of Wayland's 
;\[oral Philosophy, which meant nothing in the world to them. In 
those days the pupil who had the best memory was considered 
the best ])upil. No child was excr asked to tell the story in his 
own words. That the>- di<l not rebel against some of the things 
ill thai cours" of study was diic largely to the influence of ^Ir. 
and Mrs. IJarney. We can sec her now, with her soft yellow 
hair, braided so carefully that not a strand was out of place 
all day, and her light brown dress, trimmed with darker velvet, 
with snoAv-white niching at the neck and hands. This careful 
detail <is to dress was carried out as to pedagogy. 

It was (hiring the adniinistiatioii of ]Mr. and ]\Irs. Barney 
that Lafayette Herzog, a Warren attorney, took a course in 
German, stood at the head of his class, received almost daily 
the coinineiidatioii of his teacher, Aviiile some of the yniiiils 
jealously wii)e(l their eyes liecause they could not ]iut a whole 
sentence between the auxiliary and the verb or could not get 
the umlaut iiroperly. His teachers did not know, neither did his 
fellow ])n]iils. until the end of the course, that he spoke German 
at home ;nid that his educated German mother was his real 

^Iv. and ;\rrs. Barney have devoted their whole life to 
teachinii'. Thev are both still living. 


lu 1875 a lot ou First street was purchased at the cost of 
$800, aud in 1876-77 the present building was erected on 
this lot. 

In 1879 fifty-four pupils were crowded out of the Prospect 
and East Market Street schools and a building belonging to 
Mrs. W. T. Van Gorder, on Pine street, was rented for their 
accommodation aud Mrs. Dorcas Gaskill, who had taught a se- 
lect school in that building, was elected teacher. 

The following year, 1880, 148 scholars were enrolled in the 
intermediate school. This was entirely too many for every 
reason, and the upper room in the First street building was 
fitted up as an intermediate school and in the spring forty 
pupils were transferred to that building. 

In 1880 the school room on Pine street was not very satis- 
factory because it was on the street, with no playgrounds, and 
several suggestions for enlarging Market Street or some of 
the schools were made. The board was not satisfied with any 
of these suggestions, and the thought became general that a 
central granmiar school would better be erected instead. Dur- 
ing the year 1882-83 a liigh school building was erected on 
Monroe street. The citizens took a great pride in this building. 
It was heated by steam, had grates in every room, the furniture 
was of approved order, and it was well lighted. It cost nearly 
$40,000. The contractors were Joshua E. Seely and Eobert 
Wilkins, and Henry Ernst was the superintendent. 

In the report which Samuel F. Dickey, as president of the 
board of education for the year 1884-85, presented he says: 
"There is still need of a new building." This has been the 
experience of every board of education from the beginning of 
tiie Warren schools. As soon as one building is completed it is 
seen that it is insufficient. 

There was at that time a primary school of fifty or sixty 
pupils in a house on High street, the primary school at East 
Market was crowded, therefore the board of education pur- 
chased a lot at the corner of Elm and Scott streets, aud Mr. 
Dickey says: "Wlien this house is built our city will be well 
provided with school accommodations for many years." Just 
as every board of education has made the statement given in 
the paragraph above, so has every board believed with Mr. 
Dickey, to find itself mistaken. 

(Loaned by the Tribune.) 



(LoaneJ by the Tribune.) 



The Elm street scboolhouse was built in 1885. It stands on 
the corner of Scott and Elm streets. The soil of the grounds 
is of a very clayey nature, and here the bricks for the tirst 
court house were made. The plans for this building were made 
by John Eikerman and it was designed for a four-room build- 
ing. The hall and two rooms on the north were built. The town 
did not grow in that direction and the other two rooms have 
never been added. The erection of the grammar school on 
Harmon street relieved the congestion in that part of town. 
The Elm street schoolhouse is in nice repair, having been lately 
supplied with a new furnace. It cost $12,000, and the building- 
committee were Messrs. Spear, Angstadt and Dickey. 

A lot was purchased on the corner of Mercer and Belmont 
in 1890 from Jacob B. Perkins for $2,600. A temporary frame 
school was erected, which was occupied until the Central Gram- 
mar building was finished. It was then used for a dwelling, 
for the Grace Evangelical church, and tinall)^ sold to ]\[r. 
Stewart, who removed it to Olive street, where it now stands. 

In 1892 some land was bought of A. E. Andrews for $1,700, 
another portion from the estate of Turhaud K. Hall for $900, 
another portion from Dr. Julian Harmon for $2,300. This, 
together with a portion from the high school ground, furnished 
the land upon which the Central Grammar school was erected. 
The work was begun in 1892. The bond issue for this was 
$30,000, but before it was completed the board of education 
realized that the school was not going to furnish the relief 
exjDected, and they added a third story. This story has been 
occupied by one or more schools every year since the building 
was erected, save one. There has always been objection on the 
part of the board, and of the patrons of the school as well, to the 
use of this as a school room (it was intended for a hall), but 
the constant increase of the schools makes it compulsory. The 
building committee for the Central Grammar school was C. H. 
Angstadt, Kennedy Andrews and S. F. Dickey. John L. Smith 
was superintendent of construction. 

A new building was erected on the Tod avenue lot in 1897. 
Tliis cost $20,000 and was at its time the finest public building 
in the way of heating and sanitation in the city. The architects 
were Ousley & Boucherle, of Youngstown. Among the con- 
tractors were AVentz, and Bartlett Brothers Company. The 
building committee was comjiosed of Messrs. Craig, Angstadt 


and MiU-hell. This buildiug liacl i^ix .school rooms and two 
.smaller rooms, one for sujierintendent's office. It was not long 
before the six school rooms were crowded, and one of the small 
rooms has been occupied by a school for some years. Before 
the erection of this building- there was a great deal of talk 
among the patrons of the school as to the unruly behavior of the 
children of that portion of the city. In certain parts of that 
school district there were many children who had little or no 
discipline at home and few advantages. This new building 
])roduced the most wondrous effect on the children. They took 
great pride in it and were elevated by their surroundings. 

The writer cannot jtass the Tod Avenue school without 
paying a slight tribute to Mrs. Gertrude Alderman, who has 
been the only woman principal of graimnar grades in Warren 
since the separate grammar schools were erected. She has 
more influence over her pupils than any other principal we ever 
have had, and the teachers under her love her to such a degree 
that they reliel against any thought of transference to other 

In 1899 a bond issue of .+;i(),0!)() was approved by the voters 
for the erection of the Market Street school building. The old 
brick schoolhouse was torn down and one of the finest buildings 
in the city erected. It has nine rooms, wide hall, plenty of light, 
best of ventilation. This building was intended as an eight 
room building, but was tinally constructed with nine rooms, and 
before the end of the first year every seat was tilled. In 1898 
two women were elected to the school board under the new 
school law. There had been two vacancies on the board. Mr. 
B. F. Craig had died, and the board was asked to fill the vacancy 
by appointing a woman. It considered the matter and decided 
not to do it. One of the men on the board who was favorable 
to the a])pointment of women was George Mitchell, the presi- 
dent. However, he was in the minority. A little time there- 
after he was seized with an acute illness and died. Again the 
board was asked to appoint a woman. Again it refused. The 
women making this request had no bitterness of feeling at the 
refusal, candidly saying if they were men and did not believe 
in woman suffrage they would have done the same thing. How- 
ever, they determined to have two candidates at the next regular 
election. Mr. Jules Vautrot and Walter D. C*ampbell had been 
ap))oint('d to these vacancies. Four of the men stood for re-elec- 


yp. -,r|- 

r 1; 11 '^ 

, .1 '. 

(Loaned by the Tribune.) 



tion, and two women, Carrie P. Harringtou and Harriet T. 
Upton, went before the primaries as candidates. Mr. Gillmer 
had been in tlie position of president, and Mr. Weir treasurer, 
for many years. The two women received the higiiest votes, 
Mr. Gillmer and Mr. Weir the next, Mr. Vautrot and Mr. 
Campbell being defeated. Although the men had opposed 
women going onto the lioard, when they really were elected they 
treated them with the greatest courtesy and equality. This can- 
not be said of some boards in other parts of the state, but it is 
true of the Warren board. 

When the Market Street school was constructed the com- 
mittee consisted of two men and two women. This was the tirst 
time that women had been connected with the construction 
of any large public building in Trumbull County. The architect 
of this building was George F. Hammond, of Cleveland, and the 
contractors were Bartlett Brothers, Wentz & Co., Peck-William- 
son Company. The superintendent of construction was Mr. 
Charles H. Craig. 

In 1902 bonds for $30,000 were issued for repairing the 
high school building. The front part of the building was used, 
and about a third added to it in the rear. The lower floor was 
used for the science department and the upper floor for the 
assembly room. This assembly room seated about three hun- 
dred and fifty and at the end of the first year all were filled. 

In proportion to the population, more children attend the 
Warren schools than attend the schools of other cities in the 
state. Warren is unlike many other county seats in that it is 
not a school center. The larger towns, Newton Falls, Niles, 
Cortland, Girard, have good schools, and a large number of the 
townships have centralized schools. The AVarren Tribune is 
the authority for the statement that in recent years 52 per 
cent of the high school graduates have entered universities, 
colleges, or other institutions of learning. Of the forty-four 
graduates in 1906, nineteen began courses in these institutions; 
of the thirty-eight in 1907, twenty-four; of the thirty-four in 
1908, sixteen. 

There are about 3,000 children of school age in the town of 
Warren. Charles E. Carey is the superintendent, and the fol- 
lowing is a list of the teachers : 



(Vry, Chemistry-Physiology. 

Hi (/It School. 

F. E. Ostrander, Principal. 

■Virginia Eeiil, Latin-Greek. 

Jennie Delin, English-Mathematics 

Alice Bowen, German. 

Ethel Crandall, History-EngUsli. 

Edna Perry, English. 

Helen E. Sweet, Latin. 

M. N. Fitzgerald, Commercial. 

Evan L. Tvl.-i 

Harley Miii 

A. B., I'hy^irs. 

Elizabeth Gillmer. 

Alice Hall. 

Mabel Truesdcll. 

Inez White. 

Central Oiuiiiiiiu 

Daniel Guiney, Principal. 

Anna Spear. 

Clara Chase. 

Mary "Wilcox. 

Myrta Keeler. 

Mattie Gillmer. 

Mabel Eeid. 

Mary Izaut. 

Zilla Spear. 

Mildred Heppell. 

First Street. 

Alice Baldwin. 
Mary Wark. 
Emma Ripley. 

Market Street. 
\Vm. S. Gledhill, Principal. 
.\ettio B. Mathews. 
Bernice Gilmore. 
Grace Kiehols. 
Madge vVhitney. 
Addie Swisher. 
Lulu Nenton. 
Maude Fox. 
Gertrude E. Miller. 

Tod Areniu. 
Gertrude Alderman, Principal. 
Harriett Fletcher. 
Anna Horton. 
Georgia Lee Eobinson. 
May Holloway. 
Grace Somerwill. 
Minnie Bishop. 

Fulton Street. 
Mary Kearney. 
Kittle Howard. 

Elm Street. 
Carolyn Taggart. 
Lucy Beach. 

Prosjiect Street. 
Lillian Meeker. 
Melda Morgan. 

Olney Manville. 

Maybella A. Chapman. 

List of Verniers of Board of Education 
Since Its Organi::ation. 

Mathew Birchard. 
Eufus P. Eanney. 
Joseph Perkins. 
George Tayler. 
B. P. Jameson. 
John Hutchins. 
Azor Abell. 
Zalmon Fitch. 
Mathew B. Tayler. 
Ira L. Fuller. 
Henry B. Perkins. 
Julian Harmon. 
T. E. AVebb. 
Wm. Eitczel. 
J. H. McCombs. 
John L. Weeks. 
Charles A. Harrington. 
Thomas J. McLain, Jr. 
I. N. Dawson, 
.lohn S. Edwards. 
O. H. Patch. 
.1. J. Gillmer. 

Julius King. 
Charles C. Adams. 
George B. Kennedy. 
Seth M. Laird. 
S. F. Dickey. 

A. F. Spear. 
Wm. M. Lane. 
Dr. I. A. Thayer. 
Kennedy Andrews. 
C. H. Angstadt. 
H. C. Christy. 
Henrv Bohl. 

W. C. Caldwell. 
T. Kinsman. 
L. C. .lones. 
S. B. Craig. 
Marshall Woodford. 
George Mitchell. 

B. F. Craig. 
Henry B. Weir. 
II. .1. Barnes. 
T. H. Gillmer. 


AV. D. riniii.tiell. Kchvard A. Voit. 

Carrie P. Jlarrinynm. Wm. C. Ward. 

Harriet T. Upton. If. H. Sutherland. 

B. F. Wonders. S. ( '. Iddings. 

Charles II. Aiig>t;ult has the honor of serviug the h)u<i-est 
term as member of the Warren school board. He was a member 
of that body twenty-two years. He was a member of the 
building eommittee which constructed all of the later buildings. 
He refused to serve longer and in 11)03 was succeeded by 8. C. 

List of Suptiiiitcnihuls of ll'ancii 
Sclioo/s .Siiicc hS-il). 

Salary. Salary. 

1849, M. D. Leggett, 1 yr $ 700 1, SOS, Henry B. Furuass. I \r,.^L',o6o 

18.50, Jacob D. Cox, 3 yrs (iOO 1S69, J. C. Barney. 6 yrs. ...'... 1,800 

1853, .Tames Marvin, 8 yrs 1,200 1875, Edwin F. Moulton, 111 vi-s.. 1,900 

1861, Hugh .1. Caldwell. 4 yrs 1,300 1888, Jas. Lasley, 3 yrs '..... 1,500 

I860, J. .r. ChiKls, 1 yr 1,L'00 1891, R. S. Thoraasi 6 vrs L',000 

18G6. W. H. Pitt, 2 yrs 1.200 1897, C. E. Carey, 12 yr.s 2,500 

The ]i]'eanible to the constitution of the Warren High School 
Alumni Association reads as follows: 

• A\'e, the graduates of AVarren High School — to jjerfect 
and cement more certainly friendship and comity worthy 
of descendants of the same Alma Mater — to secure and 
preserve by full minutes of our proceedings faithful records 
of the ])rogress of the institution and the alumni to a degree 
not attainable so easily and surely by any other means, to 
ett'ect by literary and other exercises our mutual improve- 
ment, do adopt for the basis of our government the following 
Constitution : 

This stilted style strikes us, of this da.y of short sentences, 
as being almost ludicrous. 

List of (irddiiiifcs SInre flic Organiz<iiii)ii of flir I'uhlic Scliool.s. of lS.->7. Mary .1. Hutcliins. 

Eliza M. Smith. Ophelia E. Carrier. 

Marv Mi-Ewen. .\rtelissa H. Hull. 

Harvey C. Clark. Rachel Ross. 

Ella Reeves. 

'"'«■'•■■■-■ <'f ^S°S- Sarah J. Allison. 

Mary E. Doud. .Maggie K. Harmon. 

Sarah H. Douglass. George Baldwin. 

Eliza S. Smith. .Tolin S. Ewalt. 

Edward W. Hoyt. Charles S. Abell. 
Mary MeQuiston. ^-.^.^^^^ ^^^. ^^^,_^ 

(loss of IS50. (ieorge W. Millikin. 

John C. Hutchius. Welty Wilson. 

Kate Mc<^uiston. ^ Henry Woodruff. 



Class of 1S61. 

Cornelia II. Fuller. 
Louisa A. Brown. 
Mary Bascom. 
Julia Baldwin. 
Laura Bell. 
Heury H. Townsend. 
(.'lKirle,s H. Frazier. 

Class of 1862. 
Horace L. Fuller. 
Lizzie Baldwin. 
Jennie Birchard. 
Jennie E. Clark. 
Franc P. Harmon. 
Justine L. Iddings. 
Maria Bobbins. 
Amelia D. Webb. 

Class of 1S6S. 
Emma S. Sutliff. 
Helen F. Siitliflf. 
Jennie Sniitb. 
Carrie L. Sbaler. 
Florence Townsend. 
Carrie M. Carter. 
Olive A. Allison. 
Emma Frazier. 
Gertrude O. Tayler. 
8usan R. McLain. 
Anna Hoisengton. 
Edwin a. Andrews. 
William Ccicbrin. 

Class of 1S64. 
riiarles G. Burton. 
( 'lara E. 8oule. 
Maria K. Black. 
Nellie King. 
Louisa Marvin. 

Class of 1865. 
Sarah Reeves. 
Helen A. Tayler. 
Kate L. Sutliff. 
Frances Soule. 
George H. Tayler. 

Class of 1866. 
Olive Smith. 
Charlotte McCombs. 
Maria Smith. 
Mattie A. Harmon. 
Elizabeth L. Iddings. 
Mary Fitch. 
Lizzie S. Fuller. 
Henera McQuiston. 
Clara Harmon. 
Emma Brooks. 
Charles F. Harrington. 
George L. Jameson. ^ 

David B. Estabrook. 
Roscoe 0. Hawkins. 

Class of 1867. 
Olive Graeter. 
ilaiy Bradford. 
Edward Dickey. 
Charles S. Freer. 

C'Mss of 1868. 
Alice E. Briscoe. 
Ada S. Xoble. 
Minnie E. Richmond. 
Mary Ensign. 
Louise A. Andrews. 

Class of 1869. 
Flora Forbis. 
Belle H. Sutliff. 
Ella P. Fuller. 
Jerusha Webb. 
Mary E. Patch. 

Class of 1870. 
Ella Van Gorder. 
Frederika E. Graeter. 
Eugene L. Weeks. 
Emma Min Young. 
Beniamiu L. MilUkin. 
Kittie E. Howard. 
Maria L. Tayler. 
Fannie M. Dickey. 
Mary V. Brett. 

Class of 1871. 
Albert H. Van Gorder. 
Clarence L. Ward. 
Frank M. Ritezel. 
Mary E. Jameson. 
Martha J. Fox. 
Addie B. Parish. 
Jennie E. Homan. 
Hattie L. Abell. 

Class of 1872. 
Lucius E. Fuller. 
Olive B. Van Gorder. 
Nellie K. Austin. 

Class of 1873. 
Frank D. McLain. 
David Jameson. 
Hattie A. Taylor. 
Nellie G. Brooks. 
Mary E. Field. 
Emma Christianar. 

Class of 1874. 
R. Buel Love. 
Louis R. Dawson. 
Mary C. McXutt. 
Anna G. Wheeler. 
Alice M. Thompson. 
Jennie Tyler. 
Belle Graeter. 

Class of 1875. 
J. LaFayette Herzog. 
Frank F. Reed. 



Hal. K. Taylor. 
Almon D. Webb. 
Frederick K. Smith. 
Edward J. Wheeler. 
Lottie J. Tayler. 
Marion Davidson. 
Mary S. Tuttle. 

Class of 1S7G. 
Ida J. Brett. 
M. Libbie Brown. 
Alice H. Lattin. 
Mary B. Perkins. 
Olive D. Perkins. 
Charles B. Ball. 
Florence F. Eawdon. 
Mary L. Selkirk. 
Phebe T. Sutliff. 

Class of 1877. 
Grace H. Adams. 
Minnie C. Foote. 
Minnie M. Howard. 
Mary F. Kinney. 
Mary E. Messerschmidt. 
Julia L. Pratt. 
Hattie L. Pratt. 
Florence Tayler. 

Class of 1S7S. 
Alice Christianar. 
Ad(Ue J. Reid. 
Lucy B. Tayler. 
Adilie M. VanGorder. 
Robert S. VanGorder. 

Class of lS?i). 
Jcannie D. Brown. 
Gertie A. Campbell. 
Maggie Clement. 
Cornelia M. Harmon. 
Agnes E. Hazeu. 
Carrie J. Hummel. 
Mabel L. King. 
Jennie M. Landers. 
Alice M. Lucas. 
Carrie L. Park. 
Lizzie Reid. 
Laura P. Smith. 
Olive S. Tayler. 
Jidwin S. Yeomans. 
Anna L. Wolcott. 

Class of ISSO. 
Nellie Brady. 
Grace C. Brown. 
Maggie E, Fox. 
Jessie F. Freer. 
Frank F. Fuller. 
Allie 1. Hall. 
Nellie F. Hull. 
Mary Izant. 
Mame S. Jones. 
Carrie L. Pond. 

Doll M. Richards. 
Lydia B. Sutlift'. 

Class of ISSl. 
Mary E. Andrews. 
Grant Byard. 
Nellie C." Darling. 
Charles E. Clapp. 
Robert Hoag. 
Maude L. Moulton. 
Anna C. Sidels. 
Will E. Tuttle. 
Lillian M. Tyler. 

Class of ISSJ. 
Benjamin Anderson. 
Lizzie Biggars. 
Louis Spear. 
Charles Smith. 

Class of 18SS. 
Mabel Adams. 
Olive Brown. 
Mary Carney. 
Addison I'ee. 
•Jennie Geuss. 
Charles Gibbons. 
Ella Uarwood. 
Anna Jameson. 
Bosa Miller. 
Nettie Thayer. 
Cloyde Smith. 
Charles Wilkins. 

Class of 1834. 
Josie C. DeForest. 
Tryon G. Dunham. 
Rita E. Hucke. 
Frank B. Minor. 
Angle Peck. 
Grace H. Reid. 
Sally H. Woods. 

Class of 1885. 
Eleouore B. Gibson. 
Louise P. Senior. 
Will C. Ward. 
Helen R. Adams. 
Grace E. Brierly. 
Agnes M. Hamilton. 
Anna M. Spear. of 1S86. 
Charles Adams. 
Jennie Dillert. 
Allison Gibbons. 
Frank Longmore. 
Franc Matthews. 
Frank McBerty. 
Emerson VanGorder. 
Jennie M. Adams. 
Etta S. Adams. 
Rosa A. Barringer. 
Clara J. Biggera. 



John S. Cailawaltler. 
Mabel Catlton. 
Louise M. Deitz. 
Bpvt H. D'Tnns. 

Class of 1SS7. 
Lillian I. Damon. 
Fred W. Adams. 
Kate M. Clapp. 
Grace Carlton. 
Mattie L. Gillmor. 
Lucy A. Hapgood. 
Martha C. Hoyt. 
Frank P. Bartholomew. 
Isabel Palmer. 
OUve M. Palmiter, 
CornoUa U. Smith. 
Zell P. Smith. 
Stella M. Eoberts. 
Mabelle A. Boss. 
Julia A. Smith. 
Gertrude Wilkins. 
Mary C. "Wheeler. 
Benjamin C. Van Wye. 

Class of 18S8. 
Alice Brooks. 
Lulu Conzett. 
Laura Christianar. 
Susie Cordell. 
C. W. Foulk, 
Anna Parker. 
Amelia Gross. 
Clara Hunt. 
Vinona Printz. 
Jolin McClelland. 
Cora Lampson. 
Zilla Spear. 
Lucy VanWye. 

Class of 1889. 
Mary Babbitt. 
Minnie Beck. 
Jennie McCracken. 
T'annie Cline. 
Maude Long. 
Blanche Baldwin. 
William Volt. 
Almon G. "Ward. 
Carrie Christianar. 
May Kirkpatriek. 
Frank Parks. 
"Virginia Eeid. 
"^'ard JlcKee. 

Class of 1890. 
William L. "WoodroTT. 
(Jeorgia A. Palmer. 
Homer A. Eeid. 
Annie C. ?.lackey. . 

David "W. Drennen. \ 

Lillian B. McKee. 
Amasa Day Cook. 

Gertrude E. Eicksecker. 
E. Burt Kernohan. 
.Mary F. Estabrook. 
.James D. Brooks. 
Etta Alice Lewis. 
Carrie Dora Ciloeckle. 
Ella Van Tuyl. 
Delia Craft. 

Class of 1801. 
George Baehr. 
Minnie Bishop. 
Clara Briscoe. 
.\iinnie Driiy. 
Edward Gibbons. 
Susie Ingersoll. 
Esther Jones. 
Bertha Kirkpatriek. 
ilabel Long. 
Ida Warren. 
Glenn C. Webster. 

Class of 1892. 
Amarilla Dawson, 
ilary Andrews, 
ilat'ilda Gloeckle. 
.lohn Leslie. 
Ella P. Harmon. 
.Maud Crawford, 
(iertrude Drennen. 
Nina Trunkey. 
George Klein. 
Tayler McCurdy. 
Luther D. Harper. 

Class of 189.1. 
Grac Daugherty. 
Edith Bartholomew. 
Clara Waldeck. 
Carrie "Warren. 
Anna Davis. 
Margaret AVatson. 
Margaret McGunnigal. 
Effie Mae Eowe. 
Anna Hanson, 
.lohn Estabrook. 
Harry Angstadt. 

Class of 1894. 

( harlotte Sutliflf. 
Grace E. Vautrot. 
Alice L. Sager. 
Frances S. Hanson. 
Olive M. Love. 
Minnie E, Waldeck. 
Marv L. Gibbons. 
Mary C. Wallace. 
.Jennie A. Delin. 
Edith A. Kirkpatriek. 
( 'lareuce A. Dietz. 
Edwin B. Andrews. 
John A. CUne. 
Will H. Clawson. 
Elmo B. Herbert. 



(Jharlcs H. Fresher. 
Will A. Spill. 
Halbert G. Keid. 
Harvey J. Wilson. 
Milton S. Stewart. 

Class of 1895. 

Sallie A. Babbitt. 
Charles C. Bubb. 
Marv L. Beardsley. 
ilar'y L. Ewalt. 
(Jlara L. Ewalt. 
Gertrude S. Fowler. 
Grace E. Little. 
Pearle il. Long. 
I)ebo!-ah H. Owen. 
Minnie M. Schneider. 
Helen D. Stewart. 
Blanc-he H. Angstadt. 
Lucy M. Beach. 
Mav E. Butler. 
AUce B. Craig, 
ilary L. Downs. 
David Ree<l Estabrook. 
Clara M. Fa.x. 
Charlotte JIcKinney. 
Florence M. Morey. 
Grace T. McCurdy. 
Stanley H. McKee. 
Mary M. Mackay. 
Lillian W. Sloan. 
XelUe S. Shook. 
Albert J. Sutliff. 
Gertrude "Si. Walker, 
(iladvs S. AVhitnev. 
Blanche E. Wise." 

Class of 1896. 

-Jennie Eose Cline. 
Birdell F. Barnes. 
Maude B. Clawson. 
Grace Conzett. 
Helen E. Eussell. 
Alice L. Andrews. 
Jessie M. Biggers. 
Nellie G. CUnite. 
Lerov L. Crawford. 
Editii ilay Dray. 
r'lara Mae Koch. 
W. B. Kilpatriek. 
Margaret Meneely. 
Charlotte B. Watson. 
Fanny Burnett. 
Blanche Churchill. 
Blanche Dray, 
.losephine Daughertv. 
Hazel E. Foote. 
Etta B. Kennedv. 
M. E. ilurray. 
Emma C. Eipley. 
Adelbert E. Wonders. 

Class of 1897. 
Francis Bailey. 
Laura Beach. 
Ruth Beach. 
.Josephine Burnett. 
Amy Caldwell. 
Ella Craig. 
Elsie Dennison. 
May Dray. 
Laura Hapgood. 
Olive Howard. 
Jessie Hyde. 
Mabel Izant. 
Jessie Isles. 
Gertrude Koouse. 
Ella Murray. 
Fred Messer. 
Harry Mackey. 
William Pew. 
Irwin Southwick. 
Florence Kennedy. 
Mabel Truesdell. 
Mabel VanWye. 
Daisy Thatcher. 
Cirace Weir. 
Minnie Biggers. 
Mark Gunlefinger. 
Letitia Clark. 

Class of 1898. 
Gertrude Andrews. 
Warren Bailey. 
Arthur Bartholomew. 
Edith Boyles. 
Eugene Chase. 
E. Clare Caldwell. 
Marian Craig. 
Myrtle Daughertv. 
Susie Fulk. 
Isaac Hill. 
Kate Harrington. 
Lewis Kennedy. 
Clara McClella'nd. 
Sallie Tod Smith. 
JIattie Spill. 
Marjorie Storier. 
Myrtle Willard. 
Blanche Williams. 
Alice Moon. 

Class of 1899. 
.Jessie McKee. 
Arthur Boyes. 
Carolyn Clawson. 
Anna Crowe. 
Jessie Clark. 
Eugene Craig. 
Blanche Dea. 
Clark Funk. 
.\ddie Howard. 
Edith Izant. 
Margaret Kellv. 



Alice Leonard. 
Mary Eiee. 
Lomary Slater. 
Mary Southwick. 
Eugene Sabin. 
Miriam Braden. 
Harry Strong. 
Dean Taylor. 
Philip Vautrot. 
Virgil Weir. 
Florence Wonders. 
Minnie Webster. 
May A'an Houter. 
Bessie Woodward. 

Class of 1900. 

Ruth Hapgood. 
Prances L. Hapgood. 
Eubie E. Swager. 
Mary McNutt. 
Eleanor Hatfield. 
Mignon B. Moyer. 
Mabel R. Murray. 
Edith Brobst. 
Hefeu J. Spangenberg. 
Bessie J. Gillmer. 
Helen C. Pond. 
Clayton J. MeCorkle. 
Raymond MeCorkle. 
Erauk Craft. 
Curtis J. Bailey. 
Pen-is D. Templeton. 
George Fillius. 
J. W. Love. 
Byron Bartholomew. 
Roy Barringer. 
Roscoo Olmstead. 

Class of 1901. 

Lucy Hoyt. 

Mary A'ewhard. 

Grace Potter. 

Diliie Slater. 

Mabel Reid. 

Clara Ripper. 

Emma Quinn. 

Jessie Kilpatrick. 

Mary Geiger. 

Clare Strong. 

William Cobb. 

Roy Storier, 

Henry Paden. 

Loren Hunter. 

Charles Love. 

Benjamin McKee. 

Roland M. Weaver. 

Harry Ruhf. 

William Meub. 

Frank VanWye. 

Ella Grimmesey. 4|k 

Clara Grimmesey. 

Xorval Cobb. 

Class of JOOS. 
J. H. Marshall. 
Anna Wallace. 
Hazel McKee. 
George W. Tru.xal. 
Frank I. Truxal. 
Robert VVadsworth. 
Mary E. Day. 
Lillian Koehler. 
Frank Daughertv. 
Alfred Tayler. ' 
Eugene Skinner. 
Florence Sjiear. 
Adaline VanWye. 
t ranees Dunn. 
Elizabeth Cobb. 
Anna Wonders. 
Leon Ernest. 
.\lbert Koehler. 
Homer F. Pierce. 
Dora A. Kale. 
Ethel Wanaraaker. 
Bessie L. Jamison. 
Blanclie Love. 
Maude Wright. 
Blanche Jeffery. 
William G. Watson. 
Jessie Wright. 
Pearl Nesbit. 
Homer E. Stewart, Jr. 
Charles W. Hyde.' 
James C. Hunter. 
Ray P. Barber. 
Carlton Lovejoy. 

Class of 1903. 
Earl D. Diggers. 
Edna Hull. 
Cassandra Burnett. 
Mark Gates. 
Carl W. Raw. 
George Pew. 
Elroy Dutton. 
Gertrude Mortz. 
Ella Phelps. 
.Maude Warren. 
Harry J. Love. 
Ralph Jackson. 
Lorena Dunbar. 
Laura Raymond. 
John Mullin. 
Lamont Gilder. 
Jacob Ewalt, Jr. 
Edith Ward. 
Florence Jackson. 
Mary A. Reeves. 
Ella Fleming. 
Eva Draber. 
Henrietta Herrick. 
Mabel Ewalt. 
William Hapgood. 
Louise Millikin. 
Agnes Murdoch 

H18T0KV OK 'I'l.'lMI'.riJ. coiXTY 


Esfella Potter. 
Haze] Cranage. 
Ella Tucker. 
Olga Brobst. 
Howard R. Weir. 
Alta Beck. 
May Jlolloway. 
Alice McCorkle. 
Dora L. Hit-kox. 
George Martin. 

Class of l'J04. 
Albert Andrews. 
Nina Burnett. 
Howard Bailey. 
Mae Bauman. 
Clara Boyes. 
Mary Cratsley. 
William Collins. 
Louis Dunn. 
Helen Dennison. 
Eosaunah Dennison. 
Lulu Dennison. 
William Franklin. 
Lois Gruber. 
Laura Gaskill. 
Lucy Hapgood. 
Iva Hewitt. 
Susan Jameson. 
.John Jameson. 
Ma.xwell Kennedy. 
George Mosier. 
Joseph JlcCorkle. 
Edward Pickering. 
Helen Palm. 
Eobert Schmidt. 
Arthur Southwick. 
Lessie Tucker. 
Hazel Voit. 
Mary Van Tuyl. 

Class of 1905. 
Vera Stantial. 
Pearl Burlingame. 
Stiles Koones. 
Nat Sabin. 
Charles Harrington. 
Jay Eaymond. 
Ethel Jones. 
Ethel Taylor. 
Fred Myers. 
Addie Swisher. 
Harry Snider. 
.Jacob Spangenberg. 
John Hanson. 
Louise Richards. 
Blanche Chryst. 
Clyde Nesbit. 
Mabel Brown. 
Mary Glaser. 
David Gillmer. 
Lena Grimmesey. 
ifabel Masters. 

Madge Whitney. 
Ethel Doming. 
Henry Porter. 
Roy Hemplo. 
Aliie Gilbert. 
Frank Pickei'ing. 
Bess Dunliar. 
Inez Hecker. 
Josejiliine A\'itherstay. 
.foe Gibson. 
Lucy Leah. 
Bernice Beach. 
Mary Cunningham. 

Class. of irjoa. 
Warren .Strong. 
Charles Carev. 
William Little. 
Louis Vautrot. 
Webb Elliott. 
Phryne Gilmore. 
Helen Howard. 
Clara Angstadt. 
Helen Lamb. 
Celia MeCorraiek. 
Nina Johnson. 
Ruth Drennen. 
Earl MeCamaut. 
Nelson Eichards. 
Marguerite Hutson. 
Margaret McDonald. 
Mary Beebe. 
Justine Iddings. 
Iva Hieko.x. 
Jessie Masters. 
Olive Jjamb. 
Aunabelle Ailing, 
(-'alvin Campbell. 
CJeorge Tuttle. 
Helen Eiehenberger. 
Hattie Thomas. 
Mary E. Johnson. 
Minnie Dift'ord. 
Paul Gates. 
Carsou Cottle. 
.John Bussell. 
Robert Warren. 
Myrtle Brown. 
Reta Sager. 
Audrey Doty. 
Leo Dolan. 
Edwin Halstead. 
Jessie Hanson. 
Jason Moore. 
Ben Lane. 
Fred Beck. 
Mary Wark. 

Class of 1907 
.Marjorie Hanson. 
-Mae Chryst. 
Helen Morrison. 
-Marjorie Thomas. 



Ida Blot!. 

Priscilla Harrington. 
Vera Wilson. 
Elva Cook. 
.Marie Elliott, 
ilonroe Miller. 
\Villiam Barkley. 
William Craig. 
Ralph Nash. 
Theresa iMiin'ay. 
(iertriule Loveless. 
Mary Kistler. 
Hazel Turner. 
Frank Chapman. 
Burt Kibler. 
Forrest Brooks. 
Kudolph Hafer. 
Fretl Hivt. 

-Marguerite Sutherlan.l. 
Claribelle Dunn. 
Marguerite Van Wye. 
Mabel Elliott. 
Griswold Hurlburt. 

Class of 1908. 
Laura Iviug. 
Laura Evans. 
Orin Southwiek. 
Henry P. Morris Hutchison. 
Gladys Truman. 
Loreta Kincaid. 
Paul Thomas. 
Maude Foulk. 
John E. Ikerman. 
Sherrill B. Greene. 
Austa Huntley. 
Helen Goering. 
Eea Boyd. 

Sarah Chryst. » 

Hazel Todd. 
Koila S. Thompson. 
Hazel Brobst. 
Beth Richards. 
Clyde F. Wildman. 
Frances E. Archer. 
George B. Goldner. 
Carl Edmunds. 
Carl Glaser. 

Gertrude Sager. 
Mabel Harsh. 
Irene Park. 
Florence Grimmesey. 
William A. Ritezel. 
Lillian Richards. 
Sadie Mullen. 
Frances Grimmese.y. 
Lida B. Leach. 
Frank Harnar. 
Arthur White. 

Class of 1909. 
Marguerite Mahan. 
Marjorie MeConney. 
Anna C. McFarland. 
Clarissa Mingling. 
Anna Newberry. 
Helen M. Sideis. 
Ethel M. Cauffield. 
Nora Christman. 
Eleanor and Violet (.'ulver. 
Marjory Difford. 
Grace Edwards. 
Grace M. Elliott. 
Edna W. Gorton. 
Helen E. Hunt. 
Katherine Iddings. 
Bertha Izant. 
C. R. Baker. 
W. F. Bartholomew. 
Harrison Burrows. 
Glen E. Dakiu. 
Carl W. Dichl. 
William Haine. 
John Hapgood. 
Edwin Holscher. 
*Stewart Hughes. 
James Izant. 
Crawford Minglin. 
Loris E. Mitchell. 
Peter Mortz. 
Thomas Myers. 
Herbert Otting. 
Clarence Reeves. 
Carl F. Thomas. 

* Died just before g'.-aduation. 


Fkateknity of Tkumbull County Physicians. — Thkodoke 

Shepaed, "Phy'sician." — Women in the Profession. 

— Miraculous Cures. — John W. Seely. — 

John B. Harmon. — Daniel B. Woods. 

— Physicians of Later Times. 

— ^Medical Notes. 

No pbysiciau in Tninibull Comity lias achieved national 
reputation, or discovered any great cures, or done unusual, 
original ■n'ork. However, on tlie whole, they have been an 
earnest, honest set of men, wlio in the early days suffered great 
physical hardships, and in the later have experienced anxiety 
and care unknown to men in other professions. Men from Trum- 
bull County have taken high places in special Avork of cities 
and hospitals, and the record which they have made is worthy 
of all men. In the old time there was more strife among physi- 
cians and their individual followers, just as there was among 
the ministers and their churches, and hiwyers and their clients. 
Today, however, it is surely true that in no county in the state 
does a better fraternal feeling exist than among the doctors of 
the Trumbull Comity j\Iedical Association. 

There were "medicine men" among the Indian tribes of 
this vicinity, and it is barely possible that physicians from 
Pennsylvania were through New Connecticut before the Con- 
necticut Land Comjjauy came. But accompanying the first party 
of surveyors was Theodore Shepard, registered as "physician." 
Dr. Shepard was also here the second summer, 1797. 

The diaries of tlie surveyors scarcely mention this physician 
or the work he did. All seemed to be very well in the begin- 
ning of the survey, but after living for weeks outdoors, sleep- 
ing through a wet season when they were tired and hungry, 
they developed malaria, not our kind of " dumb ague," since 
they sometimes had three, usually two, chills a day. The rec- 



ords state that, being short of mediciue, the people with head- 
quarters at Cleveland used bark of trees and roots, hoping to 
relieve themselves of this disagreeable affliction. At the time 
of the death of a member of the party, one of the sui'veyors 
writes: "He tiirned purple after he died, and Dr. Shepard 
thinks he must have had putrid fever." When the surveyors 
departed in the fall of 1796, this doctor went with them, and 
those who were left depended upon home remedies. A child 
was born to Mrs. Kingsbury during the winter, with no attend- 
ing physician, and some authorities say that Mrs. Gun, of 
Cleveland, had a child, with only a squaw as nurse. 

Few women have lieen in the profession in Trumbull 
County. The tirst, as far as we know, was Dr. Helen Betts, a 
native of Vienna, who studied with Dr. Daniel Wood, practiced 
a little while in Warren, removed to Youngstown, where she 
had a large practice, and later to Boston, where she made a 
name for herself. She still is in active practice. 

Dr. Melvina Abel; Dr. L. Caroline Jones, who practiced 
with her husband, Dr. Allen Jones, of Kinsman ; Dr. Rose Rals- 
ton Ackley, and Dr. Sarah P. Gaston-Frack, of Niles, are the 
women practicing longest in the county. Among the early set- 
tlers women acted often in the place of physicians, instances of 
the same being given in different i^arts of this history. Almost 
every township had such nurse or midwife. Some of their 
recorded deeds are heroic enough to deserve some of the medals 
so graciously bestowed today. They did not get them, nor did 
anyone else ; money was too scarce to waste it in rewards, and 
time too full to think of aught save present duty. We are dis- 
mayed when we read how diseases were treated in the pioneer 
time of the county. For typhoid fever there was calomel, 
bleeding, closed windows. Poultices were used where now 
boracic acid and a clean cloth are the remedies. Victims of 
tuberculosis were advised to avoid cool air and were allowed to 
sleep in a room with many other members of the family. This 
country was supposed to be a place where consumptives got 
well, and many did. It was, as a rule, the people who had the 
least money and the fewest comforts who recovered. The 
reason for this is easily seen. The cabins through which the 
wind blew, and into which the snow fell, and whose logs held not 
the fatal germs, were favoral)le places for tuberculosis patients. 
Twenty years from now, when someone writes the history of 


Trumbull County, he will point to the errors of medicine of this 
time. But not to medicine alone will his tinger point, but to 
theology, to politics, to philanthropy, and even philosophy. One 
has only to read the pages of history to find that many an old 
doctor was in his cups. Today the author does not know one 
drunken doctor in all Trumbull County. 

Stories are recounted in manuscripts and by word of mouth 
of the curing of people in mysterious ways in our early days. 
Students of metaphysics today explain these as being rational 
and natural methods of cure. Then it was mysterious, miracu- 
lous. Now the mental healer teaches that the real person is 
soul, that soul is part of God, that God cannot be seen, and that 
tlirough the action of mind the body may be conrtoUed exactly 
as the clothes are controlled. Whether this be true or not 
twenty years from now will tell. In the meantime we will 
believe it when we are well and make haste to the doctor when 
we are ill. 

An honorable non-sensational resident of Trumbull County 
vouches for the following: In the early days of Warren there 
was a man who had rheumatism. He was bed-ridden. The citi- 
zens were then like persons of one family. They cared for each 
other when sick, when in trouble and distress. For a long time 
Warren people had waited upon this man, giving him food, lift- 
ing him in bed. and doing all they possibly coiild for him. Occa- 
sionally the Indians would get i;gly from too much "fire-water," 
and iii)on one such occasion, when they began to have fighting 
symptoms in the neighborhood, a courier ran into town to tell 
the people that the Indians were about to descend upon them to 
massacre them. Whether this word reached all the inhabitants 
or only a certain proportion is not known, but the neighbors of 
the bed-ridden rheumatic were informed. They ran for their 
lives. When they were some distance out of town one of them 
remembered that they had left the patient to suffer torture alone. 
As they stopped to discuss whether it was wise for them to go 
back for him, they heard a most terrible howling and yelling in 
the woods behind them. Thinking the first of the angry redmen 
were about to descend upon them, they were appalled, but soon 
saw the bed-fast man leaping over logs, swinging his hands in 
the air, and yelling at the top of his lungs. 

We read in the history of Mecca, ])repared by Amoretta 
Bevnolds and a committee, that ^Irs. William Pettis of Mecca 


was an invalid for years. After a time her physician decided 
that if she only so thought she could leave her bed. He, how- 
ever, could not persuade her of this belief. He therefore brought 
with liim one day when he paid liis visit a goodly sized snake 
which he placed between the sheets. "It had the desired effect 
of bringing her to her feet and keeping her there. ' ' 

Mrs. Walter King, whose father, Mr. Holliday, kept a hotel, 
and whose husband o\\'ned the King Block, was a terrible suf- 
ferer from asthma. She was having an unusual attack when a 
great tire in town occurred. They carried her from her home 
thinking to save her life, and in a certain sense they did, for 
she never had another attack of asthma. 

Dr. John W. Seely located in Howland township in 1801. 
Like many of the Warren settlers he was from Pennsylvania. 
In 1802 he brought his family here, and for many years prac- 
ticed within a radius of ten miles. Very little record is left of 
this doctor's professional life. Like all peoj^le of his time he 
was interested in the settlement of the country, enlisted in the 
war of 1812, was made captain and devoted a great deal of his 
spare time to working for the completion of the Ohio canal. He 
died of apoplexy in Akron in March, 1841 when the celebration 
of the opening of the canal was held. 

Among the early settlers of Warren was Enoch Leavitt, for 
wliom Leavittsburg was named. His son Enoch was a young 
man in 1805 when his peojjle came here and not many years 
after that date had a good rejiutation as a physician. It is said 
that Dr. Leavitt used a good deal of calomel, herbs and roots. 
Like Dr. Seeley, little record is left of his professional life. He 
died in 1827 and was buried in Leavittsburg. 

Dr. John B. Harmon was probalily the first doctor to have 
an office and enjoy a good practice in the town of AVarren. His 
father, Eeuben, was an influential citizen, and in 179(3, the year 
that the first surveyors appeared in New Connecticut, bought 
of Samuel H. Parsons tive hundred acres in the Salt Springs 
tract. On this date, John B. began the study of medicine in 
Vermont and the following year the father was making salt from 
the springs. About 1800 the family were residing at Salt 
Springs. It is said that the father, Eeuben, and the son, John 
B., were exactly alike in temperament, and somewhat alike in 
appearance. Tliis family, therefore, were among the first of 
Truml)ull ("oimty ])ioneers. They suffered great hardships and 


all of them were exceedingly brave. The wife "was a resohitc 
capable woman, a))ove average height, of broad niusciilar Imild, 
sociable, cheerful and of iudomital)k^ ])atience and persever- 
ance." In 1806 Reul)eu Harmon returned to Vermont to finish 
some business and took his son John B. with him in order that 
lie might tiuish his studies with Dr. Bhickmer, who was a skilful 
physician of Dorset and his brother-in-law as well. Wlien 
Reuben returned to the Salt Springs tract he found that the 
agent whom he left there had disapjieared with two thousand 
dollars, and he was thus deprived of means to support his family 
through the winter. Not being discouraged, he set in motion 
some new plans, was taken with a fever, and died aged 57, leav 
ing a large family. The stories of the exjieriences of the dif 
ferent members of this family read like the most tictitinus talc 
of romance and adventure. <Jne sister, Clara, married a sou of 
John Leavitt, whom she divorced for intemijerance, later mar- 
ried Dr. John Brown, of New York state. Another sister, Betsey 
Harmon, was twice married, the last time to Albert Opdyke. 
Gen. Emerson Opdyke and Betsey Opdyke, the wife of Oliver 
H. Patch, were two of the children. Another brother, Heman 
Harmon, was identified with the early interests of Warren 
as a merchant, as sheriff, and manufacturer. He married the 
daughter of George Parsons, and had a large family of children, 
all of whom grew u]) here. 

Dr. Harmon was particularly fitted for the life of a i)ioneer 
doctor since he had had a good deal of out-of-door life in ^^er- 
mont. His strong physique and his ability to endure hardships 
served him well. He finislied his study with Dr. Enoch Leavitt 
and located in Warren for general practice in 1808. He ac- 
quired considerable exi)erience in the war of 1812. He was 
commissioned as captain. In his early years he rode his horse 
to the different settlements in old Trumbull County, Cleveland, 
Painesville, Ashtabula, etc. His mother continued to live on 
the Salt S])rings tract for some time. In 1816 he built a home 
for himself in Warren and for a long time had different mem- 
bers of his family and friends as housekeeper. He had numer- 
ous accidents happen him in his practice, such as severely in- 
juring his back in falling from his horse. Pie injured his back 
and legs in a runaway and was left lying in the snow for a long- 
time before assistance arrived. He had an o])erati()n for tumor 
"beneath the deep pectoral muscle," from which he neai-ly died. 


He "was sued foi- malpractice in 1838, Dr. John "W. 
and Sylvauus Seely being made parties. Joshua E. Gid- 
diugs, Benjamin F. Wade, SutlitT and Eanney prosecuted, 
■while David Tod and R. P. Spaulding defended. Prob- 
ably there has never been a ease tried in Trumbull 
County for malpractice in which the physicians and at- 
torneys were all men of such note and ability. The charges were 
not proved, but the expense was so large that we are told "he 
paid more for his lawyers and other expenses connected with 
the trial thau he ever made from surgery." Like the other 
pioneer doctors, he learned to sleep on his horse, in his sulkey, 
and to do without sleej) entirely for many hours together. There 
is a romance told of an early disappointment in love as there 
has been of men in all times, sometimes with triath, sometimes 
not. However, later upon the recommendation of friends and 
by letter he became engaged to Sarah Dana of Connecticut and 
married her in 1822 at Pembroke, N. Y. He drove there in a 
double sleigh and brought her home. She was a fond wife, a 
good companion, a tender mother of his children, looked after 
their education, and her especial recreation was in the raising 
of beautiful flowers. Dr. Harmon died of pleuro-pneumonia in 
1858, his wife living ten years longer. 

Sylvanus, the son of Dr. John W. Seely, born in Pennsyl- 
vania in 1795, read medicine with his father. In the war of 
1812 he entered the service and worked with Dr. John B. Har- 
mon, being present with him at the attack of Fort Mackinaw. 
Having married a Virginia woman he went there to practice for 
a while, but returned to Warren and lived here the rest of his 
life. His widow Mary lived for over iifty years in the house 
next the present tire department, opposite the former brick 
schoolhouse on Park avenue. It is still standing and is one of 
the oldest Warren residences. He died in 1849, having estab- 
lished a good reputation and practice. He was the father of 
Mrs. Cyrus Van Gorder and the grandfather of Mrs. John 

It is to be regretted that these early physicians had not 
more of the habits of the Connecticut surveyors, as the latter 
kept notes and records of all their doings. 

Among the early physicians practicing between the years 
1840-1861 was Dr. Farreil. We have been unable to ascertain 
anything about his work except that he is kindly spoken of by 


hi-s cotemporaries. Other pliysiciaus of his time were Dr. Enoch 
Blattsley, Dr. Kuhu. Dr. D. W. Jameson, Dr. Xiohols. Dr. Will- 
iam Paiue. 

Possibly the doctor \Yho was best kiioAvu for the longest 
period of time was Daniel B. Woods. He was of German de- 
scent, his father going from Pennsylvania to Youngstown, set- 
tling near Mill Creek. Dr. Woods was the oldest of the family 
and at the age of sixteen began his studies at Allegheny Col- 
lege. He did not graduate, having stopped at the beginning of 
the last term. He first practiced with Dr. J. A. Packard in 
Anstintown. He attended a regular course at the Ohio Medical 
College at Cincinnati, receiving there his degree of M. D. He 
opened his office then in Warren, where he resided until his 
death. He was astute in his profession, and in the world at 
large. His gentle manner assisted him greatly in his practice. 
At this date, people say that he used some of the methods now 
employed by mental healers. AVhether this is authentic or not 
we do not know. He is said to have been one of the first men in 
this region to use ether in surgical operations. He did not 
specialize. He was a regular physician and had little patience 
with any modified school. He was a familiar figure in the com- 
munity and his several horses were known throughout the 
county. He drove long distances at all times of year, and being 
an ardent Democrat, as important elections approached, one 
might meet him in the country, his horse jogging on, taking its 
natural gait, while he perused the paper. He had the faculty of 
making his patients feel that he could make no mistakes. 
He had a large family of children, had many sorrows 
and disappointments, Imt he never dwelt upon them. He 
either had the ability of dismissing them from his mind, or at 
least appearing so to do. He did the same with his patients. 
His wife, Phoebe Holliday, survived him by many years and 
died at the home of her daughters, Dr. Elizabeth' and Emma 
Woods, in Toledo. His son Dal was well prepared for his pro- 
fession, and practiced with his father. His daughter Elizabeth 
is one of the leading i^hysicians of Toledo. 

Dr. Julian Harmon, a son of Dr. John B. Harmon, was born 
in 1824, graduated at the Western Eeserve College, at the Cleve- 
land Medical College and practiced with his father rmtil 1854. 
After that he formed a partnership with Dr. J. P. Smith at one 
time and Dr. Metcalf another time. His early practice was uu- 


der severe conditions. Physicians Avere not plenty, roads were 
bad, and be often rode in tbe mud and in tbe snow a good part 
of the waking hours of a day. He was not nearly so rugged as 
bis father and was induced in 1865 to go into the drug busi- 
ness. The year of 1868 was a memorable one for him in that he 
lost sixteen thousand dollars, a large sum for those times, in tbe 
failure of his business, and at the same time bis wife died. She 
was a cousin of Frederick Kinsman and a popular, helpful 
woman. He and Dr. Metcalf dissolved partnership in 1875. He 
occupied the old Harmon office, situated on the rear of the lot 
where the Harmon house now stands. When his youngest child, 
Julian Harmon, was admitted to practice, they were associated 
together for a time. Dr. Harmon enjoyed a large practice 
among the residents of the city. He was oi^timistic, gentle, and 
successful. He had a long and painful illness, suffering from a 
cancer. He married a second wife in 1871, Mary E. Bostwick, 
of Canfield, by whom he had two sons, the elder one dying in 
1881. '\Vlien he died be left two daughters by the tirst wife, one 
son by the second. Dr. Julian Harmon, the younger, having died 
before him. Olive, the youngest daughter, has successfully 
managed the property which was left her, largely from her 
mother's side, and is a musician of fine education. 

One of the best known physicians of the Trumbull County 
Medical Society is L. G. Moore of Kinsman. He has lived in 
that town all his life and been identified with its interests. He 
was born in Kinsman in 1819, received his early education at the 
Kinsman Academy, spent a year at the Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, and one year at Ann Arbor, Michigan. His medical 
preceptor was Dr. Allen Jones, who is well remembered as a 
physician and a legislator. Dr. Moore spent one year at Belle- 
vue Hospital Medical College in New York City, and graduated 
at Long Island Hospital and Medical College in 1873. He has 
practiced in Kinsman for thirty-sis years, and although not a 
specialist, he has given a great share of his time outside of gen- 
eral practice to the diseases of women. 

Dr. Eose Ealston Ackley was born in 1860 in Marion county, 
Iowa. Moving to Ohio, she received her school education at 
Howard, Knox county. She studied medicine at the Cleveland 
University of Medicine and Surgery, now the Cleveland Home- 
opathy College, graduating in 1896. She practiced in Cleve- 
land at the Dispensary for Women and Chiklren, until she came 


to AVarreD, where she had a general practice. She is the only 
woman physician in Warren, is an active member of the Disciple 
church, and is the wife of Thad Ackley, who has been in busi- 
ness many years in Warren. 

Dr. J. S. Brown of Mecca, who has been a member of the 
pension examining board since 1897, was born in New York 
City in 1854. His common-school education was obtained in 
Mecca; he attended the Dennisou University, at Granville, Ohio, 
and graduated at Colgate University, in Hamilton, New York. 
Studying medicine with Dr. H. S. Smith, who at that time lived 
in Mecca, he graduated at Cleveland iu 1882. He has practiced 
in this town all the years of his professional life, and has given 
special attention to the diseases of children. 

Thomas H. Stewart, of Churchill, was the son of Dr. V. (1. 
Stewart. He received his early school education at Murrys- 
ville, Pennsylvania, where he was born in 1838. He graduated 
from Jefferson College, Cannonsburg, Penns3dvania, in 1863. 
Three years later he received the degree of A. M. from this in- 
stitution ; entered the medical department of the University of 
Michigan in 1869 ; began the practice of medicine the next year 
at Churchill. He was in active practice until two years ago, 
when he was obliged to go south during the winter for his 
health. Dr. Stewart is one of the oldest of Trumbull County's 
doctors. He was a member of the Ohio legislature in 1867-68 
and in 1886-89. He is a Mason, an official in the Methodist 
church at Churchill, and was at one time president of the Trum- 
bull County Medical Society. 

Dr. D. E. Hoover, one of the most successful of the yoimg 
physicians of Warren, was born at North Benton, Ohio, in 1871, 
where he received his academic education. His father and 
brother are both physicians and the family have lived in Alliance 
during the late years. Dr. Hoover attended Mount Union Col- 
lege and graduated in medicine at the Western Eeserve Uni- 
versity in Cleveland in 1895. He spent a year and a half at 
the Cleveland City Hospital, was interne at Bellevue Hospital 
in New York for two months, and one year at the general hos- 
pital in Vienna, Austria. His professional life aside from that 
has been entirely spent in Warren, where he came in 1896. 

W. H. Button was born in Warren township in 1858. His 
academic education was had at the center of Nelson. He at- 
tended both Hiram College and the Western Eeserve University 


at Clevelaud. ile studied iiiediciiie witli Dr. E. J. Goodsell of 
Nelson aud Dr. Julian Harmon of AVarreu. He graduated in 
medicine at the AVestern Eeserve University in Cleveland. His 
professional life has been spent in Trumbull County with the 
exception of two years; ])i'acticed five years in Burghill, five 
years in Brookfield, two years in Parkman. thirteen years in 

Among the older doctois of Trumbull County is J. U. Lati- 
mer of West Farmington. He was born in Wellington, Ohio, 
in 1836; was educated at Rock Creek, and studied medicine there 
also. His preceptor was Dr. Mills, and he graduated at the 
E. M. Institute at Cincinnati, Ohio, iii 1868. At different times 
he practiced in Rock C'reek and Lenox, both in Ashtabula county; 
LeMoore, California, and twenty-seven years at West Farming- 
ton, Ohio. 

Dr. C. C. Williams, of Niles, Ohio, was born in Lisbon in 
1863. In this ])rett}" town he received his common-school edu- 
cation, and attended Mount Union College. His medical educa- 
tion was received at Ann Arbor, the University of Michigan, 
where he graduated in 1890. His professional life has been 
spent in Niles, Ohio, where he is in general practice, though 
much interested in surgery. 

Dr. Sarah Gaston Frack is the only woman physician in 
Niles. She has a large and lucrative practice, and is a credit 
to her profession. She was born in Atlantis, Pennsylvania, in 
1869. Her common-school education was obtained in Utica, 
Pennsylvania. She graduated from the Edinboro State Normal 
School and attended Allegheny College at Meadville, aud Oberlin 
College, Ohio. Before she entered college she studied medicine 
under Dr. Susan F. Rose, of Meadville, Pennsylvania. In 1895 
she graduated from the Cleveland Homeopathic Medical and 
Surgical College. She practiced for a short time in Detroit, 
Michigan, before settling in Niles. Two or three years ago she 
married Evan Frack, and has continued her practice since. 

Dr. H. A. Fiester was born at East Lewiston, Ohio, and is 
in general practice at Newton Falls. His father. Dr. J. N. 
Fiester, was his preceptor, and later he studied in the Cleveland 
College for Physicians and Surgeons. Aside from a common 
education in the Newton Falls schools, he took a general course 
in Oberlin and AVooster Universities. 

Dr. Daniel G. Simpson is one of the younger and successful 


Warren physioiaus. His native place was Grove City, Pennsyl- 
vania, wliere he was born iu 1871. He attended the district 
scliool of Pine township. Mercer county, and Grove City College. 
At the latter place he received the degree of A. B. in 1894 and 
of A. M. in 1898. He studied two years in tlie University of 
Michigan and two years in the University of Illinois school of 
medicine. A few years since Dr. Simpson married Miss IjuIu 
Couzett, one of the successful teachers of the Wari'en schools. 

C. C. Tidd, M. D., of Mineral Ridge, was a native of ( 'lai-ks- 
ville, Mercer county, Pennsylvania. He was born in 187."). lie 
has been in general practice in Mineral Eidge for eight years. 
His general education was obtained in the Clarksville ])ubli(' 
schools and high school. He graduated from the Western 
Reserve Medical College in Cleveland in 1899. He spent three 
years at Oberlin College. He practiced one year in Clarksville. 
his home town, and six months he was physician iu charge of the 
Children's Fresh Air Cam]! at Cleveland. 

Dr. L. G. Leland has })racticed in Trumbull and Ashtaluila 
counties, and now resides at Newton Falls, where he is in active 
practice. He was born in Windsor, Ohio, in 1860. Aside from 
his common-school education, he studied at Grand Prairie Semi- 
nary, Onarga, Illinois, and at the Western Reserve University, 
Cleveland, Ohio. He graduated from the medical department 
of the last named university in 1883. 

Dr. Clarence S. Ward, who was born in Geneva, Ashtabula 
county, in 185-I-, attended school there during his early child- 
hood. His father having moved to Warreu, he attended the 
high school, graduating in the class of 1871. He commenced 
the study of medicine with Dr. Henry McQuiston. He gradu- 
ated from the University of Michigan medical department, hav- 
ing received the degree ad eundem from Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College. In the early years of Dr. Ward's jiractice 
he was associated with D. B. Wood, and did post-graduate work 
rejieatedly in New York and the Philadelphia Polyclinic. He 
did hospital work in New York City, but his practice has been 
entirely in Warren. Although he has been much interested in 
surgery and performed some very delicate operations, he con- 
siders himself a general practitioner only. 

Dr. John I. King was born in Harrison townsliiji. Grant 
county, Wisconsin, in 1848. He spent his early life in Cali- 
fornia, Washington and Ohio. He attended the district schools, 


was five years at Alleglieny College, at Meadville, beginning 
the study of medicine in 1867. His preceptor was David Best, 
M. D. He attended two courses of lectures, six months each, at 
the medical department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 
He received his degree of Doctor of Medicine at Bellevue Hos- 
pital Medical College in 1873. That same year he began prac- 
tice in Greece City, Butler county, Pennsylvania. The next 
year he located in Burghill. He married Emoinda C. Brown 
in 1882 ; she died in 1889 leaving one child, Eliza Jane. He again 
married in 1891, his wife being Mrs. Addie J. Fitch. That same 
year lie went to Martel, Marion county, Ohio, returning to Burg- 
hill five yeai's ago, where he resumed his practice of medicine. 

Dr. John McCartney has practiced medicine in Girard for 
many years. He studied with Isaac Barclay and graduated 
from tlie Cleveland Medical College in 1861. In 1872 he mar- 
ried Sarah Packard, daughter of John Crum. Later he mar- 
ried Sophia Hauser, and she too died a few years since. 

Dr. Charles W. Thomas, one of the most successful of the 
younger doctors of Warren, was boi'n in Cleveland in 1877. His 
education was had in his home town, having attended the public 
schools, the high school, and Adelbert College. He received the 
degree A. B. from the latter institution, and his medical degree 
from the "Western Beserve University. He came to "Warren to 
have charge of Dr. Hoover's office, when the latter spent a year 
in Eurojie, and he has since resided here. He was married soon 
after settling here, and has three little children. 

Dr. Martin S. Mayliew is one of the oldest doctors in Trum- 
bull County, being a year younger than Dr. Latimer, and a year 
older than Dr. Stewart. His whole life has been spent in this 
county and his education had here, except his medical educa- 
tion. He attended the Bristol district schools, the seminary at 
Parmington. He studied medicine with Dr. C. T. Metcalf of 
Bristol, and in •1865 graduated from the University of Michi- 
gan. His practice has been in Trimilnill County, first in Bris- 
tol, then in Johnston, and then in Cortland. Dr. and Mrs. May- 
hew have both been interested in and identified with the welfai'e 
of Cortland. 

Dr. M. L. Williams is a Trumbull County man in every 
sense of the word. He has practiced in Warren twenty-one 
years. Before that he spent seventeen years in his profession 
at A'ienna. He was born in the latter town in 18-1-9. attended 


school there and at "Warreu, his college education being had at 
Hiram. He studied medicine -^ith R. P. Hayes, M. D., ■who prac- 
ticed so long in Vienna, and graduated at the University of 
^Michigan in 1871. 

Dr. J. Ward of Cortland has practiced fourteen years in 
that town. He is a Pennsj'lvanian by birth, having been born 
in Venango county in 1859. His common-school education was 
had in Crawford county. He studied medicine in Meadville, 
graduating from the medical department of the Western Re- 
serve University in 1885. He began his practice in his native 
state, tirst in Crawford county, then six years at Alton, one year 
in Randolph, Xew York. From Alton he removed to Cortland, 
where he has since resided. 

Dr. E. E. Brinkerhoft" of Bristolville was one of ten sons. 
He was educated in the common-schools of Grand Alew, Illinois, 
attended the high school at Leiianon, Illinois, Eureka College. 
read medicine in Dudley, same state, and graduated from the 
Medical Institute at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 188(3. He practiced for 
a year and a half in Youngstown, when he moved to Bristol- 
ville, where he has since resided. Dr. Brinkerhoft" 's practice is 
necessarily rural, but he gives s]iecial attention to diseases of 
women and children. 

Dr, Archibald F. Swaney is one of the few doctors in Trum- 
bull County who were born in a Southern state. His native 
town was New Cumberland, West Virginia. Here he attended 
the co]nmon-schools, graduating from the high school in 1893. 
He graduated from Ohio Medical University at Cohmibus in 
1903. He studied medicine and surgery under T. ]\I. Haskins, at 
Haskins Hospital, Wheeling, West ^'irginia, and located at 
Niles, Ohio, where he enjoys a lucrative practice. 

Chaxies T. Swaney, a brother of A. F. Swaney, was like- 
wise born in New Cumberland, West Virginia, in 1871. He was 
educated in the common-schools of New Cumberland, studied 
medicine with A. D. Mercer, M. D., of his home town. Gradu- 
ated at the Starling Medical College, Columbus. (Jhio, in 1897. 
Took a post-graduate course in medicine at the New York Post- 
Graduate Medical School in 1903. Has practiced in Niles since 

Frederick Kinsman Smith, M. D.. was Ixirn in "Warren in 
1858. He belongs to one of the oldest families of the city, has 
been identified, himself, with its interests. His father, Edward 


Smith, is the ohlest merchant in Warren, and his motlier was a 
member of the celebrated Pease family. Dr. Smith graduated 
from the public schools, from the Western Reserve College, 
and the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. He spent some 
time in Europe pursuing his studies, and was in general practice 
in Allouez, Michigan ; Calumet, Michigan ; Cleveland, Ohio, and 
some years since removed to Warren. Although he is in gen- 
eral practice, he has specialized in diseases of the eye, ear and 
throat, giving particular attention to the eyes. He is the only 
physician in Warren, practicing at this time, who was born here. 

C. L. Moore, M. D., was born in Beaver, Mercer county, 
Pennsylvania, in 1873. Aside from his common-school educa- 
tion, he attended the McElwain Institute two years, received the 
degree of B. S. from the Fredonia Institute in Mercer county in 
1893. Studied his profession under Dr. E. H. Jewett, of Cleve- 
land, and received his medical degree from the Cleveland Home- 
opathic Society in 1899. Did post-graduate work in the New 
York IIomeo]nithic Medical College in 1905, and at Cleveland 
City Hospital in 1908. He practiced six months in Guernsey 
county, since then at Burghill, Ohio. 

Dr. C. W. Lane, now residing in West Warren, was a native 
of Michigan, having been born at Caro. He obtained his school 
education at Vassar City, graduating from New Lyme Insti- 
tute. His collegiate work was done at the Western Reserve 
University, from which he graduated. He received his medical 
diploma from the Western Reserve College. He first practiced 
in Cleveland, and since then in Warren. 

Dr. W. A. Werner was born in 1856 in Lordstown ; went 
to district school in North Jackson for a little time. When he 
was eight years old his parents moved to Youngstown, and he 
finished his education in that city, graduating at the Rayen high 
school in 1873. He attended Western Reserve College, then at 
Hudson, graduating in 1877; taught school for five years, four 
years in Youngstown. Studied his profession at the Cleveland 
Medical College, graduating in 1885. Began his practice in 
Youngstown, lived at Austintown later, and his practice was of 
course rural ; then moved to Niles, where his business has since 

Dr. J. H. Leaming began practicing his profession in Niles 
but is now in Vienna. His whole life has been spent in Trum- 
bull county. Born at Hartford in 1869, he received his common- 


school education in that towu. He attended college at Cleveland 
and studied in the Cleveland Medical ( 'ollege, graduating iii 

Although I)]-, (ieorge K. Miniiicli is not an Ohio man ))y 
birth, he has lived in the state most of his adult life. His birtli- 
l^lace was New Wilmington, Pennsylvania; his birth year 1S71. 
His education was i-eceived in the New Wilmington ])ub]ic 
schools, and Westminster College. His prece|)tors were Dr. 
F. E. Bunts and vSurgeon (i. W. ('rile of Cleveland. He gradu- 
ated from the medical department of the University of Wooster 
in 1893. He ])racticed one year in Cleveland, two years in 
Congo, twelve years in West Farmington, where he still resides. 

Jesse E. Thompson naturally chose the profession of medi- 
cine because his father was a physician. The latter acted as his 
preceptor. He was born in Cortland in 1876, received his early 
education in the Cortland and Bristol schools. He studied at 
Mount Hermon, Massachusetts, and Ohio State University. Like 
most of the doctors of Trumbull county, he received his medical 
training at the Western Beserve University, graduating in ]!t04. 
He enjoys a good practice at Bristolville. 

Albert AV. Thompson has practiced during his itrofessional 
life entirely in Truml)ull County. He was born in 1845 at Bris- 
tol and has practiced there and in Cortland. At present his son 
is associated with him in the former place. He was educated in 
the Bristol schools and West Farmington Seminary. His first 
studies were conducted under the supervision of Dr. A. J. 
Broekett of Bristolville, and were finished at the medical col- 
lege in Cleveland, now the Western Reserve University. 

Dr. George J. Smith is a native of Ohio, having been Ijorn in 
Cincinnati, May 8, 1875. His early life was spent in Birming- 
ham, Alal)ama, where he attended school. Later he attended 
the Pittsburg high school, graduated at the Pittsburg College, 
and attended the University of Western Pennsylvania, gradu- 
ating from the medical de])artment in 1898. He was house phy- 
sician at St. Francis Hospital one year, since which time he has 
been ]iracticing in Niles. 

Dr. D. R. Williams, of (xirard, is a native of Iowa. He was 
born in that state in 1864. He had a common-school education 
in the Hubbard district and high school, attended Mount Union 
College; received his medical education at the Western Reserve 
University, graduating in 1891 at the Starling Medical School, 


Columbus, Oliio. He began practice iu Iowa, stayed there three 
years, but for the last fifteen years has resided in Girard. 

Dr. Andrew J. Eathburn is a native of Tnimbull County, 
having spent most of his professional life here also. He was 
born in Hartford in 1835; attended common-schools in Hart- 
ford. He studied medicine with Dr. F. F. Donaldson, Green- 
ville, Pennsylvania ; also with Dr. Daniel B. "Woods of Warren, 
and J. Y. James of Sharon. He attended lectures at the Buffalo 
Medical College in 1865 and 1866, "Western Eeserve College in 
1866-67, and passed the medical examination by the Ohio state 
medical examining board. He took a post-graduate course in 
therapeutics and surgery in Chicago. He followed his profes- 
sion thirty-four years in Brookfield and Hubbard. He prac- 
ticed twelve years iu Youugstown and the last nine years in 
Hartford. He is a member of the Ohio Eclectic Association. 

Dr. L. M. "Wright is a native of Pennsylvania. Since the 
formation of the township of Brookfield many of the residents 
have come from the state directly on the east. Dr. "Wright's 
home town was Bakerstown, where he was born in 1875. He 
received his common-school education in Philadelphia and 
Bethel, Pennsylvania. He attended "Westminster College at 
New "Wilmington, where he received his degree of A. B. Gradu- 
ated from Marion-Sims Medical College, St. Louis, Missouri, 
and began practicing at Mention, of that state. His later prac- 
tice has been at Brookfield, Ohio. 

One of the young doctors of "Warren is John C. Heushaw, 
whose native town is Coalport, this state. He received his com- 
mon-school education at Sharon, Pennsylvania, and his degree 
B. S. from Hall Institute. He entered Pulte Medical College, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1893, receiving his degree of M. D. in 1896. 
The first ten years of his professional life were spent at Vienna, 
and three and one-half years in Warren. He is a member of the 
Ohio State Medical Society, and the American ]iledical Asso- 

L. S. Moore Jr. is one of the younger doctors of the county. 
He was born in Kinsman, attended common and high school in 
that town, afterwards going to Stanford University. His 
medical education was received at the Western Eeserve Uni- 
versity. Dr. Moore graduated from the University in 1906; 
spent fifteen months in the Cleveland City Hospital, and in 1907 


began practice iu Kinsman, where his father had long l)een one 
of the leading physicians. 

Dr. T. M. Sabin, one of the oldest practitioners iu Warren, 
was born at Mayfield, Cuyahoga county, in 1850. He received 
his education in the ]\Iayfield common-schools, and in the acad- 
emy of that town. His home was in the section of the township 
now known as "Gates Mills." He received his collegiate educa- 
tion at the Western Eeserve University, graduating from the 
medical department iu 1875. Before that he had studied medi- 
cine with Dr. A. H. Davis, of Willoughby. He began his prac- 
tice at Willoughby, spent three years in Iowa recruiting his 
health, took up practice in Bedford, and then came to Warren, 
where most of his i^rofessional life has been spent. He is a 
]\[ason, a member of the ^letliodist church, was at one time on 
the board of j^eusion examiners, and enjoys a lucrative practice. 

Dr. J. P. Claypole of Xiles is a native of Kentucky, having 
l)een born in Marysville in 1869. He graduated from the Hahne- 
mann Medical College of Philadelphia in 1893, having received 
his common-school education in Youngstown and his medical 
education under the instruction of Dr. McGranagan. He prac- 
ticed in Youngstown from 1893 to 1896, tlien removed to Bed- 
ford, Pennsylvania, where he stayed three years, and settled 
in Xiles in 1899, where he continues to practice. 

Dr. G. B. McCurley, who was born in the centennial year, 
has spent his life in Cortland. Here he was born, educated, and 
practices his profession. He attended the Hahnemann Medical 
College at Chicago, graduating in 1899. For a time he studied 
with Dr. 0. A. Palmer, of Warren, since which time he has prac- 
ticed in Cortland. 

Dr. S. C. Clisby is a Trumbull County man, having been 
born in Gustavus in 1872. His tirst education was obtained in 
the district school of that township. He prepared for college at 
New LjT^ne Institute, receiving his A. B. degree at Adelbert Col- 
lege, and his doctor's degree at the Western Eeserve University 
of Cleveland. He began practicing in 1901 in Kinsman and has 
continued to reside there. 

Dr. Hubert L. Boot, a native of Kinsman, was born in 1867. 
He attended the Kinsman schools, the Kinsman Academy, and 
graduated at the Starling Medical College, Columbus, Ohio. He 
began his practice in Kinsman and continues there. 

Dr. Herbert A. Sherwood has been the longest in practice 

333 ]ITST01;Y 01-^ TIU'^rBl'LL rOT-XTY 

of any doctor in "Warren. He was liorn on a farm in Fredericks- 
town in 1851. Like most rnral residents, he attended district 
school and the Fredericktown high school. He also studied 
medicine in the same town, his preceptor being Dr. E. M. Hall. 
He graduated in 1876 from the Cleveland Homeopathic College. 
He located in Warren the same year, where he has enjoyed a 
large and lucrative practice. He is a member of the American 
Medical Association, the Ohio Medical Society, the American 
Institute of Homeopathy, and the Ohio Homeoj^athic Society. 

Dr. "\V. F. Horton is a native of Trumlmll County. He was 
born in Cortland in 1865. His primary education was had at 
Fowler Center. Later he studied in the schools in Cleveland, 
and for a short time at Hiram College. He had no preceptor, 
but studied medicine as he taught school. Three different years 
he attended the Medical Institiite at Cincinnati, graduating- in 
1893. His professional life has been spent at Cortland, where 
he enjoys a good practice. 

Dr. C. M. Bice of Newton Falls not only stands well in his 
profession but as a citizen as well. He was liorn in Palmyra 
in 1857 ; obtained his common-school education at Xewton Falls, 
Cleveland, and New York. Graduated from the Western Re- 
serve Medical College in 188rl-, and has spent his professional 
life in Newton Falls. His father was his preceptor, and the 
fact that he was associated with him was of great assistance to 
Dr. Rice. 

Dr. James McMurray was born in Sliarpsville, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1848. He was educated in the Sliarpsville schools and 
in the State Normal School at Edinboro, Pennsylvania. He 
studied medicine under the direction of his father in Sliarps- 
ville and graduated from the Medical College of Ohio in 1875. 
His professional life has been spent in Hubbard. 

Dr. W. S. Thompson of Girard is a native of Ohio, having 
been born at Harland Springs in 1870. He is now practicing 
at Girard and has been since 1892. He received his education in 
his home town, taking, at the end, a three years' course in the 
college located at Harland Springs. He graduated at seventeen, 
and taught four years thereafter. Studied with Dr. A. P. 
Albaugh of Kilgore for a year and a half. Took a three years' 
course in the Starling Medical College of Columbus, graduating 
in 1896. Practiced in his home town a little more than six years 
and then moved to Girard. 


Dr. <j. A. Huntley, now practicing- in Greene, is a Trumbull 
County man. He was born in Bloomfield in 1871, and received 
his common-school education in that town. He attended Hiram 
College, studied with 0. A. Huntley, and in 1895 graduated from 
the Western Reserve University. He practiced for a little time 
in Copley, Sunmiit county, before going to Greene. 

Dr. W. S. Bond, of Hubbard, is a native of Ashtabula 
county, having- been liorn at Rock Creek in 18G1. His early edu- 
cation was obtained in that town and in 1900 he graduated from 
the Starling Medical College at Columbus. That same year he 
began practice at Hubbard, where he continues to reside. 

Dr. O. A. Huntley, who has spent most of his professional 
life in North Bloomlield and who has been identified with the 
business interests there as well, was born in Sharon, Medina 
county, Ohio, in 1842. He received his early education in the 
district school, and the academy at Granger, Medina county. He 
' studied medicine with Rufus Randall, of Bath, Summit county, 
Ohio, and at the medical college in Colmnbus, finishing in 1866. 

Dr. Harlan M. Page, the junior ])artner of Sabin & Page, 
was born in Ross, Michigan, in 1864. He was educated in the 
high school at Bedford, went to the University of Michigan, and 
graduated at Hiram College in 1890. He studied medicine at 
the Western Reserve University at Wooster, and at Jefferson 
^Medical College, graduating from the latter place. He taught 
his profession in Hiram College, after liis graduation, and prac- 
ticed in that town with great success. He married Addie Zol- 
lars, the daughter of President ZoUars of Hiram College. A 
few years since he came to Warren, where he has engaged in 
general practice, specializing in certain diseases of the eye. Dr. 
Page is a memlier of and an officer in the Disciple church. 

Alfred L. Albertson was born in 1848 in New Jersey. His 
parents were Pennsylvanians, and in 1868 he began the study of 
medicine with Dr. Kerr in Philadeljihia, and took a course of lec- 
tures at the Jefferson Medical College. He also had a course in 
Cincinnati. He early practiced in Newton Falls, then removed 
to Cleveland. He married a daughter of Dr. Rice of Newton 
Falls, and they reside in Warren, although the Doctor continues 
his practice in Cleveland. 

The following are also members of the Trumlmll County 
Medical Society, but the author has been unable to obtain any 
information in regard to their lives and work : 


Dr. David S. Lillibridge, Mesopotamia. 

Dr. H. S. Brown, Niles. 

Dr. F. J. Eitterspach, Niles. 

Dr. Henry V. Ormerod, Niles. 

Dr. Thomas 0. Clingan, Niles. 

Dr. H. McA. Mealy, Newton Falls. 

Dr. Charles A. Martin, North Bloomiiekl. 

Dr. C. S. Fenton, Orangeville. 

Dr. W. C. Holbrook, Orangeville. 

Dr. E. M. Bancroft, Phalanx. 

Dr. E. L. Wrentmore, West Farmington. 

Dr. AYesley P. Arner, Fowler. 

Dr. John F. Keeiie, Gnstavns. 

Dr. Charles "\V. Banks, Hartford. 

Dr. John M. Elder, Mineral Eidge. 

Dr. C. A. Archer, Warren. 

Dr. M. I. Hatfield, Warren. 

Dr. J. M. Scoville, Warren. 

Dr. G. N. Simpson, Warren. 

Dr. W. D. Cunningham, Girard. 

Dr. F. C. Hunt, Girard. 

Dr. G. E. Stevenson, Hubbard. 

Although Dr. Dudly Allen of Cleveland is not a Trumbull 
County man, we like to claim him, as we do Dr. Benj. Millikin, 
the well known eye and ear specialist of Cleveland. 

The following are clippings from old newspapers which may 
interest readers : 

Trump of Fame, June 16, 1812. "In conformity to the 
laws of the state of Ohio, regulating the practice of physic 
and surgery, a number of the members of the Medical So- 
ciety of the Sixth District, convened at Warren, Trmnbull 
County, Ohio, on Monday, the 1st day of June, when — 

"Doet. John W. Seely was chosen chairman; Doct. 
David Long, secretary, and Doct. Shadrack Bostwick, 

"The society then proceeded to elect members to meet 
the general convention at Chillicothe, on the first Monday of 
November next, and the following persons were chosen, 
viz.: Docts. Charles Dutton, Peter Allen, and Joseph De- 


"The following question -n-as then propounded for the 
discussion of the society at their next meeting, viz. : ' From 
whence and in what manner does the blood issue that is ex- 
pectorated in pleurisy that terminates favorably?' 

"The meeting then adjourned to meet again at AVarreu 
on the tirst Monday of February next. 

•'John W. Seeley, Chairman. 
"David Loxg, Sec." 

Dr. B. Austin advertises in the Chronicle in 1840. 

Advertisement, Jan. 28, 1840, J. H. McBride, Indian 
physician. Office one door south Charles Smith's store. 

Dr. S. Woodin, dentist, advertises March 2, 1811. 

Dr. J. S. Kuhn, eye specialist, Feb. 23, 1841. 

Doct. J. Lloyd of Liberty, Trumbull County, Ohio, pro- 
poses to cure the following diseases : hydrophobia, epilepsy. 
Xo cure, no pay. (1844) 

Trumbull County ]\redical Society, 1840, A. Hartmau, 

Dr. D. B. Woods, married to Miss Phebe L. Ilalliday, 
by Eev. A. G. Sturges, on May 12, 1842. 

Daniel Wannemaker writing from Albert Lea, Minn., 
July 31, 1885, to the Chronicle, says: "He (old Dr. J. B. 
Harmon) more than tifty years ago pulled a tooth for me, 
in the siunmer of 1834. I foimd him at the old court house. 
Then he took an old dull jacknife and cut around the tooth. 
That hurt some, but I was a boy then and had not learned to 
chew tobacco, but I could take a pretty stiff horn of whisky, 
a conmion article in every family. ' ' 

Meeting of doctors, in October 27, 1818, Jno. B. Har- 
mon, sec. 

Notice of medical meeting for the last Tuesdav in Oc- 
tober, 1827. 

Meeting of Medical Society of May 27, 1828. Jolm M. 
Seely was elected president; C. C. Cook, vice president; 
Charles Dutton, treasurer, and John B. Harmon, secretary. 
Homer Tylee received a diploma. Dr. Haney Manning was 
appointed delegate to attend a convention held in Columbus, 
and John Truesdale a beneficiary to attend a course of lec- 
tures for the year 1828. 

Thomas Sherwood. I\r. D., had poem in Chronicle in 

3(j HISTOKV OF 'I'ld MIUJ.L (01 MT 

lu 1861 filled teeth '-ATitli .i^-old for 50c, with tinfoil fur 

Medical Society met at llowlaud Spi'ings with Dr. J. 
Harmon as secretary', Aug. 2, 187(i. 

AVm. Heaton commenced i)ractice of medicine in AVar- 
ren, 1819. 

Medical Notice. Dr. Ashael Brainard and Geo. R. 
Espey were examined Nov. 2, 1820: Dr. Brainard 's theme 
was on Fever; Espey 's on Dysentery. They were given di- 
plomas. John M. Seely, pres. ; John B. Harmon, see. ; 
Charles Dutton, treas. 

In 1860 Dr. Warren Iddings allowed patent for im- 
provement on embalming of dead bodies. The Chronicle 
wishes him to reap a rich harvest from his invention. 

1861, Drs. Harmon and Smith of AYarren offer sei-\dces 
free to the families of all who go to fight for the mainte- 
nance of the government. 


Masons. — Odd Fellows. — Knights of Pythias. 

Ill the year 1803 a number of "Free and Accepted Ancient 
York Masons" residing in Trumbull County detemiined to 
establish a lodge of the order in Warren. Samuel Tylee, Martin 
Smith, Tryal Tanner, Camden Cleveland, Solomon Griswold, 
Aaron Wheeler, John Walworth, Charles Button, Arad Way, 
Gideon Hoadlay, Ezekiel Hover, Turhaud Kirtland, John 
Leavitt, William Raven, George Phelps, James B. Root, James 
Bunscombe, Samuel Spencer, Joseph BeWolf, Baniel Bushnell, 
Calvin Austin, and Asael Adams petitioned the Grand Lodge 
of Connecticut (most of these men had come from that state) 
for authority to "congregate as Free and Accepted York 
Masons" and to form a lodge under the Connecticut jurisdic- 
tion and protection. Samuel Tylee carried this petition to the 
city of New Haven, presented it to the Grand Lodge then in 
session. The charter which was granted at this time bears the 
date of October 19th, A. L. 5803, A. B. 1803. Samuel Tylee 
was appointed deputj' grand master, directed to proceed to 
Warren to dedicate the new^ lodge and install its officers. 

On March 16, 1804, at two o'clock in the afternoon, Beputy 
Grand jMaster Tylee, together with the grand officers whom he 
had appointed pro tempore, went in procession to the room 
provided and opened the Grand Lodge in the tirst three degrees 
of Masonry in the proper form. The following men were pro- 
posed as officers of the new lodge: Right Worshipful Turhand 
Kirtland, master; Right Worshipful John Leavitt, senior war- 
den; Right Worshipful William Ra^'en, junior warden; Calvin 
Austin, treasurer; Camden Cleveland, secretary; Aaron 
Wlieeler, senior deacon; John Walworth, junior deacon; 
Charles Button and Arad Way, stewards ; Ezekiel Hover, tyler. 
Being fully satisfied with their character, skill, and qualitica- 
tions for the government of the new lodge, and having also 



received the entire and unconditional consent of the brethren 
l>reseut, tlie deputy grand master, with the otlier grand otificers, 
acting under the authority given by the Grand Lodge of Con- 
necticut, then proceeded to ' ' constitute, consecrate, and solemnly 
install the said petitioners and their said officers by the name 
of Erie Lodge No. 47, Ancient Free and Accepted York Masons, 
agreeably to the ancient usages, customs, and laws of the craft, 
under the protection and jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of 
Connecticut." And now, having in proper fonn solemnly 
erected this lodge to God and dedicated it to the holy Saint 
John, it now being legally empowered as a lodge of Free and 
Accepted Masons to work and act as such in strict conformity 
to the ancient charges of the fraternity, the usual rites and 
ceremonies ])erformed, the Grand Lodge at three o'clock closed 
in form, "with great harmony." At five o'clock on the same 
day Erie Lodge convened in the lodge room in "Warren, and 
meetings were held from that date at varying intervals. In 
1807 George Tod, John Leavitt, and "William Rayeu were 
appointed a committee to correspond with other lodges in the 
state in regard to the formation of a grand lodge for the state 
of Ohio. The following fall, George Tod and John Seeley were 
chosen delegates from Erie Lodge No. 47, to a convention to be 
held in Chillicothe the first Monday in January, 1808, at which 
time the state legislature would be in session. Credit is there- 
fore due. to old Erie Lodge for being the first to take steps in 
the formation of a grand lodge in Ohio. Five other lodges were 
represented at the conference in Chillicothe, which resulted in 
a resolution to form a grand lodge, and measures to render 
the resolutions effective by completing the organization. George 
Tod was secretary of tliat convention. Rufus Putnam was 
chosen Rt. ^Y. Gr. M., and George Tod of Erie Lodge, Rt. "W. S. 
G. "W. The delegates appointed in December, 1808, from Erie 
Lodge to the Grand Lodge, "at their grand communication to 
be held in January thereafter" were George Tod, Samuel 
Huntington, and John H. Adgate. These representatives car- 
ried the original charter granted them by the Grand Lodge of 
Connecticut, and surrendered it to the Grand Lodge of Ohio, 
receiving in its place "a warrant of dispensation." Under this 
warrant the same by-laws which were in force under the charter 
of the Grand Lodge of Connecticut were adopted, and the lodge 
continued to work under its authoritv with the same designation 


as l.)efove, "Erie No. 47," until 1S14, when tlif (iraiid Lodge 
issued a charter of constitution, constituting- and ajqiointiug 
"Samuel Tylee, Francis Freeman, Elisba Whittlesey, Seth 
Tracy, William \V. Cotgreave, John Leavitt, Calvin Austin. 
and their successors forever, a regular lodge of Free and 
Accepted Masons, to be hailed by the name of Erie Lodge 
Xo. .']." The several lodges were numbered iu accordance with 
their order of precedence as determined by the dates of original 
establishment. Erie Lodge was antedated by lodges in ^larietta 
and Cincinnati, but was the eldest on the Reserve, that is. in 
Old Trumbull County. 

Cxeorge Tod was not only one of the most prominent men in 
the early history of Trumbull County, but he was }n-ominent in 
many different directions. He was initiated and passed in 1804. 
raised 1S05, elected master of the lodge iu 1811, was prominent 
in establishing the (xrand Lodge, secretary of the convention at 
Chillicotlie, was the first grand senior warden of the (Irand 
Lodge, and served the local lodges iu every capacity. The mem- 
bers forming- the lodge were from Cleveland, A'oungstown, 
Canfield, Poland, Hubbard, and other points. 

Among the early members who have descendants in 
Tiumbull County wei-e John H. Adgate, Edward Scoville, Elisha 
Whittlesey, Seymour Austin, Lyman Potter. Richard Iddings. 
Isaac Ladd. Asael Adams, George Tod, Lewis IToyt, Joliu B. 
Harmon, Cyrus Bosworth, Rufus P. Spaiilding. Jacob H. 
Baldwin, Isaac Heatou, Jeremiah Brooks, Edward Sj)ear, 
Benjamin Towne, Henry Stiles, David Webli, Adamson Bentley. 
Robert Bentley, Samuel Wheeler, William Andrews, Elderkin 
Potter. John Shook. Ebenezer Thomi)son, Reuben Case, dames 
Goe, John Harrington, Benjamin and Horace Stevens. 

Some of the early members of Erie Lodge Xo. 47 were 
members of the Connecticut Land Company. They were all of 
them strong- men. X"o one knows the location of the room in 
which the lodge was instituted, nor where the first meetings were 
held. "Tradition, having a foundation, no doubt, says they met 
in 1810 in the gambrel-roofed, red frame building- in which the 
Western Reserve Bank was first organized, that stood on the 
east side of Main street." From 1812 Benjamin Stevens served 
nearly all offices of the lodge and presided in the oriental chair. 
In 1810 to 1815 they met at Hadley's Tavern, which stood where 
the Wallace-Gillmer block now stands. "From this room thev 


marched in procession, on tlie celebration of St. John's day, in 
June of those years, to a log building then used as a schoolhouse, 
standing on the northwest corner of the park, west of Main 
street, and north of the present city building. ' ' Soon after this, 
probably in 1816, they removed to "Castle William," after- 
wards known as "Pavilion Hotel." In 1823 the lodge paid rent 
to Benjamin Towne, wlio itresumably kept the hotel and ])erhaps 
owned the building. They continued to occupy this building imtil 
1829, when, under the great excitement of anti-Mason feeling, 
the lodge became weakened, and sometime between that and 
1833 Erie Ijodge No. 3, as did many others of the Grand Lodge, 
suspended. The charter of this lodge was consumed by fire 
when the liouse of Edward Spear, father of Judge William T. 
Sjtear, was liurned in 1835. This house stood on the ground now 
occupied by tlie First Methodist church. 

In 1854 a number of Masons who were connected with the 
old lodge, that is. No. 3, met at the home of one of the members 
as they had done more or less during the interval, and made 
ap]ilication to the grand master for a new charter. The warrant 
and dis])ensation of June 21st was issued to Richard Iddings, 
Jacob If. Baldwin, J. B. Buttles, William H. HoUoway, Henry 
Stiles, J. Kodgers, H. Benham, Garry C. Reed, J. Veon, 
Benjamin Stevens, Edward Spear, John B. Harmon, Alexander 
McConnell, and II. McManus, under the title of "Western 
Reserve Lodge." The first communication under this dispensa- 
tion was held July 7, 1851. During the of Erie Lodge 
No. 3, another lodge had been established by that name, luit in 
the same year when a charter was granted by the Grand Lodge 
at its anniial communication the former title was restored, with 
the luime "Old Erie." The lodge was constituted, under the 
new cliarter, in the lodge rooms of the I. 0. 0. F. in Iddings' 
Block, on .January 30,' 1855, by John M. Webb, of Cantield 
Three months later tliey moved to rooms in the Gaskill House 
(now the Austin House), when the officers were, Edward Spear, 
W^ M.; Charles R. Hmit, S. W.; Jacob H. Baldwin, J. W.; 
Henry Stiles, treasurer; John M. Stull, secretary; William 
Greene, S. D. ; Edward Spear Jr., J. D. Ebenezer H. Goodale, 
tyler. F^arly in 18(i2 they removed from Gaskill House to a 
liall built for tlieui in the third story of the present Second 
National liaiik building. In 1869 the third story of the present 
I'liion Xatitiiial Bank was fitted vi]) for them in a very elegant 


way. In 1904 the MasoDic Temple Company purchased a huild- 
ing at the northeast corner of ]\Iarket and Pine streets, remod- 
eled it, and this was occupied by the various Masonic bodies 
October 1, 1904. On the evening of March 16, 1904, Old Erie 
Lodge celebrated, in a quiet way, a centenary of the organization 
of Masonry in the Western Reserve. 

In the early days of the Trumbull County Masons the meet- 
ings were always at the time of full moon. There was nothing 
mystic about this, but it was done because the members many of 
them came on horseback. There were no artiiicial lights, and 
traveling through the woods was not only lonesome l)ut often 

The past masters of Old Erie Lodge No. o, are Turhand 
Kirtland, Edward Paine, Martin Smith, George Tod, John 
Leavitt, Samuel Tylee, Francis Freeman, Adamsou Bentley, 
Benjamin Stevens, Edward Flint, Ri;fus P. Spaulding, Cyrus 
Bosworth, Edward Spear, R. A. Baldwin, Charles R. Hunt, Tliad 
Ackley, E. C. Cady, H. B. AVeir, S. F. Bartlett, W. A. Reeves, 
George H. Tavler, C. F. Clapp, George A. Mitchell, T. II. Gill- 
mer, B. J. Tavlor, II. H. Sutherland, AVilliam T. Fee, C. M. Wil- 
kins, W. C. Ward, D. W. Cami)bell, W. A. Spill, Alva M. Ohl, 
Dan G. Simpson, F. K. >Smitli, Fred T. Stone. Present master, 
Fred C. ]\Iarch. 

There are a number of active Masonic lodges in Trumbull 
County: Jerusalem Lodge No. 19, of Hartford, was chartered 
in 1814. H. K. Hull is worshipful master. Mahoning Lodge 
No. 394, Niles, chartered in 1867, George S. Brown, master. 
Gustavus Lodge No. 442, Kinsman, chartered 1870, F. A. 
Roberts, master. Newton Falls Lodge No. 462, chartered 1872, 
W. K. Gardner, master. AVesteru Reserve Lodge No. 507, West 
Fai-mington, chartered 1875, F. S. Hart, master. Cortland 
Lodge No. 529, Cortland, chartered 1882, Jay E. Miller, master. 
Mahoning Chapter No. 66, R. A. M., Warren, originally char- 
tered 1824, re-chartered 1855, C. M. Oliphant, i\I. E. H. P. 
Warren Council No. 58, R. & S. M., Warren, chartered 1871, C. 
Harrv Angstadt, T. I. M. Warren Commandery No. 39, K. T., 
chartered 1884, C. M. Wilkins, E. C. 

(Note. — The details regarding organization and early his- 
tory of the original lodge as here given have been compiled from 
the records in the ]iossession of the Old Erie Tjodge). 


Odd Felloirship. 

On May 21, 184-1:, a charter was issued to Mahoning Lodge 
No. 29, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, with the following- 
members: Charles Pease, James Benson, Josiah F. Brown, 
L. P. Lott, and E. AV. Weir. The charter was signed by 
Samuel AV. Corwin, M. \\. G. M.; H. N. Clark, R. AV. D. G. M., 
and Daniel S. Shelbacker, E. AV. G., secretary and counselor, 
signed by Albert G. Day, G. C. secretary. 

The "lodge was instituted May 24, 1844, in the hall of Daniel 
Gilbert's block, on the corner of Market and Libertv streets, 
by D. D. G. ]\1. Gideon E. Tindall, assisted by P. g". Brother 
E. T. Nichols, both of Cleveland. The following officers were 
elected and installed into office : Lewis P. Lott, N. G. ; Josiah F. 
Brown, A''. G. ; Charles Pease, secretary; E. AV. AA'eir, treasurer. 
Aleetings were held on that evening and on the afternoon and 
evening of the following day. The following persons were 
initiated at these meetings: Sullivan D. Harris, AVilliani H. 
Xewhard. Arthur Pritchard, A. F. Hunt, AA^illiam L. Knight, 
Charles E. Hunt, 0. P. Tabor, Asael E. Adams, Levi M. Barnes, 
and A. AV. Bliss. At the end of the year the membership was 

The fire of 1846 destroyed Mr. Gilbert's block, and most of 
the furniture, regalia, emblems and wardrobes which were in 
the lodge room were lost. A special meeting called by the 
noble grand, at the request of thirteen members, was had in 
the hall room of the American House, now Dana's Musical 
Institute. AVilliam H. Newhard, one of the charter members, 
was proprietor of this hotel. At this meeting the hall com- 
mittee was instructed to gather the scattered pi'operty belong- 
ing to the lodge, and a special committee, consisting of 
Brothers AVilliam AVilliams, Alanson Camp, and F. K. Hubliard, 
was appointed to ascertain the amount of loss of each individual 
member. If this committee ever reported, no recoi-d was made 
of it. 

On June .'50, 1846, a circular, issued by the authority of 
the lodge, was sent out to lodges of this and adjacent states, 
telling of the disastrous fire, and asking assistance. The 
response was liberal, and this timely help assisted in re-estab- 
lishing the lodge. Brothers T. J. McLain, M. B. Tayler and 
Zalmon Fitch, were the committee appointed to distribute the 
funds. Brothers Alexander MeConnell, A. P. Lott and A. AV. 


Bliss were appointed on a committee to procure a new meeting 
place, and they secured for thirty dollars a year a room iu 
Asael Adams brick block on Main street, later known as the 
King- block. This was done and the lodge met here imtil July 
12, 1847, at which time it moved into the Empire block, which 
had been erected on Samuel Chesney's land by Lewis Iddiugs, 
the first floor of which is now occupied by Albert Guarnieri. It 
remained in this Ijuilding for nearly forty years. Its next home 
was in the Masters & Myers block on Main street. 

Mr. William Stiles, either by will or by instructions to his 
trustees, planned for the erection of a block, provided the Odd 
Fellows would occupy the third story. This they gladly did, 
moving into its handsome, new, spacious quarters,- May 1, 1906. 

The war had its effect upon the I. 0. 0. F., as it had upon 
everything. The membership fell from one hundred and 
twenty-five, to fifty. Capital and invested funds were ma- 
terially diminished by individual loans and deposits. Recovery 
was gradual, and the membership at present is about four 
hundred witli invested funds of $12,000. 

A number of lodges in the county and in the vicinity have 
growu out of this lodge. All told, the Warren lodge has in- 
itiated over four hundred members, some of whom have become 
very prominent in national and state politics, professions and 

Few lodges have been honored with so many Grand Lodge 
officers as has Mahoning Lodge. General T. J. McLain was 
elected grand patriarch of the Encampment Branch of the 
order in 1852. and served as representative to the Sovereign 
Lodge from this branch in 1850, 1853 and 185-t. He was elected 
grand master of Ohio in 1855. 

D. M. Lazarus was elected grand i:)atriarch of the Grand 
Encampment in 1878 ; grand warden of the Grand Lodge in 
1874. and grand conductor of the Grand Lodge in 1877. 

Chai'les R. Hunt was grand conductor in 1853. 

Benjamin Cranage was gTand guardian iu 1855. 

Charles S. Field served as representative to the Grand 
Lodge of Ohio for six years, and was then elected grand master 
in 1887. 

M. S. Clapp served as representative to the Grand Lodge 
of Ohio for eight years; was elected grand master in 1892; and 


served as representative to the Sovereign Grand Lodge for two 

F. J. Mackey was elected representative to the Grand En- 
campment of Ohio for twelve years and in 1906 was elected 
grand patriarch of the Encampment of Ohio. 

The following named members have been elected and served 
as noble grand and for such service received the rank and title 
of past grand: 

18-44, Levi 1'. Lott, J. F. Brown and Chas. Pease. 

1845, Jacob Benson, E. W. Wier and L. P. Lott, (2d term). 

1846, Wm. H. Newhard and Charles R. Hunt. 

1847, Charles Pease (2d term) and A. W. Bhss. 

1848, Alex. McCounell and D. Hitchcock. 

1849, L. J. McLain and F. K. Hurlburt. 

1850, James D. Watson and Robert W. Ratliff. 

1851, S. D. Harris and Joel F. Asper. 

1852, C. M. Patch and M. D. Leggett. 

1853, Peter Gaskill and D. B. Gilmore. 

1854, James Ho>i: and M. McManus. 

1855, E. H. Allison and Benjamin Cranage. 

1856, Warren Packard and John M. Stull. 

1857, Joel F. Asper (2d term) and E. H. Goodale. 

1858, J. Goldstein and J. C. Johnson. 

1859, B. C. Jameson and Leonard Burton. 

1860, Rufus Thomas and William R. Stiles. 

1861, L. Burton (2d temi) and Joel F. Asper (3d term). 

1862, Thomas McConnick and James G. Brooks. 

1863, Josiah Soule and Daniel Bishop. 

1864, L. Burton (3d term) and J. G. Brooks (2d term). 

1865, C. C. McNutt and H. D. Niles. 

1866, B. Goehring and C. M. Patch (2d term). 

1867, W. Y. Reeves and M. C. Woodworth. 

1868, Alouzo Trusdell and J. G. Brooks (3d temi). 

1869, J. W. Hofstie and D. M. Lazarus. 

1870, J. W. Hofstie (2d tenu) and E. A. Burnett. 

1871, John B. Hardv and Michael Parker. 

1872, R. S. Elliott and E. W. Moore. 

1873, M. B. Deane and John L. Smith. 

1874, James D. Hoone and Wilson Downs. 

1875, Geo. B. Kennedy and John Buchsteiner. 


1876, D. S. Jackson and Robert S. AVilkins. 

1877, William Dennis and John L. Smith (2d term). 

1878, C. N. Van Wormer and John AY. Masters. 

1879, F. J. Mackey and J. W. McAIurray. 

1880, A. R. Hunt "and James McCormick. 

1881, Charles Holman and S. W. Park. 

1882, H. P. Bassett and A. L. Jameson. 

1883, F. P. Izant and V. C. Jeans. 

1884, Dr. J. Hannon and D. H. Heeklinger. 

1885, F. W. Merriau and W. F. Angstadt. 

1886, E. D. Kennedy and F. C. McCounel. 

1887, W. H. Pefters and S. B. Craig. 

1888, Samuel Cosel and James G. Baldwin. 

1889, F. F. Little and E. A. Voit. 

1890, W. L. Christianar and B. F. Wonders. 

1891, Alonzo Weaver and T. U. Wilson. 

1892, Zaek Long and C. H. Struble. 

1893, James McCracken and H. B. Drennen. 

1894, John Biggers and H. A. Voit. 

1895, H. J. Vogley and C. B. Kistler. 

1896, John 11. Slater and A. C. Burnett. 

1897, F. S. Christ and C. B. Loveless. 

1898, R. W. Elliott and H. W. Van Nye. 

1899, Charles F. Jones and C. B. Wood. 

1900, Jacob Brenner and William Nesbit. 

1901, J. W. Slater and J. M. Gledhill. 

1902, J. C. Wilhelm and D. G. Simpson. 

1903, W. A. Spill and John H. Rarick. 

1904, George R. Watson and Edward Owens. 

1905, George T. Heeklinger and Fred B. Downs. 

1906, J. A. Bartholomew and R. T. McCoy. 

1907, Frank Daum and N. A. Wolcott. 

1908, M. S. Clapp and Guy Dillon. 

1909, E. B. Truesdell and D. A. Bradley. 

Mahoning Lodge has paid to its members since its organi- 
zation, for benetits and charitable purposes, about $75,000. 

The Grand Lodge of Ohio has under its jurisdiction about 
900 subordinate lodges, with a membershii^ of over 85,000. These 
subordinate lodges have an invested fund of over $3,000,000. 
with an annual revenue of about $800,000, and paid for the relief 
of its members during the past year over $250,000. 


The present officers are: 

Malioitiitg Lodt/e No. SO. Cunton U'arren No. 07, P. it. 

X. G., Earle b'. True'sdell. ('ummaudant. F. J. Mac-key. 

V. G., D. A. Bradley. Lieutenant, J. X. Wadswo'rth. 

Bee. Sec., .1. M. GJedhill. Ensign, E. A. Voit. 

Fin. Sec, F. H. Alexander. Clerk, J. M. Gledhill. 

Treas., C. B. Kistler. .\ceoiintant, F. P. Izant. 
Trustees, M. S. Clapp, S. B. Craig, Chas. rmmhnU Encampment ]J7. I. 0. 0. F. 

E. Kistler. C. P., A, H. Denny. 

Odd FeUoH-s' Club. H. P., Clarence H. Case. 

Pres., M. S. Clapp. S. W., Chas. Wilson. 

Viee-Pres., Theo. Herlinger. .1. W.. Dana Baldwin. 

Sec, J. M. Gledhill. Scribe, F. .T. Mackev. 

Treas., E. A. Voit. Treas., E. A. Voit. " 
House committee. F. J. Mackey, Chas. Trustees, John Buchsteiner. .T. X. Thomp- 

Holman, Geo. T. Hecklinger. " son, W. F. Angstadt. 

Knufhts of Pi/f]iias. 

Inde])euclence Lodge, No. 90, Knights of Pythias, of War- 
ren, was instituted July 27, 1875. Among the charter members 
were Dr. C. S. Ward, Azor E. Hunt, James McCormick, F. M. 
Ritezel, George H, Tayler, L. H. Tliayer, George B. Kennedy, 
H, A. Potter, and S. A. Corbin, The lodge was instituted in 
the quarters on the third floor of the Second National Bank, 
which was occupied by the order for twenty-four years, when 
the present Castle Hall in the Trumbull Block was taken. 

The membership is nearly 300. The meetings are held on 
Thursday nights of each week and the quarters are furnished 
with clubroom accommodations, with dining, liilliard and card 
room and dance hall features. 

The present corps of officers is: Chancellor commander, 
B, F. Parsons, Jr. ; vice chancellor, Thomas Lewis ; prelate, 
E. J. Fnsselman ; master at arms, Frank Small ; master of work. 
Ed. Finn; inside guard. Jay Quackenbush; outside guard, M. B. 
Small ; keeper of records and seals, William Fields ; master of 
finance, Monroe Van Gorder; master of exchequer, W. B. Pat- 
ton ; trustees, William Eatwell, J. E. Davis, J. J. Dietz. 

(Loaned by the Tribune.) 



Old AVksterx Re;5j;rve Bank. — First Nation.vl Bank. — AVarrex 
Savings Bank. — Commercial, National Bank. — Union Xa- 
Ti0N.\L Bank. — Second National Bank. — Trumbull Na- 
tional Bank. — Western Reserve National Bank. — 
Farmers' Banking Company of West Faeming- 
ton. — Dollar Savings Bank Company of Niles. 
— First Nation.-u:. Bank of Cortland» — 
North Bloomfield Banking Company. 

Old Wt'stfiu Reserve Bauk. — The lirst bauk eliartered 
on the Western Reserve was tlie Western Reserve Bank 
in Warren. Oliio. and it existed from 1811 to 1863. It 
had a long and lionorable history. Althonoli it was tlie 
tirst hank organized, it was also the only one to remain 
solvent to the end of the state hank organization. The 
incorporators were Simon Perkins, Robert B. Parkman, Tnr- 
liand Kirtland, George Tod, John Ford, S. C. ^lygatt, Calvin 
Anstin, William Rayen, and John Kinsman. General Simon 
Perkins was the tirst president, Zalnion Fiteh, the second, 
George Parsons, the third, and last. At the beginning of the 
organization this bank did Inisiness in a store situated on Main 
street, between South and Franklin streets, on the east side. 
In 1816 and '17 the old Western Reserve Bank was erected on 
the lot where the Union National Bank now stands. This lot 
was purchased of Mrs. Charlotte Smith. The capitalization of 
the bank in the beginning was $100,000. Twice this organiza- 
tion was forced to snsjiend pa^inent until the New York liauks 
were able to resume business. In 1816 its charter was extended 
to 18-t3. It then went into liquidation but in 1845 it was re- 
constructed under the Independent Banking law, its charter 
running to 1866. 

The names of the people connected with this early bank are 
of special interest to the readers of this history. We are there- 
fore g•i^^ng the list of the subscribers to the original sfock. 



Name Shares Amount 

Calvin Austin 200 $ 5,000 

David Clendenin 200 5,000 

John Ford 300 7,500 

Turhand Kirtland 300 7,500 

Polly Kirtland 20 500 

John Kinsman, Sr 800 20,000 

Simon Perkins, Sr 300 7,500 

William Raven 300 7,500 

Asael Adams, Sr 20 500 

Seymour Austin 20 500 

John Andrews 20 500 

John Brainard 4 100 

William Bell, Jr 50 1,250 

Adamson Bentley 20 500 

Mary Bentley. ..' 10 250 

David Bell 20 500 

Oliver Brooks 20 500 

Richard Brooks 10 250 

David Bell 12 300 

Benjamin Bentley, Jr 2 50 

John Leavitt 25 650 

Lydia Dunlap 8 200 

John Doud 20 . 500 

Charles Dutton 75 1,875 

Anne Jane Dutton 25 625 

Edward Draa 4 100 

Daniel Heatou 20 500 

Francis Freeman 25 625 

Otis Guild 20 500 

Lois Guild 5 125 

Jerusha Guild 10 250 

Peter Hitchcock 10 250 

John B. Harmon 20 500 

Ira Hudson 20 500 

Benjamin J. Jones 10 250 

^ . Thomas G. Jones 10 250 

Jared Kirtland 20 500 

Abram Kline 30 750 

Samuel King 40 1,000 

. Charles King 20 500 


Samuel Leavitt 40 1,000 

Henry Lane :20 500 

Wheeler Lewis 20 500 

Lambert W. Lewis 120 500 

Comfort S. Mygatt 100 2,500 

Calvin Pease 20 500 

Laura G. Pease 10 250 

George Parsons 20 500 

Francis M. Parsons 5 125 

Ephraim Quinby 100 2,500 

James Quigley 20 500 

Samuel Quinby 20 500 

Plumb Sutliff.' 20 500 

Samuel Tyler 50 1.250 

Trial Tanner 8 200 

Mary Tanner 2 50 

Johii E. AVoodbridge 20 500 

Elisba Whittlesey 10 250 

Fannie Witherby 5 125 

Josiah Wetmore 4 100 

Henry Wick 60 1,500 

David Webb 4 100 

James Hezlep 20 500 

E. T. Boughton 12 .300 

Eobert Montgomery 50 1,250 

Nancy Quinby ' 20 500 

It will be seen that ten of these stockholders were women. 

The first board of directors consisted of the following per- 
sons: Simon Perkins, Turhand Kirtland, Francis Freeman, 
John Ford, William Rayen, Calvin Austin, Comfort S. Mygatt, 
Calvin Pease, Henry AVick, Leonard Case, David Clendenin, 
William Bell Jr., and IJichard Hayes. Zalmon Fitch was the 
first cashier, Kali)h Hickox tlie second, and George Tayler the 

The only sign the Western Reserve Bank had was one 
twenty-two inches long and seven inches wide ; one side read, 
"Bank Shut," the other side, "Bank Open." The sign was 
hung on hinges so when the bank was open it hung down, and 
when it was closed it shut u]). "Zalmon Fitch was the cashier. 
Just at the tick of the clock liis cleanly shaven face and l)rown 


wig eaine to the door and turned the sign up or dowu, as it was 
nine or three. The men wlio managed this institution were not 
only men of eayiital hut men of hrains also." 

L'liiiiii Xdtioiiiil Baiili. 

AVhen the Western Eeserve Bank went out of husiness the 
new bank, under the name of the First National, was formed, 
composed largely of the same stockholders and the same offi- 
cers. The capital stock was $125,000, with a ])rivilege of rais- 
ing to $300,000. The following were elected directors of the 
organization : Saumel Quinbv, Frederick Kinsman, Louis J. 
Iddings, B. P. .lameson, M. B.'Tayler, H. B. Perkins, and J. H. 
McCombs. H. B. Perkins was elected president, and George 
Tayler cashier. George Tayler, who had been connected with 
the Westenr Reserve Bank, died in 1864, and his brother, M. B.. 
was elected to fill his place and served faithfully in that capa- 
city for many years. ITe died in 1880. John H. McCombs 
succeeded him. AViiliam R. Stiles succeeded Mr. McCombs, and 
John H. Nelson was the last cashier of that bank. 

The Warren Savings Bank, organized with William "Wal- 
lace, ])resident; H. S. Pew, vice i)resident; Oscar Caldwell, cash- 
ier, (>('cui)ied the room where McClure's drug store now is for 
a number of years and did a good business. Without cause, 
two or three times, runs were started on this bank, but so firm 
Avas the foundation that no hai'm was done it. 

A bank known as the Commercial National Bank was organ- 
ized a little later than the AVarren Savings Bank. When the 
spirit of combination entered into l)usiness concerns, l)anks in 
the Valley began to combine and the Commercial was absorbed 
by the First National. A little later the Warren Savings Bank 
combined with the First National, and as the three were in 
one, the name was changed to the Union National Bank. This 
bank occupied the building erected by the First National on the 
spot of the historic Western Reserve, and the stockholders, 
many of them, are the descendants of the original stockholders 
of the Western Resei-A'e. The president of the bank is T. H. 
Gillmer ; the cashier, William Wallace, and the board of directors 
is as follows: T. H. Gillmer, H. S. Pew, Georg-e H. Tayler, 
R. A. Cobb, John W. Masters, Alexander McKee, W. A. Smith. 
W. T. Griswold, J. L. Herzog, W. G. Lamb, D. R. Gilbert, 0. A. 


Caldwell. S. B. Craig, Ileni-y Q. Stiles. C. C. Clawson. V. K. 
Smitli, William Wallace. 

Second XdfioiKiI Bank. 

The Second Xatioual Bank was orgauized in 1880 tlirungli 
the instrnmentality of Kivt M. Fitoh. D. J. Adams was the 
president; Aaron Wentz, viee-i)resident ; Kirt "S\. Fitch, cashier. 
The directors were K. ^1. Fitch, (,". A. Ifarriugton. K. W. Kat- 
lift", Aaron Wentz. J. ( ). Hart. S. F. Bartlettr E. Finney, Mr. 
Brown, Mr. Lynn, D. J. Adams and A. A. Drake. A. B. Camp 
was teller. The stock was issued at $100 a share and the amount 
was $100,000. This l)ank was opened in the Iddings Block. It 
was a very protitahle business undertaking for some time, when 
it met with loss through its cashier, and was afterwards reor- 
ganized. Gen. B. W. Ratlitf became the cashier and 8. C. 
Iddings the teller. C. A. Harrington was later cashier and is 
now its president, and Samuel C. Iddings is the cashier. This 
bank has continued to do an excellent Inisiness and has stood by 
itself, not entering into any of the combinations or consolida- 
tions with the other hanks. The following is a list of the board 
of directors: C. A. Harrington, W. Hyde, E. E. Nash. Homer 
E. Stewart, George S. Pond, John J. McCleau, Fred W. Adams, 
E. A. Moherman, W. J. :\lasters, R. B. Wick, S. C. Iddings. 

WcsliTii Ifcscrrc Xdtiuinil I'xnth. 

The Trumbull National Bank of Warren was organized in 
June. 1865, with an authorized cajntal stock of .$150,000. The 
charter was granted on July 5, 18fi5. Its tirst lioard of directors 
were Charles Smith, Henry W. Smith, Harmon Austin, Giles 
0. Griswold, R. S. Park, Warren Packard and Jesse Haymaker. 
The board organized by electing Charles Smith president, and 
John S. Edwards, cashier. Kirtland M. Fitch was later elected 
cashier to succeed Mr. Edwards and in January, 1880, Edward 
C. Smith was elected cashier to take the place of Mr. Fitch. 

S. C. Iddings was elected teller in April, 1880. Charles 
Smith died on June 19, 1882, and in July of the same year ]Mr. 
Harmon Austin was elected president of the bank. Daniel A. 
Geiger entered into the employ of the bank as its bookkeeper 
on A]iril 3, 1883. S. C. Iddings liaving resigned, Mr. Thomas 
Kinsman was appointed teller in July, 1883. 0. L. Wolcott was 


elected cashier of the bank in May, 1884, to succeed Edward C. 
Smith. Edward F. Briscoe was appointed teller in July, 1884, 
in place of Thomas Kinsman. Giles 0. Griswold was elected 
president of the bank in January, 1885. 

At a special meeting- of the board of directors of the Trum- 
bull National Bank, held on April 4, 1885, there being present 
Giles 0. Griswold, George M. Tuttle, John M. Stull, Henry Tod, 
Jules Vautrot, Sr., Albert Wheeler, O. L. Wolcott. Upon motion 
of Mr. Stull, it was resolved to organize a new bank with a 
capital stock of $100,000 to take the place of the Trumbull 
National Bank at the expiration of its charter on July 5, 1885, 
and a committee was appointed to secure subscriptions to capital 

The Western Reserve National Bank was organized on 
May 26, 1885, and its first board of directors elected on that date 
were Giles 0. Griswold, Albert W'heeler, Heniy J. Lane, George 
M. Tuttle, Kennedy Andrews, H. J. Barnes, H. S. Pew, Addi- 
son Rodgers and (_). L. Wolcott. The board organized on May 
30, 1885, electing Albert Wheeler president; 0. L. Wolcott, 
cashier; Edward F. Briscoe, teller, and Daniel A. Geiger, book- 
keeper. The bank commenced business on July 6, 1885. 

Mr. Briscoe resigned in April, 1892, to accept the cashier- 
ship of the First National Bank, Cortland, Ohio, and Daniel A. 
Geiger was promoted to teller. 0. L. Wolcott died on December 
9, 1893, and Daniel A. Geiger was elected cashier of the bank 
in February, 1894. Albert Wheeler died on May 1, 1905, and in 
July of the same year S. W. Park was elected president, and 
Charles Fillius, vice president. 

The capital stock of the bank was increased from $100,000 
to $200,000 on February 19, 1907, and on February 22, 1907, it 
took over by consolidation all the assets and business of the 
New National Bank and the Savings Bank Company, of this 
city. In 1905 the bank building was enlarged and remodeled 
at the cost of $16,900. 

The present board of directors are: S. W. Park, Alfred R. 
Hughes, Charles H. Angstadt. C. A. Crane. A. G. Ward, W. 
D. Packard, T. G. Dunham, Charles Fillius, W. A. Williams, 
D. L. Helman, George H. Jones, C. L. Wood, C. B. Loveless, 
G. W. Kneeland, Jules Vautrot, Jr. 

The present officers are : S. W. Park, president ; Charles 


Fillius, vice i^vesident; Daniel A. Geiger, cashier; J. H. Nelson, 
assistant cashier; E. F. Briscoe, assistant cashier. 

Tlir Tnniiliiill tSaring.'< d' Luaii J.vs<jci(itiuiL 

The Trumball ISuviugs & Loan Company was formed Feb- 
ruary 28, 1889, with an authorized capital of $100,000. Incorpo- 
rators : Jacob H. Ewalt, S. A. Corhin, John W. Masters, J. E. 
Porter, Eobert T. Izant. The first president was William Wal- 
lace, who served from March 16, 1889, when the company was 
ready for business, imtil January' 10, 1893, when, at his request, 
he was succeeded by John W. Masters, who has served in that 
capacit}^ ever since. Robert T. Izant was elected secretary at 
the beginning and still serves. The capital stock has been 
increased to $500,000, and the assets reach $700,000. The object 
of this association, aside from those of an ordinary bank, is to 
aid in building and buying houses and homes in Warren and 
vicinity. The company has a savings department and lends 
money exclusively on first-mortgages on real estate. It does 
no commercial business. It has never had to foreclose a mort- 
gage, and never had but one loss, that of $300. It owns its own 
building, which stands on the northeast corner of High street 
and Park avenue. This was built in 1889. Over a thousand 
homes have been built and bought in AVarren and vicinity 
through this company. Five per cent interest is paid on loans. 
The officers at the present time are: President, John W. Mas- 
ters; vice president, William H. Kirkjiatrick; secretary and 
attorney, Robert T. Izant; directors, William Wallace, Jacob 
II. Ewalt, D. AV. Campbell, Jay Buchwalter, Albert Brown, Will- 
iam B. Kilpatrick. Edwin (). Izant, E. L. King, Frank R. 

Wi^'^t Faniiington — The Farmers h'liiikliu:/ Coiiipaiiii. 

The Farmers Banking Company, of West Farmington, was 
organized in October, 1897. They own their own building, and 
have a paid-up capital stock of $25,000. A. H. Clark has been 
president since the organization, L. B. Kennedy was secretary 
and treasurer from 1897 to 1900, I. E. Kennedv, from 1900 to 
1903; A. H. Barbe, from 1903 to 1905; J. A. Ensign, from 
1905 to 1909. The present directors are A. H. Clarke, C. E. 


Stevens, G. E. Minnich, George W. Willcox, A. Coulter, W. E. 
Bates, Charles Thoipe, M. W. Griffith, George Fram. 

Niles — TJie Dollar Savings Bank. 

The Dollar Savings Bank Company, of Niles, was incorpo- 
rated November 14, IdOi. organized January 2, 1905, and opened 
for business on January 11, 1905, with a paid-up capital of 
$100,000. The first officers of this bank were : President, W. 
Aubrey Thomas; first vice president, Wade A. Taylor; second 
vice president, John W. Eaton; secretary and treasurer, F. W. 
Stillwagon; assistant secretary, W. Manning Kerr; assistant 
treasurer, William H. Stevens. 

These first officers are all serving in their respective capa- 
cities, with the exception of W. Aubrey Thomas, who, owing to 
his congressional duties at Washington, resigned in January, 
1906, and was succeeded by George B. Bobbins, who has since 
that date acted as the president of the bank. In July, 1905, 
the Dollar Savings Bank Company purchased the building, 
fixtures and outfit formerly occupied by the City National Bank, 
and located on the place of birth of AVilliam McKinley. 

The present board of directors consists of prominent and 
influential men of Niles and surrounding territoiy, and are as 
follows : George B. Bobbins, Wade A. Taylor, John W. Eaton, 
Charles S. Thomas, Harry M. Stevens, William Cunnick, S. H. 
Stillwagon, John L. McDermott, F. J. EoUer, W. A. Hutchins, 
G. P. Gillmer, John Warner, L. H. Young- and John G. Leitch. 

Cortland — Tlie First National Bank. 

The First National Bank of Cortland was organized in 1892 
and commenced business in September of that year. The capital 
stock was $50,000. William H. Wartman was the first presi- 
dent. After he died N. A. Cowdery was elected in his place and 
is still serving. J. H. Faimce has always been the vice presi- 
dent. E. F. Briscoe, of Warren, was the first cashier; Charles 
E. Dodge succeeded him. Both of these men accepted positions 
in Warren, one as cashier of the New National Bank, the other 
as cashier of the Savings Bank. Both of these were consoli- 
dated with the Western Eeseiwe Bank of Warren, and Mr. Bris- 
coe is receiving teller in that bank now. J. E. Kennedy, form- 
erly of Girard, is the present cashier at Cortland. The bank 
building is the property of the bank. 


North Bloomfield — TJie North BlooiiifieJd Banking Company. 

The Noi-th Bloomfield Banking Company was incorporated 
in 1903. The first officers were: President, George E. Haines; 
vice president, 0. A. PIi;ntley; secretary and treasurer, H. W. 
House. The present officers are: President, John S. McAdoo; 
vice president, D. W. Eussell ; secretaiy and treasurer, O. A. 
Huntley. The capital stock is $25,000, and the paid-in capital 
stock is .$12,500. The hoard of directors consists of John S. 
McAdoo, D. W. Eussell S. T. Cauffield, S. S. Welshman, J. H. 
Cook. H. J. Wilcox. E. J. Knight, Jason Case, 0. A. Huntley. 


FiBfciT Newspaper ox Western Reserve, "Trump of Fame." — ■ 
Changed to "AVestekx Resee\t; Chronicle." — Peculiar 
Clippings from "Trump of Fame" — "Trumbull County 
Whig" — "Trumbull County Democrat" — "Warren 
Daily Chronicle" — "The News Letter" — "The Con- 
stitution" — "The Warken Record" — "Western 
Reserve Democrat" — "W.vrren Tribune" — 
"The Liberty Herald" — "The Cortland 
Gazette ' ' — ' ' Cortland Herald ' ' — ' ' Niles 
Independent ' ' — ' ' Niles News. ' ' 

The lirst newsi^aper published on the Western Reserve, 
the Trump of Fame, was issued on Tuesday, June 16, 1812. 
Its offices were at the corner of Market street and Libertv' 
street (Park avenue). This building was burned in the fire of 
1867. Thomas D. Webb, often referred to in other parts of this 
history, was the editor, and David Fleming- the printer. The 
latter owned the type. 

Miss Elizabeth Iddiugs, the granddaughter of Mr. Webb, 
says it was the intention to call this publication "A Voice from 
the Wilderness." When they got ready to set the head, they 
found the letters V and AV lacking among the type of proper 
size. Therefore they had to abandon the name, and substituted 
the Trmnp of Fame. Mr. W^illiam Ritezel, in an article which 
he wrote for the Chronicle, on "The Pioneer Paper of the West- 
ern Reserve," said "Li those days it was common to have a 
cut of some kind at the head of the editorial column, and the 
printer l)eing at a loss for a proper emblem to grace that de- 
partment, appealed to Judge Pease to suggest something 
suitable. His Honor promptly resi>onded that he thought an 
'Owl would be the right thing in the right place, with the 
legend immediately under it, "The voice of one crying in the 
wilderness." ' " 

It is not clear therefore whether Judge Pease suggested 


illS'l'oKV OF 'I'lM'Mr.l'LL I'OIX'J'V 357 

the name of "Tlie ^"oice from the Wilderness," or just the 
emblem. Probably it was tlie latter, and the liriii ineiiibers 
themselves chose the former. 

The name the Tiinnii of Fanic was neither snggestive nor 
a])j)ro]u-iate, and it was changed by 'Sir. Fitch Bissell, who 
owned the ])ublication in 1816. Benjamin Stevens, whose in- 
terest in all things in early Trumbull rouuty was great, sug- 
gested to Mv. Hissell tiuit it would suit the people of this 
conununity better if his paper bore a less high-sovmding name. 
He then suggested the ll'esteni Bcsern' CJiroiiicle or Gazettf. 
We are told that Mr. Bissell did not approve of this suggestion 
but in a few weeks accei)ted it and on the 4tli of (Jctober. 
1816, Volume 1, Number 1, of the TFcs/*;'/-;/ Be.^rrrc CJnoiiuie 
was issued. 

From the first number of the 'rniiiij) <if Fanir we ipiote the 
following : 

"'Truiiij) <if Faiiif. printed in Warren, County of Trum- 
bull, Ohio, by David Fleming, for Thomas D. AVel:>l). The 
Tniiitj) nf Faille is printed every Tuesday, and forwarded 
as early as possible to subscribers. 

"Price to subscribers whose papers are conveyed 
thi-ough the postottice, two dollars per annum, to be paid in 
advance, or two dollars and fifty cents, payable at the expi- 
ration of the year. Terms to companies who take the paper 
at the office and jiay for them in money on their deliveiy 
or half-yearly in advance, one dollar and three-quarters. 

"Post riders supplied on reasonable terms — and it is an 
indispensable condition that payment be made at the expira- 
tion of every quarter. Advertisements inserted three weeks, 
one dollar for every s(|uare, and twenty-five cents for each 
additional insertion. 

"Afany kinds of i)roductions of the county will be taken 
in payment if delivered ^t the office, or at such ])laces as 
nuiy be designed by the editor. 

"All letters to the editor coming through the post- 
office must be postpaid or tliey will not be attended to." 
The first editorial reads : 

"It may. perhaps, he expected that the editor will 
make some declaration of his political creed; he would be 
very sorry to disappoint the public expectation, but he has 


ever viewed those protestations of friendship or enmity 
made with an intention of courting the favor of any class 
of peojjle, of doubtful avithority. He will assure the ijublic 
that he is no monarchist nor aristocrat. 

"His paper shall be open to the decent communica- 
tion of any political faith, with liberty to himself of com- 
menting upon anything that shall be offered for publica- 
tion. As he is the nominal editor, he has determined to be 
the real editor. Men frequently involve themselves in pri- 
vate feuds, and to vent their spleen and malignity against 
each other make a newspaper the vehicle of their slander- 
ous tales. News of this kind can never be interesting to 
the community and they may be assured that no considera- 
tion, either of favor or of pecuniaiy kind, shall ever induce 
the editor to permit its insertion." 

July Stli, under the head, "Hymeneal." are the marriages 
and they note those of England and Connecticut in particular. 
One reads : 

"In Lincolnshire (England), Corporal Dupre to Miss 
N. Trollope, with a fortune of 12,000 pounds. Miss Trol- 
lope fell in love with him when he was on parade with the 
soldiers. The next morning she commimicated her senti- 
ments to liim, which he joyfully accepted, and on the fol- 
lowing day he led her to the altar of Hymen." 

The number of July Stli has the declaration of war drawn 
by Congress, and signed by Henry Clay, speaker of the house 
of representatives; William H. Ci'awford, jDresident of senate, 
pro tem; approved by James Madison, dated June 18, 1812. 
The message of Madison is also given and signed by James 
Monroe, as secretaiy of state, also. 

July 8, 1812, Adamson Bentley occupies a full half-column 
of the Tniiiip of Fame, telling of one John North, who in 
iMarch came through this country posing as a Baptist minister. 
He also posed as a single man. Bentley took great pains to find 
out about him and declares him a fraud. 

In a marriage notice of July 15 we find the following 
verse : 

"Hail, wedlock I Hail, inviolable tye! 
Perpetual fountain of domestic joy. 
Lnve. friendship, honor, truth, and pure delight, 
Ilarnioniou*;, niinfjle in the nuptial rite.'' 


lu tlie same iinmlier is aiuiouueed a camp meeting, under 
the patronage of tlie ^Methodist Episcopal clinreli, to commence 
the 2Sth of August, in Smitlifield, on Mr. Marry 's land, Trumbull 
County, Ohio, Jacob Young, Thomas J. Crockwill, managers. 

Aug-ust 19, 1812, Trump of Fame: "General Perkins has 
ordered a muster of the commissioned and stait" officers of the 
Third Brigade, Fourth Division, Ohio Militia, to be held at the 
house of Asael Adams, in Liberty, on the 2nd and 3rd day of 
September. Also, that the field officers appear with their side 
arms and the captains and subalterns and staff officers, with 
muskets, and that they ])erform camp duty that night." 

The following advertisements are of interest : 

Nathan L. Eeeves, Taylor, and Ladies Habit ^^faker, calls 
his place of business The Ked House. 

John ^klann, jun., "Informs his friends and the publick gen- 
erally that he continues to carry on the hatting business, 
in all its various branches at the 'sign of the hat,' at the 
southeast corner of the publick square in this town." 

Ephraim Quiuby and AVm. A\'. Morsman advertise a new 
carding machine, whicli is "highly recommended." 

Adamson Bentley, the Baptist minister, had to piece out his 
salary by engaging in business. June 16th he and Jere- 
miah Brooks give notice of dissolution of partnership. 
Many of the advertisements were for stray animals ; many 
for giving notice of debt. 

"LOST. Between Leavittsburg and Warren, a large pitch- 
ing fork, marked on the ferrule, I. L. A favor will be con- 
ferred by leaving it at the sign of the Cross Keys in 

"Davis Fuller, Saddler. Informs his friends and the publick 
in general that he still continues the saddling Inisiness in 
the town of Hartford, Number 5, in the first range, etc." 
Hats, furr and wool hats are made by Frederick Kirtland 
at Parkman. 


$120 Keward will be given by tlie subscril)er to any person 
who will give such information respecting the person who 
cut the bridle of the suliscriber in the evening following the 
30th day of last month, as that he may be convicted, in 
a court of law. 

Thomas D. Webb advertises for a lost book, "Crown — 
Circuit Companion," with the name of Samuel Huntington 
written therein. 

"Whereas, my wife, Phebe, has frequently wandered from 
the path of duty which that infallible criterion, the Word 
of God, i^lainly points out, and has conducted herself in that 
unbecoming manner which is a disgrace to her sex, and 
still persists in the constant and willful neglect of her duty 
as a wife, I therefore forbid all persons harboring or trust- 
ing her on m^^ account and I will pay no debts of her con- 
tracting after this date. Azel Tracey." 
"Hartford, September 18, 1827." 

Under the date of ()ctol)er 11, 1827, Phebe replies ))y say- 
ing she often has asked for a trial among impartial men 
and "I am still in full communion with the Presbyterian 
church and enjoy the confidence of its members. The opin- 
ion of my neighbors, also, I am happy to present as testi- 
mony of my general character." Neighbors say, "We have 
been well acquainted with Mrs. Tracy from her youth to the 
present tune and we believe her' to be shamefully abused, 
and thus publicly slandered without any just cause." 

In the Sejjtember 27, 1827, number of Clnojiicle a reward 
of six and one-fourth cents is offered for the return of a 
runaway apprentice. The notice is by Eichard Iddings. 

Under headline, "Beware of a Villain": "Says the things 
stolen were a Castor hat manufactured iu Salem, N. Y., by 
Jno. Adams; two handkerchiefs and a pair of stockings. 
The name of the thief is Wm. Briggs, who lodged with the 
subscriber and before daylight he decamped. Said Briggs 
is about seventeen, with long and remarkably slim legs. 
walks lame, has a down look when spoken to, is very impu- 

UlSTOHV OF TlM'Mr.ri.L CorXTV 'Mil 

dent and talkative when eneonrasied. $5 is offtMed Uiv liini. 
A. B. F. Orrasby, Cleveland." 

In 182S we find that Hapgood ».<: (^)uinby, luojirietors of the 
Triiinp of Fame, advertise that a boy ran away from them 
named Grin Cook. Althongh this boy was IS years old, 
he was bound out to them. "All persons are cautioned 
against harboring or employing said runaway. 25c reward 
will be given to anyone who will bring him back, but no 
exjienses jiaid." They then ask r'xchanges to copy. 

As said abo\-e, the first iiuml)er api)eared in June, 1S12. 
Eighteen months from that time James White l)ecame a mem- 
ber of the firm. In 1814 Mr. Webb retired, Samuel (,^)uinln- 
taking his place. The firm was then known as James \Miite 
& Co. This company sold to Fitch Bissell as above stated. In 
1817 Sanuiel Quinby again owned the paper, having for assist- 
ant Elihu Spencer. Mr. Spencei- died in two years, and George 
Hapgood took his place on March 1-f, 1819, and kept it for 
twenty-two years. During this long service of Mr. Hapgood, 
as editor, there were several changes in the ownership of the 
paper. After Mr. Quinby came Otis S])rague, 1819; E. E. 
Thompson, 1821; William" Quiiibv, 1822; John Crowell. 1828; 
Calvin Pease, 1830; A. W. Parker, 1832. 

In 1848 the Whigs established a paper known as the Triini- 
bidl Counfii Whig. Later its name was changed to the Western 
Reserve Transcript. The Transcript of June 16tli quotes this 
from the Mahoning Free Democrat: We have been in a good 
many printing offices in our time and have seen females emiiloyed 
in setting type in more than one, but we must say that we never 
knew a proprietor to employ girls to do the work who was 
not either too poor or to mean to pay journe^mien a fair pi'ice 
for their labor." The editor says: "From what we can learn 
respecting the young man who presides over the columns of the 
Free Democrat, we have set him down as a conceited ass, who 
will have his bray at all hazards." He then explains they do 
not intend to employ female workers over .iourneymen and that 
the female employees he has have got as much brains as other 
people. "We hold that females ought to be permitted to engage 
in any business for which they are physically and mentally 


Mr. Hapgood retired from the editorship of the Clironkie 
ill ISJrl. In 1853 E. D. Howard purchased the paper, and the 
next year the Chronicle and the Weste)ii Reserve Transcript 
became the Western Reserve Chronicle and Transcript. James 
Diimars continued to be the editor, and the paper was published 
in the Empire block -which had lieen the home of the Chronicle. 
In 1855 Mr. George X. Hapgood (the sons of George Hapgood 
Sr.) and C. A. Adams bought out the printing establishment 
including the jiaper, and restored to it its old name the West- 
ern- Reserve Chronicle. 

Floris B. Phinptou, long connected with the Commercial 
Gazette of Cincinnati, received his first editorial experience in 
Warren. He worked on one of the early papers, and after- 
wards was connected with the Chronicle. From the latter 
paper we quote the following: "Floris B. PljTnpton married 
to Cordelia A. Buslmell of Eavenna. 'It will be seen from 
the above that our whilom friend has at leng-th adjured bach- 
elordom, and has exchanged the friendship of life for its love.' " 

Mr. William Eitezel was the editor and proprietor of the 
Trumbull County Democrat. After that paper became Repub- 
lican, it was consolidated with the Chronicle. Mr. Eitezel 
becoming the junior member of the firm. This was in 1861. 
Soon Mr. Adams retired, and Mr. Hapgood died. Mr. Eitezel 
was editor and proprietor of the Weekly Western Reserve 
Chronicle until 1877, when a company was formed, B. J. Taylor 
and Frank M. Eitezel being associated with him. In 1897 the 
Chronicle moved into new offices built for them by Lamb & 
Strong, adjoining the old Eitezel homestead. Mr. Eitezel died 
in 1902, having been editor of the Chronicle for forty-one years, 

Mr. Taylor retired in 1905, and the William Eitezel Print- 
ing- Company was formed. The Chronicle is now owned by 
Frank M. Eitezel and F. M. ^'auGorder. 

The Warren Daily Chronicle was started in 1883. It was 
the first daily in the city. 

The early numbers of the Chronicle contain little or no 
local news. People were supposed to have curiosity and in- 
clination enough to learn the doings of their neighbors and 
fellow citizens themselves. Elihu Spencer was the first editor 
to devote space to local events. 

Although the Chronicle has had among its owners and 
editors men of fine business abilitv and iutegritv, the two best 


known were Mr. George Hai^good and ^Ir. William Kitezel. 
They each had a long time of service, the latter nearly twice 
as long as the former, and they lived at such diii'ereut times 
that there is no possibility of comparing their ability or the 
results whicli they obtained. In ]\Ir. Hapgood's day it cost 
little to run a newspaper or printing office, and an energetic, 
clever young" fellow could buy and pay for a partnershij) in a 
concern. In Mr. Eitezel's day it took a great deal of ability to 
properly and successfully manage a paper. In ^Ir. Hapgood's 
day there were fewer books, fewer magazines, mail facilities 
were small, and a successful editor must be a student. In 'Sir. 
Eitezel's day the competition was great, politics were com- 
plicated and it took calm judgment and a just mind to lead the 
dominant party of that time. Mr. Hapgood was loved and re- 
spected by his subscril)ers who were personally attached to him. 
[Mr. Eitezel, a vigorous, conservative writer, moulded o]iinions 
of his readers, and had the respect of all of them. 

Mr. Frank Eitezel, the present editor of the Clirai/irlr. has 
carried out the policies of his father, and under his manage- 
ment the paper has grown. His work is referred t(i in another 
l)art of this liistory. 

On July 1, 190!), tlie Wrstcni Beserre Chronhle (weekly) 
and the Warren Dally Clwoiiidr will find a new iHune in tiie 
]\Iasonic Temple block. 

Tlir Xeirs Letter. 

Thomas J. McLain, Sr.. and his brother, J. G., established 
the Neirs Letter, in 1830, which was the Democratic organ for 
a goodly portion of the Western Eeserve. It was the strongest 
Democratic paper of its time and received a good financial 
support from Democrats. In 1839 this property was sold to 
Christopher Columbus Seely and William Baldwin, and the 
name was changed to the TrionhiiU Democrat. In those days 
it was necessary that editors and proprietors sliould know the 
printer's trade. Neither Mr. Seely nor Mr. Baldwin were 
printers. Mr. Baldwin died, and the men who were standing 
at the head of the Trumbull County Democracy, Dr. Daniel B. 
Woods and Sharon Cotton, bought the paper, not expecting it 
to be a financial success, but that the party might have an 
organ. John M. Edwards, who was for so manv vears identi- 


fied with aud interested in jmblie ati'airs of Trmuhull and 
Mahoning counties, was the editor. He was of the family of 
the great Jonatlian Edwards, of Massachusetts, and a connec- 
tion of John Stark Edwards, Trumbull County's first recorder. 
He was an able editor, but for some reason the business part 
of this paper was not well managed and there were frequent 
changes. At one time a Mr. Harrington owned it, and later 
Mr. J. B. Biittles aud E. B. Eshalman were joint proi)rietors. 
Mr. Eshalman remained in the firm but a little time, and in 
1854 the paper became the property of Eitezel & Mills. Will- 
iam Ritezel was a practical printer and in the days immediately 
l)receding the war he developed editorial powers. As stated 
above, when the ([uestion of secession or union, slavery or free- 
dom, was the question, Mr. Eitezel declared himself in favor 
of union, and in 1S61 his paper was consolidated with the 
Chronieh', which had already absorbed the Transcript, and this 
new pa]>er retained the old name the ChrnuieJc 

The Cnnstifntion. 

.letl'erson I'alm was one of the early Democrats who sym- 
pathized largely witli the South. During the high feeling in 
the early days of the war, he suffered much for what he 
believed to l)e right. At the close of the war, he moved to 
Kentucky, but there he found that the southerners had little 
use for northerners, no matter what their beliefs were, and he 
returned to Warren. He was one of the very first Democratic 
newspaper men. lie was a compositor in the office of the 
News Letter, and afterwards, in 1840, started a periodical, 
Memiri/, for John G. McLain. The type and fixtures belonging 
to this i}aper were moved to Youngstown and used for printing 
the Olire Branch. The Mercury was discontinued. When the 
Chronicle and the Democrat united, it left the Democratic party 
without an organ. It was hard for this party to sustain a paper 
because there was such a variance of belief among the mem- 
bers. Many were Democratic in name only ; some were in favor 
of modified means of putting down the rebellion; while a few 
were outright southern sympathizers. In 1862 the Democratic 
party founded the Constitution. Jefferson Palm was the edi- 
tor. More than a thousand names were entered on its subscrip- 
tion list. In 1S(>7 Judge Mathew Birchard and E. H. Ensign, 
both Democr;itic lawyers, bought the jjaper and later it became 

JllS'lOin (IF TIUMHri.L ('OIATY :!65 

the property (if \\'illiam Birohard, the sun of the former. In 
the early 70s Lucius Fuller, the sou of Ira Fuller, one of the 
strongest Democrats of the county, was city editor. This jjaper 
was discontinued early in the '8()s, when Mr. "William Birch- 
ard, because of contiuucd ill health, retired and moved to 

'J'ilf W'dlirli h'liiinl. 

In 1S7G the ]]'tiir(it Uvcord came into existence. .Jefl'erson 
Palm, who, as we have seen, assisted in the founding of the 
first. Democratic paper, the News Letter, the second Democratic 
paper, the Coiistitiitiun, was editor and proprietor of the War- 
ren Reeord. Selden B. Palm, his sou, was associated with him. 
In 1882 the Reeord was sold to a company, and published under 
the name of the Demoenit. Some of the members of this com- 
pany were Jefferson Lamb, John K. Woods, J. W. Klump, of 
Mecca, and James L. Lamb. Freeman Moore was its first 
editor, and he was succeeded In- Eoliert Paden. Jefferson 
Lamb bought this ])i()]ierty from the other owners and M. M. 
Padgett became the editor. Under his editorship and Mr. 
Lamb's management, this i)roperty became more valuable. 
When Mr. Padgett left Warren to engage in newspaper work 
in the west. David Fisher was made editor. A^nil 1, 1907, 
Horace ilolbrook ))Ui-cliased the property of Jefferson Lamb, 
and is now editor and proprietor. ^Ir. Holbrook is a vigorous 
editorial writer and has caused the Eepublicans of Trumbull 
Tounty some discomfort, and the non-]")ai'tisan reader some 
aumsement. since he became the editoi-. 

Ttie }y(irreu TrUnme. 

In August. lS7(i. the }Varreii Trihniie made its appearance. 
^\'. S. Peterson, who had been a Congregational minister and 
later the editor of the Canfiehl News, was the editor and the 
proprietor. Some years later his two sons, A. M. and 0. M.. 
were associated with liim. Mr. Peterson was a well educated 
man, was an able writer, and apparently loved a scrap. It is 
thought that he came into Trumlnill County to oppose Garfield 
and the machine. He had hardly gotten imder way before 
Garfield came up as a candidate for United States senator and 
no longer represented this district in Congress. Warren never 


had had controversy among newspapers of one party and the 
Tribuue made things lively for office-holders and other jjersons. 
When ]\Ir. Peterson sold the paper, he secured a position in 
^Vashiugton and lived there for some time before his death. 
William H. Smiley bought the Tribune in March, 1884. He 
became the editor and Frank D. McLain, whose father so long- 
before had founded the News Letter, and whose brother, Hon. 
Thomas J., had been a writer of a good deal of note, became 
the city editor. He is now with the Philadelphia Inquirer. 
Warren never had a brighter sheet than that edited by Mr. 
Smiley. He was a forceful writer, a man of great integrity, 
and his paper devoted to the jarinciples of the Eepublican party 
made a place for itself in the community. Names which he 
gave to people and to things still exist. "Spinster" Dell will 
never be forgotten, and neither will the "Idler." Mr. Smiley 
was a self-educated man and a very talented one. He wrote 
verse which was very creditable. In 1891, wishing to give 
personal attention to some business of his in the south, he 
sold the Tribune to E. D. Lampson, of Ashtabula. Mr. Smiley 
established a daily paper which only existed a little time, but 
Mr. Lampson established the Daily Tribune, which has grown 
and expanded ever since. In 1892 Mr. Lampson sold out to 
C. H. Newell and H. F. Harris, and the latter were the editors 
until 189J-, when it was purchased by W. C. Deming and F. E. 
Bussell. At that time the Tribune Company was formed. 
Prior to this, the Tribune had been most of the time a success 
in all ways exceiDting that of finance. J. AV. Eussell was presi- 
dent of this company, W". C. Deming, editor, and F. E. Eussell, 
business manager. Zell P. Hart was employed by this com- 
pany, and when Mr. Eussell retired a new company was formed 
in which she and George Braden were included. Mr. Braden 
in the beginning attended to the advertising and like 
business. Later Thomas H. Deming and C. B. Eigg, who had 
had charge of the mechanical part of the work, bought stock 
in the company; Mrs. Hart became the business manager, 
William C. Deming retained the editorship, and Thomas Dem- 
ing was city editor. In 1900 W. C. Deming purchased the 
Cheyenne (Wyoming) Tribune, and is still its editor and presi- 
dent of the company. Mr. Deming removed to Cheyenne and 
Thomas H. Deming took his place as editor. The business 
management was in the hands of Mrs. Hart. In 1907 she 


married A\'. C Deming, and Eugene Sabiii succeeded her as the 
head of the busmess end of the Tribune. Tlie present owners 
of the Tribune are W. C. Deming, Zell Hart Deming, T. H. 
Deming and C. B. Rigg. The present officers are president, 
W. C. Deming; secretary and treasurer, Zeli Hart Deming; 
vice president, C. B. Rigg; business manager, E. P. Sabin; edi- 
tor, Thomas H. Deming. 

Soon after the formation of tlie present Tribune Company 
with \\. C. Deming and ]\Irs. Hart at the head, business ]iros- 
perity began for the Tribune and has continued ever since. 
The paper is Republican in principle and has a wide circula- 
tion. It has fearlessly stood for all things progressive in the 
community, and has done much for Warren and Trumbull 

The Liberty Herald 

At different times there have been papers published in 
Trumbull County, for a short time only. One of the early ones 
was the Liberty Herald, edited by Tait & "Walling between 
1840 and. 1850. 

The Cortland Gazette. 

The Cortland Gazette was established and edited by John 
Johnson in the early '70s. The office was burned and tlie files 
destroyed in 1887 or '88. 

Cortland Herald. 

The Cortland Herald was established and edited by II. D. 
Holcomb from 1888 to 189-lr. II. C. Freeman purchased the 
property and edited the paper for five years. In 1899 it sus- 
pended. The following year, 1900, the plant was purchased by 
Carl C. Hadsell, who reorganized it and who has been conduct- 
ing its publication ever since. 

TJie Niles Indepeyident. 

In 1867 the Niles Begister was established, the piiblishers 
being Edward Butler and E. E. ]\[oore. Rev. William Camp- 

oliS illS'l'OKY OK 'riilMIULI. couxa'Y 

bell was editor, in 18G8 the name was changed to the Niles 
Independent by J. JI. Fluhart. In 1871 M. D. Sanderson, a 
brother of Hon. Thomas Sanderson, of Youngstown, bought the 
plant and conducted the paper foj- several years. Later he had 
as a partner Captain Dyer. In May, 1876, the paper was pur- 
chased by McCormick & Williams, and in 1883 the interest of 
Mr. Williams was taken over by Mr. McCormick, who con- 
trolled and edited it until his death, twenty-two years ago. Mrs. 
Ella McCormick assumed the editorship and business manage- 
ment. She is the only woman owning a newspaper in Trum- 
bull County. In 1894 Andrew A. Mooney, of New York, became 
editor, and the policy of the paper was changed from that of 
independent to l)eiii(i('ra(\v. 

Niles News. 

The Niles Dailij Neirs issued its first number December 
1, 1890. M. J. Flaherty, agent of the Pennsylvania Lines of 
the city, was the publisher. At that time the News was a 
four-page paper, twelve by twenty inches. In politics it was 
independent, but later became Republican. The following men, 
in the order given, have acted as editors : D. J. W^illiams, J. C. 
McNally, Ivor J. Davis, AY. C. Brown, J. McGowan, George C. 
Braden, and Sam E. Davison. Mr. Davison formerly lived at 
West Union, Ohio. The News has always had a large nmnber 
of subscribers, with a fine circulation in Niles, and a general 
circulation in the county, particularly the lower part. It is 
now an eight-page paper, and is a credit to the community in 
which it is pulilished. 


EiKST Burying-Ctkound in Western Reserve. — Warren Ceme- 
tery AND ITS Distinguished Dead. — Coffins and 
Hearses. — Oak wood Cemetery^. 

The fii-f^t graveyard in Warren was pro)jal)ly located on 
tlie land now owned by the Iddiugs family on South street. 
There were few graves there, with some headboards, at the 
time John S. Edwards excavated for his house. There were 
burying places, probabl}' of Indians (possibly of white men), 
notably where tlie old ]\Iethodist church stood on the river bank, 
and Avhere Charles Angstadt's house stands on South street. 

The tirst cemetery on the Western Reserve of which there 
is now any record is situated on Mahoning avenue (Warren) 
at the rear of the present residence of J. E. Beebe. As stated 
elsewhere, the turnpike, now known as Mahoning avenue, ran 
farther to the west and undoubtedly the cemetery was located 
on tlie street. The land was given by Henry Lane, Jr., to be 
used only for cemetery purposes. A stri]) for an entrance, 
about eighteen feet wide, was bought later of Joseph Crail, 
who occupied the present Beebe home. A few years ago the 
fence separating this from Mr. Beebe 's land decayed and another 
one lias never been erected. At different times efforts have 
been made to have this cemetery abandoned, without success. 

In ]\Iay, 1846, the town council appointed Josejih Perkins 
and George Hapgood to superintend the erection of a suitable 
fence around the grounds of the cemetery. Aliout sixty-five 
rods of fence was required, of oak boards and sawed oak i)osts, 
of suitable height. 

The body of Mrs. John Hart Adgate was the tirst interred 
in that cemetery (1804), and the last was Mrs. Eunice Wood- 
row, wife of William S. AVoodrow. Zephaniah Swift, cliief jus- 
tice of Connecticut and the author of Swift's Digest, who died 
while visiting some members of his family here, was first 



interred iu this old burying ground, later removed to Oakwood 
Cemetery, and has within a year been moved to a second resting 
place there. He was the great-graudfatlier of Miss Olive 
Ha I'm on. 

Whittlesey Adams says : 

Many soldiers of the war of 1812-14 were buried here 
whose graves were originally marked liy wooden head- 
stones, but are now wholly unmarked. 

We mention herewith only a few of these having a local 
historical interest remaining yet in the old cemetery. ]*Iany 
of these graves are marked by substantial, well preserved 
head-stones and monuments with inscriptions. 

General John Stark Edwards was the first county 
recorder, iu 1800, of Trumbull County, which then included 
the entire AVestem Beserve. He was elected to Congress 
from this district in October, 1812, and died Febmai^" 22, 
18i;>. A monument such as deep affection would suggest 
was placed over his grave. 

Daniel Dana, died in 1839. A Bevolutiouary soldier 
and the grandfather of Charles A. Dana, the noted editor 
of the New York Sun, and also the assistant secretary of 
war under Abraham Lincoln during the Civil war. 

Calvin Austin, associate judge of the common pleas 
court, 1802 to 1807. 

Samuel Leavitt, state rei^resentative, 1813-1814. 

General Boswell Stone, a brilliant young lawyer and 
state representative in 1826, died in 1833. 

William Cotgreve, state representative in 1815-1816. 

Eliliu Spencer, died in 1819, editor of the Western 
Eesei-ve Chronicle in 1817 and 1818. 

Thomas D. Webb, editor of the Tntuip of Fcuiie in 
1812 to 1815, the first newspaper published in the Western 
Keserve. He was also state senator in 1828-9. 

Samuel Chesnev,- assistant postmaster of Warren from 
1812 to 1833. 

John Tait, a fearless and enthusiastic disciple of Alex- 
ander Campbell during the twenties and thirties. 

AVilliam L. Knight, prosecuting attorney of Trumbull 
County, 1835-1839. 

John Supple, an educated ex]iert accountant and book- 
keeper of Gen. Simon Perkins, 1830-1844. 

lllSTdl.'Y OF ri.'LMHI 1.1, COLXTV :;:i 

Heur\- Lane, a state representative iu 181G, IsiS, ISl'J 
and 1826. who was also a donor, aboiit 1800, of the laud 
on which the old cemetery now stands. 

Eli Hoyt, member of the Warren (Juards, and killed 
by the accidental discharge of a gun iu March, 184o. 

E. W. Coats, a iiromiueut merchant during the forties. 
The gra\e is surroruided by a sul^stantial iron fence, but 
the head-stone is broken and down. After his death in 
b*^4() regularly once a yeai' his widow, during her life, 
journeyed from her distant luune iu eastern Xew York state 
to Wai-reu tn tenderly ]ihnit Howei's on and care for his 

Howard, only son of Hon. K. P. Ranuey. chier justice 
of the supreme coui't of Ohio for ten vears, lS51-lS(ii!, died 
in 1846. 

Sanmel Elwell, father of Gen. .John Elwell, who was a 
state rejn'esentative in 1854-5, and author of a well known 
work on medical jurisprudence. 

The wife and daughters of Zalmon Fitch, who was the 
first cashier of the Western Reserve Bank, the first liank 
on the Western Reserve, from 1812 to 1838. 

The children of Oliver IT. Patch, merchant and mayor 
of the city in 184;i. 

The wife and children of Cyrus Boswoi'th, sheriff of 
Trumbull ( 'ount>" fi'om 1825 to 1S21I, and also a state repre- 
sentative iu 1822-0. 

The wife of General T. J. [NFcLain, editor of the War- 
ren Weeklij Xcirs Lfffrr from b'-'3() to ]8.38, who was also 
a lianker and mayor of the city. 

The childi-en'of A. W. Parker, edit(.r of the AVestern 
Reserve Citron Id i from 1832 to 1853. 

Hiram, a brother of Hon. Lewis M. Iddiugs, consul gen- 
eral at Cairo, Egypt. 

Lucv, a daughter of James Hovt, mavor of the citv in 

]^Iary Forman, 1838, the mother of John C. Forman, 
a prominent 1)usiness man of Cleveland for the past forty 

~Sly. Arthur Woodrow, whose father and mother rest in 
this picturesque spot, has given the editor the names of the 


following persons whose bodies at one time were buried in this 
cemetery : 

H. Riitan; J. Adgate; Cornelia Crowell, daughter of 
General John Crowell; Dr. Sylvanus Seely; William MeFar- 
land; Robert McFarland; Isaac Ladd; William Woodrow; Will- 
iam Smith Woodrow; Robert Gordon; Horace Rawdon; Johna- 
than Rawdon; Charles Stevens; Henry Harsh; Jacob Harsh; 
Susannah Cantield, an aunt of George and M. B. Tavler, and 
David Bell. 

William Smith Woodrow lived in a house which stood on 
the lot Dr. Sherwood now owns. He was a carpenter and cabinet 
maker. He had a shop on that place, and liis sou, Arthur Wood- 
row, says: "Many a night have I held the candle while father 
made and stained a black walnut coffin. At that time a solid 
black walnut coffin could be bought for $5.50, and when covered 
with black it cost from $8.50 to $12.50." 

Mr. Adams says : 

"Previous to about 1841 a bier instead of a hearse was 
used at the funerals in Warren. A l)ier was a framework 
on which the coffin or casket containing the corpse was laid 
liefore burial, also on which it was carried on the shoulders 
of four men from the house to the grave. The bier when 
not in use was ke])t in the conference room of the basement 
of the frame church building of the Presbyterians on Mahon- 
ing avenue. The bier ceased to be used about 1841, when 
Peter Fulk, a liveryman, brought out a veiy plain, solemn 
appearing vehicle on four wheels and two side curtains and 
called it a hearse. Its cost was not exceeding $75. This 
was used until about 1867, when John O. Hart and Nathan 
Folsom, who had a livery stable located on the southeast 
corner of South Park avenue and Franklin street, brought 
out a carriage of better appearance, with glass sides and of 
more modern style. This hearse cost about $600." 

In 184S Jacob Perkins, Frederick Kinsman and Josei)h Per- 
kins purchased about sixteen acres of land east of Red Run on 
the present Niles avenue, in order that the growing town might 
have a suitable place for burying its dead. One or two infor- 
mal meetings of persons interested were held and, finally, in 
1850 John Harsh, L. J. Iddings, Frederick Kinsman, Joseph 
Perkins, ]Mathew Birchard, Richard Iddings, D. B. Gilmore, 


Hiram Iddings, B. F. Hoffman and Orlando Morgan, at a meet- 
ing- held in the Iddings & Moi'gan store, Chester Bidwell and 
Jacob Perkins also Ijeing present, resolved to incorporate the 
Oakwood Cemetery Association. The imjjrovements made on 
this cemetery, AvitU one excejjtion, have been from the sale of 
lots. Frederick Kinsman left by will a sum of money to be 
used in making a lake, but the trustees concluded that it was 
not best to have a body of water on that ground, and the money 
I'everted to the Kinsman heirs, who used it in purchasing a 
memorial window for the Episcopal church. The year before 
the association was formally organized, Elizabeth Lewis Iddings, 
the only daughter of Richard and Justina L. Iddings, died and 
her body was interred on this land. This was, therefore, the 
first burial in Oakwood Cemetery. 

The association bought from the assignee of S. L. Free- 
man additional land, and now the tract is several times as 
large as the original. The last purchased from the south side 
of the Erie track is a beautiful wood to which there had been 
no direct access ))y road, since the land in fi'ont of it was 

A few years since, the association erected a chajjel at the 
entrance of the cemetery where services could be held, and 
during the past year Mrs. H. B. Perkins has erected a white 
marble chapel and vault which she has presented to the asso- 
ciation in memory of her husband, Henry B. Perkins. This 
building is large enough for burial services and is a handsome, 
artistic structure. 


Ageicultural Fairs. — First ]*Iills. 

The early settlers were deeply iuterested in agriculture 
and when they gathered together sociall)^ or for the purpose of 
raising buildings, they compared experiences with beneficial 

In the Cliroiiicle of January 7, 1819, is a notice of a meet- 
ing of the people of this vicinity at the house of James Hillman, 
December 22, 1818, for the purpose of organizing an agricul- 
tural society. George Tod, William Bayen and Calvin Pease 
were a committee to prepare and report articles. Robert Mont- 
gomery was clerk of the meeting and Samuel Brysou, chair- 
man. An address was made, which is printed, explaining in 
detail the objects, one of which was to encourage domestic man- 
ufacturers. "By domestic we mean products of family 
industry. Idleness is destructive to every social as well as moral 
23rinciple. Many families are idle for the very best of reasons 
— because they have nothing to employ themselves about. They 
are in the habit of buying that which they want; and that which 
they do manufacture they slight, because it is only for every- 
day use. An emulation is wanted. If family fabricks were 
made of better material, with more care and pride, foreign 
stuffs would soon be out of fashion and of course out of use." 

]n August, 1821, at the Cattle Show and Fair, the com- 
mittee announced "Plowing match to start at 12:00 o'clock." 
These early fairs were not for the people of present Trumbull 
County alone but for the whole vicinity. Mrs. Angeline "War- 
wood, whose father was Mr. Lee, of Farmington, remembers 
attending a fair held in the court house when she was a girl. 
She is now eighty-five and lives in Warren. This was probably 
for domestic products only, possibly fruits. Mrs. Warwood 
says that members of her family entered rag carpets, and she 
remembers how these carpets and quilts were Inmg for display 
from the balcony in the court house. 



The managers of the Trumbull Couuty Agricultural Fair 
iu 1846 were Thomas J. McLaiii, 8r., Frederick Kinsman, 
Daniel Gilbert, Samuel Qniuby, John Hutehiu.s and Chester 

In the early premium lists the cash prizes were rather 
small and the committee awarded other articles, possibly con- 
tributed by merchants or manufacturers. For instance, in the 
premium list of 1850 the best coop of turkeys received iifty 
cents and the Ohio Cultivator. In that day the premiums on 
bed quilts was just the same as it is now, and as some of the 
same bed quilts have been on exhibition almost every year in 
the last tAventy years, there is a possibility that some of those 
which were shown in 1850 are still being entered. 

In 1860 Z. T. Ewalt, of Howland, received the lirst pre- 
mium on turkeys, his wife received a dollar for the first 
premium on bread, and ^Frs. Morris Iddings, the second 
premium on domestic flannel. 

In the early published premiuuL lists, if any young girl was 
fortunate enough to secure a premium, that fact was not pub- 
lished in her own name, but in her father's. For instance if 
Mary Smith received twenty-tive cents for the best crocheted 
tidy, when published we read "Twenty-live cents for best 
crocheted tidy — daughter of William Smith." This was a little 
indetinite, since there were usually several daughters. Read- 
ers, then and now, would have been astonished to have read, 
"Fifty cents, coop of ducks, son of William Smith," and John 
Smith, whose father was William, would have called attention 
to the fact that he was an individual and had an individual 

In the early days of the Agricultural Association, horse 
racing was a feature. Men drove their own trotting horses. 
During the war time, Warren citizens paid as high as five 
dollars to witness these farmers' trots. It was real pleasure, 
too, because the best horse really beat. Now-a-days, people sit 
in the grand stand and jockeys sell the races, and the people 
themselves are "sold." There never was a time Avhen the 
people of Trumbull County were so fooled and so maniimlated, 
apjiareutly unknowingly, as at the present time. 

Among the trials of the early settlers was the preparing of 
gTain so that it could be used for food. In the beginning, a^ 
stated elsewhere, two stones were placed together, the upper 


oue liaviug a spring iDole, or other kind of devices for moving 
it, and between these stones wheat and corn were ground by 
hand. It was a slow, tedious process, and, unless the greatest 
pains were taken, was not well done. Among the most grievous 
trials of the early settlers was going to mill because there were 
no roads and no bridges. As soon as possible mills were 
erected in the vicinity of settlements. The first mill in old 
Trmnbull County was at "Willoughby and was in working con- 
dition in the fall of 1798. The second was between Youngstown 
and Canfield at the fork of Indian river. The author does not 
know whether this was the Mill Creek mill or not. The third 
was erected in the fall of 1799 in that part of Cleveland which 
for many years was known as Newburg. 

The first mill in Warren was built by Henry Lane and 
Charles Dally. In June, 1800, they began the construction of a 
dam across the Mahoning river where the present dam now is. 
It was not finished that season and the high water and ice 
during the winter destroyed it. The next year they worked 
faithfully, friends assisting them, but the dam was not finished 
and in use until 1802. This dam is still standing, although it 
has been raised and repaired. On this site now stands the 
Warren Water & Light Company's plant. In 1844 Chancey 
Porter came to Warren from Meadville, Pennsylvania, and 
erected a sawmill on upj^er Mahoning avenue about where the 
ford is. After a time he noticed that flax grew very abundantly 
and that the seed was little used. He conceived the idea of 
having a flax mill. The grist mill which Henry Lane had built, 
and of which Dally was part owner, had been bought by Gideon 
Finch, then James VanGorder. Mr. Porter purchased this mill 
with the idea of making linseed oil. His theory in regard to the 
manufacture of oil was right, but he had not the means to carry 
it on. He was the first Warren man to grind the flax-seed for 
market. Giles O. Griswold observed Mr. Porter's experiments, 
concluded it was a good business and bought him out. Thus was 
the same old story told over of the man without money and 
with inventive genius, and the man with money. Mr. Griswold 
later built a down-town mill. Daniel Camp and some others 
owned the upper mill, and finally Mr. Griswold bought the 
property, repaired it, installed up-to-date machinery, and it 
was destroyed by fire in 1880 and never rebuilt. Chancey 
Porter and his family were long identified with Warren. He 

(Photo loiined li.v Fretl By;ird.) 


On the right is the site of the first Van Gorder mill, owned by Justus 

Smith, and a'so of the oil mill. On the left, further up the bank, 

was the Dally farm, where the first white child was born. 


lived on ]\Ioni'oe street in a lioiise which stood where the resi- 
dence of E. C. Andrews now stands. When his son Byron was 
married the harn whicli stood on liis phice was moved onto the 
property west of the house and made into a residence. This 
has been removed while this history was being written, and 
Judge Chryst has erected a house ui^on the spot. The old 
Porter house was burned, and the Misses Calendar, sisters of 
Mrs. E. E. Hoyt, built the present residence. Chancey Porter 
was leading his cow down j\lahoning avenue, and as he passed 
over a sluiceway which was in front of the j^resent residence 
of Edward Kneeland, the cow eitiier became unruly or fright- 
ened, pulled him into the ditch, and he sustained injuries 
from which he died. His son Alanson had a large family of 
children, most of whom reside in Warren. They are Charles, 
Henry, Edward, Joseph, Mary; Addie, the oldest daughter is 
recently deceased. William resides in Cleveland, and James in 
Youngstown. The latter is the youngest of the boys by the 
first wife (maiden name Ray) and is one of the most accom- 
plished photographers in the state. He has taken several 
valuable prizes at National Photographic exhibitions. 

Although the upper mill was the oldest and the most his- 
toric, there was only a year or two difference between the 
construction of that dam and the lower dam, which ran from 
the corner of Main and JNIarket streets across the river. This 
dam was constructed by George Loveless, who came to Warren 
in 1800. He was the great uncle of Frank, Charles and W^illiam 
Loveless of this city. He owned ninety-seven acres of land 
on the west side of the river. Part of this he sold to Mr. 
Daniels and part to Ephraim Quinby. It is family tradition 
that he owned part of Quinby Hill. He was proprietor of 
Warren's iirst store, which stood on the east side of Main 
street, probably below Franklin. It was a log building. He 
had fine business ability and was industrious, as are his 

There were several mills of one kind and another at the 
west side of this dam. James Scott, who seemed to have been 
a very industrious citizen, had a contract for these buildings, 
and they finally passed into the possession of James L. Van- 
Gorder, who not only kept hotel, had landed interests, took 
contracts for certain buildings, but always was identified with 
the mill properties in this city. His sons Albert and George 


were associated with him in the lower mill aud continued in 
that business all of their business life. 

James L. VanGorder owned both upper and lower mills. 
The carding-, spinning, weaving and fulling mill of Benjamin 
and Charles Stevens stood just below the lower VanGrorder 
mill. North of the VanGorder mill was a factory used by the 
Stevenses for furnisliing satinets, and farther north, a lumber 
mill, by James Scott. 

In Benjamin and Augustus Stevens' advertisement on June 
17, 1819, we lind: "Cloth will be received and dressed on the 
sliortest notice, aud in the neatest manner, and at all seasons 
of the year, provided enougli is received for a mill full." 

AVhen the canal was built in Warren, the dam was moved 
south to where it still stands. Before this dam was raised, 
when tlie water was low, people standing on the Market street 
bridge could see the remains of the Loveless dam. 

As stated above, Giles 0. Griswold was the tirst man to 
operate extensively an oil mill in the present Trumbull County. 
The goodly fortune which he left was largely acquired in the 
oil business. His tirst mill was on Upper Malioning avenue; 
the second on Dawson street. Some years before his death he 
erected a tine plant in the northeast portion of the city. This 
is now occupied by the C. A. Crane Company. Mr. Griswold 
was an ardent Baptist, a bank official, and during middle life 
his home was one of the most hospitable of the city. Mrs. 
Griswold was a gracious hostess and greatly esteemed by AVar- 
ren people. Their home is now owned by A. G. Judd, a I'elative. 


"Wareex Debating Society. — Members and Descexdaxts. — Pub- 
lic Library. — Circulatixg Library. — Warrex' Library 
AssociATiox. — The Carxegie Library. — Trumbull 
Coux'TY' Artists. 

*Tlie yuuiiu,' men ^vho lived uinety years ago iu barren 
were progressive in all matters pertaining to good citizenship, 
and they organized a deliating society on the evening of October 
20. J817. Certain rules and regulations were established by 
which they were governed. Constitution and by-laws were duly 
adopted, meetings were held each week. Questions for discus- 
sion were jiresented by different members. From these several 
questions the jiresident selected the one to be discussed at the 
next following meeting. The merits of the question each even- 
ing were decided by the president and the merits of the 
argument were decided liy three judges. 

The i)resident selected tive members each evening who were 
to take the affirmative and tive members to take the negative 
sides of the debate. 

AVe give a few extracts from the records of the society: 

"The following persons having met on the evening of the 
20th of October, 1817, for the purpose of forming themselves 
into a debating society, did ordain and establish certain rules 
and regulations by which they resolved to be governed: Cyrns 
Bosworth. n. F. Leavitt, Wheeler Lewis, Edwai'd Potter, John 
Love, George Mygatt. Henry Stiles, S. E. Bishop, Isaac Ladd. 

"Wheeler Lewis was duly elected president and H. F. 
Leavitt secretary pro tern. The following question was chosen 
by the president to lie discussed on the evening of the 23rd 
inst., at which time the society resolved to meet: 'Is Nature 
Generally ^lore Pleasing to the Eye than Art?' Messrs. John 

"This sketch of the Deliating Society was prepared by 
^Miittlesev Adams. 


Harsh, R. Fleming, Martin Bentley, Thomas G. Stewart, Benja- 
min Stevens, Edward Fling and John B. Hannon were admitted 
members of the society. William Bishop was elected to pre- 
side at the next evening of meeting as president, after which the 
society adjourned. ' ' 

October 30, 1817, the question was discussed and decided 
in the affirmative, after which the following gentlemen were 
admitted members : Samuel Quinby, Thomas Wells, Heman E. 
Harmon, John Gordon, William Quinby and Horace Stewart. 
A motion was made by the society that the present constitution 
compiled and recommended by H. F. Leavitt be revised and 
Messrs. Bishop, Bosworth, Leavitt, Bentley and Harmon were 
appointed a committee to revise the same. The following ques- 
tion was selected for the subject of the next debate: "Is War 
a Greater Evil than Luxury?" William Bishop was re-elected 
president for the next evening. 

March 2, 1820, society convened; Samuel Leavitt, presi- 
dent; Edward Flint, secretary; Roswell Mason, treasurer. The 
question debated this evening was: "Was the Last War an 
Advantage to the American Nation?" 

Arguments for the affirmative were by Roswell Stone, John 
Brown, Eward Flint. Arguments for the negative were by 
George Swift and Benjamin Stevens. 

The merits of the question were decided by the president 
in favor of the affinnative, and the merits of the arguments 
in favor of the negative. 

The officers for the ensuing term were elected this evening, 
viz.: President, Roswell Mason; secretary, Edward Flint; stand- 
ing committee, George Swift, Roswell Stone and George Mygatt. 

The ciuestion selected for the next evening was: "Would 
a Foreign War Be Beneficial to the United States?" The 
affirmative to be argued by H. Stevens, George Mygatt, George 
Swift and Benjamin Stevens. The negative to be argued by 
Roswell Stone, Adamson Bentley and Isaac Ladd. 

The judge, for the next evening was E. Leavitt, signed 
Edward Flint, secretary. 

The following is a list of the names of the members : Lorran 
Andrews, Samuel E. Bishoii, Cyrus Bosworth, James Clark, 
Seabury Ford, Edward Flint, John Gordon. Levi Hadley, Heraan 
R. Hannon, John B. Harmon, Walter King, George Swift, 
Francis Freeman, Roswell Stone, Roswell Mason, John Brown, 


Edward Potter, A. L. Norton, Isaac Ladd, H. F. Leavitt, Samuel 
Leavitt, John Love, George Mygatt, Calvin Pease, Edward 
Potter, Samuel Quinby, William Quinby, Benjamin Stevens, 
Horace Stevens, Thomas G. Stewart, Wheeler Lewis, James 
D. Buruham, John Harsh, R. Fleming-, Martin Bentley, Jacob H. 
Baldwin, Adamson Bentley, Thomas Wells, George Hapgood, 
Augustus Stevens, Henry Stiles, Josiah Soule. 

Seabury Ford was nominated for governor by the ^Vliig 
State convention on February 10, 1848, on the fifth ballot. Ezra 
B. Taylor, from Portage county, and Jacob Perkins, from Trum- 
bull County, were delegates in the convention. Seabury Ford 
was elected governor on the Whig ticket in October, 1848, and 
a month later the state went Democratic at the presidential 
election. Seabury Ford was very popular among his Whig 
brethren. He was the last governor of Ohio ever elected by the 
"V^^lig party. Ezra B. Taylor and Jacob Perkins were the 
youngest members of the Vfliig State convention of 1848. 

The following is a list of some of the descendants and 
relatives of members of the pioneer debating club, to-wit: Wal- 
lace W. Ford, Mrs. Mary P. Lawton, Mrs. Ester C. Nichols. 
Olive E. Harmon, Ella Harmon, Erwin Ladd, Mrs. Henry C. 
Dietz, Mrs. Albert Jameson, ]\Irs. Edward Briscoe, Mrs. Charles 
Ewalt, Virginia Reid, Lucy Hoyt, Anna S. Hoyt, Lucy E. Hoyt. 
Abbie Hoyt. Charles S. Adams, Norman W. Adams, Thomas 
Kinsman, Charles P. Kinsman, Vance Potter, George Quinby, 
Harriet Stevens, Mrs. H. P. McCurdy, Maiy Stevens, Heni-v 
Q. Stiles, George H. Jones, Mrs. Rollin A. "Cobb, Harriet P. 
Jones, Fred T. Stone, Laura Harsh, Mrs. Howard B. Weir, 
Mathew B. Tayler, George H. Tayler, Mrs. John J. Sullivan, 
Mrs. Emerson J. Boyd, Donald JMcCurdy, Charles D. Hapgood, 
Coraelia G. Smith, Mrs. Sarah Hapgood Van Gorder, Mrs. Lucy 
Baldwin ^lurdock, Charles Smith Adams, George W. Hapgood, 
Dr. Fred K. Smith. And besides the above named there are 
many more descendants and relatives of the Warren pioneer 
debaters now living in this city. 

The following copy of a conti-act for rent shows a little 
touch of the simple life of ninety years ago in Warren: 

"Agreed with Simon Taylor for the room for the use of the 
debating society, he to find candles and wood and make and 
exting-uish the fire, for which the society are to pay 50c for each 
and everv evening thev mav occu]3v said room from December 
Ki, 1819. '' 

3S3 HISTOKY OF Tin;:\iBrLL corxTY 

From the records of the society it appears tliat the society 
was in an active and vigoroiis condition for six j-ears. It may 
have been in existence ninch longer. 

Publiv L'tbranj. 

In 1814 or ISl.j the lirst ]il)rary in old Trumbnll County 
was estalilished in Warren. It contained abont 1,000 volumes, 
mostly of biography and history. It was located in the cabinet 
shop of Mr. White, wliicli stood north of the Presbyterian church. 
There Avas little, aside from church and social gatherings, to 
entertain people, and so this library was a popular institution. 
Mr. "WTiite served as librarian for more than thirty years, and 
there are many men and women living in "Warren today who 
read those books which were under his care. 

In the early '40s W. N. Porter and Mr. Ide had a cir- 
culating library. December 20, 1842, we find in the Western 
Eeserve Chronicle the following: ""Wheat, corn, hay, oats, 
wood, butter, tallow, and most kinds of produce will be received 
for subscriptions to Porter & Ide's circulating library. Mr. 
Porter was a cultured gentleman, who had a large and well 
regulated book store in the room now occupied by the Masters 
Brotliers Grocery Company. His daughter, Charlotte, married 
Dr. David Jameson and resided all her life in the homestead on 
AVashington avenue, near Mahoning. She died in June of this 
year. His son, William F. Porter, was associated with him for 
many years, but because of failing health moved to Colorado, 
where he stayed for some years before his death. He -n-as 
artistic in temperament and painted some very creditable pic- 
tures. He married Nancy Williams, who still lives in their 
homestead at the corner of Elm and High streets. She is an 
ingenious woman, and at one time patented a cover for slate 
frames which woidd have netted her a handsome return had it 
not been at that time teachers decided to use tablets instead 
of slates. William N. and Nancy Porter had two sons, Eugene 
and William. The latter died in early youth, and the former by 
bequest of his aunt, Charlotte, Porter Jamison has received half 
interest in the old Porter homestead. 

In 1848 Jacob Perkins, Dr. Julian Harmon, Judge George 
M. Tuttle and Orlando jMorgan, with some others, originated the 
"Warren Library Association." The books of the library 
were transferred to this company and the trustees and patrons 

(Plioti. luaneil by Frecl Bynrd.) 


HISTOKY OF TlMMi'.ri.l, COlM'Y 383 

desiriug- to extend the work of the library, ojjeiied a reading 
room in connection with it. (ieorge VanGorder was tiie li- 
brarian for three years, and the library was in liis lather's 
block, which was afterwards destroyed by lire. Smiic jicrsons 
who had contributed books and money to the iirst association 
did not exactly apjirove of this library on the larger scale. 
However, it flourished for a time. It was sustained by ])rivate 
subscription, and entertainments, especially lectures, were 
given for its benefit. Among those who gave the lectures were 
Jacob Perkins, Judge .Milton Sutliif, (Ieorge M. Tuttle, Dr. D. 
B. AVoods, and Dr. Julian Harmon. Later the Library Asso- 
ciation decided that it could not keep open botli reading room 
and liln-ary, and decided to close the reading room and stop 
periodicals; to remove the library to the office of M. D. Leggett; 
to keep it open for the drawing and clianging of liooks on Tues- 
days, Thursdays and Saturdays of every week; that the stock- 
holders be taxed the sum of fifty cents and those not stock- 
holders one dollar per year for the use of the library. In 1854 
the library susi)ended and the books were sold at public auction 
and to private individuals. There were about two thousand 
volumes and many of them are now to be found in the libraries 
of the older residents. The ])eo])le who had objected to the 
formation of this second library had occasion to say "I told 
you so," and those who had given books to the first liln-ary had 
reason to feel rebellious when they were sold to the iiighest 

In 1877 some books were gathered together and the nucleus 
of a new library was established. From the beginning Dr. Ju- 
lian Harmon had lieen interested in the library question, and 
this third library was entrusted to his care in his office on Har- 
mon street. Professor E. F. Moulton was president. Dr. Har- 
mon was secretary, and the library was maintained by dollar 
memberships. For eleven years this organization was in exist- 
ence, then President Monltou called a meeting at Dr. Harmon's 
office, on the 10th of duly, 1888, to consider seriously the ques- 
tion of a library for Warren. The meeting was adjourned a 
week and twelve or fifteen persons perfected the jilans at the 
office of P. L. Webb. George T. Townsend was chairman of 
that meeting and P. L. Webb secretary. Afarshall Woodford 
was elected iiresident. P. L. Webb secretary and treasurer; ex- 
ecutive committee. Dr. T. M. Sabin, Judge D. K. Gilbert, and 


j\Irs. S. AV. Parks. So far as we know this was the first time 
a woman had acted in official capacity in connection with the 
library association. More women than men were pres- 
ent at this meeting, among them, the Misses Mary Id- 
dings, Maria Heaton, Ella Estaln-ook, Fanny Hall, Helen 
Bierce, Mrs. S. W. Park, Mrs. Woodford, and Mrs. W. T. 
Brown. The name of the Warren Library Association 
was retained. The two cases of books which had been 
in Dr. Harmon's office, were transferred to Mr. Webb's office 
and he served as librarian for two years. On the 22nd day of 
September, 1888, the library opened with two hundred and 
ninety-four volumes. Ten years later they had 4,000 volumes. 
This library was opened two afternoons and evenings in the 
week. No one in connection with this association received any 
salary, but there were expenses to be met, particularly that of 
the purchase of new books. The association therefore arranged 
for a course of lectures, and the committee having this in 
charge secured a list of responsible persons who agreed to 
make good, individually, any deficit and to give to the Library 
Association any profits. The first course was given in 1888 and 
'89 and tlie lecture course was continued five years. Eight hun- 
dred dollars was realized in this way, and that sum really made 
it possible to continue the work. In 1890 the association was 
incorporated, bv Henrv B. Perkins, Marshall Woodford, B. J. 
Taylor, P. L. Webb. S." W. Parks, W. C. Stiles, and W. S. Ker- 
nohan. Marshall Woodford was i;)resident, B. J. Taylor, vice- 
])resident, 0. L. Wolcott, treasurer, T. D. Oviatt, secretary and 
librarian. From this time on the success of the lilirary was ap- 
parent. Mr. Woodford gave a great deal of thought and time 
to the management of affairs, and when he was suddenly taken 
away, Mrs. Woodford took his place, acting as librarian. 

The law of the state of Ohio allowed a tax to be levied for 
library ]mrposes, and supervision to he had either by the city 
council or the board of education. The association chose to 
l)ut itself in the hands of the board of education rather than 
the council. This body therefore made the levy and for the first 
time in its existence, the board of education divided on the lines 
of men and women, the women A'oting for the higher levy and 
tlie men for tlie lower. 

On April 1, 1898, the Warren Free Lil)rary liecame a real- 
itv. The first books were drawn that dav, and the liln-arv was 


opened to all citizeus aud residents of school district. During 
the smumer the evening honrs were lengthened, the room being- 
open from 6 :30 to 8 :00. The officers of this tirst Free Library 
were: President, B. J. Taylor; vice-president, "W. C Stiles; 
treasurer, P. L. Webb; librarian and secretary, Mrs. Wood- 
ford. In 1896 one hundred and ninety-eight people drew books ; 
in 1898, one thousand and twenty-five. In 1899, the high school 
library, of two hundred boolcs, was transferred to the Free 
Library. In 1899 the library had become such an attractive 
place that people who went there for books, stayed and visited 
until the trustees voted that no talking above a whisper should 
be allowed. So well was this law enforced, as long as the 
library was in the building, that to this day when towns-people 
open the door of the National American "Women Suffrage As- 
sociation, they begin conversation in a whisper. 

In 1898 an endowment gift of $3,500 was made the library 
and the interest from this has served a goodly purpose. 

In 1878 Judge Milton Sutliff left by will $10,000 to pro- 
vide the youth of Warren with a place for entertainment and 
enjoyment. Tlie phrase relating to this was obscure aud for 
that reason, nothing was done with it until, liy mutual agree- 
ment, George M. Tuttle, the trustee, with the consent of all per- 
sons interested under the will, agreed that this amount might 
be turned over to the Library Association. The old building 
which had been used as an academy aud which had been occu- 
pied by Mr. Sutliff as an office, was turned over to the library, 
and the rents accruing therefrom were used for its mainte- 
nance. This had to be done through the city authorities and all 
were pleased when it was thus settled. 

When the court house was building, provision was made on 
the first floor, west wing, for the library, and here the associa- 
tion established itself in 1897. Mrs. Woodford was librarian at 
the munificent salary of $300 and her assistants gave their 
time gratuitously. It thus being determined that the Library 
Association was a fixture in the community, donations were 
made to it of money and of books and those donations have 
been continued. Mrs. Woodford resigned to accept a position 
in Oberlin where she would be with her mother and her sister, 
and Miss Elizabeth Smith, of Cleveland, succeeded her. Miss 
Smith served two or three years, and upon her return to Cleve- 
land, Miss Cornelia Smith was elected librarian and has served 
ever since. Too much praise cannot be given to Miss Smith 


for her devotion aud her iuterest. Under her management, the 
library has become a place where yonng and old cannot only 
receive books, bnt can be guided to all sorts of references and 
helpful articles. 

About 190-t the Library Association decided to accept the 
offer of Andrew Carnegie to give $28,000 to the library and 
building- was begun in the fall of that year. It was finished 
in February, 1906. As Mr. Carnegie always reciuires that the 
city obligate itself in the expense of maintaining his libraries, 
the city levied a proper tax. The bill providing for this free 
library placed the control in the hands of the city authorities. 
The city now levies .7 mill and last year this amounted to $3,200. 
As the libraiy was built on the Sutlitf land, and as a i^rovision 
of the Sntlift' will must be carried out, the first floor was made 
into a hall and named "Sntliff Hall," and the library proper 
is on the second floor, although part of the rooms on the first 
floor are used by the library for storage. Within the last year 
this hall has been used as a gymnasiiun for boys. The will of 
Mr. Sntlift' provided for both boys and girls. 

The library now contains over 15,000 books. 

The officers are president of the board, B. J. Taylor; vice- 
president, T. I. Gillmer; treasurer, P. L. Webb; members, 
S. W. Parks, Homer E. Stewart, Charles Fillius, Mary Perkins 

TnonbtiU County Artists. 

A number of Trumbull County citizens have made their 
mark in the artistic world. Foremost is Kenyon Cox, the son 
of J. D. Cox, who is mentioned in connection with the Warren 
schools. This artist now lives in New York City, and enjoys 
an enviable reputation among artists and art schools. His wife 
is likewise an artist. 

John W. Bell, the son of Eeuben Bell, had decided talent 
in painting, and some beautiful productions of his are in Tram- 
bull County homes. Mr. Cox studied abroad and had every 
advantage, but Mr. Bell was not so fortunate, and developed 
his talent largely in New York and eastern cities. His specialty 
was autumn landscapes. He did some veiy good work in water 
color. He married Ella, the daughter of Dr. Metcalf. who like- 
wise had artistic tastes and who was successful in marketing 
his pictures. He had the truly artistic temperament and cared 


little for tlie financial part of pictnre painting. 

A. T. Millar, a resident of Cortland, a student of Mr. Bell, 
afteiTvards studied in New York and Europe, and no^\' does 
very creditable work. He lives in New York. 

John Crawford was the first of Warren's artists, and had 
good ideas of colors. He died when veiy young, giving- great 

William F. Porter had decided artistic tastes, but did not 
make this his profession. 


FiEE Depaetmext. — Fire of 1846. — Primitive Methods of Fire 

Protectiox. — Fire Companies and Apparatus. — "The 

Great Fire." — City Hall axd Paid Dep.artmext. 

Until within a few years the citizens of Warren 1:)ecame 
greatly alarmed at the ringing of the fire bell. Even as late as 
1880 a day-time fire brought forth an enormous crowd, while 
an alarm rung in the night called men from their beds and 
caused women to anxiously await the result at home. This 
unnecessary fear was present because of the terrible conflagra- 
tions which in the past had visited the city. The tale had been 
so often told that although people were too young to have seen 
the destruction, still it was firmly fixed in their minds. 

The first destructive fire was in 1846; the others in 1849, 
1855. 1860, 1866, and 1867. 

In the early days of Warren there were few ways to spend 
money raised by taxation, and in 1838 there was a surplus of 
$800 in the treasui^^ During that fall it was decided to spend 
.$295 for a rotary engine for a fire department. Machines of 
this kind, at that time, were very imperfect. This one was built 
after the plan of a force pump and was warranted to throw 
a hundred gallons of water per minute upon a three-story build- 
ing. It was necessary to have a tub, to be filled by a bucket 
brigade, so, after all, this machine did not do away with the 
primitive fire department — men and pails. 

The early newspapers show that the early citizens feared 
what came to them and tried to avoid it. We read that on 
December 9, 1840, a call for citizens who were interested in the 
protection of property from fire to meet was made. In the 
following ]\Iarch we find this statement: "At a city meeting 
held in Mr. Babbitt's school room the question of better fire 
e((uipment was discussed and it was resolved that an efficient 
fire department was necessary for the protection of property." 



Again, in Angnst, lSJ-5, "The tax-payers of tlie borough of 
Warren are requested to meet at the court liouse on Thursday 
evening next to take into consideration the propriety of pur- 
chasing a tire engine by tax." 

At the time of the purchase of tliis eugiue a fire company 
was formed and its duty was not only to manage the fire but 
to do police service as well. The citizens of the town were 
requested to take their place in the bucket brigade. This com- 
pany had to i^ractice once a month, and after the novelty wore 
oft', the filling of the tub was a laborious task, distasteful to all. 
Notwithstanding the preiiaration, this company had no chance 
to serve in the first fire, of 1846, because the buildings were 
largely of wood and the fire was under sucli headway that 
nothing as small and as inefficient could have much effect upon 
the Ijurning mass. The fire department did the best it could, 
but citizens became very mucli excited and often ran throwing 
water on the fire from the individual buckets instead of keeping 
tlie tub filled, and tinally the truck broke and the engine was 
placed on boxes where it was worked, but to little purpose. 
This fire started about eleven o'clock on Monday night, June 
1st, the alarm being given by the Presbyterian bell, now rather 
worse for its years of work, but still hanging in the Presbyterian 
steeple. It originated in the grocery store of Fred Bolemyer, 
which stood where the Warren Hardware Company now is on 
Market street, went down ]\lain street nearly to Franklin, and 
east on Market to Park (Liberty) and down Park a short dis- 
tance. Twenty-four Imildings were burned, and among them 
some of the best firms in town lost heavily. Among these were 
Smith it ^klcCombs, whose store was in the block of Henry W. 
and Charles Smith, S. M. Eupp. hardware store, the Liberty 
Hei'ald Printing Office, several law offices in the Smith Block, 
the brick building of J. L. VanGorder, and the three-story brick 
building of Daniel Gilbert, on the corner of Market and Park, 
the store of Iddings & Best, the public market house. Democratic 
printing office, the post office, the county treasurer's office, the 
store of B. P. Jameson (here a man lost his life), James Hoyt, 
Patch and Allison, were all destroyed. The park was filled with 
all sorts of merchandise, furniture. The store of Henry 
Stiles and Asael Adams, standing just north of Market, on 
the east side of Park, were saved, although the goods Avere car- 
ried out and more or less damaged. Many ladies were in the rank 
of the bucket brigade and did heroic work in helping to save these 


buildings as well as the bank. Little insurance was carried in 
those days and tlie financial loss was very great. Among others 
suffering loss in this fire were: A. Bartholomew, Morgan 
tS: Stell, Lott & Freeman, L. S. Kibbee & Son, Kibbee, Moser 
& Co., Thornton & King, L. Graham, A. F. Hunt, Zahnon 
Fitch, J. ^V. Collins, J. M. Milligan, A. Luke & Co., Daniel 
.l:igger, George Austin, Fred Bolemyer, J. & J. I)unlai>, Caleb 
Peck. J. R. Williams, Levi Nichols", A. Luke & Co., A. & C. 
Westcott, the postoffice, Woodrow & Chapman, Day's barber 
shop. Dr. W. Iddings, Dr. J. Farrell, and two or three lawy^ers' 
ofiSees on Franklin street. 

The old Western Reserve Bank stood where the present 
Union National stands, and George Tayler, with the assistance 
of friends, heroicall.y saved this building, which was on fire 
several times. The Odd Fellows lodge, several doctors and 
lawyers had their rooms and offices burned and suifered accord- 
ingly. Changes were made in firms and in businesses at that 
tune. The Libert ij Herald was never issued again; the pub- 
lisher, Mr. Tait, became librarian of the Cleveland Public 
Library, and the editor, Mr. Rice, became editor of the Ohio 
State Journal at Columbus. 

Although the fire of 1846 has been handed down in press, 
and by word of mouth, the following is quoted from a letter 
which the mother of Samuel Dickey wrote to him when he was 
in New Hampshire on a visit, "Ere this reaches you, you will 
doubtless learn from public papers what a great conflagration 
there has been in Warren, last Mondaj' night. Some say even 
greater than that in Pittsburg, according to the population of 
the ];)lace. On Monday night about half past eleven, I was 
awakened by the church bell. Ijooked out of the window and 
saw a bright light. I thought in the direction of the Presby- 
terian church. We got up, partly dressed ourselves, and went 
out to the road. Found it south of the church. Your father 
called up John and Jake and he, himself, went as far asthe 
liridge barefooted. He could then see it was on Market street. 
He could see VanGorder's Idock all aflame. Smith «S: McComb's 
store ImrTiing and likely to take the whole of ^larket street, 
and Main street. He came home, dressed himself, went back 
again, got into line and stayed until the fire subsided, which 
was about three o'clock. When he came home, to our deep re- 
gret, he told us Market street was in ruins as far as Adams 
store, market house and all, and Main street above the post 


office. One or two houses on the other side of the street were 
saved with great exertion. There are no other stores remain- 
ing now except Adams' and Stiles' on Liberty street, on Main 
street, Hoyt's, Charles Smith, and many of the goods of those 
stores were taken out and much injured. Our friend, Towne, 
had almost everything taken out of his house and a great many 
other houses were emi)tied of their contents. Mr. VanGordei- 
remained in his house so long, clearing out goods, that his 
friends were alarmed aliout him, and he had at last to jump out 
of the second-story window. ]\lr. VauGorder is said to be the 
greatest sutTerer among them all. He is said to have lost $10,- 
000. He had intended to have insurance when he completed his 
line block of Iniildings. The sympathy of the public are deeply 
enlisted for him. It is supposed he will go on with the flour 
mill across the. river. There is a good deal of property covered 
by insurance. Mr. Bidwell says the insurance companies of 
Trumbull County will lircak up and that he himself will lose 
very much." 

Warren now knew that (uic thing it must have was an 
efficient tire department. In July, of this same year 1846, James 
Hoyt and Oliver H. Patch, upon request of the citizens, went to 
Cleveland, purchased a Button at the cost of $()0(). This was 
the type of hand engine with which wc arc all familiar. It was 
a great improvement on the oNl one. There was little or no 
money in the treasury at the time, and apparently the town 
had no right to levy a tax. However, then, was done the thing 
whieli always can be done when an emergency arises, a waj'^ 
was found to use an old and unused law in regard to bonding 
the city for this purpose. This stiitute allowed the treasurei- 
to issue certificates on the treasury which were receivable for 
taxes. After a good deal of effort a sufficient amount of certifi- 
cates were sold to pay for the engine. The old fire company 
was abandoned, and a new one was perfected. Charles Mes- 
senger became the chief. (William's History of Trumlnill & 
Mahoning Counties.) "The Council offered a standing premium 
of $3 to the member of the company w^o would reach the en- 
gine house first in case of fire. The house stood on Liberty 
street, back of the First National Bank building. A close con- 
test was made for this prize, on the night of the great fire of 
1849 which consumed two blocks on Market street. The fire 
■was seen apparently at the same time Ijy W. R. Stiles and James 
Hoyt, both merchants. Both ran with all possilile speed toward 


the eugiue house, where they arrived so nearly at the same 
time that at the iustaut Mr. Hoyt grabbed for the latch, Mr. 
Stiles seized it, thus winning the money." 

The constitution of the Mahoning Fire Company Xo. 1, 
adopted in 1863 and of Neptune Fire Company, Xo. 2. adopted 
in 1868, are on file in the present fire department. Part of 
article 4 of Mahoning reads, in reference to members, "On the 
alarm of fire they shall repair to the engine house to assist in 
conveying the apparatus to the fire — to assist in using it while 
there — and to return it to its proper place in the house. Any 
member leaving the apparatus without the permission of the 
foreman, or the commanding officer, shall be subject to a fine 
for the first offense, of 121/2 cents, for the second offense, 25 
cents, and for the third offense, expulsion." 

In the X'eptune constitution, we read, "Xo person shall 
become a member of this company under the age of seventeen, 
or who is not of respectable moral character." 

In both the constitutions, great stress is laid on fines and on 
expulsion. In the old records we find several dismissals for 

In an old book at the fire department, yellow with age, are 
the following names of the active members of the Xeptune Fire 
Company No. 2, for 1867: W. J. Kerr, AV. H. Herzog, D. H. 
Hecklinger, Whit Adams, K. S. Elliott, John Hardy, B. Gear- 
ing, David Camp, C. S. Fusselman, Frank Camp, Adam Mack. 
Amos Dillon, William Hayes, Marion Wisell, Joseph Eobinson. 
James Eobinson, George Gandholt, Robert Clark, James Park- 
er, John Spear, J. L. Smith, L. Hecklinger, A. Burustein, Joseph 
Alescenter, Sam Tandzenheizer, W. Clark, H. A. Strong, Eli 
Vakir, H. Schultz, J. Hammell, Ben Miller, W. Bushnell, J. 
Lewis, James Moon, R. Braden, J. M. Tuttle, II. M. Pierce, 
Andrew Hahn, John Moon, Joseph Waldeck, A. X. Dietz, S. 
Miner, V. Cady, Byron Harrick, Levi Camp, Alfred Wilson, 
Theo. Bobolsky, William Crawford, Horace Bushnell, Fred 
Squire, John AA'recter, R. S. Wilkins, Z. Long, W. Brown, J. 
W. Gilbert, Patrick Duliy, Adam Waldeck, D. S>-mes, W. Ward, 
Jr., W. F. Peffers, S. Wright, W. Morris, A. Winders, Andrew 
Jewell, Bostiek Parker, D. D. Drennen, C. W. Tyler. 

A second hand engine, bearing the name of "Saratoga" 
was purchased in 1851 and a company organized. Whether 
this was an entirely new company, or a reorganization of the 
old, we do not know. In 1855 another engine was purchased. 


Although the tire of 1846 was a dreadful one, that of 1860 was 
worse, and is always known as "the great tire." Almost the 
entire business part of the town was destroyed. This seems 
strange when it started at mid-day, but when we know of the 
wooden buildings, the shingle roofs, and the dry season, we 
can see how soon such a conflagration would be beyond control. 
This fire started in Truesdell & Townsend's furniture factory, 
located on south side of Fulton street near Main. There was 
a strong wind and the burning embers were easily carried to 
the livery stable of Peter Foulk on Franklin street. This time, 
both sides of Main street burned, and several acres were laid 
in waste. 

The covered bridge was destroyed, and fell into the river. 
Many houses on Mahoning avenue had the shingle roofs.alrlaze. 
the ^lethodist church was on fire in several places, and Prof. 
James Marvin, then su]>erintendent of the ]mblic schools, got 
onto the roof and saved it by the help of the bucket brigade. 
Almon D. Webb, the father of Peter L. Webb, did the same 
tiling for the Presbyterian church.. Edward A. Smith is the 
only man now engaged in business who was in business at that 
time. There were two fire companies, Mahoning No. 1 and 
Neptune No. 2. The former was located on South Park av- 
enue and the second in a brick building located in the small 
park between city hall and West ?klarket street. Members be- 
longing to the Mahoning No. 1, now living, are John Buch- 
steiner, Jas. Finn, John Bebhan and Michael Goeltz, while of 
Neptune No. 2, — Whittlesey Adams, Judge William T. S]iear, 
Homer C. Eeid, and Wm. J. Kerr are still living. 

This fire brought financial distress, but in the long run was 
good for the town, for, although more than $300,000 worth of 
property was destroyed, buildings were all re-built. Before this. 
Main street was below grade, and now this was l)rought up to 
the right level and a good foundation made. Befoie two years 
had passed, all blocks were rebuilt, all occupied. 

The fire of 1867 swept away the buildings from the corner 
of Park, to the building now occupied by Mrs. Koj)]). The store 
on the corner where the Warren Dry Goods store now stands 
was used by Charles Boughton as a crockery store, and over 
this the Misses Foreman had a millinery establishment. These 
two women carried on successful business in Warren for a 
great many years. They escaped from this fire with their lives. 
They lost their stock of goods, all their ilothing and furniture. 


The women of the towu gladly and generously gathered to- 
gether, made garments for them, and they were soon able, 
either from their own savings or by a loan, to secure a new line 
of goods and resume business. They were the leading milliners 
of the town for many years and during the latter part of their 
lives occupied rooms at the southern end of the present Union 
National Bank building. 

Since that time a number of business places have been de- 
stroyed by tire, and now and then a residence or two, liut on the 
whole, iires have been few and the department very efficient. 

In 1868 the first steamer was purchased. Including a good- 
ly bit of hose, it cost $9,000. It was named for the mayor, I. X. 
Dawson, and the fire department bore also the same name. 
People now who were children in that day remember how 
proudly John L. Smith, as the captain, led the parades on 
Fourth of July and like occasions, and how he used to thunder 
his commands through a brass horn. After this department 
had been called out for the slightest fire, the children of the 
town, for weeks after, going back and forth to school, would 
make a horn of their hands and in as deep tones as possible 
imitate Capt. Smith in "Play away, No. 1." 

In 1881 a new steamer was purchased, costing $-l:,000. 
There was no change in the fire company as to name. 

In 1874 the city hall was built at the"cost of $40,000. The 
lower part of this building was arranged for the fire depart- 
ment, and horses were used for the first time to draw the en- 
gines, when the company was installed in this building. The 
erection of the city hall caused a good deal of comment on the 
part of the older citizens. These men realized the value of the 
land given by Mr. Quinby to the city, and as most of them 
had traveled, were well educated, and knew the possibility of 
this public park, they had guarded the Quinby gift and re- 
gretted greatly the sale of the land lietween the river and 
Quinby Hill, particularly the part opposite the city hall, and 
tliey also objected to the construction of the city hall, first 
because it obstructed the view of the river, but principally be- 
cause they believed a stable in the lower part of the city liuild- 
ing would finally make the building unfit for use. The town has 
lived to see the wisdom of the early fathers, and has partially 
rectified its mistake by taking the fire department out of the 

In 189() the present fire department building was erected 

(Loaned by the Tribune.) 



on Park avenue. It cost about $20,000. lu 1899 the Volunteer 
Fire Company ceased to exist, the present tire company was or- 
ganized, and the office of chief of fire department created. D. 
K. Moser was elected chief, and lias held that office ever since. 
He has been a very efficient man. 

The firemen, at this writing, on duty in this building are 
Chief Moser, Grant Drenueu. William (ii'iffith. Dennis Gates, 
and Milton Poulton. 

As many mannfacturies have sprung ui> in the northern 
part of the city, for several years pressure has been lu'ought 
to bear for the establishment of a tire department in that sec- 
tion, and in 1908 a building was erected and equipped. The 
captain in this station is Harry ]\[ills, John Graham and Stan- 
lev Johnson being the men on dutv. 


Germax-Ameeicax Families of Teumbull Couxty. — Daxiel. 

BiscHOFF. — Cheistianae, Voit, Dietz, Sh.alee, Derk, 

GoEKixG, Hucke, Waldeck, Koehlee, Etc. 

The Germans were among the very best of Warren's early 
citizens. In the lieginning- those who came were men and women 
of unusual talent. Many of them were well educated, all were 
frugal, and were willing to take part in anything which was for 
the welfare of the community. It is a pity that no record has 
been kept of these staunch citizens, and that even the children 
and the grandchildren know little about them. ]\Iost of them 
were Lutherans, and came from Germany proper. Among these 
was George Gairing, who was very well educated and a cabinet 
maker by trade. Daniel Bischoff (later written Bishop) was 
one of the leading men of his time. He was educated, had fine 
business sense, and was a sort of a go-between for the people 
here and those in Germany. He kept up his home interests 
and sold steamship tickets to those wishing to go back and 
forth. He had quite a family of children, having had two wives. 
It is a pity that no jncture is iireserved of his first store, which 
was a low affair, with a little door, and stood on the spot where 
the Bishop block now stands. He sold candy and later beer 
and wine. Possilily he sold these in the beginning. The family 
lived in the house and on the door was a bell which rang as 
customei-s opened it. It was the cleanest place, and it seems 
as if candy never tasted so good when bought anywhere else. 
Mr. Bishop was very pleasant to children, and we all saved our 
money to spend it there. ]\Ir. McQuiston, who kept a place 
across the street, used to buy old bottles, and many a summer 
day has the writer spent the morning gathering bottles, bar- 
gaining with Mr. McQuiston for the sale, and as soon as the 
pennies were in her hand, dashing across the street to Bishop's, 
pushed in the door with the ringing bell, and called for three 
cents' worth of Jugu Paste. 



Another oue of the leading Germans was Henry Christianar. 
He was a first-class wagon-maker, and was associated with 
John ]\Iartin in business. Mr. Christianar had a capable wife 
and family of children. Three of his daughters taught in 
Warren and in Cleveland. Emma, the oldest, married Azor 
Hunt and now lives in Homestead. Fred, the youngest of the 
boys, was especially successful in business and owned, at the 
time of his death a few months ago, part of the Colonial Hotel. 

(.)ne of the most industrious and well beloved of the early 
Germans was Lewis Voit. He was a painter by trade, and a 
man who adhered strictly but gently to the teachings of his 
church. He had a goodly family of boys, all of whom reside 
in this city. Fred, the youngest, follows his father's trade; 
while Ed has the leading furniture store of the city, his brother 
Henry being associated witli him. Will is one of the leading- 
druggists, a partner of Byard. Ed has been a member of the 
board of education, and Will of the city council. 

Captain Wilhelm Dietz came to this country in 1851. From 
Xew York he stopped in the state but later came to Warren. 
Two of his sons were A. N. and George. He was a tanner. 
George and A. X. were coopers. Both these men were exemplary 
citizens, George being the father of Louise Brenner, Youngs- 
town, and Clarence, of this city. A. N. married Kathrine 
Baelir, who was born in Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Germany, in the 
castle of Coburg, in which Martin Luther resided at the time 
he wrote the famous hymn "Ein Feste Burg ist Unser Gott." 
Mr. and Mrs. Dietz were both strong characters, lived exemplary 
lives, Mrs. Dietz dying a few years ago. Four children still 
live, William, a very successful business man of Cleveland; 
August, connected with the Erie Eailroad in Cleveland, holding 
an important position; Henry, teller of the Union National 
Bank; and Minnie, who is stenographer and confidential clerk 
of T. H. Gillmer. 

Air. Frederick Shaler, a carpenter, who resided most of his 
married life on Market street near the comer of Vine, was one 
of the reliable early German citizens. He died in the late '60s. 
but his wife survived him many years. She spent her time in 
the home of her daughters, Airs. Seigfried, of Y'oungstown, and 
Airs. F. J. Alackey, of Warren. A younger daughter. Frankie, 
died in youth. Air. Shaler was held in high esteem l)y his Ger- 
man acquaintances and English neighbors. 

Two Germans long identified with Warren were Alvers and 


Herliuger. In the begiuning they were laborers in the brick- 
yard on the flats. Later they owned this plant. David Her- 
linger had a large family of children: Elizabeth, now Mrs. 
Wakefield; John, employed at the McMyler Works; Theodore, 
the baker; David, a barber; Lena, Mrs. Henry Voit; George, 
a molder. They are all useful citizens. Of Mr. Myers' children 
four reside in Trumbull County: Jacob follows his father's 
trade and is at present connected with the brick company on 
the west side; Christopher is a grocer; William, a fanner at 
Newton Falls ; and Charles is the jimior member of Vautrot & 

Samuel Derr was one of the early settlers who devoted his 
time to the keeping of a hotel and to the running of a mill in the 
lower part of town. He died very suddenly in the prime of life, 
and left a widow with a family of children to partially provide 
for. Mrs. Derr kept a boarding-house for many years where 
the library now stands, and was very successful in that business. 
At present she has a grandson, Louis James, and a grand- 
daughter, Olive Lamb, residing in this city. 

John Goering, who came early from Germany to Warren, 
was a stone mason and contractor. Mr. Goering was a man of 
unusual integrity and he helped to construct many of the large 
buildings erected in Warren between 1850 and 1870. For many 
years he resided opposite the Lutheran church on Vine street, 
but later bought property on Howland Heights, which has just 
been sold by his children. Mr. Goering came of an excellent 
family in Germany. His nephew is now postmaster in Coburg, 
and another nephew was an architect of no mean reputation. 
He had two daughters by his first wife, two sons by his second. 
The oldest daughter, Julia Fisher, lives in Colorado; the 
younger daughter recently married Mr. Wolcott of Jefferson, 
and resides there, while the two sons are residents of Warren, 
Frederick being a carpenter, and Charles the senior member 
of the firm of Goering & Ohl. 

George Bmno Hucke was a German who came to Warren 
in the early '50s and married a daughter of Dr. Tod of Newton 
Falls. They resided all their married life in Warren, where 
Mrs. Hucke still lives. Their daughter is Mrs. Nelson Cottle, 
of Porter avenue. Mr. Hucke was a fine musician, had a rich 
baritone voice, and for many years had charge of the music 
of the Episcopal church. He had a fine education, and in ordi- 
nary conversation showed little accent of speech, but when he 


poured forth his soul in song the German was very apparent. 
One can almost hear him now as he sang the Te Deum "We 
praise te, Oh, Gott, We acknowledge te to be te Lordt." 

The Waldeck family was a large one. Heniy, Joe, and 
John were successful business men. They were originally 
Catholics, but Joe and John early became Protestants. Henr}^ 
adhered to his faith, and was one of the leading spirits of 
St. Mary's }iarish. The Waldeck Bakery, whieli was managed 
by Henry, and later by his son, was one of the best stores of the 
kind that Warren ever had. Joe was a barber, and in his shop 
the girls of the '60 's had their hair shingled, he being careful 
not to "pull." John, tlie youngest of the family, is in the insur- 
ance business and has been very successful. 

John Koehler, who for many years had the marble estab- 
lishment in this city, stood at the very head of the German 
residents. Every motion and action showed his breeding and 
training. Self-respect was written on his face. He was 
resi)ected by Americans and loved by his own countrymen here. 
He lived on Howland Heights, next to his friend and neighbor, 
John Goering. He had a large family of children. Only one, 
Mary, who married John Waldeck, now resides in the city. 
Neither Mr. nor Mrs. Koehler lived beyond middle life, 

Augustus Graeter was one of the best educated Germans 
who came to Warren. He and his family are referred to in the 
cha])ter under Hotels. 

John Baehr, who now resides on First street, is a brother 
of the late Mrs. A. X. Dietz. He is a painter by trade, and for 
many years has been a leader in his occupation. He was long 
associated with John Eebhan, who now resides on Niles av- 
enue. Both these men were interested in Warren's welfare in 
the '50 's and '60 's, Mr. Eebhan being one of the most efficient 
members of the tire company. 

John Bucksteiner, a shoemaker by trade, uow working for 
J. A. Pew & Son, who has worked longer at his trade and more 
constantly than any other shoe man in the city, like his other 
German friends, is one of the most substantial citizens. He 
was a member of the early tire department, and he and Chris- 
tine Lemley saved the King Block from destruction in the fire 
of 1860. His son, John, is one of the leading merchants. 

The early Germans in Warren were most of them Luther- 
ans and had social affairs of their own. They were very hosisit- 
able and each felt responsible for the other. They had good 


disoii)liiie in their families and almost all of the second and 
third generation are reputable citizens. If any of their coun- 
trjTiien misbehaved, they helped him as long as it seemed 
best, and then dropped him with utter disgust forever. In the 
beginning most of them lived in the southeastern part of the 
town, east of ]\Iain street, below the canal. Here they had their 
own gardens, and their yards were full of flowers. Some of 
those who came later were not as well educated nor as prosper- 
ous as the first residents, but they were just as hospitable, and 
just as home-loving. As other nationalities came here and 
were employed in the rolling mill, and like places, the Germans 
moved to the west side and the east end, but their flowers and 
their prosperity went with them. When the hard times came 
and these other foreigners who had received large wages had 
to be assisted by the town, the Germans cared for themselves 
and when other houses filled with idle workmen sitting on the 
porches with the appearance of despair, the flowers bloomed in 
the German gardens and the German and his family felt little 
or nothing of the strain. 

The early Germans used their own language in the homes, 
it was i>reached to them in the church, and in the early days 
a German school was held in summer in the Fulton Street 
schoolhouse, and later such a school was had in the Lutheran 
church. These German Germans disliked very much to be con- 
fused with the Pennsylvania Dutch, and although they re- 
spected the Germans who came from Pennsylvania with their 
distorted language, they always distinctly made it known that 
thev were the real Germans. 


Jonathan Brace. — Oviatt Family. — Other Settlers. — ISchools 
AND Churches. — Phalanx. — "B.\ttle of 
THE Snakes.'' — Tornado. 

Tliis township was named in honor of Jonathan Brace, who 
was one of the three men pnrohasing land from the Couuecti- 
cnt Land Company in 1799. The other two were Enoch Per- 
kins and Roger Newberry. The following year Jnstin Ely, who 
owned land in Newton as did Jonathan Brace, became asso- 
ciated with them. The land was conveyed to Pardon Brown, 
and these five men became joint owners. The township was 
surveyed in 1802, and the first deed made was to Francis Free- 
man in 1803, and for many years some of his descendants lived 
on this property. He himself lived at AVarren and became iden- 
tified with the building up of that place. His old homestead, on 
the corner of South and Main streets, still stands, while a house 
which he built before that, and which stood at the east of the 
Austin House, adjoining it, was torn down only a few years 
ago. He built for his son, Samuel Leavitt Freeman, the brick 
house standing on the north side of South street between Park 
and Main streets. This sou, Samuel, married Charlotte Tod, 
the daughter of Dr. Tod. of Newton, and his daughter, Olive, 
married for a second husband. General Robert AW Ratliff. In 
1803 Mr. Millan built a log cabin lietween Braceville and War- 
ren and went home to bring back his family. The Indians, as 
they often did, burned this emjjty cabin and the owner never 
returned, although the place was called ]\nilantown until 1811, 
when it became Braceville. Some historians say that Ralph 
Freeman was the first settler of Braceville, while others give 
this credit to Samuel Oviatt. This difference of opinion comes 
from the fact that Freeman was a bachelor and did not main- 
tain a real home, while Oviatt was married. Ralph married 
Betsey Stowe, daughter of Comfort Stowe, and their daughter. 
Frances, undoubtedly named for Francis Freeman, married 
Julius Austin. Julius was a cousin of Harmon Austin Sr. The 



Freemau and the Austin families were connected in several dif- 
ferent ways, widow Austin, a greatgrandmother of Mrs. Peu- 
deltou, married Samuel Leavitt for a second husband. Their 
daughter was the mother of Samuel L. Freeman. Freeman 
and William Mossman erected a log cabin on the river in I8O0. 
Freeman got his land from his brother Francis, Mossman pur- 
chased a hundred acres. They kejjt house by themselves, had 
a cow, and many stories are told of the food they served them- 
selves, and the management they employed, while many a tidy 
housekeeper repeats the story of the unclean condition of their 
utensils, etc. Mr. Mossman did not seem to relish this life, 
moved to "Warren, where he kept a tavern, and afterwards to 

Samuel Oviatt, with his wife, Louise Beckwith, two chil- 
dren, his brother Stephen and Ms bride, Sally Stone, came into 
the township in 1804. They came by the way of Pittsburg from 
Goshen, Connecticut. From Warren there was no road, and 
they had to cut one through the forest. They were six weeks 
on their way. Their father had purchased a thousand acres of 
land. They built their cabin south of the center and here, for 
many years Henry, a grandson of Samuel, lived. 

These first settlers of Braceville suffered the same priva- 
tions that the settlers of other townships did. They had few 
vegetables, and in the midst of the iirst winter they were de- 
spairing when a turkey appeared near their cabin and was 
shot by one of the men, while Mrs. Stejshen Oviatt, seeing a 
deer near the house, although rmused to fire-arms, killed it. 

Sally Stone Oviatt was the mother of the first child born 
in Braceville. His name was William J. 

Early in 1805 Joshua Bradford and his wife, Anne Dunn, 
with three sons settled on Braceville Bidge, the highest land in 
Trumbull County. 

A little later the father of the two Oviatts, Samuel Sr., 
with his wife, Sarah, his son Edmimd and wife, Ruth, Seth and 
Mark, and their daughters Maria and Lucretia, took up their 
home near their sons Samuel and Steven. It will be seen, 
therefore, that among the early settlers the Oviatts were strong 
in number. They still are among the most important residents 
of that town. At the time that Samuel Oviatt Sr. came, the 
tribe of Indians who had treated with Moses Cleaveland at 
Conneaut had a little village on the Mahoning. Their chief, 
Paqua, was with them. Tliey were friendly, but annoyed the 


settlers by (-oiistaiitly lieggin.ii' for whiskey and powilcr. When 
the trouble with tlie Indians at J)eerlield oecnrrech at which 
time a man by the name of Devine was made l)lind ))y the sliot 
from an Indian, this village was abandoned and here was 
found one of the kettles which had been used at Salt S|trini;s 
for the making- of salt. The Braeeville Indians had u>pd it for 
making maple sugar. 

In ISll Comfort Stowe and his wife, Kaehel Woodwin, ar- 
rived in Braeeville with nine children. This family was long 
identified with the township through the <'hildi-en and grand- 
children. Their great-grandson, Hobart Ij. Taft. now icsides 
on this homestead land. 

In 1812 Fowler Merwin, who with his wife, ]\Iercy .lolin- 
son, had gone to Braeeville in 1807, ran for justice of the peace 
against Solomon Oviatt. This election was set aside after Mer- 
win had been declared elected, on the ground that he was the 
clerk of the election. The following month. May, another elec- 
tion was had, when Oviatt was declared elected. This election 
was likewise set aside. Of course, such a contest as this made 
bitter feeling between the families who had resided in Goshen, 
Connecticut. On the Fourth of July, the third election was 
held and the people took hold of the matter fairly and elected 
Robert Freeman. He was the father of the first settler, Ralph, 
and a brother of Francis. lie was not only the first .iustice of 
the peace of the townshiji, )mt he was the first person to die. 
He was buried on the Freeman farm and later interred in the 
township cemetery. This cemetery was laid out in 1812, and 
Saber Lane, wife of Isaac Lane, who died in January, 18i;i, was 
the first person buried therein. 

Harriet Cleaveland Taft, a niece of Moses Cleaveland, 
whose father, Camden, settled in Liberty, married Auren P. 
Taft and settled in Braeeville. She and her daughter, r)live. 
are now living on the old Taft homestead. 

Among the residents of Braeeville who are well known 
citizens of Cleveland now is Frederick L. Taft, Avho was born 
there in 1870. His father, Newton A. Taft, was of the same 
family as President Taft, and his mother was Laura A. Hum- 
phrey. Judge Birchard, of Warren, was his great-uncle. He 
graduated from the Xewton Falls ITnion schools, attended Cin- 
cinnati Law School and was admitted when he was 21. He be- 
gan practice in Cleveland, was appointed city solicitor in 1898; 
in 190(3 he was atipointed judge of the court of common pleas 


to fill a vaeaucy. He was a delegate to the Eepublican con- 
veution of 1908 which nominated AVilliam II. Taft. 

Dr. and Mrs. N. D. C'hipman, educated jieople, moved to 
Braceville in 1835. They had no children of their own, but 
they took eight young girls at different times into their family. 
Some of these were given exceptional education. They also 
assisted three young men to prepare for college. 

]\Iartha Hedges, who was born in Canaan, Connecticut, came 
with her parents to Braceville in 1836. She was a successful 
school teacher and married Mr. Alfred Elwell of AVarren. 
Their wedding trip was taken to a National Suffrage Conven- 
tion in Akron. They resided in AVarren for many years. Mrs. 
Elwell was a great helpmeet to Mr. Elwell and she laughingly 
tells how she made his clothes, coats and all, when they lived in 
Warren. Mrs. Elwell, in later life, when she and her husband 
were very prosperous financially, and lived in Willoughliy, was 
the president of the Ohio Woman Suffrage Association. Even 
at this date she retains a little of her New England accent and 
speaks of woman's suft'rage as if it were spelled w-o-r-m-a-n 
suffrage. Her husband, Alfred, died a few years ago, after a 
long and tedious illness from paralysis. 

The first hotel was built in 1816, and kept by Aaron Stowe, 
who also had charge of the postofRce. He was postmaster until 
1850. This building stood where John Barkley's house now 
stands. AVhen the new building went U]>, it was moved one-half 
mile west of the center. 

The first mail carrier in Braceville, going from Cleveland 
to Warren was Erastus Lane. He brought the news of Hull's 

The first school of Braceville at the center was of logs, and 
built in 1812. Laiira A. Humphrey Taft, the historian for the 
township of Braceville of the Memorial to Pioneer Women of 
the Western Beserve, says: "Oliver Humphrey, while hauling 
a load of goods to Cleveland, broke his wagon, and going to a 
little log house for assistance, found it was a school-house. The 
teacher was Mercy Anna Birchard, a sister of Judge Mathew 
Birehard, who was teaching the first regularly organized school 
in Windham. He (Hum]7hrey) was so pleased with the appear- 
ance of the young teacher that he pursuaded Samuel Oviatt, 
the director with whom he boarded, to engage her for the winter 
school. They were married in 1815." One of the early teachers 
was Miss T.ucy Humphrey, who journeyed from Connecticut 


to Farmingtoii to visit her sister, Mrs. Daniel Taft. She mar- 
ried Nonnaii Stowe. Among the other teachers were Martha 
Hedges, Mrs. Harriet Marsh, Miss Griswold, Miss Barnes, Miss 
Lane. The children of Braceville, today, do not have to wade 
throxTgh snow and mnd in imbroken forests to schoolhouses. 
They have the advantage of the schools of Newton Falls, and 
of course some district schools still exist for the cliihlren of 
the lower grades. 

The first religious organization in Braceville was called the 
Bible Christian church. Its services were held at the center 
log schoolhouse. Father Boss led this body and his followers 
were known locally as Eossites. In 1812 Eev. William Penn 
preached in the schoolhouse and organized a Presbyterian 
society. This church grew and a church edifice was built, 
finally was disorganized, and the building was used for some 
time as a town hall. In 1814 Comfort Stowe was clerk and 
deacon of the organized Congregational church. Meetings were 
held in the schoolhouse with occasional pi'eaching. In 1835 
a house was erected ; in 183(3 twejity-seven members were added 
at the time of revival, and the next year Rev. Selden Haines, 
whose work as teacher and lawyer is mentioned elsewhere, 
served one year as minister. The Abolition question disrupted 
the church and in 1876 the property was sold and the fund 
loaned to the American Missionary Society. 

In 1816 a Methodist class was organized and Hervey Stowe 
became class leader, and later a new church organization was 
pei-fected. His home was the home of the Methodist ministers 
for sixty years. In his house regular preaching was had for 
twenty years and he led the congregational singing for twenty- 
five years. Surely the Methodist body is indebted to this 
devoted churchman. The first ^lethodist church was a large 
house of logs. Hervey Stowe and Hei'vey Allen made a trip 
to Pittsburg for the glass and nails for this building. The 
house was occupied until 1838. when a new one was built, which 
was remodeled in 1874. 

The United Brethren organized in 1857. Their first meet- 
ings were held in the old schoolhouse which occupied the same 
ground as the schoolhouse on Eagle Creek. The i^resent building 
was dedicated in 1875. 

The Christian Church had preaching half the time in 1867- 
68. In 1869 Eev. J. N. Smith held a series of meetings at 
Braceville Center with good result. Converts were baptised 


in the ]\Ialiouiug river. The question of organizing a church 
■was taken up, and on January 31, 1869, the church was organ- 
ized. Tlie early ministers gave part time only and had little 
salary. In lS7-i it was decided to build a church. It was erected 
that summer and is now in a prosperous condition. 

The patrons of the Cleveland Division of the Erie Eailroad 
remember the station Phalanx. In 1846 about one hundred and 
fifty persons formed a colony and settled in the northwest por- 
tion of the township. They erected a large house in which 
schools, church, and meetings could be held. They also erected 
a number of log cabins. They all worked, keeping their time, 
and dividing the profits equally. Like all such communities it 
was short lived, lasting only four years. Tradition has it that 
it was called Phalanx because the houses were close together 
and reminded one of soldiers. When this community was doing 
business it was a lively place with its mills, store, etc. 

No history of Braceville could be written without mention 
of two things which every writer has noticed, the tornado, and 
the battle of the snakes. Howe, the historian, gives an account 
of the latter in which he says that Mr. Oviatt, an old gentleman, 
having been informed that a number of rattlesnakes were in a 
certain tract of the wilderness, after asking a number of ques- 
tions as to whetlier there was a ledge and a spring in the 
vicinity, planned to go fo the spot about the last of May and 
"have some sport." Armed with sticks, forked and straight, 
they proceeded to the ground. In a few moments they were 
surrounded by rattlesnakes. The fight began, the snakes beat 
a retreat, and when they reached the top of the hill, the ledge 
was fairly covered with them. The same were collected in 
heaps and they were found to number 486. Some of them were 
as large as a man's leg below the calf, and five feet in length. 
They were rattlesnakes and black snakes. After this adventure 
men from adjoining towmships visited these grounds until 
eventually the snakes were all made away with. 

The tornado is usually written up from papers left by 
Franklin E. Stowe. This destructive wind storm occurred on 
the 23rd of July. 1860. Two clouds were noticed, one going 
south and the other east. AVlien they came together, a dark 
Ijody seemed to fall, which swept over a certain territory as far 
as Pittsburg. The wind twisted off great trees, lifted barns, 
destroyed houses, killed people and animals. The railroad sta- 
tion, and a grocerj^ store of Lucius Wood, the station agent, 


were laised several hundred feet higii, revolved together and 
went all to pieces. The station had freight in it, one being a 
box of hardware, containing bolts, buckles, etc. One bolt was 
found stuck in a tree to the depth of an inch a mile and a half 
from the starting place. A handsaw was carried a mile. A 
freight car ah'eady loaded, standing on the track, was totally 
demolished; another car was carried five hundred feet and 
splintered all to pieces. Seven himdred dollars, which was in 
the express office, was blown away and never found. In some 
houses, William Benedict's, for instance, the I'oof was blown 
ofi, rails and boards were fastened into the siding, while the 
clothing- in draws was carried completely away and never found. 
The line of the storm went down the Mahoning, struck the cor- 
ner of Lordstown and Warren. "Wlien it reached the lower part 
of Trmnbull County it began to rise, and as it rose all sorts 
of debris were dropped. The number of killed and injured 
was not known, but for many 3'ears thereafter children who 
went to Braceville on the railroad and saw the grocery which 
arose on the sight of the old one. were filled with awe and 
rejoiced when the train was out of the town. 


Bazetta and the County Seat. — First Settlers. — First 

Orchard. — BACoNSBrRG or Cortland. — Schools 

and Churches. 

Bazetta is the central township of Trumbull County. For 
that reason, in the contention for the county seat, geograph- 
ically, its claim was good. But, as Warren was very near it, 
people thought if there was to be a change at all, it should be 
more of a change. 

"When the Connecticut Land Company was formed provi- 
sion was made for the sale of a certain number of acres, and 
if there should be an excess it was to go to a company formed 
for the purpose of receiving it. Such a comjoany had existed 
in the survey of a tract in New Yoi'k state and the financial 
result had been satisfactory. However, instead of there being 
more ■ land in the New Connecticut than was supposed, there 
was less. The survey, as we have seen in the early chapters, 
was not very accurate. David Huntington, Nathaniel Shalor, 
Samuel P. Lord, Sylvester Mather and Eichard McCurdy bought 
the township of Bazetta. The sui-vey showed this land to con- 
tain 17,247 acres. But, when a re-survey was made it was found 
there was 275 acres more than the sui-vey showed. This was 
very gratifying to the proprietors, and in 1802 the land was 
divided off into lots. The Mosquito Creek runs through this 
township and one or two other small creeks. It is a fertile and 
a prosperous township, although it was not settled as early as 
some others because of the speculative natures of the pro- 

The first settlers were Edward Schofield, John Budd and 
their families, who had resided in Hubbard. They had to cut 
their way through the woods. They were soon followed bj^ 
Henry K. Hulse, Josejih Purden, John Godden, Joshua Oatley, 
Moses Hampton, and their families. William Davis was from 
Washington County, Pennsylvania. A Mrs. Dixon, a widow 



with a large family, was also among the early settlers. 

When the war of 1812 came on Henry Hulse, Benjamin 
Eowlee, Constant Kowlee, James Dixon, Walter Dixon, William 
Davis, and Samuel Tanner went to the defense of their countr>'. 
Most of these went as far as Sandusky, where they had a skir- 
mish with the Indians. When William Dixon got to Cleveland 
he was allowed to turn back because of the needs of his family. 
Walter Dixon was wounded, but recovered. It just happened 
that when these men were called their oats were ready to cut. 
The women, taking their babies into the tield, left them in the 
shade of the wood to be cared for by older children, while they 
cut and harvested the grain. When their huslmnds returned 
they found the work well done. 

Bazetta was not unlike the other townships in that the first 
houses were of logs, with no floors, or at best puncheoned, no 
doors and no windows. Wolves carried off their sheep, killed 
their cattle, while bears feasted on their fattened pork. Deer 
and wild turkey were common. Buckwheat fields had to be 
watched lest the turkeys carry olf the grain. Although in many 
places we read that clothes were made of buckskin, Aaron Davis, 
who wrote up this township in 1875 for the Historical Collec- 
tion of Mahoning County, in speaking of the deerskin, says : 
"The material used for dressing the skins was the animals 
brains, prepared by being mixed in warm water, and being- 
rubbed imtil it assumed the appeai'ance of thick soapsuds. The 
hair having been loosened by soaking the hide in water, 
the hair, grain, and flesh is removed by laibbing with something- 
like a currier's knife. The skin is then allowed to remain in 
brain water for some time ; after which it is taken out and 
stretched, pulled, and rubbed until it assumes that porous, 
spongy, and peculiar feeling to the touch found only in Irack- 

The first orchard planted in Bazetta was that of William 
Davis, Sr., who came in 1811. His wife was a granddaughter 
of General Stark of the Revolutionary war, her name being- 
Ann Luce. Mrs. Davis was a woman of strong character. Her 
husband was an invalid for some years, dying in 1860, and she 
not only performed her duty, but part of his, took care of her 
own children, and inspired them with courage to clear the home- 
stead. She, like many other of the pioneer women, gave home 
to other children, in this case, three. She lived to be nearly 
a hundred vears old. 


lu 1816 Samuel Bacon and family came to Bazetta from 
AVarreii. It seems strange that few of the early families of this 
township were from the far east. Mr. Bacon exchanged his 
Warren property for the mill property of Benton & Brooks, 
which he or his family operated until 1850. The upper dam on 
the river was built about 1829; the grist mill was built by Mr. 
Schofield about 1812. The Bacons were good business men and 
before long a hamlet spruug up about their land which has con- 
tinued to grow. It was known as Baconsburg. In 1829 Enos 
Bacon, son of Samuel, opened the first store there. 

The Erie Railroad, when it was the A. & G. W., named the 
station Cortland. The author of this history has not been able 
to learn why the township was called Bazetta, nor why the town 
■was called Cortland. It was incorporated in 1824 and Asa Hine 
was the mayor. 

The family of Posts were among the early settlers. 

The first sehoolhouse in Bazetta stood in Coi'tland on Wal- 
nut Creek. It was made of unhewn logs. The windows were 
of paper oiled with bears' grease; they were a little unusual 
because they were the leaves taken from copy books, and were 
an abstraction for the scholars because the different kinds of 
writing as well as the , original copy, usually a proverb, 
could be plainly seen. The writing desks in this building were 
made by boring holes in the wall, driving in wooden pegs, and 
lajang boards thereon. In 1814 this building was replaced by a 
new one built on the same plan. Cortland high school was 
established by the special act of the legislature and was opened 
in 1877. Women were elected to the school board of this village 
almost as soon as the school law was passed. R. D. Leffing-well 
is the present superintendent. 

The first church organized in the township was at East 
Bazetta. This was about the year 1820 and the denomination 
was Baptist. The charter members were James and Dorcas 
Boweu, William and Anne Davis, Samuel and Rachel Headley, 
Samuel and Rachel Bacon. They were originally members of 
the Concord Baptist church at Warren. ]\rembers were soon 
added to this Ijody, until they had a membership of forty-four. 
Meetings were held in private houses and sometimes in the 
sehoolhouse. Edward Schofield, the pioneer, was among the 
leaders of this society and sometimes preached for them. Like 
the church at Warren this became a Disciple organization. 
This Christian church was organized by Thomas Campbell in 

(Loaneil by N. A. Cowdrey.) 



182S. There were twenty-eight charter members. The official 
board consisted of Elders Samuel Bacon, Samuel Hoadly, and 
Asher Coburn; Deacons, James Bowen, and A. ^Y. Coburu. 
The "occasional preachers" for some years after the organiza- 
tion were Adamson Bentley, Marcus Bosworth, Jolm Apple- 
gate, A. B. Green, William Hayden, Jonas Hartzell, J. L. Lam- 
phere, John Henry. The pastors in succession have been Har- 
vey Brockett, John T. Philliits, Calvin Smith, James Calvin, 
ay". S. AVintield, Clark Braden, AY. B. Goodrich, AY. S. Hayden, 
Orrin Gates, E. AYaketield, J. AI. Alouroe, C. P. Cone, 1). C. 
Hanselman, I. A. Thayer, R. T. Davis, Peter A'ogle, E. A. Bos- 
worth, D. P. Thayer. C. AI. (31iphaut, A. Baker, J. Mann, G. AV. 
Moore, AV. H. Smith, S. C. Pierce, B. AI. Derthick and Jas. 
Egbert, the present pastor. The present official board consists 
of Elders N. A. Cowderv, E. C. Faunce, M. B. Halstead, H. L. 
Dray; Deacons, H. G. Bacon, E. E. Barnes, L. E. Post, A. B. 
Cowdrey, AV. B. Galley, J. L. Bucher. 

The date of the erection of the iirst small wooden church in 
Cortland is not known. It stood on the south side of Alain 
street, where E. A. Sigler's residence now is. It was 
moved from that spot, used as an academy, later purchased by 
Air. John Johnson, and moved back onto Alain street. Here the 
Cortland Herald office was imtil it burned. In 1850. on the 
])resent church lot, a larger but plain building was constructed. 
In 1874 it was remodeled, at an expense of $4,500, and is the 
]iresent church building. The parsonage which adjoins it was 
built in 1898 and cost $1,800. These buildings stand at the cor- 
ner of Alill and Grove streets. The present memberslii]i of the 
church is about 200. 

The first meeting held by the Presbyterians in Bazetta was 
in 1841. At this meeting the subject of building a house of wor- 
ship was discussed and decided upon favorably. Nathan Lattin 
donated the land for the church at the center. This society 
was incorporated in 1842 under the name of the First Presby- 
terian and CongTegational Church Society. 

The Alethodist church of Cortland was organized in 18-35 
with J. J. Steadman and E. Burkett as the first preachers. The 
Rev. Air. Steadman was one of the strongest men intellectually 
in this vicinity. T\". AI. Oatley was first class leader. The first 
church, built in 1840, stood on the hill just beyond where the 
]iresent creamery stands. It occupied this position for twenty 
years, then if was removed to the site of the present church. 


111 1880 it took another journey, this time to Park avenue, 
and is now known as Grange Hall. A new brick church was 
built at that time, of which Rev. J. E. Cope is the pastor. The 
parsonage was built in 1867. 


First Peopeietors. — Grand Eiver axd Bloomfield Swamps. — 

Feeey Family. — A Pioxeee Dog. — Mex and 

Women of Note. — Brown Family. — 

Schools and Churches. 

Peter Chardon Brooks, of Boston, was the owner of the 
land now known as Bloomlield. He sold it to Ei»liraim Brown 
of West Morelaud, New Hampshire, and Thomas Howe of 
Williamstowu, Vermont, in 1814. Brown and Howe were 
nephew and nnele. They had been in business together. Event- 
nally, Howe sold ont to Brown, reserving one thousand acres 
in the southern part of the township for himself. Although 
Bloomfield was settled by able people, Brown is the best known 
early citizen because of his ability, his wealth and his pul)lic 
spirit. Bloomfield is a fertile township and its citizens have 
always been pros]ierons. 

In the early days, in connection with Bloomtield we always 
heard of the Grand River and the Bloomtield swamps. The 
Grand River at certain times of year allowed the emigrants to 
paddle up it as far as Alesopotamia. But, of late years, it is 
hardly mentioned in Trum))ull County except when a few hope- 
ful fishermen patrol its lianks louging for an occasional bite. 
The word "swamp" drove terror to the hearts of most chil- 
dren, because there were dreadful tales told of men and ani- 
mals getting into quicksand and being drawn down to death. 
In the early days, the Bloomfield swamp, in some places, could 
not be crossed even by horses, but now these swamps are so 
drained that in some seasons of the year there is no sugges- 
tion of swam]!. In the early days, huckleberries and whortle- 
berries were found in great abundance here and here ]iigeons 
flocked in great numbers and were killed for food. People in 
the southern part of the country often saw large flocks going 
over to the Bloomfield swamjis. The disappearance of the 



water, and consequently of the linckleberry, together with the 
work of the hiinter, lias made the Bloomtiekl pigeon a rare 

S. E. Ensign of llesopotaniia surveyed the towns! lip for 
Howe and Brown, and divided it into lots. It was called West 
Moreland, undoubtedly because West Moreland was Mr. 
Brown's home town iu New Hampshire. 

The tirst settler was Ljinan Perry of Brooktield, who came 
in 1815. He reached the township after six weeks' travel. He 
came as many other settlers did, by sled as far as possible, 
hnishing up the trip by wagon. He had with him a man helper 
with wife and three children. There was not a road then iu 
the township, nor a house between Rome and Bristol. The 
family therefore went into a deserted cabin in Bristol. Mr. 
Ferry, the man, and Mr. Ferry's son put up a cabin into which 
the family moved. As related iu the other part of this work 
very often there was no fireplace in these early cabins and 
cooking was done outside, by the side of a chestnut log. It was 
too cold at this time of year to cook by a log outside, and so they 
built their lire next to the green logs inside, their chimney being 
a hole in the roof. When the logs began to burn they piled up 
stones to protect that end of the house. Here they lived and 
worked imtil the spring came. 

Mrs. Ferry Avas the tirst white woman to enter the town. 

In tlie s]iring of 1816 a number of settlers came to Bloom- 
field to clear their land and put up their cabins, and Mrs. Ferry 
not only took care of her own family but cooked for twenty 
others. Her granddaughter says : 

"I can remember hearing my grandmother tell how 
during the first year in Bloomtield she was asked to do 
the work for twenty, including her own family. The sup- 
per was corn-meal nmsh and milk, served hot from the 
iron kettle, dished out with what she called a puddin' 
stick, the onlj^ variation of the meal being the dishes in 
which it was eaten. The boarders were arranged on 
benches around the room, while basins, tin cups, pans and 
pails were brought into requisition to augment the limited 
supply of bowls. Occasionally when they could afford it, 
thick Orleans molasses was poured over the mush as a 
crowning dessert." 


The womeu slept in the lower part of the cabin while the 
luen crawled \\\) the ladder and slept soundly on the Hoor. 
Mrs. Ferry lived to ))e ninety yeni's okl. They had seven chil- 
dren who lived in this vicinity. 

Mehitalde Howe, the sister of Thomas Howe and the aunt 
of P^iihraini Brown, was the lirst to die in Bloomfield. Her 
daughter, Harriet, was the tirst white child horn in the county. 
She never married, and lived until 1862. The lirst marria.iie 
was that of Jolm Weed and Jemima Bigelow. 

In Thoinas Howe's family there was Udt a death anioni;,' 
the children until the yoinigest was forty-six years old. .Vn 
old story worth repeating is that of tlie dog, Argus, who ac- 
companied the early settlers in 1815. The dog either l>ecame 
tired, dissatisiied or was stolen iu New York state. When ^Ir. 
Howe was going through that place some months later, he sa\\' 
the dog and claimed it. The landlord said he had raised him 
from a pup. Whereupon ^Ir. Howe ordered Argus into his 
cutter, told him to watch it, and then dared the landlord to 
take anything from the cutter. The dog stood guard and did 
not allow the landlord to come near him, and proceeded with 
his master. 

In 181.J William Crowell, Israel Proctor, Samuel East- 
man, David C'omstoek walked from A'ermout to Bloomfield. 
David Comstock was noted as heing the best wood-chopper of 
the township. 

The first justice of the i)eace was .Tared Kimball, who 
lived north of the center. 

Aaron Smith, who arrived in ]81(i, built the first frame 
building in the townshi]!. It was afterwards removed to 

John Bellows, one of the early settlers, made bricks which 
were used in the construction of some of the early chimneys. 

Mr. Proctoi', another early settler, married Betsey Hunt- 
ington, a sister of Mrs. Ephraim Brown. 

In some of the early townshi))s were settlements of Cfer- 
maus, in others, Scotch, but the foreigners who settled in 
Bloomfield were English. 

The township was organized in 1816 and the first officers 
were elected at the liouse of Plphraim Brown. 

Thomas Howe did not move his family to Bloomfield until 
1817, his wife and five children coming with liim. She was 
a woman of verv benevolent nature. He was a member of the 


Ohio legislature and he lived to be more than eighty. His chil- 
dren were identified more or less with Bloomfield, Dr. G. W. 
being one of the early teachers and later a doctor for forty- 
fonr years. He was surgeon for three years in the war of the 
Bebellion and his services were especially commended. He 
was twice elected to the Ohio legislature. William Howe did 
not spend much of his early life in Bloomfield. He was en- 
gaged in business in Pittsburg and the ore districts of Lake 
Superior. He was a clerk in the provost office in Warren dur- 
ing the rebellion. He married Melvina Flowers and had nine 

Mrs. Howe did not like the new country and if it had not 
been for the care of her large family she would have suffered 
greatly from homesickness. She used to make a peculiar kind 
of cracker of bread dough with butter pounded in which she 
sent to sick people. She was a fastidious housekeeper, and 
it is said that whenever they wanted a cobweb for medicinal 
lour^joses they never could find one in her house. 

Asa Works came to Bloomfield in 1817. He lived but nine 
years and left four children. He was a hatter. His son. Nel- 
son Works, was long identified with the township. 

Mrs. Works was both father and mother to her children. 
It was hard for pioneers, when there were men in the family, 
to do the hardest of the work, Init of this family of five, four 
were women, and still they were able to maintain themselves 
and the mother and the son, Nelson, who were inseparable, 
lived and died on the farm which they chose for their home. 
One daughter, Mary, was a ]iart of this household. She was 
a school teacher, a tailor, and such a splendid nurse that her 
services were called for very often among the early settlers. 
Many of the children born were first dressed by her and many 
are those that she dressed for the grave. She was very small, 
retiring, but exceedingly brave. She never feared to go 
where there were contagious diseases, and lived to be sixty- 
five years old. ^lartha Works was left a widow early, like 
her mother. She too kept her little family together. She had 
to incur debt in the beginning, but with the assistance of her 
children, she paid all her obligations and her children were 
prosperous, and so was she. It is said that on Sunday she 
loaded her own children and some of the neighbors' into an 
open buggy and drove to the center to church, no matter what 


the weather was. This was a ride of four miles. She lived 
until 1886. 

Joseph K. Wing was born in Wihnington, ^'ernlont, and 
came to Bloomliekl in 1831. He married Maiy, the eldest 
daughter of Ephraim and Maiy Brown. He was a merchant, 
was a captain in the rebellion, assistant quartermaster of 
United States Volunteers, brevetted major and lieutenant 
colonel. He was elected to the legislature in 1869 and again in 
1871. One of his daughters was named for Julia King, who 
married Charles Brown. 

Eliza Knapi) Haskell was one of the early temperance 
women. AVe find one or two of these in almost every town- 
ship. It is said that she made the first stand against having 
alcohol at raisings in the township. 

Delana Cornell, who came to Bloomfleld in 1833, was not 
exactly a pioneer, but she was so staunch a citizen that she is 
mentioned here. Before 1813 she was left a widow with four 
children, and with splendid management and good cheer she 
supported and educated her family, preserving at the same 
time her keen sense of humor which made her society sought 
for as long as she lived. 

In 1818 Mr. and ]\Irs. Nathaniel Goodhue moved to 
Bloomfleld from Putney, Vermont. He was a lawyer, and 
Bloomfleld was not much of a place for lawyers, so within a 
few years he moved to Warren. His wife, Sarah Sargent, be- 
longed to a well established family of tl*e east and was an 
unusual woman. Her daughter, Sarah S., married Joseph 
Scott, a brother of James Scott of "Warren. George Washing- 
ton attended the wedding of Nathaniel Goodhue and Sarah 
Sargent, and William McAdoo, now living in North Bloom- 
field, has the dress of the bride and of the groom, to- 
gether with many other interesting articles belonging to this 
rather famous coujile. Nancy C. Goodhue married James Mc- 
Adoo, July 1, 1840, and settled in Michigan. William McAdoo, 
of Bloomfleld, is their son, is a banker, a prosperous property 
holder of Bloomfleld, and lives on the old road running to 
Warren, just south of the center. He married [Miss Wing for 
a flrst wife, a niece of Miss Anne Brown, and Miss Marjory 
Leach of Warren, for a second wife. 

In 1822 John Smith came to Bloomfleld and seven years 
later married Julia Amie Wright. [May Wright Sewell. who 
had a classical school in Indianapolis and was identifled for 


mauj" years with the National Suffrage Association, was her 

When Ephraini Brown and Tlionias Howe decided to come 
into New Connecticut, they expected to take up land near 
Cleveland, but the Cuyahoga river and the lake shore seemed 
so dreary that they decided on Bloomtield. The family came 
in a chaise to Buffalo, then to Grand river in boats and by 
horseback to North Bloomtield. Mrs. Brown felt very badly 
about leaving the eastern couutrj' because of her home asso- 
ciates and because her children would not have the advant- 
ages of school. Her granddaughter, Elizabeth B. Wing, says 
of her: 

"She showed great judgment in her preparation for 
it [western life] by bringing stores of useful articles not 
obtainable in a new country, even to a well selected va- 
riety of medicines and simples, which in the absence of a 
physician in the settlement she used with skill and gen- 
erosity. Her family w^as large and irregular. Seekers 
for land came frequently to the place and as there was no 
public house of entertainment, many strangers were 
made welcome in her home." 

She was so homesick that when she had been here two 
years she went back to New England. It was the intention 
to go from Fairport by boat but when they found the boat had 
gone, rather than turn back, she went all the way by horse- 

The old log house which was built for Ephraim Brown in 
1815 was five years later made into a handsome home, and it 
now stands as it was then. The bricks used in it were brought 
from Warren. The window frames are in good condition and 
hold the glass, with few exceptions which was put in them in the 
beginning. The stone steps, somewhat worn, are still in use. 
At one time it was thought to change them, but Mr. Fayette 
Brown said too many good friends had come and gone over 
those steps to make any change now. The house is beautifully 
kept. The walls of the guest chamber are covered with blue 
and white paper which looks as if it might have been put on 
a year or two ago. In reality it has been on the walls eighty- 
two years. The color is a delft blue and white. It was made 
before paper was manufactured in rolls and it was put on in 


squares. The liaugiugs are the same color and equally eleau, 
although they are not quite so old as the paper. The muslin 
curtains and bed canopy have been replaced but they are exactly 
the same in style, shape and material as the original. In this 
room are some engravings of Leicester and Mrs. King (Charles 
Brown married Julia King) and some Japanese etchings. In 
one of the other chambers is a stove, one of the tirst brought 
into the county. It has been used since 1840 and shows no 
signs of giving out. 

Of the nine children of Ephraim and Mrs. Brown but two 
are now living. Fayette Brown, of Cleveland, and Anne F. 
Brown, who lives in the homestead. Miss Brown is a charming- 
woman. She was educated largely by her mother, went to 
school very little at the early schools. The education of her 
children was Mrs. Brown's greatest worry, and as soon as it 
was possible many of them were sent away to school. Mary, 
the oldest daughter, went east before Anne was born, and 
the younger girl did not see the older until she was two years 
old. When ]\Iary came back she wanted Anne to go to school, 
and the child agreed, the older sister seating her on top of her 
desk with her back to the teacher. The little girl said she was 
willing to do this because she loved to look into the face of her 
beautiful sister. Miss Browoi says she never remembers getting 
tired of having her mother read to her, and that she and her 
brothers and sisters often got up at four o'clock in the 
morning in order to have her mother read imtil breakfast time. 

The Brown children had an advantage of a peculiar kind 
of education, since most of the cultivated visitors to this part 
of the country stayed with them when passing through. 
Joshua R. Giddings was often in their home and stopped there 
on his return to Washing-ton after his resig-nation. Mr. Brown 
was a member of the Ohio house of representatives and the 
senate. This house was one of the stations on the underground 
railway, and abolition and politics were talked here. ■Meetings 
of many kinds were held in this house. 

As the young- ladies grew up they traveled in the east, and 
for this I'eason, and because they were of a large family con- 
nection, Miss Brown acquired the habit of staying at home and 
there are many people now living- in Bloomiield who are not 
acquainted with her. She, as a child, visited the family of 
Leicester King. It used to be a great pleasiu-e for her to fill 
Mrs. King's footstove, which she carried across the street to 


diureli. She remembers the trundle bed in which she slept in 
the King home, the cabinet shop of A\Tiite & Spear across the 
way, and that one time when she was a young lady at the sea 
shore, she was surprised to tind a sig-n hanging out from a shop 
'•^Yliite & Spear." The writer was astonished to find, on her 
library table, a copy of the Woman's Journal. She has taken 
this from its beginning. She kept all the numbers, but as maga- 
zines and periodicals multiplied, she found she was not able 
to save everything, and so offered these to Oberlin College, 
where Lucy Stone finished her education, although she was not 
allowed to read her graduating essay because she was a woman, 
The authorities were delighted to possess them and they are 
now in the library. 

The dining-room in the Brown homestead is spacious, with 
old silver, glass and artistic crayon pictures of Miss Brown 
and her older sister, EUzabeth. These children were taught 
music in the early day and their piano was the second one 
brought into Trumbull County. It is still in the possession of 
the family, being in the home formerly belonging to Mrs. Wing 
(Mary Brown). For years Miss Elizabeth and Miss Anne, 
devoted to each other, lived in this homestead, and it was a 
great blow to the latter when the older sister died. Few women 
are so beautifully cared for as is Miss Brown, in these, her later 
years. She has a care-taker, who is a nurse, a friend who makes 
her home with her and reads to her, two house servants, and 
men about the place. Although she is right in the heart of the 
country, from her library window she can see Mesopotamia, 
and Middlefield beyond. Directly east of her house is the di\dde 
from which on the north the water flows into Lake Erie, and 
on the south into the Ohio. A\1ien she was a child she never grew 
tired of having her mother read to her, and now, no one reads 
to her no matter how many hours at a time when she wishes 
them to stop. She used to drive to Warren; although there is 
a macadam road running in a straight line fi'oni the court 
house to her home, she has not driven it in many years. She 
goes to Cleveland to visit her brother, her nieces and grand- 
nieces and nephews, but slie says she is always glad to be home 
and feels so thankful that her father did not decide on Cleveland 
instead of Bloomfield. She thinks that under present conditions 
all the organizations of the present are necessary, but she has 
never allied herself with any of them except the Forestry Asso- 
ciation. She regrets the wanton destruction of the splendid 


forests of iiorthorn Ohio. In 1S20 lier father hrought a yumig 
maple tree from Bristol and planted it in the door yard. This 
has been one of the most beautiful trees in the vicinity. A few 
years ago, when the leaves were heavy with rain, nearly one- 
half of the tree was blown oft. This scar has been hitely scrnped 
and tilled with cement. 

Mrs. Epliraim Brown had a sister, Polly, who uian-ied 
David Penniman. Her daughter, Mary, married AInsha Cross 
and now resides with her daughter, Mrs. B. F. Pond, on Wash- 
ington avenue, Warren. Mrs. Cross is now ninety-three years 
old but retains her mental faculties. She has always been a 
student and interested in progressive things. She was the 
leading spirit in the organization of the Woman Suffrage 
Society which existed in Warren in the late '70s. This society 
did not live long because of ridicule, but its child is the Political 
E(|uality Club, the largest and most influential woman's club 
in Trumbull County. 

The first schoolhouse in Bloomfield was made of logs and 
stood on the farm of Leman Ferry. Here Chester Howard 
taught in the winter of 1817-18. CSlv. Howard was a In-other 
of Mrs. Thomas Howe ; taught forty-two winter and twenty-six 
summer terms.) There was a schoolhouse built early at the 
center, but the first school held there was in Lewis Clisby's 
log cabin, and Noah M. Green was the teacher. Elizabeth 
Huntington, the sister of Mrs. Ephraim Brown, taught in this 
same cabin. When Elizabeth Brown was a little girl, two or 
three years old, her sister ^lary and her brothers took her to 
school. One day, as she sat there, she became greatly frightened 
b}^ seeing a pair of yellow eyes, looking through the cracks of 
the flooring on the platform. These eyes turned out to lielong 
to an inoffensive sheep. 

Elizabeth Huntington was long remembered by her pupils 
with great love and respect. She was very thorough with her 
classes in spelling, and other primary studies, and brought out 
a number of excei)tionally good spellers. ^^Hien, in 1823, .she 
married Mr. Proctor, she went to Baltimore and New York 
Citv to live, but finally returned to Bloomfield. where she died 
in 1882. 

Among the early teachers were Mr. John Smith of Bloom- 
field, who was a very strict disciplinarian; later, Clarissa 
Howe, Sophronia Otis, ^liss Goodhue (the aunt of J. S. 
McAdoo), Samantha Converse (afterwards Mrs. Dr. Tlamui of 


Cleveland aud the mother of Mark Hanna), Caroline Converse, 
Mi8s Atkins, Jnlia Ann Wright, "^ho afterwards married John 
Smith, Almenia Saiinders, Adeline Warner, Charlotte Kendell 
(sister-in-law of John Smith), and Miss Ellen Gates from Con- 
nectient, an excellent teacher of Latin. This list was followed 
by some others until the late '50s, when the Eev. D. L. Hickox 
and his wife opened a school. In 1860 George W. Andrews and 
his wife, Oberlin graduates, taught five or sis years. Their 
school was most excellent, many pupils coming from neighboring 
townships, some even from Pittsburg, Cleveland and Massillon, 
to attend. Mr. Hickox gave up teaching to study for the minis- 
try, and for the last thirty-tive or forty years has been at the 
head of the theological department of Talladega College in 
Alabama, and for nine years was acting president of that insti- 
tution. His school was a private one and since his day the 
schools in Bloomfield have not kept up to his standard. In the 
past few years the schools have had excellent teachers but there 
are fewer pupils attending than formerly. The Bloomfield 
schools are now centralized. There are no district schools, and 
there are no scholars going to other schools. Mr. C. C. Pierce 
is su])erintendent of schools. 

Three women have been members of the school board of 
Bloomfield: Mrs. Hitchcock, Mrs. Works, and Mrs. Mary ^lat- 
son, who is now clerk. 

Tn 1815 the Eev. ^Ir. Cole, a Congregational preacher, and 
the Rev. ]\rr. Badger ]5i'eached sermons in Bloomfield. Rev. 
Ira Eddy preached in Mr. Thayer's house in 1817. The next 
year Mr. Eddy organized a class of the Methodist chi;rch in 
Bloomfield. Charles Thayer was leader and there were seven- 
teen members. Interest after a while died out, though there 
was occasional preaching in the first log schoolhouse in the 
southern part of the township. In 1830 interest revived and 
Willard Tyrrill became class leader. In 1835 a house was built 
by the Methodists and Congregationalists. This was burned 
in 1852. Five years later these two associations joined again 
and built a church which is now standing. 

The Congregational church was organized as a Presby- 
terian by Rev. Giles H. Cole in 1821. There were four or five 
charter members. Up to 1830 there were about twenty-eight 
niem1)ers. In 1826 Calvin Clark and Asa Smith were deacons. 
Elijah Ballard was chosen deacon in 1832. During the early 
years there were a numlier of missionaries preaching here and 


in 1827 Rev. Edsou Hart was ordained pastor. lu 1859 the 
church became Congregational in form. About this time there 
was a good deal of change such as this in the Presb\i;erian and 
Congregational churches. Slaveiy was the cause of tliis change. 
The Congregational society, in conjunction with the Methodists, 
built a cliurch, as above stated, and sold their share to the 
^Methodists. Recently the Disciples and Congregationalists 
have shared their church building, having purchased a part of 
the Methodist church. 

About 1829, at a public meeting held in Bloomfleld to raise 
money for a preacher, it was agreed to hold services in the 
center schoolhouse. Under this agreement the Presbyterians 
wei'e to have the use of the house one-half the time, the Baptists 
and Methodists one-fourth, the Unitai'ians one-fourth. Two 
years before this, Benjamin Alton, of Xew York state, had 
settled in the township and Ephraim Brown hired him for the 
one-fourth time allowed the Unitarians. Alton fell imder the 
speW of Thomas Campl^ell and became converted. This con- 
version broke up the union of the four parties, although Alton 
continued to preach. In 1832 he was preaching half the time 
and made converts. The ministers of the denomination then 
known as "Campbellites" visited Bloomtield and added other 
people to the congregation. Mr. Alton moved to Illinois 
and the same year Rev. ]\[arcus Bosworth effected an organiza- 
tion. A large number of names were added to the membership. 
In 1848, under the i^reaching of Rev. Isaac Errett, the number 
was doubled. Three j^ears later they built the church at the 
center, Mr. Errett being the lirst ]iastor. In 1854 Edwin "Wake- 
field was ordained as an evangelist. Cyrus Bosworth, ]\r. S. 
Clapp, Isaac Errett and B. F. Perky officiated. In 1879 a half 
interest in the church which was erected in 1849 and cost $1,600 
was disposed of to the Congregationalists. who now hold regular 


"The Green." — First Persons and Events. — Mills and 

Blast Furnace. — Schools and Teachers. — 


Brookfield is probably the township in which the survey- 
ors record that the laud was high enough for them to see into 
Pennsylvania. Before they reached this, they had had a strug- 
gle with swamps, and were delighted at the outlook. "When 
surveyed it was known as number 4, range 1. It was original- 
ly owned by Samuel Hinckley, of North Hampton, Massachu- 
setts, and was probably named for Brookfield, Massachusetts. 
He donated laud at the center, which was called "the green." 
He also gave the ground for the cemetery, one acre. Jacob 
Himiasou, who first settled near the center cleared the 
"green" and burying ground. These grounds were improved 
by people of the township and becrfme the public burying place. 
The first person buried in this cemetery was the Eev. Mr. 

It is recorded by several historians that James Mc]\Iullin 
came to this township in 1796. This surely must be a mistake 
of date, because the first surveyors did not come until that 
summer and he could not very well have received a deed for 
liis laud then. This error probably occurred by some early 
recorder saying he came about that time. If, however, the 
date should be right, he would not only have been the first set- 
tler within the present limits of Trumbull County, but of the 
Eeserve as well. He built a log house in the eastern ]iart of 
the township not far from the state line, after the plan of all 
the first log houses, and here he lived for some time. He had 
seven sons, his grandson, James the son of William, being the 
first white child born in_ the township. 

The first wedding was that of his son, Samuel, to Eliza- 
beth Chatfield. Rev. Thomas G. Jones, who preached for the 



early Baptists in Warren, l)ut who lived in Brooktield, \)v\- 
I'ormed tliis ceremony. 

Rev. Thomas G. Jones, who was a neighbor of ^FcMullin, 
together with his brother, Benjamin, was the first mereliant 
in Broolcfield. In 1802 he built a log cabin of two rooms. In 
one his family lived; in the other he kei^t his goods. The 
family room w^as in front and there was no outside door to the 
store room. The shelves were made of puncheon set on pegs 
driven into the logs. Customers walked through the family 
rooms to buy goods. Mr. Jones preached most of his sermons 
over the edge of Pennsylvania and he was the first preacher 
in Brookfield. The first tavern was kept by Constant Lake, 
one mile north of the center. 

Among the early settlers following Mr. McMullin were 
Mr. Chatfield, Judge Hughes, Constant Lake, Ethan New- 
comb, John Briggs, and Benjamin Bentley. The latter built 
the first frame barn of which there is any account. All records 
in regard to Brookfield mention this barn, but some note that 
it took three days to raise it, that two hundred men were pres- 
ent to assist, and that two liarrels of whiskey were consumed. 
This seems a rather large story. 

The township was organized in 1810 and the first election 
took place at the house of Constant Lake for the ])uri)ose of 
electing townshiji officers. William Cunningham, Anthony 
Patrick, and John D. Smith were chosen trustees. The names 
of Bartholomew, ITumason, Fowler, etc., are still familiar in 
the township. 

The first death was that of Mrs. Henry Gandy. Her body 
was not interred in the cemetery, but at the edge of the woods. 

The first justice of the peace was Judge Hughes, who was 
the land agent for Judge Samuel Hinckley till about 1820. 

The early roads were made of logs and rails. The first 
saw mill and grist mill. Judge Hughes built about the year 
1808. Many of the settlers, before 1830, came from Hubbard 
and other townships below Brookfield. A little later, a nimi- 
ber of the Brookfield settlers, and many of the sons of 
the settlers moved to Youngstown and were identified with 
its history. 

Brookfield was one of the townshi]is in which coal was 
found, and one blast furnace was erected there for the mak- 
ing of iron in 1836. It was erected near the center. There 
was a foundrv connected with it. The ore was obtained in Hull- 


bard, and charcoal way used for smelting. It was never finan- 
cially a success although it had many different owners. 

The Indians encamped often along Big Yankee Eun as 
they did along the streams in many parts of the county. The 
Indian boys and the white boys used to play together, and al- 
though the white boys could throw the Indian lioys in wrestl- 
ing the Indians could distance them in running. The only time 
the settlers had trouble with them was when they went into 
Pennsylvania and returned with plenty of whiskey. 

Between the '60s and the '80s farming communities paid 
a good deal of attention to agricultural fairs, and Brookfield 
had one of the very best of the associations in the county. 

The first schoolhouse. of course, was of logs and stood on 
Big Yankee Eun. The first teacher was Lois Sanford, of Con- 
necticut. David Shepard was one of the early school teachers, 
teaching southeast of the center. Jacob Humason's school 
was on the west side of the "green." Humason had been a 
merchant before coming to ^"ienua and was a very good teach- 
er. These schools, of course, soon gave way to district schools. 

In the beginning the townships of Vienna and Brookfield 
had elections in common. The Presbyterian church, which 
was early organized, was situated at the center of Vienna. In 
1816 the people of Brookfield organized a church under the 
direction of Bev. James Satterfield, of Mercer. He acted un- 
der authority of the Hartford presbytry. The call for the or- 
ganization of this church was signed by Robert Hughes, Jacob 
Up. Mathew Thompson, James Montgomery, James Kerney, 
Robert Montgomery and John Laferty. Martha, the wife of 
James ^Montgomery. Martha, the wife of Robert Hughes, 
Sarah, the wife of Mathew Thompson, Jane Montgomery, 
James Kerney, Elizabeth, the wife of Jacob Ulp, Abigail Laff- 
erty, Mary Lafferty, and her daughter. May, Anne Lafferty 
and her daughter, Anne, and Nancy Lafferty were the mem- 
bers forming this church. In 1817 a frame building was 
erected, Isaac Flower making the nails by hand. This stood 
near the ]>resent cemetery. In 1818 Rev. John Core was or- 
dained at Youngstown and became the minister of Vienna and 
Brookfield. In 1818 the three men who first signed the call, 
Hughes, Ulp and Tliompson, were elected elders. Rev. James 
Anderson was the pastor in 1833, and built up the church 
by his activity. This church, in 1837, had the same disturb- 
ance which manv churches of the same denomination had at 


about the same time. Youuger and newer people wished to 
adopt new methods and older people disapproved. In Greene 
this division Avas known as "old lights" and "new lights," in 
Brooktield as "old school" and "new school." The majority 
of the Brooktield church remained with the "old school." In 
1843 Eev. Joseph Smith officiated and admitted sixteen mem- 
bers. In 1845 Eev. Ward became the pastor. His adminis- 
tration was popular to the congregation. After live years' 
service he was succeeded by Rev. Jacob Coon. Eev. H. Weber 
followed him in 1853. In 1854 the congregation had sixty-two 
members. Eev. N. B. Lyons was the jsastor in 1860, Eev. C. S. 
Eice in 1866, Eev. W. "C. Falconer, 1868. The church soon 
after that began to decline and regular preaching was discon- 
tinued until 1871, when a revival in the Methodist church 
awakened the people of Vienna. Meetings were held in the 
houses of the members and the church was repaired. In 1873 
the congregation only ninnbered twenty. Eev. J. K. Stockton 
liecame the pastor. 

The Christian church of Brooktield was organized in 1874, 
The charter members were Jesse Hoagland, Henrv Patterson, 
A. Tayler, R. S. Hart, H. Hamilton, J."w. Groves," S. C. Ham- 
ilton, Susan Groves, Mary and Flora Tayler, Lucy Struble, 
Caroline Seaburn, Mary Groves, Mary A. Toward, Catherine, 
Hannah and Carrie Jones, E. A. Clark, Mary Christie, Emily, 
Kate and 0. Hart, Elsie Mason, G. W. and Sa