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Full text of "Twentieth century history of southwest Texas, volume 2"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/twentiethcentury02unse 



A Twentieth Century History 



OF 



SOUTHWEST TEXAS 



ILLUSTRATED 



VOLUME II 



THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY 
CHICAGO NEW YORK LOS ANGELES 

1907 



Contents of Volume II. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 
San Antonio: The City and Its Citizens 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



City of Laredo, 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 
Southwest Texas During the Last Quarter Century 



67 



123 



INDEX 



Adams, W. B., 188. 
Adams, Wm., 459. 
Ahlday, Fredrick* W., 429. 
Alamo, Siege of, 510. 
Alexander, Isaac, 114. 
Alfred, Town of, 13. 
Alice, Schools of, 456. 
Allen, George W., 495. 
Armengol, John, 94. 
Atascosa county, 123; 157. 
Atkisson, Jesse B., 285. 
Avant, A. M., 157. 
Balde-Sarelli, P., 41. 
Baldwin, Wm. H., 449. 
Bandera county, 123. 
Barker, Wm. L., 57. 
Barnhill, D. W., 241. 
Barnes, J. I., 288. 
Batista, Pedro, 20. 
Bauer, John, 33. 
Baumgarten, Christian, 413. 
Beck, J. Edwin, 52. 
Bee county, 124; 447, 460. 
Bee culture, 271. 
Benavides, Christobal, 76. 
Benavides, Santos M., 97. 
Bennett, Henry W., 371. 
Benson, Harry L., 45. 
Benton, Nat, 455. 
Berry, James E., 206. 
Best, William C, 473. 
Bertani, Andrea, 114. 
Bexar county, 123. 
Billings, J. R., 319. 



Blaine, Frank C, 321. 
Blocker, V. H., 169. 
Border troubles, 455. 
Bowles, Hiram J., 243. 
Bowman, A. R., 273. 
Braunnagel, Julius, 43. 
Brennan, Michael, 106. 
Brewster, Calvin G., 90. 
Bright, J. M., 191. 
Briscoe, John T., 528. 
Brodbent, Charles S., 38. 
Broussard, Joseph, 61. 
Brown, George W., 195. 
Brown, Robert L., 164. 
Bruni, A. M., 96. 
Bruns, Christian, 507. 
Brunson, Charles, 358. 
Buckley, Timothy J., 49. 
Bullis, John L., 40. 
Bundick, P. B., 509. 
Burns, John, 480. 
Burttschell, Joseph, 366. 
Butler, William G., 332. 
Byars, James, 365. 

Caldwell county, 124; 374, 491. 
Calhoun county, 124; 465. 
Cameron, Jonathan S., 482. 
Campbell, Chas. A. R., 486. 
Canfleld, John E., 198. 
Cardwell, John M., 381. 
Carter, John A., 361. 
Chamberlain, Wm. C, 92. 
Clark, Charles F., 342. 
Clark, Hines, 454. 



INDEX 



• '4- 

391. 

S . 3 

348; Pioneer in, 349; 

.. Leander C, 353. 
ix R . 327. 
J • 217. 

I ! 7. 

is, William 11., 11. 

Founding oi, 299. 

15. 
•'• P f -5 I 

B -, : -'"mil: 1 if, 193. 
■ • • • . [ 25 ; : 
William. 4 
inty, [25; .- 
Hippolyt, 1- 

■ lap, W. P 

' J ■ 224. 

iunty, 

finning of, 139; 522. 
rds, 1 ). M., 269. . 
rds, Levi J \\ . 205. 

. 
' J.i [8. 

•unding of, 424; 507; \ a . 
'•• 418; State Hank. 428. 

■' »ld, Al h\. 423. 

: - 195. 

1 

William. 3 

' n- -n ). 86. 

r, xj2. 
Id. Milam 

. 
Flor 



Fort Duncan, 138. 

Foster, Sam T., 85. 

Fort Mcintosh, 70; j^. 

Franklin, 1 homas, 25. 

Franks, D. G., 306. 

Frio county, 125; 201. 

Frerichs, Rolf, ljy. 

Fruit growing, 520. 

Garner, Mrs. Fred C, 297. 

Garcia, Eusebio, 120. 

Garqia, Jose Maria, 109. 

Garcia, Porfirio P., 484. 

Garrett, I tolland, 367. 

Garza family, 478. 

Gayle, Alexander T., 442. 

Gayle, George S., 442. 

Gentry, F. V., 465. 

Goat raising in Uvalde, 233. 

Goliad county, 125. 

Gonzales county, T26; ZZ7- 

Goodwin, Hiram S., 120. 

Gorden, G. S., 433. 

Gouger, Henry B., 199. 

Grav John A., 98. 

Gray, John M., 300. 

Gray, Zilpha, ,r >2. 

Green, W. B., 342. 

Greenwood, Paul J., 390. 

Grimes, Sterling F., 446. 

Guadalupe county, 126. 

Haass, Herman E., 174. 

Ha dra, Frederick, 14. 

Hagy, William N., 34. 

I lalsell, John T., to6. 

Hamilton, Henry J.. 88. 

Hankins, William M., 401. 

Hardeman, Walker B., 399; John, 399; 

Thomas J., 399; Owen B., 399; 

Dorothy, 399. 
I fargus, Joe W., 348. 
I largns, \V. L., 352. 
llarkness, James C. B., 204. '• 
Harrison, Sam, 64. 
i latch, A. S., 295. 
1 [aynes, James J., 86. 
Hayes, William R., 447. 
1 [eard, Leon R, 226. 
Health Department, of San Antonio, 

486. 
Heath, James W., 187. 
Hefner, W. J., 417. * 

Heilig, Otto, 154. 
Helmcamp, Theodore, 491. 
Hill. W. T., 521. 
Hindes, George R, 208. 
Hincs, B. M., 26T. 
I rines, John R, 6. 
I lolloway, James J., 403. 
Holt, Tohn ?»., 380. 
Holt, James W., 487. 
1 rondo, t 71 ; T79. 
Hope, Samuel M., 370. 



INDEX 



L 11 



House, Hansel W., 263. 

Immigration and Settlement, 128. 

Indian War, 9. 

International Railroad, 74. 

Irrigation, 131. 

Irvin, William C, 48. 

Jackson, Thomas T., 24. 

Jackson county, 126; 436. 

Jahn, Charles A., 155. 

Johnson, Charles G., 502. 

Johnson, H. Evart, 207. 

Johnston, William L., 445. 

Jones, A. H., 47. 

Jones, John C, 337. 

Karnes county, 126; First school in, 
335. 

Keitn, K. D., 396. 

Keller, C. E., 31. 

Kelley, W. A., 289. 

Kennedy, Ross, 214. 

Kercheville, John A., 196. 

Kerr, Abnus B., 406. 

Key, G. W., 165. 

Kieffer, August H., 63. 

Kindred, Joseph C, 489. 

King, Isaac H., 182. 

King, Richard, 92. 

King, W. A., 10. 

King, W. B., 185. 

Kingsley, Byron F., 9. 

Kinney county, 126. 

Kline, J. F., 23. 

Knoke, George, 146. 

Krempkau, William B., 1. 

La Coste, J. B., 19. 

LeComte, Leon, 63. 

Landa, Joseph, 143. 

Lane, Calvin M., 384. 

Laredo, History of, 67 fol. ; Finance 
and Public works, 79 ; First fami- 
lies of, 67; Laredo district, 134; 
516; in 1881, 71. 

Largen, Thomas J., 485. 

LaSalle county, 126. 

Laughter, Mrs. Lavinia, 439. 

Lawhon, John K., 535. 

Lea), Manuel T., 107. 

Leyendecker, Boniface J., 108. 

Ligarde, Honore, 84. . 

Little, John J., 203. 

Lockhart, 377. 

Love, William D., 285. 
Lowry, Willis E., 116. , 

Lynch, William S., 51. 
McDaniel, Arthur S., 5. 
McLaurin, M. H., 29. 
McMullen county, 127. 
McNeal, Thomas, . 406. 
Madero, L. V., 28. 
Magness, James C.» 206. 
Mangum, J. A., 279. 



Marbach, John, 153. 
Martin, George M., j66. 
Martin, ilenry G., 1 59. 
Martin, Raymond, 84. 
Martin, R. Graves, 524. 
Matthews, Harvey M., 32. 
Matthews, James T., 65. 
Maverick county, 127. 
Mayers, Edward, 160. 
Medina county, 127; 169. 
Meier, William, 59. 
Mengcr, Erich, 54. 
Meny, Joseph, 33. 
Mesquite block paving, 50. 
Metzger, Frederick, 177. 
Mexican Invasion of 1842, 295. 
Mexican Laredo, 74. 
Meyer, Albert, 27. 
Meyer, David A., 7. 
Middlebrook, Ibzan W., 355- 
Mil mo National Bank, 81. 
Milam, D. C, 256. 
Mills, Green W., 374. 
Minis, William H., 100. 
Mixon, Wm. B., 330. 
Monier, John C, 20. 
Moody, Asa, 398. 
Moore, A. J., 37. 
Moore, W. T., 500. 
Mosser, Samuel B., 530. 
Muldoon, 409. 
Murphv, John T., 78. 
New, George W., 494. 
Newberry, Joseph D., 3,14. 
Ney, Joseph, 172. 
Nixon. Robert T., 389. 
Nueces countyr, 452. 
Nve postoffice, 137. 

Nye, Thomas C, 135. 

Ochoa, Eliseo E., 79. 

Onion Industry, its founder, 135; in 
LaSalle county, 347. 

Ortiz, L. R., 95. 

Ortiz, Santos P., 122. 

Obets, August, 201. 

Pace, Wm. R., 101. 

Page, George R., 102. 

Patterson, N. M. C, 209. 

Patterson, George W., Sr., 278; Settle- 
ment, 278. 

Perote Castle, Prisoner in, 375. 

Perry, John, Sr., 297. 

Pfeuffer, Christoph, 151. 

Port Lavaca and Vicinity, 497. 

Pottery works, 55. 

Presnall, P. A., 457. 

Puis:, Valentine L.. 103. 

Pulliam, N. B., 281. 

Ranney, M. G., 16. 

Railroads, a factor in development, 129. 

Reiffert, Emil, 446. 



IV 



INDEX 



Kem.irz, Frederick, 14^ 
Khciner, 1 J . -'5-- 
Reminder. GtlS, 15O. 

Rice, John K., 46 
Richardson, Aaher, 519. 
Richardson, 1 Uman 1-, it>8. 
Ricfater, August C S7. 
Richter. William L., 13. 
Rio Fno, 313. 

John V., 43. 
Rittmunn. John, 57. 

Roberts. Gideon L., 60. 

R binson. John 1"., 265. 
Robinson. John F., Jr., 310. 
Robinson. Henry M.. 265. 

iknort, 449- 

mer, A-dolph, 471. 

gsn, Edgar H.. 376. 
Rogers. Samuel. 234. 
\ Patrick H.. 302. 
R ss, Horace B., 323. 
Robert, Chas.. 46S. 
Rnnge, 325 ; 505 ; Early days in. 326. 

Dger, William. 55« 
Salinas, Augustin. 99. 
San Antonio. 476: Capture of, 478. 
Sanchez. Amador, 78. 
Sanchez. Thomas. 67. 
Sauvignet. Edmond H., 90. 
Santa Rosa Hospital Training School, 

44- 
S eh a we. Henry. 362. 
Schertz, William, 56. 
^chcrtz. Town of, 56. 
Schlick, F. A.. 343. 
Schmidt. Hermann M., tio. 
Schultz. William H.. 369. 
Schreiner. Charles F., 45. 
Scott. Richard G.. 50. 
Scott. Robert M., 313. 
Scovill, Frank E., in. 
Srchatz. William. 147. 
Seefeld. R. H.. 351. 

•Imann Bros., 415. 
S'mcHmann, Charles, 415. 
Sengelmann, August, 416. 
Sengelmann. Gustav. 415. 
Seymour. Samuel K., 356. 
Sha fer. William A., 51. 
Sharpe, Edmund L., 167. 
Shaw. Felix M.. 483. 
Shaw, Lemuel T., 532. 
Shaw Brother*. ^32 
ShHdon. B. M.. '514. 
Shiner, M. Charles. 476. 
Shiner. Peter. 476. 
Shrop«;hir^. Levingston L., 17. 
Simon*. G^o. F.. 436. 
Skidmore. Frank 6.. 141. 
Skidmorr. Town of, 142. 
Slad*\ John, 315. 



Smith, Oscar B. B., 21. 
Smith, Samuel S., 21. 
Smith, William M., 460. 
Smyth, J. G., 248; George W., 248. 
Sneddon, William, 304. 
Sons of Hermann, 33. 
Spooner, Thomas H., 343. 
Starr county, 127. 
Stevens, Edward A.. 479- 
Stevens, Pat, 4. 
Storey, Edward M., 383. 
Strickland, John S., 458. 
Sumpter, Jesse, 137. 
Talk, A. W., 505. 
Tanner, Field A., 363. 
Telephones, 38. 
Tell, Wm, 368. 
Thomas, Covey C, 350. 
Thompson, James C, 194. 
Tips, Gus, 325. 
Tolle, August, 148. 
Trueheart, James L 477. 
Turman, John C, 292. 
Underwood, Nathan, 36. 
Ussery, Mastin, 394. 
Uvalde county, 127; 209; 524; Early 
settlement, 221; in the '50s, 210; 
Farming, 283; Banks, 253, 277; 
Public improvements, 287. 
Val Verde county, 127. 
Vela, Jose M., in. 
Villegas, Don Quintin, 83. 
Villemain, Celestin, 62. 
Vogt, E. R., 412. 
Wallace, Alfred L., 522. 
Walter, C. K, 531. 
Ware Settlement, 266. 
Watkins, Chas. R., 200. 
Watson, D. A., 65. 
Webb county, 128. 
Webb, Mack, 426. 
Weete, Louis, 373. 
Weir, James A., 259. 
Werner, Fred, 105. 
Wharton county, 128; 417. 
White, J. B., 536. 
White, Robert A., 162. 
Wilson county, 128. 
Wilson, John T., 41. 
Wilson, Thomas A., 316. 
Wilson, Willett, 469. 
Winslow, A., 81. 
Wire fences, 142. 
Wiseman, Levi B., 197. 
Wish, Jasper, 291. 
Witt. Edward L. & Sons, 231. 
Wolters. Theodore, 410. 
Womack. John W., 481. 
Woods, W. G. Lee, 311. 
Yaeger, Charles F., 516. 
Zachrv. John H., 228. 
Zavala county, 128. 



History of Southwest Texas 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

SAN ANTONIO: THE CITY AND ITS CITIZENS. 

In this chapter the modern history of San Antonio and vicinity is 
continued from the preceding volume ; but here through the medium of 
biography rather than by set description. It is believed that all the varied 
interests — the industrial, the professional and the official — have been cov- 
ered in these pages. While biography with most readers is not attractive 
for continuous reading, it is believed that the general reader will find 
much in this chapter of solid historical interest and value. 

William B. Krempkau. When only seven years of age William 
B. Krempkau worked for others for wages ; at the age of twelve he 
was timekeeper and issued rations for what was known as the "Prairie 
Schooner Train ;" and when but sixteen he made a trip over the trail with 
cattle to Kansas. A busy life from early boyhood has made him a sub- 
stantial citizen and his record is proof of the fact that success may be 
gained through unremitting effort. 

His birth occurred on Salinas ' street, San Antonio, November 9, 
1863, his parents being Charles Gustav and Carolina (Dreyer) Kremp- 
kau. His mother was born in Alsatia and when a child came to Texas 
with her parents who were members of the Castro colony, arriving at 
San Antonio in 1844 and going thence to Castroville, in Medina county, 
a short time later. The maternal grandfather of our ^abject was a 
prominent and influential pioneer citizen of that locality. It is recalled 
that soon after they located at Castroville, while out looking for cattle 
he became lost in the woods, lived on herbs, etc., for twelve days and 
was finally found by the Indians and brought back home. He died 
during one of the early cholera epidemics of the state. 

Charles Gustav Krempkau, also a native of Germany, became a 
resident of Texas in 1848, locating first at La Grange, Fayette county, 
and later in San Antonio. He was a man of fine talents and superior 
education and he left the impress of his individuality upon the progress 
and development of the newly developed district. By profession he was 
an architect and builder, having made a study of some of the most 
noted structures of the old country, but on coining to the frontier of 
Texas, like all others he had to take his part in the pioneer life of the 

Vol. 11. 1 1 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

iod and moot the conditions and exigencies of existence in a district 
which was just being opened up to civilization. He was one of the 

earliest of the old Texas rangers in fighting Indians and protecting the 
of the settlers, and as such was a comrade and associate for some 
irs of the late Max Aue of Leon Springs, Bexar comity. In 1861 
iie enlisted in the Confederate Army and served with distinction through- 
out the Civil war. under General Albert Sydney Johnston during the 
tier part <>t* the struggle. Me died in San Antonio, January 7, 1871. 
At the usual age William B. Krempkau began his education, which 
he pursued in the old German-English school and at St. Mary's College, 
hut from his earliest boyhood he began to work and save his money and 
in this wa\ he assisted in providing for his education. He is indeed a 
made man in the best sense of that oft-misused term. He was not 
mure than seven years oi age when he did his first work for wages, at 
Jackson's ranch, eight miles west of San Antonio. He next worked on a 
farm on the Salad. 1 creek east of town, and when twelve years of age he 
was time-keeper and also issued rations for what was known as the 
"Prairie Schooner Train." which carried freight from San Antonio to 
Saltillo and San Luis Potosi, Mexico. He afterward began learning 
the trade of blacksmithing and carriage making, but the remuneration 
-mall and the work too slow for one of his ambitious nature, 
lie decided t«> take up something else and became connected with Cap- 
tain Smith of the well known old cattle firm of Smith & Elliott, of 
Springfield. Illinois, having large cattle interests in Texas. For them 
he herded cattle and made one trip over the trail to Kansas. He was 
then «n!y sixteen years of age and the work entrusted to him involved 
much responsibility as well as hard labor. 

Mr. Krempkau also did track work in the original building of the 
•Id 1. & I 1. X. Railroad, then being constructed to Mexico. He after- 
ward obtained experience in mercantile lines as an employe in the store 
1 i Herman Spieler in San Antonio and later for Mr. Zinsmeyer in the 
same capacity. In 1884 he conducted a skating rink at Pearsall in Frio 
•unty. and subsequently went to Cotulla, in LaSalle county, where lie 
engaged in merchandising. Later he returned to San Antonio and em- 
in merchandising with his brother, the late A. W. Krempkau, 
• some time again took up railroad construction work on the old 
Bastrop, Taylor & Houston Railroad, now part of the main line of the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railroad system. Following this he con- 
ducted a mercantile enterprise at Bastrop, and subsequently engaged in 
lerchandising and the hotel business at La Grange in 1887. In the fall 
of that year he made his way to Los Angeles and to San Francisco, Cali- 
ia, and in the summer of 1888 returned to San Antonio, where he 
sheriff's office in the capacity of deputy under Captain 
Thomas 1'. McCall. On resigning from that position he again engaged 
in merchandising in u -tore on West Commerce and Frio streets, in the 
ng of [890. He removed his business from there to the corner of 
I [ou-ton and Medina streets, where he continued to conduct the busi- 
^ until [896, when he withdrew from the field of mercantile activity, 
in which he had met with a gratifying measure of success and won for 
himself an honorable place in the trade circles of the city. In the year 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 3 

1898 he bought a ranch twenty miles northwest of San Antonio, at the 
headquarters of Helotes creek and there made a start in the raising of 
cattle and horses. This ranch, which he has developed into a fine prop- 
erty, is now one of his principal financial resources, and comprises about 
four hundred acres of valuable land, the income from which supplies 
him with many of the comforts and some of the luxuries of life. 

Mr. Krempkau was married at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, April 9, 
1892, to Miss Emma Sams, a native of Wayne county, Illinois, and they 
are now pleasantly located in a comfortable home in his native city. 

In 1899 Mr. Krempkau was made road supervisor of precinct Xo. 
2, under Captain McCall, who was then county commissioner. In 1900, 
entirely without his solicitation, he was nominated and duly elected 
public weigher by the board of county commissioners, but he refused to 
qualify for the office on account of other business interests. In 1903 
he was appointed to and accepted the position of city license inspector 
under Mayor John P. Campbell, serving for fifteen months with credit 
to himself and satisfaction to all concerned and retiring under protest 
from the city authorities, who were particularly pleased with his services 
in that office. In 1904 he was a candidate for the office of hide and 
animal inspector and was defeated by a very small majority by Captain 
Hart Mussey, the well known old Confederate soldier who had the regu- 
lar organization supporting him. 

At various times Mr. Krempkau has served as an officer in the fed- 
eral courts in San Antonio and is a well known citizen of public-spirited 
devotion to the general welfare and upbuilding of the city. His broad 
and varied experience has been of much value to him and he has never 
met with failure in any branch of his business life but on the contrary 
has increased his resources gradually and in a conservative way from 
year to year, until he today enjoys high standing and credit in the 
financial world. He devotes most of his attention to his cattle and horse- 
raising interests in connection with his ranch, but makes his home in 
San Antonio, at the corner of Morales and Medina streets, and he owns 
considerable other city real estate. 

William Fenstermaker is a prominent contractor of San Antonio, 
and he is likewise engaged in business as a horse breeder. His birth 
occurred near Cedar Rapids, in Linn county, Iowa, in 1858, his parents, 
A. and Eliza (Hudson) Fenstermaker, both natives of Ohio, having 
become early settlers of that state. The mother died in 1872, but the 
father still survives and is farming in Washington county, Iowa. 

Mr. Fenstermaker was reared and educated in Johnson county, 
Iowa, remaining under the parental roof until he had reached the age of 
eighteen years, when, in 1876, he left his native state and went to Den- 
ver, where he learned the bricklayer's trade, after which he was employed 
at his chosen labor, and finally entered the business world on his own 
account as a building contractor. He was thus engaged in Denver for 
about eight years, subsequent to which time he spent two years in Butte, 
Montana. In 1888 he took up his abode in San Antonio, where he has 
since made his home to the present time, being engaged as a contractor 
and builder. He is an expert workman, and is ever prompt and reliable 
in the execution of his contracts, so that he has built up a large and 



4 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

growing He has done the brick work on a great number 

ss ■ residence buildings of this city and likewise owns some 

s aial buildings of his own construction, these including the new 

siness block near the I. & G. N. depot, and a new brick 

5S bl ick i n Main avenue between West Commerce and Houston 

He i- an enterprising and progressive man, and his excellent 

rkmanship has been a factor in the upbuilding and beautifying- of his 

As a diversion from his building operations, Mr. Fenstermaker is 
ged quite extensively in breeding horses, having a fine ranch 
lit two thousand acres oi rich and valuable land situated in Uvalde 
inty, near the town oi Uvalde, on which he raises standard bred 
k. among which he has some hue trotting- horses. One of his ani- 
nals is a son of old Nutwood, one of the leading race horses of the 
United State-. His trotting horses have frequently won premiums when 
they have been entered in different race courses throughout the coun- 
try, and his stock is considered as tine as any that can be found in this 

Mr. Fenstermaker was united in marriage to Miss Josie Somka, 
who was reared in Seguin, Texas, and they have a family of three sons, 
rence, Arthur and Leslie. The family occupy a beautiful and com- 
mits home in the south part of the city, located on Grove street 
near Roosevelt avenue, where a hearty welcome is extended to their 
numerous friend-. 

1\\! Stevens, stockman of San Antonio with interests in the south- 
ern part of Bexar county, also figures in connection with the public serv- 
w holding at the present time the position of city commissioner. A 
- m of Texas, he was born in Victoria county, April 12, i860, his 
parents being W. A. and Jane (Clay) Stevens. His father came from 
Alabama to Texas in [848, locating in Victoria county, and during all 
s active business life was a farmer, removing in his later years to 
Indian Territory, where he continued in the same occupation. He died 
while on a visit to his daughter in Wise county, Texas. 

Cat Steven- is a thoroughly typical representative of the cattle busi- 

the days of the free range, the old trail and the puncher's outfit. 

He was virtually "brought up in the saddle" and as a cowboy, broncho 

and stock trader, he has been all over the trails and camped in 

familiar haunts of the cowboy throug-h the southwest. 

lie i- particularly well known in the "lower country" of Texas, 

h( has always been called "Bud" Stevens. When sixteen months 

he was taken from Victoria to DeWitt county and from there lie 

■ way to all sections of the southwestern country and also made 

era! trips over the trail to the north, lie spent most of his time, 

he lower country until about 180,0, when he established 

i home and headquarters in San Antonio, where lie has since resided. 

ling here when still a youth he began work for twelve dollars a 

1 and from this humble financial position he has gradually worked 

way upward until he has important stock interests that bring him 

a good financial return. For a time be was not actively connected with 

but ha- returned to it and is now handling- his stock 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

in the southern part of Bexar county on what is known as the Satis and 
Asa Mitchell pasture. 

Mr. Stevens has a pretty home at No. 609 Burnet street, and his 
wife, whom he married in Sherman, Texas, was in her maidenhood 
Miss Josie Sticht. 

Mr. Stevens is a large man, of peculiarly attractive personality, 
which perhaps accounts for the- fact of his having become so prominent 
in local politics. It is said of Mr. Stevens that he can always carry his 
ward, the sixth, anyway he wants it, and he is certainly a power in local 
political circles. He was licensed inspector under the Hicks adminis- 
tration of the city and city commissioner under the John P. Campbell 
administration. He has exerted a wide influence in local affairs on the 
side of better and cleaner politics and is a strong opponent to misrule 
in municipal government. 

Arthur Shaw McDaniel, M. D., engaged in the practice of medi- 
cine and surgery in San Antonio, was born in Obion county, Tennessee, 
in 1856, his parents being W. I. and Margaret (Harrison) McDaniel. 
Mr. W. I. McDaniel is now living at Pearsall, Texas. The mother was 
a sister of Dr. R. H. Harrison, a noted representative of the medical 
profession of Texas, who for a long period lived at Columbus, Colo- 
rado county, this state, where he established and was for several years 
the chief surgeon of the Southern Pacific Hospital. He was also the 
most prominent factor in the movement resulting in the establishment 
of the state board of health and in other ways his name is closely and 
honorably associated with the history of the medical profession of the 
Lone Star state. 

During the boyhood of their son Dr. McDaniel, his parents re- 
moved from Tennessee to Dunklin county, Missouri, and in 1876 came 
to Texas, settling first in Columbus, Colorado county. It was there that 
Dr. McDaniel, having completed his literary education, engaged in the 
study of medicine under the direction of his uncle, Dr. Harrison, while 
later he matriculated in the Ohio Medical College, at Cincinnati, from 
wmich he won his degree and was graduated with the class of 1882. 
Following his graduation he received an appointment as physician in 
the Southern Pacific Hospital, at Columbus, Texas. He subsequently 
resumed the study of medicine in postgraduate work at Bellevue Med- 
ical Hospital, of New York, from which he obtained a degree and was 
graduated in 1890. In July of that year he located for practice in San 
Antonio, w r here he has since lived, and during the sixteen years of his 
residence here he has gained and maintained a high position as a lead- 
ing representative of his profession. 

Dr. McDaniel was for four years local surgeon for the Southern 
Pacific Railroad Company in San Antonio but his time is now given 
in undivided manner to his private practice of medicine and surgery. He 
has been particularly successful in the treatment of diseases of children 
and obstetrics and these lines may be termed his specialty. He performed 
the first operation for appendicitis in San Antonio, in 1890. soon after 
coming to this state from the Bellevue Hospital College, where he had 
witnessed the first operations for that disease. In 1900 he spent six 
months in Europe in studying and traveling, pursuing a special course 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

study in the Berlin University and becoming familiar with the meth- 

practice as followed by some o\ the most distinguished physicians 

and n> of the old world. He is a member of various medical 

ties, including the County, State and American Medical Associations 

and at one time was vice president of the Western Texas Medical Asso- 

which later became absorbed in the County and State Associa- 

s 

Dr. McDaniel was married in Columbus. Texas, to Miss Leila Ervin, 
a Mobile, Alabama, family, a niece of Judge W. S. Delaney, an ex- 
adge of Texas. Dr. and Mrs. McDaniel have a son, Arthur 
The world instinctively pays deference to the man 
whose success has been worthily achieved and whose prominence is not 
- the result of an irreproachable private life than of business qualifica- 
tion-. Because oi his strong and sterling personal traits and his pro- 
al skill Dr. McDaniel occupies a prominent position both pro- 
sionally and socially in San Antonio, where he has made his home 
since i> 

John Fletcher Hines, M. D., practicing medicine and surgery 
g - ntific lines in San Antonio, was born while his parents were 
from Mississippi to Texas, in 1851, his birth taking place on the 
oat Caddo on the Red River near the Arkansas and Texas boun- 
His father was the Rev. J. F. Hines, who for a long number of 
rs was a noted minister and missionary, first laboring in Mississippi 
later in Texas subsequent to his arrival here in 185 1. For twenty- 
rive war- he was a minister of the Methodist Episcopal church and be- 
came one of the prominent circuit riders of that denomination in Mis- 
sissippi, while bis brother, the Rev. William B. Hines, was perhaps the 
known presiding elder of the denomination in Mississippi in early 
5. Another nephew, Dr. John H. Hines, became a physician of much 
more than local repute. The Hineses are a family of fine ancestry, being 
:ended from some of the most prominent characters connected with 
early settlement of the history of the south. The father of Dr. 
Hines was born in Alabama. Most of his life in the ministry prior to 
■ removal to Texas was spent in Mississippi. As stated, he was for. 
quarter of a century identified with the Methodist denomination but 
withdrew therefrom in 1862, and became connected with the Baptist 
nircb. with which he thereafter affiliated. He was a most able pioneer 
orker in behalf of the church of Texas, traveling all over the western, 
uthera and southwestern parts of the state both as a missionary and 
ilar minister, and contributing in substantial measure to the moral 
pment of various localities. He was one of the founders of the 
Baptist church in San Antonio, and was actively engaged in found- 
fostering religious work in various other towi-s and communi- 
a very strong man in every way, physicially, mentally and 
morally, and was said to be the best exponent of religious doctrine in 
ith. He died at Houston in 1003. His widow, who is still living, 
Amanda L. Hart, a daughter of the noted educator, G. S. Hart, 
who was pafish superintendent of schools in Louisiana in the latter 
nd whose splendid work as an educator throughout Louisiana 
and T< ained him wide reputation. He came to the latter state 



,«*0#****' 




$■ hh^tsiJLj tei& 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 7 

in his later life and continued in educational work here. He was also 
noted as a literary man, both in poetry and prose, and his writings at- 
tracted much notice throughout the south, although he failed to have 
his books published before his death. He was, moreover, a man of most 
attractive and lovable character, who had a large circle of acquaintances 
and was greatly esteemed by all who knew him. On the Hart side Dr. 
Hines is also connected with well known ancestors. 

Dr. Hines was reared and acquired his education in various com- 
munities in Western and Southern Texas, according to the changing lo- 
cations of a pioneer minister's home. His father was originally located 
at LaGrange in 185 1 but later the family lived at Orange and other 
places. He attended school in Orange, Texas, and Louisiana and one 
of his most comoetent teachers of the early days was his grandfather 
Hart. His more specifically literary education was completed in the 
then well known academy at Helena in Karnes county — a splendid school 
in its day — wherein he pursued a course in Latin and the classics. He 
had decided upon the profession of medicine as' a life work and at the 
early age of sixteen years began reading with that end in view under 
the direction of well known physicians. He did not take a degree, how- 
ever, until 1878, when he completed the course and was graduated from 
the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati. He has since then joined 
the regular schools and is a member of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation and its affiliated county and state societies in Texas. He first 
practiced in Karnes county, where a portion of his youth had been 
passed, and later in Bee county. He was located for some time at Lu- 
ling and subsequently at Floresville in the general practice of medicine, 
and in 1887 he established a permanent home in San Antonio, where he 
has successfully engaged in the practice of medicine and surgery al- 
though making to some extent a specialty of abdominal and related 
surgery, in which he has attained a high degree of proficiency. 

Dr. Hines has been married twice. He first wedded Miss Gesine 
Mertz, a native of Bremen, Germany, who became his wife in 1871. 
She died in San Antonio in 1892, and in this city Dr. Hines was mar- 
ried to Virginia Rossy, well known as a former teacher in the private 
schools here. The family numbers six children of the first marriage, 
John Francis, Minnie, William Scudder, Daniel H., Mattie and Gesine. 
The eldest daughter is the wife of Albert Tolle. The younger daughters 
are both teachers, Miss Mattie Hines being now a teacher of Latin and 
German in the high school at Belton. She is remarkable for the stand- 
ard of her intellectual attainments, having won the degree of Bachelor 
of Arts and Master of Arts and she is known as one of the best teachers 
in the state, her intellectual ability being widely acknowledged by all 
who have had reason to become at all familiar with her work. She is 
now the wife of Professor Carl Hartman. Dr. Hines through native 
and acquired ability has gained distinction in his profession, of which 
he is yet a thorough, comprehensive and discriminating student, keep- 
ing abreast with the progress of the medical fraternity in its researches 
and investigations. 

David A. Meyer, filling the position of county commissioner of 
Bexar county and making his home in San Antonio, was born in Austin 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

inty, Texas, Ma} 3, [861. His parents. August and Mary Meyer, 

died during th< earl} boyhood o\ their son David. They came from 

any at an earl) period in the settlement of Texas, being members 

of one of the colonies. Hie year of their arrival was 1848 and they 

: lotl in Austin county, where their remaining days were passed. 

David A. Meyer was reared at San Felipe in Austin county and in 

s youth became thoroughly familiar with the cattle business, starting 

g .t- a cowboy. For several years he continued to engage 

ssfullv in the cattle business on his own account in the rich country 

lying the Brazos and Colorado rivers in Austin, Fort Bend and 

lo counties, running his cattle on the open range before the 

>tures began to be fenced in. lie had large herds and his annual 

attle brought him a gratifying financial return. He made his 

San Felipe until [898, when he removed to San Antonio, where 

he lias since resided. 

Mr. Meyer was married in Xew Tim in Austin county, Texas, 
ss Louise Wangeman and they have two children, Mundena and 
While living in Austin county Mr. Meyer served as constable of 
5 precinct for -i\ years and in 1904 he was elected county «commis- 
of Bexar county, representing precinct No. 2 on the board of 
commissioners. His home is at No. 1101 North Zarzamora 
In his business affairs he has carefully watched and improved 
irtunities, ha- been alert and enterprising and has gained a grati- 
measure of prosperity, while in his political service he has ren- 
I valuable aid t<> his county, being actuated at all times by a public- 
spirited dcv<>ti<>n to the general good. 

Milam M. Fitzgerald, of San Antonio, was born at Liberty, Lib- 

county, Texas, in 1843. Mis father, T. R. Fitzgerald, a native of 

rgia, came to this state about 1830, locating in Liberty county, 

where he became well known as a planter and stockman, and his death 

curred at hi- home in Liberty during the Civil war. 

M. Fitzgerald was early inured to the duties of a farmer and 
ckman, and at the early age of sixteen years, in 1 86 r , enlisted for 
rvice in the Civil war. becoming a member of Company F, Fifth Texas 
Infantry, which became a part of Hood's Texas Brigade in the Army 
•_ nia. This company was recruited by Mr. Fitzgerald's uncle, 
■nel King O. Bryan, who later in the war became a brigade corn- 
ier. Mr. Fitzgerald has a splendid military record, having partici- 
the historic battles in Virginia, such as Chancellorsville, the 
lerness, Spottsylvania, Lynchburg, Antietam, in the seven days bat- 
lefore Richmond, and also in the battle of Gettysburg, and toward 
the close of the struggle was in service some in Tennessee and Missis- 

pi. 

When the war had ended and the country no longer needed his 
Mr. Fitzgerald returned to his home in Texas, and soon there- 
iployed in the Commercial Express service on the old 
and New Orleans Railroad running bet wen Houston and Beau- 
mont. After this company sold to the Adams Express Company Mr. 
Fitzgerald went to Galveston to take a position in the crockery depart- 
ment of Burton & Company's store, but soon thereafter came to Gon- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 9 

zales county to embark in the stock business, and for a long number of 
years he was one of the most prominent stockmen of Southern To 
During eighteen years of that period he marie regular trips over the 
trails with cattle to Kansas, and it is said that there is hardly any other 
one man who took as much stock to the northern markets as did he 
during those years, while at the same time these drives were fraught 
with much hardship and adventure, especially during the early seventies 
when the Indians were troublesome, and he had many encounters with 
them. In 1901 Mr. Fitzgerald took up his abode in San Antonio, which 
city has ever since continued as his home and where he has gained 
recognition among its leading business men. During the first five years 
of his residence here he served as deputy United States marshal under 
George L. Siebrecht, retiring from that position in the spring of 1906, 
and since that time he has held the position of custom officer at the 
Government bonded warehouse on Buena Vista street. He is a man 
of prominence, and is widely known as a native Texan, as a soldier, 
as a stockman and as a public official. 

In Gonzales county, Texas, Mr. Fitzgerald w r as married to Miss 
Gussie Kokernot, of the well known family of that name, and they have 
four living children: Mrs. Maud Sturgis, Sam M. Fitzgerald, Mrs. 
Mattie Josephine Watts and David L. 

Byron F. Kingsley, M. D., a well known and able physician of 
San Antonio, making a specialty of gynecology, was born in Chautauqua 
county, New York, a son of Chester and Susan D. (Mead) Kingsley. 
The father was born at Fort Anne in eastern New York and for many 
years was a successful farmer in the rich agricultural region of Chau- 
tauqua county, whence he removed in the '6os to Michigan, where his 
last days were passed. His wife, who was born in Pennsylvania and 
died at the family home in Chautauqua county, was a descendant of 
General Mead of Revolutionary war fame and also a representative of 
the family who founded the city of Meadville, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Kingsley was reared in the county of his nativity and in Michi- 
gan, attending school in Coldwater, that state, while later he pursued 
his studies in the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. He was a stu- 
dent of medicine in the Detroit Medical College, from which he was 
graduated in the class of 1874 and in the same year he was also gradu- 
ated from Long Island Medical College at Brooklyn, New York. Im- 
mediately thereafter he established an office in St. Louis, Missouri, where 
he practiced for about a vear, subsequent to which time he spent nearly 
two years in practice in Carrollton, Illinois, and during that period acted 
as county phvsician. Early in 1877 he came to San Antonio, where he 
opened an office for practice and m 1879 he was appointed to the posi- 
tion of acting assistant surgeon in the United States army for active 
service in the field. Dr. Kingsley was not attached to any one regiment, 
although most of his service was in connection with the Tenth Cavalrv 
on the star! of the noted Indian fighter. General B. H. Grierson. for 
whom he was chief medical officer during the Apache Indian campaign. 

Indian War Service. 

It was in the latter '70s and in the early '8os that the Indians of 
Western Texas and New Mexico were making their last desperate stand. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

the last of the serious Indian fighting taking place during that period 
.. little over four years, during which time Dr.. Kingsley was in the? 
army. S n after his appointment he was stationed at Camp Rice and 
subsequently at Fori Hancock. Fort Davis and Eagle Springs in the 
extreme western part of Texas and from that time until the autumn 
B82 he was with the army in the field in the Indian campaigns. He 
S with the troops when in 1SS1 the Apaches under Victorio and 
ronimo made their last raid into Western Texas. On this raid it 
stimated that the Apaches killed five hundred men in New Mexico, 
Western Texas and old Mexico before they surrendered, Geronimo 
being captured by General Law ton in New Mexico. During that year, 
881, the Tenth Cavalry, which Dr. Kingsley accompanied as surgeon, 
in its 5C •:ting for Indians, traveled over forty-four thousand miles in 
pursuit of the Indians, which fact General Sherman mentioned in his 
- representing hardships equal to anything on record in the 
of the United States army. 
About the ist of November, 1882, Dr. Kingsley was transferred 
Western Texas to Fort Lvon, Colorado, and later to Fort Gibson, 
Indian Territory, where he remained until July, 1883, when he returned 
San Antonio, which has since been his permanent home. Here he 
ha- been constantly engaged in active practice for about twenty-three 
years and now hears the honor of being the oldest active practitioner 
in the city in \ ears of continuous connection with the medical fraternity, 
Dr. Herff, Sr., having retired from active practice. Dr. Kingsley de- 
votes his attention to the general practice of medicine and surgery, but 
1 especially successful in female abdominal and gynecological 
- - and surgery. He is a member of the Bexar Countv Medical 
and the State and American Medical Associations. He is also 
ex-president of the West Texas Medical Association, which was later 
absorbed in the Bexar County Society and ex-vice president of the Texas 
State Medical Association and president of the Humane Society of San 
Antonio. For nearly ten years he conducted the Kingsley Sanitarium 
li- city. He is now president of the .board of United States pension 
examim rs. 

Dr. Kingsley was married in San Antonio to Miss Nellie Glen- 
n, a native of Chicago, and they have two children, Falph Waldo 
nnon Mead Kingsley. They are prominent socially-and their at- 
tractive home is the center of a cultured society circle. 

W. A. King, M. D., a practicing physician of San Antonio, whose 

hi the line of skin, genito-urinary and rectal diseases and 

prominence in the profession is indicated by the fact that he is 

now presidenl of the fifth district of Western Texas, was born in Al- 

Marshall county, Alabama, in 1868, his parents being J. A. 

Mary | Albert i King, who are now living in Austin, Texas. TThey 

Mate in 1871, locating on what was then the frontier in 

Saba countv. where the Doctor's father engaged in the cattle busi- 

ontinuing in such for several years, being one of the well known 

I prosperous men of the cattle country. The mother belongs to the 

.Albert family, for whom Albertsville was named. 

Dr. King -pen his boyhood days in the cattle country, largely on 




nM^fL^-% 



Cc^c^<^^ 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 1 1 

the range himself, the King home being in San Saba, in San Saba 
county. He was educated in the local school and at Centenary College, 
at Lampasas, Texas. He first studied medicine in early youth under a 
private preceptor and before his graduation he passed an examination 
and was licensed to practice medicine, which he did at Floresville, Texas, 
in 1891. Subsequent to this time he studied in the medical department 
of Vanderbilt University, at Nashville, Tennessee, where he was gradu- 
ated in 1893, an d later he pursued post-graduate courses in the Poly- 
clinic of New Orleans, while in 1895 he was again graduated from the 
University of Nashville and in the same year did post-graduate work 
in the New York Polyclinic. He has thus carefully prepared for his 
profession by thorough preparation and broad reading and by study 
and investigation has kept abreast of modern thought in the line of 
medical and surgical practice. 

Dr. King on entering upon the work of his chosen profession gave 
his attention for some years to the general practice of medicine and sur- 
gery but from the first held to the plan of some day specializing in dis- 
eases of the skin and in diseases of the genito-urinary organs, which plan 
he has carried out since locating in San Antonio, so that his practice is 
now devoted exclusively to skin, genito-urinary and rectal diseases. He 
is considered by the profession generally in Southwestern Texas as ex- 
celling in this department of practice and by reason of his strict adher- 
ence to the highest ethical standards he receives the patronage of his 
professional brethren in his specialty. He is also on the staff of several 
hospitals of the citv for the treatment of such diseases. 

As indicating his standing in the profession Dr. King was elected 
and is serving as president of the Fifth District Medical Association, 
comprising from fifteen to twenty counties and which is a section of 
the Texas State Medical Association. For a long time he was secretary 
of the District Association and he is also a member of the County and 
American Medical Associations and a member of the board of council- 
men of the Bexar County Medical Society. 

Dr. King was married in Gonzales, Texas, to Miss Myrtle Mont- 
gomery, of that city, and they have three children, Ruth, Elizabeth and 
Albert. The pre-eminence of San Antonio is due not only to the men 
of light and leading who controlled her affairs in early days but even 
more to those whom she is constantly attracting from other cities. In 
1895 Dr. King removed to San Antonio, wdiere he has since gained 
leadership. Those who knew him never doubted that his past achieve- 
ments would be surpassed in the larger field and already this has oc- 
curred, for he has a large business here and his patronage is richly 
merited because of his capability. 

William Hope Davis, M. D., a capitalist and practicing physician 
of San Antonio and native of Batavia, New York, was a son of David 
and Harriet (Wilder) Davis. The father was born in Cattaraugus 
county, New York, and his mother, who was descended from Mayflower 
ancestry, was born in Worcester, Massachusetts. In the latter '40s they 
removed to Michigan, where they spent the remainder of their davs. 
Of their children Judge Davis is a prominent lawyer of St. Louis, Mis- 



[2 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

ri, and another son is equally prominent in the profession o\ law at 
S ginaw, Michigan. 

Dr. Davis *. I i v I not remain long in Michigan but in his early man- 
hood went to Memphis, Tennessee, where he studied medicine under 
several of the eminent physicians of that city. In [854 he entered upon 
practice in Texas, locating at Paris for that purpose, hut before actually 
settling down there he became attracted to the pioneer life of the frontier 
and going west through Texas aided in establishing the old Uutterfield 
rland stage route, a link in the through stage line from St. Louis to 
California. This took him past the various military posts in West Texas 
t>> El I'aso through Southern Arizona to Southern California, and he 
built the first stockade at El i'aso. The Doctor relates many interest- 
g experiences which he had with the Indians and other features of 
frontier life in those days. He traveled all over Texas and became thor- 
ghl) familiar with the state. 

In [860 Dr. Davis returned to the north atid located for the prac- 

of medicine in Springfield, Illinois, where he remained until after 
the outbreak of the Civil war, when he enlisted in that city as a soldier 
of the Union army. Going south he engaged in the battle of Shiloh, 
where he was wounded by a shell, being thus disabled for further mili- 
tary service. He then returned to Springfield, where he resumed the 
f medicine and he further promoted his efficiency by study 
in the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincinnati, where he was gradu- 
ated in the class of [865. For many succeeding years during his resi- 
dence in Springfield Dr. Davis occupied a very prominent position in 
the Eclectic School of Medicine in Illinois and in the United States. 
He organized the Illinois State Society of Eclectics and helped to or- 
ganize the National Eclectic Medical Association, and for many years 
was secretar} of this state association, and two years secretary of the 
national association. For a quarter of a century he was a valued con- 
tributor t<» eclectic medical literature prepared in form of articles writ- 
tin \> r Scudder's Journal of Cincinnati. He was also an occasional dele- 
gate and speaker at the meetings of the National Eclectic Medical As- 
ation, and in [893 he helped organize the International Congress of 
Eclectic Physicians for the World's Columbian Exposition, spending a 
year in promoting this work with the result that this congress was 
ted by ail a splendid success. 

During hi- residence in Springfield, Dr. Davis was very prominent 
in Democratic politics both in the city and state, and in the early '70s 
was a candidate for mayor of Springfield on the Democratic ticket. 
He was likewise recognized as a distinguished Mason of that city, hav- 
ing taken nearly all of the higher degrees, including that of Knight 
Templar, and he is likewise identified with the Odd Fellows society. 

In recent years Dr. Davis has become affiliated with the regular 
>chool of medicine, and is a member of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation. He had retained landed interests in Texas from 1854, having 
always in view the purpose of taking up his residence in this state, which 
he regards as the coming great state of the Union, destined to be the 
wealthiest and most thickly populated. Accordingly, in 1903, he re- 
turned to Texas to live permanently, and located in San Antonio. Since 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 13 

his arrival here he has partially retired from the aetive practice of medi- 
cine although he still maintains an office in the Moore Building. He is 
devoting a large part of his time and financial resources to the develop- 
ment of land and real estate interests in San Antonio and in Southwest 
Texas. He has built for himself a beautiful home at No. 136 Mistletoe 
avenue, one of the finest residences on Laurel Heights in San Antonio. 
He has also erected eight other residences, mostly on Laurel Heights, 
for renting purposes, and continues to invest quite heavily in San An- 
tonio property. He has a fine piece of agricultural property in Dimmit 
county, having on it an artesian well that flows seventy-two thousand 
gallons of water an hour for irrigation purposes. Dr. Davis purchased 

Town of Alfred. 

the land, and promoted, developed and owns the town of Alfred and 
surrounding irrigated garden lands in Nueces county. Alfred was for- 
merly Driscoll, situated on the Aransas Pass railway in Nueces county. 
It is about ten miles north of the city of Alice ; about thirty miles due 
west of Corpus Christi ; in the valley of Aquadulce ; about one hundred 
and forty miles south of San Antonio. The town has been recently 
laid out (surveyed) and platted. It is beautifully situated on an elevated 
piece of ground overlooking the surrounding country. It is underlaid 
with an abundance of water for irrigating and drinking purposes. It 
is surrounded by a good class of ranch men, farmers and gardeners. 
There are nearly fifty thousand acres in this proposition, and in the 
town of Alfred Dr. Davis donated the land for the public school, hotel 
and other public enterprises. He has invested much capital in these 
various enterprises and is now gathering the harvest in substantial 
financial returns. 

Dr. Davis has been married twice. In Ohio he wedded Miss Rachel 
Davis, a descendant of William Penn, who died in Springfield, Illinois. 
They had three children : Dr. John Scudder Davis, a physician of Chi- 
cago ; Mrs. Millee Tilley ; and Mrs. Eva Hendricks. The Doctor's pres- 
ent wife was formerly Aletta Brooks, and they have a little son, Ado- 
niram Davis. Dr. Davis, attaining high rank in his profession, was for 
many years accounted one of the prominent representatives of the fra- 
ternity in the north, his reputation extending far beyond the confines 
of the citv and state in which he made his home, and in his business 
career he has displayed through his investments marked enterprise, keen 
discrimination and sound judgment in determining property values and 
so placing his capital that it returns to him a gratifying income. 

William L. Richter, engaged in the bakery business in San An- 
tonio, and active in local political circles, serving now as a member of the 
citv council, is a native of Staunton, Virginia. His parents were Paul 
and Emily (Schmidt) Richter, who resided at Staunton for many years, 
or until 1876. In that citv William L. Richter was reared and in the 
year mentioned came to Texas, residing for about six months in Fred- 
ericksburg, after which he came to San Antonio, where he has since made 
his home. He embarked in the bakery business on his own account here 
in 1882 and for several years was proprietor of the Lone Star Bakery. 
His business gradually increased with the growth of the city and in 1902 



U HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

he erected for its accommodation the Richter Building, which is a hand- 
some two-Story brick building at the junction of South Laredo and 
Durango streets and Santa Rosa avenue. The Richter bakery is a large 
blishment, equipped with modern machinery and baking apparatus 
and is noted for the uniform excellence and high quality o\ its bread, fancy 
cakes and pastry — in all oi its products enjoying an extensive trade, both 
wholesale and retail, requiring a large equipment o\ horses and wagons 
!<• deliver the goods. From the beginning the business has proved profit- 
able and has now reached gratifying proportions, so that it returns a 
me to its founder and promoter. His position in the line of 
iness with which he is connected is shown by the fact that he is presi- 
dent oi the Master Bakers' Association of Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, 
Oklahoma and Indian Territory. 

Mr. Richter is perhaps best known through his prominence in public 
life. He was elected a member o\ the city council from the second ward 
in February, 1S07. and has since been a member of that body. Lie served 
for three term- as representative of the second ward and was then elected 
alderman at large, serving for the second term in that position, while 
he is also the mayor pro tern of the city. He has been a member of the 

I of equalization ever since he entered the council and has been chair- 
man oi the board during the past six terms. As chairman of the assess- 
ment board his duties have been very responsible and have been capably 
performed. He is a public-spirited citizen, always interested in the growth 
and welfare of San Antonio and because of his activity in political circles 
as well as in business life deserves mention with the representative men 
her 

Mr. Richter married in 1882 Miss Emma Solcher, daughter of Henry 
and Emilie (Roth) Solcher. They had five sons and one daughter: 
< 'tto P., IL-nrv L., Rosa F., Herman, Rudolph and August. The first 
born died in 1907 at the age of twenty-three years. 

Frederick HadrA; M.D., a distinguished physician and surgeon of 
San Antonio, whose careful and extended preparation and broad expe- 
rience have given him capability that removes him from the ranks of the 
many and places him with the more successful few, was born in Berlin, 
many. August 14. 1867, his parents being Dr. Berthold Ernest and 
Bayer) Hadra. Both the father and mother are of German 
birth. The former, born in 1 842, acquired his medical education in the 
University of Breslau and Berlin and became a distinguished member of 
• m. I lc served as volunteer surgeon in the war against Austria 
in 1866 and afterward entered the Prussian Army service as a surgeon. 
In t8jo he came with his family to 'Texas, where he spent the remainder 
of hi- life, living largely in Austin, San Antonio and Galveston, although 
hi- death occurred in Dallas on the T2th of July, 1903. He was a mem- 
ber of the board of regents of the University of Texas and occupied the 
chair of surgery in the old Texas Medical College at Galveston. During 
idence in San Antonio he served as city physician and his promi- 
nence in hi- chosen calling is indicated by the fact that he was president 
of the Medical Association for the year of 1899-1900. He was 

president of the Southern Surgical and Gynecological Asso- 
The lasl years of his life were spent in Dallas, where he was in 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 15 

active practice up to the time of his death and also occupied the chair of 
surgery in the Medical College there. He was an earnest and constant 
student, investigator and writer. His contributions to medical literature 
were quite voluminous and some of them were very noteworthy, prin- 
cipally his monographs covering his researches and discoveries of the 
pelvic organs, abdomen and spine. He also wrote largely on the surgical 
treatment of epilepsy. He was the first one to devise conservative surgical 
treatment in the place of oophorectomy, the so-called liberation of the 
pelvic organs. He was likewise first to propose total eventration of the 
contents and thorough washing and draining of the abdominal cavity in 
diffuse peritonitis. His researches and the knowlege which he gained 
thereby proved of the utmost value to the medical fraternity and he was 
without invidious distinction regarded as one of the foremost representa- 
tives of the medical fraternity who have practiced in Texas. Following 
his death his remains were taken to Austin for interment and there in 
his eulogy Dr. H. K. Leake said that the deceased was one of the finest 
characters and one of the most distinguished surgeons of the south. 

Dr. Frederick Hadra was provided with excellent educational ad- 
vantages. He attended Bickler's Academy at Austin and the German- 
English School at San Antonio. He was a student in the preparatory 
department in the University of Illinois in 1883-4, attended the Univer- 
sity of Illinois from 1884 until 1886 and the University of Texas, in 
1886-7. His professional training was obtained in the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons of New York in 1887-8 and the Texas Medical 
College of. Galveston from 1888 until 1890, being graduated therefrom 
in the latter year with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. The following 
three years were spent by Dr. Hadra first as interne and afterward as 
assistant surgeon in the John Sealey Hospital and in St. Mary's In- 
firmary at Galveston. He then located for private practice at Orange, 
Texas, where he remained for five years, and during this time he was 
surgeon of the First Infantry of Texas Volunteer Guards. Upon the out- 
break of the Cuban war he volunteered for service as a surgeon and 
was appointed major and surgeon of the First Texas Cavalry, U. S. V., 
on May 9, 1898. Going to Cuba he was made assistant surgeon in the 
Fifth Infantry and as such served during the yellow fever epidemic and 
was himself a sufferer of that disease in July. 1898 After the evacua- 
tion of Cuba he was transferred for service in the Philippines, where he 
became captain and assistant surgeon of the Thirty-third Infantry, U. S. 
V., on July 19, 1899, an d on the 30th of March, 1901, he was made major 
and surgeon of the United States Volunteers, in which position he con- 
tinued to serve in the Philippines until February 1, 1903, when, he resigned 
from the army. While in service in southern Luzon, Dr. Hadra was 
with the Thirty-third United States Volunteer Infantry on the expedi- 
tion that resulted in the capture of Aguinaldo's wife, son, and secretary of 
state, and later was the only surgeon with Colonel Luther Hare who con- 
ducted one of the most notable expeditions in the history of the American 
army, — the one that resulted in the rescue from captivity of Lieutenant 
Gilmore of the navy and twenty-two prisoners in northern Luzon, this 
expedition lasting from December 9, 1899, until January 3, 1900. Dr. 
Hadra was also surgeon of the landing party which captured San Fabian 



16 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

on the 1 1 tli of November, [899, was field surgeon at the battle of San 
Jacinto, fought b) the Thirty-third United States Volunteer Infantry in 
mand of Colonel Hare, lie was also field surgeon of the troops 
nposed oi detachments oi the Thirty-third United States Cavalry, the 
Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth Volunteer Infantry at the battle of Tag- 
Pass, December 4. [899. These are some of the more important 
nts among numerous ones that gave Dr. Hadra a remarkably interest- 
ing and valuable experience. 

After returning from the Philippines Dr. Hadra located for private 
rtice in San Antonio and is now devoting his time exclusively as a 
cialisl in the diseases of the skin and genito-urinary organs and rectal 
lie 1- a member oi the County, District, State and American 
Medical Associations and is also a member of the Association of Military 
Surgeon- of the United States. He belongs to the Sigma Chi, a college 
fraternity, is a member oi the board of directors of the Scientific Society 
and San Antonio Club. While living at Orange Dr. Hadra was married 
to Miss Laura Gilmer, a daughter of Alexander Gilmer, a prominent lum- 
ber manufacturer oi that city. 

He is held in highest esteem, regard and affection by his old asso- 
- in the army, including officers and enlisted men alike, because of 
5 skillful and unselfish devotion to duty, while in active service with the 
lie i- yet a young man, having attained success which places 
in the foremost ranks of the medical fraternity in Texas and his abil- 
ity, laudable ambition and determination argue well for a successful future. 
M. G. Ranney, a real estate dealer of San Antonio, was born in 
« iuadalupe county, Texas, in 1857, his parents being the Rev. R. H. and 
Melvina (Mills) Ranney. The father was born in the state of New 
York and the mother in Canada. He came to Texas in 1855 and located 
idalupe county, where he lived until 1869, when he removed to 
Galveston, which city, remained his home until his death, which occurred 
[877. During the active period of his life he was a clergyman in the 
>copal church and his influence was of no restricted order. 
During hi- boyhood days M. (1. Ranney was often in San Antonio 
well remembers the small limitations and the primitive appearance of 
• t«.wn in those days, lie did not see the city for many years after re-' 
moving t<> Galveston in 1869 and was surprised and delighted with its 
gr-.wth upon hi- return here, lie acquired the greater part of his educa- 
in Galveston and then entered upon real estate dealing. Since his 
young manhood he ha- been engaged largely in land operations in South- 
ern and Southwestern Texas and is probably as familiar with this country 
any man in it. lie has thoroughly informed himself concerning the 
ilities and resources of the state, has kept in touch with land values 
'he fluctuation in prices, has noted the steady rise of property and 
ha- done much to develop and improve his section. He has labored 
eamestl) t<> advertise the resources of Southern and Southwestern Texas, 
having spent much time and money in this work, for which he has re- 
ed no dired return. He was one of the organizers in 1896 of the S'an 
Antonio and Aransas I 'a-- Immigration Association, which was organ- 
\o bring people to Southern and Southwestern Texas principally 
rtg the line- of the San Antonio & Aransas Pass Railway. Thus his 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS j 7 

efforts have resulted in much good in settling up the country and building 
new points along the line of that road. The result of his work covering 
several years together with that of other men similarly engaged is best 
seen now when immigration from the north and east is coming into this 
part of Texas faster than ever before and the great ranches are being 
subdivided into small farms, under a high state of cultivation, making 
this a populous and thriving agricultural and stock-raising district. 

For several, years Mr. Ranney had his headquarters at Yoakum in 
Dewitt county, which is one of the prosperous and thriving new towns 
built on the line of the San Antonio & Aransas Pass Railroad. Since 
1888, however, he has made his home in San Antonio as much as at any 
other place in this territory and in fact is a familiar figure in this part of 
the state, making numerous and extended trips in Texas in the interests 
of the land business and the development of the commonwealth. In De- 
cember, 1904, he removed his family to San Antonio, where he made a 
permanent location and now maintains an office, in which he is carrying 
on the land business. 

Mr. Ranney was married in Galveston, Texas, to Miss Florida Cas- 
seady and they have two daughters, Florida and Marie Gertrude Ranney. 
Already they have gained many warm friends in the city where they have 
recently taken up their abode. While not caring for politics Mr. Ranney 
while making his headquarters at Yoakum was drawn into political circles 
by reason of his extensive acquaintance and the confidence reposed in 
him and for a time acted as chairman of the tenth congressional district 
for the Democratic party. He has always preferred, however, to concen- 
trate his energies and abilities upon his business affairs and therein has 
met gratifying success. He belongs to that class of representative citi- 
zens who while promoting their individual prosperity also, advance the 
general good and he deserves much credit for what he has done in con- 
nection with the settlement and improvement of Southern and South- 
western Texas. 

Levingston L. Shropshire, M. D., physician and surgeon of San 
Antonio, was born at LaGrange, Fayette county, Texas, his parents being 
Judge Benjamin and Georgiana (Lindsay) Shropshire. The former, a 
native of Bourbon county, Kentucky, came to Texas in 1850, settling at 
LaGrange, where he resided until his death, which occurred in 1867. 
Throughout his entire life he devoted his attention to the practice of law 
and was a prominent member of the Texas bar in early days and was 
serving as judge of the district court at the time of his death. He was 
a lawyer of wide erudition and upon the bench his decisions were strictly 
fair and impartial, and he displayed a thorough knowledge of the prin- 
ciples of jurisprudence and of precedents. His wife, also a native of 
Kentucky, was a daughter of Judge Levingston Lindsay, who was born 
in Kentucky and came to Texas at an early period in the development of 
the Lone Star state and rose to distinction, becoming one of the most 
noted jurists of Texas. He is best remembered perhaps as judge of the 
supreme court, having been appointed to the bench by Governor Edmund 
J. Davis. He served for thirteen years in that exalted position and while 
on the bench rendered many important decisions, so that his name was 
inseparably interwoven with the judicial history of the state. His daugh- 

Vol. 11. 2 



iS HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

ter. Mrs. Shropshire, also spent her last days in LaGrange, A brother 
ot the Doctor is fudge Shropshire, a prominent member of the Texas bar 
living in Fort Worth. 

Dr. Shropshire acquired bis elementary education in the loeal schools 
ami afterward attended Trinity University, which was then located at 
Tehnaeana. Texas, from which institution he was graduated in the class 
of 1876. Deterrnining upon the practice of medicine as a life work, he 
pursued his first regular course oi study at Bellevue Medical College in 
\\w York and further continued his preparation for practice as a student 
in Tulane University, at New Orleans, from which he was graduated in 
B85. His first practice was at Brownwood, Texas, and in 1887 he came 
s;m Antonio, where he has since resided. Ambitious to attain a high 
gree oi proficiency in his profession he has pursued several post- 
graduate courses, principally in the New York Polyclinic, and is a thor- 
oughly equipped and successful physician and surgeon. He is a member 
oi the Bexar County and State Medical Societies and the American Medi- 
cal Association. 

By his first wife Dr. Shropshire had three children, Mollie, Augusta 
and Levingston Lindsay, Jr. In October, 1905, Dr. Shropshire married 
hi- pres en t wife, formerly Miss Agnes James, a sister of Judge John 
James, chief justice of the court of civil appeals and a daughter of John 
lame-, a prominent pioneer who came to San Antonio in 1837 and re- 

1 here for forty years, or until his death on the 26th of November, 

to 

1 he pre-eminence of San Antonio is due not only to the men of light 
and leading who controlled her affairs in the early days but even more 
t<> those whom she is constantly attracting from other cities. In 1887 

Shropshire came to San Antonio. Those who knew him never 
doubted that his former achievements would be surpassed in a larger field 
and soon this occurred and as the years have gone by he has maintained 
a foremost place as a representative of the medical fraternity, bringing 
into requisition all the strong intellectual forces with which nature en- 
dowed him and devoting his energies to his work with a persistency and 
capability that have made him a foremost representative of his profes- 
si< 'ii here. 

Nicholas Flory, now living retired at his home in San Antonio, 
was for more than forty years actively and successfully engaged in com- 
mercial pursuits in this city. He was born at Antibes, France, on the 
literranean Sea. near Nice, April 30, 1829. He emigrated to the new 
world in [850, and landing in Xcw York, there remained until early in 
the following year, when he came to Texas, being employed by the Ameri- 
can commission under Colonel William Emory, which in conjunction with 
imilar commission from the Mexican government fixed the interna- 
tional boundary in the adjustment succeeding the Mexican war. Prior to 
the war Mr. Flory had established a mercantile enterprise in San Antonio, 
and after hi- work in connection with governmental interests was com- 
pleted, he again took up his abode in .San Antonio, where he resumed 
business a- a merchant. His first establishment was located on Market 
which was then the main thoroughfare in the city. Later he re- 
moved hi- -tore to South Laredo street, near Military Plaza, becoming one 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 19 

of the leading merchants of the city, being - connected with mercantile in- 
terests for over forty years. He carefully managed his business affair-, 
for he possessed excellent ability, so that his patronage grew to be very 
extensive and he was one of the leading factors in the business circles 
of the city. During his long connection with business affairs he won a 
very gratifying and desirable competence, so that he was at length enabled 
to retire from all business connection and for the past few years has lived 
retired in a comfortable home in this city, surrounded by many friends 
as well as all the comforts which go to make life worth living. In addi- 
tion to providing a comfortable home for himself and family, he has like- 
wise been enabled to afford his children excellent educational facilities. 
His residence at No. 213 South Laredo street has been the home of the 
family for more than a half century. 

Mr. Flory was married in 1861, in San Antonio, to Miss Caroline 
Muller, a native of Alsace. She accompanied her parents to this city 
when twelve years of age, and acquired her education at the old Ursuline 
Convent on Augusta street. She recalls many incidents in connection 
with the early history of this city, and has vivid recollection of being 
present at the dedicatory services of St. Mary's church. To Mr. Flory 
and wife have been born two sons and two daughters, and the sons were 
educated at St. Mary's College, a noted institution of this city. The family 
record is as follows : Joseph Flory, the eldest son, is a member of the 
Alamo. Commission Company of San Antonio, and for many years has 
been connected with the commercial and public life of this city. In the 
spring of 1906 he was one of the nominees for a member of the board 
of education of San Antonio but owing to political complications denying 
him representation on the proper ticket, he was defeated by a very small 
majority. Edward E. Flory, to whom we are indebted for the material 
furnished for this sketch, was reared to commercial life. He wedded 
Miss Minnie S. Smith, who died in San Antonio, July 7, 1903. She was 
a representative of a prominent pioneer family of this city, being a daugh- 
ter of the late Samuel Sidney Smith, who was county clerk of Bexar 
county for thirty-seven years. When he first entered the office Bexar 
county extended to El Paso. His wife bore the maiden name of Sarah 
Brackett, and was a daughter of Oscar B. Brackett, a noted pioneer and 
frontiersman of Texas, and it was in his honor that Brackettsville was 
named. Mrs. Flory was also descended in the maternal line from other 
noted ancestry, notably General Asa Danforth, a distinguished American 
officer in the Revolutionary war, and of General Thaddeus W. Wood of 
the war of 1812. Both families were originally from the state of Massa- 
chusetts, but following the war became prominent in the Onondaga valley 
of New York. The third member in the family of Mr. and Mrs. Flory is 
Mary, who is now the wife of A. G. Castanola, a prominent wholesale 
merchant and scion of a family that represents one of the oldest mercan- 
tile establishments in the city. Louise Caroline Flory, the youngest of 
the family, is the wife of Ferdinand LaCoste, a native of France. He 
came to San Antonio in 1878, becoming an employe of his uncle, the well 
known J. B. LaCoste, now deceased, who was the founder of the San An- 
tonio waterworks system and the pioneer ice manufacturer of this city. 

The Flory family are prominent in the social circles of San Antonio, 
and are numbered among its worthy and highly esteemed residents. 



HISTORY OF SOU rHWEST TEXAS 

Pedro Batista, M. D., engaged in the practice of medicine and sur- 
in San Antonio, was born in the province of Matanzas, Cuba, about 
ninety miles from Havana, in 1S40. His parents were Spanish people,. 
n in the Canary [slands, but Long residents of Cuba. The Doctor was 
sent from Cuba to the Canaries to receive his education and after com- 
pleting his more Specifically literary course he studied medicine in the 
L< San Carlos ^i Madrid. Spain, from which institution he was 
graduated in the cla>^ of 1S74. Returning to his native country, he spent 
two years as surgeon in the field for the Spanish army during the revolu- 
•1 of [875-6. 

S on afterward Dr. Batista went to New York city, where he en- 
g iged in practice for several years, or until 1882, when he came to San 
Antonio, where he has since made his home, being constantly and suc- 
sfully engaged as a practitioner of medicine and surgery. He remains 
in general practice, not caring to make a specialty of any one line, yet has 
achieved marked proficiency in gynecology and for five years was a part- 
ner of the late Dr. Wilke, of San Antonio, a distinguished gynecologist. 

The requirements for admission to the medical profession in Cuba 
are notably rigid, so that the physicians of that country possess superior 
ability and skill. Dr. Batista is no exception to the rule and on the con- 
trarv his proficiency is widely acknowdedged and his broad and compre- 
hensive learning are recognized by the fraternity as well as the general 
public. He is now a member of the County, State and American Medical' 
ciations and he is the author of considerable valuable medical litera- 
ture. Of late years, however, he has written largely along philosophical 
lines, having ever been a deep student and thinker concerning philosophi- 
cal questions since his college days. He has prepared for publication a 
pamphlet which is entitled, "What We Are, Where We Are and Where 
We Are Going," and in a general way he takes great interest in the 
-chools of philosophy as represented by Herbert Spencer and Charles 
1 )arwin. 

In business life, aside from his profession, Dr. Batista is a partner 

in the Saenz Drug & Printing Company combined, whose establishment 

is at the corner of South Laredo and Nueva streets. This business was 

blished in 1905 with Jose Saenz and Dr. Batista as partners, and the 

enterprise ha- since been successfully conducted. 

The Doctor was married after coming to San Antonio to Miss Trini- 
dad Sandoval, of the well known Sandoval family of this county, and they 
have two children. Pedro and Luis Batista. 

John C. Monies was for many years engaged in the stock-raising 
>S but is now living retired in a comfortable home at No. 231 West 
Salinas str< 1 \ San Antonio, having built this home in 1869 when it was 
situated in the northern boundary of the city. Mr. Monier was born in 
France, June 24, 1833, a son of Jacob Monier, who emigrated to America 
with hi^ family in 1K44, while in 1845 he located on the Medina river 
with th<- French colony that had been brought to the United States by 
stro, thus forming the colony of Castroville, which comprised 
one of the most interesting features of the early history of Texas. The 




O^^h^U $ 




HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 21 

father was engaged in stock-raising until his death, which there becurred 
in 1875. 

John C. Monier was a lad of eleven years when he accompanied his 
father to the new world, the family home being established in Medina 
county when it was a typical frontier region. The son was here reared 
amid the exciting scenes of those early days when the Indians were still 
numerous in this country and were continually harassing the settlers by 
the depredations upon stock and property. It was in such a district that 
the early youth of Mr. Monier was passed. In 1856 he entered the busi- 
ness world by freighting, being employed by others for about three years. 
He then engaged in business on his own account, freighting from the 
Gulf of Mexico through western Texas to New Mexico and he made 
occasional trips to Old Mexico. These trips were fraught with much 
danger over the desolate plains and furnished ample opportunity for raids 
on the part of Indians and desperadoes. Mr. Monier, however, was very 
fortunate to escape such attacks, and although he had many narrow 
escapes he suffered only one small loss, this being during a fight with 
about one hundred Indians, who shot one of his mules and burned nine 
others so that they died. On this particular occasion there were about 
thirty men in the train, making their way to El Paso from Chihuahua. 
During the period of the war Mr. Monier operated mostly from San 
Antonio, being employed by the Confederacy to freight cotton and other 
goods, as well as freighting for the mercantile firm of H. Meyer & Com- 
pany, at San Antonio. He was engaged in this business altogether for 
about twenty years, while later he engaged in ranching at Fort Davis, 
keeping both cattle and horses. In 1869 he built his home at Xo. 231 
West Salinas street, which was then in the northern limits of the city, 
and here he has continued to make his home to the present time. He 
has through his own efforts and capable business management made all 
that he now possesses, for he started out in life empty-handed and when, 
starting in the stock business he had but one cow, this having been a 
gift from the well known physician, Dr. Cupples. He added to his in- 
terests until he became one of the largest ranchers of this part of the 
state but he is not now actively identified with business interests, for 
during the years of his former toil he accumulated a competence that 
now enables him to live in honorable retirement. 

Mr. Monier was married in 1867, to Miss Kate Schwanderman, who 
was born in Castroville, her father having been a member of the colony 
that first settled here. Their marriage has been blessed with one daugh- 
ter, Amy Monier. 

Oscar Bernadotte Brackett Smith is the representative of promi- 
nent pioneer families of San Antonio, his native city, where he was born 
November 20, 1854. The father, Samuel Sidney Smith, was one of the 
most prominent citizens in the history of the American settlement of San 
Antonio. He was born at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1810, and came to 
Texas in 1836, engaging under General Sam Houston in the struggle 
which was then being made for Texan independence. He made his home 
at Houston and the surrounding districts until 1840, in which year he 
came to San Antonio, where he continued to make his home until his 
death, which occurred August 17, 1882. He acted as mayor of the city 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

for twenty months in [840*41, and later acted as alderman and city treas- 
urer. In 1850 he was elected clerk oi the county and district courts of 
Bexar county, serving continuously in that capacity until he was forced to 
leave the office on account of the changes made by the reconstructionists 
from the north, soon after the close of the Civil war. In 1873, however, 
lie was once more elected to the position, serving in the office until the 
offices of district and county clerk were made separate, after which he was 
elected to the office oi county clerk, in which he continued until his death, 
lie ever discharged his public duties with promptness and fidelity and 
thereby won the confidence and good will of the public at large. There 
is perhaps no other citizen in the history of San Antonio who was so 
long and continuously honored and trusted by the people in a public 
capacity a- was Samuel Sidney Smith. He was a member of the seces- 

c< >nvention at Austin early in 1861, and was one of the signers of 
the article- of secession. Mr. Smith was married in 1854, in San Antonio, 

[iss Sarah Brackett, the daughter of Oscar Bernadotte and Emily 
■ Wood I Brackett, who were pioneer settlers of Southwest Texas. The 
father was horn in New York, where he conducted a mercantile enter- 
prise. In 1S44 he removed with his family to this city, establishing a 
-tore on Main Plaza, and he became a very prosperous and highly re- 
spected business man of this section of the state, the town of Brackett- 
ville having been named in his honor. His death occurred in 1857. Mrs. 
Brackett was a daughter of General Thaddeus W. Wood, who was 
born in Lenox, Massachusetts, in 1772, and was a prominent military 
officer in the war of 1812. He located in Syracuse, New York, where 
he was a distinguished lawyer and citizen, taking a part in the public 
life of the city. The Wood family became wealthy landowners of the 
( taondaga valley, owning extensive interests in the salt industry and in 
<>ther industrial enterprises, and at his death General Wood left an estate 
valued at several millions of dollars. His wife, who bore the maiden name 
of Patty Danforth, represented a w r ell known Massachusetts family that 

founded in America in 1634 by Nicholas Danforth, of England. His 
:endant, General Asa Danforth, married a niece of Israel Putnam, 
and was a distinguished officer in the Continental army during the Revo- 
lution, while several other members of the Danforth family were likewise 
representatives of military life. After the Revolutionary war General 
Danforth settled in the Onondaga valley of New York, where he became 
a man of prominence and affluence, his family becoming connected with 

Wood family, thus forming the ancestry of our subject. Mrs. 
Sidne; Smith died in San Antonio, March 20, 1901. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Smith were born two sons and two daughters: 
' '. B. B., whose name introduces this record; Thaddeus W. ; Georgia C., 
who married Joseph M. Olivarri ; and Minnie, who became the wife of 
Edward Flory, and died in this city July 7, 1903. The son Thaddeus W. 
succeeded hi- father in the office of county clerk, serving in that capacity 
i><r several years, and like his father, has been identified with the public 
interests of San Antonio and Bexar county through a long period. 

( >. B. B. Smith entered business life as an assistant to his father in 
the county clerk's office and for a long period has been identified with the 
public affair- of Bexar county. He has served as deputy or chief clerk 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 23 

in a number of county and city offices, and in the discharge of his official 
duties has ever been prompt and reliable. For several years he made 
his home on a ranch which he owns in this county, but since 1897 has 
resided in San Antonio. 

He was married in this city to Miss M. Olivarri, a daughter of the 
late Placido Olivarri, who was an early settler of Bexar county. The 
paternal grandfather of Mrs. Smith was Jose Maria Olivarri, who was a 
Spaniard, and settled in Texas in the '30s. He was killed by the 
Comanche Indians in what is now the central portion of San Antonio, 
on Augusta street at the location of the old Ursuline Convent. The 
home of Mr. and Mrs. Smith has been blessed with two sons, and one 
daughter, Samuel Sidney, Oscar Joseph Smith, and Sarah who was born 
August 19, 1898, and died April 22, 1899, she being a twin of Samuel 
Sidney. 

J. F. Kline, of the Creamery Dairy Company of San Antonio, was 
born in Trumbull county, Ohio, in 1869, and came with his father. Dr. 
J. P. Kline, to San Antonio late in 1884. Dr. Kline was a practicing 
physician in Ohio but came to San Antonio for his health and never re- 
sumed the practice of his profession after arriving here, but for about six 
years was engaged in the dairy business with his son, J. F. Kline. He 
remained a resident of this city until his death. 

J. F. Kline was only sixteen years of age, when on the 1st of March, 
1885, he started in the dairy business on a small scale. He has continued 
in this line of activity without interruption to the present time and the 
business has grown to large proportions, being now conducted under the 
name of the Creamery Dairy Company, Mr. Kline, however, being sole 
owner. For many years past the headquarters of his dairy business were 
at the dairy farm on the San Antonio river on the Concepcion road, south 
of the city limits. This farm is stocked with a fine herd of Jerseys, Mr. 
Kline having for many years owned cows of the highest grade unsur- 
passed by any in Southwestern Texas. In the spring of 1906 he removed 
the headquarters of the Creamery Dairy Company to a new plant at the 
corner of Eighth and Austin streets in San Antonio. The main room of 
this building, which is forty-four by eighty feet is used principally for the 
manufacturing part of the creamery, being equipped with the best and 
mostmodern machinery for separating, filtering and pasteurizing the cream 
and manufacturing it into butter of the highest quality. The capacity of 
the creamery is four thousand pounds of milk an hour. A well equipped 
ice cream factory is also conducted in connection with the creamery with 
a capacity of five hundred gallons of ice cream a day, while the daily out- 
put of butter averages about one thousand pounds. He has recently en- 
tered into a contract whereby the milk from the great herd of registered 
Jersey cattle at the St. Cloud Farm has been sold to the Creamery Dairy 
Company for one year. The recent improvement of the plant was accom- 
plished at a cost of thousands of dollars and without doubt is the finest 
enterprise of the kind in the state. Having built and equipped the plant 
the Creamery Dairy Company has completed arrangements to add to its 
already great supply of first class milk. As Professor Scoville, the well 
known head of the Kentucky Experiment Station recently said, "A good 
quality of milk cannot be obtained by taking a poor article and boiling 



24 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

or pasteurizing it." but the milk in the first instance should be from 
Ithy and well fed cows and be handled all the wa\ From the cow to the 

consumer in a proper and sanitary manner. Mr. Kline has long- been 
the owner of the largest dairy in San Antonio, and has for years been 
selling the milk from about four hundred cows, and the fact that his 
siness has been constantly successful is proof that it has been properly 
managed and that it ha- satisfied the demands of the public. At the 
present writing he i- receiving from the St. Cloud Jersey Farm three quar- 
a ton »u' milk per day. Mr. Kline has the agency in this section 
f«>r the DeLaval separator, which he has furnished to the farmers in large 
numbers, thus insuring a sufficient supply of cream for his dairy purposes. 
In the Austin Street plant is also maintained a retail milk department and 
the business office of the company. His patronage is now very extensive, 
and a- the output o\ the dairy is of a very superior quality in every par- 
ticular the trade is constantly growing and has already become a very 
profitable business. In its management Mr. Kline displays a thorough 
understanding oi the work in every department and keeps in touch with 
modern progress in the line of dairying. 

Mr. Kline was married in this city to Miss Elma Brooks, who was 
b«Tn in Kansas. 

Thomas Terrell Jackson, M. D., physician and surgeon of San 
Antonio, was born in Xoxubee county, Mississippi, in 1868. His parents, 
Terrell and Anna ( Stewart) Jackson, were both natives of Mississippi. 
The father died in the year 1904, and the mother is still living. Terrell 
Jackson came with his family to Texas in 1869, settling in the central 
part of the state, becoming one of the well known citizens of McLennan 
and Falls counties. 

Dr. Jackson acquired an excellent literary education to serve as the 
foundation upon which to rear the superstructure of professional learning 
and his medical education was acquired as a student in the medical de- 
partment of the University of Texas, at Galveston, where he was gradu- 
I in the cla<s of 1893. He spent some time as resident physician of the 
John Sealey Hospital at Galveston, after which he practiced medicine at 
Bosque county until 1895, when he came to San Antonio, which has since 
In- home, although he spent considerable time in the army as sur- 
For two years he was assistant superintendent of the Southwestern 
Asylum for the Insane — a state institution at San Antonio. When the 
Spanish-American war was inaugurated he received the commission of 
first assistant surgeon of the Second Texas Regiment, and later was given 
the same rank hi the First Texas and went with the army to Cuba. His 
most extensive experience in connection with military affairs, however, 
- a- surgeon in the Volunteer army in the Philippine Islands, where 
he was located two years, when he resigned his commission to return to 
San Antonio and engage in private practice. He is a general practi- 
tioner of medicine and surgery although his military and other connec- 
tions have rather tended to make him a specialist in surgerv. For the 
past five year- he has been division snrgeon for the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road Company; i- secretary of the Texas state board of medical exam- 
iners; and i- examining snrgeon of a number of prominent insurance 
companies. He i- ex-president of the West Texas Medical Society, which 





'6~+/4Cu*£ 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 25 

was merged into the county association, and lie now holds membership 
with the County, State and American Medical Associations and with the 
American Association of Railway Surgeons. Dr. Jackson was married 
at Austin, Texas, to Miss Mamie E. Davis. Almost his entire life has 
been passed in this state and his liberal educational facilities well qualif) 
him for a profession in which advancement depends upon individual merit. 
With thorough understanding of the responsibilities which devolve upon 
him he discharges his duties with a sense of conscientious obligation, and 
with a conformity to a high standard of professional ethics, whereby he 
has won the good will and confidence of his professional brethren as well 
as the general public. 

Thomas Franklin, whose death occurred December 22, 1906, was 
a noted civil engineer in San Antonio. He represented a prominent 
family of Maryland, of English ancestry. The Franklin family was 
founded in America in 1642 by Thomas Franklin, who received a grant 
of land in what is now called Anne Arundel county, Maryland, the deed, 
which is still in possession of the family, having been executed by Leonard 
Calvert, the representative of Lord Baltimore, proprietor of Maryland. 
The estate was situated eighteen miles from the city of Annapolis and 
remained the home of the family through seven generations, the eldest son 
in the direct line in each generation bearing the name of Thomas. The 
Franklins were closely associated with the early history and develop- 
ment of Annapolis, and the paternal grandfather of our subject was 
president of a bank in Annapolis for fifty years. George Edward, the 
father, was a sea captain from early youth and in early life commanded 
a clipper ship on the Atlantic. His wife bore the maiden name of Maria 
Johnson, who came of a family prominent in Baltimore, her father having 
served for twenty years as mayor of that city, receiving no remuneration 
for his services. He occupied the position of chief executive of the city 
at the time when General Lafayette paid a visit to this country. The 
maternal great-grandfather of our subject was a surgeon in the British 
navy. Mr. Franklin's sister, Anna Franklin, is the wife of Admiral 
Schley, who won fame during the Spanish-American war. 

The late Thomas Franklin was born on the old Franklin homestead 
in Anne Arundel county, near Annapolis, Maryland, November 15, 1842. 
He acquired his education at St. John's College and the Maryland Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College, at Annapolis, being graduated from the 
latter institution, in the department of civil engineering. His services 
in this connection have extended over a wide area in the United States, 
Mexico and South America. During the Civil war he went to Brazil and 
was engaged in civil engineering in that country. In early life he supple- 
mented his college course by study under Benjamin H. Latrobe, from 
whom he gained practical and valuable information, Mr. Latrobe having 
in charge the construction of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad through 
the Alleghany mountains. Mr. Franklin was located in the city of Wash- 
ington for some years, where he was engaged in engineering work, act- 
ing as city engineer for three years under Mr. Shepard. In 1875 he made 
a topographical survey of the capitol grounds but his principal work in 
that city was in designing and originating the construction of what is 
known as the long bridge across the Potomac, which is still standing. 



26 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

This work was done for the Pennsylvania Company, with which he was 
connected for seven years, the company being noted for employing only 
the highest class of engineering talent, which is proof of Mr. Franklin's 
expert workmanship. During his service with that company he built three 
hundred bridges on their various lines and he also did other work as well. 

a time he was located in Chicago, where he made the. surveys and 
gan the construction work for the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railroad, 

nding from that city to Danville. In 1880 Mr. Franklin went to 
Mexico, where he was employed by the Mexican National Railroad Com- 
panv. which was projected by the Palmer-Snllivan syndicate to extend 

'award from Xueva Laredo to the city of Mexico. Subsequently he 
- appointed engineer in charge of the construction of this line for the 

hern division, being thus engaged for about two years. In March, 
iSSj. he took up his abode in Texas, establishing his home in San An- 
.nd was then employed in the construction of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad, taking the contract for this work. He engaged in engineering 
rk of various kinds, building sewers, water works, cement sidewalks, 
tracks, etc.. and was considered an authority on topographical en- 
g eering. He constantly studied the needs and possibilities in his par- 
ticular line of work and gained more than local reputation as a civil 
gineer, possessing excellent business ability and sound judgment and 
an expert workmanship that gained for him many important contracts. 

Mr. Franklin was married to Miss Mary Bowie, representing a 
Maryland family, whose representatives have become distinguished both 
in Maryland and in national history. Her birth occurred in Prince 

rge count}', a daughter of Colonel W. W. Bowie, who was lieutenant 
governor and the owner of a large estate that was noted among other 
things for its fine imported stock. Colonel Bowie was the cousin of Odon 
Bowie, who was governor of Maryland from 1868 until 1872, and in fact 
seven members of the family have acted as governor of that state. The 
mother bore the maiden name of Snowden, and came of an English family, 
she being a niece of the Earl of Fairfax. Hon. Reverdy Johnson, a lawyer 
of international reputation, who became a noted diplomat, succeeding 
( harle- Francis Adams as ambassador to England in 1866, was through 
marriage related to the Bowie family, while Mrs. Franklin is a niece of 
Dr. < irafton Tyler, a surgeon of prominence and one of the old-time noted 
character- of Washington. Mrs. Franklin accompanied her husband as 
a bride t<» the city of Washington, and during his work in connection with 
civil engineering lias been compelled to establish a home in many frontier 

'<n-. particularly in Mexico, where she was the only American woman. 
The children of Mr. and Mrs. Franklin, eight in number, are: Captain 
Thomas, Walter. Amy, Mrs. May Bartlett, George F., Claud, Ruth How- 
ard and Todd Lowrie ; also an adopted daughter Adelina Maurice, child of 
hi- wife'- niece. 

The eldesl -on. Captain Thomas Franklin, has made a notable record 
a soldier. After completing his education he assisted his father in his 
work of engineering, after which he joined the regular United States 
army a- a private 1 fe was promoted to sergeant. During the Spanish- 
American war he went to Manila with the Twenty-second Tnfantry, where, 
by hi- courage and bravery he won the high esteem of General Lawton, 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS • 27 

and thereby promotion to the position of second lieutenant and subse- 
quently to first lieutenant, becoming a member of the staff of General 
McArthur. From the Philippines he was transferred to service in the 
Boxer rebellion in China, where he not only won his title as captain but 
attracted the notice of the officers of the other armies then stationed in 
China. He is now stationed at West Point Military Academy, having the 
rank of major and is second in command in that noted institution, it 
being a somewhat remarkable fact that a non-graduate of West Point 
should have this honor conferred upon him. 

Albert Meyer, at one time closely, actively and successfully con- 
nected with the live-stock interests of Texas but now living retired at 
San Antonio, was born in Berlin, Germany, February 11, 1839. His 
parents, Mr. and Mrs. Xaver Meyer, were also of German birth. On 
coming to America the father located near San Antonio at a date prior 
to the Mexican war and continued to make his home in this city through- 
out his remaining days, although he died at Galveston during the yellow 
fever epidemic there. 

Albert Meyer came from Germany to the new world in 1854. accom- 
panied by his mother, and for a year remained in San Antonio, after 
which he entered the employ of a Mr. Eastland, a stockman of Bastrop, 
Texas, for whom he handled cattle until the early spring of 1858, when 
he joined a party composed of Texas and Missouri citizens bound for 
California. There were altogether about eighty families, among whom 
were eighteen or twenty youths of about Mr. Meyer's age and all ani- 
mated by the spirit of adventure. The train left Pecan Bayou, on the 
San Saba river, on March 26, 1858, and proceeded by way of Fort Chad- 
bourne, the Guadalupe Mountains and the Pecos country, the lower 
staked plains to El Paso, thence through New Mexico, Arizona, and 
over the Colorado desert of Southern California. They arrived at their 
destination, Yisalia, Tulare county, California, about the middle of De- 
cember, 1858. It is needless to say that this was a long, tiresome, tedious 
trip fraught with many dangers because of the Indians and desperadoes 
who infested the country and enlivened with adventures such as are met 
with by only those possessed of the true pioneer spirit. 

After reaching California Mr. Meyer began herding cattle in Tu- 
lare county for the well known old California firm of Hildreth & Dumph- 
ley extensive land and cattle owners of that portion of California, re- 
maining there mostlv in the stock business until 1872, when he returned 
to San Antonio. From this city he went to Uvalde county and pur- 
chased what was then known as the Knox ranch, a beautiful place of 
about eight thousand acres in Frio canyon and from that time for- 
ward was engaged quite extensively in the stock business. 

As is well known, Frio canyon and vicinity was the scene of some 
of the most disastrous and murderous Indian raids, perpetrated by the 
Kickapoos and the Lipans, that are recorded in the Indian history of 
Texas, these troubles reaching their most aggravated form between the 
years 1872 and 1880. Mr. Meyer had to keep on hand a large number 
of horses used for herding purposes and these were constantly the object 
of attack from the Indians on their periodical raids. When we hear 
the stories of theft, murder and child abduction it seems almost incredible 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

that events of such horror could have happened not more than thirty 

years ago in a district which is now populated so densely and with a 

>s t" people representing the highest type of civilization. It indicates, 

however, the character of the men who settled the district — men who 

were brave, -elf-reliant and determined to crush out lawlessness and stood 
for order, for progress and for honor. 

In iSSj Mr. Meyer sold his ranching and stock interests in Frio 
county and established his home in San Antonio, where he has since 
lived. Although an unusually quiet and unostentatious man, his worth 
and character as a citizen brought him pnblic honors and he was elected 
a- city auditor, serving tor four years during the Paschal and Elmen- 
dorf administrations, lie is greatly esteemed as a valned member of 
the Odd Fellows' organization in San Antonio and has been the treas- 
urer of San Antonio Lodge Xo. it, since July, 1890, during which time 
he has handled large sums of money with scrupulous exactness and ad- 
ministered: the expenses of the order with the wisest economy. During 
the last year he has had in his possession ninety-five thousand dollars 
nging to the lodge — being mostly the money received from the sale 
of the lodge building on Houston street — and the trnst reposed in him 
by his brethren of the fraternity is indicated by the fact that nothing 
more was required of him than the old bond of three thousand dollars. 
His fidelity to duty and his honor in financial relations are above question 
and he has the unqualified confidence and trnst of his fraters. 

Mr. Meyer was married in this city to Miss Elizabeth Lauterbach, 
who died some years ago, leaving a son and three daughters: Mrs. 
Belle Solcher, Andrew Meyer, Mary Meyer, and Mrs. Lizzie Martin. 

I.. Villareal Madero, a capitalist of San Antonio, whose efforts 
have been a valuable factor in the material development of the natural 
resources of the state and in the promotion of various commercial and 
industrial enterprises which have had direct bearing upon the general 
prosperity, during the past five years, was born at Monterey, in the 
state of Coahuila, Mexico, in 1870. His parents were Dr. Melchor and 
Victoriana (Madero) Villareal. (The son took his mother's maiden 
11,') me and his father's surname as a first name.) The late Dr. Melchor 
Villareal, who died at his home in Monterey, Mexico, in June, 1906, 
- one of the prominent and wealthy citizens of that place. In addi- 
tion to his professional interests he was president of the bank in that 
city and was interested financially in many of its leading enterprises. 
Governor Kvaristo Madero, the maternal grandfather of our sub- 
is now living at an advanced age in San Antonio, where he has 
had extensive business interests for a number of years. He is also a 
native of Monterey, Coahnila, and a representative of a distinguished 
family of Mexico. For several years he served as governor of the 
state of Coahuila. V. L. Villareal, an nnclc of our snbject, is ex-gover- 
nor of the -tate of Xneva Leon, Mexico. In both the paternal and ma- 
ternal lines Mr. Madero of this review comes of wealthy and prominent 
families in Coahuila, owning extensive interests in business enterprises. 
Lank-, mines and lands, while various representatives have occupied 
places of distinction in connection with pnblic life and in business af- 
fair- in the Mexican republic. 




s./ds. 



£lsr~l 




HISTORY OF SOUTH WEST TEXAS 29 

L. Villareal Madero was reared and educated in Europe, where he 
spent fourteen years in study and preparation for business life, princi- 
pally in Paris. Upon finishing his education he returned to Monterey 
and entered upon active business connections in association with his 
father, but in 1901 came to San Antonio, where he has since resided, 
becoming an American citizen. He is engaged in various business enter- 
prises here, many of them connected with his extensive interests in 
Mexico — mining", lands and various commercial and industrial invest- 
ments. He is one of those who are bringing the magnificent resource^ 
and opportunities of Mexico to the attention of American capitalists, 
thus leading to the development of the country and the utilization of 
its splendid possibilities. He is particularly well fitted for such a work 
through his business training, his linguistic powers and his social and 
business connections with the high officials of Mexico and the leading- 
men of that country. He is a member of the Business Men's Club of 
San Antonio and other leading organizations and his life is actuated 
by a spirit of progress and improvement, not only for his own gain 
but also for the benefit of the different localities in which he has reason 
to be especially interested. 

M. H. McLaurin, a civil engineer, who is also engaged in the 
land and abstract business in San Antonio, has figured prominently 
in connection with public affairs and has made a most excellent record 
characterized by capability and fidelity in the discharge of duty. He 
was born in Sumter district, South Carolina, in 1849. He comes of an 
old family of Scotch ancestry that was founded in that state at an early 
day. He was a boy during the period of the Civil war, when schools 
were largely closed in the south and when educational privileges there 
were very limited. He received, however, excellent instruction from 
Colonel Thomas D. Sumter, a graduate of West Point, and one of South 
Carolina's representatives in Congress. It was under his direction that 
Mr. McLaurin studied mathematics and made preparation for the pro- 
fession of civil engineering. Upon his retirement from Congress Colonel 
Sumter admitted Mr. McLaurin to a partnership in engineering work 
in South Carolina. Following the death of his partner Mr. McLaurin 
came to Texas in 1882 and this state has since been his home. 

At the time of his arrival Hon. Oran M. Roberts was governor 
of Texas, and he having a knowledge of Mr. McLaurin's ability as an 
engineer was instrumental in having the latter engaged to prepare the 
plans and specifications for the North Texas Insane Asylum at Terrell. 
In 1883, upon the resignation of N. L. Norton as one of the state capitol 
commissioners, Mr. McLaurin was appointed to fill his place, by the 
capitol board composed of the governor and the heads of the state de- 
partments. Mr. McLaurin's associate in this position was the late Judge 
Joseph Lee, with whom he served until the capitol was completed in 
1888. 

Mr. McLaurin perhaps became most widely known in this connec- 
tion because of the splendid record which he made as a commissioner. 
The Texas capitol is a famous building, being one of the finest in the 
United States and was erected under contract with the Farwells of 
Chicago, who were paid for the same not in cash but in state lands 



3 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

in the Texas Panhandle, which lands became the noted Farwell ranch, 
one of the largest in the worid. The construction of the capitol stands 
unique in the historv oi such enterprises from that fact that it was com- 
pleted within the appropriation made. Indeed the funds were handled 

economically and judiciously that after the building- was completed 
Mr. McLaurin ami Judge Lee had some money remaining- to turn back 
into the state treasury. This certainly is a splendid record when we con- 
sider the graft that usually accompanies the erection of such buildings 
in other states. When the capitol was erected it was the seventh largest 
building in the world and involved manv intricate features, which could 
not or were not fully set forth in the plains and specifications, and only 
by the most careful scrutiny oi every detail as construction progressed 
mistakes were avoided and Texas secured a building- which in point of 
durability and strength of construction is not surpassed by any modern 
structure oi its size and purposes. Considerable trouble arose caused 
by the impossibility of securing stone from quarries of a grade such as 
was desired to be used in the building. The contractors recognizing 
the fact that only granite could be used under the terms of their con- 
tract and seeing also that it was going to cost them at least three times 
more than at first estimated, in order to get the necessary granite, made 
an attempt to substitute Indiana limestone but this proposition was re- 
jected by the capitol board. The actual cost of the building proper is 
known to a cent as the law required a duplicate receipted voucher to be 
tiled with the commissioners for every dollar paid out by the contrac- 
t< »rs on the actual construction of the building This is the only case 
on record where a part of the appropriation was turned back into the 
state treasury. Mr. McLaurin and his associates in this work certainly 
deserve much credit for what they accomplished and their labors did 
and should receive the commendation of all fair-minded citizens. The 
state capitol was begun in 1881 and completed in 1888, the total cost of 
the building being something over three million, six hundred thousand 
doll; 

While Mr. McLaurin was capitol commissioner he was associated 
with ( ieneral Walker in organizing a company to build a railroad from 
Taylor to Bastrop and Houston but as the carrying out of this plan in- 
terfered somewhat with his duties as capitol commissioner he and Gen- 
eral Walker sold out their interests to the Missouri, Kansas & Texas 
Railroad Company, who completed the project. 

After the capitol was completed Mr. McLaurin went to Dallas and 
engaged in railroad building in that vicinity for some time. He then 
wnt to Mexico, where he was also engineer in charge of railroad con- 
struction but finally had to give up the same on account of his health, 
the climate not agreeing with him there. He now makes his home in 
San Antonio and with this city as headquarters he has a surveying corps 
in the field doing land surveying He also has an abstract and land office 
at Corpus fhristi and is greatly interested in the development of the re- 
sources of that portion of Southern Texas, being closely identified with 
many movements which have been of direct value in the upbuilding of 
that localitv. He is a man of excellent business ability and executive 

• . of keen discrimination and sound judgment and throughout his 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 31 

entire life has formed his plans readily and has been determined in their 
execution, so that his efforts have resulted in winning him a gratifying 
measure of success. 

C. E. Keller, M. D., physician and surgeon at San Antonio, is a 
native of Matagorda county, Texas, and a son of James W. and Martha 
(Wheeler) Keller. The father was born in Mississippi and came to 
Texas with his parents in 1836, the family locating in Matagorda 
county. They were compelled to flee from the country in the early '40s 
because of the conditions which existed in those pioneer times and they 
were identified with many events which constituted the early history 
of the section in which they lived. The father passed away a number 
of years ago, but his wife is still living at Bay City, Matagorda county. 
She was of New England ancestry, her father having been a native of 
Boston, Massachusetts. 

Dr. Keller was reared and educated in his native county and sup- 
plemented his literary course by preparation for the medical profession. 
He attended the Hospital Medical College at Louisville, Kentucky, and 
completed his course in Texas Medical College at Galveston, from which 
he was graduated in the class of 1881. That institution, which was 
later merged into the medical department of the state university, was 
at the time of Dr. Keller's student days an institution of the highest 
character, the faculty comprising some of the finest minds connected 
with the medical profession in the country and thoroughly devoted to 
the duty of giving to their students the highest standing and equipment 
for their chosen work, insisting on proficiency in all classes. 

Following his graduation Dr. Keller located for practice in Fayette 
county, Texas, and in 1891 attained further skill in his work by a gen- 
eral post-graduate course in New Orleans Polyclinic. About seven years 
ago he located in San Antonio, where he enjoys a large and lucrative 
practice, having an established reputation for skill and success in the 
treatment of disease through careful and accurate diagnosis and treat- 
ment and a thorough knowledge of his cases. He was one of the or- 
ganizers and was the president of the Charity Hospital Association of 
San Antonio, whose hospital on Austin street was established in Janu- 
ary, 1906. This is a philanthropic enterprise of great benefit to the 
poor; the hospital, as the name indicates, giving medical treatment and 
all other necessary care free of charge. It is the only institution of its 
kind in San Antonio and is one that is greatly needed. No contagious 
diseases or tubercular patients are received here, however, rendering it 
perfectly safe for all patients needing general medical or surgical treat- 
ment. The greatest care and attention is given to those who seek aid 
here, the physicians in attendance all being men of superior ability and 
professional discrimination who have high standing in their profession. 
Much of the success of the institution is due to the earnest efforts of 
Dr. Keller, who as its first president has systematized the work and 
placed it upon a basis that is particularly beneficial, its value being ac- 
knowledged by all who have regard for public health. 

Dr. Keller was married in Fayette county to Miss Elizabeth Lunn, 
a sister of Dr. W. W. Lunn of Houston, Texas, who with his son. Dr. 
Edwin Lunn, an eye, ear, nose and throat specialist, owns and conducts 



.:- HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

a prominent sanitarium at Houston. Dr. and Airs. Keller have two chil- 
dren: Edwin 1». Keller of the oil \ of Mexico; and Miss Nola Keller, 
San Antonio. In all of his work Dr. Keller has maintained a high 
standard of professional ethics and has been not only a follower but a 
leader of advanced thought and methods of practice. He stands today 
prominent among the leading representatives of the profession in San 
Antonio and the consensus oi public opinion is indicated by the extensive 
private practice which is accorded him. 

11\k\i:v M. Matthews, M. IX, proprietor of the Matthews Home 
in San Antonio, is one ol the able and successful medical practitioners 
of Bexar county and in connection with his chosen field of labor is con- 
ducting the Matthews Home, which in its scope displays a philanthropic 
purpose as well as the legitimate purpose of acquiring financial success. 
Matthews is a native of Texas, having been born in Carthage, Pa- 
nola county, on the 31st of March, 1867. He was reared to farm life 
and acquired a thorough education in his youth, completing his classical 
course at Trinity University, which was then located at Tehuacana, ■ 
Limestone county, Texas. After completing his college course he sup- 
plemented his literary training by preparation for a professional career, 
entering upon the study of medicine in Louisville Medical College of 
Louisville, Kentucky, from which he was graduated in the class of 1890. 
Dr. Matthews then located for private practice at Dawson, Texas, and 
subsequently resided at Coleman city and afterward at Waxahachie, 
Texas. From the last named place he removed to Corsicana, where in 
1898 he established the Matthews Home for the treatment of drug and 
alcoholic addictions. In 1899 he removed to San Antonio, establishing the 
Matthews Home here and has since continued its management with the 
highest success. Dr. Matthews has now had nearly twelve years' ex- 
perience in the treatment of those addicted to the use of drugs and 
alcoholic liquors and through hard work, close study and the strictest 
application has achieved a very gratifying success in this most difficult 
branch of medical practice. The Matthews Home is located in the beau- 
tit til West End of San Antonio at 300 Day avenue. It is at a high 
altitude, with spacious grounds surrounding and plenty of pure air. 
The building is modern and well arranged for its purpose. All of the 
details connected with the treatment of these patients, such as plenty 
of nourishment and hygienic food, quiet and nerve restoring surround- 
ing-, congeniality and cheerfulness are thoroughly looked after. 

ft can be said without exaggeration that Dr. Matthews, devoting 
his entire time to the treatment of drug addictions, has had- most re- 
markable success in this line. His patients come from all parts oi the 
I nited States and from Mexico. He has the hearty co-operation of the 
regular practitioners in the medical profession and as evidence of this 
fact the Matthews Home treats a larger percentage of physicians for 
these addictions than any other one class of patients. The beneficence 
of a work of this character cannot be over estimated when it is con- 
sidered what terrible results follow the habitual use of morphine, co- 
caine, opium and other drugs as well as alcohol. His patients leave 
him sound and strong and manly, again equipped for life's duties. Dr. 
Matthew- has studied the question of treatment of such cases from 




'•■-' "* " "-% ; 



ty/ayyp^y ^V ^a^c^Ucs? %? stf. 




HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

every possible standpoint and has given to the world a work which is 
a monument to his life and its worthy purpose. Jle certainly dt 
the unbounded gratitude of his patients, who through his successful 
ministrations are restored to health and strength, free from the enervat- 
ing effects of the habits by which they were once enslaved. 

John Bauer, grand secretary of the Sons of Hermann with head- 
quarters at San Antonio, is of German lineage, as his name indicates. 
His birth occurred in the fatherland, the place of his nativity being 
Frankfort on the Rhine. His boyhood and youth were spent in that 
country, where he acquired a good education and for several years he 
was in the German military service and was a soldier in the Franco- 
Prussian war. The opportunities of the new world, however, attracted 
him and he sought a broader field in America that his labors might more 
directly- and quickly secure financial returns. Accordingly he came to 
Texas in 1882 and has lived in San Antonio since April of that year. 
From the beginning of his residence here he has taken a prominent part 
in the affairs of the German order of Hermann's Sons and in 1891 he 
was made grand secretary for this order of the state of Texas, which 
position he has filled continuously since, covering a period of sixteen 
years, discharging his duties with efficiency and to the benefit of the 
order in increasing its membership and usefulness in this state. This 

Sons of Hermann. 

Order was founded by the German people of New York in 1841, about 
which time the first heavy emigration from Germany was made to this 
country. The society grew rapidly and soon became a national organiza- 
tion. The first lodge of the order in Texas was instituted at San An- 
tonio, January 1, 1861. There are now in this state two hundred and 
thirty-five "Brother" lodges and forty "Sister'' lodges, there being ten 
lodges in San Antonio, which is the center of the German population 
and interests in Texas. There is a membership of eleven hundred in 
the San Antonio lodges and twelve thousand members in the entire state. 
The organization is in a flourishing condition and this is due in no 
small degree to the efforts and capability of Mr. Bauer during his sixteen 
years' service as grand secretary. 

In other ways Mr. Bauer is identified with the best interests of 
San Antonio. He is a member of the city council, being elected as an 
alderman at large in that body, in which he is chairman of the commit- 
tee on parks and plazas. In the council he gives careful consideration 
to each question which comes up for settlement and his co-operation with 
public movements is that of a progressive citizen, who places the general 
welfare before partisanship or personal aggrandizement. Mr. Bauer was 
married in Germany in 1875, to Miss Helene Schley. 

Joseph Meny, engaged in the real estate business in San Antonio, 
was born in the province of Alsace, France, in 1848, his parents being 
John T. and Agnes (Conrad) Meny, both of whom were of Huguenot 
lineage and were natives of Alsace. They came to Texas in 1852, first 
locating in the coast town of Port Lavaca, whence they afterward re- 
moved to Victoria and later to Goliad but subsequently returned to Vic- 
toria. Afterward passing through San Antonio, they joined the Alsa- 

Vol. II. 3 



34 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

tiun colony at Castroville in Medina county, making the trip with ox 
teams and thus traveling after the slow and tedious manner of the times. 
In [865, however, John T. Meny took up his abode in San Antonio, 
but after three years returned to Castroville, where he resided until 
his death in [886. His wife passed away subsequent to this time, spend- 
ing her last days in San Antonio. Her sister, Katharine Conrad, re- 
mained with the Mem family after Mrs. Meny's death and aeted in 
the capacity of mother to the children. She died in San Antonio at the 
very advanced age of eighty-eight years. Of the three children born 
Mr. ami Mrs. John T. Meny two are yet living', the brother, Frank 
S. Meny. who was horn at Castroville, being' a resident of San Antonio. 

Joseph Meny was reared amid the surroundings, conditions and 
environments oi pioneer life in Texas and during the period of the Civil 
war he earned thirty-five dollars a month as a driver of ox and mule 
teams, mostly carrying loads of cotton between San Antonio and the 
Rio Grande. On one occasion his wagon train was raided by Indians. 
After the surrender of Lee in April, 1865, Mr. Meny made a freighting 
trip to Tort Lavaca and return. He then permanently abandoned that 
business and took up his abode in San Antonio in June, 1865, since 
which time he has made this city his home. He had earned and saved 
considerable money by freighting during the period of the war and had 
judiciously invested it, so that at about the close of hostilities he was the 
owner of six hundred head of cattle, which, however, he gave to his 
parents. He then started out in life anew, following his arrival in San 
Antonio, and for several years thereafter conducted a saloon, but for 
the past eighteen years has been engaged in the real estate business in 
this city. He has informed himself thoroughly concerning realty values, 
has noted each indication of a rise in the realty market and has nego- 
tiated manv important property transfers. He has many regular clients 
and has done a gratifying business, making him one of the prosperous 
real estate dealers of San Antonio. 

Mr. Meny was married in San Antonio to Miss Auguste Schulz, 
who came with her parents from Germany to America when three years 
of age. They now have one daughter, Irene J. Meny. In former years 
Mr. Meny was a prominent member of the old Turner Volunteer Hook 
and Ladder Company of the city fire department and otherwise has 
been closed v associated with the early growth of business and social 
life in this city. At one time he was an alderman of San Antonio. 

William X. 1 l.\ov, a builder and architect of San Antonio, was born 
at Independence, Washington county, Texas, in 1870, a son of George 
W. and 1 f attic (Wood) Hagy, both of whom are now deceased. The 
fatht r was born in Washington county, Virginia, at the ancestral home 
of the family and came to Texas in T856, locating first in Bastrop county. 
1 [e was a builder and contractor and took the contract for the wood work 
on the <>}<] state capitol at Austin, which building was the predecessor 
of the present capital. Subsequently he established his home in Inde- 
pendence. Washington county, where he died in 1872. He was a sub- 
stantia] and representative man of his community and at his death the 
county mourned the loss of one of its valued citizens. 

William X. Hagy spent his early boyhood days at Independence, 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 35 

where he acquired his education and, following in the footsteps of his 
father, began learning the builder's trade. He entered upon that work- 
when only eleven years of age and has since not only depended upon his 
own resources for a livelihood but has also assisted others, and it should 
redound to his credit that he has faithfully discharged every obligation 
that has devolved upon him in this connection and also educated himself 
as well. He attended Baylor University, a well known Texas educa- 
tional institution, now located at Waco, but in those days at Independ- 
ence, where the college was originally established. In 1882, when only 
twelve years of age, Mr. Hagy came to San Antonio, where he has 
since made his home and has been remarkably successful as a builder 
and business man. He entered upon an apprenticeship to the carpen- 
ter's trade, which he completed at the age of seventeen years and was 
then given a position as foreman. After acting in that capacity tor 
about a year he began working on his own account and for three years 
was in partnership with his two brothers under the firm style of Hagy 
Brothers, contractors and builders. For the past few years, however, 
he has conducted his business as an individual enterprise and has met 
with very creditable success. While engaged as a contractor and builder 
he also studied and qualified thoroughly for the profession of an archi- 
tect and does all of his architectural work, combining the two branches 
of business and thus avoiding the conflicts which sometimes result be- 
tween the plans of the architect and the practical work of the builder. 
Better satisfaction is thus given to his patrons and the excellence of his 
work is indicated by the liberal business support accorded him. In con- 
nection with the construction of buildings under contract he also builds 
houses for customers who pay on the installment plan, thus conducting 
a financial department in connection with his other business and using 
considerable capital in this way. He contributes largely to the improve- 
ment and development of the city through his business operations and 
has converted many unsightly vacancies into fine residence districts. 
One of the chief assets of his business is his reputation for thorough 
honesty and good workmanship. He never submits bids or takes con- 
tracts for municipal or government work which involves deals with poli- 
ticians or agents, knowing that too often it is necessary to resort to 
trickery or the undue use of political influence to secure such work. His 
business has grown steadily and along healthful lines until it is the 
largest of its kind in San Antonio. He has made a specialty of fine resi- 
dences and has constructed some of the most beautiful homes in the city, 
including those* of the late Colonel C. C. Cresson, D. J. Woodward, 
Frank A. Winerich, John Bollins and others. He also built the First 
Baptist church, the Woodward business block, the San Antonio Female 
College, the Peacock School for boys, a portion of the West Texas Mili- 
tary Academy and other schools and churches. He is awarded many 
contracts outside of the city, his business in the state amounting to many 
thousands of dollars annually. He also deals in building materials and 
his business is represented by a large figure that indicates his prominence 
in building circles. 

Mr. Hagy was married in San Antonio to Miss Mabel Laughter, 
who was born in Lavaca county, Texas. They have three daughters, 



36 HIS Tom" OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

S lla, Marian and Winnifred. Mr. Hagy is a member o\ the West 
End Methodist church, lie has little time for outside interests, giving 
his attention in undivided manner to his business affairs. In the earl) 

years k^\ his residence in San Antonio the salary which he reeeived was 
small ami the position he occupied was insignificant, hut like many other 
brainy, energetic young men who came to this city in the day of 'small 
things and have since left their impress upon the magnificent develop- 
ment i^i the metropolis o\ the southwest, he did not wait for a specially 
brilliant opening. Indeed he could not wait and his natural industry 
would not have permitted him to do so even if his financial circumstances 
had been such as to make it possible. His mental and physical activity — 
the only capital that he brought with him into the new west — combined 
with his poverty to make immediate employment a necessity. At that 
time he showed conspicuously the traits of character wliich have made 
has life successful. He performed all the duties that devolved upon him,. 
however humble and however small the recompense might be, conscien- 
tiously ami industriously. As the years passed his strict integrity, busi- 
ness conservatism and judgment have always been so uniformly recog- 
nized that he has enjoyed public confidence to an enviable degree and 
naturally this has brought him such a lucrative patronage that, through 
times of general prosperity and general adversity alike, he has witnessed 
steady increase in his business until it is one of the most flourishing 
in its line in the city of San Antonio. At the last State Builders' Ex- 
change convention held at Beaumont Mr. Hagy was elected president, also 
delegate to the organization of the National Exchanges to be held at 
Scranton, Penn., January 15, 1907. 

Nathan Underwood, a stockman of San Antonio, was born in Jen- 
nings eountx. Indiana, June 26, 1844, and is a son of Julius and Myra 
I 1 l.dl ) Underwood, both of whom were natives of Kentucky but died 
in Jennings county, Indiana. Colby Underwood, of Kentucky, a great- 
uncle of our subject, settled in Jefferson county, Indiana, near Madison 
in [806 and Julius Underwood, who w r as then a child, with his father 
and other members of the I nderwood family, made their way to the 
same locality in the same year. Later in life Julius Underwood removed 
'Ik- adjoining county of Jennings. The Underwoods were a well 
known family of pioneer settlers closely connected with the early history 
of both Jefferson and Jennings counties. 

Nathan Underwood was reared to farm life and remained' under 
the parental roof until t S6 r , when, at the outbreak of the Civil war, 
Ik- succeeded in enlisting although only seventeen years of age. He 
ame a member of Company C, Thirty-seventh Indiana Infantry, in 
which he served his full term of four years in the states of Tennessee, 
Alabama, Georgia and Virginia. lie was in all the great historic battles 
of the Tennessee campaign — Murfreesboro, Chattanooga, Chickamauga, 
Missionary Rid^e, Resaca and the entire Atlanta campaign in the sum- 
mer of [864. Following this military movement he was with the army 
in Virginia and participated in the battle of the Wilderness and in 
other fighting there. When the war ended he was engaged in provost 
guard duty in the cite of Washington, lie had previously gone to Cin- 
cinnati and joined the Veteran Corps under Hancock when his first 




akfUjrzrns. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 37 

army enlistment of three years had expired and it was with the Veteran 
Corps that his last year in the army was spent. Jle was a good soldier, 
for he was lithe, aetive and healthful, and adapted himself easily to 
all the hardships and changing conditions that army life involves. 

When the war was over Mr. Underwood returned to his home and 
soon afterward went to the west. For several years he was on the fron- 
tier, mostly engaged in the stock business. He went to Kansas, Wy- 
oming, Colorado, New Mexico and western Texas, and his life in this 
state dates from about 1870. He established a ranch in New Mexico 
and drove two herds of cattle there from Texas. He spent much time 
on the open ranges of this state and had more than one encounter with 
the Indians, who were frequently very troublesome, making raids upon 
the herds. About 1876 Mr. Underwood located in San Antonio, although 
he continued for some years in the cattle business on the western range. 
For several years past he has confined his attention to the raising of 
horses and is particularly well known throughout the country for his 
polo horses, which are raised and trained on the Polo ranch in Bexar 
county, closely adjacent to the city limits of San Antonio on the north- 
west. His polo horses found great favor and readily sold among the 
wealthy people who are owners of the polo grounds and buy these horses 
for use on the polo fields. In the interests of this business he makes 
regular trips to the east, particularly New York and Boston. 

Mr. Underwood was married in this city to Miss Mary S. Robb. 
and they have six children, Georgia, Bee, Rob, Harry, John and Arthur 
Underwood. Mr. Underwood is ex-commander of E. O. C. Ord Post. 
G. A. R., and has also been senior vice commander of the Department 
of Texas of the Grand Army. In politics he is a Republican and two or 
three times has been honored by having his name placed on the county 
Republican ticket. 

A. J. Moore, owner of the long distance telephone system at San 
Antonio, was born at Gonzales, Texas, his parents being W. J. and M. 
B. Moore, who w 7 ere natives of Virginia and Alabama respectively. The 
father became a pioneer settler of Texas, where he arrived in the early 
'40s and took a prominent part as a pioneer and soldier in the events 
which shaped the early historv of the Lone Star state. He was a sol- 
dier in both the Mexican and Civil wars and also did active duty in some 
of the Indian campaigns which resulted in the final subjugation of the 
red men, making Texas a region as safe and secure as any country 
where before life was hazardous because of the depredations and atroci- 
ties of the red race. His home was in Gonzales, but he died in 1903, 
at the home of his son, S. H. Moore, at Luling in Caldwell county. 

Mr. A. J. Moore was reared in Gonzales, and, entering mercantile 
life, became a prominent and wealthy merchant of that city, being prin- 
cipally connected with the harness and saddlery trade, in which he was 
engaged for twenty-five years. Always interested in the signs of the 
times and in everything pertaining to the welfare and progress of his 
community, he recognized the possibilities for the development of the 
telephone business in Southwestern Texas, and in 1897, associated with 
Mr. Davitt of Belmont, Gonzales county, he originated and constructed 



38 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Telephones. 

the first long distance line in that part of the country. In 1898, having 
disposed *>t his mercantile interests, he removed his headquarters to 
San Antonio and has since gradually extended bis system of local and 
long distance lines until lie now lias about eight hundred miles of tele- 
phone lines, which mileage is being increased every month by the de- 
mand for new lines in the territory to which his business has already 
I \ '.ended. These lines are for the most part along the San Antonio & 
Aransas Pass Railroad from Fredericksburg- and Kerrville through 
Vntonio to Kennedy, Cuero, Beeville, Alice and various others of 
the growing towns and communities of this section of the state. The 
-cut rapid growth, agriculturally, of this section, resulting from the 
livisi the great ranches among the small farmers and their occupa- 

nterprising farmers who are cultivating and improving the 
perry, makes great possibilities for the development of the rural 
tone industry, of the possibilities of which Mr. Moore is cognizant 
and of which he is taking advantage. His business is conducted under 
the name of the Eureka Telephone Company. He is, however, the sole 
owner and manager of the entire business. His lines connect with the 
S ithern Telegraph & Telephone Company's lines of the Bell system 
[ his headquarters are in that company's offices in San Antonio. In 
direction he has done an important public service. It is said that 
the two most valuable elements in the development and upbuilding of a 
community are the means of rapid transportation and rapid communi- 
on and that the real founders and promoters of a city or district 
the men who provide facilities of that character. In this connection 
therefore Mr. Moore has done an important public service and at the 
same time developed a business interest which is proving a gratifying 
S< turce 1 >f income. 

Mr. Moore was married to Miss Alice S. Kelso, a native of Dewitt 

:ounty, Texas, and they have a son, Dr. T. A. Moore, who is one of the 

minent physicians of San Antonio. Mr. Moore has recently built 

and now occupies one of the finest residences in San Antonio on Laurel 

1 I oi-ht ^. 

Charles S. Brodbent, a well known real estate operator of San 
AntOnio, was born in the village of Morgantown, Berks county, Penn- 
lvania. of the marriage of Joseph and Adelaide (Foster) Brodbent. 
'I'lie family i- of English lineage and the father was for many years 
olcn manufacturer of Berks county. He lived to the advanced age 
more than eighty years, making his home in Berks county through- 
out hi- entire life, but died in Del Rio, Texas, while on a visit to his 
■on Charles at that place. His wife passed away many years before at 
the Brodbent home in Berks county. 

S. Brodbent was reared in the quaint old village of Mor- 
gantown, which to this dav remains without a railroad. It is one of 
those quiet little centers of civilization where the tide of emigration 
without altering the even tenor of way for the inhabitants. 
When seventeen years of age Mr. Brodbent, ambitious to secure better 
advantage- than he might obtain in his native village, started westward, 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 39 

wishing to secure employment that would enable him to make his way 
through college. He lived in Ohio for about two years and then went. 
to Prairie City, McDonough county, Illinois, becoming a student in the 
academy there with the intention of further preparing himself for en- 
tering college. He had been in school for only a brief period, however, 
when the great demand for soldiers during the last years of the Civil 
war led him to abandon his ideas of pursuing a college course and enlist 
for service in defense of the Union. In 1864, therefore, he joined the 
One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Illinois Volunteer Infantry and was 
largely engaged in duty in western Tennessee. The most important 
battle in which he participated was the engagement at Memphis at the 
time of Forrest's raid on that city. 

Following the close of the war and his return to civic life Mr. 
Brodbent pursued a course of study in Eastman's Business College at 
Poughkeepsie, New York, after which he returned to Pennsylvania, be- 
coming the private secretary for Dr. Hartman, of Millersville, Pennsyl- 
vania. He was still greatly desirous of seeking his fortune in the west 
and with that end in view he returned to Prairie City, w r here he met an 
old friend who likewise desired to go west. Together they made their 
way to Kansas, settling first in Jefferson county, whence in 1870 they 
removed to Sumner county, Mr. Brodbent being one of the first per- 
manent white settlers of what was then a frontier district in Kansas. 
Settlers attempted to raise a crop of wheat there in 1870 but the crop 
proved a failure. This is somewhat interesting from the fact that Sum- 
ner county in 1902 raised more wheat than any other district of similar 
size in the world. 

Although he did not prove a success as a wheat raiser Mr. Brodbent 
made more progress in political circles and became recognized as a 
leader in local and state politics. He was a member of the board of 
state commissioners under the governorship of Thomas A. Osborne, 
which board had under its control the state penitentiary, the state asy- 
lums for the insane and in fact all of the public institutions of the state. 
His tours of investigation with the board brought him into close touch 
with all the prominent characters of Kansas at that day and gained him 
acquaintance with many persons, then members of the state legislature 
and otherwise leaders in public life, who subsequently became very prom- 
inent in state and national affairs. Mr. Brodbent resigned the position 
of county clerk of Sumner county in 1875 to come to Texas. He made 
the journey in that year with the excursion of the Kansas Editorial 
Association, having fellowship with that organization through having 
been correspondent for the Missouri Republican and later of the Globe 
Democrat of St. Louis, Missouri. 

Mr. Brodbent's health had become somewhat impaired, and for that 
reason he took up outdoor life, going into the sheep business, herding his 
sheep along the Rio Grande border in Maverick, Kinney and Yal Yerde 
counties, making his home and his headquarters at Del Rio. the county 
seat of Yal Verde. Those were the days when the Indian and the des- 
peradoes of the white race were occasioning great trouble to stockmen 
in Southwestern Texas; »but Mr. Brodbent never had any trouble with 
this class, keeping his own counsel and living always within the princi- 



4 o HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

pics of law and justice. King Fisher, the notorious outlaw, frequently 
•rcol at the headquarters of Mr, Brodbent's ranch, but never gave the 
5t trouble cither in the wa\ ^\ making awa\ with the stock or intimi- 
dating the herdsmen. 

After coming t" Texas, Mr. Brodbent also retained an active interest 

in politics, and notwithstanding the fact oi living in a country that is 

almost unanimously Democratic he was elected and served for some 

rs as count} commissioner ami as county judge oi \ al \ erde county. 

He was also postmaster ^i Del Rio for the years under the Harrison 

administration. While still retaining his traditional allegiance to the 

Republican party, he does not consider himself hound by party ties and 

StS an independent local ballot. In [OjOO he removed to San Antonio, 

having disposed of his sheep and other business interests in the Rio 

Grande country and since then has made his home in this city. He 

- become recognized here- as a well known and progressive business 

. being a member oi the real estate firm of Brodbent & Heinen, with 

:es in the Alamo Insurance Building. This firm has negotiated many 

nportant realty transfers and has handled much valuable property, and 

ts clientage is now large and its business profitable. 

Mr. Brodbent was married in 18X4. to Miss Cordelia Fisk, a daugh- 
>f Captain James X. bisk of San Antonio, who died in 1875. He 
a prominent citizen of Southwestern Texas and was a Union soldier 
of rank and distinction in the Civil war. He espoused the Union cause, 
g to Brownsville, at the mouth of the Rio Grande, which was then 
1 p. ssession of the Federal troops. There he enlisted and was made a 
. giving unfaltering allegiance to the cause of the Federal gov- 
ernment throughout the period of hostilities. After the war he re- 
turned t>» San Antonio and was elected sheriff. He bore the reputation 
of being one of the most fearless men in the country and never faltered 
in the performance of any duty of a public, private or military nature. 
Hi- wife was a daughter of the noted Deaf Smith, of Texas history. 
Mr>. Brodbent was for many years a prominent and greatly beloved 
rher in the public schools of this city, and her death, which occurred 
in August, [900, was the occasion of deep regret in a large circle of warm 
friend-. She was a woman of fine literary talent, and one of the pro-' 
ductions from her pen which created widespread interest was a magazine 
article on tin- Pastores of Mexico, being a description of the Mexican 
sion Play. To Mr. and Mrs. Brodbent were born these children: 
Simona, Adelaide, Josie, Charles. Foster, Smith and Cordelia. Foster 
died in infancy. 

Whatever success Mr. Brodbent has achieved is the direct result 

1 f hi- own labors and enterprise. He started out with no capital or 

ial advantages to make- his own way in the world, and it has been 

through the utilization of opportunity, by diligence and perseverance, that 

lu- has worked his way upward, while his personal ponularitv is incli- 

!i<- fact that although a Republican he has filled office in a 

strong Democratic district. His loyalty to duty stands as an unciues- 

honed fact in hi- career, and no trust reposed in him has ever been 

• d. 

GENERAL [on\ L. BuiXIS, a retired army officer living at San 









W- W4^"^-~- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 41 

Antonio, Texas, was born in the state of New York, April 17, 1841, and 
was one of the youngest volunteers of the Civil war. lie enlisted on the 
8th of August, 1862, in the One Hundred and Twenty-sixth New York 
Infantry Volunteers, when twenty-one years of age. He proved a most 

loyal soldier and was rapidly promoted in the volunteer serviee until on 
the 1 8th of August, 1864, he was made captain of the One Hundred and 
Eighteenth U. S. Infantry. When the war was over he joined the regular 
army as a member of the Forty-first Infantry and in November, [869, 
he was transferred to the Twenty-fourth Infantry, in which organization 
he remained for a long period. In June, 1873, he became first lieutenant : 
in April, 1886, was commissioned captain; in January, 1897, became 
major; and in April, 1905, brigadier general. In the same month 
he retired, at which time he was acting as chief paymaster at Fort Sam 
Houston. 

The military record of General Bullis is a matter of history and as 
is well known is closely associated with the Indian warfare of the 
southwest. For a long time he was on detached duty as officer in 
charge of the famous Seminole scouts along the Rio Grande. His 
experiences were those common to military life on the frontier, where 
the soldier is often placed in most hazardous positions on account of the 
treachery of the red men. Throughout his entire career General Bullis 
has maintained an unassailable reputation for military honor as well 
as valor and skill in the management of the troops under his control. 
He was married in San Antonio to Miss Josephine Withers. Three 
children have been born to them : Lyclia L., Anita D., and Octavia M. 
Since his retirement from armv life General Bullis has built a beautiful 
residence in San Antonio, which he intends to make his permanent 
home. 

P. Balde-Sarelli, M. D., physician and surgeon of San Antonio, 
has attained a position of distinction as one of the prominent and learned 
members of the medical fraternity in this part of the state. He was 
born in Tyrol, Austria, and received most excellent educational privileges, 
including a university course. He was graduated in medicine and 
surgery at Barnes Medical College, in St. Louis, Missouri, in the class 
of 1898, and since that time has practiced his profession in San Antonio. 
His success is the natural result of his aptitude and capacity for research 
as a student and his ready adaotabilitv of the principles of the profession 
to the needs of his patients. He is a member of the County, State and 
American Medical Associations and is making continuous and satis- 
factory progress in his profession. 

John T. Wilson, president of the West End Lumber Company, 
to whom is due the development of one of the largest and most prosper- 
ous business enterprises of this character in Southwest Texas, is also 
deserving: of more than passing mention from the fact that he has been 
connected with the company known as Home Builders, who have been 
largely instrumental in enabling man}- men to become property owners 
upon the installment plan. Thus his business has been of direct and 
permanent benefit to the community as well as a source of personal 
profit, and San Antonio iustly classes him among her representative and 
valued citizens. Mr. Wilson was born at Blackshear, Georgia, in 1859, 



42 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

a son ol Captain John T, Wilson, who was a Confederate officer during 
the Civil war. Losing both his parents in early life, Mr. Wilson of this 
review started onj to earn his own living when but a lad. In his boy- 
hood days he worked at farm labor, lie came to Texas in 18/8, first 
locating at Mavasota and engaged in farming in Grimes county. He 
was then bin nineteen years o\ age. In 1882 he removed to Sabinal, 
Uvalde county, and became connected with the business interests which 
contributed to the development and growth of that city. He did con- 
siderable work in railroad building in those days, turning his hand to 
any kind oi a job that offered, and finally learning telegraphy. He 
was appointed station agent and telegraph operator at Sabinal, in Uvalde 
county, which position he held for several years. In connection with 
this he did some farming at Sabinal and still owns a farm there, together 
with a lumberyard, which he established before any houses were erected 
in that town. Seeking a still broader field of labor Mr. Wilson came 
San Antonio in 181)7 and has made his home here continuously since. 
In the meantime he was married in Uvalde county, to Miss Susie Low- 
rance, and to them have been born five children: Susie Lorena, Ethel 
May, John T., Margaret Dorothy and Ellis M. 

Following his removal to San Antonio Mr. Wilson began business 
as a dealer in machinery and wind mills, and in 1899, sold out and 
purchased a half interest in the West End Lumber Company on North 
Flores street. This business had been established in 1886, but had 
been allowed to run down until it was doing little more than paying 
actual expenses. In 10,01, the West End Lumber Company was in- 
corporated with Mr. Wilson as president. Lie brought to bear in its 
conduct a keen discernment, sound judgment and an unfaltering pur- 
pose, and the result is seen in the success which has since been enjoyed. 
The yards have been removed to a much more advantageous and com- 
modious location at Leal and North Salado streets, where a little over 
a block of ground is occupied with the stock and buildings of the 
company. Mr. Wilson has built up the business until it is now one 
of the largest and most prosperous in Southwest Texas. His company 
is known particularly as "The Home Builders," from the fact that they 
build home- on the installment plan for people who are unable to pay 
cash, and in this way he has been the means of promoting thrift and 
the property owning spirit, and adding scores of new and beautiful 
houses to the city that perhaps otherwise would not have been erected. 
Il«- was the originator of this idea in San Antonio and has carried for- 
ward the work to the benefit of the company and many patrons. 

JOHN F. RlPPS, seed and paint merchant of San Antonio, his native 
city, was born July 1 6th , 1858, and is a representative of one of the 
prominent old-time families of German origin in this city. His father, 
hael Ripps, was born in Baden in 182T, and in 1852, came to the 
1 nited State-, locating in San Antonio, and established his home on 
what i- now South Laredo street, just north of where the Union stock- 
yard- are located. In subsequent years he removed to Lavaca street, 
where he died in 1893. Prior to the war he worked as a clerk in the 
^tore- of well known merchants — Crenet, Cnilbeau and Nat Lewis. In 
later life he engaged in the dairy business, having a nice farm at his 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 43 

home place on South Laredo street. The Ripps family has figured 
prominently in the early history of San Antonio. George and Jacob 
Ripps, brothers of Michael Ripps, were well known characters and the 
latter died on the Texas coast in early manhood, never having become 
a resident of this city, but George Ripps resided here for many years 
and passed away in San Antonio. He left five children: Henry C, 
Adolph, Mary, Paulina and Minna. Two sisters of Michael Ripps arc 
residents of San Antonio — Mrs. Marguente Zallmanzig and Mrs. Lena 
Hammer. The mother of our subject was prior to her marriage Miss 
Catharine Hauser, of German birth, and in 1853 came from the city 
of Mulhausen in Alsace to San Antonio, where she died in 1902, after 
a residence here of nearly a half century. 

In the family of Michael and Catharine Ripps were five sons : 
Emil Ripps, who has been an employe at the United States arsenal in 
San Antonio for twenty-four years ; Michael J., Antone J. and S. Joseph, 
the last named being a treasurer in the postal department at Washing- 
ton, D. C, for the past fourteen years. 

John F. Ripps, the other member of the family, was reared in 
San Antonio and educated at St. Mary's College. Having a strong 
desire to travel and see the United States, he left home at the age of 
seventeen years and for several years traveled in the northern and east- 
ern states, working at various occupations in several of the cities from 
New York westward. Returning to his home, he secured a position in 
one of the city departments, where he remained for a short time and 
then became an employe in the furniture department of Saul Wolfsohn's 
store. Later he went to the New York furniture store and was after- 
ward employed in the old seed store of Louis Huth on Market street. 
For nearly ten years he remained in the Huth establishment and in 1890 
he established his own' business, which he has conducted successfully 
since at the southeast corner of Market and Yturri streets. This is a 
wholesale and retail business in seeds, paints, oils, etc., and is one of the 
best known establishments of its kind in Southwest Texas. 

Mr. Ripps was married in San Antonio, in November, 1891, to 
Miss Anna Hehn, a native of this city. He has often been solicited by 
his friends to become a candidate for public office but never accepted 
until the spring -school election of 1906, when he became one of the 
candidates for member of the school board on the people's ticket, which 
was defeated by a small majority. His attention has been closely con- 
fined to his business interests and he has made steady advancement in 
trade circles until he is now in control of an important and profitable 
commercial enterprise. 

Julius Braunnagel, M. D.., physician and surgeon of San Antonio, 
practicing along modern scientific lines which indicate his thorough 
familiarity with the most advanced methods of the leading members 
of the profession in this country and abroad, where he has studied large- 
ly, was born in Strassburg in Alsace-Lorraine, of French parentage 
and was reared and educated in that city, completing his classical course 
in the University of Strassburg. In 1874, soon after the completion 
of his collegiate work, he came to the United States, settling in San 
Antonio, where he has since made his home. He later took up the 



44 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

study o\ medicine, attending the College of Physicians and Surgeons at 
St. Louis, Missouri, from which he was graduated in February, 1883, 
In the spring of that year he located for practice in this city and since 

that time lias pursued posl graduate general courses in medicine and 
surgery in Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 

N 9 and again in 1001. lie also pursued a post-graduate course in 
the medical department of the University ^^\ Strassburg in 1903, and 
has attended various clinics abroad. It is part o\ his plan to further 
continue his studies in the University at Vienna and perhaps at other 
centers of medical science in Europe, a fact which indicates his laudable 
ambition to attain a high degree oi proficiency in a calling which many 
regard a- the most important to which a man may devote his energies. 
Mr i- a thoroughly equipped physician and surgeon, keeping abreast 
of the best modern thought and investigation and is a successful and 
able practitioner as well as student. 

Mr. Braunnagel was city physician of San Antonio from 1883 until 
[893 and was the founder of the Santa Rosa Hospital Training School 
for nurses in this city, o\ which he had charge for more than a year, 
lie was at one time president of the West Texas Medical Association, 
which was finally merged into the present organization of the county 
and state medical societies. ITe tiow belongs to the Bexar county, the 
Texas State and American Medical associations, the American Society 
• the Advancement of Science and the Biological Society of Wash- 
ington. He is a man of broad scholarly and scientific attainments, his 
reading embracing many lines of knowledge outside of the direct path 
<>f his profession and is recognized as a cultured gentleman of social 
as well a- professional prominence. 

ANDRES Coy, Jr., district clerk at San Antonio, his native city, 
was 1. rrn in '873. and is a son of Andres and Anita (Sanchez) Coy. 
lb- was reared and educated in San Antonio, spending nearly eight years 
a student in St. Mary's College in this city. His parents represent 
old-time families of this city of Mexican descent. His father, who is 
still living", was born in San Antonio and is one of its well known resi- 
dents. He served as assistant city marshal for a number of years but 
is now retired from active life 

Since leaving school Mr. Coy has been connected with public offices 
in one clerical capacity or another, serving first under Jose Cassiano, 

;t\ collector, and later with Paul Meerscheidt in the same office. 
Subsequently be was with Albert V. ITuth, county assessor, and until 
November, [906, was with .Mr. Celestin Villemain, the city collector of 
San Antonio. In the Democratic primaries of July, 1906, he received 
the nomination for district clerk of Bexar county to succeed the late 
Captain C. L. Xevill and was elected to this office in November follow- 
ing. This i- one of the most important offices in P>exar county and in 
his previous public service Mr. Coy has demonstrated his ability to suc- 
sfulry cope with the duties that devolve upon him in this connection. 
Ifr i- a public-Spirited man and one whose devotion to the general 
od is above question. 

Mr. Gov was married in San Antonio to Miss A. Hernandez, and 
they have three children : William, Catharine and Andrew. Mr. Cov 



HISTORY OK SOUTHWEST TEXAS 45 

is a prominent member of the Knights of Columbus. His continuous 
service in public life has gained him a wide acquaintance and he enji 
in large measure the respect and good will of his fellow townsmen and 
is popular with many friends. 

Charles F. Schreiner, a prominent horse dealer of San Antonio, 
is a native son of this city, horn in 1862. His parents, F. and Louise 
B. (Ziegler) Schreiner, were both born in the town of Reichenweiher, 
Alsace, and emigrated to America in the latter part of the year 1849, 
landing in San Antonio on the 1st of January, 1850. The parents were 
accompanied on their trip to the new world by the fatner and mother 
of Mr. Schreiner, who also located in San Antonio, where the father's 
death occurred in 1894. He was a representative citizen of this city 
and took an active and helpful part in many movements and measures 
instituted for its advancement along various lines. He was also a 
member of the city council for twenty-six years, representing the fourth 
ward, the richest ward of the city, and he was also mayor pro tern. His 
widow still survives and yet lives at the old homestead at No. 317 North 
Flores street, which has been her home since 1869. A paternal uncle 
of our subject, Captain Charles Schreiner, also came to America in 1849. 
and is now a noted capitalist and stockman of Kerrville, Texas. He 
is one of the wealthiest residents of the southwest, owning large tracts 
of land in Kerr county and surrounding districts, and he is likewise a 
banker and merchant of Kerrville, besides being interested in enterprises 
in San Antonio. 

Charles F. Schreiner was reared and educated in his native city, 
and has always been interested to greater or less extent in the horse 
business, which is his present business connection. He is widely known 
in political circles, having served for eleven years as deputy under 
Sheriffs McCall and Campbell. His political and business connections 
have gained him an extensive acquaintance and there is perhaps no man 
in Southwestern Texas better known than Mr. Schreiner. 

Harry L. Benson, well known as the organizer and now the head 
of the Santa Anna Industrial Company, which was formed to develop 
and promote the oil interests of Southwest Texas, was for a long period 
identified with commercial interests, acting as traveling representative 
for the well known firm of C. H. Fargo & Company, of Chicago, whole- 
sale dealers in boots and shoes, in which connection he gained a very 
wide acquaintance not only in the state of Texas but throughout the 
United States. It was during his labors in the latter capacity that he 
was attracted to this state, believing that its natural resources furnished 
excellent opportunity for the acquirement of a competence, and that his 
labors are being crowned with success is indicated by the fact that he 
today stands at the head of one of the most important industrial enter- 
prises of this great state. 

Mr. Benson is a native of Illinois, his birth having occurred in 
Fulton county, and it was in 1880 that he established a permanent home 
in San Antonio, where he has continued his residence to the present 
time. He was. for a long period a traveling representative for the firm 
of C. H. Fargo & Company, of Chicago, wholesale dealers in boots and 
shoes, in which connection his territory embraced at one period twenty- 



46 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

four different states, including Texas. He was everywhere known as 
a most successful business man and his services commanded a splendid 
remuneration. It was during his travels throughout the southwest that 
he became convinced of the business opportunities offered in this south- 
western district, and. accordingly in 1SS0. he established his home in 
San Antonio and began to make investment in local realty, still con- 
tinuing his connection with the Chicago firm. After the disastrous finan- 
cial panic oi [893, real estate greatly depreciated in value, and in i8g8, 
Mr. Benson turned his attention to the search for oil in east Texas, for 
during his travels in that section he had become convinced that oil ex- 
isted there. From that time forward Mr. Benson's investigations were 
crowned with a series of successful exploits in the oil fields that have 
made his name prominent as a promoter and operator of oil properties, 
lie was the pioneer promoter in the Sour Lake oil field, which preceded 
the Beaumont excitement, and his most extensive exploit was the pro- 
motion and organization of the Sour Lake Springs Company for the 
purchase oi the original Sour Lake oil lands for fifty-five thousand 
dollars, from the sale of which this company realized a handsome profit, 
disposing oi the property for nine hundred thousand dollars. Lie was 
the promoter, organizer and secretary. Since that time he has been 
engaged in numerous other large operations in the oil districts of Beau- 
mont, Sour Lake, Batson and Humble, in all of which he has been a 
leading promoter, and he was likewise the promoter of the Batson- 
M id way properties. 

.Mr. Benson's latest project, and the one to which he is giving all 
his time and energies, is the Santa Anna Industrial Company, of which 
he was the organizer and is now secretary and manager. This company 
was formed for the development of the oil industry in Coleman, Brown 
and McCulloch counties, having a lease on twenty-five thousand acres 
of land in this district. Up to the present time the drilling has been 
done mainly at Trickham, in Coleman county, and at Milburn in Mc- 
Culloch county, with very gratifying success. A most favorable report 
"u this field was made by J. W. Otley, a well known geologist and oil 
expert, and this fact combined with the excellent business ability and 
keen foresight of Mr. Benson, assures the success of the company, which 
has already proved a most important element in the industrial life of 
- uthwestern Texas. 

John R. Rice, after a successful business career, in which he has 
acquired a handsome competence, is now living a retired life in 
San Antonio. He is one of the oldest native Tcxans, for his birth 
occurred in Shelby county of this state in [829, and it would be 
difficult to find one who has lived longer in the Lone Star state than 
has he. His parents were Lemuel and Mary (Masters) Rice, the father 

: Tennessee and the mother from North Carolina, and they came 
to Texas in the early '20s among the first American settlers, arriving 
about the time of the first Austin colonists. They settled first in Shelby 
county, but later removed to Houston county, which remained the home 
for a long number of years and where the father subsequently died. 
The mother died in later years at the home of her son John on the 
Salado in Bexar county. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 47 

John R. Rice spent the early years of his life on the plantation near 
Crockett in Houston county, and after arriving at mature years he 
engaged in the farming and stock business for himself, vocations which 
occupied his time and attention throughout his entire business career. 
In 1866 he came to Southwestern Texas, and two years later, in iHGH. 
located on a farm on the Salado creek in Bexar county, about four 
miles southeast of San Antonio, which remained his permanent home 
for thirty-eight years, retiring from active life early in 1907, and re- 
moving to his home in San Antonio, at 601 Wyoming street, a place 
that he had owned for several years. During his long life Mr. Rice 
has witnessed man) 7 changes in Texas, living as he has under the flags 
of Mexico, the Texas republic, the Confederacy and the States, and his 
early experience brought him in contact with the Indians and all the 
rough phases of pioneer life with its attendant hardships. Although 
many ups and downs have checkered his career, he has passed through 
them all successfully, and now as he is passing down the western slope 
of life he is resting from arduous cares in the midst of family and 
friends, who esteem him for his honorable record and his many com- 
mendable characteristics. It may be a matter of some interest that his 
farm on the Salado, a valuable one of about five hundred acres fronting 
on Salado Creek, was purchased, the first part of it, in 1868, for four 
dollars and a half an acre, while the second addition to the farm, pur- 
chased some time later, cost him ten dollars an acre, and the place is 
now worth thirty-five dollars an acre and represents a total value of over 
Seventeen thousand five hundred dollars. 

Mr. Rice's first wife, who is deceased, was Orrie (Robbins) Rice, 
and by this union there was one daughter, Mary J. Highborn. His 
present wife, to whom he was married at Crockett in 1866, was before 
her marriage Miss Amanda. Grounds, a native of Louisiana, but a mem- 
ber of a family that has resided in Texas for a long number of years, 
first settling in Houston county. Mr. and Mrs. Rice have become the 
parents of seven children : Mrs. Alice Schroeder, Mrs. Callie Glass, 
Mrs. Susan Conway, Elias Rice, Mrs. Annie Douglas, Delia and Mattie 
Rice. The home is a happy and attractive one, where warm-hearted 
hospitality is always to be found by their numerous friends. 

A. H. Jones, a stockman of San Antonio, was born in Gonzales 
county, Texas, in 1859, a son °f Captain A. H. and Minerva (Lewis) 
Jones. The father, a native of Georgia, came to Texas in his youth 
and as the years passed was recognized as one of the most prominent 
characters in the early history of the state. He arrived here in 1834, 
while Texas was still a part of Mexico, and when the residents of the 
state began their struggle for independence he joined the revolutionists 
and did valiant service with the patriots who brought about the birth 
of the new republic. He fought under General Sam Houston at the 
battle of San Jacinto, April 21, 1836 — the engagement which was the 
decisive factor in winning Texan independence. Later Mr. Jones served 
in the Indian and Ranger service and was also a soldier of the Mexican 
war. While a great deal of Captain Jones' time was thus given up to 
military and frontier life he established a good home in Gonzales county 
and was a successful planter and stockman, living there until his death. 



48 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

which occurred in 1S7S. He deserves mention among the notable per- 
sonages of early Texas. His wife, who is still living at the Jones home 
in Gon - county, was horn in Mississippi but came to Texas when 
very young. 

A. 11. Jones was horn and reared in (ion/ales county and acquired 
his education there. From his earliest boyhood he has been in the cattle 
business, being reared in that industry, and when still a youth lie spent 
some years on the range and trail before the days o\ fences and enclosed 
pastures. As a business man in the cattle industry he has been un- 
usually successful. For several years past his cattle interests have been 
centered in l.aSalle and Dimmit comities, where he has a big pasture, 
ggregating oxer two hundred thousand acres, of which he owns one 
hundred and thirty thousand. The Jones ranch is one of the most 
valuable in Southwestern Texas and the owner is one of the leading 1 
Stockmen (^i this part (^i the state, thoroughly conversant with the busi- 
ness in principle and detail and so managing his interests as to win 
gratifying success. 

Mr. Jones' only connection with political or public life was when 
a h«>y of twenty-one he was elected city marshal of Gonzales. Pleasantly 
>itnated in his home relations, he has with him his wife, formerly Miss 
Sue Willie Peck, and three daughters, May, Anna and Carrie. In 1901 
they removed to San Antonio, where they have since lived, having a 
pleasant and attractive home on Laurel Heights, in West French Place. 

William C. Irvix is the owner of the well known Irvin ranch 
comprising sixty thousand acres of land in LaSalle county, Texas, but 
he spends the greater part of his time at his home in San Antonio, the 
ranch being operated and managed by his sons. Mr. Irvin was born at 
Seguin, Guadalupe comity, in 1846, a son of J. A. and Sarah (Tom) 
Irvin. The father . was a native of Alabama and located in Texas in 
[838, settling first in Washington comity, while later he removed to 
< ruadalupe county, where he was engaged as a planter and stockman. 
I lis death there occurred in 1865. The mother represented an old 
family of Tennessee, some of its members having become distinguished 
in the early history of Texas, particularly in the Indian fighting. Her 
brother. Captain J. F. Tom, was numbered among the early pioneers 
of this state and had command of a company of Rangers during the 
( ivil war and took an active part in subduing the red men both prior 
and subsequent to the war. He was wounded at Battle of San Jacinto. 

William C. Irvin has two sisters, Mrs. Ann Elizabeth Dewees and 
.Mi-- Tonimie Irvin, who make their home in San Antonio. Mr. Irvin 
was reared in Guadalupe county. He was quite young at the time of 
his father'- death, and later he lost his elder brother so that the re- 
sponsibility of caring for his mother and sisters was thrown upon him 
at a very early age. I le took his place at herding cattle when quite 
young and has been engaged in the stock business throughout his entire 
life. I te made trips over the old Chisholm trail soon after it was firs! 
opened, in 1870. and became thoroughly familiar with all the cattle 
country from the Rio Grande to the Canadian border, and has passed 
through all of the hardships of the cattleman's 'life of the early days 
although owing to his conservative business qualities and careful man- 




^ 






HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 49 

agement he escaped the difficulties which usually confronted the stock- 
man's career and has met with very gratifying success in his busin< 
operations. He made altogether seven trips over the trail to the north, 
and on his return trip in 1875, he located a ranch at Seymour, in Baylor 
county, in the northwestern part of Texas, where he placed seven thou- 
sand head of cattle during the winter. He remained in that district 
for about five years and then returned again to the southwestern part 
of the state, establishing what has since become known as the Irvin 
ranch in LaSalle county, this ranch embracing sixty thousand acres of 
land, lying east of Cotulla and almost bordering the limits of the town 
although the house stands about twenty miles from that place. During 
the last few years there has been a great influx of settlers into this region 
so that the land has become very valuable and perhaps in due time the 
ranch will be divided into farms for it is becoming too valuable to re- 
tain as pasture land. Mr. Irvin has sold 10,000 acres for colonization. 
Mr. Irvin has become one of the wealthiest stockmen of this state. He 
has spent a busy, active and useful life and through his careful business 
management and sound judgment has now acquired a competence that 
enables him to leave the more arduous duties of a business career to 
others, while he spends a portion of his time at his home in San Antonio, 
while his ranch is managed by his two sons. 

Mr. Irvin was married in Seguin to Miss Medina Dewees, a repre- 
sentative of a prominent pioneer family of this state. Their family 
numbers two sons and four daughters : Jourdan J. and Eugene, who 
conduct the ranch; Mrs. Mabel Wilson; Grace; Mrs. Dr. S. T. Lowry ; 
and Clara Irvin. 

Timothy J. Buckley, of San Antonio, a representative of the live- 
stock interests of the Lone Star state, was born in county Cork, Ireland, 
in 1843. He came to America in 1867, and for nine years was a resident 
of New York city, after which he came to Texas in 1876, and made a 
start in the sheep business in the southwestern part of the state. He 
began operations as a stockman on a small scale but of late years has 
become a successful and wealthy man of prominence and influence in 
stock-raising circles. He has cattle and horses and owns extensive 
pastures amounting to fourteen thousand acres in LaSalle county. His 
ranch headquarters have for many years been at Encinal in the southern 
part of LaSalle county. 

Active and influential in community affairs there, he not only con- 
centrated his energies upon his live-stock business but also became a 
factor in the promotion of many public measures of general benefit. He 
was on the first board of county commissioners elected in that county 
after its organization and he also served for some years as assessor of 
the county. He also extended his efforts to other lines of business and 
was engaged in general merchandising at Encinal under the firm style 
of T. J. Buckley & Son, mainly establishing the store for the business 
education of his eldest son, Cornelius Buckley, who is now deceased, 
having passed away in 1904. Mr. Buckley has had the usual experi- 
ence of the stockman of Texas, his labors sometimes attended with 
reverses and other times with success. Altogether he has prospered 
and his capable management and enterprise have been the factors that 

Vol. II. 4 



50 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

have enabled him to overcome all difficulties and obstacles and work his 

way steadily upward. He is ail extensive buyer and seller of all kinds 
(A live Stock, including cattle, horses and sheep, and he still maintains 
his business headquarters at Encinal. 

Mr. Bucklej was married in New York city to Miss Kate Kitz- 
patrick, who died in Encinal in [893. To them were born seven children 
who still survive: Elizabeth, Annie. Mamie. Kate, Jeremiah Timothy, 
Daniel and James. Mr. Buckley maintains a home at No. 107 Wood- 
ward Place in San Antonio, mainly to give his family educational and 
social advantages, but his business interests call him much of the time 
to his ranch. 

Richard G. Scon, well known as a contactor of San Antonio, in 
which connection he has done much for the improvement of the citv in 
the way of street paving and park development, was born in Monterey, 
Mexico, November 14, 1868, a son of Walter and Alary (Perie) Scott, 
both of 'whom were natives of Scotland. On coming - to America Walter 
Scott located at Toronto, Canada, where he operated a sash and blind 
factory and also engaged in building operations, becoming closely con- 
nected with industrial interests in that city. . During the early years of 
his residence in America he also went to New Orleans, where he executed 
a large contract, and later he came from Canada to Texas, locating at 
Brenham, but prior to the Civil war he went to Monterey, Mexico, 
where he lived for about seventeen years. There he engaged in con- 
tracting and did a large amount of work in 'the repairing and mainte- 
nance of artillery equipment for the Mexican government. In 1878 he 
removed with his family to San Antonio, which has since been his home, 
fie was the pioneer in the business of mesquite block street paving in 
this city and did the first work of that kind in San Antonio's streets. 
Mr. Scott is a most interesting man. He has traveled extensively, living 
under various flags, and he possesses many of the strong and sterling 
characteristics of the Scotch people, including the perseverance and 
ready adaptability which have made him a successful business man in 
the various places in which he has resided. His wife, who died in San 
Antonio, in 1900, was related to the Peries, who were prominent news- 
ier men of Ontario, notably in connection with the Guelph Herald: 
Richard G. Scott received his business training under his father's 
direction, being trained to the work of the various mechanical pursuits 
necessarv to the business of a general contractor. For several years he 
ha- been engaged quite extensively in taking and executing contracts 
for street paving in San Antonio and vicinity and has made a splendid 
rd in that business. Following in the footsteps of his father he 
ha- put in much of the street paving in San Antonio. For four years, 
from [899 to 1903, he was street commissioner of this city, under Mayor 
Mar-hall Hicks, an administration that inaugurated and carried out a 
tern of modern street paving in San Antonio after years of inactivity 
in that direction, and making San Antonio equal to other cities in this 
class of improvement. Mr. Scott also, under Mayor Hicks' administra- 
tion, carried out the improvement in the walks and drives in San Pedro 
Park which have made it one of the most delightful public parks in the 
south. During the winter of t 906-7, he executed a large contract for 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 51 

paving the roadways at Fort Sam I fouston, San Antonio, for the federal 
government, this work being in connection with the enlai gtt ffle n t of the 

fort to a brigade post and making it one of the principal military head- 
quarters in the United States. 

Mr. Scott is widely recognized as an enterprising, alert and ener- 
getic business man. He has ever been faithful and prompt in the execu- 
tion of the contracts entrusted to his care and thoroughly understand- 
his business, knowing how to get the best results with materials and 
opportunities at hand. His success is well merited and has made him 
one of the substantial residents of the city. 

Mr. Scott was married to Miss Georgia Kirkwood, a daughter of 
David Kirkwood, who is best known for his enterprise in opening up 
and developing the lignite coal mines at Kirk, Texas. Mr. and Mrs. 
Scot.t have five children: Margaret, Richard Goldie, Jr., Elizabeth J., 
Georgina and Ethel Hicks Scott. 

William S. Lynch. Although Mr. Lynch has been a resident of 
San Antonio for but a few years, he has already become prominent 
among the representatives of stock-raising interests in the southwest. 
He is a native of Jamaica, and brought up at Rugby, Warwickshire, 
England. In 1887 he went to South America, locating in the Argentine 
Republic, where he was engaged in the great live-stock interests of that 
country for nine years. In 1895 he went to the state of Coahuila, 
Mexico, where he acted as manager of a large ranch until 1903, in which 
year he came to San Antonio, where he has since been engaged in 
shipping fine live stock to Mexico. He is a prominent exporter of fine 
cattle and horses to Mexico from the Emited States, and he is also an 
importer of fine stallions from England for breeding purposes in Mexico. 
This state has long been known as a prominent center for the live stock 
industry, and Mr. Lynch's experience in this connection well fits him 
for this business, in which he is meeting with gratifying success. 

William A. Shafer, the efficient station master at the Sunset depot 
in San Antonio, holds and merits a place among its representative 
citizens. He was born at Camden, Preble county, Ohio, in i860, a 
son of John W. and Sarah (Brown) Shafer. The mother died dur- 
ing the early childhood of her son William, but the father, who was 
born in Pennsylvania, lived for many vears in Preble county, Ohio, 
and about 1867 removed to Noble, Richland county, Illinois, where he 
became a merchant. He still resides in that city, an active factor in 
its business life. 

When but a youth William A. Shafer left his father's home in 
Noble, Illinois, and came to western Texas, where, at Big Springs, a 
division point of the Texas & Pacific Railroad, he became an employe 
of that company, and he has ever since been identified with the railroad 
interests in the Lone Star state. After a few years spent in the western 
part of the state with the Texas & Pacific Company he severed his rela- 
tions therewith and became connected with the Southern Pacific Com- 
pany, remaining in the train service of that corporation for over twenty 
years, his last run being as passenger conductor between San Antonio 
and Sanderson. In 1903, in recognition of his long and efficient service 
in the passenger department, the Southern Pacific Company appointed 



5- HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

him station master of the beautiful now passenger station at San An- 
tonio, which was completed in February, 1005. This position has 
brought Mr. Shafer not only into close contact with the people of San 
Antonio, but with the general traveling public as well, adding- to the 
city's reputation as a genial resort for tourists, and his administration 
of the affairs of the office has made it notable for well ordered regularity, 
efficienc) ^n service and comfort and convenience to the people. 

In Richland county. Illinois. .Mr. Shafer was married to Miss Ida 
McMurtry, and they have one little daughter, Marie. Mr, Shafer is 
prominent in Masonic circles, being a Knight Templar, a Thirty-second 
degree Mason in the Scottish Rite and a Shriner. 

J. Edwin Beck is a farmer and stockman living at Adkins in Bexar 
county. His birth occurred in Jackson comity, Texas, July 4, 1843, his 
parents being Joseph H. and Sarah Jane (Sledge) Beck. The father 
was horn in South Carolina but was partially reared in Alabama, where 
he lived for several years, coming to Texas in 1837. He was a slave 
owner and a prosperous planter and stockman. He lived for several 
years in Jackson county and in 1846 removed to San Antonio, Bexar 
county, where he died in 1862. On coming to this city he purchased 
considerable real estate, securing most of it from the father of Augusta 
Evans, the author, whose family lived in San Antonio in those days. 
For his home place he had a forty acre tract of land in South Alamo 
street in what is now a most thickly settled district of the city. He also 
established a large stock ranch about eight miles east of San Antonio 
and there in connection with his cattle interests opened up one of the 
first farms east of the Salado creek. He was a representative citizen 
of the best class, active and energetic in business and closely connected 
with an industry which has been the chief source of wealth to Texas. 
His wife, whom he had married in Alabama, died in San Antonio in 1877. 

J. Edwin Beck was only three years of age when the family removed 
to San Antonio, so that he was practically reared in this city, where he 
received such educational advantages as could be obtained in the schools 
here at that time. Closely following the secession of Texas from the 
In ion and prior to the outbreak of the Civil war he enlisted at San 
Antonio when only seventeen years of age. This was early in April, 
[861, and on the 21st of that month he was mustered in as a member 
of the First Regiment of Texas Mounted Cavalry, state troops, com- 
manded by Colonel Henry E. McCulloch, the noted Mexican war veteran 
and Indian fighter. Mr. Beck was a member of the state troops until 
they were disbanded as such, at which time he joined the regular Con- 
federate army as a member of the cavalry. With most of the others 
of hi- company he enlisted in Wood's regiment, which was being organ- 
ized at that time. He served for about twelve months on the Texas 
frontier, fighting Indians and protecting the frontier settlers, principally 
in the Concho country and vicinity. About this time his father died and 
for a brief period he was not connected with the regular service. Later, 
however, he assisted Hiram A. Mitchell in raising a troop of cavalry, 
of which Mitchell was elected captain and Mr. Beck lieutenant. He 
was assigned to Henavides' regiment on the Rio Grande with head- 
quarter- at Eagle Pass, scouting along the Mexican border and meeting' 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

the exigencies of war which arose in that section of the country. He 
was in service until after the surrender of the Confederate army in 1865 
and earned the reputation of being one of the most fearless soldier- in 
that part of the country. 

Following the close of the war he returned to San Antonio and went 
upon his father's old ranch east of the city, where he commenced raising 
stock. He devoted his attention exclusively to that business until the 
country began to be divided and fenced as it became more thickly settled. 
He then commenced farming in connection with his stock-raising inter- 
ests and in 1876 removed to his present place at the junction. of the 
Gonzales and Pirie roads about seventeen miles east of San Antonio and 
two miles south of Adkins. This farm and stock ranch of about one 
thousand acres is beautifully situated and is one of the best in Bexar 
county and Southwestern Texas. 

Mr. Beck was married in Bexar county in January, 1869, to Miss 
Lee R. Irvin, who was born in Mississippi but was reared in Bexar 
county. They have ten children: Jeff D., Mrs. Ella M. Cooksey, Wade 
Hampton, Harvey Edwin, Russell, Jesse Lee, Joe, Frank, Zelia and 
Emma. 

In his political views Mr. Beck is a stalwart Democrat of the old 
school but votes independently, and during all of his life has taken an 
active interest and somewhat prominent part in politics and public affairs 
of San Antonio and Bexar county, where he is numbered as an influen- 
tial citizen; though he has never sought nor held public office. He is a 
thinker and student, a man of broad mind, thoroughly posted not only 
on his business interests but on the general affairs of his country and 
of the world. 

David S. Combs. Texas derives its greatest wealth from its gi- 
gantic stock-raising interests and there are in the state many men who 
in connection with this industry have displayed marked business ability 
and executive force and have realized through the careful conduct of their 
business interests a most gratifying measure of prosperity. Among this 
number in San Antonio is David S. Combs, who owns extensive stock- 
raising interests in Southwestern Texas and who owes his success en- 
tirely to his own labors, so that he may justly be called a self-made man. 
He was born in Johnson county, Missouri, in 1839, the son of David B. 
and Rebecca (Burruss) Combs. His parents were natives of Kentucky 
and at an early day settled in Johnson county, Missouri. The father died 
in that state and with his mother and stepfather Mr. Combs of this review 
went to Hempstead county, Arkansas, when seven years of age. The fam- 
ily lived there for eight years and in 1854 came to Texas, locating in Hayes 
county near San Marcos. That was on the frontier in those days and 
they had many encounters with the Indians. They were farming people, 
but, like many of the young men of the country in the early days, Mr. 
Combs drifted into the cattle business, in which he has since been engaged. 

He was a young man of twenty-two years at the time of the out- 
break of the Civil war. True to his loved Southland, he enlisted in 
1 86 1 in the Confederate armv, becoming a member of the famous Terrv 
Rangers, cavalrymen, who did such splendid fighting and heroic service 
throughout the war and in whose honor the beautiful Terrv Ranger 



54 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

monument is now in course oi erection at Austin. Mr. Combs joined 
this organization at La Grange in Fayette county, the command being 
mustered into service as the Eighth Texas Cavalry, Mr. Combs belonging 
to Company D. He was with the Terry Rangers in all their service in 
Kentucky. fennessee, Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia, and among the 
most noted battles in which he engaged were those ot Shiloh, Murirees- 
boro, Tcrryville and Chickamauga. He also participated in a number of 
others ot lesser importance and was constantly on active duty. About 
a year before the war closed he came home on a short furlough and on 
again entering service he was assigned to duty in the Trans-Mississippi 
department ill Texas and spent the remainder of the time with the Con- 
federate army on the lower Rio Grande in the vicinity of Brownsville. 
He was in the last battle of the war about two weeks after the surrender 
at Appomattox, on the Rio Grande between Brownsville and Santiago 
de Brazos. He was ever a brave and loyal soldier and met the usual 
hardships and experiences meted out to those in military service. 

When the war was over Air. Combs returned to San Marcos and 
an handling cattle. For several years he was engaged in the exciting- 
life of the trail driver, taking great herds of cattle from Texas over the 
trails to Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana and other markets. In 
1880 he established a ranch of his own on the South Concho river in 
Tom Green county near San Angelo, and in 1882 he moved his outfit still 
further west to Brewster county, which has ever since remained his 
ranching headquarters. There he has a large and valuable place, coll- 
ating of about one hundred thousand acres. Mr. Combs is one of the 
representatives of the old-time cattlemen who have experienced all the 
tips and downs of the business and he is now enjoying life in prosperity. 

Mr. Combs was married in Missouri to Miss Eleanora Browning, 
and they have three children, namely : Nora Burruss, Lila Alice and 
Guy St. Clair Combs. In 1898 he established his residence at San 
Antonio and has one of the most beautiful and commodious homes on 
Laurel Heights at Xo. 325 West French Place. 

Erich Menger, who is living retired from active business and is 
now serving as one of San Antonio's aldermen, was born in Prussia in 
JS43. His parents, Simon and Augusta (Schoeniger) Menger, were 
loth natives of Prussia but are now deceased. They came to America 
and located at New Braunfels, Texas, in 1846, residing there for two 
years, after which they removed to San Antonio. The father, who was 
born June 6, 1807, passed away in this city May 1, 1892. In his native 
country he was a school teacher and professor of music and he continued 
t< devote his time to instruction in music after locating in San Antonio. 
His son, Dr. Rudolph Menger, is a well known and capable physician 
of this county, who formerly served as city physician. The eldest son of 
the family. Oscar Menger, was a Confederate soldier connected with 
the army of Virginia. He participated in the battle of .Gettysburg and 
died a- a result of wounds sustained on that sanguinary held. 

Erich Menger was reared in San Antonio, where he acquired a good 
education, devoting his attention to business pursuits. For a number of 
year- he was a successful soap manufacturer, the Menger soap factory 
being located at the corner of North Laredo street and Lake View 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 55 

avenue. The conduct of this enterprise and his growing trade brought 
him a large and profitable patronage and with a handsome competence 
thus won he retired from active business life and is now living in well 
earned ease. 

Mr. Menger was married in San Antonio to Miss Emilie Phillippe, 
a daughter of Eugene Phillippe. She was born in this city and died 
April 25, 1901, at the age of forty-seven years. In their family were 
four children, three are yet living: Mrs. Emilie Bihl; Rudolph and 
Erich Menger, Jr. Emil W. died at the age of twenty-one. Mr. Menger 
has been actively connected with public life in San Antonio and his effort- 
in behalf of the general welfare have been a tangible force in advancing 
public progress. He was a member of the first city council under the 
Mayor Paschal administration and is now serving as alderman from the 
third ward. He is chairman of the committee on streets and bridges, is 
a member of the finance committee, the committee on parks and plazas 
and the committee on fire limits. In his public service he has an eye to 
practical results rather than to glittering generalities. Strong and posi- 
tive in his democracy, his party fealty is not grounded on partisan 
prejudice and he enjoys the confidence and respect of all his associates 
irrespective of party. Opposed to misrule in public affairs, he labors for 
the welfare of the city along lines of good government, of clean politics 
and steady progress. 

William Saenger, proprietor of pottery works and a cotton gin at 
Elmendorf, Texas, in which connection he is well known as a repre- 
sentative of the industrial life of his city, was born at Trenton, New 
Jersey, in 1875. A spirit of enterprise and determination and ability to 
recognize and improve opportunities has led him from a region of limited 
endeavor into a field of broad and successful accomplishment. 

His father, Frederick William Saenger, was a native of Rothenburg, 
Schlesien, Germany, and came to the United States in 1874. Having 
learned the business of pottery manufacture in his native country, he 
located at Trenton, New Jersey, where he followed his chosen vocation, 
Trenton at that time being the center of the whiteware industry in the 
• United States. Still continuing in the pottery business, he resided for 
a time in Missouri, afterward in Kansas and subsequently at Lavernia, 
Texas. In 1882 he established the Saenger pottery at St. Hedwig. 
Bexar county, Texas, the plant being several miles from the railroad, so 
that the output was shipped in the old Mexican carretas or Chihuahua 
wagons. In 1885, when the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway, 
then being constructed from San Antonio to the gulf, was completed as 
far as Elmendorf, the Saenger pottery was removed to that town, which 
is situated in Bexar county, sixteen miles southeast of San Antonio. 
Here the business has remained, gradually increasing in output and im- 
portance, until now it is one of the prominent industries of Southwestern 
Texas. In 1882, at the time the pottery was established at St. Hedwig, 
the output was about ten cars a year, and the growth of the business is 
indicated by the fact that the annual output is now one hundred cars, 
The Saenger Pottery Works manufacture jugs, flower pots and various 
kinds of stoneware and earthenware utensils, and these goods are, by 
long years of actual test and established trade in the general market, 



56 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

equal to any made outside of the state. Fire brick is also manufactured 
at this plant and the business has grown to large and profitable propor- 
tions, the excellence of the output securing a ready sale on the market. 
Frederick William Saenger, the founder of the enterprise and its 

manager for many years, sold the business to his son William in 1905. 
The purchaser, foreseeing the possibilities of the business, immediately 
rganized a stock company, retaining for himself the controlling interest, 
and built and improved the plant to its present proportions. 

William Saenger was reared and educated in Bexar county, acquir- 
ing a good education in San Antonio, where for several years he was 
a student in the old German-English school, and in St. Mary's College. 
At the age oi seventeen he left school and afterward engaged in teach- 
ing for three years at Yorktown in Dewitt county. At a later date he 
entered into partnership with his father in the pottery and other busi- 
ness interests at Elmendorf, the firm name of Saenger & Son being 
assumed and so continuing until William Saenger took entire charge 
oi the business as sole proprietor and his father's successor. In addi- 
tion to the pottery interests he owns and operates the cotton gin at 
Elmendorf and handles a surprising amount of cotton at this little town 
each year, his business furnishing a market to a large number of heavy 
producers throughout the surrounding district. Mr. Saenger deserves 
much credit for establishing and building up such a hirge and important 
industry in Bexar county, for it is proving of immense value and benefit 
to the citizens of the locality as well as a source of individual profit to 
the owners. 

Mr. Saenger occupies a pretty home in Elmendorf. He was mar- 
ried in 1906 to Miss Amelia W'ahrmund, a daughter of Colonel Otto 
Wahrmund, of San Antonio, who is mentioned on another page of this 
work. 

William Schertz. the leading merchant of Schertz, Guadalupe 
county, is a native son of that village and a representative of a family 
that is widely known as one of the most prominent in the early German 
settlement of Southwestern Texas. His father, Sebastian Schertz, was 
born in the province of Alsace, Germany, and came to Texas in 1843. 
preceding the arrival of the Castro and Prince Solms-Braunfels colonists, 
which he joined, however, upon their arrival in 1845. During the first 
two years of his residence in this state Mr. Schertz resided in San 
Antonio, and then in 1845 ne went with the colonists to Xew Braunfels, 
where he lived for some time, then locating on a farm on the Cibolo 
river in the southern part of Comal county. Later, however, he removed 
to a farm on the Guadalupe river, also in Comal county, about twenty- 
five miles from Xew Braunfels. In 1866 with his family he made a 
long overland trip, in wagons, to Missouri, returning in the fall of the 
same year, and he then settled in the southwestern corner of Guadalupe 
county, where it joins Bexar and Comal, there resuming his farming 
operations, in which he had always met with success. This being a rich 

Town of Schertz. 

agricultural country, other farmers came in and settled, and after the 
Southern Pacific Railroad was completed in 1876 a little settlement 



HISTORY OF SOLTIIWKST TEXAS 57 

gradually grew up around Mr. Schertz's place, a station and postoffice 
were established, and it grew into the present prosperous little town of 
Schertz. Sebastian Schertz passed to his final reward in 1889, but his 
widow, nee Elizabeth Rittimann, is still living. She, too, is a native <>\ 
Alsace, having come to this country with the Castro colon}-. They 
became the parents of five sons and one daughter, the brothers of Wil- 
liam being Adolph, Martin, Henry, and Ferdinand, and the sister, 
Augusta. 

William Schertz was born in 1870, and since his early youth has 
been successfully engaged in the mercantile business. He established his 
present store at Schertz in 1892, at first on a small scale, but by his well 
directed efforts the business soon developed into the present large estab- 
lishment, housed in substantial new brick buildings and carrying large 
stocks of all lines of general merchandise and farm machinery, repre- 
senting the best brands of goods and all handled and displayed in a man- 
ner that makes it the equal of the most modern metropolitan establish- 
ments. The surrounding country being rich and settled with thrifty and 
prosperous German farmers makes this business a particularly valuable 
one, and this young man deserves credit for building up such a success- 
ful establishment. The Schertz family own practically the entire busi- 
ness interests of the town, as two of his brothers own and operate the 
large cotton gin at this place, and they are likewise large owners of land 
in this vicinity, in Guadalupe and Bexar counties, while William Schertz 
owns large land interests in Runnels county, and is the present postmaster 
of his town. The cotton gin was originally established by Sebastian 
Schertz in 1870, being first operated by mule power and having a 
capacity of two bales of cotton a day, but it is now a modern, steam- 
operated plant, with the best equipment of machinery and has a capacity 
of one hundred bales a day, while during the busy season it frequently 
turns out that much ginned cotton. Adolph and Martin Schertz are 
the proprietors of the gin. 

John Rittimann, an uncle of William Schertz, is also a well- 
known pioneer in Southwestern Texas, now making his home at Schertz. 
He was born in Alsace, came over with Castro's colony in 1845, and 
with his parents located at D'Hanis, Medina county, Texas, one of the 
Castro colonies. Here they underwent the most severe hardships of 
pioneer life, often going for days without proper food, and sometimes 
without any food at all, but were frequently supplied with deer meat by 
the Indians, who by kind treatment were friendly and continued to be so 
until later settlers came in and by their hard manner changed the red- 
skins into foes and brought on all the subsequent Indian troubles of the 
sixties and seventies. From D'Hanis the Rittimanns moved to the 
Cibolo river in Guadalupe county. In 1861 John Rittimann joined the 
Third Regiment of Texas Infantry of the Confederate army, in which 
he served for about four years, mostly in Texas, and after the close of 
the war he settled in Comal county, twenty-two miles from New Braun- 
fels, where he lived for forty years, coming thence in 1903 to his present 
home in Schertz. 

Dr. William L. Barker, superintendent of the Southwestern 
Asylum for the Insane at San Antonio, was born in Upshur county, 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Texas, on the 2d of July, 1852, a son of Dr. William O. and Julia A. 
rane) Barker. The father was a native of South Carolina, hut came 

.'e\as in 1845. a,u ^ became one oi the best known pioneer physicians 
in the eastern part of the state. His early educational training was 
received in the country schools near his home, but later he became a 
student in Morgan II. Looney's school at Gilmer, Texas, the principal of 
which ranked at that time with the foremost educators of the south. 
Mrs. Barker was a native of Mississippi, and both she and her husband 
died in Upshur county, Texas. 

Having decided to make the practice of medicine his life work, Dr. 
William L. Barker spent two year- in preparatory study in the office 
oi his father, after which he entered the medical department of the 
University oi Louisiana, where he graduated on the 17th of March, 
1874. In the same year he began the practice of his chosen profession in 
his native county oi Upshur, but in 1879 he left that city for Longview, 
where he established a drug business in connection with his practice. In 
B82 he became a resident of Waco, where he enjoyed a lucrative prac- 
tice, and in 1885 was elected city health physician, and during the six 
years in which he filled that position he was influential in having a thor- 
ough sanitary system established, which resulted in greatly reducing the 
death rate, the last being only 8.41 per thousand. During that time he 
also held the position of division surgeon for the Cotton Belt Railroad. 
Dr. Barker retired from these positions to accept the snperintendencv of 
the Southwestern Insane Asylum by appointment of Governor James S. 
Hogg on the 14th of October, 1891. this appointment following a long 
and intimate association between the two gentlemen. Dr. Barker having 
accompanied the governor on his speech-making tonr of the north and 
east near the close of his administration. After retiring from this posi- 
tion in January, 1895, the Doctor located in San Antonio in the general 
practice of medicine, where he has been frequently called as an expert 
witness in insanity cases, as he is generally recognized by the medical 
profession as an expert in insanity cases. He is also the author of a 
number of papers on sanitary and public hygiene. In January, 1907, he 

returned to the snperintendencv of the Southwestern Asylum for the 
Insane by appointment of Governor T. M. Campbell. 

Dr. Barker married Miss Mollie F. Barnes, of Harrison county. 
Texas, and their union has been blessed by two children, Ida V. and 
William L.. Jr. The Doctor is a member of the West Texas Medical 

ciation, of the State Medical Association, of which he was chairman 
of the section on medicine, materia medica and therapeutics, and of the 
American Medical Association. He was for many years an active and 
prominent Free Mason, having been past master and D. D. G. M. of the 
twenty-fifth Masonic di>trict of Texas. Notwithstanding his busy medical 
career Dr. Barker has always taken quite an active part in politics and 
ha- been a delegate to almost every convention since the one which 
nominated Richard Coke for governor. He was a delegate to the Chicago 
convention which nominated W. J. Bryan, being a representative from 
the thirteenth congre>sional district. On the 14th of February, 1898, 
he v ted to the city council of San Antonio, and served as alderman 

for six years or three terms, and was a candidate for mayor of San 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 59 

Antonio before the Democratic primaries in April, 1904, where he was 
defeated by only ninety-nine votes. Dr. Barker is a man of fine physique 
and address, genial and frank and is deservedly popular. 

William Meier, M. D., a farmer and physician of Bexar county, 
whose postoffice is San Antonio, was 'born at Magdeburg, Prussia, in 
1840. He came to America with his parents in 1854. when a youth of 
fourteen years, the family locating on a farm near Elgin, Illinois, where 
they remained for about ten years. Dr. Meier was reared to agricultural 
pursuits, but was interested mostly in getting an education and spent 
much of his time in school. He prepared for the ministry of the German 
Evangelical denomination in the collegiate institute of that church, gradu- 
ating in the same. * He was admitted to the ministry in 1870 and was 
assigned for duty as minister in the conference comprising the states of 
Missouri, Nebraska and Kansas. He thus spent several years in the last 
two, being largely engaged in missionary work. He further qualified 
himself for these duties by taking a full course in medicine during the 
years of 1880, 1881 and 1882 in the Northwestern Medical College at St. 
Joseph, Missouri, from which institution he was graduated in the last 
mentioned year. Since that time he has combined the practice of medi- 
cine with his ministerial labors and duties. 

In 1883 Dr. Meier was sent to Texas by the missionary board of 
the Evangelical church to organize congregations of that denomination 
in this state, to the work of which he applied himself with his accustomed 
energy, vigor and continuously optimistic spirit. With high ideals, he 
labored zealously to accomplish his purpose, making his headquarters in 
San Antonio, whence he traveled all over the state wherever he recog- 
nized opportunities for" organization. His particular work of credit at 
that time was the upbuilding of the German Evangelical church in San 
Antonio, his labors being crowned with splendid results, including the 
erection of the church building at the corner of Chestnut and Burnet 
streets. Of this church he became pastor. Subsequently he was appointed 
presiding elder of the denomination for the state of Texas, which posi- 
tion he acceptably filled for several years. 

In 1886 Dr. Meier purchased what was the beginning of his present 
fine farm, lying eight and a half miles south of San Antonio on the 
Montez road. For some years he rented the land, but when his sons 
became old enough to take care of the property he placed it in their 
charge, while he gave his attention exclusively to church work until about 
1894, when he took up his abode upon the farm, since which time he has 
given his personal attention. He still remains in regular standing as a 
minister of the church, however, subject to call, but remaining without 
an assignment as a minister or other official. He still devotes consider- 
able time to the practice of medicine, especially among his old friends, 
who frequently come to him for a distance of thirty miles on professional 
business. Dr. Meier's farm is a model of its kind, known all over the 
southwest. It has been given constant and expert care and attention 
and consequently is in a high state of cultivation. He has had unvary- 
ing success from the start, beginning with nothing, but todav has a valu- 
able property improved with modern equipments and yielding excellent 
returns. From the standpoint of location the Meier farm is one of the 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

host in Texas, lying as it docs between the San Antonio river on the 
west and the Salado creek on the east. It comprises about tour hundred 
and seventy acres oi rich and valuable land, on which he raises the finest 
corn, cotton, sugar cane, water melons, vegetables and berries of all 
kinds and fruits, including peaches, pears, plums and apples. The farm 
is also noted for the excellence oi its dairy products, particularly butter 
made from the milk oi a tine herd oi Jerseys, lie also raises high grade 
poultry, making a specialty of the White Leghorn variety. Dr. Meier has 
a very comfortable home lighted with twenty-eight acetylene gas lights. 
His place i< irrigated from the San Juan ditch and he is president of the 
ass eiation which controls that ditch. Dr. Meier is also president of the 
Bexar County Farmers' Institute, which was organized in 1904 and is 
doing" much good for the farmers of this county through the interchange 
of experiences and demonstrations. It is composed of an enthusiastic 
body of men and has had direct bearing upon the welfare and prosperity 
mi' the agricultural class. 

Dr. Meier was married in Nebraska to Miss Christiana Dashner and 
they have four children: Mrs". Anna Arnold, Henry, Gideon and Melton 
Meier. His life work has been characterized by devotion to those inter- 
est -^ which benefit mankind and even in his business career, aside from 
his labors in the church, his work has been an element in general pros- 
perity and growth. He is well know r n in Bexar county, commanding the 
unqualified confidence and esteem of all with whom he has been associated. 

Dr. Gideon Lee Roberts, engaged in the practice of medicine and 
surgery in San Antonio, was born in Buncombe county, North Caro- 
lina, in 1840. and is a son of the Rev. B. McCord and Dolly F. (Rogers) 
Roberts. The father was born in Wilkesboro, North Carolina, in 1810. 
and lived for many' years in Buncombe county, but in 1840 removed 
with his family to Springfield, Missouri, and during the remainder of his 
life was a resident of Greene and Christian counties in that state. He 
was a minister of the Missionary Baptist church of more than local note 
and during the latter years of his life was a teacher in a theological 
seminary. A man of much erudition, a deep student and logical thinker, 
he also possessed eloquence and convincing oratorical powers. He held 
powerful sway over his audiences and for many years throughout south- 
western Missouri his name was a household word in connection with the 
preaching of the gospel, while his influence caused religious awakening 
in thousands of homes. He was a man of fine personal appearance 
and large build, and these qualities, added to his intellectual attainments, 
made his a very attractive personalitv. He is well remembered as the 
founder of the first Baptist church that was erected in Springfield and 
became widely recognized as a distinguished divine in that state. He 
died in 1883. while his wife, who was a native of Jefferson county, 
Tennessee, passed away in Springfield in 1851. 

Dr. Roberts has had an adventurous and interesting life. Before 

outbreak of the Civil war he had made considerable progress in the 
study of medicine. .After hostilities had begun, however, he temporarily 
discontinued his studies and raised a troop of cavalry in southeast Mis- 
souri for the Confederate service. He was made captain of his companv, 
which was placed in service in Missouri under General Price. For more 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 61 

than two years he and his men were continuously in strenuous conflict in 
the war in southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas, where 
ground was bitterly contested. J lis activity in capturing Federal soldi* 
mainly officers, made him much sought by the enemy, and he was finally 
captured and sentenced to be shot, July 3, 1863. lie managed to make 
his escape July 4, 1863. He then continued with Price's army east of 
the Mississippi river, was captured again in Mast Tennessee and taken 
to various prisons, but was finally exchanged after leaving Fort Dela- 
ware and resumed service in the field. He was in active campaigning 
in Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia and the Caro- 
linas. During part of his service he was on the staff of General Brown, 
whose operations were carried on mainly at Charleston. South Carolina, 
and vicinity. Dr. Roberts was with his command at Charlotte, North 
Carolina, when the war closed. During his active service he sustained 
several severe bullet wounds, some of which yet cause him suffering. 

Soon after the cessation of hostilities the Doctor came to Texas,. 
and, having continued his medical studies, he began the practice of medi- 
cine at Weston, Collin county. Later he attended the Eclectic Medical 
College of St. Louis, where he was graduated with the class of 1867. 
From Weston he removed to Cooper, in Delta county, where he was suc- 
cessfully engaged in the practice of medicine for nearly eighteen years. 
He also practiced at Sherman, Texas, for about three years, and 1111896 
he located in San Antonio, which has since been his home. Dr. Roberts 
has now almost retired from practice. For many years he made a 
specialty of gynecology, in which branch he achieved great success. As 
a specialist in female diseases he is widely known throughout Texas and 
the south w r est among the profession and the laity. 

Dr. Roberts was married to Miss Emma Laura Duke, and they have 
three children : James McCord, Ernest Braxten and William L. Roberts. 
The Doctor is a Mason and is connected with the United Confederate 
Veterans of the Department of Texas, in which for several years he has 
been chief surgeon with the rank of major. He is a man of naturally 
strong intellectual force and his attainments as a member of one of the 
learned professions have given him a place in the foremost rank of the 
medical fraternity. He has been a resident of Texas for about forty years 
and throughout the entire period has been connected with the practice of 
medicine and surgery. 

Joseph Broussard. One of the most prominent of San Antonio's 
business men is Joseph Broussard, who is extensively engaged in the 
buying and selling of Texas cattle. He was born at St. Alary Parish, 
Patterson, Louisiana, a son of J. B. N. and Amelvena (Degre) Brous- 
sard. The paternal grandfather, Nicola Broussard, was a native of 
Canada, but of French parentage, and he settled in St. Alary parish in 
the early part of the nineteenth centurv and established the cattle and 
butcher business, which has ever since been carried on at Patterson by 
the Broussard family, from generation to generation, and is now con- 
ducted there by the son of the above named Joseph. Xicola Broussard 
supplied meat to Jackson's army in the campaign against the British 
around New Orleans in the war of 1812. Both Air. and Airs. J. B. N. 
Broussard lived and died in Patterson, La. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

ICph Uroussard was roared aild educated ill the place of his 
nativity, ami in the course k^\ time took charge of the butcher and slaugh- 
tering business established by his grandfather, succeeding his father and 

ming one (^\ the prominent business men of that place. He also 
engaged to 9omc extent in SUgar planting in St. Mary parish. As many 
as twenty years ago he began to handle Texas cattle, and after establish- 
ing his home in San Antonio, in February. igoh, he continued the busi- 
— and is numbered among the city's leading men. At: the time of the 
removal (H the family to San Antonio the older children remained in 
Patterson, where the name o\ Broussard is so well known and honored. 

Mr. Broussard's first wife, who is deceased, was Miss Eulalie 
Boudreaux of St. Mary's parish, and they became the parents of seven 
children: Lillie Victoria, Terzile. Delia, Cornelia, R. Edward, Blanche 
and Genevieve. Mr. Broussard subsequently married L. F. llsley, the 
daughter of the late Judge llsley of New Orleans. He was of English 
lineage and was a prominent lawyer of Louisiana, also serving as a 
judge of the supreme court of that state. Three children have been born 
of this union. Antoinette, Mae and Joseph. 

Celestin Yili-kmaix, city collector of San Antonio, was born in 
Bellefourd, France, in 1843. His parents, Michael and Catharine Ville- 
main, were also natives of Erance and came to Texas in 1853, settling 
in Bexar county, where they established a farm and stock ranch on 
the Medina river. Mr. Yillemain also turned his attention to freighting 
with ox teams between San Antonio and the coast (Port Lavaca), in 
which business he continued with success for several years. In 1870 
Michael Villemain removed to San Antonio, where he resided until his 
death in 1886, having for a vear survived his wife, who passed awav 
in 1885. 

lestin Yillemain came to Bexar county when only ten years of 
age, and therefore was practically reared in San Antonio. From early 
boyhood he worked with his father in the freighting business, first with 
ox teams, while later they operated sixteen big mule team wagons in the 
freighting business. During the period of the Civil war he was mostly 
occupied in hauling cotton for the Confederate government. After the 
war, in iHf)/, he established himself in business in San Antonio as a 
general merchant and continued in that line for thirty-four years with 
unvarying success, his store being on West Commerce street, at the 
corner of Santa Rosa avenue, where Chapa's drug store is now located. 
About the time he discontinued the mercantile business he located on a 
large cattle ranch with irrigated farm in connection, which he had estab- 
lished south of San Antonio at the Third Mission. Recently, how- 
>ld his cattle and farming interests, and his real estate interests 
are now all in the city, where he owns some valuable property, having 
made judicious investment of his capital in real estate. . 

In the spring of [905 Mr. Yillemain was elected city collector of 
San Antonio, with the Mavor Callaghan administration, and is now 

g that position in capable and efficient manner. He is interested 
in matter-, of public progress and improvement, and his efforts in behalf 
of political welfare and general advancement in San Antonio have been 
effective and far-reaching. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 63 

Mr. Villemain was married at Castroville, in Medina county, T< 
to Miss Jennie Kruts, and they have five children: Celestin, Jr., Frank, 
Lizzie, Josie and Addie Villeinain. 

Captain August H. Kieffer, assistant city marshal at San Antonio, 
was born at Castroville, Medina county, Texas, in August, 1862. His 
parents, Blasius and Adeline (Halberdie) Kieffer, were natives of the 
province of Alsace, France, and came to Texas as members of Castro's 
AJsatian colony in 1846, being among those who were pioneers in settling 
the famous colony of Castroville in Medina county, about twenty-five 
miles west of San Antonio. Mrs. Kieffer died during the cholera epi- 
demic of 1866. Mr. Kieffer was a successful business man and for 
several years conducted a brewery at Castroville, where he died in 1883. 

Captain Kieffer remained with his father until about thirteen years 
of age, when he went to Del Rio, in Val Verde county. He had several 
years' experience as a cowboy during the earlier days of the cattle busi- 
ness, when the range was open and there were no wire fences to show 
individual ownership or to prevent the stockman from herding his cattle 
wherever he desired. In 1887 and 1888 Captain Kieffer engaged in 
business at Del Rio. In the fall of the succeeding year he was a candi- 
date for sheriff of Val Verde countv and was elected. In the spring of 
1903 he came to San Antonio, where he has since made his home, and he 
acted as a police officer under the Elmendorf and under the Hicks ad- 
ministrations. He was afterward deouty under Sheriff John Tobin, 
and later was appointed first assistant city marshal under the Campbell 
administration, while in the spring of 1905 he was reappointed to the 
'position under the Callaghan administration. 

Captain Kieffer has been peculiarly successful in politics, due to 
his sterling qualities, his methods, which neither seek nor require dis- 
guise, and his well-known efficiency as an officer. His fidelity and capa- 
bility have been the elements that have enabled him to hold office under 
different and strongly opposed administrations. 

Captain Kieffer was married at D'Hanis, in Medina county, Texas, 
to Miss Christina Wipff, a daughter of the late Joseph Wipff, who was 
also an Alsatian and one of the original settlers of the countv and 
D'Hanis more than fifty years ago. He was a prominent and well-known 
citizen of that community through a long period, and died there in 1899. 
Both the Wipff and Kieffer families experienced all of the hardships 
incident to life on the frontier when Indians were frequently on the 
warpath, when wild- animals were quite numerous, and when their re- 
moteness from all railroads rendered the existence a hard one. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Kieffer were born six children, Mattie C, Arthur Gerhardt, 
Edwin Joseph, Marshall J., Russell John and Charlotte Annie. The Cap- 
tain has throughout his life been a resident of Texas and has therefore 
been a witness of much of its growth and development, sharing in the 
work of public progress as opportunity has offered and his resources 
have permitted. 

Leon LeComte. An extensive owner of real estate in and near the 
city of San Antonio, Leon LeComte also represents one of the pioneer 
and influential families in the formative period of Texas history. He 
is of French parentage, born in France in the year 1837, and when five 



64 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

years of age came with his parents to Texas, the family at once locating 
in San Antonio, llis father. A.nge Seraphin LeComte, became a promi- 
nent lain! owner and trader in lands, and was one of the influential and 
wealthy citizens of the city's early days, his death occurring in June, 
v 8. The mother died of cholera in 1841). and after her death the father 
joined her family name to his and signed it LeComte I)e W'atine. 

Leon LeComte has a vivid recollection of his boyhood days in San 
Antonio, the Indian raids and all the other phases of frontier life, it 
being an unusual circumstance that within the span of one existence 
should he embraced the progress o\ a city from the primitive pioneer con- 
ditions to the luxurious appointments of today. Leon obtained his edu- 
cation principal^ at St. Mary's College, and since young manhood has 
been interested in various business affairs. He has been particularly 
engaged in real estate transactions, being the owner of city property, 
farming lands and live stock. He has a fine farm of about eighteen 
hundred acres on the Medina river, fourteen miles south of the city, but 
lives at his home on the Corpus Christi road just within the city limits. 

.Mr. LeComte was married at Losoya Medina, Bexar county, to Miss 
< Ictavie Toudouze, who represents another old and prominent French 
family. They have become the parents of seven children so that some 
of the best and most substantial phases of the history of San Antonio 
will be fittingly perpetuated in the generations which have followed 
Leon LeComte. 

Sam Harrison. Born in San Antonio in 1866, Sam Harrison is 
one of the energetic and enterprising citizens of early middle age who 
is closely identified with its commercial and industrial interests. His 
parents. Judge Thomas S. and Nancy C. (Black) Harrison, were among 
the old and leading' pioneers of Southwest Texas, and his maternal rela- 
tives are factors of a still earlier date in the pioner history of the state. 

The father is one of the most noted of the old-time lawyers and 
citizens who assisted in the foundation of the state as a commonwealth 
of vast possibilities and is the oldest living member of the Bexar county 
bar. In 1855 he came to San Antonio from his Kentucky home, and 
has resided in the vicinity ever since, his residence being at Bexar post- 
office, fifteen miles south of the city. He is now retired from the prac- 
tice of his profession, of which he was long a distinguished representa- 
tive, both of the bar and bench. 

As stated, the mother of Sam Harrison, who also is living, repre- 
sents a >till older family of Southwest Texas. Her brother, Captain Gus 
Black of Spofford, Kinney county, is a famous cattleman of the old 
regime, and lias had a life of thrilling adventure as a pioneer stockman 
and Indian fighter. In the earlier days the headquarters of the old Black 
ranch were on the Medina river, in the county by that name, but Captain 
Black's residence is now on his ranch twenty-five miles from Spofford, 
Kinney county. 

Sam Harrison was reared and educated in San Antonio, although 
in his younger flays he spent much of his time on the Black ranch with 
hi- uncle. Although still comparatively a young man, by these youthful 
experiences lie has become thoroughly familiar with the varied and 
picturesque phases of the history of Southwest Texas. For several years 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 65 

past, however, lie has abandoned the life of the plain-, and engaged in 

commercial pursuits, being now manager in San Antonio for the W'erk- 
heiser-Polk Mills Company, flour manufacturers, of Temple, Texas. His 
residence of a lifetime in San Antonio, his wide acquaintance, popu- 
larity, energy and executive ability, make him a peculiarly valuable man 
for the nosition. 

Sam Harrison's wife, formerly Miss Bettie Jasper, is a native of 
Southwest Texas, and their union occurred in San Antonio. Mrs. Har- 
rison's mother, a Kentucky woman, has the distinction of having founded 
the village of Somerset, Atascosa county, Texas, naming it after her 
birthplace in the Blue Grass state. 

D. A. Watson, M. D. During the period which marks Dr. Watson's 
professional career he has met with gratifying success, and though his 
residence in Schertz dates back but a few years he has won the good will 
and patronage of the citizens of the place. He was born in Goliad 
county, Texas, in 1862, his parents being Wiley and Elizabeth (Holt J 
Watson. The father, who was a native of Tennessee, came to the Lone 
Star state about i860, taking up his abode in Goliad county and his 
death occurred during his son's early childhood, but the wife and mother 
survived until 1502, when she joined her husband in the home beyond. 

Dr. Watson was reared on a farm, and beginning with his early boy- 
hood days he earned his own living and secured for himself a good 
education, having graduated at the Texas Christian University at Waco. 
During the following ten years he taught school in central Texas, prin- 
cipally in Lampasas, Burnet and Williamson counties, where he is well 
remembered as a most efficient and successful teacher. His professional 
studies were begun in the medical department of Sewanee University, 
and he later graduated in the medical department of Fort W r orth Uni- 
versity in 1902. Between sessions, however, he had practiced medicine 
in Burnet county, and in 1904 he located at his present home, Schertz, 
Guadalupe county, a rich and prosperous community, where he is suc- 
cessfully engaged in the practice of medicine and surgery, while in 
addition he has also established a large general drug store. 

Dr. Watson married Miss Eugenia Hughes of Lampasas county, 
who before her marriage was a teacher in the schools of that county, 
and they have a little son, Eugene Watson. The Doctor is a member 
of the Guadalupe County, the State and the American Medical associa- 
tions. 

James T. Matthews, long connected with the undertaking and 
furniture business in Texas, and now a resident of San Antonio and 
owner of valuable oil lands at Sour Lake, Hardin county, is a North 
Carolinian, born at New Bern, Craven county, in 1837. His parents were 
Matthew and Jane E. (Richardson) Matthews, and they were both 
natives of the state of his birth. James T. was reared in the town of 
New Bern, where his father was an undertaker and embalmer, the boy 
not only learning this dual profession but the trade of cabinet making. 
At the opening of the Civil war he enlisted in Company C. state troops, 
of which he was elected first lieutenant, and as such gave his services to 
the Confederacy, chiefly in the vicinity of his native town. During the first 
part of the war New Bern was captured and held for a long time by the 

Vol. 11. 5 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Federal troops, and one o\ the dangerous duties devolving upon him 
was to keep the people oi the town in communication with the distant 
Confederate forces. For that purpose he was obliged to circumvent the 
Federal lines, which was arduous in the extreme. 

After the war Mr, Matthews continued to reside in his home town, 
engaged chiefly in the undertaking and cabinet making business, residing 
there until 1884, when he made Texas his resident state. He first located 
at Tovah. west Texas, hut soon afterward came to San Antonio. He 
was connected for some time with the undertaking establishment of 
Mr. Shern, and then established a furniture store of his own on Market 
Street. In 1805 he continued the business on Houston street, but re- 
mained at that location only a few months, as fire destroyed the building, 
now known as the Peck Furniture store. Mr. Matthews has also worked 
at his trade oi carpenter and cabinet maker, and has been altogether 
an industrious and useful citizen. In 1901 he became interested in the 
oil discoveries at Sour Lake, where he still owns valuable lands whose 
operation has of late vears formed a feature of his business interests. A 
few years ago Mr. Matthews purchased the old Simon Fest homestead 
on Simon street, which is now his residence and the center of a happy 
domestic life. 

Mrs. James T. Matthews was formerly Minnie Hollande, born in 
New ( )rleans but was reared principally in Galveston in the families 
of Colonel Spaight and General Sherman of that city, as her parents 
had died early in her life. Mrs. Matthews has some interesting relics 
connected with the early history of Texas, including a rare photograph 
of David G. Burnet, the first president of the Texas Republic; also a 
piece of one of the Texas flags that was used at the battle of San Jacinto. 
Mr. and Mrs. Matthew's have two children — Jame's T., Jr., and Carrie 
Maria. 



'CHAPTER XXVIL 
CITY OF LAREDO. 

HISTORY OF ITS FOUNDING AND SUBSEQUENT CAREER. 

In 1746 the viceroy of Mexico commissioned Jose de Escandon to 
pacify and settle the gulf coast country. The district put under his 
control, extending - from the Panuco river to Texas, and sixty or eighty 
leagues west from the coast, was callel "la Colonia del Nuevo Santancler." 

During the conquest, 1748-55, more than twenty towns were estab- 
lished by Spanish and converted Indian families. One of these settle- 
ments was Dolores, on the north side of the Rio Grande. Of this place 
Laredo, founded ten leagues further up the river, was an offshoot. But 
Dolores was later abandoned, while Laredo remained for a long time 
the only permanent settlement on the north side of the lower Rio Grande. 
In 1757 an "inspeccion" of the Nuevo Santander settlements was made 
by Captain Tienda de Cuervo, and it is his report on the town of Laredo, 
translated by H. E. Bolton in the Texas Historical Association Quar- 
terly, that furnishes the first authoritative account of the beginning of 
the city of Laredo. 

"This little settlement," says Cuervo, "was formed on the 15th of 
May, 1755. It was located on the north bank of the large river of this 
name (Rio Grande) in a dry, level country. Its temperature is hot in 
summer and cold in winter, and its inhabitants say that it is healthy." 

The circumstances of the founding were these : Thomas Sanchez, 
who had his goods and stock on the south side of the river opposite 
Dolores, in 1754 proposed to Escandon to bear the expense of forming 
a settlement in the region north of the river provided lands should be 
furnished. Escandon favored the plan, but at first desired the settle- 
ment to be located on the Nueces river, which on investigation was found 
unsuitable, however. Then Captain Sanchez explained the ease with 
which a settlement could be formed "at ten leagues from Hacienda de 
Dolores, up the river," and two leagues from the ford called Jacinto. 
Escandon agreed that Don Thomas might settle, where he had pro- 
posed, "a town by the name of Laredo ; allotted fifteen leagues of cattle 
pasture land for inhabitants, and conferred the title of Captain of the 
town upon the same Dn. Thomas. The latter, to carrv out his scheme, 
took his family, with others, to the proposed place, and there made suit- 
able huts for their dwellings. He has assisted them, now continues 
assisting them, and still is desirous to take others there." 

First Families. 

At the time of the inspection there were eleven families in all, with 
four single men. These being the "first families" of Laredo, their names 
properly form part of this historv. Thev are: 

'67 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Thomas Sanchez, with wife, Catherina Uribe, and nine children. 
Juan Garcia Saldivar, wife, Catharina de las Casas. 
Prudencio Garcia, wife, Josepha Sanchez, and five children. 

Joseph Leonardo Trevirio. wife, Anna Moreno, and six children. 

I nan Francisco Garcia, wife, Maria Ritas, and seven children. 

Juan Baptista Sanchez, wife, Juana Diaz, and ten children. 

Aug'n Sanchez, wife. I'rancisca Rodriguez, and two children. 

1 ,eonardo Sanchez, single. 

Joseph Flores, and three children. 

Joseph Diaz, and mother. 

Joseph Ramon, wife, Maria Gertrudis, and two children. 

Leonardo Garcia, single. 

Joseph Salinas, wife, Ysavel Trevino, and one child. 

Pedro Salinas, single, with mother and one sister. 

Juan Diego, single. 

Altogether there were 85 persons comprising the population of 
Laredo at that time. Their possessions were, 712 breeding horses, 125 
mules. 2 yokes, 9,080 sheep and goats, and 101 cattle. 

The 1904 Statistical Report of Commissioner Clay, referring to Webb 
county, oi which Laredo is the county seat, says: ''Stock raising 'engages 
the attention of the people." In this connection it is interesting to note 
the conclusion of Inspector Cuervo, in 1757, that "the advantages and 
growth which this settlement may have must be based upon the breeding 
of stock, inasmuch as it is a country as well adapted to that purpose as 
any in the whole colony ; but so far as crops are concerned, I am of 
the opinion that they promise little benefit." Continuing the report, "the 
public advantage in this settlement is its being the usual crossing for the 
province of Texas and its presidios, from Nuevo Rno. de Leon and the 
province of Coaguila, whose frontiers are seven leagues distant," the 
settlement of Laredo being the last in the colony toward the north. "Its 
newness does not admit of sufficient knowdedge to establish with certainty 
a notion of the advantages it may afford ; .but from its having occasioned 
no expense to the Royal Hacienda and its occasioning none now, it 
appears to me it will be expedient that it continue. * * *" 

During the inspection, Thomas Sanchez made a deposition in which 
he adds some interesting particulars concerning Laredo; namely, "that 
this place was on a highway and was discovered some nine years before 
the deponent formed said settlement; that its crossing was discovered by 
one named Jacinto de Leon; whence has clung to it the name el Paso de 
Jacinto: that it is up stream from this settlement something like a quarter 
"\ a league, and continues passable up to the present ; and that there was 
no rancho in this vicinity nor anything else." Concerning the ford, Mr. 
Bolton says: "1 am informed by Mr. Bethel Coopwood of Laredo that, 
although there has been some doubt as to the location of these fords, 
the view is probably correct that Paso de Jacinto was what is now 
called Paso de los Indios, a landmark at the upper side of the Fort Mc- 
[ntosh reservation; and that Paso de Miguel de la Garza [3 leagues 
down stream from the settlement | was in the vicinity of la Canada de los 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 69 

Abiones, where the third league of the original trad terminated on the 

left side of the river." 

Laredo was the first independent settlement in Texas. So far as it 

relied on any sort of material subsidy, Captain Sanchez supplied that. 
There was no military garrison, and at the time of the inspection the 
Apaches had not approached the settlement with hostile intent. There 
was no mission, "and there are not and have not been any Indian 
agrcgados, nor any hopes of having them, because of no provision having 
been made for that purpose." Even a priest to administer sacrament- 
had to be brought in as occasion required from Revilla, 22 leagues dis- 
tant. Concerning the "el Grande del Norte," Sanchez states "that he 
does not know where it rises, but that it empties into the sea ; and that 
he has no hopes that an irrigating canal can be constructed from it, nor 
has this settlement springs from which this benefit can be secured." 

At that time roads led from Laredo in different directions into the 
neighboring provinces. Sanchez states that the provinces are "(1) 
Tejas; that of this, the nearest settlement is the presidio which they call 
Sta. Dorotea [or, Presidio de la Bahia del Espiritu Santo], distant from 
this colony some fifty leagues, more or less. The settlement and presidio 
of San Antonio de Ye jar of the same province is some fifteen leagues 
further; (2) that of the province of Coaguila the presidio named Rio 
Grande del Norte, with the appellation of San Juan Baptista, is distant 
from the frontier of this colony some twenty-five leagues; and (3) that 
Nueva Reyno de Leon." 

During the latter part of the eighteenth century the Indians gave 
Laredo a wide berth and as a result the colonists engaged in stock raising 
and agriculture, filling the plains between the Rio Grande and the Nueces 
with vast herds of cattle and horses. Considerable corn and vegetables 
were raised for home consumption, and altogether the colony progressed 
finely. 

The colonists made regular trips down the river in "chalans," or flat 
boats, to Matamoros, where they exchanged hides, etc., for provisions. 
During one of these journeys the party was attacked by a roving band 
of Indians, but they were speedily repulsed after losing two of their 
number. This took place a few miles above Rio Grande City, the old 
home of Captain Tomas Sanchez, from which place the first colonists 
came. 

While it is true that up to this period the country literally swarmed 
with Indians and bloody battles had been fought with them in the adjoin- 
ing country, yet this practically ended the Indian campaign so far as 
Laredo was concerned. From the organization of the colony the settlers 
had established friendly relations with the red man, and except in the 
instances related, they were practically at peace with him. This, of 
course, applies strictly to Laredo. On the ranches up and down the 
river many horses and cattle were stolen and many fatal encounters took 
place. 

Soon after this time the enterprising white man put in an appear- 
ance, and the aspect of things was soon changed. Prior to this, however. 
white men had visited the colony and one or two remained with the set- 
tlers. In 1842 Laredo was for a short time occupied by General Som- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

ervell, in command of the Texas troops. The command reached Laredo 
from Medina on the 8th of December and took possession of the plaee 
without opposition; and it is said that it was while encamped in Laredo 
that General Somervell, after a consultation with one of his officers, 
concluded to issue the order which subsequently resulted in the horrible 
slaughter of Captain Cameron and a portion of his troops at Salado on 
the 13th of February, 1843, by order oi Santa Ana at the special request 
of Canalis, who had a quarrel with Cameron when in the campaign of 
the Republic oi the Rio Grande. 

In 184O Laredo was again captured by Captain Gillespie of the 
rangers, when on his way to join General Taylor at the mouth of 
the river. h\ 1847 Laredo was again occupied by the soldiers of the 
United States under General Lamar. 

Fort Mcintosh. 

In 1849 the city leased to the United States government 2,500 acres 
of land lor a military post, part of which was outside of the city limits. 
In 1858 the post was abandoned and the stores removed to Fort Brown. 
The old Fort Mcintosh was built in 1850. It was a star-shaped earth- 
work occupying one acre of land. Within was a fine large magazine 
of stone with arched roof overlaid with earth. There were descending 
steps, iron doors and secure locks. And the magazine was begun but 
never completed. 

Upon abandonment of post in 1858, Laredo executed an agreement 
to lease to the United States for ten years the old post and five acres of 
contiguous ground, with the understanding that .if the government de- 
sired the city would execute absolute deeds within ten years if they took 
possession. In 1859 two companies of the First Infantry took possession. 
April nth, 1861, three companies of Confederates under General Santos 
Benavides took possession of the post, and the United States troops 
repaired to Fort Davis. The other two Confederate companies organized 
at Laredo were respectively commanded by Captains Refugio Benavides 
and Julian Garcia. October 23d, 1865, Fort Mcintosh was re-occupied 
by Federal troops, and in 1868 work was begun on buildings for a two 
company post; but work was suspended until 1877, when additional 
buildings were constructed ; and from that time many improvements have 
been made, until now there is no better equipped fort in the state. The 
reservation embraces about 208 acres and is a part of the city tract deed 
which was executed by Refugio Benavides, Mayor, to Quartermaster 
General M. C. Meigs, oil behalf of the United States on the 29th day of 
May, 1875. Title was approved by Attorney General on the 3d of May, 
[88o, and the site was formally accepted by the Secretary of War on 
the 2d day of March, 1880. 

With the advent of the white people, the old Mexican customs and 
manner of government rapidly disappeared, and new ideas, American 
styles and customs prevailed to great extent. The adobe dwellings of 
the colonists gave way to one and two story brick residences and stores. 
Merchant- from the north, east and southeast established large and 
flourishing wholesale and retail business houses, and many improvements 
were inaugurated. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 71 

Laredo in 1881. 

The "modernization" of Laredo began with the building of rail- 
roads to that point. Before that time Laredo was an inland town, and 
prospered almost entirely through its position on the highway between 
Mexico and Texas and as a center of the vast surrounding cattle country. 
Beginning with 1880 Laredo has attracted increasing attention from 
Texas and the world, and has developed steadily. 

At the opening of this era of growth a correspondent of the San 
Antonio Express wrote an account of the city which cannot fail to be of 
much historical interest and value as a contemporary description. The 
letter was dated December 12, 1881, and reads in part as follows: 

"Laredo, the county seat of Webb county, is a growing city, with 
a population of about 6,000, and is situated in the level and beautiful 
evergreen valley of the Rio Grande, on the east side of that national 
stream, the Rio Grande. The city is fully fifty feet above the ordi- 
nary stage of the swift waters of the Rio Grande. A chain of high 
hills and mountains encircle the whole city, both on the Texas and Mexi- 
can side, which can be seen at a great distance in approaching the city on 
the cars on the line of the Corpus Christi, San Diego and Rio Grande 
railroad, and is indeed a most beautiful sight to behold. The El Paso 
mountains, lying off sixteen miles distant, in the interior of Mexico, can 
easily be seen on a fair day, and in this chain of hills and mountains 
there has been discovered at different times and places rich ore well 
charged with the precious metals. A coal mine is in practical operation 
within six miles of this place, and another large vein of this article was 
accidentally discovered in this country; and it is thought that these 
hills and mountains are inlaid with an inexhaustible supply of this great 
commercial commodity. This is also a fair stock country. 

"The tax roll for 1881 makes the following showing of the real and 
personal property: 6,987.2 acres of land, valued at $298,090.02; 121,120 
land certificates, valued at $1,690; 3,130 lots in Laredo, valued at 
$441,400. Of live stock, it has 2,753 head of cattle, valued at $17,740; 
horses and mules, 4,761 head, valued at $15,120; sheep, 320.890 head, 
valued at $321,640; goats, 25,980 head, valued at $20,290; hogs, 50 head, 
valued at $50; jacks and jennies, 1 head, valued at $10. About 3,000 
head of the last named animals were surely unassessed. There is more 
than enough good land in the county to raise vegetables for this market, 
which will be lucrative business for those who engage in it; for vegeta- 
bles are very scarce and high in this market. 

"Two Laredos, Texas and Mexico, have a combined population of 
about 10,000. Out of this number, there are probably 2,000 English 
speaking people. The city, as I said before, is high and dry ; the atmos- 
phere, dry, pure, and extremely healthy. This place is well laid off on 
the old Spanish style, with its usual quota of plazas ; the sidewalks and 
streets are narrow, and the scenery varied and very interesting to the 
traveler unaccustomed to Spanish and Mexican towns. Nearly every 
branch of industry, suitable to the place, time, and circumstances is rep- 
resented here, though there is abundant room for more on an improved 
plan. A good hotel is badly needed here, and would be a paying enter- 



HIS TORN" OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

prise to an experienced man. Mr. I. Christian, formerly of the Con- 
stitution House, oi New Orleans, will open the Christian home here in a 
tew days. Mr. Christian has a wide range oi experience in the business, 
and thoroughly understands the wants oi the trading public; but still 
there is room for more. 

Many lmpro\ ements. 

"We are today enjoying a well merited boom. Substantial brick 
buildings are being built in different parts of the city, both for business 
ami dwelling purposes. A street railroad, gas and water works com- 
panies have all been organized, and their early establishment and prac- 
tical operation are looked forward to with much interest, and believed 
to be an assured fact. An ice factory is now in practical operation. The 
Location <^i the courthouse and jail has been determined by our commis- 
sioners, and Messrs. Briten & Long, the contractors, are making prepa- 
rations i > gel material on the ground, and ere long we will have a fine 
temple oi justice and jail, costing the snug sum of $40,000. The head- 
quarters oi the Texas- Mexican National Railroad Company will be 
established here, a part of which was moved up from Corpus Christi last 
Saturday. The divisional machine and repair shops of the International 
and Great Northern railroad will also be established here. In fact, the 
whole city- is growing intellectually, morally, and widening and expanding 
in every direction. 

"( hir people are daily growing more enthusiastic over the coming 
fiestas, and very extensive preparations are in progress, which insures 
a grand success. Cock and cock fighters, and bull and bull fighters 
have been engaged both from Texas and the interior of Mexico for this 
grand occasion. The bulls will be trimmed and slicked, and the cocks 
pricked, and the hair and feathers will fly on December 24. In Mexico 
this sport is encouraged, but in Texas, article 4,665, page 672, of the 
revised statutes of 1879. which reads as follows, may operate as an im- 
pediment to this sport: 'For every fight between men and bulls, or 
between dogs and bulls, and between bulls and any other animal. $500 
f<»r each performance, if exhibited for profit, or upon which any money 
or thing of value is bet.' Even with this statute, we have got a consider- 
able margin left to operation. 

'AW- need churches and school houses. Besides this there is a large 
family of orphans in town that would like to come in for their share of 
the proceeds. 

"We will have cock and bull fighting even if we have to suspend the 
statute - for a while." 

In those busy times of development a year recorded much progress. 
Another Lxpre^s correspondent, writing April 3, 1883, told of much 
that had been accomplished within the preceding year or so, and com- 
pleted the picture of Laredo at the beginning of its golden age of growth. 
"Laredo is called the 'gateway to Mexico,' but when we arrived here 
on the morning train, and were whirled along the dusty streets, behind a 
pair of long-eared mules, guided by a swarthy sombrero-adorned Mexican, 
I thought I had really landed in Mexico. The streets were lined on either 
side with queer, low-roofed, one-story stone or mud-walled dwellings, at 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

the doors of which stand 'ye Senor Mexican,' looking for all the world as 
though lie was on his native heath, and with all the assurance guarant 
by the backing of his own personal 'mud castle.' I have spent three days 
here, have searched the town from one end to the other and as well from 
one side to the other, as there are two Laredos, one on each side of 
the Rio Grande. It is possible that I may have missed some of the 
interesting scenes and places here — if so, I am sorry. I have clone my 
best, and have seen a great deal, and have been much interested as well. 
Laredo, Texas, is located at the extreme end of the Missouri Pacific ex- 
tension, and on the banks of the Rio Grande river. It is also the western 
point of the Texas & Mexican road, the eastern terminus of the Rio 
Grande & Pecos road, and the northern terminus of the some-day-to-be- 
built International road, and the northern terminus of the Mexican Na- 
tional road. It is said to have five thousand inhabitants, of whom about 
two-thirds are foreigners or Mexicans, and the balance Americans, as 
the natives of the United States are here called. The town is credited 
with a good old age. Its prevailing architecture is very plain — stone or 
sun-dried brick walls with a thatched roof. It glories in a police depart- 
ment, composed of Mexicans and Americans, a city government, the 
county building, which is a fine large brick structure, a good post- 
office, dance hall, United States custom house, located in a small stone 
building near the river ; street lamps at rare intervals, a few churches, 
two or three hotels — as good as can be found in this part of the country — 
a small plaza or park, a market square and other adjuncts of a would-be 
city. 

Fort Mcintosh. 

"Fort Mcintosh, a United States frontier post, with three com- 
panies of troops, under command of Major S. S. Summers, is located 
on the western outskirts of the town, upon the banks of the Rio Grande, 
and commands the country round about. This is one of the best frontier 
posts belonging to the United States. We spent a short time looking 
through the barracks and inspecting the soldiers' quarters, and must 
say that Uncle Sam has every reason to feel well satisfied with his bold 
soldier boys on the frontier. 

Drinking Water. 

"All the drinking water in Laredo is obtained from the Rio Grande 
by these water carriers and sold about town at a bit a barrel. A bit in 
Mexican money is 12^2 cents; or a 10-cent silver piece of Lnited States 
coinage. 

"The Mexican National railroad depot and offices are located in 
a long, neat-appearing, well built, tw 7 o story, brick building. From here 
start four trains daily, two to Corpus Christi, via the Texas and Mexican 
road, and two for Monterey, Mexico, via the Mexican National railroad. 
I found a passenger agent, Sanderson, and his corps of assistants located 
in an upper room of the building. Thev were full of business, but still 
had time to greet their visitor very cordially and give out all necessary 
information. I found that the Mexican National is doing a very good 
business for the time it has been opened to Monterey. Four trains are 



74 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

run daily between Laredo and that point — two each way, and they are 
well filled with passengers and freight, There arc from 150 to 200 
passengers daily. 

" rhe volume oi business aggregates about fifty thousand dollars 
a month. \\ ork is being pushed on the road as far as possible, and con- 
nections with various towns between Monterey and the City of Mexico 
are being gradually made. Jt will he a full year and a half, however, 
before the road will he entirely completed between the cities of Laredo 
and Mexico, the distance being about 800 miles. 

Mexican Laredo. 

"Across from the Texas side oi the Rio Grande, lies Mexican Laredo. 
It has a population of about 5.000 people and appears to be a lively, 
bustling little city. It is a typical Mexican town in every respect. The 
ets are narrow and lined with low stone buildings. Many of the 
houses are made of mud, and there is a general effect that is at once 
amusing and interesting to the visitor. The Mexican government has 
located here several companies of soldiers, and I was permitted to make 
a personal inspection of their quarters. While impressed with the good 
order and discipline maintained among" the 1 soldiers, whose uniform 
consists of a suit of linen and an infantry hat, I was not particularly 
attracted by the cleanliness of their abiding places, however I was as- 
sured that the government proposed building at an early date barracks 
which will cost $50,000 near the depot of the Mexican National road. 
A new custom house, to cost $ico,ooo, is also to be built here. 

International Railroad. 

■\\ half mile to the west of the heart of Mexican Laredo are lo- 
cated the new and really elegant buildings of the International road. 
It will be remembered that Jay Gould and his associates, some time ago, 
obtained a very valuable franchise and subsidy from the Mexican gov- 
ernment for a railroad which was to run from Laredo to the City of 
Mexico. The road was to skirt the extreme eastern part of Mexico, 
being for the, most way from forty to seventy miles east of the line of 
the Mexican National. Gould contemplated making a southern exten- 
sion of his Missouri Pacific system. Work was commenced on a grand 
scale, the line was surveyed, about sixty miles of grading completed, 
a -mall amount of track laid at the northern terminus, a bridge built 
across the Rio Grande, large, attractive and substantial buildings erected, 
much material gotten on the ground, many improvements made and 
rything ready for pushing the road right through, when of a sudden 
there came a hitch in the programme, work was ordered stopped. Most 
all of the employes were discharged or laid off, and for two months 
International railroad matters have remained in 'statu quo.' A few 
team- arc -till kept at work grading, and six or eight of the young em- 
ploye- of the company, clerks, surveyors, and accountants, occupy a part 
of the main building, keep' guard of the property here, and wait with 
impatience for reliable information as to when work will be resumed. 

'"In the meantime a great freshet has washed the bridge away. Just 
what Mr. Gould proposes to do cannot be told; the prevailing impres- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 75 

sion, however, is that he will commence work again shortly, and put the 
road through with a rush. There is no reason why the road should not 
be built, as, if it is completed on the scale proposed, it certainly ought 
to be a profitable enterprise, as it would run through a very fertile part 
of Mexico. The main dependence of the two Laredos is upon the 
railroads, and the stoppage of work upon the International has had 
a perceptible effect on business here." 

Enterprise, pluck and vigor can have but one result; and the evi- 
dent desire on the part of almost every citizen to build up and make a 
beautiful citv of Laredo has been realized. The local government is now 
administered by both Americans and Mexicans, who live together in 
peace and contentment, each striving his utmost to make Laredo the 
great international commercial centre of the southwest. 

The progress of the city can be measured in many ways. In no 
better way, however, than in the matter of public improvements. A 
courthouse to cost $45,000 has recently been voted by the people of the 
county, and is now (1907) in course of erection in Laredo. At the 
spring election of 1907 the sum of forty thousand dollars was voted by 
the city for the erection of new school buildings. Money spent for edu- 
cational purposes measures quite accurately the extent to which true 
American ideals possess a community. Education has become a matter 
of practical duty and civic pride to Laredo, and it augurs well for the 
future of the city that public schools are receiving such excellent finan- 
cial support. 

Laredo is both ancient and modern. Some of the most enterprising 
men of this late period of aggressive improvement are members of fami- 
lies that have lived in Laredo since its founding, over a century and a 
half ago. Then, too, there are many men of whom Laredo has every 
reason to be proud, who date their connection with the city from the 
early eighties, when railroads came and the semi-isolation of the town 
ceased to react against its welfare. In the following brief sketches of 
some such prominent citizens much interest attaches from their com- 
mentary on the foregoing history, and their lives also contain many 
facts of history that could not be included in the foregoing. 

Writing with reference to Laredo's political and civic character, 
E. R. Tarver said, in a recent issue of the San Antonio Express: 

As early as 1850 Laredo and vicinity was organized as one of the counties of 
the State of Texas. In 1853 it had the honor of electing one of its citizens, Hani 
P. Bee (afterwards a major general in the Confederate army) to the legislature, 
who as the second Speaker of the House of Representatives, distinguished himself 
as one of the ablest and most popular speakers who have ever presided over the 
Lower House of the Texas legislature. 

When the call to arms was made by the South in the great Civil War in 
1861, there was no community of the same population that responded more read- 
ily and more heartily than did the town of Laredo. Two full companies, under 
the command of Captains Cristobal and Santos Benavides, entered the Confeder- 
ate army, and Captain Cristobal Benavides' company is credited with making the 
last fight and firing the last shot in that great and memorable war near the town 
of Rio Grande City. 

Through all these years, up to a short time before the advent of railroads in 
1 881, the country, in which there were extensive ranches, extending from the Rio 
Grande to the Nueces river, was continually raided by bands of wild Indians, 
with whom they had frequent conflicts. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

In [8Si, when the first vanguard of Americans began to pour mto the city, its 
population was not quite five thousand. It had maintained a citj government for 
i v U years, and in all that time had never levied a cent of city taxes, owed not a 

cent, and had $1,000 in its treasury, the whole expenses of the city being paid 
out of the money derived from the ferry franchise across ths river granted by 
S .in in the concession oi 1757. when the city was first founded and laid off. 

Since the advent of Americans politics has been more exciting, and on one un- 
fortunate occasion in [887, after a hitter and exciting election for city officers, 
there was precipitated a fearful and bloody combat between the two opposing par- 
. in which many were killed and wounded. But to the credit oi these people, 
when the tight \\;is over, they made friends, and not a single instance of am 
ional difficulty has occurred on that account since. 

During the smallpox epidemic, a few years later, owing to the prejo lice of 
the poorer class against vaccination and resistance to the strenuous methods the 
authorities found necessary to suppress it. a few State Rangers had to he called on 
enforce the drastic sanitary measures. Leaving out these two instances, no 
town or city in the State his maintained a better record for the observation of 
law and order at all time- than has the city of Laredo, situated on the banks of 
the Rio Grande. 

The population of the city has grown from 5,000 in 1 88 r to over 15,000 in 
1907. When the railroads reached here 95 per cent of the people were Mexicans. 
T 'day about 75 per cent are of the same nationality. 

Though politics has become warm and exciting at times since the advent 
of Americans, and though they only poll 25 per cent of the vote, yet the Mexican 
people have been generous enough to divide the county and city offices with them 
all the time. 

Notwithstanding these facts, you often hear Americans saying that these 
Mexicans should not he allowed to vote. 

Christobal Benavides, deceased, figured prominently for many 
years in connection with mercantile interests in Laredo as a wholesale 
and retail dealer until his name became a synonym for business enter- 
prise and activity. He was born in Laredo. April 3, 1839, and was the 
third child of Jose and Tomasa (Cameros) Benavides. The paternal 
grandfather was Jose Maria Benavides, a native of Mexico, who settled 
in Laredo in the earlv days and married Dona Petra Sanchez, who was 
the granddaughter of Captain Tomas Sanchez, the founder of the town. 
Jose Benavides, Jr., was an extensive ranchman, who spent his entire 
life in Laredo. 

Christobal Benavides was educated in Laredo and at Corpus Christi, 
Texas. In his early youth he began a successful career as a stockman, 
handling both cattle and sheep, his ranch headquarters being in Webb 
county, where he built up a large ranch of many thousand acres of land, 
lie was an industrious youth with a keen insight into business affairs, 
and before the Civil war he had contracts for carrying the mails. Early 
in 1 So 1 he entered military service as a sergeant in a company of state 
troop> commanded b\ his brother, Santos Benavides, and was in this 
service for about a year, during which time he was advanced to the 
rank of lieutenant. The regiment to which the Lenavides brothers 
belonged was then re-organized and mustered into the regular Confed- 
te service, Santos Benavides becoming colonel of this regiment, which 
was thereafter known as Benavides' regiment, and Christobal Benavides 
became captain of a company in the same. This command served mainly 
on the Rio Grande river from Laredo to Brownsville, mostly in the 
fighting and expeditions which were commanded by Colonel Rip Ford, 







Cnristobal Benavides. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS -jj 

the noted Indian fighter and soldier, this regiment also being in the last 
battle of the war, fought after the surrender at Appomattox, on the Rio 
Grande a few miles above Brownsville. Captain Benavides made a fine 
record as a brave and efficient soldier and with his brother, Colonel 
Santos Benavides, was always accorded the full meed of credit for pre- 
serving peace and law and order and protection from the enemy on the 
Rio Grande, which was the objective point of so many concerted attacks 
by the Federal troops. 

Soon after the war Christobal Benavides engaged in business in 
Laredo with his brother Santos under the firm name of S. Benavides & 
Brother. This style of firm continued until about 1875, when our sub- 
ject became sole proprietor under the style of C. Benavides, his brother 
retiring until his death in 1891. The business became one of the largest 
and most important mercantile houses on the Rio Grande, both a whole- 
sale and retail trade being conducted and supplying a large territory. 
During all these years Mr. Benavides also maintained his live stock inter- 
ests on a large- scale and was among the first to introduce graded Durham 
cattle into the Rio Grande country. 

In Laredo, in 1867, Mr. Benavides was married to Miss Lamar Bee, 
who survives him. She is a daughter of the distinguished Confederate 
soldier, the late General Hamilton P. Bee, of Texas, and on the maternal 
side is descended from the Martinez family of Spanish ancestry in 
Mexico. Her mother's father was Don Andres Martinez, who was mayor 
and alcalde of Nueva Laredo, Mexico, during the latter '40s. Mrs. 
Benavides was provided by her father with a splendid education, spend- 
ing several years as a student in the east, principally at the Academy of 
Mount de Sales, five miles west of Baltimore, Maryland. A woman of 
tact and culture, yet intensely practical, she was a most excellent help- 
mate to her husband and their ten children, splendid specimens of young 
manhood and womanhood, are evidences of the wholesome and careful 
home training and parental influence. The Benavides family are of the 
Catholic faith and the children were all educated in Austin — the sons at 
St. Edward's college and the daughters at St. Mary's college. Their 
names are as follows: Carlota, the wife of M. Valdez ; Marie, the wife 
of Amador Sanchez, mayor of Laredo; Santos M., city treasurer of 
Laredo ; Lamar, wife of Dr. H. J. Hamilton, of Laredo ; Aurela, the 
wife of Francisco Garza Benavides of Monterey, Mexico; Christobal, 
Eulalio, Luis, Melitona, and Elvira. 

Christobal Benavides died in Laredo September 2, 1904, and no 
man was ever more deeply mourned than he, not only by his family, 
upon whom he lavished the love and affection of a heart that was full of 
kindness and generosity, but by the whole community as well, particu- 
larly by the poor, to whom he was ever charitable and open handed to a 
fault, giving freely and generously as he saw the need. His funeral was 
the largest ever witnessed in Laredo and was characterized bv expres- 
sion of the keenest sorrow by every person in the city. His life was 
singularly pure and upright. He was a man of great and noble nature, 
whose mere presence gave a sense of comfort, protection and sympathy. 
Although he made a fortune in his business enterprises, leaving for each 
of his family a splendid heritage, yet during all his life he gave with an 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

open hand to every deserving* person and cause. His memory is cherished 
by all who knew him and his life and deeds furnish an example that is 
indeed worthy of emulation. 

John T. MURPHY, deceased, was at one time closely associated with 
the business interests of Laredo, Texas, as a dealer in hides and wool, 
and throughout his business career made an unassailable record, being- 
known for his reliability, his energy and his sterling- worth. He was 
born in Ireland and in his boyhood days came to America, locating in 
Xew Orleans, lie entered mercantile life when a youth and remained 
in that business until his life's labors were -ended in death. About 1871 
he located in Corpus Christi, Texas, and became connected with the hide 
and wool business as a buyer for an eastern firm handling those products. 
I [e soon became proficient in making purchases and remained in the 
business, removing to Laredo in [886 and continuing in the same line. 
He died in this city in May, 1903. For a long number of years he repre- 
sented the large hide and wool house of New York conducting business 
under the name of the John Finnegan Company and having branch houses 
throughout the country. Mr. Miirphy established the Laredo branch 
for this firm and the house here is still conducted by his sons, J. H. 
and George Murphy, the former managing the business at the office, while 
the latter represents the house upon the road. They are connected with 
the purchase of hides and w r ool throughout southwestern Texas and 
to some extent in Mexico. Their business, although one still of consider- 
able magnitude, is hardly what it was in the earlier days, as the cattle 
and sheep industry has been gradually diminishing as Texas has been 
converted into a farming state. In the days when the sheep industry 
was at its height in Webb county and vicinity the wool shipments from 
Laredo alone often amounted to a million pounds per year. 

John T. Murphy was one of the representative and successful busi- 
ness men of Laredo through a long period. He recognized and improved 
his opportunities and as the years passed by won a measure of prosperity 
that classed him with the substantial citizens of this portion- of the state. 

Mr. Murphy is still survived by his wife, who was born in Philadel- 
phia of Irish parentage, and who bore the maiden name of Elizabeth R. 
Peterson. During their long residence in Laredo they gained many 
friends and the hospitality of their own home was greatly enjoyed by those 
who knew them. Mr. Murphy is classed among those whose labors have 
done so much for the upbuilding of the city and at all' times is spoken 
of a> one of the leading business men connected with Webb county. 

Hox. Amador Sanchez, who has been mayor of the city of Laredo 
since 1900, is a member of one of the very oldest families of the place, 
they having made their home here for the past 150 years. Mayor Sanchez 
was born in Laredo, being the son of S. Sanchez, who was descended 
from Captain Tomas Sanchez of Pmenrotiro, who visited the site of 
Laredo and made representations and recommendations which resulted 
in the original grant of the colony and town of San Augustine de Laredo 
by royal decree of the Spanish authorities, as told in the history of 
Laredo'- founding, on other pages. The Sanchez family made their 
home here at that time, since which they have been prominent residents. 

Amador Sanchez received a most liberal education, graduating at the 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 79 

St. Mary's University at Galveston, Texas. A portion of his early life 
was passed out on the range, engaged in the cattle industry, and lie has 
ever since been interested in this line and a prominent figure therein. 
An idea of the magnitude of his operationsjn the cattle line may be 
gained from the statement that he and his associates now have in the 
state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, a stock ranch of 100,000 acres — a most 
valuable property. Mr. Sanchez has also for many years been extensively 
interested in various mining enterprises in the Republic of Mexico. He 
has for many years been a prominent figure in the Democratic party in the 
state of Texas and he has filled many positions of importance in this 
connection. He was chairman of the Democratic executive committee of 
Webb county for four years, and a member of the Democratic state 
executive committee for a similar period, and is a man of influence in 
the party. In public office he was first elected, in 1890, as district clerk 
of Webb county, a position which he filled with credit for three terms. 
Following this he was sheriff of his county and in 1900 he was chosen 
as Laredo's mayor, his services in this position being of such a satisfac- 
tory nature that his fellow citizens have kept him as incumbent of the 
office ever since, being re-elected in April, 1907. Being by profession a 
civil engineer and surveyor, Mayor Sanchez's knowledge in this direc- 
tion has been put to practical use for the benefit of his city, while as a 
man of intelligence,, marked executive ability and a natural leader of 
men he is just the one to be at the head of a city's affairs. Under his 

Finance and Public Works. 

administration an excellent showing has been made. The floating and 
bonded indebtedness existing when he was first made mayor have been 
greatly reduced. During the first years of his incumbency he set to work 
to reduce the yearly expenses of the city, sacrificing his salary one year 
in this effort, and he made the expenditures about $5,000 less than usual. 
But with all this economy, he has always been in favor of increasing the 
permanent public improvements and he has seen to it that the real estate 
of the city paid a goodly tax in this direction. Under his direction great 
improvement has been made in the sanitary conditions, while the streets 
and public parks have received due attention. The public credit of the 
city has been placed upon a sound basis and today Laredo city bonds are 
considered as gilt-edged securities in financial centers. Himself a man 
of education, he has paid particular attention to the educational facili- 
ties of Laredo and several new school buildings have been erected, with 
the equipment of each complete. He has the best interests of his city 
closely at heart and there is no forward movement in which he is not a 
leader. That Laredo is coming to the front in public works is shown 
by the voting of $40,000, in April, 1907, for the erection of public school 
buildings, this following closely upon the bonding of the county for the 
erection of a new court house. 

Mr. Sanchez was married to Miss Maria Benavides, of the well- 
known Benavides family oi this city. 

Eliseo E. Ochoa. Is the worthy descendant of one of the oldest 
Spanish families which came from the mother country in the 18th cen- 
tury and at the behest of their sovereign established in America the Xew 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Spain which so flourished for an hundred years or more. Those were 
romantic and stirring times and the conquering of the mew country filled 
with many dangers and exciting incidents, but the invaders were a cour- 
ageous people and they made for themselves and their descendants com- 
fortable homes and accumulated considerable wealth. 

Eliseo L. Ochoa was born in Laredo in [860, his parents being Fran- 
cisco Ochoa and Sostenes Fibres de Ochoa. I lis lather was horn in 
N T ueva Leon, Mexico, and was an early settler in Laredo. But hefore 
Francisco came here to live, his ancestors had been pioneers in the vicinity 
of Laredo, in what is now the Texas side of the Rio Grande, once a 
S '.in. and later oi Mexico. Francisco ( tehoa's grandfather, Don 
Jose Rafael Enriquez, was one oi the founders, about 1810. of a villa de 
San Jose de Palafox, on the Rio Grande, the King of Spain for his 
valiant services granting him a tract of land at Palafox, in what is now 
Webb county, Texas, and, as specially mentioned in the records of that 
time, he was the hero of the noted fight against the Indians in which the 
said town of Palafox was wiped out in 1818. He was a soldier of un- 
daunted bravery, and in the fight in question he, with only a mere hand- 
ful oi men. made a gallant stand against an overwhelming- force of blood- 
thirsty Indians, as per records in Austin, Texas, which are signed by an 
authorized representative of the King of Spain. 

Still more interesting, from an historical and genealogical stand- 
point, is the record of our subject's maternal ancestry. At the expense 
of a great deal of time, labor and money, Mr. ( )choa has compiled a 
complete record and tree, tracing in a direct line his ancestry on this side 
1 ack to his great-great-grandfather, and embracing six generations. 
This maternal ancestor was Don Jnan Bautista \ illareal, who was one of 
the settlers at San Augustin de Laredo, now Laredo, in 1767, and who 
was one of those who received a grant of land from the King of Spain in 
the new town, although he had settled here several years previous to this 
time. He was a soldier in the Spanish army and one of the leaders of his 
day in the arduous labor of subjugating and civilizing a new country. 
The wisdom of many of his acts at that time is recognized to this day 
as indicating a far-sightedness not generally attributed to these soldiers 
of the early days. 

Mr. Ochoa has in his possession many interesting old original papers 
and official documents showing the connection of the members of his 
familv on both sides with the early history of Laredo and vicinity, from 
the days of the Spanish dominion down through the earlier days of Mex- 
ican independence. Among these he has the deed from the King of 
Spain to the property which is now his homestead on Yturbide street, 
Laredo, dated in 1814. 

Mr. Ochoa received his early education in Laredo and this was fol- 
ed by several years of thorough mercantile training, as clerk, with 
such well known old firms as C. M. McDonnell, Harris, Murphy & Com- 
pany, and Davis, Laden & Company. The latter two firms were import- 
er- and commission merchants in hides and skins and it was in that line 
'• tarted out independently for himself in 1897. He has been 
-t successfully engaged therein ever since. His good business sense 
and hi- sterling worth of character has led to his election by his fellow 




Oust 




HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 8r 

citizens as an alderman, his first election occurring in [894 and being 
followed by several re-elections. He still holds this position, represent- 
ing the second ward on the city council. 

Although his mother has been dead for several years, his father is 

still living, a resident of San Antonio and active in business. 

Mr. Ochoa was married in Laredo in 1885 to Miss Maria Drasdo 
Himmler, a native of Saxony, Germany, and they are the parents of five 
children, Eliseo, Alfonso, Jose, Luis and Daniel. 

The Milmo National Bank. Perhaps no one element in a busi- 
ness .community contributes so largely to solid and permanent prosperity 
as conservative and correct banking methods and in a town where the 
banks are conducted carefully while at the same time giving to the mer- 
chants and business men generally all the co-operation consistent with 
safety, it will invariably be found that failures are few and that business 
is conducted on proper lines. Such a financial institution is The Milmo 
National Bank, of Laredo, which is the oldest and the first national bank 
to be established in this city. 

Its charter as a national bank was issued July 12, 1882, and it has 
been in # business continuously ever since. Mr. Eugene Kelley of New 
York, who was instrumental in the establishment of this bank, became 
its first president, which position is now held by Mr. Daniel Milmo, also 
one of its founders, and Mr. Miles T. Cogley, of Laredo, is the cashier. 
This bank has steadily improved its status ever since organization, and 
its general condition is now better and its deposits and resources larger 
than at any previous time in its history. The institution has extensive 
and influential outside connections and it has always enjoyed peculiarly 
confidential relations with the leading business men of Laredo and vicin- 
ity. Particularly true is this in connection with the new business and 
agricultural growth of Laredo and Webb county, where the onion and 
trucking industry and the diversified agricultural interests have recently 
received such an impetus by the application of irrigation. This irriga- 
tion has placed a new phase upon the growth and development of this 
section, assuring within the next few years a great influx of thrifty set- 
tlers on the lands for agricultural purposes and a consequent increase of 
general prosperity and wealth. With this new movement the Milmo 
National Bank is closely in touch and is aiding in every way consistent 
with the methods of a safe and conservative financial institution. New- 
comers, whether going into farming, stock-raising or general business, 
have found this bank a most excellent medium through which to get in 
touch with the life and business of the place. 

Mr. Cogley, the cashier, was born and reared in Cleveland, and has 
all his life been connected with financial affairs. Before coming to Texas 
he was connected as cashier with the Bee Line, known as part of the 
Big Four railroad system, and on coming to Texas in 1883 he became 
cashier and paymaster of the National Railway of Mexico, extending 
south from Laredo into the Republic of Mexico. In 1886 he became 
connected with the Milmo National Bank and later was made its cashier. 
He is identified with the best interests of Laredo and is a member of 
the city school board, of which he was president for several years. 

Judge A. Winslow, of Laredo, was born and reared in that portion 

Vol. II. 6 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

oi Coffee county, Alabama, which is now embraced in Geneva county. 
His father, Elisha Winslow, was a native of North Carolina and his 
mother came from Georgia. They spent the greater portion of their 

lives in Alabama and are 'roth dead. 

In 1874 the subject oi this sketch came from Florida to Texas, 
locating in Matagorda county, lie was a young man at that time and 
here he completed his legal studies and was admitted, to the bar of that 
county with a temporary license only. From Matagorda county he 
moved to Waller count), locating in Hempstead, where he was per- 
manently admitted to the bar in 1877, and where he partially "filled in" 
the waiting period oi a young lawyer's life by acting as night clerk and 
ticket agent for the 1 touston & Texas Central Railroad Company, then 
the leading and one of the very few railroads in the state at that time. 
In the latter part ot 1877 he removed from Hempstead to Brenham, 
Texas, where he was engaged in the practice of his profession. But 
in 1881 he became convinced that a great future lay in store for Laredo, 
so he came here in that year with his family. Laredo was at that time a 
town of about 4.000 inhabitants and our subject traveled hither in the 
first passenger train to enter the city, Dec. 25th, 1881, over the. Interna- 
tional & Great Northern Railroad. The town was almost entirely popu- 
lated with Mexicans at the time and Judge Winslow and his family 
are among the pioneer Americans of Laredo. 

That Judge Winslow moved wisely when he came to Laredo has 
been demonstrated in the past quarter of a century for the place has be- 
come one of importance in the state and his own personal affairs have 
thrived in a corresponding degree. He has made Laredo his home con- 
tinuously since first coming and all through he has been very intimately 
ss iciated with the growth and development of the place. If Laredo 
has helped him, so he has helped Laredo, for he has been ever active 
in all those advance movements which have made the city what it is 
today. His profession has occupied his attention during this period and 
he has become one of the leading lawyers of this part of the state. His 
legal ability is of a high order and he has been retained in many import- 
ant cases. For over a year he was master in chancery in the matter 
of the receivership of the Laredo Improvement Company, in which ca- 
pacitv he adjusted matters and rendered decisions in claims against that 
company amounting practically to half million dollars, not one of which 
was ever overruled or set aside. He now occupies the important posi- 
tion of referee in bankruptcy in the Laredo Division of the District 
Court of the United States for the Southern District of Texas. He is 
a representative citizen in every sense of the term and takes great pride 
in Laredo and everything that redounds to the advantage of the place. 

Judge Winslow was married in Florida to Miss Julia A. Ferrell, 
a native of that state. They have four children, their eldest son, J. AT. 
Winslow, a young lawyer of great promise, having died here, January 
4. [906. Their living children are: John J. Winslow, who was a sol- 
dier in the Spanish-American war, going out with the first Texas Cav- 
alry: E. Blaine Winslow, Margaret J. Winslow, and Walter W. Wins- 
low. 

Judge Window is a self-made man in every sense of that word; 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 83 

leaving his native state with a limited education, lie came to a new 
country, worked hard and diligently for the completion of his educa- 
tion and mastery of his profession, so what he has done is of his own 
making; to such men the United States and especially the west owes 
its individuality. 

Don Quintin ViLLEGAS. The name of Villegas is widely known 
as identical with the interests of the border country of Texas and 
Mexico, where its owners have stamped their prestige in a business and 
personal way. Don Quintin Villegas is a Spaniard by birth, and was 
born in the province of Santander, Spain, in the. year 1850, coming to 
this country very young'. He arrived in Cuba in 1865, where he re- 
mained for some years. In 1870 he went to Corpus Christi, Texas, 
where he became associated in business with his brother Joaquin. Here 
they continued the mercantile pursuit, which coupled with their natural 
ability, their perseverance, and honest dealings which has ever charac- 
terized them, laid the foundation of their success. In the year 
1874 both brothers established themselves in New Laredo, Mexico, ana 
continued business on both sides of the river, sometimes associated and 
sometime separate, until in 1889 they formed the partnership of J. 
Villegas & Bro, Each year saw their business grow in proportions and 
witnessed the invasion of additional territory in their dealings. Hon- 
orable conduct, and the best business methods soon made the firm one 
of the largest and most influential on the border. The business became 
strictly wholesale, and from year to year they held the confidence and 
trade of this entire section. Although established many years their suc- 
cessors still retain customers who began with the firm when it was 
first commenced. In 1903 they organized the Villegas Mercantile Co., 
retaining in same over one-half interest, and these were their preliminary 
steps to retire from business. In 1905 the Villegas Mercantile Co., 
liquidated their business, selling same to the present firm of L. Villegas 
& Bro., and both brothers retired altogether from business, closing a long 
and honorable career. 

Don Quintin is a very popular gentleman. In 1894 the citizens 
of Laredo desired to place him as a candidate for mayor, but he has 
never desired to accept any political office, for reasons best known to 
himself. 

His handsome residence is one of the most beautiful in the city, 
and is elegantly furnished with all modern improvements. He is still 
interested as owner with his brother of fine ranch property in Webb and 
surrounding counties, also in several mining and banking enterprises 
in Mexico, and is a stockholder and director of the Milmo National 
Bank of this city. 

In 1904 he resigned from the Laredo Business Men's Club, having 
been its president for seven consecutive years until the time of his resig- 
nation. Together with Hon. J. O. Nicholson, the secretary of the Busi- 
ness Men's Club, he took an active part in the improvement of this city. 
as well as this section of the country. 

Both brothers have passed most of their life in this section where 
they are much liked and respected, for their integrity, urbanity, and 
strict business principles ; their word is as good as their bond. 



84 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

The present firm of L. Villegas & Bro., composed o\ Leopold and 

Lorenzo, are both sons oi Don Joaquin. They arc following- the busi- 
ness methods largely oi their predecessors, and it is needless to state 
that they are successful therein. The firm is one of the largest on the 
border and does an exclusive wholesale and commission business, also 
imports and exports. 

EiONORE LlGAfcDE, county tax collector for the county of Webb, 
was born in Bordeaux, France, in [855, and was reared and educated in 
that city, lie served one year in the French army and then entered 
public life, being deputy treasurer of the Province of Gironde, of which 
Bordeaux is the capital, Eor some years previous to coming to America. 
In [88] he came to America with his wife, who was formerly Miss 
Elizabeth Martin, a niece of Raymond Martin, a native of France, who 
had come to America in [852, and who became a prominent stockman 
and business man of Texas. Mrs. Elizabeth' (Martin) Ligardc was 
born in the French city of San Luis, Senegal, Africa, although after- 
ward reared in Bordeaux, France, where she married the subject of this 
review. 

Upon first coming to America in 1881, Mr. and Mrs. Honore Ligarde 
made their way to the home of Mrs. Ligarde's uncle, Raymond Martin, 
in Laredo, Texas, where Mr. Ligarde soon became interested in busi- 
es and where he has ever since resided. His eminent fitness for the 
duties of public office soon attracted the attention of the residents of 
this city and county and he was early called Upon to fill positions of 
trust and responsibility. He has had a long and honorable career in 
the public life of Webb county, beginning three years after taking up 
his residence here. . He was county commissioner for eight years, city 
alderman for six years, and in 1900 he was elected county assessor, 
which office he filled until 1906, when he was elected county tax col- 
lector, a position which he now fills. Through long experience, re- 
quisite education and natural aptitude, he makes a particularly efficient 
official in positions of this character and he has the thorough confi- 
dence of the public. In addition to his public duties, he is also the man- 
ager of the vast estates of his late uncle, Raymond Martin, now con- 
ducted in the name of his widow, Mrs. Raymond Martin. Mr. and Mrs. 
Ligarde are the parents of four children: Fred H., Hermance, Amedee 
and Antoinette. 

Raymond Martin. 

Tn connection with the biographical sketch of Mr. Ligarde, it is par- 
ticularly appropriate that due mention be made of the career of Mr. Ray- 
mond Martin, who has been such a prominent figure iii this region. Mr. 
Martin was born in Prance, Mav 31, 1828, being the son of Jean Marie 
Martin, who was a merchant. Raymond Martin was reared to mercan- 
tile pursuits, as also were his brothers. Paul and Joseph Martin, who 
came to the United States in 1852, Paul Martin coming to Texas in 1853 
and locating at San Antonio. Raymond Martin came to America in De- 
cember of 1852, living a short time in each of the cities of Pensacola, New 
Orleans and San Antonio, until 1854, when he came to Laredo and at 
once engaged in the mercantile line. There were then only two stores 




RAYMOND MARTIN 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

in the place and from the first he was uniformly successful, he continuing 
in the mercantile trade for a number of years, it was also natural that 
he should engage in other pursuits and he was the pioneer in sheep rais- 
ing in Webb county, beginning in 1861, and for many years he was the 
largest operator in this line in this section of country. At times over 
50,000 sheep grazed on .his pastures, as well as thousands of head of cat- 
tle, in which latter industry he also became one of the leaders. He accu- 
mulated large tracts of land in Webb and LaSalle counties and at the 
present time the Raymond Martin estate includes 130,000 acres of land 
which is constantly increasing in value. Mr. Martin retired from the 
mercantile line in. 1887, although he continued to take a most active part 
in the upbuilding of the city of Laredo, erecting the Commercial hotel 
and several other business blocks. He was also one of the organizers of 
the Laredo Bank and of the city water works, and in many other ways 
materially assisted in the growth and development of the city. Equally 
prominent was he as a leader in politics and all during the remainder of 
his life he was considered as one of Laredo's foremost citizens. His 
widow, who now conducts the management of his estate, was before her 
marriage Miss Tirza Garcia, their marriage taking place Jan. 10, 1870. 
Mrs. Martin is a native of Laredo, being the daughter of Bartelo Garcia, 
who was an old and prominent resident of this city. Mrs. Martin has ten 
children, five sons and five daughters. The sons are Raymond V. Martin, 
Marcelino G. Martin, Jean M. Martin, Joe Martin and Albert -Martin, 
while the daughters are Mrs. Antonia M. de Martin, Mrs. Herlinde M. 
de Gutierrez, Mrs. Magdalena M. de Brum, Miss Mamie Martin and 
Miss Louise Martin. 

Capt. Sam T. Foster. One of the leading figures of Laredo, as well 
as one of the pioneer American residents of this city and state, is the 
gentleman named above, who has lived continuously in Texas since 1847, 
with the exception of the period of his service in the Civil war. Captain 
Foster is a native of Union District South Carolina, where he was born 
in 1829, his parents being Isaac J, and Frances (Stribling) Foster. His 
father was born in Virginia and his mother in South Carolina, and they 
came with their family to Texas in 1847, making this state their home 
until they died. They first located in Lavaca county, which was the home 
of our subject until 1857, when he went to Live Oak county, locating 
at Oakville, where he was living when the war broke out. He enlisted 
in the Twenty-fourth Texas Cavalry, which was afterward dismounted, 
and in which he became the captain of a company and remained in com- 
mand of the same throughout the war. The members of his command 
were among those who were captured at Arkansas Post and taken pris- 
oners to Virginia. After being exchanged, Captain Foster's company 
was put into the fighting in Tennessee, where they arrived shortly after 
the battle of Murfreesboro. They were in the general engagements of 
Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge and the accompanying skirmishing 
and fighting in that vicinity ; then in the siege and battle of Atlanta : 
thence came back to the battle of Franklin and the battle of Xashville. 
From there they went to North Carolina, under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, 
in whose army Captain Foster had served ever since entering Tennessee 
at first. Captain Foster did valiant service for his state, his military 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

>rd being one oi gallantry and distinction, lie was wounded three 
times in battle, at Missionary Ridge, in the Atlanta campaign and at 
Nashville. 

After the war. Captain Foster returned to Live Oak county, and 
removed from that place to Corpus Christi in 1869, He came to La- 
redo in 1879, which has ever since been his home, he being one of the 
pioneer American residents i^i the city. Although a lawyer by profes- 
sion, he is not now actively engaged in its practice, but devotes his time 
and attention to the duties o\ his office, he being the United States com- 
missioner at Laredo for the United States District Court for the South- 
ern District oi Texas. His has been a long and honorable career and 
he p. ssesses in a marked degree the confidence and esteem of the people 
(^ this portion of the state. 

Captain Foster is the father of five children: Mrs. Bettie Atlee, 
Arthur Foster, Mrs. Ida Kerr, Miss Mary Foster, Mrs. Mollie Ulmer 
and Sam T. Foster, Jr. 

JaSies J. Haynes, who holds the important position as collector of 
customs for the customs district of Corpus Christi, Texas, is a native 
Of Texas, where he has passed practically all of his life. He was born 
at Rio Grande City, on the lower Rio Grande, in Starr county, South- 
western Texas, in 1853, his parents being Col. John L. and Angelica 
1 Wells ) Haynes. 

Col. John L. Haynes was a very prominent character in the ante- 
bellum days and in the succeeding history of the state of Texas. He 
was a native of Virginia and he first came to Texas from Mississippi, 
accompanying a volunteer regiment from that state, this regiment' being 
attached to General Taylor's army of occupation, in the campaigning 
leading up to the Mexican war. He served all through this war with 
distinction and was musterel out in 1848. During this service he had 
become impressed with the great future which was evidently in store 
for the new state of Texas, and after the close of the Mexican war he 
decided to make this his home. He located on the Rio Grande, in Starr 
county, at the place then known as Davis' Rancho, but which later be- 
came Rio Grande City. Here he made his home and he soon became 
identified thoroughly with the interests of his adopted state. He was a 
man of force and character and filled many positions of responsibility 
and honor in the early history of the state. When the secession move- 
ment began in Texas he was a member of the state legislature and from 
principle he opposed the secession idea. In this respect his ideas con- 
formed with those of his friend, General Sam. Houston, who was then 
a leading figure in the state. These were exciting times, but Mr. Haynes 
Stood steadfast to his convictions, and after the state had seceded and 
hostilities had begun, he raised a regiment of cavalry for the Union 

1 -t Texas Cavalry (Union). 

service. Edmund J. Davis, afterward governor of Texas, also raised a 
similar organization and these two regiments were consolidated as the 
Firsl Texas Cavalry, it being 1 the only Union regiment to go into the 
Service from Texas. ( )f this new regiment Mr. Haynes was chosen 
Colonel and he remained in command all through the Civil' war, seeing 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 87 

a great deal of severe service and being in many important engag ments 
in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi. He made a splendid record as a 
soldier and an officer and he performed valiant service for the cause 
which he considered right. His service was also notafjly recognized by 
the Federal government and following the war he was appointed to 
several posts of honor and responsibility. He first located in Austin, 
where he became assessor of internal revenue. Later he was appointed 
collector of customs at Galveston, and still later collector of customs at 
Brownsville, in which latter position he remained for twelve years. He 
died in 1889, after a long career of honorable and distinguished public 
service. His widow, who was a native of the state of New York, is 
still living and a resident of Los Angeles, California. 

Their son, James J. Haynes, was reared principally in Austin, where 
he attended school. When only eighteen years of age he went to 
Brownsville and became inspector of customs there, this being in 1872. 
The following year he was appointed commercial agent for the United 
States at Mier, Mexico, and in 1874 he went to New Laredo, Mexico, 
as commercial agent, in which position he remained until 1881, when 
the office was made a consulate. In that year he located in Laredo, 
Texas, which has been his home ever since. Here he was United States 
commissioner for about two years, following which he was in business 
in this city for himself, as customs house broker. In 1898 he was ap- 
pointed by the late President McKinley as collector of customs for the 
customs district of Corpus Christi, which position he still fills, having 
been reappointed thereto by President Roosevelt. His lifelong residence 
in the state and his extended experience in this and kindred lines pe- 
culiarly fit him for the duties of the office and he performs them in a 
manner similar to that of his distinguished father. 

Mr. Haynes is a prominent figure in the Republican party of Texas 
and he is also closely identified with the affairs of his home town, 
Laredo, where he is a leading citizen. He was married in this city to 
Miss Angela M. Arizola. 

August C. Richter of Laredo, was born in San Antonio, his father 
being Charles A. Richter, who was one of the pioneer settlers and busi- 
ness men of San Antonio. Chas. A. Richter was associated with various 
leading enterprises in the early history of the city and was also known 
as one of the founders of the old German-English school in San Antonio. 
His son, August C. Richter, was reared and educated in San Antonio 
and here he also received the very best kind of commercial training in 
his young manhood, being employed in the mercantile establishments of 
M. Half & Brother and the Hugo & Schmeltzer Company, two of the 
oldest and largest mercantile institutions of San Antonio. He came to 
Laredo in 1888 and took a partnership in the store of 'Mr. D. Stumberg. 
He remained in this line until August, 1898, when he established the 
present business of A. C. Richter. This is a large department store, 
carrying complete lines of general and special merchandise, and is the 
largest retail trading establishment in the city of Laredo. In January. 
1907, their store was enlarged. In these fine new quarters the depart- 
ments of the store have been greatly enlarged and increased in number 
and the establishment ranks far above any of its character in this part 



88 HIS TORN' OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

of the state. It is thoroughly modern and metropolitan in all of its 
v and appointments and it is greatly appreciated by the people of 
I aredo and a wide trading territory, as it enables them to purchase at 
home everything usually to be Found only in the larger cities. The 
success attained by the Richter mercantile establishment is due to the 
large and varied stocks constantly carried, coupled with business meth- 
ods which make friends i^i all their patrons, and every year the goods 
of the store go into a wider territory. 

Associated with Mr. Richter in this mercantile business is his 
brother, Charles E. Richter. These brothers, in addition to their mer- 
cantile interests, have made a great success in the operation of irri- 
gated farms, and in this line they have become leaders in the ranks of 
the enterprising gentlemen who are laying the foundation for Laredo's 
still greater prosperity by the proper development of the hitherto almost 
unsuspected agricultural fertility, the natural facilities behiQ- aided by 
the application of irrigation to the growing of small and diversified crops. 
Although the Richter brothers have separate farms, which are operated 
independently of each other, their methods and experiments are similar 
and in many instances their example has been followed by others of 
this region. Mr. August Richter's farm is one of the best in the valley. 
it consisting of a 710 acre tract, too acres of which are under cultiva- 
tion and irrigated by water from the Rio Grande. This farm, which 
i> located about four and one-half miles southwest of Laredo, has been 
-elected as an experimental station by the United States Department of 
Agriculture, as fulfilling all of the necessary requirements. The soil is 
a light sandy loam and verv productive, especially when irrigation meth- 
ods are applied. Mr. Richter has been verv successful in the raising 
of the famous Bermuda onions, his average yield per acre being in the 
neigh borhood of t 6,000 pounds. Mr. Richter is a firm believer in di- 
versification in farminp- and his crops are varied and numerous. He 
has realized a profit of $too per acre in grape raising and is now experi- 
menting largely in the growing of fiVs. His alfalfa crops are also laree 
and he makes no less than six cuttings per vear from the same. He 
raises 300 bushels per acre of Irish potatoes, while his crops of cabbages,. 
cauliflower and lettuce are among the largest in this section. The 
United States Department of Agriculture is exnerimenting here with 
the date nalm tree and the pistache nut tree. The native home of the 
latter is in France and the product has ereat commercial value. The 
soil and climate here are both well adapted to the culture of the tree 
and it is thought that great good will come from these pDvernrnent ex- 
periments. From the foregoing it will be seen that Mr. Richter has not 
only l>ecn eminently successful in a business career, but he has also done 
a great work on the agricultural side, and in both he has greatly bene- 
fited this region. 

Dr, Henry T. HAMILTON, marine hospital surgeon at Laredo, and 
who also has a large general practice, was born at P>arrie. Ontario, in 
1X04 his parents being Dr. Alexander and Katherine fSpohn) Hamil- 
ton. His father was a native Canadian, of Scotch-Trish stock, whose 
father in turn was one of the York pioneers who founded the city of 
Toronto, he also being an own cousin of the Countess of DufTerin and 





^y./^a^c^nZ 




HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 89 

of Lord Claude Hamilton, of Scotland. Dr. Alexander Hamilton be- 
came a physician of distinction in Canada and in 1875 he came to the 
United States with his family, locating" at Corpus Christi, Texas. For 
several years he was surgeon of the Marine Hospital at Corpus Christi 
and he died there in [882. His widow is still living in the city of Laredo. 

Several members of the Hamilton family have achieved positions 
of prominence in the professions, chiefly in that of medicine, and one 
of the brothers of the subject of this review is Hon. A. C. Hamilton, 
a prominent lawyer of Laredo. 

Dr. Henry J. Hamilton received his preliminary education in the 
Barrie High School and graduated in the Collegiate Institute at Hamil- 
ton in 1880. He received his medical education in the United States, 
beginning - as a student under his uncle, Dr. A. E. Spohn, at Corpus 
Christi. He also studied at the Kentucky School of Medicine at Louis- 
ville, where he graduated in the class of 1888 with honors, winning the 
Regent and three other gold medals. Later, in 1890 and 1891, he took 
post-graduate work in New York City and in the Jefferson Medical 
College at Philadelphia. 

He located at Corpus Christi in 1889, where he was resident sur- 
geon of Bayview Infirmary associated with Dr. Spohn, this being a 
hospital devoted exclusively to diseases of women and children, besides 
regular private practice. In the early nineties Dr. Hamilton located 
at Guerrero, Mexico, where he practiced medicine and w r as also United 
States consul at that place. In 1893 he located at Laredo, which has 
since been his home. 

Here Dr. Hamilton has established a large practice in medicine and 
surgery. His education and training has been such as to place him in 
a leading position among the city's practitioners and he has been very 
successful here. In 1898 he was appointed as surgeon in charge of the 
United States Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, at Laredo, 
which position he has filled ever since with credit to himself and with 
safety to the public health. The examination of immigrants and others 
coming through this gateway from Mexico has an important bearing 
on the general public health and the position is one of responsibility. 
The Doctor is councillor of the State Medical Association of the South- 
west Texas District, also United States pension surgeon since 1894. 
He served as city physician two years from 1896 to 1898. In 1904 the 
Doctor was selected by Governor Lanham of Texas, as a delegate to 
represent Texas at the international congress on tuberculosis, held at 
St. Louis, during* the World's Fair. He was elected one of the vice- 
presidents of the International Congress on Tuberculosis for 1905. He 
has been a member of the American Medical Association since 1806, 
member of the State Medical Association of Texas and is one of the 
councillors, member of the Texas State Historical Association, member 
of the Association of Military Surgeons of the L T nited States and Amer- 
ican Association of Medical Examiners, National Association of United 
States Pension Examining Surgeons. West Texas Medical Society, and 
Webb County Medical Society, which he organized in 1903 and was its 
president for two consecutive terms. 

Dr. Hamilton was married in this citv to Miss Lamar Benavides, 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

daughter of Christobal Benavides, appropriate biographical mention of 
whom and family is made elsewhere in this volume. 

Dr. Edmond H. Sauvignet is known as a leading physician and 
surgeon oi Laredo, where he has a very wide practice and where he is 
also interested in various enterprises and industries which are valuable 
to the city and vicinity, lie is a native oi Texas, having been born at 
San Antonio, although oi French ancestry. His parents, H. A. and 
Laura (Rigollot) Sauvignet. were both born in Central France and 
came to Texas in [868, locating at San Antonio. In later years his 
parents came to Laredo, where his father engaged in business; among 
other enterprises he has a tine onion and truck farm lying a short dis- 
tance north oi Laredo. 

The son. Edmond, was sent to Lyons, LTance, to obtain his pre- 
liminary education and there under the splendid educational system in 
fjue; he received a most thorough groundwork for his subsequent 
professional education. After returning home he spent four years in 
the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas making a specialty 
of chemistry and the natural and biological sciences. He studied medi- 
cine in the City of Mexico and in Tulane University, New Orleans, in 
which latter institution he graduated in 1898. This was followed by 
tw«> years as house surgeon in Santa Rosa Infirmary, San Antonio, 
where he received a wide and valuable experience, particularly in sur- 
gery. In his work here he was associated with the most distinguished 
physicians and surgeons of San Antonio, a training which was to be 
of invaluable worth to him in his later career. In 1900 he located for 
practice of his profession in Laredo and here he has maintained the 
excellent career which was started in San Antonio. He is the secretary 
of the Webb County Medical Society, a position which he has held ever 
since its organization, while he is also a member of the State and Amer- 
ican Medical Associations. He is interested in everything that tends to 
develop and foster this new agricultural feature of this portion of Texas 
and is secretary 'of the Laredo Truck Growers' Association. 

Dr. Sauvignet was married in San Antonio to Miss Leonore Beze, 
daughter of the late Victor Beze, a sketch of whom appears elsewhere, 
in this work. They have one son, Vdctor Sauvignet. 

Col. Calvin G. Brewster. Although not a native of the state 
<>f Texas, nevertheless Col. Calvin G. Brewster, LJnited States marshal 
for the Southern District of Texas, is counted as one of the very earliest 
living pioneers among the American residents of Laredo, where he has 
lived continuously for the past thirty odd years. Col. Brewster was 
b -m in Bureau county, Illinois, in July, 1844, his parents being Dwight 
Williams and Emily C. (Kinney) Brewster; The Brewsters were ori- 
ginally of Connecticut slock our subject's father's family coining from 
that eastern state to Illinois in the early year of 1836 and locating in 
Bureau count)-. In 1847 the family came to Texas, settling in Corpus 
Christi, where the father. Dwight W. Brewster, died in 1852. Soon 
thereafter. Calvin G. and his mother returned to Illinois and made their 
home in LaSalle county. I Fpon the breaking out of the Civil war, Calvin 
-i.me fireel with a desire to join the army, but on account of his ex- 
treme youth he was prevented from enlisting in his home county. Noth- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 91 

ing daunted at this, he went to Chicago and enlisted in the Nineteenth 
Illinois Infantry, with which regiment he served throughout the war. 
He was first in the Army of the Ohio and later in the Army of the 
Cumberland, and was in many of the important battles of the war, in- 
cluding the engagements at Stone River, Chickamauga and other con- 
flicts in which the Army of the Cumberland engaged. 

After the close of the war he returned to Illinois and resumed the 
education which had been interrupted by his period of service, and for 
a year and a half he attended Lombard College, Galesburg, Illinois. 
Then, in 1868, with the memories of Texas urging him, he returned to 
the Lone Star state, locating at his former home, Corpus Christi. Here 
he was in the custom' house service for a period of five years and in 
1874 he came to Laredo, which has since been his home. After coming 
here he was for ten year.s deputy collector of customs, and in 1888 he 
was appointed by President Harrison as collector of customs for the 
Corpus Christi district, with headquarters at Laredo. After the change 
of administration caused by the election of President Cleveland, he re- 
tired for the time being from public position and engaged in the mer- 
cantile business, in connection with custom house brokerage and a gen- 
eral commission business, in which he was engaged successfully for sev- 
eral years. In June, 1906, President Roosevelt appointed him Lnited 
States marshal for the Southern District of Texas, a position which he 
is now filling in a most efficient manner. He has also been called upon 
by his fellow citizens to fill varioiis other offices' of a public nature and 
the one in which he takes the greatest amount of personal pride is that 
of president of the Laredo school board, which has charge of all the 
educational facilities of the city. Col. Brewster is enthusiastically inter- 
ested in all that pertains to public education and a great deal of his 
time is devoted to promoting the growth and efficiency of the public 
schools of his city. 

For a number of years Col. Brewster has been a conspicuous figure 
as a leader in the Republican party of the state of Texas. He has been 
a delegate on many occasions to the state and national Republican con- 
ventions and he is remembered as having placed in nomination for re- 
election Gov. Edmund J. Davis. On three different occasions he was 
the Republican candidate for Congress from this district and each time 
he made heavy inroads upon the old-time Democratic majorities. He 
has always been active in local' political affairs and it is largely through 
his instrumentality that Webb county has become known as a Republi- 
can stronghold in Texas, returning as it did a Republican majority of 
900 at the : second election of President McKinley. 

Col. Brewster was married at Corpus Christi, in June, 1869, to 
Miss Lydia A.' Barnard and they have four children living, viz. : Emily, 
Yivia, Alma and Lamar F. Of these. Miss Yivia Brewster has achieved 
a notable success as an operatic singer. Her musical education was re- 
ceived at Laredo, San Antonio and New York city, and soon after com- 
pleting her studies in the last named place, and with scarcely anv pre- 
vious dramatic training, she was selected as prima donna for the Robin 
Hood Opera Company, and has ever since held equally as prominent 
positions ori the operatic stage, her comparatively brief career thus far 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

having been remarkahly successful, llcr undoubted musical talent is 
probably inherited from her mother, who came from a Family of noted 
singers, one ot her uncles having been for a number of years associated 
with the famous Lombards, Frank and Jules, iu Chicago, before and 
during the war. 

William Chapman Chamberlain, who is believed to have been 
the youngest soldier iu the Confederate army and is one of the best 
known and most prominent Masons of the south, enjoying the distinc- 
tion o\ having attained the thirty-third degree, makes his home in 
Laredo, lie was bom iu Brownsville, Texas, October 2, 1850, his par- 
ems being Rev, Hiram and Anna Adelia (GriswoJd) Chamberlain. His 
father was born in Vermont and was a Presbyterian minister, who in 
1S47 made his way to the Mexican frontier of Texas, acting as chap- 
lain with General Scott's army in its operations against Mexico. After 
tlie Mexican war was over he settled at Brownsville and lived there 
until his death, which occurred November 1, 1866. He was also chap- 
lain of Luckett's regiment in the Confederate army in the Civil war. 
His wife, who was born iu Connecticut, was a member of the w r ell 
known ( iriswold family of that state, which has produced several men 
of prominence. Her family lived for a number of years in Brooklyn, 
New York, where her father owned extensive landed interests, and in 
her later years Mrs. Chamberlain left her Texas home and returned 
to Brooklyn, where she died November 27, 1882. 

William C. Chamberlain, of Laredo, was reared in Cameron and 
Nueces counties. He was a favorite protege of his brother-in-law, 

Richard King. 

Captain Richard King, the great cattleman, by whom he was reared. 
Captain King had married Air. Chamberlain's elder sister, Henrietta 
Moss Chamberlain. The Captain was born in Orange county, New r 
York, in 1825 and in earlv youth went to Mobile, Alabama. He worked 
as a cabin boy on an Alabama river steamboat and became a soldier 
in the war against the Seminole Indians. In 1847, following the out- 
break of the Mexican war, he came to the Rio Grande country of Texas, 
where he joined Captain M. Kennedy, who had charge of the steam- 
boat service on that river in the quartermaster's department of the 
United States forces, and in that service Capt. King became a pilot. 
Then, after the war with Mexico, he engaged in steamboating on the 
Rio Grande, forming a partnership in 1850 with Captain Kennedy, and 
together they built or purchased twenty-six steamboats and operated 
them on the Rio Grande in the vicinity of Brownsville. The partner- 
ship with Captain Kennedy continued until 1872. In the meantime, 
beginning in i860. Captain King had made a start in the cattle busi- 
ih->>. which under his direction gradually ^rew and expanded until at 
the time of his death he was the largest individual cattle and land owner 
in the world. The great Santa Gertrudes ranch with its adjoining lands, 
King in Nueces, Cameron and Starr counties, which Captain King 
founded and which is still owned by Mrs. King and stocked with the 
finest breeds of cattle, has increased in value to such an extent that her 
fortune runs up into the millions and, like her husband, she is the largest 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

individual ranch and cattle owner in the country. Captain King died 
April 14, 1885. He was a man of remarkable business capacity and 
enterprise, capable of managing large affairs, was a typical pioneer and 

frontiersman and a stockman of the old school, lie possessed generous 
impulses and his life was characterized by kindly deeds, while his ex- 
tensive improvement and development work in bringing Southwestern 
Texas to the notice of the world will long be a monument to his memory. 

Through the kindly assistance of his sister and Captain King. Mr. 
Chamberlain was afforded the best educational facilities, spending sev- 
eral years in study in San Antonio, at Washington, Pennsylvania, and 
as a cadet at West Point. The greater part of his education came after 
he had had a military record that was somewhat remarkable from the* 
fact that he enlisted when only thirteen years of age and as far as the 
records show he is the youngest soldier of the Confederate service. He 
was permitted to join the company of Captain James Richardson of 
Georgia, who came to Texas and was given command of a company 
in Rip Ford's regiment of Texas Rangers and Indian fighters. In this 
service Mr. Chamberlain engaged along the Mexican border of Texas 
until the war closed and was in the last battle of the war, which indeed 
was fought after the surrender at Appomattox. It occurred on the Rio 
Grande a few miles below Brownsville. 

For several years Mr. Chamberlain made his home mostly at 
Brownsville and in Nueces county, and in 1894 he removed to Laredo, 
where he has since resided. He was justice of the peace for seven years 
in Cameron county and held a similar position for two years after com- 
ing to Laredo. His business interests are represented by large invest- 
ments in valuable gold, silver and coal mining interests in the state of 
Durango, Mexico. 

Mr. Chamberlain's name became widely known in 1878, when he 
was spoken of as the "wolf bitten Texan," from the fact that he had 
been bitten on the face by a wolf, being poisoned thereby. L T pon apply- 
ing to Dr. Spohn at Corpus Christi for treatment the Doctor immedi- 
ately started with him for Paris, accompanied by Edwin Chamberlain, 
a brother, and now a prominent banker and business man of San An- 
tonio. In Paris they went to the home of Dr. Pasteur, who treated 
Mr. Chamberlain and cured him. 

January 17, '07, Mr. Chamberlain was compelled to have an opera- 
tion performed, losing his right eye, and came near losing his life but 
for valuable medical assistance rendered him by Dr. A. Spohn and Dr. 
H. Redmond of Corpus Christi. 

In Nueces county, Texas, September it, 1872, was celebrated the 
marriage of William C. Chamberlain and Miss Carmen Pizaiia. They 
have seven sons and one daughter, namely: William, Ella, John, Rich- 
ard King, Hiram Griswold, Mifflin Kennedy, Louis Pasteur and Arthur 
Spohn. 

As stated Mr. Chamberlain is the best known Mason of the south. 
The thirty-third and highest degree of Masonry has been conferred upon 
him and he is illustrious deputy of the most sovereign grand commander 
for Texas under the Covington (Kentucky) jurisdiction. He has occu- 
pied all the chairs through all the different degrees up to and including- 



94 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

the thirty-third, and in Matamoras, Mexico, in [870, was initiated into 

the order as an entered apprentice. He is also connected with the Od^.l 
Fellows' society, together with other local organizations in Laredo, and 
is chief of records for the Red Men. In the Masonic fraternity he has 
done much work among the Spanish speaking Mexicans, and it is 
through his labors and influence that thousands of Mexicans in Texas 
and Mexico are Masons. Mr. Chamberlain is also an elder in the Mexi- 
can Presbyterian church, for which denomination he does considerable 
missionary work among the Mexicans. His life has shown a thorough 
appreciation oi individual responsibility and the recognition of oppor- 
tunities for successful accomplishment, not only in a business wav but in 
those lines o\ activity which make the world better and which prove 
directly beneficial to those with whom he comes in contact.* 

John ArmenOOL, the head of the widely known mercantile firm 
oi J. Armengrol, Laredo, is a native of Spain, where he was born in the 
province oi Cataluna in 1861. At the early age of twelve years he be- 
ean learning his mercantile career, which w r as done in the two prin- 
cipal cities of Cataluna — Tarrega and Barcelona. He remained as a 
clerk in Spain until nineteen years old, when be followed the example 
of many of his countrymen and went to Havana, Cuba, and entered 
business on his own account, the line being groceries. In 1888 he re- 
turned to Spain, but the advantages of the new world still held attrac- 
tion^ for him and he soon returned to Havana and re-entered the mer- 
cantile line, this time as a partner in a commercial house. In 1802 he 
went to Xew York and opened a branch house for his firm, remaining 
in Xew York in charge thereof until the Cuban revolution disturbed 
trade considerably. Then he retired from his firm and came to Mexico, 
where he went into business in Torreon, in the state of Coahuila, as a 
partner, temporarily, in a grocery store. Soon, however, he saw fit to 
give up commercial life for ranching and he purchased and developed 
a fine stock ranch in Chihuahua, in which line he met with great suc- 
cess, making a specialty of raising improved breeds of goats. He gave 
his oersoual attention to the business until t8oq, when he was summoned 
to Laredo, where he has since resided. The ranch interests have all 
been disposed of, Mr. Armengol devoting his entire attention to the busi- 
ness of the J. Armengol house. 

The house of I. Armengol is an old and prominent one in Laredo, 
the line being 1 wholesale merchants. Mexican products, agricultural im- 
plements, vehicles, pud kindred lines. It was established in Laredo in 
i88r bv our subject's uncle, Joseph Armengol, a native of Spain who 
came here from that country in that year. In T883 Tames Armengol, 
a brother of the <ml)jcrt of this review, came from Spain and ioined 
his uncle in the Laredo business. lames Armeneol remained in the 
business until 1896, when he retired to Spain, but the following vear 
be was again summoned from his mother country by the death of his 
uncle, the founder of the firm, fames returned to Laredo and as- 
sumed the chief management of the business, in partnership with the 
widow of his deceased uncle. This partnership was continued until 
lames ArmengoTs health failed to such an extent that he was compelled 
summon his brother. John, from Mexico to take charge of the busi- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 95 

ness. The latter accordingly came and formed a similar partnership 
with his uncle's widow, with the exception that his two nephews, Miguel 
V. Armengol and Antonio V. Armengol, were also admitted as part- 
ners. This partnership continued for four years, at the expiration of 

which time John Armengol purchased the interest of the widow of 
Joseph Armengol and formed a new partnership, this time with the 
two nephews mentioned above and his brother, James. In J 901 James 
Armengol again retired and returned to Spain, our subject assuming 
his brother's interest. This partnership continued until 1906, when 
James Armengol again purchased an interest in the firm, since which 
time the business has been owned by James and John Armengol and 
their two nephews. From the start, however, the firm name has re- 
mained the same, being known as J. Armengol. 

An exceedingly large business has been transacted and the house 
bears an enviable reputation in this whole region. Its operations are 
not confined wholly to Texas, but also embraces many transactions in 
the Republic of Mexico, where there are hundreds of customers who have 
been with the firm since it was first established. Large importations of 
Mexican goods and products are made and the firm also sends large 
quantities of American products into Mexico. The business has always 
been conducted in a reasonably conservative manner, but at the same 
time the best interests of all patrons have been fully conserved. The 
firm is a wealthy one and its operations grow in volume each year. 

L. R. Ortiz, who has been the sheriff of Webb county ever since 
1896, is not only a popular and most capable official, but he has long 
been known as a leading business man and ranchman, his interests in 
this immediate vicinity being very extensive. Mr. Ortiz is a native of 
Laredo, as was his father before him, so it will be seen that the Ortiz 
family must of necessity be one of the oldest in the city. L. R. Ortiz 
was born in Laredo, August 25, 1858, and this has always been his home, 
although he spent a number of years in other places in his young man- 
hood, acquiring his education. His parents were Juan and Antonia 
(Farias) Ortiz, life-long residents of this locality. His father was for 
years a prominent land owner stockman and merchant, with a large 
and exceedingly' valuable interest in Laredo and Webb county from 
the time he attained to manhood to the date of his death, which occurred 
here in 1900. In addition to his large business interests, he also served 
his city and county in a public capacity upon several different occa- 
sions, being county commissioner for several years and alderman of the 
city several terms. 

Their son, L. R. Ortiz, was reared in Laredo and in his younger 
days he had considerable ranching experience, particularly in the sheep 
line, when that industry was the leading one in this section of the coun- 
try. The Ortiz family were among the first and largest people in this 
line and their operations were on a most extensive scale. The son re- 
ceived a most liberal education, he pursuing courses of study at St. 
Mary's College in San Antonio, at the Jesuit College in Mobile, and at 
Forclham's School in New York, finishing for commercial life at Pack- 
er's Business College in the last named city. With this complete prepa- 
ration he in 1876 entered his father's store in Laredo as manager and 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

- in mercantile life for several years. In lSgo, his eminent fitness 

the duties o\ public life, coupled with his popularity and the confi- 
dence reposed in him by his fellow citizens, culminated in his election 
is listrict and county clerk oi Webb county, and he has been kept in 
public office ever since. lie served as district and county clerk for a 
period ; six years and then, in [896, he was elected sheriff of Webb 
county. Regularly ever since he has been re-elected to this same office, 
a fine tribute to his efficiency and popularity. Since his last election, in 
6, he his announced that at the v\u\ of his present term, in 1908, 
he will retire oi his own volition from the office. 

Although his duties as sheriff take up the greater portion of his 
time, nevertheless he has keen compelled to devote some attention to 
the large and varied outside intersts with which he is, connected. He is 
nted as one o\ the wealthiest residents of Laredo and Webb county 
and in addition to his other investments he is the owner of about ninety 
thousand acres <^\ hue ranching land on which he conducts an extcn- 

and profitable stock business, mainly in the line of fine horses, 
mule- and cattle. His principal ranch headquarters are at San Ignacio, 
Webb county, where the outfit is a very complete one and business con- 
ducted m\ a large scale. He is thoroughly in touch with the best in- 
terests of Laredo and the surrounding country and is widely known as 
a man of good judgment, an influential citizen and one who commands 
the regard and esteem of his fellow citizens. 

His wife is Anita ( I'garde) Ortiz and their home is in Laredo. Mr. 
t >rtiz is a prominent local member of the Catholic order, the Knights 
■of Columbus, and his social relations are of the best. 

A. M. BruNI. The life of Mr. A. M. Bruni, one of the leading, 
wealthy and influential citizens of Laredo, is a fitting example for the 
young man who wishes to achieve success in this country, for it has been 
filled with honest endeavor, the development of keen business sagacity 
and the accumulation of a great deal of this world's goods, while at the 
same time his career lias been one to win the confidence and esteem of 
all who know him. 

Mr. Bruni is a native of Italy, where he passed his boyhood and 
received his education. When only sixteen years of age, in 1872, -he 
came to the United States, locating at San Antonio. Here he remained 
for five years, learning the mercantile business as conducted in this 
country, and after an apprenticeship of five years thereat, during which 
lie gained much useful knowledge, he came, in T877, to Laredo, where 
he has ever since resided. Southwest Texas was a pioneer country when 
Mr. Bruni came to it, and thus it remained in a great measure for sev- 
eral years thereafter. He first entered San Antonio bv stage from Aus- 
tin and lie likewise was compelled to make his first trip to Laredo over- 
land, there being no railroads reaching this place until 1882. 

On coming here in 1877 he established a grocery and dry goods 
business with two houses, one in Laredo and the other at Nueva Laredo, 
aero-- the fiver in Mexico. His business methods were good and he 
soon became one of the leading merchants of this section, a position 
which he ha- maintained all through the growth of the city. The busi- 
nducted under the firm name of A. M. Bruni & Brother 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 97 

and is widely known. Although Mr. Bruni has turned over to others 
his mercantile interests in Laredo, he still retains an establishment of 
this character at the town of Aguilares, in Webb county, on the Texas- 
Mexican Railway. Soon after coming- here, he became interested in the 
stock business and in the earlier years of his residence here he was a 
very large operator in cattle and sheep. This was followed by the 
cattle business, into which he has gone very extensively. He has sev- 
eral large ranches at Bruniville, Aguilares and other places, and is one 
of the largest land owners in this part of the state, his holdings being 
valuable and his operations in cattle very large. He is also a heavy 
dealer in hides, wool and cotton and is interested in a cotton gin at 
Laredo. 

Mr. Brum's success has been almost phenomenal, for he is now 
rated as a millionaire, but it has all been gained by a steadfastness of 
purpose, an energy and an industry worthy of emulation. Ever since 
coming to Laredo his various lines of business have increased in volume 
and importance and good times and hard times have seen him ever pro- 
gressing. His enterprises are valuable ones to Webb county and he is 
known as a man of the strictest integrity of character in the business 
and financial world. He is a director of the Milmo National Bank and 
is also interested in various other local enterprises. 

Neither has Mr Bruni shirked his public duties as a man and citi- 
zen. For about eight years he was county commissioner of Webb county 
and in 1896 he was elected county treasurer, in which position the peo- 
ple have kept him ever since. 

He was married while living in San Antonio to Miss Consplacion 
Henry. Their children are seven in number, as follows : A. H. Bruni, 
Maria, Louis, Minnie, Adela, Leopold, Erlinda. 

Santos M. Benavides, city treasurer of Laredo, is a native of the 
place, he having been born here in 1871, and this has ahvays been his 
home, with the exception of the period when he was acquiring his edu- 
cation in other places. His parents were Cristobal and Lamar (Bee) 
Benavides, esteemed and prominent people of Laredo, and concerning 
whom appropriate biographical mention is made elsew T here in this volume. 
Their son, Santos M. Benavides, passed his boyhood days in this city, 
although at an early age he was sent to Austin, where he received his 
preliminary education in St. Edward's College. This was* followed 
by his entrance as a student in the noted University of Virginia, at Char- 
lottesville, Virginia, in which institution he also studied law. L T pon 
returning to his home in Laredo he was admitted to the bar, but after 
serving six months as district attorney for the Laredo district, filling 
out the unexpired term of Hon. Marshall Hicks, he decided to give up 
law practice for other business. His father was at the head of an exten- 
sive mercantile business at this time, and the son assumed an interest 
therein, also being connected for some time with the Milmo National 
Bank of this city. 

Possessing the full confidence of his fellow citizens and being emi- 
nently qualified for the duties of the office, caused his election, in 1902, 
as city treasurer. He was re-electel in 1904 and again in 1906, and he 
is now filling his third consecutive term in this capacity. He brings to 
Vol. 11. 7 



98 HIS TORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

the duties oi the office a liberal education, a trained mind and all of the 
qualifications which tend toward a perfect administration of affairs, and 
ho proves a most popular official. 

He also has other extensive business interests in Laredo and Webb 
county, much y^i it being in connection with the Large and valuable estate 
left by his deceased father, who died in September, [904. llis mother, 
who is still living, is the daughter of the late General 11. P. Bee, a sketch 
<>f whose family appears in this work. There are ten children of Mr. and 
Mrs. Cristobal Benavides, as follows: Santos At., Cristobal, Eulalio, 
Luis. Mrs. M. Valdez, Mrs. Amador Sanchez, Mrs. Dr. Hamilton, Mrs. 
F. Garza-Benavides, and Misses Melitona and Elvira Benavides. 

Santos M. Benavides was married, in Laredo, to Miss Augustina 
Benavides. Although still a young man, our subject has already achieved 
an enviable success in life. His unusual natural ability has been aug- 
mented by a liberal education and he is recognized as a man of ability. 
He takes a deep interest in the welfare and prosperity of Laredo and has 
done much to aid the material growth and prosperity of the place. 

John A. Gray, who is rilling- the responsible position of postmaster 
at Laredo, is a native Texan, born at San Diego, Dnval county, in 1862, 
and spending his entire life in the state. His parents were Edward N. 
and Rosa (Garcia) dray, esteemed pioneers of Texas. His father, 
Edward X. draw was born in New York city and came to Texas long 
before the war. He was a printer on the Galveston A r civs in its early 
history and later came to the border country, settling in Dnval county, 
where, for a long term of years, he w r as a prominent and wealthy stock- 
man and merchant. He established a store in Concepcion, Duval county, 
which became the center of trade for stockmen, covering a large expanse 
of territory in its operations and transacting a very large volume of 
iness. Later he removed his residence to the w r ell-known La Gloria 
Ranch, which he had purchased, and here he conducted stock business 
on a large scale for a number of years. Edward N. Gray was a man of 
hrm purpose, indomitable will and great strength of character, and these 
attributes enabled him to deal successfully with and overcome the no- 
torious tough element that infested the border country for years. This 
unlawful element made life and business ventures a most uncertain cle- 
ment, and the successful dealers were only those who possessed great 
firmness of character. Mr. Gray's nerve, skill and courage eminently 
titud him for dealing with the population of this region, and he was 
highly successful in his transactions, accumulating much property and 
■ming a power in this region. Continuous prosperity was his until 
the bad times of the earlv nineties, with its continued drouths and finan- 
cial depression, and this caused him to sustain serious reverses. His 
death occurred in 1898, while his widow is still living and a resident 
San Marc 

The -011, John A. Gray, was reared in both the mercantile and cattle 
industries, and had several years of valuable experience in Southwestern 
Texas, a- a growing boy and afterward in business with his father. 
When the drouths and the discouraging financial conditions mentioned 
above had culminated in such hard times for the cattlemen, he abandoned 
hi- previous vocations and came, in 1896, to Laredo, which place has 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 99 

since been his home. Here lie engaged in the retail grocery business, 

which he conducted for a time, afterward selling out and entering the 
service of the Laredo postoffice. He was first a substitute letter carrier 
and was within a year promoted to the position of assistant postmaster. 

This was followed. May 4, 1906, by his appointment by President l\o< 
vel.t as postmaster at Laredo. This rapid promotion from the bottom of 
the ladder to the head of the postoffice service of a city of the size and 
importance of Laredo is almost without precedent in the entire country, 
but it is universally acknowledged that the advancement is a highly de- 
served one and that the service has been wonderfully improved during 
the period of his employment as a subordinate as well as during his 
administration at the head of postal affairs here. From the very begin- 
ning of his service, Air. Grav has worked hard, and even now there is 
no relaxation in his labors, it being said that today he puts in more hours 
of solid labor than any of his employes. The Laredo postoffice is one of 
much importance, particularly as it is the only exchange postoffice for 
money orders between the Lnited States and Mexico, and the inter- 
national money order business here shows a constant and steady increase 
year after year. Postmaster Gray gives a business-like administration 
of affairs, and the efficiency is appreciated by the business element, as 
wel! as by the citizens generally. In the spring of 1907 the postoffice will 
be located in the fine new Federal building that is now being erected in 
Laredo, a structure which is said to be one of the most pretentious 'of its 
character in the whole state of Texas. 

Mr. Gray was married, in Duval county, to Miss Sarah Roach, and 
they have five children, Edna, John, Francis. Lloyd and Alice. 

Augustin Salinas, county assessor for "Webb county. Texas, is 
descended from one of the oldest families of Laredo and vicinity, the 
Salinas ancestry running back for several generations here, where the 
members of the family have been people of prominence and importance. 

Augustin Salinas was born in Laredo in 1886, and his father was 
also a native of this place. His father also held the name of Augustin 
Salinas and was a well-known and prominent resident in his day. He 
was a large land owner and heavilv interested in the cattle business, while 
in public life he was a leading figure, holding several high positions of 
honor and responsibility. He was formerly mayor of the city of Laredo, 
and at the time of his death, in 1876, held the position of district and 
county clerk of Webb countv. 

Augustin Salinas was reared in Laredo and received his early edu- 
cation here and at San Antonio, attending St. Mary's College in the 
last named city for three years. After completing his collegiate education 
he engaged in the cattle and sheep business on the Sa'inas Rancho. and 
he has ever since been connected with the livestock and agricultural 
interests of this section. His present ranching interests are at his place 
about fifteen miles up the Rio Grande river from Laredo, which is one 
of the most valuable pieces of property of its character in this section, 
being completely equipped with fine stock, good buildings and all that 
goes toward making a first-class ranch of today. 

About two hundred acres of the place are under cultivation, and 
of this amount fifty acres are under irrigation by means of a pumping 



ioo HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

plant which carries water from the Rio Grande river. Mere Mr. Salinas 
has met with splendid success in truck farming, particularly in onion 

raising, which has oi recent years become the most important agricultural 
product of this region, since scientific irrigation has been applied to the 
lands hereabouts. 

Like his father lie fore him, A-Ugustin Salinas has possessed the con- 
tinence oi the people of this section and he has been called upon on 
numerous occasions to serve them in a public capacity. In Laredo he 
was assistant city marshal ami was later elected as city marshal. In 1900 
he was chosen as collector oi Webb county, a position which he filled 
until the election of [906, when he was elected to his present position 
as assessor oi the county. To the duties of these various offices Mr. 
Salinas has brought intelligence and good judgment and he has proved 
a most capable and efficient official. His private business affairs are 
also conducted in a thrifty and careful manner and he has done much 
to add to the prosperity and material welfare of the region where he and 
his ancestors have lived for so many years. 

William H. Mims, who has been engaged in the real estate business 
in Laredo for eighteen years, stands as a thoroughly representative citi- 
zen of this portion of the great state of Texas, where he is prominently 
identified with the bnsiness advancement of this region and is highly 
regarded in a fraternal and social way. 

Mr. Mims was born in Tippah county, Miss., in 1840. He was 
reared and edncated in Columbus, Georgia, from which city he enlisted 
in the Confederate army, April 20, 1861, in Company A, Second Georgia 
Battalion, Volunteer Infantry, and served throughout the four years of 
the war, principally in Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. He was 
in General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, in Wright's Georgia 
Brigade, General R. H. Anderson's Division, General A. P. Hill's Corps. 
Our subject's command was in all of the great battles of the Army of 
Northern Virginia, excepting the first battle of Manassas, and he was 
in the general engagements of Gettysburg, Spottsylvania (Wilderness), 
Cold Harbor, second battle of Manassas, Fredericksburg, Chancellors- 
ville, etc. In addition to this active service, he was a prisoner of war 
from August 16, 1864, till February 14, 1865, and was at his old home, 
Columbus, Georgia, when Wilson's army came through there about the 
close of the war. 

After the close of the war Mr. Mims went to Montgomery, Ala- 
bama, where he remained until 1883, in which year he came to Texas, 
locating at San Antonio. Here he became connected with the banking 
business of T. C. Frost and remained here until 1889, when he came to 
Laredo, this city having" ever since been his home. Mr. Mims had faith 
in the future of Laredo, and these hopes have been fully realized. He 
has seen the city grow from a rather slow-going border town of seven 
or eight thousand people to the prosperous and substantial city which 
it is today. All through the bad times and varying fortunes of the place 
he has remained steadfast to his belief that the city was destined to be 
<>])(,- of great importance in this part of Texas, and now he takes great 
pride in it- presenl substantial wealth and its prospects of a most brilliant 






HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS idi 

future as a center in this section which promises so much in the way of 
agricultural productiveness and commercial possibilities. 

On first coming to Laredo Mr. Mims engaged in the real estate 
business, and he has been constantly engaged in this line ever since, and 
with almost unvarying success. Ihe present splendid growth and de- 
velopment of Laredo and the whole of Webb county has been brought 
about within a very few years, by reason of the good crops and excellent 
stock conditions, coupled with the application of irrigation that has pro- 
duced such wonderful results in money-making truck crops, principally 
onions, all of which has spread the reputation of this region and is 
bringing an influx of good settlers and investors. In this whole move- 
ment Mr. Mims has been thoroughly interested, keeping in touch with 
the advancement of affairs and actively engaging in all efforts to spread 
the fair fame of Webb county and better local conditions. His line of 
business has been such as to give him ample opportunity of advancing 
the best interests of the place, and he has improved these advantages to 
the utmost, thus benefitting the entire community, as well as himself. All 
along he has been an important factor, and he so continues to be. 

Although never a seeker after office, nevertheless in the earlier 
years of his residence in Laredo Mr. Mims was an alderman of the 
city and was also chairman of the committee on public schools, serving 
well in each capacity. Fraternally he is a Mason of high rank, being 
past master and past high priest of the local lodges, and at present the 
eminent commander of Malta Commandery, No. 32, Knights Templar, 
of this city. 

Mr. Mims was married, in Uniontown, Alabama, to Miss Annie 
Royle. They have two sons, Royle K. Mims, assistant cashier of the 
Laredo National Bank, and William H. Mims, Jr., who is connected 
with the mercantile firm of L. Villegas & Bro. 

William R. Pace occupies a prominent position in the business and 
public life of Laredo, where he has for a number of years dealt largely 
in real estate, and he has been an important factor in the growth and 
development of the place, for his operations have been very extensive 
and of such a nature as to aid in the making of homes. 

Mr. Pace was born in Alabama in 1849, ms parents being Virgil H. 
and Anne Catherine (Morrison) Pace. The Pace family were in the 
earlier years of this country Virginia stock, and Virgil H. Pace's father 
came from that state to Georgia, although he later moved into Alabama, 
where Virgil Pace met and married Miss Morrison, who was educated 
at Huntsville. Their early married life was passed in Alabama, but in 
1853 they, in company with about 250 other residents of Alabama, sought 
to better their fortunes by removal to Texas, where they all located in 
the vicinity of Huntsville, Texas. At that time this was wholly a 
pioneer section, with almost no settlers excepting the new comers from 
Alabama, and land was purchased as low as fifty cents per acre. Here 
the Pace family made a comfortable home and here Virgil Pace died 
in 1876. He was a most capable man, with a liberal education for those 
days, and he had been a school teacher a short time. Their home was 
in the country near Huntsville, and here the wife and mother still lives. 



102 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Our subject's parents both came from sturdy, long-lived families, nearly 
every member living to good old age. 

William K. Pace was but a few years oi age when he was brought 
by his parents from Alabama to Texas, and he grew to manhood at 
iiuntsville, amid environments which made him self-reliant and of 
forceful character and positive opinions. These sterling characteristics 
he has always retained throughout life, regardless of other circumstances 
or surroundings, and he has maintained these traits to this day. He 
.me a builder and contractor, and it was for the purpose of securing 
a more extended held for his operations in this line that he came in 1882 
to Laredo, which place has since been his permanent home. He erected 
many of the modern structures in Laredo, his work in this line being 
marked by reliability and promptness. Later he became interested in 
the real estate in this city and vicinity, buying large tracts of land both 
in and out of the city, and his holdings are now so large that he probably 
now pays taxes on more real estate than any other one person 111 Webb 
count}". He has always been a successful man in his business affairs 
and prosperous in a financial way, and his faith in Laredo and her future 
is plainly shown by the fact that he has invested all of his money in 
real estate in this immediate vicinity. 

One feature of Air. Pace's real estate business that is original in 
S< 'Uthw est Texas, and one that aids greatly in the growth and develop- 
ment of the place, is his practice of selling many building lots and 
homes to wage-earners, principally to Mexicans, thus promoting a spirit 
of thrift and industry and enabling the poorer classes to obtain homes — a 
condition impossible otherwise. In this way Mr. Pace has sold many a 
home place to a poor man at low figures and allowed him to pay for it 
as he made the money. 

Mr. Pace also has the only complete set of abstract books in Webb 
county, the same dating back to 1767 and covering the ground thor- 
oughly ever since. This, it will be seen, forms a valuable adjunct to his 
real estate business and is also of great benefit to the section at large. 
The whole business is conducted under the name of the. Pace Real Estate 
and Abstract Company, and its operations are very large. Mr. Pace has 
not only placed himself and family in a position of comfort, and even 
affluence, but he has also aided greatly in the prosperity of Laredo and 
Webb county. That he is also a man of culture and refinement is evi- 
denced by the fact that his private library is one of the finest in the whole 
South .vest Texas. 

He was married in Huntsville to Miss Annie V. Maxey, daughter 
of Judge J. M. Maxey of that city. She died there in 1881, leaving four 
children, as follows: J. Maxey Pace, Mrs. Mary Pearl Purr, Miss 
Annie V. Pace and Mrs. Minnie M. Derby. 

GEORGE P. PAGE. Among the many public officials in this portion 
of the state of Texas, none have a more extended or a more honorable 
official record than Mr. George P. PageJ who has filled the important 
position of county clerk of the county of Webb for the past seventeen 
years. 

Mr. Page was born in Vernon county, near Nevada, Mo., thence 
moved to Garnett, Kansas, in 1864, where his early life was passed and 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 103 

where he early began learning the printer's trade. In j 88 1 , while still 

a youth, he came to Texas, believing that this section offered better ad- 
vantages for a young man, and in 1882 he located in Laredo, where he 
has since made his home. Upon his arrival here he went to work ; 
compositor on the Laredo Times, with which paper he was connected 
for nearly nine years. He did not confine his attention to typesetting 
for very long, but filled various responsible positions upon the paper and 
in a few years became an accomplished newspaper writer and corre- 
spondent. For a number of years he was the Laredo correspondent for 
the St. Louis Globe-Democrat, the New Orleans Times-Democrat, the 
Chicago Tribune, the Fort Worth Gazette, the Waco Examiner, the 
San Antonio Express and other well-known journals, attaining by this 
wide experience a facility of expression and a wide reputation a^ a 
reliable and able correspondent. Training of this character fits a man 
eminently for many things, and one of them is the performance of duties 
of a public character, and Mr. Page's worth in this direction was soon 
recognized. 

His public life began in 1888, when he was elected as county com- 
missioner of Webb county. He filled this office for tw T o years and was 
then, in 1890, elected as county clerk of the same county. So well has 
he performed his duties here that at the next subsequent election he 
was chosen again, and this has been continued at every election since, and 
he is still performing the duties of the office, which is an important one. 
In an official capacity he has given matters the same careful and thorough 
attention that has always marked the conduct of his private affairs, and 
his natural ability and long experience has made him a most efficient 
incumbent. 

In addition to his official duties Mr. Page is interested in many ways 
in the business aflairs of Laredo and vicinity, particularly as a brick 
manufacturer. He is the senior member of the firm of George R. Page 
& Company, manufacturers of brick for building purposes. The plant of 
this firm, which is a large one, was established in 1898, since which time 
it has been in successful and prosperous operation, the annual output 
of the establishment approximately reaching two million brick. It is 
a valuable industry to both the town and the proprietors. The other 
member of the firm is Mr. H. Lagarde. In addition to his local enter- 
prises, Mr. Page is also interested in Mexican mining property which 
has a most promising future. 

Valentine L. Puig was born in New Orleans in 1870, both of his 
parents, who are still living, being of foreign ancestry. His father. 
Valentine Puig, is a native of Barcelona, Spain, while his mother is of 
French descent. They were married in New Orleans, to which city the 
elder Valentine Puig had come from Spain in 185 1. After leaving New 
Orleans Valentine Puig and his family lived for several years at Mata- 
moros, Mexico, but later removed to New Orleans and then to Texas, 
locating in Duval county, in the southwestern part of the state, in 1875, 
their home being at San Diego, the county seat of Duval county. 

The son, Valentine L. Puig, came to Laredo in 1894, and this city 
has since remained his home. Through judicial business management 
and wise management he has become one of the wealthy and substantial 



[04 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

citizens of \\ ebb county, his principal interests being in cattle and ranch- 
ing property. In most of these ventures he is in partnership with his 
brother. Mr. B. A. Puig, and with his brother-in-law, Mr. J. A. Ortiz, 
and together they own a large amount o\ land in Webb county. 

Among their valuable properties is the Pelotes Ranch, in Webb 
county, fifty miles above Laredo, this consisting of about fifty thousand 
acres on the Rio Grande, Besides being engaged extensively in the 
stock business, this ranch is particularly valuable from the fact that, 
lying along the river, it can be easily put under irrigation and can thus 
be adapted to the growing of truck crops such as have made this region 
famous oi late, and which have added so much to the material wealth of 
the region along the Rio Grande and other rivers. In addition to this 
advantage, it has been discovered that a large portion of the ranch is 
underlaid with a tine quality of commercial coal of the same grade as 
has been mined for some years at San Jose, Cannel and Minera, the 
present prosperous mining camps which are located on the Rio Grande, 
twenty-five miles below the Pelotes Ranch. These mines are constantly 
increasing in value and importance, and in future years the development 
of the Pelotes Ranch coal properties will doubtless be of equal importance 
here. It will thus be seen that the Pelotes is one of the most valuable 
ranching properties in this region, not alone from live stock and agri- 
cultural standpoints, but also by reason of the extensive mineral deposits. 

In 1904 Mr. Puig was elected county commissioner of Webb county, 
representing Precinct No, 2, and he was re-elected in 1906. He is a 
good official as well as a thorough man of business, and he is thoroughly 
interested with all that tends toward the improvement and advancement 
of his city and county. His various interests are quite extensive and he 
has been very successful in all of his ventures. 

Mr. Puig was married in Laredo, to Miss Bruna Ortiz, a sister of 
J. A. Ortiz and of Sheriff L. R. Ortiz, and in another portion of this 
work may be found appropriate mention of this family. Mr. and Mrs. 
Puig have four children, John, Valentine, Bruna and Joe. , 

Emeterio Flores, a stockman, who at the same time is active and 
influential in public affairs and is now serving as county commissioner, 
makes his home at Laredo. He was born in Ciudad Guerrero, Tamaul- 
ipas, Mexico, in 1875. His father, Juan Manuel Flores, a native of 
Mexico, was a resident of Texas more than a half century ago, living in 
Webb county, where he owned and operated a large ranch. He lived 
on this place with his family for many years, but in later life, because 
of impaired health, removed to the city of Guerrero, Mexico, where 
he still resides. He was born in T836. 

Fmeterio Flores acquired his education in the public schools of 
Guerrero and in Laredo, Texas, whither he went in 1889 to attend the 
Laredo seminary. In 1890 he took a course in commercial education 
at the Capital City Business College at Austin, and in T906 he estab- 
lished his residence in Laredo, where he has since made his home. Mr. 
Flores is a stockman of extensive interests, which are centered at his 
ranch at Las Albercas, in Webb county, lying south of Torrecillas and 
consisting of twenty-five thousand acres. This is a fine property and is 
the old "rancho" which was established by his father more than a half 



HISTORY OF SOLTHYVEST TEXAS 105 

century ago. Mr. Flores also lias valuable mining interest-, in Mexico, 
being connected with La Malinche mine, yielding gold and silver, at 
La Portilla, in Durango, Mexico, and also in other mines in Mexico. 

Mr. Flores was married in 1894, in Laredo, to Miss Eloisa Martinez, 
a daughter of F. Martinez, a well known citizen. They have seven chil- 
dren, namely: Ernestina, Erasmo, Beatriz, Elaisa, Raul, Estela and 
Eulalia Mencia. Mr. Flores has a very wide acquaintance in Laredo 
and in the county, and his well known devotion to the general good, com- 
bined with his business qualifications and his public spirit, led to his 
selection for the office of county commissioner of Webb county in 1902. 
He filled the office so acceptably that in 1904 he was re-elected and again 
in 1906, so that he is the present incumbent. He is a man of well known 
devotion to any trust reposed in him, and in public office and business life 
is alike reliable and faithful. 

Fred Werner, who is engaged in blacksmithing and is also the 
owner of considerable real estate in Laredo, was born in 1854, near the 
city of Trier, in one of the Rhine provinces of Prussia. In early life 
he learned the blacksmith's trade, and in 1873, thinking to enjoy better 
business opportunities in the new world, he came to the Lmited States, 
locating first at Scranton, Pennsylvania, where he followed blacksmith- 
ing until 1877. In that year he made his way to the Southwest, locating 
in San Antonio about two months after the first railroad had been com- 
pleted to the city. He there remained fourteen months and was em- 
ployed as a blacksmith by the United States government. In the latter 
part of 1879 he was sent as a Federal employe to Fort Mcintosh, Laredo, 
to continue blacksmithing work, reaching his destination on the 26. of 
December, 1879. He continued to work at the post for about nine years, 
and by industry, thrift and economy he laid the foundation for the com- 
fortable fortune which is now his. He believed that there was a pros- 
perous future before Laredo and judiciously invested his money in real 
estate and houses. The first property he bought has since remained his 
place of business — the blacksmith shop and office on Hidalgo street. He 
gradually accumulated other real estate interests until now he has about 
eighteen or twenty houses, from which he receives a good rental, the 
most important of these being the Fred Werner business block, which 
is a two-story structure on Market Plaza and contains the Masonic hall, 
the store of the Laredo Drug Company and a barber shop. This is one 
of the most valuable and substantial pieces of business property in 
Laredo. Thus as the years have gone by and the city has become settled 
Mr. Werner has profited by his investments until he is now in possession 
of considerable valuable property and is accounted one of the substantial 
residents of the city. After he had left the government employ he estab- 
lished a blacksmith and horseshoeing shop of his own, which he still 
conducts. 

In Laredo, Mr. Werner was united in marriage to Miss Mena Funk, 
a daughter of Joseph Funk, a jeweler and pioneer of Laredo. They 
have three children, Lula May, Miriam Marguerite and Elsie Earl. Mr, 
Werner is well known in Masonic circles, and in his life exemplifies the 
beneficent spirit of the craft. He has taken the degrees of the com- 
mandery and has been past eminent commander among the Knights Tern- 



io6 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

plars oi Laredo, He was also t'or four years deputy grand master of 
the state of Texas, lie is a man of the strictest principles of honor and 
integrity and in Ins life has exemplified traits of character which in every 
land and clime awaken confidence and good will. lie has refused to 
accept local political offices for the reason that he often furnishes work 
and supplies of different kinds to the city and does not believe that a 
man doing this should hold a political position, 

MlCHAEL Brennan, who is now filling his ninth year as city marshal 
i^i Laredo, was horn in New Orleans in 184c), his father being" a native 
oi Ireland and his mother a native of New York. The son, Michael 
Brennan, was reared in Texas. At Indianola for several years he ran 
the packet and mail steamer which plied between that point and Corpus 
Christi, he being during this period in the employ of the Indianola and 
Corpus Christi mail line, in connection with the Morgan steamship line. 
lie was living at Indianola at the time of the great storm atid tidal wave 
<«f [875, a most memorable event, and following this he lived in Corpus 
Christi. where he was chief of police for several years. He came to 
Laredo in [886 and this place has since been his home. The year of his 
coming here he was appointed as inspector of customs at Laredo, this 
being under the Cleveland administration, and he remained in this re- 
sponsible position for a period of four years. Then for several years he 
was in charge of the Merchant Police of Laredo. His many excellent; 
qualifications and his eminent fitness for duties of this character, coupled 
with his great personal popularity, led to his nomination and election as 
city marshal of Laredo, this occurring in 1898, and he has been re-elected 
for each succeeding term ever since, still serving in this capacity. This 
long period of faithful service is a testimony to his ability and efficiency, 
and he is universally acknowledged to be the right man for the place. 

His force consists altogether of about sixteen men, and the city is 
regarded as well policed and protected, while it is a notable fact that 
crimes of all kinds are kept down to the minimum. Citizens always 
appreciate good police service, and the well known efficiency of the 
Laredo department is a matter of congratulation and appreciation here 
in this thriving and growing city. 

Mr. Brennan is a man of observing character, and his wide experi- 
ence in Texas has not only made him a most capable official, but also 
given him a wide range of general knowledge and information. He is 
thoroughly in touch with public affairs and also possesses a truly re- 
markable fund of information regarding history of men and affairs in 
ithwestem Texas during the past quarter of a century. 

While living at Corpus Christi Mr. IJrennan was married to Miss 
Sussanna Pendleton, and they are the parents of eleven children. 

Dr. John T. Halseix, who is classed as the "coming man" among 
the younger physicians and surgeons of Laredo, has only recently entered 
his thirties, but he has had an unusually extended experience in his line, 
this experience also being preceded by the very best kind of an education. 
Dr. Halsell was born at Bowling Green, Kentucky, in 1874, his parents 
being Judge John E. and Carrie (Porter) Halsell of Bowling Green, 
both being now deceased. The father, Judge John E. Halsell, was for 
many years a hading lawyer and prominent citizen of Bowling Green 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS [07 

and was a. man of fine attainments. Besides many minor offices, he 

also represented his district, "the bloody third," in Congress. 

The son, John T. Halsell, was reared in his birthplace. Bowling 
Green, but at an early age he was sent to Trinity University, which was 
then located at Tehuacana, in Limestone county, Texas, and it was here 
that he received his literary and classical education under his uncle. I Jr. 
R. F. Cockrill, who was president of Trinity University at that time. 
The young man's training" here was a thorough one and he graduated 
in 1894. He then matriculated as a student in the medical department 
of Fort Worth University, being one of the charter members of that 
educational institution, the medical department being founded in 1896. 
Our subject graduated here with honor as a member of the class of 1808 
and almost immediately thereafter was appointed assistant surgeon in the 
Fourth Texas Volunteer Infantry, for service in the Spanish-American 
war. This reedment did not go out of the state, but uoon its being mus- 
tered out of the service Dr. Halsell was appointed acting assistant sur- 
geon of the Sixth United States Infantry, with which regiment he went 
to the Philippine Islands and was assigned for duty in the First Peserve 
Hospital at Manila, remaining in this position for a period of eieht 
months. He then went to China as acting assistant surgeon for the 
Sixth Cavalry, and was in service in Gen. Adna R. Chaffee's armv in 
that co.untrv during the troubles incident to the Boxer insurrection. 
These troubles being ended, Surgeon Halsell was returned to the United 
States and ordered to Fort Mcintosh, Laredo, Texas, where he was post 
surgeon until 1904, when he resigned from military service and estab- 
lished a private practice in the city of Laredo. In this he has been re- 
markably successful, and he is recognized as a leading man in his pro- 
fession in this city and vicinity. In addition to a very large orivate 
practice, he is city phvsician of Laredo and is the sureeon for the 
National Pailroad of* Mexico and the Texas Mexican Railroad. He is 
a thoroughly painstakine and hard-working medical practitioner and he 
is widelv known throughout Southwestern Texas as an accomplished 
and capable phvsician and surgeon. 

Dr. Halsell was married in Laredo to Miss Emilie Sielski. of this 
city, and they have two children, fohn T., Jr., and Emilie. 

Dr. Manuel T. Leal. In the life and career of Dr. Leal we have 
a w r orthv example of what mav be accomplished by a voune man who, 
although at first without pecuniary backing, is determined to obtain a 
first-class education and fit himself for the practice of one of the higher 
professions. He has accomolished his desire in this direction and todav 
he is established as one of the leading and successful nhvsicians and 
surgeons of the city of Laredo>. He is essentially a self-made voting 
man. having acquired an exhaustive and thorough general and pro- 
fessional education through his own unaided efforts. 

Pie was born at Brownsville, Cameron county, Texas, and is of 
Smnish anrestrv, although both of his parents were Mexican born. 
Thev lived in Cameron county, in the lower Rio Grande country, when 
fhf, c-op wa« born, although in his childhood thev moved bark into 
Mexico, making their home at Matamoros, which is across the Rio 
Grande from Brownsville. Our subject received the most of his pre- 



io8 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

liminary education in Matamoros, and from hero, without having' any 
money ahead with which to pay his way, he went to the City of Mexico 
secure his medical education. Here he remained a student, paying 
his own way. for about seven years, working hard and accomplishing' 
much in the way of acquiring the necessary technical education. Dur- 
ing this seven-year period he studied continuously in the Escuela Na- 
cional de Medicina de Mexico, a line institution oi professional learning, 
endowed by the Mexican government, and its faculty containing the 
most distinguished men of the medical profession in that country. The 
system of education here is patterned after that of the French, and it is 
most complete and thorough. Dr. Leal graduated here with honor in 
[899, ami soon thereafter he came to Laredo to establish himself, he 
having been licensed by the Texas State Board of Medical Examiners 
in September of 1000. Laredo has since been his home, with the excep- 
tion oi the short period when he was physician for the coal company 
operating the mines at Minera, Webb county, above Laredo. 

The young physician who is without funds does not escape from 
the attendant embarrassing experiences when he obtains his diploma and 
quits college, for in the medical profession there is always a "waiting 
period" in the first years of his professional career when he must bide 
his time, to make acquaintance and get a start in practice. This was 
the experience of Dr. Leal, but he was patient and courageous through 
it all and success finally knocked loudly at his door and a good general 
practice came flowing in. The vears since he first came to Laredo have 
given him a good practical experience in his profession, which, added 
t«> his unsurpassed technical education, makes him a medical man who 
is thoroughly capable. He now has a good-paying practice which is 
thoroughly satisfactory from a physician's standpoint, and each year 
sees additions thereto. Besides his general practice of medicine and 
surgery. Dr. Leal is a specialist in ophthalmology and has built up a 
fine practice in diseases of the eye. That his ethical standing is also of 
tlie highest is also evidenced by the fact that he is a member of the 
County, State and American Medical societies. 

Boniface J. Leyendecker, district clerk for the district court of 
Webb countw is a member of one of the oldest and most highly respected 
families of Laredo, they having been residents here since the earliest 
day-. Boniface J. Leyendecker was born here in 1866, his parents being 
( aptain John X. and Juliana ( Benavides) Leyendecker. The father was 
1. >m in Germany and came with his parents in 1845 to Texas, landing 
at Galveston, from whence his parents and other members of the family, 
except John /., proceeded to the German colony of Fredricksburg, in 
Gillespie county, while the young man himself went on to the Mexican 
border at Matamoros. In 1847 lie settled in Laredo, Texas, which was 
hi- home until his death here in 1902. In Laredo he became a man of 
prominence and influence and established here a large merchandising 
business. He was postmaster for fifteen years, being appointed one of 
the first postmasters after Laredo was incorporated as a city, and he 
secretary and treasurer for a period of six years. He also had 
a most creditable military record as a soldier in the Confederate Army 
during the Civil war, serving in Texas, mostly at Laredo and vicinity, 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS [09 

in the position of quartermaster, with the rank of captain. This position 
he filled with such great efficiency that it led to his appointment after the 
close of the war, and when the Federal troops occupied Fort Mcintosh. 
in Laredo, as quartermaster for the United States army at this post, and 
for some time he filled this important position with credit. His wife, 
Juliana Leyendecker, mother of the subject of this review, still lives in 
Laredo. She is the sister of the late Cristobal Benavides, whose bio- 
graphical sketch appears elsewhere in this work. The children of Captain 
John Z. and Juliana Leyendecker are as follows: Boniface J., the subject 
of this review, Peter P., Joseph, Michael, Thomas, Alfonso, Elizabeth, 
Lucy, Pauline (the wife of Judge J. F. Mullally) and Magdalene. An- 
other daughter, Miss Mary Leyendecker, died in 1896. 

The son, Boniface J. Leyendecker, was reared in Laredo and re- 
ceived an excellent education. He was in the railroad business for four- 
teen years, principally in train service on the Mexican National, and 
for nearly ten years he was a passenger conductor for that company in 
Mexico, running out from Laredo. In 1898 he was elected citv alder- 
man to represent his ward, the Third, upon the city council. In 1902 
he discontinued railroading and in the same year was elected as clerk of 
the district court for Webb county, which position he has, by subsequent 
elections, held ever since. His principal business interests are now in 
farming, and he and his brother-in-law, Judge Mullally, comprising the 
firm of Leyendecker & Mullally, own a fine farm sixteen miles up the 
Rio Grande from Laredo. The place consists of 2,150 acres of fertile 
land, of which 250 acres are under systematic irrigation and devoted 
exclusively to farming. The owners have gone quite extensively into 
sugar cane growing, having experimented with and developed on this 
soil the best varieties of Mexican cane, and they have made a marked 
success with the same. They are pioneers in this industry in the Laredo 
country, and it is to be naturally expected that the whole region will 
benefit greatly from their experiments, for it is a great money-making 
product and the other farmers are sure to follow the example thus set. 
In this way much material wealth will be added to this part of the state. 
It is the purpose of Leyendecker & Mullally in 1907 to establish ma- 
chinery and equipment for the manufacture of the cane into syrups and 
molasses for commercial purposes. 

Mr. Leyendecker was married in Laredo to Miss Cecilia Dallmer, a 
native of Galveston, and they have seven children : Louis Lawrence, 
Pauline, Boniface J., Jr., Cecilia, John Z., Henry George and Ernest 
Abbott. 

Jose Maria Garcia. The Garcia family is an old one in Laredo 
and its members have always been thoroughly identified with the business 
interests of the city, as well as being large landowners and interested 
largely in the ranching and stock lines. One of these is the gentleman 
named above, Mr. Jose Maria Garcia, who is a native of Laredo. He has 
spent his entire life here and in the immediate vicinity of the citv and 
he has taken an active part in the growth and development of the place. 
He received his early education here and then engaged in the mercantile 
line, in which he was verv successful. For a period of nearly eighteen 
rears he was one of Laredo's foremost merchants, although all the time 



no HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

possessing valuable outside interests. Me disposed of his mercantile 
interests in loot, since which time he has devoted his entire attention 
to his landed interests. 1 le has an exceedingly fine ranch at Torrecilles. 
in \\ ehl> county, about forty miles from Laredo, in an easterly direction, 
lie is the possessor oi about twenty thousand acres of valuable land, 
thoroughly stocked and with many improvements. It is devoted to stock 
and grazing purposes, mainly, and is considered as one of the finest 
ranches in this part o\ the state. 

Mr. Garcia has been successful in his various lines of business and 
he is recognized as one of \\ ebb county's wealthiest and most influential 
citizens. \\v is a prominent member and officer in the Spanish-speaking 
Masonic orders <^i the York Rite, with which he has been connected for 
many years. 1 le owns considerable city property and has a com- 
fortable home at Xo. 516 Lincoln street. Mr. Garcia was married in 
this city to Miss belip ( iuerra, and they have five children: Hortensia, 
Alfreda A.. Maria, Daniel and Christina. These children have all re- 
cc ived the very best of educational facilities and advantages, and Alfreda 
A. i> a graduate of the Jones Commercial College at St. Louis. The 
eldest daughter, Hortensia, is the wife of Pablo B. Juarez. 

Hermann M. Schmidt has been a resident of Laredo since 1880, 
when he was attracted to the place by its location and evident promising 
oath ok for future growth and development. It was a mere border town 
at that time, without even a railroad, but Mr. Schmidt possessed sufficient 
Foresight to believe that the future would make it one of the best cities 
of Southwestern Texas, a prediction which has come true in every respect. 

Mr. Schmidt was born in Friedland, in the Baltic province of Meck- 
lenburg, in 1840. and he w r as, reared and received his early education in 
his native town. Here he began learning his trade of tailoring, and from 
here, also, like all other German young men, he served several years in 
the Prussian army, being a participant in two wars being the years 1861 
and 1804. After coming out of the army he finished learning his trade 
in some of the larger cities of Prussia, and in 1866 he left his native 
country, going to London, England, where he lived for several months, 
learning the English language and acquainting himself with the business 
methods and customs of the country^. Then, in 1867, believing that 
America held forth better advantages for progress, he sailed for New 
York city, joining a brother who had come previously. Here he entered 
upon hi- business as a tailor and met with unqualified success therein, 
Wishing a good business and becoming identified with the social and 
business affairs of the city. True to his early military training, he 
became interested in the state militia and for a long number of years 

in the Thirty-second Regiment of New York, serving for ten years 
aptain in this regiment. He had received a thorough training in his 

( country, not in military matters alone, but also in athletics, and 
this training stood him in good stead in many ways. Even today he 
es the true military bearing, erect, active and healthy, and much 
of his success he attributes to his early drill in this line. 

In f88o Mr. Schmidt came to the southwest, locating first at Mata- 
morj a- cutter for Lcter Bush a merchant tailor. It was his 

intention to engage in business there, but not being favorably impressed 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS rn 

with the place, he came in February, i88r, to Laredo, Texas, which, as 
previously mentioned, was then of slight commercial importance, but had 
a bright future. For the first four years of his stay Mr. Schmidt made 
the headquarters of his tailoring business at New Laredo, across the Rio 
Grande, in Mexico, but at the end of that period he moved all of his 
equipment and belongings to Laredo, where he has since remained. I fere 
he has established a fine trade, his establishment being widely known as 
the leading merchant tailoring headquarters of the two cities. Fie has 
been thoroughly successful, has made money and has built himself a fine 
residence in this city. 

Mr. Schmidt was married, in New York city, to Miss Elise Schnur- 
bursch, and they are the parents of one son, Karl Schmidt. Mr. Schmidt 
is known as a representative business man and he is deeply interested 
in all that pertains to the city's welfare. He has numerous social and 
fraternal relations, including membership in the Order of Hermann's 
Sons and the A. O. U. W. 

Jose Maria Vela owns and controls ranching interests in Webb 
county and is also county superintendent of roads. He was born in 
Laredo, where he still makes his home, in 1847. His parents were of 
old families, prominently connected with the early history of Laredo, 
particularly on his mother's side. She was a granddaughter of the noted 
Captain Tomas Sanchez, who came to the present site of Laredo in 1755 
and who was instrumental in laying out the town and obtaining its 
charter in 1767. 

Throughout his entire life Mr. Vela's principal business has been 
stock ranching and farming and he is one of the w T ell-known stockmen 
of this part of the state. His present place, lying about four miles east 
of North Laredo, consists of about five hundred acres and is devoted 
to the raising of stock and crops. He makes a specialty of corn, cotton 
and garlic and raises considerable amounts of each, for which he finds a 
ready sale. During the '70s he was engaged in merchandising in Laredo 
in addition to his other business interests. 

Mr. Vela has long been prominent in connection with city and county 
interests and has been an earnest worker in political circles. As early as 
1875 ne was elected a member of the city council, 4n which he served 
for several terms. He was also a justice of the peace for a long time 
as well as city assessor and tax collector, and at the present writing he 
is a member of the city council and also superintendent of county roads. 
No trust reposed in him has ever been betrayed in the slightest degree. 
On the contrary he has been a faithful official, loyal to the interests of 
the community, and his efforts in behalf of the general good have been 
effective and far reaching. 

Mr. Vela's wife is Refugia (Mendiola) Vela, and they have six 
children, Nasario, Tomasa, Enrique, Elisa, Alberto and Maria, who are 
with their parents at No. 403 Farragut street. 

Frank E. Scovill is manager of the Laredo Electric & Railway 
Company at Laredo, Texas, in which connection his labors have been of 
the utmost importance in the development and growth of this section of 
the state. It is a universally acknowledged fact that no other one agency 
or element has done so much toward developing and improving any given 



[12 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

district as that of rapid transportation and therefore the service of Mr. 
\ ill has been beneficial in marked degree. He was born at Canaan, 
in Litchfield county, Connecticut, in iSo_\ his parents being- William H. 
and Mary C. (Dunn) Scovill, both of whom are still living. They are 
natives of Connecticut and the father was a soldier of the Civil war. 

The story oi Frank E. Scovill's life is closely interwoven with the 
history of the electrical industry from the davs of its earlv besrinnincfs 
in the United States, lie is a self-educated and self-made man. Being- 
thrown on his own resources he started ottt to earn his own living when 
a youth of eleven years and obtained his education in the school of experi- 
ence, learning many valuable lessons therein. He was first employed as 
messenger boy in the telegraph office at Winsted, Connecticut, and thus 
became connected with the electrical business. At different times he has 
been associated with the telephone, with electric lighting and electric rail- 
ways, so that he has broad and intimate knowledge of the uses to which 
electricity has been put as a practical force in the business world. When 
the telephone first came into use he went to work for a company engaged 
in the construction and management of a telephone line and in 1883 he 
entered the employ of the Thomson-Houston Electric Company at New 
Britain, Connecticut. Persons familiar with the history of the electrical 
industry will recall that this was a pioneer firm in the discoverv of elec- 
trical force and its application for commercial purposes in America. Pro- 
fessor Thomson and Mr. Houston were both young men at that time — 
poor and hard working with no precedents to guide them but with ambi- 
tion and energy to carry them through the period of discouragements 
and assist them over obstacles until their ideas and designs for electric 
lighting machinery were coined into merchantable products, and the 
small shop at Xew Britain, Connecticut, thus became the parent of what 
has since grown into the great, wide-spreading electrical industry. The 
Thomson-Houston Company removed from New Britain to Lynn, Mas- 
sachusetts, where a large plant was built that later was merged with the 
business of the Edison Company, forming the General Electric Company, 
with the largest plants in the world for making electrical machinery at 
Schenectady, New York, and Lynn, Mass. 

Mr. Scovill enjoyed the advantage of working with Messrs. Thom- 
son and Houston and other ambitious young men who were connected 
with them. He remained with that firm and its successors, the General 
Electric Company, from 1883 until 1893, when on the recommendation 
of the General Electric Company he took charge of the electric plant at 
Austin, Texas. In the spring of 1884 the Thomson-Houston Company 
sent Mr. Scovill west to install electric plants, after first putting in the 
plant at Bridgeport, Connecticut. From there he went to Ottawa, Illi- 
nois, where he finished the task of installing the electric light plant, after 
which he put in the first electric light plant at La Salle, Illinois. He 
was afterward engaged in similar work in several towns in Minnesota 
and Wisconsin and installed the first electric light plant in the Yellow- 
stone National park in Montana. In 1887 he located at St. Paul, doing 
similar work in that city. 

In tKo^. as stated, Mr. Scovill went to Austin to take charge of the 
electric light plant in that city, supervising the installation of the plant, 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 113 

which was to be operated by water power from the famous flam on the 
Colorado river at that point, the dam and plant being owned by the 
municipality. He operated this plant for the first nine months of its ex- 
istence, after which he was asked to take the position of manager of the 
electric street railway system of the city, the company then being in the 
hands of a receiver and the street railway run down to its lowest ebb of 
usefulness, the tracks and equipment being almost useless and the system 
losing money every day. Mr. Scovill operated this street railway as man- 
ager for nine years. When he took charge of it the line was taking in 
about thirty-four hundred dollars a month. When he resigned the man- 
agement to come to Laredo in the latter part of 1904 the receipts were 
averaging ten thousand dollars a month. He thoroughly rebuilt and re- 
organized the railway, its equipment and electrical machinery and made 
it one of the best and most profitable in the state. His work in Austin 
during the ten and a half years of his residence there, both as manager 
of a leading industry and as a citizen was so appreciated that when he 
left the city the employes of the street railway company presented him 
with a fine gold watch and the citizens gave him a beautiful diamond 
ring. 

Mr. Scovill took charge as manager of the properties of the Laredo 
Electric & Railway Company in November, 1904. This company owns 
the local electric light plant and the street railway, consisting of about 
six miles of track, extending from the International & Great Northern 
Railway depot to the Heights and on to the cemetery. This was the first 
electric street railway in Texas, having been established in 1889 by the 
Laredo Improvement Company, which in the '90s went into liquidation. 
At that time the electric light plant and the railway came into possession 
of the present company, of which G. Bedell Moore of San Antonio is 
at the head. In Laredo Mr. Scovill has repeated the success in the man- 
agement and executive force which he had at Austin. Since the tornado 
of 1905 he has almost completely rebuilt the electrical machinery and 
purchased new rolling equipment for the railway, also installed new mo- 
tors and machinery for a day circuit in the electric lighting department. 
Since the storm referred to the facilities of the entire plant have been 
more than doubled and with profit to the company and the convenience 
and comfort of the public which it serves. 

Mr. Scovill is a Knight Templar Mason and in the Scottish Rite 
has attained the thirty-second degree. After leaving Austin he was 
honored by Ben Hur Temple of the Ancient Arabic Order of the Mystic 
Shrine by being elected potentate. He is also generalissimo of Malta 
Commandery, No. 32, of Laredo. He organized the Elks lodge in La- 
redo and became its exalted ruler. 

Mr. Scovill was married at Hartford, Connecticut, in 1888, to Miss 
Jessie Joslyn, who is the daughter of a prominent lumber merchant of 
that city. He is a man of genial, social nature and kindly disposition and 
wherever he has gone has made himself popular because of his many 
good qualities and has won an extended circle of friends. He has based 
his business principles and actions upon the rules which govern strict and 
unswerving integrity combined with unabating diligence. He possesses 

Vol. II. 8 



ii4 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

strong executive force and keen discernment, so that he is seldom at 

error in matters o\ business judgment. 

[saac Alexander, who is engaged in merchandising at Laredo, is 
one oi Texas' native sons, lie was horn o\ the marriage oi Samnel and 
Rosa (Aaron) Alexander, who are still residents oi Laredo, although 

the father has now retired from active business life. He was horn in 
Europe but came to America when a youth and entered mercantile pur- 
suits. About 1865 he located at [ndianola, Texas, on the gulf coast, 
where he established a store, lie was highly successful in his business 
enterprises and built up a large trade, extending over a wide territory in 
southern and southwestern Texas. In those early days Indianola was 
seaport and a commercial center of considerable importance, outrank- 
ing all other cities of Texas except Galveston in its commerce at that 
time. The great tornado and tidal wave of 1875 entirely destroyed the 
town and as other Texas cities had by this time grown up and entered 
the contest for trade Indianola never recovered its former condition of 
prosperity. Samuel Alexander's business and home, like those of all 
others, were entirely wiped out by the storm, but with undaunted cour- 
age and enterprise he re-established himself in business in the wealthy 
and flourishing little city of Victoria and still later founded a mercantile 
enterprise at Cuero. in Dewitt county. In these enterprises he was con- 
tinually successful and built up a comfortable fortune. In 1886 Isaac 
Alexander came to Laredo and was manager of the firm of S. Cahn until 
the death of the late S. Cahn, when the store which has ever since been 
conducted under the name of I. Alexander was established — a name 
which, representing the leading business of this kind on the Texas border, 
stands for the best there is in the different departments of the store, 
wherein is carried a large line of men's furnishing goods, clothing, hats 
and shoes. Only the best manufactured articles from houses of well 
established reputation and world-wide fame are carried in this store. The 
name has ever been a synonym for honorable dealing and for straight- 
forward treatment of the customers and is so continued by the present 
owner. 

Two of the brothers of Isaac Alexander are connected with him in 
the store — Louis G. and William C. Alexander. He has one other brother 
—Benjamin M. Alexander, and there are three sisters, Anna, Frances 
and Mamie Alexander, who are with their parents. Isaac Alexander 
received his business training in the establishment which he is now con- 
ducting and has always been known as a careful man of business, alert 
and enterprising, conducting the establishment in keeping with the trend 
of modern progress in mercantile lines. He is likewise a director of the 
Laredo National Bank and is a member of the local lodge of Elks. 

Andrea Bertani, who is engaged in merchandising at Laredo, 
where his good business qualifications and capable management have won 
him success and gained him a place among the leading representatives 
of commercial interests, was born at Bedonia, in the state of Parma, Italy, 
January jo. [851. His parents sent him to school when only seven years 
old, but being anxious to travel, he did not complete his studies, and at 
the age of fourteen he began selling goods and since that time has been 
continuously associated with merchandising. By travelling through many 






HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 115 

countries of Europe he gained much knowledge and experience, which 
has made him a well educated man. He has mastered four different 
languages, which he speaks fluently. Today he has a well trained mind 
and capacity for business affairs and it certainly redounds to his credit 
that he has risen from a humble financial position to one of affluence by 
reason of the inherent force of his character, his recognition of oppor- 
tunities and his strong determination to win success. 

Thinking that he might have better advantages in the new world, Mr. 
Bertani came to the United States in 1872, locating at San Antonio. 
Texas, where he clerked for different mercantile firms but principally 
for the old and well known house of M. Castanola & Son. When his 
labors had brought to him sufficient capital he opened a store of his own 
on South Flores street opposite the arsenal. In September, 1881, Mr. 
Bertani arrived in Laredo. The railroad was completer only as far as 
Pearsall at that time and he completed the journey by stage. Here he 
established a small retail store at the corner of Lincoln street and San 
Eduardo avenue, in which location he remained for three years. He 
then removed to his present location at the corner of Iturbide street and 
San Eduardo avenue, where he built his present business block in 1884. 
His patronage grew and the business prospered until he built up a large 
establishment, wholesale and retail, handling dry goods, groceries, cloth- 
ing, hardware implements and general supplies for both the city and 
ranch trade. The firm name has remained the same, although his son, 
Eugene Bertani, is now associated with him in the business. 

Mr. Bertani has a beautiful residence and grounds adjoining the 
store on Iturbide street. He was married at San Antonio, in 1880, to 
Miss Felicita Moglia, and they have six children : Eugene, Maria, 1 Adela, 
Virginia, Herlinda, and Emilia. 

Soon after coming to America Mr. Bertani took out his first papers 
toward becoming a citizen and has always remained an appreciative and 
loyal American. In politics he was a Democrat up to the time of Major 
William McKinley's candidacy, when he became a Republican and has 
since voted that ticket, conscientiously believing it to be the party that 
best conserves the business interests and general prosperity of the coun- 
try. He has never had occasion to regret his determination to seek a 
home in the new world, for here he has found good business opportuni- 
ties, which he has improved until he has advanced from a humble finan- 
cial position to one of affluence. 

Edward Denike, a custom house broker of Laredo, was born at 
Peekskill in Westchester county. New York, in 1853, his parents being 
Theodore and Louise (Ward) Denike. His parents, both of whom are 
now deceased, were born and reared at Peekskill and his father was of 
Holland Dutch ancestry. In 1878 Theodore Denike removed with his 
family to New York city and he became one of the original members of 
the New York stock exchange. Previous to this he had been a lumber 
merchant at Peekskill. 

Edward Denike was reared and educated in Peekskill, receiving his 
mental training under private tutors and in Peekskill Military Academy. 
In New York city, following the removal of the family to the metropolis, 
he became connected with a mercantile house and was so engaged until 



n6 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

i8S_\ when he came to Laredo, to which point the I. & G. N. Railroad 
had recently been completed, making this place its southern terminus. 
He entered the service of the railroad company as clerk and rose by suc- 
ssive promotions until he had served as freight agent and as passenger 
agent for the company at this point. On severing his connection with 
the company he was for eight years deputy collector of customs at Laredo 
and in September. [906, he resigned that position to engage in business 
as a custom house broker, in which enterprise he is still operating. He 
was one of the originators and is the secretary and treasurer of the 
Consumers' Ice Company of Laredo, which owns and conducts an ice 
manufacturing plant, and engages in the sale of its product, 

Mr. Denike was married at Corpus Christi to Miss Eva M. Noessel, 
and they have three children : J. Seymour, Alice and Elizabeth Denike. 
In September. 1906, Mr. Denike was elected a member of the school 
board of Laredo and he is a public spirited citizen interested in the 
welfare and progress of his community. Because of his long connec- 
tion with public service in one capacity or another he has a very wide 
acquaintance in Laredo and is a popular man, as is indicated by his 
extended acquaintance. 

Willis Edwards Lowry. M. D., engaged in the practice of medicine 
and surgery at Laredo, was born at Elkton, Kentucky, in 1870, and is a 
son of Dr. S. T. and Mary L. (Boone) Lowry. The father was also 
born at Elkton, where he lived for a number of years, but about 1872 
removed to Owensboro, where he resided until 1881, when he came with 
his family to Texas, settling at San Antonio. In that city he was recog- 
nized as a most capable and distinguished physician, attaining a high 
standing in the medical profession in this state. He built the fine Lowry 
home at the corner of Avenue C and Travis street in San Antonio, 
where he died in 1890. He had received his medical education at Jef- 
ferson Medical College in Philadelphia and remained a student through- 
out his entire life, constantly broadening his knowledge and promoting 
his efficiency by reading and investigation. His wife, who is still living, 
is a grandniece of the noted Kentucky pioneer, Daniel Boone. 

Dr. Willis E. Lowry was only ten years of age when the family re- 
moved to San Antonio. He was reared and partially educated in that 
city, although he supplemented his early school privileges by attendance 
at the state university at Austin. He received his medical education in 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Baltimore and was graduated 
in the class of 1892. He then went to the City of Mexico, where he en- 
gaged in the practice of medicine for several years and for some time 
was in charge of the Mexican National Railway Hospital in that city. 
In 1 901 he located in Laredo, where he has since made his home. He is 
now engaged in the general practice of medicine and surgery and a liberal 
patronage is accorded him, for his skill and ability have become recog- 
nized. He maintains a high standard of professional ethics and has 
shown the power to cope with the complex and intricate problems which 
continually confront the physician in his efforts to restore health and 
prolong life. He is now the acting state health officer at Laredo and is 
a member of the County, State and American medical associations. 

Dr. Lowry was married in Laredo to Miss Josephine Steffian, and 



HISTORY OF SOLTHWKST TEXAS 117 

they have three children: Willis Edwards, Joseph and Daniel Boone. 
The Doctor and his wife are prominent socially and enjoy the hospi- 
tality of the best homes of this place. 

David Darwin Davis has been the leading- factor in the discovery 

and development of the mining industry in Webb county, his training 
and natural ability eminently fitting him for the important position he 
now occupies. Mr. Davis was born in Wales in 1855, of maternal an- 
cestry w 7 hich w r as connected with the Darwin family from which the 
noted scientist of that name sprung. The great industry in his native 
country of Wales was coal mining and it was in this business that he was 
reared. It is, then, natural that he should have followed this line more 
or less all through life and that he should attain success therein. In 
1872, when yet under eighteen years of age, he came to the United States, 
where he travelled first through Pennsylvania, and then locating in Ohio, 
in the Akron vicinity, and living for a few years at Cuyahoga Falls. 
About 1880 he started on a trip through the west, prospecting mainly 
for coal, and on this mission he travelled through Colorado, Xew Mexico 
and the staked plains of northwestern Texas. Early in 1882 he pros- 
pected along the Rio Grande, between Laredo and Eagle Pass, Texas, 
and discovered and located the coal veins in Webb county, which were 
soon thereafter developed by the eastern capitalists for whom Mr. Davis 
was prospecting. This discovery has since developed into the important 
coal mining camps of Cannel, San Jose and Minera. 

Coal Mines. 

The mines at Cannel and San Jose are owned and operated by the 
Cannel Coal Company, of which C. B. Wright, of Philadelphia, is presi- 
dent and Mr. Davis is superintendent. The company employs about 
500 men and the output is from 250 to 500 tons per diem at present. 
This output is insufficient to meet the demands and it will be largely in- 
creased after the completion of two new shafts which it is expected will 
soon be constructed. The product of this company's mines is shipped 
principally to Mexico, where it is used largely for steam and gas making 
purposes. During the first year of the operation of the mines, 1882, the 
coal was hauled to Laredo, a distance of 26 miles, in wagons, but the 
completion of the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass Railroad, from Laredo to 
Cannel and to Minera, made an easy outlet and greatly facilitated the 
development of the mines. They are now a very valuable property and 
add much in the operation to the material wealth of Webb county. 

Although Mr. Davis devotes nearly all of his time and attention to 
the mines, nevertheless he has numerous outside interests, among 1 them 
an onion farm which is managed by a tenant. In 1898 Mr. Davis was 
elected county commissioner for Webb county, a position in which he 
has been retained by successive elections ever since. His office and head- 
quarters are at Cannel, which bears the postoffice name of Darwin. 

Mr. Davis was first married to Miss Elizabeth Thomas, of Akron, 
Ohio, daughter of parents who were old settlers of that vicinity. She 
died in 1887, leaving four sons, John, Reuben W., Miles G. and William. 
Subsequently he was united in marriage with Margaret Reid, a native of 



nS HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Missouri, and they have eight children, Maggie, Anna. David D., Joseph, 
Dorothy, Eiyacinthe, Balfour and Josephine. 

The second son. Reuben W. Davis, is the mining engineer of the 
Cannel Coal Company, also engineer for the Rio Grande & Eagle Pass 
Railroad. He was horn at Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, and received a first- 
class training for the profession of civil, mining' and electrical engineer- 
ing. His education was most complete and he studied mathematics and 
elementary engineering at Leland Stanford University, California, and 
with the International Correspondence Schools of Scranton, Penna. He 
then matriculated at Columbia University, New York, in the engineer- 
ing department, ami specializing in geology, graduating here in 1904. 
Through further study of practical methods in the mines and great in- 
dustrial plants of Pittsburg, Pa., and his work and experience since be- 
coming mining engineer for the Cannel Coal Company, he has become 
especially well equipped for solving the various problems of mining opera- 
tion and in mining machinery, electrical and compressed air haulage, in 
which he has been eminently successful. The other three sons also hold 
responsible positions with the Cannel Coal Company. 

A. J. [JiSTETTER. The industrial interests of Laredo find a worthy 
representative in "Jack" Eistetter, a contractor and builder who in the 
line of his chosen occupation has done much for the improvement of the 
city in which he now resides. He was born in New Orleans in 1855 and 
there remained through the period of his minority. He learned the trade 
of a carpenter and builder there, his father, who was a native of Germany, 
having also been a contractor. In 1875 the family removed to Biloxi, 
Mississippi, where Mr. Eistetter remained until 1882, when he came to 
Texas, locating at Laredo. Here he has resided continuously since, suc- 
cessfully carrying on business as a contractor and builder, during which 
time he has put up a large number of the buildings, both business blocks 
and private structures, that adorn the city and help to make it attrac- 
tive. On all sides may be seen evidences of his skill and handiwork, in- 
cluding the Deutz hardware store, Hotel Hamilton, the Episcopal church, 
the large building at the corner of Market plaza and Hidalgo street now 
occupied by Richter's store, the Martin block, the Orfila residence, the 
Sames- Moore block, the residence of Colonel C. G. Brewster, of Mrs. 
Kennedy, Miles T. Cogley, John T. Murphy and many others. Mr. 
Ei -tetter's thorough honesty and straightforward dealing in all of his 
business relations, together with his known ability and long experience 
a- a builder and contractor, have brought him a reputation that is an 
invaluable asset of his business, and for this reason he enjoys the patron- 
age and confidence of the public to such an extent that his business has 
made him financially independent. 

Mr. Eistetter was married in 1889 to Miss Mary Meehan, who was 
born in Louisiana and was educated in San Antonio but gave her hand in 
marriage to Mr. Eistetter in Laredo. They now have five children: Leo, 
Ihnry. Estelle, Frank and Patrick. Fraternally Mr. Eistetter is con- 
nected with the Knights of Columbus and the Woodmen of the World. 
1 le has been quite prominent in political circles and was a member of the 
city council from 1887 until 1890, acting a part of that time as mayor pro 
tern. He i^ interested in all that pertains to the welfare of the com- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS ug 

munity and has given loyal support to many plans and measures for the 
general goc J. He owns a pretty home with every convenience and com- 
fort that go to make life worth living and in addition to this property has 
a valuable ranch of twenty-one hundred acres seven miles east of the 
city, where he carries on diversified farming. He has done much toward 
developing the agricultural resources 'of the Laredo country by experi- 
menting with and raising various kinds of crops and in this he has had 
much success. His labors have been guided by sound judgment and have 
displayed practical methods, and in agricultural lines as well as in build- 
ing operations he is recognized as a leader. 

P. Floyd. One of the largest land and mine owners living in Laredo, 
and a man who is an acknowledged authority on Mexican lands and 
mines, is Mr. P. Floyd, who has spent all of his life in the border country 
between Texas and Mexico, and who has prospected widely through 
various portions of the last named country. 

Mr. Floyd was born at Roma, Starr county, on the Rio Grande, 
Texas, in 1853, his parents being H. H. Floyd and Ynocensia (Salas) 
Floyd. His father was born in Columbus, Ohio, being of Welsh parent- 
age, and in 1847 he was a soldier in the United States army that w r as 
invading Mexico during the Mexican war. After the close of this war 
he located on the Rio Grande, in Starr county, living part of the time, 
however, in Mexico in Cameron county. He was married to Ynocensia 
Salas, who was a native of Mexico. Our subject's early life was spent 
directly upon the Texas-Mexican border, that romantic region which has 
had such a varied and thrilling history. At his home at Roma, on the 
Rio Grande, he carried on small farming operations, but later engaged 
in the mercantile line, spending some years at Corpus Christi as clerk 
in a store. There he lived until 1875 when he came to Laredo and at 
first entered into partnership with J. Villegas & Brother under the firm 
name of Villegas Bro. & Co. In 1877 he severed his relations with this 
firm and engaged in business for himself, establishing the firm of P. 
Floyd & Company, general merchants. The enterprise was a successful 
one from the start and a very large volume of business was done. This 
business was continued until 1887, when Mr. Floyd disposed of his in- 
terests therein. 

Since then he has been engaged in land and mining ventures in both 
Texas and Mexico, principally in the latter country. On the Texas side 
he has in Webb county, a few miles below Laredo, on the river, a fine 
farm of 4,000 acres, the same having a modern and first-class irrigation 
plant. Here general truck farming is carried on and the productive- 
ness of the place is noted in this vicinity. In the Republic of Mexico Mr. 
Floyd has very extensive interests in lands, mines and various other busi- 
ness enterprises. In the state of Coahuila he owns. a tract of about 60,000 
acres of land, some of which is farming, grazing and timber lands, while 
about 30,000 acres of the same is guayule land, on which grows the 
guayule plant, a very valuable species of vegetation which is now ex- 
tensively used in the manufacture of commercial rubber. Although this 
use of the plant is comparatively recent, nevertheless it is growing fast 
and today there are in Mexico six factories where the guayule plant is 
utilized in rubber making. He also has other lands and mining interests 



[20 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

in the states of Durango and Xneva Loon. TTc is vice-president and a 
director in the Durango Milling and Mining Company, which owns valua- 
ble gold, silver and copper mines in Northern Durango, in the vicinity 
of Tamazula district. In this company he is associated with some w 7 ell 
known business men and capitalists of Laredo, and Mr. Floyd's great 
knowledge of the natural resources of Mexico has been of great valne 
to the company. 

Mr. Lloyd's business interests are very large and his time has been 
quite fully occupied therewith, but at the same time he has given some 
attention to political matters and to the local government. Always a 
regular and consistent Democrat, he served the city of Laredo for four 
years as alderman, and he is also a member of the Democratic executive 
committee oi Webb county. 

It will thus be seen that Mr. Floyd has been an important factor in 
the commercial and bnsiness life of Laredo and that he has also done 
much in developing the natural resources of his state as well as of the 
neighboring Republic of Mexico. His operations have not only brought 
him wealth, but have also been of great benefit to the residents of the 
sections where his enterprises are located. 

His wife is Guadaloupe (Marulanda) Floyd and they have three 
children. A. M. Floyd. P. M. Floyd and Hortensia Floyd. 

FrsEBio Garcia is a representative of the live-stock interests of 
Webb county and makes his home at Laredo. He was born at Guerrero, 
Mexico, in 1859. and is a brother of Jose Maria Garcia, who is repre- 
sented elsewhere in this volume. They are the sons of Jesus Garcia, who 
was a well known stockman and merchant and died in 1903. 

Mr. Garcia came to Laredo to enter business about 1888 and has 
been prominently identified with the interests of the town since that 
time both as a merchant and a stockman. For a long period he success- 
fully conducted a store on Iturbide street but in 1903 disposed of his 
mercantile interests. He now devotes most of his time to the manage- 
ment of his large stock ranch at Ojuelos in the vicinity of Torrecillas, 
about forty miles east of Laredo in Webb county. At the ranch head- 
quarters a store is conducted. Tom Coleman, the well known San An-. 
tonio stockman, is associated with Mr. Garcia in some of his cattle and 
mercantile interests. In all that he has undertaken Mr. Garcia has mani- 
fested a spirit of keen discernment and enterprise and has become one 
of the wealthy men of Webb county owing to his capable management 
and unfaltering diligence. He has in addition to his ranching interests 
become a stockholder in the Laredo National Bank and that he is active 
in community affairs is shown by the fact that he at one time served as 
county commissioner. 

Mr. Garcia was married to Miss Josefa Guerra, and they have six 
children : Hermelinda, Amador F., Amalia, Josefa, Francisca and Ofelia. 

Hiram S. Goodwin*, who has been closely associated with railroad 
building in the west and is also well known as a rancher, makes his home 
at Laredo, Texas. His place of residence, however, is far from the 
place of his nativity, for he was born at Sewell's Falls, near Concord, 
Xew Hampshire, in 1842. His parents were Reuben and Judith (Bur- 
pee 1 Goodwin, both of whom are now deceased. The father and paternal 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS [21 

grandfather were born on the same farm where Hiram S. Goodwin was 
born and which had been opened up by the great-grandfather. Reuben 
Goodwin was one of the selectmen of the town of Goncord at the time it 
was incorporated as a city. Various representatives of the family have 
attained prominence, including Ichabod Goodwin, who was governor of 
New Hampshire from 1859 until 1861. 

Hiram S. Goodwin was reared on a farm and was educated in his 
native town. At the outbreak of the Civil war in 1861 he enlisted, when 
a youth of nineteen, in Goodwin's Rifles (named for his uncle), which 
became organized into the regular service as Company B of the Second 
New Hampshire Infantry. He was in the army for three years, being 
mustered out in June, 1864. He participated in the first and second bat- 
tles of Bull Run and in the battles of the Peninsular campaign, his service 
being mostly in Virginia, although he participated in the hotly contested 
engagement of Gettysburg and was also to some extent on duty in Mary- 
land. He went through all the fighting at Fair Oaks and the seven 
days' retreat, the battle of Williamsburg and the engagement at Freder- 
icksburg. He was a brave and loyal soldier and on the expiration of 
his term of service returned home with a creditable military record. 

On the 1st of April, 1865, Mr. Goodwin entered upon active connec- 
tion with railroad interests and has since followed that line of business. 
His first service was on the old Northern New Hampshire road extend- 
ing from Concord to White River Junction. In 1867 he came west and 
engaged in the construction work of the Union Pacific Railroad as far 
west as Rawlings, Wyoming. The difficulties and hardships connected 
with the construction of this great pioneer line to the Pacific coast forms 
a most interesting epoch in the history of the west and furnishes some 
of its most romantic features. On leaving the employ of the Union 
Pacific Company he went to Denver, where he became superintendent of 
bridges and buildings and of the water service in the construction of the 
Kansas Pacific Railway into Denver. He also became connected with the 
maintenance of way departments and in the construction of other roads 
in Colorado, principally the Colorado Central, the Denver Pacific and the 
Denver & New Orleans, of which latter road he was superintendent of 
construction. For ten years he was with the Denver & New Orleans 
as one of its most capable and trusted representatives. 

In 1892 Mr. Goodwin located at Laredo, where he has since made his 
home. He is now in the train service as passenger conductor on the 
Mexican National road running between Laredo and Saltillo, Mexico. 
It is a somewhat unusual fact that during the long number of years of 
his service with this company there has never been a word uttered against 
his record, which is unblemished in every respect. He has been efficient 
and faithful and has brought keen discernment and practical common 
sense to the discharge of his duties. He has also extended his efforts 
into the ranching interests of the southwest and owns a valuable farm 
on the Rio Grande adjoining the city of Laredo. It is irrigated from the 
river. Up to this time his principal crop has been the Bermuda onion, 
which has been raised so successfully and profitably in this section. 

Mr. Goodwin was married in Denver to Miss Jane Tallman, a native 
of New York, and they have two children, Tom and Susie. In Laredo 



122 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

the family are well known and enjoy the friendship of many of the best 
residents of the city, Mr. Goodwin has always been loyal in citizenship 
and trustworthy in all life's relations and has manifested many good 
qualities which have made him popular with all with whom he has come 
in contact. 

SANTOS P. ORTIZ, a stockman and ranchman of Laredo, his native 
city, was horn in [864, his parents being Juan and Maria de Jesus (Farias) 
Ortiz. His father was for many years a wealthy and influential mer- 
chant and citizen of Laredo and was also a native of that place. One 
oi his sons is L. R. Ortiz, who is sheriff of Webb county and is men- 
tioned elsewhere in this work. 

Santos P. Ortiz was reared in this city and attended school, first as 
a student in a private school in Monterey., Mexico, and later in St. Mary's 
College in Galveston, while his course was completed at St. John's Col- 
lege in New York. He entered business life as an employe in his father's 
store, where he remained for seven or eight years, but abandoning the 
held of merchandising he turned his attention to the cattle and ranching 
business. He has a fine ranch of ten thousand acres in Webb county, 
thirty-two miles northwest of Laredo, and in addition to this has real 
estate interests in the town and valuable mining interests in Mexico. He 
has made his investments wisely and well and has profited thereby. In 
business life he displays keen discernment and unfaltering energy and 
whatever he undertakes carries forward to successful completion. 

Mrs. Ortiz bore the maiden name of Beatrice Valdez, and there has 
been one child born of this marriage, Amelda A. Ortiz. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

SOUTHWEST TEXAS DURING THE LAST QUARTER 

CENTURY. 

Southwest Texas, outside of San Antonio, is an empire in extent, 
resources and possibilities for the future. Larger in area than any of 
the states of the Union, it lay undeveloped by the enterprise of man, and 
was the home of the Indian and the renegade white until the seventies. 
The cattle business alone had a foothold, and that not secure. 

The history of this region is written plainly in the statistical tables 
that follow. Here is a case where statistics become eloquent, and far 
more interesting than minute description. The population in 1870 shows 
clearly, in the majority of the counties, that settlement had progressed 
only a little way (for the state of development fifty years ago, see Chap- 
ter XIX). Also the assessment values tell much by way of comparison. 
In many of the counties the valuation of 1870 represented the live stock 
and ranching interests. Since then many new forms of wealth have en- 
tered — railroads, farms, permanent homes, agricultural implements, town 
properties; etc. In the older counties, those east of Bexar, the changes 
of thirty years are notable, although in 1870 much population and wealth 
were already concentrated in their area. The tables for the various 
counties follow : 

BEXAR COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 16,043 

Population in 1880 30,470 

Population in 1890 . 49,266 

Population in 1900 69,422 

Valuation in 1870 .$ 5,491,739 

Valuation in 1881 10,462,522 

Valuation in 1903 34,365.948 

ATASCOSA COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 2 >9 X 5 

Population in 1880 4< 2I 7 

Population in 1890 6,459 

Population in 1900 7> I 43 

Valuation in 1881 $ 764,070 

Valuation in 1903 2,678,929 

BANDERA COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 . 649 

Population in 1880 '. 2,158 

Population in 1890 3-795 

Population in 1900 5*33 2 

123 



124 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Valuation in 1870 $ 112,548 

Valuation in 1881 521,561 

Valuation in 1003 1,534,295 

BEE COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 1,082 

Population in 1880 2,298 

1 Population in 1800 3.720 

Population in 1900 7,720 

Valuation in 1870 $ 420,033 

Valuation in 1881 1,142,630 

Valuation in 1903 3<933733 

CALDWELL COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 6,572 

Population in 1880 n>757 

1 \ tpulation in 1890 15769 

Population in 1900 21,765 

Valuation in 1870 $ 1,247,148 

Valuation in 1881 2,211,904 

Valuation in 1903 4,807,857 

CALHOUN COUNTY. 

1 '< 'puliation in 1870 3443 

I '< ipulation in 1880 J 739 

Population in 1890 815 

Population in 1900 2,395 

Valuation in 1870 $ 1,473,726 

Valuation in 1881 1,118,714 

Valuation in 1903 1,848,213 

Note — The remarkable decrease in population and valuation between 
1870 and 1890 is accounted for by the floods that destroyed the city of 
Indianola. 

COLORADO COUNTY. 

I '< ipulation in 1870 8,326 

Population in 1880 16,673 

Population in 1890 19.512 

Population in 1900 22,203 

Valuation in 1870 $ 1,868,103 

Valuation in 1882 4,000,755 

Valuation in 1903 6,226,587 

COMAL COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 5.283 

Population in 1880 (75 per cent German) 5.54^ 

1'opnlation in 1890 6,398 

Population in T900 7,008 

Valuation in 1870 $ 1,270,100 

Valuation in 1882 1,528,440 

Valuation in 1903 2,770,451 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS [25 

DEWITT COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 6,443 

Population in 1880 10,082 

Population in 1890 14,307 

Population in 1900 2 1 ,3 1 1 

Valuation in 1870 $ 1,270,392 

Valuation in 1881 2,472,708 

Valuation in 1903 6,812,870 

DIMMIT COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 109 

Population in 1880 • 665 

Population in 1890 . 1,049 

Population in 1900 1,106 

Valuation in 1881 ..$ 436,233 

Valuation in 1903 1,727,616 

DUVAL COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 . 1,083 

Population in 1880 573 2 

Population in 1890 7,598 

Population in 1900 8,483 

Valuation in 1881 . . $ 1,504,604 

Valuation in 1903 2,071,833 

FAYETTE COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 16,863 

Population in 1880 . ' 27,996 

Population in 1890 31*481 

Population in 1900 36,542 

Valuation in 1870 $ 3,073,880 

Valuation in 1881 5,810,466 

Valuation in 1903 8,378,080 

FRIO COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 309 

Population in 1880 2,113 

Population in 1890 3,1 12 

Population in 1900 4,200 

Valuation in 1881 $ 6^/, 22^ 

Valuation in 1903 3,662,855 

GOLIAD COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 3.628 

Population in 1880 5,832 

Population in 1890 5'9 x o 

Population in 1900 8,310 

Valuation in 1870 $ 786,786 

Valuation in 1882 . 2,068,426 

Valuation in 1903 3,825,324 



126 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

GONZALES COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 8,951 

Population in 1880 14,840 

Population in [890 18,016 

Population in igoo 28.882 

Valuation in 1870 . . $ 1,734,256 

Valuation in 1881 3,016,964 

Valuation in 1903 6.556,575 

GUADALUPE COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 7,282 

Population in 1880 12,202 

Population in 1890 15,217 

Population in 1900 21,385 

Valuation in 1870 $ 1,768,111 

Valuation in 1881 2,810,381 

Valuation in 1903 5,7°°>599 

JACKSON COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 2,278 

1 N filiation in 1880 2,723 

! N pulation in 1890 3,281 

Population in 1900 6,094 

Valuation in 1870 $ 797,969 

Valuation in 1881 1,017,620 

Valuation in 1903 •. 3,230,410 

KARNES COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 1,705 

Population in 1880 3,270 

I '< "pulation in 1890 3,637 

I \ filiation in 1900 8,681 

Valuation in 1870 $ 528,092 

Valuation in 1881 1,061,073 

Valuation in 1903 '. 3,740,623" 

KINNEY COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 1,204 

I '-.pulation in 1880 44^7 

Population in 1890 , 3,781 

Population in 1900 2,447 

Valuation in 1881 $ 657,108 

Valuation in [903 '. . 1,873,755 

LA SALLE COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 69 

Population in 1880 789 

Population in 1890 2,139 

Population in [poo 2,303 

Valuation in 1881 $ 569,982 

Valuation in 1903 2,201,708 



HISTORY OF SOLTHWEST TEXAS \z' 



MAVERICK COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 **95? 

Population in 1880 2,967 

Population in 1890 3,698 

Population in 1900 4,066 

Valuation in 1881 . . .' $ 655,25 r 

Valuation in 1903 2,946,896 

McMULLEN COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 230 

Population in 1880 701 

Population in 1890 1,038 

Population in 1900 1 ,024 

Valuation in 1881 $ 644,981 

Valuation in 1903 1,220.227 

MEDINA COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 2,078 

Population in 1880 4492 

Population in 1890 5,73° 

Population in 1900 7,783 

Valuation in 1870 $ 574,286 

Valuation in 1881 ' I > 1 33,395 

Valuation in 1903 3,591,164 

STARR COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 4.154 

Population in 1880 (75 per cent Mexican) 8,304 

Population in 1890 10,749 

Population in 1900 . 1 1,469 

Valuation in 1870 $ 655,366 

Valuation in 1881 1,149,653 

Valuation in 1903 2,319.404 

UVALDE COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 851 

Population in 1880 2,541 

Population in 1890 3.804 

Population in 1900 4.647 

Valuation in 1870 $ 431,785 

Valuation in 1881 903,669 

Valuation in 1903 . 3,257.510 

VAL VERDE COUNTY. 

Population in 1890 2,874 

Population in 1900 5.263 

Valuation in 1903 $ 3,988,230 

Note — County was organized in 1885. 



[28 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

WEBB COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 2,615 

Population in 1880 5,273 

Population in [890 14,842 

Population in 1900 21,851 

Valuation in 1870 $ 418,616 

Valuation in 188] 1,223,910 

Valuation in [903 4,615,153 

WHARTON COUNTY. 

Population in [870 342(5 

Population in t88o 4>549 

Population in [890 7*584 

1 '« tpulation in 1900 16,942 

Valuation in 1870 $ 348,763 

Valuation in 1881 845,745 

Valuation in 1903 6,176,550 

WILSON COUNTY. 

Population in 1870 2,556 

1 N ipulation in 1880 7,1 18 

I N pulation in 1890 10,655 

Population in 1900 13,961 

Valuation in 1870 $ 400,836 

Valuation in 1881 1,246,347 

Valuation in 1903 4,749,452 

ZAVALA COUNTY (Organized in 1884). 

Population in 1890 1,097 

Population in 1900 792 

Valuation in 1903 $ 1,805,654 

Immigration and Settlement. 

Says a writer in a recent issue of the Political Science Quarterly: 
•'Thanks to the efforts of various southern immigration agencies, 

more is known about the south It is now becoming known that" 

the climate is better in the south than in the northwest ; that lands are 
cheap and rents are low ; that wherever a negro can work, white men 
can do the same ; that work is deemed honorable ; that those who do not 
like to live near negroes can find great stretches of country where there 
are only whites; that cotton, rice and tobacco are not the only crops that 
can be raised ; and that there are openings for all kinds of new indus- 
tries 

"This immigration is solicited and encouraged by various agencies 
in the south; by the state governments, by the railroads, by real estate 
agent-, and by numerous immigration societies, boards of trade and in- 
dustrial associations The 'colony' plan has also brought desirable 

immigrants to the south. Every few days the newspapers publish ac- 
count- of the location of colonies of farmers from the north or from 
abroad. Land companies in the' middle west buy large tracts of land in the 
south and induce colonies to settle upon these purchases 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 129 

Railroads as a Factor. 

"But the most potent factors in the immigration movement are the 
railroads. Each important railroad company has hundreds of thousands 
of acres of land for sale and wishes to see industries developed along its 
lines. Until within the last few years the north and south lines have 
not offered special rates to homeseekers except in colonies. Now, on the 
first and third Tuesdays in each month, special homeseekers' rates are 
offered on every railroad east of the Rocky mountains that runs into the 
south and southwest." 

The railroad as the principal agent in inducing settlement and afford- 
ing the only commonly used avenue of immigration has been indicated as 
the keystone fact in the history of southwest Texas. Reagan Houston 
of San Antonio in a paper read before the Second District Bankers' con- 
vention, elaborated on this subject in its modern aspects. Mr. Houston 
said: "The subject naturally suggests a division of the question. The 
first proposition invites a demonstration of the value and necessity of 
further railroad building in our territory. Recent events have greatly 
changed our situation and emphasized the necessity of many miles of ad- 
ditional railroad for the development of this section. We are witnessing 
an evolution in Southwest Texas that is, perhaps, unparalleled in our past 
history. We observe on every hand and in every direction the sale and 
subdivision and cultivation as farms of the big ranches throughout South- 
west Texas. The chivalrous and picturesque cowboy that has long been 
our pride as well as our commercial profit, is being literally chopped out 
of existence by 'the man with the hoe.' As this evolution progresses we 
realize that we will require transportation facilities adequate for farming 
conditions, and it is needless to direct your attention to the inadequacy of 
transportation service for the new requirements that was ample for the old 
state of affairs. 

"In the days of big ranches, which are now rapidly passing into his- 
tory, fifty miles between railway lines, or twenty-five miles from remote 
territory on range properties to railroad facilities, was entirely ample, and, 
in fact, that amount of territory tributary to a railway line was not suf- 
ficient to afford traffic to maintain the property. If our lands are as fer- 
tile as we believe they are, they will hereafter better support railway lines 
at twenty-mile distances than formerly at fifty. I am informed, through 
observation of current events, that our lands sell to farmers at from $10 
to $30 per acre, and that when you get beyond, say five miles, from a rail- 
road, the decline in selling value of the land is very sharp, so that we 
may reasonably take it that $10 land at a railroad is reduced to $8 land 
five miles away, and that $25 land on the railroad is reduced to $15. This, 
of course, is due to the advantages in transportation facilities enjoyed by 
the farmer in reasonable proximity to the railroad. Many illustrations 
might be given of why this difference represents an actual and intrinsic 
value variation. Many uses to which lands adjacent to a railroad might be 
applied would not profitably stand a long wagon haul. This increase in 
the actual value of the lands will more than pay for the first cost of the 
construction of railroads through all sections adapted to farming. 

"For the purpose of a few figures that will illustrate the present 
Vol. 11. 9 



i>> HIS TORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

situation in Southwest Texas. 1 take San Antonio as a center or start- 
ing point Circling about this center, and treating the International & 
Great Northern to Austin as one radius, and the Aransas Pass from San 
Antonio to Beeville as another radius, you have, between these lines, 248 
degrees. This territory is supplied with three railway lines, the Aransas 
Pass to Kerrville. the Sunset west to Del Rio, and the International south 
to Laredo. Of course, the converging of these lines at San Antonio af- 
fords ample and abundant facilities immediately adjacent to the city, 
and since, by operation of statttte. we have repealed the natural commer- 
cial law of competition, one railroad in the direction traffic desires to 
move is as good as ten. In the diverging of the lines and the rapidly 
widening distances between them, we find some of our richest and most 
fertile lands so remote from transportation facilities that it is impractica- 
ble to utilize them for farming purposes. 

"To illustrate the enormous territories not supplied by these roads, 
I take arbitrary points on each line at approximately the same distance 
from San Antonio. Between Austin on the International, and Kerrville 
on the Aransas Pass, the direct line distance is eighty-three miles, Kerr- 
ville to Sabinal on the Sunset, fifty-two miles ; Sabinal to Dilley on the 
International, forty-two miles: and Dilley to Pettus on the Aransas Pass, 
eighty-two miles. To Southwest Texas business men it is unnecessary 
to bring statistical evidence of the wonderful fruitfulness of land in this 
territory, that is yet so far from railroad transportation facilities that its 
cultivation and proper use is impracticable. Our people will not remain 
content with this restriction on the richness and greatness of our country. 
Had any evidence been necessary to establish the fact that Southwest 
Texas needs more railroads, these suggestions would, perhaps, be ade- 
quate." 

Standards of Comparison. 

The growth of Southwest Texas outside of the city centers entered 
the stage of remarkable and in some respects phenomenal rapidity 
shortly after the recovery of prosperity following the hard times of the 
'90s ; ten years' time would, therefore, measure this period. When, on 
every hand, one can see evidences of such development, and hear still 
greater stories of its progress, one who sees the country and knows 
what it was a few years ago needs no additional proof of fruitful results 
of this era of prosperity. But to one unacquainted with the proper stand- 
ards by which to measure this progress, or to the reader who in later 
decades refer- to these pages for an accurate description of the country 
a- it i- in 1907. it is necessary to indicate some sort of standard of 
judgment. 

Though immigration has been pouring into Southwest Texas during 
the past ten years, and though the great ranches are being cut up into 

k and crop farms, yet it is not to be understood that this region has 

i developed to any such stage as an Illinois farming community. The 
country is not cut into a checkerboard by roads intersecting at every mile 
or less, nor do neat and comfortable farm houses, with nicely kept grounds 
and commodious outbuildings adorn the roadside at every half mile or 
( ni'- who anticipates such a scene as this in Southwest Texas, except 
in a few restricted spots, will be disappointed. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TKXAS [31 

In the first place the country is too expansive. Oreat as has been 
the immigration of the past few years, it has been distributed over an 
area so great that it hardly makes a showing except in the aggregate. 
And then, although much is heard about making farms out of ranches, 
as a general proposition it may be stated that these farms, except near 
the cities or where devoted to trucking by means of irrigation, seldom 
consist of less than a section of land. Despite the movement of the farm- 
ing class into this section and the gradual disappearance of the large cattle 
ranges, the region south and west of San Antonio is still in large tracts. 
Within forty miles of San Antonio one may ride several miles without 
seeing a house. So it is that Southwest Texas is still a country with 
greater possibilities for the future than anything it has accomplished in 
the past ; in other words, it is "a coming country." 

The various lines along which this region has developed during the 
past quarter of a century are frequently mentioned in the course of the 
following pages, either in a special manner or incidental to the sketches of 
the citizens representing this vast extent of territory, and whose occupa- 
tions and careers quite faithfully epitomize the progress of their respec- 
tive communities. In general, it should be said that, outside of the rail- 
roads, artificial irrigation has probably done more to produce wealth 
in this country and make it permanently profitable than any other cause. 

Irrigation. 

Irrigation in this country is, of course, as old as the missions them- 
selves. But dependence on underground waters, forced to the surface 
through pipes, and thence distributed over considerable area of land, is 
a development of the past thirty years. Along in the seventies, the news- 
papers, stirred by certain very successful experiments in this direction, 
took up the subject of artesian wells, and the agitation has been constant 
from that time. Practically all the country from the San Antonio to the 
Nueces river is subject to artesian development, and a large part of the 
region south of the latter river. 

Irrigated land means wealth. Its value runs from fifty to two or 
three hundred dollars per acre, and it soon pays for itself at that in the 
profusion of crops that it will produce. A tract of land without irrigation 
facilities may sell for ten dollars an acre, while across the road a farm 
covered with ditches to water every foot of its soil is worth ten or twenty 
times that much. 

So, at this writing, irrigation is probably the greatest factor in add- 
ing value to Southwest Texas. There is no question that it will be rapidly 
extended to every possible part of the country, and the results, after 
another quarter century's development in this direction, can hardly be 
foretold. 

Of the development in the southwest country, a San Antonio news- 
paper recently said : 

That the twelve months which will end with the opening of the fall excur- 
sions for homeseekers will have proved the most successful m extent of immi- 
gration induced to Southwest Texas is the belief of practicailv nil who have been 
for the last year or two interested in the settlement of this section. 

Statistics respecting the extent of immigration and comparative figures in con- 



,32 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

nection with the semi-monthly homeseekers' excursions arc most difficult of com- 
pilation, hence nothing definite can be secured in the wa\ of ah arithmetical dem- 
onstration oi the progress of the work now being conducted. 1 he semi-monthly 
excursions Seldom bring less than 1000 fanners of the Middle Western States to 
San Antonio as a distributing point tor the Southwestern territory. Jt is asserted 
that Houston i> likewise a distributing center lor an equally large number of 
monthly prospectors. It is generally believed that as many if not more home- 
continue to the Earming lands further to the south without stopping at 
San Antonio, and proceed to the Brownsville territory without spending any time 
in Houston. Considering these assumed facts, the assumption of which is based 
upon approximately accurate information, it is then declared that between 3000 
and 4000 homeseekers are brought into Southwest Texas alone, twice a month. 

Immigration men differ widely on the percentage of settlements and pur- 
chases as compared to the prospectors, the estimates ranging from 40 to 60 per 
There is none, however, who has studied the situation and watched its de- 
velopment for the last few years, who places an estimate at less than the smaller 
grure. The majority, possibly, incline to the larger. 

It is pointed out that the homeseekers are as a rule as true to the instincts of 

shrewd commercialism as the average business man. In other words, they know 

to "drive a bargain" and are rarely deceived on inferior land. It is also- 

d that they usually take ample time to consider a deal in all its phases be- 
fore they sign the deeds. 'They are necessarily cautious because a step wrongly 
taken would mean, possibly, disaster to their families as the moving of a home 
hundreds of miles is a most expensive undertaking. Therefore, the better equipped, 
financially, usually are those who purchase with seemingly little consideration of 
the deal in question. The vast majority, however, make the trip, size up the 
country, investigate its productiveness, familiarize themselves with its climatic 
qualifications and report to their families on their findings. For this reason a mul- 
titude of purchases are made months after the prospector made his trip to the 
South. If the bulk of the sales were made during the stay of an excursion party 
in a particular section an approximately accurate estimate of the proportion of the 
sales t<> the number of visitors could be made. As it is no definite figures can be 
advanced. 

The physical aspect of the country tributary to San Antonio, .howev-er, is the 
best guide to the success of the current movements to develop the Southwest. A 
railroad man engaged in directing the immigration department of his company de- 
clared after a recent trip through the territory involved in the great enterprise, that 
the visitor who passed through it a year ago would hardly recognize it today. 
The large ranches have been cut into small farming tracts and are being settled by 
hosts of thrifty farmers of all the Middle Western States and other parts of 
Texas. Small farm houses are noted as far the eye can reach. The country is 
fast assuming a physical aspect similar to that of Indiana and Illinois. Edging- 
railroad- the farm houses are located in rows that are constantly getting deeper. 
'Truck farming, the raising of corn and cotton, cattle and hogs are the chief occu- 
pation- and they are proving most renumerativc to him who undertakes them. It 
1- predicted that the era of the Southwest's suprcmacv is but beginning and that 
this section is destined to advance farther in the realm of successful agriculture 
than any other portion of the United States. 

A letter from a Texas minister, published in "The Outlook" in 
October, 1906, contained some points on this immigration movement: 

ording to the census of 1900. there were about three million people in this 
tate. 'There were ten counties with an average of thirty persons, four with an 
>f twenty, two with only fifteen and one-half nersons each. 
Cut when we read that twenty-five thousand homeseekeers left the vicinity 
of C hi' ently on one of those bi-monthly homeseekers' excursions, we can 

how rapidly 'Texas is filling up. 
The writer, on one of his trios through thai rich country below San An- 
tonio (1898), went thirty-five miles without meeting a person or coming to a 
field or house. He was lost, but all he had to do was to turn about and follow 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS J33 

his wagon track back to the starting-point. I was told by an officer of the San 
Antonio and Aransas Lass Railway recently that "they could not locate the im- 
migrants fast enough." 1 was mostly attracted by the forming of a colony of 
truck and garden farmers on the new Southern Pacific Railway near San Antonio. 
One of them told me that they were not after foreigners. or colored people. They 
wanted the best class of Eastern and Middle Western truck farmers and garden- 
ers, fruit and poultry raisers; that they were buying up all the cheap ($10) land to 
hold for the colony, and that the Southern Pacific Railway had promised to help 
make the movement a success. One man in that vicinity has discarded the most of 
his 440-acre farm, and, with a little gasoline engine and pump, waters and culti- 
vates nine acres with a garden plow (hand), and, with only his son to help him, 
makes about $450 an acre on his crops of ribbon cane, onions (at i x / 2 cents a 
pound), and cabbages. 

Concerning the development of the southwest country, the San 
Antonio Express said, in March, 1907 : 

It would be impossible to pick another group of eleven contiguous counties in 
the State of Texas that are more fertile and productive in every respect than is the 
group composed of Kinney, Zavala, Dimmit, LaSalle, Frio, Atascosa, Live Oak, Mc- 
Mullen, Uvalde, Webb and Bee. 

Until recent years these counties have been known only as grazing lands, 
but of late farms have sprung up, colonies been formed and towns founded, un- 
til now they are dotted with some of the richest farming communities in the 
State. 

In the history of the early days of Texas one reads and hears stories of how 
the Indians chose that section of the State of which these counties form a large 
part, for their hunting and camping grounds. The thinly wooded lands produced 
grass in abundance upon which their prey fed, and their wild cattle and horses 
wandered. The thickly wooded parts abounded in game, such as bear, panther, 
wild cats, turkey and squirrel. All of these lands were rich and when the In- 
dians scratched the soil and planted seed they raised their small patches of corn 
without cultivation. 

When the early American white settler came he wandered to the West and 
found these counties to compose a sort of earthly Paradise. The lands were 
productive enough to yield any kind of crop and the woods abounded in game 
which kept him supplied in meat. Later a few men who had sensible foresight 
took for themselves large tracts of these fertile lands as ranches and stocked them 
with cattle. For years they ruled as kings in their domain. Those were the 
real days of the "cattle kings" of the West, whose reign lasted through the most 
interesting years of Texas history. 

While they held these large possessions en masse. East and North Texas 
began to produce towns which gradually grew into small cities and established a 
commerce between themselves and the outside world. But the West had only one 
metropolis, the ancient and historical city of San Antonio. It was the West's log- 
ical trading center, and, as is the days of old, when Rome was in her glory and 
the commerce of all Italy passed through her gates, so it was with San Antonio. 
She was the capital of West Texas, the metropolis of what might have been 
termed a vast Nation in itself, cut off from the remainder of the world. The 
people came to San Antonio and bought their supplies and transacted their neces- 
sary business. They were the brave, the bold and free spirits who made a his- 
tory all for themselves, and of whom Texas is proud. San Antonio is also proud 
that she is the center and metropolis of this historical West. 

While the North and East grew in population, the cattle kings of the West 
lived contentedly in the west, surrounded by as productive a soil as any on earth, 
but did not seek to increase the population. They were devoted to the cattle in- 
dustry and it was their pride to wander over their large ranges thickly dotted 
with their wild herds of cattle and an occasional band of wandering Indians, 
which afforded them both pleasure and annoyance. They were hapoy in chasing 
the Indians and getting into an occasional battle, but the red men annoyed them by 
stealing their cattle. 



134 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

\ .. is croat West has opened. San Antonio has awakened ami has wel- 
comed settlors within her walls. The spirit of civilization his ^rown over the 
oattlo lands ami the ranolnnon find that they have a ready-made city that will 
equal any in the Stato. They have found that while they were making a glorious 
ry for the West, at the same timo they were building up the ancient city oi 
Antonio, which i- now one of the most interesting dots on the map of the 

id. 

The ranohmon sold o\\ small strips o\ their lands to pioneer larmors who ven- 
tured into the West, and found there a soil unexcelled by any — a soil that would 

•. for thorn almost any crop that they could plant. They spread the news 
through the East and more settlers came, and now where the vast grazing lands 
stretched unbroken, and the wild oattlo wandered, and the Indian roamed, there 
are numerous thriving villages which are growing daily and pouring commerce 
into San Antonio. 

These settlers found fertile lands with artesian water in many places with 
which to irrigate, and where the artesian holt ooasos the Loona, the Nueces, the 
and the Rio Grande, flow, so that the water can ho pumped from their chan- 
nels and spread over the lands. Furthermore, exports have found that the valley 
lying between the Rio Grande and the Nueces is underlined with coal and now 
rg< mine6 are in operation, and are bringing thousands of dollars into the hands 
of their owners each year. 

These small and rapidly growing towns are only the seed that will some day 
up'\v into tree- oi commerce. The capitalists of the United States have turned 
their eyes toward Texas and are buying the big ranches, in order that they may 
build more towns. 

There are thousands and thousands of acres yet untouched by the plow, and 
the world i- beginning to realize it. and is coming to the West. The thrilling 
-■ >ry of early days has just closed, and now it is the book of commercial his- 
tory which has begun to be written about West Texas. 

The West needs railroads and will get them. The proposed line from Spof- 
ford in Kinney County, on the Sunset, to Aransas Pass, on the Sap, will be a line 
which will open the far West within a few years, pay its owners hundreds of 
times over what they invest, and will be the road that will serve as a pioneer in 
the commercial history of the early West. 

The Laredo District. 

The vicinity of Laredo is being exploited now as never before in its 
history, and some of the results have been sufficient to attract attention 
from all quarters to a country that a few years ago was waste except as 
utilized by range cattlemen. 

The Express has been keeping in close touch at all times with the development 
of the agricultural interests of all Southwest Texas and presenting the advan- 
ced by different localities to invite homeseekers who desire to till the 
The Express correspondent took a trip over the Texas Mexican Road last 
Sunday a- far as Realitos, in Duval County, seventy-two miles, to look at the 
country in the very midst of one of the driest spring seasons known in this sec- 
tion for years. 

This road runs through a rouch and hilly country covered with brush for 
nty-five mile- leaving Laredo. Then the country becomes more open and the 
>oil much richer on for twenty mile- further, where it reaches the famous arte- 
sian belt that extend 4 : back northward for hundreds of miles from the T.akuna 
Madre on the coast. The belt is from thirty to forty miles wide and its possibil- 
agricultural country are beyond computation. Thst is to sav, when 
and enterprise combine to sink wells and irrigate the hundreds of thous- 
ands of acres that await the man with the hoe. 

Bui outside of the question of irrigating from these artesian wells, the corrc- 
dent witnessed a few miles from the town of Agnilares, a st'dion thirtv miles 
'<! Laredo, what jnav be considered a practical demonstration of what r-m 
done in the way of utilizing the rain waters for irrigation purposes when im 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 135 

pounded in tanks in suitable localities. At this point, near the railroad tr; 
Mr. Villegas, one of the most prominent merchants in Laredo, has an experimen- 
tal farm of five acres planted in onions and pepper, irrigated from a tank filled 
with rain water. When it is considered that these tanks can be built where a 
suitable location can be had at a moderate expense and the land they arc capa- 
ble of irrigating will, when planted in onions and other truck crops, net over | 
to the acre one year with another, the lesson is impressive. 

Forty-eight miles from Laredo, at Bruneville Station, nearly in the middle of 
this artesian belt, are to be seen three line artesian wells not a hundred feet 
apart. This being a large stock ranch, but little attention lias yet been paid to 
using this water for irrigation, but the fact that these permanent wells are there 
is an index linger to point out to homeseekers an opportunity to secure homes 
where they will not have to depend entirely upon the rainfall to in.-ure paying 
crops. 

On either side of the road thousands of acres of line land was plowed and 
put in readiness to plant crops. 

While the range was in bad condition and the cattle falling off, it is possible 
for most of the pastures to keep them going for some time yet, as there is a great 
deal of prickly pear growing in this district which it is well known will keep 
cattle from starving if the owners will take the trouble and small expense of 
burning off the thorns before feeding it to them. 

The people settling in this country have good railroad facilities, as the Texas 
Mexican Road connects with the Aransas Pass & San Antonio at Alice, the 
Brownsville & St. Louis at Robestown and the International at Laredo. — San An- 
tonio Express, March, 1907. 

The Onion Industry of Southwest Texas and Its Founder. 

A recent issue of the San Antonio Express contained the following: 

Capt. T. C. Nye of Laredo, the "Onion King of the Rio Grande," was in the 
city on business yesterday, and reports that the Laredo onion district is in a 
prosperous condition and that all bids fair for a successful year. 

"We have had two bad years with our onions," said Mr. Nye, "but I believe 
this year will pay. I estimate that my yield per acre will be at east 20,000 pounds. 
There are some who will make a better yield than I will, while some will make 
less." 

Mr. Nye says there are 1200 acres in onions in the Laredo district. On an av- 
erage of 20,000 pounds an acre this will be 24,000,000 pounds. The onions should be 
sold at two cents a pound profit, which means that $480,000 clear profit will be 
paid to the onion farmers of Laredo. Mr. Nye says that nearly all of the grower- 
will sell their onions through the Onion Growers' Association and that with the 
experience which they had last year they expect to be successful. 

"Last year," said Mr. Nye, "the association was new, and met with commercial 
reverses, but this year they are wiser." 

Speaking of the dry growers, Mr. Nye said : 

"Away from the river where there is no irrigation the onion growers will have 
little success. In fact they will raise practically no crop because of the shortage in 
min. On the irrigated farms there are already onions three inches in diameter, 
while the dry farmers say that what onions they have raised are of a small size.** 

Thomas C. Nye is truthfully styled the pioneer in the industrv of 
onion growing in the vicinity of Laredo, and his example has been fol- 
lowed by manv others in this vicinity, thus developing an industrv which 
is of incalculable importance and value to Webb county. 

He was born in Matagorda county, where he was also reared, his 
parents being old settlers of that portion of Texas. When only eight 
years of age he earned his first wages, 50 cents per day, driving cattle, 
and from that time, through a long number of years, he was identified 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

with the cattle industry oi Texas, first in the vicinity of his home in 
Matagorda county, and later making his headquarters in LaSalle county, 
where he had a fine ranch six miles northeast oi Cotulla, and here he 
became known as one oi the leading cattlemen i i Southwest Texas. 

At the beginning i^i the Civil war he enlisted in the Confederate 

army, at Matagorda, in Company P. Sixth Texas Infantry, and was fir>t 

gaged in service in the Trans-Mississippi Department, but was among 

those captured at Arkan>as Tost. Upon being exchanged, he was placed 

in service in Bragg's Army in Tennessee and was engaged at the battle 

hickamauga and other battles in Tennessee and northern Georgia, 
but was again captured and at the close oi the war was a prisoner at 
k Island, 111. 

While living in LaSalle county. Mr. Nye took a leading part in local 
and state political affairs and he was county commissioner of LaSalle 
county. In 1S08. having disposed oi his cattle interests, and having made 
successful experiments in growing Bermuda onions in LaSalle county, 
with the aid oi irrigation, he purchased some land along the Rio Grande 
river, four miles north of Laredo, in Webb county, deciding to make a 
permanent business here of onion growing for commercial pnrposes. This 
location seemed more promising for the purpose than LaSalle county, 
on account of the large and never-failing supply of water in the Rio 
i irande at this point. He was the first to establish and make a success 
of an onion farm in this vicinity. With one of his sons, Grover Nye, 
he has 225 acres oi irrigable land, a portion of which is devoted to onion 
gr< ►wing, which is the most profitable crop m this vicinity, although it is 
ssible also to raise fine corn with two crops per year. They also have 
about 400 acres oi pasture land, but handle only sufficient stock for their 
own purposes. 

The Nye farm is a model of its kind and it has achieved such fame 
f< >r its success and money-making capacity that a good deal of time has 
of necessity to l>e devoted to visitors and to inquiries by mail. The place 
is an object lesson in what may be accomplished by thoughtful planning 
and industriou> application of scientific principles, combined with prac- 
tical methods, to the business of farming. The water for irrigating the 
Nye farm is pumped from the Rio Grande to a tank and is then con- 
ducted bv the gravity method through a series of flumes and pipes. 

As a result of Mr. Nye's demonstration of what may be accom- 
plished in the onion business, with Laredo's soil and climate, added to 
modern irrigation methods, there has grown up adjoining his place on 
the south, north and east, a number of other successful irrigated onion 
farm-, which have made Laredo a noted center of Bermuda onion 
growing. In 1906, 534 carloads of Bermuda onions were shipped from 
this station. This has brought a great deal of "new" money to Laredo, 
and. on the principle of making one blade of grass grow where none 

. before, Mr. Nye's pioneer efforts have been the means of adding 
much material and permanent wealth to the community, and given a 
-tart toward a new development of resource. Mr. Nye himself, although 
expending more than $20,000 in establishing his part of the industry. 
ha- profited greatly thereby, making a great deal of money, besides now 
sing a place which rank- well in value with the far-famed land- of 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 137 

California. As a single example of the money-making capacity of the 
business, he set aside five acres of bis land with which to keep -trict 
account, and during the past four year- this small tract has earned an 
average of $1,700 per year, above all expenses, the crop being Bermuda 
onions. As high as 456.000 pounds of onions per year have been raised 
on thirteen acres. 

Nye Postofrice. 

The railroad company has established a station at Mr. Nye's place 
and called it Nye, this also being the name applied to the postoffice estab- 
lished at this point, it being four miles north of Laredo. The onion 
growers have organized into the Laredo Truck Growers' Association, 
which looks after the shipping and marketing of the product. 

Mr. Nye was married in the town of Matagorda, to Miss Frances 
Elizabeth Shultz, who was born and reared in that county. They have 
five children : F. W., A. Pierce. Grover. and Chester Nye, and Mrs. 
Fannie Collins. The two older sons are in the onion business for them- 
selves, while Grover is in partnership with his father. 

Jesse Sumpter is a pioneer of Eagle Pass. Texas, and a veteran of 
the Mexican war. He has been closely identified with the history of this 
section of the state from early days when its borders were infested with 
ruffians, smugglers, thieves and outlaws. He has witnessed its trans- 
formation to the present system of law and order, and has rejoiced in 
all that has been accomplished for progress and improvement as the 
years have passed by. Born in Owen county, Indiana. February 21, 1827. 
he was reared to the honest toil of the farm and pursued a common school 
education. He is descended from a prominent old Xorth ■ Carolina 
family and is a son of Isom and Susanna (Loving) Sumpter. both of 
whom were natives of the old Xorth state, where thev were married. 
In 1814 they removed to Indiana. They came of that hardy Scotch- 
Irish strain that penetrated the forests of America and were instru- 
mental in laying the foundation for the moral and physical development 
of different states. On arriving in Owen county. Indiana. Isom Sumpter 
purchased land and improved a farm. The place soon became self- 
sustaining. Later he sold that property and improved a second farm, 
clearing both tracts of the heavy timber. L'pon the second place he 
reared his family and there died in 1834. He was very charitable and 
benevolent to the poor and needy, was most social in his relations with 
his friends and was a typical pioneer citizen of the best class. He at- 
tended the Methodist church and lived a quiet, unassuming yet honor- 
able and upright life. His wife survived him and died at the old home- 
stead in 1840. She, too. was a consistent and worthy member of the 
Methodist church. She was married three times, first becoming: the 
wife of Michael Ho 1 t of Xorth Carolina, who died leaving four children. 
William H., Polly A.. Michael and Isabelle. After the death of Mr. 
Holt she married William Rollins, who passed away leaving one daugh- 
ter, Adeline M.. who died at the ripe old age of eighty-nine years. Sub- 
sequently Mrs. Rollins married Isom Sumpter. Soon afterward they 
went to Indiana and both spent their remaining days in Owen county. 
Thev had three children: Littleton L.. who remained a resident of In- 



\S HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

diana until his death; Harvey P., who settled in Missouri, where he 
passed away; and Jesse. 

Jesse Sumpter remained at home until his parents were called from 

this life, when the home was broken up. lie was then about thirteen 
years of age and the youngest of the family. Thrown upon his own 
resources, he started out to fight life's battles and for some time was 
employed as a farm boy in Owen and Clay counties i)\ Indiana, con- 
tinuing in that state until 1S44. when there came to him the opportunity 
go t>> Illinois with a family removing to that state. A location was 
made in Jo Daviess county not far from Galena, and there Mr. Sumpter 
was employed at such labor as he could hud to do until 1847, when he 
enlisted in the United States army for service in the Mexican war. He 
was enrolled at Galena in the First United States Infantry Regiment 
and soon afterward was sent to Fort Snelling and on to the front by 
way of Xew 1 Orleans. From that point the troops proceeded on a vessel 
t<> Brazos, Mexico, and soon afterward joined General Taylor's com- 
mand. The company to which Mr. Sumpter belonged was late in get- 
ting into the held, being held in reserve. In the following February 
peace was declared and the war was brought to an end. The regiment 
of which Mr. Sumpter was a member proceeded to Jefferson Barracks, 
St. Louis, Missouri, and was soon afterward ordered to Texas, going 
over the water route by way of New Orleans and thence on a vessel to 
the Lone Star state, reaching Port Lavaca in 1848. They then marched 
to Salado Creek near San Antonio, where they remained for fifteen days, 
during which time the government bought horses and made mounted 
infantry of three companies, which were then ordered to Fredericksburg, 
where they remained for several months. Mr. Sumpter with his com- 
mand went on several scouting expeditions after the Indians but was in 
no battle. Later the troops were ordered to return to San Antonio 
and afterward proceeded to Fort Inge in L T valde county. A few days 

Fort Duncan. 

later the order came to proceed to the Rio Grande, where they estab- 
lished Camp Duncan, arriving on the 4th of March, 1849. That was 
then a wilderness district, in which not a tree had been cut or an evidence 
of civilization made. They went into camp near the river, where Fort 
Duncan was afterward established. Soon the troops were ordered back 
and camped where the town of Lwalde is now located. After a brief 
period Colonel Johnson arrived and the company to which Mr. Sumpter 

nged was made his escort to open the road to Fl Paso, piloting and 
protecting him and his associate engineers and the commissary to their 

'nation and afterward returning with him to San Antonio, where 
the company received their pay for services rendered. Next came the 
order to return to Cam]) Duncan, where they remained for some time, 
during which period Mr. Sumpter again went on several scouting ex- 
pedition- after the unruly Indians. They had a number of running 
fights with them but no set battles, for the red men refused to make a 
Maud. I ater the- company was ordered to San Antonio to escort pro- 
vision train- to El Paso, making the trip without any casualties and 
thence returning to Camp Duncan, where Mr. Sumpter remained until 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 139 

he received an honorable discharge on the 27th of April, 1852. During 
the latter months Indian raids and running fights were common. When 
the fort was being established the border ruffians and outlaws among 
the white men began to assemble and gambling and shooting were an 
everyday occurrence. It required considerable courage for the men to 
remain among such an element where life was constantly endangered. 

In 185 1 the government put up temporary buildings and began 
doing away with tents, and the old stone guard house yet stands. The 
work of improvement was continued until a modern fort had been estab- 
lished and named Fort Duncan. The buildings and quarters are all sub- 
stantial stone structures and the place was manned as a fort until 1905, 
when an act to concentrate the troops was passed and the soldiers were 
removed, but the government yet holds the post in readiness should 
occasion demand its immediate use. 

Beginning of Eagle Pass. 

In 1850 Henry Matson borrowed a tent and established a saloon. 
He later erected a house just outside the post grounds near where the 
east end of the iron bridge is now located, and there he conducted a 
saloon until 1854. John Twong owned the land and in 1850 he platted 
the town, sold lots and named the place Eagle Pass, although the first 
settlers called it California Camp, as many stranded emigrants of Cali- 
fornia had found their way thereto. The most of them had become 
gamblers and highwaymen and for a number of years life was held very 
cheap at Eagle Pass. 

Jesse Sumpter was honorably discharged from the army in 1852, 
after which he was employed by Matson to assist in the conduct of the 
saloon, which he continued until Mr. Matson withdrew from the busi- 
ness. Mr. Sumpter then opened a saloon for himself, which he con- 
ducted successfully until 1861. During that time he engaged in the 
cattle business with a partner who looked after the ranch and cattle, 
and in 1861 he abandoned the saloon to concentrate his energies upon 
other business interests, having in the meantime gained a good start 
in the raising of horses and cattle. The range was free and grass good 
and their cattle herd numbered about eleven thousand head. They also 
had a large number of good horses. 

The rebellion opened and soldiers went to the front, leaving no pro- 
tection in the large field from the Indians and renegade white men. who 
in the guise of Indians would steal and run off stock. They also smuggled 
goods to the Mexican side of the Rio Grande and it was not long before 
Air. Sumpter's large herds of cattle and horses were almost gone. He 
finally sold the remnant of his stock and after the close of the war en- 
gaged in merchandising. After the beginning of the war the governor 
issued a proclamation that all Union men must go into the Confederate 
army or get out of the state. With his ranch and large herds of cattle 
and horses Mr. Sumpter was not prepared to leave the state, so he 
lingered. Later a Mr. Castor was sent as collector of customs- for the 
Confederacy at Eagle Pass and Air. Castor made Air. Sumpter inspector 
of customs for the Confederacy. He hated to accept any position from 
the southern government, but it was better for him than to leave the 



140 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

andon his stock and he continued to act in that capacity 
until the i - of the Civil war. Vbout that time he disposed of the 
rs - and cattle which he had remaining and turned his attention to 
merchandise. 

\\ hen the Mate issued an order for holding the elections in order 
n> vote upon the subject of secession Mr. Sumpter and three other Union 
oined forces and went into the battle and successfully carried the 
for the Union, but later when the war was fully on a company 
.•I" Confederates went to Brackett, where they encamped, while the cap- 
of tlie compan) selected a few of the best men and came to Eagle 
PasS to kill the four Union men. They came in a hack with the inten- 
of getting their victims under the influence of liquor and then dis- 
:' them. They succeeded in their plan in getting two of the men 
drinking, while the other two were sober. The captain shot Alex- 
ander ( (swell and killed him. Finding that this aw r akened great op- 
sition he and his party left the district. Within a short time a dozen 
men were in the saddle ready to start in pursuit of the captain, but Jesse 
Sumpter, level headed, called a halt. The men rebelled and were deter- 
lined t<» go but Mr. Sumpter argued that should they follow and kill 
the captain the entire regiment would be brought down, would burn 
tlie town and kill the inhabitants. It was seen that his insight and under- 
standing of the situation were correct. The plan was abandoned and 
the captain was allowed to return to his camp. 

In th«»se days a saloon man who was sober and trustworthy was the 
influential citizen of the county and Mr. Sumpter was found tried and 
true, lie displayed marked ability in managing the worst men that 
med over the country and he saved man}- a man's life in those days 
in his saloon by the influence which he exerted. He felt that he never 
had occasion to demand the life of another and at all times he was fear- 
and brave, so that he commanded the respect of the highwaymen 
and law-abiding citizens as well. 

After the close of the Civil war Mr. Sumpter saved what he could 

from the wreck of his fortunes and began merchandising, in which he 

continued successfully until 1871, when the county was organized and 

was made high sheriff, in which capacity he continued until 1876. 

IK- had closc-d nut his mercantile interests for cash and used the money 

arry on the campaign. He had to take scrip for his pay, which was 

worth only ten cents on the dollar, and thus he was left almost penniless. 

lb- traded, however, for some property at Uvalde and, moving there, 

remained for a vear. after which he returned to Eagle Pass, where he 

continued. Later, on the construction of the railroad into 

Mexico, he was employed with the surveyors and continued with them 

a- far as Monclova, .Mexico, to look after their commissary and to buy 

keep provisions, hollowing his return home he bought the King 

.her saloon, which he conducted for two years and then closed out. 

lb- was afterward employed in other ways and in 1894 he became custom 

inspector for Eagle Pass, which position he has since filled. During 

these years the town across the river in Mexico, an old place called Diaz, 

ha- L. r p.wn to a city of twenty thousand inhabitants and a substantial 

iron bridge ha- been built between the two places. Mr. Sumpter has 



HISTORY OE SOUTHWEST TEXAS 141 

witnessed the development of both towns and is thoroughly familiar 
with all of the exciting events which have constituted an important factor 
in its history. He has lived to see the hostile Indian and the outlaw 
give away before the advance of the law-abiding citizen and at all times 
he has stood for law and order. He is widely known throughout South- 
western Texas and Mexico as Uncle Jesse and commands the respect 
of all who know him. 

Mr. Sumpter was first married, in 1859, to Miss Refugia Ramiris 
and to them were born two children : William, who is now quarantine 
inspector at Eagle Pass; and Louisa, the wife of J. M. Zapato, who is 
storekeeper and commissary at the India ranch. In 1872 Mr. Sumpter 
wedded Miss Virginia Ramiris, who was born in Mexico in 1846. Her 
father died during her infancy and the mother afterward removed to 
San Antonio, where the daughter was reared and educated, pursuing her 
studies in a convent, where she remained until twenty-two years of age. 
In the meantime her mother had married again and her stepfather had 
removed to Eagle Pass, where Virginia formed the acquaintance of Mr. 
Sumpter, later becoming his wife. 

Frank O. Skidmore, a capitalist, who in former years was exten- 
sively engaged with the live-stock interests of Texas, and wdio is now 
the owner of large landed interests in the state, makes his home in San 
Antonio. He was born in Virginia, in 1849, and is a son of Samuel C. 
and Elizabeth E. (Keyser) Skidmore, who were likewise natives of the 
Old Dominion. In the paternal line he comes of a family of prominent 
and wealthy planters of the valle)/ of Virginia. His father brought his 
family to Texas in 1853, landing at Indianola and making settlement in 
San Patricio county, with the pioneer development of which he- took an 
active and helpful part, serving as sheriff of the county at the time of the 
outbreak of the Civil war. He then organized a company and entered 
the Confederate army, being attached to Bushell's regiment, serving 
mostly in this state and Louisiana. After the conclusion of hostilities he 
established his home in Oakville, Live Oak county, where he spent his 
remaining days, his death occurring in 1883. He was a prominent 
pioneer and cattleman at an early period and became a man of affluence 
and of prominence throughout .this portion of the country. His wife 
died at Corpus Christi in 189 1. 

Frank O. Skidmore spent the days of his boyhood and youth in San 
Patricio and adjoining counties, having been only about four years of 
age when the family came to Texas. By the time he was eight years 
old he was proficient enough in the saddle to make a good cow man. 
His youth and early manhood were spent entirely on the great open 
range, extending throughout Southwestern Texas to the Rio Grande 
and on the trail to the north — days that were fraught with excitement 
and danger and the typical frontier life of the period that forms such 
a thrilling and romantic feature of the history of the southwest. School 
privileges were limited, yet, notwithstanding this, Mr. Skidmore man- 
aged to acquire a good education, principally at the college in Goliad. 
After reaching earlv manhood he embarked in business on his own ac- 
count, making his headquarters near Rockport in what was then San 
Patricio but has since been formed into the county of Aransas. Later 



i 4 j HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

.1 to Bee county, where he lived for twenty years, during 
whicl tme known as the most prominent representative of 

the cattle and horse raising interests in that locality and at one time was 

the man in" the county. In 1S70 he delivered a bunch of ten 

m one trade to parties in Bexar county, and his oper- 
iys included many deliveries <,)\ similar magnitude, lie 

Wire Fences. 

' the first stockmen in Texas to adopt the wire fence and his 

in that direction was in 1S77. when he fenced thirty-five 

thousand acres ^\ his lands in Bee, San Patricio and Live Oak counties. 

llv watched the interest oi his business, planned for its advance 

gi wing lines and by his capable management, keen discernment 

unflagging enterprise gained a foremost place in the ranks of the 

rs of the state and became a capitalist of Texas. 

Town of Skidmore. 

main years Mr. Skidmore owned extensive land interests in Bee 
my. and when the San Antonio & Aransas Pass Railroad w r as built 
►ugh the county (about 1885) the town of Skidmore, located on his 
land, was named in his honor. This is the center of one of the richest 
al regions in Southwest Texas and has splendid natural re- 
sources and advantages which have already been improved to a great 
nt and which in future years will yield a splendid living to its resi- 
dent-, enabling many to gain fortunes through the improvement of its 
advantages. Desirous that his children should have better educational 
rtunities Mr. Skidmore decided to leave the frontier and removed 
Antonio, where he has made his home for the past four years, al- 
though he -till retains his business interests at Skidmore. He has an 
office in San Antonio in the Mahncke Hotel Building for the transaction 
land and real estate business conducted under the firm name of the 
ith Tea alty Company, his sons being associated with him in this 

They deal extensively in lands in Southwest Texas and 
Mexico and are taking a prominent part in promoting the settlement and 
great development of Southwest Texas. Mr. Skidmore also has 
lining interests in the states of Sonora, Coahuila and Oaxaca. 
:ord of his life is a typical story of the pioneer days and the later 
.vth and development of Southwest Texas, and in fact his name is 
onnected with its history and his labors and efforts have 
:hing and beneficial to the state. 
Mr. Skidmore was married at Kockport to Miss Carrie W. Dixon, 
have nine children: R. ( )., ( '. II., Mrs. Martha Hunter, Mrs. 
McKinney, Samuel ( '., G. 1).. Mrs. Lillie Ellis, Frank (). and 
Mai 

'ii almosl trite to those familiar with his history to say that 
e has advanced from a comparatively humble financial posi- 
ion to rank among the capitalists of the state, but it is just to say in a 
vill descend to future generations that he has made a rec- 
ord which any man might be proud to possess, lie has steadily climbed 
ladder - and each upward step has gained him a brighter 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 143 

future and wider scope for his activity and energy — his dominant qual- 
ities. His business life has closely adhered to a high standard of bi 
ness ethics and the extent and magnitude of his operations have indi- 
cated his splendid business capacity and executive force. 

Comal County. 

Joseph Landa. Comal county, and more especially the beautiful 
and thriving town of New Braunfels, is peculiarly fortunate in having 
been settled by a class of intelligent, enterprising men who came here 
from Germany, the land of thrifty habits, and from the first were identi- 
fied with the interests and progress of this part of Texas. Bringing with 
them their capital and their families, the latter far exceeding the former 
in every respect, they have formed the bone and sinew which has stead- 
ily pushed the car of progress onward, rendering this section of the 
country one of the most attractive and prosperous garden spots of 
Texas. First and foremost among the men of enterprise and ability who 
contributed so largely towards raising this town from a small trading 
village to its present enviable condition as the metropolis of a rich 
agricultural region, with varied manufacturing and other interests, and 
the loveliest and most noted pleasure park of the Southwest, was the late 
Joseph Landa, who arrived here in time to assist in the building up of 
the town, and was a dominant force in promoting its development and 
rapid growth. As a man of influence, public spirit and generosity, a brief 
record of his life will doubtless be interesting to those who are in any 
way associated with the industrial or business interests of one of the lead- 
ing cities of Texas. 

A native of Prussia, he was born, February 7, 1810, near Kempen, 
a village lying not far from the noted city of Breslau, this being, like- 
wise, the birthplace of his parents, Jacob David and Rachel Landa, who 
spent their entire lives in that locality. The father was a farmer and 
dairyman, and a much respected member of the community in which he 
resided. Of the six children reared by the parents, but two came to this 
country, namely : Morris, who lived for a number of years both in Eng- 
land and in Australia, spent his last days in San Francisco, Cal., and 
Joseph, the special subject of this sketch. 

With ambitions far beyond those of the ordinary boy, Joseph Landa 
early decided, when the proper time came, to seek his fortune in a newer 
country, where there were more favorable opportunities for acquiring a 
fair share of this world's goods. With this object in view, he started for 
America almost as soon as his school days were over, and for a few 
years after his arrival in the United States resided either in Mississippi 
or Louisiana. Not finding exactly the conditions suited to his tastes in 
either of those states, Mr. Landa migrated to Texas in 1845, locating 
first in San Antonio, then a frontier village containing but three or four 
stores. Embarking in mercantile pursuits, he established a good busi- 
ness, people coming there to trade from miles away, that being the 
market for many of the small settlements round about. Wishing to en- 
large his field of operations, Mr. Landa, who was a man of keen fore- 
sight and discriminating judgment, left his San Antonio store in charge 
of a trusted clerk, and came to New Braunfels to open a store in this 



144 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

ge, and for a while thereafter successfully managed both estab- 
lishments, carrying on a large and thriving business in general mer- 
chan - Fortune smiled upon his every venture, and as his money 
accumulated he wisely invested in lands, and by the purchasing of land 
located over thim thousand acres of land in different parts 
the state. 
A large tract of land lying along the headwaters of the Comal river 
then belonged to Col. Meriwether, a pioneer settler of wealth, who had 
:ed a small mill on his plantation. The Colonel and his young wife 
spend the winter seasons at New Braunfels, but when summer 
approached would visit other scenes. While crossing the Gulf on one 
f their annual trips, the boat foundered, and the lives of the passengers 
imperiled. In their stateroom was but one life preserver, atid. 
that one Mi's. Meriwether fastened to the Colonel, and she clung to him. 
x.tli being saved. She, however, declared that she never again would 
me t" Texas, so Col. Meriwether, desirous of selling' out all of his 
perty interests in this section besought Air. Landa to become the pur- 
After thinking the matter over, Mr. Landa, foreseeing- the rich 
• ssibilities in store for the owner, bought all of the land on the Comal, 
including the spring, paying but part of the money down. When the bal- 
ance of the payment was due. he had it reach', but as the Civil war had 
broken out he was afraid to send it, and was obliged to guard that 
intire amount of good money during the whole time of the conflict. 

\s the years passed by, Mr. Landa made frequent acquisitions to 

landed property, buying abutting lands along the river, securing" all 

irian rights, and each season added improvements of value to his 

estate and t<> the mill plant. By wise investments, he acquired title to 

ul five thousand acres of choice land, two miles of which front on 

the Guadalupe, and two on the Comal, a part of which, lying within the 

its of New Braunfels, is the home of the great manufacturing plants, 

in which he took great pride and pleasure. The first grist mill and cotton 

gin was washed away, but was soon replaced by a large flour mill, which 

- erected by him in 1875, and furnished with the old-time burr stone. 

This he operated successfully until 1890, when, feeling the burden of 

increasing years, he retired from the active supervision of his many inter- 

. giving the management of them to his son Harry, who has still con- 

of this v ast estate. Thenceforward Mr. Landa lived retired, enjoying 

the fruits of his earlier labors, until his death, August 19, 1896, at a 

nerable agre. 

( m October 8. [851, Mr. Landa married Helena Friedlander, who 
■> born at Kempen, Prussia, a daughter of Solomon and Paulina Fried- 
lander. In [840, accompanied by his family, Mr. Friedlander moved to 
Manchester, England, and after residing there three vears came across 
< < an to the United States, bringing with him his wife and three 
children. Locating- in Albany, N. Y., he conducted a jewelry store there 
for a few year-, and then removed to Saratoga, N. Y.. where he was 
engaged in business a- a real estate dealer until his death. Mrs. Fried- 
lander subsequently went to New York city, where she spent the remain- 
der of her life. Mr. and Mrs. Landa became the parents of seven chil- 
dren, namely: Fannie, Hannah, Rachel, fssy, Morris, Harry, and Sarah. 



HISTORY QF SOUTHWEST TEXAS J45 

Fannie married McDowell K. Price, and they have two children, Vir- 
ginia and Larkin F. Hannah, wife of W. K. Storey, has two children, 
Frances and Russell. Rachel married Mr. Abraham, and has three chil- 
dren, Solomon, Joseph, and Landa. Jssy is engaged in the grain busi- 
ness, real estate business, and banking - at Kansas City, Mo. Morris died 
in 1896. Harry lives at home, and with his mother manages the estate. 
He is also president of the American Bank and Trust Co. of San Antonio. 
Sarah, wife of Harry Wise, has one child, Harry. 

At his death Mr. Landa left his entire estate intact in the name of 
his wife, through whose assistance, counsel, and wise advice, he was en- 
abled to acquire such vast property. A woman of strong individuality 
and great force of character, Mrs. Landa is domestic in her tastes, taking 
great pleasure in the management of her home, and is an expert busi- 
ness woman, possessing recognized executive and financial ability. Intel- 
ligent, capable, broadly philanthropic as well as practical, she has been a 
wise and judicious counsellor of her son Harry, who for a number of 
years has had the general supervision of the parental estate, and of the 
various industries thereon established. Among these may be mentioned 
the Landa Roller Mills, the Cotton Oil Factory, the Electric Light and 
Power Plant, the ice plant, the magnificent stock farm, and the irrigated 
gardens. The main building of the flour mills is five stories in height, 
made from material quarried on the place, and well equipped with all of 
the latest approved machinery, Mr. Harry Landa having spared neither 
time nor expense in his efforts to reduce the vast quantities of raw grain 
shipped to him from the states near by to a superior brand of meal or 
flour, which in its turn furnishes subsistence to many thousands of our 
people, the products of his mill being largely sold in the home markets. 
Near the flour mill, and operated by the same power, is a commodious 
structure in which ice is made, the process of freezing being by 
ammonia, which evaporates rapidly, and is a cheap factor in ice making, 
as, by the use of a condenser, it is easily converted back to a liquid form 
for further use. Connected with this factory are three large cold-storage 
rooms, and in the plant is the pump that supplies the factory with water, 
and likewise the tank used for fire protection on the Landa estate. There 
is also a cooper's shop, in which the barrel heads, hoops and staves, 
shipped from the lumber mills, are put together. On the opposite side 
of the race basin is the cotton oil plant, consisting of the mill, the hull 
and seed houses, warehouses, tank house, and superintendent's office, all 
of which are substantially constructed buildings, and well equipped for 
the purposes for which they were made. 

Herds of thoroughbred cattle are found on the home ranch, which 
consists of about five thousand acres of fine land, the stock being mostly 
Red Polls or Short-horns, of the best registered breeds. In the breeding 
and raising of stock, Mr. Harry Landa has met with brilliant success, the 
rich oil meal, and the hulls from the cotton seed being the best of fodder 
for these highly pedigreed cattle. On the irrigated tracts of the ranch 
Mr. Landa is successfully raising vegetables of all kinds, his venture in 
this line resulting in harvests far richer than he had ever dared hope, 
beans, beets, onions, cabbage, cucumbers and cauliflower growing luxur- 
iantly, while just across the Comal is a farm of one hundred acres irri- 

Vol. 11. 10 



146 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

i l>\ .i s stem of flumes and ditches on which are raised large crops 

- rghum and alfalfa, staple farm products. 

The pride of the estate, however, is Landa Park, a beautifully laid 

out - n, containing about one hundred acres, which is devoted to rac- 

sh \\ track-, and to athletic sports. Aside from its natural beau- 

is traversed by shady walks and drives, while purling brooks, 

rippling streams, and crystal springs, all surrounded by the various colors 

oi veg sofl greens, blues, browns, and violets predominating, add 

the witching charms i^\ this picturesque spot. Everything that can 

add to the attractiveness of this park is eagerly sought by Mr. Landa and 

s mother, and even now its beauties are not surpassed in our beautiful 

America, or in those much-visited countries across the sea. It is worthy 

se who have seen the famous resorts, parks, and public 

place- of interest at home and abroad, and will, indeed, remain for cen- 

ries to come a monument to its founder, Joseph Landa, and a reminder 

Future generations of the enterprise, energy and wise management of 

Mr. 1 .anda's wife and son. 

George Knoke. A man of sterling integrity, excellent judgment, 
and oi much financial ability, George Knoke occupies an assured posi- 
tion among the representative citizens of New Braunfels, and for many 
years has been prominently associated with the leading interests of this 
part of Comal county. A native of Germany, he was born, January 10, 
1854, in Goettingen, Hanover, which was the birthplace, likewise, of 
his father. George Knoke, Sr., and where his grandfather, Frederick 
Knoke, was a life-long resident- 

I laving acquired a good education in the public schools, George 
Knoke, Sr., left the fatherland, going to Paris, where after serving an 
apprenticeship at the tailor's trade he remained as a journeyman worker 
for ab<>ut ten years. Returning then to Goettingen, he established him- 
self in business as a merchant tailor, and was thus successfully employed 
for many years, having an extensive patronage. He subsequently lived 
retired until his death, at the venerable age of eighty-three years. His 
wife, whose maiden name was Mathilde ScherfT, was born in Goettingen, 
Hanover, and there died when but twenty-seven years of age. Of the 
children born of their union, but two are living, namely: Theodore, 
d in mercantile business at Hamburg; and George, the special 
subject of this sketch. 

Drought tip in his native city, George Knoke received his educa- 
in the Goettingen Gymnasium, and having won a good record as 
tudent was given a certificate limiting his service in the army to one 
In 1 £70, without entering the army, he emigrated to the United 
States, coming directly to New Lraunfels, and for seventeen years there- 
employed as a clerk by his uncle, Ernest ScherfT, who was 
one of the pioneer merchants of this place. In T887, Mr. Knoke, who 
had become thoroughlv acquainted with the details connected with the 
mar it of a mercantile establishment, formed a partnership with 

Eiband, and as senior member of the firm of Knoke & Eiband 
led to the business of his uncle, and is still conducting it. This 
known firm carrv a large stock of choice groceries and general 
merchandise and are the most successful cotton merchants in this sec- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS j 47 

tion. Enterprising and progressive, Mr. Knoke is also identified with 
various other projects requiring capital, being financially interested with 
Frederick Reinarz in cotton gins ; having stock in the First National 
Bank of New Braunfels, and in the Citizens' National Bank at Ballin- 
ger; and being associated with Hon. Joseph Faust, John Marbach, ii. D. 
Greene, and others, in the real estate business, owning thousands of 
acres of land in different parts of Texas. 

On July 20, 1887, Mr. Knoke married Emilie Floege, who was born 
in New Braunfels, a daughter of Charles and Louise ( Weinert) Floege. 
Neither of the two children born to Mr. and Mrs. Knoke are living, 
both having died in infancy. Religiously Mr. Knoke and his wife attend 
the Lutheran church. 

William Seehatz. Coming across the broad Atlantic to Texas 
upwards of three-score years ago, William Seehatz became one of the 
pioneer settlers of New Braunfels, and is now one of the few survivors 
of the original householders of Comal county. His name has long 
been familiar to the people of this section as that of one of their most 
respected and valued citizens, and it is with pleasure that we are enabled 
to place a brief review of his life before our readers. A son of Johann 
Seehatz, he was born, October 1, 1825, in Nassau, Germany, the early 
home of his ancesters on both sides of the house. 

Born and reared in Nassau, Johann Seehatz learned the baker's 
trade when young, serving a long apprenticeship. Subsequently enter- 
ing the German army, he was in the thick of the fight at the famous 
battle at Waterloo, and for gallant conduct was presented by the Duke 
of Nassau with a silver medal, which is now in the possession of his 
son William. Emigrating to this country in 1853, he located at New 
Braunfels, and having opened a bakery was here actively employed until 
his death, in 1861. He married Katherine Gertrude Lick, who spent 
her entire life in Nassau, dying there in 1840. She bore him three 
children, namely: William, the subject of this sketch; Gustav, who 
came with his father to Texas, and died in New Braunfels ; and Juliana, 
who died in Germany. 

Having completed the required course of study in -the public schools 
of the fatherland, William Seehatz learned the baker's trade with his 
father, after which he served an apprenticeship with a butcher. In 
1845, with a natural wish to improve his finances, he emigrated to 
America, coining on a sailing vessel to Galveston, and from there to 
Indianola by boat, thence overland to New Braunfels, which was then 
but a frontier hamlet, with few settlers. Indians, buffalo, deer, and wild 
animals of all kinds roamed unrestrained over the country, and the peo- 
ple lived chiefly on corn meal and the fruits of the chase. There were 
no grist mills in this section at that time, and the corn was ground in 
mills that were fastened to the trees in different places, and operated 
by hand. Mr. Seehatz was engaged in mercantile pursuits for a few 
years, but during the war manufactured salt petre for the Confederate 
Government. At the close of the conflict, he was for a time employed 
in butchering, but subsequently kept a fruit and confectionery store 
until his retirement from active pursuits. 

In 1846, Mr. Seehatz married Susanna Young, who was born in 



i 4 S HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Nassau, Germany, a daughter of Jacob and Eliza Young, She died 
in 1873 ing seven children. 

GUST Tollr Prominent among the honored pioneers of Comal 
county is August Tolle, who has been a resident of New Brannfels for 
ty-two years, and for upwards oi half a century has been actively 
identified with its business interests. Coming here a beardless boy, 
he has witnessed with pride the wonderful changes that have since 
transpired, and has well performed his part towards promoting the 

\th and prosperity oi this part of the country. Like many of the 
city's most enterprising and thrifty citizens, he was born in Germany, his 
birth occurring August 10. [829. 

Frederick Tolle, Mr. Tolle's father, was for many years engaged 
in business as a tanner in Germany, his native land, living there until 
1845. I' 1 tnat y ear i hearing glowing reports of the fortunes waiting 
the working men oi America, he sold his tannery, and with his wife and 
children came to Texas, hoping here to find a home more suited to his 
Arriving at Galveston, he came from there to Comal county 
witli ox teams, traveling for fourteen days through a wild, unsettled 
country, some days not seeing a dwelling of any description. Reach- 
ing New Braunfels, which was a small frontier hamlet but recently 
tied by a few Germans, he bought a tract of land lying two miles 
from the present site of the village, he began clearing a farm, and 
soon afterwards started a tannery, which in connection with farming he 
rated for a number of years. Being then succeeded in business 
by his eldest son, he moved to town, and subsequently lived retired 
until his death, at the age of eighty-five years. His wife, whose maiden 
name was Helena Moikenroth, died at about the same age. They 
reared a family of six children, namely: Sophie, Christoph, iVugust, 
Fritz. Harry, and Augusta. 

At the age of seventeen years, having obtained a practical common 
=chool education, August Tolle came with his parents to Texas, and 
for awhile after his arrival assisted his father on the homestead and 
in the tannery. He subsequently began life on his own account as 
clerk in drug store, and a few years later, having acquired a good 
knowledge of drugs and their uses, he, in partnership with his brother- 
in-law. Dr. Keuster, embarked in the drug business, and continued thus 

ciated until the death of the Doctor. Since that time, Mr. Tolle has 

lucted the business alone, in his operations meeting with well mer- 
I success. 

Tn 1862 Mr. Tolle married Caroline Messer, who was born, bred 
and educated in Germane, and when a young woman came to Texas 

• in a sister then living at San Antonio. The union of Mr. and 
Mr-. Tolle has been blessed bv the birth of five children, namely: Ida, 
Amelia. Clara, Theodore, and Alfred. Tda is the wife of George 
Starche. Amelia married Otto Scholl, bv whom he has one child, 
Stella. Theodore married FJla Henne, and thev have one child, Milton. 
Alfred married Emma Hambe. and they are the parents of three chil- 
dren. Lorine, Randolph, and Glarence. 

FREDERICK Reinarz. Propcrlv classed among the self-made men 
of ( omal county is Frederick Reinarz, who began his career at the 




Frederick Reinarz. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 149 

foot of the ladder of success, without other resources than his own in- 
domitable will, and those habits of industry and thrift that are charac- 
teristic of the German people. Toiling- with well directed energy, and 
using good judgment in the management of his affairs, he has risen 
from a humble position in life to that of one of the representative men 
of an intelligent community, and it is with feelings of pride and pleas- 
ure that he recalls the fact that he was a member of the enterprising 
colony that emigrated from Germany in 1845, an d settled in Xew 
Braunfels as pioneers of this place. A native of Germany, he was born, 
March 9, 1835, not far from the River Rhine, in the little town in 
which his father, Martez Reinarz, was also born. 

Having served an apprenticeship to a baker, Martez Reinarz fol- 
lowed his trade in his native land for a number of years. Being left 
a widower, he made up his mind to try his fortunes in a new country, 
and, accordingly, in 1845 joined the colony organized by Prince Solms- 
Braunfels, and with him came to America, being accompanied by his 
five motherless children. Settling with the party at what is now New 
Braunfels, he thereafter resided here with his oldest son until his death, 
in 1850. He had a family of five children, namely: Anna, William, 
Eleanora, Regina, and Frederick. The three oldest of these have passed 
to the life beyond. Regina married Edward Zimmerman, and is now 
living in Austin. 

Coming to Texas when ten years of age, Frederick Reinarz enjoyed 
the novelty of the long ocean voyage in the slowly moving sailing ves- 
sel, which landed its passengers in Galveston. From that place the 
colony sailed to Indianola, coming from there overland to New Braunfels, 
the route being through a sparsely inhabited country, and the, trip made 
with ox teams. Deer, buffalo, wild game of all kinds, and Indians were 
plentiful. Very little of the land was enclosed, and the very best tracts 
could be bought for twelve and one-half cents per acre. Beginning the 
battle of life for himself soon after coming here, Frederick Reinarz 
worked for his board and clothes for two years, after which he en- 
gaged in teaming from Port Lavaca and Indianola to Eagle Pass, a 
distance of two hundred and fifty miles, taking with him his provisions, 
and cooking and camping on the way, while the cattle fed in the open 
fields. He continued thus occupied a part of each year until 1861. 
During the time of the Civil war, Mr. Reinarz teamed cotton for the 
government, receiving his pay in Confederate money, which soon be- 
came worthless. At the close of the war, he settled on a farm which 
he had previously purchased at Solms, and there, in 1865, erected a 
cotton gin, which was operated bv horse power, and in connection with 
this was a wooden screw press. Two years later he replaced this press 
by one in which steel screws were used, and in 1882 he put in steam 
power. Succeeding well in his operations, Mr. Reinarz, with charac- 
teristic enterprise and forethought, bousfht a small cotton gin at New 
Braunfels, and two years later was doing business enough to warrant 
its enlargement. In 1896 Mr. Reinarz returned to New Braunfels, 
where he has since resided. In that year he purchased a farm of four 
hundred acres at Wetmore, Bexar county, and the following year there 
erected a gin, and this and the farm he still retains possession of. In 



ISO HISTORY OF SOI THWEST TEXAS 

x i he, in company with George Knoke, bought a block of land near 

international and Great X on horn Railroad station, and there erected 

-t of $30,000 one of the best equipped cotton gins in the state 

of i 1 xas, and in its management carried on a large and remunerative 

S ess, His agricultural and manufacturing operations have been ex- 

.ve. and almost uniformly successful, proving him to be a man of 

re than ordinary business ability and judgment, able to overcome 

all obstacles in his way. 

I In June 1 _\ 1859, Mr. Reinarz married Antoinette Schmidt, who 
3 born in Nassau, Germany, a daughter of Jacob and Eliza Schmidt, 
who were native- of the same city, and came to America with the Prince 
3-Braunfels colony in 1845. Of the union of Mr. and Mrs. Reinarz, 
eight children have been born, namely: Gustav, Adolf, Anna, Emma, 
Minnie. Bertha, and Alma. Gustav married Adela Ebert, and 
they have live children, Alvin, Eugene, Viola, Elmer, and Sida. Adolf 
married Anna Schanabel, and they both died, leaving two sons, Gilbert 
and Arno. Anna, wife of Albert Voigt, has four children, Irma, Mar- 
vin, Erwin and Verena. Emma is the wife of William Wohlfahrt. 
( >tt<> married Anna Ebert, and they have three children, Richard, Ber- 
thold, and a baby not named. Minnie is engaged in the millinery business 
at New Braunfels, and lives with her parents. Bertha, wife of Henry 
Koch, has two children, Laura and Norma. Alma married Rudolf 
Willmann, and they are the parents of four children, Leroy, Leola, 
Mabel and baby not named. 

Hippolyt Dittlinger. Conspicuously identified with the mercan- 
tile and manufacturing interests of New Braunfels is Hippolyt Ditt- 
linger, who is widely known in business circles as a man of undoubted 
enterprise, ability and integrity, and whose opinions are highly respected. 
A son of Nicholas Dittlinger, he was born, April 3, 1859, at Cape 
Girardeau, Mo., of honored German ancestry. 

A native of Germany, Nicholas Dittlinger was born in the Rhine 
province, near Trier, and was there bred and educated. He was talented 
and cultured, active in public life, and as an intimate friend of Carl 
Schurz joined the Revolutionists in P848, and in consequence was forced- 
to leave college- and seek refuge in some other country. Emigrating, 
therefore, to the United States, he settled at Cape Girardeau, Mo., 
where he soon established a successful business as a general merchant. 
He ngaged in the manufacture of lime to be used in sugar mak- 

ing, and at an exposition held in New Orleans was awarded the first 
prize for has product, which was extensively used at the sugar planta- 
- of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia. After the close 
of the war, his health being in a precarious condition, he resigned his 
- to his brother, and came to New Braunfels to recuperate. But 
change was not very beneficial, and he gradually failed until his 
th, in 1866. Returning to his native land for a visit in 1856, he mar- 
ried, at Cologne, Bertha Kellner, whom he brought to this country as a 
She survived him, and after his death returned to Cologne with 
her children, and there died in 1872. She reared three children, namely: 
Hippolyt, the subject of this sketch; Minna, who became a sister of 
charity, and died performing her duties to the end in Covington, in 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 151 

1881 ; and Anna, who came to Texas after the death of her mother, 
resided at New Braunfels ten years, after which she returned to Co- 
logne, where she now has charge of a home for young women employed 
in clerical work, or otherwise homeless. 

During the years that Hippolyt Dittlinger resided with his widowed 
mother in Cologne, he attended school, obtaining a practical education. 
In 1875 he came back to the United States, and in 1876 came to New 
Braunfels to visit the grave of his father. Deciding to remain in this 
locality, he secured a position as clerk in the store of Mr. E. ScherfT, 
with whom he continued two years, being afterwards similarly employed 
with Tips, Clemens & Faust for a short time. In 1881 Air. Dittlinger 
formed a copartnership with Mr. Faust, and established a mercantile 
business, dealing in hardware and farm implements and machinery un- 
der the firm name of Faust & Dittlinger until 1886, when the firm was 
consolidated with Faust & Co. In 1901 this firm was dissolved, and 
Mr. Dittlinger became sole proprietor of the flour mill and cotton gin, 
both of which he has since operated successfully. The mill is furnished 
with up-to-date machinery of all kinds, its equipments being modern in 
every respect, and has a capacity of two hundred and fifty barrels per 
day, the flour, which is of a superior brand, finding a ready market in 
Texas. At the present time, Mr. Dittlinger, with characteristic enter- 
prise, is preparing to manufacture lime, and will furnish the plant which 
he is erecting with the latest approved devices for making a first class 
product. 

Mr. Dittlinger married, in 1890, Elise Grob, who was born in 
Switzerland, which was the native home of her father, Bartholomew 
Grob. Mr. Grob was for many years a manufacturer of embroidery in 
Switzerland, living there until 187.5, when he emigrated to the United 
States, locating in Milwaukee, Wis., where he intended to establish 
an embroidery factory, but had scarcely began operations when, in 
1876, he died. Religiously Mr. and Mrs. Dittlinger are members of 
the Saints Peter and Paul Roman Catholic Church. 

Christoph Pfeuffer, a capitalist of San Antonio with large in- 
vested interests, was born in the kingdom of Bavaria, Germany, in 1841, 
and in 1845, when but four years of age, was brought to America 
by his parents, George and Barbara (Brochelle) PfeurTer, who settled in 
Texas, being among the first arrivals of the German colonists who set- 
tled the town of New Braunfels in Comal county, under the direction 
of Prince Solms. Mr. and Mrs. George PfeurTer were accompanied 
by their six children, four sons and two daughters. They suffered many 
hardships on the journey, particularlv from illness and after landing 
from the ship at Indianola, Texas, their troubles continued as they made 
their way through a rough and uninhabited country to the proposed new 
colony, which was later to take an important part in the subsequent 
history of this section of the state. The story of George Pfeuffer's life 
with its privations and dangers, its contentions with the Indians and 
scant opportunities for business advancement, would in itself constitute 
a large and most interesting volume if told in detail. He was made 
of stern material and before coming to America had accumulated a 
snug little fortune in the tannery business, and it was as a tanner that 



I ;j 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 



he laid the foundation for another fortune after he had established his 

home in the new world and had overcome the conditions of early pio- 
neer 1: \- the /ears passed by he added to his accumulations and 
at his death left a considerable estate. His entire life after coming to 
America was passed in New Braunfels, where for a long number of 
irs he was classed with the most prominent and prosperous citizens. 
He helped to build the first house in the town and contributed in many 
substantial ways to the improvement and development of the place, 
leaving the impress oi his individuality for good upon the public life. 
Fanning ami trading with Indians, buying their furs and shipping to 
the old country was his principal business. He died in 1883, while his 
wife, who was oi French ancestry, passed away in the earlier days of 
their residence in New Braunfels. 

lion, George Pfeuffer, the eldest son of George Sr., was fifteen 
-s of age at the time of the family's arrival in Texas. He was edu- 
cated in Germany, and following his return to Texas he embarked in 
merchandising at Corpus Christi. following that pursuit until the out- 
break of the Civil war, while subsequent to the period of hostilities he 
re-established the business at New Braunfels, where under the firm 
name oi George Pfeuffer & Brothers a large establishment was devel- 
oped and an extensive trade built up in the general mercantile line. Of 
this firm Christoph Pfeuffer was also a member. They were largely en- 
gaged in other business affairs in that county and section of the state 
in addition to general merchandising, holding extensive landed inter- 
1 sts and also carrying on farming and cattle raising. They built up a 
comfortable fortune in this way, carefullv managing varied business in- 
terests so that success resulted. George Pfeuffer, Jr., also became prom- 
inent in politics. His fellow citizens, recognizing his worth and ability, 
called him to the office of county judge of Comal county and elected 
him to represent his district in the lower house of the state legislature 
and also in the senate. His life was notable because of its business 
success and for its official prominence and he commanded high respect 
and regard wherever known. He died in New Braunfels in 1886 at the 

of fifty-six years. Valentine Pfeuffer, the second son of the family, 
died at New Braunfels in the latter part of 1904. Dan Pfeuffer, another 
son, served as a Confederate soldier throughout the Civil war, becom- 
ing'' a lieutenant under Captain Sayers and died at San Antonio in 1905. 
The two daughters of the family are Mary Pfeuffer and Mrs. Barbetta 
Cline, the former living in Gonzales, Texas; Mrs. Cline, who also made 
her home in Gonzales, died in that city. 

Christoph Pfeuffer acquired a good education and was reared to 
mercantile pursuits, becoming a member of the firm of George Pfeuffer 
& Brothers. As the years passed by thev extended their efforts from 
one line to another until their business affairs covered a wide range of 
activity and resulted in splendid success. In 1884, Mr. Pfeuffer re- 
moved to San Antonio, where he has since made his home. Having 
been very prosperous in business his financial resources were such that 
he could retire from active connection with trade or commercial inter- 
ests and devote his time to the supervision of his propertv and invest- 
ment-. For a long period of years he owned a fine ranch twenty-five 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 153 

miles north of San Antonio, on which he raised racing and other fine 
stock. 

Mr. Pfeuffer was married in New Braunfels in 1882 to Miss Bettie 
Pasel. They have a beautiful home in San Antonio at No. 133 Cedar 
street with large and attractive flower and vegetable gardens extending 
to the corner of Pereida street. The furnishings of the home are ail 
that wealth can secure and refined taste suggest and the social func- 
tions here held are among the most attractive of the city. 

John Marbach. The thriving city of New Braunfels has a full 
quota of live, energetic, and persevering business men, prominent among 
whom is John Marbach, an extensive real estate dealer, and one of the 
leading men of this section of Comal county. Coming from substantial 
German ancestry, he was born November 30, 1845, in the Rhine Province, 
Germany, which was also the place of birth of his father, John Joseph 
Marbach. 

After attaining man's estate, John J. Marbach was for a number of 
years employed as a road builder in the fatherland. Wishing, however, 
to better his financial condition, he emigrated to the United States in 1853. 
coming on a sailing vessel from Bremerhafen to Galveston, being on the 
ocean thirteen weeks. From there to Indianola he went by water, and 
then continued his journey by team to Comal county. After remaining 
here two months, he proceeded to Austin, where he resided three years, 
but never quite contentedly. Returning therefore to this county, he 
purchased a tract of wild land lying about eleven miles from New 
Braunfels, and having erected a frame house immediately began the im- 
provement of his estate, and on the farm which he cleared he lived and 
labored until his death, in 1885, at the good old age of seventy-seven years. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Mary Eikel, was born, reared and 
married in Germany. She survived him ten years, dving in 1895, at the 
age of eighty-seven years. They reared three children, all of whom 
were born in the fatherland, namely : Stephen, Andrew, and John. Stephen 
served in the Civil war as orderly sergeant of Captain Hoffman's com- 
pany, which was attached to Sibley's brigade, and was killed in the battle 
of Glorieta. Andrew was for many years actively engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits, but is now a resident of New Braunfels. 

Although but seven years old when he came across the Atlantic 
with his parents, John Marbach has a vivid recollection of many of the 
incidents of the long trip by water and land, and of the wild, roueh 
country which he found on coming here, through which wild animals 
and the savage redskins roamed at large. He received his elementary 
education in the pioneer schools of Selma, completing his early studies 
at St. Mary's College, in San Antonio*. He subsequently began life as a 
cattle trader, and in his transactions in this line made a good start in life. 
On the death of his father, Mr. Marbach and his brother Andrew suc- 
ceeded to the ownership of the parental homestead, and his share he sold 
to said brother in 1896. Buying then a farm lving on the line between 
Bexar and Comal counties, Mr. Marbach was there engaged in agricul- 
tural pursuits until 1901, when he removed to his present home in New 
Braunfels. Although giving up active farming at that time, he has been 
greatly interested in other enterprises, and at the present time is asso- 



154 HIS Tom OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

ted with Hon. Joseph Faust. 11. D. Greene and George Knoke in the 
real estate business. These gentlemen arc operating extensively through* 
out this section of Texas, buying large tracts of land, which they sub- 
divide, and sell to actual settlers, and while financially benefiting them- 
- are also doing much towards developing and building up the coun- 
try roundabout. Mr. Marbach is likewise profitably engaged in the 
bat guano business, at the present time owning and operating two caves, 
one in Comal county, and one in Uvalde county. 

Mr. Marbach married, in 1873. Minna Meurin, who was born in 

idalupe county, Tex., where her father, J. P. Meurin, located on 

grating to this state from Thier, Germany. Of the union of Mr. and 
Mrs. Marbach eight children have been born, namely: Ida, Robert, Paul, 

ira, Walter. Tony. Emma, and Annie. Ida married Adolf Haag. 
Robert married Huldah Epple, by whom he has three children. Paul 
married Dorothea Strolcke, and they have four sons. Laura, the wife 
of William Bremer, has one child. Tony married Louis Brunne, and 
they have one child. Politically Mr. Marbach has always been a loyal 
supporter oi the principles of the Republican party, and has served his 

w citizens in many offices of importance. In 1875 he was elected 
justice of the peace for Precinct No. 2, and served three years; for six- 
teen years he was county commissioner; and for four years he filled the 
"•trice oi county judge most acceptably. 

( KrTO Heilig. Many of the most enterprising and substantial citizens 
of Comal county are of German birth, among those of prominence being* 
< *tto Heilig, well known as postmaster at New Braunfels. A son of 
1 'r< »f. Ferdinand J. Heilig, he was born November 8, 1852, in Germany, 
the descendant of a family of some importance in the fatherland. 

A native of Germany, Prof. Ferdinand J. Heilig received an excel- 
lent education, and chose teaching as his profession. Having taught 
school in different places in his native country, he was ambitious to try 
life in the new world, and in i860, accompanied by his wife and their 
four children, he sailed from Bremen, and after an ocean voyage of nine 
weeks landed in New ( Means. From there he proceeded by boat to 
Galveston, where he secured passage on a prairie schooner, which was 
equipped with a camping outfit so that the passengers could cook and 
cam]) en route. On Christmas eve, he and the entire party camped 
within sight of Victoria, and a w r eek later, on New Year's eve, were 
in Xew Braunfels. Two months later the professor moved with his 
family to the settlement just across the river, where his brother-in-law 
I, and there, under the instruction of Rev. Mr. Kipper, studied until 

had mastered the English language. Resuming then his professional 

labors, he taught at Spring I 'ranch and other places until 1865, when he 

rv<\ a position at Xew Braunfels, where he remained as a teacher for 

tity-eight years, a period of time that bespeaks his popularity and 
efficien< an instructor, and his influence as a man. Ide was indeed 

honored and respected during his life, and his death, which occurred 
March [, [903, was a loss to the community in which he had so long 
led. His wife, whose maiden name was U. F. Habermann, survived 
him, and is still a resident of Xew Braunfels. She bore him nine children 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 



DD 



that grew to years of maturity, four of whom were born in Germany, 
and the others in Texas. 

Eight years old when he came with his parents to this country, Otto 
Heilig attended school very regularly for a time, and being studious and 
eager to learn acquired a substantial knowledge of the common branches 
taught in the public schools. Leaving school when about thirteen years 
old, he worked in a cotton mill for a year, after which he served an 
apprenticeship of three years at the cabinet maker's and carpenter's trade. 
Going then to Austin, he worked at his trade two years, after which he 
continued his chosen occupation in New Braunfels until 1882. From 
that time until 1899 he conducted a saloon in this city. Being then 
appointed postmaster at New Braunfels by President McKinley, he has 
since filled this responsible position most ably and acceptably, at the 
expiration of his first term in 1903, being reappointed to the same office 
by President Roosevelt. 

Mr. Heilig has been twice married. He married first, in 1874. 
Margarethe Reszczynski, who was born in New Braunfels, a daughter 
of Alexander Reszczynski. She died, leaving three children, namely : 
Alexandra, Melanie, deceased, and Wanda. Mr. Heilig married, second, 
Mathilda Forke, a daughter of J. L. Forke, and of this union four chil- 
dren have been born, namely : Victor, Norma, Marcella, and Werner. 
Politically Mr. Heilig cast his first presidential vote for Rutherford B. 
Hayes, and has since been a stanch supporter of the principles of the Re- 
publican party. Fraternally he is a member of the Independent Order of 
Odd Fellows, of the Knights of Honor, of the Praetorians, of the Wood- 
men of the World, and of the New Braunfels Mutual Aid Society. 

Charles A. Jahn. In the development and advancement of the 
public interests of New Braunfels there is no more important factor than 
Charles A. Jahn, who for nearly ten years has been at the head of the 
government of this municipality, filling the mayor's chair with ability and 
fidelity. Intelligent, enterprising and industrious, he is known as an 
excellent business manager, and is universally honored and respected as 
a man and a citizen. He is a native of this city, his birth occurring 
August 12, 185 1. His father, John Jahn, was born June 12, 1816, in 
Barth, near Stralsund, Prussia, a son of William Jahn, who as a soldier 
in the Prussian army died in service. 

Having learned the trade of a cabinet maker while serving an appren- 
ticeship of five years, John Jahn subsequently worked as a journeyman 
in Prussia for many years. In 1845 ^ e came on a sailing vessel to Texas, 
landing at Galveston after a long voyage. From there he went by boat 
to Indianola, thence by mule team to what is now Comal county, where 
he arrived a stranger in a strange country. The inhabitants were then 
few and far between, and notwithstanding that the best land in South- 
western Texas could be purchased for twenty-five cents an acre he was 
unable to buy even a small tract, his only assets being ten cents. Deer 
could be seen at any time, and occasionally a buffalo made its appear- 
ance. Locating in New Braunfels, he assisted the early pioneers in 
building their log cabins, and when there came a demand for furniture 
he resumed the trade which he had learned in the fatherland. Begin- 
ning in a very modest way, he gradually enlarged his operations, and in 



[56 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

course of time employed two men to help him. In [866 his business 
warranted him in sending to Now York for his first order for furni- 
ture, and this was shipped to [ndianola, and from there brought with 
ns to his New Braunfels store, which occupied the site in which 
the business that he established is now conducted by his heirs. He wen 
a substantia] trade, and continued successfully employed as a furniture 
dealer until his death, June 1 -\ [883. He married Anna Klein, who 
was born at Hattenheim, on the Rhine, November 18, 1818, and they 
reared two children, namely: Charles A., the special subject of this brief 
sketch, and Emma, 

1 laving received a practical education in the public schools o>f New 
Braunfels, Charles A. Jahn commenced as a young man to assist his 
father in the management cf his affairs, becoming thoroughly acquainted 
with the details i)\ the business. At his father's death, he and his sister 
succeeded to the ownership of the entire business, and have since con- 
ducted it with a wisdom that has brought good success. Mr. Jahn has 
ever taken a genuine interest in all matters pertaining to the general 
welfare (^ the public, and has served the city most efficiently in an 
official way. As one of the leading Democrats of the city, he was first 
elected alderman in 1880, and after serving for a number of years in 
that capacity was elected mayor of the city, and has since been re- 
elected to this high position four times, and is now serving his fifth 
term of two years each. 

In 1886 Mr. Jahn married Emma Holtz, who was born in New 
Braunfels, a daughter of Christian H. and Georgiana (Conring) Holtz, 
natives of Germany. The union of Mr. and Mrs. Jahn has been blessed 
by the birth of eight children, namely: Anna, Rudolph, Nellie, Paul, 
Benjamin, Georgiana, Johanna, and Harriet. Religiously Mr. Jahn is 
a Catholic, and Mrs. Jahn is a Protestant. 

Gus Reininger. An active enterprising citizen of New Braunfels, 
and a man of ability and worth, Gus Reininger is rendering good service. 
a- county assessor of Comal county, performing the duties devolving 
upon him in this capacity to the satisfaction of all concerned. The 
descendant of a pioneer family of prominence, he was born January 19,. 
[863, in Comal county, a son of John George Reininger. 

Mr. Reininger's paternal grandfather, John Reininger, was born 
in Nassau, Rhine province, Germany, and during his earlier life was 
there employed as a tiller of the soil. Coming with his family to Amer- 
ica in 1846. he located as a pioneer in Comal county, about four miles 
southwest of New I braunfels, where he purchased a few acres of land, 
an 1 resumed the occupation to which he was reared. There were then 
no railways in the state, and as the farmer had but little to sell he earned 
what ready money he had by teaming, taking his oxen when not busy 
working the land, and going to Port Lavaca for a load of freight, which 
he would take cither to San Antonio, Kredericksburg, or New Braunfels. 
The country through which he passed in making these trips was very 
sparsely populated, while fleer, bear and other wild game was abundant, 
and mally a herd of buffalo might be seen. He was a fine musician, 

and the clarinet which he played is still preserved by his descendants. 
He was a successful farmer, and resided on his homestead until his death 




& ^>z £^^A 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 157 

at a ripe old age. Two of his brothers, Henry Reihinger and George 
Reininger, came to Texas, and were pioneer settlers of Comal county. 

Born in Nassau, Germany, John George Reininger went as a young 
child to live with his uncle, Peter Horme, with whom, in 1845, nc cm i~ 
grated to Texas, coming to New Braunfels with the Germany colony 
conducted by Prince Solms. He was then seven years old, and now has 
the distinction of being one of the very few survivors of that early 
colony. He was brought up about four miles southwest of New Braun- 
fels, on the farm which his uncle purchased on coming here, and having 
succeeded to its ownership on the death of Mr. Horme, was there engaged 
in agricultural pursuits until 1892. Selling out in that year, he again 
became a frontiersman, removing to Presidio county, where he purchased 
a ranch, on which he has since been employed in stock raising. He 
married Charlotte Haag, who was born in Germany, a daughter of Peter 
Haag, who came to Comal county at an early period of its settlement, 
and having purchased land twelve miles west of New Braunfels was 
there engaged in farming until his death. Nine children were born of 
their union, namely : Anna, Gus, Margaretha, Mary, August, George, 
Peter, Emma, and Theodore. 

Brought up on the home farm, Gus Reininger attended the short 
terms of the public schools during his boyhood and youth, and while yet 
a boy was thoroughly drilled in the various branches of agriculture. 
Leaving home when twenty-three years old, he was for a number of 
years engaged in mercantile pursuits, first in Blanco county, and later 
in Comal county. In 1902 Mr. Reininger was elected assessor of Comal 
county, and in this office has served with great fidelity ever since. He 
is a stanch Democrat in politics, and is classed by his fellow citizens as 
one of the public spirited and representative men of town and county, 
deserving and receiving the esteem and confidence of the community. 

Mr. Reininger married in 1886, Anna Fey, who was born in New 
Braunfels, a daughter of Valentine Fey, an early settler of this place, 
and into their home four children have been born, namely : Otillie. 
Laura, Bernhardt, and Lottie. 

Atascosa County. 

A. M. Avant. It is difficult to conjecture what would be the busi- 
ness, industrial and commercial status of Pleasanton if A. M. Avant had 
not figured so prominently in its public life, for all who know aught of 
the history of the town recognize in him a man of ability, whose labors 
have been resultant factors in the growth and progress of this place. 
His life history began in Gonzales county, Texas, in 1862, his parents 
being Abner and Alitha (Elder) Avant. The father removed from 
Tennessee to Texas in 1852, and located in Gonzales county, where he 
carried on business as a farmer and stockman, remaining a resident cf 
that locality until his death, which occurred in August, 1901. His wife 
was born in Georgia, and died in Gonzales county in 1878. 

One is apt to think of a boy's life upon a farm as being quiet and 
uneventful but the youth of A. M. Avant was quite the contrary. He 
was reared upon his father's homestead and in the stock business at a 
period when there were still many evidences of frontier life and experi- 



158 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

ences. He made the trip over the trail with cattle to Port Robinson, 
Nebraska, in 1882. He came to Atascosa county in r886, locating near 
mpbellton in the southeastern pan of the county. He there took up 
cue hundred and sixty acres of land under the old pre-emption law, which 
- in effect at that time. Turning his attention to farming and stock- 
he became closely associated with those industries, two of the 
mportant sources o\ revenue in a business life in Texas. In 1894 
he was elected sheriff and tax collector of Atascosa county and was 
ted at each succeeding election for ten years, filling the position 
therefore for a decade, or until [504, and making a reputation as one of 
the best sheriffs of the state. He was prompt and fearless in the dis- 
charg his duties, ami in [903 was honored by being elected president 

of the Sheriff-' Association of Texas at the annual meeting- held in San 
Antonio. During his incumbency in the sheriff's office he was notably 
brave and efficient in the capture of criminals. He was instrumental in 
iking up the "white cap" organization in Atascosa county and in 
punishing the leaders, lie took a prominent part in the capture and subse- 
quent prosecution o\ the suspected murderers of Mrs. Barber and her 
;, Wiley and Levi. Perhaps the most notable capture in which he 
participated was that of the Mexican, Cortez, who murdered two sheriffs 
and a constable in Karnes and Gonzales counties. In the chase of this 
criminal Mr. Avant and his deputies, Mr. A. Toms and Joseph Kerr, did 
twelve days of hard riding, and for their efficient efforts in this case 
each <>f the first two gentlemen were presented with a fine gold watch by 
the citizens of Karnes county. The Cortez case was of state-wide reputa- 
tion, arousing a great deal of race prejudice on the part of certain Mexi- 
can elements and in this way taking a political turn. 

Mr. Avant was through all of these years a successful stockman and 
still continues as such. He has a cattle ranch of four thousand acres 
about twenty miles southwest of Pleasanton in Atascosa county, and 
another pasture of one thousand acres near Pleasanton. On the 1st of 
January. [905, he purchased the Monitor, and is its publisher and editor, 
carrying on his newspaper interests in connection with the conduct of 
other business enterprises. The Monitor is a weekly newspaper of the 
highest character and is read and enjoyed by the best people of the county, 
being an old and welcome visitor in many homes, as it was established 
in [873. 

In [906 Mr. Avant began operating in the real estate business, 

cially ranch property. He is associated with the Rock Island Colony 
and Land Company, the other members being originally Penfield and 
!i of San Antonio. 

Mr. Avant was also one of the organizers and is vice-president of 

:he First National liank of Pleasanton, which institution was opened for 

business April 9. [906. lie takes a very active part as a business man in 

promoting the new growth and development of Atascosa county, enlisting 

investments of capital by outsiders, etc., and in all his interests is actuated 

a purpose that is undeniably public-spirited. He was instrumental in 

ting the Eureka Telephone Company's lines extended to Pleasanton, 

and his daughter. Miss Blanche Avant, is acting as local manager of the 

office. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS [59 

Mr. Avant was married to Miss Ida Johnson, of Gonzales couttty, 
in which locality the wedding was celebrated, and they now have three 
children, Blanche, Byron and Ben. The boys are in the West Te 
Military Academy. Mr. Avant is a strong man and popular with the 
public, and whether in office or out of it he has always stood for general 
progress and improvement, co-operating in many measures for the gen- 
eral good. In all of his business dealings he is thoroughly reliable and 
his integrity as well as his enterprise stands as an unquestioned fact in 
his career. 

Henry G. Martin, president of the First National Bank of Pleasan- 
ton, in Atascosa county, was born in that city in i860. His parents were 
Judge A. G. and Mary (Rutledge) Martin. The mother, who is still liv- 
ing in Atascosa county, was born in Alabama. The father, who died 
in Pleasanton, in September, 1900, was one of the most prominent of 
the Texas pioneers. He was born in Georgia and came to this state 
in April, 1849, on his way to California, but being pleased with the coun- 
try and its prospects he decided to remain and accordinglv lo- 
cated at San Antonio. From there he went to Seguin in Guadalupe 
county, where in the early '50s he was elected county and district clerk. 
In 1856 he came to Atascosa countv, and was one of its organizers, mak- 
ing Pleasanton the county seat, his home thereafter. Before the war 
he was engaged in the cattle business. He served as a member of the 
Confederate army during the period of hostilities between the states, or 
until 1864, when he returned home on a furlough and was elected county 
judge, serving in that capacity until displaced by the reconstruction organ- 
ization. Following this, however, he was county and district clerk, and 
for nearly eighteen years continuously filled the position. He afterward 
served as county juds'e for one term. His eldest son, ludge I. L. Martin, 
was born at Seguin, Texas, and became a member of the bar. He figured 
prominently in local circles and was a man of much influence in nublic 
life. He became judge of the thirty-eighth judicial district of Texas, 
was a member of the twenty-fourth general assembly and is now living 
at Uvalde. 

Henrv G. Martin was reared and educated in Pleasanton. and for 
about eight years was assistant and deputy under his father in the office 
of countv and district clerk. In November, 1890, he was elected to this 
position to succeed his father, and at each successive election was chosen 
by popular suffrage until the oeriod of his incumbencv covered fourteen 
vears, ending his term of office in 1904. In the spring of 1906 Mr. 
Martin with a number of associates organized the First National Bank 
of Pleasanton, with a capital stock of twentv-five thousand dollars. The 
bank was opened for business April Q. 1006, its charter number being 
8,103. It is the first bank ever established in this town and has been a 
most prosperous institution from the beginning:. Pleasanton is the 
county seat and the only town of anv size in a rich countrv of growing 
agricultural importance, and the bank has proved a valuable acquisition 
to business interests here. Mr. Martin is president of the institution, 
while A. M. Avant is vice-president, and J. K. Lawhon, cashier. The 
directors are H. G. Martin, A. M. Avant. J. W. Hunt. James A. Walton, 
Charles Peterson, W. S. Hall and F. H. Burmeister, all of whom are resi- 



160 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

dents of Pleasanton with two exceptions. Mr. Martin also has other land 
and business interests and is recognized as a man of resolute purpose and 
Strong determination, lie brings sound judgment to bear in his com- 
mercial and financial interests and is thus meeting with creditable success. 

Mr. Martin was united in marriage to Miss Ella Mansfield, a daugh- 
ter of F. M. Mansfield, and they have two children, 1 high and Mable 
Martin. Having Spent his entire life in Pleasanton, Mr. Martin of this 
review i^ thoroughly familiar with its history and has watched with 
interest its pr< gress and development, co-operating in many movements 
for the general good: lie belongs to that class of enterprising, resolute 
men who are the real factors and promoters of a community, for the 
upbuilding of any town or city depends upon the character of its repre- 
sentative citizens. 

Edward Mayers, now filling the position of justice of the peace at 
R< ssville, Atascosa comity, has a history which identifies him with the 
turesque past with its hardships and privations, its exciting adventures 
and its tales which now in the prosaic present when modern civilization 
has conquered every acre of territory in Texas seem almost like a work 
of fictimi. He was born in the city of Guelph in Brunswick, Germany, 
in 1841. his parents being Edward and Wilhelmina (Seitz) Mayers. The 
parents lived and died in Brunswick. There are many chapters of military 
51 >ry in the annals of the family, for during several generations various 
representatives of the name fought in different wars. A brother of our 
subject who died recently was a German soldier in the battle of Sedan 
and a nephew i)i Mr. Mayers', now in Germany, is a line officer in one of 
the regiments of the Prussian army. 

Edward Mayers acquired a good education in the schools of his 
native country and was a student in the cadet school up to the time when 
he left the fatherland in 1862 to come to America. From that time for- 
ward for many years his life was filled with adventure and experience 
as a soldier, Indian fighter, ranger and pioneer, such as falls to the lot of 
but few men and if written in detail would furnish a story more thrilling 
than any work of the novelist. In the summer of 1862, not long after 
arriving in America. Mr. Mayers enlisted for service in the Civil war in 
defense of the Union cause, becoming a member of Companv H, Thirty- 
ninth Xew York Infantry, which was popularly known as Garibaldi's 
regiment from tlie fact that a colonel of the regiment had served 
under Garibaldi in Europe. This command formed a part of the 
third brigade, third division of Hancock's second army corps, and was 
"ne of the crack organizations of the Federal army. Mr. Mayers took 
part in all of the great battles of the Army of the Potomac, including 
the hotly contested engagements at Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Mine 
Run, Chancellorsville, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, the fighting around 
ersburg and the campaign leading up to the surrender at Appomattox, 
hi- regiment being about eight miles to the left of Appomattox at the 
time when General Lee gave to General Grant his sword, the formal 
urrender. Ik- also participated in the grand review at Wash- 
ington, the most celebrated military pageant ever seen on the western 
hemisphere, and was mustered out in Xew York. 

In 1866 Mr. Mayers made his way westward to Ohio and there en- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 161 

listed in the regular army for service in the Indian campaigns, joining 
the Seventh United States Cavalry under the distinguished Indian fighter, 
General Custer. He remained with that cavalry organization for some 
time and on account of its effectiveness the regiment was in constant serv- 
ice against the Indians throughout all of the west where the red men 
were making trouble — in Colorado, Kansas, the Dakotas, Wyoming and 
the Yellowstone country of Montana, also in the Pan Handle of Te 
and New Mexico and in western Texas in the vicinity of Fort Davis, Fl 
Paso and other points. Mr. Mayers remained with the Seventh Cavalry 
until 1872, in which year he came to Southwestern Texas and entered 
upon active service as civilian employee scout under General Mackenzie 
who at that time had charge of the Federal forces that were contending 
with the Indians in this part of the country. One of the most notable 
expeditions of these troops was in pursuit of the Kickapoo Indians across 
the border into old Mexico (1873), whither they had fled after committing 
several atrocious depredations and where, on foreign soil, Mackenzie's 
men had a serious fight with them in the Santa Rosa mountains. Sub- 
sequent to this time Mr. Mayers was with the Fourth Cavalry Regiment 
in the Indian service in northern and northwestern Texas beyond Fort 
Griffin and out to the foot of the Llano Estacado or staked plains (1874). 
He was under command of Generals Mackenzie and Shafter for sixteen 
months. 

At the end of that time Mr. Mayers, owing to General Shafter's 
harshness to soldiers, left the employ of General Shafter, then at Ben 
Ficklin above Ft. Concho, and entered the Texas State Ranger service 
under Captain L. H. McNally, one of the most distinguished and success- 
ful of the ranger captains, whose company at that time was most efficient 
in the state in contending not only with the Indians but more particularly 
with cattle thieves and desperadoes generally, who- occasioned great 
trouble in the border counties and from the Blanco Country to the mouth 
of the Rio Grande and as far as San Antonio and Austin and even be- 
yond by driving off the stock. Nor did they stop at any deed of violence 
to accomplish their criminal purposes in regard to cattle thieving. It 
is to Captain McNally's organization more than to any other one force 
that is due the credit for suppressing this lawlessness of that period, par- 
ticularly in the case of the celebrated Sutton-Taylor feud, originating in 
Wilson county and extending over several adjoining counties and in 
which many men met violent death. This company also spent some time 
in chasing Ben Thompson and King Fisher, two noted desperadoes, 
who were finally killed as result of a. gambling brawl in a theatre in San 
Antonio. Mr. Mayers was with this company of rangers for about two 
years, from 1875 until 1877, during a part of which time they made their 
headquarters in the vicinity of Brownsville, Laredo and at San Antonio. 
Every phase of frontier military experience is familiar to him and the ac- 
counts which to most people are a matter of history concerning the de- 
velopment of the southwest are to him matters of actual experience. He 
has borne all the hardships and trials incident to such warfare and has 
rendered to his country a service the value of which is inestimable and 
entitles him to the gratitude of all the frontier settlers of the west and 
southwest. 

Vol. 11. 11 



[62 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

In 1S7S. Mr. M. uors married, with the intention of settling down 
permanently, but for some time following he was "in the saddle" in the 
cattle business, being a fence rider in Goliad county, lie made his head- 
quarters in San Antonio for twenty-two years and is quite widely known 
in that cit\ as a trade- union and G. A. R. man, also a member of the 
\. & \ . I". ^i \. In [897, however, he located at Rossville in Atascosa 
county, about twenty-eight miles south of San Antonio, where he has a 
fine home which is justly celebrated for its genuine and warm hearted 
hospitality. Mr. Mayers is now serving as justice of the peace in his 
precinct. lie was first wounded while in service on the Platte pro- 
tecting the Butterfield overland mail line in 1867 at what was then called 
Fort Morgan in Colorado, eighty miles below Denver. He was again 
wounded in [868 at the battle of the Washita on Washita river in what 
i- n«>w southwestern Oklahoma, the battle at that point being- recalled as 
one i^i the most hotly contested engagements with the red men in all of 
the Indian campaign. He was again wounded at Bloody Springs about 
sixty miles from Fort Lyon, Colorado, on which occasion the troop of 
the Seventh Cavalry, to which Mr. Mayers then belonged, made its noted 
ride <>f one hundred and twenty-three miles in twenty-four hours, com- 
manded by Mai. Penrose, senior officer at Ft. Lyons, near Las Animas 
and the Purgataire. Through his many years of warfare he was often 
placed in the most dangerous and hazardous positions and it is said 
by the friends who were with him in the service that he was absolutely 
fearless, being one of the bravest men they ever knew. 

Mr. Mayers* wife, to whom he was married in San Antonio in 1878, 
bore the maiden name of Miss Mary Jane Jones, a daughter of W. E. 
Jones, who was of Welsh ancestry and came from Pennsylvania to Texas, 
becoming a prominent business man of San Antonio and one of the 
organizers and stockholders in the Alamo Cement Company. To Mr. 
and Mr--. Mayers have been born three children who are yet living; 
William Jones, Elizabeth and Edward Mayers. One daughter, Clara, 
who became the wife of L. J. Ross of Rossville, is now deceased. Few 
men have had a life of such activity as Mr. Mayers and the splendid 
record which he made for courage and loyalty entitles him to the grati- 
tude- of the country and to the honorable retirement which is now vouch- 
safed him. He is a most interesting and entertaining talker and when 
he can be induced to speak of his experiences in warfare the tale is one 
which commands the deepest and most unflagging attention of his 
auditor-. 

Roberi A. White. Atascosa county has been signally favored in 
the class of men who have filled her public offices and cared for her busi- 
ness interests, and among those who are now capably discharging public 
duties is Robert A. White, county and district clerk. He is a resident 
of Pleasanton, and a native of Marion county, Arkansas. Lie was born 
in 1871, his parents being Jeff Milam and Caroline (Adams) White, both 
of whom arc now living in Pleasanton. The mother was born in Ar- 
kansas, while the father was a native of Palmyra, Marion county, Mis- 
souri, born in 1831. His parents were William \\. and Rebecca (Massie) 
White, native- of Kentucky, who removed to Marion county, Missouri, 
in the earliest settlement of that country. The maiden name of Mrs. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS io 3 

White's mother was Susan Milam, and she was a sister of lien Milam, 
famous in the history of Texas. The Whites, M assies and Milams v 
all originally from Kentucky although different histories have usually 
credited Ben Milam to Tennessee, probably owing to the fact that the 
Milams removed to that state from Kentucky in an early day. 

Jeff M. White, father of our subject, was reared on a farm near 
Palmyra, Missouri, and in 1852 crossed the plains to California, where 
he lived for two years, being engaged in mining gold at Mormon island 
on the south fork of the American river. He returned by way of the 
Nicaragua to his old home and when the Civil war broke out he enlisted 
in General Price's army in the Confederate service. Participating in the 
battles of Wilson Creek, Lexington and Pea Ridge and in other fighting 
in southwest Missouri and northwest Arkansas, he thus bravely contended 
for the cause which he espoused. He went with Price's army from the 
southwestern district to Tennessee and Mississippi but afterward returned 
to Arkansas and joined General Joe Shelby's Cavalry, in which service he 
was continuously engaged during the last two years of the war in north- 
ern Arkansas and the border country of western and southwestern Mis- 
souri. When the war was ended Mr. White took up his abode in Marion 
county, Arkansas, where he lived for eight years, and in 1874 he came 
with his family to Texas, locating upon a farm in Goliad county, eight 
miles north of the city of Goliad, the county seat. He lived there until 
1886, when the family removed to Pleasanton, Atascosa county, which 
is their present home. 

Robert A. White was largely reared to the occupation of farming 
and stock-raising and acquired a good common-school education. For 
four years he served as deputy tax collector under A. M. Avant, .sheriff 
and tax collector, and thus he gained a wide acquaintance over the county. 
In 1904 he was elected county and district clerk for a term of two years,* 
and in 1906 was re-elected. He has thus been for a considerable period 
in public office and no word has been uttered against his capability and 
fidelity by those who. have desired able and honorable public service and 
who do not place partisanship before personal aggrandizement and be- 
fore the general good. 

Mr. White also has business interests of considerable importance. 
He is secretary and treasurer of the Atascosa County Abstract Company, 
of which Henry G. Martin is the president, and which is making the 
only complete set of abstracts there is of this county — a work that is 
badly needed in the view of the present rapid settlement in this portion 
of the state. In order to complete its abstracts the company has gone 
back to the records of Bexar county to get the complete titles as Atascosa 
was a part of Bexar county previous to the establishment of its separate 
organization in 1856. Mr. Wdiite is also interested in land and real 
estate in Atascosa county and has some valuable property. 

In January, 1903, in Pleasanton, was celebrated the marriage of 
Robert A. White and Miss Ellice Fuller, and they now have a little 
daughter, Annie. From the age of three years Air. White has resided 
continuously in Texas and possesses much of the spirit of enterprise and 
progress which are revolutionizing the state in its material growth and 
business development. 



[64 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Robert 1.. Brown, M. D., engaged in the practice of medicine at 

asanton, with a patronage which is indicative of the confidence re- 

posed in his professional skill and ability, was born in Clifton, Tennessee, 

in 1S7S. a son of the Rev. Alanson and Catherine (Moore) Brown. His 
parents removed from Tennessee to Texas in 1879, locating at San Mar- 
c s. The father, a native of Alabama, became a Methodist minister and 
devoted his entire life to his holy calling. 1 lis wife, a native of Tennessee, 
still survives and is now living at San Marcos. 

Reared and educated in that city. Dr. Brown supplemented his lite- 
rarv education by a professional training received in Nashville Univer- 
Nashville, Tennessee, and thus well qualified for the active and 
responsible duties o\ the profession he entered upon practice at Pleas- 
anton, Atascosa county, in 1902. Here he has since* remained and has 
further studied medicine at Baylor Medical College, at Dallas, Texas, 
from which he was graduated in April, 1905. He follows the general 
practice oi medicine and surgery and has been most successful in his 
treatment oi important and difficult cases. He has also prospered in gen- 
eral business interests and has been closely identified with the growth of 
the new town and county. He owns a nice home and business property 
in Pleasanton, together with a cattle ranch of thirteen hundred and fifty 
acre- on the Tilden road, eight miles south of the city. 

Dr. Brown was married in Pleasanton, to Miss Florence Oden, the 
nddaughter of Mrs. Eliza (Fountain) Murphy, who yet resides in 
Pleasanton. and is the widow of the late J. W. Murphy, who died in San 
Antonio, May, 1904. He was born in Kentucky, September 20, 1836, 
and has figured prominently in connection with events which have left 
their impress upon the history of Texas. He came to this state in 1856, 
settling in San Antonio, and when the war between the north and south 
was inaugurated he cast his fortunes with the Confederates, becoming a 
member of General Sibley's brigade and served until hostilities were 
brought to a close. He was in all of the engagements in which that 
famous brigade participated and he retained' in his possession a sabre 
which he captured from a Federal officer at the battle of Val Verde. 
Following the close of the war Mr. Murphy was for a brief period en- 
gaged in merchandising in McMullen county. In 1867 he married and 
afterward engaged in a successful ranching business for a number of 
years, thereby laying the foundation of a handsome competence. For 
more than two decades he was a capitalist of Pleasanton, living retired 
from active business save for the management of his investments. His 
life was ever characterized by frankness, strict integrity and a love for 
law and order. He was a man of strong convictions and while courageous 
was gentle as a woman when strong measures were not required. As 
tizen and neighbor he had the warm regard of all who knew him and 
a business man was respected and admired. Fie held membership in 
the Pleasanton Baptist church and his aid proved a factor in the spirit 
of the church and in the advancement of many interests which have been 
ided advantage to the city. In 1867 he married Mrs. Eliza Oden, 
ncc Fountain, whose first husband was General W. Oden and it was one 
of their sons that was the father of Mrs. Brown. The Odcns and Foun- 
tains, including Mrs. Murphy's father and her uncle, Captain Fountain, 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 165 

were among the earliest settlers of Atascosa county. Mrs. Murphy came 
here with her parents in 1856, locating on La Parita creek about twelve 
miles southwest of the present site of Pleasanton, and since that time 
she has resided continuously in this county. The Fountains and Odens 
are well remembered for the part which they took in the warfare against 
the Indians in Atascosa and the surrounding country and the work which 
they did as pioneers in reclaiming this vicinity for the white race. It 
is from such an ancestry that Mrs. Brown is descended. Both the Doctor 
and his wife are prominent socially in Pleasanton and the hospitality of 
its best homes is freely accorded them. 

G. W. Key, lawyer and real estate dealer at Pleasanton, was born in 
Georgia, in 1847, hi s parents being the Rev. J. N. and Mary E. Key. 
The father was a native of Jackson county, Georgia, and a member of 
the family to which belonged the distinguished Francis Scott Key, the 
author of the "Star Spangled Banner." He came to Texas in 1854, 
locating in Fayette county, where he lived until 1857, when he removed 
to Gonzales county, which remained his home for several years. About 
1877 he became a resident of Burnet county, which was his home to 
the time of his 'demise on the nth of March, 1901. During all his active 
life he was a Baptist minister and his influence was far-reaching in be- 
half of the work and the upbuilding of the church. His son, Judge W. 
M. Key, is a distinguished jurist of this state. He studied law under 
Judge Posey at Georgetown, Texas, and practiced successfully there for 
several years. He was appointed judge of the court of civil appeals at 
Austin by Governor Hogg, when that court was first established and has 
held the office continuously since by re-election. 

G. W. Key was only six years of age on the removal of .the family 
to Texas, so that he was practically reared in Gonzales county, where he 
acquired his preliminary education. He finished his literary education 
in Concrete College, in DeWitt county, under Dr. J. E. V. Covey, and 
while still a young man studied law and made preparation for the legal 
profession, but later decided to become a Baptist minister and therefore 
did not engage in active law practice until his more recent years. Al- 
though very young, in 1864 he joined Colonel Benavides' Regiment, 
Captain Pleasant B. Watson's Company, for service in the Confederate 
army in Texas, and was in that service until the war closed. Having 
prepared for the Baptist ministry he began his first preaching in a regu- 
lar charge in Gonzales county in 1879, an d subsequently he was the 
minister in charge successively of the Baptist churches at Stockdale, Wil- 
son county ; Ballinger, in Runnels county ; and Clarkson, Texas, his 
last charge being at his present home, Pleasanton, where he preached 
for two years. He then decided to take up the practice of law and ac- 
cordingly in April, 1903, he was admitted to the bar. since which time 
he has been actively engaged in law practice with increasing success. He 
filled out an unexpired term as attorney of Atascosa county and he has a 
good clientage, for he is an able lawyer of analytical mind, who is logical 
in his deductions and correct in his conclusions. He also conducts a 
general real estate business in the town, ranch lands, rentals, etc., and is 
fully in touch with the present progressive movement that is bringing 
Atascosa county to the front rank in Texas. He seems specially quali- 



[66 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

fed for success iii the law through his mental ability and adaptation and 
his well known gifts in forensic power, 

Mr. Kej has had a most interesting life. He was deputy sheriff of 
DeWitt county during the noted Taylor-Sutton feud. He has been all 
of his lite a Strong, uncompromising, unchangeable Democrat, with equal 
fidelity to the Baptist faith. 

Mr. Key was first married in 1809, in Gonzales county, to Mrs. 
Maggie Hall, who died August 4, 180,0, at Stockdale, in Wilson county, 
and was buried there. She was the mother of Mr. Key's nine children, 
all oi whom are living, namely: Mrs. Jennie Skinner, Mrs. Nettie K. 
Deacon, J. X.. J. G., Edward K., Maggie E. Mrs. Sallie H. Taylor, Jeffie 
and Kate \\ . Key. There are also tourteen grandchildren. June 30, 
1897, at San Antonio, Mr. Key was married to Miss Sallie Johnson, a 
native oi Mississippi, but reared in Washington county, Texas. She is 
a graduate oi the Baylor Female College. Mrs. Key is of distinguished 
ancestr) oi Celtic origin, her father, Edwin Ruthven Johnson, being re- 
lated to the famous Dr. Johnson, on the Irish side, and to the Ruthvens 
of Scotland. Her mother, Mrs. M. A. Johnson, was of the line, old 
Welsh family "Llewellen," noted for strength of mind, and moral and 
religious force, of talent as musicians, and brilliancy as writers. The 
English side was that of the paternal, Elisha Williams, a grandfather 
being a man oi stern integrity, of broad views, and cultivation of mind. He 
distinguished himself as a patriot and a soldier during the war of the 
Revolution. Mrs. Key is also related to the Martyns of England, and from 
them inherits her non-conformist conscience and deep religious ardour. 
She spent almost two years in Mission work in Brazil under the foreign 
mission board of the Southern Baptist Convention. Mrs. C. H. Wede- 
meyer of Belton, Texas, Mrs. T. H. Lipscomb of Temple, Texas; Mrs. 
R. 11. Sommerville of San Antonio, are sisters of Mrs. Key. Mr. and 
Mr>. Key are widely and favorably known and the hospitality of the best 
homo in Tleasanton is cordially extended them. In his business career 
he is conscientious, active, faithful and persevering, and his success is 
attributable to these qualities. 

George M. Martin, engaged in the practice of law at Pleasanton., 
Texas, was born in San Antonio, in 1857, a son of George M. and Martha 
Julia 1 Merrick) Martin. The father was born in Fairfield county, Ohio, 
and in 1848 came to Texas, locating in San Antonio, where for years he 
was known as a successful business man, dealing largely in real estate. 
In hi- later life he went to Benton Harbor, Michigan, where he died in 
]Sji. I li^ wife, who was born in the state of New York, was the daughter 
of Morgan Lewis Merrick, a distinguished civil engineer, who first in New 
York state was associated with the Van Burens and other prominent 
families. In the days of early mining excitement in California he went 
to the coast and laid off the city of Sacramento. In 1851 he came from 
California to Texas, settling at San Antonio and became surveyor of the 
car land district. IIi> daughter Julia was at that time sixteen years 
1 r' age, and became the wife oi George M. Martin, Sr., in 1853. 

The son and namesake, George M. Martin, Jr., was reared in San 
Antonio and obtained his education in the schools of this city. His 
earliest business experience came to him as a newsboy in that city, and 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 167 

* 
when about thirteen years of age he was apprenticed to the printer's trade- 
on the Herald under Colonel Logan. Later he went to Austin, and was 
connected with the composing room of the Austin Statesman, beginning 
with the first issue of the paper when it was changed from the Republi- 
can about 1873. Soon thereafter he went to Galveston, and for a time 
was connected with the mechanical department of the News of the latter 
city. Returning to San Antonio he became one of the organizers and 
was chosen president of the Express Publishing Company, publishers of 
the Express, which soon became the leading metropolitan daily newspaper 
of Southwestern Texas and has maintained that position ever since. He 
continued as president of the Express until 1878, when, on account of 
his health, not feeling able to continue longer in the busy life of the 
newspaper publisher, he sought a more quiet home and occupation and 
located in the town of Pleasanton, the county seat of Atascosa county, 
which has been his home since 1878. He became editor of the local 
weekly newspaper here and has also figured somewhat prominently in 
public life. He served as justice of the peace, later was elected county 
treasurer and also filled the office of postmaster in the early '8os. 

At different times Mr. Martin had studied law, and in 1894 he was 
admitted to the bar. The same year he was elected county attorney of 
Atascosa county and served as such until 1900, when he was elected dis- 
trict attorney of the thirty-sixth judicial district, and re-elected in 1902, 
his term expiring in 1904. He is a lawyer of fine ability and has made 
money in his profession. He was the successful candidate for the legis- 
lature in the ninety-third representative district in the summer of 1906 
and is now a member of the Thirtieth Legislature. 

Mr. Martin was married in Pleasanton, to Miss Cornelia O'Brion, a 
daughter of Elijah O'Brion, a noted pioneer of Southwestern Texas, and 
one of the first board of county commissioners of Atascosa county when 
it was organized in 1856. He was almost fatally wounded bv arrows from 
Indians at Pleasanton in 1861, in the well remembered Indian raid of that 
year. His widow is still living in Pleasanton. Mr. and Mrs. Martin 
have three sons, George M., W. B. and Bernard, and the first two are 
now prosperous young merchants of Pleasanton. Mr. Martin has wielded 
a wide-felt and beneficial influence in public affairs both in his profession 
and in political circles and has left and is leaving the impress of his in- 
dividuality for good upon the community. He is widely known and hon- 
ored here and his genuine personal, worth has made him popular. 

Edmund L. Sharpe, M. D., practicing along modern scientific lines 
and recognized as one of the foremost physicians and surgeons of Pleas- 
anton, was born in Nashville, Tennessee, a son of the Rev. J. M. Sharpe, 
D. D., a prominent minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church South. 
He was liberally trained along educational lines and supplemented his 
more specifically literary education by thorough preparation for the prac- 
tice of the profession he has made his life work. After attending the 
Nashville high school he was a student in Emory & Henry College, in 
Washington county, Virginia, from which he was graduated in 1880, 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, while at a later date his alma mater 
conferred upon him the Master of Arts degree. He studied medicine in 
the University of Nashville from 1883 until 1885, and in the medical 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

department of Vanderbilt University in the scholastic year of 1885-6. 

He was graduated from both institutions and received in addition to his 

diploma the M. D. degree from both. In the months not devoted to the 

rk oi the cl ssr >m he applied himself closely to hospital service in 

the City Hospital oi Nashville, where his preceptor was the distinguished 

n, Dr. Richard Douglas- He also had the benefit of training and 

ion under other noted members of the profession including Drs. 

Hriggs and Callender, and gained a knowledge of surgical aseptic work 

which wa< then beginning to he practiced so successfully. 

In 1885 Or. Sharpe came to Texas, where he has remained continu- 
ouslv since in the practice oi his profession, save the year spent in the 
Vanderbilt University. For several years he practiced in Bandera, Uvalde 
and Wilson counties and in 1802 located in Pleasanton. Atascosa county, 
where he has since made his home. He has a very extensive patronage 
1 in the practice oi medicine and surgery and is particularly skilled in 
the latter line, his reputation extending over wide territorv and bringing 
him a practice that is exceedinglv gratifying both from a professional and 
financial standpoint. He has been county physician since coming to 
Atascosa county and is said to be the best read physician in west Texas. 
He keeps thoroughly in touch with the trend of modern thought and 
- ■ gress through his perusal of medical journals and the literature of the 
profession and is thus continually broadening his knowledge and pro- 
moting his efficiency. He is likewise a frequent contributor to medical 
journals and is, moreover, an interesting writer for Texas newspapers 
on matters that awaken general attention. 

Dr. Sharpe has been married twice. He wedded Miss Bettv Rainey 
in Seguin, Texas, where she had resided up to that time, and following 
her demise lie was married in Wilson county. Texas, to Miss Naomi 
Matthews. They have three children, Richard Douglas, Edna and Mora 
H. In addition to his attractive home in Pleasanton Dr. Sharpe is the 
owner of a fine farm of two hundred acres adjoining the city on the south 
and irrigated by a splendid artesian well. He also has other business 
interests, which he is successfully managing, but his time and energies 
are chiefly concentrated upon his professional duties, which he discharges 
with a sen-e of conscientious obligation and a strict conformitv to a high 
ndard of professional ethics. 

TiLMAN L. RiciiARosox. filling the office of sheriff of Atascosa 
county, and carrying on a successful business as a stockman, makes his 

e in Pleasanton. He was born in Wilson countv, Texas, in 1859, 

a son of Tohn W. and Marv T. (Hedrick) Richardson. His father was 

in Virginia, and on coming to Texas settled in Wilson countv. in 

1859, makine his home there until his death, which occurred in 1801. 

entire life was devoted to farming and live-stock interests, and he 
went through the experience c of life on the frontier in Texas. His wife, 
who was horn in Missouri, still survives him. 

Tilman L. Richardson earlv became connected with stock interests 
and from earlv age herded stock all over the open range of this state. 
He made his fir^t trip over the trail to the north in 188^ and the follow- 
ing vear he located permanently in Atascosa county, which has since been 
his home. He lived for some time in the southern part of the county 



HISTORY OF THWE 

but afterward removed to his present ranch at Amphion, ten miU 
of Pleasanton. TFe has a fine place, embra 

land, and he also 1 land in order to have < 

his stock. Formerly he raised Hereford cattle but 
preferred Durham and finds them profitabl 

Mr. Richardson was married in San Antonio l 
and they have five children, Ray. Mildred. Edgar, Terry and 
Richardson is a prominent member of the Masonic fraterni 
to the lodge and chapter, and he figures quite prominei 
being- elected in 1904 to the office of sheriff of Ats 
discharged his duties without fear or favor and hi 
are widely recognized. He is a man of sterling qualities ar 
worth both in official life and in business connections, and in the 
where he has now made his home for twenty-three years he is ver | 
lar amid a large circle of friends. 

Medina County. 

V. H. Blocker is one of the able members of the bar of I 
Texas, his practice, however, extending into all of the. state and federal 
courts, wherein his skill in argument and his comprehensive knowb 
of the principles of jurisprudence have gained him many notable victor 
He was born in Harrison county. Texas. November 19, 1852. I paf 
being William J. and Mary D. ( Butler ) Blocker, who were native - 
South Carolina, and Tennessee respectively, being married in the lal r 
state. The grandfather. Colonel Jesse Blocker, was a reside ' 

Edgefield district of South Carolina and a son of John Blocker, who in 
turn was a son of Michael Blucher (for so the name was origir • 
spelled I . Michael Blucher was a native of Prussia and one of the pioneer 
settlers of the American colonies. Five generations of the Blocker family 
have since been identified with church and state, largely living in the 
south. Jesse Blocker was born and reared in South Carolina and was a 
man of more than ordinary prominence and influence. He served as 
colonel of his regiment in the war of 18 12 and had a personal acquaintance 
with General Andrew Jackson, with whom he was closely ated in 

securing a victory at Xew Orleans in the second war with England. He 
was an extensive planter and largfe slave owner and was one of the wealthy 
and leading men of the Edgefield district of South Carolina, where he 
spent his entire life. His children were Bartley. Abner. William J.. J" 
Jr.. Mrs. Julia Warner and other sons and daughters whose names are 
forgotten. 

William J. Blocker father of the Hondo attorney, was res ~ 
South Carolina, was married in Tennessee and afterward sett! 
bile. Alabama, where he engaged in merchandising as a member of the 
firm of Blocker & Horner until 1839. He then removed to Harr 
county. Te r ^ng one of the pione" •- ' idents of the new cour itr 

He purchased land and improved a good plantation, conducting exter. 

ning interests through slave labor. He was also A in mer- 

chandising at Greenwood. Louisiana, not far from his home, there can - 
ing on both a plantation and a store. He v ass ::ed with Sam H 



HISTORY OF SOI THWT.ST TEXAS 

ton and all oi the loaders o!f the republic and was often urged to accept 
political positions but would never consent to do so. He preferred to 
concentrate bis energies upon bis private business interests, in which he 
met with signal prosperity. Politically be was a Whig- and was a great 
admirer of Abraham Lincoln, having carefully watched bis course in 
Illinois and bi^ career in connection with Douglas in their campaigns for 

gi 5S. Had be lived until i860 be would have supported Lincoln for 
the presidency. 1 le bold membership in the Methodist church, in the 
work of winch be look a most active and helpful part. While he pros- 
pered in his business undertakings be was ever charitable and benevo- 
lent and the poor and needy found in him a friend. He died at his 
homestead in Harrison county, Texas, in 1858. His widow, who survived 
him, kept the children together and reared them to lives of respectability 
and honor. I bit little is known concerning the history of the Butler 
family save that her brothers and sisters were: Frank A., a prominent 
merchant of Nashville, Tennessee; Charles, who died in Texas; Mrs. 
Jessie Kirkpatrick ; and Mrs. Sarah Jackson. The parents owned prop- 
erty at Strawberry Plains, Tennessee, which was a noted place, and the 
Butler family was prominent and influential in that community. Their 
daughter, Mrs. Blocker, was a faithful member of the Methodist church 
and died in Harrison county, Texas, in 1896, at an advanced age. By 
her marriage she had become the mother of seven children: William P., 
who was a' captain in the Confederate army and a prominent farmer, is 
now deceased. Eugene B., who served as a surgeon in the Confederate 
army, is now living at Marshall, Texas. Frank gave his life in battle for 
the Confederacy. Albert B. served through the war and is now a promi- 
nent stock farmer. Charles M., who was a successful physician, has de- 
parted this life. V. H. is the next of the family. Jessie, a daughter, 
died at the age of seventeen years, in 1862. 

V. H. Blocker was only six years of age at the time of his father's 
death. He acquired a liberal education, attending the common schools 
and afterward the East Tennessee University at Knoxville, from which 
he was graduated. He entered college in 1871, completing his course in 
[873. He pursued a special course in civil engineering and became a. 
competent surveyor, following that profession for a short time, but think- 
ing to engage in the practice of law, in 1874 he. entered the law office 
of Turner <x Lip-comb, with whom be studied until 1875, when he passed 
the required examination and was admitted to the bar. 

Mr. Blocker entered upon active practice at Marshall, Texas, where 
he continued successfully until 1879, when failing health caused him tem- 
porarily to abandon bis profession. He then removed to Texarkana, 
where he successfully engaged in merchandising for one year, and in 

j he removed to Pittsburg, Camp count)-, where he opened a law 
office and engaged in practice until [886, In that year be became a mem- 

of the bar of Sulphur Springs, Hopkins counts', where he continued 
until 18^2. when he removed to Hondo, where he yet resides. On coming 
to this place he was in poor health and bis voice bad become so affected 
that he could not make a speech before a court. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 171 

Hondo, County Seat. 

At that time Hondo was only a small village with less than seventy- 
five inhabitants. He soon became interested in the subject of the removal 
of the county seat from Castroville to this place, for Castroville was lo- 
cated at the eastern side of the county and Hondo near the center. He 
joined Rolf Frerichs in an effort to secure the removal, Mr. Blocker tak- 
ing charge of the legal points at stake. Both were good workers and 
earnest men and the election resulted in victory for the purpose for which 
they labored. ' Those two deserve the credit of making Hondo the county 
seat. 

After removing to this locality Mr. Blocker's health and voice im- 
proved and he resumed the practice of law, in which he has since gained 
a large and distinctively representative clientage, being recognized as one 
of the able members of the bar of his district. He practices in all of the 
courts successfully and has done some surveying here in order to settle 
disputes and accommodate friends. He has also handled real estate to 
some extent but gives his attention largely to the practice of law. In 

James Bowie Mine. 

1896 he took up the search for the old Spanish mining claim, later known 
as the James Bowie mine. There had been a tradition w T hich is traced 
back to a period long before the Santa Anna war in Texas of a rich mine 
in the Western Texas mountains. The Mexicans for many years took 
bullion to San Antonio and exchanged it for supplies but would never 
tell the location of the mine. James Bowie spent much time hunting for 
it and had some hard fights with the Indians during his explorations. He 
finally succeeded in finding the mine but did little toward its improve- 
ment and kept its whereabouts a secret. The Santa Anna war against the 
Texans ended his career and the location of the mine was again lost. 
General Santa Anna had ordered all mines closed and shafts filled up. 
Mr. Blocker took up the search for the mine and found two shafts and 
a long tunnel. He has done much work and has defined the walls of a 
rich vein of gold and silver and sunk the main shaft to about one hundred 
and sixty feet in depth. He found specimens that assayed three hundred 
and twenty dollars worth of gold to the ton and one hundred and seventy- 
five dollars worth of silver. He has spent much time and money in his 
research and he feels that he has made a valuable find, which will prove 
very profitable when he can secure capital to develop it. He has secured 
the title to the land and has formed a corporation known as the James 
Bowie Mining' Company of Texas. The mine is situated between the Drv 
and Main Frio rivers on the mountain range in Uvalde county and Mr. 
Blocker is looking forward with confidence and enthusiasm to the time 
when capital and machinery will develop this rich property. 

He is an enterprising and public-spirited citizen, has been an im- 
portant factor in the development of Hondo and Medina county and is 
recognized as an able and successful jurist. Politically he is a stanch 
Democrat but without aspiration for office, and socially he is a Royal 
Arch Mason in good standing. 

Mr. Blocker was married in 1889 to Miss Lulu D. Kimberlin, who 



i7- HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

- born in Hopkins county. Texas, In [872, a daughter of R. S. and 
Elizabeth (Gregg) Kimberlin, the former a native oi Kentucky and the 
lattei exas. The father removed to Missouri in early manhood and 

there engaged in the stock business until the Civil war, when he joined 

antrelFs baud of scouts, lie afterward joined the regular Confeder- 
— continued until the close i^\ the war. Sectional feeling 
ran so high in Missouri even after the cessation of hostilities that, de- 
ciding it would not he wise to return to that state, he came to Texas, 

ating m Hopkins county, where he engaged in the stock business. Later 

named and continued successfully in the stock business upon a ranch. 
There his children were horn. Later, to secure a better range, he re- 
moved to Donley county in the Panhandle, locating his family at Claren- 
don, the county seat, lie then bought a ranch. in this county, wdiere he 
ha- since been engaged in the cattle business. He is a stalwart Democrat 
and a worth\- member o\ the Methodist church, while with the Odd Fel- 
lows >< ciety he also holds membership. His wife was a daughter of Mr. 
< iregg, a prominent stock farmfer of Hopkins county. In the Kimberlin 
family were five children: Mrs. Etta Beville ; Lulu D., now Mrs. Blocker; 
Laura, at lupine: Samuel B., cashier of the National Bank of Pauls Valley 
in the Indian Territory; and Mrs. Laura Archer, of Redlands, California. 
Mr. and Mrs. Blocker have become the parents of four children: 
William P., who was born September 30, 1892 ; Laura, who died at the 
age of five years; V. H., born June 8, 1900; and Jessie K., born August 
12. 1905. Mrs. Blocker is a devoted member of the Methodist church. 
The family are well known in the community and our subject and his 
wife enjoy the high regard of all with whom they have come in contact. 
He is a man of business enterprise as well as of marked ability in his 
profession and has made a creditable name in connection with every pur- 
suit in which he has engaged. 

Joseph Ney. sheriff of Medina county and vice-president of the 
Hondo State Bank, is a descendant of an honored pioneer family of this 
county. He was born at D'Hanis, September 10, 1854. The Ney family 
was established in this section of Texas by John Ney, the grandfather, 
who came from Prussia with Castro's colony and located where the town 
of D'Hanis now stands. He become interested in the development and 
improvement of Medina county, and was here engaged in raising stock. 
When he first settled here the Indians were quite friendly to the white 
settlers but later became very hostile and committed many depredations. 
Mr. Ney was a veteran of Napoleon's army and participated in the battle 
of Waterloo. He was a nephew of Field-Marshal Ney, of Napoleon's 
staff, and one of his trusted leaders. Following the war John Ney was 
in very limited financial circumstances and it was because of this that he 
took up his abode in Texas, hoping the advantages offered in this country 
would help him to retrieve his lost possessions. He was an industrious 
and hardworking man and soon adapted himself to the changed condi- 
tion > which he found here and became very successful in his business 
venture-. He was reared in the faith of the Catholic church and nassed 
away in 1X72. at the extreme old acre of eightv-six years. His family 
numbered seven children: John, Jr.; Nicholas; Joseph, mentioned below; 
Mary, who became the wife of John Breiten ; Mrs. Louisa Chabot; Eliza- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 173 

beth, the wife of L. Zurcher; and Angeline, who became the wife of if. 
Weynand. 

Joseph Ney, the father, was born in Prussia, whence he was brought 
to America by his parents. He was reared and educated in D'Hanis, 
Texas, and upon his removal to San Antonio, he was employed for a 
time in a bakery. Later he was employed by Governor Hansboro Bell in 
different ways, during which time he carefully saved his earnings, so that 
he was at length enabled to engage in the grocery business on his own 
account. He started in a small way, with a small stock of goods at 
D'Hanis, but as his financial resources increased he added to his stock 
of goods and in course of time built up a large and increasing trade. He 
was a very successful merchant and was so engaged until his death, which 
occurred in 1882 when he was forty-nine years of age. He was an ex- 
tensive trader and owned much land throughout the state, and he also 
contracted with the Federal government to furnish beef cattle and other 
supplies at Forts Clark, Davis and Stockton. He likewise conducted the 
stage route at D'Hanis, and during the rebellion manufactured saltpeter, 
having two factories, one situated in Uvalde county while the other was 
located in Medina county. He was a good financier and became a wealthy 
man. He w r as a stalwart advocate of Democratic principles and served as 
county commissioner and also as postmaster for a number of years. He 
was an enterprising, public-spirited man, charitable to the poor and needy, 
and a kind neighbor and friend. During his residence in the southwest 
he encountered many difficulties with the Indians and was engaged in 
many fights with them, but he was never wounded. He was reared in 
the faith of the Catholic church but for mam^ years prior to his death 
did not affiliate with any denomination. He is still survived by his widow, 
who makes her home at D'Hanis, at the age of seventy-one years. She 
is an intelligent and active lady, and a communicant of the Catholic 
church. Their children were : Joseph ; Mary, the wife of Henry Steinly ; 
John B., who conducts a cotton gin at D'Hanis ; Euphrosina, the wife of 
Joseph Braden ; Anton, a stock farmer; Teressa, the deceased wife of 
Jacob Reinhart, and the mother of four children ; and Henry, a stock 
farmer. 

Joseph Ney was reared under the parental roof, and remained at 
home until he reached the age of twenty-eight years, during which time 
he assisted his father in his business interests. In the meantime he like- 
wise accumulated some stock and in 1883 he engaged in the stock business 
on his own account, first being located in his native city, subsequent to 
wdiich time he removed to Castroville, the county seat of Medina county, 
where he accepted an appointment to fill the office of sheriff. In i8qo he 
was elected to the office, continuing therein until 1900, when his term of 
office expired. In 1902 the county seat was removed to Hondo, and in 
that year he was again elected to the office of sheriff and through re- 
election has been continued in this official position to the present time. 
He capably manages the affairs in connection with the position and his 
services have given entire satisfaction to the general public. While 
looking after his interests in this connection he has likewise been engaged 
in the stock business, in which he is meeting with gratifying success. He 
assisted in organizing the Hondo State Bank, of which he was made 



i; 4 HIS Tom OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

- lent. The hank has a paid-up capital of thirty thousand dollars 
and this is proving a valuable institution to the city and a source of profit 
t<> the officers and stockholders. 

In [881 Mr. \c\ was united in marriage to Miss Mary E. Reiley. 
who was h»>rn in Medina county in [864, a daughter of Richard and Mary 

\. (Sauter) Reiley, the former a native o\ Ireland, while the latter was 
horn in Germany. The father came to America when a young - man and 
was a soldier in the Mexican war. Following his honorable discharge 
from service he was post sutler at Fort Lincoln near D'Hanis, where he 
continued until the soldiers were removed, after which he engaged in the 
cattle and sheep business, accumulating a goodly estate. His death oc- 
curred in [886, while his wife had preceded him to the home beyond, her 
death occurring in 1S75. They were communicants of the Catholic 
church. Their family numbered the following: Jacob, who was drowned 
when a youth; Tobias, deceased; Joseph, who is engaged in the stock 
business; Regina, the wife of A. G. Davenport; Jacob, a stock farmer; 
Mrs. lane Twomey; Mary E., now Mrs. Ney; Euphrosina, the wife of F. 

I. Carle; Antone, deceased; Henry \V., a merchant at Sabinal ; Teresa, 
the wife of L. Carle, a merchant at D'Hanis; and Lucie A., the wife of 

II. C. Rothe, who is also a merchant at D'Hanis. By a former marriage 
the father had two children: Richard, deceased; and Maggie, who be- 
came the wife of H. Taylor, and at her death left a family of seven 
children. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Ney have been born nine children: Edmond H., 
who was born March 29, 1884; William J., who was born June 23, 1885 ; 
Ella R., who died at the age of four years ; Ida M., who died when a year 
old: Johanna F., who was born September 22, 1888, and died October 12, 
1906; Marguerite, who was born in August, 1892; Oscar C, who died at 
the age of one year ; Adella T., who was born in 1895 ; and Corrinne, who 
was born in 1897. Mrs. Ney is a' communicant of the Catholic church 
and the family are well known in social circles in Hondo, where they own 
a beautiful residence. 

Judge Herman E. Haass, of Hondo, is a native son of Texas, where 
he has -pent his entire life. He is now serving as county judge of Medina 
Mty and is numbered among the prominent and influential citizens of 
this section of the state. He was born in Medina county, December 22, 
[866, and comes of German ancestry. His great-grandfather was Valen- 
tine I [aass, who was born in Durkheim, Rhein-Baiern, while his wife bore 
the name of Elizabeth Orth, and was born in Worms, Rhein-Baiern. They 
became the parents of Geo. Henry Haass, who was also born in Durkheim, 
Rhein-Baiern, April 5, 1796, and was killed by the accidental discharge 
of a pistol when he was seventy j two years of age. He was a cabinet- 
maker by trade, while he served on the police force from 1830 until 1850. 
lie came to America with two brothers and settled in Castro's colony, the 
year of hi- emigration being 1852. He was married in Germany to Anna 
M. Schwarz who died in Castroville, April 6, 7880, when she had reached 
the age of eighty-two years. She was a communicant of the Catholic 
church, while Mr. Haass was a Protestant in his religious views. In T852 
rge Henry Haass brought his family to America, in which vear they 
joined Valentine and Phillip Haass in Medina county. His family of 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 



/D 



children included Valentine Haass, who was born April 3, 1829, unr> ^ ( " 
came the father of Judge Haass. In 1856 the father and sons engaged in 
ranching and were making rapid progress when the Indians made a raid 
upon their ranch, and secured all their stock. They with other settlers 
went in pursuit of the red men but recovered only two head of horses. 
% The father, George H. Haass, never made an effort to engage again in 
that business and spent the remainder of his life among his children, these 
being: Valentine, now a merchant; Phillip, a stock farmer and ex-sheriff 
of Medina county; Fritz, a stock farmer; Sibelle, the wife of J. Bendele, 
a stock farmer ; and George, also a stock farmer. 

Valentine Haass, the father, became a naturalized citizen in 1856. 
and in 1862 he and his brother Phillip were conscripted for service in the 
Confederate army. The former was taken to San Antonio, where, upon 
examination, it was found that he was disabled for army service and was 
consequently discharged, after which he returned to his home in Castro- 
ville. In the latter part of 1862 he was elected district clerk, which office 
he held until 1869, when he resigned. He was interested in a mercantile 
enterprise for a number of years, while in 1880 he was elected to the 
office of county judge but on account of poor health resigned the office 
after a year. He likewise served as mayor of Castroville and was also 
justice of the peace for a time. He was a most prominent and influential 
man in political and business circles in Castroville and Medina county and 
took an active and helpful part in the growth and development of this 
part of the state. In his business dealings he has been known to be re- 
liable and trustworthy and throughout the long years of his connection 
with commercial interests had the confidence and good will of all with 
whom he was associated. The wife of Valentine Haass bore the maiden 
name of Aalke Gerdes, their marriage being celebrated in August. 1862. 
She was born and reared in * Hanover, Germany, a daughter of Harm 
Gerdes. The father emigrated with his family to the new world in 185 1. 
at which time he settled in Medina county, where he was engaged in stock 
farming, and it was while he was looking after his stock that the Indians 
came upon him and massacred him, killing him by stabbing with a lance. 
he having twenty-five wounds, being dead when found. His widow re- 
mained on the ranch, where she carefully reared her children, and later 
when they all were settled in homes of their own she lived among them 
and died at a ripe old age. Her children were : Gerd, who freighted for 
the Confederacy during the war and is now a stock farmer and a preacher 
of the Methodist denomination in Guadalupe countv ; Hilka, the wife of 
F. Schulte ; Volka, the wife of E. A. Bohlen ; Aalke, who became Mrs. 
Haass ; and Harm, who entered the Confederate armv, from which he 
never returned, being last heard from in Louisiana. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Valentine Haass were born four children : Henry, a prominent merchant 
and county surveyor of Castroville; Herman E. ; Ida M., the wife of W. 
Edgar, a commission merchant of San Antonio ; and Louie, who died 
at the age of four years. 

Herman E. Haass spent his earlv boyhood and youth in Castroville. 
assisting his father in his business affairs, and at the age of twelve years 
he learned the printer's trade. He later was engaged in the stock busi- 
ness on his own account for three years, but abandoning that pursuit, 



i,--> HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

then engaged for a similar period in the profession of teaching-, during* 
which lime he Studied law. In [889 he passed the examination and was 
admitted to the bar of Medina county, lie located for practice in Castro- 
vilK which time he has practiced successfully he fore all the courts 

of this county. At one time he was engaged in the publication of the 
stroville Anvil, a local newspaper, while in [890 he became a candidate 
unty judge, lie was defeated in this election, hut in 1804 once 
more became a candidate for that office, being then elected, and by rc- 
rtion he has continuously tilled the office to the present time, discharg- 
ing his duties in the most efficient ami creditable manner, lie has also 

ed as notary public and has ever been prominent and influential in 
Democratic ranks, lie acted as chairman of the Democratic county com- 
mittee, and the first primary election was held under his arrangement. 
The party has never held county nominations. Both the Democratic and 
Republican parties claim the county hut at the present time all the county 
■ ffices arc tilled by representatives of the former party. 

During the years o\ his active connection with the profession of law, 
Judge Haass has also found time for other interests, having for a long 

>d been engaged in farming and fruit-raising. He is also a stock- 
holder in the National Bank of Hondo and is well and favorably known 
in financial circles in this part of the state. He is public-spirted in a 
marked degree and gives his co-operation and support to every move- 
ment which is instituted for the betterment of his city or county. He 
take- much pleasure in outdoor sports, his chief enjoyment being that 
< >f fishing. He is a worthy and consistent member of the Lutheran church, 
an<l i- a Royal Arch Mason, serving as secretary of the blue lodge for 
many vcars. 

In 1893 occurred the marriage of Judge Haass and Miss Lisetta 
Renken, who was horn in Castroville, in 1873, a daughter of Henry T. 
and Lisetta ( Kueck) Renken, both natives of Hanover, Germany. The 
father emigrated to the new world at an early day, and in 1849 went to 
the gold-fields of California and there engaged in mining". He was very 
successful in his new ventures in America and after he had accumulated 
a little capital and purchased a tract of land in Medina county he sent for 
hi- wife, who joined him in Medina county, after which they located on 
the land which he had previously purchased and there engaged in stock 
farming, in which he met with gratifying success. He took an active and 
helpful interest in many public movements and particularly in the system 
of education. He was the first superintendent of schools in Medina 
county and for a number of years served as mayor of Castroville. He 
was a consistent member of the Lutheran church and was identified with 
the Masonic order, serving as master of the lodge. His wife was also 
a Lutheran in her religious faith, and by her marriage became the mother 
of five children: Henry, a traveling salesman for a San Antonio firm; 
lliam, who i^ employed h\ a brewery in that city; Louisa, who became 
the wife of Nick Tschirhart. and at her death left one son; Herman, who 
i- foreman in a macaroni factory in San Antonio, and Lisetta, wife of 
subje t of sketch. 

The marriage of Judge and Mrs. Haass has been blessed with two 




xS^lot. sM£ 




£n^ 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 177 

interesting children: Silva, who was born December 31, 1894; and Edgar, 

born November 12, 1899. 

Many persons are looking forward to the publication of a loeal history 
of Medina county, with judge Haass as author. Jn addition to his other 
duties he is preparing a history of Medina county from the time of its 
first inhabitants. Through his connection with his brother, H. V. Haas-,, 
county surveyor, he has gained a general experience with affairs in Me- 
dina county, its people, its lands, land titles and history, which is second 
to none. Without doubt the promised volume will be a valuable contribu- 
tion to the historical literature of this portion of Texas. 

Frederick Metzger, a veteran of two wars, and with the United 
States Second Cavalry in Texas for five years, has been prominently 
identified with the settlement and progress of Hondo and Medina county, 
where he now makes his home. He was born in Germany, March 5, 1833, 
and acquired a good education in the schools of his native country and in 
Galveston, Texas. His parents were Peter and Apollonia (Adam J [Metz- 
ger, both descended from honored old Catholic families of Germany, who 
were of high social rank as well. Peter Metzger was a well-to-do man of 
his day and engaged in the business of distilling and brewing malt and 
wines. He continued in Germany until 1845, when he emigrated with his 
family to America, landing at Galveston, Texas, in February, 1846. He 
soon sought another location, however, going by water to Indianola, and 
there all of his effects connected with the distillery and the brewing busi- 
ness, together w r ith his personal property, were landed on the beach. Be- 
fore he could secure teams or other means to have these conveyed to a 
place of safety a flood came and washed all away and he was thus left 
empty handed, having only a small sum of ready money remaining. Soon 
afterward he returned to Galveston, where he resided until the latter part 
of 1847, when he died a victim of yellow fever. His capital had been 
dispelled through the removal to America and by the flood, and his family 
were thus left in limited circumstances. His wife had died in the father- 
land in 1836. The children had all come to America, but Frederick is 
the only one now living. The others were : Carl, a physician who prac- 
ticed at Galveston, Texas, until his death in 1849 5 Mrs. Anna M. Burgess ; 
Antone, a Texas farmer, who died June 4, 1906, at the age of eighty- 
two years ; and Jacob, who became a merchant and pilot, in i860 returned 
to Germany to attend to some business interests and while again making 
the voyage to the new world died at sea. 

Frederick Metzger was fourteen years of age when he arrived in 
America. In 1847 he- enlisted as a musician or drummer boy for the 
Mexican war under Captain V. R. Jones of the Twelfth Regiment of 
Infantry, and was assigned to Sibley's brigade General Scott's command. 
He proceeded to the front, participated in memorable battles and cam- 
paigns and on the expiration of his term of service received an honorable 
discharge July 25, 1848. He then returned to Galveston and soon after- 
ward was employed on a steamboat as pantryman and second steward. 
He continued in this business for a short time, but in 1849. attracted by 
the discovery of gold, started for California. He had gone as far as 
Leavenworth, Kansas, when he became ill with chills and fever, remain- 
ing there until all of his outfit was gone and he could proceed no farther. 

Vol. 11. 12 



i;S HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

He then returned to Missouri, where he engaged to drive a yoke of oxen 

in breaking prairie. In the morning lie would be thus employed and in 

the afternoon he would suffer with a chill, it being some time before he 

that disease out oi his system. In 1S51 he returned to Galveston in 

order to benefit his health, but other troubles set in anil in 1S53 he went 

Martineco [sland in the West India islands and was much benefited 
In the change. In 1855 he landed at Norfolk, Virginia, and became a 
>ai: . receiving >h\\\ At Baltimore, in July. 1855, he enlisted under 

Captain Palmers in Company D of the Second United States Cavalry and 
was sent into camp at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis. Missouri. From 
there the regiment marched two thousand miles to Fort Camp Cooper, 

xas, and later the command was detailed for various duties. In 1856 
they began and completed Camp Verde in West Texas and during that 
period went on various raids after the Indians, taking part in many run- 
ning fights but seldom bringing the Indians to a stand. The most hotly 
contested battle in which Mr. Metzger participated was at Kickapoo 
Springs, where a hand to hand fight ensued, in which he saved the life 
of ( Irderly W. McDonald by killing the chief who was about ready to 
take McDonald's life. Mr. Metzger with his command took part in many 
raids and engagements with the red men and was always on duty at the 
front but was never wounded, although he had some close calls. During 
his five years' service he traveled over many parts of Texas. On the ex- 
piration of his term of enlistment he was honorably discharged in i860, 
at which time his deportment and character were reported as excellent. 

After leaving the army Mr. Metzger engaged in merchandising and 
hotel keeping at Leon Springs, Texas, for a year. In 1861 Mr. Metzger 
married Miss Louisa Lange, who was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1844, 
a daughter of Ludwick and Johanna (Stremyer) Lange, also of Hanover. 
Her parents on emigrating to America landed at Galveston in July. 1851. 
The father was a stonemason by trade and followed that pursuit for many 
years. Later he settled on a farm in Kerr county, where he remained 
until his death in June, 1886, when he was seventy-seven years of age. 
1 [e did both plain and ornamental stone work for the government at Camp 
Verde. He accumulated a competency for his old age through his well 
managed business interests. All who knew him entertained for him high 

ard, for he lived an upright, honorable life. He was reared in the 
faith of the Lutheran church and never departed therefrom. His children 
were Fritz, Charles, Henry, Lutwrena, Louisa and Augusti, all deceased 
except the girls. 

Mr. and Mrs. Metzger have the following children: Fred A., who is 
a business man of Mexico: Charles, chief clerk in a store at Hondo; 

lis, who has learned and followed the tinner's trade; Anna, the wife 
of Pat Lynch; William, a machinist at Beaumont, Texas; and Powell, 
who is chief clerk of a mercantile house at Pleasanton, Texas. 

Following his marriage Mr. Metzger settled on a ranch in Kerr 

nty, where he continued until the Indians raided his place and run 
off all of his stock till he had not a horse left. He had to leave the ranch 
h<- no longer had the means wherewith to cultivate it. In 1862 
he joined the Con federate armv in Duff's cavalry regiment and was as- 
signed to the southwestern division, being stationed at Brownsville, 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 179 

Texas, where his command remained until they were forced to va 
by United States troops. While there Mr. Metzger \va^ engaged in 

watching the border and looking after deserters and smuggler-,. He 
then went to the Trans-Mississippi department in northeastern Te 
and the Indian Territory, where he was actively engaged in duty, so 
continuing until the close of the war, when the regiment was disbanded 
at San Antonio. He then returned to his wife, who had remained with 
her father at Camp Yerde, and soon after his old comrade, Mr. Mc- 
Donald, whose life he had previously saved, found employment for him 
with the Federal government as a camel master with a number of men 
under him. The government had a large number of camels brought to 
Texas for service on the plains and Mr. Metzger was thus employed for 
nine months. After saving a small sum of money he returned to his 
ranch and carried on farming for a year. In 1867 ne removed to Xew 
Fountain, Medina county, where he engaged in huckstering and peddling 
with two mules and a wagon. In that business he was successful and 
later he opened a store, which proved profitable until it was destroyed 
bv fire with heavy loss. He then built a gristmill, with steam power, 
which he operated for several years, but later abandoned milling in 1881 
and became a traveling salesman for Osburn & Company of Xew York, 
dealers in agricultural implements, with a branch house at Dallas. Texas. 
Mr. Metzger continued in that business for ten years, building up an 
excellent trade, and during that decade he established a store at Xew 
Fountain, which his family conducted. On leaving the road he assumed 
the management of his store, in which he continued until 1891, when he 

Hondo. 

removed to the site of Hondo, where he built the first house and con- 
ducted a hotel. He vet owns but now rents Hotel Metzger. He con- 
ducted the hotel and bar room here for a number of years and did much 
for the upbuilding of Hondo and the removal of the county seat to this 
place. He owns several lots and buildings in the town, including a com- 
modious brick and stone residence. In 1895 he retired from active busi- 
ness life and is now living in comfort and ease in a most pleasant home. 
He looks after his ranch and properties and he has secured several vacant 
lots. In 1900 he patented a fine acetylene light, superior to anything be- 
fore invented. He is now manufacturing and selling this light and has 
many testimonials from prominent people, who speak of the excellent 
satisfaction which it has given. He has made a good record both in days 
of war and days of peace and now has a competency for old age. In 
politics he is a stalwart Democrat and has served as justice of the peace 
and notary public. He is also an exemplary member of the Masonic 
fraternity and has filled all of the chairs in the blue lodge. 

Rolf Frerichs. This name is inseparably connected with the his- 
tory of Hondo and Medina county, by reason of the extent and im- 
portance of his business interests, and also by reason of the service he 
has performed that has directly promoted the material development and 
upbuilding of the county. He was born in the province of Hanover. 
Germany, January 5, 1833. He was reared to farm pursuits and received 
a liberal education while spending his boyhood days in the home of his 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

parents. John and Alio (Frareka) Frerichs, both of whom were natives 
of that province of Germany, where they were married, reared their 
family and died. Both were descended from worthy Protestant families 
of Hanover, where their ancestors had lived for many generations. P>oth 
were Lutherans in religious faith and were most highly respected residents 
of the community in which they resided. The father was identified with 
many industries and furnished employment to many laboring people. In 
connection \\ith farming he operated a sawmill and engaged in the brew- 
ing o\ malt and wines. He was a prosperous man and very prominent 
and influential in the community, lie advised his children not to go 
abroad but to remain in the fatherland, saying that he would leave them 
a good farm ami home. All took his advice except Rolf, and the old 
homestead is yet in their possession. Both parents died there, leaving 
a comfortable competence and an untarnished name to their family. 

Their children were Richard, Lena, Fritz, George, Rolf and John. 
The last named made a visit to this country in 1873, Dllt returned to the 
fatherland. 

Rolf Frerichs is the only one who married and reared a family and 
the only one who became an American citizen ; but he has never had 

ision to regret the emigration, for here he has accumulated a larger 
fortune than all the remaining members of the family, with their father's 
estate included. He remained under the parental roof until twenty-two 
years of age. In the old country every man is liable to militarv duty. 
In time- of peace, the recruits for the standing army are drawn by lots, 
and .Mr. Frerichs was always fortunate in drawing- a blank, thus having 
the privilege of remaining at home. In 1857, desiring to visit America, 
and belonging to an influential family, he secured a leave of absence 
from the king for one vear, and if needed for military service he would 
return home when notified. He was then to apply to the German consul, 
who would furnish him transportation free. /Accordingly he came to 
America and, never notified, he never returned. Landing at Galveston 
in 1S57. he soon afterward made his way to Medina county, where he 
was employed, at ten dollars per month and board, by a man who was 
opening up a farm, but he did not like the meals and accommodations 
furnished him and sought employment with another farmer. He soon 
realized the conditions which existed on the frontier and that in order 

stablish a home here one must be deprived of many of the advantages 
and comforts of an older civilization, so he rented land and began farm- 
ing- for himself. At that time no cotton was raised here. In 1858 he 
purchased some land and began farming. He soon commenced raising 

k, and as the range was free and the grass good his stock accumulated 
fast and he prospered until the Indians, who were friendly in an early 
day, began stealing the stock, and if the white men interfered, they 
killed them, dims life and property were greatly imperiled. Tn time 
Mr. Frerichs' herds had grown to extensive proportions and he had also 
main horses. I [e was one of the first in the county to fence the pasture 
and later he engaged largelv in general farming. Tn each venture he 
successful and later he took contracts from the federal government 
for furnishing supplies to Forts Coooer, Clark and Duncan. He like- 
wise engaged in merchandising in this county and traded extensively. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 1H1 

He readily recognized and quickly improved a business opportunity and 
his labors, while bringing him a handsome competence, were also a 
source of much benefit to the settlers. 

At the time of the Civil war, although he favored the Confederacy, 
he did not wish to "enter the army or leave the state," so he kept quiet 
and later joined the home guards. After the war he continued actively 
in business along many lines with his usual success. He was the first 
to buy and introduce different kinds of farm machinery : thresher, reaper 
and corn sheller, and in fact has always been a leader in progress and 
business enterprise. In his early merchandise experience he huckstered 
all over the county, sold goods and bought produce, for which he found 
a market at San Antonio. He also hauled loads of eggs, butter and 
produce to the forts. He bought, improved and sold lands. He has 
now sold off his land save two farms which he rents. In 1884 he retired 
from farming and stock-raising, and located in the village of Hondo, 
where he engaged in merchandising. 

Realizing how much more advantageous it would be to have the 
county seat at the center of the county, he joined Judge Blocker in an 
effort to secure its removal from Castroville to> Hondo and after a long 
fight, in which these two gentlemen were the leaders in favor of the 
removal, they won success (in 1902). Mr. Frerichs has been a most 
important factor in the upbuilding of Hondo. He is a broad-minded, 
intelligent business man and has been the architect of his own fortunes 
and accumulated a goodly estate. After some years he withdrew from 
merchandising and now gives his attention to outside speculation and 
to the building and renting of properties. He assisted in organizing the 
First National Bank of Hondo, of which he became a stockholder and 
director. He was the first to realize the need of waterworks for domes- 
tic purposes and fire protection and, organizing a private company, he 
sank a deep well. He owned one-third of the stock of the new company. 
Later the business was reorganized and incorporated as a stock company, 
the capacity of the plant was increased and the enterprise has proved a 
profitable investment. He has introduced many new, practical and bene- 
ficial ideas for the upbuilding of the city and county and while he has 
practically retired from business he is never idle but is always wideawake, 
alert and active in the management of his own investments or enterprises 
for the public good. 

Mr. Frerichs has reared an intelligent family of children and instilled 
into their minds the lesson taught him in the fatherland that honor and 
honesty is all that makes the man. He was married in 1858 to Miss 
Anna Degrote, who was born in Germany in 1840, a daughter of Harm 
Degrote, who died in the fatherland, after which his widow brought the 
family to America in 1857, settling in Medina county, Texas, where she 
purchased land and improved a farm, keeping her children together and 
rearing them to lives of respectability and worth. She was a faithful 
member of the Lutheran church. Her children were : Henry, who 
served in the Confederate army and is now deceased ; Harm who was 
accidentally killed by a team ; Mrs. Atltka Gaddis ; Anna, Mrs, Frerichs : 
and Antje, now Mrs. Palson. 

The home of Mr. and Mrs. Frerichs has been blessed with seven 



[&a HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

children: Lena, the wife of A. Schuley; Antje, the wife of August 
Schulej : Jane, the wile of J. C. Bless, a merchant of Hondo; John, a 
prominent stock farmer ; Henry, engaged in the same line; Fritz and 
Herman, who are in business in Hondo. 

Isaac 11. King, president of the Hondo State Bank, belongs to 
that class of representative business men who in advancing individual 
interests also promote the public welfare, and in Hondo he is recognized 
as a valued factor in business and public life, his influence ever being 
on the side oi progress and improvement. He was born in Grimes 
inty, Texas, February 5, 1848, and in his youth attended the country 
schools, having to walk a distance of three miles. He carried firearms 
en account of the Indians. His parents were John J. and Ann L. 
t^ Pitts 1 King, the former a native of Tennessee and the latter of Georgia, 
their marriage being celebrated in Texas. The father was a son of 
William King, of Tennessee, who was born and reared his family in 
that state and there died. He was prominently identified with the 
interests of his locality and was an industrious and trustworthy man. 
The King family were leading Methodists of Tennessee. In the family 
of William King were five children: John J.; Isaac H. ; George, an 
attorney at law ; William, and Mrs. Garrett. 

John J. King was reared in Tennessee and was first married there, 
after which he successfully followed farming in that state until his first 
wife died about 1843. She bore the maiden name of Mary Bowen and 
belonged to one of the old, distinguished families. There were two 
children, William B. and Elizabeth. The former is a prominent rancher 
and stockman of Medina county, Texas. The daughter married John 
W. Day and at her death left five children. John J. King remained in 
Tennessee until 1845, when he sold his interests there and became a 
resident of Grimes county, Texas, where he engaged in farming. He 
continued successfully in business there until 1850, when he removed to 
Hayes county near San Marcos, where he once more turned his attention 
to general agricultural pursuits, carrying on the business there until his 
death in 1852. He was very charitable to the needy, sympathetic with 
the afflicted and very sociable and companionable with his friends, whom 
lie delighted to have around him. He took an active and helpful part 
in the work of the Methodist church and was a sincere Christian. After 
removing to Grimes county he married Mrs. Ann L. Smith, a native of 

rgia, who after her first marriage resided in Grimes county, Texas, 
where her husband died. Her father, John D. Pitts, a native of Georgia, 
became a pioneer of Texas and was afterward adjutant general of the 
-tate. He came to Texas in 1840, settling in Grimes county, and later 
removing to San Marcos. His farming interests were carried on through 
-lave labor and he was a successful business man. He was also a strong 
and influential Democrat and was a valued member of the Methodist 
church, exemplifying in his life its teachings. In the Pitts family were 
five children: Mrs. Ann L. King; Mrs. Elizabeth Mathews; Mrs. Re- 

a Kone; Mrs. Sally Cox, and Mrs. Pope Malbne. Mrs. Malone 
and Mr-. Kone are yet living at San Marcos and all of the family are 
members of the Methodist church. To Mr. and Mrs. John King were 
born two children: Isaac IT., and Horace P., who died at the age of 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 183 

seventeen years. After losing- her first husband the mother married 
Judge G. W. Harper, mentioned below. She passed away in 1868. She 
was a devoted member of the Methodist church. 

Isaac King was only four years of age at the time of his father'-, 
death. He remained with his mother during her life-time and had com- 
menced to accumulate some stock. He received a small amount of 
' money from his father's estate, but largely had to depend upon his own 
resources and is practically a self-made man. He came to Medina 
county with the family in 1859, and has remained here continuously 
since. At. first he assisted his stepfather with stock and in farming. He 
also attended school and his youth was a period of industry and earnest 
toil. Gradually his herd of stock increased. The range was free and 
the grass good and it was not necessary to do any feeding. 

In 1868 Mr. King was married to Miss Mellie M. Harper, who 
was born in Mississippi in December, 1848, a daughter of Judge G. AW 
Harper of Mississippi. He was well known in the early days of Texas 
as a prominent resident of Medina county, where he served as county 
judge. He owned a large number of slaves and had extensive farming 
interests and was greatly respected for his many sterling traits of char- 
acter. He died in this county in 1882 and his life was a most honorable 
one, having been guided by his belief in the Christian religion and his 
identification with the Masonic society. He was a worthy Methodist 
and also a Royal Arch Mason. His children were as follows : John 
L., the eldest, an attorney at law and prominent Methodist minister, is 
now a local preacher at San Antonio. He served as a lieutenant in 
the Civil war and was stationed near Galveston. James D., also a lieu- 
tenant through the war, was wounded by a minie-ball in the battle of 
Chickamauga, where he was likewise made a prisoner but soon afterward 
was paroled. He served through Virginia -with the eastern army and 
now resides at Utopia, Texas. Mary E. is the wife of J. T. Simpson. 
Fannie is the wife of Rev. D. W. Fly. Cvnthia A. is the wife of J. W. 
Hodges. Alford L., who served in the Civil war, died in Mississippi. 
George G., who was a lieutenant in the army, died at Bowling Green, 
Kentucky. Robert A., who was also a lieutenant, served through the 
war and died in this county in 1901. Marquis was captured at Arkansas 
Post and died while a prisoner of war, serving with the rank of lieuten- 
ant. William H. also served in the army and died at San Marcos. 
Mellie is now Mrs. King, and Rollie M. completes the family. Eieht 
sons of the family were in the army and five held a lieutenant's commis- 
sion. 

Following his marriage Mr. King engaged in the stock business 
and was quite successful. He also did some dry farming for feed and 
vegetables, and usually raised a. sufficient ciuantitv of corn for his stock 
save in some seasons of drought. He believes that this will be a good 
farming country for corn and cotton and vegetables. He admitted E. 
W. Lacey to a partnership in his business and they continued their inter- 
ests harmoniously together. In 1872 Mr. King sold all of his cattle and 
engaged Quite extensively in the sheep business. He prospered in that 
undertaking until 1892, when he disposed of the sheen. During all 
these years he had been associated with Mr. Lacey and during the last 



iS 4 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

few years they have purchased a twenty thousand aero tract of land, 
which they divided. Each then fenced his own ranch and conducted 
business separately, making improvements to suit himself. Mr. King 
stocked his ranch with cattle and employed a number of hands. He 
made good improvements on his place, sank a well and had plenty of 
water. He prospered, too. in his stock-raising interests and so con- 
tinued until [902, when he disposed of his ranch and stock for twenty- 
nine thousand dollars. Since that time he has disposed of the old home 
on which he first settled. At different times he has bought and sold 
land and he yet holds other farming interests, which he rents. In 1902 
he established a small ranch which he yet holds, raising fine mules and 
horses there and also some cattle and hogs. He has a fine Tennessee 
jack, lie remained in the country until 1905, when he removed to 
Hondo and built a commodious two-story frame house with modern 
architecture and many conveniences, and here he and the family are en- 
joying the fruits of his former labor. 

In 1 90 1 Mr. King bought a half interest in the lumber business in 
Hondo, which is being successfully conducted. He also assisted in or- 
ganizing the Hondo State Bank, which has a paid up capital of thirty 
thousand dollars. He was chosen president, with Joe Ney as vice-presi- 
dent and T. A. White as cashier. This is a bank of deposit and dis- 
count, while exchange is bought and sold, and in fact a general banking 
business is here conducted. Mr. King has made careful and good in- 
vestments and has prospered as the years have gone by. As the architect 
of his own fortunes he has builded wisely and well and he is widely 
recognized as a capable financier. He came to Medina county when a 
boy and entered into the experiences of life on the frontier when there 
were Indian depredations and much stealing of stock. He lived through 
the period when many settlers were murdered and although but a boy 
he played his part in defending the interests of the law-abiding citizens 
and went in various raids after the red men. He had to guard the horses 
day and night, staying right by them prepared to shoot if necessary. On 
one occasion when he was on guard he went to mount his horse with 
his gun in his hand. The gun struck against a building and was dis- 
charged and the shot took ofT his left arm, but although thus handicapped 
Mr. King has made a success in life and has accumulated a valuable 
ate. 
To Mr. and Mrs. King have been born eight children: John W., 
who died in infancy; Horace M., who was born July 15, T871, and died 
November 7, 1902, leaving a wife and four children; Emma L., who 
was born December 29, 1873, and is the wife of Rev. J. W. Long, a 
Methodist minister; Lora M., who was born December 15, 1875, and is 
at home: Ella M., who was born Eebruary 24, 1878, and is at home; 
Eva M.. who was born September 7, 1879, anc l died January 13, 1898; 
Vernon I'., who was born October 7, 188 1, and is conducting a lumber- 
yard at Hondo; and Homer E., who was born August 31, 1884, and is 
yet with his parents. The family are all members of the Methodist 
church, in the work of which they take an active and helpful part. This 
has been the faith of the family through many generations and Mr. King 
has been most loyal to the teachings of the church. He has served as 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 185 

steward for many years, has also been superintendent of the Sunday 
school for a long period and is a most devoted church worker, doing all 

in his power to promote the growth and insure the success of the or- 
ganization with which lie is identified. In politics he is a stalwart 
Democrat. His life has been honorable and his actions manly and 
sincere, and by all who know him he is accorded that genuine respect 
which is given only in recognition of high and manly qualities. 

W. B. Ktng dates his residence in Medina county from 1876 and 
is still engaged in farming on the land which he purchased when he first 
located here, his tract of land being situated four miles from Hondo. He 
was born in Tennessee, November 4, 1834, the King family having been 
established in that state by William King, the grandfather, who removed 
there from South Carolina. He was engaged in farming in Tennessee 
for many years and his death occurred in that state. His family num- 
bered five sons and two daughters, namely : John J. ; Charles ; Isaac : 
George; Wylie, who served in the war of 1812, and was with Jackson at 
the battle of New Orleans ; Mrs. Caroline Garreth ; and Emily, who 
married and settled in Kentucky. 

John J. King, the eldest son of the family, who became the father 
of W. B. King, was born and reared in Tennessee, where he was also 
married. He was there engaged in farming for some years, when he 
took up his abode in the Republic of Texas, first locating in Montgomery 
county. He purchased land and began farming on a large scale, while 
he was likewise a slave owner. He continued his residence in [Mont- 
gomery, later in Grimes county until 1850, when he disposed of his pro- 
perty there and removed to Hayes county, where he purchased and im- 
proved a farm. His first wife passed away in Grimes county and he 
was married a second time, while his death occurred in 1852 in Hayes 
county, being the result of exposure from settling in this new and un- 
settled district. He was a consistent member of the Methodist church, 
in which he took an active and helpful part in the moral development of 
the community, while to the poor and needy he was a kind and helpful 
friend. He was a man of sterling integrity and honor, highly respected 
in the community where he resided. Of the father's first marriage there 
were two children who lived to maturity: W. B., whose name intro- 
duces this record ; and Elizabeth, who was married in Hayes county to 
John W. Day, and at her death left a family. Of the second marriage 
there were two sons : Isaac W., a prominent stock farmer of Medina 
county, and also president of a bank ; and Horace P., who died at the 
age of seventeen years. Following the death of the father, his widow 
kept the children together, carefully rearing and educating them. She 
was later married to Judge George Harper, a prominent stock farmer 
of Medina county, and he was also at one time county judge. Previous 
to her marriage to Mr. King she had married a man by the name of 
Smith. By a previous marriage Judge Harper reared several children 
and had sons who served in the war, although he himself was too old 
to engage in active service. 

W. B. King was brought to Montgomerv county by his parents, and 
later accompanied them on their removal to Hayes county. Following 
his father's death he continued to live with his stepmother, remaining 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

under the parental roof until twenty-two years of age, during which 
time lie had accumulated some stock, hoping- that he would at length be, 
enabled to engage in business on his own account. In 1856 he estab- 
lished a home oi his own by his marriage to Miss Rebecca Lancaster, 
who was born in Georgia, in 1837, a daughter of the Rev. T. A. Lan- 
caster, a minister oi the Methodist denomination. lie was a pioneer 
minister oi Texas and assisted in the organization of many churches, 
lie devoted his life to the moral development of this country and his 
influence was widely felt. He was twice married but survived both 
his companions. 1 le spent his declining years in the home of his daughter 
Mrs. King, and after a residence of about ten years with her, passed 
away, after which his remains were interred in the Hondo cemetery. 
His children were: Sarah; Rebecca, the wdfe of W. B. King; Mary; 
Joseph; Frank; Wesley; John; James, who entered the Confederate 
army and never returned from the war. 

Following his marriage Mr. King rented a farm and engaged in the 
raising of stock to quite an extent. Later he purchased a farm in 
Guadalupe county, there continuing until 1876, when he took up his 
abode on his present farm in Medina county. When he arrived here 
the country was but sparselv settled and the people were struggling along 
in trying to provide for their families. Stock raising was the chief 
source of income and cotton had not yet been planted, for it had not yet 
been found to be a profitable industry, but this has since formed one of 
the principal industries of the southwest. Mr. King has usually had 
good crops of corn and oats and only one year since coming to the county 
has he found it necessary to buy corn. He is likewise engaged in raising 
cotton to some extent and this adds materially to his financial resources. 
His property is located four miles from Hondo and he has made it a 
well improved and valuable tract of land. 

The only interruption to his business interests was at the time of ' 
the Civil war, when, in 1862, Mr. King enlisted for service in the Con- 
federate army. Pie was in Foster's Company and Wood's Regiment of 
the Thirty-second Texas Cavalry, being mustered in at San Antonio. He 
was assigned to service along the coast and later went into Louisiana, 
where he participated in the battle at Blair's Landing on Red river and 
from there marched along the Red river where he was engaged in many 
skirmishes, after which he patrolled the country after Jayhawkers. He 
served until the close of hostilities and was at Houston when Lee sur- 
rendered. Although he saw some very hard service, Mr. King was 
never wounded nor taken prisoner but he endured all the hardships and 
exposures which are meted out to the soldier. 

Returning home with a most creditable military record, he joined 
hi- family in Guadalupe county, where he resumed farming operations 
until his removal to Medina county, and here he has lived since 1876. 
His family numbered seven children: Mary S., the wife of W. Foster, 
a resident of Sonora, Mexico; John T., a resident of Oklahoma; Charles, 
who died in Llano county, Texas; Rebecca, the wife of John T. Walters; 
William, who was murdered in Arizona: Jennie, the wife of T. Hooks; 
and Isaac, who was killed in a mine in Arizona. Mrs. King and the 
children are members of the Methodist church. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 187 

James W. Heath, a descendant of an honored family of Medina 
county, owns and operates the old homestead ranch in Medina county, 
Texas. He was born in Walker county, March 15, 1850, a son of Simon 
Peter and Lavina (Winsett) Heath, both of whom were born and reared 
in Tennessee, where they were also married, and soon after removed to 
Texas, becoming early settlers of Walker county, the year of their arrival 
in that county being. 1835. The father there bought and improved land 
and became a prominent farmer and slaveowner. In 1854 he disposed 
of his property in that county and came to Medina county, settling on 
Hondo creek, where he bought a large tract of land and engaged in the 
stock business, being quite successful for' some time, but eventually the 
Indians became very troublesome and made many raids among the stock 
and he finally sent his horses back to Guadalupe county, where they might 
be safe. He had many narrow escapes at the hands of the Indians and 
on one occasion barely made his escape. Many of the white settlers left 
that portion of the state because of the red men, but Mr. Heath possessed 
a brave and courageous spirit and would not be driven out by them. 
He accumulated a goodly competence, being very successful in his busi- 
ness ventures. Although he was too old to enter the army he gave his 
influence for the Confederacy. He was a strong Democrat but never 
aspired to public office. He ever led an upright and honest life and was 
a leading factor in the Missionary Baptist church. He died on the old 
homestead, while he was survived by his wife for three years, and she, 
too, was a worthy and consistent member' of the Missionary Baptist 
church. She had one brother, John Winsett, who first settled in Atascosa 
county but later took up his abode in Valverde county and passed away 
at Del Rio. Mr. Heath also had one brother, Richard Heath, who came 
to Texas, settling in Lavaca county, but he later removed to Mexico, 
where his death occurred. The family of Mr. Heath numbered seven 
children: Margaret, who first married a Mr. Smith and for her second 
husband married John Scoggins ; Lewis, a stock farmer of Medina 
county; Mrs. Sarena Rackley ; Jessie, who died at the age of twenty-two 
years; Simon P., Jr., who was accidentally killed; Mrs. Sarah J. Mc- 
Master ; and James W. 

James W. Heath accompanied his parents on their removal from 
Walker county to Medina county, being at that time a little lad of four 
years. He remained with his parents throughout their lives. He ac- 
cumulated considerable stock for himself and in addition to caring for 
this also conducted his father's stock farm. Following the death of his 
parents he and his brother purchased the interest of the other heirs in 
the old home place, a portion of which he yet owns. Thev were engaged 
in business together for a number of years, but eventuallv divided their 
interests, since which time James W., has continued in business alone. 
From time to time he has increased his landed possessions until he is 
now the owner of five hundred acres of rich and valuable land, which 
he rents, while he owns altogether two thousand acres of land. In addi- 
tion to his stock-raisine interests he has also engaged in raising cotton 
and sorghum hay, which has proved a profitable source of income. 
Practically all that he todav possesses has been gained through his own 
well directed labors and capable business management, for he had little 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

assistance from his father's estate. In 181)4 he retired from the ranch 
and removed to 1 tondo in order to give his children good school ad- 
vantages. Upon removing to this city he purchased a nice residence 
property, which he later sold, and has recently erected a two-story frame 
sidence, surrounded h\ a large and well kept lawn, lie still superin- 
tends his ranching interests, making frequent trips to his farm. He is 
a stalwart advocate of Democratic principles but has never had aspiration 
for political honors or emoluments. He affiliates with the Woodmen of 
the World and the Knights of Honor. 

In 1872 occurred the marriage of Mr. Heath and Miss Eliza Gal- 
hreath. who was horn in this state, September 10, 1859, a daughter of 
Thomas and Nancy Jane (Winans) Galbreath, the former a native of 
>rgia, while the latter was horn in Illinois. The father on coming to 
Texas, first located in Caldwell county. Mrs. Galbreath was a daughter 
oi Francis Winans. a native of Illinois, who came to Texas at an early 
day and settled in Bastrop county, where he became a prominent farmer 
and slave owner, hut he later sold out and removed to Atascosa county, 
subsequent to which time he made a prospecting trip to Honduras, re- 
maining there nine vears, during which time he was engaged in the fruit 
business. He once more returned to Texas, where he spent his remain- 
ing days, his death occurring in Bastrop county. He was a native of 
Pennsylvania and of German descent, and during his residence in Texas 
lie won the respect and good will of a large circle of friends. He was 
twice married and by his first union had one son, Isaac, a resident of 
Missouri, while eleven children were born of the second marriage, these 
being: Eliza A., who became the wife of J. Billingsly; Nancy Jane, 
who wedded Thomas Galbreath; William, who served in the war; Caro- 
line, the wife of G. Wheat; Edward, who also served in the Confederate 
army ; Emily, the wife of T. T. Teel ; Robert, who died during his service 
in the army ; Lewis, who died when young ; Frank, a stock farmer ; 
Rosette, the wife of John Nix; and Mrs. Melvina Smith. The parents 
and children were all identified with the Christian church. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Galbreath were born three children: 
Frank, of Devine, Texas ; Isaac, who met his death at the hands of the 
Indians, when a youth of seventeen years; and Eliza, who is now Mrs. 
Heath. The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Heath has been blessed with six 
children : Thomas, who is engaged in the stock business ; Nora, at 
home; Frank, who is a bookkeeper ; Robert, Ira and Hazel, all still under 
the parental roof. All have been afforded liberal educational advantages. 
The family are prominent in the social circles of Hondo, and the hos- 
pitality of their own pleasant home is greatly enjoyed by their many 
friend-. 

W. B. Adams, in whose death on October 31, 1906, Southwest 
Texas lost a banker, merchant and stockman, the extent of whose business 
interests made him an important factor in the material, commercial and 
financial circles of Devine, Medina county, and a man who for all that 
is commendable in business life — the alert, enterprising spirit and a con- 
formity to a high standard of commercial ethics. 1 le was born in Dallas 
county, Alabama, in 1859, acquired a good education, and in 1882 came 
to Texas, locating in San Antonio. There he entered the employ of the 




VK>-^ OU^wva 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 189 

old and well known mercantile firm of D. & A. Oppenheimer, with whom 
he remained for about eight years — a trusted and highly valued employe, 
in testimony of which is given the fact that Colonel Dan and Anton 
Oppenheimer, were the financial support of Mr. Adams when he, the 
latter, started in business for himself, and always remained firm business 
friends and advisers. 

In 1890 Mr. Adams established a small store at Devine, thirty-five 
miles southwest of San Antonio. That was the beginning of the present 
large mercantile, banking, stock and farming interests. The business 
now constitutes, briefly stated, the following : The Adams Company, 
which for many years was conducted under the firm name of W. J ). 
Adams & Company but since its incorporation under the state laws, in 
January, 1906, was known as the Adams Company. This store has the 
largest and most successful business of any store in southwestern Texas 
outside of San Antonio and draws trade from four counties. In many 
ways it is a remarkable establishment. Its truthfully stated advertising 
device — "dealers and traders, everything from a rat skin to a ranch" — 
is widely known to the people of Southwestern Texas as well as to the 
thousands of travelers who see the sign from the train of the International 
& Great Northern Railroad. The store carries large and complete stocks 
of merchandise and machinery. A farmer or stockman can bring in 
anything and everything he produces and find the highest cash market 
price for it at Adams' store and likewise can buy anything he requires. 
The store in its management is along the lines of the best modern busi- 
ness principles, its selling force well trained and its general organization 
equal to that of the largest metropolitan mercantile establishment. Mat 
Keller, a young man, who was taken into the store by Mr. Adams when 
he was sixteen years old and grew up with the business, is superintendent 
of the sales floor, a position he fills with the highest efficiency and satis- 
faction both to the firm and to the customers. In direct charge of the 
entire mercantile business of the Adams Company is L. F. Price, a 
member of the firm. Mr. Price came to this business from San Antonio, 
where he had many years' successful business experience. C. M. Thomp- 
son, also a member of the firm, was with Mr. Adams in the old firm of 
W. B. Adams & Company. 

In 1904 Mr. Adams organized and incorporated the Adams National 
Bank, capitalized at fifty thousand dollars, w r ith W. B. Adams as presi- 
dent ; A. M. Patterson as cashier; and several other substantial citizens 
as directors and stockholders. This was the only bank in Devine at that 
time and still meets the financial interests of the business men, farmers 
and stockmen over a large territory. 

The Adams farms conducted under the name of W. B. Adams & 
Company and constituting twenty-five hundred acres of rich farming 
lands, lying a short distance north of Devine, have been of the greatest 
benefit in developing the material resources and demonstrating the possi- 
bilities of the country in this portion of the state. "When Mr. Adams 
first located in Devine the few farmers who were in this district at the 
time were as a rule poor and making hardly any progress in the way of 
bettering their own financial conditions. Their efforts were confined 
to the raising of corn and cotton and the methods of farming were not 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

productive of the best results attainable. A glance at the situation bere 
now reveals almost pleasing prospect of highly cultivated fields with 
diversified crops, while the owners o\ the farms are contented and pros- 
perous and making more money every year. This is the result of Mr. 

Adams' successful efforts among his farms to demonstrate the possibilities 
of the diversified crops in this section. .It has been his constant aim to 
build up and assist the growth of the surrounding country and the de- 
velopment and advancement of his own business has been followed by 
corresponding growth oi the agricultural prosperity of this portion of 
the state. In fact all his interests are so closely interwoven with the 
interests of the surrounding community that they are practically one and 
the same. 

In the settlement of the surrounding country it was Mr. Adams' aim 
to have the citizenship compose only men of character, stability and 
ambition, men who are desirous of forging ahead in the world and whose 
methods (^i advancement are commendable. His efforts in this direction 
have resulted in making the Devine country as nearly ideal as possible 
m the standpoint of a citizenship composed of straightforward, happy 
and prosperous people. Mr. Adams was an unusually exact judge of 
human character and it is said that he never made a mistake in "sizing 
up" a man. During the years he was in business here, conducting trans- 
actions amounting at times to hundreds of thousands of dollars, he lost 
less than one thousand dollars from bad accounts. With him the personal 
equation amounted to more in a business deal than mere collateral. He 
was peculiarly successful in surrounding himself with employes and 
assistants that were of the best type and who invariably proved their 
worth in a business transaction. 

The Adams firm deals heavily in ranch lands which are subdivided 
into farms of practically one hundred and sixty acres though some are 
greater and some less in extent, thus giving the honest, well meaning 
purchaser an opportunity to secure a home and also extend their help 
and encouragement for him to get ahead and succeed. The firm also 
does an extensive business in live stock, dealing in horses, mules, cattle 
and hogs. The Adams mercantile, banking, farm and stock industries 
employ over one hundred people. In 1905 the Adams firm received 
nearly fifty thousand dollars from their crops. The firm has bought and 
cleared off more land than any other firm in Texas and the development 
of the surrounding country has been such that now, during an ordinary 
season, an average of one hundred bales of cotton per day (during the 
harvest season) are received at the local gins, which bring about fifty 
dollars per bale, giving an idea of the wealth of the community. All 
this is in addition to numerous other crops and to the stock interests. 
When the boll-weevil threatened the destruction of the cotton industry, 
Mr. Adams bought in hogs and dairy cattle and introduced speckled 
peas for a feeding crop. In this and numerous other ways he has been 
a most valued factor in building up the community and developing its 
natural resources. Tie has always worked in hearty co-operation with 
the Internationa] & Great Xorthern Railroad in developing this portion 
of the state. 

Mr. Adams was an active participant in worthy local enterprises, 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 191 

particularly in behalf of the public schools, for the support of which he 
made generous contributions. He was treasurer of the present school 
board, which built the beautiful high school building at Devine, and no 
movement for the benefit of the city failed to receive his endorsement and 
co-operation. 

Mr. Adams was married twice. His first wife, who died in j 893, 
was Miss May Crawford, of Texarkana, Texas, and they had two chil- 
dren, Walter F. and Fannie. Mr. Adams later married Miss Lizzie Cook, 
and they have one son, Temple Adams. Mr. Adams belonged to the 
Masonic and some other fraternal orders but his time and energies were 
concentrated upon the management of his business affairs, which indicate 
his splendid executive force, his keen discrimination and his wise and 
wide insight into business possibilities, and intricate business problems. 
His name is synonymous with the growth and development of his por- 
tion of the state and at all times he was the leading spirit here. At his 
death he was mourned and missed not only by his immediate family, but 
by hundreds of citizens who had learned to love and respect him for 
his generosity and love of his family, friends and his country. He was 
ever ready to help the needy. He was a kind and loving husband, father 
and friend, and his memory will long survive him in Devine where he 
was best known. 

J. M. Bright, a veteran of the Confederate army, and a pioneer 
settler of Medina county, Texas, was born in Wilson county, Tennessee, 
July 1, 1830. He is a son of Harvey and Betsey Bright, of North Caro- 
lina, in which state they were married ; he being of English descent, and 
the only one of the name known to our subject. The elder Mr. Bright 
moved from North Carolina to Tennessee, after his marriage, and settled 
on a farm, and here his children were born and reared, and he resided 
until his death. He was a consistent and worthy member of the Primitive 
Baptist church and was well known and highly respected in his com- 
munity. In politics he was a Democrat, but was never an aspirant for 
office or notoriety. His wife survived him for a number of years and 
devoted herself to her children, raising them at the old homestead, where 
sjie died at a ripe old age. She, in common with her husband, held 
membership in the Primitive Baptist church. Their children numbered 
three : J. M. ; Joseph, who was killed at Richmond, Virginia while serv- 
ing in the Confederate army; and Benjamin, who served through the war. 
in the southern army, and received wounds in the fight at Murfreesboro 
which rendered him a cripple for life. 

Mr. J. M. Bright remained with his widowed mother, in Tennessee, 
until past eighteen years of age ; going, however, in 1849 to Oregon, and 
the following year to California, where he was employed, for a time in 
the mines, and later engaged in trading. This line he followed until the 
earlv part of 1854, when he joined a party of engineers engaged on a 
preliminary survey for the Southern Pacific Railway, continuing- this sur- 
vey until thev met the eastern party of engineers at the Rio Grande 
River, when both parties dissolved. From this point, his health having 
become broken from continued chills and fever, Mr. Bright went to San 
Antonio with the hooe of recuperating, in which search for health he 
was rewarded by finding that the climate seemed adapted to his needs. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

At San Antonio he opened a mechanics' boarding house, which he 
ran successfully for one year. Mis next venture was stock raising and 
farming, which he followed until March. [862, when he enlisted in Com- 
pany C, Thirty-second Texas Cavalry, in the Confederate service, going 
immediately into camp at San Antonio. 1 le met with an accident Decem- 
ber 24, [857, which resulted later in disability, and he was honorably dis- 
charged on that account. Recovering, however, he re-enlisted in the 
early part y'\ 1S04. and was assigned to the commissary department, with 
which he served until the close o\ the war. 

At the conclusion oi the war, Mr. Bright resumed his farming and 
st^ck raising, devoting most of his time to the latter branch, and having 
tine herds of horses. Later he moved to Chicon Creek, two miles from 
the site of the present town of Devine. The range was then free, and 
the \vc^\ good, so that his stock flourished and his herds increased, but 
in [867-8 hostile Indians began a series of raids, which materially 
diminished his herds and those of his neighbors. These Indians were an 
almost constant source of annoyance for some time, and Mr. Bright 
relates that they had many fights with them, during which the Indians 
carried off a number of white scalps to show 7 to their tribe as evidence 
of their prowess; and that in one fight, which occurred a few miles east 
of where Devine now stands, the white party were very nearly am- 

aded. but fortunately managed to surround the red-skins and killed 
all but one of them. 

In 1875 Mr. Bright bought out a squatter, who had made some 
small improvements on his property, and later pre-empted the tract, which 
consisted of 160 acres, as a homestead, and began making permanent 
improvements. A portion of this tract he still owns, and here he con- 
tinued his stock raising until 1896, when he sold out the business. In 

Town of Devine. 

[88i the I. & G. X. Railway built through a portion of Mr. Bright's 
ranch, and the company started the town of Devine. In 1885 Mr. Bright 
plotted Bright's First Addition to Devine, and in January, 1907, he has 
plotted Bright's Second Addition. He has been very successful in the 
sale of lots and improved property in that location, retaining, however, 
much that is a source of good income, in the way of rentable property. 
His lots are meeting with a ready sale, the town being a growing one, 
and the surrounding country settled by thrifty farmers. In T895 he 
retired from active farm work and has since given his time to his prop- 
erty interests. 

The town of Devine has, apparently, a fine outlook for the future, 
numbering, already, 2,000 inhabitants, and possessing a fine graded school ; 

churches, including Baptist, Methodist Episcopal, Christian, Catholic, 
and Mexican Methodist; one national bank, and one state bank; three 
large cotton gins. Tt has everything that goes to make up a thriving town 
with future possibilities, and the outlying district is a fine agricultural 
section, and raises a variety of fruits in profusion. Mr. Bright states 
that when he first came to this section there were but few settlers, and 
that the majority of them were raising stock, without attempting to raise 
anything but corn, not knowing anything else would mature here. Those 
who planted grain, however, and gave it proper attention, were amply 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS [93 

repaid, and it has been demonstrated that corn raising can be made a 
success here, as all crops can be raised without irrigation. 

Mr. Bright has seen the development of this section from its primi- 
tive state, and, pardonably, looks with pride upon the present evidences 
of prosperity, for this state of affairs was made possible only through the 
hardships and deprivations that the pioneer settler underwent in building 
the foundations on which this present prosperous town was erected. 

Mr. Bright's wife was a Miss Sarah A. Lackey, a lady of culture and 
refinement, and a daughter of John Lackey of Tennessee, who in an early 
day moved to Texas and settled near San Antonio where he engaged in 
the stock business, following that successfully until 1849 when his death 
occurred as a result of cholera which was then prevalent in that section. 
Mrs. Bright was a worthy helpmeet and devoted her life to her home 
and community. She died March 15, 1904. She was an honored mem- 
ber of the Christian church. 

James R. Evans, M. D., engaged in the practice of medicine and 
also in the conduct of a drug store at Devine, Medina county, was born 
in Tazewell, Claiborne county, Tennessee, in 1845, his; parents being 
Walter R. and Judith (George) Evans. The father was also a native 
of Tazewell, born January 13, 180Q, and the paternal grandfather, 
Walter Evans, was the first clerk of Claiborne county. The family is of 
Welsh and Irish lineage, and representatives of the name have been 
associated with the history of Claiborne county and East Tennessee since 
the days of pioneer settlement in that section of the country. Judge 
Walter R. Evans, the father of our subject, was in his day the most 
famous lawyer of Claiborne and surrounding counties, leaving the im- 
press of his individuality indelibly stamped upon the history of juris- 
prudence there. He died in Tazewell, July 5, 1871, and a. remarkable 
tribute to his character and^ abilitv was bestowed, when, on the 30th 
of May, 1899, twenty-eight years after his death, a monument was dedi- 
cated to his memory by the bar association and representative citizens 
of the county in which he had lived and labored. He was admitted to 
the bar January 31, 1830, and practiced law in the courts of Claiborne, 
Campbell, Union, Granger and Hanover counties for more than fortv 
years. During this period, one of the most momentous in the history 
of the state and nation, he was connected with almost every important 
case that came up for trial within the territory named. He maintained 
the "old fashioned" standard of honesty and his sense of honor was 
such that he would not accept a fee or case wherein in his judgment 
there was not a just cause. Chief Justice Micholson and other promi- 
nent members of the Tennessee bar paid him the tribute of being one 
of the best and ablest lawyers in his day. 

Dr. Evans, after acquiring a good literary education, took up the 
study of medicine in the college in Louisville, Kentucky, from which 
he was graduated. That year he came to Texas, locating first in Wil- 
liamson county, and in 1875 he came to the southeast part of Medina 

Beginning of Devine. 

county, locating at his present home, where the flourishing little city of 
Devine now stands. It was then a frontier country and the Doctor 

Vol. II. 13 



[94 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

ills that the last Indian raid, in which one man was killed, took 
place after his arrival here — in [876. In [88] the International & Great 
\ rthera Railroad was completed' through this section oi the country, 
and about [882 the town of Devine had its beginning. Its substantial 
growth and its high class of citizens are justly matters of pride to those 
who. like Dr. Evans, have been connected with the town since its be- 
ginning, lie has enjoyed prosperity in his profession and business 
interests and has been a generous giver to the town, rendering substan- 
tial assistance in various ways from year to year. He is proprietor of 
the Lion drug store, established in 1900, and has a large and growing 
business, and he has real-estate interests in addition to which he con- 
tinues in general practice of medicine with an extensive and important 
patronage, lie belongs to the varions medical societies, keeps in tonch 
with the onward trend of thought and practice and ever maintains a 
high standard of professional ethics. 

Dr. Evans was married to Miss C. B. Word, of Kentucky, and 
they have a daughter. Katie Evans. The doctor and his wife have a wide 
acquaintance in Devine, while their own home is the center of a cul- 
tured society circle and its social functions are the delight of many 
friends. 

Hon. James C. Thompson, landowner, farmer and stockman of 
Devine, Medina county, has always resided in the south, his birth hav- 
ing occurred in Amite county, Mississippi, January 14, 1861, his parents 
being William and Eunice Elizabeth (Young) Thompson. His father 
and his maternal grandfather first came to Texas during the latter part 
of the Civil war and located temporarily on the Red river. William 
Thompson had been the owner of a large plantation but his property 
had been devastated by the contending armies. He and his father-in- 
law afterward returned to Mississippi, but in 1866 came to Texas with 
their respective families and located on the Blanco river about four 
miles from San Marcos. They lived there for two years, and in 1869 
removed to San Antonio, while in 1871 they located on Chicon creek 
in Medina county, three miles from the present site of Devine. There 
the Thompson family homestead was maintained for many years and 
upon that place William Thompson died in 1895. ^ e was a gentleman 
of fine character and a very able man intellectually. He possessed, 
moreover, excellent business ability and executive force, and was a suc- 
cessful stockman. His widow, a native of Mississippi, is still living. 
( me of the sons of the family, W. F. Thompson, is a prominent mer« 
chant and banker at Pearsall, Texas. 

Hon. James C. Thompson was reared amid pioneer surroundings 
in the southeastern section of Medina county, which has always been 
hi- home. This region was the hotbed of trouble during the days of 
the Indian raids in the '70s, and he remembers many incidents of those 
thrilling times. The present cemetery site in Devine was dedicated by 
the burial of three white men who had been killed by the Indians. Mr. 
Thompson's early youth and young manhood were spent in the cat- 
tlr- business and as a cowboy he worked all over the range of western 
Texas and made three trips with stock over the trails, one of them 
taking him through Indian Territory, Kansas, Nebraska, Dakota and 




/ /^Z^^>c 



7 * 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 195 

Montana into the Powder river country of northwest Wyoming. His 
pioneer surroundings having deprived him of suitable school facilities, 
ne determined to supply this lack in later years and spent some time as a 
student in Baylor University. Tie also studied law, first in the office 
of Hon. Columbus Upson at San Antonio, and later as a student in the 
law department of the University of Texas, from which he was gradu- 
ated in 1888. In that year he was elected county attorney of .Medina 
county. He built up a successful practice as a member of the bar and 
was county attorney for six years altogether. Although he made rapid 
and substantial advance as an able practitioner at the bar and seemed 
peculiarly fitted by nature for that profession he decided to discontinue 
professional labors and engaged in larger and more remunerative opera- 
tions in land and the stock business. He has shown somewhat remark- 
able acumen in buying and developing farming land and has sold sev- 
eral tracts near Devine for one hundred dollars or more per acre — record 
prices in Southwest Texas, which is still a new country agriculturally, 
riis land operations have made him a wealthy man and he owns several 
fine farms near Devine, his home place being one mile south of the 
town. 

Mr. Thompson was married in 1896 to Miss Abbie Brown, a daugh- 
ter of Ed Brown, a well known Texas pioneer, who lives in Devine. 
They have three sons, Homer, Leslie and Wallace. The life history of 
Mr. Thompson illustrates most happily what can be accomplished 
through determination and the utilization of opportunities. He has 
studied conditions and possibilities, has come to a comprehensive under- 
standing of the natural resources of the state and by looking forward 
to the future has placed his investments judiciously and has realized 
a splendid income therefrom. 

George W. Brown, serving as postmaster at Devine, Medina 
county, was born in New York city in 1843, and was reared and edu- 
cated there. In i860, having relatives in western Illinois, he made his 
way to that portion of the state in order to work on a farm with them. 
After the outbreak of the Civil war he went to Quincy, Illinois, and, 
joining one of the early regiments that was organized in response to Lin- 
coln's first call for troops, became a member of Company E, of the 
Sixteenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. These were the first troops of 
four hundred men sent into northern Missouri over the Hannibal and 
St. Joseph Railroad. On the 1st of January, 1862, Mr. Brown with 
his regiment left St. Joseph and went to Cairo, Illinois, whence they 
afterward proceeded to New Madrid and Island No. 10, reinforcing 
Halleck's army after the battle of Shiloh. Thus they continued in that 
part of the country to the second battle of Corinth, Mississippi, and sub- 
sequently went to Tuscumbia and to Nashville, where they joined the 
Army of the Cumberland. The Sixteenth Illinois became a part of the 
Fourteenth Army Corps under General Thomas. As a member of this 
army Mr. Brown fought in the battles of Murfreesboro, Tulahoma, 
Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and all of the battles of that campaign. 
He afterward participated in the long siege that resulted in the battle 
and eventually the fall of Atlanta, ending in September, 1864. He 
thence went with Sherman on the march to the sea, into the Carolinas, 



iwo HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

to Washington and participated in the grand review, after which he 
proceeded to Springfield, Illinois, where he was honorably discharged, 
subsequently returning to his old home in New York city. Mr. Brown 
had been promoted to the rank o\ first lieutenant of his company and 
before the war closed he was brigade quartermaster. On the march to 
the sea he commanded Genera] Sherman's regimental foragers. 

In 1866 Mr. Brown again left home and went to Texas locating on 
a ranch in Medina county, two and a half miles west of Castroville. He 
has since been a citizen of Medina county and when the town of De- 
vine was started on the completion of the railroad in 1881 he removed 
to this vicinity ami has since made his home here. For some years he 
lived K^n his ranch four miles west of the town hut later took up his 
abode within the corporation limits. He has been postmaster of Devine 
almost continuously since 1889, and the office was raised from fourth 
to third class on the 1st of October, 1906. Previons to becoming post- 
master he had been justice of the peace, deputy sheriff and deputy 
United States marshal. In the latter position he served under United 
States Marshals Hal Gosling and John Rankin and assisted in the cap- 
tnre of many notorious criminals of those days. He has also had ex- 
perience in the numerous Indian troubles of Medina county from 1866 
until 1876 and has braved the dangers of pioneer life. His has been a 
career in which there have been many exciting chapters and incidents 
but at all times he has displayed the qualities of a manly man, cour- 
ageous in the face of danger and always loyal to his duty. 

Mr. Brown was married in Medina county to Miss Hettie A. 
Moore, who was born in Mississippi but was reared in Texas. 

John A. Kerciieville, a stockman of Devine, who is filling the 
position of deputy sheriff in Medina county, was born in Blanco county, 
Texas, in 1857, his parents being A. J. and Mary (McCrocklin) Kerciie- 
ville. The father, a native of Mississippi, came to Texas about 1845. 
He served as a soldier of the Mexican war, joining the army in 1846. 
He was a farmer and stockman and was identified with much of the 
early progress and improvements of the localities in which he made his 
home. He married in Washington county and later moved to Blanco 
county and now lives at Kyle. His wife was born in old Washington 
county, the seat of Texan independence. Her father, Colonel Jesse L. 
McCrocklin, was a noted Texas pioneer and soldier, who came to this 
state in 1835 fr°m Kentucky. He settled in Washington county and 
became associated with General Sam Houston and Ben Milam, in their 
efforts to secure Texan independence. He fought in the battle of San 
Jacinto and participated in other military movements, resulting in the 
overthrow of Mexican rule. Later he participated in the war between 
Mexico and the United States. He was a tvpical pioneer who had many 
thrilling adventures in .the wars and in fighting against the Indians for 
the control of this great state. He aided in subduing the wilderness and 
extending the frontier, and the part which he bore in reclaiming the 
district for civilization makes him worthy to be ranked with the honored 
pioneer -ettlers to whom is due a debt of gratitude that can never be 
repaid. 

John A. Kercheville's present home — in Devine, Medina county — 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 197 

goes back to 1878, at which time he came here although the town had 
not yet been started and it was not until the railroad was built that it 
had its inception in 1881. He spent several years as a cowboy on the 
open range and trails both in Mexico and over the northern trails to 
Kansas and Nebraska. During several years he drove cattle for Cap- 
tain John T. Lytle, the noted stockman, and for some years he also ran 
cattle of his own on the range. About 1896 he established a retail meat 
business in Devine, in which he has since been engaged with growing 
success, and in 1905 he built his present business block, a substantial 
brick structure, which is used for his meat and cold storage business 
and which also contains the new postoffice. 

Mr. Kercheville was married in 1883 to Miss Mattie Perkins, a 
native of Hayes county, Texas, and they have two sons, John Ira and 
Gus C. Kercheville. Mr. Kercheville is interested in matters of local 
progress and improvement, and his efforts have been effective forces in 
advancing the general good. He is a member of the board of school 
trustees of Devine and for the past twelve years has served as deputy 
sheriff of Medina county, holding the office under Sheriff Joe Ney. He 
is well known all over Southwestern Texas as a representative pioneer 
citizen and progressive business man and his labors have been an in- 
fluential factor in promoting the best interests of this part of the state. 

Floresville. 

Levi B. Wiseman, a prominent attorney of Floresville, Texas, and 
connected with the bank of H. W. Wiseman & Company, was born in 
Wilson county, Texas, August 8, 1873. He is a son of Hugh W. and 
Frances L. (Anderson) Wiseman, both natives of Mississippi, and who 
were married in Guadalupe county, Texas. Hugh W. Wiseman was a 
son of W. R. Wiseman of South Carolina, whose father emigrated from 
England and settled in South Carolina on a large tract of land which he 
received as a grant from the King of England. W. R. Wiseman, who 
located in Texas in 185 1, devoted his time to farming, and remained in 
Guadalupe county until his death, which occurred in January, 1888, at 
the age of seventy-two years. His first wife died in Mississippi and 
left two sons, James O., now deceased, and Hugh W., the father of our 
subject. The second wife, who still survives, at the age of eighty-eight 
years, was also mother of two sons, John E., the present nominee (iqo6) 
for district clerk of Wilson county, and Samuel, a prominent merchant. 

Hugh W. Wiseman was but seven years of age when his parents 
moved to Texas, and he grew to manhood in Wilson county, devoting his 
time to farming, and being one of the most successful farmers in that 
section. During the war of the rebellion he enlisted in the Confederate 
army, in the company of Governor Ireland, and served as private of 
that company until the close of the war. being assigned to the western 
department, and patrolling the coast of Texas. He is a member of the 
Presbyterian church, and has for many vears served as deacon and elder 
of that society. He is also a member of the Masonic fraternity. 

He was married twice ; first to Frances L. Anderson, a daughter 
of John R. and Ann Anderson of South Carolina, both of whom are 
now dead, he dying in 1898, at the age of seventy-two years, and she 



I - HISTORY OV SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

in 1903 at the age of eighty-nine; and second to Thurza Anderson, a 
sister of his first wife, by whom he has had no issue. The children of 
his first union were horn in the following order: John, Sarah, Levi B., 
\\ . R.. Thurza (Mrs. R. G. Murray), Alary (Mrs. Onderdonk), Robert, 
MarcelhlS, Howard and llatlie (Mrs. Maddox). 

Levi B. Wiseman early directed his attention toward the study of 
law. and was graduated from the law department of the Cumberland 
University, at Lebanon, Tennessee, with the degree of Master of Arts 
ami Law. He then took the examination before the board of examiners, 
and was granted license to practice his profession. In 1896 he opened 
an office in Floresville. and also associated himself with his brothers 
in the Wiseman Bank of Floresville, of which mention has before been 
made. This hank has a paid up capital and surplus of some thirty odd 
thousand dollars, with deposits amounting- to $100,000, and does a general 
banking and loan business, enjoying the reputation of being a safe and 
conservative institution. 

In 1898 Mr. Wiseman was married to Miss Gertrude Bump, born 
in the state of New York, September 11, 1871, and a daughter of J. C. 
and Nerissa I Allen) Bump, natives of New York, who emigrated to 
Texas in 1878, and settled in Guadalupe county, where Mr. Bump has, 
since followed farming as an occupation, and in which he has been 
very successful. He is a veteran of the Civil war, having served in the 
Federal army as lieutenant, and in politics is a staunch Democrat, 
although never an aspirant for public office. He is a member of the 
order of Masons, and is now, with his wife, enjoying the fruits of a 
well spent life at their homestead in Guadalupe county. Their children 
were two in number, Gertrude and Walter, who is now engaged in 
farming. 

Mr. Wiseman lends the weight of his influence to the cause of the 
Democratic party, but is not a seeker for public office, preferring to 
serve his party in a private capacity. Fraternally he is connected with 
the I. O. O. F., of which he is a valued member. His wedded life, 
though a very happy one, has not been blessed by issue. 

John E. Caxfield, a prominent attorney of Floresville, Texas, 
was born in Goliad, Texas, July 1, 1870, and is a son of William E. and 
Annie (Hughs) Canfield, the former a native of Mississippi, and the 
latter of Goliad, Texas. Zachariah Canfield, the grandfather, was born 
in Virginia, whence he moved to Mississippi, and came later to Texas, 
where he remained until his death. He had two sons, William E. and 
Jones, who died in Louisiana. William E. Canfield married at Goliad, 
at an early age, and spent several years in mercantile lines, until the 
outbreak of the Civil war, when he entered the Confederate service and 
was assigned to the quartermaster's department, with which he served 
until the close of the war. Upon his return from the army he found his 
business in a sad state and was practically forced to make a new start. 
1 [e therefore settled on a farm in Karnes county ; later moved to Wilson 
county, and subsequently returned to Goliad, where he re-engaged in 
mercantile pursuits, in which he was occupied until his death, in the 
early eighties. William E. Canfield was married twice, the first union 
being with Miss Neeley, a sister of Mrs. John McDaniel of Floresville. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 199 

Of this union five children were born. His second marriage was to 
Miss Annie Hughs, whose father was English by birth, and whose 
first daughter, Oceanica, was born on shipboard when her mother and 
father were emigrating to America. 

John E. Canfield, who was left an orphan when quite young, was 
brought up by a half-sister, Miss Callie Canfield (a daughter of William 
E. Canfield by his first wife), and to the motherless boy she devoted 
her time and attention, denying herself much and making numerous 
sacrifices that he might obtain an education and be fitted for a life of 
usefulness. She is still living and resides at Lavernia. 

John E. Canfield began reading law when quite young and obtained 
a temporary license to practice, and being of a legal turn of mind became 
greatly interested in the profession. In the meantime he had become 
associated with some important cases, and desiring to become better 
qualified he redoubled his efforts, and in T893 he had the satisfaction of 
passing the examination and being admitted to the bar. He has a 
general civil and criminal practice and one that has proved very lucra- 
tive. 

In 1898 he was elected to the office of county attorney, which he 
held for six years and then resigned, feeling that longer to neglect his 
private practice would work him great injury, and he has since refused 
public office, devoting his time to the interests of his clients. He is now 
a land and investment agent for Floresville, in which capacity he is 
employed in settling the country, and in affording reliable information 
to prospective homeseekers. 

Mr. Canfield was married in January, 1903, to Miss Lola Butler, 
born in Karnes county, Texas, in 1883, and a daughter of- N. G. and 
Mary (Elder) Butler, both natives of Texas and descendants of old 
pioneer families. To Mr. and Mrs. Canfield one child has been born. 
Fay Coleman. Mr. Canfield is a member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and is also a Royal Arch Mason and a Woodman of the World. 

Judge Henry B. Gouger, a lifelong resident of Texas and county 
judge of Wilson county, was born in that county September 25, 1857. 
His parents were Henry and Martha (Barrow) Gouger, natives, re- 
spectively, of North Carolina and Arkansas. The grandfather, a native 
of Pennsylvania and of German descent, moved, when a young man, to 
North Carolina; later to Arkansas; and in 1856 to Texas, where he 
located in Wilson county, making his home in his latter vears with his 
son Henry. His children numbered four : Henry, father of Judge 
Gouger; William (deceased), Nancy (Mrs. Butler) and James (de- 
ceased). 

Henry Gouger, father, was born in North Carolina and was reared 
in Arkansas, where he married. In 1856 he moved to Texas and located 
in Wilson county, where he engaged in stock ranching. During the 
Civil war he enlisted in the Confederate army and was detailed to freight 
cotton to Mexico and return with supplies. In this work he continued 
until the close of the war, when he returned home and resumed work 
on his ranch. He was a well known and highly respected member of 
his community and a worthy member of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. His death occurred December 10, 1874. His first wife, who 



200 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

died October 12, [866, was the mother of five children, viz.: John A., 
a merchant at Pleasanton; Robert W.. a stockman, now deceased; 
Nancy (Mrs. Morris), now deceased; Henry B., and Jeff J., a stockman 
oi the Indian Territory. His second wife, formerly Miss Lu Ball of 
North Carolina, was the mother oi two children, Gratz B., a druggist of 
Stockdale, Texas ; and Nora, a rice farmer. 

Henry B. Gouger was raised in Wilson comity and remained under 
the parental root" until eighteen years of age, assisting his father in 
business : but at that age embarked on a business venture of his own, 
in the way of sheep and cattle raising. This he followed successfully 
until 1884, when he sold out and moved to Floresville, where he found 
employment as a clerk, following this for about four years. Mr. Gouger 
had always been interested in politics and was for several years subse- 
quent to this employed in the offices of sheriff and tax collector, and 
later was elected mayor of Floresville, in which capacity he served for 
five years. He was successively elected justice of the peace, county 
commissioner, and in 1898 judge of the county court, which last office 
lie has held continuously since, having been re-elected at each election 
since. Mr. Gonger has been a faithful public servant and retains the well 
merited respect and good will of all who know him. He has been re- 
cently nominated for the office of which he is the present incumbent. 

Mr. Gonger was married in 1879 to Miss Mattie Ormand of Goliad 
count}'. Texas, a daughter of Jackson and Mildred (Rhode) Ormand, 
natives of Mississippi and Texas. Mr. Ormand was a Confederate vet- 
eran, a member of the Missionary Baptist church, and an honored citizen. 
His wife, who survived him, was later married to Hiram Griffiths, and 
resides at Floresville. She was the mother, by her first marriage, of 
-even children: Monroe, Poca, Jackson, Mattie (wife of our subject), 
Lee. Alexander and Henry E. 

Judge Gouger is vitally interested in all that pertains to the welfare 
of his state and that concerns the interests of his community ; has at- 
tempted in his years of public service to act in an unbiased and impartial 
manner ; and he keeps ever in mind that the goal to be attempted is the 
ultimate and continued prosperity of his fellow citizens, and not the 
aggrandizement of a favored few. Judge Gouger is well known in 
fraternal circles and is a member of the A. F. and A. M. 

Dr. Charles R. Watkins, who, through inherited instincts and from 
natural choice, has devoted his life to the ''healing art," is a prominent 
physician and surgeon of Floresville. His birth occurred in Tuscaloosa, 
Alabama, December 5, 1859. He received his elementary education at 
Oxford, Calhoun county, Alabama. He is a son of Dr. Robert H. 
and Sally ( Carter) Watkins, both natives of Alabama, in which state 
they were married. His paternal grandfather, Archibald Watkins, was 
born in Virginia, and was an early settler in Alabama, where he owned 
a large plantation. He was a general in the war of 1812, and was 
throughout his life a public spirited and enterprising citizen. In 1859 
he moved to Washington county, Texas, where he resided until his 
death. Iff exerted his influence in favor of the cause of the Con- 
federacy, but was too old to enter the active service. He was a member 
of the Methodist Fpiscopal church and was highly respected in Methodist 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 201 

circles. He was the father of six children: Quiritina, Joel \V. (a ph 
cian), John L. (a physician), Louisa, Musa D. and Robert II. (father 
of our subject and also a physician). Robert H. Watkins was reared in 
Alabama and chose the practice of medicine as his profession, studying 
with this end in view, and was graduated in 1863 with the degree of 
Master of Physics. Shortly after this he entered the Con federate army, 
and served as surgeon until the close of the war. After the war he 
entered the School of Medicine at Galveston and took some post-grad- 
uate work, practising after this in the hospitals in Galveston, and subse- 
quently locating at Brenham. In 1876 he located his practice in Flores- 
ville; in 1884 he moved to Dallas, and in 1889 he went to Mexico, where 
he remained until 1904. In this year he returned to Floresville, and hi^ 
health having broken down he went to San Antonio, where he died in 
a sanitarium, July 19, 1905, aged sixty-seven years. His first wife, 
Sally (Carter) Watkins, was the mother of four children: Charles R., 
John C., who died at the age of twenty-three years ; Edward E., de- 
ceased at twenty ; and Musa, wife of H. T. Rice. By his second wife, 
who was formerly a Miss Payne, he had three children: Alice L., 
Laura and Robert R. The second Mrs. Watkins died in Monterey, 
Mexico, February 3, 1903. 

C. E. Watkins began reading medicine with his father at the age 
of fifteen years and identified himself with his father's practice, gaining 
thereby much valuable practical experience. In 1885 he went with his 
father to Dallas and assisted him there until 1888, when he entered the 
medical department of the University of Texas at Galveston. In 1894 
he was granted a license by the board of medical examiners at Gonzales 
and returned to Floresville to practice. In 1894 he went to Mexico 
for the study of certain diseases which are somewhat rare in the United 
States. His sojourn there afforded him all the work he could possibly 
attend to, and resulted in much valuable experience. In 1901, having 
meanwhile returned to Texas, he located at Floresville, where he has 
since specialized in the treatment of cancer, and has also been very 
successful in treating appendicitis. Dr. Watkins enjoys a fine field for 
practice and has the confidence and esteem of his community. He owns 
a commodious cottage, in which he resides, in addition to other city 
property. He is a consistent member of the Church of Christ, and also 
holds membership in the Masonic fraternity, Odd Fellows. Woodmen 
of the World, and is connected with the National, State and County 
Medical Associations, being vice-president of the County Medical Society, 
and is also a frequent contributor to various medical journals. 

Dr. Watkins has been married three times : First to Miss Susie 
Dean, in 1884, who died without issue; second to Miss Gertrude Rich- 
ardson, who died in 180,9 ; and on November 21, iqoo, to Miss Bertha 
Sutton, a daughter of James M. and Mary (Carmichael) Sutton, both 
natives of Georgia. 

Frio County. 

August Obets. Among 'the pioneers of Frio county none are better 
known or more highly respected than August Obets, and his good wife, 
who before marriage was Miss Louisa Rihn. Mr. Obets was born in 



2 2 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Saxony, Germany, in 1849, aiu ^ ms lather. Fritz Obets, who was also a 
native 01 that kingdom, brought his family to Texas when August was 
an infant of two years. The family first located about forty miles north- 
ern Antonio, on a little stream called the Sahina, and here the 
father died. The remainder of the family removed to San Antonio and 
thence to Moore, where the mother died in 1804. 

Deprived oi all educational advantages, August Ohcts developed in 
this new, wild and raw country, and. under such adverse surroundings 
and circumstances; the outcome of his life is remarkable. The com- 
mencement oi his stock career was in early boyhood and continued 
through the turbulent years of the frontier free rangers, when there was 
practically no law and when it required never failing bravery, backed by 
plenty of six-shooters, to protect one's family and property from both 
Indians and desperadoes. Mr. Obets lived in Frio county through the 
severest period of Indian depredations, which extended from 1870 to 1877, 
the last raid occurring in 1888. Before he engaged in an independent 
business he became well known as an expert cow man and a breaker of 
wild horses, some of his most valuable experience being gained while he 
was working stock for that famous Texan, "Big Foot Wallace," whose 
history as a pioneer, Indian fighter, scout and soldier of many wars, 
constitutes a striking chapter in the annals of Southwest Texas. 

In 1870 August Obets located permanently in Frio county, establish- 
ing his ranch and homestead on the San Miguel river, about five miles 
from the present town of Moore, where he now resides. He and his 
wife were the first settlers of Moore Hollow, as the town was first called. 
The name is said to have been given to the creek, or hollow, from the fact 
that a man named Moore was killed by the Indians there in the early 
seventies. In 1874 Mr. Obets and wife established their home at Moore, 
and in 1876 built the first lumber house in town, their original residence 
being a glass-covered log house. From the first Mr. Obets was a suc- 
cessful grass man, and is now a large owner of both land and stock. His 
ranch is a fine propertv of 1,000 acres southeast of town, upon which he 
conducts general farming and stock raising. Mr. and Mrs. Obets have 
no children of their own, but, out of the goodness of their hearts, have 
faithfully reared three orphans. 

Mrs. Obets was married in 1870, being formerly, as stated, Miss 
I ouisa Rihn, .of Medina county. The ceremonv occurred at her home 
in ( 'astroville, and the young couple immediately came to Frio county. 
Mr-. August Obets was the first white woman settler of that region, 
and as a girl and voting wife she herself experienced all the dangers and 
hardships of pioneer life. Her father and grandfather, both named 
Io>renz Rihn, were among the little bind of colonists who founded Castro- 
ville. Thev were substantial and honorable Germans who established 
their home on the banks of the Medina river,' two miles below Castro- 
vil'e. The father entered the Civil war, and his other duties, in the 
earlv years, took him much away from home. Louisa, being the oldest 
of the children, assumed the burden of the household cares, and many 
of these responsibilities fell upon her before she was sixteen years of 
This was a most trying period in her life, as such wearing duties 
were performed in the midst of Indian outbreaks, with accompanying 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

thefts and murders. Consequently too much credit cannot be given to 
such pioneer mothers and faithful daughters as Mrs. Obets, who shared 
all the hardships and dangers of their male kindred and often, as un- 
known and unappreciated heroines. 

John J. Little, engaged in raising cattle on a ranch in Frio county, 
is a native son of Texas, his birth having occurred in Kendall county, in 
i860. His father, Bryce Little, was a native of Scotland, and in 1852 
emigrated to the United States, making his way direct to Kendall county. 
He became one of the most noted sheepmen of Texas and is still remem- 
bered in that connection. From Kendall county he removed with his 
family to Bandera county, thence to Mason county, and subsequently to 
Boerne, while in 187 1 he made a permanent location in Friotown, which 
was then a little frontier settlement in Frio county, situated on the Frio 
river. This became the first county seat of Frio county and in the early 
days was a well-known settlement. .Like the other settlers on the frontier 
the Little family endured all the hardships caused by the Indian raids, 
and the home of the family was known as the old Sheidley ranch, situated 
a mile and a half from Friotown. The mother bore the maiden name of 
Mary Cavney and was a native of Ireland. Her death occurred in Sep- 
tember, 1900, while the father survived until November 16, .1905, when 
he, too, was called to his final rest. Their daughter, Mrs* Maggie 
Graham, met her death at the hands of the Indians in Van Horn, Texas, 
May 13, 1880. 

. John J. Little is thoroughly familiar with all the exciting incidents 
which occurred in Southwestern Texas during the early days when the 
Indians were still numerous in this section of the state. He early became 
interested in the stock business, with which he has been connected to the 
present time. At first he was engaged principally in the sheep business, 
but for the past eighteen years has been engaged in raising, cattle, and 
is now the owner of a fine ranch in Frio county, situated eighteen miles 
northwest of Pearsall. His brother, David B. Little, is located on the 
Frio river near the old town of that name and is one of the best known 
sheepmen in the southwest, and takes frequent premiums when he exhibits 
his sheep in public. 

Mr. Little has taken a very active and helpful interest in local political 
ranks and although a Republican was elected to the office of sheriff in 
Frio county, filling the position with credit to himself and satisfaction to 
the general public. He discharged the duties of the office without fear 
or favor and strictly enforced the law, so that during his administra- 
tion Frio county and the town of Pearsall were rid of the rough element 
which had hitherto infested this district, and it has now been placed in 
the front ranks of the southwest in regard to respectability and order. 
His term of office expired in November, 1906, and he left the position 
as he had entered it — with the confidence and good will of the public 
at large. 

Mr. Little was married in Frio county to Miss Sallie Blackaller. a 
daughter of J. H. Blackaller, a well-known pioneer citizen, making his 
home on a ranch four miles from Friotown on the Frio river. Mr. and 
Mrs. Little lost their only child, Brvce Little, who was killed bv a horse. 



204 HISTOkY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Captain James C. B. Hark n ess was born in Greene county, Ala- 
bama, Jul) 23, 1S4J. a son o\ \\ . B. and Sarah ^Bizzelle) Harkness. 
The father was horn In South Carolina but spent the greater part of his 
life in Alabama, becoming a prominent planter and citizen of Greene 
county. 

Captain Harkness was reared in his native state and it was there that 
lie joined the Confederate army at the time i)\ the Civil war. He 
enlisted in [86l as a member oi the Eutaw Rifles, state troops, with which 
organization he went to the defense of Fort Morgan on Mobile Hay. On 
returning from this expedition the Eutaw Rifles were organized into 
two companies, becoming a part oi the Eleventh Alabama in the regu- 
lar Confederate service under Colonel Sydenham Moore, in Wilcox's 
Alabama Brigade. This famous brigade formed a part of the army of 
Northern Virginia, first in Longst'reet*s Corps and later in General A. P. 
Hill'- Corps. Captain Harkness participated in all of the great historic 
battles oi the war in Virginia and Pennsylvania. Taking part in the battle 
of Seven Pines on the 31st of May, 1862, he was subsequently in the 
righting before Richmond, and here he was promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant. He likewise participated in the battles of Manassas, Sharps- 
burg. Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Salem, Gettysburg, the Wilder- 
ness. Spottsylvania Court House, the second battle of Cold Harbor, 
Petersburg and the crater at the latter place. It was here that Captain 
Harkness won his title for distinguished gallantry, the re-capture of the 
crater being due to Wilcox' Alabama Brigade, in which Captain Hark- 
ness was fighting. 

Returning home from the war, Mr. Harkness lived in Greene county 
until 1874. when he came to Frio county, when this district was included 
in the southwestern frontier, thus becoming one of its pioneer settlers, 
and here he has continued his residence to the present time. He located 
at Friotown, on the Frio river, this being the county seat until after the 
railroad was completed in 1881, when the city of Pearsall sprang into 
existence and finally became the county seat of Frio county. During the 
7 - the Indians were very troublesome along the Frio river, making 
frequent raids on property and stock, murdering the settlers and keep- 
ing the country in constant fear. It was during his residence at Friotown 
that Captain Harkness was first elected sheriff, this being in 1878, and 
through re-election, at intervals, he served altogether for ten years, 
resigning from the office in 1900. Captain Harkness made a creditable 
record during his official connection with public affairs, performing his 
duties in most commendable manner, and it is largely due to his efforts 
that Southwestern Texas was rid of its rough characters, and has been 
made a peaceable and desirable place of abode. 

Upon his arrival in Frio county Captain Harkness engaged in the 
cattle business and has continued his efforts along this line to the present 
time. He is now the owner of a valuable ranch near Derby, while he 
thirty acres of land in the northern limits of Pearsall, where he 
makes hi- home. This land has been irrigated and made very productive, 
constituting one of the valuable farms of this section, thus making him 

of the prominent and leading factors of his county. He has ever 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 205 

been successful in his farming and stock-raising pursuits and has thereby 

won a competence that now supplies him with all the comforts of life. 

Captain Harkness has been twice married. He was first married in 
Alabama, to Miss Rock Merriweather, a representative of an old Virginia 
family. Her death occurred in Friotown in 1876. His present wife bore 

the maiden name of Margaret Maney, a native of Guadalupe county, 
and their children are: Lucy, Bessie, Lynn, Margaret and Mary B. 
Captain Harkness is prominent in Masonic circles, belonging to the Blue 

lodge and the chapter. The family are prominent in social circles in 
Pearsall and have a host of warm personal friends. 

Ben Duncan is not only one of the brave pioneers who did a bold 
and faithful part in snatching Texas from the hands of the Indians and 
desperadoes who infested its soil in the early days, but has brought him- 
self to a substantial condition of prosperity, brightened with honor and 
affection. He was born in Gonzales county, this state, in 1838, was reared 
on the frontier and remained to be a large factor in the preservation of 
law and the development of the country into civilized and modern com- 
munities. In 1856, then eighteen years of age, he came to the vicinity 
of his present home in Frio county, and has therefore been a resident 
of this locality for more than half a century. 

Mr. Duncan is one of the small guard of old frontiersmen still living, 
and certainly none of that band have had a more typical experience. It 
is said of him that he was always one of the most fearless of the pictur- 
esque characters who in the old days were compelled to rely solely on 
their six-shooters for protection, held their own against Indians and 
desperadoes and blazed the way for the influx of settlers and the resultant 
prosperity of later days. 

Ben Duncan has always been a stockman, but of late years has taken 
ud such other interests as general farming and the raising of bees. He 
owns a fine ranch four miles north of Moore, Medina county, as well as 
other lands, and has a fine business block in town, where he lives and 
enjoys a still active life. At one time he had extensive cattle interests in 
Arizona, in addition to those in Texas. 

Levi J. W. Edwards, pioneer and wealthy stockman of Moore, Frio 
county, was born in Virginia in 1829. When he came to Texas in 1850 
he located in Gonzales county, and in 1856 removed to the southwest 
frontier of the state. Ever since that time, or for over half a century, he 
has resided west and southwest of San Antonio and has never abandoned 
his old-time occupation. He spent many years in McMullen countv, and 
it was in that region that he experienced most of his troubles with the 
Indians. 

In 187 1 Mr. Edwards located in Frio county, which has since been 
his home, his residence for about seven years being old Friotown, the 
original county seat, situated on the river by that name. In addition to 
his cattle interests he conducted a mercantile business, and after leaving 
Friotown located at his present home about five miles west of Moore. 

Mr. Edwards and his family suffered great hardships from Indian 
depredations, being often compelled to pursue the savage marauders. Not 
infrequently they showed fight, and he still bears the wounds indicative 
of their marksmanship. His most serious injury was occasioned bv an 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

arrow which struck him on the head, the scar oi which still remains. He 
was at Friotown on the memorable day that the Indians killed seven 
people there. His wife was formerly Miss Klixa Holland, and they have 
one child. I .. D. Edwards. 

Now nearing his eightieth year, Mr. Edwards has the satisfaction 
oi knowing that he has passed through the hardships and dangers of 
frontier pioneer life with credit and eventual benefit to himself and family. 
1 le is now a wealthy man. being the owner of twelve thousand acres of 
fine land which is rapidly increasing in value, besides conducting" quite 
an extensive stock business. Although highly honored and popular he 
has never seen fit to assume public functions, with the exception of the 
period oi his service as county commissioner while a resident of Friotown. 

James E. Berry. There is perhaps no man in Medina county who 
is more familiar with the early history of Southwestern Texas than is 
James E. Berry, for he has spent his entire life in this section of the 
state, covering a period of almost a half century, and in the years which 
have since come and gone he has been an interested witness in the won- 
derful transformation that has here been made as the country has been 
rid df the rough element which infested this state during- that early period 
and has taken a place among the foremost ranks of civilization. 

Mr. Berry was born in Medina county, in 1858, a son of Tillman 
Berry, who settled in the state at a very early day. The son was early 
thrown upon his own resources, for he lost his father when but a young 
lad. so that he began herding- stock almost as soon as he was old enough 
to sit in the saddle. He has been in the stock business throughout his 
entire business career, first engaging" in that pursuit when the Indians 
made constant raids upon the property of the settlers down to the present 
time when the pastures, have been fenced and high grades of stock are 
being raised. Mr. Berry made his headquarters for many years on the 
Leona river, but later removed to the vicinity of Friotown on the Frio 
river. In 1878 he established his home on a ranch six miles east of 
Pearsall, and this has continued to -be the headquarters of his ranching 
and cattle interests to the present time. His ranch embraces about ten 
thousand acres and is a very valuable property, especially in view of the 
fact that property here during the past four years has greatly enhanced 
in value. In 1902, however, Mr. Berry took up his abode in the city of 
Pearsall, from which place he gives personal supervision to his ranching" 
interests, making- frequent trips to his farm. He has been very successful 
in his business ventures, for he started out when a mere boy to make 
his own way in the world, and through his persistency of purpose and 
his laudable ambition he has worked his way up until he is now numbered 
among the well-to-do stock men of Southwestern Texas. 

Mr. Berry was married in Medina county to Miss Martha Pigford, 
by whom he has eight children, namely: ( )ra, Kittie, Ernest, Minnie, 
Jack. Ollie, Ruth and Esther, the two last named being twins. 

Dr. James C. Magness, a well-known practicing physician of Pear- 
sall. Frio county, is a native of Newark, Independence county, Arkansas, 
where he was born in the year 1873. He was reared and educated at 
Newark, and even during his preliminary courses had the profession of 
medicine in his mind as his life work. His first regular lectures were at 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 207 

Louisville Medical College and later he became a student in the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons at St. Louis, Missouri, from which he was grad- 
uated in the class of 1899. He has since broadened his knowledge by 
reading and observation, and in j 904 took post-graduate courses at the 

New Orleans Polyclinic. 

On leaving St. Louis Dr. Magness located at Devine, Medina county, 
Texas, about thirty miles southwest of San Antonio, i fere he engaged 
in general private practice, both of medicine and surgery and his thor- 
ough and conscientious methods and skilful treatment won him profes- 
sional success and the high esteem of the people over a large section of 
the country. Early in 1906 he took up the practice of his profession tem- 
porarily in San Antonio, but later in the same year decided to locate 
permanently at Pearsall. Here again his ability as a physician and sur- 
geon, with his sincerity and earnestness of purpose, is winning him the 
confidence of the people, with the material benefits which naturally 
follow. 

H. Evart Johnson. A substantial business and public man of 
Moore, Frio county, as well as one of the most prosperous stockmen on 
the San Miguel river, Mr. Johnson represents a pioneer family of Bexar 
county which established itself in what was a wild frontier region of 
the southwest nearly sixty years ago. His parents, Lott W. and Eliza- 
beth (Noel) Johnson, came to Texas in 1850, first locating in Bexar 
county, near San Antonio. The father is a native of Mississippi and the 
mother of Kentucky, and they are still living at Moore, where they are 
honored as among the earliest of the pioneers of that region. In the 
next year (1851) after the family first came to Texas they located on the 
Medina river, in Bexar county, fourteen miles south of San Antonio. 
There the father continued to engage in stock operations until within a 
few years past. He was a member of the Home Guards of San Antonio 
during the Civil war, and has done his full share of pioneer work in 
contending with Indians and desperadoes. 

H. Evart Johnson was born near San Antonio in the year 1864, 
and was reared in Frio and Atascosa counties, having been engaged in 
the stock business since very early boyhood. He had the usual strenuous 
experience in the days of the free range, before the period of wire 
fences, and made trips over the northern trail as far as Montana. Not- 
withstanding the wild life which was his lot, he retained a clear head 
and has become a successful business man, not only as a stockman but 
in real estate and mercantile lines. For one thing he had the advantage 
of good employers, being reared under the careful eve of the lamented 
Captain John T. Lytle, and was for many years in the employ of John 
R. Blocker. 

Mr. Johnson has resided at Moore since 1893, and for some time 
has owned a fine ranch of over ten thousand acres on the San Miguel 
river, seven miles below Moore. He also erected one of the fine brick 
business blocks at that place, and is otherwise thoroughlv identified with 
the growth and development of the town and surrounding country. In 
addition to his other interests he maintains a successful land and fire 
insurance office at Moore. He has also been honored with several local 
offices, having held those of county commissioner, deputv sheriff and 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

justice of the peace. His prominence in Masonic circles is indicated by 
the fact that he is a Royal Arch and district deputy grand master for the 
forty-second district oi Texas, holding a certificate to teach Masonic 
work under the grand lodge. Mr. Johnson's wife was formerly Miss 
Lula Little, their children being Ethel and Blocker Johnson. 

GEORGE F. Hindes is a striking example of the frontier business 
man. who has combined romantic adventure with the business of life to 
his own material benefit, as well as to the formation of a rugged, useful 
ami interesting character. Although now only a man of sixty-three, 
he has been connected with the livestock business for half a century, the 
substantial reputation which he has made as merchant and banker being 
the result of late years of wise activities. 

Born in Wilcox county, Alabama, in the year 1844, the soil of 
Moses and Mary (Mason) Hindes, George F. Hindes came with his 
family to Texas in 1 S 5 5 . In the following year they located in Atascosa 
county, and ever since that time George F. has lived within a radius of 
forty miles oi his present home at Pearsall. This fact makes him one 
of the oldest settlers in this section of the state. 

Both before and after the Civil war, and also during the period of 
the rebellion, the Hindes family were constantly subjected to the most 
trying hardships of frontier life, the Indians being the cause of their 
chief troubles. Several times the father was compelled to flee with his 
family from the savages, and more than once they made their escape 
afoot, as the wily red men had stolen all their horses. In 1865 Moses 
Hindes was killed by the Indians, his death occurring on the Frio river, 
in what is now McMullen county; and his was the fate of more than half 
of the early settlers who came about the time of the Hindes family. 
Even more would have been killed had the pioneers not persistently 
banded together for self-protection. 

Amid these harassing- frontier conditions George F. Hindes de- 
veloped into a sturdy and self-reliant youth, and, although only seventeen 
at the commencement of the Civil w r ar, he joined the Confederate army 
at the beginning of hostilities. The army in Texas not only had to 
contribute its share to the general cause of the Confederacy, but to 
protect the border country from Indians and desperadoes; and it was 
as a member of this latter force that Mr. Hindes joined the regiment 
1 1" Colonel Santos Benavides, serving along the Rio Grande, at Laredo 
and below. Although chiefly thus engaged, the command with which 
he was connected also engaged and repulsed the Federal troops at 
Laredo. Upon one occasion during the war, with four companions he 
went hunting wild Mexican horses — known by plainsmen as "mustang- 

In g- 

The expedition took the party along the Nueces river, in what is 
now LaSalle county, and George F. Hindes only survived to tell the 
story of their exploits, the other four being murdered by Indians and 
desperadoes in a very short time afterward. This was by no means the 

of his mustanging expeditions, or his harrowing experiences with 
the Indians. Without going into details, he recalls that he literally saved 
hi- scalp four times by outrunning the red men, and upon two occasions 
by standing them off with his gun. 




w/nt^fiaoru^ 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 209 

In 1872 the family removed from the ranch to Pleasanton, the 
county seat of Atascosa county, where George F. entered the mercantile 
business in partnership with James Bowyer. It was in that year that he 
took his first herd of cattle over the northern trail to Wichita, Kan 
receiving $15,000 as the proceeds of the sale. This was the first con- 
siderable sum of money he had earned and was the starting point in 
his future prosperity. In the following year (1873 J he took a herd of 
cattle to the Chugwater, above Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

In 1885 Mr. Hindes removed to Frio county, and since 1889 his 
home has been at Pearsall, the county seat. Here he has become thor- 
oughly identified with the largest business interests and the growth of 
the country. His largest ranch is located on the San Miguel, east of 
Pearsall, and lies in Frio and Atascosa counties. This fine property, 
before it was divided among his several children, consisted of 50,000 
acres. Mr. Hindes has another ranch nearer town, and upon all of his 
property he not only raises livestock but carries on general farming. 
Of late years he has gone quite extensively into the specialty of horse 
raising. 

In the spring of 1891, in partnership with C. H. Beever, Mr. Hindes 
founded the firm of Beever & Hindes, dealers in general merchandise, 
cattle and lands. They built the Mercantile block in Pearsall, and their 
store became one of the largest and best known between San Antonio 
and Laredo. Recently the business was sold to the Pearsall Mercantile 
Company. Mr. Hindes was one of the founders and is still a leading 
stockholder and director of the Pearsall National Bank, a flourishing 
financial institution of the place. The old firm of Beever & Hindes still 
exists, its one interest now consisting of a large store at the new town 
of Artesia, in LaSalle county. At the point named Beever & Hindes also 
own a tract of fine farming land, with one of the best artesian wells in 
Southwest .Texas. George F. Hindes was married, in 1865, to Miss 
Caroline Fountain of Atascosa county, and they have the following 
children : David, Frank, Mrs. Fannie DeVilbiss, Mrs. Nettie Windrow 
and Miss Mary Hindes. Mr. Hindes is a prominent figure in the old- 
time fraternities, being, as a Mason, a member of the Blue Lodge, 
Council, Chapter and Commandery, and having taken all the degrees in 
Odd Fellowship. 

Uvalde County. 

N. M. C. Patterson, who is descended from an honored and 
prominent southern family, is a pioneer settler of Uvalde county. No 
man is more worthy of an honored place in the history of this section of 
the state, because his life in all of its phases has rendered him worthy of 
the respect of his fellow men and has won him a measure of success that 
indicates his ability. Born in Fayette county, Alabama, on the 24th day of 
September, 182^, he was reared to farm life and was educated in the com- 
mon schools. He spent his youth in the home of his parents, George W. 
and Elizabeth (McCullom) Patterson, the former a native of North 
Carolina and the latter of South Carolina. Their marriage, however, 
was celebrated in Alabama. The ancestry of the family can be traced 
back to the great-grandfather, who was a native of Scotland and came 

Vol. II. 14 



210 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

to America in curly colonial days. When the colonics attempted to 
throw off the yoke oi British oppression he joined the American army 
and fought for the independence of the nation. When the republic had 
become an established fact he settled in South Carolina, where he reared 
his family and spent his remaining days. 

His son. John Patterson, grandfather, was a native of North Caro- 
lina and was of Scotch-Irish lineage. He was reared in the place of his 
nativity, and. possessing many of the tastes and qualities of the frontiers- 
man, he left the south for the territory of Ohio, where some of his 
children were horn. Later when Kentucky was opened up to settle- 
ment he went to that state and subsequently became a resident of Ten- 
nessee, at all times keeping on the frontier and aiding materially in the 
development and progress of various new localities. He always followed 
the occupation of farming", giving' his entire attention to his business 
affairs. 1 le had no desire for public office, but was recognized as a 
valued citizen, noted for his truthfulness and fearless integrity — traits of 
character which have been manifest in the Patterson family from gen- 
eration to generation. His children were: William, John, Joseph, 
rge W., David and Kate. 

( )i this family George W. Patterson, father, was reared to manhood 
in Tennessee and was married in Alabama to Miss Elizabeth McCnllom. 
They reared their family in the latter state, and to provide for the sup- 
port of his wife and children Mr. Patterson followed the blacksmith's 
trade and also engaged in general farming. He owned a number of 
slaves, who operated his land. In each community in which he lived he 
became a prominent and highly respected citizen, well known for his 
integrity and honor. In 1847 ne S °W ms property in Alabama and 
removed with his family and his slaves to Texas, first locating in 
St. Augustine county, wdiere he raised one crop. In the fall of the 
same year he removed to Smith comity, purchased land and made some 
improvements thereon. He placed a portion of the land under cultiva- 
tion, but after living upon that property sold out and in 185 1 removed 

Uvalde County in the 'Fifties. 

to Uvalde county, settling seven miles south of. the present site of 
Sabinal. There he pre-empted a homestead claim of one hundred and 
sixty acres and afterward added to his land by purchase, opening up a 
farm and raising stock. At that time there were but few white people 
in the country and farming was all an experiment. Up to this time the 
entire district had been devoted to stock raising on the open range and 
there were less than a half-dozen houses in the district. Game was 
plentiful and wild beasts roamed at will. The red men asserted their 
rights by force and made it very unpleasant for the settlers at every 
opportunity by stealing their stock and committing other depredations. 
Mr. Patterson on more than one occasion had his place raided and his 
stock stolen by the Indians. He was too old to go after them on the 
raid- in which many of the white men engaged against the red race, 
but he continued to live upon his farm until he placed his land under 
cultivation, raiding mostly supplies for the family. He had upon his 
place several slaves, who worked in the fields and who were alwavs 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 211 

kindly treated, sharing with his own family in the products of the farm. 
He continued to reside upon the ranch and develop the property until after 
the outbreak of the rebellion. He was loyal to the south, but was too 
old for active service. When the war was over his slaves had b 
freed and his estate had been largely demolished. Jn the early days 
he was a strong Whig and was prominent and influential in the party. 
He filled the office of county commissioner, of justice of the peace and 
other positions of public trust in Uvalde county, and his efforts to pro- 
mote general progress and improvement were effective and far reaching. 
He was among the earliest pioneer settlers of this portion of the state 
and knew every white man in the county. He assisted in organizing 
the county and locating the county seat, and he lived to see a modern 
system of civil government inaugurated together with the building of 
churches and schools and the establishment of happy homes. Civiliza- 
tion was brought to a high standard, rendering property and life safe, 
while all modern advantages were secured for the settlers. 

Mr. Patterson was a man of social, genial nature, who enjoyed 
having his friends around him. He was rather quiet in manner, but 
nevertheless possessed a resolute spirit and was unflinching and unfalter- 
ing in his support of the truth and right as he understood it, and had no 
use for dishonesty or prevarication in the slightest degree. His religious 
faith was that of the Universalist church. He remained upon the old 
family homestead until 1868, when his wife died and the home was 
broken up, after which he found a home with his son, N. M. C. Pat- 
terson, with whom he remained until his death, which occurred in 1875. 
His wife departed this life in 1868. She was a daughter of Newman 
McCullom, who was of Scotch and English descent. Her father was 
born and reared in South Carolina and became a well-to-do farmer and 
slave owner there. Later he removed to Alabama, where his remaining 
days w r ere passed, and in the community where he lived he was widely 
known, enjoying the good will and confidence of all by reason of an 
upright, honorable life. His political allegiance was given to the Whig 
party. The members of his family were: Elizabeth, who became Mrs. 
Patterson ; Henry, a farmer ; James, a farmer, who represented his dis- 
trict in the state legislature ; and Joseph, who was also identified with 
agricultural pursuits. 

To George W. and Elizabeth (McCullom) Patterson were born six 
children : N. M. C. ; John, a farmer and stock-raiser of Uvalde county, 
who died while in the frontier service during the Civil war, leaving a 
wife and one daughter; Talitha T., the wife of W. A. Brown; Elizabeth, 
who married A. B. Dillard ; Nancy, the wife of John Lakey : and George 
W., a farmer and stock-raiser. Both he and his wife died in 1904. 
leaving nine children. 

N. M. C. Patterson was born in Alabama and with his parents 
came to Texas in 1847, when twenty-one years of age. He accompanied 
them on their various removals and while in Smith county, Texas, was 
married in 1849, after which he purchased land and opened up a farm 
in that county, placing a small tract under cultivation. In 1852. how- 
ever, he sold that property and removed to Bexar county. In 1854 he 
came to Uvalde county and joined the pioneers who were reclaiming 



212 HISTORY OF SOI T11WEST TEXAS 

this region for the purposes of civilization. He settled seven miles 
south oi Sabinal, whore he took a homestead claim, securing one hun- 
dred and sixty acres, from which he Opened Up a farm. He later added 
to this property and soon got well started in farming and in the raising' 
oi cattle and other slock, lie always had plenty for the support of his 
family, although at times the drought proved detrimental to his crops. 
He had been a resident o\ the county for only a brief period when he 
had become acquainted with all of the people in this locality. All ap- 
peared to be here to stay and constituted a contented community. They 
were all regarded as neighbors, although some lived twenty miles dis- 
tant, and on all occasions of social interest most of the settlers would be 
present. It was not an unusual thing to drive twenty miles to> attend a 
party or dance, and Mr. Patterson recalls a dance at which the lady of 
the house not only cooked an elaborate supper but danced every set. 
Those were happy old days, in which there was much pleasure and 
amusement unknown at the present time. There were only nine houses 
in the county outside of Fort Inge, the government post. The comity 
had not yet been organized, and in that work Mr. Patterson shared in 
1850, in which year the comity seat was located. The first election was 
held in the fall of the same year, and not to exceed fifty votes were 'cast. 
Other evidences of pioneer life were found in the fact that game was 
very plentiful and that wild beasts were numerous. In times of the full 
moon the Indians raided the countryside, stealing stock and committing 
other depredations. Mr. Patterson took part in many raids after the red 
men. and on one occasion Mr. Patterson and party overtook the Indians. 
They killed a sqnaw, who was dressed as a man and was running off 
a herd of horses together with eight Indian men. The pursuing party 
attacked and only one of the Indians got away and all of the horses 
were saved. The red men of the country continued molesting the white 
people until the Southern Pacific railroad was built, after which they 
feared to continue their raids. Mr. Patterson, with other settlers, had 
come to stay and they were banded together for protection and so 
continued until the red men were driven out. They also waged relent- 
less warfare on the wild beasts and continued the work of development 
until they had subdued the wild land and converted it into uses for 
civilization. It was the earnest, untiring efforts of these brave pioneers 
that opened the country for settlement, and no man is more worthy of 
mention in this connection than Mr. Patterson, who has labored un- 
tiringly for the best interests of Uvalde county and the southwest. As 
time passed by people came in larger numbers and the work of farming 
was begun, resulting in a fair measure of success. At times dry farm- 
ing meets with the desired results and at all times irrigated farming 
- a profitable industry. Mr. Patterson raised from a half bale to a bale 
and a half of cotton per acre, the average crop being about three-fonrths of 
a bale. He also raised from thirty to forty bushels of corn per acre. 
One of the detriments to the production of cotton has been the boll weevil, 
which at times has destroyed the cotton. 

Mr. Patterson was reared in the faith of the Whig- party, but before 
becoming a voter he had announced his allegiance to the Democracy. 
He cast his first presidential vote for General Taylor, the Whig. He has 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TKXAS 213 

voted for some Republicans for local office, but is a stanch Democrat 
where matters of party principle are involved and uses his influence for 
the party and its success. He has been called to various offices of 
honor and trust and was justice of the peace when the duties of that 
office also combined the duties of county commissioner. He served for 
two terms and later was elected and served as high sheriff for two terms. 
He was then again elected justice of the peace and he served as county 
commissioner until the law was changed. He was afterward elected 
chief justice, in which, capacity he was active when General Lee sur- 
rendered the Confederate forces to General Grant and the reconstruction 
period was inaugurated. The carpet-bag government was then instituted 
and a man was sent to fill Mr. Patterson's place and he was disfran- 
chised. He refused to take the oath of office prescribed and waited until 
all disabilities were removed in the way of his exercising his right of 
citizenship. Then the people elected him county judge and he served for 
two terms. He has filled all offices with credit to himself and satis- 
faction to his constituents. During the period of the Civil war he was 
Confederate assessor and later was appointed deputy collector, and while 
the war was in progress he was also a member of Wadkins' company 
of rangers in the frontier service, holding in check the Indians and the 
renegade thieves and deserters who endangered property and life. In 
this active service he continued until after the close of hostilities be- 
tween the north and the south. In the early days he belonged to Captain 
Davenport's company of rangers and did good service in that connection. 
Mr. Patterson retained the ownership of his homestead farm until 
1867, when he sold that property and afterward purchased a small steam 
mill outfit at Uvalde, which he later took to Rio Frio. There he estab- 
lished a grist and sawmill and from that point furnished lumber to the 
government for completing Fort Inge, Fort Davis and Fort Comanche. 
He continued his milling operations until 1869, when he sold out and 
bought a third interest in the large tract of land on the main Rio Frio. 

Rio Frio. 

He also built another mill with water power. This was a grist and 
sawmill, to the operation of which he gave much attention and which he 
still owns. The tract of land has been divided, however, Mr. Patterson 
retaining over nine hundred acres, mostly lying in the valley of the main 
Rio Frio. He has opened to cultivation nearly eight hundred acres, has 
made a dam on the river, and all of his land is now accessible to irriga- 
tion. He is demonstrating that farming may be made a complete suc- 
cess. He rents his farming land and derives therefrom a good income. 
Watchful of opportunities for the development and upbuilding of the 
county, he platted the village of Rio Frio, sold lots, secured the estab- 
lishment of a postoffice and acted as postmaster for a number of years. 
This section of the country has now become well settled and many are 
successfully carrying on farming and stock raising. Mr. Patterson has 
been closely identified with the work of public improvement and at the 
same time has successfully carried on his private business interests. 
He was formerly largely interested in the stock business and had an 
extensive herd of cattle. 



• 



314 HISTORY OF SOITHWKST TEXAS 

As I companion and helpmate for life's journey Mr. Patterson chose 
Miss Lucy A. Dollarhite, who was born in Mississippi, and has been to 
him a faithful companion and helpmate in every way. She is a 
daughter oi James Dollarhite, of Tennessee, who removed from that 
state to Mississippi and subsequently to Texas, becoming a pioneer of 
the Lone Star state in the year 1842. He was a prominent farmer and 
slave owner and was a very popular man. He rilled the position of 
county commissioner and other minor offices and was a worthy member 
of the Primitive Baptist church. His political allegiance was given to 
the Democracy and he was known as a stalwart defender of all prin- 
ciples which he endorsed. From Smith county he removed to Caldwell 
county. Texas, where he remained until his death. In the family were 
-even children: Wesley; Jack: James; Lncy A., who became Mrs. 
Patterson; Isabella, the deceased wife of B. Taylor; Martha, now Mrs. 
Gipson; and Mary, who is the second wife of B. Taylor. 

The home of Mr. and Mrs. Patterson has been blessed with seven 
children: John W., now 7 living" in Kansas; J. J. H., who is connected with 
the motor car interests of San Antonio; W. B., a stock farmer and 
merchant at Rio Frio ; George R., who is also engaged in the raising 
of stock; Ben M., who died at the age of thirty-five years, leaving a 
wife but no children; and Isabella, the wife of W. B. Nichols, a spec- 
ulator in California. The wife and mother, who was a consistent and 
worthy member of the Methodist church, died in the year 1878. Mr. 
Patterson also belongs to the Methodist church and is interested in its 
growth and progress. Fraternally he is connected with the Masons and 
has attained the Royal Arch degree. At the time of his marriage, after 
bnying his license, he only had seventy-five cents remaining, but he has 
led a life of activity and enterprise, making the most of his opportuni- 
ties and developing the natural resources of the county until he stands 
today as one of its representative, practical and honored business men. 
Uvalde was fortunate in being settled with a citizenship of such quali- 
ties as he represents. Of the fifty or more pioneer settlers who lived 
in this count}' in the early days when Mr. Patterson took up his abode 
here and who were interested in cattle and other business enterprises 
there was not one who was ever brought under the ban of the law — 
certainly a most creditable record. 

Ross KENNEDY, now deceased, came in pioneer days to Uvalde 
county, where the family home has since been maintained. Both he and 
his widow were natives of the north of Ireland, born in County Mon- 
aghan. The birth of Mr. Kennedy occurred in 1826 and that of his 
wife in 1833. He was reared to farm pursuits and educated in the com- 
mon schools. His parents were George and Jane (Ross) Kennedy, both 
descendants of honored old Protestant families of the north of Ireland, 
where their ancestors had lived through many generations. George 
Kennedy was a farmer by occupation and followed that pursuit through- 
out his entire life. Both he and his wife died at the old homestead in 
Ireland, where through the careful conduct of his business interests he 
had become a well-to-do man, while by reason of his upright life his 

ndfi entertained for him warm and unqualified regard. Both he and 
his wife were reared in the Presbyterian church, of which they remained 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 215 

members until called to their final rest. Their children were a targe 
number : ' John P. Ross and Thomas were the only ones who came to 
America; the latter joined the United States army and died in St. Louis, 
Missouri, while in the military service but prior to the. Civil war. Hav- 
ing lost his first wife the father married again and had three children 
by the second union : Edward and Robert, both of whom went to Aus- 
tralia ; and James, who remained in Ireland. 

Ross Kennedy was reared in his native country, early becoming fam- 
iliar with the duties and labors that fall to the lot of the farmer. He 
had no special advantages and on reaching manhood he determined to 
try his fortune in America, for the favorable reports which he had re- 
ceived of business conditions in this country led him to the belief that 
he would have better opportunities in the new world. Accordingly he 
made all arrangements for leaving home and in 1848 landed in Xew 
York. Gradually he made his way westward and after a short time 
enlisted in the United States army for five years. His company, of 
which he became sergeant, was attached to the western range depart- 
ment and patrolled the Rio Grande from its source to its mouth. He 
spent most of his five years' term in Southwestern Texas and saw an 
active service with the Indians, who had become dissatisfied and occa- 
sioned great trouble to the early settlers. Mr. Kennedy took part in 
many raids after the red men and participated in some fights with them, 
but was never wounded. He continued in active service until the ex- 
piration of his term, when he received an honorable discharge and was 
paid off. 

Having gained thorough knowledge of the southwest and its busi- 
ness interests and opportunities, Mr. Kennedy in 1854 settled in Uvalde 
county, where he turned his attention to stock raising and soon after- 
ward located his ranch a few miles east of where Sabinal has since been 
located. He soon had gained a good start in his new business, but 
found that the Indians were becoming hostile and were stealing con- 
siderable stock. Therefore he joined with other settlers in making 
many raids after the red men to recover the stock and from time to 
time participated in fights with the savages. To be prepared for all 
emergencies he erected a one-story rock house and bored holes on either 
side through which he might shoot in case the Indians attacked him in 
his home, but he did not have to defend himself in this way. He be- 
came well settled on the range and soon was conducting a prosperous 
business as a stock man, for the grass was good upon the prairies and 
the range was free. 

Mr. Kennedy had made a fair start when in 1857 he returned to 
New York and claimed the sweetheart of his youth for his bride. She 
was Miss Jane Rankin, who was born and reared in the north of 
Ireland and was a daughter of Eban and Margery (Grav) Rankin, who 
also belonged to old and prominent Protestant families of that section of 
the Emerald Isle. Her father was well known and was highly respected 
as a farmer and business man, conducting a commission business in the 
country town of Monaghan. Both he and his wife continued residents 
of the Emerald Isle until called to their final home, and were reared in 
the faith of the Presbyterian church, to which they always adhered. 



2i6 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Most oi their children came to America. John became a resident of 
Canada but afterward removed to Iowa, where he died. Robert look 
up his abode in New York and there spent his remaining days. Jane 
came with her brother Robert to the United States, where she married 
Ross Kennedy. Ebenezer established his home in l/valde county, where 
he engaged in stock raising up to the time of his death. 

Following their marriage Ross Kennedy brought his bride to the 
home which he had prepared in Uvalde county, Texas. Here they 
fought out the battles oi life together, Mrs. Kennedy carefully manag- 
ing the household affairs, while Mr. Kennedy gave his attention to his 
business interests, which were carefully controlled until he became one 
i>\ the wealthiest men in the county. He soon got a good start in cattle 
and horses, he also raised a number of hogs that he might have pork 
ami lard and he likewise placed a small amount of land under culti- 
vation for the production of home supplies; and he thus engaged in busi- 
ness oi various kinds, all of which he carried forward to successful com- 
pletion. He went through the usual hardships, experiences and dif- 
ficulties incident to frontier life in a region infested with savages, who 
were continually making raids upon the ranches. Although he par- 
ticipated in many raids and fights he was never wounded, but lost much 
stock of all kinds. During the period of the Civil war he co-operated 
with others to guard the frontier families, and he also did contract 
freighting, hiring men and using ox teams to convey cotton and other 
crops from various points in Texas to Mexico. The business proved 
very profitable and though freighting at that time was attended with 
much danger he carried on the work and found it a very remunerative 
source of income. "When the war had ended he secured the contract 
from the federal government for supplying beef to Fort Davis and re- 
moved his family there. The contract covered a year's time and later he 
secured other contracts from the government. As he saw that the free 
range was going to be closed he began investing in land and bought 
large tracts. He had confidence in his own ability to take care of and 
handle his money and did not buy bank stocks nor place his money to any 
great extent in banks. On the contrary he made safe and judicious 
business investments and was known throughout the length and breadth 
of Southwestern Texas as a man of keen discernment, whose word was 
as good as gold. He was stern in his deportment and independent in 
his manner of living and dress. All who knew him, however, respected 
him for his genuine worth and many excellent traits of character. 

Mr. Kennedy held membership in the Presbyterian church in early 
life, but as there was no organization of that denomination in Texas he 
joined the Christian church on coming to this part of the country and 
remained one of its faithful members. He was also an exemplary mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity. He was interested in all that pertained 
to the welfare and progress of this section of the country and co-oper- 
ated in many movements which were of direct benefit here. He aided in 
organizing the county and selecting the county seat, and assisted in re- 
claiming the district from barbarism and converting it into uses for 
civilization. He saw the countryside claimed and converted into farms 
and ranches, while the wild beasts were driven out and in their place 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 217 

were found large herds of good stock, lie lias also seen the Indian 
wigwam replaced by the substantial homes of permanent settler-,, while 
the entire county is now inhabited by a prosperous and contented people. 
Mr. Kennedy reared his family of nine children and left all well pro- 
vided for and they are now prominent and respected residents of this 
part of the state. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Kennedy were born two sons and seven daugh- 
ters : Margery, the wife of Thomas Adams, a stock farmer and rancher ; 
Jane, the wife of Louis M. Peters, a pioneer merchant of Sabinal ; 
Clara, the wife of A. J. Durham, postmaster and farmer of Sabinal and 
an enterprising man ; Rosalie, the wife of L. F. Fleard, a hardware and 
furniture merchant of Sabinal ; Mary, the wife of C. W. Giffin, a promi- 
nent farmer of Reaves county, Texas ; Vine, the widow of D. Malone, 
who died leaving one child ; George, a stock man ; Ross, a prominent 
stock dealer and proprietor of a meat market in Sabinal ; and Maud, at 
home. 

The death of Mr. Kennedy occurred February 15, 1891, when he 
was seventy-three years of age, and was deeply deplored by many 
friends, for all who knew him entertained for him warm regard. He 
was a man of excellent business ability, sound judgment and keen dis- 
crimination and his prosperity resulted entirely from his own labors, as 
he came to America empty handed. As the years passed he worked his 
way steadily upward to the plane of affluence and not only gained suc- 
cess for himself but also contributed in large measure to the substantial 
improvement and progress of the community. Mrs. Kennedy still sur- 
vives her husband and she and all of her children are members of the 
Christian church. They are a family of prominence in the community 
and Mrs. Kennedy is one of the honored and worthy pioneer women, 
having for almost a half century lived in Uvalde county, during which 
time she has witnessed many changes here, her memory forming a con- 
necting link between the primitive past and the progressive present. 

A. J. Davenport, a pioneer of Uvalde county prominently identified 
with its progress and development, was born in Johnson county, Mis- 
souri, June 19, 1843. ^ n the paternal line he is of Scotch-Irish descent. 
His father, John Davenport, was a native of Tennessee and was first 
married in Kentucky to a Miss McNew, after which he removed to 
Missouri. By this marriage there were seven children. Following the 
death of his first wife he was married in Missouri to Miss Susan Little. 
He engaged in business in that state until 1843, when he sold his inter- 
ests there and removed to Kaufman county, Texas, where he purchased 
land and opened up a farm, whereon he remained successfully in business 
until 1853. In that year he came to Uvalde county, locating in the 
Sabinal Canyon in the Ware settlement, giving his attention to stock 
raising. The range was then free, grass grew luxuriantly and he soon 
got a good start in stock. After remaining in that settlement for two 
years he then took a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres two 
miles east of where Sabinal now stands. There he established a per- 
manent home and ranch, continuing to reside there until his death, which 
occurred in October, 1875, when he was seventv-eight years of age. 
When he first settled in Texas Indians were not so hostile as they became 



218 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

later, but they wore always running off stock and subsequently mani- 
fested the utmost hostility to the white race, so that it was a hard prob- 
lem for the pioneers to handle them. Mr. Davenport lost much of his 
stock through their raids and took part in many hunts after them. He 
"was never in any battles with them, however, being* too old for that. 
He left the lighting- for his sons to do, and they were always willing 
to do their share. Mr. Davenport was a Democrat and a worthy mem- 
ber oi the Methodist church, lie was a large, strong man, of robust 
constitution and led a busy and active life. He possessed a social nature 
and charitable disposition that led him to entertain his friends with 
cordial hospitality and to assist the poor and needy. He was greatly 
respected for his sterling integrity and honor. He founded the family 
in Uvalde county and they have since been carrying forward the work 
which he inaugurated. The children of his first marriage, all born in 
Missouri, were: James, a stockman who died in Bandera county; Wil- 
liam, who was a large farmer and stockman and died in Davenport 
station in Bexar county; John M., who was killed by the Indians near 
where Sabinal is now located. He made a good fight against a large 
band before he gave up his life, although he had but a pistol with which 
to defend himself. The daughters are: Dorcas, the wife of Rolla Miller; 
Mrs. Ann Goff ; Mrs. Jane Barnett, and Mrs. Kate Patton. The. father's 
second marriage, which occurred in Missouri, was to Susan Little of 
Kentucky, who in early life went to Missouri with her parents, although 
little is known of the family history. She was a member of the Method- 
ist church and died in 1874. There were two sons of the marriage: 
Lewis C, a prominent stockman of Uvalde county, and A. Jack. 

Mr. A. J. Davenport is familiarly known throughout the county as 
Jack. During his infancy his parents removed to Texas and when he 
was ten years of age came to Uvalde county. He spent his young 
manhood in this county, where he has since remained. He was largely 
reared in the saddle and when a boy joined the older men of the locality 
in making raids after the Indians, taking part in a number of fights. 
He helped recover and save much stock and during all this time he was 
never wounded by the Indians, although he saw many others who were 
injured or killed by the red men. In 1862 he entered the state ranger 
service on the frontier, serving for one year, during which time he par- 
ticipated in many raids and fights with the Indians. In 1863 he enlisted 
in the Confederate service as a member of Company F in Duff's Thirty- 
third Texas Cavalry, with which he continued to the close of the war, 
serving with the Trans-Mississippi army and patrolling the coast of 
Texas and southwestern department. Later the regiment brigaded with 
General Gano's command, with which Mr. Davenport continued until 
the close of the war, being in Arkansas part of the time. He was there 
stationed when the army disbanded and he returned to his home. 

Mr. Davenport resumed business as a stockman and on the 18th of 
< mber, 1865, was married. When he left for the war he had got 
a good start in stock, but owing to the ravages of war he lost all that he 
had saved and his first effort afterward was in the manufacture of 
shingle-, whereby he gained a small amount of ready money. He then 
commenced raising stock, and not discouraged by any of the hardships 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 219 

and difficulties of the work, he succeeded in developing a very extensive 
business. At length he succeeded in getting his ranch established. The 
range was free and the grass good and for some time he won success. 
In 1878 he bought his first land, comprising five hundred and ninety 
acres, which he yet owns, and he erected thereon good ranch building-, 
and made many substantial improvements. He yet remains two miles 
north of Sabinal and having added to his first purchase now owns fifteen 
hundred acres. His home he has remodeled and has a commodious resi- 
dence and outbuildings, also a good tenant house. He likewise has tele- 
phone connection with the cities and is thoroughly modern in all of his 
methods of living and in his business. . He and his brother, L. C. Daven- 
port, bought a tract of ten thousand acres on the Frio river, where they 
ran stock successfully for a number of years, at the end of which time 
Mr. Davenport sold out to L. C. Davenport and later bought a tract of 
five thousand acres on Little Blanco river, which he fenced and on which 
he engaged in stock raising until 1905. He then sold the ranch and 
cattle to Kelly & Bell. He has reduced his business to his home farm 
and ranch. He now has less stock, but it is of a higher grade, having 
much registered stock, including Hereford, Short-horns and Durhams. 
He will have none but the finest cattle about him now. For thirteen 
years he has also run sheep in connection with cattle and found this very 
profitable. He is a self-made man, owing his prosperity entirely to his 
own labors, and has been the creator of a large estate. He now has over 
one hundred and sixty acres of land under cultivation and has had good 
success with dry farming, the seasons yielding fair annual crops. He is a 
stockholder in the Uvalde National Bank and has a very gratifying bank 
account. In politics he is* a stalwart Democrat. 

Mr. Davenport was married to Miss Mary Binnion, who was born 
in Titus county, Texas, September 1, 1849, ner parents being John and 
Minerva (Phillips) Binnion, both of Alabama, where they were married, 
coming thence to Texas in 1847. They settled in Titus county, where 
Mr. Binnion operated his ranch by the aid of slave labor until the black 
race was liberated. In 1864 he sold out and removed to Uvalde county, 
locating first in the Ware settlement near Utopia, where he engaged suc- 
cessfully in stock-raising for a few years. He then bought land adjoin- 
ing the homestead, whereon he spent his remaining days, passing awav 
June 29, 1883. He diverted his interests from cattle to the sheep busi- 
ness and was a successful sheep man. He voted with the Democracy 
and was a member of the Christian church. His wife was the most 
noted woman of all this wide country at an early day — "Aunt Minerva." 
She was well educated and when a young woman had the use of the old 
familv physician's medical books and received instruction from him. 
She became well versed in the methods of medical practice and after 
coming to this wild country where there was no physician she engaged 
in administering to the needs of the sick for a long period, her services 
being in demand far and near. Those wounded by the Indians were 
cared for by her and she did excellent surgical work as well as medical 
practice. "Aunt Minerva," as she was called, was known to every white 
person in the country and is kindly remembered by all because of her 
warm heart and her skill. She was a brave woman and ones when a 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

band of [ndians wore approaching her home she quickly donned a suit 
oi her husband's clothes, shouldered her gun and with her husband went 
outside the house. The Indians then did not know how many men were 
in the house and feared to attack it and thus she and her husband 
achieved a vict >ry without firing a gun. She survived her husband for 
a number oi years, passing away in 1897. The children of this worthy 
pioneer woman were: John, who was accidentally killed when twelve 
years of age: Robert, a stockman, who died and left five children; 
Susan, who died in childhood : Samuel, wdio w r as killed by Indians at the 
age oi twenty-two years; Mrs. Mary Davenport; Mrs. Sarah Newley ; 
Martin, a stockman, who died leaving five children; and Charles, who 
went to the west, since which time no news has been heard of him. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Davenport have been born the following named: 
Edwin, born September 30, 1869, is engaged in farming and stock rais- 
ing on the old homestead; Robert, born January 21, 1864, is a prominent 
physician of Trinidad, Colorado; Oscar, born December 7, 1872, is a 
stockman of Coliad county; Mittie is the wife of F. J. Rheiner, cashier 
of the Uvalde Xational Bank; Roy is an assistant in the Uvalde Na- 
tional Bank. The wife and mother is a worthy member of the Christian 
church. 

J. Monroe Fexlf.y. The name of Fenley figures prominently in 
connection with the history of Uvalde county, and J. Monroe Fenley, a 
well-known rancher and farmer, has fully sustained the excellent repu- 
tation which has always been borne by bis ancestors. He was born in 
Jasper county, Georgia, July 31, 1841, and received a limited education 
in the subscription schools, but through the experiences of life has 
gained a good practical education. The ancestry of the family can be 
traced back to two brothers of the name of Fenley who came to America 
from Scotland (hiring the time when this country was numbered among 
the colonial possessions of Great Britain. They settled in Virginia and 
one of these brothers married and had a son, and soon after the birth 
of this son enlisted for service in the Revolutionary war on the side of 
independence. He was killed and left a wife and son, the latter beino* 
John Fenley, the great-grandfather of our subject and the founder of 
this branch of the family. The mother afterward married a Mr. Powell, 
who removed with his wife and stepson to South Carolina, where John 
Fenley was reared to manhood. He was married in Georgia and soon 
afterward settled in Alabama, where he spent his remaining days, being 
a well-known farmer and slave owner of that locality. His children 
were Charles, John and Isom. 

( h this family Charles Fenlev was born and reared in Alabama, 
where he married Miss Elizabeth McCamy. He turned his attention to 
farming and inherited a portion of his father's estate, but luxurious 
living caused him soon to run through with his portion of the property. 
Iff afterward removed to Louisiana, where his remaining davs were 
passed. His children were ; John M., James M., who served throughout 
the Civil war and in T86 r ) came to Uvalde county, where he died at the 
a<re of ninety-two vears ; Joel C, who in 18^3 came to Uvalde county 
and after living through the experiences of pioneer life amid hostile 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 221 

savages died in this section of the state; Mrs. Theodosia Gilliland, living 
in Eastern Texas; and Mary, who died in Alabama. 

John M. Fenley, father of J. Monroe, was born in South Carolina 
and spent his youth in Georgia and Alabama. He afterward removed 
to Louisiana, where he remained for a number of years, and in the fall 
of 1853 arrived in Uvalde county, where he spent his remaining days, 
passing away May 23, 1897, at the ripe old age of eighty-six years, lie 

Early Settlement in Uvalde County. 

first lived in Ware settlement near Utopia. At that time there were only 
a few settlements of white people in the county and they were twenty 
miles apart. One was the Patterson settlement established in 1853 and 
the second was the Ware settlement, which was started in 1851. The 
Indians began to assert their rights, as they thought, and became very 
troublesome, so that the settlers were obliged to keep in close touch witii 
each other in order to protect their families. The red men usually went 
upon their raids in the light of the moon. Mr. Fenley bore his full share 
in the work of converting this district from conditions of barbarism 
into that of advanced civilization. He assisted in organizing the county 
in 1856 and in the fall election of that year only fifty votes were cast for 
the location of the county seat — a fact which indicates the sparsely set- 
tled condition of the district. Each man was well acquainted with all 
the settlers and the main topic of conversation was the hostile Indian 
and how to exterminate him. In those early days the settlers purchased 
no land, as the range was free and they did not therefore need to buy. 
Mr. Fenley established a home and ranch, placing a small tract under 
cultivation in order to produce supplies for his family. Mr. Fenley 
engaged in raising horses, cattle and hogs. He had the usual difficulty 
because of the Indians stealing his stock and he lost many horses in this 
way. He remained at his first settlement about fifteen years and as the 
Indians were driven back he advanced toward the Nueces river country. 
In 1867 he took up his abode in the Mula river country, twenty miles 
west of Uvalde, where he raised stock, the range being free, while there 
was plenty of good grass and fresh water. He afterward took a home- 
stead of one hundred and sixty acres, on which he erected a comfortable 
rock house, occupying it for many years. Later he retired from the 
ranch and established a home near Uvalde, where he spent his declining 
daySj his death occurring May 23, 1897, at the age of eighty-six years. 
In the meantime he had purchased two sections of land at Utopia, which 
he continued to own until his demise. The history of pioneer experi- 
ences in all its varied phases is his. He was a member of the Christian 
church and was esteemed by all who knew him. His wife survived him 
and passed away in 1899. She was a daughter of Dempsv Holland, a 
prominent farmer of Virginia, who likewise belonged to the Christian 
church. In that family were two children: John, who came to this 
county when an old man and died here, and Almeda, who became Mrs. 
Fenley. 

The children of J. M. Fenley and his wife were: Joel C, a promi- 
nent rancher of this county residing in Uvalde; J. Monroe; C. D., of 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Uvalde; James T.. of El Paso, a stockman; ami Elizabeth, the wife of 
John Ware. 

J. Monroe Fcnley came to Uvalde county with his parents in 1853 
when eleven years of age and was reared here, largely in the saddle. He 

assisted his father with the Stock ami shared with the family in all the 
hardships ami difficulties incident to subduing the wilderness and extend- 
ing the frontier. In 1S00 he was married and then, taking tip his abode 
upon his mother-in-law's ranch, he took charge of the place, which he 
operated on the shares, remaining there three years. He then settled 
near his present place oi residence two miles northeast of Sabinal. When 
lie was married and commenced his business pursuits he owned two 
ponies and thirty head of cattle and had sixteen dollars in money. When 
lie settled upon this farm he had about one hundred and eighty head 
oi cattle and he bought at tax sale fifteen hundred acres of land. Later 
the original owner of the land came and he discovered his title to the 
land was void, so that he again bought land, for which he paid four 
dollars per acre, making permanent settlement thereon. He has since 
added to his property and now owns about seven thousand acres. It is 
mostly fine grazing land and can be converted into agricultural uses. 
He has given all of his attention to stock, at one time handling horses, 
cattle and sheep. Finding that the last named were profitable, he ceased 
to deal in horses and later he abandoned sheep raising, while his atten- 
tion is now given solely to the cattle industry. In later years he opened 
up some land to cultivation and now has one hundred acres, on which he 
first cultivated corn, while later he has engaged in raising cotton. He 
has had a few short crops but usually there is a good yield and al- 
together it averages up well. His entire life has practically been given 
to stock raising, in which he has prospered. He has speculated to a very 
little extent but he still owns some vacant lots at Sabinal, His energies 
are concentrated upon his business affairs and his diligence and per- 
severance have been the dominant factors in his success. The town of 
Sabinal having been established in this locality, his land is in con- 
sequence increasing in value but is not for sale. 

Mr. Fenley married Miss Margaret C. Davenport, who> was born in. 
Kaufman county, Texas, October 19, 1849, a daughter of John M. and 
Mary J. Davenport. The mother was a widow when she became the 
wife of Mr. Davenport, and she was born in Tennessee. Mr. Davenport 
was born in Johnson county, Missouri, February 8, 1827, and was a son 
of John Davenport. Their marriage took place in Kaufman county, 
Texas. Mrs. Davenport was a daughter of John Crane, of Tennessee, 
who became an early settler of Texas when it still belonged to Mexico 
and he fought for its independence as captain of his company. He was 
in the battle of San Jacinto, which resulted in securing Texan independ- 
ence. For this service he received a headright from the republic of 
twelve hundred and eiehtv acres, which he located in Montgomery 
county, and there he carried on stock raising until his death, being killed 
by the- Cherokee Indians. He was a public-spirited and enterprising 
man, p d of a strong constitution, and was a fearless and typical 

frontier settler. Mary I. Crane was first married to James Elkins, a 
pioneer of Texas, in which state his father, James Elkins, Sr., located at 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 223 

an early day. The two children of this union were one who died in 
infancy and Polly Ann Elkins, who was reared by J. M. Davenport and 
who married L. C. Davenport. They yet reside in this county. J. M. 
Davenport after his marriage removed from Kaufman county, in com- 
pany with his father and family, to Lockhart and afterward to Cibolo, 
while in 1852 he arrived in Sabinal Canyon in Uvalde county. The 
range was free and the grass good and he engaged in stock raising. 
After about a year he removed to D'Hanis and subsequently located 
a homestead of one hundred and sixty acres southeast of the present 
site of Sabinal. There he established his ranch and after getting started 
in the stock business opened a store of general merchandise. He also 
prepared a small field and raised home supplies, feed, etc. In the days 
of his early residence here the Indians were very troublesome and con- 
tinually occasioned losses to the settlers. Mr. Davenport was tfTe first 
man to raise a company and as their captain led them against a large 
band that had raided the country and gathered much stock. Captain 
Davenport with his company followed and overtook them on the Leona, 
where a battle occurred, the white men exterminating most of the 
"braves" and recapturing all of the stock. Mr. Davenport continued a 
leader in many raids and was a man of unquestioned bravery, always 
accomplishing what he undertook. In 1859 he went over on the Blanco 
for a yoke of oxen and when returning with the cattle alone he was over- 
taken by a large band of red men, who opened fire on him. He re- 
turned it with a six shooter, but the ■ Indians were too many for him 
and after killing two and wounding the third he himself was killed. 
John Bowles was also killed the same day and the settlers banded them- 
selves together and joined with some military forces from Fort Inge 
to avenge the death of these men. They followed the Indians' for three 
hundred miles, when a running fight ensued, all of the Indians being 
killed with one exception. Mr. Davenport had been very successful in 
his stock-raising and merchandising interests and had a large number 
of cattle, so that he left his family in comfortable financial circum- 
stances. He contributed in many ways to the development and im- 
provement of the community and following his death his wife sold the 
store, continuing in the stock-raising business until August, 1901, when 
her death occurred at the ripe old age of seventy-nine years. She was 
a member of the Christian church. In her early life she was acquainted 
with General Sam Houston, who often had her make coffee for him. 

The children of John M. Davenport and his wife are: M. C. now 
Mrs. Fenley ; Newell R., who was accidentally killed when young : John 
W., a prominent stock man of this county; Ambrose, also a stock man; 
and James, who died at the age of fourteen vears. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Fenley have been born three children: John D., who is assisting in the 
management and operation of the ranch and farm; James I., who died 
at the age of twenty-one years; and Marvil D., who is an invalid. The 
familv are members of the Christian church and Mr. Fenley is a stal- 
wart Democrat. In his business affairs he is thoroughly reliable and he 
and his family occupy a prominent position in the regard of their fellow 
townsmen. 



224 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

A. 1. DURHAM, a business man and postmaster of Sabinal, who is 
also connected with [arming and stock raising interests in lAvalde county, 
was born in Harford county, Maryland, September 16, 1857. He was 
reared to farm pursuits and educated in the common and high schools, 
while later he studied law and civil engineering. During the process of 
acquiring an education he made his home with his parents, David and 
Dorcas (Wood) Durham, who were born, reared and married in Mary- 
land and eventually passed away there. The paternal grandfather, Abel 

'nam. was also a native oi Maryland and was a son of David Durham, 
who became an early settler of Ohio, where he died. Abel Durham, how- 
ever, remained in his native state until his demise and was there exten- 
sively engaged in farming, lie was of English descent and he and six 
brothers served in the war of 1812 to 1814, and Samuel and John Dur- 
ham, ancestors oi the family, were soldiers in the Revolutionary war. 
They afterward settled in Maryland and all became influential and highly 
respected people. Abel Durham had four children, David, Sarah A. ? 
Mary E. and William, and the last named is yet living". 

David Durham spent his entire life in Maryland, where he passed 
away January 6, 1877, while his wife died May 22, 1862. He was a 
prominent farmer, following that occupation through life. He voted 
with the Democracy and he and his family were active and devoted mem- 
ber- of the Primitive Baptist Church. His children were: Sarah E. T. T 
wife of S. J. Lowe; Mary A., who married H. Poteet and died leaving a 
family of children ; Allie. Margie, the wife of P. R. West, and A. J. 

After acquiring a good preliminary education in his native state, A. J. 
Durham took up the study of law and civil engineering - and in Uvalde 
county and other parts of Texas has done much surveying. While in his 
native state he also worked at the carpenter's trade to some extent and 
in 1878 he arrived in Uvalde county. Here he was first employed at 
herding sheep for Mr. Rheiner and after a brief period obtained from 
his employer one thousand head of sheep, which he run on shares of the 
increase and the clip. This proved profitable and he soon obtained a 
good -tart in the sheep-raising industry. Later he bought and ran 
-beep on his own account for fifteen years and before retiring from 
that business had gained a good start in cattle. He is still engaged in 
cattle raising. His next venture was to build the pioneer cotton gin and 
mill at Sabinal. which he conducted five years, during" which time he 
bought and shipped cattle and sheep. He then eng-aged in the livery 
business at Sabinal and added to his other interests the buying and 
shipping of grain. Since making a start in life he has always owned lands 
and has bought and sold much ranch property. He still owns several 
surveys and has three good farms near Sabinal. For thirteen years he 
ha- been doing dry farming and has one hundred acres in each farm 
in a good state of cultivation, raising diversified crops. He has always 
gathered good harvests, save in 1892, when he lost money, but in 1893 
the crop was much above the average, producing nearly a bale and a 
half of cotton to the acre and fifty bushels of corn to the acre. He has 
had some ^hort crops, but many very good ones, and altogether has had 
average success in his farming, which he carried on with improved ma- 
chinery. He has a small acreage which he irrigates for early vegetables, 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 225 

and this tract produces bountifully. He also has a field of alfalfa which 
does well and his various farms are splendidly improved. His home 
farm is about a half mile from the town and thereon he has a commodious 
residence and substantial outbuildings with many modern equipments. 
His farms lie on different sides of the town and he has made an addition 
to Sabinal and sold several blocks to permanent settlers who have built 
good homes. 

Mr. Durham assisted in organizing the Sabinal Drug Company, of 
which he became a stockholder, and upon its incorporation was chosen 
president. His activity in matters relating to the welfare of the town 
has also led to his co-operation in political affairs. He is a strong Re- 
publican and in 1902 was chosen for the office of county commissioner, 
being nominated and elected by the Democrats, who recognized his fitness 
for the position. He has since been re-elected', so that he is serving his 
second term. The position came to him entirely unsolicited. One of his 
more recent business ventures is in the line of banking. In 1905 he 
became a stockholder and assisted in the organization of the Sabinal 
National Bank, of which he is a director. He also took stock in the 
telephone corporation and is secretary and director of that. In 1905 he 
received the appointment of postmaster at Sabinal and is acting in that 
capacity. This is an office of the third class with two rural routes. He 
is likewise road superintendent and secretary of the Sabinal Cemetery 
Association. Thus many interests and enterprises have felt the stimulus 
of his energy, business resource and capability. To him have been en- 
trusted many interests relating to the public welfare and his business 
affairs have likewise been of a nature that have contributed to general 
prosperity. 

On the 4th of July, 1883, was celebrated the marriage of Mr. Durham 
and Miss Clara Kennedy, who was born in Uvalde county in i860, a 
daughter of Ross and Jane (Rankin) Kennedy, both natives of county 
Monaghan, Ireland, born in 1826 and 1833 respectively. The father was 
reared to farm labor and was educated in the common schools. His 
parents were George and Jane (Ross) Kennedy, descendants of honored 
old Protestant families that had lived in the north of Ireland for many 
generations. George Kennedy was a farmer and both he and his wife 
died at the old homestead. They were reared in the Presbyterian faith, 
from which they never departed. Their children were : George, Jr., who 
spent his entire life in Ireland ; Ross, who came to America at the age of 
twenty-one ; Thomas, who came to the United States and joined the army, 
his death occurring in St. Louis prior to the rebellion. By a second mar- 
riage the father had three children : Edward and Robert, who went to 
Australia, and James, who remained in Ireland. An extended sketch of 
Ross Kennedy will be found on other pages and need not be repeated 
here. 

The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Ross Kennedy was blessed with nine 
children : Margery, the wife of Thomas Adams, a stock farmer and 
rancher,; Jane, the wife of Louis M. Peters, the oldest merchant of 
Sabinal ; Clara, the wife of A. J. Durham ; Rosalie, the wife of Leon 
T. Heard, a prominent hardware merchant and vice-president of a bank ; 
Mary, the wife of C. W. Giffin, a stockman of Reeves county, Texas ; 

Vol. II. 15 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Vine, who married D, M alone, a Stockman, ami died leaving one child; 
George, a Stock rancher; Ross, who has a stock ranch and conducts a 
meat market at Tvaide; and Mand. who is living With her mother. 

The home of Mr. and Mrs. Durham has been blessed with three inter- 
esting children : Rosalie, born November 9, [886; Nettie, January 12, [896, 
and Abel J., Jr.. February 20. 1S0S. Mr. Durham belongs to the Presby- 
terian church and his wife to the Christian church and they are both 
interested in religious work, lie is also connected with the Woodmen of 
the World and the Knights o\ Pythias. Everything he has undertaken he 
has carried forward to successful completion, has been watchful of busi- 
ness opportunities ami of all indications pointing- to success. As the 
architect oi his own fortunes he has bnilded wisely and well and he justly 
merits the ^prosperity which has been vouchsafed him. 

LEON F. Heard is the junior member of the firm of L. F. Heard & 
Company, dealers in hardware and furniture at Sabinal, and his business 
enterprise and intense and well directed activity easily place him in the 
foremost ranks of the representative merchants of this part of the county. 
He was born in Chambersvilie, Arkansas, February 25, 1866, his parents 
being A. F. and Sarah (Dixon) Heard, who w T ere natives of Georgia, but 
were married in Arkansas. The paternal grandfather, Wyatt T. fteard, 
was also a native of Georgia. Nearly all of the Heard families in America 
are descended from Stephen Heard, who came from Ireland at an early 
day and settled in Virginia, where he remained and died. His descendants 
largely lived in the southern states. Wyatt Heard was born in Georgia in 
i7o ( J and was there reared to manhood and married. After the birth of all 
of his children he removed to Texas and settled in l>ell county, where 
he died. His attention was given to farming and he commanded the 
respect of all who knew him. 

A. F. Heard (father) was born and reared in Georgia and went to 
Arkansas prior to his marriage. Following his marriage he settled upon 
a farm there arid remained for many years. He was a natural mechanic 
and built houses for himself and others and also made many articles for 
family use, being able to construct almost anything out of wood. He was 
also a prudent .and conservative farmer. During the Civil war he was 
assigned to the freighting department, in which he continued until the 
close of hostilities and in consequence thereof he never carried arms nor 
participated in anv conflict. After the close of the war he returned home 
and in 1809 removed from Arkansas to Louisiana, where he purchased 
land and improved a farm, remaining thereon three years. He then sold 
out and came to Texas. After raising a crop in Bel'l county and one in 
Comanche county he removed to Sabinal Canyon in Uvalde county in 
1874 and there engaged in farming for two years. He afterward located 
a homestead on the Drv Frio, built a house and began the work of im- 
proving a farm, but death claimed him in 1877. Up to the time of his 
last illness he had been a man of strong constitution but he was cut off* 
in the prime of life when hoping to make a permanent home here. In 
(K)litics he was a stalwart Democrat but though often solicited to accept 
office he always declined. He belonged to the Methodist church and 

a devoted adherent of the cause, while of the Masonic fraternity he 
was likewise an exemplary member. His wife, surviving him, kept their 






HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 227 

children together and remained iij)on the old home-stead. Through her 
capable management and the assistance of her sons a <^<><><\ farm wa-, 
developed, on which she lived until 1890, when her children having mar- 
ried and gone to homes of their own, she sold the property and after- 
ward found a good home at Sabinal with her daughter and her son 
Leon. Mrs. Heard was a daughter of Thomas Dixon, of Georgia, who 
removed with his family to Arkansas, where he followed farming as a 
pioneer settler and served in the Confederate army. He died from the 
effects of hardships and exposure. His family remained in Arkansas, 
where his wife died. She was a faithful member of the Methodist church. 
In the Dixon family were three children: Mrs. Sarah Heard; Kate, the 
wife of Dr. A. S. Holderness ; and William, who died at the age of twenty- 
four years. 

Seven children were born to Mr. and Mrs. A. E. Heard : Thomas D., 
a carpenter and stock farmer; William D., a stock farmer, who served for 
two terms as county assessor; Wyatt E., a stock farmer; Leon F. ; 
Harvey, who died at the age of eighteen years; Maria M., the wife of 
Ross J. Kennedy ; and Kate, who died when twenty years of age. 

Leon F. Heard accompanied his parents on their various removals 
until he became a resident of Uvalde county. He early became familiar 
with farming and stock raising through the assistance which he rendered 
his parents in the care of the farm, and in the public schools he obtained 
his education. He was eleven years of age at the time of his father's 
death and he assisted his mother in the farm work and with the stock, 
remaining at home until the family was broken up. He afterward lived 
upon a farm till 1893, when he came to Sabinal and closed out his agri- 
cultural interests in 1894. He had carried on general farming and also 
raised some stock, having cattle, sheep, goats and hogs. Removing to 
Sabinal in 1894, he entered the employ of the firm of lohnston & Riley, 
merchants, with whom he remained for two and a half years. In 1898, 
in company with L. M. Peters, he engaged in the hardware and furniture 
business on his own account. The business has since been maintained 
and is now conducted under the name of L. F. Heard & Company. The 
stock is carefully selected and the trade has now reached large and 
gratifying proportions, Mr. Heard being recognized as one of the leading 
merchants of the city. He is also interested in a small herd of registered 
red polled cattle. In 1905 he became a stockholder and assisted in the 
organization of the Sabinal National Bank, with a paid-up capital of 
thirty thousand dollars. The following officers were chosen: L. M, 
Peters, president ; Leon F. Heard, vice-president, and Merton Swift, 
cashier. Mr. Heard is actively and helpfully interested in the develop- 
ment and progress of the town and is a broad-minded, intelligent business 
man, whose efforts have been of direct benefit to the locality. 

In 1897 Mr. Heard was married to Mrs. Rosalie Barnard, the widow 
of C. W. Barnard, who at his death left a wife and one child, Jane 
Barnard, who was born in 1892. Mrs. Heard bore the maiden name of 
Rosalie Kennedy and was born in Uvalde county in 1866, her parents 
being Ross and Jane (Rankin) Kennedy, both of whom were natives of 
county Monaghan, Ireland, the former born in 1826 and the latter in 1833. 
The history of Ross Kennedy, one of the most noted pioneers and Indian 



HISTORY or SOITHWT.ST TEXAS 

fighters of Western Texas, is given complete oh previous page's?. Mr. 

and Mrs. Ross Kennedy had a family of nine children: Margery, the 

wife Of Thomas Adams, a stock farmer and rancher; Jane, the wife of 
Louis M. Peters, a pioneer merchant of Sahinal ; Clara, the wife of A. J. 
Durham; Rosalie, now Mrs. Heard; Mary, the wife of C. W. Giffin, a 
- ck rancher oi \\cc\c< comity. Texas; Vine, the widow of D. Malone, 
a stock man. who left one child. George, a stock raiser of Uvalde county; 
Ross, who is engaged in raising stock; and Maud, at home. The mother 
and all oi the children are members of the Christian church. 

The marriage oi Mr. and Mrs. Heard has not been blessed with any 
children, hut her daughter by her former marriage is living- with them. 
They own a nice home on a sixty acre tract of land in the corporate limits 
of the town of Sahinal also a frame business house well located for busi- 
ness. In politics he is independent and has held no office. Belonging to 
the Christian church, he takes a very active and helpful part in its work, 
has served as superintendent of the Sunday school for a number of 
years and is also a member of the Masonic fraternity and the Woodmen 
oi the "World. He has led a life of activity crowned by success and from 
his boyhood days has made his home in Texas. Since the above was 
prepared. Mr. Heard purchased on January 10, 1907, the interest of L. M. 
Peters in the business of L. F. Heard & Co., and he is now conducting 
the business as the sole proprietor. 

John H. Zachry. The southwest with its limitless possibilities, its 
natural resources and business advantages, has attracted a large number 
of young men who have improved their advantages and have been' pro- 
moters of the districts in which they lived, their labors resulting in uni- 
form and rapid progress and substantial upbuilding. To this class of 
men belongs John H. Zachry, who is at the head of the Zachry Mercan- 
tile firm at Uvalde, in which connection he is meeting with large and well 
merited success. He was born in Dallas, Texas, March 5, 1873, and in 
early life was taken to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he acquired a 
public-school education. His parents were H. D. and Anne (Hannagan) 
Zachry. the father a native of Georgia and the mother of Dublin, Ireland, 
in which country she was educated. The Hannagan family was very 
prominent in Dublin and for many years her father was a leading mer- 
chant of that city, where his death occurred, his widow afterward bring- 
ing her family to the new world. She was a worthy member of the 
Catholic church. Among her children were John Hannagan, a promi- 
nent and successful merchant of Denver, Colorado; Annie, who became 
Mrs. Zachry; and others, now deceased, whose names are not remem- 
l>ercd. 

H. D. Zachry, father of John H., was born and reared in Georgia 
and traces his lineage to one of the old and honored southern families. 
Mi- father was among the most extensive planters and slave owners of 
the Kmpire state of the south, having over three hundred slaves and sev- 
eral large plantations. He was not only an extremely wealthy, but also 
a very influential man and did much to mold public thought and opinion. 
He lived through the period of the rebellion to see his life's labor and 
savings swept away, while the large estate which he had created for his 
children vanished because of the ravages of war. He continued to reside 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 229 

in Georgia up to the time of his demise. He had nine sons, one of whom 
enlisted, for service; m the Mexican war, and as he never returned it is 
supposed that he was killed in the service. Eight of the number served in 
the Confederate army in the Civil war and two are yet living, namely: 
Lyman, of New Mexico, and H. D. Zachry. The latter entered the Con- 
federate army in Georgia and served until the close of hostilities, being 
connected, with several different .commands and participating in many 
hotly, contested battles. He was twice wounded and was twice taken 
prisoner. He was very faithful and loyal to the cause which he espoused 
and saw hard service, undergoing many privations together with the 
exposure meted out to the soldier. When it was known that the cause 
was lost he returned home to find his father's estate in ruins, while all 
that was left for him to do was to enter actively upon a business career 
and make the most, of his opportunities, depending solely upon his own 
labor. 

Accordingly H. D r Zachry came to Texas, settling first at Jefferson, 
where he engaged in business as a cotton speculator. Later he was mar- 
ried there, after which he removed to Dallas, which was then a small 
and inconsequential town. In that place he turned his attention to manu- 
facturing interests, in which he met with good success, and in 1876 he 
removed to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where with his brother-in-law 
he engaged in the manufacture and. sale of soda fountains and fixtures. 
He also prospered in that undertaking,, which he continued for several 
years, when he returned to the Lone Star state. He then located in Fort 
Worth, where he engaged in . general merchandising, remaining in that 
city for a few years. He afterward lived at different places and eventually 
settled at Lampasas, Texas, where he continued in merchandising. While 
living there, his wife died and the family afterward became scattered. 
Mr. Zachry went to Colorado, where he engaged in mining and after 
visiting various camps he went to Arizona, where he engaged in copper 
mining, yet continuing in business there, his headquarters being at 
Douglas. He has had an eventful life since the war, fraught with varied 
experiences that have connected him with many parts of the country. 
Wherever he has lived he has been known as a broad minded and intel- 
ligent business man, enterprising in his private affairs and public spirited 
in all that relates to citizenship. He is a stanch Democrat and has filled 
a number of offices, acting as alderman while in Lampasas. He has been 
recognized as an influential and earnest party worker, and is also a worthy 
and devoted member of the Methodist church. His children were reared 
in that faith and, like him, have become adherents of that denomination. 
His wife was reared in the Catholic faith and never departed therefrom. 
In their family were two sons and a daughter : John H. ; Emmett, a 
real estate and loan agent in the Indian Territory, and Annie, who is 
attending school in San Antonio. 

John H. Zachry was about nine years of age at the time of his 
mother's death. The family became broken up then and he was thrown 
upon his own resources. He is entirely a self-made man and deserves 
much credit for what he has accomplished. He was first employed at 
Lampasas as cash boy in a large department store, where his fidelity, 
industry and business enterprise were recognized,, winning him the conn- 



230 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

ilence oi his employers so that he was promoted from time to time until 
he eventually became a leading employe in that establishment and was 
made manager o\ the large business and purchasing agent for the store, 

in whieh capacity he often made trips to New York. He remained with 
that rirm as one of its most trusted and honored representatives for four- 
teen years, when on account of failing health he was compelled to resign. 
Later he made his way to the city of Mexico, where he secured employ- 
ment with the Wells Fargo Express Company, with which he continued 
for two years. On the expiration of that period he located in Texas and 
followed merchandising at Goliad, where he continued until 1898. He 
next removed to Anglefon and opened a general store with good pros- 
pects, lie was there, however, at the time of the memorable storm and 
flood and was a heavy loser owing to the. disaster which nature wrought. 

In 1SS0 Mr. Zachry was married and in the following year he re- 
moved his stock of goods to Uvalde, where he opened up a stock and has 
since continued in business, managing his mercantile affairs along modern 
lines oi progress. After a time he admitted a partner and subsequently 
the business was incorporated under the firm style of Zachry & Company, 
wholesale and retail dealers in dry goods and general merchandise. Thev 
do a general trading business and buy and ship all products of the coun- 
try, handling on an extensive scale mohair, pecans, wool and hides and 
other things produced in this section of the state. To accommodate their 
large and rapidly increasing business they have erected a commodious 
double store, in which they have ample warehouse and also handle large 
>t<>cks of goods. As evidence of his confidence in the future of Uvalde 
Mr. Zachry has invested in several other business properties on the 
square and also has residence property in the city. He has also made 
purchases of lands in the county and has a five thousand acre ranch, on 
which he is running horses and goats. This is another profitable indus- 
try of the county and his business enterprise is of a character that has 
contributed to general progress and upbuilding as well as to individual 
success. 

Mr. Zachry was married to Miss Emma Bartell, who was born in 
California and was educated in Kansas University, from which she was 
graduated. Later she pursued post-graduate work in Austin, Texas, and 
is a ladv whose superior intelligence and culture combined with a genial 
social nature have rendered her a favorite in society circles in Uvalde. 
She i- also an able and helpful member of the Presbyterian church. 
Her father, A. H. Bartell, now of Houston, Texas, is a native of Berlin, 
( icrmany. and came to America in early manhood. He was married in 
this country and has led a busy and useful life. Living at different times 
in various localities, he at last went to Houston, where he now owns 
large realty holdings and has for a number of years been an active dealer 
in real estate, making judicious investments and profitable sales and also 
negotiating many important realty transfers for others. He is a man of 
sound judgment and enterprise in business affairs and figures prominently 
in commercial and financial circles there. Politically he is a Republican, 
but without desire for office. His wife departed this life in Houston, 
in the family of Mr. and .Mrs. Bartell were eight children: George, an 
extensive and prosperous merchant of Seattle, Washington; Alice, at 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 231 

home; Laura, deceased; Herbert, a real estate dealer of Houston; Mrs. 
Emma Zachry ; Mrs. Cora Rue; Mrs. Ellen Westgate, and Edith. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Zachry have been born two sons; Jack, who died when 
four years of age, and Henry, born in August 1902. 

In politics Mr. Zachry is a strong and influential Democrat, taking 
an active and helpful part in the work of advancing the interests of the 
candidates who represent the organization. He is chairman of the county 
executive committee and a member of the executive committee of the 
Business Men's Club. He is also captain in the commissary department 
of the Texas National Cuard. Although he has never sought or desired 
political preferment he was chosen by his fellow townsmen to the position 
of county commissioner, in which office he is yet serving. He is a worthy 
member of the Masonic fraternity, in which he has attained the Royal 
Arch degree, and is an officer in both the lodge and chapter. He is like- 
wise connected with the Knights of Pythias and the Woodmen of the 
World. In his business career he has risen from the position of cash 
boy to that of a prominent and prosperous merchant and his course 
has awakened the respect and admiration of his contemporaries and all 
who know aught of his career. As a business man he has been enter- 
prising, energetic and always abreast of the times and has been rewarded 
by an ample success. He has attained to a position of prominence through 
his own exertions and may justly be proud of what he has wrought. He is 
a man of generous impulses and gives liberally of his time and money to 
all worthy causes and in everything that he does he tries to make the 
world brighter and better. 

Edward L. Witt & Sons are prominent ranchers of Uvalde county, 
engaged extensively in the raising of goats and other live stock. The 
senior member is descended from a well known pioneer family. His 
birth occurred in Dallas county, Texas, March 26, 1849, and in his youth 
he attended the public schools, while during the periods of vacation he 
became familiar with agricultural pursuits, both in the line of stock raising 
and tilling the soil. His parents were Preston and Harriet (Huffman) 
Witt, who were born in Illinois and were married there. The paternal 
grandfather, John Witt, was a native of Tennessee, whence he removed 
to Kentucky and afterward to Illinois, settling there at an early day. He 
became one of the prosperous and enterprising farmers of his community 
and late in life he removed from the Prairie state to Texas, taking up his 
abode in Dallas county, where he spent his remaining days. Public office 
had no attraction for him, as he preferred to devote his energies to his 
business affairs. His children were : Harrison and Bartlett, who re- 
mained residents of Illinois until called to their final rest ; Jack, Eli ; 
Pleasant ; Preston ; Wade H. and Mrs. Polly Ellis. 

Preston Witt was married in Illinois and about 1845 emigrated to 
Texas with a yoke of oxen and a covered wagon. He also had a saddle 
pony, but his possessions were very limited. He first located in Lamar 
county, where he raised two crops, and afterward removed to Dallas 
county, where he purchased land and developed a farm. There he carried 
on farming on an extensive scale, operating his land with the aid of slave 
labor. Prospering in his undertakings, he accumulated considerable prop- 
erty and built the first mill in his part of the county. It was one of the 



232 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

old style tread mills and both horse and oxen wore used as motive power. 
Mr. Witt took toll from each grist which was brought to mill and his 
enterprise became unite an important and extensive one for a new coun- 
try. He was very successful in his business interests and later he and 
his brother. W. 11. Witt, built a steam mill with large capacity on the 
Elm fork oi the Trinity river, about fourteen miles northwest of Dallas. 
This was called the Trinity mills and the brothers carried on an extensive 
business in both toll ami merchant milling. Their trade extended for 
many miles around, the settlers coming as far as seventy-five or one 
hundred miles to get their grist ground. The brothers also took govern- 
ment contracts and furnished flour and meal to Fort Belknap and Camp 
Cooper. The mill and its owners became widely known and the old 
milling plant is yet well remembered by many a man wdio as a boy took 
the grain to that place to be converted into meal or flour. The enter- 
prise proved pf marked value to the county in pioneer times. At a 
later date Preston Witt sold his mill and engaged in the stock business. 
At that time all of the range was free and from time to time he would 
move his stock to a better feeding district. Eventually he located in Palo 
Pinto county, where he remained for a year and a half and had become 
well established in business when the hostile Indians caused him to turn 
back to Parker county. There he made permanent settlement and bought 
large tracts of land. He opened an extensive farm and was a successful 
agriculturist and stockman, remaining upon that place until 1862, when 
on account of illness he sold out and took up his abode in Jackson county 
near the coast. After a number of years he returned to Dallas, where 
he lived retired until his death. One of his sons also died in Dallas, 
aTter which Mrs. Preston Witt returned to Jackson county and subse- 
quently went to Kansas, where she passed away. Mr. Witt was a strong 
secessionist and used his influence to further the cause, but was too old 
for active service in the army. Having implicit confidence in the ultimate 
triumph of the Confederate arms he sold all of his property and took 
Confederate money in exchange, so that he lived to see all the earnings 
of a lifetime swept away through the depreciation of that currency, so 
that there was naught or little left for the family. He manifested a 
valorous and loyal spirit in support of the Federal government during 
the Mexican war and raised a company, of which he became captain, 
serving as its commander throughout the period of hostilities with Mexico. 
He was in active duty under General Scott and while in the Mexican 
war he became acquainted with Beauregard and with Robert E. Lee, 
who at that time was General Scott's engineer. 

When he came to Texas Mr. Witt settled in the Peters colony and 
got a grant of land. During the early years of his residence in Dallas 
county he had much trouble with the Indians and with other settlers took 
part in many raids after them in order to recover the stock. He once had 
a hand to hand conflict with a brave and narrowly escaped with his life. 
The news came to the neighborhood that a large band of Indians had 
been south and were coming north with an extensive herd of horses. 
The settlers prepared for the fray, but the main body of Indians, 
with their horses did not come over this route. Four of the Indians, how- 
ever, left the main body, made their way to the neighborhood and secured 



HISTORY OF. SOUTHWEST TEXAS 233 

a bunch of horses. The settlers then took up the trail, which they fol- 
lowed for three days to Wise county, where they overtook the red men 
and a hard fight ensued. Mr. Witt took the lead and was in the heat of 
battle. One Indian was about to get awav and Mr. Witt, seeing this, 
started his horse on the run and overtook the red man who, seeing that 
he could not escape through flight, halted and began to fire. Mr. Witt 
discharged his gun, which was his last load and he h'<d no time to reload. 
The Indian had his quiver full of arrows and Mr. Witt found his only 
chance therefore was to get hold of the red man and keep him from using 
the arrows, so he closed in on him and they had a hard struggle, but Mr. 
Witt used his knife and k ; 1W1 his onoonent. One of the Indian's arrows 
was well aimed, but Mr. Witt dodged it and though it cut across his 
breast the wound was not deep enough to occasion much alarm. All of 
this band of Indians were killed and the white men returned home with 
their stock. Mr. Witt was a strong, muscular man, fearless and brave, 
and saw much frontier service. He was broad minded and intelligent 
and was widelv known and highly respected. He voted with the Democ- 
racy and could have commanded almost any office within the gift of 
the people and was often solicited to become a candidate for the legisla- 
ture, but always declined to do so. 

His wife was a daughter of Tohn Huffman, a native of Kentucky 
and one of the early settlers of Illinois, where he became prominentlv 
known as a leading farmer, continuing his residence in that state until 
his death. In the Huffman family, were two daughters: Harriet, who 
became Mrs. Witt ; and Mrs. Sally Perry, who removed to Texas and died 
in this state. To Mr. and Mrs. Preston Witt were born five children : 
Margaret E., the wife of W. D. Ayers ; Tolin F., who died in childhood: 
Edward L., of this review : Lewis C who died when twenty-four years 
of age. and Douglas, who died in Tackson county, Texas. 

Edward L. Witt accomnanied his parents on their various removals 
during the period of his childhood and when he attained his maioritv he 
was married and settled in Tackson county, where he engaged in farm- 
ing and in raising cattle and hogs. Success attended his efforts in this 
direction and he continued in business there until 1882. when he came to 
Uvalde countv. Here he made a start in stock raising, but after one year 
he returned to Tackson countv, where he lived for some time longer. He 
then ap-ain resided for a time in Uvalde countv and in 7889 went to Kan- 
sas, -where he remained for two years. While in Uvalde county he had 
taken 110 the sheep industry and upon his return from Kansas he continued 
in the business until the tariff measure of Cleveland's administration 
caused the business to prove unprofitable. He suffered heavy losses 
thereby, never receiving the full value of his sheep, some of which he sold 
and some of which he traded for goats. This led to his embarkation in 

Goat Raising in Uvalde. 

the raising of goats. In the fall of 18Q4 he P"ot started in this work and 
found a good sale for the mohair at a profitable price. He has since con- 
tinued in the business with gratifvinp- success and has been joined bv his 
sons under the firm name of E. L. Witt & Sons. This is the strongest 
firm in the county in the goat industry, with which Mr. Witt has been 



234 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

connected for twelve years. 1 le has found it a profitable business and 
now has titty-rive hundred head of goats. The firm leases thirteen thou- 
sand acres oi land from the New York Land Company and has the herd 
divided into two ranches. They have eight hundred registered goats and 
in 1905 they unpolled a hue buck from South Africa at a cost of over 
fifteen hundred dollars. This is the finest animal of the kind in America. 
They also raise some registered sheep and are raising and trading in 
cattle. To some extent they likewise engage in farming, producing feed 
for their stock, and in addition to their other industries they are devoting 
considerable time to the raising of bees and the production of honey, hav- 
ing three hundred stands of bees. In fact, they are interested in all of 
the standard business enterprises of Uvalde county and are making a suc- 
— . After the sheep failure in 1893 Mr. Witt began with two hundred 
and eighty goats and is now at the- head of the largest goat firm in Uvalde 
county. They are extensive dealers in all kinds of stock and their success 
i- attributable entirely to their own labors and has been achieved since 

Edward L. \\ itt was married in Jackson county, Texas, in 1872, to 
Miss Rosa Rogers, who was born in Jackson county and is a daughter 
of Samuel and Mary (Evans) Rogers, both of whom were natives of 
Alabama. They were married in Texas, after which Mr. Rogers settled 
down to stock farming. He arrived in this state in 1830, was one of the 
soldiers under General Sam Houston in an early day and assisted in 
achieving Texan independence. He was not at the decisive battle of San 
Jacinto, however, for he had been detailed at that time to look after fami- 

of soldiers and settlers in the famous Run Away Scrape. He took 
part in some of the earlier and smaller fights and did much hard and long 
service. When he came to Texas the Mexican government gave him a 
league and labor of land amounting to nearly 5,000 acres and upon that 
tract he first settled in Jackson county, continuing to make it his home 
until his death. He was a pioneer minister of the Methodist Episcopal 
church and organized many congregations of that denomination in this 
district. He was among the prime movers in promoting the moral as 
well as the material development of the state and was a very faithful and 
earnest worker in his Master's vineyard. During the time that Mexico 
owned this country and also before the war Mr. Rogers filled the office 
of alcalde, which is equivalent to that of justice of the peace. His chil- 
dren were : Rosa, now Mrs. Witt ; Erances ; Clark ; Lizzie ; Samuel Mack ; 
Emma ; and Minnie. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Witt have been born seven children: Samuel P., 
Lewi- E.. Mack L. and Perry C, all of whom are partners with their 
father in business; Ray M., Thomas L. and Arthur P., all at home. 

Mr. Witt votes with the Democracy, fie has no aspirations for 
office but has done much to advance public progress. He is a consistent 
member of the Missionary Baptist church, also of the Masonic fraternity 
and of the Knights of Honor and his wife is a member of the Baptist 
church. When disaster overtook him in his business career Mr. Witt did 
not yield to discouragement but resolutely set to work to retrieve his lost 
ions and has become the pioneer in the promotion of a new industry 




Joel C. Fenley 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 235 

in this section of the state. He is now meeting- with success and is well 
known as a representative stock dealer of Southwestern Texas. 

Joel C. Fenley. The name of Eenley has been associated with the 
history of Uvalde county since its organization, and representatives of the 
name have been active factors in the events which have led to its present 
clay progress and prosperity. Mr. Fenley is carrying on the work of im- 
provement instituted by his father and as the years have passed has made 
for himself a creditable position in business circles as a farmer and stock- 
man, meeting with very gratifying and well merited success. He was 
born in Jasper county, Georgia, November 2, 1839, anc ^ was reared to farm 
life in the home of his parents, John M. and Alm'eda (Holland) Fenley 
the former a native of South Carolina and the latter of Richmond, Vir- 
ginia. The marriage, however, was celebrated in Georgia. The paternal 
grandparents were Charles and Elizabeth (McCamy) Fenley, both of whom 
were natives of Georgia, where they were married. The great-grand- 
father, John Fenley, a native of Virginia, was the orphaned son of a 
Revolutionary soldier who was killed in battle while fighting for the in- 
dependence of the colonies. The Fenley family was founded in America 
by fwo brothers, who came from Scotland during the early colonial epoch 
in the history of Virginia. One of these brothers reared a son, who mar- 
ried and had a son born to him. He soon afterward entered the army to 
fig"ht for the cause of American liberty and left his wife and little son, 
who was John Fenley, the great-grandfather of our subject, and the pro- 
genitor of the branch of the family to which Joel C. Fenley belongs. Later 
the widow married a Mr. Powell, who removed with his wife and stepson 
to South Carolina, where John Fenley grew to manhood. The second 
brother who came from Scotland disappeared and there is no- record of 
his whereabouts or of his descendants. 

John Fenley was reared in South Carolina and was married in 
Georgia. Soon afterward he settled in Alabama, where he reared his own 
family and spent his remaining days. He was well known as a leading 
farmer and slave owner and was regarded as a man of influence and 
prominence in his locality. His children were Charles, John and Isom 
Fenley. 

Of this family, Charles Fenley, the paternal grandfather of Toel C. 
Fenley, was born and reared in Alabama, where he married Elizabeth 
McCamy. He began farming on his own account and received his propor- 
tion of slaves and other property from his father's estate, but he largely 
used his patrimony and left little to his children. He was not a money 
making man, nor did he accumulate much propertv. After a time he re- 
moved to Louisiana, where he died. Although he did not possess the 
qualities of a money maker he displayed many characteristics which were 
worthy of emulation and won him the esteem of his fellowmen. His 
children were John M. ; James M., who served through the rebellion and 
in 1866 came to Uvalde county, where he died at the ripe old age of 
ninety-two vears ; Joel D., who arrived in Uvalde county in 1852 and ex- 
perienced the usual difficulties with the hostile red men. continuing his 
residence here up to the time of his death ; Mrs. Theodosia Gilliland. of 
eastern Texas : and Mary, who died in Alabama, where all were born. 

John M. Fenley was married in Georgia and later spent one year in 



236 HIS TORN" OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Alabama. He afterward removed to Louisiana, where he remained for a 
number of years, the younger members o\ his Family being born in that 
state. In tlie fall oi 1S;} he removed to Uvalde county. Texas, where 
he remained until called to his final rest on the _\}d oi May, 1807, when he 
had reached the advanced age oi eighty-six years. On coming to Texas 
he first loeated in the Ware settlement, where the village of Utopia now 
:ds. At that time there were only two settlements in the county and 
these were about twenty miles apart, namely, the Ware and the Patterson 
settlements. The latter was on the Sabinal river and the first residents of 
that locality took up their abode there in the early fifties. These were 
CJeorge W. Patterson. John Lakey and Butch Dillard. Others soon after- 
ward came and within a few years there were several families. The first 
members oi the Ware settlement arrived in 185 1 and were William Ware, 
John McCormick, Gid Thompson, Aaron Angland, Henry Robinson, Abe 
Kelly and James Davenport. In 1853 John M. Fenley arrived and also 
Jasper Wish. All had families and all built cabins and staked out claims. 
( hi account of hostile Indians they were compelled to rely on each other 
for mutual protection. It was usually in the light of the moon that the 
savages made their raids upon the stock pens and when any Indian sign 
was seen all of the white families would assemble together for protection. 
From year to year others came and settled and these were the first pioneers 
to penetrate info the wilderness and reclaim the region for the purposes 
of civilization. They laid the foundation for the present development and 
progress of the county and performed the arduous task of driving out the 
wild beasts and reclaiming the region from the domain of the red men. 
They underwent all the deprivations, hardships and dangers of pioneer life 
and well do they deserve the gratitude and honor of their descendants and 
the settlers of the present day, who are enjoying the results of their labors. 
Those earlv settlers came to stay and in 1856 they organized the county. 
At the first election held in the fall of that year for locating the county 
seat there were less than fifty votes cast. As a rule the early settler bought 
no land but established a home and engaged in the stock business upon 
the open range. Nearly all opened up small farms whereon to raise family 
supplies. Owing to conditions which existed they became mutually de- 
pendent upon each other and warm ties of friendship and brotherly kind- 
ness were thus built up and practically they lived as one family. No 
such hospitality is known at the present time as then existed. Those 
original settlers all came from prominent families and all became honored 
citizens of the new county. Their labors have borne good fruit in the 
development and improvement of this part of the state and through their 
efforts Uvalde county is rapidly winning its way to a foremost place 
among the leading counties of this great commonwealth. 

John M. Fenley, father of Joel C. Fenley, first located in the Ware 
settlement. He began farming on a small scale, always raising some corn. 
Iff. however, turned his attention to the stock business and got a start 
in hogs. The hogs fattened on the range and he always had pork and 
lard, while his farming brought him other table supplies. He was making 
a good start in the stock business, but had considerable difficulty with the 
Indian-, who would drive off the horses and cattle. However, he re- 
mained in the Ware settlement for fifteen years and owing to the vigilance 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 237 

and bravery of the early residents the Indians were driven hack. Mr. 
Fenley removed to the Nueces river country, where he resided for a short 
period and in 1867 he took up his abode in the Mula river country, twenty 
miles west of Uvalde. There he had a free range and became owner of 
considerable stock. At length he removed to New Ranch, where he took 
a homestead claim of one hundred and sixty acres, building there a com- 
fortable rock house. In that locality he began farming and he remained 
there for many years, successfully engaged in business. Eater, however, 
he left the ranch and developed a homestead property near the town, 
whereon he spent his declining years and the place is now occupied by his 
son, Dempsy Fenley. There the father died May 23, 1897, at the ripe old 
age of eighty-six years. After he had got well established at the Mula 
river ranch he purchased two sections of land at Utopia, which he held 
through life. From the time that he arrived in the county the Indians 
were troublesome and frequently made raids upon the stock of Mr. Fen- 
ley, but he was cool-headed and not excitable, was fearless and brave and 
was sound in his judgment, so that he utilized to the best advantage the 
opportunities which he had of regaining his stock and getting even with 
the red mem He took part in many raids after the Indians and in a 
large number of battles. Three times he faced a party of savages at his 
own door when he was without help, but his fearlessness and thoughtful 
conduct saved his life and his home. He saw the Indians approaching 
and would stand in the doorway without a gun or other weapon, although 
he had his gun near at hand. He made no demonstration nor said a word 
but the Indians noted his stern demeanor and his fearlessness. As they 
rode toward the house they formed in single file and each group rode 
around the house. From his attitude they decided he had a force of men 
in the cabin and, believing this, they rode away, leaving him unmolested. 
Had they begun to fire at him he would have sold his life dearly, for he 
had his own gun near by and he was at all times brave and valorous. In 
the conflict with the Indians he was never wounded and he resolved that 
he would not be driven from his home nor the country, so he took a bold 
stand for his rights. He was enterprising and public spirited, was social 
in disposition and charitable in nature and enjoyed having his friends 
about him. The latchstring of his door always hung on the outside and 
those who knew him regarded him as a good neighbor and friend. He 
was highly esteemed for his unassailable integrity and his honor was an 
unquestioned fact in his career. In speech and manner he was plain and 
unpretentious but all recognized in him a man of genuine personal worth, 
whose life was actuated by high ideals and guided by principles of manly 
conduct. For many years he was a devoted member of the Christian 
church. 

Mrs. John M. Fenley survived her husband three years and died in 
1899. She was a daughter of John Holland, a prominent farmer of Vir- 
ginia, in which state his death occurred. He was a member of the Chris- 
tian church. His children were : John, who came to this country with his 
father and died here ; and Almeda, who became Mrs. Fenley. The mar- 
riage of Mr. and Mrs. John Fenley was blessed with five children : Joel 
C, John M., of Sabinal ; Charles D., living at the old homestead at Uvalde ; 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

James T., 1 stockman, carrying on an extensive business at El Paso, 
Texas ind Elizabeth, the wife o\ John Ware, o\ Utopia. 

Joel G Fenley came to Uvalde county with his parents when a vouth 
ot thirteen years and grew to manhood in the saddle. He has thorough 

familiarity with all ot" the experiences of pioneer life with its dangers and 
privations and can relate man) interesting incidents of the early days. He 
remained at home, assisting his father with the stock and on the farm 
until after the inauguration oi the Civil war, when he enlisted for service 
in the Confederacy, becoming a member of Company l», Thirty-third 
Texas Cavalry. This was Colonel Duff's regiment and with the command 
he was assigned to the Trans-Mississippi army, doing duty in Texas, 
Arkansas and Louisiana. The regiment was largely engaged in skirmish- 
ing and in guarding the coast. Mr. Fenley was in many hotly contested 
engagements and saw difficult service and at the time of General Lee's 
surrender he was Stationed near Shreveport, Lonisiana. 

Not long afterward he returned home and in a short time was mar- 
ried. He wedded Miss Margaret A. Miller, who was born in Missouri 
in [846, a daughter of Rolla and Dorcas (Davenport) Miller, of Ten- 
nessee, who came to Uvalde county in 1853. Her father was well known 
here as a stockman and remained in this county until his death. He was 
among the pioneers who aided in the organization of the county and in 
planting the seeds of civilization. He, too, aided in the struggle with 
the red men for the supremacy of the district and had many unpleasant 
and oftentimes thrilling experiences. He took part in many raids and 
fights with the Indians and lost much stock because of their thieving 
propensities. His son, George W. Miller, was killed fey the Indians and 
lie revenged the death of his son by killing an Indian the following day. 
He was a practical and successful cattleman and created a good estate. 
1 [e pi issessed a social nature, so that he enjoyed having his friends around 
him, and his door was always hospitably open for the reception of friends 
or strangers of the white race who visited this locality. He displayed 
many sterling traits of character. He passed away upon his ranch in 
1877. Hi- wife died soon afterward. She was a daughter of John 
Davenport, a worth}' and honored pioneer settler, who also assisted in 
organizing Uvalde county and in planting the seeds which have resulted 
in its material and moral development. The last act of his life was in 
hi- own defense. He had gone from home to Blanco Creek after a yoke 
of oxen and on his return was overtaken bv a band of Indians, who 
attacked him, but he sold his life dearly, fighting manfully to the end. 
Some Mexican- saw the fight bnt, fearing to go to his assistance, lay in 
hiding until the Indians had left. They then went to him and he tried 
to talk bnt was unable to do so, as he was so badly wounded and had 
been scalped. He died a few minutes later. The Mexicans said that he 
had killed two Indians with his six shooter. The same band of In- 
dian- killed John Bowles the same day and were pursued by a large 
force of settlers and soldiers with Lieutenant W. B. Hazen in com- 
mand. He was from Fort Inge and with his troops followed the band 
and a desperate battle ensued, in which all of the Indians were killed but 
one. ( >ne of the Indians killed had been badly wounded by Mr. Daven- 
port in his fight with them and his six shooter was recovered from the 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 239 

dead Indian. John Davenport was a prominent stockman and a repre- 
sentative and worthy early settler of this portion of the state. Efts chil- 
dren were: William; James; Mrs. Dorcas Miller; John, who \va-, mur- 
dered by the Indians; and one daughter whose name is not remembered. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Rolla Miller were born six children : John ; Sarah, now 
Mrs. Crane; George W., who was killed by the Indians; Mrs. Margaret 
A. Fenley; Martha; and James. With the exception of the last named all 
were born in Missouri. 

After his marriage Joel C. Fenley engaged in the cattle business, in 
which he yet continues. At that time the range was free and he was 
successful and as his financial resources increased he invested in lands 
and bought different surveys. When the country had to be fenced and 
the free range abandoned he fenced his ranch and yet holds it, his land 
lying in Uvalde, Zavala and Maverick counties, comprising more than 
eleven thousand acres. He also has six thousand acres of leased land. 
When he first engaged in business he raised and run all kinds of cattle 
but in later years handles only steer cattle on the home ranch. He also 
has another ranch in Terrell county, where he raises stock of all kinds, 
including horses and cattle. He is well pleased with his success and 
thinks Uvalde county is the best in the state for stock raising purposes. 
He continued upon the home ranch for many years and his children 
were all born there. In 1893, wishing to provide better school facilities, 
he purchased a forty acre tract of land adjoining the corporation limits 
of Uvalde and built thereon a commodious two-story frame residence 
in modern style of architecture and supplied with all modern conveniences 
and equipments. He has a deep well with a windmill and tank and there 
is an abundance of good water for all purposes. He has improved the 
entire tract and now has a very desirable farm and fine home. . 

To Mr. and Mrs. Fenley have been born five children: George W., a 
stockman, who is now high sheriff of Terrell county, Texas ; Green B., 
a. prominent attornev at law of Uvalde ; Constant J., who is assisting on 
his father's ranch : Guv and Lela, both at home. 

Both Mr. and Mrs. Fenley are faithful members of the Christian 
church. He votes with the Democracy and uses his influence for the 
partv and its success but has no desire for office. He serves as an elder 
in his church and does everything in his power to advance the intellec- 
tual, material and moral progress of his community. He was once ap- 
pointed to fill out an unexpired term and was once elected to the position 
of county commissioner but otherwise has never consented to hold office. 
When he first came to the county and while yet a bov he was familiar 
with the conditions that here existed when the white men and the red 
race were contesting for the dominion of the land. He was soon in the 
saddle with the men on the trails and raids and was also in some of the 
interesting trials of marksmanship. Like his father, he has always car- 
ried on farming to some extent, raising corn and feed for the stock and 
also supplies for the familv. He is well known as an enterprising and 
practical rancher and stockman, who has created a large estate. He 
owes his success entirely to his own efforts and his diligence and per- 
severance have been strong and essential elements in gaining for him 
the prosperity which he now enjoys. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

G. I». FenleY, a prominent attorney at law and ex-county judge 
Uvalde county, was born in this county March 3, 1872, and his life 
record stands in contradistinction to the old adage that a prophet is never 
without honor save in his own country, for here he has so directed his 
labors and developed his native talents as to win distinction at the bar 
and gain a place oi prominence in his practice before the courts. He is 
a son of Joel C. and Margaret A. (Miller) Fenley, the former born in 
Jasper county. Georgia, November 2, 1839, an ^ tne latter in Missouri 
in 1840. The history y^i the family in detail is contained in the preced- 
ing sketch ^i Joel C. Fenley and need not be repeated here. 

Mr. and Mrs. Joel Fenley had rive children: George W., a stock- 
man and now high sheriff" of Terrell county, Texas ; Green B., of this 
review: Constant J., who is assisting his father on the ranch; Guy and 
Lela, als( ■ at home. 

Judge Fenley was reared to ranch life and to the stock business. 
His early education acquired in the common schools was supplemented 
by study in Add Ran College at Thorp Springs and in the law department 
i'i the state university at Austin, Texas. He also studied law with the 
rirm ^i Glark & Old of Uvalde prior to entering the state university and 
was admitted to the bar in this city in 1892. He then began the prac- 

of his chosen profession here and has since continued practicing 
in all of the courts. A liberal and distinctively representative clientage 
has been accorded him and his knowledge of the law, his correct adapta- 
tion of its principles and his devotion to his clients' interests have gained 
him a high and most gratifying reputation. He is rated among the suc- 
cessful attorneys of Southwestern Texas and has a well equipped office 
with a large library. He is likewise connected with his father, Joel C. 
Fenley, and his brother in the ranch and cattle business, in which they 
are extensively and successfully engaged. 

Judge Fenley was married in 1892 to Miss Callie Brashear, who was 
born in Missouri in 1874 and is an esteemed and cultured lady. Her 
parents were L. D. and Sally (Simpson) Brashear, who were married 
in Missouri and removed to Uvalde county in 1886, settling on a ranch 
near the city of Uvalde. Mr. Brashear is now a well known and pros- 
perous stock farmer and in politics is a strong Democrat. His wife is 
a sister of the late well known John F. Simpson of Uvalde, who was 
closely identified with the progress and improvement of the city and who 
died in December, 1905. Mr. and Mrs. Brashear had four children: 
Callie, now Mrs. Fenley: Belle, a teacher in the graded schools of 
Uvalde; Kittie, who is also teaching; and George, at home. The mar- 
riage of Judge and Mrs. Fenley has been blessed with four interesting 
children: Byron L.. born March 14, 1894: Harold D., November 27, 
[895; Russell, June 23, 1897: and Green B., August 18, 1899. Mrs. 
Fenley is a member of the Christian church and Judge Fenley is an ex- 
emplary representative of the Masonic fraternity. He is also connected 
with the Knight- of Pythias, the Knights of Honor and the Woodmen 
of the World. In politics he is a stalwart Democrat but without aspira- 
tion for office, the onlv political positions he has ever filled being in the 
direct line of his profession, those of county attorney and county judge. 

prefers to concentrate his energies upon the practice of law, prepar- 




^/^^~X. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 241 

ing his cases with provident care, and his wide research and investiga- 
tion render him a strong and able lawyer at the bar. 

D. W. Barnhill, conducting a drug store in Uvalde, where he is 
also serving as postmaster, is a native of Leavenworth, Kansas, born 
on the ntn of December, 1861. His parents, Thomas and Matilda 
(Welsh) Barnhill, were both natives of the Emerald Isle, but became 
acquainted in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where their marriage was 
celebrated. The father was a boot and shoe maker, following that trade 
for a number of years, doing custom work. He removed from Phila- 
delphia to Minnesota and in i860 became a resident of Leavenworth, 
Kansas, where he afterward joined the Federal army for service in the 
Civil war as a member of Company H, First Kansas Regiment, for 
ninety days. He went to the front and took part in the Missouri cam- 
paign, engaging in the battle of Wilson's Creek, which was most hotly 
contested. After the expiration of his first term of service he re-enlisted 
in the same company and regiment for three years or during the war 
and was assigned to the army of the Trans-Mississippi department, 
doing duty in Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana. He was afterward 
transferred to the engineering corps and at Lake Providence, Louisiana, 
when engaged in the construction of a defense, he was in charge of a 
party felling trees when a falling tree injured him. Later he was trans- 
ferred to a steamer, which was to take him to Memphis, Tennessee, but 
he died while en route and was buried in the national cemetery at 
Memphis in August, 1863. He was a devoted and loyal son of his 
adopted country and at the president's first call to aid in defense of the 
Union he offered his services and died a martyr to the cause, passing 
away at the age of thirty-seven years. His wife remained a' resident 
of Leavenworth, Kansas, and in 1866 married Patrick O'Connor, a 
baker by trade. The same year they removed to Fort Benton, Montana, 
and soon afterward Mr. O'Connor joined the United States army. He 
and his familv remained residents of Fort Benton until 1868, when he 
received an honorable discharge from the regular army. They then re- 
moved to St. Louis, Missouri, where he followed railroading, but sub- 
sequently he went to Dakota, where he again joined the army, continuing 
at that place until 1874, when he was transferred to Detroit, Michigan, 
where he continued in military service until 1885. He then retired upon 
a pension and the same year removed his family to San Antonio, Texas, 
where both he and his wife died, Mr. O'Connor passing away in 1904, 
while his wife departed this life in 1903. By her first marriage she had 
five children, of whom D. W. Barnhill is the youngest. The others 
were Wesley N., who* died in childhood; Mary, who is a sister of charity 
and resides in Montana ; Margaret, who died at the age of seven years ; 
and Edwin, who at the age of two years was lost while the family were 
living in Minnesota and when found was dead. 

D. W. Barnhill, the only surviving son of the family, accompanied 
his mother on her various removals and received good educational train- 
ing at home, but had no opportunity to attend school until the family 
located in Detroit, here for five years he pursued his studies in the 
graded and high schools. Thus he completed a course of study which 
well qualified him for life's practical and responsible duties. In April, 

Vol. II. 16 



242 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

iS~o. he went to San Antonio, Texas, ami alter ten days proceeded to 
Menard county and to Brackett, where he engaged in teaching- school 
tor a year. His next venture was in newspaper work at Brackett and 
later he knight out the Press, although hut nineteen years of age at the 
time, lie continued successfully in its publication until i88(>, when he 
sold that paper and taught school. During the winter he was appointed 
to till a vacancy as justice of the peace, lie had been elected and served 
for one term prior to this time and he continued to occupy the position 
until 1SS7, when lie married and resigned in order that he might change 
his place oi abode. The same year he removed to Uvalde, where he 
ha- since resided. 

He had been married in this city in April, 1887, to Miss Mary L. 
Crisp, who was born in Colorado county, Texas, in 1863. Her parents 
were Dr. D. 11. and Betty A. (Mitchell) Crisp, both of whom were 
natives oi North Carolina, wdiere they were married. 'Early in the '50s 
they came to Texas, settling in Colorado county, where Dr. Crisp re- 
mained practicing his profession successfully until 1883, when he came 
to Uvalde, where he died in June, 1906, at the advanced age of eighty- 
three years. Throughout his entire business career he has engaged in 
the practice of medicine and surgery, giving his attention and energies to 
his duties in this direction, and he was well known as a successful physi- 
cian, whose labors have been of direct benefit to his fellow men. He 
belongs to the Presbyterian church. In his family were these children : 
John C, a prominent attorney at law of Beeville, Texas; William M., 
a farmer of Bexar county, Texas ; Anna, the wife of A. J. Harris ; Mary 
L.. now Mrs. Barnhill ; Albert S., who is editor of a paper at Cuero and 
is a member of the Texas legislature; Anderson M., cashier of the F. A. 
Piper Mercantile Company at Uvalde; Alice Patti, who is now Mrs. 
Speir of South America; David H., who* is with Piper & Company; and 
Lillian, at home. 

At the time of his marriage Mr. Barnhill removed to Uvalde and 
purchased the Uvalde News, which he conducted until 1900. During 
that time he had bought a half interest in a drug store and from 1897 
until 1900 conducted this enterprise with a partner, but in the latter year 
became sole proprietor and has since carried on business alone. In 1899 
he received the appointment to the position of postmaster and has since 
acted in that capacity. The business of the office has gVeatly increased 
during this period and he has given a businesslike and capable admin- 
istration. In 1902 he sold a third interest in his drug business and has 
• since sold a second third. The firm has erected a commodious building 
and has a complete stock of everything kept in a first-class drug store. 
He is a stockholder and director in the Uvalde National Bank; also 
secretary and treasurer of the Uvalde Wholesale Company and holds 
the same positions in the Uvalde Gin and Milling Company. His inter- 
arc varied and extensive, making him a leading" and influential resi- 
dent of the city in which he resides. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Barnhill have been born four children: Mebane C, 
who was born March 26, 1888; Lester, born September 8, 1891 ; Nell, 
who died March 12, 1895, at the age of four years; and Marv K., who 
was born March 12, 1904. Mr. Barnhill belongs to the Methodist 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 243 

church and his wife to the Presbyterian church. lie takes a very active 
part in church work, has served as steward for many years and ha-, 
been superintendent of the Sunday schools for twelve years. Jle is al 
member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and of the Woodmen 
oi the World and he is likewise connected with the Knights of Pythias 
fraternity. He has served as alderman for two terms and as a school 
director for six years, while for one term he was county commissioner. 
His interest in community affairs is deep and sincere and has led to co- 
operation in many movements which have been proved beneficial to the 
county. He is a broad-minded, intelligent business man and Uvalde has 
profited by his residence in this section of the state. 

Hiram J. Bowles, better known as Hy. J. Bowles, filling the office 
of county clerk, represents a family whose history is inseparably inter- 
woven with the annals of Southwestern Texas. He was born in Brazos 
county July 13, 1864, and was reared on a cattle ranch and farm, while 
ihe common schools afforded him his educational privileges. His 
parents were J. Frank and Maggie C. (Martin) Bowles, both of whom 
were natives of Mississippi, where they were reared and married. The 
paternal grandparents were John and Millie C. (Pate) Bowles, both of 
whom were natives of Mississippi. The grandfather was of Scotch- 
Irish descent, the Bowles family having been established, however, at an 
early day in Virginia. General Bowles, from whom this branch of the 
family is descended, married the daughter of a famous Indian chief and 
after some children were born .to them they left the Old Dominion and 
went to Tennessee and when General Jackson was raising volunteers for 
the war of 1812, General Bowles joined the army and was killed at the 
battle of New Orleans. He was twice hit by the bullets of the enemy 
and died from the effects of his wounds. 

John Bowles, grandfather of Hiram J. Bowles, was born in Vir- 
ginia in 1802 and went to Tennessee with his parents. After attaining 
his majority he removed to Mississippi, where he was married to Miss 
Millie C. Pate and they became the parents of six sons and seven daugh- 
ters. About 1849, with all of his family, he removed to Texas, settling 
first in Bell county, where he purchased land and improved a farm. 
There he carried on general agricultural pursuits and stock raising amid 
pioneer surroundings. Fie helped to organize Bell county in 1851. The 
following year he went overland to California, where he joined his son, 
J. Frank Bowles, who had preceded him to the Pacific coast by two 
years. They engaged in mining and met with a fair measure of success 
in their undertakings there until 1855, when they returned to "the 
states." John Bowles then settled in Uvalde county and sent for his 
family, who later joined him here. He engaged in raising cattle and 
other stock, living here at a time when large herds of cattle grazed on 
the open prairie. Uvalde county was not yet organized and he also 
assisted in its organization, in 1856. He had been chosen as one of the 
commissioners to select the site for the county seat and the election was 
held the fall of the same year to decide upon a permanent location. 
There were less than fifty votes cast all told, which indicates the sparsely 
settled condition of the country at that time. His first home was on the 
Sabinal river in the Patterson settlement, ten miles south of the town of 



244 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Sabinal, whore he purchased a small tract of land to make a home. 
The range was free at that time and he did not want much land, for the 
cattle roamed at will, grew fat and were in good condition. After a few 
years he changed his location to Leona river, more distant from the 
settlement. There he established his ranch and continued successfully in 
business there for a number of years. While he was living on the 
Sabinal the settlement was raided by the Indians at the light of the moon 
and. with other settlers, he had much difficulty with the red men. lie 
took part in many raids and battles with them and on one occasion he 
and his three sons started in pursuit of the Indians, who had been com- 
mitting depredations at the ranch. On overtaking them the}' engaged 
them in a skirmish, and during the fight Mr. Bowles killed three Indians 
at one shot — the most remarkable record ever known. He and his sons, 
however, succeeded in recapturing the stock and taking them home 
g tin. He took part in a raid nearly every time the moon was full, for 
the Indians chose that period for stealing. The few settlers banded 
themselves together to protect their mutual interests. 

Mr. Bowles was a brave and fearless man and the Indians feared 
and hated him. They determined to kill him and when at last they ac- 
complished their purpose it was at a heavy loss among themselves. He 
had taken part in many raids and some hard-fonght battles with them 
on the Leona river before he moved there and none but a fearless man 
would have gone into that district, as that was one of the favorite 
haunts of the savages. He had got well settled on his new ranch when 
he learned that some of his stock had w r andered back to the old ranch 
and he went to round them up and bring them to the new feeding 
grounds. While there the Indians stole his horse and he started in pur- 
suit. In order to delude him they hitched the horse where he could see 
the animal, while they lay in hiding and when he came for his horse they 
shot him, scalped him. took the horse and made their escape. Runners 
were sent out in all directions and it was soon found that the Indians 
had also killed John Davenport. Doke Bowles, his son, as fearless as his 
father, led the settlers in pursuit. They laid in a supply of provisions 
and notified Lieutenant W. B. Hazen, who was in command at Fort 
Inge and who came with thirteen men, while the settlers' force numbered 
ten men. Everett Wilson was selected as chief trailer with Doke 
Bowles as assistant. They followed the trail rapidly and after traveling 
for two hundred miles came upon the Indians. Lieutenant Hazen then 
took command and led in the fight and a hot battle ensued, during which 
the large band of Indians scattered. It was a running fight for twenty 
miles. The entire band were killed with the exception of one "brave," 
who got away, and they recovered the scaln of John Bowles and other 
things which were taken when he was killed, also that of Davenport. 
They likewise secured the stock which had been stolen. Lieutenant Wil- 
son was wounded and fell from his horse and several others were 
wounded, but all recovered from their injuries. The body of John 
Bowles lav for several davs before it was found. Two of his sons were 
in the raid that followed the band of Indians and revenged the killing of 
their father. 

John Bowles was deeply interested in the progress and development 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 245 

of the town and county of Uvalde and as a pioneer settler did much for 
its development in laying the foundation upon which has been built its 
present progress and prosperity. He aided in reclaiming the region 
from the dominion of wild beasts and hostile Indians and in transform- 
ing it into a district possible for settlement and civilization. No citizen 
is more worthy of honorable mention in connection with the history of 
Ulvade county or the southwest than John Bowles and his family. He 
was a tall, muscular man, of athletic build and a hardy pioneer, who at 
all times was brave and resolute and who was regarded with terror by 
the Indians. He possessed a very social, genial nature, enjoyed meeting 
with his friends and neighbors and knew every man in the county in the 
early days, commanding the confidence and respect of all by his integrity 
and honor, which were above reproach. The last fight in which he par- 
ticipated was in 1859, as m that year he passed to the great beyond. 
His wife survived him and died at a ripe old age. She was a very de- 
voted member of the Methodist church and was a brave pioneer woman, 
who by her husband's side faced the hardships, trials and deprivations of 
pioneer life. The children of this worthy couple were as follows : Ade- 
line became the wife of Dr. KilgO 1 and removed from Mississippi to 
Arkansas ; Hiram, Sr., came with the family to Texas ; J. Frank was 
the father of our subject; Caroline became Mrs. McDowell; Fannie 
married Mr. Townsend; Emma married Joe Brown; Greenville is a cat- 
tleman; David C. is living in Bell county; Jane is now Mrs. Townsend; 
Lizzie is the wife of G. W. Patterson ; Mrs. Webb was the next of the 
family, and Booker was killed in the ranger service. 

J. Frank Bowles was born in Mississippi, August 15, 1828, and was 
married there in 1847. He came to Texas with the other members of 
his father's family in 1849 an d they all settled in Bell county. In 1850, 
attracted by the discovery of gold in California, he left his wife and 
children with his father's family and went overland to California, where 
he engaged in mining for two years, when he was joined by his father 
and together they continued in mining successfully until 1855, when 
they returned to Texas, the father settling in Uvalde county, while J. 
Frank Bowles joined his family in Bell county. Later he sold his prop- 
erty there and removed to Brazos county, where he settled and opened 
up a farm. In 1862 he joined the Confederate army, with which he con- 
tinued until the close of the war, serving in the Army of the Tennessee. 
He participated in the siege of Vicksburg, where all of his command 
were made prisoners and all were paroled. Mr. Bowles was a lieutenant 
of his company, which was under command of Captain Hoag. They 
participated in many skirmishes and a number of hotly contested battles 
and Lieutenant Bowles was regarded as a brave soldier, always on duty 
in the front ranks. He saw much hard service and underwent many 
deprivations and exposure such as is incident to warfare. 

Following the close of hostilities J. Frank Bowles returned to 
Brazos county and joined his family, who in the meantime had been 
busy in improving the farm and had got some stock around them. Soon 
afterward he sold out and took up his abode in the town in order to 
provide his children with better educational privileges. In June, 1872. 
he came to Uvalde county to visit friends and was so well pleased with 



9*6 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

the country that ho decided to remain, lie purchased a large tract of 
land at Fort dark crossing of the Xucces river, where he built a forge 
rock house and made other substantial improvements, lie was then en- 
g Lged in the stock business and in farming, in both of which he was 
successful. He raised good crops oi corn, which he sold to the govern- 
ment at high prices, together with all other supplies that he could fur- 
nish, lie remained upon his ranch until 1878. when he sold the prop- 
em and removed to Jones county, where he was engaged in the stock 
business. From there he made several moves and for a time was located 
at Angelo. where he conducted a livery stable during the winter. In 
the spring oi 1880 he was attacked by the gold fever and arranged for 
his family to come to Uvalde county, while he started for Tombstone, 
Ariz* ma. which was then supposed to be the mining Eldorado. Being 
an old California miner, he knew how to find the yellow metal and began 
-peering, but soon afterward, through the accidental discharge of his 
own gun, he was shot and never recovered from his injuries, his remains 
being interred at Tombstone. Thus was ended an eventful life in 
August, 1880. He was an enterprising and public-spirited man, pos- 
sessed oi good business qualifications. In politics he was a strong 
Democrat but without aspiration for orifice. A man of athletic build, he 
was fearless and brave and was w T ell fitted to cope with the conditions 
of frontier life. He was a worthy member of the Masonic fraternitv 
and was regarded as a good neighbor and faithful friend. His wife and 
family returned to Uvalde county and Mrs. Bowles kept her children to- 
gether and reared them to lives of honor and respectability. She was 
a devoted member of the Methodist church and died April 24, 1894. 
I fer father was Henry Martin, a prominent planter and slave owner of 
Mississippi and was one of the respected residents and substantial citi- 
zens of his community. He died in his native state, leaving behind him 
the priceless record of an untarnished name. He was a prominent 
and influential church worker and was much beloved by all who knew 
him. He reared a large family of children, but only three are now re- 
membered : David; Maggie C, who became Mrs. Bowles; and Mrs. 
Lucinda Dockerv. 

To Mr, and Mrs. J. Frank Bowles were born six children; W. A., a 
stockman; John H.. a boss painter; James M„ of San Marcos; Belle, 
who became the wife of F. B. Brooks and at her death left two chil- 
dren ; Hiram J., of this review; and Mrs. Mollie E. Estes. 

Hiram J. Bowles was born in Brazos county, Texas, and accom- 
panied his parents on their various removals to Uvalde, to Northern 
Texas, and upon the return to this county, where the family arrived in 
1880. He then began working in order to assist his mother in the sup- 
port of the family and in 1883 he went to Alpine, Texas, where he was 
employed on a ranch. There he remained until 1887, during which time 
accumulated quite a band of cattle. In the year mentioned he took a 
drove of horses to Xew Mexico, where he remained for about a year, 
and upon his return to Alpine he sold out all of his stock and then joined 
his mother at Uvalde in t888. Here he has since remained and was 
actively engaged in business as a stock dealer for a number of years. 
In fact he still continues in this line, in which he has been quite sue- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 247 

cessfuL . He is interested with a partner in two ranches — a small one 
near the town of Uvalde and the main ranch, containing fifty thousand 
acres, some distance away, and on which they are running a large herd 
of cattle. 

In 1892 Mr. Bowles was a candidate for sheriff, but was not suc- 
cessful in his race for the office. In 1896, however, he was elected dis- 
trict and county clerk, which position he is still creditably and capably 
filling and when he retires from the office he expects to return actively 
to the stock business. He has been deeply interested in the growth and 
upbuilding of the county and has co-operated in many movements that 
have been of direct benefit toward its development. He has a com- 
modious cottage in the city where he resides and he is a self-made man, 
who as the architect of his own fortunes has builded wisely and well. 

On the 10th of February, 1897, Mr. Bowles was united in marriage 
to Miss Sallie A. Dalrymple, who was born in Uvalde county February 
6, 1871. She is a daughter of James and Jane (Patterson) Dalrymple, 
the latter of Smith county, Texas, and the former of Williamson county. 
They were married, however, in Uvalde county. Mr. Dalrymple was a 
son of William C. and Elizabeth (Wilbarger) Dalrymple. William C. 
Dalrymple was a native of North Carolina and was a politician and popu- 
lar office holder, devoting the greater part of his life to public service. 
He was a devoted and worthy member of the Presbyterian church and 
removing to the. west spent his last days in Georgetown, Texas. In his 
family were four children : Janette ; Sally, who died at the ag^e of 
eighteen years ; James, of Uvalde ; and William T., wno died in Llano 
county, Texas, in 1896, 

James Dalrymple, father of Mrs. Bowles, came to Uvalde county 
early in the J 6os, was here married and soon afterward entered the Con- 
federate army, serving throughout the war. He saw hard service and 
underwent the privations and exposures incident to the life of the soldier. 
After the close of hostilities he settled in Uvalde county, where he en- 
gaged successfully in the stock business and at one time was a prominent 
stock dealer of the county. He also conducted a meat market in Uvalde. 
A Democrat in politics, he used his influence for the party and for a 
number of years served as hide and animal inspector. He was also 
a candidate for sheriff, but failed to secure the nomination. He did his 
full share of jury work and was regarded as a man of incorruptible in- 
tegrity, faithful to every trust reposed in him. He belongs to the 
Masonic fraternity,, in which he has attained the Royal Arch degree. In 
1903, as the result of illness, he lost his eyesight and is now. blind. His 
wife died December 29, 1899. She was a daughter of John C. Patter- 
son, and a granddaughter of Georee W. Patterson, members of a leading: 
and well-known pioneer family of Uvalde countv, who heloed to reclaim 
this district from the domain of the savages and convert it into a settle- 
ment where all of the advantages known to the white race mav be en- 
joyed. John C. Patterson was among the prominent and well-known 
residents of this part of the state. He died early, leaving but one child, 
Mrs. James Dalrymple. By her marriage she became the mother of six 
children : Mrs. Sallie A. Bowles ; Zena ; Ottie, who died ?t the ag'e of 
twenty-three years ; Lela, Riley and Henry, all at home. Mr. Dalrymple 



248 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

yet resides at his homestead near Uvalde. His wife is a zealous member 
of the Methodist church. 

fo Mr, and Mrs. Bowles have been born five children: Manilla, 
who died at the age of three years; Orin, born August 14, 1899; Jack, 
May 20, [901 : Garrett, April 1. 1903; and James F., December 30, 1904. 

Mr. Bowles is connected with the Woodmen of the World, the 
Knights of Pythias and Knights o\ Honor, and his wife is a member of 
the Methodist church. Both are held in high esteem in the com- 
munity where they reside and enjoy the warm friendship of many with 
whom they have been brought in contact. Both represent old families 
of Texas and Mr. Bowles lias from pioneer times resided in this state 
and now stands as an exemplar of modern progress and improvement. 

1. ( 1. Smyth, a veteran of the Confederacy, has been the promoter 
of many business enterprises which have contributed to the substantial 
upbuilding of the southwest and is now 7 a factor in industrial and com- 
mercial progress of the city of Uvalde and the agricultural interests of 
the county. His ready recognition of opportunity combined with energy 
and ambition have been the dominant points in his successful career 
and made him widely known as a prominent business man of the south. 
He is descended from a prominent and honored pioneer family of Texas 
and was born in Jasper county, this state, February 25, 1847. His 
parents were George W. and Frances M. (Grigsby) Smyth, the former 
a native of Alabama and the latter of Kentucky. They were married at 
Nacogdoches, Texas, by an alcalde, a Mexican justice, for Texas at that 
time was a province of Mexico and there were Mexican laws governing 
marriages. This was before the decisive battle of San Jacinto, which 
made Texas a free and independent republic. They participated in what 
is known in history as the "Runaway Scrape." The settlers, hearing of 
the approach of the "Mexican general, Santa Anna, and his army, fear- 
ing that he might slaughter all who remained, left their homes and fled 
for their lives to the east, making their way to Louisiana. The men 
were mostly in General Houston's army and few were left to care for 
the families save the old men, who were incapacitated for military serv- 
ice. It was an exciting time and one long to be remembered. The 
Smyth family is of Scotch descent, but the names of the grandparents 
<<i our subject are not remembered. The grandparents, however, were 
early settlers of Alabama, where they reared their family and spent their 
last days. Their children were: George W., Andrew F., M. C., Mrs. 
Susan Tsbell and Mrs. Ann McCallister, all of whom came to Texas. 

George \Y. Smyth, born and reared in Alabama, acquired a liberal 
education there and mastered the profession of civil engineering. He 
came to Texas with a view of following the profession of surveying here 
and located in Jefferson county, where he was thus engaged. Fie was a 
highly educated and broad-minded man, intelligent and enterprising, and 
his opinions became valued factors in measures and movements relating 
to the development and progress of the new country. In fact he was 
one of the leaders in all of the affairs bearing upon its growth and im- 
provement and upon its political conditions. He was a member of that 
body of organizers that declared Texan independence and was one of the 
signer- of it- declaration of independence. During the existence of the 



-:M- 



■: ;^;I-f? 






HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 249 

state as an independent republic he was influential in its councils and in 
movements relating- to its upbuilding along many lines. He filled the 
office of land commissioner for several terms and after the annexation 
of Texas to the United States he was elected and filled the office of con- 
gressman one term. He was continued in many offices of honor and 
trust up to the time of the secession of the state. His sympathy, how- 
ever, was with the Union cause and he opposed secession. In connection 
with General Sam Houston he made speeches throughout the state and 
predicted the result that would follow civil war just as it came to pa — . 
He labored untiringly among the people in an effort to get them to 
settle their differences without resort to war, believing that they had n 
right to disavow allegiance to the Federal government. He lived to see 
his predictions concerning events of that period verified. He was a slave 
owner and an extensive farmer, having a large force of colored people 
to work his place. After the close of the war he was a delegate to the 
first reconstruction convention held at Austin that formulated plans for 
reconstruction, and while there he was taken ill and died, thus passing 
away in 1866. The first Congress of the United States, however, passed 
reconstruction laws doing away with all of the work of the Texas as- 
sembly and put in "carpet bag" officers all over the southern states. In 
his death at a momentous crisis in the history of Texas the state lost 
one of her foremost men, whose wisdom and sound judgment have been 
of the greatest benefit to the commonwealth. He counseled wisely and 
well and his labors were effective and far-reaching. He was a successful 
man in all of his business undertakings and his name was ever above re- 
proach. He was honorable in action, fearless in conduct and stainless 
in reputation, never swerving in his support of the cause which he be- 
lieved to be right. He did much in surveying work in the early days of 
Texas and his labors were carried forward with great accuracy, so that 
after he had abandoned surveying as a profession he was often called 
upon by his neighbors and those in authority to establish lines and boun- 
daries and settle disputes connected therewith. In his religious faith he 
was a Presbyterian and lived a consistent Christian life. 

Mrs. Frances M. Smyth survived her husband until 1877. She was 
a daughter of Joseph Grigsby, one of the pioneer residents of Jefferson 
county and one of the four men who bought the land and platted and 
established the town of Beaumont, Texas. He was accounted a leading- 
farmer and carefully managed his business affairs, without desiring 
office or seeking prominence of that character. His last days w r ere spent 
at what was known as Grigsby's Bluff in Jefferson county. His chil- 
dren were : Mrs. Sarah Allen ; Mrs. Frances Smyth ; Mrs. Susan Thomp- 
son ; Mrs. Ann Allen ; Mrs. Elizabeth Glen ; Matilda, deceased ; Enoch, 
who served in the Mexican war ; William and Nathaniel, both of whom 
are prominent farmers. 

To Mr. and Mrs. George W. Smyth were born seven children : 
Sarah, the wife of J. T. Armstrong; Susan, who married Sam Adams: 
Matilda, the wife of Rev. R. T. Armstrong, a minister of the Methodist 
church; George W., a prominent mill and lumberman of Beaumont, 
Texas, who served throughout the Civil war as orderly sergeant in Ross' 



250 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

brigade and was wounded in the shoulder ; Francis, deceased ; Emily, 

the wife of W. II. Smith; and J. U. of this review. 

Upon the home farm J. G, Smyth was reared and acquired a com- 
mon-school education, lie remained under the parental roof until six- 
teen years oi age, when he enlisted in the Confederate army in Keith's 
company and Colonel Griffin's command of artillery, with which he re- 
mained until the close o\ the war. lie was located mostly at Sabine 
>S and while he was still there the war was brought to a close and he 
was paroled at Jasper by General Custer. Through the two succeeding 
years he attended school and in 1808 he was married. He then settled 
on a farm, where he remained for three years, when in connection with 
his brother, George \\ . Smyth, he engaged in the lumber business at 
Beaumont They at first operated in cypress timber and also conducted a 
small store. They built a sawmill at Smyth's Bluff in Jefferson county, 
where they engaged in the manufacture of lumber for three years and 
then built a mill at Beaumont, which they conducted for two years. At 
the end oi that time they traded their property for some farms and were 
engaged in general agricultural pursuits for a year, after which Mr. 
Smyth entered the employ of a firm as logman, being thus engaged until 
887. He then again formed a partnership with his brother and at 
Wise Bluff, in Jasper county, Texas, they built a tram logging railroad 
and bought a tract of land. They operated their road for a year, after 
which they sold their plant to the Beaumont Lumber Company and re- 
moved to Suddith's Bluffs on the Sabine river, where thev constructed 
a tram railroad and put in logs for the Orange mills, continuing at that 
point until 1898. when they built a sawmill for themselves at Dewey- 
ville, Texas. They also bought large tracts of timber land and operated 
extensively, where they have sixty-five thousand acres of timber lands 
bought at different times. In 1809 thev purchased a sawmill at Juanita, 
Louisiana, together with twenty-five thousand acres of timber, and they 
continue to operate both plants with an output of lumber of from fiftv 
to sixty million feet per annum, finding market for their product in dif- 
ferent parts of the world, their shipments not onlv being made to various 
points in America but also to Germany, South Africa and Mexico. Their 
trade is constantly increasing and their business possessions in this con- 
nection have grown from a few ox teams and a small amount of capital 
to an extensive plant, their holdings being estimated at about three mil- 
lion dollars. Their business is returning a very gratifying remuneration 
and in fact is one of the important productive enterprises of the south, 
the business having been conducted along modern progressive lines in 
keeping with the trend of activity and thought in the business world 
of today. 

Mr. Smyth remained in charge of the operative department of this 
extensive business until t8ot, when he came to Uvalde and with a part- 
ner invested in a cattle ranch of twentv thousand acres. The^ conducted 
the ranch for five vears, and Mr. Smyth then purchased his partner's 
interest and has since increased his land holdings to thirtv thousand 
acre-, whereon he matures steers, having a herd of thirtv-five hundred 
head at the present time. TTis ranch borders both sides of the Nueces 
river in the south part of Uvalde county. Mr. Smyth has also extended 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 251 

his efforts to other lines of business activity. In 1903 he purchased an 
extensive stock of hardware, furniture and house furnishing goods from 
J. H. Green and is now conducting one of the leading stores in the city 
of Uvalde. He is also a stockholder in the Uvalde Commercial National 
Bank, which he assisted in organizing in 1903, when he was elected 
vice-president and is still filling this position. His time is now devoted 
to the supervision of his varied and important business enterprises and 
the scope of his activity has continually broadened as he has extended 
his efforts into other fields, in all of which he has operated in a manner 
resulting in success. 

Mr. Smyth has been married twice. He wedded Miss Ella Green, 
a native of Arkansas and a daughter of Robert F. and Mary A. ( Arm- 
strong) Green, of Alabama, who removed from that state to Arkansas 
and subsequently to Texas. Mr. Green became a prominent merchant 
of Sabine Pass, Texas, where he carried on business for a number of 
years, and he died in Huntsville, Texas, in 1866, when attending a con- 
vention there. He was a very prominent Mason, widely known in the 
fraternity, and his position in business and social circles was equally 
commendable. His children were six in number : Mrs. Alice Carway ; 
Ella, who became Mrs. Smvth ; Susan ; Laura ; J. H. of San Antonio, 
Texas ; and Keenan, who died in young manhood. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Smyth were born two children: Ella M., who is assisting in the store 
in Uvalde ; and Ethel G., who is a successful school teacher. The wife 
and mother died in 1883 in the faith of the Methodist church, of which 
she was a devoted member. In 1884 Mr. Smyth married Miss Epsie B. 
Miller, w<ho was born in Georgia, a daughter of Lewis B. and Nancy 
Miller, who came to Texas in 1872. The father, a farmer by occupa- 
tion, lived in eastern Texas and served as a private in the Confederate 
army throughout the Civil war. He was in the siege of Yicksburg. 
where he was taken prisoner and afterward paroled and at that place 
he was wounded in the right hand. He was a faithful and valorous 
soldier and met uncomplainingly the hardships of military life. He be- 
longed to the Methodist church and was an exemplary member of the 
Masonic fraternitv. His children were : Mrs. Nancy Clark, Mrs. Lou 
Lanier, Mrs. Jessie Henderson, Mrs. Eosie B. Smyth and Lewis Miller. 

The children born of Mr. Smyth's second marriage are Lewis. 
Jennie, Joseph G., William H., Andrew, George W. and Murra G., all 
at home. Both Mr. and Mrs. Smyth are members of the 'Methodist 
church, in the work of which they take an active and helpful interest. 
In politics he is independent, voting for Democratic candidates at local 
elections but supported McKinley and Roosevelt for the presidency. Fie 
is a man fearless in defense of his honest convictions and reserves to 
himself the rigfht of forming his own opinions in unbiased manner — a 
privilege which he also accords to others. His position in business cir- 
cles in the southwest is a most creditable and enviable one. He has 
wrought alonof modern business lines and has achieved a prominence 
that is evidence of his ability and keen discrimination. Laudable am- 
bition has prompted him to r*tt forth his best efforts in the acquirement 
of success and at all times his methods have been such as neither seek 
nor require disguise. 



252 HISTORY OK SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

F. J. Rheiner is prominent among the energetic, far-seeing and 
successful business men of Southwestern Texas. I lis life history most 
happily illustrates what may be attained by faithful and continued effort 
in carrying out an honest purpose, [ntegrity, activity and energy have 
been the crowning points oi his success and his connection with busi- 

- enterprises has been oi decided advantage to this section of the 
state, promoting its material welfare in no uncertain manner. He is 
n»>w acting as cashier oi the Uvalde National Bank and the able man- 
ner in which he meets his business duties is indication of his capacity 
and ability. 

Mr. Rheiner is one of the native sons of Uvalde county, having 
been born on the -'4th of February, 1877, and reared upon his father's 
ranch. His parents were Peter and Mary (Santleben) Rheiner, the 
former a native oi Switzerland and the latter of Texas. The father be- 
longed to a prominent old family of the land of the Alps and there 
acquired a liberal education in his native language. He also attained 
considerable knowledge of the English tongue, which he could speak 
with fluency when he came to the United States at the age of eighteen 
years. He crossed the Atlantic in order to become free from the yoke 
oi monarch ial oppression, making the journey to the new world in com- 
pany with a young man, Mr. Whetstine. Their destination was Cali- 
fornia and they had in mind the intention of engaging in the sheep in- 
dustry, but after arriving in the Golden state and spending some time 
in prospecting they decided that it would not be a good place to locate. 
Favorable reports which Mr. Rheiner heard of Southwestern Texas led 
him to leave California and make his way into this district, arriving at 
Utopia in Uvalde county in the fall of 1855. He had brought some 
money with him from his old home in Switzerland and being favorably 
impressed with this country he, with a companion, went to Mexico, 
where each man bought two hundred and fifty head of ewes which they 
broueht to Utopia, and thus he made his start in the sheep industry. 
Mr. \\ "hetstine came with him but each man engaged in business alone. 
Mr. Rheiner soon got his ranch established and owing to his vigilance 
and care and his knowledge of the business he rapidly succeeded and 
his flock increased in numbers. He afterward joined with other settlers 
in making raids against the Indians who stole the stock. Mr. Rheiner's 
^tock. however, could not be run off, but the Indians often killed and 
ate one of his sheep. The few pioneers lived almost as one familv, for 
they were mutually dependent unon one another for protection and Mr. 
Rheiner was ever ready to join in the defense of his neighbors and take 
part in the raids after the red men. He was never wounded and he 
continued to encage in the sheep industry, his flocks increasing and his 
success being therebv augmented. With great love for his adopted 

ntrv. in 7862 he arranged with other parties to care for his flocks 
while he should go to the war. He volunteered with Captain Robinson's 
companv of the Thirty-third Texas Cavalry, which was assiencd to the 
Trans-Mississippi department and was activelv engaged in military serv- 
ice in Tex-i-. Arkansas and Louisiana. He did much scout dutv on the 

ler and along the gulf coast and a detachment of soldiers invaded 
Mexico after some renegades. The Federal gunboats at the mouth of 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 253 

the Rio Grande,, however, cut them off and the troops became divided. 
In a skirmish Mr. Rheiner sustained a wound through the shoulder and 
from the effects of this he received an honorable discharge in 1863. 

Returning to his home and his ranch, he resumed control of his 
liocks and soon afterward was married to a Miss Watson, by whom he 
had two children. Later she was accidentally drowned and a few years 
afterward Mr. Rheiner wedded Miss Mary Santleben, a native of Texas, 
.whose father, Christian Santleben, was a pioneer of Medina county, this 
state. He was a stonemason by trade and became a prominent rancher 
and farmer of Medina county. Of German birth, he displayed many 
sterling characteristics of his German ancestry and successfully man- 
aged his business affairs, being well known at the same time as a worthy 
citizen devoted to the general welfare. Both he and his wife died in 
Medina county. In the Santleben family were the following named : 
Mary, who became Mrs. Rheiner; August, of San Antonio; and Ferdi- 
nand, a prominent cattle rancher of Uvalde county. Both were reared 
on the frontier and were identified with the work of early settlement 
and improvement. 

A brother of Peter Rheiner came to America after he had crossed 
the Atlantic and settled at San Antonio, where he reared a family of 
three sons, who yet reside in that city or vicinity. 

Peter Rheiner continued in the sheep ranching business and bought 
large tracts of land which he held during his life. He possessed keen 
business discernment and enterprise, was a good financier and created 
a large estate. He helped to organize the county and underwent the 
usual difficulties and trials of pioneer life. He gave a loyal support to 
every movement or measure for the general progress and endorsed those 
plans which have for their basis the material, intellectual or moral devel- 
opment of the community. He loved his adopted country and was one 
of its most worthy citizens. His fellow townsmen, recognizing his alle- 
giance and his fidelity, elected him to the office of county commissioner 
and he filled other local positions. He was a member of the Masonic 
fraternity. He died in the year 1879, while his wife, surviving him for 
several years, passed away in 1884. Their children were : William, now 
living in Arizona; Etta, the wife of Judge Garner, now in the United 
States Congress ; Peter, who died at the age of thirteen years : August 
D., of Uvalde; and F. J. 

F. J. Rheiner has spent his entire life in Uvalde county and here 
acquired a liberal education. He began his studies in the common 
schools and later attended a private school of San Antonio and also a 
Catholic school of that city. He was likewise a student in the Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College at Auburn, Alabama. His first efforts 
in an independent business career were in the line of stock raising. He 
had a ranch and cattle and conducted the business for two years with 

Uvalde National Bank. 

considerable success. He then disposed of his ranch and stock and in 
1899 assisted in organizing the Uvalde National Bank, of which he be- 
came one of the original stockholders. This bank was the outgrowth of 
the private bank of Collier & Company and was capitalized for seventy- 



254 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

live thousand dollars, while at the present time there is a surplus of 

twcntY-iive thousand dollars with additional liability of stockholders to 

the amount oi one hundred thousand dollars, making a total of two 
hundred thousand dollars. Upon the organization oi the bank Mr. 
Klieiner was made cashier, which position he yet tills, while \Y. \Y. 

lier was the first president. Upon his retirement J. F. Simpson be- 
eame president and Since his death J. M. Kincaid has been president. 
With these exceptions there have been lew changes in the offices. The 
1 auk has always had a strong force of officials and is among the solid 
and reliable financial institutions of Southwestern Texas. Ihe officers 

the present time are: |. M, Kincaid, president; J. A. Mangum, vice- 
president; and F, J. Rheiner, cashier. A general banking business is 
carried on in accordance with modern ideas of financial transactions and 
Mr. Kheiner gives his entire attention to the bank, carefully guarding 
its interests and doing all in his power to promote its growth and Suc- 
cess. 

In April. 1899, was celebrated the marriage of F. J. Rheiner and 
Miss Mittie Davenport, of Sabinal. She was born in this county in 
1878, her parents being Jack and Alary (lUnyon) Davenport, both rep- 
resentatives of prominent pioneer families. Her father was born in 
.Missouri and came to Uvalde with the first pioneer settlers. He helped 
to drive out the wild beasts and the hostile red men and to sow the seeds 
oi the present civilization and progress. For some time he engaged in 
cattle raising and he yet resides at Sabinal, being a worthy and esteemed 
citizen of that locality. He had five children : Ed, a farmer ; Robert, 
who is engaged in the practice of medicine at Trinidad, Colorado ; 
v >scar, a rancher; Mrs. Mittie Rheiner; and Ray, who is a bookkeeper 
in the Uvalde National Bank. 

The home of Mr. and Airs. Rheiner has been blessed with two chil- 
dren: Ralph, born in May, 1900; and Jack, on the nth of February, 
19c/). Mrs. Rheiner belongs to the Christian church and Mr. Rheiner 
is affiliated with the Knights of Pythias fraternity. His entire life hav- 
ing been passed in the county, he is well known to many of its settlers 

ause of his long residence here as well as by reason of his connec- 
tion with important business interests. He is wholly worthy the respect 
that is everywhere tendered him, for his name is synonymous with hon- 
orable dealing and with all that is elevating and beneficial to the city and 
the individual. 

\V. 1'. Dhkmody, who at the age of fifteen years started upon his 
business career and upon his diligence and enterprise has placed his de- 

dence, building thereon the superstructure of his success, is now the 
cashier of the Commercial National Bank of Uvalde and is prominently 
identified with the development of the city and its business interests. He 
was born at Flora, Illinois, September 2X, 1804, and was reared as a 
boy about town, attending school and enjoying the pleasures of the play- 
ground as most boys do. His parents were John and Jane (Michaels) 
Dermody, the former a native of Ireland and the latter of Indiana. The 
father came to America when young and was reared to manhood in this 
country, acquiring his education here. He always had the strongest at- 
tachment for the land of his adoption, and no more loyal citizen could be 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 255 

found among- the native sons of America. When a man he found em- 
ployment with the railroad company and was engaged in railroad service 

successfully for many years, after which lie invested his saving- in land 
and turned his attention to farming. lie also prospered in that under- 
taking and now in honorahle retirement from further labor he and his 
wife are spending their declining years in the enjoyment of the fruits 
of their former toil in a pleasant home in Flora, Illinois. lie has had 
no aspiration for public office, content to do his duty as a private citizen, 
and in the community where he resides he is one of the well known and 
highly respected residents. His wife is a daughter of Casper Michaels, 
of West Virginia, who removed from that state to Indiana. He was 
a cabinet maker by trade and followed the pursuit for many years, pos- 
sessing much ability in that direction. Both he and his wife have now 
passed away. In their family were the following named : Solomon ; Wil- 
liam J. ; Elizabeth, the wife of J. A. Haggerty ; Nancy, the wife of J. 
Shipley; Mary, the wife of O. Stanford; Emeline, the wife of G. 
Schroyer ; Mrs. Hetty Boltz ; and Jane, who became Mrs. Dermodv. 

To John and Jane Dermody have been born seven children: W. P., 
of this review ; John, who became a resident of Texas and died in this 
state ; James, who is yet living in Illinois ; Daniel, a member of the 
United States navy ; George, who died at the age of eighteen years ; 
Jerry P., who is living in Flora, Illinois ; and Mollie, who died at the 
age of two years. 

W. P. Dermody was born and reared in Illinois and when fifteen 
years of age secured employment in a railroad office, where he learned 
telegraphy. He was soon capable of managing an office and became 
telegraph operator and station agent, in which capacity he served for 
more than eight years. 'He was employed by the Iowa, Burlington & 
Western Railroad, serving at different stations in Indiana and Illinois in 
a manner entirely satisfactory to the company. Later he left Illinois and 
removed to the southwest, securing a position as station agent and tele- 
graph operator on the Texas and Pacific Railroad. Subseauently he was 
transferred to Pecos City, where he continued successfully until 1888. 
when he resigned his position with the railroad company and engaged 
in merchandising there. He continued in business at that place for 
seven years, meeting with a gratifying measure of prosperity, and on 
the expiration of that period he removed to Wise county, where lie 
again engaged in merchandising for about a vear. 

In the spring of 1897 Mr. Dermodv arrived in Uvalde conntv and 
became connected with cattle raising upon a ranch. He is still identified 
with that industry and conducts a ranch of six thousand acres on the 
Nueces river, running steers. He regards this as an excellent district 
for stock raising purposes and believes that it will also prove to be a 
profitable farming country. In addition to his ranch Mr. Dermodv also 
has a small farm near the town of Uvalde which he is rentine. It has 
been under cultivation for three years and each year g;ood crops of cot- 
ton and corn have been produced. The first vear the cotton nroduced 
ovet- a bale to the acre. Drv farmino- is carried on without irrigation 
''nd excelled surc^ss has resulted. Mr. Dermodv is a man of marked 
business ability and enterprise, and in 1903 assisted in the organization 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

the Commercial National Bank of Uvalde, in which he became a 

kliolder. He was then chosen cashier and has since acted in that 
capacity, while the other original officeholders are still occupying' their 
respective positions. The bank is capitalized for sixty thonsand dollars 
and has fifteen thousand dollars in undivided profits. This is a bank of 
deposit and discount and also issues drafts and buys and sells exchange 
r the world. The business is condncted in accordance with strict 
banking principles and the institution has become one of the solid finan- 
cial concerns oi Southwestern Texas owing' to the conservative policy 
and business capacity of the men who are in control. 

.Mr. Dermody was married in Pecos City in 1889 to Miss Lee 
Havins, who was horn in San Angelo, Texas, in 1873, ner parents being 
Ira and Frances J. (Mills) flavins, the former a native of Raines county, 
Texas, and the latter of Florida. Mr. Havins has been identified with 
the settlement and development of Texas for many years. He served 
on the range for a number of years, helped snbdne the red men and ex- 
tend the frontier and aided in planting the seeds of civilization. He 

for many years been prominently connected with the cattle business, 
in which he has met with merited success. In 1896 he removed to 
Uvalde county and has been connected with the cattle interests to the 
present time. He is also a stockholder in the Commercial National Bank 
and now resides in the city of Uvalde, where he is well known and 
highly esteemed as a man of excellent bnsiness capacity and of genuine 
personal worth. In politics he is an earnest Democrat but has no desire 
;<'i- office as a reward for party fealty. His wife died in 1904. In their 
family were but two children: Lee, now Mrs. Dermody; and Pearl, who 
became the wife of J. E. Comport and died leaving three children. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Dermody have been born eight children: John 
il.. born in 1890; L. IT., born in 1892; George B., in 1894; Louise, in 

>; Ira. in 1898; Lawrence, in 1900; Gerald, in 1903; and Bernard, 
1904. The parents are members of the Catholic church. The family 
have a commodious residence in the city and its hospitality is greatly 
enjoyed by their many friends. Mr. Dermody is a self-made man, who 
ha- been the architect of his own fortunes and has builded wisely and 
well. He feels that he made no mistake in choosing Texas as a place 
of residence. Recognizing in its natural resources and conditions the 
business opportunities which lead to success, he has firm faith in the 
future of the country and is doing much to develop this part of the 
state. 

I). C. Milam. Among the more recently developed industries of 
I fvalde county is that of the culture of bees and the production of honey 
and to this industry Mr. Milam is now devoting his time and energies. 
He is also engaged in the raising of goats in addition to dry and irri- 
gated farming and is widely recognized as a man of excellent business 
qualifications. He was born in Alabama, October 13, 1854. His pa- 
ternal grandfather, Benjamin Milam, a farmer by occupation, died in 
that state. In his early life he was a member of the Primitive Baptist 
church and afterward became a member of the Christian church. His 
children were: James L. ; Monroe and Harrison, who died while serving- 
in the Confederate army; William, who died at Greenville, Alabama; 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 257 

John, who resides now in Alabama; Mrs. Caroline Lewis, now living 
with D. C. Milam; Mrs. Betty Hall; Mrs. Polly Richardson; Mrs. Ellen 
Hall; Mrs. Lucindy Eliza ]^owell ; Rebecca; Emily, and Henry. 

The eldest of the family, James L. Milam, and the father of our 
subject, was born in Georgia and was married in Alabama to Martha 
A. E. Dunn, a native of Alabama. But little is known of the history 
of the Dunn family. She had three brothers; David, who died in Ten- 
nessee ; Solomon and Richard, who served in the Confederate army, and 
Richard died in the army. The father of these children passed away and 
the mother afterward married a Mr. J. B. Griffin, by whom she had four 
children : Mary, Euphemia, Silas and Henry. The maternal grand- 
parents of our subject were both members of the Primitive Baptist 
church. 

Following his marriage James L. Milam located in Alabama and 
subsequently removed to Tennessee, where he remained until 1874, when 
he took up his abode in Delta county, Texas, purchased land and im- 
proved a farm, carrying on business successfully there until 1892, when 
he settled in the city of Uvalde, where he conducted a bottling business 
for four years. He then retired from active business life, but he still 
owns some business interests and property which give him a good in- 
come. He was in the Confederate service in the Civil war, joining the 
army from Alabama. By trade he was a shoemaker and was detailed 
to service in the shoe and harness shops at Columbus, Georgia, where 
he remained until the close of the war. He then returned home and 
resumed farming. In January, 1866, he removed to Marshall county, 
Tennessee. He has led the life of a busy and enterprising man and his 
genuine personal worth has made him highly respected by all who know 
him. He holds membership in the Church of Christ and is loyal to its 
interests and teachings. His wife died in Uvalde in 1900 in the faith 
of the Church of Christ, of which she was a devoted member. To Mr. 
and Mrs. James L. Milam were born nine children : David C. ; Mrs. 
Mary K. Wilson ; Mrs. Martha J. Patterson ; Mrs. Laura Hooten ; John 
W., in the Indian Territory; Benjamin F. and James Lafayette, both of 
Delta county, Texas ; Sally, the wife of G. W. Cantrell ; and Thomas, 
an attorney at law now practicing in Uvalde county. 

D. C. Milam, the eldest of the family, was born in Alabama but 
was reared in Tennessee and came with his father's family to Texas in 
1874. The home was established in Delta county and later Mr. Milam 
married and began farming on his own account. He bought land, which 
he cultivated for a number of years, but his family did not enjoy very 
good health in that locality and because of this and other facts he made 
a prospecting tour to the west. He then returned to Delta countv but 
after a few months left the farm and in 1890 took up his abode in Uvalde 
countv. He brought with him his family and a few colonies of bees. 
Here he turned his attention to dry farming and succeeded in raising a 
fairly good crop of corn, cotton and cane. He then rented some land, 
on which to establish his apiary, and during the succeeding four years 
gave the most of his attention to the raising of bees. He afterward 
bought a small tract of land for apiary purposes and soon afterward sold 
his farm in Delta county and added eighty acres to his first purchase. 

Vol. II. 17 



2$8 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

. t he added different surveys and he now owns about two thousand 
acres oi valuable ranch land. Jn the meantime he also bought twenty- 
lour acres near the corporate limits of Uvalde, where he established his 
homestead and yet resides, lie has made comfortable, modern improve- 
ments here and has a nice residence near the school. J lis ranch borders 
the Nueces river, so that there is plenty oi" flowing water, and oil the 
back part of the ranch he has a windmill and well, supplying plenty 
of water for all purposes. lie has made good improvements on the 
ranch and in addition to the raising of bees he also engages in raising 
goats and hogs and in all branches of his business is meeting with slic- 
es-, lie follows diversified farming and has placed his land under cul- 
tivate n. a part oi it being dry farming, while a portion of the land is 
irrigated. Through a decade, with the exception of one year, he has 
had good crops by dry farming and the irrigated districts never fail to 
return rich harvests, lie has prospered in his different branches of 
business in Uvalde county and he regards the bee industry as one which 
is always sure to produce good returns. He has had a good average 
crop through the fifteen years in which he has conducted his apiary and 
with the increase of the colonies he has had as many as one thousand. Re- 
garding this as too many for one place, however, he has sold many of 
his stands of bees and now has about five hundred colonies. He has also 
established a ranch at another place and has divided his colonies. He 
has turned over all the other branches of his business to his son, while 
Ik- gives his undivided attention to bee culture and the care of his honey, 
using all modern appliances to assist the little workers. There is a con- 
stantly increasing demand for Uvalde honey because of its light color 
and fine flavor. He ships all of his own product and buys from others, 
and he finds a good market for all the honey that he can produce. As 
the vears have passed he has increased his estate in this county very 
satisfactorily and his health has also been restored here, so that he has 
every reason to be satisfied with his present location. He was appointed 
assistant bee inspector for Southwestern Texas, which position he still 
fills. 

On the 15th of August, 1877, in Delta county, Mr. Milam was mar- 
ried to .Miss Mary E. Patterson, who was born in Tennessee in i8S4, 
and is a lady of intelligence and culture, who has been a worthy help- 
mate to her husband. She is a daughter of George W. and Jane Pat- 
son, both of whom were natives of Tennessee, where they were mar- 
ried, coming to Texas prior to the Civil war. In Lamar county Mr. 
Patterson bought a farm, which he continued to cultivate until he joined 
the Confederate army. He was elected captain of his companv and 
served until the close of hostilities with the Trans-Mississippi depart- 
ment, taking part in the border warfare and aiding in suppressing the 
Indian uprisings in this part of the country. When the war ended he 
returned to Lamar county and afterward sold his property and removed 
to Delta county, where he resided until his death. Pie was a popular 
and influential citizen there and filled the office of justice of the peace 
for a number of vears. He also served for two terms in the Texas legis- 
lature and filled manv minor positions. His religious faith was indicated 
by his membership in the Methodist church. Tn his family were eight 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 259 

children: James H., who is living upon the Delta county farm; Mrs. 
Hattie Wocxlard ; William, a farmer of Delta county; John C, a farmer 
of the same locality; Mrs. Mary E. Milam; Mrs. Salina Waller; Mrs. 
Sophronia Vaughn ; and S. D., a farmer. 

The home of Mr. and Mrs. Milam has been blessed with six chil- 
dren : Arnoha, who for six years has been a popular teacher in the pub- 
lic schools ; James A., who is conducting the ranch ; Joanna, the wife of 
B. E. Smith; Mozell, a teacher; Lulu, at home; and Hattie, in school. 
The parents and all of their children are members of the Church of 
Christ, in the work of which they take an active and helpful part. Mr. 
Milam is one of the leading members of the church in Uvalde and for a 
number of years has served as elder. In politics he is independent, pre- 
ferring to devote his time and attention to his business affairs, which 
have been capably conducted. He has been watchful of opportunity ; 
noting every indication pointing to success and as the years have gone 
by he has labored diligently and persistently, his work resulting in the 
attainment of a position in the business world that is gratifying and that 
yields him a very desirable income. 

James A. Weir, one of the leading members of the bar of Uvalde 
county, Texas, with a large and distinctively representative clientage, 
is yet a young man, but his merit and ability are such that he has mas- 
tered intricate problems of jurisprudence and won many notable suc- 
cesses at the bar. He is a native son of Texas, having been born in San 
Antonio on the 24th of June, 1877. His parents were Henry and Sally 
(Evans) Weir, the former a native of Kentucky and the latter of San 
Antonio, while both are descendants of well known and honored pioneer 
families of that city. Henry Weir was a son of James Weir, a native 
of Ireland, who came to America at an early day and located in Ken- 
tucky, where he married. Sometime in the '40s he removed to San 
Antonio, Texas. His labors resulted in making the country accessible 
for permanent settlement and civilization and no man is more worthy 
of honored mention in the history of Southwestern Texas than James 
Weir. On settling in Bexar county he took up his abode on a ranch 
near San Antonio and became a very prominent and successful rancher 
and cattleman, accumulating a large estate. He was a broad-minded, 
intelligent business man and good financier and the extent of his opera- 
tions and the methods which he employed made him well known and 
highly respected. He continued to reside upon the old homestead up to 
the time of his death and there reared his family! He had seven chil- 
dren, the eldest son of whom was Henry Weir. The others were : Mrs. 
Fannie Simpson; Mrs. Lee De Lloward ; Mrs. Lavinia Dobbin; Mrs. 
Mary Herndon ; and Thomas and James, both of whom follow farming. 

Henry Weir was born in Kentucky and went to San Antonio with 
his parents when young. He was reared to manhood in Bexar county, 
where he acquired a liberal education, displaying abilitv and enterprise 
in that work. He was reared on the old home place, assisting his father, 
so that he early became familiar with the ranch and stock business. 
When he started out in life for himself he chose the same oecuoation, 
engaging in ranching and stock raising, in which he met with well mer- 
ited and gratifying success. He continued in that line for many years. 



HISTORY OK SOITHWEST TEXAS 

his family residing in the city, and from that point he superintended his 

business affairs. His political support was given the Democracy and 
the party recognized him as one of its stalwart and influential advocates 
in his locality. He was loyal to the south and to the Confederacy and 
at the time of the Civil war raised a company and entered the Confed- 
erate service. He served throughout the war as captain of his company 
and was a good soldier, always on duty and never faltering in the per- 
formance of any military task which was assigned him. In days of 
peace he tilled the office of county commissioner of Bexar county and 
was closely associated with public interests, doing all in his power to 
promote political progress and business enterprise. He was widely 
known and highly respected for his integrity as well as for what he ac- 
complished and while conducting his business affairs he created a goodly 
estate. He was a worthy member of the Presbyterian church and died 
in that faith in March, 1877. His widow survived him and afterward 
became the wife of William Aubrey, a prominent attorney of San An- 
tonio, who yet resides in that city. There was one child of that mar- 
riage. John F. Aubrey. The mother was a daughter of Onecimus Evans, 
who was of Welsh descent, and became one of the early settlers and 
pioneer merchants of San Antonio, where he remained successfully for 
many years, conducting a business of large and profitable proportions. 
His labors were an element in- the commercial development of the city. 
He was a prominent and worthy member of the Masonic fraternity. 
The members of the Evans family were as follows : Mrs. Laura Richer ; 
Mrs. Fannie Dinwiddie ; Mrs. Sally Weir; Mrs. Lillie Callaway; Alfred, 
deceased, who was an assistant clerk in the state house at Austin ; Riley,, 
deceased, an attorney at law; and John, who is living retired. 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry W r eir had a family of six children: Mrs. Bes- 
sie Devine ; Mrs. Nanny Smith, who died leaving two children ; Mrs. 
Emma Culberson ; Mrs. Lillie Sims ; Hal, who died at the age of twenty- 
eight years, leaving a wife and one son ; and James A. The mother of 
these children departed this life in 1891. 

Tame> A. Weir snent his boyhood days in his native city, where he 
attended school, while later he became a student in the Agricultural. 
College at Bryan, Texas. Determining upon the practice of law as a 
life work, he began reading in 1885 with Devine & Smith as his pre- 
ceptors, prominent attorneys of San Antonio. Mr. Weir continued 
reading under that direction until 1889, when he was admitted to prac- 
tice at the San Antonio bar, being then but nineteen years of age. Hav- 
ing the age disability removed, he continued at .San Antonio for one year 
and afterward went to Houston, Texas, where he remained until 1898. 
He then removed to Uvalde, where he built up a large practice, connect- 
ing him with litigation in all of the courts from that of the justice court 
to the supreme court of the state. Tie is now attorney for the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, having been connected with the corporation for several 
years, and he gives entire attention to his professional duties in the prac- 
tice of civil and criminal law. Tn both departments he has been suc- 
-ful and he is rated as one of the prominent attornevs of the state. 
He prepares his cases with great precision, thoroughness and care, pre- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 261 

seats his cause with force, his deductions being logical, his arguments 
clear and his reasoning sound. 

James A. Weir was married in 1899 to Miss Bertha Partridge, who 
was born at Mobile, Alabama, and is a daughter of Charles S. and Elise 
(Herpine) Partridge, who were also natives of Mobile, the former of 
English and the latter of French descent. They were married in their 
native city, where for many years Mr. Partridge was a prominent and 
successful hardware merchant, enjoying a large and lucrative trade 
which gained him a wide acquaintance and made him a factor in the 
commercial development of the city. Both he and his wife spent their 
last days there. In their family were six children, of whom Airs. Weir 
is 'the youngest. The others are: Mary IT.; Elise L. ; D. W. and T. J., 
who are hardware merchants of Mobile, Alabama; and John H., who 
died in that city. 

Mr. and Mrs. Weir have a daughter, Elise, who was born in August, 
1902. Mrs. Weir is a consistent and devoted member of the Catholic 
church. Politically Mr. Weir is an earnest Democrat, but has no desire 
for office for himself, although he is interested in the success of his 
friends and his party. Pleased with Uvalde and its prospects, he is la- 
boring for its development and interests and is a young man of enter- 
prise and determination, keeping in touch with modern progress and 
bringing to bear a spirit of successful accomplishment upon all that he 
undertakes whether in professional or business life or for the welfare 
of his community. 

B. M. Hines, M. D., successfully engaged in the practice of medi- 
cine and surgery in Uvalde, was born in Mississippi, December 7, 1869, 
a son of John H. and Amanda (Toler) Hines, both of whom were na- 
tives of Mississippi, in which state they were reared and married. The 
paternal grandfather, William B. Hines, was also born there and for 
many years was a well known Methodist minister of Mississippi, where 
he died at an advanced age in 1904. His children were : John H. ; Wil- 
liam B. ; Mary, the wife of T. D. Reed ; and Lucy, the wife of O. H. 
Smith. 

Dr. John H. Hines (father) was reared in Mississippi, took up the 
study of medicine and when a young man entered upon the active work 
of the profession. He always remained a resident of the locality in 
which he was born and became a distinguished physician of that region, 
having an extensive practice. He served throughout the Civil war as a 
member of the commissary department. Of the Methodist church he 
was a devoted and loyal member and his name was on the membership 
rolls of the Masonic and Knights of Pythias fraternities. He passed 
away in 1894 and is yet survived by his wife, who resides in Gloster, 
Mississippi, at the age of sixty-four years. She is a worthy member of 
the Baptist church. Their children were B. M. ; John, a real estate 
dealer; R. E., a manufacturer of sauces; Annabell, the wife of Dr. A. J. 
Monagan ; and Mary, at home. 

Dr. Hines was reared to farming and beo-an his education in the 
common schools, later attending the Normal Institute at Iuka, Missis- 
sippi, from which institution he was graduated. In the meantime he 
took up the study of medicine, which he read for five years and in 1891 



a a HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

regularly devoted his time to the master) of the principles of the medical 
science under the direction of his father. Dr. 1 lines, with whom he also 
made professional visits. In iSoj he attended lectures at the Yanderbilt 
University and was graduated in 1804 on the completion of a thorough 
course in medicine and surgery. He practiced two years in Mississippi, 
when on account of tailing health he came to Southwestern Texas, set- 
tling at Alpine, in 1897. Ill 1900 he came to Uvalde and owing to the 
excellent climatic influences here his health has been fully restored. On 
his arrival he purchased a drug store, which he conducted in connection 
with the practice of his profession. His health improving and his prac- 
increasimj, he sold the drug store in order to devote his entire time 
and attention to his profession. He has made a specialty of the diseases 
oi the nose, throat and lungs, and in 1904 he attended lectures in Chi- 
cago to perfect himself in his specialty and is now well prepared to 
treat all pulmonary diseases with intelligence and skill. He has both a 
large office and visiting practice and has fully merited the confidence of 
the community. His offices comprise four rooms, contain a large library 
and all modern instruments and equipments to facilitate his work ; three 
operating rooms are well fitted with all modern appliances. 

Dr. Hines is taking much interest in the development of the city 
and county along its material and business lines and rejoices in what is 
being accomplished for its industrial, commerical and agricultural 
growth. With a partner he has invested in an apiary and is engaged in 
the raising of bees and the production of honey. They own three of the 
largest apiaries in Uvalde county, which is famous for its fine honey 
and also for the large amounts produced here. With restored health 
and a prosperous outlook for his professional success and business inter- 
ests Dr. Hines feels that he is permanently located here and is in thor- 
ough sympathy with the county and its efforts for advancement. 

Jn 1894, in Mississippi, Dr. Hines was married to Miss Anna Dean, 
who was born in Tennessee, but was reared in Mississippi. Her father, 
Professor H. A. Dean, was president and owner of the Iuka Normal 
Institute, a popular educational institution of Mississippi, in which state 
he has for many years been a well known educator. He is now retired, 
however, from active teaching and resides upon a farm in Tennessee. 
He was a soldier in the Confederate army during the Civil war and his 
experiences were such as are usually meted out to the man who becomes 
connected with military service. Both he and his wife are consistent 
Methodists. His life work has been of the greatest benefit to his- fellow 
men in the promotion of intellectual and moral growth and he justly 
deserves the high honor in which he is uniformly held. His children 
are: Anna, now Mrs. Hines; Guy D., of Scranton, Mississippi, who is 
superintendent and teacher of the Scranton and Pascagoula schools. Dr. 
and Mr-. Mines have one son, John, who was born August 23, 1898. 
Mrs. Hines belongs to the Methodist church. The Doctor holds mem- 
bership relations with the Masonic and Knights of Pythias fraternities 
and with the Woodmen of the World, while in the line of his profession 
he is connected with the Uvalde Countv and Texas State medical socie- 
ties and the American Medical Association. 



HISTORY OE SOUTHWEST TEXAS 263 

Hansel W. House, well known in Uvalde as an enterprising busi- 
ness man, where he is engaged in dealing in carriages and buggies and 
is also a funeral director, was born in Washington county, Illinois, July 
1 3> l &57? No event of special importance occurred to vary the routine 
01 farm life for him in his boyhood days, for he worked in the fields 
through the summer mouths and attended the public schools in the win- 
ter seasons. His youth was passed in the home of his parents, John E. 
and Anna Elizabeth (Moore) House, both of whom were natives of 
Illinois, where they were married. The paternal grandfather, Hansel 
W. .House, was a native of Tennessee and became an early settler of 
Illinois, where he followed the occupation of farming. He served in 
the war of 1812 and was also in the war with. Mexico, being thus a vet- 
eran of two of the important military contests of the country, in which 
he displayed unfaltering bravery and loyalty. He remained upon his 
farm in Illinois until 1858, when he went to California, where he soon 
afterward died. His family then remained in that state for a considera- 
ble period. Mr. House was a consistent member of the Methodist church. 
In his family were eight children : John L. ; Robert, who died in Mis- 
souri ; Wesley, of Kansas ; Mrs. Mary Thompson, who after losing her 
first husband married Mr. Seawell; Mrs. Alcey Seawell ; Mrs. Hester 
Horn ; Ann, and William, deceased. 

John L. House, father of Hansel W. House, spent the days of his 
youth in Illinois, where his time was largely given to the occupation of 
farming. After his marriage he took up his abode in that state and 
continued to follow farming until 1868, when he removed to Minnesota. 
In the fall of the same year he was stricken with smallpox and died. 
In politics he was a Republican, although he was the only member of the 
family affiliated with that party. In each community in which he lived 
he was respected because of his honesty of purpose and his upright life 
and he was a worthy member of the Christian church and of the Masonic 
lodge. In his last sickness he was cared for by his brethren of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, who also conducted the funeral service. He left his 
family in rather limited financial circumstances. His wife survived him 
for a number of years and returned with her children to the old home 
county in Illinois, where she remained until 1870. She then came with 
the family to Texas, first locating at San Marcos, where she rented a 
farm and raised a crop. They afterward removed to Blanco county, 
where she raised a crop and subsequently settled in the town of Blanco, 
which was the county seat. There the son assisted in the support of the 
family, keeping the children together. In 1880 Mrs. House was again 
married, becoming the wife of Rev. C. S. Martin, and they afterward 
removed to Plugerville, while later they took up their abode upon a 
farm and subsequently returned to Blanco, where they yet remain. Mrs. 
Martin was a daughter of Robert E. Moore, a prominent farmer of 
JefTerson county, Illinois, who spent his life upon the old homestead 
place in that state. She was one of five children, the others being Green, 
Byron, Robert and Susan. She was the third in order of birth and by 
her marriage to Mr. House became the mother of six children : Hansel 
W. ; Robert, who died at twenty-two years ; Sarah, the wife of John 
Zimmerman; Susan, the wife of C. P. Jenkins; Matilda, the wife of W. 



204 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

T. Barnes; and Mrs. Alcey Wells. Mrs. Martin is a member of the 
Christian church, taking an active and helpful part in its work. By her 
sec md marriage she has had no children. 

11. W. House, who was horn in Illinois, removed to. .Minnesota with 
his parents and when his mother and the other children returned to his 
native state he remained in Minnesota and found employment on a rail- 
road. There lie continued for a year, when in the fall of 1870 he accom- 
panied his mother and the other members of the family to Texas, living 
for some time in Blanco county. In the town of Blanco he learned the 
trade of carriage making and painting and during that period he assisted 
his mother in the support oi the younger members of the household, 
whom she reared in the most creditable manner, so that they have be- 
te citizens oi genuine worth and respectability. After learning" the 
trade Mr. House worked as a journeyman and remained in Blanco* from 
1S71 to 1S7S. In the latter year he went to Hillsboro, Texas, where he 
opened a shop for himself. At a later date he abandoned carriage mak- 
ing and established a grocery store, which he conducted from 1881 until 
[884, when his health became so badly impaired that he was forced to 
seek a change of climate. He therefore closed out his business at a sac- 
rifice and in 1884 came to Uvalde county. Being unable to engage in 
any very arduous labor, he turned his attention to the raising of bees 
and the production of honey. He leased land for his apiary and started 
with forty stands of bees, which number, however, he continually in- 
creased, earning on the business successfully for eleven years. He made 
a good living in this way and never failed to raise a good harvest of 
honey save one year, this being in 1892. His health, too, improved from 
the time that he reached the county until it was completely restored. He 
decided to remain here and in 1892 w r as elected city marshal, in which 
capacity he served for five years. In 1898 he purchased an undertaking 
business and has developed an excellent trade. He has two hearses of 
modern style and a large assortment of caskets on hand. He also en- 
gages in general repair work on buggies and carriages and in 1900 he 
began selling all kinds of vehicles, now having a large repository and 
keeping on hand an extensive line of buggies, carriages and other ve- 
hicles of a popular make. His trade in this department is continually 
increasing. In 1893 ne resumed operations as a bee culturist in connec- 
tion with a partner, J. W. Reed, and they have already made a good start 
and have flattering prospects. They now are using leased land but ex- 
pect -or, 11 to buy land and make the business permanent. They have at 
present at their apiary one hundred and sixty-seven stands of bees. Mr. 
House believes this to be an important industry and has been a leader 
in the line of bee culture. Tn his first venture in this direction he was 
among the pioneers to use the modern improvements which are of great 
assistance to the bees and also in preparing the output for the market. 

Mr. House was married at Blanco, Texas, in 1876, to Miss Mar- 
garet Carson, who was born in eastern Texas and was reared at Blanco. 
Her father. Thomas Carson, became an early resident of this state. He 
served through the Civil war as a member of the Confederate army, 
taking part in a number of hotly contested engagements. He married 
a Miss Allison and continued to reside in Texas up to the time of his 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 265 

death, which occurred in Blanco, while his wife, an estimable lady and 
a member of the Christian church, died at Coleman, Texas, in their 
family were three daughters and a son: Margaret, now Mrs. House; 
Emma, the wife of Ben Cage; Joel, of Blanco county; and Mattie, the 
wife of E. B. Sweeney. 

Mrs. House is also a member of the Christian church. Mr. House 
is a charter member of the Woodmen of the World, belonging to Uvalde 
lodge. In politics he is an earnest Republican. Classed with the intelli- 
gent and enterprising business men and able financiers, it is not difficult 
to imagine that Mr. House is a self-made man, who has been the archi- 
tect and builder of his own fortunes. He certainly deserves credit for 
what he has accomplished, as he started out in life at an early age empty 
handed. He soon came to realize the value of industry and perseverance 
as factors in the achievement of success, and as the years have gone by 
he has made a most creditable business record and gained a gratifying 
measure of prosperity. 

Judge John F. Robinson is a veteran and ex-captain of the Con- 
federate army, and for a long period has been numbered among the 
distinguished 'and (representative citizens of Uvalde county, having 
located here in pioneer times. A native son of Texas, he possesses the 
spirit of resolution and enterprise which have reclaimed this district 
from barbarism and converted it to civilization. His birth occurred in 
Sabine county when Texas was an independent republic, his natal day 
being October 3, 1837. His parents were Henry M. and Eva (Lagrone) 
Robinson, the former of Virginia and the latter of Georgia. Mr. Rob- 
inson was of Scotch lineage, while his wife was of German descent, and 
they were married in Alabama. Her parents were Jacob and Catherine 
Lagrone, natives of Germany, whence they emigrated to America and 
took up their abode in South Carolina. Afterward they went to Georgia 
and subsequently to Alabama, and together with the Robinson family 
they came to Texas in 1836, locating at first in Sabine county, where 
Mr. Lagrone engaged in farming, operating his fields with slave labor. 
He continued successfully in business there until 1841, when he sold 
out and removed to Harrison county, where he carried on farming 
until his death. He passed away at the venerable age of ninety-six 
years, while his wife died at the age of eighty-six years. His children 
were : Eva, who became Mrs. Robinson ; Jacob, Washington, Eliza- 
beth, Frances, Martin, Jackson and Susan. The four sons were all 
members of General Houston's army and thus aided in the establish- 
ment of Texas Republic. 

A Soldier for Independence. 

Henry M. Robinson was also enrolled with General Houston's 
forces and was detailed to look after and assist families in the noted 
Run Away Scrape, being thus engaged at the time of the decisive battle 
of San Jacinto, which gave Texas her liberty. After the republic was 
established he received a headrig^ht of twelve hundred and eighty acres 
of land, which he located in Upshur county. He improved a good 
farm and remained on it until 1848, when he sold out and returned to 
Harrison county. In 1849 ne disposed of that place and started west- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

ward. He lived in Kaufman county until 1851, when he settled in 
Bexar county, residing there until 185-'. lie next book up his abode 
in Sabinal canyon of LJvalde county, first locating one mile south of 

Ware Settlement. 

where the village of Utopia now stands. lie came with Captain Ware. 
Gid Thompson had arrived a short time previous. The settlement be- 
eame known as the Ware settlement and within a short time other 
pioneers arrived. The pioneers handed themselves together in mutual 
protection against the Indians, who resented the encroachment of the 
palefaces upon their hunting grounds and determined to keep them 
away if possible. Each pioneer family commenced the work of estab- 
lishing a home, and Henry M. Robinson opened up some land to civiliza- 
tion. He carried on farming i n order to furnish supplies for his family 
and also got started in stock raising. He was thus engaged until 1855, 
when he entered the government employ as a guide for United States 

»ps, piloting soldiers through this country. With the soldiers he 
went upon the Indian trails as the military men aided in subduing the 
red race. In 1856 he moved his family to the vicinity of Fort Inge, 
a few miles south of Uvalde. He was in the government employ until 
1858, when he resigned and his son, J. F. Robinson, took his place. The 
father then removed his family to Rio Frio canyon, where he spent one 
year at farming and then returned to Uvalde. In i860 he removed to 
the Xueces river, fifteen miles from the city, where he engaged in 
stock raising until 1861, when in company with Henry Adams he 
started to Camp Wood. The camp was being broken up, the soldiers 
being called out for active field duty in the Civil war. When they were 
about seven miles from home they were attacked by a band of thirty- 
rive Indians, who killed both white men, who were found lying dead 
side by side. Mr. Robinson was scalped and the Indians raided his 
home and wounded his son George in the arm. The family, however, 
escaped with their lives by hiding, but the Indians plundered the house 
and took everything that they wanted. To get the bed ticks in which 
to carry their plunder they emptied the beds upon the ground. The 
family was left destitute of many of the necessities and comforts of 
life. Mr. Robinson was a brave and fearless man, who was in many 
raids and fights with the Indians, and thus they feared and hated him 
and were watchful of an opportunity to murder him. Up to the time 
<>f his death he had never been wounded in an encounter with them. 
I fc underwent all the deprivations and hardships of pioneer life and 
contributed in substantial measure to the development of this section 
of the state, being one of the organizers of Uvalde county. He belonged 
to the Masonic fraternity and before removing to'the west both he and 

wife became members of the Presbyterian church. Mrs. Robinson 
survived her husband for many years and died in August, 1904, at the 
venerable age of very near one hundred years. After her husband's 
death she managed as none but a good mother could do, keeping her 
young family together and rearing them so that they were able to fill 
positions of responsibility and credit. In her later years she found a 
good home among her children and in her declining days she spent 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 267 

much time with her son, Judge Robinson, passing away at his home. 
The members of the family were: Elizabeth, the wife of E. E. Kelly; 
John F. ; James, a stock farmer of this county; Jane, the deceased wife 
of John Dixon; Melvina, the wife of T. York; George, of Sabinal ; 
Henry, who was killed by Indians in 1865; Ann, the wife of F. M. 
Mason ; and William, a stock farmer. 

John F. Robinson pursued his education in the subscription schools 
and was reared under the parental roof. He accompanied his parents 
on their various removals, keeping on the frontier, and was thus reared 
among the enterprising pioneer settlers who reclaimed the region from 
barbarism and converted it into the uses of civilization. Following his 
father's death he assisted his mother in her effort to keep the children 
together and he worked at carpentering and at the stock business. When 
his father resigned from the position of government guide and ranger 
he took his place as scout and guide for the soldiers in 1858 and thus 
continued in the range service until the inauguration of the Civil war. 
In 1861 he joined an independent company at San Antonio and they 
were detailed by the provost marshal to go to Gillespie county and 
declare martial law on account of the large band of renegades that had 
infested that district and were committing many unlawful acts. They 
were ordered to administer a rigid oath to them, and those who refused 
to take the oath were to be allowed only thirty days in which to leave 
the county. They found one hundred and five who refused to take 
the oath and who left the county, but soon after they rendezvoused at the 
head of the Guadalupe. Twenty-five men were detailed from each of 
the four Confederate companies to follow them and see that they left 
the state. When they overtook them a battle ensued and when the 
smoke cleared away it was found that thirty-three were killed and many 
wounded. Most of them had hidden in the cedar brakes and the attack- 
ing party got many of their horses and other equipments of war. In 
the soldiers' band two men were killed and eighteen wounded. A 
physician was secured from Fort Clark and later the wounded were 
moved to that fort, where four of the number died. Mr. Robinson 
was wounded through the right thigh. At a later date the command 
had a fight with another company, in which some were killed, while the 
remainder of the renegades fled to Mexico. Judge Robinson, on re- 
covering his health, continued in the frontier service until 1862, when 
he enlisted as a private in the Confederate army under Colonel James 
Duff of the Thirty-third Texas Cavalry. He was assigned to the Trans- 
Mississippi department and after the first month the command re- 
organized at Fort Brown, where he was promoted to the rank of second 
lieutenant and later to first lieutenant. In the fall of 1863 he was 
commissioned captain, serving with that rank until the close of the 
war. The troops patrolled the coast for a considerable time and in 1864 
were at Victoria, where a battle ensued. Thence they marched to Bon- 
ham, where they lay in camp for two months, after which they were 
ordered to Fort Gibson, but soon afterward were ordered back to Texas, 
being stationed near Paris. Later they were in Arkansas with General 
Gano and in January, 1865, were ordered to Shreveport, Louisiana. 
After being in camp there for three weeks they had a fight and took 



2 - HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

a number of prisoners to Tyler Barracks* from which point Captain 
Robinson and his command proceeded to the Brazos, where they re- 
mained until the surrender of General Lee, when they disbanded. Gap- 
tain Robinson was never wounded save the one time mentioned, nor was 

he ever made a prisoner. 1 le saw much hard and arduous service, 
however, and continued at the front until the close of the war. 

Following his return home he was employed by Ci. W. Walls, as 
wagon boss, freighting from San Antonio to Indianola on the coast. 
After acting in that capacity for some time he returned to Uvalde and 
following his ntarriage engaged in merchandising at this place until the 
fall of E86p. He then entered upon a contract with the government to 
furnish wood and beef for Port Inge, and in 1868 got the government 
beef contract for Fort Stockton. In iSCr.) he returned to Uvalde, where 
he engaged in carpentering and repair work. In 1869 he was elected 
justice ot the peace, the duties of the office also including" that of county 
commissioner, while the court was called a police court. Judge Robin- 
son thus served until 187T, when he sold his Uvalde property and 
removed to the Rio Frio river, where he had charge of a cattle ranch 
until 187.3. He then returned to Uvalde and again engaged in carpen- 
tering. The same year he traded his cattle for sheen, which he took to 
Kinney county and removed his family to Brackettville near Fort Clark. 
1 fe was employed with a beef contractor for Fort Clark annd continued 
with him, taking charge of his flocks of sheep in 1874. He also figured 
prominently in public affairs there and in April, 1876, was elected the 
first county judge of Kinney county. He entered upon the duties of 
the office, and in order to give undivided attention thereto, in 1877 he 
let his sheep out on shares, but in 1878 had to take them from the man 
to whom he had entrusted them and who had let the flocks diminish 
from twenty-two hundred to nine hundred. Judge Robinson then ran 
his sheep until May, 1880, when the big flood came and he lost all. He 
was re-elected and continued to serve as county judge in Kinnev county 
for ten years, filling the nosition with credit to himself and satisfaction 
to the gfeneral public. He then entered the government emplov and 
took charge of a gang of men repairing and erecting buildings at Fort 
dark. He continued in that work for eight months, after which he 
returned to Uvalde county in i88q and for one year had charge of the 
('..'irner farm, dunnc which time he built a home for himself and also 
did carpentering. In t8o/> he was elected justice of the peace, which 
office he filled for one term, and in the fall of 1808 he was elected 
county judge, to which position he has been re-elected, so that he served 
continuouslv as the incumbent to the nre^ent time. His knowledge of 
the law enables him to give a correct decision which is based also upon 
the equity of the case, and that he is biased bv neither fear nor favor 
hown by the fact that he has been long continued in the position. 

Judge Robinson was married January tt. t866. to Miss Marv 
("•anifr. who was born in Texas in T813, a daughter of Hulick W. and 
Marv T. (Fa^on) Carner. both of whom were natives of Tennessee, 
but became earlv settlers of Uvalde countv, Texas, in i8;6. The father 

a leading stockman until the Civil war. when he entered the armv, 
but because of his age was given an honorable discharge. Tn the early 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 269 

days he made raids after the Indians and lost much stock because of 
their thieving- propensities. He was a local Methodist preacher and 
contributed in substantial measure to the intellectual and moral as well 
as the material development of his part of the state. He was also a 
member of the Masonic fraternity and died in Uvalde about 1889. His 
wife yet survives, living in Uvalde at the age of seventy-seven. She, 
too, is a Methodist in religious faith. Their children were: Noble, 
who died while serving in the Confederate army; Anson J., who was 
a stockman and merchant at Uvalde and Del Rio, where he died; Mrs. 
Mary Robinson; Hulick, engaged in sheep raising; Samuel, Henry 
and George of Uvalde. 

Judge and Mrs. Robinson have six children: John F., sheriff of 
Val Verde county; Harry A., a railroad man: Lee, a contractor; Ed, 
a painter of Uvalde ; Mrs. Mamie Isbell ; and Frank, at home. The 
family occupy a commodious residence and Judge Robinson also owns 
fifteen vacant lots in the town. He is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity and the Eastern Star, and his wife is a member of the Methodist 
church. He has been before the public for many years and in many 
capacities, and has always been found true to the trust reposed in him, 
whether it has been of a business or political nature. 

D. M. Edwards is a pioneer bee keeper of Uvalde county and was 
the first to introduce here many of the modern appliances now known 
to bee culture. He is also agent for A. R. Root & Company, dealers 
in bee supplies in Ohio, and in this connection he has succeeded in in- 
troducing many of the modern inventions which are of direct benefit 
in the care of bees and the production of honey. Uvalde has become 
famous as the center of the honey producing district and the labors of 
Mr. Edwards have been an important element in acquiring this reputa- 
tion. . Born in Cherokee county, Georgia, on the 10th of September, 
1850, he is a son of Benson L. Edwards and a grandson of Daniel Ed- 
wards, the latter a native of North Carolina. The great-grandfather 
was one of three brothers who came from Wales to America. One of 
the number was a bachelor and settled in New York, where he became 
a wealthy man. He leased property for a long term of years and this 
became very valuable. The other two brothers settled in North Carolina 
and one of them was the father of Daniel Edwards, who was born and 
reared in the old North state. He was also married there, established 
his home in North Carolina and became a prosperous planter, who 
owned a large tract of land and many slaves. He continued to make 
his home upon his place up to the time of his demise and the property 
is still in possession of his descendants. He was prominent and In- 
fluential in the locality in which he moved and his opinions carried weight 
among his fellow townsmen. He belonged to the Methodist church 
and his religious faith found exemplification in his daily conduct. In 
his family were eight children : Benson L. ; David ; Watson ; Malcolm r 
Lucy ; Frances ; Mrs. Angeline Brineger, and Aletha, who became the 
wife of Colonel A. Smith, who was a member of the United States army 
prior to the Civil war. 

The eldest of the family, Benson L. Edwards, a native of North 
Carolina, spent his childhood and youth in that state and was there 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

married to Miss Frances Hill. She was a descendant of the Hill family 
who trace their ancestry to nine brothers who came to America from 
Ireland. They scattered to different parts of the United States and 
many oi the Hill families of this country are numbered among- their 
descendants. Her father took up his abode in North Carolina, where 
he reared his family and spent his remaining days. He was a school 
teacher by profession and became recognized as one of the most able 
and popular educators in his part of the state. .Most of the members 
of that branch oi the Hill family were literary people and had marked 
influence upon the intellectual development of their various commnnities. 
There were many oi the name who served in the Confederate armv 
during the war between the north and the south and a number of them 
held commissions and were prominent in military as well as in social 
and professional circles. Mrs. Edwards was the elder of two children. 
Her brother Washington was a prominent educator and surveyor. She 
held membership in the Methodist church and was a lady of many 
sterling traits of character. Following his marriage Benson L. Ed- 
wards began farming in North Carolina and later engaged in farming 
and merchandising in Georgia, purchasing a plantation in Cherokee 
county, where he not only opened up a farm but also conducted a cross- 
roads store for a number of years. Eventually he sold put and removed 
to Calhoun. Georgia, where he remained for four years, when he with- 
drew from business there and took up his abode in Dalton, Georgia. 
There he resided for two years, during which time he made a prospecting 
tour through Texas. 

After his return to Georgia he rented a large plantation at Chicka- 
mauga, Tennessee, where he remained until the fall of 1862, when he 
enlisted for service with the southern army. As a private he went to 
the front and continued actively in duty until the siege and battle of 
Chickamauga, where he was wounded by a minie ball through the breast, 
thus giving his life in defense of the cause which he loved. He was a 
member of an infantry regiment and saw 7 arduous service, being often 
in the thickest of the fight and never faltering in the performance of 
any military duty assigned him. His political support was originally 
given to the Whig party and in 1856 he voted for Bell and Everett. He 
was a man of athletic build and strong constitution, wide awake and 
enterprising in business affairs and social and genial in his nature, so 
that he had many friends, whom he delighted to have around him, ex- 
tending to them the generous hospitality of his home. He belonged to 
the Methodist church and to the Masonic fraternity. His wife survived 
him for a number of years, passing away in 1875, but at the time of 
his death the home was broken up and the children became scattered. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Benson Edwards were born seven children: 
Adelia. who became Mrs. Eulliam and after the death of her first husband 
became Mrs. Hudson; Uestula A., who died at the age of twenty-four 
year-: Thomas A., deceased; David M. ; Noah II., who went to San 
Antonio in 1882 and was a carpenter and contractor of Southwestern 
Texas until he died of consumption ; Temperance V., who died at the 
age of twelve years ; and Francis C, who died in infancy. Of this 
family Thomas A. Edwards entered the armv when onlv fourteen vears 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 271 

of age under General Forrest and was taken prisoner. He was in Fort 
Delaware for eleven months, when exchanged and soon after the sur- 
render of General Lee he returned home. In 1883 he came to Uvalde 
county on account of his health and was the first to engage in bee culture 
here with modern appliances. He was quite successful and his health 
improved. Later he returned to his family and settled in Florida, where 
his health again became impaired and in 1887 he passed away. 

David M. Edwards was reared to farm pursuits and pursued his 
education in the schools of Calhoun and Dalton, Georgia, and of Chicka- 
mauga, Tennessee. He accompanied his parents on their various re- 
movals and was fifteen years of age at the time of the close of the Civil 
war in 1865. He remembers well the distress and devastation caused 
by the war and he saw some of the battles and heard the canonading. 
He could see at a distance the warfare that was raging at Chickamauga 
when his father was killed. After the war he went to an old friend 
of the family and worked for his board and clothes, remaining there 
until seventeen years of age, when he was employed for wages upon a 
farm, working in that manner until twenty years of age. Subsequently 
he served a three years' apprenticeship to the carpenter's and builder's 
trade and later was employed as a journeyman for a similar period, 
after which he began contracting and building on his own account. 
He first came to Arkansas and later to Fannin county, Texas, and in 
1875 located at Honey Grove, where he did contract work for seven 
years. In 1883 he arrived in Uvalde county, where he worked at his 
trade for a few months and through the influence of his brother he 
turned his attention to the conduct of an apiary. He and his brother 

Bee Culture. 

were the first in the county to use the modern appliances which have 
been so beneficial in bee culture, and in this business he has continued 
to the present time. He and his brother made a close study and devoted 
much time to the discovery of the different brush which the bees work 
on. In fact he has always been a close observer of everything bearing 
upon his business, has read extensively upon the subject and has made 
thorough investigation and research concerning the growing of bees 
and the production of honey and as the result of his labors and close 
application his business has been a prosperous and profitable one. He 
has given employment to as many as ten men at a time and supports 
on an average from year to year two families, the members of whom 
are engaged in the care of the bees and the honey. At first he built 
his own stands, while later he ordered from A. R. Root & Company, of 
Ohio, Mr. Root having been the first to manufacture and use the modern 
bee stands. . He also brought into use the machine for extracting honey 
and is the pioneer in the development of modern bee culture. He 
issued a bee journal that had a large circulation and educated the bee 
culturists in the work to which they were giving their time and energies. 
Mr. Root also invented machinery and perhaps has done more than any 
other man to promote this industry. Mr. Edwards purchased his first 
outfit from the A. R. Root Company and in 1884 commenced ordering 
for others in the business. For fourteen years he has bought by the 
car load and he keeps on hand all supplies which are needed in connec- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

tion with this industry, including extractors and comb foundations, 
machines, etc. There is a large demand for these supplies and he has 
extensive sales which bring to him a good return. When he first en- 
gaged in business he leased land for his apiary and in 1896 he bought 
five hundred acres to he used permanently for this undertaking. He 
also has at another place a smaller apiary. At one time he had a 
thousand stands oi bees, which was more than he could care for, so 
that he has been selling off to some extent. He now keeps about three 
hundred stands of bees and during twenty-three years he has had only 
three failures in his honey crop, when he did not produce enough honey 
for sale. At times the crops have been extremely large and the average 
for the twenty-three years would be a good annual crop. He developed 
a market for the honey and the Uvalde apiaries are now enjoying an 
extensive patronage. Air. Edwards ships his own product and for a 
number o\ years he bought the surplus offered by others. One season 
he shipped a thousand cases, including one hundred thousand pounds 
oi his own crop. Uvalde county honey has become famous for its almost 
perfectly white color and its superior flavor. It is shipped to all parts 
of the United States and has become a recognized article of commerce, 
merchants gladly buying and dealing in this commodity, so that as high 
as "iic million five hundred thousand pounds have beej shipped in a 
single season. In fact this is one of the most important industries of 
the county. 

Mr. Edwards' business, however, does not depend entirely upon 
this industry but is of a diversified nature. He raises some stock, also 
crops of different kinds and because of the extent and importance of 
his business is able to furnish employment to a number of laboring men. 
He is regarded as the authority on the subject of bee culture and any 
information desired by his neighbors is always imparted freely and 
willingly, so that others have benefited by his experience and knowledge. 
When he came to the county in 1883 he was in poor health and his 
financial resources were limited. Here he has improved in health and 
is altogether delighted with Uvalde county as a place of residence be- 
cause it has restored his normal physical condition, has brought him 
good neighbors and pleasant friends and has also given him a profitable 
business. When he arrived in the county he built a home in the city 
of Uvalde and has resided here continuously since. All of the improve- 
ments on his ranch were made by himself, including the building of the 
ranch home and the outbuildings, sheds, etc. He has likewise invested 
in city propertv and owns a number of good lots in the town. In all 
of his business interests he has met with success and is now looking 
forward to the development and further progress of the county and 
city, in the welfare of which he is deeply interested. 

In his political views Mr. Edwards is an earnest Democrat but 
without desire tor office. He has served as alderman of the city, how- 
-. and he was a charter member of the volunteer fire department, 
which he assisted in organizing, serving as fire chief for seven years. 
He i- -till one of its active members and he gives his allegiance to every 
movement for the public good and to every plan that seems to promise 
benefit to the community. His life is upright and honorable and his 




z2r/£/# 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 273 

identification with the temperance society indicates his position upon 
that question. 

Mr. Edwards was married at Honey Grove, Texas, in 1878, to Miss 
Elizabeth Coulter, who was born there in i860 and to him has been a 
faithful companion and helpmate on life's journey. Her parents were 
Tipton and Mattie (Davis) Coulter, natives of Kentucky, where they 
were married. In 1856 they came to Texas, settling at Honey Grove, 
where Mr. Coulter followed the trade of marble cutting, possessing much 
natural mechanical ability and ingenuity. During the period of the 
Civil war he made shoes for the soldiers of the Confederate army and 
also did carpentering. He was a man of much usefulness and of untir- 
ing activity and he remained a valued resident of Honey Grove until 
his death, which occurred in 1887 and which was deeply deplored by 
all who knew him. His wife yet survives and finds a good home among 
her children, spending much time with Mr. and Mrs. Edwards. She 
owns a good residence property in Uvalde, but rents it, as she does not 
care to live alone. She has been a worthy member of the Christian 
church from the age of sixteen years and she has now reached the ad- 
vanced age of seventy-five years. Mr. Coulter was a member of the 
Masonic fraternity and also of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows 
and the Knights of Honor. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Coulter were born seven children : Etta, the 
wife of A. J. Wood; William, who died in 1903, leaving a wife and 
four children : Mrs. Elizabeth Edwards ; Thomas, of Bartlett. Texas ; 
James, who is engaged in the raising of bees in this county ; Mary, the 
wife of L. C. Hill, of Honey Grove ; and Tipton, who is foreman for a 
syndicate near the city of Mexico, where he is operating the w T ater 
and light plant for the city. 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwards had three children but Matthew L., died 
when fourteen years of age. The surviving sons are Lewis, born Sep- 
tember 24, 1888, and William, born October 21, 1891. Mrs. Edwards 
holds membership in the Methodist church, in the work of which she 
takes an active and helpful interest. During a long residence in Uvalde 
county both Mr. and Mrs. Edwards have become widely known and are 
thoroughly in sympathy with the interests and measures which contribute 
to public progress and improvement, while in social circles they occupy 
an enviable position. 

A. R. Bowman, M. D., a prominent and popular physician and sur- 
geon of Uvalde, and Mayor of the town, was born in Henrv county, 
Missouri, May 8, 1858. He is a son of Dr. A. P. and Maria M. (Riley) 
Bowman, the former a native of Ohio and the latter of Kentucky. They 
were married in Missouri. Dr. A. P. Bowman was descended from an 
honored and prominent old family of New Jersey and was born, reared 
and educated in Ohio, whence in early manhood he removed to Missouri. 
He became a physician of much note in that state, practicing his profes- 
sion for over forty years. At one time he was a government surgeon 
and practiced among the Indians. He also owned a farm, employing a 
man to conduct it, and he was widely known and highly respected, his 
integrity and honor being above reproach. In his profession he did 
much good for his fellow men and his influence was ever on the side 

Vol. II. 18 



-74 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

of improvement ami progress. He died in Missouri at the age of 
seventy-eight years, while his wife passed away in the same state at the 
age of seventy-two years. She was a daughter o\ A. M. Riley, an early 
settler of Missouri, who became a prominent farmer and was a strong 
and influential Whig" in politics, lie was a I'nion man during the Civil 
war. All who knew him respected him for his fidelity to principle and 
his genuine personal worth, lie died in Missouri at an advanced age 
and oi his family oi nine children all have passed away with the excep- 
tion oi one son. Lewis O. Riley, who is now an old man. The children 
of Dr. A. I\ and Maria Bowman are as follow' s : Lucy A., now Mrs. 
Hinkle; T. C, a popular druggist of I'valde ; A. R., of this review; 
Mrs. Nettie Perkins, who died leaving three children; Mrs. Alia Adair, 
whose husband is sheriff of Henry county, Missouri. 

Dr. A. R. Bowman was reared to agricultural pursuits upon his 
father's farm in [Missouri. He began his education in the common 
schools and later attended a seminary. Subsequently he engaged in teach- 
ing school for two years and when nineteen years of age he began read- 
ing medicine. During that period he conducted a drug business, in which 
he continued for a number of years and subsequently he devoted his 
entire attention to the study of medicine with Dr. J. R. Wallace as his 
preceptor, continuing with him for two years, during which time he 
made visits with Dr. Wallace and gained much insight into the methods 
<^i diagnosing disease. On the expiration of that period he began prac- 
tice, in which he continued for some time with marked success. Later 
he pursued a full course of medical lectures in the Lmiversity Medical 
College at Kansas City, Missouri, from which institution he was gradu- 
ated in the class of 1891. He then resumed the active practice of medi- 
cine in -his home town, where he continued successfully until 1892, when 
he removed to Texas, locating at Sabinal, Uvalde county, where he re- 
mained in active practice for nine years. Seeking a broader field of 
labor, he removed to LA r alde in 1901 and is here permanently located. 
He has built up an extensive and lucrative practice, covering an area of 
many miles. He has pursued several special courses of study, familiariz- 
ing himself with the best methods of treating chronic diseases and in 
fact i^ prepared to treat intelligently all of the different ailments to which 
the human family is heir. In 1904 he pursued a course in the Polyclinic 
Institute at Xew Orleans, thus keeping in touch with all new and modern 
ideas of the profession. He has confined his attention closely to his 
professional duties and to further reading and study along that line and 
fully merits the confidence which is so uniformly extended him as a capa- 
ble and learned physician. His lucrative practice has returned to him 
very gratifying income, which he has wisely invested in different ways, 
displaying good business abilitv and keen discernment. He is now doing 
much for the development and upbuilding of the city and county of 
I Fvalde. He is president of the Barnhill Drug Company, is also president 
of the I'valde Wholesale Co. His office is well equipped with all 
of the newest and latest appliances that are of value in the practice of 
medicine and surgery. He now owns considerable town and country 
property and in addition to his commodious residence in Uvalde he has 
purchased land adjoining the town and platted an addition to the city. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 275 

He is likewise engaged in conducting a goat ranch and is quite ex- 
tensively engaged in carrying on an apiary and thus producing honey. 
He is a stockholder and director in the Uvalde National Batik and in 
the West Texas Bank & Trust Company at San Antonio. He is like- 
wise a stockholder in the firm of Piper & Company, owners of a large 
mercantile enterprise in Uvalde, and is president of the Uvalde Gin & 
Mill Company. His connection with various business enterprises has 
been of direct benefit to the town and county in the promotion of its 
material progress and prosperity and at the same time has been a source 
of gratifying income to himself. 

In 1886 Dr. Bowman was united in marriage to Miss Dora Cross, 
who was born in Missouri and is a representative of one of the old fami- 
lies of that state. She is a lady of intelligence and culture and presides 
with gracious hospitality over their pleasant home in Uvalde. Her 
parents were D. C. and Lucinda (Johnson) Cross, the former a native 
of Tennessee and the latter of Kentucky, but both were early settlers of 
Missouri. The father was a farmer by occupation and was widely known 
and highly respected. He was regarded as a leading and influential Demo- 
crat in his locality and was a good campaign worker, but never aspired 
to office for himself. Both he and his wife yet reside in Missouri. To 
them were born nine children, of whom Mrs. Bowman is the third in 
order of birth. Three of the daughters now reside in Texas. The 
marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Bowman has been blessed with four interesting 
children ; Clarence and Clara, twins ; Fannie ; and Amos C. The two 
daughters are students in the Texas Christian University at Waco, 
Texas. 

In his political views Dr. Bowman is an earnest Democrat, .but does 
not desire office and the only position which he has ever held is as Mayor 
of Uvalde. He served as county health officer and is a member of the 
district, state and national medical societies. He is likewise a consistent 
and worthy member of the Christian church and likewise holds member- 
ship with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the Ancient Order of 
United Workmen and the Woodmen. of the World. He is a most enter- 
prising and public-spirited citizen and although he came to Uvalde county 
in limited circumstances he has enjoyed almost phenomenal success and 
the community has benefited equally by his efforts in matters of local 
progress and improvement and through his professional skill. 

W. W. Collier, president of the Commercial National Bank and 
county treasurer of Uvalde county, is prominent among the enterprising 
and progressive citizens who with thorough understanding of business 
conditions make the most of their opportunities and contribute to general 
prosperity as well as individual success. He has served as county treas- 
urer since 1888 and his long continuance in the office is proof of his de- 
votion to the public good and his capability in discharging the duties that 
thus devolve upon him. 

Mr. Collier is one of the native sons of Texas, having been born in 
Cherokee county, December 2, 1863. His paternal grandfather. Jonathan 
Collier, was a native of Virginia, while his father was born in England 
and became an early settler in the American colonies. He took up his 
abode in the Old Dominion and there enlisted for service in the conti- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

nental army which won independence for the nation. When the yoke 
of British oppression had been thrown off he removed from Virginia 
to Alabama, where he spent his remaining- days. 

Jonathan Collier, the grandfather, was horn in Virginia and was 
reared to manhood in Alabama. There he married a Miss Schnltz and 
settled upon a plantation, becoming a prosperous farmer and slave owner. 
About 1837 he removed with his family, his slaves and his belongings to 
Texas, settling in Smith county, where he opened up a good farm and 
again became prominent as an agriculturist, meeting with merited pros- 
perity in his management oi his business affairs there until death claimed 
him. Both he and his wife were devoted members of the Presbyterian 
church. In their family were seven children: Jack; Green; Christopher; 
Thomas P. : Caroline, the wife of I. Seeton ; Capitola, the wife of Thomas 
Harris; and Jane, the wife of B. Henderson. 

Thomas P. Collier, the fourth member of that family, was born in 
Alabama in 1827 and when a youth of ten years accompanied his parents 
on their removal to Texas in 1837. He .was reared to manhood in Smith 
county, where he married Miss Sarah Lewis, a native of Georgia and a 
daughter of Lotspich Lewis, of Georgia, who was widely known as an 
able educator, following that profession throughout his entire life. His 
death occurred in the Empire state of the south. His children were : 
Sarah, who became Mrs. Collier; Mrs. Amanda Steen ; Mrs. Carrie 
Davenport : Mrs. Jane Shoak ; Mrs. Mary Kelly ; William, who died in 
Texas ; John, who died in the Indian Territory ; Sidney, of Waco ; Virgil, 
who was killed in the rebellion ; Mack, who is living in Concho county, 
Texas ; and Juan, of Coryell county, Texas. 

Following their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Thomas P. Collier removed 
to Cherokee county, Texas, where he devoted his attention to farming. He 
had quite a large number of slaves and was making good progress in his 
business affairs up to the opening of the Civil war. He then joined the 
army and served until the close of the war. During that entire period 
he was only home twice, being granted sick furloughs. He served his 
country faithfully and well, being always at his post of duty, never fal- 
tering in the performance of any military task that was assigned him, 
although it often led him into the thickest of the fight or stationed him on 
the lonely picket line. He was at Galveston at the time of Lee's sur- 
render and from there returned home to find that his slaves were freed 
and his propertv was thereby considerably diminished in value. His 
ability as a financier and manager was now put to the test. He decided 
to sell out in Cherokee county, which he did and in 1867 took up his 
abode near Waco. There he purchased a farm, which he conducted 
with success until called to his final rest, which occurred in 1875. Al- 
though he did not recuperate his lost possessions entirely he left to his 
family a good farm and home. Politically he was an abolitionist, favoring 
the colonization of the slaves notwithstanding the fact that he owned and 
worked slaves and fought throughout the war. His military service was 
given in defense of the Confederacy and not in support of slavery, for 
he believed that the negro should be free and that colonies of the black 
race should be sent to Africa. He never desired or wanted public office 
but lived the life of a plain, honest farmer, who was respected for his 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 277 

genuine personal worth and his fidelity to principle. He was reared in 
the faith of the Presbyterian church, but later joined and worshipped 
with the Methodists. He was also a member of the- Masonic fraternity, 
in which he attained the Royal Arch degree. His wife survived him, 
passing away at Moody, Texas, in 1890, and was buried at the old home- 
stead. In the family of this worthy couple were seven children : John C, 
a Baptist minister located in Oklahoma; Jonathan, a farmer of Okla- 
homa ; Alexander T., credit man for a wholesale hardware firm of 
Weatherford, Texas ; W. W.., of this review; Carrie, the wife of H. Hay, 
a merchant at Moody, Texas ; Virgil W., who died at the age of seven 
years; and Arthur B., who died when five years of age. 

W. W. Collier was reared to farm life and was educated in the public 
schools, continuing his studies until he had completed the high school 
course by graduation. He accompanied the family on the removal to the 
farm in the vicinity of Waco, where he assisted his father in the care 
and development of the property and also attended school. When seven- 
teen years of age he. was employed as a drug clerk in the city, continuing 
in that capacity for two years, and in 1882, at the age of nineteen years, 
he came to Uvalde county and entered the state ranger service. His time 
was thus passed for four years, patrolling all of western Texas bordering 
the Rio Grande river from Angelo to Laredo. He had all kinds of 
frontier experiences and was often in charge of a detachment of men 
sent on special service. He resigned at Eagle Pass in 1886 and came 
to Uvalde, where he began business and has since figured prominently 
in connection with the commercial and financial interests of the city as 
well as in public office. In 1888 he was elected county treasurer and at 
each successive election has been again chosen for the office, so that he 
has served continuously for eighteen years. No higher testimonial of 
his efficiency and trustworthiness could be given than the fact that he 
has so long been retained in an elective office. 

Uvalde Banks. 

In 1897 he opened a private bank under the firm name of Collier & 
Company and continued that for two years, at which time it was merged 
into the Uvalde National Bank, of which he was made president. He 
acted in that capacity for two years, when he resigned and became con- 
nected with E. M. Hollings worth in the drug business. He continued 
successfully for two years, when he disposed of his interest and in 1903 
organized the Commercial National Bank of Uvalde, of which he was 
chosen president, with J. G. Smith vice-president and W. P. Dermody, 
cashier, and W. F. Morgan, assistant cashier. All of these gentlemen 
have continuously acted in their respective positions. The bank is capi- 
talized for sixty thousand dollars and the surplus and profits amount to 
fifteen thousand dollars. They do a general banking business, buying 
and selling exchange payable in all parts of the world and their interests 
are conducted on strict banking principles, the institution being recog- 
nized as one of the strong and reliable moneyed concerns of southwestern 
Texas. 

Mr. Collier is a man of resourceful business ability and marked 
enterprise, who has successfully managed important interests both of 



-\-S HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

a public and private nature. In 1S92 he organized the Uvalde Water 
\\ arks Company, having constructed the plant and continued therewith 
for several years. This is a very valuable enterprise for the city. J. F. 
Simpson became owner oi the plant and yet holds it. Mr. Collier has 
also made investments in lands and city property and while promoting' his 
individual success he has also taken active interest in advancing the de- 
velopment oi the city and county and is regarded as a most enterprising 
and wide-awake business man. 

In 1887 was celebrated the marriage of W. W. Collier and Miss Ella 
Patterson, who was born in this county in 1867, a daughter of George 
\\ . Patterson, Jr., who was a son of George W. Patterson, Sr., an hon- 
ored pioneer oi Cvalde county, who arrived in 1851 and who died in 1875. 
He married Elizabeth McCullom and was born in Ohio, while his wiie 
was a native of South Carolina. They were married in Alabama. 

George \Y. Patterson, Sr., was a son of John Patterson, of North 
Carolina, who was of Scotch-Irish descent and his father was a native 
oi Scotland, coming to America at an early period in the colonization of 
the new world. He was one of the heroes of the Revolutionary war and 
after the establishment of American independence he settled in North 
Carolina, where he reared his family and died. There John Patterson was 
born, reared and married, and being attracted to the frontier he removed 
successively to Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee, always living in frontier 
districts up to the time of his death, which occurred in the last-named 
state. His children were : William, John, Joseph, George W., David and 
Kate. 

George W. Patterson, Sr., was reared to manhood in Tennessee, 
where he engaged in blacksmithing and farming. He was married in that 
state and afterward removed to Alabama, where all of his children were 
born, and in 1847 he brought his family and slaves to Texas, settling in 
St. Augustine county while subsequently he removed to Smith county and 

Uvalde County Pioneer. 

in 185 1 arrived in Uvalde county, which was then an almost unbroken 
wilderness with only a few families within its borders. He located on 
the Sabinal river and formed the Patterson settlement, which yet bears 
his name. There he experienced the usual hardships and deprivations of 
pioneer life while assisting to reclaim the region for the uses of the white 
race from the rule of the red men in this locality. His declining years 
were spent with his son, N. M. C. Patterson, and he died in 1875. His 
wife had passed away in 1868. She was a daughter of Newman Mc- 
Cullom, who was of Scotch descent and was reared in South Carolina. 
He became a leading farmer and slave owner in the old South state and 
afterward removed to Alabama, where he died. His children were: Mrs. 
Elizalxjth Patterson; Henry; James, who was a legislator, and Joseph. 
.Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Patterson had six children: N. M. C, John, Talitha 
T.. Elizabeth, Nancy and George W., Jr. The last named was a farmer 
and stockman. Both he and his wife died in 1904, leaving nine children. 
The full history of his life is given in connection with the sketch of N. 
M. C. Patterson on another page of this work. 

To W. \Y. Collier and his first wife were born two sons: George P., 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 279 

who is now a student in the A. & M. College of Texas, and W. W., who is 
attending school. The wife and mother, who was a faithful member of 
the Methodist church, died in 1891. In 1893, Mr. Collier was again 
married, his second union being with Miss Mattie Hale, who was born at 
Milan, Tennessee, in 1870. She is an intelligent and cultured lady and 
is a daughter of Captain Stephen Hale, a veteran of the Confederate army, 
who served his country long and well in the Civil war. He was a promi- 
nent planter before the war and after its close he settled at Milan, Ten- 
nessee, where he became interested in the drug business. He was also a 
leading and influential resident of the town and served as its mayor. He 
took an active interest in its development, was widely known and was 
accorded the respect of all with whom he came in contact. He held mem- 
bership in the Baptist church and was a Royal Arch Mason. His wife, 
who also died in Milan, was a member of the prominent and well known 
Cunningham family of Tennessee. The children of Captain Stephen 
Hale were: Mattie, now Mrs. Collier; Leon P., a prominent druggist of 
Tampa, Florida ; Mary, at home ; Thomas, deceased ; Mrs. Ellen Nunez ; 
and E. Kirby, also of Tampa. All are worthy members of the Baptist 
church. The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Collier has been blessed with 
three children: Shelly H., born in 1896; John H., in 1898; and Eleanor, 
in 1900. 

Mr. Collier gives his political allegiance in unfaltering manner to the 
Democracy and has served as county chairman of the executive commit- 
tee and in other important official positions. He is a Knight Templar 
Mason and is also identified with the Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias 
and the Modern Woodmen, filling all of the chairs in the last three. His 
wife belongs to the Baptist church. His career clearly illustrates, the pos- 
sibilities that are open in this country to persevering, earnest young men 
who have the courage of their convictions and are determined to be the 
architect of their own fortunes. When judged by what he has accom- 
plished his right to a first place among the representative citizens of 
Uvalde cannot be questioned. 

J. A. Mangum. Prominent among the enterprising, progressive and 
successful business men of Uvalde is J. A. Mangum, whose efforts have 
been discerningly directed along well defined lines of labor, while his per- 
sistency of purpose has resulted in the achievement of gratifying success. 
He is the vice-president of the Uvalde National Bank and is also well 
known as a cattle raiser. He was born in Alabama on the 13th of No- 
vember, 1849, his parents being Cyrus and Lucinda (O'Dannels) Man- 
gum, who were reared and married in Alabama. The father there de- 
voted his attention to farming, operating his land through slave labor. 
He had good property and was accounted one of the prosperous and 
energetic planters, successfully continuing business' there until 1856, 
when he removed to Texas, taking up his abode in Lavaca county. There 
he continued in farming and stock raising up to the time of his death. 
He had strong sympathy for the cause of the Confederacy during the 
period of the Civil war, aiding the southern army. He belonged to the 
Methodist church, and his life, in harmony with his professions, won 
him the respect and confidence of all with whom he was associated. His 
integrity stood as an unquestioned fact in his career and in all life's rela- 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

tions he was found to be honorable and upright. His wife, who was also 
a member of the Methodist church, died at the old homestead in 1880. 
In their family wore the following named: Mary, the wife of John Tur- 
man : David, now of Uvalde; Nancy; J. A.; William A., a stockman; 
ami R. S.. who is living in Alpine, Texas. 

J. A. Mangum, although ho attended school for only a brief period, 
acquired a good practical education in the school of experience. He 
-pent the first seven years of his life in the state of his nativity and then 
came with his parents to Texas; being reared to manhood in Lavaca 
county. He assisted in the labor of the farm and the care of the stock, 
remaining at home until about twenty-two years of age, when, choosing 
a life work the occupation to which he was reared, he began raising- 
stock on his own account. For several years he had been picking up 
cattle and had thus gained a start. He conducted his business interests in 
Lavaca county until 18S3. when he came to Uvalde county and established 
a ranch. The range was then free and when it was fenced he leased a 
large pasture, where he still continues to run his cattle. He is one of 
the most extensive and prosperous cattlemen of this country. His ranch 
is located in Zavala county adjoining Uvalde county on the south, and 
there he has a large herd and matures beef cattle, which he ships to the 
market at almost all seasons of the year, for the grass cattle do well with- 
out feed. He thoroughly understands the business and manages his affairs 
with keen discrimination and displays marked enterprise in carrying on 
his work, so that as the years have gone by he has met with success in 
this undertaking. Moreover he figures prominently in financial circles in 
this part of the state, for at the organization of the Uvalde National Bank- 
in 1898 he became a stockholder and was elected vice-president which 
position he is still filling. 

Mr. Mangum was happily married in 1884 to Miss Helen Steel, 
who was born in Alabama in 1856. Her parents were Sidney and Sally 
(Cox) Steel, who were likewise natives of Alabama, where the father yet 
resides. During the Civil war he hired a substitute to represent him in 
the Confederate army. In politics he has long been a stalwart Democrat 
but has never been a politician in the sense of office seeking. He holds, 
membership in the Presbyterian church and his life has been in con- 
formity with his professions. Having lost his first wife he has been mar- 
ried again. By his first union there were five children: O. S., now de- 
ceased; Helen, the wife of J. A. Mangum ; Mrs. Aura Moody; Mrs. Julia 
Milliner; and Mrs. Olivia Holmes. 

The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Mangum has been blessed with three 
children: Sally, born in 1885; Julia, in t888; and Glenn, in 1898. On 
coming to Uvalde Mr. Mangum located his family in the city, where he 
has continued to reside, having here a commodious two-story frame resi- 
dence which i^ built in modern style of architecture and is one of the finest 
homes in Uvalde. It is supplied with all modern conveniences and stands 
in the midst of large and well kept grounds, thus constituting a beautiful 
home. Tn his political views and affiliation Mr. Mangum is independent. 
1 [e belongs to the Knights of Pythias fraternity and his wife is a member 
of the Presbyterian church. They are well known sociallv and the hospi- 
tality of their own pleasant home is greatly enjoyed by their many friends. 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 281 

N. B. Pulliam. Since the days when the first white settlers made 
their way into Texas cattle ranching and farming have been the chief 
sources of income to the state, and though all lines of business activity 
have been introduced, including- the various industrial and commercial 
interests, the raising of cattle yet continues to he one of the chief lines of 
business in this part of the country, the broad prairies furnishing splendid 
opportunity to the stockman. Mr. Pulliam, representing one of the old 
pioneer families of the state, is well known in Uvalde county as a wide- 
awake, energetic and prosperous stock-raiser. His birth occurred in this 
county, May 20, 1857 — the year following the county's organization. His 
early school privileges were limited, but in the school of experience he- 
has learned many valuable lessons. His parents were William H. and 
Matilda (White) Pulliam and the ancestry in the paternal line can be 
traced back to seven brothers, who came from Wales and settled in dif- 
ferent parts of the country. The grandfather was among this number and 
took up his abode in Missouri, where he reared his family. There his son, 
William H. Pulliam, was born and having arrived at years of maturity 
he came with two of his brothers, Simpson and Marshall, to Texas. All 
remained residents of this state until called to their final rest. 

William H. Pulliam was reared upon a farm and on removing to 
the southwest located first in Red River county, where he afterward mar- 
ried Miss Matilda White, a native of Tennessee. She came to Texas 
with her parents, Benjamin and Anna (Needham) White, at a very 
early day, the family home being established in Red River county and 
subsequently in Fannin county and afterward in Collin county, where 
both her father and mother died. At that time Red River, Fannin and 
Collin counties were border counties, the settlements being confined to a 
few of the counties in the eastern part of the state. Mr. White had been 
reared in Tennessee and while living there enlisted for service in the war 
of 1812. He was under command of General Jackson and took part in 
various military movements and engagements. His father had been a 
soldier of the Revolution and the family was always noted for patriotism. 
Benjamin White became a prominent farmer and slave owner of Texas, 
conducting his business interests on an extensive scale. He possessed 
many good qualities and was highly respected bv a large circle of friends. 
His children were: John L., who died in Collin county, Texas: Mrs. 
Malinda Hines ; Samuel B., who died in Mississippi; Elizabeth, who died 
in childhood ; James, who died in Collin county, Texas ; Matilda, who be- 
came Mrs. Pulliam ; Archie C, who died in Collin county ; and Martha, 
who died in early life. Both Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin White held member- 
ship in the Methodist church. 

Following his marriage William H. Pulliam began farming and later 
removed to Fannin county, Texas, and subsequently to Collin county. 
Early in the '40s he took up his abode in Bexar county and a few years 
later removed to Uvalde county, casting in his lot with the earlv pioneers 
who lived in the vicinity of the present site of Sabinal. There he engaged 
in the stock business and was one of the pioneers of that localitv when 
but few white settlers lived in the entire county. In the arduous task of 
reclaiming this region for the uses of civilization he bore a helpful part. 
The country was infested with wild beasts and hostile Indians who re- 



HISTORY QF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

seated the encroachment of the white race on their hunting grounds and 

made frequent raids upon the stock pens. Mr. Pulliam did everything 
in his power to aid in the development of the county and make it a place 
safe for settlement, lie remained at his first location for several years, 
at which time the range was free and the grass good. He obtained an 
t \ccllent start in this way. It was not necessary to own land at that early 
day. for the settlers were so few that the herds and flocks could be pas- 
tured upon the open plains. On one occasion in running some cattle 
his horse fell, and his pistol being accidentally discharged he was wounded 
in the leg so seriously that the member had to be amputated. This made 
it very difficult for him to handle cattle thereafter and led to his changing 
his occupation. He purchased a tract of land adjoining the town of 
Uvalde and put up ranch buildings, giving his stock over to the care of 
his sons, in which business they afterward continued. When he had estab- 
lished his home in Uvalde Mr. Pulliam turned his attention to merchan- 
dising and for a long period engaged in trade. He ran a wagon freighting 
train from San Antonio to Eagle Pass, hauling loads of goods with ox 

Del Rio. 

teams. Later he aided in establishing Del Rio and bought the land on 
which the town was platted. There he engaged successfully in merchan- 
dising for several years and he helped organize a company to build the 
first irrigating ditch that was made there. He owned a third interest in 
the great plant. He had moved a part of his family to Del Rio, leaving 
his sons in charge of the ranch and stock. After several years spent at 
that place he closed out his business there and returned to Uvalde, where 
he became connected with the lumber trade, conducting a yard for a few 
years, when he disposed of that business. He was a man watchful of 
opportunities and his ready recognition and utilization of possibilities 
enabled him to contribute not only to his own success but also to the de- 
velopment and progress of the locality. In the early days he had much 
stock run off by the Indians and with other settlers he took part in many 
raids after the red men and participated in many fights with them. He 
was reared to the occupation of farming and always engaged to some 
extent in farm work, raising corn, oats and other feed for his stock. He 
nearlv always had a fair crop because his methods were practical. He 
was well acquainted with all of the white settlers in the county at an early 
day and was one of the honored early residents, whose life history was 
closely interwoven with the development of this section of the state. He 
was a strong Democrat and a popular man in the early history of the 
county, being called by his fellow townsmen to various positions of honor 
and trust. He served as high sheriff for a number of vears, was also 
county judge and creditably filled other minor offices. For many years 
he was a consistent and worthy member of the Methodist church. All who 
knew him respected him for his genuine worth, for he lived a life above 
reproach. For several years prior to his demise he engaged in no active 
business, -pending his days in the enjoyment of the fruits of his former 
toil. \\c died January 18, 1899, at the ripe old age of eighty-eight years. 
Hi- wife -till survives him and finds a good home with her son, N. B. 
Pulliam. They had a large family. Their eldest son, lienjamin, was 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 283 

killed in Zavala county at an early day by the Indians. Three brothers 
were out hunting horses when the red men came upon them. One Indian 
shot Benjamin in the back, killed him and got away with the horses. \. 
B. Pulliam and his brother had to lash the body upon a saddle horse and 
thus returned home with him a distance of thirty-five miles. He had 
been in many battles with the Indians and had been wounded prior to 
this time. Elmira, the second member of the family, is now the wife of 
William Lewis. John was murdered by the Mexicans in Mexico. Fannie 
M. is the widow of William Reynolds. William is a rancher of western 
Texas. Monroe is a stockman and wealthy banker at San Angelo. Xury 
operates a cattle ranch in Mexico and makes his home in El Paso, Texas. 
Tennessee is now the widow of F. C. Bates. James is living in El Paso 
and is also owner of a ranch in Mexico. Sterling was murdered in 
Mexico, leaving a wife and one son. Edward Lee is a prominent mer- 
chant of the Indian Territory. Of the twelve children three were mur- 
dered, one by Indians and two by Mexicans, and the nine yet living are 
all prominent and prosperous and have done much to develop South- 
western Texas. 

N. B. Pulliam, the other member of the family, was born and reared 
in this county and spent much of his early life in the saddle, assisting his 
father on the ranch. He grew up in the cattle business, in which he has 
continued to the present time, watching its development from the period 
of the free range to the present era of modern stock farming. Early in 
his operations he felt the necessity of owning land and as fast as able 
he bought it, commencing with a block on the Nueces river, to which he 
added different surveys. He has in his block fourteen thousand acres, 
which he fenced. He has a long frontage on the river and deepwells on 
the back of his ranch and his place is now well watered. He can secure 
an inexhaustible supply of water at a depth of from one hundred to two 
hundred feet. He has a very desirable ranch, well located and has been 
a very successful stockman. He raised sheep for about twelve years 
with good success, beginning with eight hundred and at one time owning 
twenty thousand. He both bought and raised sheep, but in later years 
he has run steer cattle and has met with success in this undertaking. Like 
his father, he has always enjoyed having something grow upon his farm 
and has continued his farming operations, raising feed for his stock. At 
his residence adjoining Uvalde he owns three hundred acres, where he has 
opened up to farming about seventy-five acres. He carries on the general 

Uvalde County Farming. 

tilling of the soil, in which he has engaged for ten years, and he has 
usually had good crops, never but once having a complete failure. He 
has raised as high as fifty bushels of corn to the acre and in 1905 har- 
vested forty bushels to the acre. His cotton crop has produced a bale of 
cotton to the acre. It is all dry farming, there being no irrigation. In 
later years he has been selling some land in acre blocks to suit his pur- 
chasers who want to make good city homes, but he retains one hundred 
acres for farming purposes and pasture lots. On his ranch he runs steer 
cattle, having from ten to fifteen hundred head. He is doing well in 
this business, most of his cattle being fat and good beef cattle. 



jS 4 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Mr. Pulliam is familiar with all oi the experiences of pioneer life 
and later development in Uvalde county and believes that there is no bet- 
ter stock-raising section in all the state of Texas, lie has a commodious 
frame residence with all modern conveniences, together with large and 
substantial outbuildings for the shelter oi grain and stock, his place being 
situated in the midst oi pleasant surroundings, lie has taken an active 
interest in the development and upbuilding of this section of the state and 
city and county have benefited by his active aid and co-operation. In 
1903 he assisted in organizing the Commercial National Bank, of which 
he is a stockholder and director. 

In November, 1885. Mr. Pulliam was married to Miss Mamie Chance, 
who was born in Louisiana, February 4, 1865. Her parents were L. C. 
and Harriet (Dunn) Chance, both of whom were natives of Louisiana, 
where they spent their entire lives. Mr. Chance belonged to one of the 
old and distinguished families of that state and became an extensive and 
leading planter and slave holder, numbered among the substantial resi- 
dents oi his parish. He resided in East Philapana parish, the wealthiest 
district of the state, and was ranked among the most prominent and in- 
fluential residents there, having large property holdings. He was loyal 
to the Confederacy and the south during the period of the Civil war and 
as first lieutenant of his company served throughout the period of strife, 
taking part in many important military movements and hotly contested 
1 tattles, his experiences being not unusual to those of the soldier. He 
stood high in the regard of his fellow men and his death, which occurred 
in 1880. was the occasion of widespread and deep regret. His wife long 
survived him, passing away in 1902. The Chance family was as follows: 
Samuel : L. C, the father of Mrs. Pulliam ; Milton ; Benajah ; and Reuben, 
who was killed in the Mexican war. With the exception of the last 
named all were soldiers of the Confederacy. The brothers and sisters of 
Mrs. L. C. Chance — members of the Dunn family — were: Matthew, who 
was killed in the Civil war ; George and Thadeus, both of whom died from 
the effects of their military service ; and Mrs. Harriet Chance. All were 
members of the Baptist church. 

Mr. and Mrs. L. C. Chance had a family of ten children: Reuben, 
who i> living in Mississippi; Henry, who resides on the old homestead in 
Louisiana: Levi D., who came to Lwalde county, where he died; Harriet 
I ;.. the wife of S. P. Cain; Mrs. Mamie C. Pulliam ; Ellen, the wife of C. 
T. Piatt: Matthew D., of the Indian Territory; Margaret, at home; 
I ieorgia, the wife of John G. Powers, and Milton, of the Indian Territory. 
Mr--. Pulliam came to Uvalde to visit her brother and also for the benefit 
of her health. She found the climatic change very beneficial and follow- 
ing the restoration of her health she gave her hand in marriage to Mr. 
Pulliam. This happy union has been blessed with five interesting child- 
ren : Lenora, born May 2, T887, anf l Gladys, born July 11, 1888, are now 
student- in Baylor Academy at Waco, Texas, where they are making 
rapid progress. Needham, born Februarv II, 1890, and Constance, 
born September 27, 1892, are at home. Eusthe K., born January 31, 1896, 
died March 17, 1897. 

Mr. and Mrs. Pulliam are both consistent Christian people, holding 
membership in the Missionary Baptist church, and he is a charter member 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 285 

of the Masonic fraternity at Uvalde. He votes with the Democracy but 
has never been an active politician in the sense of office seeking, although 
he has served as city alderman for several years. He has likewise been 
a member of the school board for a number of years and he owns much 
valuable property in Uvalde, where his interests center, while with the 
progress and development of the city he is closely associated, doing all 
in his power to promote its welfare and success. Both he and his wife 
enjoy the warm regard of a large circle of friends, the hospitality of the 
best homes of this locality, being freely accorded them. 

William D. Love, who has retained a personal association with the 
affairs of Southwestern Texas for a number of years, whose life has been 
one of honest and earnest endeavor, rewarded by due success, and ha> 
won prominence at the bar, and is now serving for the fourth term as 
mayor of Uvalde, was born in Washington county, Texas, June 20, 1859. 
His parents were William M. and Mary (Atkisson) Love, the former a 
native of Nashville, Tennessee, and the latter of Washington county, 
Texas, their marriage being celebrated at the place of her nativity. The 
Love family was founded in America in early colonial days and repre- 
sentatives of the name participated in the war for American independence. 
After that conflict they settled in the southern states. They were a broad- 
minded and loyal people. 

William M. Love, born in Tennessee, acquired a liberal education in 
the schools of that locality and became a prominent and distinguished 
minister of the Cumberland Presbyterian church. He was also a farmer 
by occupation. In 1849, attracted by the discovery of gold in California, 
he made his way to the Pacific coast, where he remained until 1851, when 
he returned and located in Texas. He was married in 1854, and on the 
expiration of about a year his wife died, leaving an infant daughter. He 
then returned to Tennessee, where he remained until 1857, when he 
located in Texas. He went to Washington county, where he again 
married in 1858. He settled in that locality and subsequently removed 
to Burleson county, Texas, where his death occurred in 1869. During 
the period of the Civil war he was loyal to the Confederacy, but being 
both a physician and a minister of the gospel he felt that he could do 
more for his fellow men at home and did not go to the front. He 
always maintained his residence upon a farm and was an enterprising 
and successful agriculturist, also a capable physician and an able minister. 
He did not covet wealth and was a most generous man, giving freely 
of his means, especially to the poor and needy. At his demise he left 
to his wife and family a good farm and home, and she is yet living in 
the old family residence. Rev. Love enjoyed the confidence of all who 
knew him and was a popular preacher and an able writer, contributing 
many valuable articles to the press. He was also a fluent and forcible 
speaker, presenting his thoughts in clear, logical and entertaining form, 
and he is kindly remembered by those who often sat under his teachings, 
listening to his eloquent sermons or words of kindly counsel and 
wisdom. His wife, living at the old home in Burleson county, Texas, 
at the age of sixty-seven years, was a daughter of Jesse B. Atkisson, 
of Tennessee. Her father was a mechanic and wagon manufacturer 
and became one of the pioneer settlers in the Mexican territory of 



history OF SOOTHWEST TEXAS 

Texas in the year [832. lie was a member of (ieneral Houston's 
army that won independence for the Lone Star state, but did not partici- 
pate in the last battle at San Jacinto, as he had been detailed to look- 
after and eare for some American families at that time. On coming" 
to Texas he located in Washington COanty and after the independence 
of the state had been achieved he settled at his home, where he had taken 
up his abode in 18^4. He became a prominent farmer and slave owner 
o\ that locality, was very successful in his business and enjoved in high 
isure the respect and confidence of all Who knew him. He remained 
upon the old homestead until called to his final rest and his influence 
was a beneficial factor in the development and progress of his com- 
munity. The members of his family were: Alonzo; Mary, who became 
Mrs. I ove: Moscoe B. ; Jessie B.'; Brown ; and Mrs. Amanda Dorward. 

To William M. and Maty Love were born five children: William 
D. : Jesse M.. a blacksmith and farmer of Burleson countv, Tex^s ; 
Alonzo L. : Joseph A., and Finis E., who are all engaged in farming. 
By his first marriage the father had one daughter, Mrs. Lizzie L. Wood. 

William D. Love was reared upon his father's farm and acquired 
his education in the public schools, although his opportunities in that 
direction were somewhat limited. He added largely to his knowledge 
through reading and observation and when twentv years of age began 
teaching. He was a practical and successful educator, following the 
profession for sixteen years, during which time his service was eminently 
satisfactory to the various communities wherein he taught. Durine 
that period he also filled the important position of superintendent of 
public instruction of Navarro county for two years and was likewise 
superintendent of Cisco and of Piano, and of Uvalde public schools. 
He regarded this professional labor, however, merely as an initial step 
to other business interests, for his leisure hours were devoted to the 
study of law, and in 1897 he was admitted to the bar at Uvalde. He 
at that time formed a partnership with Hon. J. N. Garner, now congress- 
man from this district, and the connection was maintained in that form 
until 1903, when Judge Ellis was admitted to the firm. Judge Garner 
remained a partner until elected to Congress and then withdrew, and 
in Mav. T905. Judge 1 Ellis died. In July of the same year Judge Garner 
agairi became a partner of Mr. Love under the old firm style of Garner 
& Love. The firm has always enjoved a liberal patronace and is one 
of the strong law firms of Southwestern Texas. In his practice Judge 
Love has won an enviable reputation. Tie practices in all the courts 
of the state from that of the justice courts to that of the supreme court 
and his powers as an advocate have been demonstrated by his success 
on manv occasions. He has been connected with many notable cases 
and is an able lawver of lanre and varied experience. Thoroughness 
characterizes his efforts and he conducts all his business with a strict 
regard to a high standard of professional ethics. 

While his profession has made heavy demands upon his time and 
energies Judge Love has also found opportunity to devote to public 
service and i> one of the strong and influential members of the Demo- 
cracy in this part of the state. He was elected on the party ticket to 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 287 

the office of mayor, in which he is now serving for his fourth term, 
having given to the city a very public-spirited, practical and progressive 

Public Improvement in Uvalde. 

administration. His efforts have been a tangible factor in the work 
of public improvement and during his administration the city has been 
kept in good sanitary condition and nothing is left undone to promote 
the public health. The city hall was comparatively abandoned but 
under his direction has been re-modeled and now produces a good 
revenue for the city, while the plazas in the center of the town have 
been fenced and ornamental trees have been planted. Grass was also 
planted and there is now a pleasing growth of all vegetation there, 
greatly beautifying the square. A park of four acres has been pur- 
chased and improved. It has many fine, large live-oak trees and is a 
very desirable and handsome addition to the city property. The streets 
have been graded and graveled and financial interests of the city have 
been well managed. There is now a well equipped and well organized 
volunteer fire company capable of active and immediate service and 
drawing its supply of water from a good cistern. Such is the efficiency 
of the fire department that property holders feel to a large extent im- 
mune from disasters of that character and the insurance rate is propor- 
tionately low. Each year the city enjoys a good, conservative adminis- 
tration and during the eight years in which Mr. Love has filled the 
office tax values have been more than doubled and the city has made 
substantial advance along all lines which are a matter of civic virtue 
and civic pride. He is always looking forward to the betterment and 
progress of the city and his labors have been of direct and immediate 
serviceableness. 

When twenty years of age Mr. Love was united in marriage, in 
1879, to Miss Ophelia Wallace, who was born in Mississippi in 1861. 
She is a daughter of R. C. Wallace, a native of Alabama and a son of 
chief justice, Bruce C. Wallace, of that state. The family is one of 
prominence in the south and various representatives of the name have 
gained distinction. R. C. Wallace was a highly educated man, devoted 
his life to the profession of teaching and at the same time overseeing 
farming interests, although he employed others to do the active work 
of the farm. At the time of the outbreak of the Civil war he raised a 
company for service and as its captain led the troops in many a hotly 
contested engagement. Following the close of hostilities he removed 
to. Texas, settling in Burleson county, where he engaged in farming and 
teaching school. Subsequently he sold his interests there and took up 
his abode in Comanche county, where he remained up to the time of his 
death, which occurred in 1902. He had no aspiration for public office 
or public nortoriety of any kind, but in the. line of his chosen pursuits 
he was recognized as a man of ability and enterprise, always loyal to 
truth, honor and right in his business as well as social relations. In 
his later years he was a worthy member of the Methodist church. 
Following the death of his first wife he married a Miss Scott of Burle- 
son county, Texas, who yet survives. There were four or five children 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

of that marriage, but Mrs. Love was the only child of her father's 
tirst marriage. 

To Mr. Love and wife have been horn five daughters, two of whom 
have passed away. The oldest, Mrs. Lola Barker, died leaving two 
children. Lenora is the wife of W. J. Appling, of Eagle Pass. Willie 
and Ophelia are yet at home. Mr. and Mrs. Love hold membership in 
the Methodist Episcopal church and take an active and helpful part in 
its work, while fraternally he is connected with the Knights of Pythias. 
Mi- life work has been of benefit to his fellow men. His public service 
has indeed been commendable and his city has benefited thereby, while 
in his profession he has gained more than local distinction. In the 
trial of cases which are important he has won many successes. He 
prepares his cases with great thoroughness and skill, investigating every 
point oi law that may bear upon them, and in his arguments he is 
Logical, displaying clear reasoning and accurate deductions. His devo- 
tion to his clients' interests is proverbial and yet he never forgets that 
he owes a higher allegiance to the majesty of the law. His untiring 
industry has also been one of the potent elements in his success. In the 
argument of a case he exhibits a remarkable clearness of expression 
and adequate and precise diction which enables him to make others 
understand not only the salient points of his argument but also to 
clearly understand the very fine analytical distinctions which differentiate 
<»ne legal principle from another. 

J. J. Barnes, M. D., engaged in the active practice of medicine 
and surgery at Sabinal, was born at Centerville, Leon county, Texas, 
April i. 1857. He is a son of Irvin and Millicent (Horn) Barnes, both 
of whom were natives of North Carolina and were of English descent. 
Thev were married in Alabama, where they remained until 1852, when 
they removed to Texas and located in Leon county. There the father 
pnrchased land and improved a good farm, whereon he lived through- 
out his remaining days, his death occurring in 1891. He was a southern 
man in belief and used his influence for the support of the Confederacy, 
but was too old for active service in the army. He was a prominent 
farmer and slave owner, well known and highly respected. He never 
aspired to public office of any kind and was a worthy member of the 
Masonic fraternity for many years. His wife still survives and resides 
at the old family home in Centerville, Leon county. Of the Methodist 
church she is an active and consistent member. In the family were 
six children : Edgar, who was born in Alabama, is now prominent in 
public affairs in Leon county. Fannie is the wife of Dr. W. T. Evans. 
J. I., is the next younger. Isa married George Floyd. Joseph H., is a 
kman of Jewett, and Alice is the wife of Perry Pruett. 

Dr. Barnes was reared to farm pursuits and acquired a good educa- 
tion in the public schools. At the age of nineteen years he began read- 
ing medicine with Dr. W. T. Evans, of Jewett, Leon county, as his 
preceptor. He continued with him for three years, during which time 
he marie visits with the doctor in his practice and gained much insight 
into the methods of treating various diseases and of diagnosing cases. 
\\c thus prepared for the practice of his profession by actual experience 
as well as by the acquirement of the knowledge that may be gained in 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 289 

books. He also worked in the doctor's drug store and thus gained 
an intimate understanding of the compounding and administration of 
drugs. He was thus well prepared for the profession which he deter- 
mined to make his life work. In 1879 he pursued a course of lectures 
in the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Baltimore, Maryland, and 
in 1881 he commenced practice at Pearsall, where he continued suca 
fully for a few years. He afterward completed the course of lectures 
at a medical college at Mobile, Alabama, from which he was graduated 
in 1895. He then returned to Pearsall, but soon afterward removed to 
Hondo and in 1901 came to Sabinal. Here he purchased the residence 
and practice of Dr. Bowman and has since given his undivided attention 
to his practice, which is continually growing. He is often called to a 
distance of fifty miles because of his professional skill and ability, which 
are widely recognized. He has merited and enjoys the confidence of 
the community in which he directs his labors and his success has natur- 
ally followed. He has a well equipped office with a good library of 
medical works and he has also the modern appliances and instruments 
which facilitate operations, possessing much skill in surgery as well as 
in the diagnosis of disease and administration of remedial agencies. He 
is a member of the Edwards and Uvalde Counties Medical Society, also 
the San Antonio* Medical Society and the State Medical Society, while 
fraternally he is a Royal Arch Mason and also a Woodman of the 
World. Both he and his wife are members of the Presbyterian church. 
Dr. Barnes was married in Hondo, Texas, to Miss Jimmie Kilgore, 
who was born in Floresville, Texas, in 1862. She is a lady of great in- 
telligence and natural refinement. Her parents are J. J. and Jane 
(Dunlap) Kilgore, both natives of North Carolina, whence they removed 
to Mississippi, afterward becoming early settlers of Texas. Her father 
was a prominent stock rancher for many years. He was the flag bearer 
in his regiment in the Confederate army during the Civil war and was 
always on duty. Although often in the front ranks, he was never 
wounded nor taken prisoner, but he saw much arduous service such 
as is usually meted out to the soldier. In his business affairs he was 
closely identified with the stock interests of Southwestern Texas. In 
politics he was a strong and influential Democrat but never sought 
office. His life was characterized by high principles and manly conduct 
and he was a member of the Masonic fraternity. He spent his declining 
years in the home of Dr. and Mrs. Barnes. His wife was also a mem- 
ber of the Christian church and has likewise passed away. In their 
family were eight children: Ella, the wife of L. H. Brown; Jesse M., 
a stockman; Jimmie, now Mrs. Barnes; Charles L., a stockman; Mattie, 
the wife of J. J. Strait ; Yancey, proprietor of a hotel at Houston, Texas ; 
Frank, a railroad man ; and Emmett, who died at the age of eighteen 
years. 

To Dr. and Mrs. Barnes have been born two children : Fannie, 
born March 17, 1895, and Fordyce, November 30, 1896. The mother 
and children are members of the Presbyterian church. 

W. A. Kelley, extensively engaged in stock raising and vice-presi- 
dent of the Sabinal Mercantile Company was born in Marion county, 
Tennessee, December 25, 1857. The family is of Irish lineage and was 

Vol. II. 19 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TKXAS 

founded IS America by James Kelley, a native oi the Kmerald Isle, who 

on coming to the United States sealed in Virginia, whence he afterward 
removed to Tennessee. He was a cabinet maker by trade and a good 
mechanic. He reared his family in Tennessee and later disappeared. 
No trace oi him was obtainable and it is supposed that he was drowned 
in the Tennessee river. His wife survived and removed to Missouri 
with her son. Riley A. Kelley, and subsequently went with him to Ar- 
kansas At a later date, however, she retnrned to Tennessee, where her 
last days were passed. She held membership in the Presbyterian chnrch. 
Her children: Mrs. Amanda Bryson; John, who died in Arkansas; 
Riley, father oi our subject; George, who died in Tennessee; William 
who was killed while serving in the Confederate army. 

Riley A. Kelley was born in Tennessee, where he was reared and 
married, the lady of his choice being Miss Martha A. Ray. Some 
years afterward they removed to Missonri, where Mr. Kelley followed 
the occupation of farming and also engaged in blacksmithing. After 
the inangnration of the Civil war he joined the Confederate army in 
General 1'rice's command and at once w r ent to the front. The locality 
in which he left his family was much divided on the war question and 
part\- feeling ran very high. His home was robbed and plundered and 
conditions became so intolerable there that the family removed to Ar- 
kansas. Mr. Kelley, learning of what was going on, met his family 
near their destination and settled them upon a farm, after which he 
again joined his command, with which he continued until the close of 
the war. when he received an honorable discharge. He was never 
wounded nor made a prisoner, but saw much arduous military service. 
The war over, he rejoined his family in Arkansas and carried on farm- 
ing there. He voted with the Democracy and was a worthy and re- 
spected citizen. He passed away in Arkansas in 1872 and his wife 
still survives, residing in Coleman county, Texas, at the age of seventy- 
three years. The old Arkansas homestead has been sold and all of the 
living children are now in Texas. To Mr. and Mrs. Riley Kelley 
were born seven children: Mrs. Amanda Turman ; Mrs. Keziah Hol- 
loway ; William A. ; George, who died in Arkansas ; Cynthia A., the wife 
of Joe E. Hill ; John, ot Coleman county, Texas, and James R., of 
I ' .aide county. 

William A. Kelley was born in Tennessee and accompanied his 
parents on the removal to Missouri and thence to Arkansas, where he 
was reared to manhood upon the home farm. He afterward worked for 
two years at the blacksmith's trade and subsequently engaged in clerking 
tor three years, during which period he spent six months as solicitor 
for a St Louis fruit house. In July, 1884, he arrived at Sabinal with 
unpaired health, but the climate here proved very beneficial. He had 
evere illness soon after his arrival but after that began to recuperate 
and was sooo fully restored to health. He then obtained employment 
as foreman on a sheep ranch where the herders were Mexicans. As he 
was unfamiliar with their language he had much to learn, but he suc- 
led in rapidly acquiring a knowledge of their tongue. As he was 
a long distance from settlements and had no others to talk to, he soon 
picked up a fair knowledge of the Mexican language, so that he was 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 291 

able to do business with them, and made an excellent foreman. Later 
he took charge of the entire ranch, on which were large herds of cattle 
and sheep. In 1893, the sheep business no longer proving profitable, bis 
flocks were sold oft and he continued with the cattle during that year. 
About the same time Mr. Kelley bought some land but continued ranch- 
ing and as his financial resources increased he added to his realty 
holdings until he was owner of twelve hundred acres. 

In October, 1885, Mr. Kelley had married and his wife was with 
him when he was foreman of the ranch. After he had secured land for 
himself he erected a suitable house and settled thereon. He then en- 
gaged in sheep raising but abandoned it when it proved unprofitable. 
When he was working on a salary he had the privilege of investing in 
cattle and putting his own brand on them and turning them loose on the 
range. Thus he got a good start in cattle and after he sold his sheep 
he continued to raise cattle and later also added horses, but he sold his 
horses after a time and concentrated his energies upon cattle raising. 
In this he was successful. He confined his attention to steer cattle 
and for ten years did a profitable business in that way. If prices suited 
him he sold at home and if not he made direct shipments to market. 
As time passed he placed substantial improvements on his home ranch 
and improved a very desirable residence. This place he sold in 1901, 
having in the meantime secured a ranch on the Frio of seven thousand 
acres ; two thousand he owns and leases five thousand. He has con- 
centrated all of his stock interests there and he now has seven hundred 
steers on that ranch. He has formed a partnership with A. Xutt, who 
resides on the ranch and cares for the stock. During the years which 
he spent on his home ranch Mr. Kelley also engaged to some extent in 
dry farming, producing all the corn needed. When he sold the home 
ranch he came to Sabinal and bought about eight acres of ground, on 
which he has erected a commodious residence in modern style of archi- 
tecture and supplied with many conveniences. He yet occupies this 
home, which is one of the attractive dwellings of the town. In Sep- 
tember, 1 90 1, in connection with Jacob and R. M. Miliken, he purchased 
the store building and stock of T. P. Roberts, a general merchant, and 
continued in this business successfully until 1902, when they organized 
a stock company, which was incorporated under the name of the Sabinal 
Mercantile Company with a paid-up capital of forty thousand dollars. 
Some of the stock was sold, but Mr. Kelley still holds a large part of 
it. The business was continued at the old store until 1904, when a large 
two-story brick building was erected and the company now occupies 
both buildings, which are filled with all kinds of goods such as are kept 
in a first-class department store. The business is increasing rapidly and 
satisfactorily and they carry such a line as is in demand by a general 
trade. Mr. Kelley has been successful in all of his ■ enterprises and 
though he had small assistance at the outset of his career he has worked 
his way upward and is well entitled to the praise that is indicated in 
the term, a self-made man. 

In October, 1885, Mr. Kelley was married to Miss Amanda C. 
W r ish, who was born in Sabinal Canyon in October, 1866. She is a 
daughter of Jasper and Nancy (Kelley) Wish, the former a native of 



2^2 HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Germany and the latter of Tennessee. They were married in Arkansas 
and in 1851 came to Uvalde county, but on account of the hostility of the 
Indians removed to Williamson county. After two years, however, they 
returned, Mr. Wish being" determined to maintain his right of residence 
here. lie was then in limited financial circumstances, having a yoke 
oi oxen but little else. He soon secured a small tract of land, however, 
which he opened up to cultivation and later secured more land. He 
experienced much trouble on account of the Indians and the settlers 
built a fort, to which the families were continually compelled to flee 
in order to save their lives, while the men of the households made raids 
after the savages and frequently brought them to terms. Mr. Wish 
continued his residence here and engaged in the sheep business. As 
a start he had thirty ewes and from this number his flocks increased 
until he had a herd of thousands of fine sheep. He made money rapidly 
and as he was able commenced buying land and continued his invest- 
ments until he had thirty thousand acres. He did small dry farming 
and continued actively in his various lines of business until he had 
created a large estate. Ceasing his connection with the sheep industry, 
he turned his attention to cattle and had he lived would undoubtedly 
have become a very successful and prominent cattleman. He also 
owned much business property in Uvalde. He had acquired his educa- 
tion in Germany and was a man of broad general information, possess- 
ing excellent business ability and good financial qualities. Moreover, 
he was highly respected for his integrity and honor, which were ever 
above reproach, and he was a consistent member of the Christian church. 
He died in 1889. while his wife passed away in 1891. She was a 
daughter of Mr. Kellev, who came from Arkansas with Mr. Wish and 
settled to ranching. He made progress in his business, which he after- 
ward turned over to his children. Several of his brothers also came 
here and all did well. These were Leak, Jack, Christ and loseph Kelley, 
while one sister married a Mr. Robinson of Sabinal. The children of 
Mr. and Mrs. Wish were: Christina, now Mrs. Robinson; John, who 
died and left three children now in Arizona ; Margaret, the wife of A. 
I. Crane ; Bell, the wife of W. F. Price ; Amanda, now Mrs. Kellev-; 
Christopher C, who is engaged in the ranch business, and EfYa, the wife 
of R. M. Miliken. 

The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Kelley has been blessed with an 
interesting daughter, Mvra, who was born December 4, 1898. The 
parents are members of the Christian church and Mr. Kelley is connected 
with the Woodmen of the World. He was reared in the faith of the 
Democracy but is now independent in politics, being rather strongly in- 
clined toward the prohibition party, though reserving the rieht to cast 
a ballot as he thinks best. He certainly deserves much credit for what 
he has accomplished and the years have witnessed earnest and inde- 
fatigable labor on his part, resulting in the acquirement of gratifying 
succ f 

John C. Turman. who is conducting a cattle ranch in Uvalde 
count v. is one of Texas' native sons, having been born in Lavaca county 
on the 26th of Tanuarv, r862. His parents were Tohn and Marv (Man- 
gum) Turman, both of whom were natives of Alabama, where they were 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 293 

married. Mrs. Turman was a daughter* of Cyrus and Luanda (O'Dan- 
nels) Mangum, also natives of Alabama. Her father was a leading 
farmer and slave owner and at an early day came to Texas, settling 
in Lavaca county, where both he and his wife spent their remaining 
days. He prospered in his undertakings as an agriculturist. He served 
in the Confederate army. He lived the life of an upright Christian man 
and while he was never prominent in public office nor sought public 
notoriety of any kind he so lived as to enjoy the respect, good will and 
confidence of all with whom he was associated. In his family were the 
following named: Mary, who became Mrs. Turman; David, of Uvalde; 
Warren and Wylie, both of whom are deceased ; Samuel, who died in 
March, 1906; Jack, a stockman and vice president of the Uvalde Na- 
tional Bank ; William, also engaged in stock raising interests ; and Ruf us, 
who is living in Alpine, Texas. 

John Turman was born and reared in Alabama, where he was 
married. He settled on a farm, where he remained successfully until 
about 1847, when he removed to Texas, taking up his abode in Lavaca 
county, where he engaged in farming and the stock business. He car- 
ried on his interests with success until after the opening of the Civil 
war, when he volunteered for service and was soon at the front, where 
he did valorous duty as a soldier. He' met the usual experiences which 
are a part of military life and participated in many important cam- 
paigns, battles and military movements until the exposures and priva- 
tions incident to war brought on severe illness. He then obtained a 
sick furlough and returned home, where he soon afterward passed away, 
his death occurring in 1864. During his active business life he always 
carried on farming and stock raising and before the war he laid the 
foundation for a successful business career. He possessed many ster- 
ling traits of character that endeared him to those with whom he came 
in contact and his death was deeply deplored by many friends. The 
Methodist church found him a devoted member and active worker. Fol- 
lowing her husband's death Mrs. Turman kept her children together 
and reared them to lives of respectability. She yet survives and now 
makes her home in Uvalde. The members of the family were : Mollie, 
who is the widow of Dr. Brown and resides in Uvalde ; Anna, who be- 
came the wife of O. H. Hector and died leaving one son ; Nannie, the 
wife of E. J. Allen, of Runnels county, Texas; Mrs. Josephine Yivion; 
and John C. 

John C. Turman is the only son of the family. He was born and 
reared in the Lone Star state, where he has always resided. At the 
time of his father's death he was about two years old.' The other chil- 
dren were young and as the estate was not large the mother had a strug- 
gle to provide for her children and keep the family together. Although 
the youngest child, Mr. Turman, being the only boy, started out to 
earn his own living as soon as old enough and assisted his mother in 
the care of his sisters. In 1880 the family removed to Zavala county, 
where he leased land from the New York & Texas Land Company and 
turned his attention to the sheep-raising industry, which he followed 
with good success. Soon afterward his mother put him in charge of the 
business, which he conducted successfully for a few years, when he 



- . HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

bought from his mother the stock and carried on the sheep-raising in- 
dustry until lS^.o. He then sold out and turned his attention to cattle 
and is still well known as a representative cattleman oi this section of 
the state. He has purchased and now owns nine thousand acres of 
land and continues to lease twenty-four thousand acres. He runs a 
large herd oi stock and steer cattle, having from twenty-five hundred 
to three thousand head. His own land is well watered, having a lake 
ir miles long, so that there is an abundance of water. His 
and is in the artesian belt and he is sinking two wells thereon, 
iat if he strikes water there will be also an abundant supplv upon 
that ranch. Mr. Turman made money off oi his sheep-raising interests 
and this enabled him to start out on quite an extensive scale in his cat- 
tle raising. He ships his own stock to market and is meeting with 
gratifying prosperity in this line. He also has a commodious residence 
at Uvalde and he is deeply interested in the development of the city and 
county, his business interests being a factor in the industrial and com- 
mercial development of this section of the state. He is also connected 
with mercantile interests as a stockholder in the F. A. Piper Mercantile 
O mpany of Uvalde. 

Mr. Turman was married at Flatonia, Fayette county. Texas, on 
the ioth oi November. 189-1, to Miss Lulu Woodley, who was born in 
Lavaca county in 1864. a daughter of Jackson and Lydia (Box) Wood- 
ley, the former a native of Florida and the latter of South Carolina. 
They were married and settled in Alabama, whence they removed to 
Texas at an earlv period in the development of this portion of the state, 
settling first in Lavaca county, where Mr. Woodley carried on farming 
and stock raising. He served through the period of the Civil war as 
a valorous soldier, never hesitating in the performance of any duty that 
was assigned him whether it led him to the lonely picket line or into 
the thickest of the fight. When the war was over he returned to his 
family and resumed the task of cultivating his fields and caring for his 
si :k. He served for many years as justice of the peace and was also 
county commissioner, his public duties being discharged with prompt- 
5S and fidelity. He was well known in the community where he re- 
sided and his many sterling traits of character gained for him an en- 
viable place in the regard of his fellowmen. He died at Old Molton 
and his wife survived him for some time." spending her declining years 
with her daughter. Mrs. Turman, at Lvalde. Here sne passed away 
on the i-t of December, 1901. in the faith of the Methodist church, of 
which she was an earnest member, having taken an active and helpful 
part in its work. The children of their family were as follows: Mrs. 
Maria Baker : James, who while waiting in camp to be mustered into 
the Confederate service became ill of measles and returned home, where 
he died soon afterward: Mildred, the wife of William Keesee : Thomas, 
a stockman: Oscar, who is living in Kansas City; H. B.. whose home 
is in San Antonio: Mrs. Mollie Blakeman. who died at El Paso; Ida, 
the wife of S. F. Mangum ; and Lulu, flow Mrs. Turman. 

The marriage of Mr. and Mr-. Turman has been blessed with three 
interesting children: Beatrice, who was born f)ctober I, 1892: John 
1 . June \2. 1894; and Mildred. January 3. 1895. The parents are most 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 295 

highly esteemed in the community where they reside. Mr. Turman be- 
longs to the Knights of Pythias traternity and his wife to the Methodist 
church. He is a school trustee and gives active and intelligent support 
to all of the movements that tend to promote the intellectual, material 
and moral progress of the community. There is in his vocabulary no 
such word as fail and by determination and energy he ha> overcome 
difficulties and obstacles that barred his path to success, his life record 
serving in many respects as a source of inspiration to others, showing 
what may be accomplished when one has the will to dare and to do. 

A. S. Hatch has been a factor in events which are epochal in the 
history of Uvalde county. He stands for public progress and improve- 
ment and gives hearty co-operation to many measures which have this 
end in view. Born in Tennessee on the 15th of August, 1835. he is a 
son of George C. and Alary ( Simmons ) Hatch, both of whom were 
natives of North Carolina, where thev were married. Settling- in that 
state, thev remained there for a number of years and afterward re- 
moved to Tennessee, where the family located. In 1836 George C. 
Hatch came alone to Texas and joined the forces who were striving for 
Texan independence. He was in Deaf Smith's company of spies who 

Mexican Invasion of 1842. 

patrolled many parts of Texas, watching the movements of the Indians 
and Mexicans. In 1842 he was at San Antonio, during the holding of 
the district court there, when General Woll violated Santa Anna's treaty 
with General Houston and invaded the country with his army, making 
prisoners of the entire court and other Americans in the city. Thes-e 
prisoners of war were all marched through to Mexico, where they were 
held for some months in the interior of the country. They were com- 
pelled to forage for supplies two at a time. Mr. Hatch with another 
man was detailed to hunt rations. Though chained together, they made 
their escape and got away with much difficulty, experiencing hunger 
and hardships. At length, however, they reached San Antonio and 
civilization, but the remainder of the prisoners were held captive for 
several months longer. After the establishment of tne republic Mr. 
Hatch returned to Tennessee and brought his family and slaves to the 
Lone Star state, locating in Colorado county. There he bought land 
and improved a good farm, whereon he remained successfully engaged 
in business until 1854. He then sold out and removed to Southwestern 
Texas, settling near Corpus Christi. where he again opened up a good 
farm and carried on general farming and stock raising. Here he re- 
mained successfully to the time of the Civil war. He was a strong 
secessionist and used his influence for the Confederacy, but was too old 
for active field service and remained at his home until after the ci^-e 
of the war. AYhen all was lost he declared that he would not live under 
a government that would allow the plundering and robbing of its citi- 
zens and he took what moriev he had left and went to British Honduras, 
where he remained for two years. Through the persuasion and influ- 
ence of one of his daughters, however, he returned to the homestead near 
Corpus Christi. where he remained until he lost his life in 1872. He 
was driving in his buggy to the citv when three Mexicans shot and 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

killed him. took from him all the money and valuables thai he had 
about him. and then, taking his horse from the buggv, rode away. A 
number oi citizens soon found the body and followed in pursuit. After 
riding for two hundred miles into Mexico they came up with a man 
riding the horse that had belonged to Mr. Hatch. They killed this man 
but lost the trail oi the others. They then returned with the horse and 
thus ended the last chapter in the history of an eventful and active life. 
Mr. 1 latch was a strong, hardy man, courageous and fearless in his 
younger days. 1 le was also ambitious and energetic in business and 
lived the life o\ a diligent and capable farmer. He. was a typical pio- 
neer settler, resolute in whatever he undertook and honorable, in all of 
his business transactions. He was reared a Presbyterian but in his 
later years joined the Catholic church and died in that faith. His wife 
departed this life in 1862. She was a member of the Methodist church. 
Their children were nine in number: Mary; Jane; Anna E., who is 
living at the age of eighty years; John, a farmer and stockman who 
resided upon the old homestead until his death; James C, who resides 
at Corpus Christi ; Lemuel, deceased; A. S., of this review; William, 
a stock farmer; and Henry \\\, also engaged in stock raising. Four 
sons and one daughter are yet living and all are now quite aged. 

Of this family A. S. Hatch has passed the seventy-first milestone 
on life's journey. Born in Tennessee, he was brought to Texas in 
his childhood days and was reared and educated here, pursuing a com- 
mon-school course. He removed with his parents to the southwestern 
part of the state, where he remained. All six of the brothers served 
in the Confederate army during the Civil war. Mr. Hatch remained at 
home until after the inauguration of hostilities, when he volunteered, 
joining the First Texas Cavalry under command of Captain Beaumont. 
The regiment was assigned to the Trans-Mississippi department and 
did duty in Texas, Louisiana and Arkansas. He was in many skirmishes 
and a number of important battles but was never wounded nor taken 
prisoner. He took part in long marches and hard service, however, and 
experienced all of the exposure and deprivations that are meted out to 
the soldier. He was at Xacogdoches on the Red river when General 

surrendered, after which he returned home and resumed farming 
and stock raising, continuing to follow those pursuits until 1867. 

In that year Mr. Hatch was married to Miss Jane Bell, who was 
born in Fayette county, Texas, but was reared in .Bell county, this state. 
Her father. Thomas Bell, was an honored pioneer settler of Texas and 
a leading farmer and stockman, who spent his last days in Fayette 
county. His children were: William and Thomas, both of whom 
served throughout the war between the north and the south; Abner, a 
stock farmer; and Jane, who became Mrs. Hatch. Of the marriage 
of our subject and his wife there were born four children: Eugene; 
Mr-. Ida Seidel. who is living in Goliad county, Texas; Jessie and Sue, 
both at home. The wife and mother died in 1888. She was a member 
of the Methodist church, interested in its work, and her life commended 
her to the confidence, good will and friendship of all with whom she 
came in contact. In i8(/j Mr. Hatch was again married, his second 
union being with Mrs. Anna De Blau. a widow, who was born in Paris,, 




John Perry 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 2< j7 

Prance, and with her parents came to America, the family home being 
located in Texas, where she grew to womanhood and was married. 
She is the daughter of Felix Smothridge, of Paris, France, who was 
a civil engineer and a physician. Crossing the Atlantic, he established 
his home in St. Louis, Missouri, and after coming to Texas located in 
Liberty county, where he filled many county offices of honor and trust. 
He served as county judge for a number of years, also as county clerk 
and as county assessor and the duties of these various positions were 
discharged with promptness, fidelity and ability, his official record being 
most creditable. He was a man of liberal education and broad mind, 
displaying intelligence and enterprise in business as well as in official 
life. He remained a resident of Texas until called to his final rest, his 
death occurring in Liberty county. His only child was Anna, now Airs. 
Hatch. 

Following his first marriage Mr. Hatch began farming and stock 
raising, continuing successfully in the business at his first location until 
1883, when he sold out there and removed to Uvalde, where he bought 
fourteen acres of land adjoining the town. Here he erected a commodious 
two-story frame residence where he now resides. Later he sold lots 
from his fourteen acre tract and in this district are seen the finest resi- 
dences of the city. After becoming established in his new home Air. 
Hatch engaged in stock raising and soon afterward began buying land. 
He became the owner of twenty-six hundred acres, on which he estab- 
lished his ranch, fenced the place and erected ranch buildings. He has 
•continued in the cattle business to the present time but expects soon to 
withdraw from this line of business effort, wishing to concentrate his 
energies upon other enterprises. In 1886 he began merchandising in 
Uvalde and conducted a general store for ten years, w T hen he closed out 
the business. During that time he had also superintended his ranch 
and stock raising interests. He is now selling his land, but yet holds 
some cattle. As the years have gone by he has prospered in his under- 
takings, becoming a substantial citizen, his judicious investment, careful 
management and keen business discernment resulting in the acquire- 
ment of a comfortable competence. Moreover he has found time and 
opportunity to aid in the work of public improvement and in 1901 was 
elected county commissioner, serving for two terms. He filled the office 
creditably to himself and satisfactorily to the people, but he is not a 
politician in the sense of office seeking. In manner unostentatious, his 
friends nevertheless recognize in him those qualities which are of value 
in upholding the legal and political status of the community and in fur- 
thering its material, intellectual and moral progress. 

Del Rio. 

Mrs. Fred C. Garner, widow of the late John Perry, Sr., promo- 
ter of Del Rio, Texas, owns a beautiful home in this city, where she is 
surrounded by a host of warm personal friends. She was bom at 
Mount Vernon, Titus county, Texas. Her paternal grandparents were 
Ewing and Sarah (Morris) Ellison, the former born in Kentucky, 
while the latter was a native of Virginia, where their marriage occurred. 
The grandfather was an early settler of Booneville, Missouri, and was 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

a warm personal friend of Daniel Boone, He was a gunsmith by track 
ami manufactured the weapons winch wore osed by Daniel Uoone in 
bis numerous historic raids with the Indians. Tbe gun wbieb Daniel 
Boone carried until bis death was presented to bini by Ewing Ellison 
as a token o\ friendship. Abandoning bis trade as a gunsmith, Mr. El'li- 
son then purchased and unproved a farm and for a time, ran a ferryboat 
across the Missouri river some miles below Herman, continuing" suc- 
C —fully in this business until 1838, when be took up bis abode in tlv 
Republic of Texas, locating in Bastrop county, in Webbers Prairie. In 
1S40 be returned to Missouri for bis family and wbile there sold off his 
possessions and once more returned to Texas, locating at Mount Pleas- 
ant, in Titus county. He located land, which he improved, owning at 
one time tbe ground on which the city of Mount Pleasant now stands. 
He removed from the latter place to near Daingerfield, where he pur- 
chased land and engaged in the conduct of the Pioneer Mill at that place. 
I le was also engaged in farming in connection with his milling inter- 
1 sts, thus being engaged until the time of his death, which occurred in 
1 So;, when he was sixty-three years of age. He gave his early political 
allegiance to the Whig party and later became a Democrat. He never 
aspired to public office, preferring to live the life of an honest and in- 
dustrious private citizen. He was charitable, ever willing to assist the 
unfortunate ones who called upon him for aid, while his integrity and 
honesty were never called into question. He was a consistent member of 
the Cumberland Presbyterian church. His wife survived his death for 
seven years, passing away at Sherman, Texas. She was a member of 
tbe Primitive Baptist church, and by her marriage became the mother 
of six children : James E., who became the father of Mrs. Perry ; 
Amanda A., the wife of J. D. Wood, of Sherman ;. William L., who 
served in the Confederate army and passed away in Louisiana; Mrs. 
Dekena Wilson, whose first husband bore the name of Ryan; Mrs. Pau- 
line Coffee ; and Ewing, who also served in the Confederate army and 
now makes his home in Sherman. 

James E. Ellison, tbe eldest member of his father's family, was 
born in Missouri, and accompanied his parents on their removal to 
Texas, remaining under tbe parental roof until he had reached the age 
of twenty years. In T854 he went to the gold fields of California, and 
remained on the Pacific coast for fifteen years, prospecting and mining. 
In 1869 be returned to Texas and located at Mount Vernon, where he 
engaged in the portrait business. After three years he removed to 
Bexar county and engaged in the marble business, while in 1882 he 
took up his abode in Del Rio where he' engaged in house building for 
a time. Leaving his family in Del Rio he once more made his way to 
the gold fields of California, where he was engaged in mining during 
the succeeding decade, and following his return to the Lone Star state 
lie was engaged to some extent in prospecting for minerals in the moun- 
tain- of Texas and Mexico. He was married in this state to Miss 
Martha Polston, whose death occurred in Texas, in 1893. She was the 
mother of four children: Lula 1).. now Mrs. Garner; Claud, the wife 
of F. I terming ; Pearl, the wife of John Finney, and Polston, a step- 
daughter of Mr. Ellison. Since the death of his wife Mr. Ellison has 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS ^ 

made his home with his daughter, Mrs. Garner, in Del Rio, where he 
is now living in honorable retirement. He was never active in political 
circles and was formerly identified with the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows. 

Mrs. Garner accompanied her parents on their removal from Mount 
Vernon, her native city, to Del Rio. She was reared and educated in 
the latter place and remained under the. parental roof until the time of 
her marriage, when, on the 12th of September, 1900, she became the 
wife of John Perry, the wedding ceremony being performed at Trini- 
dad, Colorado, by the Rev. B. F. Lawler, pastor of the Baptist church 
at that place. Returning to Del Rio, they took up their abode at the 
old Perry homestead, living happily together until the death of the 
husband on the 15th of January, 1904. Mrs. Perry has left to cheer her 
home a little son, Vernon Ellison, who was born June 13, 1903. 

John Perry came to the territory of Texas when it was still included 
in the Mexican possessions. He grew to manhood amid the exciting 
scenes of the early settlement of this state, and during his boyhood 
and youth had little opportunity for acquiring an education. Believing 
that he might enjoy better business advantages in San Antonio, he made 
his way to that city, where he was employed for a short time at cutting 
timber. 

In 1841, when a youth of only sixteen years, he took up arms in 
defense of his adopted country against the Mexicans. Santa Anna had 
sent a strong force of soldiers to invade San Antonio, and the authori- 
ties of that city called out all the men possible to meet the encroachments 
of Santa Anna, and much skirmishing followed, during which time the 
Mexicans captured fifty-five of the Texas soldiers, disarmed .them and 
started them on the march to Mexico, they being guarded by one hun- 
dred cavalrymen. The first day they covered twenty-five miles, reach- 
ing Medina river weary and almost famished for water. Their feet 
became sore and it was almost torture to be compelled to continue on 
their march. After many days they reached Saltillo, where they were 
confined in prison, enduring all the hardships of prison life. The pris- 
oners were then ordered to the city of Mexico, and Mr. Perry, being 
unable to walk, was mounted on a mule and when just outside the city, 
an order was received from Santa Anna to take the prisoners to the 
Perote castle, and it was there that Mr. Perry was confined in prison. 
He was poorly fed and was compelled to do arduous labor on the streets 
and roads, being held captive until 1844, when the Bexar county men 
were released through the influence of Waddy Thompson, United States 
minister to Mexico. Santa Anna allowed Mr. Thompson to return with 
the men to the United States, traveling on the warship to Xew Orleans, 
from which city they made their way to Texas. 

Returning home, Mr. Perry once more resumed his farming opera- 
tions, and he became an active and prominent factor in public affairs. 
He was a successful stockman in Harris and other southwest counties 
until in 1870, his health having become impaired, he sought a change 

Founding of Del Rio. 
of climate and removed to San Phillipi Springs, wdiere he joined a 
colony of white settlers who had come to this place two years previous. 



3oo. HISTORY QE SOUTHWEST TEXAS 

Fhov erected a fort in which they might find safety from the Indians, 
some oi the members oi this colony being Randolph Pa {lord, James 
Taylor. William Adams. John drove and William Hudson. All were 
engaged in the stock business. Following Mr, Perry's arrival he in- 
vested in land and engaged in the stock business, after which he. became 
interested with the other members of the colony in organizing a ditch 
company tor irrigating. Mr. Perry erected a store building- made of 
rock, in which he opened a country store, becoming the pioneer mer- 
chant of this district, while in 1872 the town was located and named 
Pel Rio. The store building is still standing' as a monument to the en- 
terprise and public spirit of Mir. Perry. During those early days .the 
settlers suifeced great loss of stock at the hands of the Indians, who were 
constantly on the warpath. Although Mr. Perry was engaged in many 
desperate struggles with the savages he was never wounded. Mr. Perry 
met with very gratifying success in his business undertakings, and at 
his death left to his family a large and valuable estate. He was broad 
minded, a man of excellent business ability, and a good financier. He 
was interested in much of the development and improvement that has 
been made in Del Rio during the past three decades and no man in South- 
western Texas is more deserving of prominent mention in a history of 
this character than is John Perry. He never cared for public office and 
was not a member of anv church or fraternal societies. His desire was 
to be judged by his actions, which were ever manly and isincere, and he 
ever stood ready to lend aid to the poor and needy, who found in him 
a warm friend. 

Mr. Perry was first married at Houston, Texas, March 4, 1852, to 
Miss Hannah Lange, who was born in Hanover, Germany, May 18, 
1835. This union was blessed with nine children: James, deceased; 
Judith A.; Samuel, a prominent stockman; John C, a stockman of Ar- 
gentine Republic; George; Elizabeth H. ; Willie R., who died when 
quite young; Anna; and James, deceased. After losing his first wife 
Mr. Perry wedded Miss Lula D. Ellison, who still survives and occu- 
pies a beautiful residence in Del Rio. Mrs. Perry married July 10, 1906, 
Fred C. Garner, a native of Texas and a railroad man in the employ 
of the Southern Pacific Railroad. They were married, in San Antonio 
at St. Mark's Episcopal church. 

John M. Gray. It is the men of enterprise, of keen discrimination, 
and of sound business judgment who are being called upon to fid the 
various public offices and to manage the important commercial and in- 
dustrial concerns of our cities, and thei gentleman whose name intro- 
duce^ this sketch is one in whom these characteristics are dominant. Mr. 
Gray i< now filling the office of county treasurer and is also acting as 
manager of the Del Rio Electric Light & Ice plant, at Del Rio. He 

born in Saginaw, Michigan, October 9, 1864, and comes of English 
parentage. 

The father. Captain Charles W. Gray, was born at Cowes, Isle of 
Wight. England, and when yet a lad displayed a great love for the sea. 
\\<- left home at a very earlv age and became a sailor on a vessel, and 
this formed the nucleus of his life occupation. He gradually worked 
his way to a position of prominence and was only sixteen years of age 



HISTORY OF SOUTHWEST TEXAS 301 

when he became a competent navigator. Later he became captain of 
an ocean vessel and became a well known man at all the principal ports 
of the old world. He finally came to America, making his headquar- 
ters at Buffalo, New York. After a time he made his way to Saginaw, 
Michigan, soon becoming interested in the lakes. He soon became cap- 
tain of a vessel, which was twice shipwrecked, but Captain Gray never 
lost a man. He finally retired from the sea and engaged in the manu- 
facture of boilers at Saginaw, continuing successfully in this business 
for a number of years. He lived retired for a few years prior to his 
death, which occurred in that city in 1900. He was a Republican in his 
political views and affiliations and was several times called to fill posi- 
tions of public honor and trust, serving at one time as alderman of his 
city. He was an interested witness of the growth and development of 
Saginaw, for when he first located there it was a mere village but in the 
years of his residence there he saw it develop into a city ot wealth ana 
importance. Captain Gray was a communicant of the Episcopal church 
and also attained the Knight Templar degree in Masonry, riis widow 
still survives him and yet makes her home in Saginaw, at the age of 
sixty years. Mrs. Gray bore the maiden name of Mary A. Massey, and 
was likewise a native of England, but was married in this country. Her 
father, Captain Charles F. Massey, commanded a whaling vessel on 
the high seas. Upon coining with his family to America, he settled at 
Saginaw, becoming one of its early pioneer settlers. After coming to 
America he became captain and manager of a vessel which plied the 
Great Lakes, continuing in this connection for many years. His death 
occurred very suddenly at his home in Michigan, coming as a gicac 
surprise to his family and friends, for he had enjoyed good health to 
the last. He was a member of the Church of England. His' children, 
four in number were : George P., who early in life became a sailor and 
boilermaker ; Charles, who was engaged in the same business; Mary A., 
now Mrs. Gray ; and Mrs. Maggie Decker. The home of Captain and 
Mrs. Gray was blessed with five children, namely : George, who is a 
sailor and boilermaker and is now in Porto Rico, where he is superin- 
tending the construction of an engine, while his family are in Sagi- 
naw ; John M., of this review ; Jessie ; Alice, who died at the age of 
sixteen years ; and Allen, a lumberman of Saginaw. 

John M. Gray was reared in his native city, and when quite young 
displayed a love for the sea. His desire was never gratified, however, 
for his health became impaired, and at the age of seventeen years he was 
compelled to seek a change of climate, and the year 1881 witnessed his 
arrival in Texas. He was first employed in herding sheep, hoping that 
the outdoor life would prove beneficial to his health. He slept on the 
ground without any shelter over him and lived in the open air as much 
as possible, so that he soon recuperated his former vigor and in the 
years which have since come and gone has become a very stout and 
rugged man. He finally became interested in the sheep business on his 
own account, having at one time a herd of six thousand, but in 1893 
on account of the tariff changes, the business became unprofitable and 
he disposed of his stock and to