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Full text of "The twenty-four books of the Holy Scriptures, carefully translated according to the Massoretic text, on the basis of the English version, after the best Jewish authorities and supplied with short explanatory notes by Isaac Leeser"

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THE 



TWENTY-FOUR BOOKS 



HOLY SCRIPTURES: 



CAREFULLY TRANSLATED 

ACCORDING TO THE MASSORETIC TEXT, O^ THE BASIS OF THE 
EITGLISH VERSION, 

^ftcr tfje hst |fb)is^ Authorities; 



AND SUPPLIED WITH 



SHOET EXPLANATORY NOTES. 



ISAAC LEESER. 



'For it shall not be forgotten out of the mouth of his seed." — Deft. xxxi. 21. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

PUBLISHED AT 371 WALNUT STREET. 

5614. 



eXTF.RED ACCORDIXO TO ACT Of COyGRESS, I.V TIIK YEAR 1*5.1, BY 

ISAAC LEESER, 

IX THE CLERK-.I OEFHE OF THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE VXITEI) STATES FOR THE EASTERX DISTRICT 

OF PEXXSriVAXIA. 



PREFACE. 



In presenting this work to the public, the translator would merely remark, that it is not a new notion 
by which he was seized of late years which impelled him to the task, but a desire entertained for more than 
a quarter of a century, since the day he quitted school in his native land to come to this country, to present 
to his fellow-Israelites an English version, made by one of themselves, of the Holy Word of God. From 
early infancy he was made conscious how much persons differing from us in religious ideas make use 
of Scripture to assail Israel's hope and faith, by what he deems, in accordance with the well-settled 
opinions of sound critics, both Israelites and others, a perverted and hence erroneous rendering of the 
words of the original Bible. Therefore he always entertained the hope to be one day permitted to do for 
his fellow Hebrews who use the English as their vernacular, what had been done for the Germans by some 
of the most eminent minds whom the Almighty has endowed with the power of reanimating in us the al- 
most expiring desire for critical inquiry into the sacred text. So much had been done by these, that the 
translator's labours were rendered comparatively easy ; since he had before him the best results of the 
studies of modern German Israelites, carried on for the space of eighty years, commencing with Moses 
Mendelssohn, Herz Wesel, or, as he was called, Hartog Wessely, and Solomon of Dubno, down to Dr. L. 
Zunz,* of Berlin, whose work appeared in 1839, Dr. Solomon Herxheimer, Rabbi of Anhalt-Bernburg, 
whose work was completed five years ago, and of Dr. Lewis Philippson,t Rabbi of Magdeburg in Prussian 
Saxony, whose work is not yet quite completedj while writing this. In addition to these entire Bible trans- 
lations', the translator has had access to partial versions of separate books, by Ottensosser, Heinemann, 
Obernik, Hochstiitter, Wolfson, Lciwenthal, and some anonymous writers, referred to occasionally in the notes 
appended to this work ; besides which he has had the advantage of the copious notes of Dr. Philippson's 
and Dr. Herxheimer's Bibles, in which these learned men have collected the views of the investigators, 
both Israelites and others, in the path of biblical criticism. The ancient versions, also, of Onkelos, Jona- 
than, and the Jerusalem Targumist have been carefully consulted ; and, wherever accessible, the comments of 
the great expounders Rashi, (Rabbi Shelemoh Yizchaki,) Redak, (Rabbi David Kimchi,) Aben Ezra, (Rabbi 
Abraham ben Me'ir ben Ezra,) Rashbam, (Rabbi Shelemoh ben Me'ir, the grandson of Rashi,) Ralbag, 
(Rabbi Levi ben Gershom,) and Rabbenu Sa'adyah (Saadias) Gaon, as also the Michlol Yophi, and the 
modern JBiurim, have been sedulously compared, so as to insure the utmost accuracy of which the translator 
is capable. His library is not very extensive ; but he trusts that the foregoing catalogue of auxiliary 
works will prove that he has had at hand as good materials as can be obtained anywhere to do justice to 
his undertaking. It must be left to those acquainted with the subject, to decide whether he has taken due 
advantage of the materials in his hand ; but he trusts that the judgment will be in his favour, at least so 
far, that he has been honest and faithful. 

The translator is an Israelite in faith, in the full sense of the word : he believes in the Scriptures as 
they have been handed down to us ; in the truth and authenticity of prophecies and their ultimate literal 
fulfilment. He has always studied the Scriptures to find a confirmation for his faith and hope ; neverthe- 
less, he asserts fearlessly, that in his going through this work, he has thrown aside all bias, discarded 
every preconceived opinion, and translated the text before him without regard to the result thence arising 
for liis creed. But no perversion or forced rendering of any text was needed to bear out his opinions or 
those of Israelites in general ; and he for one would place but little confidence in them, if he were com- 
pelled to change the evident meaning of the Bible to find a support for them. He trusts, therefore, that 
to those who agree with him in their religious persuasion, he has rendered an acceptable service ; as they 
will now have an opportunity to study a version of the Bible which has not been made by the authority 

* Dr. Zunz, whose work is often quoted in the notes, only transhited the two books of Chronicles ; but he was aided bj- Rabbi 
Chayira Arnheim, of Glogau, with Genesis, PIxodus, Leviticus. Numbers, the Books of Kings, Ezckiel. Hosea, Obadiah, Jonah, Michn, 
Nahum, Zechariah, Proverbs, .Job, Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Esther, and Nehemiah ; by Dr. Michael .Sachs, then of Prague, but now of 
Berlin, with Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, the Books of Samuel, Isaiah, Joel, Amos, Ilabakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Malachi, 
Psalms, the Song of Solomon, and Lamentations, (Jeremiah was translated by both conjointly;) and by Dr. Julius FUrst, of 
Leipzig, with Daniel and Ezra. Occasionally in the notes, "Zunz" is named; at other times, the special translators. 

t The merit of the later translators consists therein that th^y have adhered to the letter of the text, and not rendered it freely, 
to avoid difficulties and to improve the style, as was done by llendelssohn and his immediate followers. A close, literal rendering 
will be found to characterize this version also. 

I Only to 1 Chronicles vi. 16. '" 

681G0O 



rUKFACK. 

t" churehfx in which tlicy can have no coiifiJeiiee ; anil that to those also who are of a different persua- 
sion, hilt labours will not 'be unacceptable, as exhibiting, so far as he could do it, the progress of biblical 
criticisni among ancient and modern Israelites— a task utterly beyond the power of any but a Jew by 
birth and conviction. 

As rcards the sitvle, it has been endeavoured to adhere closely to that of the ordinary Lnglish version, 
which fo*? siniplicitv'cannot be surpassed; though, upon a critical examination, it will readily be perceived 
that the various translators differed materially in their method, and frcfiuently rendered the same word 
in difforent wavs. In the present version, greiit care has been taken to avoid tliis fault ; but the translator 
does not mean" to assert that he has succeeded to as great an extent as he could have desired. lie will not 
enuuicrati' what he has done; but let any one who is desirous to investigate this point compare the two 
translations, and he will readily convince himself that this may be called a new version, especially of the 
I'rophcts, I'salms, and Job ; and he confidently hopes that the meaning has been rendered more clear by 
tlio version itself, and, where this was not altogether practicable, by the notes appended at the foot of the 
page. 

Ill- found great difficulty about coming to a satisfactory resolution with regard to the spelling of the 
proper nouns. Any one the least acipiainted with the manner they are presented in the common versions 
and the languages of Western Europe, must know that they are very much corrupted ; but they have in 
this sha|)e become so much interwoven with the language of history and of daily conversation, that it 
would have produced endless confusion to spell them after the original manner. Hence the ordinary method 
had to be retained for words in constant use ; but where this ivas not the case, a spelling more in ac- 
cordance with the original has been resorted to. The^ should always be pronounced as y, to accord with 
the Hebrew ; and in as //<?. .1 should be sounded as long ah ; e as long a ; i as long ec ; and n as oo. 
'7i stands for the Hebrew n; where ^ occurs in the Hebrew, an apostrophe' has been used for the 
most part ; but there are no English letters to represent these sounds exactly. For instance, " Zecha- 
riah," pronounce Zecharyah ; "Jehu," as Yay-hoo, kc. 

The translator will not ask that his errors and misconceptions shall be excused ; but he trusts that any 
fault which may be discovered will be kindly pointed out to him, so that he may be able to make use of 
all such remarks to correct his work in a future edition ; and he for his own part will not be satisfied with 
what he has done, but endeavour to inii)rove liy future experience. 

Whenever words have been supplied which are not in the text, but requisite to make the sense clear, 
tliey have been placed in parentheses; for instance, 1 Chron. iii. 0, "(These were) all the sons of David," 
wliere there is no equivalent in Hebrew for ''these were," though no sense could be made of the phrase 
without supplying these two words. The parenthesis is also used occasionallj', but very seldom, to denote 
a construction, where an actual parenthesis of a whole sentence, or of one or more verses, occurs. 

The whole work has been undertaken at the sole responsibility, both mercantile and literary, of the 
translator. No individual has iieen questioned respecting the meaning of a single sentence; and not an 
English book has been consulted, except Bagster's Bible, a few notes of which have been incorporated 
with this. The peculiarity of the style will readily indicate them. The author's name would have been 
appended, had it been known to the translator. 

Although about the sixth part of the contents of this volume are notes, still he did not mean to write a 
commentary on the Bible, nor must the notes be regarded as any thing else than a mere slight aid for the 
explanation of grammatical and other difficulties. For this they are probably ample enough; otherwise 
ihoy must a|ipear very defective in ipiantity and manner. 

>\ ith these few remarks the translator surrenders a labour in which he has been engaged, occasionally, 
for more than fifteen years, to the kindness of the public, trusting that, by the blessing of the Father of 
all, it may be made instrumental in diffusing a taste for iScrijjture reading among the community of Is- 
raelites, and bo the means of a better appreciation of the great treasures of revelation to many who never 
have bad the opportunity of knowing what the Hebrews have done for mankind, not alone in preserving 
the sacred book.-, but by labouring to make them intelligible to the world at large. 

'""•*"""'*' \ S-yf. 20M, I80.I. 



D^mn^i D^N^nj mm 



THE HOLY SCRIPTURES: 

PART FIRST, 



CONTAININQ 



THE PENTATEUCH; OR, THE FIVE BOOKS OF MOSES. 

GENESIS, n'B^Nia EXODUS, niosr 

LEVITICUS, Nnp'l NUMBERS, -)m03 

DEUTERONOMY, DniT- 



THE BOOK OF GENESIS, 

bereshith; n^tr'Nia, 

CONTAINING THE HISTORY OF THE CREATION AND PATRIARCHS. 



CHAPTER I. 

1 In the beginning God created the heaven 
and the earth. 

2 And the earth was without forrn, and 
void; and darkness was upon the face of the 
deep ; and the spirit of God was waving over 
the face of the waters. 

3 And God said, Let there be light ; and 
there was light. 

4 And God saw the light that it was good ; 
and God divided between the light and the 
darkness. 

5 And God called the light Day, and the 
darkness he called Night. And it was even- 
ing and it was morning, the first day. 

6 T[ And God said, Let there be an expan- 
sion" in the midst of the waters, and let it 
divide between waters and waters. 

7 And God made the expansion, and di- 
vided between the waters which were under 
the expansion and the waters which were 
above the expansion : and it was so. 

8 And God called the expansion Heaven. 
And it was evening and it was morning, the" 
second day. 

9 T[ And God said, Let the waters under 
the heaven be gathered together unto one 
place, and let the dry land be visible : and it 
was so. 

10 And God called the dry land Earth; 
and the gathering together of the waters he 
called Seas : and God saw that it was good. 



11 And God said. Let the earth bring forth 
grass, herbs yielding seed, fruit-trees yielding 
fruit after their" kind, in which its seed is 
upon the earth : and it was so. 

12 And the earth brought forth grass, herbs 
yielding seed after their kind, and trees yield- 
ing fruit, in which its seed is after their 
kind : and God saw that it was good. 

13 And it was evening and it was morn- 
ing, the third day.*' 

14 ^ And God said. Let there be lights in 
the expansion of the heaven to divide be- 
tween the day and the night ; and let them 
be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, 
and years ; 

15 And let them be for lights in the ex- 
pansion of the heaven, to give light upon the 
earth : and it was so. 

16 And God made the two great lights ; 
the greater light to' rule the day, and the 
lesser light to rule the night ; and the stars. 

17 And God set them in the expansion of 
the heaven to give light upon the earth, 

18 And to rule by day and by night, and 
to divide between the light and the darkness : 
and God saw that it was good. 

19 And it was evening and it was morn- 
ing, the fourth day. 

20 T[ And God said, Let the waters bring 
forth abundantly moving creatures that have 
life, and fowl that may lly above the earth in 
the open expansion of the heaven. 

21 And God created the great sea-mon- 



• This word is the name of the first weekly section, also 
of the first book of Moses, from the first word thereof, 
which is Bereshith, i. e. "In the beginning." — It must 
be understood that the whole law is divided into fifty- 
four sections, appointed to be read during the course 
of the year, so that each Sabbath one or two conjointly 
are read. Each of these sections bears a name derived 
from the first distinctive word thereof, and this will be 
found indicated throughout the Pentateuch of this edition. 

"" I have preferred this term to the usual translations, 



because it expresses more correctly the idea of the Hebrew 
word, from ;'pi to eoqmn<l ; therefore, the expansion of 
the atmosphere, not the fixed vault of the skies. 

° Properly, "a second day," the definite article being 
wanting; and so with all the others, up to the fifth day. 

'' Properly, "its kind," referring to rP tree, collec- 
tive singular, rendered here with the plural trees. 

' The stars are used to denote the verses where the por- 
tions of the various sections end. 

' Heb. " for the rule of." 

3 



GENESIS I. II. BERESHITH. 



sters,* and every living creature that inoveth, 
which the waters l)rought forth abundantly 
alter their kind, and every winged fowl after 
its kind : and (UA saw that it was good. 

22 And (iod blessed them, saying, Be fruit- 
ful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the 
seas, and let tlie fowl multiply on the earth. 

23 And it was evening and it was morn- 
ing, the fifth day.* 

24 ^i And God said, Let the earth bring 
forth living creatures after their kind, cattle, 
and creeping things, and beasts of the earth 
after their kind : and it was so. 

2-j And God made the beasts of the earth 
after their kind, and the cattle after their 
kind, and every thing that creepeth upon 
tlie earth after its kind: and God saw that it 
was good. 

20 And God said, Let us*" make man in 
our image, after our likeness ; and they shall 
have dominion over the fish of the sea, 
and over the fowl of the heaven, and over 
the cattle, and over all the earth, and over 
every creeping thing that creepeth upon the 
earth. 

27 And God created man in his image, 
in the image of God created he him; male 
and female created he them. 

28 And God blessed them, and God said 
unto them. Be fruitful and multiply, and fill 
the earth, and subdue it; .and have dominion 
over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl 
of the heaven, and over every living thing 
that moveth upon tlie earth. 

29 And God said, Behold I have given 
unto you every herb bearing seed, which is 
upon the face of all the earth, and every tree 
on which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed ; 
to you it shall be for food. 

;j() And to every bea.st of the earth, and 
to every fowl of tiie heaven, and to every 
tiling tiiat creepeth upon the earth, wherein 
there is life, (I have given) ever}- green herb 
for f(jod : and it was so. 

31 And God saw"" every thing that he 



' Meaning, all the greater animals that inhabit the seas, 
in contradistinction to tbo smaller creatures afterwards 
described. 

' This phmsc is employed here, as in other places, to 
express the purpose of the Deity toclffcthis will. This 
construction is railed " the plural of majesty." 

"" Looked over;" meaning, that when all had been 
completed, the Creator, .so to say, cast his view over all, 
and then saw that there was nothing defective in tho whole 
4 



had made, and behold, it was very good. 
And it was evening and it was morning, the 
sixth day. 

CHAPTER II. 

1 ^ Thus were finished the heavens and the 
earth, and all their host. 

2 And God had finished on the seventh 
day his work which he had made, and he 
rested on the seventh day from all his work 
which he had made. 

3 And God blessed the seventh day, and 
sanctified it ; because thereon he had rested 
from all his work which God had created in 
making it.*'' 

4 ^ These are the generations" of the hea- 
vens and of the earth when they were created, 
on the day that the Lord' God made earth 
and heaven. 

5 And every plant of the field was not yet 
on the earth, and every herb of the field had 
not yet grown; for the Lord God had not 
caused it to rain upon the earth, and man 
was not yet there to till the ground. 

But there went up a mist from the 
earth, and watered the w'hole face of the 
ground. 

7 And the Lord God formed the man of 
dust from the ground, and breathed into his 
nostrils the breath of life ; and the man be- 
came a living being. 

8 And the Lord God planted a garden in 
Eden to the eastward, and he put there the 
man whom he had formed. 

9 And the Lord God caused to grow out 
of the ground every tree that is pleasant to 
the sight and good for food ; and the tree of 
life in the midst of the garden, and the tree 
of the knowledge of good and evil. 

10 And a river went out of Eden to water 
the garden, and from there it was parted, and 
became four principal streams. 

11 The name of the first is Pishon, the 
same whicii coinpa.ssetli the whole land of 
Ilavilah, where there is gold. 

system of outward nature, produced by his creative power. 

* After I'lMLiiTso.v. 

• "The history of the creation." — Mexdelssohn. 

' The proper signiBcation of this word is t/ir Eternal, 
which term will he used when ab.'solutely required, but 
generally the usual word will be employed; but its proper 
sense will be indicated, as is customary in all the English 
jiibles, by ]irinting it in what is technically called s.mall 

CAPITALS. 



GENESIS II. III. BERESHITH. 



12 And the gold of that land is good ; there 
is the bdellium and the onyx stone. 

13 And the name of the second river is 
Gihon, the same which compasseth the whole 
land of Cush. 

1-4 And the name of the third river is Hid- 
dekel, the same which floweth towards the 
east of Assyria ; and the fourth river is the 
Euphrates. 

15 And the Lord God took the man, and 
put him into the garden of Eden, to till it, 
and to keep it. 

16 And the Lord God commanded the 
man, saying. Of every tree of the garden thou 
mayest freely eat; 

1 7 But of the tree of the knowledge of good 
and evil, thou slialt not eat of it ; for on the day 
that thou eatest thei-eof thou shalt surely die. 

18 And the Lord God said. It is not good 
that the man should be alone ; I will make 
him a help suitable for him.* 

19 And the Lord God had formed out of 
the ground every beast of the field, and every 
fowl of the heaven, and he brought them unto 
the man to see what he would call them ; and 
whatsoever the man would call every living 
creature, that should be its name. 

20 And the man gave names to all cattle, 
and to the fowl of the heaven, and to every 
beast of the field ; but for man there was not 
found a help suitable for him. 

21 And the Lord God caused a deep sleep 
to fall upon the man, and he slept ; and he 
took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh 
instead thereof. 

22 And the Lord God formed" the rib 
which he had taken from the man into a wo- 
man, and brought her unto the man. 

23 And the man said. This time'' it is bone 
of my bones, and flesh of my flesh ; this shall 
be called Woman, (Ishah,) because out of 
Man (Ish) was this one taken. 

24 Therefore doth" a man leave his father 
and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and 
they become one flesh. 

•After the Hebrew, "built." 

'' In opposition to the other animals named before, they 
being unlike man, consequently not like the woman, bone 
of his bone, and flesh of his flesh. — Philippson gives it : 
" This one, at this time, is," &c. 

" The Hebrew future employed in the test represents 
not a command, but the habit; and, in this manner, the 
future tense is frequently used, where a constant practice 
or habit is alluded to- 



'25 And they were both naked, the man 
and his wife, and were not ashamed. 

CHAPTER III. 

1 Now the serpent was more subtle than 
any beast of the field which the Lord God 
had made , and he said unto the woman, Hath 
God indeed said. Ye shall not eat of every 
tree of the garden ? 

2 And the woman said unto the serpent. 
We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the 
garden ; 

3 But of the fruit of the tree Avhich is in 
the midst of the garden, God hath said. Ye 
shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch'* it, 
lest ye die. 

4 And the serpent said unto the woman. 
Ye will surely not die ; 

5 For God doth know, that, on the day ye 
eat thereof, your eyes will be opened, and ye 
will be as God, knowing good and evil. 

6 And when the woman saw that the tree 
was good for food, and that it was pleasant to 
the eyes, and the tree was desirable to make 
one wise,' she took of its fruit, and did eat, 
and gave also unto her husband with her, and 
he did eat. 

7 And the eyes of both of them were 
opened, and they felt that they were naked ; 
and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made 
themselves aprons. 

8 And they heard the voice of the Lord God 
walking in the garden in the cool of the day ; 
and the man and his wife hid themselves*^ 
from the presence of the Lord God amongst 
the trees of the garden. 

9 And the Lord God called unto the man, 
and said unto him. Where art thou ? 

10 And he said. Thy voice I heard in the 
garden; and I was afraid, because I am 
naked; and I hid myself. 

11 And he said. Who told thee that thou art 
naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof 
I comman-ded thee that thou shouldest not eat ? 

12 And the man said. The woman whom 



^ Here is shown the danger of adding to the command- 
ment; God had not ordained them not to touch the tree, 
only not to eat of the fruit; hence she was less able to 
withstand the cunning of the serpent. 
■ " " To contemplate." — Mendelssohx. 

' In the text the verb is used in the singular, and ought 
therefore to be properly given, "and the man hid himself 
with his wife." This construction is very frequent in 
Hebrew. 

5 



GENESIS III. IV. BERESHITII. 



thou gavest to bo vith me, she gave me of 
the tree, and I did cat. 

i:j An(} tlie LoHo God said unto the woman, 
Wliat is this tiiat thou liast done? And the 
woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I 
did eat. 

14 And the Lord God said unto the ser- 
pent, Because thou hast done this, be thou 
cursed above all the cattle, and above every 
l>cast of the field ; upon tliy belly sh.alt thou 
jro, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy 
life : 

15 And I will put enmity between thee 
and the woman, and between thy seed and 
her seed ; he shall bruise thy head, and thou 
shalt wound his heel. 

IG ^1 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly 
multiply thy pain and (the suffering of) thy 
conception ; in pain thou shalt bring Ibrth 
children ; and for thy husband shall be thy 
desire, but he shall rule over thee. 

17 ^f And unto Adam" he said, Because 
thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy. 
wife, and hast eaten of the tree of which I 
commanded thee, sa3'ing, Thou shalt not eat 
of it: cursed be the ground for thy sake; in 
pain shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life. 

18 And thorns and thistles shall it bring 
forth to thee ; and thou shalt eat the herbs 
of the field.'' 

lU In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat 
bread, till thou return unto the ground, for 
out of it wast thou taken ; for dust thou art, 
and unto dust shalt thou return. 

20 And the man called his wife's name 
Eve" (Chavvah); because she was the mother 
of all living (Chay). 

21 And the Lord God made unto Adam and 
to his wife coats of skins, and clothed them.''- 

22 •■ And the Loud God said. Behold, the 
man is become as one of us, to know good and 
evil ; and now, lest he put Ibrtli his hand, 
and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and 
live for ever.'' 

23 Therefore the Lord God sent him forth 



from the garden of Eden, to till the ground 
from which he was taken. 

24 So he drove out the man ; and he placed 
at the east of the garden of Eden the Cheru- 
bim, and the flaming" sword which revolveth, 
to guard the way to the tree of life. 

CHAPTER IV. 

1 ^ And the man knew Eve his wife ; and 
she conceived, and bore Cain, and said, I have 
gotten^ a man from the Lord. 

2 And she bore again, his brother, Abel f 
and Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was 
a tiller of the ground. 

3 And it came to pass in process of time, 
that Cain brought of the fruit of the ground 
an offering unto the Lord. 

4 And Abel — he also brought of the first- 
lings of his flock, and of the lattest'' thereof; 
and the Lord had respect unto Abel and to 
his offering; 

5 But unto Cain and to his offering he had 
not respect ; and it was very displeasing to 
Cain, and his countenance fell. 

6 And the Lord said unto Cain, Why art 
thou wroth ? and why is thy countenance 
fallen? 

7 If thou doest well, shalt thou not be ac- 
cepted ? and if thou doest not well, sin lieth 
at the door ; and unto thee is its desire, but 
thou canst rule over it. 

8 And Cain talked with Abel his brother: 
and it came to pass when they were in the 
field, that Cain rose up against Abel his 
brother, and slew him. 

9 And the Lord said unto Cain, Where is 
Abel thy brother? And he said, 1 know not; 
am I my brother's keeper ? 

10 And he .s.iid, What hast thou done ? the 
voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me 
from the ground. 

11 And now be thou cursed from' the 
ground, which hath opened its moutii to 
receive thy brother's blood from thy hand: 

12 When thou tillest the ground, it shall 



• Adam BigniBcs "man," as one taken from the prouiiJ; lie remain in Ellen, it waif the intention of the Deity to 



Ailiim, man, being licriveil from Ailmtinh, gniunil. 

"" The curse was directed to Ailam, that he .should be 
rompelled to obtain hi.s food by constant toil, wherea.s be- 
fore sinning, only slight exertions were required to gather 
what grew sponlaucously from the ground. 

• Signifying " living." 

* Kvidently an elliptical sentence; meaning, that since 
mao might partake of the fruit of the tree of life should 





banish him, which banishment is then recorded in the 
next verses. 

• Literally, " the flame of the sword," itc. 

' pp A'.fi/iii, fromnjp Kaniik. 1'hilippson, after R.^- 
sm, renders pk by " with," i'. e. " the aid of." 

' Correctly, " Habcl." 

' Eng. ver. and others, " the fat," &o. 

' " More than the ground." — Salomon. 



GENESIS IV. V. BERESHITH. 



not henceforth yield its strength unto thee ; 
fugitive and vagabond shalt thou be on the 
earth. 

13 And Cain said unto the Lord, My 
punishment is greater than I can bear. 

14 Beliold, thou hast driven me out this 
day from the face of the ground ; and from 
thy face" shall I be hid ; and if I shall be a 
fugitive and vagabond on the earth, it will 
come to pass, that every one that findeth me 
will slay me. 

15 And the Lord said unto him. Therefore 
whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be 
taken on him seven-fold. And the Lord set 
a sign unto Cain, that any one finding him 
should not kill him. 

16 And Cain went out from the presence 
of the Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on 
the east of Eden. 

17 And Cain knew his wife, and she con- 
ceived, and bore Enoch ;*" and he built a city, 
and called the name of the city after the 
name of his son Enoch. 

18 And unto Enoch was born Irad; and 
Irad begat Mehujael; and Mehijael begat 
Methushael ; and Methushael begat Lemech.* 

19 And Lemech took unto himself two 
wives, the name of the one was Adah, and the 
name of the other Zillah. 

20 And Adah bore Jabal; he was the 
father of such as dwell in tents, and have cattle. 

21 And his brother's name was Jubal ; he 
was the father of all such as play on the 
harp and guitar." 

22 And Zillah, she also bore Tubal-cain, 
an artificer in every article of copper and iron ; 
and the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah. 

23 And Lemech said unto his wives, Adah 
and Zillah, hear my voice ; ye wives of Le- 
mech, hearken unto my speech; for I have 
slain a man to my own wounding, and a young 
man to my hurt. 

24 If Cain shall be avenged seven-fold, 
truly Lemech seventy and seven-fold. 



* i. e. Thy protection will be withdrawn. 
^ Correctly, " Chanoch." 

° Others render this with " pipe," making Jubal the 
the inventor of stringed and wind instruments in their 
simplest forms. 

* From Shath, " he bestowed." 

° Rasiii renders " by," and explains, " to call men and 
idols by the name of God, to convert them into deities for 
worship;" and he would thus place the commencement of 
idolatrous worship as early as the time of the grandson of 



25 And Adam knew his wife again, and 
she bore a son, and called his name Sheth'' 
(Seth) ; for God (said she) hath appointed 
me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain 
slew. 

26 And to Shefh, to him also there was born 
a son ; and he called his name Enosh : then 
began men to call upon" the name of the 
Lord.* 

CHAPTER V. 

1 ^ This is the book of the generations of 
Adam. On the day that God created man, 
in the likeness of God made he him : 

2 Male and female created he them -^ and 
blessed them, and called their name Adam, 
on the day when they were created. 

3 And Adam lived a hundred and thirty 
years, and begat a son in his likeness, after 
his image ; and called his name Sheth. 

4 And the days of Adam after he had be- 
gotten Sheth were eight hundred years ; and 
he begat sons and daughters. 

5 And all the days that Adam lived were 
nine hundred and thirty years; and he died. 

6 *\ And Sheth lived a hundred and five 
years, and begat Enosh. 

7 And Sheth lived after he had begotten 
Enosh eight hundred and seven years ; and he 
begat sons and daughters. 

8 And all the days of Sheth were nine 
hundred and twelve years ; and he died. 

9 ^ And Enosh lived ninety years, and 
begat Kenan. 

10 And Enosh lived after he had begotten 
Kenan eight hundred and fifteen years ; and 
he begat sons and daughters. 

11 And all the dajs of Enosh were nine 
hundred and five years ; and he died. 

12 ^ And Kenan lived seventy years, and 
begat Mahalalel. 

13 And Kenan lived after he had begotten 
Mahalalel eight hundred and forty years; 
and he begat sons and daughters. 



Adam : others explain simply, " then men began to pray 
to God;" others again, " to teach in the name of God;" 
whilst others would understand that the name of God was 
u.sed in denominating persons — perhaps, by attaching the 
syllable d (God) to names. 

' In the sacred writing, the change of persons from 
second to third, and from singular to plural, and vice versa, 
is by no means a rare construction ; but as there is always 
some reason easily apparent for this change, it will be pre- 
served for the most part in this version. 

7 



GENESIS V. VI. BERESHITH. 



14 And all the days of Kenan were nine 
luiiidred and ten years; and he died. 

15 ^1 And Mahalalel lived sixty and five 
years, and begat Tared. 

IG And Mahalalel lived after he had be- 
gotten .Tared eight hundred and thirty years ; 
and he begat sons and daughters. 

17 And all the days of Mahalalel were 
eight hundred ninety and five years ; and he 
died. 

18 ^ And Jared lived a hundred sixty 
and two years, and begat Enoch." 

19 And Jared lived after he had begotten 
Enoch eight hundred years; and he begat 
sons and daughters. 

20 And all the days of Jared were nine 
hundred sixty and two years; and he died. 

21 Ti And Enoch lived sixty and five 
years, and begat Methushelah. 

22 And Enoch walked'' with God after he 
had begotten Methushelah three hundred 
years; and begat sons and daughters. 

23 And all the days of Enoch were three 
hundred sixty and five years. 

24 And Enoch walked with God, and he 
was no more ; for God had taken"" him.* 

25 T[ And Methushelah lived a hundred 
eighty and seven years, and begat Lemech. 

2G And Methushelah lived after he had be- 
gotten Lemech seven hundred eighty and two 
years ; and he begat sons and daughters. 

27 And all the days of Methushelah were 
nine hundred sixty and nine years ; and he 
died. 

28 % And Lemech lived a hundred eighty 
and two years, and begat a son. 

29 And he called his name Noach, (Noah,) 



• Correctly, "Chanoch." 

•^ Tlic term " walking with God" is cmploj-eJ to ex- 
press a righteous course of life, as though the man of 
whom it is saiJ, walked with and was accompanied by the 
presence of liis Maker. So is it said of Noah, "Noah 
walked with God." In other places it is called walking 
in the presence of God, as we read in the history of Abra- 
ham: "Walk before me and be perfect." So, on the other 
hand, to act wickedly is termed " throwing God behind 
one's back." All these, and many others, arc figurative 
phrases used by the Hebrews to give a lively idea of 
what simple words fail to express as strongly and beauti- 
fully. 

' Kvidcnt reference to a life after death: the decease of the 
righteous is thus termed against tliid used elsewhere, 
probably to indicate that they are to dwell with their God 
whom they have worshipped. (Compare with I'salm 
xlix. 10.) 

''IIasiii renders, "shall give us rest," nj, from nj', he 
8 



saying, This one shall comforf us concerning 
our work and the toil of our hands, because 
of the ground which the Lord hath cursed. 

30 And Lemech lived after he had begotten 
Noah five hundred ninety and five years ; and 
begat sons and daughters. 

31 And all the days of Lemech were seven 
hundred seventy and seven years; and he 
died. 

32 ^ And Noah was five hundred years old, 
and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth. 

CHAPTER VI. 

1 And it came to pass, when men began to 
multiply on the face of the earth, and 
daughters were bom unto them, 

2 That the sons of God" saw the daughters 
of men, that they were fair ; and they took 
themselves wives of all whom they chose. 

3 And the Lord said, My Spirit'' shall not 
always strive for the sake of man, for that he 
is but flesh ; yet his days shall be a hundred 
and twenty years. 

4 The giants were on the earth in those 
days ; and also after that, when the sons of 
God came in unto the daughters of men, and 
they bore children to them ; these became 
the mighty men, who were of old the men of 
renown.* 

5 Tl And God saw that the wickedness of 
man was great on the earth, and that every 
imagination of the thoughts of his heart was 
only evil continually. 

And it repented'^ the Lord that he had 
made man on the earth, and it grieved him at 
his heart. 

7 And the Lord said, I will destroy the 

shaU give rest, from the root ni: — referring to the invention 
of the plough, which is assigned to Noah, by which humau 
labour was much abridged. 

" " Sons of the chiefs." — Onkelos. Daughters of men, 
those of the common people. 

' " My Spirit cannot always rule in man, — in the strife 
of his passions he remains flesh, — and therefore shall his 
days be," &c. This is the new and bold version of Arn- 
heim. Kashi, Abon Ezra, Onkelos, and Mendelssohn give 
" his days" the addition " of grace," meaning the punish- 
ment of the intended flood should be delayed one hun- 
dred and twenty years, in hopes of man's repentance. 
Philippson renders, " My Spirit shall not for ever succumb 
in man, since he is but flesh." 

« This expression, otherwise not applicable to the Deity, 
who is no man that he lie should repent, is employed 
merely to convey to us, in human language, the action of 
God; for it is man's custom to repent of what he has made 
when he finds himself compelled to destroy it. 



GENESIS VI. VII. NOACH. 



mail whom I have created from the face of 
the earth ; both man and beast, and the creep- 
ing things and the fowls of the heaven ; for 
itrepenteth me that I liave made them. 

8 But Noah found grace ifi the eyes of the 
Lord. 

Uaphtorah in Isaiah xlii. 5-21 ; the Germans read to xliii. 11. 



SECTION II. NOACH, n:. 

9 ^ These are the generations of Noah: 
Noah was a just, perfect man in his genera- 
tions; Noah walked with God. 

10 And Noah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, 
and Japheth. 

11 And the earth was corrupt before God ; 
and the earth was filled with violence. 

12 And God looked upon the earth, and 
behold, it was corrupt, for all flesh had cor- 
ri^ted his way" upon the earth. 

13 Tl And God said unto Noah, The end of 
all flesh is come before me ; for the earth is 
filled with violence through them, and I will 
destroy them with*" the earth. 

14 Make thee an ark of gopher-wood, 
rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt 
pitch it within and without with pitch . 

15 And this is the manner in which thou 
shalt make it : The length of the ark shall be 
three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty 
cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. 

16 A window" shalt thou make to the ark, 
and thou shalt finish it above, to be one cubit 
broad, and the door of the ark shalt thou set 
in the side thereof; with lower, second, and 
third stories shalt thou make it. 

17 And as regards myself, behold, I will 
bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to de- 
stroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, 
from under the heavens ; every thing that is 
on the earth'' shall perish. 

18 But I will establish my covenant with 
thee ; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, 
and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' 
wives with thee. 

19 And of every living thing, of all flesh, 
two of every sort shalt thou bring into the 
ark, to keep them alive with thee : male and 
female shall they be. 



* Since to please God is called " walking" with him, 
a corruption of morals is properly termed " corrupting 
one's way." 

' Philippson, "from." ° Idem, "openings for light." 
' "On the earth," — this would except the animals in- 

15 



20 Of the fowls after their kind, and of the 
cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing 
of the earth after its kind, two of every sort 
shall come unto thee, to keep them alive. 

21 And thou, for thy part, take unto thee 
of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather 
it to thee ; and it shall be unto thee, and unto 
them for food. 

22 Thus did Noah ; according to aU that 
God commanded him, so he did.* 

CHAPTER VII. 

1 And the Lord said unto Noah, Come 
thou and all thy household into the ark ; for 
thee have I seen righteous before me in this 
generation. 

2 Of every clean beast thou shalt take to 
thee seven pair of each, the male and his fe- 
male ; and of beasts that are not clean two 
pair, the male and his female. 

3 Also of the fowls of the heaven, seven 
pair of each, the male and the female ; to keep 
seed alive upon the face of all the earth. 

4 For after only seven days more, I will 
cause it to rain upon the earth forty daj's and 
forty nights : and I will blot out every living 
substance that I have made from off the face 
of the earth. 

5 And Noah did all just as the Lord com- 
manded him. 

6 And Noah was six hundred years old 
when the flood of waters was upon the earth. 

7 And Noah went in, and his sons, and his 
wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the 
ark, because of the waters of the flood. 

8 Of the clean beasts, and of the beasts 
that are not clean, and of the fowls, and of 
every thing that creepeth" upon the earth, 

9 Two pair of each went in unto Noah 
into the ark, the male and the female, as God 
had commanded Noah. 

10 And it came to pass, after the seven days, 
that the waters of the flood were upon the earth. 

11 In the six hundreth year of Noah's life, 
in the second month, on the seventeenth day 
of the month, on this same day, were all the 
fountains of the great deep broken up, and 
the windows' of heaven were opened. 



habiting the waters, and they would thus seem not to have 
been destroyed by the flood. 

* Philippson renders hero and elsewhere, " which 
moveth :" the same version is also used here, ver. 21. 

' Figurative expression to denote the immense mass of 

9 



GENESIS VII. VIII. NOACIi. 



12 And the rain fell upon the earth forty 
(lays and forty nights. 

13 On that self-same day entered Noah, 
and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of 
Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives 
of his sons with them, into the ark ; _ 

14 They, and every beast after his kind, 
and all the cattle after their kind, and every 
creeping thing that crecpeth upon the earth 
after its kind, and every fowl after his kind, 
every bird, every thing that hath wings. 

15 And they went in unto Noah into the 
ark, two" pair of each, of all flesh, wherein is 
the breath of life. 

IG And they that went in, went in male 
and female of all flesh, as God had com- 
manded him : and then the Lord shut him in.* 

17 And the flood was forty days upon the 
earth ; and the waters increased, and bore up 
the ark, and it was lifted up above the earth. 

18 And the waters prevailed,'' and w^ere in- 
creased greatly upon the earth : and the ark 
floated along upon the face of the waters. 

19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly 
upon the earth ; and all the high mountains 
that are under the wdiole heavens were 
covered. 

20 Fifteen cubits above them did the 
waters prevail ; and the mountains were 
(thus) covered. 

21 And all flesh perished that moved upon 
the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of 
beast, and of every creeping thing that creep- 
eth upon the earth, and every man. 

22 All in whose nostrils was the breath of 
life, of all that were on the dry land, died. 

23 And it" swept ofi" every living sub.stance 
which was upon the face of the ground, both 
man, and cattle, and creeping things, and 
fowls of the heaven; and they were swept 
from the earth; and Noah only was left, 
together with tho.se that were with him in 
the ark. 

24 And the waters prevailed upon tlie 
earth one hundred and fifty days. 



water which poured down upon the earth, which appeared 
an though windows had been opened in the body of the 
atmosphere, from which the flood issued forth constantly 
in resistless strength. 

* Meaning " at liuist two," not excluding the remainder 
of the seven ordered of certain kinds. 

' That is, " they increased in mass, covering the earth." 
' The flood, referring thus to the nominative mentioned 
in verse 17. 

10 



CHAPTER VIII. 

1 And God remembered Noah, and every 
living thing,'' and all the cattle that were 
with him in thoark : and God caused a wind 
to pass over the earth, and the waters were 
assuaged ; 

2 The fountains also of the deep, and the 
windows of heaven were stopped; and the 
rain from heaven was restrained. 

3 And the waters returned from ofi" the 
earth, gradually returning ; and the waters 
were abated after the end of the hundred and 
fifty days. 

4 And the ark rested in the seventh 
month, on the seventeenth day of the month, 
upon the mountains of Ararat. 

5 And the waters decreased continually 
until the tenth month ; in the tenth month, 
on the first day of the month, were the t^ps 
of the mountains seen ; 

6 And it came to pass at the end of forty 
days, that Noah opened the window of the 
ark which he had made ; 

7 And he sent forth" a' raven which went 
forth to and fro, until the waters were dried 
up from ofi" the earth. 

8 He then sent forth a' dove from him, to 
see if the waters were abated from ofl' the 
face of the ground. 

9 But the dove found no resting-place for 
the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him 
unto the ark ; for there was water on the face 
of the whole earth ; then he put forth his 
hand, and took her, and brought her in unto 
him into the ark. 

10 And he stayed yet other seven days, 
and again he sent forth the dove out of the 
ark. 

11 And the dove came in to him at the 
time of the evening; and, lo, an olive-leaf 
plucked ofl' was in her mouth ; so Noah knew 
that the waters were abated from oft' the 
earth. 

12 And he stayed yet other seven days. 



"■ After Aben Ezra, who includes under the term rrn the 
birds and creeping things likewise. 

" The non-return of the birds was to be a sure sign of 
their finding the earth again fit for their habitation. 

' Heb. " The," moaning the birds known as raven 
and dove : the definite article is often so used in 
Scripture, to denote a nunknown individual of a known 
species. 



GENESIS VIII. IX. NOACH. 



and sent forth tlie dove ; but she returned not 
again unto him any more. 

13 And it came to pass in the six hun- 
dredth and first year, in the first month, on the 
first day of the month, that the waters were 
dried up from off the earth ; and Noah re- 
moved the covering of the ark, and looked, 
and, behold, the face of the ground was dry. 

14: And in the second month, on the seven 
and twentieth day of the month, was the earth 
perfectly dried up.* 

15 ][ And God spoke unto Noah, saying, 

16 Go forth from the ark, thou, and thy 
wife, and thy sons, and thy sons' wives with 
thee. 

17 Every living thing that is with thee, of 
all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of 
every creeping thing that creepeth upon the 
earth, bring forth with thee ; that they may 
breed abundantly on the earth, and be fruit- 
ful, and multiply upon the earth. 

18 And Noah went forth, and his sons, 
and his wife, and his sons' wives with him. 

19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and 
every fowl, whatsoever creepeth upon the 
earth, after their families, went forth out of 
the ark. 

20 And Noah built an altar unto the Lord, 
and he took of every clean cattle, and of every 
clean fowl, and offered burnt-offerings on the 
altar. 

21 And the Lord smelled the sweet savour ; 
and the Lord said in his heart, I will not 
again curse the ground any more for the sake 
of man; although" the imagination of man's 
heart is evil from his youth : neither will I 
again smite any more every thing living, as I 
have done. 

22 All the while the earth remaineth, 
seed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, and 
summer and winter, and daj' and night, 
shall not cease. 

CHAPTER IX. 

1 And God blessed Noah and his sons, and 



" This is Aknheim's version : others have it " because," 
which then convejs the idea that since man is so consti- 
tuted, it would be unjust to punish all, as had been done. 

'' That is, "your power," or "your disposal." 

° Our tradition says, that this prohibits the eating of 
any part of a living animal, 'nn ]a l^N : this barbarous 
custom is not yet extinct in some parts of the East. 

*The Noachitic commandments are, according to the 
Talmud: 1. The exercise of justice ; 2. The worship of 
God, or the prohibition of blasphemy ; 3. The prohibition 



said unto them. Be fruitful, and multiply, and 
replenish the earth. 

2 And the fear of you, and the dread of 
you, shall be upon every beast of the earth, 
and upon every fowl of the heaven ; whatever 
is that moveth upon the earth, and all the 
fishes of the sea, are delivered into your 
hand." 

3 Every moving thing that liveth shall be 
yours for food ; even as the green herbs have 
I given you all things. 

4 But flesh in which its life is," which is 
its blood, shall ye not eat. 

5 Your blood, however, on which your 
lives depend, will I require : at the hand of 
every beast will I require it ; and at the hand 
of man, at the hand of every man's brother 
will I require the life of man. 

6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man 
shall his blood be shed f for in the image of 
God made he man. 

7 And you, be 3'e fruitful, and multiply ; 
bring forth abundantly on the earth, and 
multiply thereon.* 

8 ^ And God spoke unto Noah, and to his 
sons with him, saying, 

9 And I, behold, I establish my covenant 
with you, and with your seed after you ; 

10 And with every living creature that is 
with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of 
every beast of the earth with you, from all 
those that go out of the ark, for every beast 
of the earth. 

11 And I will establish my covenant with 
you; and all flesh shall not be cut off any 
more by the waters of a" flood ; neither shall 
there be any more a flood to destroy the 
earth. 

12 And God said, This is the token of the 
covenant which I make' between me and j-ou, 
and every living creature that is with you, 
for pei'petual generations. 

13 My bow I do*^ set in the cloud, and it 
shall be for a token of the covenant between 
me and the earth. 



of idolatry; 4. The prohibition of incest; 5. The prohibi- 
tion of murder; 6. The prohibition of theft; 7. The pro- 
hibition of eating the flesh of a live animal. 

' Properly, " the flood," meaning that well-known 
quantity of water which constitutes a flood. See above, 
note to viii. 7. 

' Heb. "place," or "set." 

^ Heb. " I have set," indicating that the rainbow 
previously existing was appointed the sign of the new 
covenant. 

U 



GENESIS IX. X. NOACH. 



14 And it shall come to pass, that, when I j] 
hrinj; a cloud over the earth, and the bow !l 
shall \)ii fcen in the cloud, | 

10 I will remeinlKT my covenant, which | 
is between me and you and every living 
creature of all ilesh ; and the waters shall 
no more Ix'come a Hood to destroy all Ilesh. i 

10 And the bow shall be in the cloud ; and 
I will look upon it, that I may remember the j 
everlasting covenant lx;tween God and every i 
living creature, of all Ilesh, that is upon the 
earth. 

17 And God said unto Noah, This is the! 
token of the covenant which I have estarj 
bUshed between me and all flesh that is upon [ 
the earth.* j 

15 ^ And the sons of Noah that went forth I 
from the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and 
Japhcth ; and Ham was the father of Canaan. ' 

19 These three were the sons of Noah, 
and of them was the whole earth overspread. 

20 And Noah, who was a husbandman, 
began his work, and he planted a vineyard. 

21 And he drank of the wine, and became 
drunken ; and he uncovered himself within 
his tent. 

22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw 
the nakedness of his father, and told it his 
two brothers without. 

23 And Shem and Japheth took a garment, 
and laid it upon both* their shoulders, and 
went backward, and covered the nakedness 
of their father; and their faces were turned 
backward, and they saw not their father's 
nakedness. 

24 And Noah awoke from his wine, and 
discovered what his younger son had done 
unto him. 

25 And he said. Cursed Ixi Canaan ; a ser- 
vant of servants shall he be unto his brethren. 

26 And he said, Blessed be the Loiin, the 
God of Shem ; and Canaan shall be a servant 
unto them. | 

27 May God enlarge the boundaries of 
Japhcth, and may he dwell in the tents of 
Shem ; and Canaan .thall be a servant unto 
them. Il 



28 And Noah lived after the flood three 
hundred and fifty years. 

29 And all the days of Noah were nine 
hundred and fifty years ; and he died. 

CHAPTER X. 

1 ^ Now these are the generations of the 
sons of Noah : Shem, Ham, and Japheth ; 
and unto them were sons born after the flood. 

2 The sous of Japheth : Gomer, and Magog, 
and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and 
Meshech, and Tiras. 

3 And the sons of Gomer : Ashkenaz, and 
Riphath, and Togarmah. 

4 And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and 
Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. 

5 From these were separated the isles'' of 
the nations in their lands, ever}' one after 
his tongue ; after their families, in their na- 
tions. 

G And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Miz- 
rayim, and Put, and Canaan. 

7 And the sons of Cush : Seba, and Havi- 
lah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtecha; 
and the sons of Raamah : Sheba, and Dedan. 

8 And Cush begat Nimrod ; he began to be 
a mighty'^ man on the earth. 

9 He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; 
wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod, a 
mighty hunter before the Lord. 

10 And the begimiing'' of his kingdom was 
Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in 
the land of Shinar. 

1 1 Out of that land went forth Asshur," and 
built Nineveh, and the city Rechoboth, and 
Calach, 

12 And Ret.-:on between Nineveh and Ca- 
lach ; the same is the great city. 

13 And Mizrayim Ixjgat the Ludim, and 
Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuchim, 

14 And the Pathru^sim, and Casluchim, 
(out of whom came the Pelishtim,) and the 
Caphtorim. 

15 And Canaaia begat Sidon his first-born, 
and Ileth, 

10 And the Jebusite, and the Emorite, and 
the Girgaabite, 



* " And Ihcy both placed it on their shoulder." — Aben j * " Tho chief town." — Onkf.i.os. 

Ezra. | • Mco(leli«.«nhn and others, " He (Nimrod) went forth 

' I'hilippson and others render thisi "country," or ft dis- ' to Asshur ;" but tho version in tho text is according to 

tricl with (lefino<l limltji, as the iMand is defined by the sea. the ancient-'', namely, that Asshur emigrated froiu Babel 

• Philippiion, "ruler," and supposes him to have been Ac., aud built Niucvuh, &c 
the first king. || 

l:: 



GENESIS X. XL NOACH. 



17 And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and 
the Sinite, 

18 And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, 
and the Hamathite ; and afterward were the 
families of the Canaanites spread abroad. 

19 And the border of the Canaanites was 
from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaz- 
zah ; as thou goest unto Sodom and Gomorrah, 
and Admah, and Zeboyim, even unto Lesha. 

20 These are the sons of Ham, after their 
families, after their tongues, in their countries, 
in their nations. 

21 Tl But unto Shem also, the father of all 
the children of Eber," the brother of Japheth 
the elder, were children born. 

22 The sons of Shem : Elam, and Asshur, 
and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram. 

23 And the children of Aram : Uz, and 
Hul, and Gether, and Mash. 

24 And Arpachshad begat Shelach; and 
Shelach begat Eber. 

25 And unto Eber were born two sons; 
the name of one was Peleg, for in his days 
was the earth divided; and his brother's name 
was Joktan. 

26 And Joktan begat Almodad, and She- 
leph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerach, 

27 And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah, 

28 And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, 

29 And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab ; 
all these were the sons of Joktan. 

30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as 
thou goest unto Sephar, the mount of the east. 

31 These are the sons of Shem, after their 
families, after their tongues, ia their lands, 
after their nations. 

32 These are the families of the sons of 
Noah, after their generations, in their nations; 
and from these were the nations separated on 
the earth after the flood. '•■" 

CHAPTER XI. 

1 T[ And the whole earth was of one lan- 
guage, and of one kind of words. 



* No doubt derived from the root 1^}f ' Ahar, " to pass 
over," whence Q-^zy 'Ihriyim, Ibrews, or those who came 
from over Euphrates to enter Palestine; and hence 
Abraham the Hebrew, who was so called because he came 
from Mesopotamia, or perhaps, because of his descent from 
'Eber. The H is not in the original, which is only 'Ibri, 
and would require it to be written Ebrew. The term, 
however, in its primitive meaning, was applied to the sons 
of Joktan, besides the Israelites, who have been thus de- 
noted exclusively ever since the time of Moses. 

' After Arnheim, who takes mpo as simply denoting 



2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed 
toward'' the east, that they foimd a plain in 
the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. 

3 And they said one to another. Go to, let 
us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly. 
And thus the brick served them for stone, 
and slime" served them for mortar. 

4 And they said. Go to, let us build our- 
selves a city, and a tower, the top of which 
may reach unto heaven ; and let us make 
ourselves a name, lest we be scattered abroad 
upon the face of the whole earth. 

5 And the Lord came down to see the city 
and the tower, which the children of man 
were building. 

6 And the Lord said. Behold, it is one 
people, and they have all one language, and 
this is the first thing they undertake to do; 
and now shall they not be restrained in all 
which they have imagined to do? 

7 Go to, let us go down, and confound 
there their language, that they may not 
understand one another's speech. 

8 So the Lord scattered them abroad from 
there over the face of all the earth ; and they 
left off to build the city. 

9 Therefore is the name of it called Babel," 
because the Lord did there confound the lan- 
guage of all the earth ; and from there did the 
Lord scatter them abroad over the face of all 
the earth. 

10 ]y These are the generations of Shem: 
Shem, when a hundred years old, begat 
Arpachshad, two years after the flood. 

11 And Shem lived after he had begotten 
Arpachshad five hundred years; and begat 
sons and daughters. 

12 ^ And Arpachshad lived five and thirty 
years, and begat Shelach. 

13 And Arpachshad lived after he had be- 
gotten Shelach four hundred and three" years; 
and begat sons and daughters. 

14 II And Shelach lived thirty years, and 
begat Eber. 

" from Ararat," which, though properly to the north-west of 
Shinar, yet was to the east of Palestine and Egypt, where 
the Israelites, and consequently Moses the writer of the 
books of the law, lived. Others again imagine that an 
emigration to the east proper may have taken place before, 
and they were then journeying back to Shinar. 

" A peculiar earthy adhesive substance of that country. 

* From BahlalSSa " to mingle." 

■= Remarkable decrease of the length of human life. 
When before the flood the age of man reached to near a 
thousand years, as was the case also with Noah : Shem 



GENESIS XL XII. LECH LECHA. 



15 And Shclacli lived after he had begotten 
Eber four hundred and three years; and begat 
sons and daughters. 

16 T[ And Eber lived four and thirty years, 
and begat Peleg. 

17 And Eber lived after he had begotten 
Peleg four hundred and thirty j^ears; and 
begat sons and daughters. 

18 T[ And Peleg lived thirty years, and 
begat Reii. 

19 And Peleg lived after he had begotten 
Reii two hundred and nine years; and begat 
sons and daughters. 

20 ^ And Reii lived two and thirty j-ears, 
and begat Serug. 

21 And Reii lived after he had begotten 
Serug two hundred and seven years ; and be- 
gat sons and daughters. 

22 ^ And Serug lived thirty years, and 
begat is^achor. 

23 And Serug lived after he had begotten 
Nachor two hundred years; and begat sous 
and daughters. 

24 Tf And Nachor lived nine and twenty 
years, and begat Tei-ach. 

25 And Nachor lived after he had begotten 
Terach a hundred and nineteen years ; and 
begat sons and daughters. 

26 ][ And Terach lived seventy years, and 
begat Abram, Nachor, and Harau. 

27 Now these are the generations of Te- 
rach : Terach begat Abram, Nachor, and 
Haran ; and Harau begat Lot. 

28 And Haran died before his father Te- 
rach in the laud of his nativity, in Ur of the 
Chaldees.* 

29 And Abram and Nachor took themselves 
wives; the name of Abram's wife was Sarai; 
and the name of Nachor's wife was Milcah, 
the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, 
and the father of Yiscah. 

30 ButSarai was barren; she had no child. 

31 And Terach took Abram his son, and 



lived only six hundred years, and his son four hundred 
and thirty-eight, till Abraham reached but one hundred 
and sevcnty-tive years, and in Jloses's time the years of 
man were reduced to mere " threescore and ten." May 
we not discover in this circumstance a wise Providence ? 
If the people before the flood, trusting in their long 
stay on earth, forgot their Maker, the speedy accounta- 
bility in those of later times was well calculated to make 
them reflect on their conduct. Besides this, the decrease 
of human life was gradual, which would seem to be owing 
to the necessity of leaving, in the first ages, life sufficiently 
long to enable mankind to people the earth by degrees. 



Lot, the son of Haran, his son's son, and 
Sarai his daughter-iu-law, the wife of his son 
Abram ; and they went forth with them from 
Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of 
Canaan ; and they came unto Charan, and 
dwelt there. 

32 Ajid the days of Terach were two hun- 
dred and five years; and Terach died in 
Charan. 

Ilaphtorah in Isaiah liv. 1-10 ; the Germans read to Iv. 5. 



SECTION IIL LECH LECHA, -f^ ']h. 

CHAPTER XIL 

1 ][ Now the Lord had said unto Abram, 
Get thee out of thy country, and out thy 
birthplace, and from thy father's hou.se, unto 
the land that I will show thee. 

2 And I will make of thee a great nation, 
aud I wall bless thee, and make thy name 
great ; and thou shalt be a blessing :* 

3 And I will bless those that bless thee, 
and him*" that curseth thee, will I curse ; and 
in thee" shall all families of the earth be 
blessed. 

4 So Abram departed, as the Lord had 
spoken unto him, and Lot went with him; 
and Abram was seventy aud five years old at 
his departure out of Charan. 

5 And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot 
his brother's son, and all their substance that 
they had acquired, and the jrersons'' that they 
had obtained in Charan; aud they went forth 
to go into the land of Canaan ; and they came 
into the laud of Canaan. 

6 And Abram passed through the land 
unto the place" of Shechem, unto the plain of 
Moreh; and the Cauaanite was then in the laud. 

7 And the Lord appeared unto Abram, 
aud said, Unto thy seed will I give this laud. 
And he built there an altar unto the Lord, 
who had appeared unto him. 



* " So great shall be thy blessing and prosperity, that 
thou shall become a blessing to others ; for when a man 
•shall bless his son, he will say to him, May the Lord blosa 
thee with Abraham's blessing." — Dubno. 

*■ " In the singular ; for few would curse Abraham, 
whilst many would bless him." — Idkm. 

° "Through thee, for thy sake and thy merit." — Idem. 

'' English ver.-iion, " souls." " And the souls whom 
they had subjected to the Law." — Onkelos. But the 
simple aud evident meaniug is, '' the servants and follow- 
ers whom they have obtained control of." 

• That is, " where Shechem was afterward built." 



GENESIS XII. XIII. LECH LECHA. 



8 And he removed from there unto the 
mountain on the east of Beth-el, and pitched 
his tent, having Beth-el on the west, and 'Ai 
on the east ; and he built thex'e an altar unto 
the Lord, and called upon the name" of the 
Lord. ^ 

9 And Abram journeyed farther, still go- 
ing on toward the south. 

10 ][ And there arose a famine in the 
land : and Abram went down into Egypt*" to 
sojourn there; for the famine was grievous in 
the land. 

11 And it came to pass, when he was 
come near to enter into Egypt, that he said 
unto Sarai his wife, Behold now, I know that 
thou art a woman of handsome appearance : 

12 And it may come to pass, when the 
Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say. 
This is his wife; and they may kill irie, but 
thee they will save alive. 

13 Say then, I pray thee, thou art my 
sister, that it may go well with me for thy 
sake, and my soul live because of thee.* 

14 And it came to pass, when Abram was 
come into Egypt, that the Egyptians beheld 
the woman that she was very fair. 

15 The princes also of Pharaoh saw her, 
and commended her to Pharaoh; and the 
woman was taken into Pharaoh's house. 

16 And he did well to Abram for her 
sake; and he received sheep, and oxen, and 
he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, 
and she-asses, and camels. 

17 But the Lord plagued Pharaoh and his 
house with great plagues because of Sarai, 
Abram's wife. 

18 And Pharaoh called" Abram, and said. 
What is this that thou hast done unto me ? 
Why didst thou not tell me that she is thy 
wife? 

19 Why saidst thou, She is my sister? 
and so I took her to me for a wife ; now there- 
fore, behold, here is thy wife, take her, and 
go thy way. 

20 And Pharaoh commanded some men 



" Aben Ezra, "or, called the people together to serve 
the Lord." 

"' Because Egypt was better cultivated than Canaan, 
which was generally inhabited by the nomadic tribes in 
the days of the patriarchs. 

° That is, "had him called." 

^ The south of Palestine ; for, correctly speaking, Abra- 
ham travelled northward from Egypt, but still the first part 
of Palestine he reached on his return was "the south" thereof. 



concerning him, who accompanied him and 
his wife, and all that he had. 

CHAPTER XIIL 

1 And Abram went up out of Egypt, he, 
and his wife, and all that he had, and Lot 
with him. into the south.* 

2 And Abram was very rich in cattle, in 
silver, and in gold. 

3 And he went on his journeys from the 
south even to Beth-el, unto the place where 
his tent had been at the beginning, between 
Beth-el and 'Ai ; 

4 Unto the place of the altar, which he 
had made there at the first ; and Abram called 
there on the name of the Lord.* 

5 And Lot also, who went with Abram, 
had flocks, and herds, and tents. 

6 And the land was not able to bear them, 
that they might dwell together ; for their sub- 
stance was great, so that they could not dwell 
together. 

7 And there arose a strife between the 
herdmen of Abram's cattle, and the herdmen 
of Lot's cattle : and the Canaanite and the 
Perizzite dwelled then in the land. 

8 And Abram said unto Lot, Let there be 
no strife, I pray thee, between me and thee, 
and between my herdmen and thy herdmen ; 
for we are near relatives. 

9 Is not the whole land before thee ? Sepa- 
rate thyself, I pray thee, from me : if thou 
wilt take the left hand, then I will go to the 
right ; or if thou depart to the right, then I 
will go to the left. 

10 And Lot lifted up his eyes, and beheld 
all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered 
everywhere; before" the Lord destroyed So- 
dom and Gomorrah, (it was) like the garden 
of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, till thou 
comest unto Zoiir. 

11 Then Lot chose himself all the plain 
of Jordan ; and Lot journeyed east / and 
they separated themselves the one from the 
other. 



° This version, somewhat differing from the English 
Bible, is according to Rashi and others, .ind removes the 
obscurity which otherwise exists. The second part of this 
verse must thus be regarded as a parathesis explaining the 
character of the plain of the Jordan, which Lot chose for 
his habitation. 

' The same construction again as above, xi. 2, Dipo, " to 
the cast," instead of "from." 



GENESIS XIII. XIV. LECII LECHA. 



12 Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan; 
and Lot dwelt in the cities of the plain, and 
pitched his tents, till close to Sodom. 

13 But the men of Sodom were wicked 
and sinners before the Lord exceedingly. 

14 And the Lord said unto Abram, after 
Lot was separated from him, Lift up now thy 
eyes, and look from the place where thou art, 
nortliward, and southward, and eastward, and 
westward ; 

15 For all the land which thou seest, 
to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for 
ever. 

IG And I will make thy seed as the dust 
of the earth ; so that if a man can number 
the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also 
be numbered. 

17 Arise, walk through the land in the 
length of it and in the breadth of it ; for unto 
thee will I give it. 

18 Then Abram pitched his tent, and came 
and dwelt in the grove* of Mamre, w^hich is in 
Hebron ; and he built there an altar unto the 
Loud.'"' 

CHAPTER XIV. 

1 ^ And it came to pass, in the days of Am- 
raphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, 
Kedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of 
Goyim ; 

2 That these made war with Bera king 
of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, 
Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king 
of Zeboyim, and the king of Bela, which is 
Zoar. 

3 All these joined together in the vale of 
Siddim, which is now the salt sea. 

4 Twelve years had they served Kedor- 
laomer, but in the thirteenth year they re- 
belled. 

5 And in the fourteenth year came Kedor- 
laomer, and the kings that were with him, 
and they smote the Repha'im in Ashteroth- 
karnayim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the 
Emim in Shaveh-kiriathayim, 

C And the Horites in their mountain 



• Mendelssohn, after Aben Ezra, translates the word 
(iSk in this manner, since it is used to express " tree" in 
many places. Onkelos, however, calls it " plain." 

■' The pits. Compare with Kxod. xxi. 33, whcrt nat?, 
like here, refers to tlie pit into which the animal falls; not 
"there," as in the Kiigli.sli version. 

° Brother, in Hebrew, denotes frequently a near rela- 
16 



Seir, unto El-paran, which is by the wilder- 
ness. 

7 And they returned, and came to En- 
mishpat, which is Kadesh, and smote all the 
country of the Amalekites, and also the Emor- 
ites, that dwelt in Hazezon-tamar. 

8 And then went out the king of Sodom, 
and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of 
Admah, and the king of Zeboyim, and the 
king of Bela, (the same is Zoar ;) and they 
joined battle with them in the vale of Siddim ; 

9 With Kedorlaomer king of Elam, and 
with Tidal king of Goyim, and Amraphel 
king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; 
four kings with five. 

10 And the vale of Siddim was full of 
slime-pits; and the kings of Sodom and Go- 
morrah fled, and fell therein ;'' and they that 
remained fled to the mountain. 

11 And they took all the goods of Sodom 
and Gomorrah, and all their victuals, and went 
their way. 

12 And they took Lot, Abram's brother's 
son, who dwelt in Sodom, and his goods, and 
departed. 

13 And there came one that had escaped, 
and told it to Abram the Hebrew; but he 
dwelt in the grove of Mamre the Emorite, 
brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner, and 
these were confederates of Abram. 

14 And w'hen Abram heard that his 
brother" was taken captive, he armed his 
trained servants, born in his own house, three 
hundred and eighteen, and pursued them unto 
Dan.-^ 

15 And he divided himself against them, 
he and his servants, by night, and smote them, 
and pursued them unto Ilobah, which is on 
the left liand of Damascus. 

IG And he brought back all the goods; 
and he also brought again his brother Lot, 
and his goods, and also the women, and the 
people. 

17 And the king of Sodom went out to 
meet him (after his return from smiting Ke- 
dorlaomer, and the kings that were with him) 



tive, for above he ia called, as he was, Abram's brother's 
son. 

* Perhaps another city than the ancient Laish, though 
evidently in the same neighbourhood. If a eonjeeture 
may be hazarded, it may have been a place of resort for 
judgment, from |n <loii, in the north, as 'En-mishpat, i.e. 
"the spring of judgment," was at the south of Palestine 



GENESIS XIV. XV, LECH LECHA. 



at the valley of Shaveli, which is the kings' 
dale. 

18 And Malkizedek king of Salem brought 
forth bread and wine ; and he was a priest of 
the most high God. 

19 And he blessed him, and said, Blessed 
be Abram of the most high God, the possessor 
of heaven and earth. 

20 And blessed be the most high God, who 
hath delivered thy enemies into thy hand. 
And he gave him tithes of all.* 

21 And the king of Sodom said unto 
Abram, Give me the persons, and the goods 
take to thyself. 

22 And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I 
have lifted up my hand unto the Lord, the most 
high God, the possessor of heaven and earth, 

23 That I will not" take from a thread 
even to a shoe-latchet, and that I will not 
take any thing that is thine ; lest thou shouldst 
say, I have made Abram rich: 

24 Save only that which the young men 
have eaten, and the portion of the men who 
went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre — 
these may take their portion. 

CHAPTER XV. 

1 ][ After these things the word of the Lord 
came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear 
not, Abram; I am thy shield, thy reward 
shall be exceedingly great. 

2 And Abram said. Lord God, what wilt 
thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the 
steward of my house is Eliezer of Damascus ? 

3 And Abram said, Behold to me thou 
hast given no seed ; and lo, one born in my 
house will be my heir. 

4 And behold, the word of the Lord came 
unto him, saying. This one shall not be thy 
heir ; but he that shall come forth out of thy 
own bowels shall be thy heir. 

5 And he brought him forth abroad, and 
said, Look now toward the heaven, and count 
the stars, if thou be able to count them ; and 
he said unto him, So shall thy seed be. 



' Abraham's disinterestedness and true faith. God had 
promised to make him great ; and hence, though he had 
expended time and treasure, and exposed his life in the 
assault he made upon the conquerors of many nations, he 
refused to be benefited through the munificent oflFer of the 
king of Sodom. 

^ Onkelos and Rashi render, "three heifers," &c. 

' The inhabitants of the land wherein the seed of Abra- 
ham was to dwell : see next verse. 
C 



G And he believed in the Lord; and he 
accounted it to him for righteousness.* 

7 And he said unto him, I am the Lord 
that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, 
to give unto thee this land, to inherit it. 

8 And he said, Lord God, whereby shall I 
know that I shall inherit it ? 

9 And he said unto him. Take me a heiler 
of three'' years old, and a she-goat of three 
years old, and a ram of three j'ears old, and a 
turtle-dove, and a young pigeon. 

10 And he took unto him all these, and 
divided them in the midst, and laid each piece 
one opposite the other; but the birds he did 
not divide. 

11 And the birds of prey came down upon 
the carcasses ; but Abram drove them away. 

12 And when the sun was about going 
down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram ; and lo, 
a horror, dark and great, fell upon him. 

13 And he said unto Abram, Know of a 
surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a 
land which is not theirs, and they" will make 
them serve, and they will afflict them four 
hundred years. 

14 And also that nation whom they shall 
serve, will I judge; and afterward shall they 
go out with great substance. 

15 But thou shalt come to thy fathers in 
peace ; thou shalt be bui'ied in a good old age. 

16 Yet the fourth'' generation shall come 
hither again ; for the iniquity of the Emorites 
will not be full until then. 

17 And it came to pass, when the sun had 
gone down, and it was dark, that behold a 
smoking furnace, and a burning flame,' which 
passed between those pieces. 

18 On the same day the Lord made a 
covenant with Abram, saying. Unto thy seed 
have I given this land, from the river of Egypt 
unto the great river, the river Euphrates; 

19 The Kenites, and the Kenizzites, and 
the Kadmonites, 

20 And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, 
and the Eepha'im, 



* The fourth generation of those who go down to that 
land, which was Egypt. — R.\shi. 

° It was customary in olden times, for contracting par- 
ties to cut up animals and pass alternately through the 
pieces, (Jer. xsxiv. 18;) therefore was the fire seen 
passing through the members of the animals which Abra- 
ham had placed, as the evident representative of the Lord 
who that day made " the covenant between the pieces" 
with the patriarch. 

17 



GENESIS XVI. XVII. LECH LECHA. 



21 And the Emorites, and the Canaanites, 
and the Girgashites, and the Jebiisites. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

1 ^ Now Sarai, Abrara's wife, bore him no 
children; and she had an Egyptian handmaid, 
whose name was Hagar. 

2 And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold 
now, the Lord hath restrained me from bear- 
ing : go in, I pray thee, unto my maid ; it may 
be that I may obtain" children by her. And 
Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai. 

3 And Sarai, Abi-am's wife, took Hagar, 
the Egyptian, her maid, after Abram had 
dwelt ten years in the land** of Canaan, and 
gave her to her husband Abram to be his 
wife. 

4 And he went in unto Hagar, and she 
conceived; and when she saw that she had 
conceived, her mistress became of little esteem 
in her eyes. 

5 And Sarai said unto Abram, I suffer" 
wrong through thee; I have placed my maid 
into thy bosom ; and when she saw that she 
had conceived, I became of little esteem in her 
eyes: may the Lord judge between me and 
thee. 

G But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, thy 
maid is in thy hand; do to her as it pleaseth 
thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her, 
she fled from her ftice. 

7 And an angel of the Lord found her by 
a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the 
fountain on the way to Shur. 

8 And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence 
camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? 
And she said, From the face of my mistress 
Sarai I am fleeing. 

9 And the angel of the Lord said unto her, 
Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself 
under her hands. 

10 And the angel of the Lord said unto 



• Heb. "Bo built up from her." 

^ Literally, "at the end of ten years of Abram's resi- 
dence in," &c. 

' Others render, " My wrong be upon thee." 
^ Yiahniang-el, " God will hear." 

• This version is according to Onkelos. Mendelssohn's 
version is : " Thou art a visible God ; for she said, Have 
I then seen any thing after he that saw me had departed ?" 
Arriheim again is very bold : " Thou art the God of the 
appearance (of propliccy) ; for she said, Do I now see 
here tlio least, after I have seen (clearly)?" A. distin- 
guislies between lio'i of Marali, >xi or TMtio, "appearance, 
indistinct vision," and Horh or Marrh, ns"i, ns"t:3, "dis- 

18 



her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, 
that it shall not be numbered for multi- 
tude. 

11 And the angel of the Lord said imto 
her, Behold, thou art with child, and wilt bear 
a son, and thou shalt call his name Ishmael;'' 
because the Lord hath heard thy affliction. 

12 And he will be a wild man; his hand 
will be against every man, and every man's 
hand against him; and in the presence of all 
his brethren shall he dwell. 

LS And she called the name of the Lord 
that spoke unto her. Thou art an all-seeing 
God ; for she said. Have I not also seen here 
a vision after he appeared to me ?■" 

1-1 Wherefore the well was called Beer- 
lachai-roi:'^ behold, it is between Kadesh and 
Bered. 

15 And Hagar bore Abram a son ; and 
Abram called the name of his son, whom Ha- 
gar bore, Ishmael. 

16 And Abram was eighty and six years 
old, when Hagar bore Ishmael to Abram. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

1 And when Abram was ninety and nine 
years old, the Lord appeared to Abram, and 
said unto him, I am the Almighty^ God; walk 
before me, and be thou perfect. 

2 And I will make my covenant between 
me and thee, and I will multiply thee exceed- 
ingly. 

3 And Abram fell on his face, and God 
spoke with him, saying, 

4 As for me, behold my covenant is with 
thee, and thou shalt become the father of a 
multitude of nations. 

5 Neither shall thy name any more be 
called Abram, but thy name shall be Abra- 
ham; for the father of a multitude of nations 
have I made thee. 

6 And I will make thee exceedingly fruit- 



tinct seeing and clear vision." (See also Numb, xii, 6, 8.) 

Hagar then meant that God w.is merely such a one as ap- 
pears to man in an indistinct, shadowy vision or image, 
not a substantial bodily being ; since she saw nothing any 
more after she had had the object speaking before her. — 
It is a difficult ver.se, and (,)nkolos seems to me to be 
nearer tlio truth than the later authorities. 

' " The well where the angel of the Living One was 
made manifest." — Onkelos. 

' This, Kl-Shadi).\i, is the first appellation which we 
find God to have assumed : the other terms were merely 
applied to him by mankind. The second revelation of his 
name is in E.xodus vi. 2, 3. 



GENESIS XVII. XVIII. VAYERA. 



ful, and I will cause thee to become nations ; 
and kings shall come out of thee.* 

7 And I will establish my covenant be- 
tween me and thee and between thy seed after 
thee in their generations for an everlasting 
covenant ; to be a God unto thee, and to thy 
seed after thee. 

8 And I will give unto thee, and to thy 
seed after thee, the land wherein thou so- 
journest, all the land of Canaan, for an ever- 
lasting possession ; and I will be their God. 

9 And God said unto Abraham, But thou, 
for thy part, shalt keep my covenant, thou, 
and thy seed after thee, in their generations. 

10 This is my covenant, which ye shall 
keep, between me and between you, and be- 
tween thy seed after thee : Every man-child 
among you shall be circumcised. 

11 And ye shall circumcise the flesh of 
your foreskin ; and this shall serve as the 
token of the covenant between me and you. 

12 And at eight days old shall every man- 
child in your generations be circumcised among 
you, he that is born in the house, or bought 
with money of any stranger, who is not of thy 
seed. 

13 He that is bom in thy house, and he 
that is bought with thy money, must needs 
be circumcised ; and my covenant shall be in 
your flesh for an everlasting covenant. 

14 And any uncircumcised male," who cir- 
cumciseth not the flesh of his foreskin, that 
soul shall be cut ofi" from his people ; he hath 
broken my covenant. 

15 ]| And God said unto Abi'aham, As for 
Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name 
Sarai, but Sarah* shall her name be. 

16 And I will bless her, and give thee also 
a son of her; yea I will bless hei", and she 
shall become a mother of nations; kings of 
people shall spring from her. 

17 Then Abraham fell upon his face, and 
Laughed ; and he said in his heart. Shall a 
child be born unto him that is a hundred 
years old? and shall Sarah, who is ninety 
years old, bear ? 

18 And Abraham said unto God, that 
Ishmael might live before thee !" 

19 And God said, Truly, Sarah thy wife 



* " When a person has reached the age of thirteen." — 
Eashi. 

'' " Princess." So Abraham signifies Abir-hamone, a 
chief of a multitude ; or, Ab-hamone, the father of a multi- 



shall bear thee a son ; and thou shalt call his 
name Isaac f and I will establish my cove- 
nant with hira for an everlasting covenant, 
for his seed after him. 

20 And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee : 
behold, I have blessed him, and will make 
him fruitful, and will multiply him exceed- 
ingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will 
make of him a great nation. 

21 But my covenant will I establish with 
Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear unto thee at 
this set time in the next year. 

22 And when he had left off" talking with 
him, God went up from Abraham. 

23 And Abraham now took Ishmael his 
son, and all that were born in his house, and 
all that were bought with his money, every 
male among the men of Abraham's house ; 
and he circumcised the flesh of their foreskin 
on the self-same day, as God bad spoken 
unto him.* 

24 And Abraham was ninety and nine 
years old, when he was circumcised in the 
flesh of his foreskin. 

25 And Ishmael his son was thirteen years 
old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of 
his foreskin. 

26 On the self-same day was Abraham cir- 
cumcised, with Ishmael his son. 

27 And all the men of his house, born in 
the house, and bought with money of the 
stranger, were circumcised with him. 

Ilaphtorah in Isaiah, xl. 27 to xli. 16. 



SECTION IV. VAYERA, Nin. 
CHAPTER XVIII. 

1 And the Lord appeared unto him in the 
grove of Mamre ; while he was sitting at the 
door of the tent in the heat of the day. 

2 And he lifted up his eyes and looked, 
and lo, three men stood near him ; and when 
he saw them, he ran to meet them from the 
door of the tent, and bowed himself to the 
ground ; 

3 And he said , My Lord, if now I have 
found favour in thy eyes, pass not away, I 
pray thee, from thy servant. 

4 Let a little water, I pray you, be fetched, 



tude : the first is from Dubno's Commentary, the second 
from Ilashi. 

° That is, " to please thee." 

'' Yitzchak, from pns tzachok, " to laugh." 



GENESIS XVIII. VAYERA. 



and wash your feet, and rest yourselves under 
the tree. 

5 Ajid I will fetch a morsel of bread, and 
comfort ye your heart, after that ye may 
pass on ; since ye have once passed by your 
servant. And they said, So do, as thou hast 
spoken. 

6 And Abraham hastened into the tent 
unto Sarah, and said. Make ready quickly 
three measures of fine meal, knead it, and 
make cakes. 

7 And Abraham ran unto the herd, and 
fetched a calf tender and good, and gave it 
unto a young man, and he hastened to 
dress it. 

8 And he took cream and milk, and the 
calf which he had dressed, and set it before 
them ; and he stood by them under the tree, 
and they did eat. 

9 And they said unto him, Where is Sarah 
thy wife ? And he said. Behold, in the tent. 

10 And he said, I will certainly return 
unto thee at this time next year ;" and lo, 
Sarah thy wife shall have a son. And Sarah 
heard it at the door of the tent, which was 
behind him. 

11 Now Abraham and Sarah were old and 
well stricken in years; it had ceased to be 
with Sarah after the manner of women. 

12 Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, 
saying. After I am waxed old shall I have 
pleasure, my lord also being old ? 

13 And the Lokd said unto Abraham, 
Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I 
of a surety bear a child, since I am old ? 

14 Is any thing too hard for the Lord ? At 
the time appointed I will return unto thee, 
at this time next year, and Sarah shall have 
a son.* 

15 Then Sarah denied, saying, I laughed 
not; for she was afraid; but he said, Nay; 
indeed thou didst laugh. 

16 And the men rose up from there and 



* Ra-shi. Arnhcira very ingeniously renders it, " at the 
time of the recovery," i. e. of Sarah, after the birth of 
the promised child, taking irn for recovery. 

" " Love him, because he," &c. — lUsui. " It is revealed 
before me that." — O.nkelos. 

° "I will spare them." — AnEN Ezka and Mendelssohn. 
Onkclos agrees with this, but adds, " if they repent," 
against the previous complete destruction " if they do not 
repent." llashi explains, " I will visit thera with suffer- 
ings, but not make an end of them." 

'' Others render, " Pardon the place." 
20 



looked toward Sodom; and Abraham went 
vnili them to bring them on the way. 

17 And the Lord said. Shall I hide from 
Abraham what I am about doing ? 

18 Seeing that Abraham shall surely be- 
come a great and mighty nation, and all the 
nations of the earth shall be blessed in him ? 

19 For I know'' him, that he will command 
his children and his household after him, that 
they shall keep the way of the Lord, to do 
righteousness and justice ; in order that the 
Lord may bring upon Abraham that which 
he hath spoken concerning him. 

20 And the Lord said, Because the cry 
against Sodom and Gomorrah is gi-eat, and 
because their sin is very grievous : 

21 I will go down now, and see, if they 
have done according to the cry against them, 
which is come unto me, destruction (shall 
come upon them) ; and if not, I will know" it. 

22 And the men turned their faces from 
there, and went toward Sodom ; but Abraham 
stood yet before the Lord. 

23 And Abraham drew near, and said. Wilt 
thou then destroy the righteous also with the 
Avicked ? 

24 Peradventure there are fifty righteous 
within the city ; wilt thou then also destroy 
and not spare'^ the place for the sake of the 
fifty righteous that are therein ? 

25 Far be it from thee to do after this 
manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked, 
and that the righteous should be as the 
wicked ;'' far be this from thee ; shall the 
Judge of all the earth not exercise justice? 

20 And the Lord said. If I tuid in Sodom 
fifty righteous within the city, then will I 
spare all the place for their sake. 

27 And Abraham answered and said, Be- 
hold now, I have taken upon me to spealv unto 
the Lord, although I am but dust and ashes : 

28 Peradventure there shall lack five of the 
fifty righteous; wilt thou then destroy all the 



" For in case an indiscriminate destruction of the cities 
should take place, all the inhabitants, whether good or 
wicked, would necessarily have to share the same fate ; 
Abraham therefore asked that the mercy which the right- 
eous deserved, might, in order to save them, st.iy the doom 
which was impending over the cities in which they dwelt ; 
and being at once a.ssured that divine justice would dis- 
criminate, he grew bolder in his prayer, till at length he 
was certified that even ten should cause the suspension of 
the punishment. 



GENESIS XVIII. XIX. VAYERA. 



city for the (lack of) these five ? And he said, jj 
I will not destroy, if I find there forty and five. | 

29 And he spoke yet again unto him, and i 
said, Peradventure there shall he found there 
forty. And he said, I will not do it for the j 
sake of the forty. \ 

30 And he said. Oh, let not the Lord be 
angry, and I will speak : Peradventure there 
shall be found there thirty. And he said, I 
will not do it, if I find there thirty. , 

31 And he said, Behold now, I have taken | 
upon me to speak unto the Lord : Peradven- 
ture there shall be found there twenty. And 
he said, I will not destroy, for the sake of the 
twenty. 

32 And he said. Oh, let not the Lord be 
angry, and I will speak yet but this once : 
Peradventure there shall be found there ten. 
And he said, I will not destroy, for the sake 
of the ten. 

33 And the Lord went away, when he had 
finished speaking with Abraham ; and Abra- 
ham returned unto his place.==' 



CHAPTER XIX. 

1 And the two angels came to Sodom in 
the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gate 
of Sodom ; and when Lot saw them he rose j 
up to meet them, and he bowed himself with 
his face to the ground. 

2 And he said. Behold now, my lords, 
turn in, I pray you, into your servant's house, 
and tarry all night, and wash your feet, and 
ye can rise up early, and go on your way. 
And they said, Nay ; but we will abide in the 
street all night. 

8 And he pressed upon them greatly, and 
they turned in unto him, and entered into his 
house ; and he made them a feast, and baked 
unleavened bread, and they did eat. 

4 But before they had lain down, the men 
of the city, even the men of Sodom, compassed 
the house round, both old and young, all the 
people from every quarter : 

5 And they called unto Lot, and said unto 
him. Where are the men who came in to thee 
this night? bring them out unto us, that we 
may know them. 

* " Cry" means that the greatness of the sin has be- 
come so apparent as to demand, " cry out for," vengeance 
against the transgressors. See above, iv. 10; xviii. 
20,21 



6 And Lot went out unto them, at the 
entrance (of the house), and shut the door 
after him, 

7 And he said, I pray you, my brethren, do 
not act wickedly. 

8 Behold now, I have two daughters who 
have not known man ; let me, I pray you, 
bring them out unto you, and do ye to them 
as is good in your eyes ; only unto these men 
do nothing, since they have once come under 
the shadow of my roof 

9 And they said, Stand back. And they 
said, This one man came in to sojourn, and 
he will needs be a judge ; now will we deal 
worse with thee than with them. And they 
pressed sore upon the man Lot, and they 
came near to break the door. 

10 But the men put forth their hand, and 
pulled^ Lot to them into the house, and the 
door they locked. 

11 And the men that were at the entrance 
of the house they smote with blindness, both 
small and great, so that they wearied them- 
selves to find the entrance. 

12 And the men said unto Lot, Hast thou 
here any besides ? a son-in-law, and thy sons, 
and thy daughters, and whatsoever thou hast 
in the city, bring out of this place. 

13 For we will destroy this place, because 
the cry" against them is waxed great before 
the face of the Lord ; and the Lord hath sent 
us to destroy it. 

14 And Lot went out and spoke unto his 
sons-in-law, who were to marry'' his daughters, 
and said. Arise, get yourselves out of this 
place, for the Lord will destroy this city ; but 
he seemed as one that jesteth in the eyes of 
his sons-in-law. 

15 And as the morning dawn arose, the 
angels urged Lot, saying. Arise, take thy 
wife, and thy two daughters that are here, lest 
thou be consumed for the iniquity of the city. 

16 And while he yet lingered, the men laid 
hold of his hand, and of the hand of his wife, 
and of the hand of his two daughters, because 
the Lord desired to spare him; and they 
brought him forth, and set him without the city. 

17 And it came to pass, when they had 



I text as "about to take;" but Rashi divides the words so, 
" His sons-in law, — he had two daughters married in the 
city; the takers of his daughters, — those to whom those at 

' home were betrothed." Aben Ezra also coincides with 



' Mendelssohn, who understands the participle in the 1| this. 



GENESIS XIX. XX. VAYERA. 



brought them forth abroad, that he said, 
Escape for thy life, look not behind thee, 
neither sta}^ thou in all the plain ; escape to 
the mountain, lest thou be consumed. 

18 And Lot said unto them. Oh, not so, my 
Lord! 

19 Behold now, thy servant hath found 
grace in thy eyes, and thou hast magnified 
thy kindness, which thou hast showed unto 
me in saving my life ; and I cannot escape to 
the mountain, lest the evil overtake me, and 
I die. 

20 Behold now, this city is near to flee 
thereunto, and it is little ; oh, let me, I pray 
thee, escape thither, (as it is but little,) that 
my life may be saved.* 

21 And he said unto him, See, I have 
favoured thee concerning this thing also, that 
I will not overthrow this city, of which thou 
hast spoken. 

22 Haste thee, escape thither ; for I cannot 
do any thing till thou hast come thither. 
Therefore was the name of the city called 
ZoJir.' 

23 The sun rose over the earth, when Lot 
entered into Zoar. 

24 And the Lord rained upon Sodom and 
upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire, from the 
Lord, out of heaven ; 

25 And he overthrew those cities, and all 
the plain, and all the inhabitants of the 
cities, and that which grew upon the ground. 

20 But his wife looked back from behind 
him, and she became a pillar of salt. 

27 And Abraham got up early in the 
morning to the place where he had stood be- 
fore the Lord : 

28 And he looked toward Sodom and Go- 
morrah, and toward all the land of the plain, 
and beheld, and lo, smoke went up from the 
earth as the smoke of a furnace.'' 

29 And it came to pa.ss, when God de- 
stroyed the cities of the plain, that God re- 
membered Abraham," and sent Lot away out 
of the midst of the overthrow, when he over- 
threw the cities in the which Lot had dwelt. 

30 And Lot went up out of Zoar, and 



' " Little," from mi'lzar. 

'' Eng. ver. " the smoke of the country went up," &c. 

" Not for any particular merit in Lot, although he was 

not 80 corrupt as the othiT men in Sodnm ; but because 

he waa a kinsman of Abraham ; for the sake of Abraham's 

virtue was Lot spared. (See Gen. xxri. 5 ; Exod. xs. 6.) 

22 



dwelt in the mountain, and his two daugh- 
ters with him, for he feared to dwell in Zoar; 
and he dwelt in a cave, he, and his two 
daughters. 

31 And the first-born said unto the young- 
er. Our father is old, and there is not a man 
in the country to come in unto us after the 
manner of all the earth : 

32 Come, let us make our father drink 
wine, and we will lie with him, that we may 
preserve seed of our father. 

33 And they made their father drink wine 
that night ; and the first-born went in, and 
lay with her father, and he perceived not 
when she lay down, nor when she arose. 

34 And it came to pass on the morrow, 
that the first-bom said unto the younger. Be- 
hold, I lay yesternight with my father; let us 
make him drink wine this night also, and go 
thou in, and lie with him, that we may pre- 
serve seed of our father. 

35 And they made their father drink wine 
that night also ; and the younger arose, and 
lay with him, and he perceived not when she 
lay down, nor Avhen she arose. 

36 And both the daughters of Lot became 
with child by their fiither. 

37 And the first-born bore a son, and 
called his name MoJib ;'' the same is the father 
of the Moiibites unto this day. 

38 And the younger, she also bore a son, 
and called his name Ben-ammi f the same is 
the father of the children of Amraon unto this 
day. 

CHAPTER XX. 

1 T[ And Abraham journeyed from there 
toward the south country-, and dwelt between 
Kadesh and Shur, and sojourned in Gerar. 

2 And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, 
She is my sister; and Abimelech king of 
Gerar sent and took Sarah. 

3 But God came to Abimelech in a dream 
by night,' and said to him. Behold, thou shalt 
die for the sake of the woman whom thou hast 
taken ; for she is a man's wife. 

4 But Abimelech had not come near to 



* " From my father," MoUb axn, from Ab 3k. 

' "The son of my people," Amnion '.ny, from Ben- 
ammi 'n;? p. 

' Literally, "in a dream of the night," a species of pro- 
phecy specially referred to in Numb. xii. 6j also Gen 
xxxi. 11, 24, &c. 



GENESIS XX. XXI. VAYERA. 



her ; and he said, Lord, wilt thou then slay 
also a righteous nation ?* 

5 Said he not unto me. She is my sister? 
and she, even she herself, said, He is my 
brother ; in the integrity of my heart and the 
innocency of my hands have I done this. 

6 And God said unto him in the dream. 
Yea, I also well know that thou hast done 
this in the integrity of thy heart; therefore 
did I also withhold thee from sinning against 
me ; for this cause I suffered thee not to touch 

her. ,•£./•!, 

7 And now restore the man s wife, lor he 
is a prophet, and he will pray for thee, that 
thou mayest live; and if thou restore her 
not, know thou, that thou shalt surely die, 
thou and all that are thine. 

8 And Abimelech rose early in the morn- 
ing, and called all his servants, and told all 
these things in their hearing ; and the men j 
were greatly afraid. 

9 Then Abimelech called Abraham, and 
said unto him. What hast thou done uutous? j 
and in what have I offended thee, that thou 1; 
hast brought on me and on my kingdom a li 
great sin ? deeds that ought not to be done , 
thou hast done unto me. 

10 And Abimelech said unto Abraham, 
What sawest thou, that thou didst this thing? | 

11 And Abraham said. Because I thought. 
Surely there is no fear of God in this place," i 
and they will slay me for the sake of my 
wife. 

12 And yet indeed she is my sister, the ] 
daughter of my father, but not the daughter 
of my mother ; and she became my wife. 

13 And it came to pass, when God'^ caused 
me to wander from my father's house, that I 
said unto her. This is thy kindness which 
thou shalt show unto me; at every place 
whither we shall come, say of me. He is my 
brother. 

14 And Abimelech took sheep, and oxen, 
and men-servants, and women-servants, and 
gave them unto Abraham, and restored to him 
Sarah his wife. 



15 And Abimelech said. Behold, my land 
is before thee : dwell where it is pleasing in 
thy eyes. 

16 And unto Sarah he said, Behold, I have 
given thy brother a thousand pieces of silver : 
behold, this is to thee a covering of the eyes" 
unto all that are with thee ; and with all 
others thou canst thus justify thyself." 

17 And Abraham prayed unto God ; and 
God healed Abimelech, and his wife, and his 
maid-servants, so that they could bear chil- 
dren. 

18 For the Lord had fast closed up every 
womb of the house of Abimelech, because of 
Sarah, Abraham's wife. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

1 Tj And the Lokd visited Sarah as he had 
said, and the Lord did unto Sarah as he had 
spoken. 

2 And Sarah conceived, and bore unto 
Abraham a son in his old age, at the ap- 
pointed time of which God had spoken to 
him. 

3 And Abraham called the name of his 
son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bore 

j to him, Isaac. 

4 And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac, 
I at eight days old, as God had commanded 
'him.* ,, 

5 And Abraham was a hundred years old, 
when his son Isaac was born unto him. 

6 And Sarah said, God hath made me joy,' 
whoever heareth it will laugh concerning me. 

7 And she said. Who would have said 
unto Abraham, that Sarai should have given 
children suck ? yet I have born a son in his 
old age. 

8 And the child grew, and was weaned; 
and Abraham made a great feast the day that 
Isaac was weaned. 

9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the 
Egyptian, whom she had born unto Abra- 
ham, mocking. 

10 Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast 
out this bond-woman and her son ; for the son 



' This speech of Abimelech proves that the nations of 
Palestine were acquainted with the moral laws : hence 
their transgressions were sinful. 

*■ The beauty, therefore, of his wife would expose him 
to the violence of those who might desire to possess them- 
selves of her against his will. 

° Heb. D-nbx "ns y^'r\r\ " the Gods caused me to wan- 
der," the plural of majesty. Compare above, i. 26. 



* That is, "a vail," figurative for '-justification." 
' Rashi, who makes nno:! the second person past tense 
of the Niphal conjugation, which gives the best explana- 
tion of this passage. Arnheim makes the word a partici- 
ple, and renders the passage, " for all and each who contend 
with thee." 

' Onkelos. Others render the word ''laughing, thui* 
" Grod hath made me cause for laughing." 



GENESIS XXI. XXII. VAYERA. 



of this bond-woman shall not be heir with my 
son, with Isaac. 

11 And the thing was very grievous in 
Abraham's eyes, because of his son. 

12 And God said unto Abraham, Let it 
not be grievous in thy eyes because of the 
lad, and because of thy bond-woman ; in all 
that Sarah shall say unto thee, hearken unto 
her voice; for in Isaac" shall thy seed be 
called. 

13 And also of the son of the bond-woman 
will I make a nation, because he is thy seed. 

14 And Abraham rose up early in the 
morning, and took bread, and a bottle'' of water, 
and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her 
shoulder, and the child, and sent her away; 
and she departed, and wandered astray in the 
wilderness of Beiir-sheba. 

15 And the water was spent from the bot- 
tle, and she cast the child under one of the 
shrubs. 

16 And she went, and seated herself down 
at some distance, a good way off, about a bow- 
shot ; for she said, I cannot look on when the 
child dieth; so she sat at a distance, and 
lifted up her voice, and wept. 

17 And God heard the voice of the lad; 
and an angel of God called to Hagar out of 
heaven, and said unto her, What aileth thee, 
Hagar? Fear not; for God hath heard the 
voice of the lad, there where he is. 

18 Arise, lift up the lad, and lay hold on 
him with thy hand; for I will make of him 
a great nation. 

19 And God opened her eyes, and she saw 
a well of water : and she went, and filled the 
bottle with water, and gave the lad drink. 

20 And God was with the lad; and he 
grew up, and dwelt in the wilderness, and be- 
came an archer. 

21 And he dwelt in the wilderness of Pa- 
ran; and his mother took him a wife out of 
the land of Egypt.'" 

22 ^ And it came to pass at that time, that 
Abimelech, and Phichol the chief captain of 



* The blessing made on a previous occasion, that all na- 
tions should be blessed through the seed of Abrahuni, 
was to bo accomplished through Isaac and his descendants, 
to the exclusion of Ishmael and the other children tliat 
Abraham might have. 

^ The water-skin in which travellers carry the neces- 
sary supply on their journey tlirough the wilderness. 

° "Well of the oath." ■• Ka.shi, after the Talmud. 

° The word " tempt" here must be taken in the sense 
24 



his host, spoke unto Abraham, saying, God is 
with thee in all that thou doest: 

2.3 Now therefore swear unto me here by 
God, that thou wilt not deal falsely with me, 
nor with my son, nor with my son's son; (but) 
according to the kindness that I have done 
unto thee, shalt thou do unto me, and to 
the land wherein thou hast sojourned. 

24 And Abraham said, I will swear. 

25 And Abraham reproved Abimelech be- 
cause of a well of water, which Abimelech's 
servants had violently taken away. 

26 And Abimelech said, I know not who 
hath done this thing: neither didst thou tell 
me; nor have I lieard of it except this day. 

27 And Abraham took sheep and oxen, 
and gave them unto Abimelech ; and both of 
them made a covenant. 

28 And Abraham set seven ewe-lambs of 
the flock, by themselves. 

29 And Abimelech said unto Abraham ; 
What mean these seven ewe-lambs which thou 
hast set by themselves ? 

30 And he said. For these seven ewe-lambs 
shalt thou take from my hand, that they may 
be a witness unto me that I have dug this 
well. 

31 Wherefore he called that place Beer- 
sheba;" because there they swore, both of 
them. 

32 Thus they made a covenant at Beer- 
sheba; then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol 
the chief captain of his host, and they returned 
into the land of the Philistines. 

33 And Abraham planted an orchard'* in 
Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of 
the Lord, the God of everlasting. 

34 And Abraham sojourned in the land of 
the Philistines many days.* 

CHAPTER XXII. 

1 ^ And it came to pass after these things, 
that God did tempt" Abraham, and he said 
unto him, Abraham, and he said, Behold, 
here I am. 



oi proving, i. c. God proved Abraham's constancy by the 
command to sacrifice Isaac. All the other proofs of faith 
hitherto demanded of him were to bo crowned by the wil- 
lingness to sacrifice up to the will of God his dearest hope, 
the child in whom all the blessings promised him should 
be accomplished ; still he obeyed, and did not complain 
of the apparent inconsistency of the divine promise with 
the present injunction of destroying the very child through 
whom this blessing could alono be fulfilled. 



GENESIS XXII. VAYERA. 



2 And he said, Take now thy son, thy only 
one, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get 
thee into the land of Moriah; and offer 
him there for a burnt-offering upon one of 

'the mountains which I will tell thee of. 

3 And Abraham rose up early in the morn- 
ing, and saddled his ass, and took two of his 
young men with him, and Isaac his son ; and 
he clave the wood for the burnt-offering, and 
arose," and went unto the place of which God 
had told him. 

4 On the third day Abraham lifted up his 
eyes, and saw the place afar off. 

5 And Abraham said unto his young men. 
Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the 
lad will go yonder, and we will worship,*" and 
then come again to you. 

6 And Abraham took the wood for the 
burn<>offering, and laid it upon Isaac his 
eon ; and he took in his hand the fire and 
the knife; and they went both of them to- 
gether. 

7 And Isaac spoke unto Abraham his 
father, and said, My father; and he said. 
Here am I, my son. And he said. Behold, 
here is the fire and the wood ; but where is 
the lamb for a burnt-offering ? 

8 And Abraham said, God will provide 
himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my 
son f so they went both of them together. 

9 And they came to the place which God 
had told him of; and Abraham built there an 
altar, and laid the wood in order, and bound 
Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar above 
the wood. 

10 And Abraham stretched forth his hand, 
and took the knife to slay his son. 

11 But the angel of the Lord called unto 
him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abrar 
ham ; and he said, Here am I. 

12 And he said, Lay not thy hand upon 
the lad, neither do thou the least unto him; 
for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing 
that thou hast not withheld thy son, thy only 
one, from me. 



' This term, from the Hebrew Dip " to arise," is mostly 
employed when some exertion or activity is required to do 
the act subsequently mentioned. 

*• Properly, " we will prostrate ourselves." 

° " Will look out and choose for himself the lamb; and 
if there be no lamb, then my son, for the burnt-oifering." 
— Rashi. 

" " The Lord shall provide," from the words of Abra- 
D 



13 And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and 
looked, and behold, behind him was a ram 
caught in a thicket by his horns ; and Abra- 
ham went and took the ram, and offered him 
up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his 
son. 

14 And Abraham called the name of that 
place, Adonai-yireh i*" as it is said to this 
day," On the mount of the Lord it shall be 
seen.' 

15 And the angel of the Lord called 
unto Abraham the second time out of 
heaven, 

16 And said. By myself have I sworn, saith 
the Lord, since, because thou hast done this 
thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thy 
only one : 

17 That I will greatly bless thee, and I 
will exceedingly multiply thy seed as the 
stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is 
upon the searshore ; and thy seed shall possess 
the gate of his enemies ; 

18 And in thy seed shall all the nations of 
the earth be blessed ; because that thou hast 
obeyed my voice. 

19 And Abraham returned unto his young 
men ; and they rose up, and went together to 
Beer-sheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beer- 
sheba.* 

20 ^ And it came to pass after these 
things, that it was told to Abraham, saying. 
Behold, Milcah, she also, hath born children 
unto Nachor thy brother ; 

21 'Uz his first born, and Buz his brother, 
and Kemuel the father of Aram, 

22 And Kesed, and Chazo, and Pildash, 
and Yidlaph, and Bethuel. 

23 And Bethuel begat Rebekah; these 
eight did Milcah bear to Nachor, Abraham's 
brother. 

24 And his concubine, whose name was 
Reiimah, she also bore Tebach, and Gacham, 
and Thachash, and Maachah. 

Ilaphtorah, in 2d Kings iv. 1 to 37 ; but the Portuguese end 
with V. 23. 



ham to Isaac, Elohim yireh lo hassay, " God will provide 
himself the lamb." 

' " In future days, as all ' unto this day' in Scripture 
must be understood ; for all coming generations, who read 
this verse, will say ' unto this day' of the day in which 
they are." — Rashx. 

' " Will the Lord appear" to his people. — IsEM. 



GENESIS XXIII. XXIV. CHAYE SARAH. 



SECTION V. CHAYE SARAH, Hit' '♦n. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

1 T[ And the lifetime of Sarah was a hundred 
and twenty-seven years; (these) were the 
years of the life of Sarah. 

2 And Sarah died* in Kiryath-arba, the 
same is Hebron in the land of Canaan : and 
Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to 
weep for her. 

3 And Abraham stood up from before his 
dead, and-spoke unto the sons of Heth, saying, 

4 A stranger and a sojourner I am with 
you ; give me a possession for a burying-place 
with you, that I may bury my dead out of my 
sight. 

5 And the children of Heth answered 
Abraham, saying unto him : 

6 Hear us, my lord ; a prince of God thou 
art among us ; in the choice of our sepulchres 
bury thy dead ; none of us shall withhold 
from thee his sepulchre, so that thou mayest 
bury thy dead. 

7 And Abraham stood up and bowed him- 
self to the people of the land, to the children 
of Heth. 

8 And he spoke with them, saying. If it be 
your mind that I should bury my dead out of 
ray sight, hear me, and intercede for me with 
Ephron the son of Zochar, 

9 That he may give me the cave of Mach- 
pelah, which is his, which is at the end of his 
field ; for as much money as it is worth he 
shall give it me, for a possession as a burying- 
place amongst you. 

10 And Ephron dwelt among the children 
of Heth ; and Ephron the Hittite answered 
Abraham in the hearing of the children of 
Heth, of all those that went in at the gate of 
his city, saying, 

11 Nay, my lord, hear me : the field I give 
to thee, and the cave that is therein, I give it 
to thee; in the presence of the sons of my 
people do I give it thee; bury thy dead. 

12 And Abraham bowed himself down be- 
fore the people of the land. 

13 And he spoke unto Ephron in the hear- 



' It is the opinion of commentators that Sarah died in 
consequence of the grief she experienced when hearing 
that Abraham had guiic to sacrifice Isaac, 

* Ephron had pretended groat anxiety to give tlie land 
to Abraham ; but when he mentioned the value, Abra- 
•26 



ing of the people of the land, saying, But if 
thou wouldest only hear me ; I will give the 
money for the field, take it of me, and I will 
bury my dead there. 

14 And Ephron answered Abraham, saying* 
unto him, 

1 5 My lord, hearken unto me : a piece of 
land worth four hundred shekels of silver, 
what is that between me and thee ? only bury 
thy dead. 

10 And Abraham understood*" the meaning 
of Ephron; and Abraham weighed out to 
Ephron the silver which he had named in the 
hearing of the sons of Heth, four hundred 
shekels of silver, current with the merchant.* 

17 And the field of Ephron, which was in 
Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the 
field, and the cave which was therein, and all 
the trees that were in the field, that were in 
all its borders round about, were made sure. 

18 Unto Abraham for a bought possession 
in the presence of the children of Heth, before 
all that went in at the gate of his city. 

19 And after this, Abraham buried Sarah 
his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah, 
before Mamre, which is Hebron, in the land 
of Canaan. 

20 And the field, with the cave that is 
therein, was made sure unto Abraham for a 
possession as a burying-place by the sons of 
Heth. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

1 ^ And Abraham was old, well stricken in 
years ; and the Lord had blessed Abraham in 
all things. 

2 And Abraham said unto his servant, the 
eldest of his house, who ruled over all that 
he had. Put, I pray thee, thy hand under my 
thigh : 

3 And I will make thee swear by the Lord, 
the God of heaven, and the God of the earth, 
that thou shalt not take a wife unto my son 
from the daughters of the Canaanites,^ among 
whom I dwell. 

4 But unto ray country, and to my birth- 
place shalt thou go, and take a wife unto my 
son, unto Isaac. 



ham at once understood Lis price, and weighed out the 
amount which Kphron required. 

" That the desceuJants of those cursed by the father of 
the new generation of man, should not mingle with those 
blessed. (Gen. ix. 29.) — Dubno. 



GENESIS XXIV. CHAYE SAEAH. 



5 And the servant said unto him, Perad- 
venture the woman will not be willing to fol- 
low me unto this land : must I then bring 
thy son again unto the land from which thou 
camest? 

6 And Abraham said unto him, Beware 
thou, that thou bring not my son thither 
again. 

7 The Lord, the God of heaven, who took 
me from my father's house, and from the land 
of my birth, and who spoke unto me, and who 
swore unto me, saying. Unto thy seed will I 
give this land : he will send his angel before 
thee, and thou shalt take a wife unto my son 
from there. 

8 But if the woman should not be willing 
to follow thee, then shalt thou be clear from 
this my oath ; only my son thou shalt not 
bring thither again. 

9 And the servant put his hand under the 
thigh of Abraham his master, and swore to 
him concerning this matter.* 

10 And the servant took ten camels of the 
camels of his master, and departed, with all 
kinds of precious things* of his master in his 
hand ; and he arose, and went to Mesopota- 
mia,'' unto the city of Nachor. 

11 And he made the camels to kneel down 
without the city by a well of water at the 
time of the evening, at the time that the 
women go" out to draw water. 

12 And he said, Lord, the God of my 
master Abraham, I pray thee, send me good 
speed this day, and deal kindly with my 
master Abraham. 

13 Behold, I stand"* by the well of water ; 
and the daughters of the men of the city 
come out to draw water: 

14 And let it come to pass, that the maiden 
to whom I shall say. Let down thy pitcher, I 
pray thee, that I may drink ; and she shall 
say. Drink, and to thy camels also will I give 
drink, be the one thou hast appointed for thy 
servant Isaac ; and thereby shall I know that 
thou hast shown kindness unto my master. 

15 And it came to pass, before he had 

* Eng. ver. " for all the goods of his master were in 
his hand." Rashi explains that he took with him a 
deed of gift of all Abraham's wealth unto Isaac. Others 
refer it to the presents mentioned afterward : this opinion 
has been adopted in this version. 

•" " Anam-Naharayim," Syria of the two rivers, the Eu- 
phrates and Tigris. 

" This custom still prevails. 



yet finished speaking, that, behold, Rebekah" 
came out, who was bom to Bethuel, son of 
Milcah, the wife of Nachor, Abraham's bro- 
ther, with her pitcher upon her shoulder, 

16 And the maiden was of a very hand- 
some appearance, a virgin, neither had any 
man known her ; and she went down to the 
well, and filled her pitcher, and came up. 

17 And the servant ran to meet her, and 
said. Let me, I pray thee, drink a little water 
out of thy pitcher. 

18 And she said, Drink, my lord: and she 
hastened, and let down her pitcher upon her 
hand, and gave him to drink. 

19 And when she had finished giving him 
drink, she said. Also for thy camels will I 
draw water, until they have finished drinking. 

20 And she hastened, and emptied her 
pitcher into the trough, and ran again unto 
the well to draw water, and drew for all his 
camels. 

21 And the man was wondering at her ;' 
remaining silent, to discover whether the 
Lord had made his journey prosperous or 
not. 

22 And it came to pass, as the camels had 
finished drinking, that the man took a golden 
ear-ring, half a shekel in weight, and two brace- 
lets for her hands, ten gold shekels in weight ; 

23 And he said. Whose daughter art thou? 
tell me, I pray thee ; is there room in thy 
father's house for us to stay this night in ? 

24 And she said * unto him, I am the 
daughter of Bethuel the son of Milcah, whom 
she bore unto Nachor. 

25 She said moreover unto him. We have 
both straw and provender in plenty, as also 
room to lodge in. 

26 And the man bowed down his head, 
and prostrated himself before *^he Lord.* 

27 And he said. Blessed b<3 the Lord, the 
God of my master Abraham, who hath not 
withdrawn his mercy and his truth from my 
master ; I being on the way, which the Lord 
hath led me, to the house of the brethren of 
my master. 

* " I will place myself." — Arnheim and others. 

' Properly, Rihlcah. 

' Meaning, he felt astonished at the remarkable verifi- 
cation of the test he had proposed, and therefore remained 
silent for some time, to endeavour first to find out by the 
sequel whether indeed the maiden before him might truly 
be the one of the family of Abraham, whom he was to 
take as a wife for Isaac. 

27 



GENESIS XXIV. CIIAYE SARAH. 



28 And the maiden ran, and told at her 
mother's house these things. 

29 And Rebekah had a brother, and his 
name was Laban ; and Laban ran out unto 
the man, unto the well. 

30 And this came to pass, when he saw the 
ear-ring, and the bracelets upon his sister's 
hands, and when he heard the words of Re- 
bekah his sister, saying. Thus spoke the man 
unto me ; and he came unto the man ; and, be- 
hold, he was standing by the camels at the Avell. 

31 And he said, Come in, thou blessed of 
the Lord; wherefore standest thou Avithout? 
whilst I have prepared' the house and room 
for the camels. 

32 And the man came into the house, and 
he ungirded the camels ; and he gave straw 
and provender for the camels, and water to 
wash his feet, and the feet of the men that 
■were with him. 

33 And there was set food before him to 
eat ; but he said, I will not eat, until I have 
spoken my words. And he said. Speak on. 

34 And he said, I am Abraham's servant. 

35 And the Lord hath blessed my master 
greatly ; and he is become great : and he hath 
given him flocks, and herds, and silver, and 
gold, and men-servants, and maid-servants, 
and camels, and asses. 

36 And Sarah my master's wife bore a son 
to my master after she was become old : and 
he hath given unto him all that he hath. 

37 And my master 'made me swear, say- 
ing. Thou shalt not take a wife for my son 
from the daughters of the Canaanites, in 
whose land I dwell : 

38 But thou'' shalt go unto my father's 
house, and to my kindred, and take a wife 
unto my son. 

39 And I said unto my master, Peradven- 
ture the woman will not follow me. 

40 And he said unto me. The Lord, before 
whom I have walked, will send his angel with 
thee, and prosper thy way ; that thou mayest 
take a wife for my son from my kindred, and 
from ray father's house. 



* Properly, " cleared out" the obstmctions from the 
house which might prevent the reception of guests. 

' Some, among these Rashi, explain this verse as a 
condition, vh DX " if not," meaning that he should first 
endeavour to obtain a wife from Abraham's fomily; but 
" if not," then by inference to be permitted to choose one 
elsewhere. 

" In the narrative, the word m;?3 ndarah is found, 
•2S 



41 Then shalt thou be clear from my oath, 
when thou comest to my kindred; and if they 
do not give thee one, (then) shalt thou be 
clear from my oath. 

42 And I came this day unto the well, and 
said, Lord, the God of my master Abraham, 
if thou wouldst but prosper my way on which 
I am going. 

43 Behold, I stand by the well of water; 
and it .shall be the young woman" who cometh 
forth to draw water, and I say to her, Give 
me, I pray thee, a little water out of thy 
pitcher to drink; 

44 And she say to me, Both drink thou, 
and also for thy camels will I draw" : this shall 
be the wife whom the Lord hath destined for 
my master's son. 

45 And before I had yet finished speaking to 
my own heart, behold, Rebekah came forth 
with her pitcher on her shoulder; and she 
went down unto the well, and drew water; 
and I said unto her. Let me drink, I pray 
thee. 

46 And she made haste, and let doAvn her 
pitcher from her shoulder, and said. Drink, 
and also to thy camels I will give drink; and 
I drank, and she made the camels drink 
also. 

47 And I asked her, and said. Whose 
daughter art thou? And she said. The 
daughter of Bethuel, Nachor's son, whom 
Milcah bore unto him: and I put the ear- 
ring upon her face,'' and the bracelets upon 
her hands. 

48 And I bowed down my head, and pros- 
trated myself before the Lord ; and I blessed 
the Lord, the God of my master Abraham, 
who had led me in the right way to take 
the daughter of my master's brother for his 
son. 

49 And now if ye will deal kindly and 
truly with my master, tell me : and if not, 
tell me, that I may turn to the right, or to 
the left. 

60 Then Laban and Bethuel answered and 
said, The thing hath proceeded from the 



whereas Eleazer employs the term nn'ji' 'Almah, perhaps 
then used to express a person of quality, equal to the 
modern phrase, "young lady." The change of the terms 
is readily accounted for by the occurrence itself 

'' "The nose-ring on her nose." — Menpklssoiin, who 
translates Qu with "nose-ring." This is undoubtedly cor- 
rect here, though in other passages it stands for ear-ring; 
for instance, Exod. xxxii. 2. 



GENESIS XXIV. XXV. CHAYE SARAH. 



Lord; we cannot speak" unto thee bad or 
good. 

51 Behold, Rebekah is before thee, take 
her, and go, and let her be the wife of thy 
master's son, as the Lord hath spoken. 

52 And it came to pass, when Abraham's 
servant heard their words, that he prostrated 
himself to the earth unto the Lord.* 

53 And the servant brought forth vessels 
of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments, 
and gave them to Rebekah; and precious 
things he gave to her brother and to her 
mother. 

54 And they did eat and drink, he and the 
men that were with him, and tarried the 
night; and they rose up in the morning, and 
he said, Send me away unto my master. 

55 And her brother and her mother said, 
Let the maiden abide with us, a year or ten 
months; after that she shall go. 

56 And he said unto them, Hinder me not, 
seeing the Lord hath prospered my way ; send 
me away that I may go to my master. 

57 Ajid they said. We will call the maiden, 
and inquire her own decision.*" 

58 And they called Rebekah, and said 
unto her. Wilt thou go with this man ? And 
she said, I will go. 

59 And thereupon they sent away Rebekah 
their sister, and her nurse, and Abraham's 
servant, and his men. 

60 And they blessed Rebekah, and said 
unto her, Our sister, be thou" the mother of 
thousands of myriads, and let thy seed pos- 
sess the gate of those who hate them. 

61 And Rebekah arose with her maidens, 
and they rode upon the camels, and followed 
the man ; and the servant took Rebekah, and 
went his yvay. 

62 And Isaac came from a walk to the 
well Lachai-roi; for he dwelt ir£ the south 
country ; 

63 And Isaac was gone out to meditate in 
the field towax'd evening; and he lifted up 
his eyes, and saw, and, behold, camels were 
Coming. 

64 And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and 
she saw Isaac ; and she alighted off the camel. 

65 And she said unto the servant. Who is 



yonder man that walketh in the field toward 
us ? And the servant said. This is my mas- 
ter ; therefore she took a vail, and covered 
herself 

66 And the servant told Isaac all the 
things that he had done. 

67 And Isaac brought her into the tent of 
Sarah his mother, and took Rebekah, and she 
became his wife, and he loved her; and Isaac 
was comforted after his mother's death. "^ 

CHAPTER XXV. 

1 Then Abraham took again a wife, and 
her name was Keturah. 

2 And she bore him Zimran, and Yokshan, 
and Medan, and Midian, and Yishbak, and 
Shuach. 

3 And Yokshan begat Sheba, and Dedan. 
And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and 
Letushim, and Leiimmim. 

4 And the sons of Midian : Ephah, and 
Epher, and Chanoch, and Abidah, and El- 
daah. All these were the children of Ke- 
turah. 

5 And Abraham gave all that he had unto 
Isaac. 

6 But unto the sons of the concubines that 
Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts; and he 
sent them away from Isaac his son, while 
he was yet living, eastward, unto the east 
country. 

7 And these are the days of the years of 
Abraham's life which he lived, one hundred 
seventy and five years. 

8 Then Abraham departed this life, and 
died in a good old age, an old man, and full 
of years, and was gathered to his people. 

9 And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried 
him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of 
Ephron the son of Zochar the Hittite, which 
is before Mamre; 

10 The field which Abraham purchased of 
the sons of Heth : there was Abraham buried, 
with Sarah his wife. 

11 And it came to pass after the death of 
Abraham, that God blessed Isaac his son ; 
and Isaac dwelt by the well Lachai-roi.* 

12 ][ Now these are the generations of 
Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the 



' That is, " dissuade tbce by good or bad words." I lish "to become;" thus then, "become thou thousands 

Literall}-, "her mouth," figurative for what is spoken, jj of myriads," the words "mother of" being understood 
' h rrn the construction here employed always denotes n and added to supply the hiatus in the sentence, 
'u transition or change, almost synonymous with the Eng- 1| 

29 



GENESIS XXV. TOLEDOTH. 



Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bore unto Abrar 
ham. 

13 And these are the names of the sons of 
Ishmael, by their names, according to their 
generations : the first-born of Ishmael, Ne- 
bayoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mib- 
sam, 

14 And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa, 

15 Chadad, and Tema, Yetur, Naphish, 
and Kederaah.* 

16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and 
these are their names, by their towns, and by 
their castles; twelves princes according to 
their nations. 

17 And these are the years of the life of 
Ishmael, one hundred and thirty and seven 
years : and he departed this life and died ; 
and was gathered unto his people. 

18 And they dwelt from Chavilah unto 
Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest to- 
ward Assyria :" he dwelt in the presence of 
all his brethren. 

Ilaphtorah in 1 Kings i. 1 to 31. 



SECTION VI. TOLEDOTH, mSin. 

19 ^ And these are the generations of Isaac, 
the son of Abraham : Abraham begat Isaac. 

20 And Isaac was forty years old when he 
took Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the 
Syrian, of Padan-aram, the sister to Laban 
the Syrian, to himself as wife. 

21 And Isaac entreated the Lord in behalf 
of his wife, because she was barren : and the 
Lord was entreated of him, and Rebekah his 
wife conceived. 

22 And the children struggled together 
within her ; and she said. If it be so, why did 
I desire this ?'* And she went to inquire of 
the Lord. 



* Meaning, that Ishmael in his descendants settled him- 
self along the whole extent of country occupied by all his 
other brethren descended from Abraham. (Sec above, 
ch. xvi. 12.) Arnhcim gives, "he settled eastward of 
all his brothers," which idea, how'evor, is corabattcd as in- 
correct by others, because Ishmacl'a descendants lived not 
eastward of all other sons of Abraham. 

' Rashi, "Why did I desire and pray for conception?" 
Aben Ezra, "Why am I different from others?" Others 
again explain it as an ellipsis : " If I suffer so, why am I 
thus (in the world)?" meaning that deatli would be pre- 
ferable. 

° Philippson and Arnhcim render dkS with "tribe," 
30 



23 And the Lord said unto her. Two na- 
tions are in thy womb, and two manner of 
people" shall be separated from thy bowels ; 
and one people shall be stronger than the 
other people ; and the elder shall serve the 
younger 

24 And when her days to be delivered 
were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her 
womb. 

25 And the first came out red, all over like 
a hairy garment; and they called his name 
Esau." 

26 And after that came his brother out, 
his hand holding on to Esau's heel ; and his 
name was called Jacob :" and Isaac was sixty 
years old when she bore them. 

27 And the boys grew up: and Esau was 
an expert hunter, a man of the field; and 
Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in tents.' 

28 And Isaac loved Esau, because he 
did eat of his venison ; but Rebekah loved 
Jacob. 

29 And Jacob at one time boiled pottage, 
and Esau came from the field, and he was 
faint. 

30 And Esau said to Jacob, Let me swal- 
low down, I pray thee, some of that yonder 
red pottage, for I am faint; therefore was his 
name called Edom.^ 

31 And Jacob said. Sell me this day thy 
right of first-born. 

32 And Esau said. Behold, I am going to 
die ;'' and what profit then can the right of 
first born be to me ? 

33 And Jacob said, Swear to me this day; 
and he swore unto him : and he sold his right 
of first-born unto Jacob. 

34 Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pot- 
tage of lentiles, and he did eat and drink, and 
he rose up, and went his way; thus Esau de- 
spised the birthright. 



or " branch of a nation :" the same version is given by 
them in other passages. 

'' I'roperly, ' Emhv ; probably from nci', participle -\^y 
'ahsity, "ready," "made." Philippson derives it from an 
Arabic word, signifying " hairy." 

" Properly, "Va'acob, from 'Akih, ap|', "the heel." 

' That is, "loving home." 

' From Adorn, " red." 

' Probably meaning, that his life as hunter exposed 
him daily to such dangers that he was almost sure to die 
before bis father, wlvfrefore the birthright as the eldest of 
the family would in all probability be of no use to him ; 
wherefore he parted with it so lightly. 



GENESIS XXVI. TOLEDOTH. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

1 ^ And there was a famine in the land, be- 
side the first famine that was in the days of 
Abraham ; and Isaac went unto Abimelech, 
the king of the Philistines, unto Gerar. 

2 And the Lord appeared unto him, and 
said. Go not down into Egypt; dwell in the 
land which I shall tell thee of. 

3 Sojourn in this land, and I will be with 
thee, and will bless thee ; for unto thee, and 
unto thy seed, will I give all these countries, 
and I will perform the oath which I swore 
unto Abraham thy father ; 

4 And I will cause thy seed to multiply as 
the stars of heaven, and I will give unto thy 
seed all these countries ; and in thy seed shall 
all the nations of the earth bless themselves. 

5 Because that Abraham obej'ed my voice, 
and kept my charge," my commandments, my 
statutes, and my laws.* 

6 And Isaac dwelt in Gerar. 

7 And the men of the place asked (him) 
concerning his wife ; and he said, She is my 
sister ; for he feared to say. She is my wife ; 
lest, (said he,) the men of the place should 
kill me for Rebekah, because she is of a hand- 
some appearance. 

8 And it came to pass, when he had been 
there a long time, that Abimelech, the king 
of the Philistines, looked out at a window, 
and saw, and behold, Isaac was sporting with 
Rebekah his wife. 

9 And Abimelech called Isaac, and said. 
Behold, of a surety she is thy wife : and how 
saidst thou. She is my sister? And Isaac said 
unto him. Because I thought,'' Perhaps I may 
die for her. 

10 And Abimelech said. What is this thou 
hast done unto us ? How easily might one 
of the people have lain with thy wife, and 
thou wouldest have brought guiltiness upon us. 

11 And Abimelech charged all his people, 
saying. He that toucheth this man or -his 
wife shall surely be put to death. 

12 Then Isaac sowed in that land, and re- 



' " Mt/ charge, the belief in God, for he believed in the 
Unity, and kept this faith in his heart, contending with 
idolaters, and publicly proclaiming the truth, to bring 
many to God's service ; my commandmenU, in whatever 
he was ordered, as to go out from his land, &c. ; my sta- 
tutes, to walk in the way of the Lord in the exercise of 
mercy; and laws, such as circumcision and the Noae"hitic 
precepts." — After Ramban. 



ceived in the same year an hundred-fold f so 
the Lord blessed him.* 

13 And the man became great, and went 
forward and grew, until he became very 
great ; 

14 And he had possession of flocks, and 
possession of herds, and great store of ser- 
vants ; and the Philistines envied him. 

15 And all the wells which his father's 
servants had dug in the days of Abraham 
his father, these the Philistines stopped, and 
filled them with earth. 

16 And Abimelech said unto Isaac, Go 
away from us ; for thou hast become much 
mightier than we. 

17 And Isaac departed thence, and pitched 
his tent in the valley of Gerar, and dwelt 
there. 

18 And Isaac dug again the wells of 
water, which they had dug in the days of 
Abraham his father, and which the Philistines 
had stopped after the death of Abraham ; and 
he called their names after the names by 
which his father had called them. 

19 And the servants of Isaac dug in the 
valley, and found there a well of springing 
water. 

20 And the herdmen of Gerar did strive 
with Isaac's herdmen, saying. The water is 
ours : and he called the name of the well 
Esek ; because they strove* with him. 

21 And they dug another well, and they 
strove for that also : and he called the name 
of it Sitnah." 

22 And he removed from there, and dug 
another well ; and for that they strove not : 
and he called the name of it Rechoboth, and 
he said. For now the Lord hath made' room 
for us, and we shall increase in the land.* 

23 And he went up from there to Beer- 
sheba. 

24 And the Lord appeared unto him the 
same night, and said, I am the God of Abra- 
ham thy father ; fear not, for I am with thee, 
and I will bless thee, and multiply thy seed 
for the sake of Abraham my servant. 



^ 1DK " to say," in Hebrew, very often refers to 
thought, or speaking to oneself; so here, " I said to myself," 
or " thought." 

° " The estimated increase a hundred-fold." — Rasiii. 

^ From pB'i'nn hith 'assck, " to contend." 

° From [Oiy satone, " to hinder." 

' Ilirchil, " he hath made room." 



GENESIS XXVI. XXVII. TOLEDOTH. 



25 And he built there an altar, and called 
upon the name of the Lord, and pitched there 
his tent : and the servants of Isaac dug there 
a well. 

2G Then Abimelech went to him from Ge- 
rar, and Achuzzath his friend, and Phichol the 
chief captain of his army. 

27 And Isaac said unto them, Wherefore 
come ye to me, seeing that ye do hate me, 
and have sent me away, from you? 

28 And they said, We saw clearly that 
the Lord was with thee; and we said, Let 
there be now an oath between us, between us 
and thee : and we will make a covenant with 
thee; 

29 That thou shalt do us no hurt, as we 
have not touched thee, and as we have done 
unto thee nothing but good, and have sent 
thee away in peace : thou art now one blessed 
of the Lord.* 

30 And he made them a feast, and they 
ate and drank. 

31 And they rose up betimes in the morn- 
ing, and they swore one to the other; and 
Isaac sent them away, and they departed from 
him in peace. 

32 And it came to pass the same day, that 
Isaac's servants came, and told him concern- 
ing the well* which they had dug, and they 
said unto him, We have found water. 

3.3 And he called it Shibah : therefore is 
the name of the city Beer-sheba unto this day. 

34 T[ And when Esau was forty years old 
he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri, 
the Hittite, and Bahsemath the daughter of 
Elon the Hittite. 

35 And they were a grief of mind unto 
Isaac and to Rebekah. 

CHAPTER XXVIL 

1 ^ And it came to pass, when Isaac was 
old, and his eyes were too dim to see, that he 
called Esau his eldest .son, and said unto him. 
My son : and he said unto him. Behold, here 
am I. 

2 And he said. Behold now, I am grown 
old, I know not the day of my death : 



* Perhaps the same well originally dug by Abraham's, 
and wliic-h having been lost sight of, and filled up, was 
now reopened by Isaac's servants. 

" Onkelos and llashi render this ySn with " sword," 
that " which hangs by the side." 

° " It was his desire to bless him, that he might obtain 
the blessing of Abnihuiii, to inherit the land, and to be 
32 



3 Now therefore take, I pray thee, thy 
weapon.s, thy quiver"" and thy lx)w, and go out 
to the field, and hunt for me some venison ; 

4 And make me savoury food, such as I 
love, and bring it to me, that I may eat; that 
my soul may bless thee Ijefore I die." 

5 And Rebekah heard as Isaac was speak- 
ing to Esau his son. And Esau went to the 
field to hunt for venison, and to bring it. 

6 And Reljekah spoke unto Jacob her son, 
saying. Behold, I heard thy father sjieak unto 
Esau thy brother, saying, 

7 Bring me venison, and make me savoury 
food, that I may eat, and bless thee before the 
Lord before my death. 

8 And now, my son, obey my voice in that 
which I command thee. 

9 Go, I pray thee, to the flock, and fetch 
me from there two good kids; and I will 
make them savoury food for thy father, such 
as he loveth : 

10 And thou shalt bring it to thy father, 
that he may eat ; for the sake that he may 
bless thee before his death. 

11 And Jacob said to Rebekah his mother. 
Behold, Esau my brother is a hairy man, and 
I am a smooth man : 

12 Peradventure my father will feel me, 
and I shall then seem to him as a deceiver;, 
and I Avould bring upon me a curse, and not a 
blessing. 

13 And his mother said unto him. Upon 
me be thy curse, my son; only obey my 
voice, and go fetch them to me. 

14 And he went, and fetched, and brought 
them to his mother ; and his mother made 
savoury food, such as his father loved. 

15 And Rebekah took the goodly garments 
of her eldest son Esau, which Avere with her 
in the house, and clothed therewith Jacob 
her younger son ; 

16 And the skins of the kids she put upon 
his hands, and upon the smooth part of his 
neck ; 

17 And she gave the savoury food and 
the bread, which she had prepared, mto the 
hand of Jacob her son. 



the one in covenant with God, because he was the first- 
born ; and it is probable that Rebekah had never revealed 
to him the prophecy given to her before the birth of the 
children, or else Isaac would certainly not have wished to 
give a blessing against the will of God, which could thus 
be of no avail. We must, however, look upon the whole 
a.s providential." — Kamban. 



GENESIS XXVII. TOLEDOTH. 



18 And he came unto his father, and said, 
My father : and he said, Here am I ; who art 
thou, my son? 

19 And Jacob said unto his father, I am 
Esau thy first-born ; I have done as thou 
didst speak to me : arise, I pray thee, sit 
here and eat of my venison, that thy soul 
may bless me. 

20 And Isaac said unto his son, How is it 
that thou hast found it so quickly, my son ? 
And he said, Because the Lord thy God 
brought it before me. 

21 And Isaac said unto Jacob, Come near, 
I pray thee, that I may feel thee, my son, 
whether thou be truly my son Esau or not. 

22 And Jacob went near unto Isaac his 
father, and he felt him ; and he said. The 
voice is the voice' of Jacob, but the hands 
are the hands of Esau. 

23 And he recognised him not, because 
his hands were hairj^ as his brother Esau's 
hands : so he blessed him. 

24 And he said. Art thou indeed my son 
Esau ? and he said, I am. 

25 And he said, Bring it near to me, and I 
will eat of my son's venison, that my soul 
may bless thee. And he brought it near to 
him, and he did eat, and he brought him 
wine, and he drank. 

26 And Isaac his father said unto him. 
Come near, I pray thee, and kiss me, my son. 

27 And he came near, and kissed him : 
and he smelled the smell of his gannents and 
blessed him, and said,*" See, the smell of my 
son is as the smell of a field which the Lord 
hath blessed.* 

28 And may God give thee of the dew of 
heaven, and the fatness of the earth, and 
plenty of corn and wine ; 

29 Nations shall serve thee, and people 
bow down to thee ; be lord over thy brethren, 
and thy mother's sons shall bow down to 
thee ; cursed" be they that curse thee, and 
blessed be they that bless thee. 

30 And it came to pass, as soon as Isaac 



' There was probably a similarity in their voices, and 
Isaac failed, therefore, to recognise Jacob fully, because 
his hands were then hairy. 

' According to Arnheim, the blessing commences at 
this word ; compare with Hosea xiv. 7, where, among the 
promises of a blissful future, the personification of happi- 
ness is represented under the words, " And his smell shall 
be like that of Lebanon." The words which follow were 
prompted here by the excitement of the sense of smelling, 
£ 



had made an end of blessing Jacob, and Jacob 
was yet scarcely gone out from the presence 
of Isaac his father, that Esau his brother 
came in from his hunting. 

31 And he also made savoury food, and 
brought it unto his father, and said unto his 
father, Let my father arise, and eat of his 
son's venison, in order that thy soul may 
bless me. 

32 And Isaac his father said unto him, 
Who art thou ? And he said, I am thy son, 
ihy first-bom, Esau. 

33 And Isaac trembled greatly, exceed- 
ingly, and said. Who was it ? where is he that 
had hunted venison, and brought it me, and 
I ate of all before thou camest, and blessed 
him ? yea, he shall also remain blessed. 

34 When Esau heard the words of his 
father, he uttered a great and exceedingly 
bitter cry, and said unto his father. Bless me, 
also me, my father. 

35 And he said. Thy brother came with 
subtilty, and took away thy blessing. 

36 And he said, Hath he been therefore 
named Jacob, because'' he hath supplanted 
me these two times? my right of first-born 
he took away; and, behold, now he hath 
taken away my blessing ; and he said. Hast 
thou not reserved a blessing for me ? 

37 And Isaac answered and said unto 
Esau, Behold, I have made him thy lord, and 
all his brethren have I given to him for ser- 
vants; and with corn and wine have I en- 
dowed him : and what can I do now for thee, 
my son ? 

38 And Esau said unto his father. Hast 
thou then but one blessing, my father? bless 
me, also me, my father. And Esau lifted up 
his voice, and wept. 

39 And Isaac his father answered and 
said unto him. Behold, thy dwelling shall be 
the fatness of the earth, and (blessed) by the 
dew of heaven from above ; 

40 And by thy sword shalt thou live, and 
thy brother shalt thou serve; and it shall 



as Jacob's garments gave forth the odour imbibed from 

field and forest flowers. 

° Properly, " cursed be every one of those," &c., 
" blessed be every one of those," &c. 

^ Others render, " Is it because he hath been named 
Jacob, that he hath," &c. — 'japyi vayangkehani, "he 
hath deceived me," is derived from the same root as the 
name, (see above, xxv. 26,) hence it might be rendered 
" trodden me under foot." 

83 



GENESIS XXVII. XXVIII. VAYETZAY. 



come to pass, that when thou shalt have the 
dominion,'' thou canst break his yoke from off 
thy neck. 

41 And Esau hated Jacob because of the 
blessing wherewitli his father had blessed 
him ; and Esau said in his lieart. The days 
of mouniing for my father- will be at hand; 
then will I slay my brother Jacob. 

42 And Rebekah was informed of the 
words of Esau her elder son : and she sent 
and called Jacob her younger son, and said 
unto him. Behold, thy brother Esau doth com- 
fort himself, with regard to thee, pur^wsing to 
kill thee. 

43 Now therefore, my son, obey my voice; 
and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother, to 
Charan ; 

44 And tarry with him a short time, until 
thy brother's fury turn away; 

45 Until thy brother's anger turn away 
from thee, and he foi'get that which thou 
hast done to him : then will I send, and fetch 
thee from there; why should I be deprived 
of both of you at once in one day ? 

46 And Rebekah said to Isaac, I am weary 
of my life because of the daughters of Heth ; 
if Jacob take a Avife from the daughters of 
Heth, such as these, from the daughters of 
the land, what good will life do me ? 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

1 And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed 
him,*" and charged him, and said vmto him, 
Thou shalt not take a wife from the daugh- 
ters of Canaan. 

2 Arise, go to Padan-aram, to the house of 
Bcthuel thy mother's fother; and take thy- 
self from there a wife of the daughters of Lar 
ban thy mother's brother. 

3 And God, the Almighty, bless thee, and 
make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, that 
tliou mayest become a multitude of people; 

4 And may he give thee the blessing of 
Abraham, to thee, and to thy seed with thee; 
that thou mayest inherit the land of thy so- 
journ, which God gave unto Abraham.* 

5 And Isaac sent away Jacob, and he went 
to Padan-aram, unto Laban, the son of Bethuel 



* This translation, given in the common English version, 
is according to Saai>iaii and Redak, as quoted by Phi- 
lippson. iia.slii, after Onkelos, renders, "when thou hast 
cause to compfiiin (in case the Israelites sin) for the 
blessings taken from thee, that," &c. Gescnius and Arn- 
34 



the Syrian, the brother of Rebekah, the 
mother of Jacob and Esau. 

6 And when Esau saw that Isaac had 
blessed Jacob, and sent him away to Padan- 
aram, to take himself from there a wife ; and 
in blessing him had given him a charge, say- 
ing. Thou shalt not take a Avife of the daugh- 
ters of Canaan ;* 

7 And that Jacob had oljeyed his father 
and his mother, and was gone to Padan-aram : 

8 Then saw Esau that the daughters of 
Canaan Avere evil in the eyes of Isaac liis 
father ; 

9 And Esau Avent unto Ishmael, and took 
Machalath the daughter of Ishmael, Abra- 
ham's son, the sister of Nebayoth in addition 
to his avIa'Cs, to himself as wife. 

Haphtorah in Malachi i. 1 to ii. 7. 



SECTION VII. VAYETZAY, Ni'M. 

10 And Jacob Avent out from Beer-sheba, 
and Avent toAvard Charan. 

11 And he lighted upon a certain place, 
and tarried there all night, because the sun 
Avas set ; and he took one of the stones of the 
l^lace, and put it for his pillow, and laid him- 
self doAvn in that place. 

12 And he dreamed, and behold a ladder 
Avas set up on the earth, and the top of it 
reached to heaA^en ; and behold, angels of God 
Avere ascending and descending on it. 

13 And, behold, the Lord stood above it, 
and said, I am the Lord, the God of Abraham 
thy father, and the God of Isaac : the land 
Avhereon thou liest, to thee AA'ill I give it, and 
to thy seed; 

14 And thy seed shall be as the dust of the 
earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the 
Avost, and to the east, and to the north and to 
the south ; and in thee and thy seed shall all 
the families of the earth be blessed. 

15 And, behold, I am Avith thee, and Avill 
keep thee AvliithersoeA'er thou goest, and Avill 
bring thee again into this land; for I Avill not 
leaA'e thee, until I have done Avhat I have 
spoken to thee of 

10 And Jacob aAvaked out of his sleep, and 



heim, " when thou becomest spread abroad." Philippson, 
" when thou rebellest that thou mayest break," &c. 

'' ConBrmation of the blessing previou.sly obtained: this 
proves that however much Isaac loved Esau, he w:is not 
unconscious of the great merits and piety of his younger 
son. 



GENESIS XXVIII. XXIX. VAYETZAY. 



he said, Surely the Lord is present in this 
place ; and I knew it not." 

17 And he was afraid, and said, How fear- 
ful is this place! this is none other but the 
house of God, and this is the gate of heaven." 

18 And Jacob rose up early in the morn- 
ing, and took the stone that he had put for 
his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured 
oil upon the top of it. 

19 And he called the name of that place 
Beth-el f but Luz was the name of that city 
in fonner times. 

20 And Jacob made a vow, saymg, If God 
will be with me, and will keep me on this 
way which I am going, and will give me 
bread to eat, and raiment to put on, 

21 And I come again in peace to my 
father's house: then shall the Lord be my 
God;" 

22 And this stone, which I have set for a 
pillar, shall be God's house;' and of all that 
thou wilt give me I will surely give the tenth 
imto thee.* 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

1 Then Jacob lifted up his feet' and went 
unto the land of the children of the east. 

2 And he looked, and behold there was a 
well in the field, and, lo, there were three 
flocks of slieep^ lymg by it; for out of that 
well they watered the flocks : and the stone 
upon the mouth of the well was great. 

3 And there all the flocks were wont to as- 
semble ; and they rolled then the stone from 
the mouth of the well, and watered the sheep ; 
and they put the stone agam upon the mouth 
of the well in its place. 

4 And Jacob said unto them. My brethren, 
whence are ye? And they' said. Of Charan 
are we. 

5 And he said unto them. Know ye Laban 
the son of Nachor? And they said, "We know 
him. 

. 6 And he said unto them. Is he well?'' 



And they said. He is well ; and, behold, Ra- 
chel his daughter cometh with the sheep. 

7 And he said, Lo, the day is yet long, it 
is not time that the cattle should be di-ivcn 
home ; water ye the sheep, and go and feed 
them. 

8 And they said. We cannot, until all the 
flocks be gathered together, then do they roll 
the stone from the mouth of the well; and 
we water the sheep. 

9 And while he was yet speaking with 
them, Rachel came with her father's sheep; 
for she was a shepherdess. 

10 And it came to pass, when Jacob saw 
Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother's 
brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother's 
brother, that Jacob went near, and rolled 
the stone from the mouth of the well, and 
watered the flock of Laban his mother's 
brother. 

11 And Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up 
his voice, and wept. 

12 And Jacob told Rachel that he was her 
father's brother,' and that he was Rebekah's 
son : and she ran and told her father. 

13 And it came to pass, when Laban heard 
the tidings of Jacob his sister's son, that he 
ran to meet him, and embraced him, and 
kissed him, and brought him to his house. 
And he told Laban all these things. 

14 And Laban said to him, Surely thou 
art my bone and my flesh. And he abode 
with him the space of a month. 

15 And Laban then said unto Jacob, Be- 
cause thou art my brother, shouldest thou 
therefore serve me for naught? tell me, what 
shall thy wages be? 

16 And Laban had two daughters; the 
name of the elder was Leah, and the name of 
the younger was Rachel. 

17 And the eyes of Leiihwere tender; but 
Rachel was of handsome form and handsome 
appearance.* 

18 And Jacob loved Rachel ; and he said, 



• " If I had known it, I would not have slept in a place 
as holy as this." — Kashi. 

■" "The place whence prayers ascend to heaven." — 
Idem. 

° " The house of God." 

* This docs not express a doubt or condition concerning 
Jacob's willingness to serve God, but means to' convey 
that he would, in the event of his safe return, feel as- 
sured that he was an accepted servant of the Lord who 
had just appeared to liim. 



. ° " Shall be the place where I will worship before the 
Lord." — Onkelos. 

' I. c. Pursued his journey. 

« The word JKV Izone., rendered here "sheep," properly 
includes both sheep and goats. 

■■ Literally, "Hath he peace?" a figurative phrase for 
well-being or prosperity ; perhaps, derived from the fre- 
quent hostilities of nomadic tribes. 

' See above, iiii. 8 ; it stands here for " near relative." 



GENESIS XXIX. XXX. VAYETZAY 



I will sen-e thee seven years for Kachel thy 
younger daughter. 

19 And Laban said, It is better that I give 
her to thee, than that I should give her to 
another man : abide with me. 

20 And Jacob ser^'ed for Rachel seven 
years; and they seemed" unto him but a few 
days, through the love he had to her. 

21 And Jacob said unto Laban, Give me 
my wife, for my days are fulfilled, that I may 
go in unto her. 

22 And Laban gathered together all the 
men of the place, and made a feast. 

23 And it came to pass in the evening, 
that he took Leah his daughter, and brought 
her to him; and he went in unto her. 

24 And Laban gave unto his daughter 
Leah, Zilpah his maid for a handmaid. 

25 And it came to pass, that in the morn- 
ing, behold, it was Leiih : and he said to La- 
ban, What is this thou hast done unto me ? 
did I not serve with thee for Rachel? where- 
fore then hast thou deceived me ? 

26 And Laban said. It is not done so in 
our place, to give in marriage the younger be- 
fore the first-born. 

27 Fulfil the week*" of this, and we will 
give thee this one also, for the service which 
thou shalt serve with me yet seven other 
years. 

28 And Jacob did so, and fulfilled the 
week of the first; and he gave him Rachel 
his daughter for a wife. 

29 And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter 
Bilhah his handmaid to be her maid. 

30 And he went in also unto Rachel, and 
he loved also Rachel more than Leiih; and 
he serA'ed with him yet seven other years. 

31 And when the Lord saw that Leiih was 
hated," he opened her womb; but Rachel was 
barren. 

32 And Leiih conceived, and bore a son, 
and she called his name Reuben ;"• for she 
said. Surely, the Lord hath looked upon my 



• Heb. " Were in his eyes as." 

^ The seven days of festivity, which appear to have been 
customarily observed at that time, as afterwards, in later 
periods, at the occurrence of a marriage. 

• This means, not absolutely hated, but neglected, less 
loved than the other. 

" From raoh, " to see," and hen, "a son." 

• Shim'nn, from j'DI? shamang, "he has heard," and |K 
on, "affliction." 

' From Tfh lavah, " he united," "he adhered." 



affliction, because now my husband will love 
me. 

33 And she conceived again and bore a 
son; and she said. Because the Lord heard 
that I was hated, he hath given me this one 
also; and she called his name Simeon." 

34 And she conceived again, and bore a 
son; and she said. Now this time will my 
husband be jomed unto me, because I have 
bom him three sons; therefore wa? his name 
called Levi.' 

35 And she conceived again, and bore a 
son ; and she said. This time will I praise the 
Lord ; therefore she called his name Judah :^ 
and she left off bearing. 

CHAPTER XXX. 

1 And when Rachel saw that she bore 
Jacob no children, Rachel envied her sister; 
and she said unto Jacob, Give me children, 
and if not, I die. 

2 And Jacob's anger was kindled against 
Rachel: and he said. Am I in God's stead, 
who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the 
womb ? 

3 And she said. Behold, (here is) my maid 
Bilhah, go in unto her; and she shall bear 
upon*" my knees, that I may also have' chil- 
dren by her. 

4 And she gave him Bilhah her handmaid 
for wife, and Jacob went in unto her. 

5 And Bilhah conceived, and bore Jacob a 
son. 

6 And Rachel said, God hath judged me, 
and hath also heard my voice, and hath given 
me a son : therefore called she his name Dan.'' 

7 And Bilhah, Rachel's maid, conceived 
again, and bore Jacob a second son. 

8 And Rachel said. Contests of God' have 
I contended with my sister, I have also pre- 
vailed : and she called his name Naphtali." 

9 When Leiih now saw that she had left 
off bearing, she took Zilpah her maid, and 
gave her to Jacob for wife. 



« Yehudah, from nilN odeh, " I will thank," and TV 
Yah, "the Lord." 

' "Those which I shall rear."— Onkelos. 

' "Be built up through her." — Heb. 

* From don, " to judge." 

' It is very customary in Hebrew constructions to add 
the word God in the genitive, to the idea expres.sed, to 
denote its greatness. Thus, " mountains of God." — 
Ps. xxxvi. 7, &c. 

" From pathol, "to wrestle," "to twist;" found only 
in the passive and reflexive forms. 



GENESIS XXX. VAYETZAY. 



10 And Zilpah Leah's maid bore Jacob a 
son. 

11 And Leah said, Good luck hath come : 
and she called his name Gad.^ 

12 And Zilpah Leah's maid bore a second 
son unto Jacob. 

13 And Leah said, To my happiness; for 
the daughters will call me blessed : and she 
called his name Asher.*"* 

14 And Reuben went in the days of the 
wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the 
field, and he brought them unto Leah his 
mother; then Rachel said to Leah, Give 
me, I pray thee, (some) of thy son's man- 
drakes. 

15 And she said unto her, Is it not enough 
that thou hast taken my husband? and 
wouldest thou also take away my son's man- 
drakes? And Rachel said, Therefore shall 
he lie Avith thee to-night for thy son's man- 
drakes. 

16 And Jacob came out of the field in the 
evening, and Leah went' out to meet him, and 
said. Unto me, thou must come in ; for surely 
I have obtained thee as a reward" with my 
son's mandrakes. And he lay with her that 
night. 

17 And God hearkened unto Leah, and 
she conceived, and bore Jacob a fifth son. 

18 And Leah said, God hath given me my 
reward, because I have given my maid to my 
husband : and she called his name Issachar.* 

19 And Leah conceived again, and bore 
a sixth son unto Jacob. 

20 And Leah said, God hath endued me 
with a good do^vi-y; now will my husband 
dwell Avith me, because I have born him six 
sons; and she called his name Zebulun." 

21 And afterward she bore a daughter, 
and she called her name Dinah. 

22 And God remembered Rachel, and God 
hearkened to her, and opened her womb. 

23 And she conceived, and bore a son; 
and she said, God hath taken away my re- 
proach. 



* " Luck." 

' " Happy." 

" This elegant turn is according to Amheim's version. 

* Yissachar, from sachar, " reward." 
' From zehul, a " dwelling." 

' Yosarph, i. e. " he will add." 

« Onkelos; as much as, "excuse me for saying;'* the 
word " tarry," added in the English version, has no war- 



24 And she called his name Joseph,' say- 
ing, The Lord shall add to me another son. 

25 And it came to pass, Avhen Rachel had 
born Joseph, that Jacob said unto Laban, 
Send me away, that I may go unto my own 
place, and to my coimtry. 

26 Give me my wives and my children, for 
whom I have served thee, and let me go; for 
thou knowest my service Avith Avhich I ha\'e 
served thee. 

27 And Laban said.imto him, K I could 
but find faA^our in thy eyes f I have learned by 
experience that the Lord hath blessed me for 
thy sake.* 

28 And he said. Appoint me thy Avages, 
and I Avill giA^e them. 

29 And he said unto him. Thou knoAvest 
hoAv I have served thee, and Avhat thy cattle 
hath become Avith me. 

30 For it Avas a little which thou hadst be- 
fore I came, and it is noAv increased unto a 
multitude; and the Lord hath blessed thee 
since my coming; and now when shall I pro- 
vide also for my OAvn house ? 

31 And he said, What shall I giA-e thee? 
And Jacob said. Thou shalt not giA-e me the 
least; if thou Avilt do this thing for me, I will 
again feed and keep thy flock : 

32 I Avill pass through all thy flock to-day, 
remoAdng from there every speckled and spot- 
ted lamb, and CA'ery broAvii lamb among the 
sheep, and AvhatcA'er is spotted and speckled 
among the goats ; and such shall be after this 
my rcAvard. 

33 And my righteousness'' shall testify for 
me in time to come, Avhen it' shall come Avith 
my reward before thy face : every one that is 
not speckled and spotted among the goats, 
and broAvn among the sheep, that shall be 
counted stolen Avith me. 

34 And Laban said. Well, let it be accord- 
ing to thy word. 

35 And he removed on that day the he- 
goats that Avere ring-streaked and spotted, and 
all the she-goats that Avere speckled and spot- 



rant for it in the Hebrew, though Dubno deduces it as a 
consequence from the antecedent, considering the verse as 
elliptical. 

''"Honesty" — Mendelssohn — in which sense this 
word should be taken when applied to dealings with man. 

' After Rashi and Arnheim ; others render Ki3n 
" when thou (Laban) comest (to look) over my reward 
(the property acquired) before thee." 



GENESIS XXX. XXXI. VAYETZAY. 



ted, every one that had some white on it, and 
all the bro^vn among the sheep, and gave 
them mto the hand of his sons. 

36 And he put a space of three days' jour- 
ney between himself and Jacob; and Jacob 
fed the flocks of Laban that were left. 

37 And Jacob took himself rods of green 
poplar, and of the hazel* and chestnut tree; 
and peeled thereon white streaks, laying bare 
the white which was on the rods. 

38 And he set the rods which he had peeled 
in the gutters in the watering troughs, where 
the flocks'' came to drink, just before the 
flocks, and where they conceived, when they 
came to drink. 

39 And the flocks conceived before the 
rods, and brought forth ring-streaked, speckled, 
and spotted. 

40 And these lambs did Jacob separate, 
and set the faces" of the flocks toward the 
ring-streaked, and whatever was brown in the 
flock of Laban ; and he put his own flocks by 
themselves, and put them not with Laban's 
cattle. 

41 And it came to pass, whensoever the 
stronger cattle did conceive, that Jacob laid 
the rods before the eyes of the cattle in the 
gutters, that they might conceive among the 
rods. 

42 But when the cattle were feeble, he put 
them not in ; so the feebler belonged to Laban, 
and the stronger to Jacob. 

43 And the man increased'^ exceedingly, 
and he had many flocks, and maid-servants, 
and men-servants, and camels, and asses. 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

1 And he heard the words of Laban's sons, 
saying, Jacob hath taken away all that was 
our father's, and of that which was our father's 
hath he gotten all this wealth." 

2 And Jacob beheld the countenance of 
Laban, and, behold, it was not toward him as 
before.' 

• Others, "Almond and plane tree." 

^ Laban no doubt sought to give Jacob the least possi- 
ble wages, expecting, however, that he would employ 
some device to obtain all he could in accordance with 
their bargain; hence he was evidently not offended at it. 

" " He made advance-droves out of whatcve^ was 
speckled and brown in Laban's flocks," Arnheim, tak- 
ing juxn 'ja as tiie name of the flocks which went before 
the other ; but the sense is at last the same as that given 
in the text, since there the plainly coloured are represented 
as following those having the marks agreed upon 



3 And the Lord said unto Jacob, Return 
unto the land of thy fathers, and to thy birth- 
place; and I will be with thee. 

4 And Jacob sent and called Rachel and 
Leah to the field unto his flock. 

5 And he said unto them, I see your 
father's countenance, that it is not toward me 
as before ; but the God of my father hath been 
with me. 

6 And ye know well that with all my power 
I have served your father. . 

7 And your father hath deceived me, and 
changed my wages ten times; but God suf- 
fered him not to do me evil. 

8 K he said thus. The speckled shall be 
thy wages ; then bore all the cattle speckled : 
and if he said thus. The rmg-streaked shall be 
my reward; then bore all. the cattle ring- 
streaked. 

9 Thus God took away the cattle of your 
father, and gave them to me. 

10 And it came to pass at the time that 
the cattle conceived, that I lifted up my eyes, 
and saw in a dream, and, behold, the rams 
which leaped upon the cattle were ring- 
streaked, speckled, and grizzled. 

11 And an angel of God spoke imto me 
in the dream, Jacob : and I said. Here am I. 

12 And he said, Lift up now thy eyes and 
see, all the rams which leap upon the cattle 
are ring-streaked, speckled, and grizzled; for 
I have seen all that Laban doeth unto thee. 

13 I am the God of Beth-el, where thou 
anointedst a pillar, where thou madest unto 
me a vow : now arise, get thee out from this 
land, and return unto the land of thy birth. 

14 And Rachel and Leah answered and 
said unto him. Is there yet any portion or in- 
heritance for us in our fother's house ? 

15 Were we not counted of him as stran- 
gers? for he hath sold us; and he hath quite 
consumed also our money.* 

16 For all the riches which God hath taken 
from our father, that is our^, and our chil- 



'' Literally, " spread out," i. e. his flocks were extended 
over a large pasture-ground. 

• Literally, "glory," or "honour." 
' Hcb. " Yesterday and day before yesterday." 
« Through the frauds practised upon Jacob. Rachel 
and Lciih express in this verse their just indignation 
against the cruelty of their father in having sold them, as 
though they wore servants, to their husbaud, much as 
they loved him ; and now they had additional cause for 
complaint in his eS'orts to give their husband as small 
wages as possible. 



GENESIS XXXI. VAYETZAY. 



dren's ; now then, whatsoever God hath said 
unto thee, do.* 

17 Then Jacob rose up, and. set his sons 
and his wives upon camels ; 

18 And he led away all his cattle, and all 
his goods which he had gotten, the cattle of 
his acquirmg, which he had gotten in Padan- 
aram, to go to Isaac his father into the land 
of Canaan. 

19 And Laban was gone to shear his sheep ; 
and Rachel stole the images that were her 
father's. 

20 And Jacob stole' away unawares to La- 
ban the Syrian, by not letting him know that 
he was going to flee. 

21 And he fled with all that he had; and 
he rose up, and passed over the river, and set 
his face toward the mount Gilead. 

22 And it was told to Laban on the third 
day that Jacob was fled. 

23 And he took his brethren with him, and 
pursued after him a seven days' journey; and 
he overtook him at the mount of Gilead. 

24 And God came to Laban, the Syrian, 
in a dream of the night, and said unto him, 
Take thou heed that thou speak not to Jacob 
either good or bad."" 

25 Then Laban overtook Jacob ; now Jacob 
had pitched his tent on the mount, and Laban 
with his brethren pitched on the mount of 
Gilead. 

26 And Laban said to Jacob, What hast 
thou done, that thou hast stolen away una- 
wares to me, and led away my daughters, as 
captives taken with the sword ? 

27 Wherefore didst thou flee away secretly, 
and steal away from me ; and why didst thou 
not tell me, that I might have sent thee away 
with mirth, and with songs, with tabret, and 
with harp? 

28 And (why) hast thou not suffered me to 
kiss my sons and my daughters? now thou 
hast acted foolishly in so doing. 

29 It is in the power of my hand to do you 
hurt ; but the God of your father spoke unto 
me yesternight, saying, Take thou heed that 
thou speak not to Jacob either good or bad. 

30 And now, thou wouldest needs be gone, 
because thou greatly longedst after thy father's 



* Heb. " Stole the heart of Laban." 
'' i. e. Use no threats or persuasion to induce him to 
return to Syria. 
" Lit. " Felt over." 



house ; (yet) wherefore hast thou stolen my 
gods? 

31 And Jacob answered and said to Laban, 
Because I was afraid, for I said, Peradventure 
thou wouldest take by force thy daughters 
from me. 

32 With whomsoever thou findest thy gods, 
let him not live ; before our brethren seek out 
thou what is thine with me, and take it to 
thee ; but Jacob knew not that Rachel had 
stolen them. 

33 And Laban went into the tent of Jacob, 
and into the tent of Leilh, and into the tent 
of the two maid-servants ; but he found no- 
thing ; he then went out of the tent of Leah, 
and entered into Rachel's tent. 

34 Now Rachel had taken the images, and 
put them in the saddle-cushion of the camel, 
and sat upon them ; and Laban searched" all 
the tent, and found nothing. 

35 And she said to her father. Let it not 
displease my lord that I cannot rise up before 
thee ; for the custom of women is upon me ; 
and thus he searched, but found not the images. 

36 Now Jacob became wroth, and quar- 
relled with Laban ; and Jacob answered** and 
said to Laban, What is my trespass ? what is 
my sin, that thou hast so hotly pursued after 
me? 

37 Although thou hast searched all my 
goods, what hast thou found of all the articles 
of thy household ? set it here before my bre- 
thren and thy brethren, that they may judge 
between us both. 

38 These twenty years have I been with 
thee : thy ewes and thy she-goats have not 
cast their young ;" and the rams of thy flock 
have I not eaten. 

39 That which was torn of beasts I brought 
not unto thee ; I had to bear the loss of it, ol' 
my hand didst thou require it, whatever was 
stolen by day, and stolen by night. 

40 (Where) I was in the day the heat con- 
sumed me, and the frost by night; and my 
sleep departed from my eyes. 

41 These twenty years have I been in thy 
house ; I have served thee fourteen years for 
thy two daughters, and six years for thy flocks : 
and thou hast changed my wages ten times. 



* Amheim renders " commenced," in which sense the 
verb nJi' is found at times. (See Deut. xxvii. 14.) 

" (". e. Carelessness in not attending properly to the 
flock could never be charged to me. 

89 



GENESIS XXXI. XXXII. VAYISHLACH. 



42 Except tlie God of my father, the God 
of Abraham, and the Fear of Isaac, had been 
with me, surely thou hadst now sent me away 
empty ; my affliction and the labour of my 
hands God hath seen, and decided' yester- 
night.* 

43 And Laban answered and said unto 
Jacob, The daughters are my daughters, and 
the children are my children, and the flocks 
are my flocks, and all that thou seest is mine ; 
but as to my daughters, what can I do unto 
them this day, or unto their children whom 
they have born ? 

44 And now, come thou, let us make a 
covenant, I and thou ; and let it be for a Avit- 
ness between me and thee. 

45 And Jacob took a stone, and set it up 
for a pillar. 

46 And Jacob said unto his brethren, 
Gather stones; and they took stones, and 
made a heap : and they ate there upon the 
heap. 

47 And Laban called it Yegar-sahadutha :'' 
but Jacob called it Galed.*" 

48 And Laban said, This heap is a witness 
between me and thee this day ; therefore called 
he its name Galed ; 

49 And Mitzpah f for he said. The Lord 
shall watch between me and thee, when we 
are absent one from the other ; 

50 If thou shouldest afflict my daughters, or 
if thou shouldest take other wives besides my 
daughters, when there is no man with us : 
see, God is ^vitness between me and thee. 

51 And Laban said to Jacob, Behold this 
heap, and behold this pillar, which I have cast 
up between me and thee ; 

52 Witness be this heap and witness be 
this pillar, that I will not pass by this heap, 
and that thou shalt not paiss unto me by this 
heap and this pillar, for evil. 

53 The God of Abraham and the God of 
Nachor shall judge between us, the God of 
their father ; but Jacob swore by the Fear of 
his father Isaac. 

54 Then Jacob slew some cattle'' upon the 

* Meaning, tbat by the direction given to Laban not to 
urge Jacob's return, God had decided that Jacob had acted 
rightly, and that Laban had been the wrong-doer. 

' This, the Aramaic name, is identical with the He- 
brew appellation of Jacob, meaning the " heap of testi- 
mony." 

° From nijy tzaphoh, " to see, to watch." 

* After Ra.shi, who does not agree with the English 

40 



mount, and called his brethren to eat bread ; 
and they did eat bread, and tarried all night 
on the mount.* 

CHAPTER XXXII.' 

1 And early in the morning Laban rose up, 
and kissed his sons and his daughters and 
blessed them ; and Laban departed, and re- 
turned unto his own place. 

2 And Jacob went on his way, and there 
met him angels of God. 

3 And when Jacob saw them, he said. This 
is a host of God ; and he called the name of 
that place Machanayim.' 

Haphtorah in Hoshea xi. 7 to xii. 12. Some read from xii. 
13, to xiv. 10. 



SECTION VIII. VAYISHLACH, nSt''l. 

4 ^ And Jacob sent messengers before him 
to Esau his brother unto the land of Se'ir, the 
country^ of Edom. 

5 And he commanded them, saying, Thus 
shall ye speak unto my lord, to Esau, Thus 
saith thy servant Jacob, With Laban have I 
sojourned, and stayed until now. 

6 And I have acquired oxen, and asses, 
flocks, and men-servants, and Avomen-ser- 
vants ; and I send now to tell my lord, to find 
grace in thy ej^es. 

7 And the messengers returned to Jacob, 
saying, We came to thy brother, to Esau, and 
also he cometh to meet thee, and four hun- 
dred men Avith him. 

8 Then Jacob was greatly afraid, and he 
felt distressed ; and he diAdded the people that 
were with him, and the flocks, and the herds, 
and the camels, into two bands. 

9 And he said, if Esau should come to the 
one band and smite it, then the other band 
which is left may escape. 

• 10 And Jacob said, God of my father 
Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, the 
Lord who saidst unto me. Return unto thy 
country, and to thy birthplace, and I mil 
deal well Avith thee : 



version in making it a sacrifice. — dhS " broad," as here 
given, means a "prepared meal," or "dinner." 

* In the English version, chap, xxxii. commences witli 
V. 2. 

' " Two camps," or " hosts." 

» Heb. " Fields." Dubuo explains, " to the land of 
Seir, that part where Edom (Esau) dwelt." 



GENESIS XXXII. XXXIII. VAYISHLACH. 



11 I am not worthy" of all the mercies, 
and of all the truth, which thou hast shown 
unto thy servant ; for with my staff I passed 
over this Jordan; and now I am become two 
bands. 

12 Deliver me, I pray thee, from the hand 
of my brother, from the hand of Esau ; for I 
fear him, lest he will come and smite me, the 
mother Avith the children. 

13 And thou saidst, I will surely do thee 
good, and make thy seed as the sand of the 
sea, which cannot be numbered for multi- 
tude.* 

14 And he lodged there that same night ; 
and he took of that which he carried with 
him*" a present for Esau his brother : 

15 Two hundred she-goats, and twenty he- 
goats, two hundred ewes, and .twenty rams, 

16 Thirty milch camels mth their colts, 
forty cows, and ten bulls, twenty she-asses, 
and ten foals. 

17 And he delivered them into the hand 
of his servants, every drove by itself; and he 
said unto his servants. Pass on before me, and 
put a space between drove and drove. 

18 And he commanded the foremost, say- 
ing. When Esau my brother should meet thee, 
and ask thee, saying. Whose art thou? and 
whither art thou going? and for whom are 
these before thee? 

19 Then shalt thou say. They belong to 
thy servant, to Jacob ; it is a present sent unto 
my lord, to Esau; and, behold, also, he is him- 
self behind us. 

20 And so he commanded also the second, 
also the third, as also all that followed the 
droves, saying. After this manner shall ye 
speak unto Esau, when ye find him. 

21 And say ye moreover. Behold, also thy 
servant Jacob is behind us. For he said, I 
will appease him with the present that 
goeth before me, and afterward I vnll see his 
face ; peradventure he Avill receive" me kindly. 

' " My merits have been diminished through all," &c. 
— Onkelos and Rashi. There is no warrant to render 
it, with the English version, " I am not worthy of the least 
of," &c., there being no word in the text to correspond 
with the addition. 

^ Heb. " Which had come to his hand," meaning 
" the cattle in which his wealth consisted, and from these 
he sent ; for he was on the way, and had no opportunity 
to send silver and gold and precious things." — Ramban. 

° Lit. " he will bear my face," since one is not able 
to look with composure in the face of the person who has 
not obtained his forgiveness. 



22 The present went thus on before him ; 
and he lodged himself that night in the camp. 

23 And he rose up that night, and he took 
his two wives, and his two women-servants, 
and his eleven sons, and passed over the ford 
of the Yabbok. 

24 And he took them, and sent them over 
the stream, and sent over what he had. 

25 And Jacob Avas left alone ; and there 
wrestled a man Avith him until the breaking 
of the day.*^ 

26 And Avhen he saAV that he could not pre- 
vail against him, he struck agamst° the hol- 
loAV of his thigh ; and the hoUoAV of Jacob's 
thigh Avas put out of joint, as he Avas Avrestling 
Avitli him. 

27 And he said, Let me go, for the day 
hath daAvned. And he said, I will not let 
thee go until thou hast blessed me. 

28 And he said unto him. What is thy 
name ? and he said, Jacob. 

29 And he said. Not Jacob shall any more 
be called thy name, but Israel f for as a prince^ 
hast thou poAver Avith God and Avith men, and 
hast prevailed. 

30 And Jacob asked him, and said, Tell 
me, I pray thee, thy name. And he said. 
Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my 
name ? And he blessed him there.* 

31 And Jacob called the name of the place 
Peniel :'' for I have seen an angel of God' face 
to face, and my life hath been preserved. 

32 And the sun rose unto him as he passed 
by Penuel, and he halted upon his thigh. 

33 Therefore the children of Israel do not 
eat the sincAv which'' shrank, Avhich is upon 
the holloAv of the thigh, mito this day; because 
he struck against the holloAV of Jacob's thigh 
on the sincAV that shrank. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

1 And Jacob lifted up his eyes, and looked, 
and behold, Esau came, and with him four 



* More correctly, " the rise of the morning dawn." 

° Lit. " He touched on the pan of," &c. 

' " Prince of God," SxiE^' I'isniel, "wa sar, " prince," 
and ha EI, " God." 

« The moderns render, " for thou hast striven for the 
mastery with divine beings (angels) and with men, and 
hast conquered." 

■' YroxD. panim, " face," and El, " God." 

' After Onkelos. 

' Philippson and others, " tendon" and explain with 
teiido Achilli's. 



GENESIS XXXIII. XXXIV. VAYISHLACH. 



hundred men. And he divided the children 
unto Leiih, and unto Rachel, and unto the two 
handmaids. 

2 And he put the handmaids and their 
children foremost, and Leiih and her children 
after, and Rachel and Joseph hindermost. 

3 And he himself passed on before them, 
and bowed himself to the gromid seven times, 
until he came near to his brother. 

4 And Esau ran to meet him, and embraced 
him, and fell on his neck, and kissed him; 
and they Avept. 

5 And he lifted up his eyes, and saw the 
women and the children ; and said. Who are 
these Avith thee ? And he said, The children 
whom God hath graciously given thy servant.* 

G Then came the handmaidens near, they 
and their children, and they l^wed themselves. 

7 And Leiih also with her children came 
near, and they bowed themselves ; and after 
that came Joseph near and Rachel, and they 
bowed themselves. 

8 And he said, What meanest thou by all 
this drove which I have met? And he said. To 
find grace in the eyes of my lord. 

9 And Esau said, I have enough, my bro- 
ther, keep unto thyself what thou hast. 

10 And Jacob said, This must not be, I 
pray thee ; if I have but found grace in thy 
eyes, then do thou receive my present at my 
hand; since I have seen thy face, it is as 
though I had seen the face of an angel, and 
because thou hast received me kindly.* 

11 Take, I pray thee, my present'' that is 
brought to thee ; because God hath dealt 
graciously with me, and because I have a 
plenty of all. And he urged him, and he 
took it. 

12 And he said. Let us depart, and move 
farther, and I will travel near thee. 

13 And he said unto him, My lord knoweth 
that the children are tender, and the tlocks 
and herds with young are a charge on me :' 
and if they should overdrive them one day, all 
the flock would die. 

14 Let my lord, I pray thee, pass on before 
his servant: and I will lead on slowly, accord- 
ing as the cattle that goeth before me and 



• After Ilashi. "i Hcb. "blessing." 

° Arnlioim and Pliilippson regard 'S;' as a Syriae plural 

from till! singular hy " the young," and render, "and the 

floeks and the herds suckle the young." 
'' From succah, " a booth." 
42 



the children may be able to travel, until 1 
come unto my lord unto Se'ir. 

15 And Esau said. Let me, I pray thee, 
leave with thee some of the people that are 
with me. And he said, What needeth it ? let 
me only find grace in the eyes of my lord. 

16 So Esau returned that day on his way 
unto Se'ir. 

17 And Jacob journeyed to Succoth and 
built himself a house, and for his cattle he 
made booths; therefore he called the name 
of the place Succoth.'' 

18 Tl And Jacob came in good health to the 
city of Shechem, which is in the land of Ca^ 
naan, when he came from Padan-aram; and 
he encamped before the city. 

19 And he bought the parcel of the field, 
where he had spread his tent, at the hand of 
the children of Chamor, the father of Shechem, 
for a hundred kessitah." 

20 And he erected there an altar, and 
called it, El-Elohe-Israel.*' 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

1 ^ And Dinah the daughter of Leiih, 
whom she had torn unto Jacob, went out to 
look about among the daughters of the land. 

2 And Shechem the son of Chamor the 
Hivite, the prince of the country, saw her; 
and he took her, and lay with her, and did 
her violence. 

3 And his soul clave unto Dinah the 
daughter of Jacob, and he loved the maiden, 
and spoke kindly unto the maiden. 

4 And Shechem spoke unto Chamor his 
father, saying, Get me this girl for wife. 

5 And Jacob heard that he had defiled 
Dinah his daughter; but his sons were with 
his cattle in the field: and Jacob held his 
peace'' until they were come. 

And Chamor the father of Shechem went 
out unto Jacob to speak with him. 

7 And the sons of Jacob came from the 
field when they heard it, and the men were 
grieved, and it excited their anger greatly ; 
because he had wrought a disgraceful thing 
in Israel to lie with the daughter of Jacob, 
and this ought not to be done. 



* A particular coin, of unknown value. The notion of 
(leseniu.s that each was worth four shekels is mere con- 
jee turo. 

' " God, the God of Israel." 

' i. r. Kept silent. 



GENESIS XXXIV. XXXV. VAYISHLACH. 



8 And Chamor spoke with them, saying, 
The soul of Shechem my son longeth for your 
daughter; give her, I pray you, unto him for 
wife. 

9 And intermarry with us ; your daughters 
ye shall give unto us, and our daughters ye 
may take unto yourselves. 

10 And with us shall ye dwell; and the 
land shall be open before you; dwell and 
trade ye therein, and acquire possessions 
therein. 

11 And Shechem said unto her father and 
unto her brother, Let me but find grace in 
your eyes, and whatever ye may say unto 
me, I will give. 

12 Ask of me ever so much dowry and 
gift, and I Avill give, just as ye may say unto 
me; but give me the maiden for wife. 

13 And the sons of Jacob answered She- 
chem and Chamor liis father ^vith cunning, 
and spoke; because he had defiled Dinah 
their sister. 

14 And they said unto them. We cannot 
do this thing, to give our sister to one that is 
uncircumcised ; for that would be a reproach 
unto us. 

15 But on this condition will we consent 
unto you ; if ye will become as we are, that 
every male of you be circumcised : 

16 Then -ivill we give our daughters unto 
you, and we Avill take your daughters unto 
us ; and we will dwell with you, and we will 
become one people. 

17 But if ye "vvill not hearken unto us, to 
be circumcised, then will we take our daugh- 
ter, and go our way. 

18 And their words were pleasing in the 
eyes of Chamor, and in the eyes of Shechem, 
the son of Chamor. 

19 And the young man deferred not to do 
the thing, because he had delight in Jacob's 
daughter; and he Avas the most honoured of 
all the house of his father. 

20 And Chamor and Shechem his son came 
unto the gate of their city, and spoke ■with 
the men of their city, saying, 

21 These men are peaceably inclined with 
us; therefore let them dwell in the land, and 



" Mendelssohn renders, " And they wish to dwell in 
the land and travel ahout therein." 

"" Rashi; but Onkelos refers nt33 "secure," to the in- 
habitants of the city, as if it said, "expecting no dan- 
ger." 



trade therein ;* and the land, behold, it is large 
enough on all sides before them ; their daugh- 
ters we will take unto us for wives, and our 
daughters we will give mito them. 

22 Only with this condition will the men 
consent unto us to dwell with us, to become 
one people, if every male among us be circum- 
cised, as they are circimicised. 

23 Their cattle and their substance and 
every beast of theirs — will they not be ours? 
only let us consent unto them, that they may 
dwell with us. 

24 And unto Chamor and unto Shechem 
his son hearkened all that went out of the 
gate of his city ; and all the males were cir- 
cumcised, all that went out of the gate of his 
city. 

25 And it came to pass on the third day, 
when they were sore, that two of the sons of 
Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah's brothers, 
took each his sword, and came upon the city 
unresisted'' and slew all the males. 

26 And they slew Chamor and Shechem 
his son with the edge of the sword ; and they 
took Dinah out of Shechem's house, and went 
out. 

27 The sons of Jacob came upon the slain, 
and spoiled the city, because they had defiled 
their sister. 

28 They took their sheep, and their oxen, 
and their asses, and that which was in the 
city, and that which was in the field, 

29 And all their wealth, and all their little 
ones, and their wives they took captive, and 
spoiled; and all that was in the house. 

30 And Jacob said unto Simeon and Levi, 
Ye have troubled me, to cause me to be hated" 
among the mhabitants of the land, among the 
Canaanites and the Perizzites: and as I am 
but few in number, they may gather them- 
selves together against me, and slay me ; and 
I would be destroyed, I and my house. 

31 And they said, Should he deal with our 
sister as with a harlot? 

CHAPTER XXXV. 
1 ^ And God said unto Jacob, Arise, go 
up to Beth-el, and dwell there; and make 



° 'WK2T^h means literally " to cause me to be in bad 
odour," from t7K3 "to stink," which term is then figura- 
tively applied to a tainted reputation, which produces 
hate in others. Hence the translation in the text. 



GENESIS XXXV. VAYISHLACH. 



there an altar unto the God that appeared 
unto thee when thou fleddest from the face of 
Esau thy brother. 

2 Then said Jacob unto his household, and 
to all that were with him, Put away the 
strange gods" that are among you, and cleanse 
yourselves, and change your garments. 

3 And let us ai'ise, and go up to Beth-el; 
and I will make there an altar unto the God 
who answered me in the day of my distress, 
and was with me on the way which I went. 

4 And they gave unto Jacob all the strange 
gods which were in their hand, and the ear- 
rings which were m their ears ; and Jacob hid 
them under the oak which was near Shechem. 

5 And they journeyed; and the terror of 
God was upon the cities that were round 
about them, and they did not pursue after the 
sons of Jacob. 

6 So Jacob came to Luz, which is in the 
land of Canaan, that is, Beth-el, he and all 
the people that were ^vith him. 

7 And he built there an altar, and called 
the place El-beth-el t* because there God" ap- 
peared unto him, when he fled from the face 
of his brother. 

8 And Deborah Rebekah's nurse died, and 
she was buried beneath'' Beth-el imder an 
oak : and he called its name Allon-bachuth.° 

9 ^ And God appeared unto Jacob again, 
when he came from Padan-aram, and blessed 
him. 

10 And God said unto him, Thy name is 
Jacob; thy name shall not be called any 
more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name : 
and he called his name Israel. 

11 And God said unto him, I am God the 
Almighty; be fruitful and multiply; a nation 
and an assemblage of nations' shall spring 
from thee, and kings shall come out of thy 
loins.* 

12 And the land which I gave to Abraham 
and Isaac, to thee wU I give it; and to thy 
seed after thee will I give the land. 

13 And God went up from him on the 
place where he had spoken with him.* 

14 And Jacob set up a pillar at the place 



* Keferring probably to images they had found among 
the spoil of the city of Shechem. 

•> " God of Bethel." 

" According to Rashi and the Massorah ; but On- 
kclos renders, " for there appeared to him the angels of 
the Lord." 

* On the declivity leading to it. 

44 



where he had spoken with him, a pillar of 
stone ; and he poured a drink offering thereon, 
and he poured oil thereon. 

15 And Jacob called tlie name of the place 
where God had spoken with him, Beth<'l. 

16 And they journeyed from Beth-el; and 
there was yet some distance to come to 
Ephrath, when Rachel travailed, and she had 
hard labour. 

17 And it came to pass, when she was in 
hard labour, that the midAvife said unto her, 
Fear not; for this child also is a son for 
thee.s 

18 And it came to pass, as her soul was 
departing, (for she died,) that she called his 
name Ben-oni :'' but his father called him Ben- 
jamin.' 

19 And so Rachel died, and was buried on 
the way to Ephrath, which is Beth-lcchem. 

20 And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave ; 
this is the pillar of Rachel's grave unto his 
day. 

21 And Israel journeyed, and spread his 
tent beyond the tower of flocks (Eder) . 

22 And it came to pass, when Israel dwelt 
in that land, that Reuben went and lay with 
Bilhah his father's concubine; and Israel 
heard it. 

^ Now the sons of Jacob were twelve. 

23 The sons of Leiih, Jacob's first-boni, Reii- 
ben, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and 
Issachar, and Zebulun. 

24 The sous of Rachel, Joseph, and Ben- 
jamin. 

25 And the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's hand- 
maid, Dan, and Naphtali. 

26 And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's hand- 
maid, Gad, and Asher: these are tlie sons of 
Jacob, that were bom to him in Padan-aram. 

27 And Jacob came unto Isaac his fother 
unto Mamr^, the city of Arbah, which is 
Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac had so- 
journed. 

28 And the days of Isaac wcve one hun- 
dred and eighty years. 

29 And Isaac departed this life, and died, 
and was gathered unto his people, old and 



• " Oak of weeping." 
' " Tribes." — Onkelos. 

' No doubt referring to Rachel's wish at the birth of 
Joseph. (Gen. xx-^c. '24.) 
^ " Son of my pain." 
' " Son of my old age." 



GENESIS XXXVI. VAYISHLACH. 



full of days; and Esau and Jacob his sons 
buried him. 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

1 ][ Now these are the generations of Esau, 
who is Edoni. 

2 Esau took his wives of the daughters of 
Canaan ; Adah" the daughter of Elon the Hit- 
tite, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah 
the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite; 

3 And Bahsemath Ishmael's daughter, the 
sister of Nebayoth. 

4 And Adah bore to Esau Eliphaz; and 
Bahsemath bore Reiiel; 

5 And Aholibamah bore Yeiish, and Ya'lam, 
and Korach : these are the sons of Esau, that 
wei'e born unto him in the land Canaan. 

C And Esau took his wives, and his sons, 
and his daughters, and all the persons of his 
house, and his cattle, and all his beasts, and 
all his substance, wliich he had gotten in the 
land of Canaan; and went into another 
country from the face of his brother Jacob. 

7 For their riches were more than that 
they might dwell together; and the land of 
their sojournmg could not bear them, because 
of their cattle. 

8 Thus dwelt Esau in mount Se'ir: Esau 
is Edom. 

9 And these are the generations of Esau 
the father of the Edom in mount Se'ir. 

10 These ai'e the names of Esau's sons: 
Eliphaz the son of Adah the wife of Esau, 
Reiiel the son of Bahsemath the wife of Esau. 

11 And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, 
Omar, Zepho, and Ga'tam, and Kenaz. 

12 And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz 
•Esau's son : and she bore to Elipliaz Amalek ; 
these were the sons of Adah, Esau's wife. 

13 And these are the sons of Reiiel: Nar 
chath, and Zerach, Shammah, and Mizzah; 
these were the sons of Bahsemath, Esau's 
wife. 

14" And these were the sons of Aholibamah, 
the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon, 



* In Genesis xxvi. 34, the wives of Esau are called 
Judith, daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Bahsemath, 
daughter of Elon; we may therefore assume that the 
daughter of Beeri died childless, when Esau took Aholi- 
bamah ; and regarding the names of Adah, in the case of 
the daughter of Elon, and of Bahsemath, the daughter of 
Ishmacl, we can suppose that they may have been terms 
of endearment applied to them. For instance, mj> 'Adah, 
from ^•\y 'Adi, "ornament," nDB'3 Bahsemath, from aoi 



Esau's wife : and she bore to Esau Yeiish, and 
Ya'lam, and Korach. 

15 These are the dukes'" of the sons of 
Esau; the sons of Eliphaz the firsl>bom of 
Esau : duke Teman, duke Omai", duke Zepho, 
duke Kenaz, 

16 Duke Korach, duke Ga'tam, duke Ama^ 
lek; these are the dukes of Elipliaz in the 
land of Edom ; these are the sons of Adah. 

17 And these are the sons of Reiiel Esau's 
son ; duke Nachath, duke Zerach, duke Sham- 
mah, duke Mizzah; these ai'e the dukes of 
Reiiel in the land of Edom; these are the 
sons of Bahsemath Esau's wife. 

18 And these are the sons of Aholibamah, 
Esau's wife : duke Yeiish, duke Ya'lam, duke 
Korach ; these are the dukes of Aholibamah 
the daughter of Anah, Esau's wife. 

19 These are the sons of Esau, and these 
are their dukes; this is Edom.'^' 

20 ^ These are the sons of Seir the Chorite, 
who inhabited the land : Lotan, and Shobal, 
and Zibeon, and Anah, 

21 And Dishon, and Etzer, and Dishan; 
these are the dukes of the Chorites, the chil- 
dren of Seir in the land of Edom. 

22 And the children of Lotan were Chori 
and Heman ; and Lotan's sister was Timna. 

23 And these were the children of Shobal: 
Alvan, and Manachath, and Ebal, Sheplio, 
and Onam. 

24 And these are the children of Zibeon : 
both Ajah, and Anah; this was that Anah 
that found the mules'" in the wilderness, as 
he fed the asses of Zibeon his father. 

25 And these are the children of Anah : 
Dishon, and Aholibamah the daughter of 
Anah. 

26 And these are the children of Dishan -^ 
Chemdan, and Eshban, and Yithran, and 
Cheran. 

27 These are the children of Etzer: Bilhan, 
and ZaJivan, and Akan. 

28 These are the children of Dishan : Uz, 
and Aran. 



bossem, "spice." Such names are not uncommon in the 
East. 

*■ Others, "princes of tribes." 

" The word d'O' yemim, here rendered "mules," has 
been variously interpreted, as it is but once met with; 
the first with mules; secondly, with "giants," same as 
cmim, and again "warm springs." The version here is 
according to Talmud. 

* Eng. ver. " Dishon." 

45 



GENESIS XXXVI. XXXVII. VAYESHEB. 



29 These are the dukes of the Chorites: 
duke Lotan, duke Shobal, duke Zibeon, duke 
An ah ; 

30 Duke Dishon, duke Etzer, duke Dishan ; 
these are the dukes of the Chorites, after their 
dukes in the land of Seir. 

31 ][ And these are the kings that reigned 
in the land of Edom, before there reigned any 
king over the children of Israel." 

32 And there reigned in Edom Bela the 
son of Beor : and the name of his city Avas 
Dinhabah. 

33 And Bela died, and there reigned in his 
stead Yobab the son of Zerach of Bozrah. 

34 And Yobab died, and there reigned in 
his stead Chusham of the land of Teman. 

35 And Chusham died, and there reigned 
in his stead Hadad the son of Bedad, who 
smote Midian in the field of Moiib; and the 
name of his city Avas Avith. 

36 And Hadad died, and there reigned in 
his stead Samlah of Masrekah. 

37 And Samlah died, and there reigned 
in his stead Shaiil of Rechoboth by the 
river. 

38 And Shaiil died, and there reigned in 
his stead Baal-chanan the son of Achbor. 

39 And Baal-chanan the son of Achbor 
died, and there reigned in his stead Hadar, 
and the name of his city was Paii ; and his 
wife's name was Mehetabel, the daughter of 
Matred, the daughter of Mezahab.* 

40 And these are the names of the dukes 
of Esau, according to their families, after 
their places, by their names : duke Timna, 
duke Alvah, duke Yetheth, 

41 Duke Aholi-bamah, duke Elah, duke 
Pinon, 

42 Duke Kenaz, duke Teman, duke Mib- 
zar, 

43 Duke Magdiel, duke Irani : these are 
the dukes of Edom, according to their habita- 
tions in the land of their possession ; this is 
Esau the father of the Edom. 

Ilaphtorah in Ilosca xii. 1.3, to xiv. 10. Others read fromxi. 
7 to xii. 12. The Portuguese rcadObadiah i. 1-21. 



* It is highly probable that the last of the eight kings 
mentioned here, was the king of Edom in the days of 
Moses, ('Numb. xx. 14,) and this verse then only ex- 
presses tnat Edom had a consolidated government, while 
Israel wa.s enslaved. 

'' r. e. He kept more with them than the others who 
were the .sons of Lciih. 

' This refers to his brothers mentioned at first. 
4G 



SECTION IX. VAYESHEB, Dtril. 
CHAPTER XXXVII. 

1 ^ And Jacob dwelt in the land of his 
father's sojourning, in the land of Canaan. 

2 These are the generations of Jacob. Jo- 
seph, being seventeen years old, was feeding 
the flock with his brothers ; and he was as a 
lad'' with the sons of Bilhah, and Avith the 
sons of Zilpah, his father's Avives ; and Joseph 
brought evil reports of them" unto his father. 

3 NoAv Israel loved Joseph more than all 
his children, because he was the son of his 
old age ; and he made him a coat of many 
colours."* 

4 And Avhen his brothers saAv that their 
father loved him more than all his brothers, 
they hated him, and could not sjjeak peace- 
ably unto him. 

5 And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he 
told it his brothers : and they hated him yet 
the more. 

6 And he said unto them, Hear, I pray 
you, this dream Avhich I have dreamed. 

7 And, behold, Ave Avere binding sheaves in 
the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also re- 
mained standing upright ; and, behold, your 
sheaA^es placed themselves round about, and 
made obeisance to my sheaf 

8 And his brothers said to him, Shalt thou 
indeed reign OA'er us ? or shalt thou indeed 
have dominion OA^er us ? And they hated him 
yet the more for his dreams, and for his Avords. 

9 And he dreamed yet another dream, and 
told it his brothers; and he said, Behold, I 
have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, 
the sun and the moon and eleA'en stars made 
obeisance to me. 

10 And he told it to his father, and to his 
brothers; and his father rebuked him, and 
said unto him, What is this dream that thou 
hast dreamed ? Shall AA*e indeed come, I and 
thy mother, and thy brothers, to boAv doAvn 
ourselves to thee to the earth ? 

11 And his brothers envied him; but his 
father noted" the matter (in his mind).'^' 



* Here is shown the danger of preferring one child be- 
fore the others, although he may deserve it ; the preference 
shown by Jacob was as much cause for the hatred toward 
Joseph as his own fault of talebearing. 

• Aben Ezra, Rashi comments, " He waited and watched 
to see when it would come to pass." Onkelos renders 
1^^^ with " the word." 



GENESIS XXXVII. XXXVIII. VAYESHEB. 



12 And his brothers went to feed their 
father's flocks in Shechem. 

13 And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not 
thy brothers feed (the flocks) in Shechem? 
come, and I Avill send thee unto them. And 
he said to him, Here am I." 

14 And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, 
see whether it be well with thy brothers, and 
well with the flocks ; and bring me word again. 
So he sent him from the vale of Hebron, and 
he came to Shechem. 

15 And a certain man found him, and, be- 
hold, he was wandering astray in the field ; and 
the man asked him, saying, What seekest 
thou? 

16 And he said, I seek my brothers; tell 
me, I pray thee, where they are feeding their 
flocks ? 

17 And the man said, They are departed 
hence; for I heard them say. Let us go to 
Doth an. And Joseph went after his brothers, 
and found them in Dothan. 

18 And when they saw him afar off", even 
before he came near unto them, they con- 
spired against him to slay him. 

19 And they said one to another, Behold, 
here cometh this man of dreams. 

20 And now, come and let us slay him, 
and cast him into one of the pits, and we will 
say. Some evil beast hath devoured him ; 
and we shall see what will become of his 
dreams. 

21 And when Reiiben heard it, he de- 
livered him out of their hand ; and he said. 
Let us not put him to death. 

22 And Reiiben said unto them, Do not 
shed blood ; but cast him mto this pit that is 
in the wilderness, but do not lay hand upon 
him; — in order that he might deliver him 
out of their hand, to bring him back again to 
his father.* 

23 And it came to pass, when Joseph was 
come unto his brothers, that they stript Jo- 
seph of his coat, the coat of many colours 
that was on him ; 

24 And they took him, and cast him into 
the pit; and the pit was empty; there was no 
water in it. 



• This phrase, frequently used in Scripture, expresses 
the readiness to do what is bidden. 

^ " The term Ishmaelites, in this and verse 25, appears 
to have been the collective names of all the Dip 'J3 ' the 
eastern nations;' as the Turks now call all Europeans, 



25 And they sat do-vvn to eat bread : and 
they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, be- 
hold, a company of Ishmaelites was coming 
from Gileiid ; and their camels were bearing 
spicery, and balm, and lotus, going to carry 
it down to Egypt. 

26 And Judah said unto his brothers, What 
profit will it be if we slay our brother, and 
conceal his blood? 

27 Come, and let us sell him to the Ish- 
maelites, but let our hand not be upon him ; 
for he is our brother, our flesh. And his bro- 
thers hearkened to him. 

28 And when the Midianitish'' men, mer- 
chants, passed by, they drew and lifted up 
Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the 
Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver : and 
they brought Joseph into Egypt. 

29 And when Reiiben returned unto the 
pit, and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit, 
he rent his clothes. 

30 And he returned unto his brothers, and 
said. The child is not there ; and I, whither 
shall I go ? 

31 And they took Joseph's coat, and killed 
a he-goat," and dipped the coat in the blood ; 

32 And they sent the coat of many colours, 
and they brought it to their father, and said. 
This have we found : acknowledge, we pray 
thee, whether it be thy son's coat or not. 

33 And he recognised it, and said, It is my 
son's coat ; an evil beast hath devoured him ; 
Joseph is surely torn in pieces. 

34 And Jacob rent his clothes, and put 
sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for 
his son many days. 

35 And all his sons and all his daughter 
rose up to comfort him; but he refused to 
be comforted; and he said. For I must go 
down unto my son, mourning, into the grave ; 
thus his father wept for him. 

36 And the Midianites sold him into Egypt 
unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, the 
captain of the guards.* 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

1 ^ And it came to pass at that time, that 
Judah went doAvn from his brothers, and he 



' Franks.' " — Arnheim. The Midianitish merchants are 
accordingly the same Ishmaelites spoken of at first ; and 
this, which is also after Rashbani, is evidently ihc correct 
construction. 

° Heb. " buck of the goats." 



GENESIS XXXVIII. VAYESHEB. 



pitched" his tent with a certain Adullamite 
whose name was Chirah. 

2 And Judah saw there a daughter of a 
certain Canaanite,'' whose name was Shua ; 
and he took her, and went in unto her. 

3 And she conceived, and bore a son ; and 
he called his name 'Er. 

4 And she conceived again, and bore a son ; 
and she called his name Onan. 

5 And she again bore another son ; and 
she called his name Shelah : and he was at 
Chezib, when she bore him. 

6 And Judah took a wife for 'Er his first- 
born, whose name was Tamar. 

7 And 'Er, Judah's fii-st-born, was displeas- 
ing in the eyes of the Lord ; and the Lord 
slew him. 

8 And Judah said unto Onan, Go in unto 
thy brothei''s wife, and take her, as her 
brother-in-law," and raise up seed to thy 
brother. 

9 Onan thus knew that the seed should 
not be his ; and it came to pass, when he went 
in unto his brother's Avife, that he spilled it 
on the ground, so as not to give seed unto his 
brother. 

10 And the thing which he did was dis- 
pleasing in the eyes of the Lord ; wherefore 
he slew him also. 

1 1 Then said Judah to Tamar his daughter- 
in-law. Remain a widow at thy father's house, 
till Shelah my son be groA\Ti ; for he thought, 
Lest peradventure he die also, as his brothers 
have done. And Tamar went and dwelt in 
her father's house. 

12 And many days had elapsed when the 
daughter of Shua, Judah's wife, died; and 
after Judah was comforted, he went up unto 
his sheep-shearers, he and his friend Chirah 
the Adullamite, to Timnah. 

13 And it was told unto Tamar, saying, 
Behold thy fathor-in-law goeth up to Timnah 
to shear his sheep. 

14 And she put her widow's garments off 
from her, and covered herself with a vail, and 
concealed her f;ice, and seated henself at the 
cross-road,'' which is by the way to Timnah ; 
for she saw that Shelah was grown, and slie 
was not given unto him for wife. 

' Mendolssohn ; Ila.shi and others render B'l "and re- 
moving took up his residence witli," &c. 
'' " Merchant." — O.nkelos. 
" See Deut. xxv. 5, G. 

" RaHhi ; " at the entrance to the double-spring," Aben 
48 



15 And Judah saw her, and thought her 
to be a harlot; because she had covered her 
face. 

IG And he turned unto her bj^ the way, 
and said. Go to, I pray thee, let me come in 
unto thee ; (for he knew not that she was his 
daughter-in-law.) And she said. What wilt 
thou give me, that thou mayest come in unto 
me? 

17 And he said, I vdW send thee a kid 
from the flock. And she said, If thou Avilt 
give me a pledge, till thou send it. 

18 And he said, What is the pledge which 
I shall give thee ? And she said. Thy signet, 
and thy scarf," and thy staff that is in thy 
hand. And he gave them to her, and came 
in unto her, and she conceived by him. 

19 And she arose, and went away, and laid 
by her vail from her, and put on the gamients 
of her widowhood. 

20 And Judah sent the kid by the hand of 
his friend the Adullamite, to take the pledge 
out of the woman's hand ; but he found her 
not. 

21 Then he asked the men of her place, 
saying. Where is the harlot, that was at the 
cross-road on the highway ? And they said, 
There hath been no harlot in this neighbour- 
hood. 

22 And he returned to Judah, and said, I 
cannot find her; and also the men of the 
place have said. There hath been no harlot 
in this place. 

23 And Judah said. Let her keep it, lest 
we be put to shame ; behold, I sent this kid, 
and thou hast not found her. 

24 And it came to pass about three months 
after, that it was told to Judah, saying, Ta- 
mar thy daughter-in-law hath played the har- 
lot; and also, behold, she is with child by 
piustitution. And Judah said. Lead her forth, 
and let her be burnt. 

25 When she was led forth, she seiit to her 
father-in-law, saying. By the man, whose 
these are, am I with child : and she said, Ac- 
knowledge, I pray thee, to whom belong 
these, the signet, the scarf, and stafl'. 

20 And Judah acknowledged them, and 
said, She hath been more righteous than 1 ; 



Ezra; "at the gate of 'Enayinj," according to others, 
thinking it identical with the 'Knani of Joshua xv. 34 ; 
others again, " in the open place" or " open road." 

• Rashi and Onkclos ; others, simply " thy string," i. e. 
by which the seal was hung round the neck. 



GENESIS XXXVIII. XXXIX. VAYESHEB. 



because that I gave her jiot to Shelah my 
son. And he knew her not again any more. 

27 And it came to pass at the time of her 
travail, that, behold, twins were in her 
womb. ! 

28 And it came to pass, when she tra-J 
vailed, that the one put out his hand : and ] 
the midwife took and bound upon his hand a 
scarlet thread, saying, This came out first. 

29 And it came to pass, as he drew back 
his hand, that, behold his brother came out; 
and she said, How hast thou broken forth? 
this breach is upon thee : therefore his name 
was called Peretz.* 

30 And afterward came out his brother, 
that had the scarlet thread upon his hand : 
and his name was called Zerach.*"* 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

1 ^ And Joseph was brought down to 
Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, 
the captain of the guards, an Egyptian, bought 
him of the hands of the IshmaeUtes, who had 
brought him do^^^l thither. 

2 And the Lord was with Joseph, and he 
was a prosperous man; and he was thus m 
the house of his master the Egy^Dtian. 

3 And when his master saw that the Lord 
was with him, and that the Lord caused all 
that he did to prosper in his hand : 

4 Joseph found grace in his eyes, and he 
served him ; and he made him overseer over 
his house, and all that he had he put mto his 
hand. 

5 And it came to pass from the time he 
had made him overseer in his house, and over 
all that he had, that the Lord blessed the 
Egyptian's house for the sake of Joseph ; and 
the blessing of the Lord was upon all that he 
had, in the house and in the field. 

6 And he left all that he had in Joseph's 
hand; and he troubled himself not' about 
aught he had, save the bread which he did 
eat. And Joseph was handsome in fomi and 
handsome in appearance.* 

7 And it came to pass after these things, 



that his master's wife cast her eyes upon 
Joseph ; and she said. Lie with me. 

8 But he refused, and said unto his mas- 
ter's wife, Behold, my master troubleth him- 
self not about what is with me in the house, 
and he hatli committed all that he hath into 
my hand; 

9 There is none greater in this house than 
I ; neither hath he kept back any thing from 
me but thee, because thou art his wife : how 
then can I do this great evil, and sin against 
God?* 

10 And it came to .pass, as she spoke to 
Joseph day by day, and he hearkened not 
unto her, to lie' by her, or to be with her ; 

11 That it came to pass one particular 
day, that he went into the house to do his 
busmess; and there was none of the men of 
the house there within. 

12 And she caught him by his garment, 
saying. Lie with me ; and he left his garment in 
her hand, and fled, and ran out into the street. 

13 And it came to pass, when she saw that 
he had left his garment in her hand, and was 
fled forth, 

14 That she called unto the men of her 
house, and spoke unto them, saying, See, he 
hath brought in unto us a Hebrew man to 
mock'' us; he came in unto me to lie with 
me, and I cried with a loud voice : 

15 And it came to pass, when he heard 
that I hfted up my voice and cried, .that he 
left his garment with me, and fled, and ran 
out into the street. 

16 And she laid up his garment by her 
until his lord came home. 

17 And she spoke unto him according to 
these words, saying. The Hebrew servant 
whom thou hast brought unto us, came m 
unto me to have his sport with me. 

18 And it came to pass, as I lifted up my 
voice and cried, that he left his garment with 
me, and fled out. 

19 And it came to pass^ when his master 
heard the words of his wife, Avhich she spoke 
unto him, saying, After this manner hath 



* From yii) parotz, "to break forth," "to make a 
break." 

'• From rni zaroacTi " to shine," applied to the svin, 
" to rise." 

° Heb. " Knew not." 

* This assertion of Joseph clearly proves with Scripture 
evidence, that the sons of Noah were prohibited the com- 
mission of incest. When therefore the Canaanites became 

G 



corrupt, and lived in a manner so contrary to the laws of 
the Bible in this respect, they were justly doomed to ex- 
pulsion from the land which they bad defiled. This view 
of the subject will also explain the passage in Leviticus 
xis. 27, 28. 

° pnx "to laugh," then "to mock," and finally "to do 
acts of mischief and wantonness." 



GENESIS XXXIX.. XL. VAYESHEB. 



thy servSit done to me; that his wrath was 
kindled. 

20 And Joseph's master took him, and put 
him into the prison," the place where the 
king's prisoners were imprisoned : and he was 
there in the prison. 

21 But the Lord was with Joseph, and 
caused him to ■find mercy, and gave him 
favour in the eyes of the superintendent of 
the prison. 

22 And the superintendent of the prison 
committed into Joseph's hand all the prisoners 
that were in the prison ; and whatsoever they 
did there, was done through him.'' 

23 The superintendent of the prison looked 
not after any thing that was under his hand, 
because the Lord was with him; and that 
which he did, the Lord made to prosper .'=' 

CHAPTER XL. 

1 ^ And it came to pass after these things, 
that the butler of the king of Egypt and the 
baker committed an offence, against their 
lord the king of Egypt. 

2 And Pharaoh was wroth against his two 
officers, against the chief of the butlers, and 
against the chief of the bakers. 

3 And he put them in ward in the house 
of the captain of the guards, into the prison, 
the place where Joseph was confined." 

4 And the captain of the guards charged 
Joseph with them, and he served them; and 
they continued a season"* in ward. 

5 And they dreamed a dream both of them, 
each his dream in one night, each in accord- 
ance with tlie interpretation of his dream, the 
butler and the baker of the king of Egypt, 
who were confined in the prison. 

6 And Joseph came in unto them in the 
morning, and looked at them, and, behold, 
they were sad. 

7 And he asked the officers of Pharaoh 
that were with him in ward in his lord's 
house, saying. Wherefore look ye so sadly 
to-day? 

8 And they said unto him, We have dream- 
ed a dream, and there is none to interpret it. 

* Lit. "prison-house." 

'' Hob. "he was the doer thereof." 

' From ^DX, " to bind, to imprison," not neees.sarily 
llicrcfore "bound," as in the English version. 

'' lUshi and Mendelssolm, "and they were a whole 
year," &c. 

• '■)n is perhaps un ablireviation for O'lP, "nobles, 

60 



And Joseph said unto them, Do not interpre- 
tations belong to God? tell it to me, I pray 
you. 

9 The chief of the butlers then told his 
dream to Joseph, and said to him, In my 
dream, behold, a vine was before me ; 

10 And on the vine were three branches: 
and it was as though it budded, shot forth its 
blossoms, and on its clusters the grapes be- 
came ripe : 

11 And Phai'aoh's cup was in my hand; 
and I took the grapes, and pressed them out 
into Pharaoh's cuj), and I placed the cup into 
Pharaoh's hand. 

12 And Joseioh said unto him, This is its 
interpretation : The three branches are three 
days; 

13 Within yet three days will Pharaoh 
lift up thy head, and restore thee unto thy 
office; and thou shalt place Pharaoh's cup 
into his hand, after the former manner when 
thou wast his butler. 

14 Therefore if thou thinkest on me when 
it shall be well with thee, then show kind- 
ness, I pray thee, unto me, and make mention 
of me unto Pharaoh, and bring me out of this 
house ; 

15 For indeed I was stolen aAvay out of 
the land of the Hebrews; and here also have 
I not done the least that they should put me 
into the dungeon. 

IG And when the chief of the bakers saw 
that he had well interpreted, he said unto Jo- 
seph, I also (saw) in my dream, and, behold, I 
had three baskets with fine bread on m}- head :" 

17 And in the uppermost basket there was 
of all manner of bakemeats, used as food for 
Pharaoh ; and the birds did eat them out of 
the basket from my head. 

18 And Joseph answered and said, This is 
its interpretation : The three baskets are 
three days; 

19 Within yet three days Pharaoh will 
lift up thy head from off" thee, and will hang 
thee on a tree; and the birds .•<hall eat thy 
fiesh from off thee.* 

20 And it came to pass on the third day, 



lords," and it is then an ellipsis for D'ln onS, "bread for 
the lords." Arnheim and Rashi and others derive nn 
from lin "hole," thus, "baskets full of holes." Saadinh 
takes it as synonymous with tvn the Aramaic for " white," 
thus, "baskets with white or fine bread," as rendered in 
our text. PJiilippson renders "baskets for tine bread," 
/. f. such as are used to put fine bread in. 



GENESIS XL. XLI. MICKETZ. 



which was Pharaoh's birthday, that he made 
a feast unto all his servants : and he lifted up 
the head of the chief of the Ijutlers and the 
head of the chief of the bakers among his 
servants. 

21 And he restored the chief of the butlers 
unto his butlership; and he placed the cup 
into Pharaoh's hand; 

22 But the chief of the bakers he hanged, 
as Joseph had intei'preted to them. 

23 Yet the chief of the butlers did not re- 
member Joseph, and forgot him. 

Ilaphtorah in Amos ii. 6 to iii. 8.- 



SECTION X. MICKETZ, fpO. 

CHAPTER XLI. 

1 ][ And it came to pass at the end of two 
full years, that Pharaoh dreamed ; and behold 
he stood by the river. 

2 And, behold, there came up out of the 
river seven cows, of good appearance and fat 
in flesh ; and they fed in the meadow.* 

3 And, behold, seven other cows came up 
after them out of the river, ill-favoured and 
lean in flesh; and they stood by the other 
cows upon the brink of the river. 

4 And the ill-favoured and lean-fleshed 
cows did eat up the seven well-favoured and 
fat cows. And Pharaoh awoke. 

5 And he slept and dreamed a second 
time : and, behold, seven ears of corn came 
up on one stalk, rank and good. 

6 And, behold, seven thin ears and blasted'' 
with the east wind sprung up after them. 

7 And the seven thin ears swallowed up 
the seven rank and full ears. And Pharaoh 
awoke, and, behold, it was .a dream." 

8 And it came to pass in the morning that 
his spirit was troubled ; and he sent and called 
for all the magicians of Egj^pt, and all the 
wise men thereof: and Pharaoh told them his 
dream ; but there was none that could inter- 
pret the same unto Pharaoh. 

9 Then spoke the chief of the butlers unto 
Pharaoh, saying. My faults I must call to re- 
membrance this day : 



10 Pharaoh was wroth with his servants, 
and put me in ward in the house of the cap- 
tain of the guards, me and the chief of the 
bakers ; 

11 And we dreamed a dream in one night, 
I and he; we dreamed each in accordance 
with the interpretation of his dream. 

12 And there was with us a Hebrew lad, a 
servant to the captain of the guards ; and we 
told him, and he intei-preted to us our dreams ; 
to each according to his dream did he inter- 
pret. 

13 And it came to pass, just as he had in- 
terpreted to us, so it was ; me he restored 
unto my office, and him he hanged. 

14 Then Pharaoh sent and had Joseph 
called, and they brought him hastily out of 
the dungeon : and he shaved himself, and 
changed his garments, and came in unto Pha- 
raoh.* 

15 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I have 
dreamed a dream, and there is none that can 
interpret it: and I have heard say of thee, 
that thou canst understand a dream to inter- 
pret it. 

IG And Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, 
It is not in me; God will give an answer for 
the peace of Pharaoh.*'' 

17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, In my 
dream, behold, I stood upon the brink of the 
river ; 

18 And, behold, there came up out of the 
river seven cows, fat in flesh and good in 
shape; and they fed in the meadow; 

19 And, behold, seven other cows came up 
after them, poor and very ill-shaped and lean 
in flesh ; I never saw any like these in all the 
land of Egypt for ugliness ; 

20 And the lean and the, ill-fiivoured cows 
did eat uj) the first seven fat cows ; 

21 And when they had eaten them up," it 
could not l)e known that they had eaten 
them; but their appearance was still as bad 
as at the beginning. And I awoke. 

22 And I saw in my dream, and, behold, 
seven ears came up on one stalk, full and 
good; 

23 And, behold, seven ears, withered, thin, 



* " Swamp," Rashi ; " among the reeds," Arnheim. ° " Only on awaking he recognised that he had dreamed, 

' Rashi and Onkelos take cpis as equal to npty, "to so like reality was his dream." — Arnheim. 
thrash out, to beat frequently;" Arnheim, however, ex- ■" "The wisdom is not mine, but God will put an an- 
plains it as equal to t]iB^ "to burn," (Song of Sol. i. 6;) [j swer in my mouth for the welfare of Pharaoh." — Rashi. 
which would properly give the version "blasted." | ' Heb. "Came into their inward part." 

51 



GENESIS XLI. MICKETZ. 



blasted with the east wind, sprung up after 
them; 

24 And the thin ears devoured the seven 
good ears: And I told this unto the magi- 
cians; but there was none that could tell it 
to me. 

25 And Joseph said unto Pharaoh, The 
dream of Pharaoh is one, that which God is 
about to do, he hath told to Pharaoh. 

26 The seven good cows are seven years; 
and the seven good ears are seven years; the 
dream is one. 

27 And the seven thin and ill-favoured 
cows that came up after them are seven 
years; and the seven empty ears, blasted 
with the east wind, shall be seven years of 
famine. 

28 This is the thing which I have spoken 
unto Pharaoh : What God is about to do he 
hath shown unto Pharaoh. 

29 Behold, there come seven years of great 
plenty throughout all the land of Egypt : 

30 And there shall arise seven years of 
famine after them, when all the plenty shall 
be forgotten in the land of Egypt; and the 
famine shall consume the land; 

31 And the plenty shall not be known in 
the land by reason of that famine following 
it; for it shall be very grievous. 

32 And as it respecteth that the dream was 
doubled unto Pharaoh twice, it is because the 
thing is fimily resolved on by God, and God 
hasteneth to bring it to pass. 

33 Now therefore let Pharaoh' look out a 
man discreet and wise, and set him over the 
land of Egypt. 

34 Let Pharaoh do this, and let him ap- 
point officers over the land, and take up the 
fifth part (of the produce) of the land of 
Eg}'pt in the seven years of plenty. 

35 And let them gather all the food of 
those good years that are coming, and lay up 



• "This is not an advice; for who authorized him to 
act aa counsellor to the king? but it belongs likewise to 
the interpretation ; therefore had God at that time also 
shown him the geren years of famine, which would not 
happen till after the expiration of the seven years of 
plenty, in order to induce Pharaoh to look out an intelli- 
gent man to heap up com for the support of the people; 
for if God had not now made him acquainted with the 
famine, he would not have been induced to heap up corn, 
and all would then have died in the famine." — Dubno. 

^ Arnheim leaves the Hebrew pax untranslated; On- 
kclos renders it, "This is the father of the king;" but 
&2 



com under the hand of Pharaoh, as food in 
the cities, and keep the same. 

36 And that food shall be for a store to 
the land against tlie seven years of famine, 
which shall be in the land of Egypt ; that the 
land be not cut oif through the iamine. 

37 And the thing was good in the eyes of 
Pharaoh, and in the eyes of all his servants. 

38 And Pharaoh said unto his ser^-ants, 
Can we find such a one as this, a man in 
whom the spirit of God is ?* 

39 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Inas- 
much as God hath caused thee to know all 
this, there is none so discreet and wise as thou : 

40 Thou shalt be over my house, and ac- 
cording to th}' word shall all my people be 
ruled; only in regard to the throne will I be 
greater than thou. 

41 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See, I 
have set thee over all the land of Egypt. 

42 And Pharaoh took off his ring from his 
hand, and put it upon Joseph's hand, j and 
arrayed him in vestures of fine linen, and put 
a golden chain about his neck ; 

43 And he caused him to ride in the second 
chariot which he had ; and they cried laefore 
him. Bend the knee:'' and he placed him 
(thus) over all the land of Egypt. 

44 And Pharaoh said unto Jo.'^eph, I am 
Pharaoh ; but without thee shall no man lift 
up his hand or his foot in all the land of 
Egypt. 

45 And Pharaoh called Joseph's name 
Zaphenath-pa'neach ;" and he gave him Ase- 
nath the daughter of Poti-pherah, the priest'' 
of On, for Avife. And Joseph went out over 
all the land of Egypt. 

46 And Joseph was thirty years old when 
he stood before Pharaoh, king of Egypt; and 
Joseph went out from the presence of Pha- 
raoh, and went throughout all the land of 
Egypt. 



Mendelssohn, after other commentator.^, derives the word 
from 113 " the knee," and assumes it to be in the impe- 
rative of the Hiphil, with the k instead of n, which would 
give us the words "bend the knee." 

' "llevcaler of secret things," R.\mb.an : according to 
others, however, the words are pure Egyptian, and mean 
"Saviour of the world," or "of the century." 

" "Lord of On," O.nkelos. This place was afterwards 
called by the Greeks " Hcliopolis," the "city of the sun;" 
by the Hebrews, " Beth Shemesh, " the house of the sun." 
On is said to be an Egj'ptian word, signifying " light," 
or "sun." 



GENESIS XLI. XLII. MICKETZ. 



47 And the earth brought forth in the 
seven years of plenty by handfuls.* 

48 And he gathered up all the food of the 
seven years, which were in the land of Egypt, 
and laid up the food in the cities : the food of 
the field, which was round about every city, 
laid he up in the same. 

49 And Joseph heaped up corn as the sand 
of the sea, very much ; until he left off num- 
bering, for it was without number. 

50 And unto Joseph were bom two sons 
before the years of famine came, whom Ase- 
nath the daughter of Poti-pherah, the priest 
of On, bore unto him. 

51 And Joseph called the name of the 
first-born Menasseh :^ For God (said he) hath 
made me forget all my toil, and all my 
father's house. 

52 And the name of the second he called 
Ephraim ;" For God (said he) hath caused me 
to be fruitful in the land of my aflB^iction.* 

53 And the seven years of plenty, that 
was in the land of Egyjit, were ended. 

54 And the seven years of famine began 
to come, just as Joseph had said; and there 
was famine in all the countries, but in all the 
land of Eg_^'pt there was bread. 

55 And when all the land of Egypt also felt 
hunger, the people cried to Pharaoh for bread : 
and Pharaoh said unto all the Egyptians, Go 
unto Joseph ; what he saith to 3^ou, do. 

56 And the famine Was over all the face 
of the earth : and Joseph opened all the store- 
houses,'' wherein corn was, and sold unto the 
Egyptians ; for the famine grew strong in the 
land of Egypt. 

57 And all the countries" came into Egypt 
to buy com of Joseph; because the famine 
was sore in all lands. 

CHAPTER XLII. 

1 And when Jacob saw that there A^-as 
com in Egypt, Jacob said unto his sons. Why 
do ye look at one another ? 



* That is, each grain of corn produced a handful of its 
kind. 

'' Menasheh, from nashoJi, " to forget." 
' Ephrayim, from paroh, " to be fruitful." 
^ Hcb. "All in which was;" the ellipses arc supplied, 
according to Onkelos, first with "storehouses," and 
secondly, with " corn." 

' This term, which is also used in the preceding verse, 
and there rendered " all the earth," evidently is an hyper- 
bolical expression, and alludes to the parts of the earth 



2 And he said. Behold, I have heard that 
there is com in Eg}-])t; get you down thither, 
and buy for us provision from there, that we 
may live, and not die. 

3 And ten brothers of Joseph went down 
to buy corn m Egypt. 

4 But Benjamm, Joseph's brother, Jacob 
sent not with his brothers ; for he said. Lest 
mischief befall him. 

5 And the sons of Israel came to buy com 
among those that came; for the famine was 
in the land of Canaan. 

6 And Joseph, he Avas the governor over 
the land, it was he that sold com to all the 
people of the land ; and Joseph's brothers 
came, and bowed themselves doAvn before him 
with the face to the earth. 

7 And Joseph saw his brothers, and he re- 
cognised them ; but made himself strange unto 
them, and spoke roughly unto them ; and he 
said unto them ; Whence come ye ? And they 
said, From the land of Canaan to buy food. 

8 And Joseph recognised his brothers, but 
they recognised not him. 

9 And Joseph remembered the dreams 
which he had dreamed concerning them, and 
he said unto them. Ye are sj^ies; to see the 
nakedness of the land are ye come. 

10 And they said unto him, No, my lord, 
thy servants are only come to buy food. 

11 We all are sons of one man; we are 
true men, thy servants have never been 
spies. ■ 

12 And he said unto them. No! but to see 
the nakedness of the land ai'e 30 come. 

13 And they said, We, thy servants, are 
twelve brothers, sons of one man in the land 
of Canaan; and, behold, the youngest is this 
day with our father, and one is no more. 

14 And Joseph said unto them, It is' as I 
have spoken unto you, saying, Ye are spies ; 

15 Hereby shall ye be proved : By the life 
of Pharaoh, ye shall not go forth hence, except 
your youngest brother come hither. 

contiguous to and having commercial intercourse with 
Egypt, such as Phoenicia, Palestine, and Arabia. Men- 
delssohn renders " all the people from the country around;" 
but Onkelos translates here ]-iNn h2\ with Kipx 'T'T Sdi 
"all inhabitants of the earth :" still the sense is the same. 
' Joseph meant that the contradiction of which they 
were guilty, proved the truth of his suspicion. First they 
were ten brothers, and immediately afterward twelve, and 
thus he pretended that he could place no confidence in 
their assertions. 

53 



GENESIS XLII. MICKETZ. 



16 Send one of you, and let him fetch your 
brother, and ye shall Ije kept in jirison, that 
your words may be proved, whether the truth 
be with you; and if not, by the life of Pha- 
raoh, ye are surely spies. 

17 And he put them together into ward 
three days. 

18 And Joseph said unto them on the third 
day. This do, and live ; I fear God.* 

19 If ye be true men, let one of 3'our bro- 
thers remain imprisoned in the house of your 
confinement; but ye, go, carry home what 
you have bought for the want of your house- 
hold. 

20 But your youngest brother bring unto 
me; so shall your words be verified, and ye 
shall not die. And they did so. 

21 And they said one to aiiotlier. Truly 
we are guilty* concerning our brother, in that 
we saw the anguish of his soul, when he be- 
sought us, and we would not hear; therefore 
is this distress come upon us. 

22 And Reuben answered them, saj-ing. 
Did I not say unto you, thus. Do not sin 
against the child; and ye would not hear? 
and behold, his blood also is now required. 

23 And they knew not that Joseph under- 
stood them; for he spoke unto them by an 
interpreter. 

24 And he turned himself away from them, 
and wept; and returned to them again, and 
spoke with them, and took from them Simeon, 
and bound him before their eyes. 

25 And Joseph commanded to fill their 
sacks with corn, and to restore every man's 
money into his sack, and to give them pro- 
vision for the way; and he*" did unto them 
thus. 

20 And they loaded their asses ^\^th their 
com, and departed thence. 

27 And one of them opened his sack, to 
give his ass provender in the inn: when he 
espied his money, for, behold, it was in the 
mouth of his sack. 

28 And he said unto liis brothers. My 



* " Truly wc suffer punishment for our brother's sake, 
whose anguish of soul wc saw," &c. — Arnheim. 

' Probably alluding to the superintendent who is men- 
tioned hereafter. 

° They no doubt suspected that the restoration of the 
money was not accidental ; hence they thought that it 
was a new infliction of punishment for their sins. 

* Lit. " Over me have all these events been ;" meaning, I 

54 



money hath been restored; and, lo, it is even 
in my sack : and their heart failed them, and 
they were afraid,' saying one to another. What 
is this that God hath done unto us ? 

29 And they came unto Jacob their father 
unto the land of Canaan, and they told him 
all that had befallen them; saj-ing, 

30 The man, the lord of the land, spoke 
roughly to us, and took us as though we were 
espying the country. 

31 And we said unto him. We are true 
men ; Ave have never been spies : 

32 We are twelve brothers, sons of our 
father; the one is no more, and the youngest 
is this day Avith our father in the land of 
Canaan. 

33 And the man, the lord of the country, 
said unto us. Hereby shall I knoAv that ye 
are true men : leave one of your brothers here 
with me, and (the food for) the Avant of your 
households take ye and be gone; 

•34 And bring your youngest brother unto 
me; then shall I knoAv that ye are no spies, 
but that ye are true men ; your brother I Avill 
giA'e up to you, and in the land ye shall be 
alloAved to traffic. 

35 And it came to pass as they Avere 
emptying their sacks, that, behold, CA-ery 
man's bundle of money Avas in his sack : and 
Avhen they saw the bundles of their money, 
they and their fitther, they Avere afraid. 

36 And Jacob, their father said unto 
them, Me ye have bereaved of my children : 
Joseph is gone, and Simeon is gone, and 
Benjamin ye Avill take aAvay; all these things 
are against me.** 

37 And Rciiben said unto his father, thus, 
Tavo of my sons shalt thou slay, if I bring 
him not to thee; deliver him into my hand, 
and I Avill bring him ])ack to thee. 

38 And he said. My son shall not go down 
Avith you ; for his brother is dead, and he alone 
is left: and if mischief befall him by the 
Avay in Avhich ye go, then Avill ye bring doAvn 
my gray hairs AA-ith sorroAv to the graA'e. 



alone have to suffer from all these events. Jacob perhaps 
suspected that his other sons, out of .some wicked feeling, 
had left Joseph and Simeon to perish, and he thus up- 
braids them with their indifference to his sorrows. Tln'i/ 
might regard little the perilling of the life of two brothers, 
and endangering that of another ; but he could not be cal- 
lous to the fate of those so dear to him. 



GENESIS XLIII. MICKETZ. 



CHAPTER XLIII. 

1 And the famine was sore in the land. 

2 And it came to pass, when they had 
completely eaten up the provisions" which they 
had brought out of Egypt, that their father 
said unto them, Go again, buy us a little 
food. 

3 And Judah said unto him, thus, The 
man did solemnly protest unto us, saying, Ye 
shall not see my face, except your brother be 
with you. 

4 If thou wilt send our brother with us, 
we will go down and buy thee food; 

5 But if thou sendest him not, we will not 
go down; for the man said unto us. Ye shall 
not see my face, except your brother be with 
you. 

6 And Israel said, Wherefore have ye dealt 
so ill ■with me, as to tell the man that ye have 
yet another brother? 

7 And they said, The- man inquired par- 
ticularly concerning us, and our kindred, say- 
ing. Is your father yet alive ? have ye another 
brother? and we told him according to the 
tenor of these words : could we possibly know 
that he would say. Bring down your brother? 

8 And Judah said mito Israel his father, 
Send the lad with me, and we Avill arise and 
go; that we may live, and not die, both we, 
and thou, as also our little ones. 

9 I will be surety for him ; from my hand 
shalt thou require him: if I bring him not 
unto thee, and set him before thee, then shall 
I have sinned against thee all the days. 

10 For, if we had not lingei'ed, surely we 
had now returned the second time. 

11 And their father Israel said unto them, 
If it must be so now, do this ; take of the 
best*" products of the land in your vessels, and 
carry down to the man a present, a little balm, 
and a little honey, spices, and lotus, pistar 
chio-nuts and almonds : 

12 And twofold money take in your hand; 
and the money that was put back in the 



* laty sheher has been rendered varyingly in the text, 
"corn," "provision," and "what hath been bought," as 
all signifying the same. 

^ Heb. niDt from "ini " to sing," or " praise," meaning 
those things for which the land is praised abroad. Phi- 
lippson remarks that the smallness of the present showed 
the simplicity of Jacob's notions of the ruler of Egypt, as 
he wished to propitiate him with a gift suitable perhaps 
to the petty chiefs of Palestine. So also with regard to 



mouth of your sacks, you must carry back in 
your hand; peradventure it was an oversight; 

13 Also your brother take along, and ari.se, 
go again unto the man. 

14 And may God the Almighty give you 
mercy before the man, that he may send 
away to you your other brother, and Ben- 
jamin. And I, if I am to be bereaved, let 
me be bereaved." 

15 And the men took that present; and 
twofold money they took in their hand, a.s 
also Benjamin;, and they rose up, and went 
doAvn to Egypt, and stood before Joseph.* 

16 And when Joseph saw Benjamin with 
them, he said to the superintendent of his 
house. Bring these men into the house, and 
slay, and make ready; for with me shall these 
men dine at noon. 

1 7 And the man did as Joseph had said ; and 
the man brought the men into Joseph's house. 

18 And the men were afraid, because they 
were brought into Joseph's house : and they 
said. Because of the money that came back 
in our sacks at the first time are we brought 
in ; that he may seek occasion against us, and 
fall upon us, and take us for bondmen, to- 
gether with our asses. 

19 And they came near to the man who 
was appointed over Joseph's house, and they 
spoke with him at the door of the house, 

20 And they said. Pardon, my lord, we 
came down at the first time to buy food : 

21 And it came to pass, when we came to 
the inn, that we opened our sacks, and, be- 
hold, every man's money was in the mouth 
of his sack, our money in its full weight ; and 
we have brought it back in our hand. 

22 And other money have we brought 
down in our hand to buy food; we know not 
who hath put our money in our sacks. 

23 And he said. Peace be to you, fear not ; 
your God, and the God of your father, hath 
given you a treasure in your sacks ; your 
money hath come to me. And he brought 
Simeon out unto theiti. 



the fear expressed by the brothers in v. 18, that their 
beasts might be seized. 

" This version is according to ^Mendelssohn. Onkelos 
renders the Hebrew words merely bj- synonymies. Arn- 
heim, however, adds the words tx and nn;; and says, "I, 
however, am either way bereaved of my children." Be 
this as it may, it is an expression of resignation. (Compare 
with Esther iv. 16.) 



GENESIS XLIII. XLIV. MICKETZ. 



24 And the man brought the men into Jo- 
seph's house; and he gave them water, and 
they washed their feet, and he gave proven- 
der to their asses. 

25 And they made ready the present be- 
fore Joseph came home at noon ; for they had 
heard that they should eat bread there. 

26 And when Joseph came home, they 
brought him the present which was in their 
hand into the house, and bowed themselves 
to him to the earth. 

27 And he asked them after their welfare, 
and said, Is you old father well, of whom ye 
spoke? is he yet alive? 

28 And they answered. Thy servant, our 
father, is in good health, he is yet alive. 
And they bowed down their heads, and pro- 
strated themselves. 

29 And he lifted up his eyes, and saw his 
brother Benjamin, his mother's son, and said. 
Is this your youngest brother, of whom ye 
spoke unto me? And he said, God be gra- 
cious unto thee, my son.* 

30 And Joseph hastened away, for his af- 
fection toward his brother became enkindled, 
and he sought to weep; and he entered into 
his chamber, and wept there. 

31 And he washed his face, and came out, 
and refrained himself, and said. Set on the 
bread.* 

32 And they set on for him by himself, 
and for them by themselves; and for the 
Egyptians, who did eat with him, by them- 
selves; because the Egyptians may not eat 
bread with the Hebrews ; for that is an abomi- 
nation unto the Egyptians. 

33 And they sat before him, the first-born 
according to his prior birth, and the youngest 
according to his youth;"" and the men mar- 
velled one at the other. 

34 And he sent portions'' unto them from 
before him; but Benjamin's portion exceeded 
the portions of all fivefold. And they drank, 
and were merry with him. 



* In modern phrase, "Put the dinner on the table." 
■' There can "bo no doubt of the correctness of the tradi- 
tion tliat Joseph ordered them to sit down according to 
their age. Hence their astonishment. Perhaps, too, he 
may liuve pretended to divine witli his silver cup, out of 
which he afterward drank. 

' This custom is explained by that yet prevailing in 

Persia, where the various things to be eaten are brought 

in on a large dish at once, and one dish is placed before 

two or three guests. IJefore a guest of high rank, or one 

66 



CHAPTER XLIV. 

1 And he commanded the superintendent 
of his house, saying. Fill the sacks of these 
men with food, as much as they can carry, 
and put every man's money in the mouth of 
his sack. 

2 And my cup, the silver cup, thou shalt 
put in the mouth of the sack of the youngest, 
and the money for his com. And he did ac- 
cording to the Avord of Joseph which he had 
spoken. 

3 As soon as the morning Avas light, the 
men were sent away, they and their asses. 

4 They were gone out of the city, not yet 
far off, when Joseph said unto the sujDerin- 
tendent of his house. Up, follow after the 
men; and when thou hast overtaken them, 
say unto them. Wherefore have ye returned 
evil for good ? 

5 Is not this out of which my lord drmk- 
eth, and whereby indeed he divineth ? ye have 
done evil in so doing. 

6 And he overtook them, and he spoke 
unto them these same words. 

7 And they said unto him. Wherefore Avill 
my lord speak such woi'ds as these ? God 
forbid that thy servants should do any thing 
like this. 

8 Behold the money, which we found in 
the mouth of our sacks, we brought back unto 
thee out of the land of Canaan : how then 
should we steal out of thy lord's house sih'er 
or gold? 

9 With whomsoever of thy servants it be 
found, let him die; and we also will be bond- 
men unto my lord. 

10 And he said, Now also let it be accord- 
ing to your Avords :* he Avith Avhom it is found 
shall be my servant; but ye shall be blame- 
less. 

11 And they made haste, and every one 
of them took down his sack to the ground, 
and every one opened his sack. 



whom the entertainer desires to distinguish, a particular 
dish is put, upon which one after the other, up to fifteen, 
different kinds of food are placed. — PlllLlPPSON. 

■^ " It is my wish that you prove yourselves as honest 
now as on the former occasion," is the explanation of Arn- 
heim, after Ab.\ubenei-; but ILishi explains, "You are 
right, so is tlie law ; j'ou are all guilty; if a thief is found 
with one of ten, they are all culpable ; but I will not act 
with you in strict justice, but only make the thief my 
bondinau." 



GENESIS XLIV. XLV. VAYIGGASH. 



12 And he searched, at tlie eldest he be- 
gan, and at the youngest he left ofi"; and the 
cup was found in Benjamin's sack. 

13 Then they rent their clothes, and every 
one loaded his ass, and they returned to the 
city.* 

14 And Judah and his brothers came into 
Joseph's house, and ho was yet there; and 
they fell down before him on the ground. 

15 And Joseph said unto them, What deed 
is this that ye have done ? knew ye not that 
such a man as I can certainly divine? 

16 And Judah said, What shall we say 
unto my lord? What shall we speak? or how 
shall we justify ourselves? God hath found 
out the iniquity of thy servants : behold we 
are servants unto my lord, both we, as also 
he in whose hand the cup was found. 

17 And he said, God forbid that I should 
do^this : the man in whose hand the cup was 
found, he shall be my servant; and as for 
you, go you up in peace unto your father. 

Haphtorah in 1 Kings iii. 15 to iv. 1. 



SECTION XI. VAYIGGASH, tJTI. 

18 ^ Then Judah came near unto him, 
and said. Pardon, my lord, let thy servant, I 
pray thee, speak a word in my lord's ears, 
and let not thy anger burn against thy ser- 
vant; for thou art even as Pharaoh. 

19 My lord asked his servants, sajdng. 
Have ye a father, or a brother? 

20 And Ave said unto my lord, We have an 
old father, and a little" chUd born in his old 
age ; and his brother is dead, and he alone is 
left of his mother, and his father loveth him. 

21 And thou saidst unto thy servants, 
Bring him doAvn unto me, that I may set my 
eye upon him. 

22 And we said unto my lord. The lad 
cannot leave liis father ; for if he should leave 
his father, he would die. 

23 And thou saidst unto thy servants, Ex- 
cept your youngest brother come down with 

^you, ye shall not see my face any more. 

24 And it came to pass, when we came up 
unto thy servant my father, that we told him 
the words of my lord. 



' " Little," or " young," in comparison with his other 
brothers, all older than he. 

' " His soul is bound to his soul." — Arnheim. " His 
soul is as dear to him as his own soul." — Onkelo.s. 
H 



25 And our father said. Go biick, and buy 
us a little food. 

20 And we said, We cannot go down: if 
our youngest brother be with us, then will 
we go down ; for we cannot see the man's face, 
except our youngest brother be with us. 

27 And thy sen^aut my father said unto 
us. Ye know that my wife Iwre me two sons; 

28 And the one went out from me, and I 
said, Surely he hath liccn torn in pieces; and 
I have not seen him up to this time. 

29 And if ye take this one also from me, 
and mischief befall him, ye will bring down 
my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. 

30 And now, Avhen I come to thy servant 
my father, and the lad be not with us ; seeing 
that his life'' is bound up in the lad's life ;* 

31 It will come to pass, that when he seeth 
that the lad is not with us, he will die : and 
thy servants would thus bring down the gray 
hairs of thy servant our father with sorrow 
to the grave. 

32 For thy servant became surety for the 
lad unta my father, sa;ying. If I bring him 
not unto thee, then shall I have sinned agamst 
my father all the days. 

33 Now therefore, I pray thee, let thy 
sei'vant abide instead of the lad as bondman 
to my lord ; and let the lad go up with his 
brothers. 

34 For how shall I go up to my father, 
and the lad be not with me? I shouk? per- 
haps be compelled to witness the e^vil which 
would come on my flither. 

CHAPTER XLV. 

1 Then could Joseph not restrain himself 
before all those that stood by him ; and he 
cried. Cause every man to go out from me. 
And there remained no man with him, while 
Joseph made himself knoAvn unto his bro- 
thers. 

2 And he raised his voice in weepmg ; and 
the Egyptians heard it, and the house of Phar 
raoli heard it. 

3 And Joseph said unto his brothers, I am 
Joseph ; doth my father yet live ? And his 
brothers could not answer him ; for they were 
terrified at his presence. 



" Mendelssohn renders |3 as a negative : " I would not 
be able to look on the distress which would overtake my 
father." I have translated according to Onkelos. 

57 



GENESIS XLV. VAYIGGASH. 



4 And Joseph said unto his brothers, Come 
near to me, I pray you; and they came near; 
and he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom 
ye sold into Egypt. 

5 But now be not grieved, nor >>e angry" 
with yourselves, that ye sold me hither; for 
in order to preserve life did God send me be- 
fore you. 

6 For these two 3'ears hath the famine 
been already in the land; and there are yet 
five years, in which there will be neither 
ploughing nor harvestmg. 

7 And God hath thus sent me before j^ou 
to prepare for you a permanence on the earth, 
and to save your lives by a great deliver- 
ance.* 

8 So now it Avas not you that sent me 
hither, but God; and he hath made me a 
father to Pharaoh, and a lord for all his house, 
and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt. 

9 Haste ye, and go up to my father, and 
say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, 
God hath made me lord of all Egj-pt ; come 
down unto me, tarry not. 

10 And thou slialt dwell in the land of 
Goshen, and thou shalt be near inito me, thou, 
and thy children, and thy children's children, 
and thy flocks, and thy herds, and all that is 
thine. 

11 And I will maintain thee there; for 
there are yet five 3'ears of famine ; lest thou, 
and thy household, and all that thou hast, 
come to po\ert}'. 

12 And, belujld, your own eyes see, and 
the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is 
my mouth'' that speaketh unto you. 

13 And ye shall tell my father of all my 
honour in Egypt, and of all that ye have 
seen ; and ye shall hasten and bring doA\ai my 
father hither. 

14 And ho fell upon his brother Benjiv 
min's neck, and Avept; and Benjamin wept 
upon his neck. 

15 And he kissed all his brothers, and wept 
upon them; and after that his brothers spoke 
with him. 



* Lit. "Let it not be grievous in your eyes." 
'' Before he spoke to tlicm through an iutcrpreter; but 
now he addressed them himself iu tiieir own Hebrew ; and 
this he justly thoujilit must impress them with the con- 
viction that it was none but Joseph wiio spoke, and that 
there was no furtlicr deception practised on them by the 
capricious rulor of Kgypt, as he liad siiown himself 
hitherto. 
68 



16 And the report thereof was heard in 
Pharaoh's house, saj-ing, Joseph's brothers 
are come ; and it was pleasing in the eyes of 
Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants. 

17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Say 
unto thy brothers. This do ye; load your 
beasts, and go, get you unto the land of Ca- 
naan ; 

18 And take your father and your house- 
holds, and come unto me ; and I vnll give 
you the best" of the land of Egypt, and ye 
shall eat the fat of the land.'-' 

19 And thou art commanded,* This do ye, 
take unto yourselves out of the land of Eg}-pt 
Avagons for your little ones, and for your 
wives, and take up your father, and come. 

20 And do ye feel no concern" on account 
of your household goods ; for the best of all 
the land of Egypt is yours. 

21 And the children of Israel did so ; wid 
Joseph gave them wagons, according to the 
command of Pharaoh ; and he gave them pro- 
vision for the way. 

22 To all of them he gave to each changes 
of raiment ; but to Benjamin he gave three 
hundred pieces of silver, and five changes of 
raiment. 

23 And to his father he sent after this 
manner: ten asses laden with the best things 
of Egypt, and ten she-asses laden wdth corn 
and bread and other food for his father, for 
the journey. 

24 And he accompanied^ his brothers on 
the Avay, and they departed : and he said unto 
them. Do not fall out by the Avay. 

25 And they AAent up out of Eg^-pt, and came 
into the land of Canaan, unto Jacob their father. 

26 And they told hmi, sajing, Joseph is 
yet alive; and that he is goA^enior over all 
the land of Egypt ; but Jacob's heart remained 
cold, for he boUeved them not. 

27 But Avhen they told him all the Avords 
of Joseph, Avhich he had said unto them ; and 
when he saA\' the AA^agons Avhich Joseph had 
sent to carry him : the si^irit of Jacob their 
father reviA'ed.* 



° aiB " that which is pre-eminently good," t. f. the best. 
'' Arnheim thinks we ought to supply " to tell them." 
' Lit. " Let your eye have no pity on your vessels." 
' dSb' in Piel, is generally rendered to dismiss, or to 
accompany one a part of the journey. The latter meaning 
is here the more correct, since no doubt Joscjili showed 
them the rights of hospitality, which among the Hebrews 
require the host to go part of the w.iy with his guests. 



GENESIS XLV. XLVI. VAYIGGASH. 



28 And Israel said, Enough; Joseph my 
son is yet alive : I will go and see him before 
Idle. 

CHAPTER XLVI. 

1 And Israel commenced his journey with 
all that he had, and came to Beer-sheba, and 
offered sacrifices imto the God of his father 
Isaac. 

2 And God spoke imto Israel in the ^-isions* 
of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob. And he 
said, Here am I. 

3 And he said, I am God, the God of thy 
father; fear not to go down into Eg}-pt; for a 
great nation will I make of thee there : 

4 I will go down ^vith thee into Eg3-pt; 
and I Avill also surely bring thee up again; 
and Joseph shall put his hand upon ihy 
eyes. 

5 And Jacob rose up from Beer-sheba : and 
the sons of Israel carried Jacob their father, 
and then* little ones, and their wives, iu the 
wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry 
him. 

6 And they took their cattle, and their 
goods, which they had gotten hi the land of 
Canaan, and came into Egj^pt ; Jacob, and all 
his seed with him : 

7 His sons, and his sons' sons with him. 
his daughters,*" and his sons' daughters, and all 
his seed he brought with him into Egypt. 

8 ^ And these are the names of the chU- 
dreu of Israel, that came into Egj'pt, Jacob 
and his sons : the first-bom of Jacob, Reuben. 

9 And the sons of Reuben : Chanoch, and 
Pallu, and Chezron, and Carmi. 

10 And the sons of Simeon : Yemuel, and 
Yamin, and Ohad, and Yachin, and Zochar, 
and Shaiil the son of the Canaanitish woman. 

11 And the sons of Levi: Gershon, Ke- 
hath, and Merari. 

12 And the sons of Judah: 'Er, and Onan, 
and Shelah, and Perez, and Zerach; but 'Er 
and Onan died m the land of Canaan, and 
the sons of Perez were Chezron and Chamul. 

13 And the sons of Issachar: Tola, and 
Puvah, and Yob, and Shimron. 



* Onkelos and others, " vision." 

'' " His daughters" can refer only to Dinah, for he had 
no other daughter : the plural is used, as in the case of 
"the sons of Dan, Chushini," (v. 23,) to express the 
idea that, where others have several daughters or sons, 
Jacob had of the first one at least bearing the designation 
of a female child, as with Dan reference is had to the 



14 And the sons of Zebulim: Sered and 
Elon, and Yachleel. 

15 These are the sons of Leah, whom she 
bore unto Jacob in Padan-aram, with Dinah 
his daughter : all the souls of his sons and his 
daughters were thirty and three. 

10 And the sons of Gad: Ziphyou, and 
Chaggi, Shuni, and Ezbon, 'Eri, and Arodi, 
and Areli. 

17 And the .sons of Asher: Y^imnah, and 
Yishvah. and Y"ish^•i, and Beriah, and Serach 
their sister; and the sons of Beriah: Cheber, 
and Malkiel. 

18 These are the sons of Zilpah, whom La- 
ban gave to Leah his daughter, and she bore 
these unto Jacob, sixteen souls. 

19 The sons of Rachel, Jacob's wife: Jo- 
seph, and Benjamin. 

20 And there were lx)m imto Joseph in 
the land of Eg>-pt Menasseh and Ephraim, 
whom Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah, 
the priest of On, bore imto him. 

21 And the sons of Benjamui: Belah, 
and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naamau, 
Echi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Chuppim, 
and Ard. 

22 These are the sons of Rachel, that were 
bom to Jacob : in all fourteen souls. 

23 And the sons of Dan: Chushim. 

24 And the sons of NaphtaU: Y'achzeel, 
and Gmii, and Yezer, and ShUlem. 

25 These are the sons of Bilhah, whom 
Laban gave unto Rachel his daughter, and 
she bore these imto Jacob, in all seven souls. 

20 All the souls that came with Jacob 
into Eg^-pt, that came out of his loins, besides 
the ■ndves of Jacob's sons, were in all sixty 
and six souls. 

27 And the sons of Joseph, who were born 
him in Egj-jit, were two souls; all the souls 
of the house of Jacob, that came into Eg}-pt, 
were threescore and ten.* 

28 T[ And Judah he sent before him unto 
Joseph, to direct him" beforehand unto Go- 
shen ; and they came into the land of Goshen. 

29 And Joseph made read^"^ his chariot, 
and went up to meet Israel his father, to Go- 
similar circumstance of his being the father of at least 
one male offspring; perhaps the term also includes his 
sons' wives. 

' " To prepare a place for him and to find out where he 
could settle." — Rashi after Onkelos. 
* Lit. " harnessed." 

59 



GENESIS XLVI. XLVII. VAYIGGASH. 



shen ; and when he obtained sight of him, he 
fell on his neck, and wept on his neck a good 
while. 

30 And Israel said unto Joseph, Let me 
die now, since I liave seen thy face, that thou 
art yet alive. 

31 And Joseph said unto his brothers, and 
unto his father's house, I will go up, and tell 
Pharaoh, and say unto him. My brothers and 
my father's house, who were in the land of 
Canaan, are come unto me; 

32 And the men are shepherds, for they 
have been owners of cattle;" and their flocks, 
and their herds, and all that they have, they 
have brought along. 

33 And it shall come to pass, if Pharaoh 
should have you called, and say. What is your 
occupation ? 

34 That ye shall say. Owners of cattle 
have thy servants been from our youth even 
until now, both we, as also our fathers; in 
order that ye may dwell in the land of Go- 
shen; for every shepherd is an abomination 
unto the Egyptians. 

CHAPTER XLVII. 

1 Then came Joseph and told Pharaoh, 
and said, My father and my brothers, and 
their flocks, and their herds, and all that 
they have, are come out of the land of Ca- 
naan; and, behold, they are in the land of 
Goshen. 

2 And he took some'' of his brothers, five 
men, and presented them before Pharaoh. 

3 And Pharaoh said unto his brothers. 
What is your occupation? And they said 
unto Pharaoh, Thy servants are shepherds, 
both we, as also our fathers. 

4 They said moreover unto Pharaoh, To 
sojourn in the land are we come; because 
there is no pasture for the flocks of thy ser- 
vants, for the famine is sore in the land of 
Canaan; and now let thy servants dwell, Ave 
pray thee, in the laud of Goshen. 

5 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, thus. 
Thy father and thy brothers are come unto 
thee: 

6 The land of Egypt is before thee; in the 



* Eng. vcr. " Their trade liath been to feed cattle." 
^ IMenUels.iohn renders nvpo " of the youngest," and 
according to the Talmud they were Zebulun, Dan, Naph- 
tali, Gad, and Asher ; while the Midrash names Keiibon, 
Simeon, Levi, Is.sachar, and 15enjaniin. 

° Heb. " How many are the days of the years of thy life ?" 



best of the land let thy father and brothei-s 
dwell; let them dwell in the land of Go.shen; 
and if thou knowest that there are among 
them men of activity, then appoint them 
rulers over my cattle. 

7 And Joseph brought in Jacob his father, 
and placed him before Pharaoh; and Jacob 
blessed Pharaoh. 

8 And Pharaoh said unto Jacob, How old 
art thou?" 

9 And Jacob said unto Pharaoh, The days 
of the 3-ears of my pilgrimage are one hun- 
dred and thirty yeai's: few and evil have 
been the days of the years of my life, and 
have not attained unto the days of the years 
of the life of my fathers in the days of their 
pilgrimage. 

10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and Avent 
out from before Pharaoh.* 

11 And Joseph assigned places of residence 
for his ftither and his brothers, and ga^-e them 
a possession'' in the land of Egypt, in the test 
of the land, in the land of Ra'meses, as Phar 
raoh had commanded. 

12 And Joseph supplied his father, and his 
brothers, and all his father's household, with 
bread, in propoi'tion to their families. 

13 And there Avas no bread in all the land; 
for the famine vfus A^ery sore; and the land' 
of Egypt and the land of Canaan fainted by 
reason of the famine. 

14 And Joseph gathered up all the money 
that Avas foimd in the land of Eg3-pt, and in 
the land of Canaan, for the corn Avhich they 
bought; and Joseph brought the money into 
Pharaoh's house. 

15 And Avhen the money failed in the land 
of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, all the 
Egyptians came unto Jo.seph, and said, Give 
us bread ; for Avhy should Ave die in thy pre- 
sence, since the money is all gone? 

16 And Joseph said, GIac up your cattle; 
and I Avill give you for your cattle, if the 
money be all gone. 

17 And they brought their cattle unto Jo- 
seph; and Joseph gave them bread in ex- 
change for horses, and for the flocks of sheep, 
and for the herds of cattle, and for the asses ; 



* " They had merely asked permis-sion to remain in 
Eg_vpt during the famine ; but as Pharaoh authorized 
their settling in Egypt, Joseph purchased thoni estates, 
that they might not be as strangers in the land." — After 
Ramban. 



GENESIS XLVII. XLVIII. VAYECHEE. 



and he supplied them with bread for all their 
cattle for that year. 

18 And when that year was ended, they 
came unto him in the second year, and said 
him, We will not hide it from my lord, unto 
how that our money with our herds of cattle 
hath entirely passed into the possession of my 
lord ; there is naught left in the sight of my 
lord, but our bodies, and our land. 

19 Wherefore shall we die before thy eyes, 
both we and our land? buy us and our land 
for bread; and we and our land will l)e ser- 
vants unto Pharaoh; and give us seed, that 
we may live, and not die, and that the land 
be not rendered desolate. 

20 And Joseph bought all the land of 
Eg_ypt for Pharaoh; for the Eg;y'iDtians sold 
every man his field, because the famine pre- 
vailed over them: so the land become Pha- 
raoh's. 

21 And as for the people, he removed them 
to the cities," from one end of the borders of 
Egypt even to the other end thereof. 

22 Only the land of the priests bought he 
not; for the priests had a portion assigned 
them by Pharaoh, and they ate their portion 
which Pharaoh gave them: therefore they 
did not sell their land. 

23 Then said Joseph unto the people. Be- 
hold, I have bought you this day and j'our 
land for Pharaoh: lo, here is seed for you, 
and sow ye the land. 

24 And it shall come to pass in the har- 
vest times, that ye shall give the fifth part 
unto Pharaoh; and four parts shall be your 
OAvn, for the seed of the field, and for your 
food, and for those belonging to your house- 
holds, and for food for your little ones.* 

25 And they said, Thou hast saved our 
lives : let us but find grace in the eyes of my 
lord, and we will be Pharaoh's servants. 

26 And Joseph made it a law unto this 
day over the land of Egypt, that Pharaoh 
should have the fifth jjart; except the land 
of the priests alone became not Pharaoh's. 

27 And Israel dwelt in the land of Egj^t, 



* " Because they had no more property in the land, he 
removed them to the towns," Arnheim after Abakba- 
NEL; and adds: "Von Bohlen explains hence the great 
number of towns, of which there were, according to Hero- 
dotus, twentj' thousand in the Delta of the Nile." 

^ "In order to swear that thou wilt deal," &c. — Arn- 
heim. 

" This expression means merely the act of dying, thus, 



in the country of Goshen ; and they had po.s- 
sessions therein, and were fruitful, and mul- 
tiplied exceedingly. 

Ilaphtorah in Ezekiel xxxvii. 15 to 28. 



SECTION XII. VAYECHEE, 'nn. 

28 And Jacob lived in the land of Egypt 
seventeen years : and the days of Jacob the 
years of his life were a hundred forty and 
seven years. 

29 And when the time of Israel drew near 
that he was to die, he sent to call his son 
Joseph, and said unto him, If now I have 
found grace in thy eyes, put, I pray thee, thy 
hand under my thigh ;'' and deal with me in 
kindness and truth; bury me not, I pray 
thee, in Egypt. 

30 But when I shall lie" with my fathers, 
thou shalt carry me out of Egypt, and bury 
me in their burying-place. And he said, I 
will do as thou hast said. 

31 And he said. Swear unto me; and he 
swore unto him ; and Israel bowed** himself 
upon the head of the bed. 

CHAPTER XLVIII. 

1 And it came to pass after these things, 
that some one said to Joseph, Behold, thy 
father is sick ; and he took his two sons with 
him, Menasseh and Ephraim. 

2 And some one told Jacob, and said, Be- 
hold, thy son Joseph is coming unto thee; 
and Israel strengthened himself, and sat upon 
the bed. 

3 And Jacob said unto Joseph, God, the 
Almighty, appeared unto me at Luz in the 
land of Canaan, and blessed me, 

4 And he said unto me. Behold, I will make 
thee fruitful, and multiply thee, and I will 
make of thee a multitude of people; and I 
will give this land to thy seed after thee for 
an everlasting possession. 

5 And now thy two sons, who were bom 
unto thee in the land of Eg3-pt before I came 
unto thee into Egypt, shall be mine ; Ephraim 



"When I at length shall die;" wherefore Philippson's 
rendering, "That I may lie with my fathers, carry me," 
&c., is not necessary; since rnDX Di' in 2Dii>'i simply con- 
veys " that Da\nd fell asleep, in death, as his fathers had 
done ;" for he was not buried at Beth-lechcm, their native 
place, but at Jerusalem. 

'' i'. e. "In gratitude to God." 

^ 61 



GENESIS XLVIII. XLIX. VAYECHEE. 



and Menasseh shall lie unto me as Reuben 
and Simeon. 

6 And thy issue, which thou begettest 
after them, shall be thine, after the name of 
their brothers shall they be called in their in- 
heritance. 

7 And as for me, when I came from Padan, 
Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan on 
the way, Avhen yet there was some distance 
to come unto Ephrath : and I buried her 
there on the way of Ephrath, the same is 
Beth-lechem. 

8 And Israel perceived the sons of Joseph, 
and said, Who are these? 

9 And Joseph said unto his father. They 
are my sons, whom God hath given me in 
this place. And he said. Bring them, I pray 
thee, unto me, and I will bless them.* 

10 Now the eyes of Israel were dim 
through age, he could not see;" and he 
brought them near unto him, and he kissed 
them, and embraced them. 

11 And Israel said unto Joseph, To see 
thy face I had not hoped; and, lo, God hath 
ehown me also thy seed. 

12 And Joseph brought them out from be- 
tween his knees, and he boAved himself with 
his face to the earth. 

13 And Joseph took them both, Ephraim 
in his right hand towai'd Israel's left, and Me- 
nasseh in his left hand toward Israel's right, 
and brought them near unto him. 

14 And Israel stretched out his right hand, 
and laid it upon Ephraim's head, who Avas 
the younger, and his left hand upon Menas- 
seh's head; he laid his hands Avittingly; al- 
though Menasseh Avas the first-born. 

15 And he blessed Joseph, and said. The 
God, before AA'hom my fathers Abraham and 
Isaac did walk, the God avIio fed'' me from my 
first being unto this day, 

IG The angel" Avho redeemed me from all 
evil, bless the lads; and let my name be 
called on them, and the name of my fathers 

* This is to say, Israel could perceive dimly the pre- 
sence of persons, without being aide to see distinctly. 

"■ rii'in, literally, " Who fed mc upon pastures," taking 
this word from his own pastoral life. 

° Dubno and Sforno think that the words "may he 
send" should be supplied before "the angel;" meaning, 
" May God, who hath always protected me, send his mes- 
senger to bless the lads." 

'' Lit. "A fulness of the nations," which may mean, 
"whose fame shall fill the books of nations;" so Rashi; 
Onkelos, "rulers of nations." 
02 



Abraham and Isaac; and let them groAV into 
a multitude in the midst of the earth.* 

17 And Avhen Joseph saAv that his father 
Avould lay his right hand upon the head of 
Ephraim, it displeased him : and he took hold 
of his father's hand, to remove it from the 
head of Ephraim unto the head of Menasseh. 

18 And Joseph said unto his father. Not 
so, my father; for this is the first-born, put 
thy right hand upon his head. 

19 And his father refused, and said, I 
knoAv, my son, I knoAv, he also shall become 
a people, and he also shall be great; but truly 
his younger brother shall be greater than he, 
and his seed shall become a multitude'' of 
nations. 

20 And he bles,sed them that day, saying. 
With thee shall Israel bless, saying, God 
make thee as Ephraim and Menasseh : and so 
he set Ephraim before Menasseh. 

21 And Israel said unto Joseph, Behold, I 
die ; but God Avill be Avith you, and bring you 
again unto the land of your fathers. 

22 MoreoA^er I haA^e giA-en unto thee one 
portion above thy brothers, Avhich I took" out 
of the hand of the Emorite Avith my SAVord 
and AA'itli my boAV.'-' 

CHAPTER XLIX. 

1 ^ And Jacob called unto his sons, and 
said. Gather yourseh^es together, that I may 
tell you that Avhich shall befall you in the 
last days. 

2 Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye 
sons of Jacob; and hearken unto Israel your 
father. 

3 Reuben, thou art my first-bom, my might, 
and the begiunuig of my strength ; the excel- 
lency of dignity, and the excellenc}' of poAver 
(should Ix; thine). 

4 Unstable as water, thou shalt not have 
the excellence; because thou Aventest up to 
thy father's bed; then defiledst thou the one 
Avho ascended' my couch. 



' l'hilipp.son renders, "Which I shall have taken," re- 
ferring to the future conquest of Palestine, since prophecy 
looks upon future events as already past. 

' Kamban and Arnheira are of opinion that the third 
person nS;' in the Hebrew text, rotors to the sj)oaker, 
viz. Jacob. I'hiiippson renders, "tiicn didst thou commit 
a violation," and agrees with the English version, that 
rhy 'IMS' is a sort of interjection, defining the cause of 
his displeasure, "he ascended my couch;" but the opiniou 
of llamban appears more correct. 



GENESIS XLIX. VAYECHEE. 



5 ^ Simeon and Levi are brethren; wea- 
pons of violence are their s^yords.* 

6 Into their secret shall my soul not come ; 
unto their assembly my sjiirit shall not be 
united; for in their anger they slew the man, 
and in their self-will they lamed the ox. 

7 Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; 
and their wrath, for it is cruel : I will divide 
them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel. 

8 ^ Judah, thou art the one thy brothers 
shall praise, thy hand shall be on the neck of 
thy enemies ; thy father's children shall bow 
down unto thee. 

9 Like a lion's whelp, Judah, from the 
prey, my son, thou risest: he stoopeth down, 
he croucheth as a lion, and as a lioness, Avho 
shall rouse him up? 

10 The sceptre*" shall not depart from Ju- 
dah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet; 
until Shiloh come, and unto him shall the 
gathering of the people be. 

11 He bindeth unto the vine his foal, and 



* After Rashi. 

^ I have left this verse as it is in the English version, 
inasmuch as it is according to Onkelos and Rashi, the 
former of whom renders at^hy ly 'niJ3 'J3a NiiJDi, "and 
the scribe from his sons' sons for ever, until," &c. But 
Arnheim gives, "Till he of Shiloh cometh, and the 
obedience of the tribes be turned to him," and refers "he 
of Shiloh" to Achiyah, the prophet of Shiloh, who fore- 
told to Jeroboam that a part of the kingdom should be 
taken from Solomon and transferred to him, (1 Kings 
xi. 31,) which prediction afterward came to pass, when 
Rechoboam refused to redress the grievances of the people ; 
and "to him," then alludes to Jeroboam, to whom the 
tribes of Israel, here called D'Oi', (see Gen. xiv. 4,) were 
to turn from the house of David. Mendelssohn, in giving 
a somewhat different version, refers to the same event. 
Others, again, give: "The sceptre shall not depart from 
Judah, nor the lawgiver from his descendants for ever; 
because Shiloh shall come, and to him shall be the gather- 
ing of the nations." This version is predicated upon the 
words '3 '\)} being separated by a disjunctive accent, and 
thus stand for "for ever" and "because;" since the 
Yetib is a greater disjunctive than the Pesseek in 
2 Samuel xxiii. 10. Philippson, the latest of our trans- 
lators, renders: "Not shall the sceptre from Judah, the 
ruler's staff from between his feet, even then when he 
cometh to Shiloh, and his shall be the obedience of the 
nations." In his comment he says, in substance, that to 
Judah is promised the rule and prominence in Israel, 
which was not to depart even when Joshua, the Ephraimite, 
should set up the tabernacle at Shiloh after the conquest 
of Palestine; so that o i)} does not signify alone "until," 
but includes the time beyond the period stated, "even then 
when." — It is impossible in this work to go into various 
versions and opinions hazarded by commentators; but 
this much is certain, that Onkelos, the best translator the 
Pentateuch had for a long while, and who is not yet ex- 
celled, would not have added no^;' -}]? if he had thought 



to the vine-brancli his ass's colt; he washeth 
his garments in wine, and in the blood ol" 
grapes his clothes; 

12 His eyes shall be red from wine, and 
his teeth white from milk. 

13 ][ Zebulun shall dwell at the margin of 
the seas; and he shall be at the haven of 
ships; and his border shall be near to Zidon. 

14 ^ Issachar is a strong-boned ass, couch- 
ing down between the stables. 

15 And when he saw the resting-place that 
it was good, and the land that it was pleasant, 
he bent his shoulder to bear, and became a 
servant unto tribute." 

16 ^ Dan shall judge** his people, as one 
of the tribes of Israel. 

17 Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an 
adder on the path, that biteth the horse in 
the heels, so that his rider falleth backward. 

18 For thy salvation, I hope, O Lord.''' 

19 ^ Gad, troops will band against him ; 
but he shall wound their heel." 



that it militated against the Jewish faith. The assump- 
tion that the sceptre was taken at a particular period, 
wherefore Shiloh must have come then, is futile; since 
Judah had no rule during the second temple, and with 
the blinding of Zedekiah, in the year of the world 3402, 
prior to the common era 586 years, the kingdom or sceptre 
of David became extinct; wherefore the alleged fulfilmeut 
came five hundred and eighty-six years too late. But 
believing Israelites, who confide in prophecy, do not think 
the sceptre totally departed from Judah; especially are the 
scribes, or those learned in the law, not lost from the as 
yet latest descendants of Israel. The sceptre u-ill re/uni 
when the Shiloh, the King Messiah, shall come, and to 
him shall be both the obedience and assemblage of people 
or nations, as ca;' nnp' is variously rendered. The plan 
of this work prohibits us from enlarging; but the pious 
and intelligent reader will have enough to satisfy all 
doubts. 

° Doubtlessly Jacob here contrasts Issachar with Zebu- 
lun: the latter was to be a merchant tribe, seeking for 
gain upon the ocean, going in quest of wealth; the former, 
on the contrary, laborious and patient, like the animal to 
which he is compared, who lies down at night near the 
stables when his work is done, was to prefer his beautiful 
land, full of all that can make agriculture profitable. 
Arnheim therefore renders the last words, "and yieldeth 
himself to the service of the labourer." 

'' Arnheim renders ['T with "avenge." 

''Arnheim; making ^U' "shall cut," or "wound," 
(Deut. xiv. 2 ;) the verse refers then to the many wars which 
the border-tribe of Gad should have to wage s\iccessfu]ly 
against their faithless heathen neighbours. Onkcln.s 
would require this version: "Those of the house of Gad 
shall pass in bands in advance of their brothers (over tlie 
Jordan) to the war, and with many goods shall they re- 
turn to their land." Jerusalem Targum : "and return in 
peace to their dwellings." 

63 



GENESIS XLIX. L. VAYECHEE. 



20 T[ Out of Asher cometh fat bread, and 
he shall yield royal dainties. 

21 ^ Naphtaii is (like) a fleet hind; he 
giveth goodly words." 

22 ^ Joseph is a fruitful bough, a fruitful 
bough by a spring; the branches of which run 
over the wall. 

23 And they embittered his life, and they 
shot at him, and they hated him, the men of 
the arrows. 

24 But his bow abode in strength, and his 
arms and his hands remained firm ; from*" the 
hands of the mighty God of Jacob, from there 
thou becamest the shepherd, the stone of 
Israel. 

25 From the God of thy father, who will 
help thee; and from the Almighty, who will 
bless thee, wdth blessings of heaven above, 
with blessings of the deep that lieth beneath, 
with blessings of the breasts, and of the 
womb ; 

26 With the blessings of thy father that 
have excelled the blessings of my progenitors 
unto the utmost bound of the everlasting 
hills : these shall be on the head of Josepli, 
and on the cro'vvn of the head of him that was 
separated'' from his brothers.'^ 

27 Benjamin shall be as a Avolf that 
rendeth:* in the morning he shall devour 
the prey, and at night he shall divide the 
spoil. 

28 All these ai-e the tribes of Israel, twelve 
in number; and this is what their father 
spoke unto them, and wherewith he blessed 
them; every one according to his proper 
blessing blessed he them. 

29 And he charged them and said unto 
them, I am to be gathered unto my j^eople; 
bury me near my fathers in the cave that is 
in the field of Ephron the Ilittite, 

30 In the cave that is in the field of Mach- 
pelah, which is Ijcfore Mamr6, in the land 
of Canaan, which field Abraham bought of 
Ephron the Ilittite, tor a possession as a bury- 
ing-place, 

31 (There they buried Abraham and Sarah 



• " He bringeth pleasant messages." — Puilippson. 

*■ Mendelssohn understands here, " this came to thee from 
the hands," &c. Arnheira takes px as synonymous with 
lis "rock," or "protector;" and it then means that, through 
the help of Jacob's mighty God, Joseph became the guar- 
dian and protector of Israel. I'hilipp.son refers both terms 
to (!ud, and translates, "from the hands of the mighty 
God of Jacob, from the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel." 
i'i4 



his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebe- 
kah his wife; and there I buried Leah,) 

32 Purchasing the field and of the cave 
that is therein from the children of Heth. 

33 And when Jacob had made an end of 
commanding his sons, he gathered up his feet 
into the bed; and he departed this Ufe, and 
was gathered unto his peeple. 

CHAPTER L. 

1 And Joseph fell upon his father's face, 
and wept upon him, and kissed him. 

2 And Joseph commanded liis servants the 
physicians to embalm his father: and the 
physicians embalmed Israel. 

3 And they fulfilled for him forty days;* 
for so they fulfil the daj-s of those that are 
embalmed; and the Egyptians wejat for him 
seventy days. 

4 And when the days of his mourning 
were past, Joseph spoke mito the house of 
Pharaoh, saying, K now I have found grace 
in your eyes, speak, I pray you, in the ears of 
Pharaoh, saying, 

5 My father made me swear, saying, Lo, I 
die; in my grave, Avhich I have dug*^ for me 
in the land of Canaan, there shalt thou bur3^ 
me : now therefore let me go up, I pray thee, 
and I will bury my father, and return again. 

6 And Pharaoh said, Go up, and bury thy 
father, as he hath made thee swear. 

7 And Joseph went up to bury his father, 
and there went up with him all the servants 
of Pharaoh, the elders of his house, and .all 
the elders of the land of Egyjit, 

8 And all the house of Joseph, and his 
brothers, and his father's house ; only their 
little ones, and their flocks, and their herds, 
they left behind in the land of Goshen. 

9 And there went up with him lx)th char 
riots and horsemen ; and the encampment was 
very great. 

10 And they came to the thrashing-floor of 
Atad, which is beyond Jordan, and they held 
there a great and very sore lamentation ; and 
he made for his father a mourning of seven days. 



° Mendelssohn gives this with "crowned from among," 
&c. 

'' i. e. His prey. 

• Meaning, the process of embalming occupied forty 
days; "and they fulfilled" then is, that the embalmers 
were for this period engaged in their labour. 

' " I Lave acquired," according to .some. 



GENESIS L. VAYECHEE. 



11 And when the inhabitants of the land, 
the Canaanites, saw the mourning at the 
thrashing-floor of Atad, they said, This is a 
grievous mourning to the Egyptians ; where- 
fore the name of it was called Abel-mizrayim," 1 
which is beyond Jordan."' 

12 And "his sons did unto him according 
as he had commanded them ; 

13 And his sons carried him into the land 
of Canaan, and buried him in the cave of the 
field of Machpelah, which fiek? Abraham 
1:)ought for a possession, as a burying-place, of 
Ephron the Hittite, before Mamre. 

14 And Joseph returned unto Egypt, he, 
and his brothers, and all that were gone up 
with him to bury his father, after he had 
Ijuried his father. 

15 And when Joseph's brothers saw that 
their father was dead, they said, Peradven- 
ture Joseph may now hate us; and then he 
would certamly requite us all the evil which 
we have done unto him. 

16 And they sent word unto Joseph, say- 
ing, Thy father did command before he died, 
saying, 

17 So shall ye say unto Joseph, forgive, 
I pray thee, the trespass of thy brothers, and 
their sm ; for evil have they done unto thee : 
and now, we pray thee, forgive the trespass 
of the servants of the God of thy father ; and 
Joseph wept when they spoke unto him. 

18 And his brothers also went and fell 
down before him ; and they said, Behold, we 
will be thy servants. 

19 And Joseph said unto them, Fear not ; 
for am I in the place of God ? 

20 But as for you, though ye thought evil 
against me, God meant it unto good; in order 



to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save 
alive a numerous people.* 

21 Now therefore fear ye not, I vnW sup- 
port you, and your little ones; and he com- 
forted thi'm, and spoke kindly unto them. 

22 And Joseph dwelt in Egypt, he, and 
his father's house ; and Joseph lived one hun- 
dred and ten years.* 

23 And Joseph saw of Epliraim children 
of the third generation ; the children al.so of 
Machir the son of Menasseh were brought up 
upon Joseph's knees. 

24 And Joseph said unto his brothers, I 
shall die; but God will surely visit you, and 
bring you up out of this land unto the land 
which he hath sworn to Abraham, to Isaac, 
and to Jacob. 

25 And Joseph caused the children of 
Israel to swear, saying, God will surely visit 
you, and then shall ye carry up my bones 
from here. 

20 So Joseph died, being one hundred and 
ten years old ; and they embalmed him, and 
he was put in a coffin in Egyjit. 

Haphtorah in 1 Kings ii. 1 to 12. 



' " Mourning of Egypt." 

* According to R. Joseph Schwartz this means the 
ancient bed of the river to the south of the Dead Sea, as 
Joseph did not cross the present Jordan to the north of 
that lake. 



Note.— Haphtorah for the Sabbath, if on the day before 
New Moon, is in 1 Samuel xx. 18 to 42. 

Reading for Maphterc for Sabbath and New Moon, 
Numbers xxviii. 9 to 15. 

Haphtorah for Sabbath and New Moon in Isaiah Ivi. 
1 to 24. 

Haphtorah for Sabbath Chanukkah in Zcchanah u. 14 

to iv. 7. 1-1 

Haptorah for the second Sabbath Chanukkah in 1 

Kings vii. 40 to 50. 

When either of the above is read on any Sabbath, the 

usual weekly Haphtorah is omitted. The same is the 

case with all other occasional Haphtorotli, which usually 

take the place of the regular ones. 



' This construction is according to Arnheira, rendering 
ityN and niB'n simply with " which field." He also ren- 
ders NiDO 'J3 ^}f with "east of Mamr6." 



65 



THE BOOK OF EXODUS, 

SHEMOTH, niotr, 

CONTAINING THE HISTORY OF THE ISRAELITES IN EGYPT, AND THEIR 
REDEMPTION, TO THE BUILDING OF THE TABERNACLE. 



SECTION XIII. SHEMOTH, mOlT. 

CHAPTER I. 

1 ^ Now these are the names of the children 
of Israel, that came into Egypt ; with Jacob 
were they come, every man and his household. 

2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 

3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 

4 Dan, and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. 

5 And all the souls that came out of the 
loins of Jacob were seventy souls; together 
with Joseph who was already in Eg3^t. 

6 And Joseph died, witb all his brothers, 
and all that generation. 

7 And the children of Israel were fruitful, 
and increased abundantly, and multiplied, 
and waxed exceedingly mighty ; and the land 
Avas filled with them. 

8 Tl Now there rose up a new king over 
Egyi^t, who knew not Joseph. 

9 And he said unto his people, Behold, the 
people of the children of Israel is more nume- 
rous and mightier than we : 

10 Come on, let us deal wisely with it; 
lest it multiply, and it come to pass, that, 
when there liappen to be a war, it join also 
unto our enemies, and fight against us, and 
depart out of the land. 

11 And they thereupon did set over it 
taskmasters, to afflict it with their burden- 
some labours ; and it built treasure cities, for 
Pharaoh, Pithom and Raamses. 

12 But in the measure that they afflicted 
the same, so it multiplied and so it spread it- 
self out ; and they felt abhorrence because of 
the children of Israel. 

1.3 And the Egyptians compelled the chil- 
dren of Israel to labour with rigour : 



' D'J3X " the chair upon which women sit during child- 
birth" is used for the ciiild itself that is born. 

^ i'. e. Vigorous; wherefore they require not the same 
caro as the more feeble Egyptians; in conse(iucnce of 



14 And they made their lives bitter with 
hard labour, in mortar, and in bricks, and in 
all manner of lalx)ur in the field; besides all 
their other service, wherein they made them 
labour with rigour. 

15 And the king of Egypt said to the He- 
brew midwives, of whom the name of the one 
was Shiphrah, and the name of the other Puah : 

16 And he said. When ye do the office of 
a midwife to the Hebrew women, ye shall 
have due regard upon the birth :° if it be a 
son, then shall ye kill him ; but if it be a 
daughter, then may she live. 

17 But the midwives feared God, and they 
did not as the king of Egypt had commanded 
them, but saved the men-children alive.'=' 

18 And the king of Egvpt called for the 
midwives, and he said unto them. Why have 
ye done this thing, and have saved the men- 
children alive? 

19 And the midwives said unto Pharaoh, 
Because the Hebrew women are not as the 
Egyptian women ; for they are lively ;'' ere the 
midwife comes in unto them they are deli- 
vered. 

20 And God dealt well with the midwives; 
and the people multiplied, and waxed very 
mighty. 

21 And it came to pass, because the mid- 
wives feared God, that he made them houses." 

22 And Pharaoh charged all his people, 
saying. Every son that is born }e shall cast 
into the river, and ever}- daughter ye shall 
save alive. 

CHAPTER II. 

1 And there went a man of the house of 
Levi, and took a daughter of Levi. 

which it would be impossible to slay the child unpcrceived 
by the njother. 

° »'. e. He made them important, and founders of houses 
of renown in Israel. 



EXODUS II. SHEMOTH. 



2 And the woman conceived, and bore a 
son; and when she saw him that he was a 
goodly* child, she hid him three months. 

3 And when she could no longer hide him, 
she took for him a box of bulrushes,'' and 
daubed it with slime and with pitch ; and she 
put the child therein, and laid it amidst the 
flags by the brink of the river. 

4 And his sister placed herself afar off, to 
ascertain what would be done to him. 

5 And the daughter of Pharaoh" came 
down to wash herself at the river; and her 
maidens walked along by the side of the 
river; and when she saw the box among the 
flags, she sent her maid and fetched it. 

6 And she opened it, and saw the child, 
and, behold, it was a weeping boy; and she 
had compassion on him, and said, This is one 
of the Hebrews' children. 

7 Then said his sister to Pharaoh's daugh- 
ter. Shall I go and call thee a nurse of the 
Hebrew women, that she may nurse for thee 
the child? 

8 And Pharaoh's daughter said to her, Go; 
and the maiden went and called the mother 
of the child. 

9 And Pharaoh's daughter said unto her. 
Take away this child, and nurse him for me, 
and I will give thee thy wages; and the 
woman took the child, and nursed him. 

10 And the child grew up, and she brought 
him unto Pharaoh's daughter, and he be- 
came to her as a son ; and she called his name 
Moses f and she said, Because out of the water 
have I drawn him.* 

11 And it came to pass in those days, when 
Moses was gro^vn up, that he went out unto 
his brethren, and looked on their burdensome 
labours ; and he saw an Egyptian man smiting 
a Hebrew man, one of his brethren. 

12 And he looked this way and that way, 
and when he saw that there was no one by, 
he slew" the Egj^tian, and hid him in the 
sand. 

13 And when he went out the second day. 



• That is, handsome and well formed ; the word 310 is 
often used in this sense. 

*■ Philippson renders, "papyrus rush," out of the stems 
of which boats are constructed, which attain at times im- 
mense speed in their propulsion. They were called by 
Pliny papyracex naves. See also ndj ''70 " vessels of 
bulrushes," Eng. ver., in Isaiah xviii. 2. 

" Wonderful providence ! that the daughter of the op- 
pressor should be made the instrument, through the very 



behold, two Hebrew men were striving to- 
gether; and he said unto him that was in the 
Avrong, Wherefore smitest thou thy fellow? 

14 And he said. Who made thee a chief and 
a judge over us? intendest thou to kill me, as 
thou hast killed the Egyptian? And Moses 
feared, and said. Surely the thing is become 
known. 

15 And Pharaoh heard this thing, and he 
sought to slay Moses; but Moses fled from 
the face of Pharaoh, and tarried in the land 
of Midian, and he sat down by a well. 

16 NoAV the priest of Midian had seven 
daughters; and they came and drew water, 
and filled the troughs to water their father's 
flock. 

17 And the shepherds came and drove them 
away ; but Moses arose and helped them, and 
watered their flock. 

18 And when they came to Reiiel their 
father, he said. Wherefore are ye come home 
so soon to-day? 

19 And they said, An Egyptian man de- 
livered us out of the hand of the shephei-ds ; 
and he also drew water for us, and watered 
the flock. 

20 And he said unto his daughters, And 
where is he ? wherefore have ye left the man ? 
call him, that he may eat bread. 

21 And Moses was content to dwell with 
the man; and he gave Zipporah his daughter 
to Moses. 

22 And she bore her a son, and he called 
his name Gershom •/ for he said, I have been 
a stranger in a foreign land. 

23 ^ And it came to pass in this long 
time, that the king of Egypt died; and the 
children of Israel sighed by reason of the 
bondage, and they cried ; and their complaint 
came up unto God by reason of the bondage. 

24 And God heard their groaning, and 
God remembered his covenant with Abraham, 
Avith Isaac, and with Jacob. 

25 And God looked upon the children of 
Israel, and God took cognizance of them.** 

decree of exterminating the male Israelites, to educate 
the future deliverer of his people. 

^ " Mosheh," from nero mashoh, " to draw forth." 

' Lit. " he smote." 

' Ger, a " stranger ;" and shahm, " there." 

* " He turned his attention to them and did not avert 
his eyes," Rashi ; that is, he noted their sorrows and re- 
solved to redeem them. 

67 



EXODUS III. SIIEMOTII. 



CHAPTER III. 

1 ^ And Moses was keeping the flock of 
Jithro his father-in-hiw, the priest of Midian; 
and he led the Hock far away into the desert, 
and came to the mountain of God, to Choreb. 

2 And an angel' of the Lord appeared unto 
him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a 
thorn-bush; and he looked, and, behold, the 
thorn-bush was bunaing wth fire, but the 
thorn-bush was not consumed. 

3 And Moses said, I must turn aside, and 
see this great sight, why the thorn-bush is not 
burnt. 

4 And when the Lord saw that he turned 
aside to see, God called unto him out of the 
midst of the thorn-bush, and said, Moses, 
Moses; and he said, Here am I. 

5 And he said. Draw not nigh hither ; put 
off thy shoes from off thy feet; for the place 
whereon thou staudest is holy ground. 

6 And he said, I am the God of thy father, 
the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and 
the God of Jacob ; and Moses hid his face ; for 
he was afraid to look up to God. 

7 And the Lord said, I have truly seen 
the aflliction of my people that is in Egypt, 
and have heai-d its cry by reason of its task- 
masters; yea, I know its sorrows; 

8 And I am come down to deliver it out 
of the hand of the Egyptians, and to Ijring it 
up out of that land unto a land, good and 
large, unto a land flowing with milk and ho- 
ney; unto the place of the Canaanitcs, and 
the Hittites, and the Emoritcs, and the Periz- 
zites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites. 

Now therefoi-e, behold, the cry of the 
children of Israel is come unto me: and I 
have also seen the oppression wherewith the 
Egyi^tians oppress them. 

10 And now then go, and I will send thee 
unto Pharaoh, and thou shalt bring forth my 
people the children of Israel out of Egypt. 



* The angel who appeared to Moses -does not address 
him : the bodily appearance of the peculiar conflagration, 
was to arrest his attention ; but immediately after, when 
Moses attempted to in.spcet it more closelj', he is arrested 
by the Divine word, proceeding without a mediator, and 
he is thus called to commence his great mis.sion by the 
Supreme himself 

'' Arnheim translates this passage, "I will be that I 
am." It is very simple in its construction ; still it is exceed- 
ingly difticult to convey the whole force of the idea by any 
words in a translation. The Lord announces himself as 
68 



11 And Moses said unto God, Wbo iuii I, 
that I shoidd go unto Pharaoh, and tliat I 
should bring forth the children of Israel out 
of Egypt ? 

12 And he said, Because I will be with 
thee; and this shall be unto thee the token, 
that I have sent thee: when thou hast 
brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye 
shall serve God upon this mountain. 

13 And Moses said unto God, Behold, if 
I come unto the children of Israel, and say 
unto them, The God of your lathers hath 
sent me unto you ; and they then say to me, 
What is his name? what shall I say unto 
them? 

14 And God said unto Moses, I will be 
THAT I WILL BE:*" and he said. Thus shalt 
thou say unto the children of Israel, I will 
BE hath sent me unto you. 

15 And God said moreover unto Moses, 
Thus shalt thou say luito the children of 
Israel, The Everlasting One, the God of 
your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God 
of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me 
unto you: this is my name for ever, and this 
is my memorial" unto all generations.* 

16 Go, and assemble the elders of Israel, 
and say unto them. The Everlasting One, the 
God of your fiithers, the God of Abraham, of. 
Isaac, and of Jacol), hath appeared unto me, 
saying, I have surely taken cognizance of you 
and of that which is done to you in Egypt: 

17 And I have said, I will bring you up 
out of the affliction of Egypt, unto the land 
of the Canaanitcs, and the Hittites, and the 
Emoritcs, and the Perizzites, and the Ilivites, 
and the Jebusites, unto a land flowing with 
milk and honey. 

18 And they Avill hearken to thy voice: 
and thou shalt come, thou and the elders of 
Israel, unto the king of Egypt, and ye sliall 
say unto him, The Everlasting One, the God 
of the Hebrews hath met with us; and now 



the Being who will ever be, as he was and as he is. In 
truth, the word is nothing but the future tense first person 
singular of the verb rrn "to be." In the second part of 
the verse, therefore, Arnheim gives it simply as the name 
of God, without translating it: "Ehyeh hath sent me to 
vou." In this new name, which God assumes to denote 
his eternity, we have the second revelation of his being 
and quality. (8ce above. Gen. svii. 1.) 

" This means, say the commentators, that God taught 
Moses how to pronounce the name of four letters, Vihich 
is read Adonay, and not as it is written. 



EXODUS III. IV. SHEMOTH. 



let us go, we beseech thee, a three days' 
journey into the wilderness, that we may 
sacrifice to the Lord our God. 

19 But I am sure that the king of Egypt 
will not let you go, unless it happen through 
a mighty hand." 

20 And I will stretch out my hand, and 
smite Egypt with all my wonders which I 
will do in the midst thereof; and after that 
he will let you go. 

21 And I will give this people favour in 
the eyes of the Egyptians ; and it shall come 
to pass, that, when ye go, ye shall not go 
empty : 

22 But every woman shall ask of her 
neighbour, and of her that sojoumeth in her 
house, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, 
and garments; and ye shall put them upon 
your sons, and upon your daughters ; and ye 
shall empty out Egypt. 

CHAPTER IV. 

1 And Moses answered and said. But, be- 
hold, they will not beUeve me, nor hearken 
unto my voice; for they will say, The Lord 
hath not appeared unto thee. 

2 And the Lord said unto him, Wliat is 
that in thy hand ? and he said, A staft'. 

3 And he said, Cast it on the ground; and 
he cast it on the ground, and it became a ser- 
pent; and Moses tied from before it. 

4 And the Lord said unto Moses, Put forth 
thy hand, and grasp it by the tail; and he 
put forth his hand, and laid hold of it, and it 
became a staff in his hand. 

5 In order that they may belie^'e that 
there hath appeared unto thee the Everlast^ 
ing One, the God of their fathers, the God of 
Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of 
Jacob. 

6 And the Lord said furthermore unto 
him. Do put thy hand into thy bosom ; and 
he put his hand into his bosom ; and when 
he took it out, behold, his hand Avas leprovis, 
white'' as snow. 

7 And he said. Put thy hand again into 



' Rashi ; others, after the literal text, " and not even 
through a mighty hand." 

'' Heb. " Leprous like snow." 

' h^ph probably means "the report," to wit, which 
Moses would bring of the wonders which he had seen ; 
hence it says properly, if words should not convince them, 
he should show them something before their eyes. — Arn- 
HEiM after Rashi. 



thy bosom; and he put his hand again into 
his bosom ; and when he pulled it out of his 
bosom, behold, it was turned again as his 
other flesh. 

8 And it shall come to pass, if they will 
not believe thee, neither hearken to the voice" 
of the first sign, that they Avill believe the 
voice of the latter sign. 

9 And it shall come to pass, if they will 
not believe also these two signs, and will not 
hearken unto thy voice, that thou shalt take 
of the water of the river, and pour it upon 
the dry land : and the water which thou shalt 
take out of the river shall become blood upon 
the dry land. 

10 And Moses said unto the Lord, Pardon, 
Lord, I am not a man of words, neither 
3'esterday, nor the day before, nor since thou 
hast spoken unto thy servant; for I am heavy 
of speech, and heavy of tongue. 

11 And the Lord said unto him. Who hath 
given a mouth to man? or who maketh him 
dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind? is it not I 
the Lord? 

12 Now therefore go, and I will lie Avith 
thy mouth, and I will teach thee what thou 
shalt speak. 

13 And he said, Pardon, Lord, send, I 
pray thee, by the hand of him wliom thou 
wouldest* send. 

14 And the anger of the Lord Avas kindled 
against Moses, and he said, Is there not 
Aaron, thy brother, the Levite? I know that 
he can speak well; and also, behold, he 
cometh forth to meet thee; and when he 
seeth thee, he Avill be glad in his heart. 

15 And thou shalt speak unto him, and put 
the Avords in his moutb : and I Avill be Avith 
thy mouth, and Avith his moutli, and I Avill 
teach you AA'hat ye shall do. 

16 And he shall speak for thco unto the 
people; and he shall be, yea he shall be to 
thee as a mouth, and thou shalt be to him as 
a god." 

17 And this staff shalt thou take in thy 
hand, AvhercAvith shidt thou do the signs.* 



'' Onkelos renders, "who is worthy of being sent." 
' Moses should give to Aamn instruction how to .speak, 
consequently he would be to him what (}od was to Moses, 
instructor; and again, Aaron was to be the mouth of 
Moses, by telling the people what had been intrusted to 
him, and which he himself could not tell on account of 
his difficidty of speech. 



EXODUS IV. V. SHEMOTH. 



18 T[ And Moses went and returned to 
Jethcr his father-in-law, and said unto him, 
Let me go, I pray thee, and return unto my 
brethren that are in Egypt, and see whether 
they be yet aUve; and Jithro said to Moses, 
Go in peace. 

19 And the Lord said unto Moses in Mi- 
dian, Go, return into Egypt; for all the men 
are dead who sought thy life. 

20 And Moses took his wife and his sons, 
and set them upon an ass, and he returned to 
the land of Egypt; and Moses took the staff 
of God in his hand. 

21 Arid the Lord said unto Moses, When 
thou goest to return into Egj^pt, regard well 
all the wonders Avhich I have put in thy 
hand, and do them before Pharaoh ; but I will 
harden his heart, and he will not let the 
people go. 

22 And thou shalt say unto Pharoah, Thus 
saith the Lord, My son, my first-born, is Is- 
rael. 

23 And I say unto thee. Let my son go, 
that he may serve me; and thou refusest to 
let him go; so, behold, I will slay thy son, 
thy first-born. 

24 And as he was on the journey in the 
inn, the Lord met him, and sought to kill 
him. 

25 Then took Zipporah a sharp instru- 
ment,^ and cut off tlie foreskin of her son, 
and cast it at his feet, and said, Surely a 
bloody relative*" art thou to me. 

2G And then he withdrew from him ; when 
she said, A bloody relative, but only in re- 
spect of the circumcision. 

27 Tf And the Lord said to Aaron, Go 
to meet Moses, into the wilderness; and he 
went and met him by the mount of God, and 
kissed him. 

28 And Moses told Aaron all the Avords 
of the Lord wherewith he hath sent him, 
and all the signs which he had commanded 
him. 

29 And Moses and Aaron went and assem- 
bled all the elders of the children of Israel : 

30 And Aaron spoke all the words which 



• Abcn Ezra and Rashbam ; others render, " a sharp 
stone." 

■' This was said to the child, as endangering the life of 
Moses; but the blood was at length only that of circum- 
cision. 

° " Prostrated themselves;" but as this was the method 
70 



the Lord had spoken unto Moses ; and he did 
the signs l)efore the eyes of the people. 

31 And the people believed: and when 
they heard that the Lord had visited the chil- 
dren of Israel, and that he had looked ujjon 
their aflliction, then they bowed their heads 
and worshipped."* 

CHAPTER V. 

1 And after that Mo.ses and Aaron went 
in, and said unto Pharaoh, Thus saith the 
Everlasting One, the God of Israel, Let my 
people go, that they may hold a feast unto 
me in the wilderness. 

2 And Pharaoh said. Who is the Everlast- 
ing, whose voice I am to obey, to let Israel 
go? I know not the Everlasting, nor will I 
let Israel go. 

3 And they said, The God of the Hebrews 
hath met with us : let us go, we pray thee, a 
three days' journey into the desert, and sacri- 
fice unto the Lord our God ; lest he fall upon 
us with the pestilence, or with the sword. 

4 And the king of Egypt said unto them, 
Wherefore do ye, Mos6s and Aaron, hinder 
the people from their works? get 3'ou unto 
your own affairs.* 

5 And Pharaoh said. Behold, the people of 
the laud now are many, and ye distui'b" them 
in the pursuit of their labours. 

6 And Pharaoh commanded on the same 
day the taskmasters of the people, and its of- 
ficers, saying, 

7 Ye shall no more give the people straw 
to make the bricks, as yesterday and the day 
before; they themselves shall go and gather 
themselves straw. 

8 And the number of the bricks, which 
they did make heretofore,' ye shall impose 
upon them, ye shall not diminish aught 
thereof; for they are idle; therefore they cry, 
saying, Let us go and sacrifice to our God. 

9 Let the work be made to lie heavy upon 
the men, that they may have enough to do 
therein ; and that they may not pay attention 
to false words. 

10 And the taskmasters of the people and 



of worship, the word "worshipped" has been retained, as 

in the common version. 
" Rashi. 

" Lit. "Cause them to rest from their burdens." 
' Heb. " Yesterday and the day before yesterday." 



EXODUS V. VI. VAAYRAH. 



its officers went out, and they said to the 
people, saying, Thus saith Pharaoh, I will 
not give you any straw. 

11 Go ye, get yourselves straw from wher- 
ever ye can find it ; yet not the least shall be 
taken off from your work. 

12 And the people scattered themselves 
abroad throughout all the land of Egypt to 
gather stubble instead of straw. 

13 And the taskmasters were urgent, say- 
ing. Fulfil your works, every day its due por- 
tion, just as when there was straw. 

14 And the officers of the children of 
Israel, whom the taskmasters of Pharaoh had 
set over them, were beaten, as these said. 
Wherefore have ye not fulfilled your task in 
making brick as heretofore, both yesterday 
and to-day? 

15 And the officers of the children of 
Israel came and cried unto Pharaoh, saying, 
Wherefore" dealest thou thus with thy ser- 
vants ? 

16 Straw is not given unto thy servants, 
and, Make bricks, say they to us: and, be- 
hold, thy servants are beaten, and thy people 
are treated as sinners. 

1 7 But he said. Idle are ye, idle ; therefore 
say ye. Let us go and sacrifice to the Lord. 

18 And now go, work, and straw shall not 
be given you; yet the required number of 
bricks shall ye deliver. 

19 And the officers of the children of Israel 
saw themselves in the evil necessity to say, 
Ye shall not diminish aught from your bricks, 
every day of its task. 

20 And they met Moses and Aaron, stand- 
ing in their way, as they came forth from 
Pharaoh. 

21 And they said unto them. May the 
Lord look upon you, and judge; because ye 
have made our savour to be abhorred in 
the eyes of Pharaoh, and the eyes of his 
servants, to put a sword in their hand to 
slay us.* 

22 And Moses returned unto the Lord, and 



° Aben Ezra supplies here, "alone," meaning, sometimes 
it was as the Almighty, while at others as the Eternal, that 
God spoke to the patriarchs. Jonathan says, "And by my 
name, the Lord, through the evident appearance of my 
glory, (see Numb. xii. 6,) I became not knovm to them." 
Perhaps it may mean, however, that God made himself 
known to the patriarchs as the Ruler of all things, but not 
as the Merciful and sure Eewarder of all deeds: they 
might have recognised Him so from his bounties; but now 



said. Lord, wherefore hast thou let so much 
evil come upon this people? why is it that 
thou hast sent me? 

2.3 For, since I came unto Pharaoh to 
speak in thy name, he hath done moi-e e\al 
to this people; but thou hast in nowise de- 
livered thy people. 

CHAPTER VL 

1 Then said the Lord unto Moses, Now 
shalt thou see Avhat I will do to Pharaoh ; for 
with a strong hand shall he send them away, 
and with a strong hand shall he drive them 
out of his land. 

Haphtorah in leaiah xxvii. 6 to xxviii. 13, and v. 22 and 23 of 
xxix. The Portuguese read Jereiniah i. 1 to ii. 3. 



SECTION XIV. VAAYRAH, N"1N*1. 

2 Tl And God spoke unto Moses, and said 
unto him, I am the Lord : 

3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto 
Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God, 
the Almighty, but by my name The Eter- 
nal" was I not made known to them. 

4 And as I did also establish my covenant 
with them, to give unto them the land of 
Canaan, the land of their pilgrimage, wherein 
they sojourned : 

5 So have I also heard the groaning of the 
children of Israel, whom the Egyptians com- 
pel to labour; and I have remembered my 
covenant. 

6 Therefore say unto the children of Israel, 
I am the Eternal, and I will bring you out 
from under the burdens'" of the Egj-ptians, 
and I will release you from their bondage, 
and I will redeem you with an outstretched 
arm, and with great judgments: 

7 And I will take you to me for a people, 
and I will be to you a God; and ye shall 
know that I am the Lord" your God, who 
bringeth you out from under the burdens of 
the Egyptians. 

8 And I will bring you in unto the land, 



this knowledge was bestowed on mankind as a new source 
of hope and confidence. 

^ The same word has been rendered above with "bur- 
densome labour," in which sense it must be understood 
throughout. 

' The reader will please to recollect what is stated in a 
note to Genesis ii. 4, that the word Lord (so printed) is 
used in this version as equivalent to Eternal, to prevent 
the frequent repetition of the last term. 



EXODUS VI. VII. VAAYRAH. 



concerning wliich I did lift up my hand* to 
give it to Al)raham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; 
and I will gi\e it }'ou for an heritage : I am 
the Lord. 

9 And Moses spoke thus unto the children 
of Israel; but they hearkened not unto Moses 
for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage. 

10 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

11 Go in, speak unto Pharaoh king of 
Egypt, that he shall let the children of Israel 
go out of his land. 

12 And Moses spoke before the Lord, say- 
ing, Behold, the children of Israel have not 
hearkened unto me : how then shall Pharaoh 
hear me, whereas I am of uncircumcised'' 
lips? 

13 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto the 
children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh, the 
king of Eg;yiit, to bring forth the children of 
Israel out of the land of Egypt.* 

14 ^ These are the heads of their family 
divisions : The sons of Reiiben the first-bom 
of Israel : Chanoch, and Pallu, Chezron, and 
Carmi ; these are the families of Reiiben. 

15 And the sons of Simeon : Yemuel, and 
Yamin, and Ohad, and Yachin, and Zochar, 
and Shaiil the son of the Canaanitish woman ; 
these are the families of Simeon. 

16 And these are the names of the sons of 
Levi according to their generations : Gershon, 
and Kehath, and Merari; and the years of 
the life of Levi were one hundred and thirty 
and seven years. 

17 The sons of Gershon : Libni, and Shimi, 
according to their families. 

18 And the sons of Kehath: Amram, and 
Yizhar, and Chebron, and'Uzziel; and the 
years of the life of Kehath were one hundred 
and thirty and three j'ears. 

19 And the sons of Merari: Machli and 
Mushi; these are the families of Levi accord- 
ing to their generations. 

20 And Amram took himself Yochebed his 
aunt for vn£e; and she bore unto him Aaron" 



' That is, "I did swear," as an oath is taken by the 
lifting up of the hand. 

'' The word "uncircumcised," among Israelites, denotes 
always an imperfection; so "uncircumcised of lips" means 
a difficulty in speaking, "uncircumcised of Iieart," an im- 
purity of thought and a state of di.sobedicncc. Whereas 
"circumcised" denotes the opposite stat<5 of porfectness or 
purity. 



and Moses ; and the years of the life of Am- 
ram were one hundred and thirty and seven 
years. 

21 And the sons of Yizhar: Korach, and 
Ncpheg, and Zichri.'' 

22 And the sons of Uzziel: Mishael, and 
Elzaphan, and Sithri. 

23 And Aaron took himself Elisheba, 
daughter of Amminadab, sister of Nachshon, 
for wife; and she bore unto him Nadab, antl 
Abihu, Elazar, and Ithamar. 

24 And the sons of Korach: Assir, and 
Elkanah, and Abiassaph; these are the fami- 
lies of the Korchites. 

25 And Elazar the son of Aaron took him- 
self one of the daughters of Putiel for wife; 
and she bore unto him Phinehas:" these are 
the heads of the divisions of the Legates ac- 
cording to their families. 

2G These are Aaron and Moses,'' to whom 
the Lord said, Bring forth the children of 
Israel out of the land of Egypt according to 
their annies. 

27 These are the}^ that spoke to Pharaoh 
king of Egypt, to bring forth the children of 
Israel out of Egypt: these are Moses and 
Aaron. 

28 And it came to pass on the day when 
the Lord spoke unto Moses in the land of 
Egypt.* 

29 *\\ Then spoke the Lord unto Moses, say- 
ing, I am the Lord; speak thou unto Pharaoh 
the king of Egypt all that I speak unto thee. 

30 And Moses said before the Lord, Be- 
hold, I am of uncircumcised lips, aiid how 
shall Pharaoh hearken unto me? 

CHAPTER VII. 

1 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, See, I 
have made thee a god to Phai^aoh ; and Aaron 
thy brother shall be thy proi)het. 

2 Thou shalt speak all that I shall com- 
mand thee; and Aaron thy brother shall 
speak unto Pharaoh, that he send away the 
children of Israel out of his land. 

3 And I will hai'den the heart of Pharaoh, 



° Properly, "Aharon." 

' Eng. ver. " Zithri," which is incorrect. 

• Properly, " Pinechas." 

' This genealogy is here given merely to show the do- 
scent of Moses and Aaron, as fhey were made the speeiul 
instruments of Israel's redemption, or to exhibit, tliat 
among all enumerated Moses was the most deserving ti> 
fulfil this mission. 



EXODUS VII. VAAYRAH. 



and I will multiply my signs and my wonders 
in the land of Egypt. 

4 And Pharaoh will not hearken unto you, 
and I will lay my hand upon Egypt, and 
bring forth my armies, my people, the chil- 
dren of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by 
means of great judgments. 

5 And the Egyptians shall know that I am 
the Lord, when I stretch forth my hand over 
Egypt, and bring out the children of Israel 
from the midst of them. 

C And Moses and Aaron did so; as the 
Lord commanded them, so did they. 

7 And Moses was eighty years old, and 
Aaron eighty and three years old, when they 
spoke unto Pharaoh.* 

8 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses and 
unto Aaron, saying, 

9 If Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying. 
Show a miracle for yourselves:* then shalt 
thou say unto Aaron, Take thy staff and cast 
it before Pharaoh ; it shall become a serpent. 

10 And Moses and Aaron went in unto 
Pharaoh, and they did so, as the Lord had 
commanded; and Aaron cast down his staff 
before Pharaoh, and before his servants, and 
it became a serpent. 

11 Then Pharaoh also called for the wise 
men and the sorcerers; and they also, the 
magicians of Egypt, did with their secret arts 
in like manner. 

12 And they cast down every man his 
staff, and they became serpents; but Aaron's 
staff swallowed up their staffs. 

13 But the heart of Pharaoh was hard, and 
he hearkened not unto them; as the Lord 
had spoken. 

14 Tl And the Lord said unto Moses, The 
heart of Pharaoh is obdurate, he refuseth to 
let the people go. 

15 Get thee unto Pharaoh in the morning; 
lo, he goeth out unto the water; and thou 
shalt place thyself opposite to him by the 
jjriuk of the river; and the staff which was 
turned to a serpent shalt thou take in thy 
hand. 

16 And thou shalt say unto him. The Eter- 



' It must be understood that Pharaoh had refused to 
listen to the demand of Moses under the plea that he 
knew not who was the "Eternal God" in whoso name the 
prophet spoke. When, therefore, Moses and his brother 
were sent again, it was to be expected that the king 
would require some extraordinary attestation, as proof that 
they who spoke thus had a power to enforce their mission, 
K 



nal, the God of the Hebrews, hath sent me 
unto thee, saying. Let my people go, that 
they may serve me in the wilderness : and, be- 
hold, thou wouldest not hear, up to this time. 

17 Thus saith the Lord, By this thou shalt 
know that I am the Lord: behold, I will 
smite with the staff that is in my hand upon 
the waters which are in the river, and they 
shall be turned to blood. 

18 And the fish that is in the river shall 
die, and the river shall stink ; and the Egyp- 
tians shall loath to drink water from the 
river. 

19 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Say 
unto Aaron, Take thy staff, and stretch out 
thy hand over the waters of Egypt, over their 
streams, over their rivers, and over their 
ponds, and over all their pools of water, that 
they become blood; and there shall be blood 
throughout all the land of Egypt, also in ves- 
sels of wood, and in vessels of stone. 

20 And Moses and Aaron did so, as the 
Lord had commanded; and he lifted up (his 
hand) with the staff, and smote the waters 
that were in the river, before the eyes of Pha- 
raoh, and before the eyes of his servants; and 
all the waters that were in the river were 
turned to blood. 

21 And the fish that was in the river died; 
and the river stank, and the Egyptians could 
not drink water from the river ; and the blood 
was throughout all the land of Egypt. 

22 And the magicians of Egypt did so** 
with their secret arts : and the heart of Phar 
raoh remained hardened, and he did not 
hearken unto them; as the Lord had spoken. 

23 And Pharaoh turned away and went 
into his house, and he did not set his heart to 
this thing also. 

24 And all the Egyptians dug in the neigh- 
bourhood of the river for water to drink ; for 
they could not drink of the water of the 
river. 

25 And full seven days elapsed, after that 
the Lord had smitten the river." 

26 ][ And the Lord said unto Moses, Go 
in unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus 



if it were in reality the word and will of an unheard-of 
Deity, of superior power to the gods of Egypt. 

'' "With the water, namely, which came from the newly 
dug wells;" see v. 24. — Arnheim. 

' The English version ends here the seventh chapter, 
but the Massoretic text commences chap. viij. only with 
the fifth verse of the common versioij. 

73 



EXODUS VII. VIII. VAAYRAH. 



saith the Lord, Let my people go, that they 
may serve me. 

27 And if thou refuse to let them go, be- 
hold, I will smite all thy borders' with frogs: 

28 And the river shall bring forth frogs 
abundantly, and they shall go up and come 
into thy house, and into thy sleeping-cham- 
ber, and upon thy bed, and into the house of 
thy servants, and among thy people, and into 
thy ovens, and into thy kneading-troughs : 

29 And upon thee, and upon thy people, 
and upon all thy servants, shall the frogs 
come up. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

1 And the Lord said unto Moses, Say unto 
Aaron, Stretch forth thy hand with thy staff 
over the streams, over the rivers, and over 
the ponds, and cause the frogs to come up 
over the land of Egypt. 

2 And Aaron stretched out his hand over 
the waters of P]gypt; and the frogs came up, 
and covered the land of Egypt. 

3 And the magicians did so with their 
secret arts, and brought up the frogs over the 
land of Egypt. 

4 Then did Pharaoh call for Moses and 
Aaron, and said. Entreat the Lord, that he 
may take away the frogs from me, and from 
my people; and I will let the people go, that 

■ they may sacrifice unto the Lord. 

5 And Moses said unto Pharaoh, Arrogate 
thyself' glory over me : for what time shall I 
entreat for thee, and for thy servants, and for 
thy people, to destroy the frogs from thee and 
from thy houses, that they may remaiia in the 
river only ? 

G And he said. For to-morrow; and he said, 
Be it according to thy word; in order that 
thou mayest know that there is none like 
unto the Lord our God.* 

7 And the frogs shall depart from thee. 



* 1. e., the whole country, or that part which is enclosed 
by the boundaries. 

'' ^N3n^ the hithpael from "1X3 " to glorify," hence " to 
assume a glory for oneself." Moses meant to convey to 
Pharaoh, as a proof of his divinely delegated power, that 
even the fixing of a period to the plague, whether long or 
short, would surely bo complied with. Hence follows the 
conclusion referring to the greatness of the Lord. 

° As the word DJ3 is only found here and in Psalm cv. 
31, its true clmraetcr is not easily defined. Philippson 
renders it with "ants," perhaps the /ormix ni(jra. Others 
make it to mean " mosquito," the cuUx nptavs. Both 
these insects are exceedingly troublesome in Egypt. 



and from thy houses, and from thy servants, 
and from thy people; only in the river shall 
they remain. 

8 And Mo.ses and Aaron went out from 
Pharaoh ; and Moses cried unto the Lord on 
account of the frogs which he had inflicted on 
Pharaoh. 

9 And the Lord did according to the word 
of Moses ; and the frogs died out of the houses, 
out of the courts, and out of the fields. 

10 And they gathered them together in 
many heaps; and the land stank. 

11 But Avhen Pharaoh saw that there was 
a respite, he hardened his heart, and heark- 
ened not unto them ; as the Lord had spoken. 

12 ^f And the Lord said unto Moses, Say 
unto Aaron, Stretch out thy staff, and smite 
the dust of the earth, and it shall become lice* 
throughout all the land of Egypt. 

13 And they did so; and Aaron stretched 
out his hand with his staff, and smote the 
dust of the earth, and the lice were thus on 
man, and on beast; all the dust of the land 
became lice throughout all the land of Egypt. 

14 And the magicians did so with their 
secret arts to bring forth the lice, but they 
could not; so were the lice ujoon man and 
upon beast. 

15 Then said the magicians unto Pharaoh, 
This is a finger of God ; but Pharaoh's heart 
remained hardened, and he hearkened not 
unto them; as the Lord had spoken. 

16 T[ And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise 
up early in the morning, and place thyself 
before Pharaoh; lo, he goeth forth to the 
water; and say unto him, Thus saith the 
Lord, Let my people go, that they may serve 
me. 

17 For if thou wilt not let my people go, 
behold, I Avill send against thee, and against 
thy servants, and against thy people, and in- 
to thy houses various'* wild beasts: and the 



* The ancient Jewish commentators render any 'Arohf, 
only found here and in Psalms, as derived from the verb 
signifying "to mingle," &c., a mixture of ravenous beasts, 
serpents, and scorpions. Kashbam makes it derived from 
3li' 'Arcb " evening," hence " the night-wolf," jackall. — 
Philippson renders it with " beetle," referring to the 
biatta jEijyptiaca, which is at times dangerous to human 
life. (He quotes " De Katte's Journey to Abyssiania," p. 
143.) The English version "swarms of flies" needs no 
refutation, as the whole context shows it to be incorrect. 
See especially farther down, verse 20. 



EXODUS VIII. IX. VAAYRAII. 



houses of the Egyptians shall be full of the 
wild beasts, and also the ground Avhereon 
they dwell. 

18 And I will distinguish on that day the 
land of Goshen, in which my people abideth, 
so that no wild beasts shall be there ; to the 
end thou mayest know that I am the Lord in 
the midst of the earth."'' 

19 And I Avill put a distinction between 
my people and thy people; to-morrow shall 
this sign be. 

20 And the Lord did so; and there came 
a grievous multitude of beasts into the 
house of Pharaoh, and into the house of his 
servants; and in all the land of Egypt, the 
land was laid waste by reason of the wild 
beasts. 

21 And Pharaoh called for Moses and for 
Aaron, and said. Go ye, sacrifice to your God 
in the land. 

22 And Moses said. It is not proper to do 
so ; for the abomination of the Egyptians must 
we sacrifice to the Eternal our God : lo, if we 
should sacrifice the abomination of the Egyjv 
tians before their eyes, would they not stone us ? 

23 A three days' journey will we go into 
the wilderness, and sacrifice to the Lord our 
God, just as he may say unto us. 

24 And Pharaoh said, I will surely let you 
go, that ye may sacrifice to the Eternal your 
God in the wilderness; only do not go very 
far away : entreat for me. 

25 And Moses said, Behold, I am going out 
from thee, and I will entreat the Lord, and 
the mid beasts shall depart from Pharaoh, 1 
from his servants, and from his people, to- 
morrow ; only let not Pharaoh deal deceitfully 
any more, so as not to let the people go to 
sacrifice to the Lord. 

26 And Moses went out from Pharaoh, 
and entreated the Lord. 

27 And the Lord did according to the 
word of Moses; and he removed the wild 
beasts from Pharaoh, from his servants, and 
from his people ; there remained not one. 

28 But Pharaoh hardened his heart at this 
time also, and he did not let the people go. 

CHAPTER IX. 

1 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Go in 



" Land." — Arnheim. 

After Kashi, who renders jTlt? with niD'Dn "heat;" 



unto Pharaoh, and speak to him, Thus saith 
the Eternal, the God of the Hebrews, Let my 
people go, that they may serve me. 

2 For if thou refusest to let them go, and 
still boldest on to them, 

3 Behold, the hand of the Lord will be 
sent against thy cattle which is in the field, 
against the horses, against the asses, against 
the camels, against the oxen, and against the 
sheep ; — a very grievous pestilence. 

4 And the Lord will distinguish between 
the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt ; 
and not one head shall die of all that belong- 
eth to the children of Israel. 

5 And the Lord appointed a set time, say- 
ing, To-morrow will the Lord do this thing 
in the land. 

G And the Lord did this thing on the 
morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died ; but 
of the cattle of the children of Israel there 
died not one. 

7 And Pharaoh sent, and, behold, there 
had not died of the cattle of the Israelites 
even one ; but the heart of Pharaoh remained 
hardened, and he did not let the people go. 

8 ^[ And the Lord said unto Moses and unto 
Aaron, Take unto yourselves your hands full 
of soot of the funitice, and let Moses throw it 
heavenward before the eyes of Pharaoh. 

9 And it shall become small dust over all 
the land of Egypt, and shall become upon 
man and beast an inflammation,'' producing 
boils, throughout all the land of Egypt. 

10 And they took the soot of the furnace, 
and stood before Pharaoh ; and Mo.ses threw 
it up heavenward ; and it became an inflam- 
mation, producing boils, upon man, and upon 
beast. 

11 And the magicians could not stand be- 
fore Moses because of the inflammation ; for 
the inflammation was upon the magicians, 
and upon all the Egyptians. 

12 And the Lord hardened the heart of 
Pharaoh, and he hearkened not unto them; 
as the Lord had spoken unto Moses. 

13 Tf And the Lord said unto Moses, Rise 
up early in the morning, and place thyself 
before Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus 
saith the Eternal, the God of the Hebrews, 
Let my people go, that they may serve me. 



"a red swelling in the skin," which speedily produced 
boils. 

75 



EXODUS IX. X. BO. 



14 For at this time I send all' my plagues 
against thy heart, and against tli}^ sei'vants, 
and against thy people; in order that thou 
mayest know tliat there is none lilie me on 
all the earth. 

15 For even now I might have stretched 
out my hand, and I might have smitten thee 
and thy people with the pestilence ; and thou 
wouldest have been cut off from the earth ; 

IG But for this cause have I allowed thee 
to remain, in order to show thee my power; 
and in order that they may proclaim my 
name throughout all the earth.'"' 

17 If thou dost yet wantonly oppress my 
people, so as not to let them go : 

18 Behold, then will I let rain, about this 
time to-morrow, a very grievous hail, such as 
hath not been in Egypt since the day of its 
foundation even until now. 

19 And now send, and bring under shelter 
thy cattle, and all that thou hast in the field ; 
(for) every man and beast that shall be found 
in the field, and shall not be brought into the 
house, upon them shall the hail come down, 
and they shall die. 

20 He that feared the word of the Lord 
among the servants of Pharaoh made his 
servants and his cattle flee into the houses : 

21 And he that regarded not the word of 
the Lord left his servants and his cattle in 
the field. 

22 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, 
Stretch forth thy hand toward heaven, and 
there shall be hail in all the land of Egypt, 
upon man, and upon beast, and upon every 
herb of the field, in the land of Egypt. 

23 And Moses stretched forth his staff to- 
Avard heaven ; and the Lord sent thunder and 
hail, and the fire ran down to the ground; 
and the Lord rained hail upon the land of 
Egypt. 

24 And there was hail, and fire was flam- 
ing up amidst the hail, very grievous, the 
like of which had not been in all the land of 
Egypt, since it liad become a nation. 

25 And the hail smote throughout all the 
land of Egypt all that was in the field, both 



* " All my remaining plagues," Arnheim, who refers to a 
similar construction in Exodu.s xxix. 12, where Din So 
'■'all the blood" relates to that which was loft after the 
sprinkling spoken of in the beginning of the verse. 

'■ At first when Closes spoke in the name of the new 
Deity, "The Eternal, the God of the Hebrews," Pharaoh 
did not recognise Him; but now under the weight of 
76 



man and beast; and every herb of the field 
did the hail smite, and every tree of the field 
did it break. 

26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the 
children of Israel were, there was no hail. 

27 And Pharaoh sent, and called for Moses 
and Aaron, and he said unto them, I have 
sinned this time ; the Eternal is the righte- 
eous,* and I and my peo2:)le are the wicked. 

28 Entreat the Lord that there may be no 
more of the thunders of God, and hail ; and I 
will let you go, and ye shall no longer stay here. 

29 And Moses said unto him, As soon as I 
am gone out of the city, I will spread out my 
hands unto the Lord; the thunder shall 
cease, and the hail shall not be any more ; in 
order that thou mayest know how that to the 
Lord belongeth the earth. 

30 But as for thee and thy servants, I 
know that ye are not yet afraid before the 
Lord God. 

31 And the flax and the barley were smit- 
ten ; for the barley was in the ear, and the 
flax was boiled. 

32 But the wheat and the millet were not 
smitten ; for they are late-ripening.* 

33 And Moses went away from Pharaoh 
out of the city, and spread out his hands unto 
the Lord: and the thunders and hail ceased, 
and the rain was not poured out upon the 
earth. 

34 And when Pharaoh saw that the rain 
and the hail and the thunders had ceased, he 
sinned yet further, and hardened his heart, he 
and his servants. 

35 And the heart of Pharaoh remained 
hardened, and he did not let the children of 
Israel go; as the Lord had sj)oken by the 
hand of Moses. 

Ilaphtorah in Ezckiel xxviii. 25 to xxix. 21. 



SECTION XV. BO, N3. 
CHAPTER X. 

1 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Go in 
unto Pharaoh ; for I have hardened his heart, 
and the heart of his servants, in order that I 



affliction, he acknowledged Him, his justice, and his own 
wickedness and the sins of the Egyptians ; hence also, not 
pnx " righteous," but the emphatic p'lxn " the right- 
eous," I. e., in the contest then going on, God was the 
party who had justice on his side, whilst Pharaoh and his 
people were those in the wrong. For the meaning of the 
word ypi in this sense, sec above, ii. 13. 



EXODUS X. BO. 



might display these signs in the midst of 
them :* 

2 And so that thou mayest tell in the ears of 
thy son, and of thy son's son, the wonders 
which I have wrought*" in Egypt, and my 
signs which I have shown among them; and 
ye shall know how that I am the Lord. 

3 And Moses and Aaron came in unto 
Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the 
Eternal, the God of the Hebrews, How long 
yet wilt thou refuse to humble thyself before 
me ? let my people go, that they may serve me. 

4 For, if thou refusest to let my people go, 
behold, I will bring to-morrow locusts into 
thy boundary. 

5 And they shall cover the face" of the 
earth, so that one shall not be able to see the 
earth; and they shall eat the residue of that 
which escaped, which hath been left unto 
you from the hail, and they shall eat oiT 
every tree which groweth for you out of the 
field: 

6 And thy houses, and the houses of all 
thy servants, and the houses of all the Egyp- 
tians shall be full of them ; the like of which 
neither thy fathers, nor thy fathers' fathers 
have seen, since the day of their being upon 
the earth, unto this day; and he turned him- 
self, and went out from Pharaoh. 

7 And the servants of Pharaoh said unto 
him, How long shall this man be unto us for 
a snare ? let the men go, that they may serve 
the Lord their God: knowest thou not yet 
that Egjrpt is destroyed ? 

8 And Moses was brought back with Aaron 
unto Pharaoh ; and he said unto them, Go ye, 
serve the Lord your God ; who all are they 
that shall go? 

9 And Moses said, "With our young and 
with our old will we go; with our sons and 
with our daughters, with our flocks and with 
our herds will we go; for we are to hold a 
feast unto the Lord. 

10 And he said unto them. So be the Lord 
with you, as I will let you go, together with 



' Heb. "Of him," Pharaoh the king standing for the 
whole people. 

'' After Onkelos. Arnheim renders, " how I have 
proved myself working miracles." 

° yp (^ys) l^^re rendered " face" should be given with 
" the view," or " colour ;" but the sense is after all the 
same. 

* " Look, for the wrong you purpose to do is before 



your little ones : look, surely your intentions 
are evil.'' 

11 Not so ; go now ye men," and serve the 
Lord, for tliis you desire; and they were 
driven out from Pharaoh's presence.* 

12 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch 
out thy hand over the land of Egypt for the 
locusts, and they shall come up over the land 
of Egypt, and eat every herb of the earth, all 
that the hail hath left. 

13 And Moses stretched forth his staff 
over the land of Egj'pt, and the Lord urged 
an east Avind over the land all that day, and 
all the night; when it was morning, the east 
wnd bore along the locusts. 

14 And the locusts went up over all the 
land of Egyjit, and rested in all the bounda- 
ries of Egypt; in very large masses; before 
them there were no such locusts as they, and 
after them there will not be any such. 

15 And they covered the face of the whole 
earth, so that the earth was darkened; and 
they ate every herb of the land, and all the 
fruit of the trees which the hail had left : and 
there was not left any green thing on the 
trees, or on the herbs of the field, throughout 
all the land of Egypt. 

16 Then made Pharaoh haste to call for 
Moses and Aaron ; and he said, I have sinned 
against the Lord your God, and against you. 

17 And now forgive, I pray thee, my sin 
only this once, and entreat the Lord yoiu- 
God, that he may take away from me only 
this death. 

18 And he went out from Pharaoh, and 
entreated the Lord. 

19 And the Lord turned a very strong 
west wind, which bore away the locusts, 
and cast them into the Red Sea; there was 
not left one locust in all the boundary of 
Egj^pt. 

20 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, 
so that he did not let the children of Israel go. 

21 T[ And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch 
out thy hand toward heaven, and there shall 



your face to testify against you." — Onkelos. Literally 
it is thus : '' See, for evil is before your face." 

* It is evident that Pharaoh in temporizing with Mosos 
about the dismissal of the Lsraelitcs, had all along the 
idea of letting them go but a short distance, after which 
they should return ; hence he averred that the children 
were of no use for such an expedition, and he therefore 
desired to retain them, as hostages for the return of the 
fathers. 

77 



EXODUS X. XL XII. BO. 



be darkness over the land of Egypt, and it 
shall \:te a darkness of the night." 

22 And Moses stretched forth his hand to- 
ward heaven ; and there was a thick darkness 
in all the land of Egypt three days: 

23 They saw not one another, neither did 
they rise, any one from his place, for three 
days; but for all the children of Israel there 
was light in their dwellings.* 

24 And Pharaoh called for Moses, and 
said, Go ye, serve the Lord ; only your flocks 
and your herds shall remain behind: also 
your little ones may go with you. 

25 And Moses said, Even thou also must 
give into our hand sacrifices and bumtxtfTer- 
ings, that we may sacrifice (them) imto the 
Eternal, our God. 

26 And also our cattle must go with us, 
there shall not be left behind a single hoof, 
for thereof must we take to serve the Lord 
our God; and we cannot know with Avhat 
Ave must serve the Lord, until we come 
thither. 

27 But the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, 
and he would not let them go. 

28 And Pharaoh said unto him. Get thee 
away from me; take heed to thyself, see my 
face no more ; for on the day thou seest my 
face thou shalt die. 

29 And Moses said. Thou hast spoken well, 
I will not see thy face agam any more. 

CHAPTER XI. 

1 •[[ And the Lord said unto Moses, Yet one 
plague more will I bring upon Pharaoh, and 
upon Egypt; after that he will let you go 
hence : when he doth let you go, he shall 
surely thrust you out altogether from here. 

2 Speak now in the ears of the people, and 
let them ask every man of his neighbour, and 
every woman of her neighbour, vessels of 
silver, and vessels of gold. 

.3 And the Lord gave the people favour in 
the eyes of the Egyptians; also the man 
Moses"" was very great in the land of Egypt, 



* According to Rashi, who renders v/o"\ as b^ds'i and 
explains " there shall come over them a darkness thicker 
than that of the night, and the darkness of the night 
shall continue into the following days." From emesh, 
"yesterday;" hence to remain over from the yesterday. 

'' Although above, chap. x. 7, the servants of Pharaoh 
called Moses "the snare" of Egypt, they could not avoid 
iionouring the man who wa,s so signally favoured by the 
(iod of Israel, whose power they had felt. 
78 



in the eyes of Pharaoh's servants, and in the 
eyes of the people.* 

4 ^ And Moses said, Thus saith the Lord, 
About midnight will I go out in the midst of 
Egypt: 

5 And there shall die every first-born in 
the land of Egypt, from the first-bom of Pha- 
raoh that is" to sit upon his throne, even unto 
the first-born of the maid-servant that is te- 
hmd the mill ; and every first^tona of cattle. 

C And there shall be a great cry through- 
out all the land of Egypt, the like of which 
hath never been, and the like of which will 
not be any more. 

7 But against any of the children of Israel 
not a dog shall move'' his tongue, neither 
against man nor beast; in order that ye may 
know how that the Lord doth distinguish be- 
tween the Egyptians and Israel. 

8 And all these thy sei-A^ants shall come 
dovra unto me, and bow themselves down 
unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the 
people that Iblloweth thee;' and after that I 
will go out: and he went out from Pharaoh 
in a burning anger. 

9 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Phar 
raoh will not hearken unto you ; in order that 
my wonders may be multiplied in the land of 
Egypt. 

10 And Moses and Aaron did all these 
wonders before Pharaoh; and the Lord har- 
dened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the 
children of Israel go out of his land. 

CHAPTER XII. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, 

2 This month shall be unto 30U the chief 
of months : the first it shall be unto 30U of 
the months of the year. 

3 Speak ye unto all the congregation of 
Israel, saymg, On the tenth day of this month 
they shall take to themselves every man a 
lamb for every family,' a lamb for every 
house : 



" " Who in future is to sit upon the throne of his king- 
dom." — Onkelos. 

'' Heb. "sharpen," "point," indic.itive of the motion 
and appearance of the dog's tongue in barking. 

• Heb. "That is at thy feet," meaning, that follows 
where the prophet leads. 

' I. f . A family divided in several households. Hebrew, 
"house of father," or those springing from one an- 
cefltorj 3K n'3 is a subdivision of nnflB^rD, "main family," 



EXODUS XII. BO. 



4 And if the household be too small for a 
lamb, then shall he take it with his neigh- 
bour who is next unto his house, according to 
the number of the souls; every man accord- 
ing to what he eateth shall ye make a count 
for the lamb. 

5 A lamb without blemish, a male of the 
first year shall ye have; from the sheep, or 
fi'om the goats may ye take it. 

6 And ye shall have it in keeping until 
the fourteenth day of the same month; and 
then the whole assembly of the congi'egation 
of Israel shall kill it toward evening." 

7 And they shall take of the blood, and 
put it on the two side-posts and on the upper- 
door-post, in the houses, wherein they shall 
eat it. 

8 And they shall eat the flesh in that 
night, roasted by the fire, with unleavened 
bread; together with bitter herbs shall they 
eat it. 

9 You shall not eat of it raw, nor in any 
Avise sodden with water; but roasted by the 
fire; its head with its legs, and with its en- 
trails.'' 

10 And ye shall not let any thing of it re- 
main until morning; and that which remain- 
eth of it until morning ye shall burn with 
fire. 

11 And thus shall ye eat it, with your 
loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and 
your staff in your hand ; and ye shall eat it 
in haste, it is passover unto the Lord. 

12 And I will pass through the land of 
Egypt in this night, and I will smite every 
first-born in the land of Egypt, both man 
and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt 
I will execute judgment; I am the Lord." 

13 And the blood shall be to you for a 
token upon the houses where ye are; and 
when I see the blood, I will pass over you; 



in the same manner as this is in regard to Q2\i>, " tribe." 
n'3, "the household," or family in the narrow sense it 
often has in English, is the smallest division. Several 
households could thus unite to celebrate the Passover in 
one domicile. This note must suffice to explain any vari- 
ation in the version of the same words in the original 
text, should any such occur hereafter. 

' Heb. "Between the two evenings," i. e. between the 
time the sun begins to decline tiU sunset, or " the after- 
noon," from the third hour, or the ninth after the Jewish 
mode of computing time. This was the practice in the 
Temple. 

^ After being washed as usual with sacrifices. (See 
Exod. xxix. 17.) 



and there shall be no plague against you to 
destroy when I smite (others) in the land of 
Egypt. 

14 And this day shall be unto you for a 
memorial ; and ye shall celebrate it as a feast 
unto the Lord; throughout your generations, 
as an ordinance for ever shall ye celebrate it. 

15 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened 
bread ; but on the first day ye shall have put 
away leaven out of your houses ; for whoso- 
ever eateth leavened bread, that soul shall be 
cut off from Israel, from the first day until 
the seventh day. 

16 And on the first day thei'e shall be a 
holy convocation, and on the seventh day 
there shall be a holy convocation to you ; no 
manner of work shall be done on thern, save 
what is eaten by every man, that only may 
be prepared by you. 

17 And ye shall observe the unleavened 
bread ; for on this selfsame day have I brought 
forth your armies out of the land of Egypt; 
therefore shall ye observe this day in youc 
generations as an ordinance for ever. 

18 Li the first month, on the fourteenth 
day of the month, at evening, ye shall eat un- 
leavened bread, until the one and twentieth 
day of the month at evening. 

19 Seven days no leaven shall be found in 
your houses; for whosoever eateth that which 
is leavened, even that soul shall be cut oft' 
from the congregation of Israel, whether he 
be a stranger, or one bom in the land. 

20 Nothing that is leavened shall ye eat; 
in all your habitations shall ye eat unleavened 
bread.* 

21 ^ And Moses called for all the elders 
of Israel, and said unto them. Draw out and 
take for yourselves lambs according to your 
families, and kill the passover sacrifice. 

22 And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, 



" This verse is well explained thus, " I am the Lord," I 
myself will do this, and not through a messenger.' It 
must not be lost sight of that the punishment of the 
Egyptians and the redemption of the Israelites were to be 
as lessons, to both the parties afiected thereby, of the 
greatness and irresistible power of the Lord; hence the 
slaying of the first-born was effected without the media- 
torial agency of Moses even as in the other plagues; and 
as Pharaoh and his wise men relied upon the power of 
their idols, these too were overthrown in the night of 
the deliverance of Israel, by Israel's God. "Judgment" 
stands for "judicial decrees," or punishment. 



EXODUS XII. BO. 



and dip in the blood that is in the basin, and 
strike the lintel and the two side-posts with 
the blood that is in the basin ; and none of 
you shall go out from the door of his house 
until the morning. 

23 And the Lord will pass through to 
smite* the Egyptians ; and when he seeth the 
blood upon the lintel, and on the two side- 
posts, the Lord will pass over the door, and 
will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto, 
your houses to smite. 

24 And ye shall observe this thing, as an 
ordinance for thee and for thy sons for ever. 

25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be 
come into the land which the Lord will give 
you, according as he hath promised, that ye 
shall keep this service. 

26 And it shall come to pass, when your 
children shall say unto you. What mean ye 
by this service? 

27 That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of 
the passover unto the Lord, who passed over 
the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, 
when he smote the Egyptians, and our houses 
he spared ; and the people bent the head and 
bowed themselves. 

28 And the children of Israel went away, 
and did as the Lord had commanded Moses 
and Aaron, so did they.* 

29 ^ And it came to pass at midnight, 
that the Lord smote all the first-bora in the 
land of Egypt, from the first-born of Pharaoh 
that was to sit on his throne unto the first- 
born of the captive that was in the dungeon; 
and all the first-born of cattle. 

30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, 
and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; 
and there was a great cry in Egypt ; for there 
was not a house where there was not some 
one dead. 

31 And he called for Moses and Aaron by 
night, and said. Rise up, get you forth from 
among my people, lx)th ye and the children 
of Israel; and go, serve the Eternal, as ye 
have spoken.*" 

32 Also your flocks and your herds take, 
as ye h.ave spoken, and ]x gone; and bless 
me also. 

33 And the Egyptians were urgent upon 



* IJjS literally " to plague." 

^ "Let all be as ye have spoken, even the cattle ye 
a^ki-'d of iiip for sacrifices take, and only pray for me, for 
1 t(ii) am first-born." — llAsiii. 
80 



the people, to make haste to send them away 
out of the land; for they said, We are all 
dying. 

34 And the people took their dough before 
it was yet leavened, their kneading-troughs 
being bound up in their clothes upon their 
shoulders. 

35 And the children of Israel had done ac- 
cording to the word of Moses ; and they had 
asked of the Egyptians vessels of silver, and 
vessels of gold, and garments. 

36 And the Lord had given the people 
favour in the eyes of the Egyptians, so that 
they gave unto them what they required; 
and they emptied out Egypt. 

37 ^ And the children of Israel journeyed 
from Ra'meses to Succoth, about six hundred 
thousand men on foot, besides children. 

38 And a mixed multitude also went up 
with them; and flocks, and herds, a very 
large amount of cattle. 

39 And they baked of the dough, which 
they had brought forth out of Eg}-pt, un- 
leavened cakes, for it was not leavened; be- 
cause they were thrust out of Egypt, and 
could not tarry, neither had they prepared 
any provisions for themselves. 

40 Now the time of the residence of the 
children of Israel, which they dwelt in Egypt, 
was four hundi'ed and thirty years. 

41 And it came to pass at the end of the 
four hundred and thirty years, and it happened 
even on the selfsame day, that all the hosts 
of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt. 

42 A night to be observed" was this unto 
the Lord to bring them out from the land of 
Eg_>^t : this is that night holy to the Lord, 
to be observed by all the children of Israel in 
their generations. 

43 ][ And the Lord said unto Moses and 
Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover : 
no stranger shall eat thereof 

44 But every man's servant that is bought 
for money, when thou hast circumcised him, 
then shall he eat thereof. 

45 A resident foreigner and a hired ser- 
vant shall not eat thereof. 

46 In one house shall it be eaten; thou 
shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad 



' "Which the Lord watched and looked for to fulfil his 
promise to bring them out of the land of Egypt," R.\sin; 
others-explain, '• In which he watched over the Israelites to 
preserve thorn s;ife amidst the plague." 



EXODUS XII. Xm. BESHALLACH. 



out of the house ; and no bone shall ye break 
in it. 

47 All the congregation of Israel shall pre- 
pare it. 

48 And when a stranger sojourneth with 
thee, and will prepare the passover to the 
Lord, let all his males be circumcised, and 
then let him come near and prepare it, and 
he shall be as one that is bora in the 
land; but no uncircumcised person" shall eat 
thereof. 

49 One law shall be to him that is home- 
born, and unto the stranger that sojourneth 
among you. 

.50 And all the children of Israel did so ; as 
the Lord had commanded Moses and Aaron, 
so did they. 

51 ^ And it came to pass on the selfsame 
day, that the Lord did bring forth the children 
of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their 
armies.* 

CHAPTER XIII. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 

2 Sanctify unto me all the first-born, what- 
soever openeth the womb among the children 
of Israel, both of man and of beast; it is 
mine. 

3 And Moses said unto the people, Re- 
member this day, on which ye came out from 
Egypt, out of the house of bondage; for by 
strength of hand the Lord brought you out 
from here: and no leavened bread shall be 
eaten 

4 This day come ye out, in the month 
of Abib.*' 

5 And it shall be, when the Lord doth 
bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, 
and the Hittites, and the Emorites, and the 
Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he hath 
sworn unto thy fathers to give unto thee, a 
land flowing with milk and honey, that thou 
shalt perform this service in this month. 

6 Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened 
bread, and on the seventh day shall be a feast 
to the Lord. 

7 Unleavened bread shall be eaten these 
seven days; and there shall not be seen with 
thee any leavened bread, neither shall there 
be seen with thee any leaven in all thy boun- 
daries. 

8 And thou shalt tell thy son on that day. 



This includes even an uncircumcised Israelite. 



saying, This is done for the sake of that which 
the Lord did unto me when I came forth out 

of Egypt. _ 

9 And it shall be unto thee for a sign upon 
thy hand, and for a memorial between thy 
eyes, in order that the law of the Lord may 
be in thy mouth; for with a strong hand 
hath the Lord brought thee forth out of 
Egypt. 

10 And thou shalt keep this ordinance in 
its season, from year to year. 

11 ^ And it shall be Avhen the Lord doth 
bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, as 
he hath sworn unto thee and to thy fathers, 
and giveth it to thee, 

12 That thou shalt set apart all that open- 
eth the womb unto the Lord ; and every first- 
ling that cometh of a beast which thou shalt 
have, the males shall belong to the Lord. 

13 And every firstling of an ass shalt thou 
redeem Avith a lamb ; and if thou wilt not re- 
deem it, then shalt thou break its neck : and 
all the first-born of man among thy children 
shalt thou redeem.* 

14 And it shall be when thy son asketh 
thee in time to come, saying. What is this? 
that thou shalt say unto him, By strength of 
hand the Lord brought us forth out of Egypt, 
out of the house of bondage ; 

15 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh 
obstinately refused to let us go, that the Lord 
slew all the first-born in the land of Egypt, 
both the first-born of man, and the first-born 
of beast; therefore do I sacrifice to the Lord 
all that openeth the womb, being males ; but 
all the first-born of my children must I re- 
deem. 

16 And it shall be for a sign upon thy 
hand, and for frontlets between thy eyes; 
that by strength of hand the Lord brought us 
forth out of Egypt. 

Ilaphtorah in Jeremiah xlvi. 13 to 27. 



SECTION XVI. BESHALLACH, rhc'2. 

17 ^ And it came to pass, \vhen Pharaoh let 
the people go, that God did not lead them the 
way through the land of the Philistines, be- 
cause it was near; for God said, Lest perad- 
venture the people repent when they see war, 
and return to Egypt. 

18 But God led the people about, by the 



The month in which the grain ripens in Egypt. 

81 



EXODUS XIII. XIV. BESHALLACH. 



way of the wilderness to the Red sea: and 
the children of Israel went up anned out of 
the land of Egypt. 

19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph 
■with him; for he had caused the children of 
Israel to swear, saying, God will surely visit 
you, and ye shall then carry up my bones 
away hence with you. 

20 And they took their journey from Suc- 
coth, and encamped in Etham, at the edge of 
the wilderness. 

21 And the Lord went before them by day 
in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way ; 
and by night in a pillar of fire, to give light 
to them ; that they might go by day and by 
night : 

22 He took not away the pillar of cloud 
by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from 
before the people. 

CHAPTER XIV 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that 
they turn back and encamp before Pi-hachi- 
roth, between Migdol and the sea; in front 
of Baiil-zephon ; opposite to this shall ye en- 
camp by the sea. 

3 And Pharaoh will say of the children of 
Israel, They are entangled in the land, the 
wilderness hath shut" them in. 

4 And I will harden the heart of Pharaoh, 
that he shall follow after them ; and I will be 
honoui'ed on Pharaoh, and on all his host; 
and the Egyptians shall know that I am the 
Lord; and they did so. 

5 And it was told to the king of Egypt 
that the people had fled;*" and the heart of 
Pharaoh and of his servants was changed" 
with respect to the people, and they said. 
What is this which we have done, that we 
have let Israel go from serving us? 

6 And he made ready his chariot, and took 
his people with him. 



* Philippson trafislatcs, "The wilderness is closed 
against them," meaning, that they had not entered the pro- 
per district to effect their escape, but were roaming about at 
random without plan or concert. Philippson contends 
that his version is correct, because they had not yet entered 
the wilderness. The word "entangled" used here must 
be taken in the sense of "they had lost their way," near 
the sea-shore, without the possibility of an egress. 

^ "Was roaming about." — Philippson. 

' "Turned against." — English version. 



7 And he took six hundred chosen chariots, 
and all the chariots of Eg^^^t, and captains'* 
over every one of them. 

8 And the Lord hardened the heart of 
Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, and he pursued 
after the children of Israel ; and the children 
of Israel went out with a high hand.* 

9 And the Eg3q)tians pursued after them, 
and they overtook them encamping by the 
sea, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, 
and his horsemen, and his army, Ixjsides Pi- 
hachiroth, before Baiil-zephon. 

10 And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the chil- 
dren of Israel lifted up their eyes, and be- 
hold, the Egyptians were marching after 
them, and they were greatly afraid; and the 
children of Israel cried out unto the Lord. 

11 And they said unto Moses, Is it because 
there were no graves in Eg}-pt, that thou 
hast taken us away to die in the wilderness? 
what is this which thou hast done to us, to 
bring us forth out of Egypt ? 

12 Is not this the word that we spoke unto 
thee in EgyjDt, saying, Let us alone, that we 
may serve the Egyptians? for it is better for 
us to serve the Egyptians than that we should 
die in the wilderness. 

13 And Moses said unto the people. Fear 
ye not, stand still, and see the salvation" of 
the Lord, which he will do for you to-day; 
for as ye^ have seen the Egyptians to-day, ye 
shall not see them again any more for ever. 

14 The Lord will fight for you, and ye 
shall hold your peace.'-' 

15 Tl And the Lord said unto Moses, 
Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto 
the children of Israel, that they go forward ; 

IG But do thou lift up thy staff, and 
stretch out thy hand over the sea, and divide 
it; and the children of Israel shall go through 
the midst of the sea on dry ground. 

17 And I, })ehold, I will harden the heart 
of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them : 
and I will get myself honour on Pharaoh, 



* "Those that fought in chariots upon all," Arnheim; 
who translates v^hlff, itltahlish, always in the same man- 
ner. 

" " Deliverance," Onkelos. "Assistance," Mendels- 
sohn, and others. 

' The word ivn< has been rendered, after Onkelos, as 
though it were IB'NO, "in the manner that;" iu this sense 
the prophecy has been literally fulfilled, which would not 
be, if we render it, "the Egyptians whom ye see;" though 
Arnheim and others translate in the last manner. 



EXODUS XIV. XV. BESHALLACH. 



aud on all his host, on his chariots, and on 
his horsemen. 

18 And the Egyptians shall know that I 
am the Lord, when I have got myself honour 
on Pharaoh, on his chariots, and on his horse- 
men. 

19 And the angel of God, that went before 
the camp of Israel, removed and went behind 
them ; and the pillar of cloud removed from 
before them, and stood behind them : 

20 And it came between the camp of the 
Egyptians and the camp of Israel ; and it was 
a cloud and darkness to the first, but it gave 
light by night to these : and the one came 
not near unto the other all the night. 

21 And Moses stretched out his hand over 
the sea; and the Lord drove back the sea 
with a strong east wind all that night, and 
made the sea dry land, and the waters were 
divided. 

22 And the children of Israel went into 
the midst of the sea upon the dry ground : 
and the waters were a wall unto them on 
their right hand, and on their left. 

23 And the Egyptians pursued, and went 
in after them, all Pharaoh's horses, his chari- 
ots, and his horsemen, to the midst of the 
sea. 

24 And it came to pass in the morning 
watch, that the Lord looked unto the camp 
of the Egyptians with the pillar of fire and 
of the cloud, and brought into confusion the 
camp of the Egyptians ; 

25 And he took off the Avheels of their 
chariots, and caused them to move onward 
with difficulty; and the Egyptians said. Let 
us flee from the face of Israel ; for the Lord 
fighteth for them against the Egyptians.* 

26 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, 
Stretch out thy hand over the sea, and the 
waters shall return over the Egyptians, over 
their chariots, and over their horsemen. 

27 And Moses stretched forth his hand 
over the sea, and the sea returned, when the 
morning appeared, to its strength; while the 
Egyptians were fleeing against it; and the 
Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst 
of the sea. 

28 And the waters returned, and covered 
the chariots, and the horsemen with all the 
host of Pharaoh that came after them into 
the sea : there remained of them not even one. 

29 But the children of Israel walked upon 
dry ground in the midst of the sea; and the 



waters were imto them a wall on their rigiiL 
hand, and on their left. 

30 Thus the Lord saved Israel on that day 
out of the hand of the Egyptians ; and Israel 
saw the Egyptians dead upon the shore of 
the sea. 

31 And Israel saw that great power which 
the Lord had shown on the Egyptians : and 
the people feared the Lord, and they believed 
in the Lord, and in Moses his servant. 

CHAPTER XV. 

1 ^ Then sang Moses and the children of 
Israel this song unto the Lord, and thus did 
they say, I will sing unto the Lord, for he 
hath triumphed gloriously : the horse and his 
rider hath he thrown into the sea. 

2 My strength and song is the Lord, and 
he is become my salvation: he is my God, 
and I will declare his praise," the God of my 
father, and I will exalt him. 

3 The Eternal is the lord of war; the Eter- 
nal is his name. 

4 The chariots of Pharaoh and his host 
hath he huiied into the sea ; and the chosen 
of his captains are sunk in the Red Sea. 

5 The depths have covered them; they 
went down to the bottom as a stone. 

6 Thy right hand, Lord, is become glori- 
ous in power ; thy right hand, liORD, hath 
dashed in pieces the enemy. 

7 And in the greatness of thy excellency 
hast thou overthrown those that rose up 
against thee ; thou didst send forth thy wrath, 
it consumed them as stubble. 

8 Aud with the breath of thy nostrils the 
waters were heaped up together, the floods 
stood upi'ight as a Avail ; congealed were the 
depths in the heart of the sea. 

9 The enemy said, I mil pursue, I will 
overtake, I Avill divide the spoil; my desire 
shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my 
sword, my hand shall destroy them. 

10 Thou didst blow with thy wuid, the sea 
covered them : they sunk as lead in mighty 
waters. 

11 Who is like unto thee, Lord, among 
the mighty? who is like thee, glorious in 
holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders ? 

12 Thou didst stretch out thy right hand, 
the earth swallowed them. 

13 Thou leadest forth in thy mercy the 

* Others translate, " I will build him a habitation." 

83 



EXODUS XV. XVI. BESHALLACH. 



(H-oplo thou hast redeemed; thou guidest it 
ill tliy strength unto the habitation of thy 
lioliness. 

14 Nations hear it and tremble: sorrow 
seizeth the inhabitants of Palestine. 

15 Then were troubled the dukes of Edom; 
the mighty men of Moab, trembling seizeth 
them ; faint-hearted" become all the inhabit- 
ants of Canaan. 

16 Fear and dread shall fall upon them ; 
by the greatness of thy arm they shall Ije still 
as a stone ; till thy people pass over, O Lord, 
till this people pass over, which thou hast 
purchased. 

17 Thou slialt bring them, and plant them 
on the mountain of thy inheritance, the place, 
Lord, which thou hast wrought for thy resi- 
dence, the sanctuary, Lord, Avhich thy 
hands have established. 

18 The Lord shall reign for ever and ever. 

19 For the horse of Pharaoh went in with 
his chariots and Avith his horsemen into the 
sea, and the Lord brought again upon them 
the waters of the sea; but the children of 
Israel went on dry ground through the midst 
of the sea. 

20 Tl Then took Miriam the prophetess, 
the sister of Aaron, a timbrel in her hand ; 
and all the women went out after her with 
timbrels and with dances. 

21 And Miriam began her song to them, 
Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed 
gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he 
thrown into the sea. 

22 T[ And Moses caused Israel to depart 
from the Red Sea, and they went out into the 
wilderness of Shur ; and they went three days 
in the wilderness, and found no water. 

23 And they came to Marah; but they 
could not drink the waters of Marah, for they 
were bitter; therefore they called its name 
Marah." 

24 And the people murmured against 
Moses, saying, What shall we drink ? 

25 And he cried unto the Lord; and the 
Lord showed him a tree, which he cast into 
the waters, and the waters were made sweet : 
there he made for them a statute and an ordi- 
nance, and there he proved them, 

2G And he said. If thou -wilt diligently 



• Lit. " They are melted," i. e. from fear. 

* Marah signifies " bitter." The throwing in of a tree 
in the water, to cure it, was another evidence of the power 

84 



hearken to the voice of the Lord thy God, 
and wilt do that which is riglit in his eyes, 
and wilt give ear to his commandments, and 
wilt keep all his statutes, I will put none of 
those diseases upon thee, Avhich I have brought 
upon the Egj^tians; for I the Lord am thy 
physician.''' 

27 T[ And they came to Elim, and there Avere 
twelve Avells of water, and seventy palm-trees : 
and they encamped there by the water. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

1 And they took their journey from Elim, 
and all the congregation of the children of 
Israel came unto the Avilderness of Sin, which 
is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth 
day of the second month after their departing 
out of the land of Egypt. 

2 And the Avhole congregation of the chil- 
dren of Israel murmured against Moses and 
Aaron in the wilderness : 

3 And the children of Israel said unto 
them. Would to God that Ave had died !)}• the 
hand of the Lord in the land of Egjqit, Avhen 
Ave sat by the flesh-pot, Avhen Ave ate bread to 
the full ; for ye have brought us forth into 
this Avildeniess, to kill this Avhole assembly 
Avith hunger. 

4 ^ Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, , 
I Avdll let rain for you bread from heaven; 
and the people shall go out and gather a cer- 
tain portion CA'ery day, in order that I may 
prove it, Avhether it AAdll walk in my laAv, or 
not. 

5 And it shall come to pass, on the sixth 
day, Avlien they prepare Avhat they shall have 
brought in, that it shall be tAvice as much as 
they shall gather dail_y. 

6 And Moses and Aaron said unto all the 
children of Israel, At evening, then shall ye 
knoAV that it is the Lord Avho hath brought 
you out from the land of Egypt : 

7 And in the morning, then shall ye see 
the glory of the Lord; since he heareth your 
murmurings against the Lord; and what are 
Ave, that ye murmur against us ? 

8 And Moses said, When the Lord giveth 
you in the CA'ening flesh to eat, and bread in 
the morning to the full; since the Lord hear- 
eth your murmurings which yc murmur 



of God to produce an effect with means by no means ade- 
quate ; not that there was any special power in the wood 
itself 



EXODUS XVI. BESHALLACH. 



against him: — what are we then? not against 
us are your murmurings, but against the Lord. 

9 And Moses said unto Aaron, Say unto 
all the congregation of the children of Israel, 
Come near before the Lord ; for he hath heard 
your murmurings. 

10 And it came to pass, as Aaron was 
speaking unto the whole congregation of the 
children of Israel, that they turned round to- 
ward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory 
of the Lord appeared in the cloud.* 

11 ]| And the Lord spake unto Moses, 
Baying, 

12 I have heard the murmurings of the 
children of Israel; speak unto them, saying, 
Toward evening ye shall eat flesh, and in the 
morning ye shall be filled with bread ; and ye 
shall know that I am the Eternal your God. 

13 And it came to pass, that at evening 
the quails came up, and covered the camp; 
and in the morning there was a layer of dew 
round about the camp. 

14 And when the layer of dew was gone 
up, behold, there was upon the face of the 
wilderness something fine in grains, small as 
the hoar-frost, on the ground. 

15 And when the children of Israel saw 
it, they said one to another. It is manna, for 
they knew not what it was ; and Moses said 
unto them, This is the bread which the Lord 
hath given you to eat." 

16 This is the thing which the Lord hath 
commanded. Gather of it every man according 
to his eating ; an omer for every head, accord- 
ing to the number of your persons that every 
man hath in his tent, shall ye take. 

17 And the children of Israel did so; and 
they gathered, some much, some little. 

18 And when they measured it with an 
omer, he that had gathered much had nothing 
over, and he that had gathered little had no 
lack ; every man according to his eating, had 
they gathered. 

19 And Moses said. Let no man leave of 
it till the morning. 



* Mendelssohn, after some authorities, renders Nin |D 
like Nin nn with "What is this;" to which Moses natu- 
rally replies, " This is the bread," &c. But as we have 
no warrant to substitute |d for rra, the word has been left 
as it appears at first view, "It is manna," which Arnheim 
thus explains: The Israelites were acquainted with the 
Arabic manna, and called this new product therefore, from 
its similarity, by the same term ; either becauae they 
knew no better name, or because they thought it identical. 



20 But they hearkened not unto Moses; 
but some men left of it until morning, and it 
bred worms, and stank; and Moses was wroth 
with them. 

21 And so they gathered it every morning, 
every man according to his eating; and when 
the sun waxed hot, it melted. 

22 And it came to pass on the sixth day, 
that they gathered twofold bread, two omers 
for every one ; and all the rulers of the con- 
gregation came and told it to Moses. 

23 And he said unto them, This is what 
the Lord hath spoken, A rest, a holy rest is 
unto the Lord to-morrow : that which je will 
bake bake to-day ,'' and what ye will seethe 
seethe to-day; and all the remainder lay up 
for you to be kept until the morning. 

24 And they laid it up till the morning, as 
Moses had bidden ; and it did not stink, nor 
was there any worm therein. 

25 And Moses said. Eat it to-day; for a 
sabbath" is this day unto the Lord : to-day ye 
will not find it in the field. 

26 Six days shall ye gather it; but on the 
seventh day, the sabbath, on it there shall be 
none. 

27 And it came to pass on the seventh 
day, that there went out some of the people 
to gather; but they found nothing. 

28 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, How 
long refuse ye to keei^ my commandments 
and my laws ? 

29 See, that the Lord hath given you the 
sabbath, therefore he giveth you on the sixth 
day bread for two days; remain ye, every 
man in his place, let no man go out of his 
place on the seventh day. 

30 So the people rested on the seventh day. 

31 And the house of Israel called the name 
thereof Manna, (Man ;) and it was like cori- 
ander-seed, white, and its taste was like 
wafers made with honey. 

32 And Moses said, This is the thing 
which the Lord hath commanded, One omer- 
full of it is to be kept for your generations ; in 



Moses, however, corrected their opinion, by saying that it 
was a miraculous gift of God. Kashi gives it, " This is a 
preparation of food." 

^ The word " to-day" is not in the Hebrew, but it is 
implied in the imperative 13N &c., which form always 
refers to the action which is to be performed at once. The 
present version is after Onkelos and Rashi. 

° Properly, shahhath, "a rest," from nOBf, shahoth, "to 
cea.se;" hence "to refrain from labour," "to rest." 



EXODUS XVI. XVII. XVIII. YITHRO. 



order that they may see the bread which I 
gave you to eat in the Avildemess, when I 
brought you forth out of the land of Egypt. 

33 And Moses said unto Aaron, take a 
flask, and put therein an omer-full of manna, 
and lay it up before the Lord, to be kept for 
your generations. 

34 As the Lord had commanded Moses, so 
did Aai'on lay it up before the Testimony, to 
be kept. 

35 And the children of Israel ate the 
manna forty years, until they came to an in- 
habited land; the manna they did eat, until 
they came unto the borders of the land of 
Canaan. 

36 But the omer" is a tenth part of an 
ephah.* 

CHAPTER XVII. 

1 Tl And all the congregation of the children 
of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of 
Sin, after their joumeyings, by the command- 
ment of the Lord; and they encamped in 
Rephidim, and there was no water for the 
people to drink. 

2 And the people quarrelled with Moses, 
and said. Give us water that we may drink; 
and Moses said unto them, Why will ye 
quarrel with me? why will ye tempt the 
Lord? 

3 And the people thirsted there for water ; 
and the people murmured against Moses, and 
said, For what purpose is it that thou hast 
brought us up out of Egyjit, to kill me*" and 
my children and my cattle with thirst? 

4 And Moses cried unto the Lord, saying, 
What shall I do unto this people ? but little 
is wanting and they will stone me. 

5 And the Lord said unto Moses, Pass on 
before the people, and take with thee some of 
the elders of Israel ; and thy staff, wherewith 
thou smotest the river, take in thy hand, and 

SO- 

6 Behold, I will be standing before thee 

there upon the rock at Choreb ; and thou shalt 
smite the rock, and there shall come out from 
it water, and the people shall drink; and 



* The contents of an cpliah is said by rabbinical autho- 
rity to bo 432 eggs; consequently an omor is 48^ (fowl's) 
eggs. 

' The singular is used here, as in other places, to denote 
probably that one spoke for the community. So also in 
Genesis xxiii. 6, " Hear us, my lord." 



Moses did so before the eyes of the elders of 
Israel. 

7 And he called the name of the place 
Massah" and Meribah ; because of the quarrel- 
ling of the children of Israel, and because 
they tempted the Lord, saying. Is then the 
Lord among us, or not ? 

8 ^ Then came Amalek, and fought with 
Israel in Rephidim. 

9 And Moses said unto Joshua, Choose for 
us men, and go out, fight with Amalek ; to- 
morrow I will stand on the top of the hill with 
the staff of God in my hand. 

10 And Joshua did as Moses had said to 
him, to fight with Amalek ; and Moses, Aaron, 
and Chur went up to the top of the hill. 

11 And it came to pass, when Moses held 
up his hand, that Israel prevailed : and when 
he let down his hand, that Amalek prevailed. 

12 But when the hands of Moses became 
heavy, they took a stone, and put it under him, 
and he sat thereon ; and Aaron and Chur suj^)- 
ported his hands, one on one side, and the 
other on the other side; and his hands were 
steady until the going down of the sun. 

13 And Joshua discomfited Amalek and 
his people with the edge of the sword.* 

14 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Write 
this for a memorial in the book,* and rehearse 
it in the ears of Joshua ; for I will utterly 
blot out the rememlirance of Amalek from 
under the heavens. 

15 And Moses built an altar, and called its 
name Adonay Nissy (The Lord is my Banner). 

IG And he said, Because" the Lord hath 
sworn on his throne that the Lord will have 
war with Amalek from generation to genera- 
tion. 

Ilaphtorah in Judges iv. 4 to v. 31. The Portuguese coni- 
menco at v. 1. 



SECTION XVII. YITHRO, nnv 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

1 ^ And J ithro, the priest of Midian, Moses' 
father-in-law, heard all that God had done 



" " Tempting and quarrel," from riDJ " to prove, to 
tempt," and an "to contend, to quarrel." 

'' The book of tlic Records of Israel, wherein doubt- 
lessly all the occurrences of the nation had been preserved. 

" Arnheim, after Ralbag, (quoted in the name of his 
father,) renders, " Yea the hand on the throne of Yah (is 
stretched out) for a war with Amalek," &c. 



EXODUS XVIII. YITHRO. 



for Moses, and for Israel his people, that the 
Lord had brought forth Israel out of Eg3'pt. 

2 Then took Jithro, the father-in-law of 
Moses, Zipporah, the wife of Moses, after he 
had sent her back, 

3 And her two sons ; of whom the name of 
the one was Gershom; for he said, I have 
been a stranger in a foreign land : 

4 And the name of the other was Eliezer ;" 
for the God of my father was my help, and 
delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh. 

5 And Jithro, the father-in-law of Moses, 
came with his sons and his wife unto Moses, 
unto the wilderness, where he was encamped 
at the mount of God. 

6 And he sent word imto Moses, I thy 
father-in-law Jithro am coming unto thee, 
with thy wife, and her two sons with her. 

7 And Moses Avent out to meet his father- 
in-law, and bowed himself, and kissed him; 
and they asked each other after their welfare ; 
and they went into the tent. 

8 And Moses told his father-in-law all 
which the Lord had done unto Pharaoh and 
to the Egyptians on account of Israel ; all the 
hardship which had come upon them by 
the way, and how the Lord had delivered 
them. 

9 And Jithro rejoiced over all the goodness 
which the Lord had done to Israel, that'' he 
had delivered it out of the hand" of the 
Egyptians. 

10 And Jithro said, Blessed be the Lord, 
who hath delivered you out of the hand of 
the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pha- 
raoh, who hath delivered the people from un- 
der the hand of the Egyptians. 

11 Now I know that the Eternal is great 
above all gods : for by the very thing wherein 
they sinned presumptuously was punishment 
brought upon them."* 

12 And Jithro, the father-in-law of Moses, 



* From El, " God," and ezer, " help." 

'■ Onkelos renders •\wx with " who had," &c., referring 
to the antecedent " Lord." 

" T " Hand," has several significations in Hebrew : first, 
the hand itself; then, " power," as in this instance ; or 
"means," (as in Exodus ix. 35,) "As the Lord had 
spoken through the hand of Moses;" "a fixed place, the 
margin of a river," (Exodus ii. 5,) and " portion," " share," 
" claim," (2 Samuel xix. 44,) &c. 

*>A.fter Onkelos. Rashi adds, " They endeavoured to 
destroy the Israelites by water, and they were lost in 
water." Philippson renders, " namely therein whereby 
they had sinned against them," meaning that God's su- 



offered a bunitK)frering and sacrifices unto 
God; and Aaron came, with all the elders of 
Israel, to eat bread with the father-in-law of 
Moses, before God.* 

13 And it came to pass on the morrow, 
that Moses sat to judge the people; and the 
people stood by Moses from the morning unto 
the evening. 

14 And the father-in-law of Moses saw all 
that he did to the people; and he said, Wliat 
is this thing that thou doest to the people ? 
why sittest thou thyself alone, and all the 
people standeth by thee from morning until 
evening ? 

15 And Moses said unto his father-in-law, 
Because the people cometh unto me to inquire 
of God. 

16 When they have a matter of dispute, 
they come unto me; and I judge between one 
and the other, and I make them know the 
statutes of God, and his laws. 

17 And the father-in-law of Moses said 
unto him. The thing that thou doest is not 
good. 

18 Thou wilt surely wear away, both thou, 
and this people that is with thee; for the 
thing is too heavy for thee; thou wilt not 
be able to perform it by thyself alone. 

19 Now hearken unto my voice, I will give 
thee counsel, and may God be with thee, Be 
thou for the people a mediator' with God, 
that thou mayest bring the causes unto God. 

20 And thou shalt explain to them the 
ordinances and the laws; and thou shalt make 
them know the way wherein they must walk, 
and the work that they must do. 

21 Moreover, thou shalt select out of all the 
people able men, such as fear God, men of 
truth, hating (their own) gain;' and place 
these over them, as rulers of thousands, rulers 
of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of 
tens. 



periority was displayed, since the Egyptians and their 
gods prevailed not in the very acts of their presumption 
against Israel. The English version seems to have adopt- 
ed in some degree the same view. Arnheim, after Aben 
Ezra, renders " For he punished them because they had 
acted wickedly toward them." 

" Meaning, that Moses should represent the people with 
God, hear what he teaches, and then instruct those who 
had sent him. 

' This means, disinterested men, who in hearing causes 
brought before them will decide without reference whe- 
ther their own advantage be secured by their judgment 

or not. 

87 



EXODUS XVIII. XIX. YITHRO. 



22 And let them judge the people at all 
times; and it shall be, that every great matr 
ter they shall bring unto thee, but every 
small matter they shall judge themselves: so 
shall it be easier for thee, when they shall 
bear with thee. 

23 If thou wilt do this thing, and God 
commandeth it thee, then wilt thou be able 
to endure; and also the whole of this people 
will come to its place in peace.'-= 

24 And Moses hearkened to the voice of 
his father-in-law, and did all that he had 
said. 

25 And Moses chose able men out of all 
Israel, and placed them as heads over the 
people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hun- 
dreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. 

26 And they judged the people at all 
times ; any difficult cause they brought unto 
Moses, but every small cause they judged 
themselves. 

27 And Moses dismissed his father-in-law; 
and he went his way unto his own land.* 

CHAPTER XIX. 

1 ][ In the third month, after the children of 
Israel were gone forth out of the land of 
Egyi^t, the same day they came into the 
wilderness of Sinai. 

2 For they had departed from Rephidim, 
and they came to the desert of Sinai, and en- 
camped in the wilderness; and Israel en- 
camped there opposite the mount. 

3 And Moses went up unto God, and the 
Lord called unto him from the mount, saying, 
Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, 
and tell the children of Israel : 

4 Ye" have yourselves seen what I have 
done unto the Egj^^tians, and how I boi'e you on 
eagles' wings,** and brought you unto myself 

5 Now therefore, if you will truly obey my 
voice, and keep my covenant, then shall ye 
be unto me a peculiar treasure above all na- 
tions; for all the earth is mine: 

G And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of 
priests, and a holy nation ; these are the words 
which thou shalt speak unto thc^ children of 
Israel. 



* Tlie things which I have done to P3gypt are not a 
tradition among you or brought to your nfitice by messen- 
ger or witness ; through many sins had they been guilty 
before they injured you; but I did not puuish them ex- 
cept for your sake. — Rashi. 

'' " As the eagle bears aloft his j'oung, over every obsta- 



7 And Moses came and called for the elders 
of the people, and laid before them all these 
Avords which the Lord had commanded him. 

8 And all the people answered unani- 
mousl}^, and said, AH that the Lord liath 
spoken we will do; and Moses returned the 
words of the people unto the Lord. 

9 And the Lord said unto Moses, Behold, I 
will come unto thee in a thick cloud, for the 
sake that the people may hear when I speak 
with thee, and that also in thee they shall 
believe" for ever; and Moses told the words 
of the i^eople unto the Lord. 

10 And the Lord said unto Moses, Go unto 
the people, and sanctify them to-day and to- 
morrow, and let them wash their clothes. 

11 And they shall be ready against the 
third day ; for on the third day the Lord will 
come doAVTi, before the eyes of all the people, 
upon mount Sinai. 

12 And thou shalt set bounds unto the 
people, round about, saying. Take heed to 
yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, 
nor touch the border of it; whosoever touch- 
eth the mount shall surely be put to death. 

13 Yet not a hand shall touch him, but he 
shall surely be stoned, or shot through ; 
whether it be beast or man, it shall not live; 
when the trumpet soundeth long, the}^ may 
come up to the mount. 

14 And Moses went down from the mount 
unto the people, and sanctified the people; 
and they washed their clothes. 

15 And he said unto the people. Be ready 
against the third day; approach not unto a 
woman. 

IG And it came to pass on the third da}- 
when it was morning, that there were thun- 
ders and lightnings, and a heavy cloud was 
upon the mount, and the voice of the trumpet 
was exceedingly loud; so that all the people 
that were in the camp trembled. 

17 And Moses brought forth the people 
out of the camp to meet with God ; and they 
placed themselves at the foot of the mount. 

18 And mount Sinai smoked in every part, 
because the Lord had descended upon it in 
fire; and the smoke thereof ascended as the 

cle, and carries them even across the sea, so have I brought 
you safely through the sea, and you were not injured." — 

DUBNO. • 

° i'. e. Have trust or confidence in the truth of his 
mission. 

* Aben Ezra refers this to Aaron, his sous and the elders 



EXODUS XIX. XX. YITHRO. 



smoke of a furnace, and the Avliole mount 
quaked greatly. 

19 And the voice of the cornet went on, 
and waxed louder and louder; Moses spoke, 
and God answered him Avith a loud voice.* 

20 And the Lord came down upon mount 
Sinai, on the top of the mount; and the Lord 
called Moses up to the top of the mount, and 
Moses went up. 

21 And the. Lord said unto Moses, Go 
down, charge the people, lest they break 
through unto the Lord to gaze, and many of 
them might perish. 

22 And the priests also, who come near 
to the Lord, shall sanctify themselves; lest 
the Lord break forth among them. 

23 And Moses said unto the Lord, The 
people cannot come up to mount Sinai; for 
thou hast charged us, saying, Set bounds 
about the mount and sanctify it. 

24 And the Lord said unto him, Go, get 
thee down, and then shalt thou come up, 
thou, and Aaron with thee; but the priests 
and the people shall not break through to 
come up unto the Lord, lest he break forth 
among them. 

25 So Moses went down unto the people, 
and spoke unto them. 

CHAPTER XX. 

1 ^ And God spoke all these words, say- 
ing, 

2 •[[ I am the Lord thy God, who have 
brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of 
the house of slavery.* 

3 Thou shalt have no other gods before 
me. 

4 Thou shalt not make unto thyself any 
graven image, or any likeness of any thing 
that is in heaven above, or that is on the 
earth beneath, or that is in the water under 
the earth. 

5 Thou shalt not bow thyself down to 



* Heb. "House of servants" or "slaves," and means 
simply the state of bondage or slavery. According to 
Jewish opinions, "I am the Lord thy God" is the first 
commandment, and enjoins on us to believe in the Eter- 
nal alone, as God and Creator, who manifested himself to 
us when we were bondmen in Egypt, whence he redeemed 
us through the great deeds he wrought in our behalf. 
"Thou shalt have," &c. commences the second command- 
ment. 

' This means, " watchful of his glory, and unwilling to 
pardon idolatry." 

' "If the children hate me." — Rashbam. Onkelos 
M 



them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy 
God am a jealous'' God, visiting the iniquity 
of the fathers upon the children, unto the 
third and fourth generation of them that 
hate° me; 

6 And showing mercy unto the thousandth 
generation of them that love me, and keep 
my commandments. 

7 T[ Thou shalt not take'' the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain ; for the Lord will not 
hold him guiltless that taketh his name in 
vain. 

8 ^ Remember the sabbath day to keep it 
holy. 

9 Six days shalt" thou labour, and do all 
thy work. 

10 But the seventh day is the sabbath in 
honour of the Lord thy God ; on it thou shalt 
not do any work, neither thou, nor thy son, 
nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy 
maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger 
that is within thy gates ; 

11 Eor in six days the Lord made the 
heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that 
is in them, and rested on the seventh day; 
therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, 
and hallowed it. 

12 ^ Honour thy father and thy mother; 
in order that thy days may be prolonged 
upon the land which the Lord thy God giv- 
eth thee. 

18 T[ Thou shalt not kill. 
]f Thou shalt not commit adultery. 
^ Thou shalt not steal. 
]| Thou shalt not bear false witness against 
thy neighbour. 

14 ^ Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's 
house. 

T[ Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, 
nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, 
nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is 
thy neighbour's.* 

15 ^ And all the people perceived' the 



paraphrases, "if the children persevere to sin after their 
fathers." 

" This means, that we shall not utler, "bear on our 
lips," the blessed Name. — "Vain" includes hoth falsely 
and uselessly/. 

' Others render, "mayest," or "canst:" still the sense 
is the same; meaning, that whatever labour is performed 
must be done in the six week-days, to the exclusion of 
the sabbath. 

' The Hebrew word d'NT from nN"> " to see,", is evi- 
dently used here in the general sense, "to perceive," "to 

become aware of." 

89 



EXODUS XX. XXI. MISHPAHTLM. 



thunderings, and the lightnings, and the 
sound of the comet, and the mountain smok- 
ing; and when the people saw it, they re- 
moved trembling, and stood afiir off. 

16 And they said unto Moses, Speak thou 
with us, and we will hear;' but let not God, 
speak with us, lest we die. I 

17 And Moses said unto the people, Fear! 
not; for in order to prove you, did God come, 
and in order that his fear may be before yoiu' I 
faces, that ye sin not. I 

18 And the people stood afar off, and 
Moses drew near unto the thick darkness 
Avhere God was.* 

19 Tl And the Lord said unto Moses, Thus 
shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, Ye 
have seen that from heaven I have spoken 
Avith 3'ou. 

20 Ye shall not make any thing with me ; 
gods of silver, and gods of gold ye shall not 
make unto yourselves. 

21 An altar of earth shalt thou make unto 
me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt- 
offerings, and thy peace-offerings, thy sheep,*" 
and thy oxen; in every place where I shall 
permit my name to be mentioned, I will come 
unto thee, and I will bless thee. 

22 And if thou wilt make me an altar of 
stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone ; 
for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast 
polluted it. 

23 Neither shalt thou go up by steps upon 
my altar, that thy nakedness be not laid open 
thereon. 

Ilaphtorah in Isaiah vi. 1 to 13. The Germans read to viii. 
6, and add ix. 5 and 6. 



SECT. XVIII. MISHPAHTLM, D^uatt'O. 

CHAPTER XXI. 

1 ^ And these are the laws of justice which 
thou shalt set before them. 

2 If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years 



* Onkelos gives, "We will accept," thus signifying 
their willingness to follow what might be taught them in 
the name of God, whose presence they feared henceforth 
to encounter. But Moses, in accepting this trust, assured 
them that the Lord's object in showing his glory, was 
merely that they might always remember this scene and 
sin not. 

' Rashi regards " thy sheep and thy oxen" as an ex- 
planation of tlie preceding words ; thus, " thy peace-offer- 
ings of thy sheep and of thy oxen." 
90 



shall he serve; and in the seventh he shall 
go out free for nothing. 

3 If he came in by himself, he shall go out 
by himself; if he was the husband of a 
woman, then shall his ■wife go out with 
him. 

4 If his master should give him a wife, and 
she bear him sons or daughters: the wife 
and her children shall belong to her master, 
and he shall go out by himself. 

5 And if the servant should plainly say, I 
love my master, my wife, and my children ; 
I will not go out free : 

6 Then shall his master bring him unto 
the judges, and he shall bring him to the 
door, or unto the door-post; and his master 
shall liore his ear through with an awl; "and 
he shall serve him till the jubilee." 

7 ^ And if a man sell his daughter for a 
maid-servant, she shall not go out as the men- 
servants go out. 

8 If she please not her master, to whom 
he"* hath assigned her, then shall he aid her 
to be redeemed; unto a strange nation he 
shall have no power to sell her, seeing he hath 
dealt faithlessly with her. 

9 And if he should assign her unto his son, 
then shall he do unto her after the right 
of the daughters. 

10 If he take himself another wife, her 
food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, 
shall he not diminish. 

11 And if he do not these three things 
unto her, then shall she go out free, without 
money. 

12 ][ He that smiteth a man, so that he 
die, shall surely be put to death. 

13 And if he did not lie in wait, but God 
let it come into his hand, then will I appoint 
thee a place whither he shall tlee. 

14 ^ But if a man come presumptuously 
upon his neighl)our, to slay him with guile, 
from my altar shalt thou take him, that he 
may die. 



° Lit. " for ever ;" but servitude is hereafter ('Levit. 
XXV. 10) limited to the Jubi/ec, which is accordingly the 
eternity of bondage, beyond which it could not exist. 

'' Arnhcim makes the word " man" of verse 7, the 
nominative of all the verbs in verse 8, and renders the 
last, "since he acteth faithlessly by her;" meaning, in 
ease he sell her to a foreigner who cannot marry her, by 
which she becomes a bondwoman, which the children of 
Israel should never be. This is a strong proof of the high 
esteem females enjoyed among the early Israelites. 



EXODUS XXI. XXII. MISHPAHTIM. 



15 ^ And he that smiteth his fother, or 
his mother, shall surely be put to death. 

16 ]| And he that stealeth a man, and 
selleth him, and he be found* in his hand, 
shall surely be put to death. 

17 ][ And he that curseth his father, or 
his mother, shall surely be put to death. 

18 T[ And if men strive together, and one 
smite the other with a stone, or with the fist, 
and he die not, but keepeth his bed : 

19 K he rise again, and walk abroad upon 
his crutch, then shall he that smote him be 
quit; only he shall pay for the loss of his 
time, and shall cause Imu to be thoroughly 
healed.* 

20 ][ And if a man smite his servant or 
his maid, with a rod, and he die under his 
hand, it shall be surely avenged. 

21 Nevertheless, if he continue alive a day 
or two, it shall not be avenged; for he is his 
money. 

22 ^ If men strive, and hurt a woman 
with child, so that her children depart from 
her, and yet no farther mischief follow: he 
shall be surely punished, (with a fine,) accord- 
ing as the husband of the woman will lay 
upon him; and he shall pay this by the 
decision of the judges. 

23 And if any mischief follow, then shalt 
thou give life for Ufe, 

24 Eye for eye,'' tooth for tooth, hand for 
hand, foot for foot, 

25 Burning for burning, wound for wound, 
bruise for bruise. 

26 T[ And if a man smite the eye of his ser- 
vant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish, 
he shall let him go free for the sake of his 
eye. 

27 And if he strike out his man-servant's 
tooth, or his maid-servant's tooth, he shall let 
him go free for the sake of his tooth. 

28 ^ K an ox gore a man or a woman, 
that he die: then shall the ox be surely 
stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but 
the owner of the ox shall be quit. 

29 But if the ox were wont to gore in time 
past, and warning have been given to his 



' If witnesses have seen that he Has stolen and sold 
him, and he was found before the sale. — Eashi, after 
Sanhedrin, 85. 

■" According to the laws as executed in Israel, (see 
Baba Kama, viii. § 1,) this injunction was understood as 
applying merely to make restitution in money for the in- 
jury inflicted. That this exposition is strictly conform- 



owner, and he hath not kept him in, and he 
killeth a man or a Avoman: tlie ox shall be 
stoned, and his owner also should of right ha 
put to death ; 

30 But there shall be laid oh him a sum 
of money in atonement, and he shall give the 
ransom of his life whatsoever may be laid 
upon him. 

31 K he gore a son, or gore a daughter, ac- 
cording to this judgment shall be done unto 
him. 

32 If the ox gore a man-servant or a maid- 
servant, thirty shekels of silver shall he" give 
to his master, and the ox shall ])e stoned. 

33 ^ And if a man open a pit, or if a man 
dig a j)it, and do not cover it, and an ox or 
an ass fall therein; 

34 The owner of the pit shall make it 
good, he shall make I'estitution in money unto 
the owner thereof; and the dead beast shall 
be his. 

35 ^ And if one man's ox hurt the ox of 
another, that he die : then shall they sell the 
live ox, and divide his money; and the dead 
ox also they shall divide. 

36 But if it be known that the ox were 
wont to gore in time past, and his OAvner hath 
not kejit him in : he shall surely pay ox for 
ox; and the dead shall belong to him."* 

37 ^ If a man steal an ox or a sheep, and 
kill it, or sell it: five oxen shall he restore 
for one ox, and four sheep for one sheep. 

CHAPTER XXII. 

1 If a thief be found while breaking in, 
and be smitten so that he die, there shall no 
jjlood be shed for him. 

2 If the sun be risen upon him, there shall 
be blood shed for him; he shall make full 
restitution ; if he have notliing, then shall he 
be sold for his theft. 

3 If the thing stolen be actually found in 
his hand alive, Avhether it be ox, or ass, or 
sheep, he shall restore double.* 

4 Tl If a man cause a field or vineyard to 
be eaten oft', and he let his beasts enter, and 
they feed in another man's field: with the 



able to the sacred text, can be proved from the passage, 
Numbers xxxv. 31, "And yc shall not take a ransom for 
the life of a murderer who is guilty of death," which 
clearly means "from a murderer yc shall take no ransom, 
but ye may do it from one who inflicts a wound only." 

■= The owner of the ox. 

'' The English version ends here chap. xxi. 

91 



EXODUS XXII. MISHPAHTIM. 



best of his own field, and with best of his own 
vineyard, shall he make restitution. 

5 T[ If a fire break out, and meet with 
thorns, so that stacks of corn, or the standing 
corn, or the field, be consumed thereby, he 
that kindled the fire shall surely make resti- 
tution. 

6 ][. If a man do deliver unto his neigh- 
bour money or vessels to keep, and it be 
stolen out of the man's house : if the thief be 
found, he shall pay double. 

7 If the thief be not found, then shall the 
master of the house be brought unto the 
judges, (to swear) that he have not stretched 
out his hand against his neighbour's goods. 

8 For all manner of trespass, for ox, for 
ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for any manner 
of lost thing, of which he" can say. This is it, 
before the judges shall come the cause of 
both parties, and he, whom the judges may 
condemn, shall pay double unto his neigh- 
bour. 

9 ^ If a man deliver unto his neighbour 
an ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to 
keep ; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, 
no man seeing it : 

10 Then shall an oath of the Lord be be- 
tween them both, that he have not stretched 
out his hand against his neighbour's goods; 
and the owner of it shall accept this, and he 
shall not make it good. 

11 But if it be stolen from him, he shall 
make restitution unto the owner thereof. 

12 If it be torn in pieces, then let him 
bring it as evidence ;'' that which was torn he 
shall not make good. 

13 ^ And if a man borrow aught of his 
neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner 
thereof not being with it, he shall surely make 
it good. 

14 But if the owner thereof be with it, he 
shall not make it good ; if it be a hired thing, 
the loss is included in its hire." 

15 11 And if a man seduce a virgin that is 
not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall 
surely endow her to be his wife. 

• " The witness," t. e. which he can identify. — Aben 
Ezra. — From 6 to 8 is considered as relating to a case 
where the goods arc left without charge for keeping; hut 
from y to 12 where hire is paid for the earo required. 

'Compare with Amos iii. 12. Rashi and Onkelos: 
" He shall hring witnesses." 

' Meaning, the owner can only claim the money agreed 
upon for the hire, hut no farther restitution. This ver- 
92 



16 If her father refuse to give her unto 
him, he shall pay money according to the 
dowry of virgins. 

17 ^ Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live. 

18 Whosoever lieth with a beast shall 
surely be put to death. 

19 ^ He that sacrificeth unto any god, 
save unto the Lord only, shall be utterly de- 
stroyed. 

20 And a stranger thou shalt not vex, and 
shalt not oppress him; for strangers ye were 
in the land of Egypt. 

21 Ye shall not afflict any widow, or father- 
less child. 

22 If thou afflict him in any wise ;'' (for if 
he cry at all unto me, I will surely hear his 
cry:) . 

23 My Avrath shall wax hot, and I -s^dll 
slay you with the sword; and your wives 
shall be widows, and your children fatherless. 

24 ^ If thou lend money to my people, to 
the poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as 
a lender of money; thou shalt not lay upon 
him usury. 

25 If thou take at all thy neighbour's 
raiment in pledge, thou shalt restore it unto 
him by the time the sun goeth down ; 

26 For it is his only covering, it is his 
raiment for his skin ; wherein shall he sleep ? 
and it shall come to pass, when he crieth 
unto me, that I will hear; for I am gracious.* 

27 ^ The judges thou shalt not revile;" 
and a ruler among ±hy people thou shalt not 
curse. 

28 The first of thy ripe fruits, and of thy 
liquors, shalt thou not delay to offer; the 
first-born of thy sons shalt thou give unto 
me. 

29 In like manner shalt thou do with thy 
ox, with thy sheep; seven days it shall be 
with its dam; on the eighth day thou shalt 
give it me. 

30 And holy men shall ye be unto me: 
and flesh that is torn of beasts in the field, 
shall ye not eat; to the dogs shall ye 
cast it. 



sion is according to Ben 'Uzziel and Mendelssohn ; literally, 
"it comes (in) with its hire." 

* Ka.shi rcgard.i this as an elliptical verse, thus : "If 
thou afflict him, thou shalt surely be punished, because, 
should he cry unto me, I will hear his cry." 

• " This is a prohibition both against blasphemy, and 
cursing the judges who sit in the place of God to do 
justice." — Rashi, after Sanhedrin, 67. 



EXODUS XXIII. MISHPAHTIM. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

1 T[ Thou shalt not receive a false report : 
put not thy hand with the wicked to be an 
unrighteous witness. 

2 ][ Thou shalt not follow a multitude to 
do evil ; neither shalt thou speak in a cause, 
to incline after many, to wrest judgment. 

3 Neither shall thou countenance a poor 
man in his cause. 

4 ^ If thou meet thy enemy's ox or his ass 
going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back 
to him again. 

5 ^ If thou see the ass of him that hateth 
thee lying under his burden, and wouldest for- 
bear to unload him, (thou must do so, but) 
thou shalt surely unload with him.* 

6 T[ Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of 
thy poor in his cause. 

7 Keep thyself far from a false speech ; and 
him who hath been declared innocent and 
righteous thou shalt not slay ; for I will not 
justify the wicked. 

8 And thou shalt take no gift ; for the gift 
blindeth the clear-sighted, and perverteth the 
words of the righteous. 

9 And a stranger thou shalt not oppress; 
for ye know well the spirit of the stranger, 
seeing ye yourselves were strangers in the 
land of Egypt. 

10 And six years shalt thou sow thy land, 
and shalt gather in the fruits thereof; 

11 But the seventh year shalt thou let it 
rest and lie still ; that the poor of thy people 
may eat (of it) ; and what they leave the 
beasts of the field shall eat : in like manner 
shalt thou deal with thy vineyard, and with 
thy olive tree. 

12 Six days shalt thou do thy work, and on 
the seventh day shalt thou rest ; that thy ox 
and thy ass may repose, and the son of thy 
hand-maid, and the stranger, may be refreshed. 

13 And in all things that I have said unto 
you be on your guard; and of the name of 
other gods, ye shall make no mention, it shall 
not be heard out of thy mouth. 

14 Three times shalt thou keep a feast 
unto me in the year. 

15 The feast of unleavened bread shalt 
thou keep; seven days shalt thou eat unlear 
vened bread, as I commanded thee, in the time 
appointed of the month of Abib ; for in it thou 
camest out from Egypt: and none shall ap- 
pear before me empty. 



16 And the feast of harvest, of the first- 
fruits of thy labours, Avhich thou ha.st sown in 
thy field : and the feast of ingathering, at the 
conclusion of the year, when thou gatherest 
in thy labours out of the field. 

17 Three times in the year shall all thy 
males appear before the Lord, the Eternal. 

18 Thou shalt not offer the blood of my 
sacrifice with leavened bread;' neither shall 
the fat of my festive sacrifice remain until 
morning. 

19 The first of the first-fruits of thy land 
shalt thou bring unto the house of the Lord 
thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its 
mother's milk.* 

20 ^ Behold, I send an angel before thee, to 
keep thee on the way, and to bring thee unto 
the place which I have prepared. 

21 Beware of him, and ol>ey his voice, 
disobey him not ; for he will not pardon your 
transgression, because my name is in him. 

22 But if thou wilt carefully hearken to 
his voice, and do all that I shall speak : then 
will I be an enemy unto thy enemies, and af- 
flict those that afllict thee. 

23 For my angel shall go before thee, and 
bring thee in unto the Emorites, and the Hit- 
tites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, 
the Hivites, and the Jebusites ; and I will cut 
them off". 

24 Thou shalt not bow down to their gods, 
nor serve them, nor do after their deeds ; but 
thou shalt uttei'ly overthrow them, and com- 
pletely break down their statuary images. 

25 And ye shall sei've the Lord your God, 
and he will bless thy bread, and thy water; 
and I will remove sickness from the midst of 
thee.* 

26 ][ There shall be no one casting her 
children, nor a ban-en woman, in thy laud ; 
the number of thy days I will make full. 

27 My terror I will send before thee, and 
will bring in confusion all the people to which 
thou shalt come; and I will make all thy ene- 
mies turn their back unto thee. 

28 And I will send hornets before thee, 
and they shall drive out the Hivite, the Ca- 
naanite, and the Hittite, from Ix^fore thee. 

29 I will not drive them out from before 
thee in one year; lest the land become deso- 



' This means that the passover-lamb shall not be slain 
on the fourteenth of the first month, till all the leaven 
has been previously removed. 



EXODUS XXIV. MISHPAHTIM. 



late, and the beast of the field multiply against 
thee. . 

30 Little by little will I drive them out 
from before thee, until thou be increased and 
canst possess the land. 

31 And I will set thy bounds from the Eed 
Sea unto the sea of the Pliilistines, and from 
the desert unto the river; for I will deliver 
into your hand the inhabitants of the land, 
and thou shalt drive them out before thee. 

32 Thou shalt not make a covenant with 
them, nor with their gods. 

33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest 
they cause thee to sin against me ; for thou 
mightest (be led" to) serve their gods, and this 
would surely be a snare unto thee. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

1 ^ And unto Moses he said. Come up un- 
to the Lord, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and 
Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel; 
and ye shall bow yourselves down afar off. 

2 And Moses alone shall come near unto 
the Lord, but they shall not come nigh; and 
the people shall not go up with him. 

3 And Moses came and told the people all 
the words of the Lord, and all the laws of 
justice ;*■ and all the people answered with 
one voice, and said. All the words Avhich the 
Lord hath spoken will we do. 

4 And Moses wrote down all the woi'ds of 
the Lord, and he rose up early in the morn- 
ing, and built an altar at the foot of the 
mount, and twelve pillars, according to the 
twelve tribes of Israel. 

5 And he then sent the young men" of the 
children of Israel, and they offei'ed burnt- 
ofl'erings, and sacrified peace-offerings unto 
the Lord, of oxen. 

6 And Moses took the half of the blood, 
and put it in basins; and (the other) half of 
the blood he sprinkled on the altar. 

7 And he took the book of the covenant, 



* Mendelssohn ; Kashi, however, renders, " that thou 
mightest servo their gods, which," &c. 

' Those laws according to which judgment is to be 
pronounced by the judges. Tlic word D'taaiy^ in this 
sense, is rendered in the English version "judgments," 
which is the same used fur D'DiJB', properly "judicial pu- 
nishments." 

° "The first-born."— Onkelos and Rashi. 

' "In the vision of prophecy." (Sec Isaiah vi. 1.) — 
Aben Ezra. 

* y'^i'1 nnni is correctly given by Arnheira, " that 
under his feet," t. e. the footstool, or, there where his 

94 



and read in the hearing of the people ; and 
they said. All that the Lord hath spoken will 
we do, and obey. 

8 And Moses took the blood and sprinkled 
it on the people, and said, Behold the blood 
of the covenant, which the Lord hath made 
with you concerning all these words. 

9 Then went up Moses, with Aaron, Nadab, 
and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel. 

10 And they sa-w^ the God of Israel ; and 
the place" under his feet was like a paved 
work of brilliant sapphire, and like the colour 
of heaven in clearness. 

11 And against the nobles of the children 
of Israel he stretched not forth his hand ; and 
they saw (the glory of) God, and did e:it and 
drink.' 

12 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, come 
up to me to the mount, and remain there : 
and I Avill give thee the tables of stone, with 
the law, and the commandment which I have 
written, to teach them. 

13 And Moses rose up, and his servant Jo- 
shua ; and Moses went uj) to the mount of God. 

14 And unto the elders he said, Tarry ye 
for us here, until the time we come again un- 
to you; and, behold, Aaron and Chur are 
with you, Avhoever may have any cause to be 
decided, let him come unto them. 

15 And Moses went up to the mount, and 
the cloud covered the mount.* 

IG And the glory of the Lord abode upon 
mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six 
days ; and he called unto Moses on the seventh 
day out of the midst of the cloud. 

17 And the appearance of the glory of the 
Lord was like a tlevouring fire on the top of 
the mount, before the eyes of the children of 
Israel. 

18 And Moses went into the midst of the 
cloudy and ascended the mount ; and Moses 
was on the mount forty days and forty nights. 

Ilaphtorah in Jeremiah xxxiv. 8-22 and xxxiii. 25, 26. 



feet rested. So also the Septuagint, Ttai ri, i-rto roij ndSa; 

avT'ov 

' Onkelos paraphrases this verse : "And unto the chiefs 
of tlie children of Israel there happened no injury, and 
they beheld the glory of God, and they rejoiced in the 
favourable reception of their s.icrificcs, as though they ate 
and drank." l)ubno, after Kaniban : " Thej' ate the poaco- 
ofTerings before the altar, at the foot of the mount, and 
they drank, making the occasion one of joy, and a holi- 
day ; for it is a duty to rejoice at the reception of the law ; 
see also Deuteronomy xxvii. 7, ' And thou shalt slay 
peace-oflferings, and eat them there.'" 



EXODUS XXV. TERUMAH. 



SECTION XIX. TERUMAII, nonn. 

CHAPTER XXV. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that 
they may bring me an offering;" from every 
man whose heart promjDteth him thereto shall 
ye take my offering. 

3 And this is the offering which ye shall 
take from them : gold, and silver, and copper, 

4 And blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, 
and linen thread, and goats' hair, 

5 And rams' skins died red, and badgers' 
skins, and shittim wood,*" 

6 Oil for lighting, spices for the anointing 
oU, and for the incense of spices, 

7 Onyx stones, and stones for setting, for 
the ephod, and for the breastplate. 

8 And they shall make me a sanctuary ; 
and I will dwell among them. 

9 According to all that I show thee, the 
pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of 
all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye 
make it. 

10 ][ And they shall make an ark of shittim 
wood; two cubits and a half shall be its 
length, and a cubit and a half its bi'eadth, 
and a cubit and a half its height. 

11 And thou shalt overlay it with pure 
gold, within and without shalt thou overlay 
it; and thou shalt make upon it a crown of 
gold round about. 

12 And thou shalt cast for it four rings of 
gold, and put them on the four corners 
thereof; namely, two rings shall be on the 
one side of it, and two rings on the other side 
of it. 

13 And thou shalt make staves of shittim 
wood, and overlay them vnth gold. 

1-4 And thou shalt place the staves into the 
rings, ujDon the sides of the ark, that the ark 
may be borne with them. 



* riDlin, elsewhere given with " heave-oflFering," is ex- 
plained by Rashi to mean " something separated from a 
mass," and it says here, " they shall set aside for me from 
their money a free-will offering." 

■■ Some render this word with " acacia wood," viz. that 
of the Acacia arabica, which is said to be very durable, 
light, but growing dark with age. The word is of Egyp- 
tian origin. — After PniLiPPSON. 

" The English version, after the Vulgate and Luther, 
renders m£)3 with "mercy-seat," no doubt deriving the 



15 In the rings of the ark shall the staves 
remain; they shall not be removed therefrom. 

10 And thou shalt put into the ark the 
testimony which I will give unto thee.=^ 

17 And thou shalt make a cover" of pure 
gold ; two cubits and a half shall be its length, 
and a cubit and a half its breadth. 

18 And thou shalt make two cherubim of 
gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, 
on the two ends of the cover. 

19 And make one cherub on the one end, 
and the other cherub on the other end ; from 
the cover itself shall ye make the cherubim 
on the two ends thereof 

20 And the cherubim shall be spreading 
forth their wings on high, overshado-vving the 
cover with their wings, with their faces turned 
one to the other; toward the cover shall the 
faces of the cherubim be directed. 

21 And thou shalt put the cover above 
upon the ark ; and in the ark shalt thou put 
the testimony which I will give unto thee. 

22 And I will meet with thee there, and I 
will speak with thee from above the cover, 
from between the two cherubim which are 
upon the ark of the testimony, all the things 
which I will command thee unto the children 
of Israel. 

23 ^ Thou shalt also make a table of shittim 
wood; two cubits shall be its length, and a cubit 
its breadth, and a cubit and a half its height. 

24 And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, 
and make thereto a crown of gold round about. 

25 And thou shalt make unto it a rim of 
a hand's breadth round about; and thou shalt 
make a golden crown on its rim round alxiut. 

26 And thou shalt make for it four ruigs 
of gold, and thou shalt put the rings on the 
four, corners that are on its four feet. 

27 Close under the rim shall the rings be; 
as receptacles for the staves, to bear the table. 

28 And thou shalt make the staves of shit- 
tim wood, and overlay them Avith gold; and 
the table shall be borne with them. 



word from 13d " to pardon," thus : " The place whence 
pardon is obtained." The Midrash Tanchuma agrees 
with this, saying, " Why was it called ri">i3D ? because it 
atoned for the sins niDDO of Israel." The Septuagint 
and Japheth (the last quoted by Aben Ezra) combine both 
ideas, "the cover of atonement," Philippson translates 
accordingly with " Siihnplatte." Rashi, however, gives 
it simply '1D3 "cover." In the course of this work it is 
probable that " mercj'-seat" may be Used — as a para- 
phrase, however, not as a literal version of the word. 

96 



EXODUS XXV. XXVI. TERUMAH. 



29 And thou slialt make its dishes, and its 
spoons, and it.^J supporters,* and its purifying 
tubes, wherewith (the bread) is to be covered : 
of pure gold shalt thou make them. 

30 And thou shalt set upon the table show- 
bread before me always.* 

31 Tl And thou shalt make a candlestick* 
of pure gold : of beaten work shall the candle- 
stick be made ; its shaft, and its branches, its 
bowls, its knobs, and its flowers, shall be out 
of one piece with it. 

32 And six branches shall come out of its 
sides; three branches of the candlestick out 
of the one side, and three branches of the 
candlestick out of the other side. 

33 Three bowls, almond-shaped, shall be 
on one branch, with a knob and a tiower; 
and three bowls almond-shaped on the other 
branch, with a knob and a flower : so on the 
six branches that come out of the candlestick. 

3-t And on the candlestick itself shall be 
four bowls, almond-shaped, (with) its knobs 
and its flowers. 

• 35 And there shall be a knob under the 
two branches that come out of the same, and a 
knob under the two branches that come out of 
the same, and a knob under the two branches 
that come out of the same; for the six 
branches that proceed out of the candlestick. 

36 Their knobs and their branches shall be 
out of one piece with it ; all of it shall be one 
piece of beaten work of pure gold. 

37 And thou v«halt make its seven lamps; 
and when they shall light its lamps it shall 
give light toward the body of it. 

38 And its tongs, and its snuiT-dishes shall 
be of pure gold. 

39 Out of a talent of pure gold shall he° 
make it, with all these vessels. 

40 And look that thou make them after 
their pattern, wliich thou wast shown on the 
mount.* 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

1 ^ The tabernacle also shalt thou make 
of ten curtains, of twisted linen thread, and 

• <■' The supporters" are said to have been four stakes 
of gold standing upon the floor, two on each side of the 
table; they were grooved so as to receive tlie "purifying 
tubes," which were placed between one loaf of the show- 
bread and the other, so as to admit of a fresh passage of 
air between them ; others reverse the order, and render, 
"its tubes and its supporters." 

' More correctly, "chandelier." 
96 



blue, and purple, and scarlet }arn, with che- 
rubim, of weaver's* work shalt thou make 
them. 

2 The length of each curtain shall ]x- eight 
and twenty cubits, and the breadth of each 
curtain four cubits: there shall be one mea- 
sure for all the curtains. 

3 Five of the curtains shall be coupled 
together, one to another; and the other 
five curtains shall be coupled, one to an- 
other. 

4 And thou shalt make loops of blue on 
the edge of the one curtain which is on the out- 
side in the (one) coupling; and the like shalt 
thou make on the edge of the curtain which 
is the outmost in the second coupling. 

5 Fifty loops shalt thou make on the one 
curtain, and fifty loops shalt thou make on 
the edge of the curtain that is in the second 
coupling; the loops shall be fixed opposite 
each other. 

6 And thou shalt make fifty hooks of gold ; 
and thou shalt couple the curtains together 
one unto the other -^-ith the hooks, and the 
tabernacle shall thus be one piece. 

7 And thou shalt make curtains of goats' 
hair for a tent over the tabernacle; eleven 
curtains shalt thou make the same. 

8 The length of each curtain shall be thirty 
cubits, and the breadth of each curtain four 
cubits: there shall be one measure for the 
eleven curtains. 

9 And thou shalt couple five of the cur- 
tains bv themselves, and six of the curtains 
by themselves; and thou shalt double the 
sixth curtain toward the front side of the 
tabernacle. 

10 And thou shalt make fifty loops on the 
edge of the one curtain that is the outmost in 
the (one) coupling, and fifty loops on the 
edge of the curtain of the second coupling. 

11 And thou shalt make fifty hooks of cojv 
per; and thou shalt put the hooks into the 
loops, and couple the tent together, that it 
may be one piece. 

12 And the part hanging over in the excess 



• 1. e. The unknown maker, whoever he may be. This 
construction is very common in Hebrew. 

'' 3Ern " weaver," is here used in contradistinction to 
DDT "the embroiderer." The figures in this instance were 
to be woven in, while in the other they were to be wrought 
with a needle, as the "embroiderer" does. The weaver is 
j called 3l7n from the fact that "thought" or "art" is re- 
quired to produce the figures in the loom ; therefore, per- 



EXODUS XXVI. TERUMAH. 



of the curtains of the tent," the half curtain 
which is over, shall hang down over the back 
part of the tabernacle. 

13 And the cubit on the one side, and the 
cubit on the other side in the excess in the 
length of the curtains of the tent, shall be 
hanging down over the sides of the tabernacle 
on this side and on that side, to cover it. 

14 And thou shalt make a cover for the 
tent of rains' skins dyed red, and a cover of 
badgers' skins above.* 

15 ][ And thou shalt make the boards for 
the tabernacle of shittim wood, standing up. 

16 Ten cubits shall be the length of each 
board, and a cubit and a half shall be the 
breadth of each one board. 

17 There shall be two tenons for every 
board, fitted in, one against the other: the 
like shalt thou make for all the boards of the 
tabernacle. 

18 And thou shalt make the boards for the 
tabernacle; twenty boards for the south side, 
on the right. 

19 And forty sockets of silver shalt thou 
make under the twenty boards; two sockets 
under the one board for its two tenons, and 
two sockets under the other board for its two 
tenons. 

20 And for the other side of the tabernacle, 
for the north side, there shall be twenty 
boards : 

21 And their forty sockets of silver; two 
sockets under the one board, and two sockets 
under the other board. 

22 And for the back wall of the tabemor 
cle, westward, thou shalt make six boards. 

23 And two boards shalt thou make for 
the corners of the tabernacle in the back 
wall. 

24 And they shall be closely fitting to- 
gether beneath, and they shall be closely 



haps, "artificial weaver;" German, " Kunstweber;" the 
simple artisan is called jin. 

' That is : what exceeds the length of the former or 
tabernacle curtains, they being but ten, while the tent 
curtains were eleven, or forty cubits against forty-four, 
shall hang trailing down at the back of the tabernacle, 
while the other half, or two cubits in breadth, was to 
be doubled over and hung down in the front, over the en- 
trance curtain of the sacred structure, as a species of 
festoon. 

^ Meaning : the boards were wrought so as to fit quite 

smoothly, one to the other ; and the upper end was cut in 

about an inch from each border, through which a ring, or 

clamp, was inserted to hold each two together. While 

N 



joined together on the top by means of one 
ring;'' thus shall it be for both of them; for 
the two corners sliall they be. 

25 And so they shall be eight boards, and 
their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets; two 
sockets under the one board, and two sockets 
under the other board. 

20 And thou shalt make bars of shittim 
wood; five, for the boards of the one side of 
the talxirnacle; 

27 And five bars for the boards of the 
other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for 
the boards of the side of the tabernacle, for 
the back wall, westward. 

28 And the middle bar in the midst of the 
boards, passing from the one end to the other 
end. 

29 And the boards thou shalt overlay with 
gold, and their rings thou shalt make of gold, 
as receptacles for the bars; and thou shalt 
overlay the bars with gold. 

30 And thou shalt rear up the tabernacle, 
according to the fashion thereof, which thou 
hast been sho\\ai on the mount.'-' 

31 ^ And thou shalt make a vail of blue, 
and purple, and scarlet yarn, and twisted 
Imen, of weavers' work shall it be made, with 
cherubim. 

32 And thou shalt hang" it upon four pillars 
of shittim wood overlaid -n-ith gold; their 
hooks also shall be of gold ; upon four sockets 
of silver. 

83 And thou shalt hang up the vail under 
the hooks ;** and thou shalt bring in thither 
within the vail the ark of the testimony ; and 
the vail shall di\dde unto you between the 
holy place and the holy of holies. 

34 And thou shalt put the cover upon the 
ark of the testimony in the holy of holies. 

35 And thou shalt set the table without 
the vail, and the candlestick over against the 



thus the tops of the boards were firmly joined, the bars 
next described were either inserted in the rings, on the 
outside of the boards, or through their centre, thus ren- 
dering the temporary structure one of great firmness. 

° Lit. "Thou shalt place." The same is also in v. 33. 

'' Above we are told that the curtains, forming what is 
called the "tabernacle," should be coupled by means of 
golden hooks. This work was thrown over the boards 
after they were set up ; and as it rested over the front of 
the sanctuary, the hooks of course were at the end of the 
twentieth cubit thereof; consequently they divided the 
tabernacle proper into two unequal parts : the one of 
twenty cubits was the holy place ; the other of ten cubits, 
beyond the vail, the holy of holies. 

97 



EXODUS XXVI. XXVII. XXVIII. TETZAVVEH. 



table on the side of the tabernacle, tOAvard the 11 
south; and the table thou shalt put on the j 
north side. j| 

36 And thou shalt make a hanging for the j 
door of the tent, of blue, and purple, and ij 
scarlet yarn, and twisted linen ; the work of | 
the embroiderer. l| 

37 And thou shalt make for the hanging |j 
five pillars of shittim wood, and overlay them I, 
with gold, their hooks also shall be of gold ; |! 
and thou shalt cast for them five sockets of 1 



copper.'=' 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



1 ^ And thou shalt make the altar of 
shittim wood ; five cubits long, and five cubits 
broad, a foursquare shall the altar be, and 
three cubits shall be its height. 

2 And thou shalt make its horns on its | 
four corners, from itself shall its horns be ; ' 
and thou shalt overlay it with copper. 

3 And thou shalt make its pots to receive 
its ashes, and its shovels, and its basms, and | 
its foi'ks, and its fire-pans ; all its vessels thou ' 
shalt make of copper. . 

4 And thou shalt make for it a grating, of 
a network of copper ; and thou shalt make 
upon the net four rings of coj^per, on its four 
comers. ! 

5 And thou shalt put it under the compass" j 
of the altar beneath, and the net shall reach 
even to the half of the altar. 

6 And thou shalt make staves for the 
altar, staves of shittim wood, and overlay 
them with copper. 

7 And the staves shall be put into the 
rings, and the staves shall be upon the two 
sides of the altar, when they bear it.*" i 

8 Hollow, of boards, shalt thou make it; 
as it was shown to thee on the mount, so 
shall they make it.* 

9 ][ And thou shalt make the court of the 
tabernacle: for the south side, on the right, 
the hangings for tiie court, of twisted linen, 
shall be a hundred cubits in length, for the 
one side. 

10 And its pillars shall be twenty, with 
their twenty sockets of copper; the hooks of 
the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver. 

11 And likewise for the north side in the 
length there shall be hangings one hundred 



cubits in length, and its pillars twenty with 
their twenty sockets of copper; the hooks of 
the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver. 

12 And (for) the breadth of the court on 
the west side shall be fifty cubits of hangings ; 
their pillars shall be ten, and their sockets 
ten. 

13 And the breadth of the court on the 
front side, eastward, shall be fifty cubits. 

14 And fifteen cubits of hangings shall be 
on the one Aving; their pillars shall Ije three 
and their sockets three. 

15 And on the other wing shall be fifteen 
cubits of hangings; their pillars shall be three, 
and their sockets three. 

16 And for the gate of the court shall be 
a hanging of twenty cubits, of blue, and pur- 
ple, and scarlet yarn, and twisted linen, the 
work of the embroiderer; with four pillars for 
the same, and their four sockets.* 

17 All the pillars round about the court 
shall be filleted with silver; their hooks shall 
be of silver, and their sockets of copper. 

18 The length of the court shall be one 
hundred cubits, and the breadth fifty by fifty, 
and the height five cubits, of twisted linen, 
and the sockets for the same of copper. 

19 All the vessels of the tabernacle in all 
the service thereof, and all its pins, and all 
the pins of the court, shall be of copper. 

Ilaphtorah in 1 Kings v. 26 to vi. 13. 



* I. e. A sort of gallery running round the altar, on 
irbich the priests stood in offering. 



SECTION XX. TETZAVVEH, r\\)ir\. 

20 Tl And thou shalt command the chil- 
dren of Israel, that they bring thee pure olive 
oil, beaten out, for the lighting, to cause a 
light to burn always. 

21 In the taternacle of the congregation, 
without the vail, which is before the testi- 
mony, shall Aaron with his sons arrange it 
(for) from the evening to the morning, be- 
fore the Lord; as a statute for ever unto 
their generations, on behalf of the children of 
Israel. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

1 ^ And thou shalt let come near unto 
thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with 
him, from among the children of Israel, that 
he may be a priest unto me; Aaron, Nadab 



" This implies, that at other times they shall be taken 
out, but from the ark they were never to be moved. 



EXODUS XXVIII. TETZAVVEH. 



and Abihu, Elazar and Ithamar, the sons of 
Aaron. 

2 And thou shalt make holy garments for 
Aaron thy brother, for glory and for orna- 
ment. 

3 And thou shalt speak unto all that are 
wisehearted, whom I have filled with the 
spirit of wisdom, that they may make gar- 
ments for Aaron, to sanctify him, that he 
may be a priest unto me. 

4 And these are the garments which they 
shall make : a breastplate, and an ephod, and 
a robe, and a checkered coat, a mitre, and a 
girdle; and they shall make holy gannents 
for Aaron thy brother, and for his sons, to be 
a priest unto me. 

5 And they shall take the gold, and the 
blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, and the 
linen. 

6 Tl" And they shall make the ephod, of 
gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet yarn,* 
and twisted linen, of weaver's work. 

7 Two shoulder-pieces shall it have joined 
at the two edges thereof; by which it shall 
be joined together.'' 

8 And the belt for girding, which is upon 
it, shall be of the same make, out of the same 
piece with itself; of gold, of blue, and purple, 
and scarlet yam, and twisted linen. 

9 And thou shalt take two onyx stones, 
and engrave on them the names of the chil- 
dren of Israel : 

10 Six of their names on the one stone, and 
the names of the remaining six on the other 
stone, according to the order of their birth. 

11 With the work of an engi'aver in stone, 
like the engraving of a signet, shalt thou en- 
grave the two stones Avith the names of the 
children of Israel; fitted in settings of gold 
shalt thou make them. 

12 And thou shalt put the two stones upon 
the shoulder-pieces of the ephod as stones of 
memorial unto the children of Israel; and 
Aaron shall bear their names before the Lord 
upon his two shoulders for a memorial.* 



* Where this word is used in the present version, it 
means "woollen" j"arn; the term is not employed how- 
ever in the Hebrew, which merely has always "blue, pur- 
ple, and scarlet." 

* Arnheim thinks that this means "to the breastplate," 
which was, as afterward directed, joined to the ephod; 
but Rashi understands it to convey that the shoulder- 
pieces should be sewed on the ephod, not woven with it 
in one piece. 



13 ^ And thou shalt make casings of gold ; 

14 And two chains of pure gold, with 
knots at the ends, of wreathed work shalt 
thou make them, and thou shalt fasten the 
wreathed chains to the casings. 

15 ]f And thou shalt make the breastplate 
of judgment, of weaver's work; after the 
work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of 
gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, 
and of twisted linen, shalt thou make it. 

16 Four-square shall it be, double; a spaa 
in length, and a span in breadth. 

17 And thou shalt set in it settings of 
stones, even four rows of stones : the first row, 
a sardius," a topaz, and an emerald; this shall 
be the first row. 

18 And the second row, a carbuncle, a 
sapphire, and a diamond. 

19 And the third row, an opal, a turquoise, 
and an amethyst. 

20 And the fourth row, a chrysolite, and 
an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be fitted 
in golden casings when they are set in. 

21 And the stones shall be according to 
the names of the children of Israel, twelve, 
according to their names ; (engraved) with the 
engraving of a signet, every one according to 
his name, shall they be for the twelve tribes. 

22 And thou shalt make on the breastjjlate 
chains with knots at the ends, of wreathed 
work, of pui'e gold. 

23 And thou shalt make on the breastr 
plate two rings of gold, and shalt yint the two 
rings on the two ends of the breastplate. 

24 And thou shalt put the two Avreathed 
chains of gold in the two rings, on the ends 
of the breastplate. 

25 And the (other) two ends of the two 
wreathed chains thou shalt fasten on the two 
casings, and put them on the shoulder-pieces 
of the ephod on the outside thereof 

26 And thou shalt make two rings of gold, 
and thou shalt put them on the two ends of 
the breastplate on its border, which is on the 
opposite side of the ephod, inward. 



' "Or ruby." The correct meaning of the names of 
the jewels in the breastplate is so uncertain that both 
Mendelssohn and Arnheim have left them untranslated. 
They are supported in this omission by the great diversity 
of opinion prevailing among commentators. The version 
given in the present text must therefore be looked upon 
as an approximation, developed in a note to Amheim's 



EXODUS XXVIII. XXIX. TETZAVVEH. 



27 And thou shalt make two more rings 
of gold, and shalt put them on the two 
shoulder-pieces of the ephod underneath, to- 
ward its front part, close by its seam, above 
the girdle of the ephod. 

28 And they shall fasten the breastplate 
by its rings unto the rings of the ephod with 
a lace of blue, that it may remain on the 
girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate 
be not loosed from the ephod. 

29 And Aaron shall bear the names of the 
children of Israel in the breastplate of judg- 
ment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto 
the holy place, for a memorial before the 
Lord continually. 

30 And thou shalt put into the breastplate 
of judgment the Urim and the Thummim, 
and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when 
he goeth in before the Lord ; and Aaron shall 
bear the judgment of the children of Israel 
upon his heart before the Lord continually.* 

31 ^ And thou shalt make the robe of the 
ephod altogether of blue woollen yarn. 

32 And there shall be an opening in the 
top of it, in the midst thereof; it shall have 
a binding of woven work, round about its 
opening, as it is on the opening of an haber- 
geon, so shall it be thereon, that it be not 
rent. 

33 And thou shalt make on its lower hem 
pomegranates of blue, and purple, and scarlet 
yai-n, round about its lower hem; and bells 
of gold betAveen them round about: 

34 A golden bell and a pomegranate, a 
golden bell and a pomegranate, on the lower 
hem of the robe round about. 

35 And it shall be upon Aaron when he 
ministereth; and his sound shall be heard 
when he goeth in unto the holy place before 
tlie Lord, and when he cometh out, that he 
die not. 

36 T[ And thou shalt make a plate of pure 
gold, and grave upon it, like the engraving of 
a signet, Holy unto the Lord. 

37 And thou shalt fiisten it on a blue lace, 
and it shall be upon the mitre ; upon the front 
of the mitre shall it be. 

38 And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead; 
and Aaron shall atone for the iniquity of the 
holy things, which the children of Israel shall 
hallow in all their holy gifts; and it shall be 
upon his forehead always, that they may be 
received in favour before the Lord. 

39 And thou shalt make the coat of linen 

100 



checkered, and thou shalt make a mitre of 
linen, and a girdle shalt thou make of em- 
broiderer's work. 

40 And for Aaron's sons shalt thou make 
coats, and thou shalt make for them girdles ; 
and bonnets thou shalt make for them, for 
glory and for ornament. 

41 And thou shalt clothe therewith Aaron 
thy brother, and his sons with him; and thou 
shalt anoint them, and consecrate" them, and 
sanctify them, that they may be priests unto 
me. 

42 And thou shalt make them linen 
breeches to cover their nakedness ; from the 
loins even unto the thighs shall they reach. 

43 And the}^ shall be upon Aaron, and 
upon his sons, when they come in unto the 
tabernacle of the congregation, or Avhen they 
come near imto the altar to minister in the 
holy place ; that they bear not iniquity, and 
die ; a statute for ever shall it be for him and 
for his seed after him.* 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

1 ^ And this is the thing that thou shalt do 
unto them to hallow them, to become priests 
unto me: Take one young bullock, and two 
rams without blemish, 

2 And unleavened bread, and unleavened 
cakes, mingled with oil, and unleavened 
wafers, anointed Avith oil; of fine wheaten 
flour shalt thou make them. 

3 And thou shalt put tlijem into one basket, 
and bring them near"' in the basket, Avith the 
bullock and the two rams. 

4 And Aaron and his sons shalt thou bring 
near unto the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation, and shalt Avash them Avith 
Avater. 

5 And thou shalt take the garments, and 
clothe Aaron Avith the coat, and the robe of 
the ephod, and the ephod, and the breast- 
plate, and gird him Avith the girdle of the 
ephod : 

G And thou shalt put the mitre upon his 
head, and thou shalt fasten the holy croAvn 
upon the mitre. 

7 Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, 
and pour it upon his head, and anoint him. 



* Heb. " Fill their hand;" the consecr.ition is to say a 
gift, placed in the hand of a man, thus filling it with the 
same. 

" i. e. Near the altar a.s a sacrifice. 



EXODUS XXIX. TETZAVVEH. 



8 And his sons shalt thou bring near, and 
clothe them with coats. 

9 And thou shalt gird them with the gir- 
dles, Aaron and his sons, and bmd the bonnets 
on them ; and the priest's office shall be theirs 
for a perpetual statute : and thus shalt thou 
conseci'ate Aaron and his sons. 

10 And thou shalt cause the bullock to be 
bi'ought before the tabernacle of the congre- 
gation : and Aaron and his sons shall lay their 
hands upon the head of the bullock. 

11 And thou shalt kill the bullock before 
the Lord, by the door of the tabernacle of 
the congregation. 

12 And thou shalt take of the blood of the 
bullock, and put it upon the horns of the 
altar with thy finger, and all the remaining* 
blood shalt thou pour out beside the bottom 
of the altar. 

13 And thou shalt take all the fat that 
covereth the inwards, and the midriff above 
the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat 
that is upon them, and burn them upon the 
altar. 

14 But the flesh of the bullock, and his 
skin, and his dung, shalt thou bum with fire, 
without the camp : it is a sin-ofiering. 

15 And the one ram shalt thou take; and 
Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands upon 
the head of the ram. 

16 And thou shalt slay the ram, and thou 
shalt take his blood, and sprinkle it upon the 
altar round about. 

17 And the I'am shalt thou cut in pieces, 
and wash his inwards, and his legs, and put 
them with his pieces, and with his head. 

18 And thou shalt burn the whole ram 
upon the altar, it is a burnt-oifering unto the 
Lord; it is a sweet «avour, an offering made 
by fire unto the Lord.* 

19 And thou shalt take the other ram; 
ajid Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands 
upon the head of the ram. 

20 Then shalt thou kill the ram, and take 
of his blood, and put it upon the tip*" of 
Aaron's right ear, and upon the tip of the 
right ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of 
their right hand, and upon the great toe of 



* The literal rendering would be " all the blood," the 
word " remaining" is supplied by Rashi, and is required 
by the context, as likewise in other parallel passages. 

^ More correctly, the central prominent portion of the 
car, the anti-helix. 



their right foot, and sprinkle the blood upon 
the altar round about. 

21 And thou shalt take of the blood that 
is upon the altar, and of the anointing oil, 
and sprinkle them upon Aaron, and upon his 
gamicnts, and upon his sons, and upon the 
garments of his sons with him : and he shall 
be hallowed, together with his garments, and 
his sons, and the garments of his sons with 
him. 

22 And thou shalt take from the ram the 
fat and the rump, and the fat that covereth 
the inwards, and the midrifi" above the liver, 
and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon 
them, and the right shoulder; lor it is a ram 
of consecration ; 

23 And one loaf of bread, and one cake of 
the oiled bread, and one wafer, out of the 
basket of the unleavened bread that is before 
the Lord. 

24 And thou shalt put all this upon the 
hands of Aaron, and upon the hands of his 
sons; and thou shalt make with them a 
waving before the Lord. 

25 And thou shalt then take them from 
their hands, and burn them upon the altar 
upon the burnt^ofiering ; for a sweet savour 
before the Lord, it is an ofiering made by fire 
unto the Lord. 

26 And thou shalt take the breast of the 
ram of the consecration that belongeth to 
Aaron, and make therewith a waving" before 
the Lord; and it shall belong to thee as thy 
portion. 

27 And thou shalt sanctify the breast which 
hath been waved, and the shoulder which 
hath been lifted up, which was waved, and 
which was heaved up, of the ram of the con- 
secration, of that which belongeth to Aaron, 
and of that which belongeth to his sons : 

28 That they shall belong to Aaron and to 
his sons, as a statute forever, from the chil- 
dren of Israel ; for it is a heave-oifering ; and a 
heave-offering it shall remain from the chil- 
dren of Israel, from the sacrifices of their peacc- 
oflferings, as their heave-offering unto the Lord. 

29 And the holy garments belonging to 
Aaron shall be for his sons after him, to 



" The owner of the sacrifice placed the pieces on his 
hands, and the priest put his under the other's, and they 
together waved the sacrifice to the four comers of heaven, 
lifted and lowered it ; this is the " waving and lifting up" 
spoken of in the text. 

101 



EXODUS XXIX. XXX. TETZAVVEH. 



anoint them therein, and to consecrate them 
therein. 

30 Seven days shall that one of his sons 
put them on who is to be priest in his place, 
who is to go into the tabernacle of the con- 
gregation to minister in the sanctuary. 

31 And the ram of the consecration shalt 
thou take, and seethe his flesh in a holy place. 

32 And Aaron with his sons shall eat the 
flesh of the ram, and the bread that is in the 
basket, by the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation. 

33 And they shall eat those things where- 
with the atonement was made, to consecrate 
them and to sanctify them; but a stranger 
shall not eat thereof, because they are holy. 

34 And if aught of the flesh of the conse- 
cration sacrifice, or of the bread, remain unto 
the mornmg, tlien shalt thou bum the re- 
mainder with fire ; it shall not be eaten, be- 
cause it is holy. 

35 And thou shalt do unto Aaron, and to 
his sons thus, all as I have commanded thee; 
seven days shalt thou consecrate them. 

36 And a bullock shalt thou offer every 
day for a sin-offering as an atonement:" and 
thou shalt cleanse the altai-, in as much as 
thou makest an atonement upon it ; and thou 
shalt anoint it, to sanctify it. 

37 Seven days shalt thou make an atone- 
ment upon the altar and sanctify it ; and the 
altar shall be most holy; whatsoever'' toucheth 
the altar shall be holy.'"' 

38 T[ And this is what thou shalt offer upon 
the altar : Two lambs of the first year for 
every day, continually. 

39 The one lamb shalt thou offer in the 
morning ; and the other lamb shalt thou offer 
toward evening. 

40 And a tenth part of fine flour mingled 
with the fourtli part of a hin of beaten oil, 
and the fourth part of a hin of wine for a 
drink-offering, shall be for the one lamb. 

41 And the other lamb shalt thou offer to- 
ward evening; according to the meat-offering 
of the mormng, and according to its drink- 
offering shalt thou do unto it, for a sweet 
savour, an offering made by fire unto the Lord. 



• After Rashi. But Aben Ezra renders, " in addition 
to the atonement," referring to the two rams mentioned 
above. 

' Aben Ezra quotes an opinion, which is partly that of 
Onkelos, that this should be rendered, " whoever toucheth 
102 



42 A continual bunit-offering throughout 
your generations (shall this be) at the door 
of the tabernacle of the congregation before 
the Lord; where I will meet with you, to 
speak unto thee there. 

43 And I will meet there with the children 
of Israel, and it shall be sanctified by my glory. 

44 And I Avill sanctify the tabernacle of 
the congregation, and the altar: and both 
Aaron and his sons wall I sanctify, that they 
may be priests unto me. 

45 And I will dwell among the children of 
Israel, and I will be to them for a God. 

46 And they shall know that I am the 
Eternal, their God, Avho brought them forth 
out of the land of Egypt, that I might dwell 
among them; I am the Lord their God. 

CHAPTER XXX. 

1 ^ And thou shalt make an altar to burn in- 
cense upon,of shittim wood shalt thou make it. 

2 A cubit shall be its length, and a cubit 
its breadth ; foursquare shall it be, and two 
cubits shall be its height ; from itself shall its 
horns be. 

3 And thou shalt overlay it A\'ith pure gold, 
its top, and, its sides round about, and its 
horns ; and thou shalt make unto it a crown 
of gold round about. 

4 And two rings of gold shalt thou make 
for it Ijcneath its crown, on its two comers 
shalt thou make them, upon both its sides; 
and they shall be as i-eceptacles for the staves 
to bear it by means of them. 

5 And thou shalt make the staves of shit- 
tim wood, and overlay them with gold. 

6 And thou shalt put it before the vail 
that is before the ark of the testimony, before 
the mercy-seat that is over the testimony, 
where I will meet with thee. 

7 And Aaron shall burn thereon incen.se 
of spices; every morning when he dresseth 
the lamps, shall he burn it.'=' 

8 And when Aaron lighteth the lamps to- 
ward evening, shall he burn it; a perpetual 
incense before the Lord, throughout your 
generations. 

9 Ye shall not offer thereon any strange" 



the altar must be holy," excluding those who are unclean 
from touching thereon. Arnheim translates in the same 
manner. 

° I. c. Any other incense than that commanded here- 
after, V. 34. (See also Levit. x. 1.) 



EXODUS XXX. KI TISSAH. 



incense, or burnt-sacrifice, or meat-offering; 
and a drink-offering shall ye not pour thereon. 
10 And Aaron shall make an atonement 
upon its horns once in a year ; with the blood 
of the sin-offering of the day of atonement," 
once in the year, shall he make atonement 
upon it, throughout your generations; it is 
most holy unto the Lord. 

Haphtorah in Ezekiel xliii. 10 to 27. 



SECTION XXI. KI TISSAH, NttTI O. 

11 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

12 When thou takest the sum of the chil- 
dren of Israel of those Avho are to be num- 
bered of them, then shall they give every 
man a ransom for his soul unto the Lord, 
when they number them; that thei-e be no 
plague among them, when they numl^er them. 

13 This they shall give, every one that 
passeth among those that are numbered, half 
a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary ; 
twenty gerahs to the shekel ; the half of the 
shekel shall be the tribute to the Lord. 

14 Every one that passeth among those 
that are numbered, from twenty years old 
and above, shall give the tribute unto the 
Lord. 

15 The rich shall not give more, and the 
poor shall not give less than the half of a 
shekel, as a tribute unto the Lord, to make 
an atonement for your souls. 

16 And thou shalt take the money of the 
atonement from the children of Israel, and 
shalt employ it for the service of the taber- 
nacle of the congregation; and it shall be 
unto the children of Israel as a memorial be- 
fore the Lord, to make an atonement for your 
souls. 

17 ^ And the Lord spoke mi to Moses, 
saying, 

18 Thou shalt also make a laver of copper, 
with its foot of copper, to wash withal : and 
thou shalt set it between the tabernacle of 
the congregation and the altar, and thou shalt 
put therein water. 

19 And Aaron and his sons shall wash out 
of it their hands and their feet. 



* See Leviticus xvi. 18, where it is ordained that on the 
Day of Atonement the blood of a steer and a goat should 
be sprinkled on this altar; at other times nothing but in- 
cense was burnt on it. 



20 When they go into the tabernacle of 
the congregation, they shall wash themselves 
with water, that they die not ; or when they 
come near to the altar to minister, to burn an 
offering made by fire unto the Lord. 

21 And they shall wash their hands and 
their feet, that they die not; and it shall be 
to them a statute for ever, even to him and 
to his seed throughout their generations. 

22 *\\ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

23 And thou, take unto thyself principal 
spices; of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, 
and of sweet cinnamon, its half' shall be two 
hundred and fifty shekels, and of sweet cala- 
mus two hundred and fifty shekels, 

24 And of cassia five hundred shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of olive- 
oil one hin. 

25 And thou shalt make of it an oil of 
holy anointing, a mixture, compounded after 
the art of the apothecary: an oil of hoi}" 
anointing shall it be. 

20 And thou shalt anoint therewith the 
tabernacle of the congregation, and the ark of 
the testimony, 

27 And the table and all its vessels, and 
the candlestick and its vessels, and the altar 
of incense, 

28 And the altar of burnt-offering with all 
its vessels, and the laver and its foot. 

29 And thou shalt sanctify them, and they 
shall be most holy; whatsoever toucheth them 
shall be holy. 

30 And Aaron and his sons shalt thou 
anoint, and consecrate them to be priests 
unto me. 

31 And unto the children of Israel shalt 
thou speak, saving. An oil of holy anointing 
shall this be unto me throughout your gene- 
rations. 

32 Upon the flesh of man shall it not be 
poured, and after its proportion shall ye not 
make any thing like it; it is holy, and holy 
shall it be unto you. 

33 Whosoever compoimdeth the like of it, 
or whosoever putteth any of it upon a stran- 
ger, shall be cut off from his people. 

34 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Take 



■• "The half of what is brought of it shall be two hun- 
dred shekels, which gives the weight of the whole equal 
to that of the myrrh." — Talmud Keritotu. 

108 



EXODUS XXX. XXXI. KI TISSAH. 



unto thee spices, balm, and onycha, and gal- 
banum, spices, with pure frankincense: of 
each shall there be an equal" weight. 

35 And thou shalt make it an incense, a 
mixture after the art of the apothecary, well 
mingled'' together, pure and holy. 

36 And thou shalt pound some of it fine, 
and offer of it before the testimony in the taljer- 
nacle of the congregation, whei'e I will meet 
with thee ; most holy shall it be unto you. 

37 And as for the incense which thou shalt 
make, according to its proportion, shall ye 
not make any unto j'ourselves : holy shall it 
be unto thee for the Lord. 

38 Whosoever shall make the like of it, to 
smell thereon, shall be cut off from his people. 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 See, I have called by name Bezalel the 
son of Uri, the son of Chur, of the tribe of 
Judah: 

3 And I have filled him with the spirit of 
God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in 
knowledge, and in all manner of workman- 
ship, 

4 To devise works of art, to work in gold, 
and in silver, and in cojijper, 

5 And in the cutting of stones, to set them, 
and in the car^'ing of wood, to work in all 
manner of workmanship. 

6 And behold, I have also given with him 
Aholial), the son of Achissamach, of the tribe 
of Dan, and in the heart of all that are wise- 
hearted have I put wisdom ; and they shall 
make all that I have commanded thee; 

7 The tabernacle of the congregation, and 
the ark of the testimony, and the cover that 
is thereupon, and all the vessels of the taber- 
nacle ; 



* After Onkelos and Talmud ; but Aben Ezra translates, 
"Each shall be prepared separately." 

^ Aben Ezra considered nSoD as derived from nSo 
"salt," thus, "salted," that is, "bestrewed with salt of 
Sodom, or nitre." Rosenmiiller, as quoted by Arnheim, 
considers this kind of salt referred to under the words 
"pure, lioly," in contradistinction to coni7uon salt. The 
use of salt of Sodom with the incense is traditional. 

° " Although I have ordered thee to charge them con- 
cerning the building of the tabernacle, the Sabbath must 
not be undervalued in thy eyes ; for though you are busily 
engaged in the labour of building, the Sabbath must on 
no ateount be violated to do the least of this work." — 
Rasiii. 

104 



8 And the table and its vessels, and the 
pure candlestick with all its vessels, and the 
altar of incense ; 

9 And the altar of burnt-offering Avith all 
its vessels, and the laver and its foot ; 

10 And the cloths of service, and the holy 
garments for Aaron the priest, and the gar- 
ments of his sons, to minister therein; 

11 And the anointing oil, and the incense 
of spices for the holy place: all as I have 
commanded thee shall they do. 

12 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses as 
foUoweth, 

13 And thou shalt speak unto the children 
of Israel, saying, Above all," my sabbaths 
shall ye keep; for a sign it is between me 
and you throughout your generations; that 
ye may know that I am the Lord who doth 
sanctify you. 

14 And ye shall keep the sabbath, for it is 
holy unto you; every one that defileth it 
shall surely be put to death; for whosoever 
doeth any work thereon, that soul shall be 
cut off from among his people. 

15 Six days may work be done; but on 
the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the 
Lord : whosoever doeth any work on the sab- 
bath-day, shall surely be put to death. 

16 And the children of Israel shall keep 
the sabbath, to observe the sabbath through- 
out their generations, for a perpetual cove- 
nant. 

17 Between me and the children of Israel 
it shall be a sign for ever; for in six days 
the Lord made the heavens and the earth, and 
on the seventh day he rested, and was re- 
freshed.''* 

18 ^ And he gave luito Moses, when he 
had finished speaking with him upon mount 
Sinai, the two tables of the testimony, tables 
of stone, inscribed with the finger of God. 



* This, like many other expressions in Scripture, must 
be taken merely as expressing divine acts by human 
words. Mendelssohn renders freely "and attained his 
aim," but this is scarcely the sense of the word csj'i. 
Philippson renders curiously, "and was by himself," i. c. 
"happy in his own contemplation," rendering the word 
literally as derived from nrphesh, "soul." Perhaps Men- 
delssohn translated it freely as he did from the same view 
of the subject. But even the word "rested" is as little 
applicable as "refreshed," since the Creator has neither 
labour nor fatigue; but it is all figurative. Arnheim 
gives "3 in this verse with "that," and not "for," mean- 
ing that the Sabbath is the token that we believe that 
God created all in specific time. 



EXODUS XXXII. KI TISSAIL 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

1 And wlien the people saw that Moses 
delayed to come down from the mount, the 
people assembled themselves together around 
Aaron, and they said unto him, Up, make us 
gods, that shall go Ijefore us ; for of this man 
Moses, who hath brought us up out of the 
land of Egypt, we know not what is become 
of him. 

2 And Aaron said unto them. Take out 
the golden ear-rings, which are in the ears of 
your wives, of your sons, and of your daugh- 
ters, and bring them unto me. 

3 And all the people took out the golden 
ear-rings which were in their ears, and brought 
them unto Aaron. 

4 And he took them from their hand, and 
fashioned it in a mould, and he made of it a 
molten calf; and they said. These are thy 
gods, Israel, that have brought thee up out 
of tlie land of Egypt. 

5 And when Aaron saw this, he built an 
altar before it; and Aaron called out, and 
said, A feast unto the Lord is to-morrow. 

6 And they rose up early on the morrow, 
and offered burnt^offermgs, and brought near 
peace-offerings;" and the people sat down to 
eat and to drink, and rose up to play. 

7 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, Go, 
get thee down; for thy people, which thou 
hast brought up out of the land of Egypt, 
hath become corrupt: 

8 They have turned aside quickly from the 
way which I have commanded them; they 
have made themselves a molten calf; and 
they have bowed themselves to it, and have 
sacrificed unto it, and have said. These are 
thy gods, Israel, that have brought thee up 
out of the land of Egypt. 

9 And the Lord said unto Moses, I have 
seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiiF- 
necked people. 

10 And now let me alone, and my wrath 
shall wax hot against them, and I will make 



* In the preceding verse, Aaron is represented as tolling 
the people that on the morrow there should be a festival 
unto the Lord, no doubt expecting the return of Moses, 
which would occasion a renewed fidelity to their great 
Deliverer. But early the next morning, the frantic 
people assembled round the statue of their idol, shout- 
ed, sacrificed, played, rioted, sang, in the manner of 
the heathen, forgetful of the events which their own 
eyes had seen. Aaron, however, must not be supposed 




an end of them ; and I will make of thee a 
great nation. 

11 Thereupon Moses besought the Lord 
his God, and said, Wh}', Lord, shall thy 
wrath wax hot against thy people, that thou 
hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt, 
with great power and with a mighty hand? 

12 Wherefore should the Egyptians say 
thus. For mischief did he bring them out, to 
slay them in the mountains, and to destroy 
them from the face of the earth? Turn from 
thy fierce wrath, and repent thee of the evil 
decreed against thy people. 

13 Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, 
thy servants, to whom thou didst swear by 
thy own self, and speak unto them, I wiil 
multiply your seed as the stars of heaven; 
and all this land that I have spoken of will I 
give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it 
for ever. 

14 And the Lord bethought himself of the 
evil which he had spoken to do unto his 
people. 

15 ^ And Moses turned about, and went 
down from the mount with the two tables of 
the testimony in his hand; tables inscribed 
on both their sides; on the one side and on 
the other were they inscribed. 

16 And the tables Avere the work of God, 
and the writing was the writing of God, en- 
graved upon the tables. 

1 7 And Joshua heard the noise of the peo- 
ple in its shouting, and he said unto Moses. 
There is a noise of war in the camj). 

18 And he said. It is not the voice of a 
shout for mastery, neither is it the voice of a 
cry for defeat; the noLse of singing do I hear. 

19 And it came to pass, when he came 
nigh unto the camp, and he saw the calf, and 
the dancing : that the anger of Moses waxed 
hot, and he cast from his hands the tables, 
and broke them at the foot of the mount. 

20 And he took the calf which they had 
made, and burnt'' it in fire, and ground it 
to a powder, and he strewed it upon the 



as having farther participated in the sin than making 
the calf. 

^ Arnheim adds " partly," and supposes that the body 
of the calf was a frame-work of wood, and the gold merely 
a covering for it. Philippson, however, after Michlol 
Yoi'HI, thinks that Moses melted the calf first, then re- 
duced it by beating and rolling to plates of the utmost 
possible thinness, which he then mixed with water, as 
described in the text. 

105 



EXODUS XXXIT. XXXIII. KI TISSAH. 



water, and made the children of Isi-coel drink 
of it. 

21 And Moses said unto Aaron, "What hath 
this people done unto thee, that thou hast 
brought upon it so great a sin ? 

" 22 And Aaron said, Let not the anger of 
my lord wax hot : thou knowest the people, 
that it is bent on mischief. 

23 And they said unto me. Make us gods 
that shall go before us; for of this man Moses, 
who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, 
we know not Avhat hath become of him. 

24 And I said unto them. Who hath any 
gold ? They took it off themselves and gave 
it to me, and I cast it into the fire, and there 
came out this calf 

25 And Moses saw the people that it had 
become unruly ; for Aaron had made it unruly 
for a disgrace among their opponents. 

26 Moses then placed himself in the gate 
of the camp, and said. Whoever is on the 
Lord's side, let him come unto me ! and there 
assembled themselves unto him all" the sons 
of Levi. 

27 And he said unto them, Thus saith the 
Eternal, the God of Israel, Put ye, every man 
his sword by his side, and go ye hither and 
thither, from gate to gate in the camp, and 
slay ye eveiy man his brother, and every 
man his companion, and every man his relar 
tive. 

28 And the children of Levi did according 
to the word of Moses: and there fell of the 
people on that day about three thousand men. 

29 And Moses said, Consecrate yourselves 
to-day to the Lord, yea even every man on 
his son, and on his bi'other; and to bestow 
upon you this day a blessing. 

30 And it came to pass on the morrow, 
that Moses said unto the people. Ye have sin- 
ned a great sin : and now I will go up unto 
the Lord; peradventure I may obtain an 
atonement for your sin. 

31 And Moses i-eturned unto the Lord, 



* Arnheim wishes to understand under "all" not the 
whole, but the far greater majority, so as to reconcile it 
with verse 29, which Ilashi expounds as referring to step- 
brothers and sons, belonging to other tribes. 

"■ Elliptical ; meaning, " If thou forgivest, it is well ; 
but if not," &c. This passage proves that no one can be 
permitted to assume the guilt of another. 

" This verse, crjually with the passage commencing 
with verse 12, is exceedingly difficult of interpretation ; it 
is therefore intended to give merely an idea of the mean- 
IOC 



and said, Oh, this people hath sinned a great 
sin, and they have made themselves gods of 
gold. . 

32 Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their 
sin — ;^ but if not, blot me out, I pray thee, 
from thy book which thou hast written. 

33 And the Lord said unto Moses, Whoso- 
ever hath sinned against me, liim will I blot 
out from m}^ book. 

34 And now go, lead the people unto the 
place of Avhich I have spoken unto thee ; be- 
hold, my angel shall go before thee; but on 
the day when I visit I will visit their sin 
ujjon them. 

35 And the Lord sent a plague among the 
people, because that they had made the calf 
which Aaron made. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

1 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Depart, 
go up from here, thou and the people that 
thou hast brought up out of the land of Egypt, 
unto the land which I swore unto Abraham, 
to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying. Unto thy seed 
will I give it; — 

2 And I will send before thee an angel; 
and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Emor- 
ite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the 
Hivite, and the Jebusite ; — 

3 Unto a land flowing with milk and ho- 
ney ; for I will not go up in the midst of thee, 
because thou art a stiffnecked people; lest I 
consume thee on the way. 

4 And when the people heard these evil 
tidings, they mourned; and no man did put 
his ornaments on him. 

5 For the Lord had said unto Moses, Say 
unto the children of Israel, Ye are a still- 
necked people ; should I go" up one moment, 
in the midst of thee, I would consume thee ; 
now therefore put off thy ornaments from 
thee, and I sliall know what I will do unto 
thee. 

6 The children of Israel then stripped 



ing in this note. God had said that his own visible glory 
should not go with the people on their journey, an angel, 
a messenger, was all they could expect; as his own pre- 
sence would consume them, sliould they sin again, they 
being stiffnecked, or disobedient. Their ornaments should 
be laid aside as an evidence that they were under the dis- 
pleasure of Heaven ; this humiliation, however, should not 
save them from farther punishment ; for God would know 
how to make them feel in future the weight of their sin. 
(See above, xxxii. 34.) 



EXODUS XXXIII. XXXIV. KI TISSAH. 



themselves of their ornaments (they wore) 
from (the time they were at) Mount Horeb. 

7 And Moses took the tent, and pitched it 
without the camp, afar off from the camp, and 
called it, Tabernacle of the congregation ; and 
it came to pass, that every one who sought 
(instruction of) the Lord Avent out unto the 
tabernacle of the congregation, which was 
without the camp. 

8 And it came to pass, that when Moses 
went out unto the tent, all the people would 
rise up, and stand every man at the door of 
his tent, and look after Moses, until he was 
gone into the tent. 

9 And it came to pass, that as Moses 
entered into the tent, the pillar of cloud de- 
scended, and -stood at the door of the tent, 
and spoke with Moses. 

10 And when all the people saw the pillar 
of cloud stand at the door of the tent : then 
all the people rose up and prostrated them- 
selves, every man at the door of his tent. 

11 And the Lord spoke unto Moses face to 
face, as a man speaketh unto his friend; and 
then he returned into the camp ; but his ser- 
vant, Joshua the son of Nun, a young man, 
departed not out of the tent. 

12 If And Moses said unto the Lord, See, 
thou sayest unto me. Bring up this people ; 
but thou hast not let me know whom thou 
wilt send with me : and yet thou hast said, I 
have chosen thee by name, and thou hast also 
found grace in my eyes. 

13 Now, therefore, I pray thee, if I have 
found grace in thy eyes, do make me know 
thy way, that I may know thee, in order that 
I may "find grace in thy eyes ; and consider 
that "this nation is thy people. 

14 And he said, My presence shall go in 
advance, and I will give thee rest. 

15 And he said unto him. If thy presence 
go not (with us.) carry us not up from here. 

16 For wherem shall it be known in any 
wise that I have found grace in thy eyes, I 
with thy people ? is it not in that thou goest 
with us'? so shall we be distinguished, I and 
thy people, from all the people that are upon 
the face of the earth.* 

17 II And the Lord said unto Moses, Also 
this thing that thou hast spoken will I do ; 



for thou hast found grace in my eyes, and I 
have chosen thee by name. 

18 And he said, Let me see, I beseech 
thee, thy glory. 

19 And he said, I will cause all my good- 
ness to pass before thy fiice, and I will pro- 
claim," by name, the Loud tefore thee ; and I 
will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, 
and I will show mercy to whom I will show 
mercy. 

20 And he said, Thou canst not see my 
face ; for no man can .see me, and live. 

21 And the Lord said, Behold, there is a 
place by me, and thou shalt stand upon the 
rock: 

22 And it shall come to pass, while my 
glory passeth by, that I will put thee in the 
cleft of the rock, and I will cover thee with 
my hand, until I have passed by. 

23 And then I will take away my hand, 
and thou shalt see my back parts; but my 
face shall not be seeu.'=' 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 

1 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Hew 
thyself two tallies of stone like unto the first; 
and I will write upon these tables the words 
which were on the first tables, which thou 
didst break. 

2 And be ready by the mommg, and come 
up in the morning unto mount Sinai, and 
present thyself there to me on the top of the 
mount. 

3 And no man shall come up with thee, 
neither let any man be seen throughout all 
the mount; neither let the flocks or herds 
feed near this mount. 

1 4 And he hewed two tables of stone like 
unto the first, and Moses rose up early in the 

I morning, and went up unto mount Sinai, as 
the Lord had commanded him ; and he took 
m his hand the two tables of stone. 

5 And the Lord descended in the cloud, 
and stood with hun there, and proclaimed, by- 
name, the Lord. 

6 And the Lord passed by before him, and 
proclaimed. The Lord is the immutable, eter- 
nal Being, the omnipotent God, merciful and 
gracious, long-suffering and abundant in benefi- 
cence and truth; 



' Arnheim renders : " And I will proclaim before thee ; mercy ;" and he explains the verse: "This is the nature 
the name Eternat and how I am gracious to whom I am : of this Divine Name, and this is also my way, for the know- 
gracious, and how I have mercy on him to whom I show 1, ledge of which thou hast prayed. ^^^ 



EXODUS XXXIV. KI TISSAH. 



7 Keeping mercy unto the thousandth (ge- 
nei'ation,) forgiving iniquity and transgression 
and sin, but who will by no means clear the 
guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers 
upon the children, and upon the children's 
children, unto the third and to the fourth 
generation. 

8 And Moses made haste, and bowed his 
head toward the earth, and prostrated himself 

9 And he said, If now I have found grace 
in thy eyes, Lord, let the Lord, I pray thee, 
go among us ; even because* it is a stiifnecked 
people ; and pai'don thou our iniquity and our 
sin, and take us for thy heritage.* 

10 And he said, Behold, I make a cove- 
nant: before all thy people will I perform 
wonders, such as have not been done on all 
the earth, nor in any nation; and all the peo- 
ple amongst Avhom thou art shall see the 
work of the Lord; for it is a terrible thing 
that I will do with thee. 

11 Observe thou that which I command 
thee this day ; behold, I will drive out before 
thee the Emorite, and the Canaauite, and the 
Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and 
the Jebusite. 

12 Take heed to thyself, lest thou make a 
covenant with the inhabitants of the land 
against which thou goest up, lest it be for a 
snare in the midst of thee ; 

13 But their altars shall ye destroy, and 
their statues shall ye break, and their groves 
shall ye cut down. 

14 For thou shalt worship no other god; 
for the Lord whose name is Watchful, is a 
watchful God. 

15 Make thou then no covenant with the 
inhabitants of the land ; lest that, if they go 
astray after their gods, and sacrifice unto their 
gods, any one call thee, and thou eat of his 
sacrifice ; 

IG And lest thou take of his daughters 
unto thy sons ; and when his daughters go 
astray after their gods, they make thy sons 
also go astray after their gods. 

17 Thou shalt not make unto thyself any 
molten gods. 

18 The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou 



* After Arnheim, who comments : Moses prayed that 
God himself should go before them, not send an angel, 
who would inexorably punish, (xsiii. 21,) for he had no 
power to pardon. But the glory of God guiding them, 
they would bo under his immediate providence, and he, 
108 



keep ; seven day.s shalt thou eat unleavened 
bread, as I have commanded thee, in the time 
of the month of Abib ; for in the month of 
Abib thou wen test forth out of Egypt. 

19 All that openeth the womb is mine; 
and every firstling that is a male among thy 
cattle, whether ox or lamb. 

20 But the firstling of an ass shalt thou re- 
deem with a lamb; and if. thou redeem him 
not, then shalt thou break his neck ; all the 
first-bom of thy sons shalt thou redeem ; and 
none shall appear before me empty. 

21 Six days thou may est work, but on the 
seventh day shalt thou rest : even in plough- 
ing time and in harvest shalt thou rest. 

22 And the feast of weeks shalt thou ob- 
serve, with the first-fruits of the wheat har- 
vest ; and the feast of ingathering at the clos- 
ing of the year. 

23 Thrice in the year shall all thy males 
appear before the Lord, the Eternal, the God 
of Israel. 

24 For I will cast out nations before thee, 
and enlarge thy borders ; yet shall no man 
desire thy land, when thou goest up to appear 
in the presence of the Lord thy God thrice in 
the year. 

25 Thou shalt not ofier the blood of my 
sacrifice with leaven; neither shall be left 
unto the morning the sacrifice of the feast of 
the passover. 

26 The fii'st of the first-fruits of thy land 
shalt thou bring unto the house of the Lord 
thy God ; thou shalt not seethe a kid in his 
mother's milk.* 

27 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Write 
thee down these words ; for after the tenor of 
these words have I made with thee a covenant 
and with Israel. 

28 And he remained there with the Lord 
forty days and forty nights; bread he did not 
eat, and water he did not drink ; and he 
wrote upon the tables the words of the cove- 
nant, the ten commandments. 

29 And it came to pass, when Moses came 
down from mount Sinai, with the two tables 
of the testimony in Moses' hand, when he 
came down from the mount, that Moses knew 



the Merciful, would thus forgive, according to his good- 
ness and loving grace toward sinners. Rashi, however, 
renders '3 like dn thus : " If it be a stiffnecked people, 
do thou pardon." The sense in cither case is still the 
same. 



EXODUS XXXIV. XXXV. VAYAKHEL. 



not that the skin of his face shone," because [I 
he had spoken with him. ij 

30 And Aaron and all the children of |! 
Israel saw Moses, and, behold, the skin of || 
his face shone : and they were afraid*" to come 
nigh unto him. 

31 But Moses called unto them, and then 
returned unto him Aaron and all the prmces 
of the congregation: and Moses spoke to 
them. 

32 And afterward all the children of Israel 
came nigh : and he commanded them all that 
which the Lord had spoken with him on ' 
mount Sinai.* i 

33 And when Moses had done speaking jl 
with them, he put a vail over his face. !j 

34 But when Moses Avent in before the [; 
Lord to speak with him, he took the vail oiF, i 
until he came out; and then he came out, i; 
and spoke unto the childi'en of Israel that 
which he had been commanded. 

35 And the children of Israel saw the face 
of Moses, that the skin of Moses' face shone : 
and Moses put the vail again over his face, 
until he went in to speak with him. 

H;iDhtorah i. Kino's xviii. 1-39 : some commence at verse 20. 



SECTION XXII. VAYAKHEL, hnp'X 

CHAPTER XXXV 

1 T[ And Moses gathered together all the 
congregation of the children of Israel, and 
said unto them, These are the things which 
the Lord hath commanded, that ye should do 
them. 

2 Six days shall work be done, but on the 
seventh day there shall be to you a holy day, 
a sabbath of rest to the Lord: whosoever 
doeth woi'k thereon shall be put to death. 

3 Ye shall not kindle any fire throughout 
your habitations upon the sabbath day. 

4 ^ And Moses said unto all the congrega- 
tion of the children of Israel, as followeth. 
This is the thing which the Lord hath com- 
manded, saying, 

5 Take ye from among you an offering 

' Properly, " sent forth rays;" the skin being luminous, 
and beaming. 

^ " Come and see how great is the power of sin. Before 
they had stretched forth their hand to sin, what does the 
Bible say ? ' And the glory of the Lord was like a de- 
vouring fire on the top of the mount, before the eyes of 
the children of Israel;' and they neither feared nor trem- 



unto the Lord; whosoever is of a willing 
heart, let him bring it, an offering of the 
Lord : gold, and silver, and copper, 

6 And blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, 
and linen thread, and goat.s' hair, 

7 And rams' skins dyed red, and badgers' 
skins, and sliittim wood, 

8 And oil for the lighting, and spices, for 
the anointing oil, and for the incen.se of spices, 

9 And onyx stones, and stones for setting, 
for the ephod, and for the breastplate. 

10 And all the wise-hearted among you 
shall come, and make all that which the 
Lord hath commanded ; 

11 The tabernacle, its tent, and its cover- 
ing, its hooks, and its boards, its bars, its pil- 
lars, and its sockets, 

12 The ark, and its staves, with the mercy- 
seat, and the vail of the separation, 

13 The table, and its staves, and all its 
vessels, and the show-bread, 

14 And the candlestick for the lighting, and 
its vessel, and its lamps, ■\\dth the oil for the 
lighting, 

15 And the altar of incense, and its staves, 
and the anointing oil, and the incense of 
spices, and the hanging for the door at the 
entrance of the tabernacle, 

16 The altar of burnl>offering, with its 
grating of copper, its staves, and all its vessels, 
the laver and its foot, 

17 The hangings of the court, its pillai-s, 
and its sockets, and the hanging for the door 
of the court, 

18 The pins of the tabernacle, and the pins 
of the court, and their cords, 

19 The cloths" of service, to do service 
therewith in the holy place, the holy gar- 
ments for Aaron the priest, and the garments 
of his .sons, to minister in as pi'iests. 

20 And all the congregation of the chil- 
dren of Israel departed from the presence of 
Moses.''' 

21 And they came, ever^' man whose heart 
stirred him up ; and ever}' one Avhom his 
spirit made willing, brought the Lord's 
offering for the work of the tabernacle of the 



bled ; but now, since they had made the calf, even before 
the rays of glory of Moses they feared and trembled." — 
Rashi. 

' The cloths of service were not the priestly garments, 
but those used for the covering of the sacred vessels when 
the Israelites were on their journey, as is commanded in 
the fourth chapter of Numbers. (See Kashi.) 

109 



EXODUS XXXV. XXXVI. VAYAKHEL. 



congregation, and for all its sersnce, and for 
the holy garments. 

22 And they came, the men with the wo- 
men; whoever was willing-hearted, brought 
bracelets," and ear-rings, and finger-rings, and 
tablets, all kinds of ornaments of gold, and 
every man that offered an offering of gold 
unto the Lord. 

23 And every man, with whom was found 
blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, and linen 
thread, and goats' hair, and rams' skins dyed 
red, and badgers' skins, brought them. 

24 Every one that did offer an offering of 
silver and copper brought it as the Lord's 
offering ; and every one mth Avhom was found 
shittim wood for any work of the service, 
brought it. 

25 And all the women that were wise- 
hearted spun with their hands, and they 
brought that which they had spun, of the blue, 
and of the purple, and of the scarlet yam, 
and of the linen thread. 

26 And all the women whose hearts stirred 
them up in wisdom spun the goats' hair. 

27 And the princes brought the onyx 
stones, and the stones for setting, for the 
ephod, and for the breastplate; 

28 And the spice and the oil, for lighting, 
and for the anointing oil, and for the incense 
of spices. 

29 Every man and woman, whose heart 
made them willing to bring for all manner of 
work, whicli the Lord had commanded to be 
made, by the hand of Moses, even that brought 
the children of Israel as a free-will offering 
unto the I^pRD.* 

30 T[ And Moses said unto the children of 
Israel, See, the Lord hath called by name 
Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Chur, of the 
tribe of Judah ; 

31 And he hath filled him with the spirit 
of God, in wisdom, in understanding, and in 
knowledge, and in all manner of workman- 
ship; 

32 And to devise'' works of art, to work in 
gold, and in silver, and in copper, 



* Mendelssohn renders, "Ear-rings, and nose-rings, 
and finger-rings, and bracelets." These words, however, 
are of somewhat doubtful signification, like many other 
technical terms of but rare occurrence in Scripture. 

^ " To devise in his heart works of art, the like of which 
had never been seen; and as there are artificers in gold 
who cannot work in silver, and workers in stone who can- 
not work in wood, it is said of Bezalel that he was perfect 
110 



33 And in the cutting of stones, to set 
them, and in the carving of wood, to make 
any manner of work of art. 

34 And to teach hath he put in his heart, 
both to him, and to Aholiab, tlie son of Achis- 
samach, of the tribe of Dan. 

35 He hath filled them with wisdom of 
heart, to execute all manner of work, of the 
engraver, and of the designing AveaAcr, and 
of the embroiderer, in blue, and in purple, in 
scarlet yarn, and in linen thread, and of the- 
weaver, of those that do every species of work, 
and of those that devise works of art. 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

1 And Bezalel and Aholiab, and every 
wise-hearted man, in whom the Lord hath 
put wisdom and understanding to know how 
to do every manner of work for the service of 
the sanctuary, shall make all, just as the Lord 
hath commiuided. 

2 And Moses called for Bezalel and Aho- 
liab, and every Avise-hearted man in whose 
heart the Lord had put wisdom, every one 
whose heart stirred him up to come near unto 
the work to do it: 

3 And they received from Moses the whole 
of the offering, which the children of Israel 
had brought for the work of the service of the 
sanctuary, to make it; and these brought 
unto him yet more free-will offerings morning 
after morning. 

4 And then came all the wise men, that 
wrought all the work of the sanctuary, every 
man from his own work which they were 
doing. 

5 And they said unto Moses, thus. The 
people bring more" than is required for the 
service of the work, Avhich the Lord hath 
commanded to make. 

G And Moses gave the command, and they 
caused it to be proclaimed throughout the 
camp, saying, Let neither man nor woman do 
any more Avork for the oflering of the sanc- 
tuary; so the people were restrained from 
bringing (more.) 



in all ; and moreover he could teach ; although there are 
many wise men who have a difficulty in instructing 
others." — Aben Ezr.\. 

" A singular, though nowise uncommon, state of the 
public mind ! At first instructed by the Lord, they rebel 
and worship an idol ; then again convinced of the truth 
of God, they testify their renewed adherence by the dis- 
play of a liberality which needed restraining for its excess. 



EXODUS XXXVI. VAYAKHEL. 



7 And the stuff prepared* was sufficient for 
all the work to make it, and there was some 
over.* 

8 ][ And all the wise-hearted men, among 
those who wrought the work, made the taber- 
nacle of ten curtains ; of twisted linen thread, 
and blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn; with 
cherubim, of weaver's work, made he them. 

9 The length of each curtain was twenty- 
eight cubits, and the breadth of each curtain 
four cubits: there was one measure for all 
the curtains. 

10 And he coupled together five of the 
curtains one to another: and the other five 
curtains he coupled one to another. 

11 And he made loops of blue on the edge 
of the one curtain, which was the outside in 
the coupling : the like he made on the border 
of the curtain, which was the outmost on the 
second coupling. 

12 Fifty loops made he on the one curtain, 
and fifty loops made he on the edge of the 
curtain which was in the second coupUng: 
the loops were fixed opposite to each other. 

13 And he made fifty hooks of gold; and 
he coupled the curtains together one mito the 
other with the hooks, and the tabernacle*' be- 
came thus one piece. 

14 ^ And he made curtains of goats' hair 
for a tent over the tabernacle; eleven curtains 
made he the same. 

15 The length of each curtain was thirty 
cubits, and four cubits was the breadth of each 
curtain : there was one measure for the eleven 
curtains. 

16 And he coupled five of the curtains by 
themselves, and six of the curtains by them- 
selves. 

17 And he made fifty loops on the edge of 
the curtain that was the outmost in the coup- 
ling, and fifty loops made he on the edge of 
the curtain of the second coupling. 

18 And he made fifty hooks of copper, to 



* It must not be forgotten that the things brought for 
the use of the workmen were at first prepared and worked 
up to the proper shape in the tents of the donors. Moses, 
therefore, properly proclaimed that the people should pre- 
pare no more, and consequently should bring no more 
than was already in the hands of the receivers. Otherwise 
nON^O might mean "property," as it is used in that 
sense in Genesis xxxiii. 14; Exodus xxii. 10; 1 Samuel 
XV. 9. 

^ The inner curtains, which formed the roof of the 
tabernacle proper, were called technically "the tabema- 



couple the tent together that it might be one 
piece. 

19 And he made a covering for the tent of 
rams' skins dyed red, and a covering of bad- 
gers' skins above.* 

20 ^ And he made the boards for the 
tabernacle, of shittim wood, standing up, 

21 Ten cubits was the length of each 
board, and one cubit and a half was the 
breadth of each one board. 

22 There were two tenons for every board, 
fitted in, one against the other: the like 
made he for all the boards of the tabernacle. 

23 And he made the boards for the taber- 
nacle; twenty boards for the south side, on 
the right. 

24 And forty sockets of silver made he 
under the twenty boards ; two sockets under 
the one board for its two tenons, and two 
sockets under the other board for its two 
tenons.° 

25 And for the other side of the taber- 
nacle, for the north side, he made twenty 
boards : 

20 And their fort}' sockets of silver; two 
sockets under the one board, and two sockets 
under the other board. 

27 And for the back wall of the taber- 
nacle, westward, he made six boards. 

28 And two boards made he for the comers 
of the tabernacle in the back wall. 

29 And they were closely fitting beneath, 
and they were closely joined together on the 
top, by means of one ring; thus he did to 
both of them, for both the comers. 

30 And so there were eight boards, and 
their sockets of silver, sixteen sockets, two 
sockets under every board. 

31 And he made bars of shittim wood; 
five, for the lx)ards of the one side of the 
tabernacle ; 

32 And five bars for the boards of the 
other side of the tabernacle, and five bars for 



cle," as they formed an essential and visible portion of the 
sacred structure; but the curtains of goats' hair were 
called " the tent," as they served merely to protect the 
more perishable ones which they covered. 

° The boards were provided with two tenons, a part of 
the thickness of the boards being cut away, so that when 
they were inserted in the sockets calculated to receive 
them, they covered exactly the surface; the boards were 
thus fixed in their sockets, which formed a continuous 
row, in the same manner as the steps of a ladder are in 
the side-pieces. 

Ill 



EXODUS XXXVI. XXXVII. VAYAKHEL. 



the boards of the tabernacle for the back wall, 
westward. 

33 And he made the middle bar to pass 
through the midst of the boards from the one 
end to the other end. 

34 And the boards he overlaid with gold, 
and their rings he made of gold, as recepta- 
cles for the bars, and he overlaid the bars 
with gold. 

35 And he made the vail of blue, and pur- 
ple, and scarlet yarn, and twisted linen; of 
weaver's work made he it, with cherubim. 

36 And he made thereunto four pillars of 
shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold, 
their hooks also were of gold; and he cast 
for them four sockets of silver. 

37 And he made a hanging for the door 
of the tabernacle, of blue, and purple, and 
scarlet yarn, and twisted linen; the work of 
the embroiderer; 

38 And its five pillars with their hooks: 
and he overlaid their tops and made their 
fillets with gold; and their five sockets were 
of copper. 

CHAPTER XXXVII. 

1 T[ And Bezalel made the ark of shittim 
wood: two cubits and a half was its length, 
and a cubit and a half its breadth, and a cubit 
and a half its height. 

2 And he overlaid it with pure gold within 
and without, and made for it a crown of gold 
round about. 

3 And he cast for it four rings of gold, for 
the four corners thereof; even two rings on 
the one side of it, and two rings on the other 
side of it. 

4 And he made staves of shittim wood, 
and overlaid them with gold. 

5 And he put the staves into the rings 
upon the sides of the ark, to bear the ark. 

6 And he made a cover of pui-e gold : t\\'D 
cubit.s and a half w^s its length, and one 
cubit and a half its breadth. 

7 And he made two cherubim of gold, of 



* The cherubim were made out of one piece with the 
cover, but not wrought separately, and afterward soldered 
on. Tliey were standing on cither end, their faces being 
turned toward each other, yet so that they looked down- 
ward upon the ark. It is said that the height of the 
wings of the cherubim from the cover was ten hands' 
breadth. 

'' The crown spoken of in the preceding verse was 
fixed on the rim mentioned here. It is doubtful whether 
112 



beaten work made he them, on the two ends 
of the cover ; 

8 One cherub was on the one end, and 
the other cherub on the other end; out of the 
cover itself made he the cherubim on the two 
ends thereof 

9 And the cherubim were spreading forth 
their wings on high, overshadowing with 
their wings the cover, with their faces one to 
the other; toward the cover were the faces 
of the cherubim directed. 

10 ^ And he made the table of shittim 
wood : two cubits was its length, and a cubit 
its breadth, and a cubit and a half its height; 

11 And he overlaid it with pure gold, and 
made thereto a crown of gold round about. 

12 And he made unto it a rim of a hand's 
breadth round about, and made a golden 
crown on its rim'' round about. 

13 And he cast for it four rings of gold, 
and he put the rings on the four comers, that 
were on the four feet thereof 

14 Close under the rim were the rings, as 
receptacles for the staves to bear the table. 

15 And he made the staves of shittim 
wood, and overlaid them with gold, to bear 
the table. 

16 And he made the vessels which were 
upon the table, its dishes, and its spoons, 
and its supporters, and its purifying tubes 
wherewith (the bread) was covered, of pure 
gold.* 

17 ^ And he made the candlestick of pure 
gold: of beaten work" made he the candle- 
stick, its shaft, and its branches, its bowls, its 
knobs, and its flowers, were out of one piece 
with it. 

18 And six branches were coming out of 
its sides; three branches of the candlestick 
out of its one side, and three branches of the 
candlestick out of the other side thereof 

19 Three bowls, almond-shaped, Avere on 
one branch, with a knob and a flower; and 
three bowls, almond-shaped, were on the 
other branch, with a knob and a flower; so 



the rim reached above the table or was placed beneath the 
top ; but the probabilities are in favour of its having been 
placed above. 

° Like the cover of the ark, so was the candlestick, or 
more properly " the chandelier," made out of a solid piece 
of gold ; that is to say, the parts were not made separately 
and afterward soldered together, but it was beaten out, 
and the branches ornamented and cut into shape by means 
of instruments. 



EXODUS XXXVII. XXXVIII. VAYAKHEL. 



on the six branches that were coming out of 
the candlestick. 

20 And on the candlestick itself were four 
bowls almond-shaped, with its knobs, and its 
flowers : 

21 And a knob was under two branches 
that came out of the same, and a knob under 
two branches that came out of the same, and 
a knob under two branches that came out of 
the same," for the six branches that proceeded 
out of it. 

22 Their knobs and their branches were 
out of one piece with it; all of it was one 
piece of beaten work, of pure gold. 

2-3 And he made its seven lamps, and its 
snuffers, and its snuif-dishes, of pure gold. 

2-4 Of a talent of pure gold made he it, and 
all its vessels. 

25 ^ And he made the altar of incense of 
shittim wood : its length was a cubit, and its 
breadth a cubit; it was foursquare, and two 
cubits was its height; from itself were its 
horns.'' 

26 And he overlaid it with pure gold, its 
top, and its sides round about, and its horns : 
and he made unto it a crown of gold round 
about. 

27 And two rings of gold he made for it 
beneath its crown, on its two corners, upon 
both its sides, as receptacles for the staves to 
bear it by means of them. 

28 And he made the staves of shittim 
wood, and overlaid them with gold. 

29 And he made the holy anointing oil, 
and the pure incense of spices, according to 
the work of the apothecary.* 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

1 ^ And he made the altar of burnt-offer- 
ing of shittim wood: five cubits was its 
length, and five cubits its breadth; it was 
foursquare, and three cubits was its height. 

2 And he made its horns on its four 
comers, from itself were its horns ; and he 
overlaid it with copper. 



* The knob^were on the centre shaft of the candle- 
stick, and from each of them sprung two branches, one 
on each side, so that each knob supported one pair. 

'' The horns, or prominent points coming out of the 
corners of the altar of incense, as well as that of burnt- 
offering, were carved out of the body of the wood, but not 
made separately and afterwards joined on. 

° Mirrors of highly polished copper were employed be- 
fore the introduction of looking-glasses; and it is recorded 
P 



3 And he made all the vessels of the altar, V 
the pots, and the shovels, and the basins, and 
the forks, and the fire-pans: all its vessels 
made he of copper. 

4 And he made for the altar a grating, a 
network of copper, under its compass beneath, 
even luito the half of it. 

5 And he cast four rings on the four 
corners of the grating of copper, as receptacles 
for the staves. 

G And he made the staves of shittim wood, 
and overlaid them with copper. 

7 And he put the staves into the rings on 
the sides of the altar, to bear it by means of 
them ; hollow, of boards, made he it. 

8 Tl And he made the laver of copper, and 
its foot of copper, of the mirrors' of the assem- 
bled women, who had assembled in troops at 
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 

9 ^ And he made the court : on the south 
side, on the right, the hangings of the court 
were of twisted linen, of one hundred cubits; 

10 Their pillars were twenty, with their 
twenty sockets of copper; the hooks of the 
pillars and their fillets were of silver. 

11 And for the north side one hundred 
cubits; their pillars were twenty, with their 
twenty sockets of copper; the hooks of the 
pillars and their fillets were of silver. 

12 And for the west side were hangings of 
fifty cubits; their pillars were ten, and their 
sockets ten ; the hooks of the pillars and tlieir 
fillets of silver. 

13 And for the front side, eastward, fifty 
cubits. 

14 Hangings, of fifteen cubits, were on the 
one wing; their pillars were three, and their 
sockets three. 

15 And for the other wing, on both sides 
of the gate of the court, were hangings of fif- 
teen cubits; their pillars were three, and their 
sockets three. 

16 All the hangings of the court round 
about were of twisted linen. 

17 And the sockets for the piUars were of 



that even these necessary articles for the arranging of tlie 
female attire were cheerfully given by the women, who 
came in troops to offer this contribution to the residence 
of their God. From the phraseology employed it would 
appear that the copper thus obtained is not included in 
the gross weight recorded chap, xxxviii. 29; since, among 
the articles made thereof, the laver and its foot are not 
mentioned. 

113 



EXODUS XXXVIII. XXXIX. PEKUDAY. 



copper; the hooks of the pillars and their 
fillets of silver; and the overlaying of their 
tops was of silver; and all the pillars of the 
court Avere filleted with silver.* 

18 And the hanging for the gate of the 
court was the work of the eml^roiderer, of 
blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, and 
twisted linen: and twenty cubits was the 
length, and the height, in the breadth, was 
five cubits, answeiing to the hangings of the 
court. 

19 And the pillars for the same were four, 
with their four sockets of copper ; their hooks 
were of silver, and the overlaying of their 
tops and their fillets of silver. 

20 And all the pins of the tabernacle, and 
of the court round about wei'e of copper. 

Haphtorah in 1 Kings vii. 13 to 26. The Germans read from 
vii. 40 to 50. 



SECTION XXIII. PEKUDAY, mpS. 

21 T[ These are the accounts (of the articles 
furnished) for the tabernacle, even of the 
tal^ernacle of the testimony, which were 
comited, according to the commandment of 
Moses, the service of the Levites, by the 
hand of Ithamar, the son of Aaron, the 
priest. 

22 And Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of 
Chur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that the 
Lord had commanded Mo.^es. 

2-3 And with him was Aholiab, son of 
Achissamach, of the tribe of Dan, an engraver, 
and a skilful weaver, and an embroiderer in 
blue, and in purple, and in scarlet yarn, and 
in linen thread. 

2-4 ^ All the gold that was applied to the 
work in all the work of the sanctuary, to wit, 
the gold of the offering," was tAventy and nine 
talents, and seven hundred and thirty shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary. 

25 And the silver of those that Avere num- 
bered of the congregation Avas one hundred 
talents, and a thousand seven hundred and 



* The word used here, in v. 29, and in xxxv. 22, is 
naun : whereas in the preceding passages nonn is used. 
The Hebrew is peculiarly rich in the terms necessary to 
express the ideas connected with the worship of the 
sanctuary, so as to distinguish every shade of meaning; 
but in English it is next to impossible to convey these 
peculiarities by single words. Arnheira, however, renders 
the latter word "tribute," as has been done at times in 
this version, and the former, the one employed in this 
114 



seventy and four shekels, after the shekel of 
the sanctuary : 

26 A bekah for CA^ery head, that is, half a 
shekel, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for" 
every one that AAent to be numbered, from 
twenty years old and upward, for six hun- 
dred thousand and three thousand and five 
hundred and fifty. 

27 And the hundred talents of sih'er 
serA^ed to cast the sockets of the sanctuary, 
and the sockets of the Aail; one hundred 
sockets to the himdred talents, a talent for 
every socket. 

28 And of the thousand scA^en hundred 
scA^enty and five shekels he made hooks for 
the pillars, and overlaid their tops and filleted 
them. 

29 And the copper of the offering AA'as 
scA'enty talents, and two thousand and four 
hundred shekels. 

30 And he made therewith the sockets of 
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, 
and the altar of cojjper, and the grating of 
copper for it. and all the A-essels of the altar ; 

31 And the sockets of the court round 
about, and the sockets of the court gate, and 
all the pius of the tabernacle, and all the pins 
of the court I'ound about. 

CHAPTER XXXIX. 

1 And of the blue, and purple, and scarlet 
yarn, they made the cloths of serA'ice, to do 
the service in the holy place ; and they made 
the holy gaiments Avhich AA-ere for Aaron, as 
the Lord had commanded Moses.* 

2 And he made the ephod, of gold,. blue, 
and purple, and scarlet yarn, and tAvisteil 
linen ; 

3 And they did beat the gold into thin 
plates, and cut it into Avires, to work it in the 
blue, and in the purple, and in the scarlet 
yarn, and in the linen, AAith Aveaver's AA'ork. 

4 They made shoulder-pieces for it, joined 
on ; on both its edges Avas it thus joined'' to- 
gether. 



passage, "sacred gifts;" but the latter term is arbi- 
trary. 

*■ The shoulder-pieces of the ephod were made sepa- 
rately and sewed on afterward. The ephod itself appears 
to have been a species of cloak which reached to the heels, 
but required the support of the shoulder-pieces, through 
which it was joined by means of the chains and rings to 
the breastplate, and the belt which fastened it round the 
body of the wear'r. 



EXODUS XXXIX. PEKUDAY. 



5 And the belt for girding it on, that was 
upon it, was of the same piece with itself, of 
the same make ; of gold, blue, and purple, 
and scarlet yarn, and twisted linen ; as the 
Lord had commanded Moses. 

6 T[ And they wrought the onyx stones en- 
closed in casings of gold, engraved with the 
engraving of a signet, after the names of the 
children of Israel. 

7 And he put them on the shoulder-pieces 
of the epliod, as stones of memorial to the 
children of Israel ; as the Lord had command- 
ed Moses. 

8 ][ And he made the breastplate with wea- 
ver's work, like the work of the ephod ; of 
gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet yarn, and 
twisted linen. 

9 It was foursquare, double did they make 
the breastplate : it was a span in length, and 
a span in breadth, double. 

10 And they set in it four rows of stones : 
the first row, a sardius, a topaz, and an eme- 
rald : this was the first row. 

11 And the second row, a carbuncle, a sai> 
phire, and a diamond. 

12 And the third row, an opal, a turquoise, 
and an amethyst. 

13 And the fourth row, a chrysolite, an 
onyx, and a jasper : they were fitted in golden 
casings when they were set in. 

14 And the stones were according to the 
names of the children of Israel, twelve, ac- 
cording to their names, (engraved) with the 
engraving of a signet, every one according to 
his name, for the twelve tribes. 

15 And they made upon the breastplate 
chains with knots* at the ends, of wreathed 
work, of pure gold. 

16 And they made two casings of gold, 
and two gold rings, and put the two rings on 
the two ends of the breastplate. 

17 And they put the two wreathed chains 
of gold in the two rings on the ends of the 
breastplate. 

18 And the two ends of the two \vi'eathed 
chains they fastened on the two casings, and 
they put them on the shoulder pieces of the 
ephod, on the outside thereof 



* These wreathed chains had a knot at the end, so that 
they did not slip through the rings of the breastplate and 
ephod. 

* The rings on the girdle of the ephod were so placed as 
to be opposite those on the lower seam of the breastplate, 



19 And they made two rings of gold, and 
put them on the two ends of the breastplate, 
on its border, which was on the opposite side 
of the ephod, inward. 

20 And tliey made two more golden rings, 
and put them on the two shoulder-pieces of 
the ephod underneath, toward its front part, 
close by its seam, above the girdle of the 
ephod. 

21 And they fastened the breastplate by 
its rings unto the rings of the ephod with a 
lace of blue, that it might remain on the girdle 
of the ephod, and that the breastplate miglit 
not be loosed from the ephod j** as the Loud 
had commanded Moses.* 

22 ^ And he made the robe of the ephod of 
woven work, altogether of blue woollen yam. 

23 And there was an opening in the midst 
of the robe, as the opening of an habergeon, 
with a binding round about the opening, that 
it should not be rent. 

24 And they madQ upon the lower hem of 
the robe pomegranates of blue, and purple, 
and scarlet yam, twisted. 

25 And they made bells of pui'e gold ; and 
they put the bells between the pomegranates 
upon the lower hem of the robe, round about, 
between the pomegranates; 

26 A bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a 
pomegranate, round about the lower hem of 
the robe to minister therein ; as the Lord had 
commanded Moses. 

27 ^ And they made the coats of linen, of 
woven work, for Aaron and for his sons, 

28 And the mitre of linen, and the gooilly 
bonnets of linen, and liuen breeches of twisted 
linen thread. 

29 And the girdle of twisted linen, and 
blue, and purple, and scarlet yam, the work of 
the embroiderer ; as the Lord had commanded 
Moses. 

30 T[ And they made the plate of the holy 
crown of pure gold, and wrote upon it a writ- 
ing, like the engraving of a signet. Holt to 
THE Lord. 

31 And they put on it a lace of blue, to 
place it upon the mitre above ■,° as the Lord 
had commanded Moses. 



and when the blue lace was passed through them, the two 
garments became united together. 

° The plate was tied on both ends and at the centre to 
laces of blue woollen yarn, and hung on the top of the 
mitre, so that it rested on the forehead of the wearer. 

115 



EXODUS XXXIX. XL. PEKUDAY. 



32 ^ Thus was finished all the work of 
till! tabernacle of the tent of the congregation ; 
and the children of Israel had made it accord- 
ing to all that the Lord had commanded 
Moses, so had they made it.''' 

33 *[] And they brought the tabernacle unto 
Moses, the tent, and all its vessels, its hooks, 
its boards, its bars, and its pillars, and its 
sockets, 

34 And the covering of rams' skins dj^ed 
red, and the covering of badgers' skins, and 
the vail of the separation ; 

35 The ark of the testimony, and its 
staves, and the mercy-seat ; 

36 The table, and all its vessels, and the 
showbread ; 

37 The pure candlestick," with its lamps, 
the lamps to be set in order thereupon, and 
all its vessels, and the oil for the" lighting, 

38 And the golden altar, and the anointing 
oil, and the incense of spices, and the hanging 
for the door of the tabei-nacle ; 

39 The copper altar, and the grating of 
copper which belonged to it, its staves, and 
all its vessels, the laver and its foot; 

40 The hangings of the court, its pillars 
and its sockets, and the hanging for the courtr 
gate, its cords, ai\d its pins, and all the vessels 
of the service of the tabernacle, for the tent 
of the congregation ; 

41 The cloths of service to do the service 
in the holy place, and the holy garments for 
Aaron the priest, and the garments of his 
sons, to minister therein. 

42 All, just as the Lord had commanded 
Moses, so had the children of Israel done all 
the work. 

43 And Moses did look over all the work, 
and, behold, they had done it as the Lord had 
commanded, even so had they done it : and 
Moses blessed them.* 

CHAPTER XL. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

2 On the first day of the first numth sluilt 
thou set up the tabernacle of the tent of the 
congregation. 



• Others render, " The candlestick of pure gold." But 
a.s the feminine mntan docs not agree with the ma.sculinc 
am, it must refer to the word mjo, perhaps from its 
being made of pure gold. 

' " This means, a protection, for it was a separation." — 
116 



3 And thou shalt put therein the ark of 
the testimony, and separate*" the ark with the 
vail. 

4 And thou shalt bring in the tal)le, and 
arrange the order of the showbread upon 
it; and thou shalt bring in the candlestick, 
and light the lamps thereof 

5 And thou shalt set the altar of gold for 
the incense before the ark of the testimony; 
and thou shalt put up the hanging at the 
door to the tabernacle. 

6 And thou shalt set the altar of burntr 
offering before the door of the tabernacle of 
the tent of the congregation. 

7 And thou shalt set the laver between 
the tabernacle of the congregation and the 
altar, and thou shalt put Avater therein. 

8 And thou shalt set up the court round 
about, and put up the hanging at the gate of 
the court! 

9 And thou shalt take the anointing oil, 
and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is 
therein ; and thou shalt hallow it, with all its 
vessels, and it shall be holy. 

10 And thou shalt anoint the altar of 
burnt-oflering, and all its vessels; and thou 
shalt sanctify the altar, and the altar shall be 
most holy. 

11 And thou shalt anoint the laver with its 
foot, and sanctify it. 

12 And thou shalt bring near Aaron and 
his sons unto the door of the tabernacle of 
the congregation, and wash them Avith 
water. 

13 And thou shalt clothe Aaron Avith the 
holy garments; and thou shalt anoint lum, 
and sanctify him, that he may be a priest 
unto me. 

14 And his sons shalt thou bring near, and 
clothe them Avith coats : 

15 And thou shalt anoint them, as thou 
hast anointed their father, that they may 
be priests unto me; and this shall be, that 
their anointing shall be unto them for an 
everlasting priesthood throughout their gene- 
rations. 

10 And Moses did so; all, just as the I^ord 
had commanded him, so did he.* 



Rashi. That is to say, by hanging up the vail, by means 
of which the portion for the ark was separated from the 
remainder of the sanctuary, it was pniteetod fioui the ap- 
proach of those who came into the holy place. 



EXODUS XL. PEKUDAY. 



17 T[ And it came to pass in the first 
month in the second year, on the first of the 
month, that the tabernacle was reared up. 

18 And Moses reared up the tabernacle, 
and placed its sockets, and set up its boards, 
and put in its bars, and reared up its pillars. 

19 And he spread the tent' over the taber- 
nacle, and put the covering of the tent'' over 
it above; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 

20 ][ And he took"" and put the testimony 
into the ark, and placed the staves on the 
ark; and he put the mercy-seat upon the 
ark above. 

21 And he brought the ark into the taber- 
nacle, and set up the vail of the separation, 
and made therewith a separation for the ark 
of the testimony; as the Lord had commanded 
Moses. 

22 .][ And he put the table in the taber- 
nacle of the congregation, upon the side of 
the tabernacle, northward, without the vail. 

23 And he arranged upon it the order of 
bread*^ before the Lord ; as the Lord had com- 
manded Moses. 

24 ^f And he placed the candlestick in the 
tabernacle of the congregation, opposite the 
table, on the side of the tabernacle, south- 
ward. 

25 And he lighted the lamps befoi'e the 
Lord; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 

26 ^ And he placed the golden altar in the 
tabernacle of the congregation before the vail. 

27 And he burnt thereon the incense of 
spices; as the Lord had commanded Moses.''' 

28 ^ And he put up the hanging at the 
door to the tabernacle. 

29 And the altar of burnt-offering he 
placed by the door of the tabernacle of the 
tent of the congregation, and offered upon it 
the burnt-offermg and the meat-offering; as 
the Lord had commanded Moses. 

30 T[ And he set the laver between the 



* This means the curtains of goats' hair over the fine 
ones, called the "tabernacle." — RAsnr. 

' The skins of animals which served as a covering. 

° He took the tables of the Testimony from the wooden 
ark, which was in the tent of Moses, and brought them 
into the tabernacle. — Hamban. (See Exodus xxxiii. 7, 
and Deuteronomy x. 1-3.) 



tabernacle of the congregation and the altar, 
and put water there, for washing. 

31 And MocSes" and Aaron and his sons 
washed therefrom their hands and their feet. 

32 When they went in unto the tabernacle 
of the congregation, and when tliey came near 
unto the altar, they washed themselves; as 
the Lord had commanck'd Moses. 

33 ]] And he reared up the court round 
about the tabeniacle and the altar, and put 
up the hanging of the gate of the court; and 
so did Moses finish the work.* 

34 ^ And the cloud covered the tent of 
the congregation, and the glory of the Lord 
filled the taljernacle. 

35 And Moses wa.s not able to enter into 
the tent of the congregation; because the 
cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the 
Lord filled the tabernacle. 

36 And when the cloud was taken up from 
over the tabernacle, the children of Israel 
were wont to go onward in all their journey- 
ings. 

37 But if the cloild was not taken up, then 
they journeyed not till the day that it was 
taken up. 

38 For the cloud of the Lord was upon the 
tabernacle by day, and a fire was by night 
on it, before the eyes of all the house of 
Israel, throughout all their journeyings. 

Ilaphtorah, according to the Germans, in 1 Kings vii. 51 
to viii. 21. The Portuguese read from vii. 40 to 50. 

Maphtere for Shekalim in Exodus xxx. 11 to IG. 

Ilaphtorali for Shekalim in 2 Kings xii. 1 to 17. The Portu- 
guese commence at xi. 17. 

Maphtere for Zachor in Deuteronomy xxv. 17 to 19. 

Ilaphtorah for Zachor in 1 Samuel xv. 2 to 34. The Portu- 
guese commence v. 1. 

Maphtere for Parah in Numbers xix. 1 to 22. 

Ilaphtorah for Parah in Ezekiel xxxvi. 16 to 38. The Por- 
tuguese end at v. 36. 

Maphtere for Ilachodcsh in Exodus xii. 1 to 20. 

Ilaphtorah for Ilachodcsh in Ezckicl xlv. 16 to xlvi. 18 
The Portuguese road from xlv. 18 to xlvi. 15. 



^ The DnS "I"!;? "the order of bread," here employed, 
explains what is given above merely as oi;? "its order;" 
for which reason it is rendered above, verse 4, " the order 
of showbread." 

' During the week of consecration, and then only, 
Moses officiated as priest, for which reason he was for the 
time also bound to wash hands and feet at the laver. 

117 



END OF EXODUS. 



THE BOOK OF LEVITICUS, 

VAYIKRA, iSnpn. 

CONTAINING THE ORDINANCES FOR THE SACRIFICES, SANCTUARY, 
PURIFICATIONS, FESTIVALS, &c. 



SECTION XXIV. VAYIKRA, Nnpn. 

CHAPTER I. 

1 ^ And the Lord called unto Moses, and 
spoke unto liim out of the tabernacle of the 
congregation, saying, 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them, If any one of you wish to 
bi'ing an oflering unto the Lord : of the cattle, 
either of the herds, or of the Hocks, shall ye 
bring your offering. 

3 If his offering be a burnt-sacrifice of the 
herds, tlien shall he offer a male without ble- 
mish : unto the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation shall he bring it, that it may be 
favouraljly received for him before the Lord. 

4 And he shall lay his hand upon the head 
of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted 
for him to make atonement for him. 

5 And he shall kill the young steer before 
the Lord: and the sons of Aaron the priests 
shall bring near the blood, and they shall 
sprinkle the blood round about upon the altar 
tliat is by the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation. 

G And he shall tlay the burnt-offering, and 
cut it into its pieces. 

7 And the sons of Aaron the priest shall 
put fire upon the altar, and lay the wood in 
order upon the fire; 

8 And the sons of Aaron the priests shall 
lay in order the parts, the head, and the fat," 
ujion the wood that is on the fire which is 
upon the altar; 

9 But its inwards and its legs shall he 
wash in water; and the priest shall bum the 



• Some translate 119 with "midriflF:" the word itself 
is of rare nrcurroncc, hence not of a decided signification; 
but it is translated here according to the old authorities 



whole on the altar, as a burnt-sacrifice, au 
offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto 
the Lord. 

10 ^ And if his offering be of the flocks, 
of the sheep, or of the goats, for a burnt-sacri- 
fice: then shall he offer a male without ble- 
mish as the same. 

11 And he shall kill it on the side of the 
altar, northward,'' before the Lord; and the 
sons of Aaron the priests shall sprinkle its 
blood upon the altar round about. 

12 And he shall cut it into its pieces, with 
its head and its fat; and the priest shall lay 
them in order on the wood that is on the fire 
which is upon the altar; 

13 But the inwards and the legs shall he 
wash with water; and the priest shall bring 
near the whole, and burn it upon the altar; 
it is a burnt-sacrifice, an offering made by fire, 
of a sweet savour unto the Lord.* 

14 ^ And if of fowls be the burnt-sacrifice 
for his offermg to the Lord : then shall he bring 
his offering of turtle-doves, or of young pigeons. 

15 And the priest shall bring it near" unto 
the altar, and pinch off its head, and burn it 
on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be 
wrung out on the wall of the altar. 

IG And he shall remove its crop with its 
feathers, and cast it beside the altar on the 
east part, at the place of the ashes. 

17 And he shall cleave it by its wings, but 
shall not divide it asunder; and the priest 
shall burn it upon the altar, upon the wood 
that is on the fire : it is a burnt-sacrifice, an 
offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto 
the Lord. 



The term aipn has been for the most part rendered in 
this version with "to bring near," that is, to the altar 
where all sacriticial rites were performed; and when simply 



All the sacrifices called "most hoi}'," required to be 1; rendered with "bring," it has the same sense. Otherwise 
slain ou the north side of the altar of burnt^sacrifices ; these I: the term "offer" has also been used, as it is the root of 
are the burnt, sin, trespass, and national peace-offerings. |: the word j3ip "offering." 



LEVITICUS II. III. VAYIKRA. 



CHAPTER II. 

1 ][ And when any person wish to offer a 
meat-offering unto the Lord: then shall his 
offering be of fine flour; and he shall pour 
upon it oil, .and put thereon frankincense ; 

2 And he shall bring it to one of the sons 
of Aaron the priest ; and he shall take there- 
from his handful of its flour, and of its oil, 
with all its frankincense ; and the priest shall 
bum the memorial of it upon the altar, as an 
offering made by lire, of a sweet savour unto 
the Lord. 

3 And what is left of the meatoffering 
shall belong to Aaron and to his sons : it is a 
most holy thing, from the fire-offerings of the 
Lord. 

4 ^ And if thou bring an oblation of a 
meat-offering baked in the oven, it shall be 
of fine flour, unleavened cakes mingled with 
oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with oil. 

5 Tl And if thy oblation be a meat-offering 
baked in a pan, it shall be made of fine flour 
mingled with oil, unleavened. 

6 Thou shalt break it in pieces, and pour 
thereon oil ; it is a meat-offering.* 

7 ^ And if thy oblation be a meat-offering 
baked in the deep pan, it shall be made of 
fine flour with oil. 

8 And thou shalt bring the meat-offermg, 
which shall be made of these things, unto the 
Lord; and the oflerer shall present it unto 
the priest, who shall bring it near unto the 
altar. 

9 And the priest shall take up from the 
meat-ofl'ering its memorial, and shall burn it 
upon the altar: it is an offering made by 
fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord. 

10 And that which is left of the meat- 
offering shall belong to Aaron and his sous : 
it is a most holy thing, from the fire-offerings 
of the Lord. 

11 No meat-offering, which ye shall bring 
unto the Lord, shall be prepared leavened; 
for of whatever is leaven, or of any honey, ye 
shall not sacrifice an offering made by fire 
unto the Lord. 

12 As an oblation of the first-fruits shall 



* Arnheim renders here and elsewhere, "And that on 
the," &c. 

^ Others, "caul." 

' The first sacrifice offered daily upon the altar, was the 
daily burnt-offering; and before it had been placed on the 



ye offer them unto the Lord; but on the 
altar shall they not come for a sweet savour. 

13 And every oblation of thy meat-offering 
shalt thou sea.son with salt; and thou shalt 
not suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God, 
to be lacking from thy meatoffering : with all 
thy offerings shalt thou ofler salt. 

14 ^ And if thou ofler a meat-offering of 
the first-fruits unto the Lord: of ripe ears of 
com dried by the fire, of pounded corn out of 
full ears, shalt thou offer the meat-offerings of 
thy first-fruits. 

15 And thou shalt put upon it oil, and lay 
thereon frankincense : it is a meat-offering. 

IG And the priest shall burn its memorial, 
from its pounded corn, and from its oil, with 
all its frankincense : it is an offering made by 
fire imto the Lord.* 

CHAPTER III. 

1 ^ And if his oblation be a sacrifice of 
peace-offering, if he offer it of the herds, 
whether it be a male or female, he shall 
offer it without blemish before the Lord. 

2 And he shall lay his hand upon the head 
of his offermg, and kill it at the door of the 
tabernacle of the congregation : and the sons 
of Aaron the priests shall sprinkle the blood 
upon the altar round about. 

3 And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the 
peace-offering, as a fire-offering unto the Lord, 
the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the 
fat that is upon the inwards, 

4 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is 
on them, which is on the flanks," and the 
midriff''' above the liver, with the kidneys, 
shall he remove it. 

5 And Aaron's sons shall bum it on the 
altar, upon the burnt-offering," which is upon 
the wood that is on the fire : it is an offering 
made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the 
Lord. 

6 ^ And if of the flocks be his offering for 
a sacrifice of peace-offering unto the Lord, 
male or female, without blemish, shall he 
offer it. 

7 If he offer a sheep for his offering, then 
shall he brin"; it near before the Lord. 



fire, no other sacrifice could be burnt there; hence the 
phrase "upon the burnt-offering which is upon the wood." 
Rashi, however, renders hy like na':^ "besides;" still the 
sense is the same in both cases. 

119 



LEVITICUS III. IV. VAYIKRA. 



8 And he shall lay his hand upon the head 
of his offering, and kill it before the taber- 
nacle of the congregation: and the sons of 
Aaron shall sprinkle its blood upon the altar 
round about. 

9 And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the 
peace-offering, as a fire-offering unto the Lord, 
the best part" thereof, the whole rump, hard 
by the backbone shall he take it off; and the 
fat that covereth the inwards, and all the fat 
that is upon the inwards; 

10 And the two kidneys, and the fiit that 
is upon them, which is on the flanks, and the 
midriff above the liver, with the kidneys, 
shall he remove it. 

11 And the priest shall burn it upon the 
altar: it is the food of the offering made by 
fire unto the Lord. 

12 ^ And if a goat be his offering, then 
shall he bring it near before the Lord. 

13 And he shall lay his hand upon its 
head, and kill it before the tabernacle of the 
congregation: and the sons of Aaron shall 
sprinkle its blood upon the altar round about. 

14 And he shall offer thereof his offering, 
as a fire-offering unto the Lord, the fat that 
covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is 
upon the inwards, 

1-5 And the two kidneys, and the fat that 
is upon them, which is on the flanks, and the 
midriff above the liver, with the kidneys 
shall he remove it. 

IG And the priest shall burn them upon the 
altar; as the food of the oflering made by fire 
for a sweet savour, is.all the fiit unto the Lord. 

17 A perpetual statute shall it be for your 
generations throughout all your dwellings : no 
fat nor blood shall ye eat.'=' 

CHAPTER IV. 

1 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
in?, 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying. 
If any person do sin through ignorance against 
any of the prohibitions'' of the Lord which 
ought not to be done, and do any of them ; 



' This is explained by the next words, "the best part, 
that is the whole rump;" or as the moderns have it, "the 
whole fat tail," referring to the Syrian sheep, the tail of 
which is broad and fat. 

' Both the negative and positive precepts are command- 
ments; wherefore the first may also be properly called 
niyo " precepts." 

" This is explained, that the high-priest'.t sin must be 



3 If the anointed priest do sin to bring 
guiltine.s.s" on the people: then shall he Ijring 
near for his sin, which he hath committed, a 
young bullock without blemish, unto the 
Lord, for a sin-offering. 

4 And he shall bring the bullock unto the 
door of the tabernacle of the congregation 
before the Lord; and he shall lay his hand 
upon the head of the bullock, and kiH"" the 
bullock before the Lord. 

5 And the anointed priest shall take some 
of the bullock's blood, and bring it into the 
tabernacle of the congregation : 

6 And the priest shall dip his finger in the 
blood; and he shall sprinkle of the blood 
seven times before the Lord, before the vail 
of the sanctuar}'. 

7 And the priest shall put some of the 
blood upon the horns of the altar of the in- 
cense of spices before the Lord, which is in 
the tabernacle of the congregation ; and all the 
(remaining) blood of the bullock shall he pour 
out at the bottom of the altar of burnt-ofler- 
ing, which is at the door of the tabei-nacle of 
the congregation. 

8 And all the fat of the bullock of the sin- 
offering shall he take off from the same : the 
fiit that covereth the inwards, and all the fat 
that is upon the inwards, 

9 And the two kidneys, and the fat that 
is upon them, which is on the flanks, and the 
midriff above the liver, with the kidneys, 
shall he remove it; 

10 As it is taken off from the bullock of 
the sacrifice of peace-oft'ering ; and the priest 
shall burn the same upon the altar of burnt- 
offering. 

11 And the skin of the bullock, and all his 
flesh, with his head, and with his legs, and 
his inwards, and his dung, 

12 Even the whole bullock, shall he carry 
forth without the camp, unto a clean place, 
to where the ashes are poured out, and burn 
him on the wood with fire ; upon where the 
ashes are poured out shall he be burnt. 

13 ^ And if the whole congregation ol" 



like the sin of the ciders spoken of in the nest section ; 
i. e., that he give a wrong decision, which the people fol- 
low, by which thoy incur guilt. 

'' The word ODE' means not merely to kill, but to pro- 
duce death by cutting the throat, as practised in Israel. 
This explanations holds good wherever the word '-kill" 
occurs when speaking of sacrifices, or of animals slain for 
the ordinary use of the people. 



LEVITICUS IV. VAYIKRA. 



Israel sin through ignorance, and a thing be 
hidden from the eyes of the assembly," and 
they do any one of all the prohibitions of the 
Lord which ought not to be done, and the}' 
become guilty ; 

14 When now the sin becometh known, 
through which they have sinned : then shall 
the congregation offer a young bullock for a 
sin-offering, and shall Ijring him before the 
tabernacle of the congregation. 

15 And the elders of the congregation shall 
lay their hands upon the head of the bullock 
before the Lord ; and they shall kill the bul- 
lock before the Lord. 

16 And the anointed priest shall bring 
some of the bullock's blood into the taberna- 
cle of the congregation : 

17 And the priest shall dip his finger in 
some of the lilood, and sprinkle it seven times 
before the Lord, before the vail. 

18 And some of the Ijlood shall he put 
upon the horns of the altar which is before 
the Lord, that is in the tabernacle of the con- 
gregation ; and all the (remaining) blood shall 
he pour out at the bottom of the altar of 
burnt-offering, which is at the door of the 
tabernacle of the congregation. 

19 And all his tat shall he take from him, 
and burn it upon the altar. 

20 And he shall do with the bullock as he 
did with the bullock of the sin-offering; so 
shall he do with this: and the priest shall 
make an atonement for them, and it shall be 
forgiven unto them. 

21 And he shall carry forth the bullock to 
without the camp, and burn him as he burnt 
the first bullock ; it is a sin-offering of the 
congregation. 

22 T[ If a ruler should sin, and do any one 
of the prohibitions of the Lord his God which 
ought not to be done, through ignorance, and 
become guilty -^ 

23 If now his sin, wherein he hath 
sinned, come to his knowledge : he shall 
})ring as his offering, a goat, a male, without 
blemish ; 

21 And he shall lay his hand upon the 
head of the goat, and kill it on the place 



' This is explained, that the assembled judges decide 
erroneously concerning any one of the acts for which 
excision (mj) is denounced, that it is permitted, and the 
people do according to this erroneous decision, thus sin- 



where they kill the burntroffering before the 

Lord; it is a sin-ofl'ering. 

25 And the priest shall take some of the 
blood of the sin-offering with his finger, and 
put it upon the horns of the altar ol" burnt- 
offering; and (the remainder of) its blood he 
shall pour out at the bottom of the altar of 
burnt^ofiering. 

20 And all its fat shall he burn upon the 
altar, as the hit of the sacrifice of peace-offer- 
ing; and the priest shall make an atonement 
for him concerning his sin, and it shall be 
forgiven unto him.* 

27 ^ And if any person of the common 
people should sin through ignorance, by his 
doing any one of the prohibitions of the Lord, 
which ought not to be done, and become 
guilty; 

28 If now his sin, which he hath committed, 
come to his knoAvledge : then shall he bring as 
his offering, a goat, a female, without blemish, 
for his sin which he hath committed; 

29 And he shall lay his hand upon the 
head of the sin-ofl'ering, and slay the sin-ofler- 
ing on the place of the burnt-offering. 

30 And the priest shall take some of the 
blood thereof with his finger, and put it upon 
the horns of the altar of burnt-oflering; and 
all the (remaining) blood thereof shall he pour 
out at the bottom of the altar. 

31 And all the fiit thereof shall he remove, 
as the fat is removed from off the sacrifice of 
peace-offering; and the priest shall burn it 
upon the altar for a sweet sa\our unto the 
Lord ; and the priest shall make an atonement 
for him, and it shall be forgiven unto him. 

32 Tl And if he bring a sheep for a sin- 
offering, a female without ])k'mish shall he 
bring it. 

33 And he shall lay his hand upon the 
head of the sin-ofl'ering, and slay it ibr a sin- 
ofl'ering on the place where they kill the burnt- 
ofl'ering. 

34 And the priest shall take some of the 
l:)lood of the sin-ofl'ering with his finger, and 
put it upon the horns of the altar of liurnt-ofl'er- 
ing; and all the (renuuning) blood thereof 
shall he pour out at the bottom of the altar : 



ning against a vital principle through ignorance, upon the 
instruction of their highest religious authority. 

" Mendelssolin translates this expression, wherever it oc- 
curs, " And he becomes aware of his guilt," or as above, 
"they become aware of their guilt." 

■' 121 



LEVITICUS IV. V. VAYIKRA. 



35 And all the fat thereof shall he remove, 
as the fat of the sheep is removed from the 
sacrifice of the peace-ofliering ; and the priest 
shall bum the same upon the altar, upon 
the oflerings made by fire unto the Lord; 
and the priest shall make an atonement for 
him for his sin that he hath committed, and 
it shall be forgiven unto him. 

CHAPTER V. 

1 ^ And if any person sin, because he 
heareth the voice of adjuration, and he is a 
witness, since he hath either seen or knoweth 
something; if he do not tell it, and thus bear 
his iniquity ; 

2 Or if there be a person who toucheth any 
unclean thing, whether it be the carcass of an 
unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, 
or the carcass of an unclean creeping thing, 
and it escape his recollection ; but (he becom- 
eth aware that) he is unclean, and hath 
(thus) incurred guilt; 

3 Or if he touch the uncleanness of man, 
whatsover uncleanness of the kind it be by 
which he can be defiled, and it escape his re- 
collection ; but he becometh aware of it, and 
(that^Ji he hath (thus) incurred guilt ; 

4 Or if any person swear, by pronouncing 
with his lips" to do evil, or to do good (to him- 
self,) in Avhatsoever it be that a man pro- 
nounceth with an oath, and it escape his 
recollection ; but he becometh aware of it that 
he hath incurred guilt by any one of these : 

5 And it shall be, if he have incurred guilt 
by any one of these (things,) that he shall con- 
fess that concerning which he hath sinned ; 

G And he shall bring his trospass-oflering 
unto the Lord for his sin which he hath com- 
mitted, a female from the flocks, a sheep or a 
goat, for a sm-oflering; and the priest shall 
make an atonement for him concerning his 
sin. 

7 And if his means be not sufBcieut for a 
sheep, then shall he bring as his ofl'ering (for 
the trespa.ss) which he hath committed, two 
turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, unto the 
LoKi); one for a sin-offering, and the other for 
a burnt-ofl'ering. 

8 And he shall bring them unto the priest, 
and he shall (jller that which is for the sin- 



• Philippson renders, " Or if a person swear thought- 
lessly to Jo," &c. Raslii seems to assent to this construc- 
tion by enmnienting, "with the lips, but not tiie heart." 
122 



offering first, and pinch off its head by the 
back of its neck, but shall not divide it 
asunder : 

9 And he shall sprinkle some of the blood 
of the sin-offering upon the wall of the altar; 
and the rest of the blood shall be Avrung 
out at the bottom of the altar; it is a sin- 
offering. 

10 And the second shall he prepare as a 
bunit-offering, according to the prescribed 
order; and the priest shall make an atone- 
ment for him for his sin which he hath com- 
mitted, and it shall be forgiven unto him.* 

11 ^[ But if his means be not sufficient for 
two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, then 
shall he bring as his offering for that which 
he hath sinned, the tenth part of an ephah of 
fine flour for a sin-offering ; he shall not put 
upon it any oil, nor shall he put thereupon 
any frankincense; for it is a sin-ofl'ering. 

12 And he shall bring it to the priest ; and 
the priest shall take from it his handful, as 
its memorial, and burn it on the altar, upon 
the fire-offerings of the Lord: it is a .sin- 
oflering. 

13 And the priest shall make an atonement 
for him concerning his sin that he hath com- 
mitted in one of these, and it shall be for- 
given unto him ; and it shall belong to the 
priest, as the meat-offering. 

14 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

15 If any person commit a trespass, and 
sin through ignorance, against the holy things 
of the Lord : then shall he bring as his tres- 
pass-oflering imto the Lord a ram without 
blemish out of the flocks, in value of two 
shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanc- 
tuary, for a trespass-offering. 

1(3 And that, in which he hath sinned 
against the holy thing, shall he pay, anil shall 
add its fifth part thereto, and give it unto the 
priest; and the priest shall make an atone- 
ment for him with the ram of the trespass- 
ofiering, and it shall l)e forgiven unto him. 

17 ^1 And if any person sin, and conunit 
anyone of the prohibitions of the Lord which 
ought not to be done; and he know** not 
whether he have incurred guilt, and so liear 
his iniquity : 



"■ r. e. It is probable that he has unawares committed ii 
capital sin, without being certain whether it be so : /. <■. that 
both lawful and prohibited food had been before him. 



LEVITICUS V. VI. TZAV. 



18 Then shall he luring a ram without 
blemish out of the flocks, of the usual value, 
for a trespass-oft'ering, unto the priest; and 
the priest shall make an atonement for him 
concerning his sin of ignorance, wherein he 
hath erred and knoweth it not, and it shall 
be forgiven unto him. 

19 It is a trespass-oflering : he hath in tres- 
passing trespassed against the Lord.' 

20 ^f And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

21 If any person sin, and commit a tres- 
pass against the Lord ; if he, namely, lie unto 
his neighbour in that which was delivered 
to him to keep, or in a loan, or in a thing 
taken away by %aolence, or if he have vdih- 
held the wages of his neighbour ; 

22 Or if he have found something which 
was lost, and lie concerning it, and swear 
falsely; in any one of all these which a man 
can do, to sin thereby : 

23 Then shall it be, when he hath sinned, 
and is conscious of his guilt, that he shall re- 
store what he hath taken violently away, or 
the wages which he hath -snthheld, or that 
which was delivered to him to keep, or the 
lost thing which he hath found,* 

21 Or any one thing about which he may 
have sworn falsel}-; and he shall restore it in 
its principal, and the fifth pai't thereof shall 
he add thereto; unto him to whom it apper- 
taineth shall he give it, on the day when he 
confesseth his trespass. 

25 And his trespass-offering shall he bring 
unto the Lord, a ram without blemish out of 
the flocks, of the usual value, for a trespass- 
offering, unto the priest: 

26 And the priest shall make an atone- 
ment for him before the Lord, and it shall be 
forgiven unto him, for any one thing of all 
that he may have done to trespass thereby. 

Ilaphtorah in Isaiah xliii. 21 to xliv. 23. 



SECTION XXV. TZAV, IV. 

CHAPTER VI. 

1 Tl And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying. 



' In the Eng. ver. the fifth chapter ends here. 
^ Lit. " Upon the place of burning." 
" t. e. The altar. 

'' This word must be so understood : the meat-offering 
is brought to the altar ; the greater part is given to the 



2 Command Aaron and his sons, saving. 
This is the law of the bunit-ofl'ering : It is 
the burnt-ofl'ering, which shall be burning'' 
upon the altar all night unto the morning, and 
the fire of the altar shall be burning on it." 

3 And the priest shall jnit on his linen 
garment, and linen breeches shall he put upon 
his flesh, and he shall lift up the ashes which 
the fire hath made by consuming the burnt- 
offeiing on the altar, and he shall place them 
beside the altar. 

4 And he shall take off his gannents, and 
put on other garments, and carry forth the 
ashes to without the camp, unto a clean place. 

5 And the fire upon the altar shall he 
burning on it, it shall not be put out, and the 
priest shall burn wood on it every morning; 
and he shall lay in order upon it the burnt- 
offering, and he shall bum thereon the fat of 
the j5eace-oflerings. 

6 A perpetual fire shall be burning upon 
the altar; it shall not go out. 

7 •[[ And this is the law of the meat-offering : 
(one of) the sons of Aaron shall bring it near 
before the Lord, in front of the altar. 

8 And he shall lift up from it his handful, 
of the flour of the meat-offering, and of its oil, 
and all the frankincense which is upon the 
meat-offering, and he shall burn it upon the 
altar, for a sweet savour, as its menrorial,'' 
unto the Lord. 

9 And what is left thereof shall Aaron and 
his sons eat : imleavened shall it be eaten in a 
holy place; in the court of the tabernacle of 
the congregation shall the}- cat it. 

10 It shall not be baked leaven; as their 
portion have I given it from my offerings 
made by fire; it is most holy, as is the sin- 
offering, and as is the trespass-offering. 

11 All the males among the children of 
Aaron shall eat of it, as a fixed portion for 
ever in your generations from the fire-offer- 
ings of the Lord: every one that touchcth 
thereon shall be holy.* 

12 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

13 This is the offering of Aaron and of his 
sons, which they shall offer unto the Lord on 
the day when he is anointed : the tenth part 



priest ; but the portion offered on the altar is, as it were, 
that which causeth the offerer to be remembered on high. 
Philippson translates the word as " the part to praise 
therewith." 

123 



LEVITICUS VI. VII. TZAV. 



of an eplmh of fine Hour for a meat-offering I 
perpetually; lialf of it in the morning, and 
the other half of it in the evening. 

14 In a pan, with oil, shall it be made, well 
sodden" shalt thou bring it; twice baked, a 
meat-offering of broken pieces, shalt thou offer 
it for a sweet savour unto the Lord. 

15 And the priest that shall be anointed 
in his stead among his sons shall offer it : it 
is a statute for ever, unto the Lord; it shall be 
wholly burnt. 

IG And every meat-offering of a priest 
shall be wholly burnt, it shall not be eaten. 

17 Tf And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

18 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, say- 
ing. This is the law of the sin-offering : On the 
place where the bumt-offering is killed shall 
the sin-offering be killed before the Lord; it 
is most holy. 

19 The priest who maketh atonement with 
its blood shall eat it : in a holy place shall it 
be eaten, in the court of the tabernacle of the 
congregation. 

20 Whatsoever may touch the flesh there- 
of shall be holy: and if there should be 
sprinkled any of its blood upon a garment, 
whatever it hath been sprinkled on shalt thou 
wash out in a holy place. 

21 And any earthen vessel wherein it may- 
have been boiled shall be broken : and if it 
have been boiled in a copper vessel, it shall 
be both scoured and rinsed with water. 

22 Every male among the priests may eat 
thereof: it is most holy. 

23 And evei'y sin-offering whereof any of 
the blood is brought into the tal^ernacle of the 
congregation to make atonement therewith in 
the holy place, shall not be eaten; it shall be 
burnt in Are. 

CHAPTER VII. 

1 Tl And this is the law of the trespass- 
offering: It is most holy. 

2 On the place where they kill the burnt- 
oflcring shall they kill the trespass-oflering ; 



' So Ila.slii explains the word n33"iO " soildcn sufficient 
in hot water;" after which it was baked in an oven, broken 
in pieces, and baked again in the pan. Others explain 
this term with " softened with oil." Hut this beinjj one 
of the words which occur in but one passage, it is difficult 
to state its precise signification. 

' This is variouslj' explained, so as to agree with the 
124 



and the blood thereof shall be sprinkled upon 
the altar round about. 

3 And all its fat shall be oflered up; the 
rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, 

4 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is 
on them, which is on the flanks, and the mid- 
riff above the liver, with the kidneys shall 
he remove the same : 

5 And the priest shall burn them upon the 
altar for an offering made by lire unto the 
Lord; it is a trespass-offering. 

G Every male among the priests may eat 
thereof; in a holy j^lace shall it be eaten : it 
is most holy. 

7 As the sin-offering is, so is the trespass- 
offering ; there is one law for them : the priest 
that maketh atonement thercAvith, his shall 
it be. 

8 And the priest that offereth any man's 
burnt-offering, — the skin of the burnt-offering 
which he hath oflered shall belong to this 
priest alone. 

9 And every meat-offering that is baked in 
the oven, and all that is dressed in the deep 
pan, and in the flat pan, shall belong to the 
priest that offereth it alone.'' 

10 And every meat-oftering which is min- 
gled with oil, or dry, shall belong to all the 
sons of Aaron, to one as much as the other."'' 

11 ^f And this is the law of the sacrifice 
of peace-offering, which one may happen to 
offer unto the Lord. 

12 If he ofler it for a thanksgiving, then 
shall he ofler with the sacrifice of thanksgiv- 
ing unleavened cakes mingled Avith oil, and 
unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and fine 
flour, well sodden, made into cakes mingled 
with oil. 

13 Together Avith cakes of leavened bread 
shall he bring his ofl'ering, Avitli the sacrifice 
of his thanksgiving peace-ofl'oring. 

14 And he shall ofler thereof one out of 
every oblation for a heave-oflering unto the 
Lord; to the priest that sprinkleth the blood 
of the peace-oflering — to him shall it belong. 

15 And the flesh of the sacrifice of his 



next verse. Fir.st, that it is the absolute property of (ho 
officiating priest, to distribute it at his option among his 
fellows; secondly, that it belongs to the family division 
of the sacrificcr who may have the duties to perform on 
the day of the sacrifice. Arnhcim and others render 
verse 10, "Hut," &c., thus making a distinction between 
the various kinds of sacrifices. 



LEVITICUS VII. TZAV. 



thanksgiving peace-offoring shall he eaten the 
same day that it is offered; he shall not leave 
any of it until the morning. 

16 But if the sacrifice of his offering be a 
vow, or a voluntary offering, it shall bo eaten 
the same day that he oflereth his sacrifice: 
and on the morrow also shall what is left 
thereof be eaten. 

17 But what is left of the flesh of the sacri- 
fice, on the third day shall it be burnt with 
fire. 

18 And if the intention" was to eat of the 
flesh of the sacrifice of his peace-offering on 
the third day, it shall not be fiivourably re- 
ceived ; to him who offereth it shall it not be ac- 
counted ; it shall be an abomination, and the 
person that eateth of it shall bear his iniquity. 

19 And the flesh, that toucheth on any 
unclean thing, shall not be eaten, with fire 
shall it be burnt : and as for the flesh, every 
one that is clean may eat thereof 

20 But the person that eateth the flesh of 
the sacrifice of peace-offering, that pertaineth 
unto the Lord, having his uncleanness upon 
him, even that person shall be cut off from 
his jjeople. 

21 And any person that toucheth any un- 
clean thing, as the uncleanness of man, or on 
any unclean beast, or on any abominable un- 
clean thing, and eateth of the flesh of the 
sacrifice of peace-offering, which pertaineth 
unto the Lord, even that person shall be cut 
off from his people. 

22 And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 

23 Speak unto the children of Israel, say- 
ing. Every manner of fat, of ox,"* or of sheep, 
or of goat shall ye not eat. 

24 And the fat of a beast that dieth of 
itself, and the fat of that which is torn by 
beasts, may be used for any manner of work, 
but ye shall in no wise eat of it. 

25 For whosoever eateth the fat of the 
cattle, of which one can offer an offering made 
by fire unto the Lord, even the person that 
eateth it shall be cut off from his people. 

26 Moreover ye shall eat no manner of 



* After Rashi, in accordance with Zebachim, folio 28 a. 
See also Wesseli's note to this verse, where he proves that 
it would be incorrect to render "if any of the flesh, &c. 
be eaten." 

^ These are the species of which a sacrifice can be 
brought; consequently, the fat of the deer-kind is per- 
mitted. 



blood, in any of your dwellings, whether it be 
of fowl or of cattle." 

27 Whatsoever person it be that eateth 
any manner of blood, OAcn that person shall 
be cut off from his people. 

28 ][ And the IjORd spoke unto Moses, 
saying,^ 

29 Speak unto the children of Israel, say- 
ing. He thatoflereth the sacrifice of his pcace- 
oflering unto the Lord shall bring his oblation 
unto the Lord from the sacrifice of his peace- 
oftering. 

30 His own hands shall bring it, as the 
fire-offerings of the Lord; the fat with the 
breast shall he bring, the breast that it may 
be waved for a wave-oflfering before the Lord. 

31 And the priest shall burn the fat upon 
the altar; but the breast shall belong to 
Aaron and to his sons. 

32 And the right shoulder shall ye give 
unto the priest for a heave-oflfering, of the 
sacrifices of your peace-offerings. 

33 The one that ofiereth the blood of the 
peace-offerings, and the fat, among the sons 
of Aaron, shall have the right shoulder for 
his part. 

34 For the breast which hath been waved 
and the shoulder which hath been lifted up 
have I taken from the children of Israel from 
the sacrifices of their peace-offerings; and I 
have given them unto Aaron the priest and 
unto his sons as a fixed portion** for ever from 
the children of Israel. 

35 This is the portion of the anointing" of 
Aaron, and of the anointing of his sons, from 
the fire-oflerings of the Lord, on the day 
when he brouglit them near to become priests 
unto the Lord; 

36 Which the Lord commanded to give 
mito them, on the day that he anointed them, 
from the children of Israel, as a fixed portion 
for ever throughout their generations. 

37 This is the law of the burnt-offering, of 
the meat-oftering, and of the sin-offering, and 
of the trespass-offering, and of the consecra- 
tion-offering, and of the sacrifice of the peace- 
offering ; 



° The blood, however, of all four-footed animals, as well 
as of birds, is interdicted, without distinction, whether the 
individual be fit for sacrifice or not. 

'' The word pn, otherwise rendered "statute," is here 
given, after Mendelssohn, with "fixed portion." (See 
Genesis xlvii. 22.) 

• i'. e. Hb, in consequence of his being anointed. 

125 



LEVITICUS VII. VIII. TZAV. 



38 Which the Lord commanded Moses on 
mount Sinai, on the day that he commanded 
the chikh'en of Israel to offer their ohlations 
unto the Lord, in the wilderness of Sinai.* 

CHAPTER VIIL 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 Take Aaron and his sons with him, and 
the garments, and the anointing oil, and the 
bullock for the sin-offering, and the two rams, 
and the basket of unleavened bread ; 

3 And all the congregation shalt thou as- 
semble together unto the door of the taber- 
nacle of the congregation. 

4 And Moses did as the Lord had com- 
raaiided him ; and the assembly came together 
unto the door of the tabernacle of the con- 
gregation. 

5 And Moses said unto the congregation. 
This is the thing which the Lord hath com- 
manded to do. 

6 And Moses brought near Aaron and his 
sons, and washed them with water. 

7 And he put upon him the coat, and 
girded him with the girdle, and clothed him 
with the robe, and put upon him the ephod, 
and he girded him with the belt of the ephod, 
and bound it unto him therewith. 

8 And he put on him the breastplate; and 
he put in the breastplate the Urim and the 
Thummim. 

I) And he put the mitre upon his head; 
and he placed upon the mitre, toward the 
front thereof, the golden plate, the holy 
crown; as the Lord had commanded Moses. 

10 And Moses took the anointing oil, and 
anointed the tabernacle and all that was 
therein, and sanctified them. 

11 And he sprinkled thereof upon the 
altar seven times; and he anointed the altar 
and all its vessels, also the laver and its foot, 
to sanctify them. 

12 And he poured of the anointing oil upon 
Aaron's head, and he anointed him, to sanc- 
tify him. 



' This is the manner in which Arnhcira and Wesseli 
explain onv/'^ used hero and in verses 19 and 23, it hav- 
ing in all those instanecs a disjunctive accent. Mcudcls- 
sobn, however, after Torath Kohanim, both translates 
"and Moses slow and took the blood," and comments that 
probably during the week of consecration the killing of 
the sacrifices was required to be done by Moses, perhaps 
to show the people the manner of killing the same, as 
126 



13 And Moses brought near the sons of 
Aaron, and clothed them with coats, and 
girded them with girdles, and bound the bon- 
nets on them; as the Lord had commanded 
Moses.* 

14 And he brought near the bullock of the 
sin-offering: and Aaron and his sons laid 
their hands ujiou the head of the bullock of 
the sin-offering. 

15 And some one" slew him; and Moses 
took the blood, and put it upon the horns of 
the altar round about with his finger, and 
purified the altar, and the (remaining) blood 
he poured out at the bottom of the altar, and 
sanctified it, to make henceforth atonement 
upon it. 

16 And he took all the fat that was upon 
the inwards, and the midriff of the Uver, and 
the two kidne3S, and their fat, and Moses 
burnt them upon the altar. 

17 But the bullock, and his hide, and his 
flesh, and his dung, he burnt with fire with- 
out the camp; as the Lord had commanded 
Moses. 

18 And he brought near the ram of the 
burnt-offering; and Aaron and his sons laid 
their hands upon the head of the ram. 

19 And some one killed him; and Moses 
sprinkled the blood upon the altar round 
about. 

20 And the ram he'' cut into the proper 
pieces; and Moses burnt the head, and the 
pieces, and the fat. 

21 And he washed the inwards and the 
legs in water; and Moses burnt the whole 
ram upon the altar : it was a burnt-sacrifice 
for a sweet savour, an offering made by fire 
unto the Lord; as the Lord had commanded 
Moses.* 

22 And he brought near the other ram, 
the ram of consecration; and Aaron and his 
sons laid their hands upon the head of the 
ram. 

23 And some one slew him; and Moses 
took some of his blood, and put it upon the 
tip of Aaron's right ear, and upon the thumb 



he performed all the other duties of the service to show 
them all the laws thereof. 

"> Wcs.soli and Arnheini remark that the cutting up 
and the washing of the sacrifice wore probably performed 
by another person, as above, verse 15; as they do not 
properly belong to the act of sacrificing, and could there- 
fore be done by a person not connected with the priest- 
hood. 



LEVITICUS VIII. IX. SIIEMINEE. 



of his right hand, and upon the great toe of 
his right foot. 

24 And he brought near Aaron's sons, and 
Moses put some of the blood upon the tijj of 
their right ear, and upon the thumb of their 
right hand, and upon the great toe of their 
right foot; and Moses sprinkled the blood 
upon the altar round about. 

25 And he took the fat, and the rump, 
and all the fat that was upon the inwards, 
and the midrifi' of the liver, and the two kid- 
neys, and their fat, and the right shoulder; 

26 And out of the basket of unleavened 
bread, that was before the Lord," he took one 
unleavened cake, and one cake of oiled bread, 
and one wafer, and he put them on the fat, 
and upon the right shoulder: 

27 And he placed the whole upon the 
hands of Aaron, and upon the hands of his 
sons, and made with them a waving before 
the Lord. 

28 And Moses then took these things from 
off their hands, and burnt them on the altar 
upon the burnt^offering : they were a conse- 
cration-offering for a sweet savour, a fire-offer- 
ing were they unto the Lord. 

29 And Moses took the breast, and made | 
therewith a Avaving before the Lord; from 
the ram of consecration was it given to Moses 
as his portion; as the Lord had commanded 
Moses.* 

30 And Moses took some of the anointing 
oil, and of the blood which was upon the 
altar, and sprinkled the same upon Aaron, 
and upon his garments, and upon his sons, 
and upon the garments of his sons with him ; 
and he sanctified Aai'on, his garments, and 
his sons, and the garments of his sons with 
him. 

31 And Moses said unto Aaron and to his 
sons, Boil ye the flesh at the door of the 
tabei-nacle of the congregation; and there 
shall ye eat it with the bread that is in the 
basket of the consecration; as I have com- 
manded, saying, Aaron and his sons shall 
eat it. 

32 And that which is left of the flesh and 
of the bread shall ye burn with fire.* 

33 And from the door of the tabernacle of 



" Meaning, the basket which had been placed near the 
altar, as by this means it was more in the presence of God 
than in any other place. 

^ Lit. "Shall he (the consecrator) fill your hand." 



the congregation shall ye not go forth seven 
days, until the days of your consecration be 
at an end; for seven days shall your conse- 
cration last.*" 

34 As they have done this day, so hath 
the Lord commanded to do farther, to make 
an atonement for you. 

35 And at the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation shall ye abide day and night 
seven days, and keep the charge of the Lord, 
that ye die not; for so have I been com- 
manded. 

36 And Aaron and his sons did all the 
tilings which the Lord had commanded by 
the hand of Moses. 

Haphtorah in Jeremiah vii. 21 to viii. 3 and ix. 22, 23. 



SECTION XXVI. SHEMINEE, TOtJ'. 

CHAPTER IX. 

1 ^ And it came to pass on the eighth day 
that Moses called Aaron and his sons, and 
the elders of Israel ; 

2 And he said unto Aaron, Take unto thy- 
self a young calf° for a sin-offering, and a ram 
for a burnt-offering, without blemish, and 
brmg them near before the Lord. 

3 And unto the children of Israel shalt 
thou speak, saying, Take ye a he-goat for a 
sin-offering; and a calf and a sheep, both of 
the first year, without blemish, for a burnt- 
offering ; 

4 Also a bullock and a ram for jieace-offer- 
ings, to sacrifice before the Lord, and a meat- 
oflering mingled Avith oil; for this day the 
Lord will appear unto you. 

5 And they brought that which Moses had 
commanded before the tabernacle of the con- 
gregation : and all the congregation drew near 
and stood before the Lord. 

6 And Moses said, This thing which the 
Lord hath commanded shall ye do : and then 
will the glory of the Lord appear unto j^ou. 

7 And Moses said unto Aaron, Draw near 
unto the altar, and prepare thy sin-offei'ing, 
and thy burnt-offering, and make an atone- 
ment for thyself, and for the people ; and pre- 
pare the offering of the people, and make an 



' This phrase lp3 p Sj;' is said to moan a steer of two 
years, so likewise "ram" signifies one two years old; but 
when the words hi)f and a^D "calf" and "sheep" aro 
used, they mean animals one year old. 

127 



LEVITICUS IX. X. SIIEMINEE. 



atonement for them; as the Lord hath com- 
manded. 

8 And Aaron drew near nnto the altar; 
and he slew the calf of the sin-offering, which 
wa.s for himself. 

9 And the sons of Aaron brought the 
blood unto him ; and he dipped his finger in 
the blood, and put it upon the horns of the 
altar; and the (remaining) blood he poured 
out at the bottom of the altar 

10 And the fat, and the kidneys, and the 
midrifi' from the liver of the sin-offering, he 
burnt upon the altar; as the Lord had com- 
manded Moses. 

11 And the flesh and the hide he burnt 
with fire without the camp. 

12 And he slew the burnt-offering; and 
the sons of Aaron presented unto him the 
blood, and he sprinkled it upon the altar 
round about. 

13 And the burnt-offering they presented 
unto him, in its proper pieces, together with 
the head: and he burnt them upon the 
altar. 

14 And he washed the inwards and the 
legs; and he burnt them upon the burnt- 
offering on the altar. 

15 And he brought near the people's offer- 
ing ; and he took the goat of the sin-offering 
which belonged to the people, and slew it, 
and made atonement* with its blood, as the 
first. 

16 And he brought near the burnt-offering, 
and offered it according to the prescribed 
manner.* 

17 And he brought near the meat-offering, 
and he filled his hand thereof, and burnt it 
upon the altar, beside the burnt-sacrifice of 
the morning. 

18 lie slew also the bullock and the ram, 
the sacrifice of i)eace-oflering which belonged 
to the people: and the sons of Aaron pre- 
sented unto him the blood, and he sprinkled 
it upon the altar round al)Out, 

11) Also the fat of tlie bullock, and of the 
ram, the rump, and that which covereth the 

' Onkclos thus renders inxtarri, and views it as express- 
ing that the priest made of it a sin-offering by sprin- 
kling the blood : the word hlixnl, however, is not in the 
text, and is merely understood. So also above, vi. 19, 
and elsewhere. 

' The guilt of the sons of Aaron (more correctly Aha- 
ron) evidently eon.sisted in their bringing incense upon a 
censer which had not been commanded, as it was merely 
128 



inwards, and the kidneys, and the midriff of 
the liver; 

20 And they put these pieces of fat upon 
the breasts, and he burnt the fat upon the 
altar; 

21 And with the breasts and the right 
shoulder Aaron made a waving before the 
Lord; as Moses had commanded. 

22 And Aaron lifted up his hands toward 
the people, and blessed them ; and came down 
after he had ofl'ered the sin-offering, and the 
burnt-oflering, and peace-offerings. 

23 And Moses and Aaron went into the 
tabernacle of the congregation, and came then 
out, and blessed the people : and the glory of 
the Lord appeared unto all the people. '•■ 

24 And there came forth a fire from before 
the Lord, and consumed upon the altar the 
burnt-offering and the fat; and when all the 
people saw this, they shouted, and fell on 
their faces. 

CHAPTER X. 

1 And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of 
Aaron, took each his censer, and they put 
therein fire, and put thereon incense: and 
they brought near before the Lord a strange 
fire,*" which he had not commanded them. 

2 And there went out a fire from before 
the Lord, and consumed them, and they died 
before the Lord. 

3 Then said Moses unto Aaron, This is 
what the Lord hath spoken, saying. On those 
Avho are near unto me will I be sanctified, 
and before all the people will I be glorified; 
and Aaron held his peace. 

4 And Moses called imto Mishael and El- 
zaphan, the sons of 'Uzziel, the uncle of Aaron, 
and said unto them. Come near, carry your 
jjrethren from before the sanctuary to without 
the camp. 

5 And they came near, and carried thena 
in their coats to without the camp; as Moses 
had spoken. 

C And Moses said unto Aaron, and unto 
Elazar and inito Ithaniar, his sons. The hair 



to be sacriflccd on the altar which was within the sanc- 
tuary, and then but twice every daj-. And while they 
were engaged in this unacceptable ministry, they were 
slain in the tabernacle by the my.sterious fire. The 
words "consumed them" must, however, be understood, 
not as a perfect burning, but as merely enough to cause 
death, or else they could not have been carried forth to be 
buried in their garments. 



LEVITICUS X. XL SHEMINEE. 



of your head you shall not let grow long, and 
your garments you sliall not rend, that ye 
die not, and that he be not wroth upon the 
whole congregation; but your lirethren, the 
whole house of Israel, may bewail the burn- 
ing which the Lord hath kindled. 

7 And from the door of the tabernacle of 
the congregation shall }e not go out, lest ye 
die; for the anointing oil of the Lord is upon 
you; and they did according to the word of 
Moses. 

8 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Aaron, 
saying, 

9 Wine or strong drink" shalt thou not 
drink, neither thou, nor thy sons with thee, 
when ye go in unto the tabernacle of the con- 
gregation, lest ye die : it shall be a statute for 
ever throughout your generations. 

10 So that ye may be able to distinguish 
between holy and unholy, and between the 
unclean and the clean ; 

11 And that ye may be able to teach the 
children of Israel all the statutes which the 
Lord hath spoken unto them by the hand of 
Moses.* 

12 ^ And Moses spoke unto Aaron, and 
unto Elazar and unto Ithamar his sons, that 
were left, Take ye the meat-offering that is 
left of the fire-offerings of the Lord, and eat 
it unleavened beside the altar ; for it is most 
holy. 

13 And ye shall eat it in a holy place, be- 
cause it is thy fixed portion, and the fixed 
portion of thy sons, from the fire-offerings of 
the Lord; for so have I been commanded. 

14 And the bi'east which hath been waved 
and the shoulder which hath been lifted up, 
shall ye eat in a clean place, thou, and thy 
sons, and thy daughters with thee ; for as thy 
fixed portion, and the fixed portion of thy 
sons, have they been given from the sacrifices 
of peace-offerings of the children of Israel. 

15 The shoulder which is waved and the 



* From the fact that this section follows immediately 
the one containing the death of Aaron's sons, it was the 
opinion of R^ibbi Ishmacl, that they had entered the sanc- 
tuary in a state of drunkenness; be this as it may, it is an 
energetic prohibition against the use of any intoxicating 
drink, by priests or judges, before they engage in their 
solemn duties. 

*" Aaron no doubt meant to exhibit to Moses, that as he 
had not enumerated the sin-oflfering among the things to be 
eaten, (verse 12,) it would have been wrong for him to cat 
thereof, while his sons were yet unburicd ; and he there- 
fore had it burnt, as it cou!d not lawfully be kept till the 
R 



wave which is lifted up, shall they bring, with 
the fat of the fire-offering, to make therewith 
a Avaving before the Lord; and then shall it 
be thine, and thy sons with thee, as a fixed 
portion for ever; as the Lord hath com- 
manded.'=' 

10 And the goat of the sin-offering Moses 
sought diligently, and behold, it was burnt: 
and he was angry with Elazar and Ithamar, 
the sons of Aaron who had been left, and 
said, 

17 Wherefore have je not eaten the sin- 
offering in the holy place, seeuig that it is 
most holy, and that he hath given it to you 
to bear the iniquity of the congregation, to 
make atonement for them before the Lord ? 

18 Behold, its blood was not brought with- 
in the holy place : ye should then have eaten 
it in the holy place, as I commanded. 

19 And Aaron spoke unto Moses, Behold, 
this day have they offered their sin-offering, 
and their burnt-oflering before the Lord; and 
things as these have befallen me: and if I had 
eaten the sin-offering to-day,'' would it have 
been pleasing in the eyes of the Lord ? 

20 And Avhen Moses heai'd this, it was 
pleasing in his eyes.* 

CHAPTER XL 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
to Aaron, saying unto them, 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, 
These ai'e the beasts which ye may eat among 
all the beasts" that are on the earth. 

3 Whatsoever divideth the hoof, and is 
cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, among 
the beasts, that may ye eat. 

4 But these shall ye not eat, of those that 
chew the cud, or of tho.se that divide the 
hoof: the camel ; because he cheweth the cud, 
but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto 
you. 

5 And the cony; because he cheweth the 



next day. And though he had concluded wrongly, still 
Moses was satisfied ; as ho had acted from pure intentions. 
—After Wes.seli. 

° T\:^7\2 in this and subsequent verses is rendered by 
Amheim " fourfooted," i. e. animals. Usually it is given 
with " cattle," that is, the domestic ones, in opposition to 
rrn "the beast" which roams wild. But as "beast" in 
English includes both the wild and domestic animal, the 
word has been used to express both rrn and mn3, from 
the difficulty of translating them always with the proper 
synonyme. 



LEVITICUS XI. SHEMINEE. 



cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean 
unto you. 

G And the hare; because he cheweth the 
cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean 
unto you. 

7 And the swine; because he divideth the 
hoof, and is cloven-footed, but he cheweth not 
the cud ; he is unclean unto you. 

8 Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their 
carcass shall ye not touch ; they are unclean 
unto you. 

9 These may ye eat, of all that are in the 
waters : All that have fins and scales in the 
waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them 
may ye eat. 

10 But all that have not fins and scales in 
the seas, and in the rivers, of whatever mov- 
cth in the waters, and of any living thing 
which is in the waters, shall be an ajjominar 
tion unto you : 

11 And an abomination shall they remain 
unto you; of their flesh shall ye not eat, 
and their carcasses ye shall have in abominar 
tion. 

12 Whatsoever hath not fins and scales in 
the waters, shall be an abomination unto 
you. 

13 And these shall ye have in abomination 
among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, 
they are an abomination : The eagle," and the 
ossifrage, and the osprey, 

14 And the vulture, and the kite after his 
kind ; 

15 Every raven after his kind; 

IG And the ostrich, and the night-hawk, 
and the cuckoo, and the hawk after his 
kind ; 

17 And the little owl, and the cormorant, 
and the great owl, 

18 And the swan, and the pelican, and the 
gier-eagle, 

19 And the stork, the heron after his kind, 
and the lapwing, and the bat. 

20 All flying insects that walk upon four 
feet, shall be an aljomination unto you. 

21 Yet these may ye cat, among all the 



* The meaning of some of the birds' names, like that of 
the stones in the breastplate, are of very uncertain signi- 
fication. (Sec also Deut. xiv. 1'2-lS.) 

'' All these arc species of the locust — the particular 
kinds arc not known ; hence they arc left untranslated, as 
has been done by Mendelssohn and Arnhcim. The same 
uncertainty prevails concerning the animals mentioned in 
verses 30 and 31. 
180 



flying insects that walk on four feet, which 
have spring-legs al)ove their feet, to leap 
there'vvith upon the earth. 

22 These of them may ye cat : The locu.st 
after its kind, and the solam'' after its kind, 
and the chargol after its kind, and the chagab 
after its kind. 

23 But all flying insects, which have four 
feet, shall be an abomination unto you; 

24 And through these shall ye be rendered 
unclean : whosoever toucheth the carcass of 
them shall be unclean until the evening; 

25 And whosoever beareth aught of their 
carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean 
until the evening. 

2G Every species of beast,*^ which divideth 
the hoof and is not cloven-footed nor cheweth 
the cud, is miclean unto j'ou : every one that 
toucheth the same .shall be imclean. 

27 And all that walk upon their paws, 
among all manner of beasts that walk on four 
feet, are unclean unto you ; Avhosoever touch- 
eth their carcass shall be unclean until the 
evening. 

28 And he that beareth their carcass shall 
wash his clothes, and be unclean vmtil the 
evening : unclean shall they be unto you. 

29 ^i And these shall be unclean unto you 
among the creeping things that creep upon 
the earth : the weasel, and the mouse, and the 
tortoise after its kind, 

30 And the hedgehog, and the chame- 
leon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the 
mole. 

31 These shall be unclean to 30U among 
all that creci^: whosoever doth touch them, 
when they are dead, shall be unclean until 
the evening. 

32 And every thing upon which any jiart 
of them, when they are dead, doth fiill, shall 
be unclean ; Avhether it be any vessel of wood, 
or raiment, or skin, or sack, every ves.sel 
wherewith any work can be done, nuist be put 
into water, and it shall be unclean until the 
evening, when it shall be clean.* 

33 And every earthen vessel whereinto 



° In this the prohibition is rendered general, that any 
animal which has a hoof that is not divided through, 
though it be partiiilly split, shall bo unclean. The touch- 
ing to render man unclean, refers to tlie carcass, not the 
living animal, as appears from the whole tenor of tlie pre- 
cept given here with regard to uncleanness arising from 
touching uiicle.m animals. Verse 27 interdicts all animals 
that have neither mark of cleanness before given. 



LEVITICUS XI. XII. TAZREEANG. 



any part of them falleth, whatsoever is in it 
shall be unclean ; and itself shall ye break. 
. 34 All kinds of food which may be eaten," 
on which water cometh, shall be unclean : and 
all drink that may be drunk, shall be render- 
ed unclean in every vessel. 

35 And every thing whereupon any part 
of their carcass falleth, shall be unclean ; an 
oven,*" or ranges for pots, shall be broken 
down, they are unclean; and unclean shall 
they be unto you. 

3G Nevertheless, a fountain, or pit, rcceptar 
cles for water, shall be clean ;" but he'' that 
toucheth their carcass shall be unclean. 

37 And if any part of their carcass fall 
upon any somng-seed which hath been" sown, 
it shall be clean. 

38 But if any water be put upon the seed, 
and any part of their carcass fall thereon, it 
shall be unclean unto you. 

39 T[ And if any cattle die, which is allow- 
ed to you as food : he that toucheth its car- 
cass shall be unclean until the evening. 

40 And he that eateth of its carcass shall 
wash his clothes, and be unclean until the 
evening ; he also that beareth its carcass shall 
wash his clothes, and be unclean until the 
evening. 

41 And every creepuig thing that creepeth 
upon the earth is an abomination, it shall not 
be eaten. 

42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and 
whatsoever goeth upon four feet, down to 
whatsoever hath many feet among all creep- 
ing things that creep upon the earth, shall ye 
not eat ; for they are an abomination. 

43 Ye shall not make yourselves abomina- 
ble mth any creeping thing that creepeth; 
and ye shall not make yourselves unclean 
\di\\ them, that ye should be defiled thereby. 

44 For I am the Lord your God; ye shall 
therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be 
holy ; for I am holy : neither shall ye make 
yourselves unclean with any manner of creep- 
ing thing that creepeth upon the earth.* 

45 For I am the Lord that have brought 
you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your 



' " This refers to the preceding verse ; whatever food 
on -which water has been put, as also all manner of drink 
which shall happen to be in the unclean vessel, shall be 
rendered unclean." — ILvsm. 

' Tradition defines these to mean movable earthen 
ovens and ranges. 



God; ye shall therefore Ix; holy, for 1 am 
holy. 

46 This is the law of the beasts, and ol 
the fowl, and of every livmg creature that 
moveth in the waters, and of every creature 
that creepeth u2)on the earth : 

47 To distinguish between the unclean and 
the clean, and between the beast that may be 
eaten and the beast that may not be eaten. 

Ilaphtorah in 2 Samuel vi. 1 to 19. The Germans read to 
vii. 3, and the Italians to verse 17. 



SECTION XXVII. TAZREEANG, V''\^r\. 

CHAPTER XII. 

1 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saymg, 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, 
K a woman have conceived seed, and bom a 
male child : then shall she be unclean seven 
days, even as in the days of the separation 
for her infirmity shall she be unclean. 

3 And on the eighth day shall the flesh of 
his foreskin be circumcised. 

4 And thirty and three days shall she then 
continue in the blood of her purification ; any 
thmg hallowed shall she not touch, and into 
the sanctuary shall she not come, imtil the 
days of her purification be at an end. 

5 But if she bear a female child, then shall 
she be unclean two weeks, as in her separa- 
tion; and sixty and six daj's shall she con- 
tinue in the blood of the purification. 

G And at the completion of the days of her 
purification, for a son, or for a daughter, she 
shall bring a sheep of the first year for a 
burnt-oftering, and a young pigeon, or a 
turtle-dove, for a sin-oflering, imto the door 
of the tabernacle of the congregation, unto the 
priest. 

7 And he shall bring it near before the 
Lord, and make an atonement for her, and 
she shall be cleansed from the issue of her 
blood; tliis is the law for her that hath given 
birth to a male or to a female. 

8 And if her means will not suffice for a 



° " Even should a carcass lie therein." — Arnheim. 

•^ " Though lie be at the time in a fountain or pit of 
water." — Kasiii. 

• " In a way that it can be sown in a dry state." — 
Jonathan. 

131 



LEVITICUS XII. XIII. TAZREEANG. 



lamb, tlien shall she take two turtle-doves, or 
two young pigeons, the one for a burnt^ 
ofiering, and the other for a sin-offering; and 
the priest shall make an atonement for her, 
and she shall be clean. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
unto Aaron, sajdng, 

2 If a man shall have in the skin of his 
flesh a swelling," a rising, or a bright spot, 
and it might become'' in the skin of his flesh 
the plague of leprosy : then shall he be brought 
unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons 
the priests. 

3 And if the priest shall see the plague 
in the skin of the flesh, and the hair in the 
plague be turned white, and the appearance of 
the plague be deeper than the skin of his 
flesh : it is a plague of leprosy ; and (so soon 
as) the priest shall see him, he shall pro- 
nounce him unclean. 

4 But if it be a white bright spot in the 
skin of his flesh, and its appearance be not 
deeper than the skin, and the hair be not 
turned white : then shall the priest shut up 
the plague seven days. 

5 And the priest shall see him on the 
seventh day; and, behold, if the plague have 
remained unchanged in its appearance, the 
plague have not spread in the skin : then shall 
the priest shut him up seven days more.* 

6 And the priest shall see him again on 
the seventh day; and, behold, if the plague 
be somewhat pale, and the plague have not 
spread in the skin : then shall the priest pro- 
nounce him clean ; it is a rising, and he shall 
wash his clothes, and be clean. 

7 But if the rising should spread abroad in 
the skin, after he hath been seen by the priest 
for his cleansing, he shall be seen again by 
the priest. 



I 8 And if the priest see that, behold, the 
' rising have spread abroad in the skin, then 
Ij shall the px'iest pronounce him unclean : it is 
! leprosy. 

9 ^f If the plague of leprosy happen to be 
on a man, then shall he be Ijrought unto the 
priest; 

10 And the priest shall see, and, behold, if 
there be a white swelling in the skin, and the 
hair in it have turned Avhite, or" there be a 
trace of healthy'* flesh in the swelling : 

11 It is an inveterate leprosy in the skin 
of his flesh, and the jjriest shall pronounce 
him unclean ; he shall not shut him up, for he 
is unclean. 

12 And if the leprosy break out abroad in the 
skin, and the leprosy cover all the skin of (him 
that hath) the plague from his head even to 
the feet, so far as the eyes of the priest can see : 

13 If now the priest should see, that, be- 
hold, the lei)rosy have covered all his flesh, 
he shall pronounce the plague clean; it is all 
turned white, he is clean. 

14 But on the day that health}' flesh ap- 
peareth therein, he shall be unclean. 

15 And the priest shall see the healthy 
flesh, and pronounce him to be unclean ; the 
healthy flesh is unclean, it is the leprosj-. 

16 Or if the healthy flesh turn again, and 
be changed unto white, he shall come unto 
the priest ; 

17 And if the priest see him, and, behold, 
the plague be turned into white : then shall 
the priest pronounce the plague" clean, he is 
clean."'' 

18 Tl And if there be a person who hath had 
in his skin an inflammation, and hath been 
healed, 

19 And if there be on the jjlace of the in- 
flammation a Avhite swelling, or a white and 
dark red' bright spot, he shall be shown to 
the priest; 



■ This is according to the version of Mendelssohn. 
Arnheim renders ririDD " tetter," or a tetter-like affection. 
Jonathan gives it with 'iji'^p" peeling," "scale," or "scab." 
Philippson translates rixt? simply with " spot," and com- 
ments that this is the first symptom of leprosy : this view 
explains quite naturally the " depression" spoken of in 
the next verse. 

^ Both Mendelssohn and Arnheim translate rrni as 
here given : it means then, that so soon as there is an ap- 
pearance which might terminate in leprosy, the patient 
shall be brought to the priest for inspection. 

° Tradition requires us to render "or," as Mendelssohn 
docs. Arnheim and others give it with "and." 



* Others translate this with "raw flesh." 
° "Plague" stands for "him who hath the plague." 
' This version of " dark red" is after Mendelssohn, who 
views after the llabbins, Dioix and pipT as the inten- 
sives of oiN and pT, therefore "dark red, dark green." 
The verse should then be explained, that there be upon 
the place where a wound or a sore has been in the skin a 
swelling or spot not decidedly white, but intermingled 
with dark red streaks, which peculiar appearance i.s a dis- 
tinctive mark of Icpro.sy, not of a .«carof the wound, if the 
other signs, the depression of the skin and the white hair, 
should be present. The same is the case with the next 
section. 



LEVITICUS XIII. TAZREEANG. 



20 And if the priest see, and, behold, its 
appearance be lower than the skin, and the 
hair thereof have been turned white : then 
shall the priest pronounce him unclean, it is 
the plague of leprosy broken out m the in- 
flammation. 

21 But if the priest see it, and, behold, 
there be no white hair therein, and if it be 
not lower than the skin, and it be pale: 
then shall the priest shut him up seven da3-s. 

22 And if it now spread abroad in the 
skin, then shall the priest pronounce him un- 
clean: it is the jDlague (of leprosy). 

23 But if the bright spot remain in its 
place, and sj^read not, it is a scar of the in- 
flammation; and the priest shall pronounce 
him clean.* 

24 Tl Or if there be a person in whose skin 
there is a place burnt by fire, and the mark 
of the burning become a bright spot, white 
and dark red, or white; 

25 And if the priest see it, and, behold, 
the hair in the bright spot have been turned 
white, and its appearance be deejjer than the 
skin: it is leprosy, broken out in the fire- 
wound; and the priest shall pronounce him 
unclean, it is. the plague of leprosy. 

26 But if the priest see it, and, behold, 
there be in the bright spot no white hair, 
and it be not lower than the skin, and it be 
pale : then shall the priest shut liim up seven 
days. 

27 And the priest shall see him on the 
seventh day ; if now it have spread abroad in 
the skin, then shall the priest pronounce him 
unclean : it is the plague of leprosy. 

28 And if the bright spot remain in its 
place, (and) it have not spread abroad in the 
skin, and it be pale : it is a swelling of the 
fire-wound; and the priest shall pronounce 
him clean ; for it is a scar of the fire-wound.* 

29 Tl And if there be a man or woman 
on whom there arise a plague, on the head or 
on the beard; 

30 Then shall the priest see the plague; 
and, behold, if its appearance be deeper than 
the skin, and there be in it a yellow thin 
liair: then shall the priest pronounce him 
unclean, it is a dry scall, it is the leprosy of 
the head or of the beard. 

31 And if the priest see the plague of the 



* The spreading of the disorder being a sign of unclean- 
ness, it is equally so whether it happen during the time 



scall, and, behold, its appearance be not 
deeper than the skin, and there be no black 
hair in it : then shall the priest shut u-p the 
plague of the scall seven days. 

32 And the priest shall see the plague on 
the seventh day; and, behold, if the scall 
have not spread, and there be in it no yellow 
hair, and the appearance of the scall be not 
deeper than the skin : 

33 Then shall he be shaved, but the scall 
he shall not shave ; and the priest shall shut 
up the scall seven days more. 

34 And the priest shall see the scall on the 
seventh day; and, behold, if the scall have 
not spread in the skin, and its appearance be 
not deeper than the skin: then shall the 
priest pronounce him clean, and he shall wash 
his clothes, and be clean. 

35 But if the scall should spread" in the 
skin after his being pronounced clean : 

36 Then shall the priest see him ; and, be- 
hold, if the scall have spread in the skin, the 
priest shall not seek for the yellow hair; he 
is unclean. 

37 But if the scall have remained sta- 
tionary in its colour, and black hair have 
grown up therein : the scall is then healed, he 
is clean ; and the i^riest shall pronounce him 
clean. 

38 ^ And if there be a man or a woman 
having in the skin of their flesh bright sj^ois, 
white bright spots; 

39 And if the priest do see, and, behold, 
there are in the skin of their flesh bright 
spots, pale and white : it is a freckly eruption 
grown in the skin; he is clean.* 

40 ^ And if there be a man Avhose hair of 
the head fall oft', he is a bald head; he is 
clean. 

41 And if from the side of his face his hair 
fall ofi", he is forehead-bald; he is clean. 

42 But if there be on the bald head, or the 
bald forehead, an eruption, white and dark 
red : it is the leprosy sprung up on his bald 
head, or his bald forehead. 

43 And the priest shall see him; and, be- 
hold, if the swelling of the eruption be white 
and dark red on his bald head, or on his bald 
forehead, like the appearance of the leprosy 
on the (other parts of the) skin of tlie flesh : 

44 He is a leprous man, he is unclean; 



that the leper is shut up, and before the decision of the 
priest, or after he has pronounced him clean. 

133 



LEVITICUS XIII. XIV. METZORANG. 



the priest shall pronounce him unclean; his 
plague is on his head. 

45 And the leper on whom the plague is, 
his clothes shall be reut, and his head shall 
be bare,' and he shall cover himself up to his 
upper lip, and. Unclean, unclean, shall he 
call out. 

46 All the days whereon the plague which 
rendereth unclean is on him, he shall be un- 
clean; alone shall he dwell; without the 
camp shall his habitation be. 

47 T[ And if there be a garment on which 
there arise a plague of leprosy, Avhether it 
be on a woollen garment, or on a Imen gar- 
ment; 

48 Whether it be on the warp,'' or on the 
woof; of linen, or of w^oollen ; whether on a 
skin, or on any thing made of skin ; 

49 And the plague be dark greei\or dark 
red, on the garment, or on the skin, or on 
the warp, or on the woof, or on any article 
made of skin : it is the plague of leprosy ; and 
it shall be shown unto the pi'iest. 

50 And the priest shall see the plague, and 
shut up the plague seven days. 

51 And if he see the plague on the seventh 
day, that the plague have spread in the gar- 
ment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or 
in the skin, or in any article that is made of 
skin ; the plague is a corroding'' leprosy ; it is 
unclean. 

52 And he shall then burn that garment, 
whether warp or woof, in woollen or in linen, 
or any article of skin, whereon the plague is ; 
for it is a corroding leprosy, in fire shall it be 
burnt. 

53 And if the priest shall see, and, behold, 
the plague have not spread on the garment, 
either on the warp, or on the woof, or on any 
article of skin : 

54 Then shall the priest command that 
Ihey Avash the thing whereon the plague is, 
luid he shall shut it up seven days more.=== 

55 And if. the priest see, after the plague 



' "He shall let his hair grow long." — Rashi. And 
after this manner ing ha.s been rendered above, x. 6; 
pcrhajjs this word includes botii ideas. 

' I'hilippson renders "plain woven or twilled stuff of 
linen or wool." 

" In verse 49 the words "it is the plague of leprosy" 
arc used, without its being thereby decided whether 
the garment, &c., be unclean or not, which is not tlie 
case with human beings who arc unclean, when the 
leprosy is evident. Garments, however, need to be 
affected with a leprosy rnxon or nnna "corrosion" or 
134 



hath been wa.shed, and, behold, the plague 
have not changed its colour, and tlie plague 
have not spread: it is imclean, in fire shalt 
thou burn it; it is a decay on its inside or on 
its outside. 

50 And if the priest see, and, behold, the 
plague have become pale after its having been 
washed: then shall he tear it out from the 
garment, or from the skin, or from the warp, 
or from the woof '=" 

57 And if it appear again on the garment, 
either on the warp, or on the woof, or on any 
instrument of skin: it is a growing plague; 
with fire shalt thou burn that whereon the 
plague is. 

58 And the garment, either the waqj or 
the woof, or every instrument of skin, which 
thou shalt wash, and the plague depart there- 
from, shall be washed the second time, when 
it shall be clean. 

59 This is the law of the plague of leprosy 
on a garment of woollen or of linen, either in 
the warp, or the woof, or any article of skin, 
to pronounce it clean, or unclean. 

llaphtorah in 2 Kings iv. 42 to v. 19. 



SECTION XXVIII. METZORANG, in VO. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 This shall Ije the law of the leper on the 
day of his being cleansed : He shall be brought 
unto the priest. 

3 And the priest .shall go forth'' to with- 
out the camp ; and if the priest see, and, be- 
hold, the plague of leprosy be healed on the 
leper : 

4 Then shall the priest command to take 
for him that is to be cleansed two healthy, 
clean birds," and cedar wood, and a string of 
scarlet varn, and hyssop. 

5 And the priest shall command that one 

decay," before they can bo pronounced unclean. — After 
Akniieim. 

'' The bringing before the priest, in the preceding verse, 
is explained in this, that he is to go out of the camp to 
the dwelling of the leper, to satisfy himself whether or not 
the leper can return unto the camp after the nest prc- 
.seribcd ceremonies have been jierfornicd. 

' Clean birds, means those wliich are permitted to bo 
eaten, consequently none of the prohibited kinds could be 
taken, nvn is rendered here, "healthy," but not "living," 
in accordance with tradition. (See also Exodus i. 19.) 



LEVITICUS XIV. METZORANG. 



of the birds l)e killed in an earthen vessel 
over running Avater. 

6 As for the living bird, he shall take it, 
and the cedar wood, and the string of scarlet 
yarn, and the hyssop, and he shall dip these 
and the living bird into the blood of the bird 
that was killed over the running water: 

7 And he shall sprinkle njion him that is 
to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times; 
and when he hath cleansed him, he shall let 
the living bird tly forth into the open field. 

8 And he that is to be cleansed shall wash 
his clothes, and shave oft" all his hair, and 
wash himself in water, and he shall be clean, 
and after that he may come mto the camp; 
l)ut he shall tarrv outside of his tent seven days. 

9 And it shall be on the seventh day, that 
he sliall shave oft' all his hair, his head, and 
liis beard, and his eyebrows, even all his hair 
shall he shave oft': and he shall wash his 
clothes, he shall also wash his flesh" in Avater, 
when he shall be clean. 

10 And on the eighth day he shall take 
two sheep without blemish, and one ewe of 
the first year without blemish, and three- 
tenth parts of fine flour for a meat-offering, 
mingled with oil, and one log of oil. 

11 And the priest who cleanseth shall 
cause the man that is to be made clean, and 
these things, to stand before the Lord, at the 
door of the tabernacle of the congregation : 

12 And the priest shall take the one sheep, 
and offer the same for a trespass-offering, with 
the log of oil ; and he shall make with them 
a waving before the Lord.* 

13 And he shall slay the sheep on the 
place where the sin-offering and the bunit- 
offering are killed, in the holy place; for as 
the sin-offering"' so doth the tresjiass-offering 
belong to the priest : it is most holy. 

14 And the priest shall take some of the 
blood of the trespass-offering; and the priest 
shall put it upon the tip of the right ear of 
him that is to be cleansed, and upon the 
thuml) of his right hand, and upon the great 
toe of his right foot. 

15 And the priest shall take some of the 
log of oil, and pour it into the palm of his 
own left hand. 



* This phrase, used here and elsewhere, means simply 
"to bathe the whole body at once." 
• "' This is explained thus : As the blood of the sin-offer- 
ing must be sprinkled, and the fat thereof be burnt upon 



16 And the priest shall dip his finger of 
the right hand in the oil that is in his left 
hand, and he shall sprinkle of the oil with his 
finger seven times before the Lord. 

17 And of the rest of the oil that is in his 
hand shall the priest put uj)on the tip of the 
right ear of him that is to be cleansed, and 
upon the thumb of his right hand, and upon 
the great toe of his right loot, upon the blood 
of the trespass-offering. 

18 And what is left of the oil that is in the 
priest's hand, he shall put upon the head of 
him that is to be cleansed: and the priest 
shall (thus) make an atonement for him be- 
fore the Lord. 

19 And the priest shall prepare the sin- 
oft'ering, and make an atonement for him that 
is to be cleansed from his uncleanness; and 
afterward shall he kill the burnt-offering : 

20 And the j^riest shall ofler the bunit- 
offering and the meat-oftering upon the altar; 
and the priest shall (thus) make aii atonement 
for him, and he shall be clean.* 

21 ^[ But if he be poor, and his means do 
not suffice, then shall he take one sheep for a 
trespass-offering to be waved, to make an 
atonement for him ; and one-tenth part of fine 
flour mingled with oil for a meat-offering, and 
a log of oil ; 

22 And two turtle-doves, or two young 
pigeons, for which his means suffice ; and one 
shall be a sm-offering, and the other a burnt- 
offering. 

23 And he shall bring them on the eighth 
day of his being cleansed unto the priest, unto 
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, 
before the Lord. 

24 And the priest shall take the sheep of 
the trespass-offering, and the log of oil; and 
the priest shall make with them a waving be- 
fore the Lord. 

25 And he shall kill the sheep of the tres- 
pass-offering; and the priest shall take some 
of the blood of the trespass-offering, and put it 
upon the tip of the right ear of him that is to 
be cleansed, and upon the thuml) of his right 
hand, and upon the gi-eat toe of his right foot. 

26 And some of the oil shall the priest 
pour into the palm of his own left hand : 



the altar, before the priest can cat of it, so is it with the 
present trespass-offering ; although in this place it is 
merely ordered that the blood be put upon the man that 
is to be cleansed. 

186 



LEVITICUS XIV. METZORANG. 



27 And the priest shall sprinkle with his 
finger of the right hand some of the oil that 
is in his left hand, seven times before the 
Lord ; 

28 And the priest shall put of the oil that 
is in his hand upon the tip of the right ear of 
him that is to be cleansed, and upon the 
thumb of his right hand, and upon the great 
toe of his right foot; upon the place" of the 
blood of the trespass-ofi'ering ; 

29 And what is left of the oil that is in the 
priest's hand he shall put upon the head of 
liim that is to be cleansed, to make an atone- 
ment for him before the Lord. 

30 And he shall offer the one of the turtle- 
doves, or of the young pigeons, from what his 
means enable him (to bring;) 

31 Even what his means enable him, the 
one for a sin-offering, and the other for a 
burnt-offering, with the meat-offering:'' and 
the priest shall (thus) make an atonement 
for him that is to be cleansed, before the Lord. 

32 This is the law of him on whom is the 
plague of leprosy, whose means are not suffi- 
cient when he is cleansed.^-' 

33 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
unto Aaron, saying, 

34 When ye come into the land of Canaan, 
which I give to you for a possession, and I 
put the plague of leprosy on a house of the 
land of your possession : 

35 Then shall he that owneth the house 
come and tell the priest, sa3'ing, Something" 
like a lepi'osy hath shown itself to me in the 
house. 

3G And the priest shall command that 
they clear out the house, before the priest go 
into it to see tiie plague, that all be not made 
unclean that is in the house : and after this 
shall the priest go in to see the house. 

37 And he shall view tlie plague, and, 
behold, if the plague be in the walls of the 
house, in depressions, dark green or dark red, 
and their appearance be deeper than the wall : 



* That is, upon the spot where the blood of the sacrifice 
has been put, there shall the oil also be applied, though in 
the mean time the blond may have been removed therefrom. 

'' The offering of flour which accompanied the trespas.s- 
sacrifice, Imt nut a .-special gift; this meat-offering was not 
eaten, and but burnt on the altar. 

" " Even if he be a man learned in tlie law, and knows 
it to bo leprosy, he is not to pronounce absolutely ' A 
phiguc has shown itself,' but 'something like a plague.' " 
— Kasiii. 
186 



38 Then shall the priest go out of the 
house to the door of the house, and lock up 
the house seven days. 

39 And the priest shall come again on the 
seventh day; and if he see, that, behold, the 
plague have spread in the walls of the house : 

40 Then shall the priest command that 
they break out the stones on which the plague 
is; and they shall cast them forth without the 
city on an unclean place. 

41 And the house he shall cau.se to be 
scraped within round about; and they shall 
pour out the rubbish'^ that they have scraped 
off without the city on an unclean place; 

42 And they shall take other stones, and 
put them into the place of these stones ; and 
other mortar shall he take, and shall i)laster 
the house. 

43 And if the plague come again, and 
break out in the house, after he hath 
taken away the stones, and after the house 
hath been scraped, and after it hath been 
plastered : 

44 Then shall the priest come; and if he 
see that, behold, the plague have spread in 
the house, it is a corrosive leprosy in the 
house; it is unclean. 

45 And he shall break down the house, its 
stones, and the timljers thereof, and all the 
mortar of the house ; and he shall carry them 
forth to without the city, unto an unclean 
place. 

46 And he that goeth into the hou.se, all 
the days that it is locked up, shall be unclean 
until the evening. 

47 And he that lietli in the house shall 
wash his clothes; and he that eateth in the 
house shall wash his clothes. 

48 But if the priest should come in, and 
see, and, behold, the plague have not spread 
in the house, after the hou.se was plastered : 
then shall the priest pronounce the house 
clean, because the plague is healed. 

49 And he shall take, to atone" for the 



* 13 J? otherwise "dust," is rendered here, according to 
Arnheim, with "rubbish," or the "old mortar;" and in 
the next verse it is given with " mortar." 

" The word ttorh in the I'irl form, means, to remove 
nxan or " sin," therefore, " to remove the sin of the 
house," or simply '' to atone for the house;" in this sense 
it is the same with luaS " to make an atonement," where- 
fore both words have been given here with the same Eng- 
lish term. The leprosy of a house was considered as a 
punishment for the owner; hence the atonement. 



LEVITICUS XIV. XV. METZORANG. 



house, two birds, and cedar wood, and a string 
of scarlet yarn, and li jssoj) ; 

50 And he shall kill the one bird in an 
earthen vessel over nuuaing water; 

51 And he shall take the cedar wood, and 
the hyssop, and the scarlet 3"ai'n, and the 
living bird, and dip them in the blood of the 
slain bird, and in the running water, and 
sprinkle on the house seven times : 

52 And he shall atone for the house with 
the blood of the bird, and with the running 
Avater, and with the living bird, and with the 
cedar wood, and with the hyssop, and with 
the string of scarlet yarn ; 

53 But he shall let fly forth the living bird 
out of the city into the open field, and make 
(thus) an atonement for the house, and it 
shall be clean.* 

5-i This is the law for all manner of plague 
of leprosy, and scall, 

55 And for the leprosy of a garment and 
of a house, 

56 And for a swelling, and for a rising, and 
for a bright spot; 

57 To teach on the day when something 
is unclean, and on the day when it is clean : 
this is the law of the leprosy. 

CHAPTER XV. 

1 Tl And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
to Aaron, saying, 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them. When any man have a run- 
nmg issue out of his flesh : because of his issue 
is he unclean. 

3 And this shall be his uncleanness m his 
issue : whether his flesh run with his issue, or 
his flesh be stopped from his issue, it is his 
uncleanness. 

4 Every bed, whereon he may lie that 
hath the issue, shall be unclean : and every 
vessel, whereon he may sit, shall be unclean. 

5 And any man that toucheth his bed shall 
wash his clothes, and bathe himself in "vvater, 
and be unclean until the evening. 

G And he that sitteth on any vessel where- 
on he that hath the issue may sit, shall wash 
his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and 
be unclean until the evening. 

7 And he that toucheth the flesh of him 
that hath the issue shall wa.sh his clothes, 
and bathe himself in water, and be unclean 
until the evening. 

8 And if he that hath the issue spit upon 



him that is clean : then shall this one wa.sh 
his clothes, and ])athe himself in water, and 
be unclean until the evening. 

9 And what saddle soever he that hath 
the issue may ride upon shall be unclean. 

10 And whosoever toucheth any thing, 
that may be under him, shall l)e unclean un- 
til the evening: and he that beai'eth any, of 
these things shall wash his clothes, and bathe 
himself in water, and be unclean until the 
evening. 

11 And whomsoever he that hath the issue 
may touch, and he have not rinsed his hands' 
in water, shall wash his clothes, and bathe 
himself in water, and be unclean until tlie 
evening. 

12 And an earthen vessel that he who hath 
the issue may touch, shall be broken; and 
every vessel of wood shall be rinsed in water. 

13 And when he that hath an issue be- 
cometh clean of his issue : then shall he num- 
ber to himself seven days for his cleansing, 
and wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh iu 
running water, and then shall he be clean. 

14 And on the eighth day shall he take 
unto himself two turtle-doves, or two young 
pigeons, and come before the Lord, unto the 
door of the tabernacle of the congregation, 
and give them unto the priest : 

15 And the priest shall offer them, the one 
for a sin-offering, and the other for a bumt- 
ofiering ; and the priest shall make an atone- 
ment for him before the Lord for his issue.* 

16 Tl And if any man's seed of copulation 
go out from him, then shall he bathe all his 
tiesh in water, and be unclean until the 
evening. 

17 And any garment, and any skin, where- 
on the seed of copulation may be, shall be 
washed with water, and lie unclean imtil the 
evening. 

18 And if a man should lie with a woman 
with seed of copulation, then shall they bathe 
themselves in water, and be unclean imtil the 
evening. 

19 ^ And if a woman have an issue, so 
that blood flow from her flesh : then shall she 
be in her state of separation seven days; and 
whosoever toucheth her shall be unclean until 
the evening. 

20 And every thuig that she may lie upon 



• This is explained to mean that he hath not bathed 
himself after the termination of the disease. 

137 



LEVITICUS XV. XVI. ACHARAY MOTH. 



in her separation shall be unclean: and what- 
ever she may sit upon shall Ijc unclean. 

21 And whosoever toucheth her bed shall 
wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, 
and be unclean until the evening. 

22 And whosoever toucheth any vessel, 
that she may sit upon, shall wash his clothes, 
and bathe himself in water, and be unclean 
until the evening. 

23 And if something be on the bed, or on 
any thing whereon she may sit, when he 
toucheth it, he shall be unclean until the 
evening. 

24 And if any man should lie with her, 
and the uncleanness of her separation come 
upon him, he shall be unclean seven days; 
and every bed whereon he may lie shall be 
unclean. 

25 Tl And if a woman have an issue of her 
blood many days out of the time of her separ 
ration, or if it run beyond the time of her 
separation : all the days of the issue of her un- 
cleanness shall she be as in the days of her 
separation ; she shall be unclean. 

26 Every bed whereon she may lie all the 
days of her issue shall be unto her as the bed 
of her separation ; and whatever vessel she 
may sit upon shall be unclean, as the un- 
cleanness of her separation. 

27 And whosoever toucheth these things 
shall be unclean ; and he shall wash his 
clothes, and bathe himself in Avater, and be 
miclean until the evening. 

28 And when she becometh clean of her 
issue, then shall she number to herself seven 
days, and after that shall she be clean.* 

29 And on the eighth day shall she take 
imto herself two turtle-doves, or two young 
pigeons, and bring them unto the priest, to 
the door of the tal)ernacle of the congregation. 

30 And the priest shall offer the one for a 
sin-olTering, and the other for a bumt-oflfering ; 
and the priest shall make an atonement' for 
her before the Lord for the issue of her un- 
cleanness.* 

31 And ye shall separate the children of 
Israel from their uncleanness ; that they may 



* As all leprosy and kindred uncleanness were consider- 
ed as a puiiisliniciit for sin, the leper or other sufferer had 
to bring a proper sacrifice at the period of hi.s purification, 
to obtain atonement for the guilt which had caused his 
visitation. 

'' Not with the usual eight ornaniontal garments of his 
order, but in plain white attire should tlic priest enter the 
138 



not die in their imcleanness, when they defile 
my tabernacle that is in their midst. 

32 This is the law of him that hath an 
issue, and of him whose seed goeth from him, 
and is defiled therewith; 

33 And of her that is suffering in her separ 
ration, and of him that hath an issue, of the 
man, and of the woman, and of him that lieth 
with her that is unclean. 

Haphtorah in 2 Kings vii. 3 to 2 



SECTION XXLX. ACHARAY MOTH, 

mo nnN. 

CHAPTER XVL 

1 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses after 
the death of the two sons of Aaron, when 
they had come near before the Lord, and died : 

2 And the Lord said unto Moses, Sjjeak 
unto Aaron thy brother, that he come not at 
all times into the holy place within the vail, 
before the mercy-seat, which is upon the ark, 
that he die not ; for in the cloud will I appear 
upon the mercy-seat. 

3 AVith this shall Aaron come into the holy 
place : with a 3'oung bullock for a sin-offering, 
and a ram for a burnt-offering. 

4 A holy linen^ coat shall he put on, and 
Imen breeches shall he have upon his flesh, 
and with a linen girdle shall he gird himself, 
and a linen mitre shall he bind on his head ; 
these are holy garments ; therefore shall ho 
wash his flesh in water, and then put them on. 

5 And from the congregation of the chil- 
dren of Israel shall he take two goats for a 
sin-offering, and one ram for a burntniflering. 

6 And Aaron shall bring near the liullock 
of the sin-offering, which is for himself, and 
make an atonement for himself and for his 
house. 

7 And he shall take the two goats, and 
place them before the Lord at the door of the 
tabernacle of the congregation. 

8 And Aaron shall put lots upon the two 
goats; one lot "for the Lord," and the other 
lot "for'Azazel.""' 



holy of holies ; these articled are therefore pre-eminently 
called holy. 

° " Scapegoat," Eng. ver. ; but there is no reason for so 
giving it. The whole service of the day of atonement ac- 
cording to our tradition, is correctly described in the 
' Ahoilah of the Moossaph for Kippur, according t.> the cus- 
tom of the Sephardim, to which the reader is referred. 



LEVITICUS XVI. ACIIARAY MOTH. 



9 And Aaron shall bring near the goat 
upon which fell the lot "for the Lord," and 
ofler him for a sin-oftering. 

10 But the goat on which fell the lot "for 
'Azazel," shall be placed alive before the Lord, 
to make an atonement with him, by sending 
him away to 'Azazel into the wilderness. 

1 1 And Aaron shall bring near the bullock 
of the sin-offering, which is for himself, and 
he shall make" an atonement for himself, and 
for his house; and he shall kill the bullock 
of the sin-oifering which is for himself 

12 And he shall take a censer full of burn- 
ing coals of fire from off the altar before the 
Lord, and both his hands full of incense of 
spices, pounded fine, and brmg it within the 
vail; 

13 And he shall put the incense upon the 
fire, before the Lord; that the cloud of the 
incense may envelop the mercy-seat that is 
upon the testimony, that he die not. 

14 And he shall take of the blood of the 
bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger above 
toward the mercy-seat,'' eastward; and before 
the mercy-seat shall he sprinkle seven times 
of the blood mth his finger. 

15 And he shall kill the goat of the sia- 
offermg, that is for the people, and bring his 
blood to within the vail, and do with that 
blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, 
and sprinkle it above the mercy-seat, and be- 
fore the mercy-seat. 

16 And he shall make an atonement for 
the holy place, because of the uncleanness" of 
the children of Israel, and because of their 
transgressions in all their sins : and so shall 
he do for the tabernacle of the congregation, 
that abideth among them ui the midst of their 
imcleanness. 

17 And there shall not be any man in the 
tabernacle of the congregation when he goeth 
in to make an atonement in the holy place, 
until he come out; and so shall he make an 
atonement for himself, and for his household, 
and for the whole congregation of Israel.''' 

18 And he shall then go out unto the altar 
that is before the Lord, and make an atone- 



• i. e. By making a confession. (See the 'Abodah.) 
^ Meaning that the priest raised liis hand in the direc- 
tion above the cover of the ark and sprinkled the blood in 
the air, which foil then down on the floor; and so with 
the other seven sprinklings, where he directed Lis finger 
downward. (See the 'Abodah.) 

" riNOO is in the pluril, and means, therefore, acts 



ment upon it; and he shall take of the bU)o(l 
of the bullock, and of the blood of the goaf, 
and put it upon the horns of the altar round 
about. 

19 And he shall sprinkle upon it of the 
blood with his finger seven times; and he 
shall cleanse it, and hallow it fi'om the uu- 
cleanncss of the children of Israel. 

20 And when he hath made an end of 
atoning for the holy place, and the tabernacle 
of the congregation, and the altar : then shall 
he bring near the live goat. 

21 And Aaron shall lay both his hands 
upon the head of the Hve goat, and confess 
over him all the iniquities of the children of 
Israel, and all their transgressions in all their 
sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, 
and he shall send him away by the hand of a 
man appointed thereto into the wilderness : 

22 And the goat shall bear upon him all 
their iniquities unto a land not inhabited; 
and so shall he send away the goat m the 
wilderness. 

23 And Aaron shall then go into the taber- 
nacle of the congregation, and he shall take ofl' 
the Imen garments, which he had put on 
when he went into the holy place, and he 
shall leave them there : 

24 And he shall bathe his flesh with water 
in a holy place, and put on his garments;** 
and come then forth, and offer his burnt- 
offering, and the burat-offering of the people, 
and make an atonement for himself, and for 
the people.* 

25 And the fat of the sin-offering shall 
he burn upon the altar. 

20 And he that carrieth the goat to 'Azazel 
shall wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in 
water, and aftenvard he may come into the 
camp. 

27 And the bullock for the sin-offering, 
and the goat for the sui-offering, the blood of 
which was brought in to make atonement in 
the holy place, shall one carry forth without 
the camp; and they" shall bum in fire their 
skins, and their flesli, and their dung. 

28 And he that bunieth them shall wash 



which cause uncleanness. So also in the end of this 
verse, and in verse 19. 

'' The usual ornamental garments of the high-priest, in 
which he ofiBciated. 

" Both N'xv and laityi are indefinite in their meaning; 
" one" whoever he be that shall carry forth ; and " they" 
whoever may be those who do the burning. 

139 



LEVITICUS XVI. XVII. ACHARAY MOTH. 



his clothes, and bathe his flesh in water, and 
afterward he may come into the camp. 

29 And it shall be unto you a statute for 
ever: in the seventh month, on the tenth of 
the montli, ye shall afflict yourselves (Ijy 
fasting,) and no work shall ye do, whether it 
be one of your o"vvn country, or the stranger 
that sojourneth among you : 

30 For on that day shall (the high-priest) 
make an atonement for you, to cleanse you; 
Irom all your sins before the Lord shall ye be 
clean. 

31 It shall be a sabbath of rest unto you, 
and ye shall afflict yourselves (by fasting,) as 
a statute for ever. 

32 And the priest, who shall be anointed, 
and who shall be consecrated" to minister as 
priest in his father's stead, shall make the 
atonement; and he shall put on the linen 
clothes, the holy garments. 

33 And he shall make an atonement for 
the holy of holies; and for the tabernacle of 
the congregation, and for the altar shall he 
make an atonement; and also for the priests, 
and for all the people of the congregation 
shall he make an atonement. 

34 And this shall be unto you as a statute 
for everlasting, to make an atonement for the 
children of Israel for all their sins once a 
year; and he did as the Loed had commanded 
Moses.* 

CHAPTER XVII. 

1 ^ And the Lokd spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, 
and unto all the children of Israel, and say 
unto them, This is tlie thing which the Lord 
hath commanded, saying, 

3 Any man whatsoever of the house of 
Israel, that killeth an ox, or a sheep, or a 
goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the 
cainp, 

4 And bringeth it not to the door of the 
(abernacle of the congregation, to offer it as 
an oflcrinff unto the Lord before the taber- 



* This means, that whether the high-priest was anointed, 
as (luring the fir.st temple, or was inducted into oflSce by in- 
vestiture with the high-priestly garments, as in the second, 
he should officiate in the place of Aaron. 

' No doubt that, while in Kgypt, the Israelites had 
learned to sacrifice to idols; they were therefore com- 
manded, during their sojourn in the wildemes.s, to bring 
all sacrificial animals to the door of the tabernacle, to offer 
140 



nacle of the Lord : as blood-guiltiness shall it 
be imputed unto that man, blood hath he 
shed; and that man shall be cut off from 
among his people. 

5 In order that the children of Israel may 
bring their sacrifices, which they slay in the 
open field, and bring them unto the Lord, to 
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, 
unto the priest, and slay them as sacrifices 
of peace-ofterings unto the Lord. 

6 And the priest shall sprinkle the blood 
upon the altar of the Lord at the door of the 
tabernacle of the congregation ; and he shall 
burn the fat for a sweet savour unto the 
Lord. 

7 So that they shall offer no more'' their 
sacrifices unto evil spirits, after which they 
have gone astray ; a statute for ever shall this 
be unto them throughout their generations.* 

8 And unto them shalt thou say, Whatso- 
ever man there be of the house of Israel, or 
of the strangers Avho may sojourn among 
them, that offereth a burnt-ofifering or a sacri- 
fice, 

9 And bringeth it not unto the door of the 
tabernacle of the congregation, to offer it unto 
the Lord: even that man shall be cut oil' 
from among his people. 

10 And if there be any man of the house 
of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn 
among them, that eateth any maimer of 
blood : I will set my face against the person 
that eateth the blood, and I will cut him off 
from among his people. 

11 For the life of the flesh is in the blood; 
and I have appointed it for you upon the 
altar to make an atonement for your souls; 
for the blood it is that maketh an atonement 
for the soul." 

12 Therefore have I said unto the children 
of Israel, No one of you shall eat blood, and 
the stranger that sojourneth among ^-ou shall 
not eat blood. 

13 And if there be any man whatsoever 
of the children of Israel, or of the strangers 
that sojourn among them, who catcheth by 



them to the Lord as peace-offerings, before being per- 
mitted to cat the flesh. D'T^'B^ "goat-demons," no doubt 
imaginary idol."*, like the satyrs of the Greeks. 

° Arnheim renders, " For the blood itself maketh atone- 
ment through the life," and comments, /. e. "through 
the life that is in the same; for the atonement is upon the 
principle 'life for life;' in the blood itself, therefore, is 
only the principle of life, not the essence of atonement." 



LEVITICUS XVII. XVIII. ACIIARAY MOTH. 



hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten : 
then shall he poiu"^ out the blood thereof, and 
cover it up with dust. 

14 For the life of all llesh is its blood, on 
which its life'' dependeth; therefore have 1 
said unto the children of Israel, The blood of 
every manner of flesh shall ye not eat; for 
the life of all flesh is its blood, every one who 
eateth it shall be cut off. 

15 And every person that, eateth that 
which hath died of itself, or that which was 
torn by beasts, be this one bom in your ovm 
comitry, or a stranger, he shall both wash his 
clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be 
unclean until the evening, when he shall be 
clean. 

16 But if he wash (them) not, nor bathe 
his flesh, then shall he bear his iniquity. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

1 ][ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
mo* 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them, I am the Lord your God. 

3 After the doings of the land of Egypt, 
wherein ye have dwelt, shall ye not do; and 
after the doings of the land of Canaan whither 
I am bringing you, shall ye not do; and in 
their ordinances shall ye not walk. 

4 My ordinances shall ye do, .and my 
statutes shall ye keep, to walk therein: I 
am the Lord your God. 

5 And ye shall keep my statutes, and ni}^ 
ordinances, which if a man do, he shall live 
in them: I am the Lord.'^' 

6 Tl None of you shall approach to any 
that are near of kin to him, to uncover their 
nakedness; I am the Lord. 

7 Tl The nakedness of thy father, or the 
nakedness of thy mother, shalt thou not un- 
cover : she is thy mother, thou shalt not un- 
cover her nakedness. 

8 ^ The nakedness of thy father's wife 
shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father's 
nakedness. 

9 ^ The nakedness of thy sister, the 
daughter of thy father, or the daughter of 
thy mother, whether she be born at home, or 



* t. e. By cutting the throat. 

'' Arnhcim gives W3i2 with "its body;" thus, "is the 
blood in its body." The version in the text is after Rashi. 

° Tii'*? is rendered by Mendelssohn " to excit« jealousy." 
The evident construction of this verse, according to which 



born abroad, — even the nakedness of any of 
these, shalt thou n(H uncover. 

10 ^ The nakedness of thy son's daughter, 
or of thy daughter's daughter, — even the 
nakedness of any of these, shalt thou not un- 
cover; for theirs is thy own nakedness. 

11 ^ The nakedness of thy father's wife's 
daughter, begotten of thy father, she is thy 
sister, — thou shalt not uncover her naked- 
ness. 

12 ^ The nakedness of thy father's sister 
shalt thou not uncover: she is thy father's 
near kinswoman. 

13 ^ The nakedness of thy mother's sister 
shalt thou not uncover; for she is thy mother's 
near kinswoman. 

14 ^ The nakedness of thy father's brother 
shalt thou not uncover; his wife shalt thou 
not approach, she is thy aunt. 

15 ^ The nakedness of thy daughter-in- 
law shalt thou not uncover; she is thy son's 
wife, thou shalt not uncover her nakedness. 

16 ][ The nakedness of thy brotlier's wife 
shalt thou not uncover; it is thy brother's 
nakedness. 

17 ^ The nakedness of a woman and her 
daughter shalt thou not uncover; her son's 
daughter, or her daughter's daughter shalt 
thou not take, to uncover her nakedness; for 
they are near kinswomen : it is incest. . 

IS And a woman together with her sister 
shalt thou not take, to vex her,*" to uncover 
her nakedness, beside the other, in her life- 
time. 

19 And a woman in the separation of her 
uucleanness shalt thou not approach, to un- 
cover her nakedness. 

20 And with thy neighbour's wife shalt 
thou not lie carnally, to defile thyself with 
her. 

21 And any of thy seed shalt thou not let 
pass through (the fire) to Molech, and thou 
shalt not profane the name of thy God ; I am 
the Lord.* 

22 And with a man slialt thou not lie, as 
with a woman; it is an abomination. 

23 And witli any beast shalt thou not lie 
to defile thyself therewith; neither shall any 



Jewish authorities have always decided, is that only dur- 
ing the lifetime of the one is it prohibited to marry the 
other sister, even if a divorce should have taken place; 
but for this reason the prohibition also ceases when the 
cause given no longer operates. 

141 



LEVITICUS XVIII. XIX. KEDOSHIM. 



woman stand before a beast to lie down 
thereto; it is confusion. 

24 Do not defile yourselves through any of 
these things; for through all these have be- 
come defiled the nations which I cast out 
before 3^ou : 

25 And the land became defiled; where- 
fore I have visited its iniquity upon it, 
and the laud itself vomited out its inhabit- 
ants.* 

26 Ye shall therefore keep my statutes 
and my ordinances, and ye shall not com- 
mit any of these abominations; neither any 
of your own nation, nor the stranger that 
sojourneth among you; 

27 (For all these abominations have the 
men of the land done, who were before you, 
and the land hath become defiled;)''' 

28 That the land may not vomit you out 
also, when ye defile it, as it hath vomited out 
tiie nations that were before you. 

29 For whosoever shall commit any of 
these abominations, — even the souls that com- 
mit them shall be cut off from among their 
people. 

30 Therefore shall ye keep my charge, so 
that ya commit not any one of these abomi- 
na])le customs, which were committed before 
you, and that ye do not defile yourselves 
therewith; I am the Lord your God. 

Ilaphtorah in Ezekiel sxii. 1 to 16. Tho Germans read to 
verse 18. 



SECTION XXX. KEDOSHIM, D'tyip. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 Spealv unto all the congregation of the 
children of Israel, and say unto them. Ye 
shall be holy; for I the Eternal your God 
am holy. 

.3 Ye shall fear, every man, his mother 
and his father, and my sabbaths shall ye 
keep ; I am the Loud your God. 

4 Ye shall not turn unto the idols, and 
molten gods shall ye not make to yourselves ; 
1 am the Lord jour God. 

5 And if ye offer a sacrifice of peace-offer- 



* Sec above, vii. 18. 

'' This is tiic version according to our autlioritics; see also 
above V. 21, where the different specifications are given. 
142 



ing unto the Lord, ye shall offer it so that it 
may be favourably received i'rom you. 

G On the same day ye offer it shall it be 
eaten, and on the morrow : and whate^■er is left 
until tlie third day, shall be burnt with fire. 

7 And if the intention was that it should'' 
be eaten on the third day, it is an abomina- 
tion, it shall not be favourably received. 

8 And whoever eateth it shall bear his 
iniquity, because he hath profaned the hal- 
lowed thmg of the Lord : and that soul shall 
be cut off from among his people. 

9 And when ye reap the harvest of your 
land, thou shalt not wholly reap the comers 
of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the 
gleanings of thy harvest. 

10 And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, 
and the single grapes that drop in thy vine- 
yard shalt thou not gather; for the poor 
and the stranger shalt thou leave them ; I am 
the Lord your God. 

11 Ye shall not steal; neither shall ye 
deny*" (another's proi^erty in your hands,) nor 
lie one to another. 

12 And ye shall not swear by my name 
falsely, and thou shalt not thus profane the 
name of thy God ; I am the Lord. 

13 Thou shalt not withhold any thing from 
thy neighljour, nor rob him : there shall not 
abide with thee the wages of him that is hired, 
through the night until morning. 

14 Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put 
a stumbling-block before the blind; but thou 
shalt be afraid of thy God ; I am the Lord.'-' 

15 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judg- 
ment; thou shalt not respect" the person of 
the poor, nor honour the person of the great ; 
in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neigh- 
bour. 

10 Thou shalt not go up and down as a 
talebearer among thy peojile; thou shalt not 
stand (idly) by the blood'* of thy neighbour; 
I am the Lord. 

17 Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy 
heart: thou shalt indeed rebuke thy neigh- 
bour, and not bear sin on accoimt of him. 

18 Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any 
grudge against the children of thy people; 
but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself; 
I am the Lord. 



° i. e. Not to favour the poor, nor to dread offending 
the great, but to act according to strict justice. 
'' i. c. Danger of life. 



LEVITICUS XIX. XX. KEDOSHIM. 



19 My statutes shall ye keep; thy cattle 
slialt thou not let gender with a diverse kind ; 
thy field shalt thou not sow with mingled 
seeds; and a garment of mingled kinds, of 
linen and woollen, shall not come upon thee. 

20 And if a man lie carnally with a 
woman, that is a bond-maid, betrothed to a 
man, but who hath not been redeemed, and 
her freedom hath not been given her: there 
shall a scourging be decreed;" they shall not 
be put to death, because she was not free. 

21 And he shall bring his trespass-offering 
unto the Lord, unto the door of the tabernacle 
of the congregation: a ram for a trespass- 
offering. 

22 And the priest shall make an atonement 
for him with the ram of the trespass-offering 
before the Lord for his sin which he hath 
done; and he shall be forgiven for his sin 
which he hath committed.* 

23 ^ And when ye come into the land, 
and plant any kind of tree bearing edible 
fruit, then shall ye count the fruit thereof 
as uncircumcised : three years shall it be 
as uncircumcisec^ unto you, it shall not be 
eaten. 

24 But in the fourth year shall all its fruit 
be holy for praisegiving*" unto the Lord. 

25 And in the fifth year shall ye eat of its 
fruit, in order that it may increase" unto you 
its productiveness ; I am the Lord your God. 

26 Ye shall not eat upon the blood;'* nor 
shall ye use enchantment, nor observe times. 

27 Ye shall not cut round the comers (of 
the hair) of your head, neither shalt thou de- 
stroy the corners of thy beard. 

28 And for the dead shall ye not make any 
incision in your flesh; and any etched-in 
writing shall you not fix on yourselves; I am 
the Lord. 

29 Do not profane thy daughter, to cause 
her to be a prostitute; lest the land fall to 



' "She shall be scourged, not he." — Rashi. 

*■ The fruit of the fourth year was to be eaten at Jeru- 
salem, as a holy thing belonging to the owner. 

" After Kashi. Philippson renders it, "That after 
this it may give you constantly more fruit," and com- 
ments, that after the fourth year, as the tree becomes 
naturally more productive, the fruit should belong un- 
disturbed to the owner. 

■• This is variously explained: for instance, not to eat 
of the sacrifices till the blood be ."jprinklcd ; not to eat of 
any animal till life be entirely extinct by the running 
out of all the blood. Mendelssohn and others translate 
"near" or "by the blood." liut liashbam and Wcsscli 



prostitution, and the land become full of in- 
cest. 

30 My sabbaths shall ye keep, and my 
sanctuary shall ye reverence; I am the Lord. 

31 Turn not unto them that have familiar 
spirits, and unto wizards; seek (them) not, to 
be defiled by them; I am the Lord your God. 

32 Before the hoary head shalt thou rise 
up, and honour the face of the old man ; and 
thou shalt be afraid of thy God; I am the 

LORD.=^= 

33 ^ And if a stranger sojourn -with thee, 
in your land, ye shall not vex him. 

34 As one born in the land among you, 
shall be unto you the stranger that sojourneth 
Avith you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; 
for ye were strangers m the land of Egypt ; I 
am the Lord your God. 

35 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judg- 
ment, in meteyard, in weight, or in measure. 

36 Just balances, just Aveights, a just ephah, 
and a just bin, shall j-e have; I am the Lord 
your God, Avho have brought you forth out 
of the land of Egj-j^t. 

37 Ye shall therefore observe all my sta- 
tutes, and all my ordmances, and do them ; 
I am the Lord.* 

CHAPTER XX. 

1 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

2 And to the children of Israel shalt thou 
say, Whatsoever man of the children of I.**- 
rael, or of the strangers that sojourn in Israel, 
that giveth any of his seed unto Molech, shall 
surely be put to death; the people of the 
land" shall stone him with stones. 

3 And I will set my face against that man, 
and I will cut him off from among his people ; 
because of his seed hath he given unto Mo- 
lech, in order to defile my sanctuary,' and to 
profane my holy name. 



suppose that it was customary among heathens to eat 
upon the spot where the blood had run, from some super- 
stitious notions; hence the Israelites were prohibited 
to follow this practice; and it connects therefore also 
with what follows. 

° yiNn Di? rendered above, iv. 27, " common people,", 
includes all Israelites except the king, the high-priest, 
and the great sanhedrin of seventy-one. llashi adds, " If 
the court be not able to enforce the decree, the people 
should aid them." 

' Whatever acts tend to withdraw the people from the 
wonship of God, or to divert any thing to the service of 
idols, is a profanation of the divine Majesty who promised 

14.^ 



LEVITICUS XX. KEDOSIIIM. 



4 And if the people of the land should in 
any way hide their eyes from that man, when 
he fiiveth of his seed unto Molech, so as not 
to kill him : 

5 Then will I set my face against that 
man, and against his family, and I will cut 
him ofl", and all that go astray after liim, to 
go astray after Molech, from among their 
people. 

G And the person that turneth unto such 
as have fiimiliar spirits, and unto wizards, to 
go astray after them, — then will I set my 
face against that person, and will cut him off 
from among his people. 

7 Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye 
holy; for I am the Lord your God.'-' 

8 And ye shall keep my statutes, and do 
them ; I am the Lord who sanctify you. 

9 For every one whatever that curseth his 
father or his mother shall be put to death; 
his father or his mother hath he cursed, his 
blood shall be upon him. 

10 And if there be a man that committeth 
adultery with a man's wife, (whoever it be) 
that committeth adultery with his neighbour's 
wife : then sliall the adultei'er be put to death, 
together with the adultei'ess. 

11 And a man that lieth with his father's 
wife, hath uncovered his father's nakedness: 
both of them shall be put to death ; their blood 
shall be upon them. 

12 And if a man lie with his daughter-in- 
law, both of them shall be put to death ; they 
have committed an unnatural deed; their 
blood shall be ujion them. 

13 And if a man lie with a male, as they 
lie with a woman, both of them have com- 
mitted an abomination : they shall be put to 
death; their blood shall be upon them. 

14 And if a man take a woman and her 
mother, it is incest: in fire shall they burn 
him and them; that there be no incest among 
you. 

15 And a man that lieth Avith a beast 
shall be put to death : and the beast also shall 
ye slay. 

IG And if a woman approach unto any 
beast to lie down thereto, then shalt thou 
kill the woman, and the beast: they shall )je 



to dwell ill Israel. If then a man Jevotes his offspring to 
the fire (jf Molceh, he profanes the ehiUlren of the eove- 
nant, given to Iiini by (Jod, to an object abhorrent to the 
Deit.y, while at the same time his example, .should he re- 
144 



put to death; their blood shall Ije put upon 
them. 

17 And if a man take his sister, the 
daughter of his father, or the daughter of hi.s 
mother, and he see her nakedness, and she see 
his nakedness : it is a disgraceful deed ; and 
they shall be cut off before the eyes of their 
peojjle; the nakedness of his sister hath he 
uncovered ; his iniquity shall he bear. 

18 And if a man lie with a woman suffer- 
ing of her separation, and uncover her naked- 
ness, and he lay open her fountain, and she 
uncover the fountain of her blood : then shall 
both of them be cut off from the midst of 
their people. 

19 And the nakedness of thy mother's sis- 
ter, or of thy father's sister shalt thou not un- 
cover ; for his near of kin he luacovereth : 
their iniquity shall they bear. 

20 And the man that lieth with his uncle's 
wife, hath uncovered his uncle's nakedness : 
their sin shall they bear; childless shall they die. 

21 And if a man do take his brother's wife, 
it is an abominable act: the nakedness of his 
brother hath he uncovered ; childless shall 
they remain. 

22 And keep ye all my statutes, and all 
my ordinances, and do them ; that the land, 
whither I bring you to dwell therein, may 
not vomit" you forth. '=' 

23 And ye shall not walk in the manners 
of the nation which I cast out Ix^fore you ; for 
all these things they committed, and there- 
fore I felt loathing for them. 

24 And I said unto 3-ou, Ye shall possess 
their land, and I will give it unto you to pos- 
sess it, a land flowing with milk and honey; 
I am the Eternal your God, who have sepa- 
rated you from the nations.'^' 

25 Ye shall therefore make a difference be- 
tween the clean beast and the unclean, aiul 
between the unclean fowl and the clean ; and 
ye shall not make your souls abominable by 
the beast, or by the fowl, or by any maimer 
of thing tliat oroepeth on the ground, which I 
have separated for you as unclean. 

2G And yti shall be holy unto nu\ for I the 
Lord am holy ; and I have separated you from 
the nations, that ye should be mine. 



main unpunished, would mislead others to act.s of wicked- 
ness, though they even might not reach the greatness of 
his transgressions. 

' I. f. Cast out, as it wore, the sinners dwelling in it. 



LEVITICUS XX. XXI. EMORE. 



27 And if there be among men or women 
one that hath a lamiliar spirit, or that is a 
wizard, thej" shall be put to death ; with 
stones shall they stone thefii ; their blood shall 
be upon them. 

Ilaphtorah in Amos ix. 7 to 15. Tho Portugueso read in 
Ezekiel xx. 2 to 20. Othera begin at verse 1. 



SECTION XXXI. EMORE, ION- 

CHAPTER XXI. 

1 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Speak 
unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say 
unto them. None (of them) shall defile him- 
self on the dead, among'' his people : 

2 But on his kin, that is near unto him, 
(that is,) on his mother, and on his father, 
and on his son, and on his daughter, and on 
his brother, 

3 And on his sister that is a virgin, that is 
nigh unto him, who hath had no husband ; 
on her may he defile himself 

4 The chief" man among his people shall 
not defile liimself, to be profaned thereby. 

5 They shall not make any baldness upon 
their head, and the corner of their beard shall 
they not shave off, and in their flesh shall 
they not make any incision. 

Holy shall they be unto their God, and 
they shall not profane the name of their God; 
for the fire-ofierings of the Lord, the bread of 
their God, do they offer, they shall therefore 
be holy. 

7 A woman that is a harlot, or one pro- 
faned, shall they not take ; and a woman put 
away from her husband shall they not take ; 
for holy" is he unto his God. 

8 And thou shalt sanctify him ;" for the 
bread of thy God doth he offer: holy shall he 
be unto thee; for I the Lord, who sanctify 
you, am holy. 

9 And if the daughter of any priest profane 



' The plural is again used here after the singular, 
though preceded by the disjunctive "or;" and seems thus 
to say, that if there be many guilty of this sin, they shall 
all be punished alike. 

^ This is explained, " when others are there to bury the 
dead ;" but if a priest find a corpse and no one is there to 
inter it, he himself must do it. 

" llashbam translates, " A husband among the priests 

shall not defile himself (on his wife) to be profaned 

thereby." Tradition, however, limits this to a woman 

whom the priest should of right not marry. Our version 

T 



herself by committing incest, her father doth 
she profane : with fire shall she Ix; burnt. 

10 ^ And the priest that is highest among 
his brethren, upon Avho.se head the anointing 
oil hath been poured, and who hath been con- 
secrated to put on the gannent,s, shall not let 
the hair of his head grow long, and his gar- 
ments shall he not rend ; 

11 Neither shall he go in to any dead 
body ; even on his father, and on his mother 
sliall he not defile himself 

12 And out of the sanctuary shall he not 
go, that he may not profane the sanctuary of 
his God ; for the crown' of the anointing oil 
of his God is upon him ; I am the Lord. 

13 And he shall take a wife in her virgin 
state. 

14 A widow, and a divorced woman, and 
one profaned, (and) a harlot, these shall he 
not take ; but a virgin of his own people shall 
he take for wife ; 

15 So that he may not pi'ofane his seed 
among his people ; for I, the Lord, do sanctify 
him.* 

16 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying,^ 

17 Speak unto Aaron, saying, Whosoever 
of thy seed in their generations it be on whom 
there is any blemish, shall not approach to 
offer the bread of his God. 

18 For Avhatsoever man it be on whom 
there is a blemish, shall not approach : a blind, 
or a lame man, or one that hath a flattened 
nose, or a man one of whose limbs is too 
long, 

19 Or a man who hath a broken foot, or a 
broken hand, 

20 Or a crookbacked, or a dwarf, or one 
that hath a blemish in his eye, or the itch, or 
the scurvy, or the testicles broken. 

21 Every man on whom there is a blemish, 
of the seed of Aaron the priest, shall not come 
nigh to offer the fire-offerings of the Lord: 



is after Onkelos, and refers to the high-priest, sec farther, 
Tcr. 11. 

^ i. e. Each individual priest. 

" " Sanctify him even against his will, so that if he 
will not put away such a woman as just mentioned, com- 
pel him by punishment tn do so. Holy shall he be to 
thee, that is, look upon him as holy, to commence as 
the first in every thing, and to be the first to say the bless- 
ing at the table." — Hasui. 

' Arulieim and others render IIJ as "Betting apart," 
hence " tho consecration." 

145 



LEVITICUS XXI. XXII. EMORE. 



there is a blemish on him ; he shall not come 
nigh to offer the bread of his God. 

22 The bread of his God, both of the most 
holy, and of the holy things he may eat. 

2-3 Only unto the vail, and unto the altar 
shall he not come nigh, because there is a 
blemish on him : that he profane not my holy 
things ; for I the Lord do sanctify them. 

24 And Moses spoke thus unto Aaron, and 
to his sons, and unto all the children of 
Israel. 

CHAPTER XXII. 

1 11 And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

2 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, that 
they keep themselves away from the holy 
things of the children of Israel, (so that they 
profiine not my holy name) which* they hal- 
low unto me ; I am the Lord. 

3 Say unto them. In your generations, if 
there be any man of all your seed, that ap- 
proacheth mito the holy things, which the 
children of Israel hallow unto the Lord, hav- 
ing his uncleaimess upon him, that soul shall 
be cut off from my presence ; I am the Lord. 

4 Any man whatsoever of the seed of 
Aaron, that is a leper, or hath a running 
issue, shall not eat of the holy things, until 
he be clean ; and whoso toucheth any thing 
that is unclean by the dead, or a man whose 
seed goeth from him ; 

5 Or a man who toucheth any creeping 
thing, whereby he may be made unclean, or a 
man through whom he can be rendered un- 
clean, through any kind of uncleanness which 
he hath : 

6 The person that toucheth any such shall 
be unclean until the evening, and he shall 
not eat of the holy things, unless he have 
bathed his flesh in water. 

7 And when the sun hath set, he shall be 
clean ; and afterward he may eat of the holy 
things; because it is his food. 

8 That which dieth of itself, or is torn b}- 
bea.sts, shall he not eat, to defile himself there- 
with ; I am the Lord. 

9 And they shall keep my charge, that 



' Thi8 refers back " to the holy things of the dhildrcn 
of iHraol." ' One a stranger to the priesthood. 

° By sojourner, is understood a Hebrew servant, whose 
ear was bored, who stays till the jubilee; and by a hired 
servant, one who stays till the end of the sixth year. 
— Rasiii. (See P^xodus xsi.) 
14C 



they may not bear sin through it, and die 
therefor, if they profane it; I am the Loed 
who sanctify them. 

10 And no stranger'' shall eat of a holy 
thing: a sojourner* of a priest, or a hired ser- 
vant, shall not eat of a holy thing. 

11 But if a priest buy a person with his 
money, then may he eat of it; and those 
that are bom in his house, may eat of his 
bread. 

12 And if the daughter of a priest be mar- 
ried unto a stranger, she may not eat of the 
offered part* of holy things. 

13 But the daughter of a priest, if she be a 
widow, or divorced, and have no child, and is 
returned imto her fiither's house, as in her 
youth, may eat of her father s bread ; but no 
stranger shall eat thereof. 

14 And if a man eat a holy thing unwit- 
tingly, then sliall he add the fifth part thereof 
unto it, and he shall make good unto the 
priest the holy thing. 

15 And they shall not profane the holy 
things of the children of Israel, wliich they 
offer unto the Lord; 

IG And* load on themselves the iniquity of 
trespass, when they eat their holy things; 
for I am the Lord who sanctify them.''' 

17 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying,^ 

18 Speak unto Aaron, and unto his sons, 
and unto all the children of Israel, and say 
unto them. If there be any man of the house 
of Israel, or of the strangers in Israel, tha't 
offereth his oblation, be it for any manner of 
vows, or for any manner of freewill-offerings, 
which they may offer mito the Lord for a 
burnt-offering : 

19 Then shaU it be, that it may Ije fjtvour- 
ably received for you, a male without blemish, 
of the oxen, of the sheep, or of the goats. 

20 Whatv^oever on which there is a blemish 
shall ye not offer ; for it will not be favour- 
ably received for you. 

21 And when a nuin offereth a sacrifice of 
peace-oflering unto the Lord as a vow, or a 
freewill-offering of the herds or of the Hocks: 
it shall be without blemish to be favourabl}' 



' The breast and shoulder of the peace-offerings. (See 
Leviticus x. 15.) 

" Arnhcim renders, (after Ra.shbam,) " that these load 
themselves with the guilt of trespass, in their eating the 
holy things," referring to those strangers to the )>riest- 
hood, who are not permitted to do so. Our version refers 



LEVITICUS XXII. XXIII. EMORE. 



received; no kind of bodily defect shall be 
thereon. 

22 A blind, or broken-limbed, or maimed 
animal, or one having a . wen, or itch, or 
scurvy, — ye shall not ofler these unto the 
Lord, and a fire-oflfering shall ye not make of 
them upon the altar unto the Lord. 

23 And an ox or a lamb that hath a limb 
too long or too short, that mayest thou offer 
for a freewill-offering ;' but for a vow it shall 
not be favourably received. 

24 And one that is bruised, or crushed, or 
broken, or cut in the testicles, shall ye not 
offer unto the Lord; and in your land shall 
ye not make the like. 

25 And from a stranger's hand shall ye 
not offer the bread of your God from any of 
these -^ because their corruption is on them, a 
bodily defect is on them: they shall not be 
favourably received for you. 

26 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

27 When a bullock, or a sheep, or a goat, 
is brought forth, then shall it remain seven 
days by its mother ; and from the eighth day 
and thenceforth shall it be favourably received 
for an offering made by fire unto the Lord. 

28 And whether it be ox' or sheep, ye shall 
not kill it and its young both in one day. 

29 And when ye offer a sacrifice of thanks- 
giving unto the Lord, offer it so that it may 
be favourably received of you. 

30 On the same day shall it be eaten up; 
ye shall leave none of it until the mommg ; I 
am the Lord. 

31 And ye shall keep my commandments 
and do them; I am the Lord. 

32 And ye shall not profane my holy 
name ; so that I may be sanctified among the 
children of Israel ; I am the Lord who sanc- 
tify you, 

3-3 That brought you out of the land of 
Egypt, to be your God; I am the Lord.* 



to the priests themselves, who are to abstain from the 
sacred gifts when unclean. This is the view of Onkelos. 

* I. e. It may be devoted to the expenses of the temple, 
but not for a sacrifice. 

^ No complaisance to a stranger to Israel could allow us 
to accept from him such an animal for sacrifice as was 
prohibited to us. Otherwise heathens were permitted to 
offer at the altar through the priest. 

" Eng. ver. "cow or ewe;" but the Hebrew has "ox 
or sheep." 

* The word nos in the preceding verse is evidently of 
a different signification from the feast of unleavened bread 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, ami 
say unto them, The feasts of the Lord, which 
ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, — 
these are my feasts : 

3 Six days may work be done; but on the 
seventh day is the sabbath of rest, a holy con- 
vocation; no kind of work shall ye do thereon : 
it is the sabbath (holy) unto the Lord in all 
your dwellings. 

4 ^ These are the feasts of the Lord, the 
holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in 
their seasons : 

5 On the fourteenth day of the first month, 
toward evening, is the passover-lamb to be 
offered unto the Lord. 

6 And on the fifteenth day of the same 
month is the feast of unleavened bread'* unto 
the Lord : seven days must ye eat unleavened 
bread. 

7 On the first day there shall be a holy 
convocation unto you; no servile work shall 
ye do thereon. 

8 And ye shall offer an offering made by 
fire unto the Lord seven days : on the seventh 
day is a holy convocation; no servile work 
shall ye do. 

9 1[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them, When ye shall have come into 
the land which I give unto you, and reap the 
harvest thereof: then shall ye bring an omer 
full of the first of your har^^est unto the 
priest ; 

11 And he shall wave the omer before the 
Lord, that it may be favourably received for 
you ; on the morrow after the holy day" shall 
the priest wave it. 

12 And ye shall offer on the day when ye 



mentioned here ; hence the word has been rendered accord- 
ing to Rashi : " The passover-lamb," with the addition un- 
derstood, "is to be offered." The fifteenth day, commenc- 
ing the evening before, is the feast of unleavened bread. 

' The word in Hebrew is ri2W " the rest," which aj>- 
plics equally well to the strict holy days, when no work 
is to be done, as to the weekly day of rest, the sabbath 
proper. " The morrow after the holy day," in this verse, 
refers to the second day of the l'a,ssovcr, from which, till 
the Pentecost, are forty-nine days. The word n2lif signi- 
fies also " week," probably because each week has one 
sabbath. 

117 



LEVITICUS XXIII. EMORE. 



wave the omcr, a male sheep without blemish 
of the first year for a burnt-oflfering unto the 
Lord. 

13 And the moat-offering thereof shall be 
two tenth parts of fine flour mmgled with oil, 
as an oflering made by fire unto the Lord, lor 
a sweet savour; with its drink-offering of 
wine, the fourth part of a hin. 

14 And neither bread, nor parched corn, 
nor green ears, shall ye cat, until the self- 
same day, until ye have brought the offering 
of your God; it shall be a statute for ever 
throughout your generations in all your dwell- 
ings. 

15 ^ And ye shall count unto you from 
the morrow after the holy day, from the day 
that ye bring the omer of the wave-offermg, 
(that) it be seven complete weeks : 

IG Even unto the morrow after the seventh 
week shall ye number fifty days ; and ye shall 
then offer a new" meatoffering unto the Lord. 

17 Out of your own habitations shall ye 
bring two wave-loaves of two tenth parts; of 
fine flour shall they be; leavened shall they 
be baked; they are the first-fruits unto the 
Lord. 

18 And ye shall offer Avith the bread seven 
sheep without blemish of the first year, and 
one young bullock, and two rams : they shall 
be for a burnt-offering unto the Lord, with 
their meat-offei*ing, with their drink-offerings, 
an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour 
unto the Lord. 

19 And ye shall sacrifice one he-goat for a 
sin-oflering, and two sheep of the first year 
for a sacrifice of peace-offei'ing. 

20 And the priest shall make with them 
together with the bread of the firstr-fruits a 
waving before the Lord, together with the 
two sheep ; holy shall they be to the Lord for 
the priest. 

21 And ye shall proclaim on the self-same 
day, that it may ])e a holy convocation unto 
you; no servile work shall ye do; it shall be 
a statute for ever in all your dwellings 
throughout your generations. 

22 And when ye reap the harvest of your 
laud, thou shalt not cut away altogether the 



• i. e. Of the new wheat. 

^ Hcb. " Ye shall afflict j-oiir persona;" but this phrase is 
alwa3's employed as synonyiiKuis with DlV "fasting," used in 
the prophetic honks, but not found in the Pentateuch. It 
is, perhaps, also more comprehensive, as on the day of 
atonement all indulgences of whatever kind are prohibited. 



comers of thy field when thou reapest, and 
the gleaning of thy harvest shalt thou not 
gather up ; unto the poor, and to the stranger 
shalt thou leave them; I am the Lord your 
God.* 

23 ^ And the Lord spoke imto Moses, 
saying,^ 

24 Speak unto the children of Israel, say- 
ing, In the seventh month, on the first day 
of the month, shall ye have a rest, a (day of) 
memorial of soiuiding the comet, a holy con- 
vocation. 

25 No servile work shall ye do: and ye 
shall offer an offering made by fire unto the 
Lord. 

26 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

27 But on the tenth day of this seventh 
month is the day of atonement, a holy convo- 
cation shall it be unto you, and ye shall fast;*" 
and ye shall offer an offering made by fire" 
unto the Lord. 

28 And no manner of work** shall ye do on 
this same day; for it is a day of atonement, 
to make an atonement for you before the 
Lord your God. 

29 For whatsoever person it be that fasteth 
not on this same day, shall be cut off from 
among his people. 

30 And if there be any person that docth 
.any Avork on this same day, then will I de- 
stroy the same person from among his jDCople. 

31 No manner of work shall 3"e do; it shall 
be a statute for ever throughout ^our gencriv 
tions, in all }our dwellings. 

32 A sabbath of rest it shall bo unto 3-ou, 
and ye shall fiist; on the ninth day of the 
month at evening* (shall ye begin,) IVom even- 
ing unto evening shall ye celebrate }"our sal> 
bath.* 

33 7[ And the Lord spoke unto Mose.s, 
sajang, 

34 Speak unto the children of Israel, say- 
ing. On the fifteenth da}- of this seventh 
month, shall lie the feast of tabernacles for 
seven days unto the Lord. 

35 On the first day shall be a holy convo- 
cation; no .servile work shall ye do. 



° The offering is specified in the parallel passages, above, 
eh.ipter xvi., and Numbers, chapter x.^i.x. 7 to 11. 

'' Not even the preparation of food, which is permitted 
on other holy days; this being e<|ual to the usual sabbath, 
a pnaty naty a day of rest in the higlicst degree. 

' The other festivals also begin at evening, as indicated. 



LEVITICUS XXIII. XXIV. EMORE. 



36 Seven days shall ye offer an offering 
made by fire unto the Lord; on the eighth 
(lay shall be a holy convocation unto you; 
and ye shall offer an offering made by fire 
unto the Lord, it is a solemn" assembly; no 
servile work shall ye do. 

37 These are the feasts of the Lord, which 
ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, to 
offer an oflering made by fire unto the Lord, 
burnt-ofiering, and meat-offering, sacrifice, and 
drink-offerings, every thing upon its day : 

38 Beside the sabbaths'' of the Lord, and 
beside your gifts, and beside all your vows, 
and beside all your freewill-offerings, which 
ye may give unto the Lord. 

39 But on the fifteenth day of the seventh 
month, when ye have gathered in the fruit 
of the land, shall ye keep the feast of the 
Lord seven days; on the first day shall be a 
rest, and on the eighth day shall be a rest. 

40 And ye shall take unto yourselves" on 
the first day the fruit of the tree hadar,* 
In-anches of palm-trees, and the boughs of the 
myrtle-tree, and willows of the brook ; and ye 
shall rejoice before the Lord your God seven 
days. 

41 And ye shall keep it as a feast unto 
the Lord seven days in the year; it shall be 
a statute for ever throughout your generations ; 
in the seventh month shall ye celebrate it. 

42 In booths shall ye dwell seven days; all 
that are Israelites bom shall dwell in booths. 

43 In order that your generations may 
know, that I caused the children of Israel to 
dwell in booths, when I brought them forth 
out of the land of Egypt; I am the Lord 
your God. 

44 And Moses declared the feasts of the 
Lord unto the children of Israel.* 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

1 Tl And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 

2 Command the children of Israel, that 
they bring unto thee pure beaten olive-oil, for 

'Philippson: "Feast of conclusion," riix>' from "isj» 
"to shut up," "to restrain." 

' I. c. Beside the two lambs, the additional sacrifice for 
the sabbath, which are mentioned in Numbers xxviii. 
9, 10. 

" "Each of you shall take of his own." — 'Wesseli. In 
the same manner all similar phrases must be explained. 

^ Our tradition teaches us that this means the citron- 
tree. The origin of the name Hadar is otherwise doubt- 



the lighting, to cause the lamp to burn con- 
tinually. 

3 Without the vail of the testimony, in the 
tabernacle of the congregation, shall Aaron 
put it in order (for) from evening unto morn- 
ing before the Lord continually; tus a statute 
for ever in your generations. 

4 Upon the pure candlestick shall he put 
in order the lamps, before the Lord, con- 
tinually. 

5 ^ And thou shalt take fine flour, and bake 
thereof twelve cakes: of two tenth parts shall 
each one cake be. 

G And thou shalt place them in two rows, 
six in a row, upon the pure table before the 
Lord. 

7 And thou shalt put upon each row pure 
frankincense, that it may be unto the bread 
for a memorial," as a fire-offering unto the 
Lord. 

8 On every and each sabbath day shall he 
place it in order before the Lord continually, 
(obtained) from the children of Israel as an 
everlasting covenant. 

9 And it shall belong to Aaron and to his 
sons; and they shall eat it in a holy place; 
for it is most holy unto him, from the fire- 
offerings of the Lord, a.s a perpetual fixed 
portion. 

10 Tl And thei-e went forth a son of an 
Israelitish woman, but who was the son of an 
Egyptian man, among the children of Israel ; 
and there quarrelled together in the camji 
this son of the Israelitish woman and an 
Israelitish man. 

11 And the son of the Israelitish woman 
pronounced' the (holy) Name, and blasphem- 
ed; and they brought him unto Moses: (and 
his mother's name was Shelomith, the daugh- 
ter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan ;) 

12 And they placed him in ward, until the 
decision of the Lord could be explained to 
them. 

13 Tf And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ino" 



ful. The English version of this verse is too incorrect to 
require rcnuirk. 

" The bread belonged to the priest.s; but the frankin- 
cense alone was burnt; consequently it ^as the memorial 
for the showbreail, the same as above, ii. 2, &c., with the 
ordinary meat-offering. 

' "As Onkelos explains, he pronounced the most holy 
name of God, which they had heard on Sinai, and blft«- 
phemed." — ItASHl. 

149 



LEVITICUS XXIV. XXV. BEIIAR. 



14 Lead forth the bla.sphemer to without 
the camp; and all that have heard him shall 
lay their hands upon his head ; and all the 
congrej^ation shall stone him. 

15 And unto the children of Israel shalt 
thou speak, saying, Whatsoever man that 
blasj)hcmeth his God shall bear his sin. 

10 But he that pronounced the name of 
the Lord (with blasphemy) shall be put to 
death, all the congregation shall stone him; 
be he a stranger, or be he one that is bom in 
the land, when he pronounceth the (holy) 
Name (with blasphemy,) he shall be put to 
death. 

17 And he that taketh the life of any man 
shall surely be put to death. 

18 And he that taketh the life of a beast 
shall make it good; beast for beast. 

19 And if a man cause a bodily defect in 
liis neighbour, as he hath done, so shall be 
done to him; 

20 Breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth 
for tooth : in the manner as he hath caused a 
bodily injury in a man, so shall it be done to 
him.* 

21 And he that killeth a beast, shall make 
restitution for it; and he that killeth a man, 
shall be put to death. 

22 One manner of judicial law shall ye 
have, the stranger shall be equal with one of 
your own country; for I am the Lord your 
God. 

2.3 And Moses spoke to the children of 
Israel; and they led forth the blasphemer 
to without the camp, and they stoned him 
with stones; and the children of Israel did as 
the Lord had commanded Moses. 

Ilaphtorah in Ezckiol xliv. 15 to 31. 



SECTION XXXII. BEHAR, -IHD. 

CHAPTER XXV. 

1 ^f And the Lord spoke unto Moses on 
mount Sinai, saying, 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them, When ye come into the land 
wliich I give unto you, then shall the land 
keep a sabbath unto the Lord. 

3 Six years shalt thou sow thy field, and 



' Properly, Yobel. Rasbi derives this word from Sav 
"the ram," because the ram's born (comet) was blown to 
announce it; but as horns from other animals were also 
150 



six years shalt thou prune thy vineyard, and 
gather in the fruit thereof; 

4 But in the seventh year there shall be a 
sabbath of rest unto the land, a sabbath (in 
honour) of the Lord: thy field shalt thou 
not sow, and thy vineyard shalt thou not 
prune. 

5 That which groweth of its ovm accord 
of thy harvest shalt thou not reap, and the 
grapes of thy undressed vine shalt thou not 
gather: a year of rest shall it be unto the 
land. 

6 And (the product of) the sabbath of the 
land shall be unto you for food, for thee, and 
for thy man-servant, and for thy maid-ser- 
vant, and for thy hired labourer, and for thy 
strangei", that sojourn with thee; 

7 And for thy cattle, and for the beasts 
that are in thy land, shall all its products be 
(left) for food. 

8 ^ And thou shalt number unto thee 
seven sabbaths of years, seven years seven 
times ; and the space of the seven sabbaths 
of years shall be unto thee forty and nine 
years. 

9 And then shalt thou cause the sound of 
the cornet to be heard, in the seventh month, 
on the tenth day of the month; on the day 
of atonement shall ye sound the comet 
throughout all your land. 

10 And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, 
and proclaim freedom throughout the laud 
unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a 
jubilee" unto you; and ye shall return, every 
man, unto his possession, and ye shall return, 
every man, unto his family. 

11 A jubilee shall this, the fiftieth year, be 
unto you: ye shall not sow, nor reap that 
Avhich groweth of itself in it, nor gather in it 
the friut of the undressed vines. 

12 For it is the jubilee; holy shall it be 
unto you : from the field shall yc eat the pro- 
ducts thereof. 

13 In this 3'ear of the jubilee shall 3'e re- 
turn, every man, unto his possession.* 

14 And if thou sell aught unto thy neigh- 
bour, or buy aught of thy neighbour's hand, 
ye shall not o^•errcach one the other; 

15 According to the number of years after 
the jubilee shalt thou buy of thy neighbour, 



permitted for this service, Ramban derives it from Sa' 
which signifies in Hiphil "to bring," that is, the year 
when eauli man is brought back to his own. 



LEVITICUS XXV. BEHAR. 



according unto the number of harvest-years* 
shall he sell unto thee; 

IG According to the multitude of years 
shalt thou increase the price thereof, and ac- 
cording to the fewness of years shalt thou 
diminish the price thereof; for a number of 
harvests doth he sell unto thee. 

17 And ye shall not overreach*" one the 
other; but thou shalt be afraid of thy God; 
for I am the Lord 3'our God. 

18 And ye shall do my statutes, and my 
ordinances shall ye keep and do them; and 
then shall ye dwell in the land in safety.* 

19 And the land shall yield its fruit, and 
ye shall eat your fill, and dwell in safety 
therein. 

20 And if ye should say, "Wliat shall we 
eat in the seventh year? behold, we are not 
permitted to sow, and we cannot gather in our 
harvest : 

21 Then will I command my blessing unto 
you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth 
a harvest for three years. 

22 And when ye sow in the eighth year, 
then shall ye eat yet of the old harvest ; until 
the ninth year, until its harvest come in, 
shall ye eat of the old store. 

23 And the land shall not be sold for a 
permanence (to the purchaser) ; for the land 
is mine; for strangers and sojourners are ye 
with me. 

24 And in all the land of your possession 
ye shall grant a redemption for the land.* 

25 Tl If thy brother become poor, and sell 
away some of his possession: then may his 
nearest of kin come and redeem what his 
brother hath sold. 

26 And if the man have none to redeem it, 
and he acquire the means, sufficient to be able 
to redeem it himself: 

27 Then let him reckon the years since his 
sale, and restore the overplus unto the man 
to whom he sold it; and so shall he return 
unto his possession. 



" i'. e. While harvesting is permitted to the buyer, or 
the 3-ears that are to elapse till the jubilee; for then the 
land returns to the original owner. Ilence the price is 
higlior if the time to the jubilee be long, and smaller in 
proportion ; as in next verse. 

'' Tradition makes ijin not "deceive," but to "offend" 
with words, to "excite to anger." But in our version we 
followed Onkelos and others. 

" Rashi renders this, " If a man purchase from the Le- 
vites," &c. Our translation is after Arnheim, who coni- 



28 But if his means do not suffice to enable 
him to restore it to liim, then shall that 
which he hath sold remam in the hand of 
him that hatli bought it until the year of 
the jubilee; and it shall be freed in the 
jubilee, and he shall return unto his posses- 
sion.* 

29 ^ And if a man sell a dwelling-house 
in a walled city, then shall the time of re- 
demption last till the end of the year of his 
sale ; a full year shall his time of redemption 
last. 

30 And if it be not redeemed within the 
expiration of a full year, then shall the house 
which is in the walled city remain as a per- 
manence to him that bought it throughout 
his generations; it shall not become freed in 
the jubilee. 

31 But the houses of the villages which 
have no wall round about them shall be 
counted as the fields of the country : they 
shall have the right of I'edemption, and they 
shall become freed in the jubilee. 

32 And (respecting) the cities of the Le- 
vites, the houses of the cities of their j^sses- 
sion, a perpetual right of redemption shall 
belong to the Levites. 

33 And if a man of the Levites redeem" 
somethmg, then shall the house tliat was 
sold, and the city of his possession, become 
freed in the jubilee; for the houses of the 
cities of the Levites are their possession 
among the children of Israel. 

34 And a field of the suburbs of their cities 
shall not be sold;"* for a perpetual possession 
is it unto them. 

35 ^ And if thy brother become poor, and 
fall in decay with thee : then shalt thou assist 
him, (yea) a stranger, or a sojourner, that he 
may live with thee. 

3G Thou shalt not take of him any usury 
or increase; but thou shalt be afraid of thy 
God : that thy brother may live with thee. 

37 Thy money shalt thou not give him 



ments, that if a Levite should redeem a property sold by 
another of his tribe, it will revert to the original owner at 
the jubilee; whereas, as regards the lands of other Israel- 
ites, the law is silent, provided only that it must revert to 
the tribe of the seller. Philippson renders, "any one of 
the Levites may redeem," &c., and connects it with the 
preceding verse ; and it then means, it requires no relative 
to redeem, but any one of the Jjcvitieal tribe. 

'' This is said to refer to a field sanctified by a Levi, 
which is not to be forfeited to the priests as in xxvii. 21. 

151 



LEVITICUS XXV. XXVI. BECHUCKOTAY. 



upon usury, nor lend him thy victuals for in- 
crease. 

38 I am the Lord your God, who have 
brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to 
give unto you the land of Canaan, to be unto 
you a God.* 

39 T[ And if thy brother become poor near 
thee, and be sold unto thee: thou shalt not 
compel him to work as a bond-servant. 

40 But as a hired labourer, as a sojourner, 
shall he be with thee; until the year of the 
jubilee shall he serve with thee: 

41 And then shall he depart from thee, he 
and his children with him; and he shall re- 
turn unto his own family, and unto the pos- 
session of his fathers shall he return. 

42 For my servants are they, whom I 
brought forth out of the land of Egypt : they 
shall not be sold as bond-men are sold. 

43 Thou shalt not rule over him with 
rigour; but thou shalt have fear of thy God. 

44 But thy bond-man, and thy bond-wo- 
man that shall remain thine, shall be of the 
nations that are round about you; of them 
may ye ])uy bond-man and Ijond-woman. 

45 And also of the children of the strangers 
that sojourn with you, of them may ye buy, 
and of their families that are with you, which 
they have begotten in your land; and they 
shall remain to you as a possession. 

40 And ye may transfer them as an inherit- 
ance for your children after you, to inherit 
them for a possession; you may hold them to 
service for ever; but over your brethren the 
children of Israel, one over the other, ye* 
shall not rule with rigour.''" 

47 ^f And if a stranger or sojourner wax 
rich near thee, and thy brother become poor 
near him, and he sell himself unto the so- 
journing stranger near thee, or to a descend- 
ant of a stranger's family : 

48 After he hath sold himself shall he 
have the right of redemption; one of his 
brethren may redeem him. 

49 Either his uncle, or his uncle's son, may 
redeem him, or any that is near of kin unto 
him of his family may redeem him ; or if he 
obtain the means, he may redeem himself 

50 And he shall reckon with him that 
bought him from the year that he sold him- 
self to him unto the year of the jubilee : and 



the price of his sale shall be according to the 
number of years, as the time of a hired 
labouier shall he have been with him. 

51 If there be yet many jears, according 
to them shall he return the price of his re- 
demption out of his purchase-monej. 

52 And if there remain but few years unto 
the year of the jubilee, then shall he reckon 
with him; according to his years shall he 
return the price of his redemption. 

53 As a labourer hired from 3-ear to year 
shall he jje with him; he shall not rule over 
him with rigour before th}^ eyes. 

54 And if he be not redeemed by (one of) 
these means, then shall he go out in the year 
of the jubilee, both he, and his children with 
him.* 

55 For unto me are the children of Israel 
servants, my sen'ants are they, whom I have 
brought forth out of the land of Egypt ; 1 am 
the Eternal your God. 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

1 Ye shall not make j-ourselves any idols, 
and a graven image, or a standing image 
shall ye not rear up unto you, and any cai'ved 
stone shall you not place in }our land, to bow 
down upon it; for I am the Eternal your 
God. 

2 My sabbaths shall ye keep, and my 
sanctuary shall ye reverence ; I am the Lord. 

Haphtorah in Jeremiah xxxii. 6 to 27. 



' Ileb. " Thou shalt uot rule," according to the Hebrew 
idiom. 

1&2 



SECTION XXXIII. BECHUCKOTAY, 

'npnn. 

3 T[ If in my statutes ye Avalk, and if my 
commandments ye keep, and do them : 

4 Then will I give you rains in their due 
season, and the earth shall yield her pro- 
ducts, and the tree of the field shall yield its 
fruit. 

5 And the threshing shall reach with yon 
unto the vintage, and the vintage shall reach 
mito sowing-time; and ye shall eat your 
bread to the full, and ye shall dwell safely in 
your land.* 

G And T will give peace in the land, and 3-0 
shall lie down, with none to make you afraid; 
and I will remove evil beasts out of the land, 
and the sword shall not pass through your land. 

7 And ye shall chase your enemies, and 
they shall fall before 30U by the sword. 



LEVITICUS XXVI. BECHUCKOTAY. 



8 And five of you shall chase a hundred, 
and a hundred of you shall chase ten thou- 
sand ; and your enemies shall fall before you 
by the sword. 

9 And I will turn myself unto you, and 
make you fruitful, and nudtiply you; and I 
will establish my covenant with you.''' 

10 And ye shall eat very old store, and 
the old shall ye reuio\'e away because of the 
new. 

11 And I will set my dwelling among you; 
and my soul shall not loath" you. 

12 And I will walk among you, and I will 
be to you a God, and ye shall be to me a 
peojjle. 

1.3 I am the Eternal your God, who have 
brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, 
that ye should not be their bond-men; and I 
have broken the bands of your yoke, and 
caused you to Avalk upright. 

14 ^ But if ye will not hearken unto me, 
and Avill not do all these commandments; 

15 And if my statutes ye despise, and if 
my ordinances your soul loath, so as not to 
do all my commandments, in that ye break 
my covenant : 

IG Then will I also do this unto you, and 
I will inflict on you terror, consumption, and 
the burning ague, that consume the eyes, and 
cause sorrow of heart; and ye shall sow in 
vain your seed, for your enemies shall eat it.*" 

17 And I will set my face agamst you, and 
ye shall be struck down before your enemies : 
and they that hate you shall bear rule over 
you ; and ye shall flee while there is no one 
pursuing you. 

18 And if with these things even ye will 
not yet hearken unto me : then I will chastise 
you yet more, sevenfold for your sins. 

19 And I will break the pride of your 
power ; and I will make your heaven as iron, 
and your earth as copper: 

20 And in vain shall your strength be 
spent ; for your land shall not yield her pro- 
ducts, and the tree of the land shall not yield 
its fruit. 

21 And if ye walk yet contrary unto me, 



* " Fear not th.it after a long time I will be tired of you 
and choose another nation to render it higher than you; 
for I the Loud change not; and if you do your part, to 
walk in my statutes, my dwelling shall be among you for 
ever." — Wesseli. 

' "You shall sow, but no'hing will grow; but if you 
U 



and if you refuse to hearken unto me : I will 
bring more plagues upon you, sevenfold ac- 
cording to your sins. 

22 And I will send out against you the 
beasts of the field, which shall rob you of your 
children, and destroy your cattle, and dimi- 
nish yourselves; so that your roads shall be 
desolate. 

23 And if notwithstanding these things ye 
will not be reformed by me, and walk con- 
trary luito me : 

24 Then will I also walk contrary unto 
you, and I also will punish you, sevenfold for 
your sins. 

25 And I will bring over you the sword, 
avenging the quarrel of mj^ covenant, so that 
ye shall be gathered together within your 
cities; and then will I send the pestilence 
among you,'' that ye shall deliver yourselves 
into the hand of the eneni}' ; 

26 When I break unto you the stafi" of 
bread ; and ten women shall bake your bread 
in one oven, and they shall deliver your 
bread again by weight; and ye shall eat, and 
not be satisfied. 

27 ^ And if notAvithstanding this ye will not 
hearken unto me, but walk contrary unto me : 

28 Then will I also walk contrary unto 
you in fury ; and I, CA'cn I, will chastise }0u, 
sevenfold for your sins. 

29 And ye shall eat the flesh of your son.s, 
and the flesh of your daughters shall ye eat. 

30 And I will destroy your high places, 
and cut down your sim-images, and cast 3-our 
carcasses upon the carcasses of your idols; 
and my soul shall loath ^'ou. 

31 And I will render your cities a waste, 
and I will make desolate your sanctuaries, 
and I will not smell the savour of your sweet 
odours. 

32 And I will surely make desolate the 
land: and your enemies who dwell therein 
shall be astonished at it. 

33 And you will I scatter among the nar 
tions, and I will draw out after you the 
sword; and your land shall be a desolate 
wild, and your cities shall be a waste. 



should have any thing in your fields, then shall your ene- 
mies come and cat it." — K.\sni. 

° Meaning, the people having violated the covenant, God 
would send enemies into the laud, fleeing before whom 
they should seek refuge in the towns, whence the plague 
should drive them again into the power of their pursuers. 

153 



LEVITICUS XXVI. XXVII. BECIIUCKOTAY. 



34 Then shall the land .satisfy" its sal> 
baths, all the days of its desolation, when ye 
arc in the land of your enemies ; then shall 
the land rest, and satisfy its sabbaths. 

35 All the days of its desolation shall it 
rest, the time which it did not rest in your 
sabbaths, when ye dwelt upon it. 

36 And regarding those that are left of 
you, I will send a faintncss into their hearts 
in the lands of their enemies ; and the sound 
of a leaf shaken shall chase them ; and they 
shall flee, as fleeing from the sword; and they 
shall fall with none pursuing. 

37 And they shall stumble one over the 
othei", as before the sword, without one pur- 
suing : and ye shall have no power to stand 
before your enemies. 

38 And ye shall be lost among the nations, 
and the land of yoiu- enemies shall consume 
you. 

39 And they that are left of you shall pine 
away in their iniquity in the land of your 
enemies; and also through the iniquities of 
their fathers shall they pine away with 
them. 

40 And they shall then confess their ini- 
quity, and the iniquity of their fathers, (that) 
through their trespass which they trespassed 
against me, and also that (because) they had 
walked contrary imto me : 

411 also had to walk^ contrary unto them, 
and to bring them into the land of their ene- 
mies; and then shall their uncircumcised 
heart be humbled, and then shall they satisfy 
their iniquity. 

42 And I will then remember my covenant 
with Jacob, and also my covenant with Isaac, 
and also my covenant with Abraham will I 
remember; and the land Avill I remember. 

43 For the land shall be forsaken by them, 
and shall satisfy its sabbaths, while it lieth 
desolate without them, and they shall satisfy" 
their initjuity ; because, even because my ordi- 
nances they despised, and my statutes their 
soul loathed. 

44 And yet for all that, though they be in 

* Make compensation for the years of release which the 
Israelites did not observe according to the dictates of the 
law. 

' After rhilipp.son; as iSx is the future form; thus ex- 
pressing an act ari.sing from a foregone cause. tN IX given 
here with "and then," may also mean, as Kashi com- 
ments, "perhaps tlion," or "wlicthcr tlien." Thus: "I 
also had to walk contrary unto them, and bring them into 
164 



the land of their enemies, will I not cast 
them away, neither will I loath them, to 
destroy them utterly, to break my covenant 
with them; for I am the Lord their God. 

45 But I will rememter for their sakes the 
covenant of their ancestors, whom I brought 
forth out of the land of Egypt before the eyes 
of the nations, that I might be unto them a 
God; I am the Lord. 

46 These are the statutes and ordinances 
and laws,"* which the Lord made between 
him and the children of Israel on mount 
Sinai, by the hand of Moses.* 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

1 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
in f 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them, If a man make a particular 
vow, (to give) the estimated value of persons 
in honour of the Lord : 

3 If the estimated value concern a male 
from tAventy years old and up unto sixty 
years old, then shall the estimation be fifty 
shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanc- 
tuary. 

4 And if it be a female, then shall the esti- 
mation be thirty shekels. 

5 And if (the person be) from five years 
old unto twenty years old, then shall the esti- 
mation of the male be twenty shekels, and for 
the female ten shekels. 

6 And if (the person be) from a month old 
unto five years old, then shall the estimation 
of the male be five shekels of silver, and for 
the female the estimation (shall be) three 
shekels of silver. 

7 And if (the person be) from sixty yeai's 
old and above, if it be a male, then shall the 
estimation be fifteen shekels, and for the 
female ten shekels. 

8 But if he be too poor for this estimation, 
then shall he present himself Ix'fore the priest, 
and the priest shall value him; according to 
the ability to pay of him that hath vowed 
shall the priest value him. 



the land of their enemies, (to see) whether then their un- 
circumcised heart would be humbled, and they would then 
atone for their iniquity." 

" This word, employed also in verses 34 and 41, means 
that they shall sutler such punishment as will be in full 
satisfaction for the guilt they have incurred. 

'' Arnheini adds, as an ellipsis, "of the covenant," to 
tally with wliat follows, "between him," &c. 



LEVITICUS XXVII. BECIIUCKOTAY. 



9 ^ And if it be a beast," whereof men can 
bring an ofiering unto the Lord, all that*" a 
man giveth of such unto the Lokd tshall be 
holy. 

10 He shall not alter it, nor change it, a 
good for a bad one, or a bad for a good one: 
and if he should change beast for beast, then 
shall it together with its exchange be holy. 

11 And if it be any unclean beast, of which 
they cannot ofler a sacrifice unto the Lord, 
then shall he present the beast before the 
priest : 

12 And the priest shall value it, whether 
it be good or bad; as the priest valueth it, so 
shall it be. 

13 And if he will redeem it, then shall he 
add a fifth part thereof unto the estimated 
value. 

14 And if a man sanctify his house as holy 
unto the Lord, then shall the priest value it, 
whether it be good or bad; as the priest may 
value it, so shall it stand. 

15 And if he that sanctified it will redeem 
his house, then shall he add the fifth part of 
the money of the estimated value unto it, and 
it shall remain his.* 

16 And if a man sanctify some part of a 
field of his possession unto the Lord, then 
shall the estimation be in proportion to its re- 
quired seed : the seed of a chomer of barley at 
fifty shekels of silver. 

17 If immediately after the year of the 
jubilee he sanctify his field, according to this 
estimation shall it stand. 

18 But if after the jubilee he sanctify his 
field, then shall the priest reckon unto him 
the money in profiortion to the years that re- 
main, until the year of the jubilee, and it 
shall be deducted from the estimation. 

19 And if he that sanctified the field will 
redeem it, then shall he add the fifth part of 
the money of the estimated ■<*alue unto it, and 
it shall be assured to him. 

20 But if he will not redeem the field, or 
if he" have sold the field to another man, it 
shall not be redeemed any more. 

21 But the field, when it is freed in the 



• This means only domestic animals, cattle proper, the 
OS, sheep, and goat; for these only could be sacrificed. 

' " If a man said, The leg of this shall be a burnt-offer- 
ing, his words were valid, and it was sold for the purposes 
of the burnt-offering, and all the proceeds were profane 
property, with the exception of the value of that limb." — 
Kashi. 



jubilee, shall be lioly unto the Lord, a.s a de- 
voted field ; to the priest shall it belong as his 
possession.''' 

22 And if a man sanctify a field which he 
hath bought, which is not of the fields of his 
possession, unto the Lord: 

23 Then shall the priest reckon unto him 
the amount of the estimated value to the year 
of the ju})ilee; and he shall give this estima- 
tion on that day, as a holy thing unto the 
Lord. 

24 In the year of the jubilee the field shall 
return unto him of whom he bought it, to the 
one to whom belongeth the possession of the 
land. 

25 And all estimations of value shall be 
according to the shekel of the sanctuary; 
twenty gerahs shall be the shekel. 

26 Only the first-born which shall, by be- 
ing first born, be sacred unto the Lord among 
cattle, no man shall sanctify;"* whether it be 
ox, or lamb, it is the Lord's. 

27 And if it be an unclean animal, then 
shall he redeem it according to the estimated 
value, and he shall add its fifth part thereto; 
and if it be not redeemed, then shall it be 
sold according to the estimated value. 

28 But any devoted thing, which a man 
may devote unto the Lord of all that he hath, 
both of nuin and beast, and of the field of his 
possession, shall not be sold nor redeemed: 
every devoted thing is most holy unto the 
Lord.* 

29 Any one condemned," who shall be con- 
demned to death among men, shall not Ije re- 
deemed; he shall be put to death. 

30 And every tithe of the land, of the 
seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, 
belongeth to the Lord; it is holy unto the 
Lord. 

31 And if a man will redeem any part of 
his tithe, its fifth part shall ho add thereto.* 

32 And concerning the tithe of the herds, 
or of the fiocks, whatsoever passeth under the 
rod,' the tenth shall be holy unto the Lord. 

33 He shall not search whether it be good 
or bad, neither shall he change it : and if he 



J. c. The treasurer of the sanctuary. 
For the purpose of sacrifice, it being sacred by its 
birth. 

' According to Rashi's commentary; and it says that 
the offering of the above valuations for the life of a COQ- 
dcmned criminal shall be of no avail. 

' " When he comes to tithe them, he causes them to go 

155 



NUMBERS I. BEMIDBAR. 



should change it, then both it and the ex- 
change thereof shall be holy ; it shall not be 
redeemed. 

34 These are the commandments, which 



the Lord commanded Moses for the children 
of Israel on mount Sinai. 

Ilaphtorah in .Jeremiah xvi. 19 to xvii. 14. 

Uajihtorah for Sabbath Ilaggadole in Malachi iii. 4 to 24. 



THE BOOK OF NUMBERS, 

BEMIDBAR, imSD. 
CONTAINING THE HISTORY OF THE ISRAELITES IN THE DESERT. 



SECTION XXXIV. BEMIDBAR, -im03. 

CHAPTER I. 

1 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses in 
the wilderness of Sinai, in the tabernacle of 
the congregation, on the first day of the 
second month, in the second year after their 
going out of the land of Egypt, saying, 

2 Take ye the sum of all the congregation 
of the children of Israel, after their families, 
by the descent from their fathers," by num- 
bering the names,'' every male according to 
their polls; 

3 From twenty years old and upward, all 
that are able to go forth to war in Israel: 
these shall ^e number according to their 
armies, thou and Aaron. 

4 And with you there shall be one man 
each of every tribe; a man who is the head 
of his family division. 

5 And these are the names of the men 
that shall stand with you ; of Rciiben : Elizur 
the son of Shedeiir. 

6 Of Simeon : Shelumiel the son of Zurish- 
addai. 

7 Of Judah : Nachshon the son of 'Ammi- 
nadab. 



through a doorway, one after the other, and the tenth he 
strikes with a rod having paint on it, that the animal may 
be recognised as the tithe; and so was done to the lambs 
and calves of every year." — Rashi. 

* So llashi exphiins the term 3« JV3 "family descent 
reckoned from the father." But generally it is nearly 
synonymous with the word nnsiys family, and it may be 
rendered "family division," or "branch," and is conse- 
quently a .subdivision of "family," which it.sclf is less than 
" tribe." In other instances 3« n'3 appears the major, 
nnaiyo the lesser division. But in reality it means at 
156 



8 Oflssachar: Nethanel the son of Zuiir. 

9 Of Zebulun : Eliiib the son of Chelon. 

10 Of the children of Joseph, of Ephraim : 
Elishama the son of 'Ammihud ; of Menasseh : 
Gamliel the son of Pedahzur. 

11 Of Benjamin : Abidan the son of Gidoni. 

12 Of Dan : Achiezer the son of 'Ammish- 
addai 

13 Of Asher: Pagiel the son of 'Ochran. 

14 Of Gad : Elyassaph the son of Deiiel. 

15 Of Naj^htali: Acliira the son of 'Euan. 

16 These were the selected" of the congre- 
gation, the princes of the tribes of their 
fathers ; the heads of the thousands'* of Israel 
were they. 

17 And Moses and Aaron took these men 
who are expressed by name : 

18 Aud all the congregation the}* assem- 
bled together on the first day of the .second 
month, and they were eurolled in the lists of 
their pedigrees after their fomilies. ])y the de- 
scent from their fathers, by numbering the 
names, from twenty }ears old and uinvard, 
according to their polls. 

19 As the LcwD had commanded Moses, so 
did he number them in the wilderness of 
Sinai. '=' 



last only tho.-io who have a common ancestry; hence it 
will be found variously rendered, to prevent the too fre- 
quent repetition of the same term. 

■■"With the number of their names." — English ver- 
sion. 

° 't«np "the called," from K")p "to call;" hence, tho.so 
called to the meetings of the chiefs, the selectmai, repre- 
sentatives; and so it is rendered elsewhere. 

'' Philippson translates 'sSn not with " thousands," but 
with " families," as 83'nonymous with "-jiSk in Genesis 
xxxvi. 43. 



NUMBERS I. BEMIDBAR. 



20 T[ And there were of the children of i 
Itciiben the first-born of Israel, by their gene- ! 
rations, after their families, by the descent from , 
their fathers, by numbering the names, ac- 1 
cording to their polls, every male from twenty 
years old and upward, all that were able to 
go forth to war; 

21 Those that were numbered of the tribe ! 
of Reuben, were forty and six thousand and 
five hundred. | 

22 Tl Of the" children of Simeon, by their 
generations, after their families, by the de- 
scent from their fathers, those that were 
nuinbered of them, by numbering the names, 
according to their polls, every male from 
twenty j-ears old and upward, all that were 
able to go forth to war; 

23 Those that were numbered of the tribe 
of Simeon, were fifty and nine thousand and 
three hundred. 

24 ^ Of the children of Gad, by their gene- 
rations, after their families, by the descent 
from their fathers, by numbering the names, 
from twenty years old and upward, all that 
were able to go forth to war ; 

25 Those that were numbered of the tribe 
of Gad, were forty and five thousand six hun- 
dred and fifty. 

26 T[ Of the children of Judah, by their 
generations, after their families, by the de- 
scent from their fathers, by numbering the 
names, from twenty years old and upward, 
all that were able to go forth to war; 

27 Those that were numbered of the tribe 
of Judah, were sevent}' and four thousand 
and six hundred. 

28 % Of the children of Issachar, by their 
generations, after their families, by the de- 
scent from their fathers, by numbering the 
names, from twenty years old and upward, 
all that were able to go forth to war; 

29 Those that were numbered of the tribe 
of Issachar, were fifty and four thousand and 
four hundred. 

30 \\ Of the children of Zebulun, by their 
generations, after their famiUes, by the de- 
scent from their fathers, by numbering the 
names, from twenty years old and upward, 
all that were able to go forth to war; 



' The S prefixed to each name must be taken in the 
sense of "of," as though it read, "there were of the sons 
of Simeon, &c., those that were numbered, fifty and nine 
thousand and three hundred," <S:c. 



31 Those that were numbered of the trilic 
of Zebulun, were fifty and seven tliou.sand 
and four hundred. 

32 ^ Of the children of Joseph, namely, of 
the children of Ephraim, by their generations, 
after their families, by the descent from their 
fathers, by numbering the names, from twenty 
years old and upward, all that were able to 
go forth to war; 

33 Those that were numbered of the tribe 
of Ephraim, were forty thousand and five 
hundred. 

34: ^[ Of the children of Menasseh, by their 
generations, after their families, by the de- 
scent from their fathers, by numbering the 
names, from twenty years old and upward, 
all that were able to go forth to war; 

3o Those that were numbered of the tribe 
of Menasseh, were thirty and two thousand 
and two hundred. 

36 T[ Of the children of Benjamin, by their 
generations, after their families, by the de- 
scent from their fathers, by numbering the 
names, from twenty years old and upward, 
all that were able to go forth to war; 

37 Those that were numbered of the tribe 
of Benjamin, were thirty and five thousand 
and four hundred. 

38 \\ Of the children of Dan, by then* 
generations, after their families, by the de- 
scent from their lathers, by numbering the 
names, from twenty years old and upward, 
"all that were able to go forth to war; 

39 Those that were numbered of the tribe 
of Dan, were sixty and two thousand and 
seven hundred. 

40 T[ Of the children of Asher, by their 
generations, after their families, by the de- 
scent from their fathers, by numbering the 
names, from twenty years old and upward, 
all that were able to go forth to war; 

41 Those that were numbered of the tribe 
of Asher, were forty and one thousand and 
five hundred. 

42 ^ Of the children of Naphtali, by their 
generations, after their families, by the de- 
scent from their fathers, by numlx;ring the 
names, from twenty years old and upward, 
all that were able to go forth to war; 

43 Those that were numbered of the tribe 
of Naphtali, were fifty and three thousand 
and four hundred. 

44 % These are those that were numlx^red, 
whom Moses numbered with Aaron, and the 

157 



NUMBERS I. II. BEMIDBAR. 



princes of Israel, being twelve men ; one man 
each for his family division were they. 

45 Thus were all those that were numbered 
of the children of Israel, by the descent from 
their fathers, from twenty years old and up- 
ward, all that were able to go forth to war in 
Israel, — 

46 Even all they that were numbered, 
Avere six hundred thousand and three thou- 
sand and five hundred and fifty. 

4 7 But the Levites, after the tribe of their 
fathers, were not numbered among them. 

48 ^ For* the Lord had spoken unto 
Moses, saying, 

49 Only the tribe of Levi shalt thou not 
numl^er, and their sum shalt thou not take, 
among the children of Israel ; 

50 But thou shalt appoint the Levites over 
the tabernacle of the testimony, and over all its 
vessels, and over all things that belong to it : 
they shall carry the tabernacle, and all its 
vessels; and they shall minister unto it, and 
round about the tabernacle shall they en- 
camp. 

51 And when the tabernacle is to be car- 
ried forward, the Levites shall take it doA\ai ; 
and when the tabernacle is to be pitched, the 
Levites shall set it up : and the stranger'' that 
Cometh nigh shall be put to death. 

52 And the children of Israel shall pitch'' 
their tents, every man by his own camp, and 
every man by his own standard, according to 
their armies. 

53 But the Levites shall encamp round 
about the tabernacle of the testimony, that 
there bo no wrath upon the congregation of 
the children of Israel : and the Levites shall 
keep the charge of the tabernacle of the testi- 
mony. 

54 And the children of Israel did so ; all, 
just as the Lord had comman.ded Moses, so 
did they.* 

CHAPTER II. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
unto Aaron, saying, 

2 Every man by his own standard, by the 
ensigns of their family division, shall the chil- 
dren of Israel pitch their tent : at some dis- 



* j'. r. The not numbering of tlie Levites among the other 
sons of Israel was owing to a previous command that 
they should not be reckoned among them for secular 



purposes. 



tance round about the tabeniacle of the con- 
gregation shall they encamp. 

3 And the}', who encamp on the east, to- 
ward the rising of the sun, shall be (those 
who belong to) the standard of the camp of 
Judah according to their armies: and the 
prince of the children of Judah shall be Nach- 
shon the son of 'Amminadab. 

4 And his host, and those that were num- 
bered of them, were seventy and four thou- 
sand and six hundred. 

5 And those that encamp next unto him 
shall be the tribe of Issachar : and the prince 
of the children of Issachar shall be Nethanel 
the son of Zuar. 

6 And his host, and those that were num- 
bered thereof, were fifty and four thousand 
and four hundred. 

7 (Then) the tribe of Zebulun : and the 
prince of the children of Zebulun shall be 
Eliab the son of Chelon. 

8 And his host, and those that were num- 
bered thereof, Avere fifty and seven thousand 
and four hundred. 

9 All that were numbered of the camp of 
Judah were one hundred thousand and eighty 
thousand and six thousand and four hundred, 
according to their armies ; they shall fii'st set 
forward. 

10 ^ The standard of the camp of Reiiben 
shall be on the south side, according to their 
armies : and the prince of the children of 
Reuben shall be Elizur the son of Shedeiir. 

11 And his host, and those that were num- 
liered thereof, were forty and six thousand 
and five hundred. 

12 And those that encamp by him shall be 
the trilie of Simeon : and the prince of the 
children of Simeon shall be Shelumitil the son 
of Zurishaddiii. 

13 And his host, and those that were num- 
bered of them, were fifty and nine thousand 
and three hundred. 

14 Then the tribe of Gad : and the prince 
of the sons of Gad shall be Elyassa])!! the son 
of Reiiel. 

15 And his host, and those that Avere num- 
bered of them, were forty and five thousand 
and six hundred and fifty. 



158 



'' The word i; used here and elsewhere, signifies "one 
strange in the matter specified;" here, therefore, any one 
of Israel who is not a Levite. 

" Lit. " Shall encamp." 



NUMI5ERS II. III. BEMIDBAR. 



IG All that wore miiiilx'red of the camp 
of lleiiben were one hundred thousand and 
fifty and one thousand and four hundred and 
fifty, according to their armies; and as the 
second shall they set forward. 

17 ^ Then shall the tabei'nacle of the con- 
gregation, the camp of the Levites, set for- 
ward in tlie midst of the camps : as they 
encamp, so shall they set forward, every man 
in his place after their standards. 

18 ^f The standard of the camp of Ephraim 
shall be on the west side, according to their 
armies : and the prince of the sons of Ephraim 
shall be Elishama the son of 'Ammihud. 

19 And his host, and those that were num- 
bered of them, were forty thousand and five 
hundred. 

20 And by him shall be the tribe Menas- 
seh ; and the prince of the children of Me- 
nasseh shall be Gamliiil the son of Pedahzur. 

21 And his host, and those that were num- 
bered of them, were thirty and two thousand 
and two hundred. 

22 Then the tribe of Benjamin: and the 
prince of the sons of Benjamin shall be Abi- 
dan the son of Gidoni. 

23 And his host, and those that were num- 
bered of them, were thirty and five thousand 
and four hundred. 

24 All that wei'e numbered of the camp 
of Ephraim Avere one hundred thousand and 
eight thousand and one hundred, according 
to their amiies. And as the third shall they 
set forward. 

25 ^ The standard of the camp of Dan 
shall be on the north side, according to their 
armies : and the prince of the children of 
Dan shall be Achiezer the son of 'Ammi- 
shaddai. 

2G And his host, and those that were num- 
bered of them, were sixty and two thousand 
and seven hundred. 

27 And those that encamp by him shall 
be the tribe of Asher : and the prince of the 
children of Asher shall be Pagiel the son of 
'Ochran. 

28 And his host, and those that were num- 
bered of them, were forty and one thousand 
and five hundred. 

29 Then the tribe of Naphtali : and the 



* This would seem to indicate that each tribe had its 
separate banner, besides the general division-standards of 
Judah, Reuben, Ephraim, and Dan. 



prince of tlu" children of Naphtali shall be 
Achira the son of 'Enan. 

30 And his host, and those that were num- 
bered of them, were fifty and three thousand 
and lour hundred. 

31 All those that were numbered of the 
camp of Dan were one hundred thousand and 
iifty and seven thousand and six hundred ; 
the hindmost shall they set forward according 
to their standards." 

32 ^[ These are those that were numl)ered 
of the children of Israel according to their 
family divisions: and all those that were num- 
bered of the camps, according to their armies, 
were six hundred thousand and three thou- 
sand and five hundred and fifty. 

33 But the Levites were not numbered 
among the children of Israel ; as the Lord 
had commanded Moses. 

34 And the children of Israel did all just 
as the Lord had commanded Moses, so did 
they encamjj by their standards, and so did 
they set forward every one after his family, by 
his division.* 

CHAPTER III. 

1 ^ And these are the generations of Aaron 
and Moses, on the day that the Lord spoke 
with Moses on mount Sinai. 

2 And these are the names of the sons of 
Aaron : the firstrborn Nadab, and Abihu, Ehv- 
zai', and Ithamar. 

3 These are the names of the sons of Aaron, 
the priests that were anointed, who were con- 
secrated to minister as jiriests. 

4 And Nadab and Abihu died before the 
Lord, when they oflered a strange fire before 
the Lord, in the Avilderness of Sinai, and they 
had no children : and Elazar and Ithamar 
ministered as priests in the life-time of Aaron 
their father. 

5 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, sa}- 
ing, 

G Bring the tribe of Levi near, and present 
the same before Aaron the priest, that they 
may sei've him. 

7 And they shall keep his charge, and the 
charge of the whole congregation*" before the 
tent of the congregation, to do the service of 
the taljemacle. 



' The whole congregation arc interested that the duties 
of the sanctuary be well performed ; consequently the 
ministration of the Levites is doing the work of all Israel. 

169 



NUMBERS III. BEMIDBAR 



8 And they shall keep all the vessels of 
the tent of the congregation, and the charge 
of the children of Israel, to do the service of 
the tabernacle. 

9 And thou shalt give the Levites unto 
Aaron and to his sons : as associates are" they 
given unto him out of the children of Israel. 

10 And Aaron and his sons shalt thou in- 
struct, that they shall guard well their priest's 
office ; and the stranger that cometli nigh 
shall be put to death. 

11 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

12 And I, behold, I have taken the Levites 
from the midst of the children of Israel in- 
stead of every first-born that openeth the 
womb among the children of Israel ; and the 
Levites shall be mine. 

13 Because mine is every first-born; on 
the day when I smote every first-born in the 
land oi" Egypt I hallowed unto me every first- 
Ijorn in Israel, both man and beast : mine 
shall they Ijc; I nm the Lord.* 

14 ][ And the Loud spoke unto Moses in 
the wilderness of Sinai, saying, 

15 Number the children of Levi after their 
divisions, by their families; every male of 
them from a month old and upward shalt 
thou mnnber. 

10 And Moses numbered them according 
to the order of the Lord, as he had been 
commanded. 

17 And these were the sons of Levi by 
their names : Gershon, and Kehath, and Me- 
rari. 

18 And these are the names of the sons 
of (iershon after their families : Libni, and 
Shimi. 

19 And the sons of Kehath after their 
families: 'Araram, and Yizhar, Chebron, and 
'Uzziel. 

20 And the sons of Merari after their fa- 
milies : Machli, and Mushi ; these are the 
families of the Levites according to their 
family divisions. 

21 Of Gershon: the fixmily of the Libnites, 
and the family of the Shimites; these are the 
families of the Gershunites. 

22 Those that were numljered of them, by 
the numbering of all the nuiles from a month 



* After Arnheim, who takes the. first ornj as a predi- 
cate of the Levites ; and means then tliat they are ap- 
pointed DJinj " associates" in the priest's office 
160 



old and upAvard, even those that were num- 
bered of them, were seven thousand and fi\-e 
hundred. 

23 The families of the Gerslumites used to 
encamp behind the tabernacle, westward. 

24 And the prince of the family division 
of the Gershunites was Elyassaph the son of 
Lael. 

25 And the charge of the sons of Gershon 
in the tabernacle of the congregation was the 
tabernacle and the tent, its covering, and the 
hanging for the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation, 

26 And the hangings of the court, and 
the curtain for the door of the court, which is 
by the tabernacle and by the altar, round 
about, and its cords for all the service thereof. 

27 T[ And of Kehath : the family of the 
'Amramites, and the family of the Yizharites, 
and the family of the Chebronites, and the 
fiimily of the "Uzzielites; these are the families 
of the Kehathites. 

28 By the numbering of aU the males, 
from a month old and upward, they were 
eight thousand and six hundred, keeping the 
charge of the sanctuary. 

29 The fixmilies of the sons of Kehath used 
to encamp on the side of the tabernacle, 
southward. 

30 And the prince of the division of the 
famiUes of the Kehathites was Elizaphan the 
son of 'Uzziel. 

31 And their charge was the ark, and the 
table, and the candlestick, and the altars, and 
the vessels of the sanctuary which are used 
for the service, and the vail, and all belonging 
thereto. 

32 And the chief over the princes of the 
Levites was Elazar the son of Aaron the 
priest, having the oversight of those that 
kept the charge of the sanctuary. 

33 Of Merari : the fiimily of the Machli tes, 
and the fiimily of the Mushites; these are 
the lamilies of Merari. 

34 And those that were numbered of them, 
by the numbering of all the males, from a 
month old and upward, were six thousand 
and two hundred. 

35 And the chief of the division of the 
families of Merari wa,s Zuriel the son of Abi- 
chayil : they used to encamp on the side of 
the tabernacle, northward. 

30 And luider the custody and charge of the 
sons of Merari were the lx)ards of the tabema- 



NUMBERS III. IV. BEMIDBAR. 



cle, and its bars, and its pillars, and its sockets, 
and all its vessels, and all that belongeth 
thereto, 

37 And the pillars of the court round 
about, and their sockets, and their pins, and 
their cords. 

38 But those that encamped before the ta- 
bernacle toward the east, even before the 
tabernacle of the congregation toward the 
rising of the sun, were Moses, and Aaron, and 
his sons, keeping the charge of the sanctuary 
for the charge of the children of Israel ; and 
the stranger that came nigh was to be put to 
death. 

39 All that Avere numbered of the Levites, 
whom Moses numbered with Aaron, at the 
command of the Lord, according to their fa- 
milies, all the males from a month old and 
upward, Avei'e twenty and two" thousand.'-' 

40 T[ And the Lord said unto Moses, Num- 
ber all the first-born males of the children of 
Israel from a month old and ujjward, and 
take the number of their names. 

41 And thou shalt take the Levites for 
me,'' I am the Lord, instead of all the first- 
born among the childi'en of Israel ; and the 
cattle of the Levites instead of all the first- 
born among the cattle of the children of Israel. 

42 And Moses numbered, as the Lord had 
commanded him, all the first-bom among the 
children of Israel. 

43 And all the first-born males, by the 
numbering of the names, from a month old 
and upward, of those that were numbered of 
them, were twenty and two thousand two 
hundred and seventy and three. 

44 ^\ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
iuf 

45 Take the Levites instead of all the first- 
born among the children of Israel, and the 
cattle of the Levites instead of their cattle; 
and the Levites shall be mine ; I am the Lord." 

4G And (for) those that are to be i-edeem- 
ed, the two hundred and seventy and three 
of the first-born of the children of Israel, who 
are more than the Levites : 



• Which Aben Ezra comments on, " beside three hun- 
dred first-born among them, as these did not redeem the 
first-born of Israel." 

^ Mendelssohn renders "unto me the Loud;" but it 
seems to be the phrase frequentl}' found by positive enact- 
ments or prohibitions, and means to declare that they are 
the authoritative injunctions of the great Sovereign, which 
is the only reason assigned for fheir enactment. 
V 



47 Thou shalt take five shekels apiece for 
the poll; after the shekel of the sanctuary 
shalt thou take, twenty gerahs to the shekel ; 

48 And thou shalt give unto Aaron and to 
his sons the money, (for) those who are to be 
redeemed of those that are over the number 
of them. 

49 And Moses took the redemption-money 
of those that were over in number above those 
who Avere redeemed by the Levites : 

50 Of the first-born of the children of Israel 
did he take the money; a thousand three 
hundred and sixty and five shekels, after the 
shekel of the sanctuary'. 

51 And Moses gave the money of those 
who were redeemed unto Aaron and unto his 
sons, by the order of the Lord; as the Lord 
had commanded Moses.* 

CHAPTER IV. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
unto Aaron, saying, 

2 Take the sum of the sons of Kehath 
from among the sous of Levi, after their fami- 
lies, by their divisions, 

3 From thirty years old and upward even 
until fifty years old, all that are fitted for the 
service,'' to do work at the tabernacle of the 
congregation. 

4 This shall be the service of the sons of 
Kehath at the tabernacle of the congregation : 
the most holy things. 

5 And Aaron shall come with his sons, 
when the camp setteth forward, and they 
shall take down the vail of the separation, 
and cover therewith the ark of the testimony ; 

And they shall put over it a covering of 
badgers' skins, and they shall spread over all 
a cloth wholly of blue (woollen 3'arn,) and 
they shall put in its staves." 

7 And over the taljle of the shoAvbread 
shall they spread a cloth of blue, and put 
thereon the dishes, and the spoons, and the 
tubes, and the staves of the coveruig; and the 
continuaF l)read shall be thereon: 

8 And they shall spread over them a cloth 



" "Me the Lord." — Mendelssohn. 

■* After 3Iendelssohn ; lit., "That enter the army" or 
"host," i. r. of those who do the service at the taber- 
nacle, or those who are from thirty to fifty years of 
age. 

• i. e. In the rings fitted for their reception. 

' {. e. The bread which is to be always upon the 
table. 

161 



NUMBERS IV. NAHSSO. 



of scarlet, and cover the same Avith a covering 
of badgers' skins; and they shall put in its 
staves. 

9 And they shall take a cloth of blue, and 
cover the candlestick of the lighting, and its 
lamps, and its tongs, and its snufl-dishes, and 
all the oil-vessels thereof, wherewith they 
minister by it : 

10 And they shall put it and all its vessels 
within a covering of badgers' skins, and they 
shall put it upon a barrow. 

11 And over the golden altar shall they 
spread a cloth of blue, and cover it with a 
covering of badgers' skins ; and they shall put 
in its staves. 

12 And they shall take all the vessels of 
the service, wherewith they minister in the 
sanctuary, and put them in a cloth of blue, 
and cover them with a covering of badgers' 
skins; and they shall put them on a barrow. 

13 And they shall take away the ashes 
from the altar, and spread over it a cloth of 
purple ; 

14 And they shall put upon it all its ves- 
sels, wherewith they minister upon it, the 
fire-pans, the forks, and the shovels, and the 
basins, all the vessels of the altar; and they 
shall spread over it a covering of badgers' 
skins, and put in its staves. 

15 And when Aaron and his sons have 
thus made an end of covering the sanctuary, 
and all the vessels of the sanctuary, when the 
camp is to set forward : then shall, after that, 
the sous of Kehath come to carry it; but 
they shall not touch any holy thing, lest they 
die; these are the things which the sons of 
Kehath are to carry at the tabernacle of the 
congregation. 

16 And under the supervision of Elazar 
the son of Aaron the priest shall be the oil for 
the lighting, and the incense of spices, and 
the dail}- meat-ofTering, and the anointing-oil ; 
the supervision of all the taliernacle, and of 
all that is therein, over the sanctuary, and 
over its vessels.* 

17 ^[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
unto Aaron, saying, 

18 Do ye" not cause the trilie of tlie fami- 
lies of the Kehathites to be cut olf from among 
the Levites: 



' This ia an injunction to tbe chief superintendent- of 
the sanctuary not to allow those who are to be engaged in 
carrying it, to touch it in any wise before it is time, for 
162 



19 But thus do unto them, that the}- may 
live, and not die, when they approa'-h unto 
the most holy things: Aaron and his sons 
shall go in, and appoint them, every one, to 
his service and to his burden; 

20 That they many not go in to see when 
the holy thmgs are covered, and die. 

Ilaphtorah in Ilosea ii. 1 to 22. 



SECTION XXXV. NAHSSO, NCT'l 

21 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

22 Take also the sum of the sons of Ger- 
shon, by their divisions, after their families ; 

23 From thirty years old and ujDward until 
fifty years old shalt thou number them ; all 
that are fitted for the service, to do work in 
the taljernacle of the congregation. 

24 This shall be the service of the families 
of the Gershunites, to serve, and to carry : 

25 They shall carry the curtains of the 
tabernacle, and of the tent of the congrega- 
tion, its covering, and the covering of the bad- 
gers' skins that is over it alx»ve, and the hang- 
ing for the door of the tabernacle of the con- 
gregation, 

26 And the hangings of the court, and the 
hanging for the door of the gate of the court, 
which is by the tabernacle and by the altar 
round about, and their cords, and all the ves- 
sels of their sei'vice ; and all that is delivered'' 
to them shall they perform. 

27 By the command of Aaron and his .sons 
shall be all the service of the sons of the Ger- 
shunites, in all their carr^'ing, and in all their 
service : and ye shall designate unto them in 
charge all which they have to carry. 

28 This is the service of the fimiilies of the 
sons of the Gershunites at the tabernacle of 
the congregation; and their charge shall be 
under tlie supervision of Ithamar the son of 
Aaron the priest. 

29 ^1 The sons of Merari. thou shalt num- 
ber after their families. In- their divisions; 

30 From thirty years old and upward, even 
until fifty years old, shalt thou number them, 
every one that is fitted for the service, to do the 
work of the tabernacle of the congregation. 



by this they would incur the penalty of death. Hence 
the great care enjoined here. 

" After Oukelos, who renders nty;" in the sense " to be 



NUMBERS IV. V. NAHSSO. 



31 And this is what is confided to them to 
carry, regarding all their service at the taber- 
nable of the congregation : the boards of the 
tabernacle, and its bars, and its pillars, and 
its sockets, 

32 And the pillars of the court round 
about, and their sockets, and their pins, and 
their cords, with all tlu'ir instruments, and 
all which belongeth thereto; and by name 
shall ye designate (to them) the vessels which 
are confided to them to carry. 

33 This is the service of the families of the 
sons of Merari, regarding all their service, at 
the tabernacle of the congregation, under the 
supervision of Ithamar the son of Aaron, the 
priest.* 

34 And Moses with Aaron and the princes 
of the congregation numbered the sons of the 
Kehathites after their families, and after their 
divisions, 

35 From thirty years old and upward, even 
until fifty years old, every one that was fitted 
for the service, for the work at the tabernacle 
of the congregation. 

36 And those that were numbered of them 
after their families were two thousand seven 
hundred and fifty. 

37 These were they that were numbered 
of the families of the Kehathites, all that 
could do service at the tabernacle of the con- 
gregation, whom Moses with Aaron numbered 
by the order of the Lord through the hand 
of Moses.* 

38 ][ And those that were numbered of 
the sons of Gershon, after their families, and 
after their divisions, 

39 From thirty years old and upward, 
even until fifty years old, every one that was 
fitted for the service, for the work at the 
tabernacle of the congregation, 

40 Even those that were numbered of 
them, after their families, after their divi- 
sions, were two thousand and six hundred 
and thirt3^ 

41 These are they that were numbered of 
the famihes of the sons of Gershon, all that 
could do service at the tabernacle of the con- 



made over," or "assigned." Others render, "and what- 
ever is to be done thereon." 

* Perhaps referring to the priests, for they, being Le- 
vitcs, were also numbered with the other Kehathites. 
Kashi refers it to the music and singing, which devolved 
on the Lentes. Jonathan has, "the service of watching." 



gregation, whom Moses with Aaron numbered 
by the order of the Lord. 

42 And those that were numbered of the 
families of the sons of Merari, after their fami- 
lies, after their divisions, 

43 From thirty years old and upward, 
even until fifty years old, every one that was 
fitted for the service, for the work at the 
tabernacle of the congregation, 

44 Even those that were niunbered of 
them after their families, were three thousand 
and two hundred. 

45 These are those that were numbered of 
the families of the sons of Merari, whom 
Moses with Aaron numbered by the order of 
the Lord through the hand of Moses. 

46 All those that were numbered of the 
Le\'ites, whom Moses with Aaron and the 
chief of Israel numbered, after their families, 
and after their divisions, 

47 From thirty years old and upward, 
even until fifty years old, every one that 
came to do the service of the ministry," and 
the service of the carrying at the tabernacle 
of the congregation, 

48 Even those that were numbered of 
them, were eight thousand and five hundred 
and eighty. 

49 By the order of the Lord through the 
hand of Moses, did he appoint** them, every 
one to his proper service, and to his proper 
carrying: and they were numbered, as the 
Lord had commanded Moses.* 

CHAPTER V. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 Command the children of Israel, that 
they send out of the camp every lepei-, and 
every one that hath an issue, and whosoever 
is defiled by the dead : 

3 Both male and female shall ye send out, 
to -without the camp shall ye send them ; that 
they defile not their camps, in the midst 
whereof I dwell. 

4 And the children of Israel did so, and 
they sent them out to without the camp; as 



Abcn Ezra comments, " to raise the tabernacle, to make 
the bread, to slay (the sacrifices,) and to watch." 

*• The different versions of the word tpa in this passage 
are according to Mendelssohn; still, "appointing" is lite- 
rally a "counting off" of all those are to do a certain 
work together. 

163 



NUMBERS V. NAHSSO. 



the Lord had spoken unto Moses, so did the 
children of Israel. 

5 Tf And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

6 Speak unto the children of Israel, K any 
man or woman commit any sin against a fel- 
low-man, thereby doing a trespass against the 
Lord, and this person thus become guilty : 

7 Then shall they" confess their sin which 
they have committed; and he shall make 
restitution for his trespass with the principal 
thereof, and its fifth part shall he add thereto, 
and give it unto him against whom he hath 
trespassed. "^ 

8 But if the man have no kinsman to 
whom restitution could be made for the tres- 
pass, then shall the trespass Avhich is restored 
unto the Lord, Ijelong to the priest; besides 
the ram of the atonement, whereby an atone- 
ment shall be made for him. 

9 And every offering of all the holy things 
of the children of Israel, which they bring 
unto the priest, shall be his. 

10 And every man's hallowed things shall 
be his;'^ whatsoever any man giveth to the 
priest, shall belong to him.''' 

11 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

12 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them. If the wife of any man go 
aside, and connnit a trespass against him, 

13 And a man lie with her carnally, and 
it be hidden from the eyes of her husband, 
because she hath been secretly defiled; and 
there be no witness against her, and she have 
not been detected in the fact; 

14 And the spirit of jealousy come over 
him, and he be jealous of his wife, and she 
have been defiled; or the spirit of jealousy 
come over him, and he be jealous of his wife, 
and she have not been defiled : 

15 Then shall the man bring his wife unto 
the priest, and he .shall bring her offering for 
her, the tenth part of an ephah of barley- 
meal; he shall not pour any oil upon it, nor 



* The rapid change here from tlie singular to the plural, 
is a peculiarity in Hebrew, easily understood, and has 
been noticed before. 

' I. e. If he should be living; but if dead, to his near 
relatives. This will explain the succeeding verse, where 
a person is spoken of who leaves no one authorized to 
claim his property. 

° A man has the right to bestow the gifts of the priest- 
hood on whomsoever he pleases, although he cannot use 



put any frankincense thereupon; for it is a 
meat-offering of jealousy, a meat-offering of 
memorial, bringinjj;; ini(iiiity to remembrance. 
10 And the priest shall bring her near, 
and place her betbre the Lord; 

17 And the priest shall take holy water'' 
in an earthen vessel; and of the dust that is 
on the floor of the tabernacle the priest shall 
take, and put it into the water; 

18 And the priest shall place the woman 
before the Lord, and uncover the woman's 
head, and pnt upon her hands the meat-offer- 
ing of memorial, it is the meat-offering of 
jealousy; and in the hand of the priest 
shall be the bitter waters that bring the 
curse. 

19 And the priest shall charge her by an 
oath, and he shall say unto the woman, Kno 
man have lain with thee, and if thou hast 
not gone aside to uncleanness behind thy hus- 
band: then be thou free from these bitter 
waters that bring the curse. 

20 But if thou hast gone aside behind thy 
husband, and if thou hast been defiled, and 
some man have lain with thee besides thy 
husband : — " 

21 And the priest shall charge the woman 
with an oath of imprecation, and the priest 
shall say unto the woman, The Lord then 
make thee a curse and an oath among thy 
people, Avhen the Lord doth cause thy thigh 
to fall away, and thy belly to swell; 

22 And these waters that bring the curse 
shall go into thy bowels, to cause the belly to 
swell, and the thigh to fiiU away; and the 
Avoman shall say, Amen, amen. 

23 And the priest shall write these curses 
on a roll, and he shall blot them out with the 
bitter waters. 

24 And he shall cause the woman to drink 
the bitter waters that bring the curse; and 
the waters that bring the curse shall enter 
into her, for bitterness. 

25 And the priest shall take out of the 
woman's hand the meat-offermg of jealousy, 



them himself No individual priest has any claim on anj' 
Israelite for the sacred things; but when once parted 
with, then arc they the priest's in full right. 

'' (■. r. That which has been sanctified in the laver. 
The preparation of the bitter waters a.s here described, of 
the meanest materials in a mean vessel, was to typify the 
abhorrence of incest in the estimation of the Lord. 

• Here the idea breaks off, and is resumed in the next 
verse at the words, "The Lord then make thee." 



NUMBERS V. VI. NAIISSO. 



and he shall wave the meat-offering before 
tlie Lord, and bring it near to the altar: 

26 And the priest shall take a handful 
IVom the meat-ofl'ering, as its memorial, and 
burn it upon the altar, and after that shall he 
cause the woman to drink the Avatcr. 

27 And when he hath made her drink the 
water, then shall it come to pass, if she have 
been defiled, and have committed a trespass 
against her husband, that the waters that bring 
the curse shall enter into her, for bitterness, 
and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall 
fall away ; and the woman shall become a 
curse among her people. 

28 And if the woman have not been de- 
filed, but be clean : then shall she remain un- 
harmed, and she shall conceive seed. 

29 This is the law of jealousies, when a 
woman goeth aside behind her husband, and 
hath been defiled; 

30 Or when the spirit of jealousy cometh 
over him, and he be jealous of his wife f and 
he shall place the Avoman before the Lord, 
and the priest shall do unto her altogether 
according to this law. 

ol And the man shall be guiltless from 
iniquity; but this woman shall bear her ini- 
quity.'' 

CHAPTER VI. 

1 \\ And the Lord spoke imto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them. When either man or woman 
pronounce an especial vow, the vow of a Na- 
zarite, to be abstinent in honour of the Lord : 

3 Then shall he abstain from wine and 
strong drink, vinegar of wine, or vinegar of 
strong drink shall he not drink, and any 
infusion of grapes shall he not drink, and 
grapes, fresh or dried, shall he not eat. 

4 All the days of his abstinence shall he 
eat nothing that is made of the grape-vine, 
from the kernels even to the husk. 

5 All the days of the vow of his abstinence 
no razor shall pass over his head : until the 
days be completed, in Avhich he abstaineth in 
honour of the Lord, shall he be holy, letting 
grow untouched the hair of his head. 



I 6 All the days of his abstinence in honour 
of the Lord shall he not come near any dead 
body. 

7 On his father, or on his mother, on his 
brother, or on his sister, shall he not make 
himself unclean, when they die ; becau.se the 
consecration of his God is up(m his head. 

8 All the days of his abstinence is he holy 
unto the Lord. 

9 And if some one die very suddenly by 
him, and he thus defile his consecrated head : 
then shall he shave his head on the day of his 
being cleansed, on the seventh day shall he 
shave it. 

10 And on the eighth day shall he bring 
two turtle-doves, or two 3'Oung pigeons, to the 
priest, to the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation : 

11 And the priest shall prepare the one 
for a sin-ofl'ering, and the other for a burnt- 
offering, and make an atonement for him, be- 
cause he hath sinned through the dead; and 
he shall hallow' his head on that same day. 

12 And he shall consecrate unto the Lord 
(again) the days of his abstinence, and he 
shall bring a sheep of the first year for a tres- 
pass-ofiering ; but the prior days shall not be 
counted, because his consecration hath been 
defiled. 

13 And this is the law of the Nazarite : 
on the day when the days of his abstinence 
are completed, shall he present himself at the 
door of the tabernacle of the congregation ; 

14 And he shall bring his offering unto the 
Lord, one male sheep of the first year with- 
out blemish for a Ijurnt-oflering, and one ewe 
of the first 3ear without blemish for a sin- 
ofiering, and one ram without blemish for a 
peace-offering, 

15 And a basket of unleavened bread, 
cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, and un- 
leavened wafers anointed Avith oil ; and their 
meat-offering, and their drink-offerings. 

16 And the priest shall bring them near 
before the Lord, and he shall offer his sin- 
offering, and his burnt-offering : 

17 And the ram shall he offer for a sacri- 
fice of peace-offering unto the Lord, with the 
basket of unleavened bread; and the priest 



* Here is evidently understood, " And she hath not 
been defiled." — Arnheim. 

^ Even if he should have exposed her without full 
cause to the above disgraceful procedure ; since, if it was 



even an improper levity of conduct, alone, by which she 
has excited his jealousy, she has incurred guilt, and de- 
serves a just punishment. — Armieim. 

° t. e. Commence anew to let his hair grow. 

165 



NUMBERS VI. VII. NAHSSO. 



offer his meat-offering, and his drink-offer- 
ing. 

18 And the Nazarite shall shave at the 
door of the tabcniacle of the congregation his 
consecrated head ; and he shall take the hair 
of his consecrated head, and put it on the fire 
which is under the sacrifice of the peace- 
offering. 

19 And the priest shall take the shoulder 
of the ram when it is cooked, and one unlea- 
vened cake out of the Ijasket, and one unlea- 
vened wafer, and he shall put them upon the 
hands of the Nazarite, after he hath shaved 
his consecrated (head.) 

20 And the priest shall make with them a 
waving before the Lord ; it is a holy gift for 
the priest, together with the breast that 
was waved and the shoulder that was lifted 
up :" and after that may the Nazarite drink 
wine. 

21 This is the laAv of the Nazarite who 
hath vowed ; his offering unto the Lord for 
his abstinence, besides that which he may be 
able to give : according to his vow which he 
may vow, so must he do in addition to what 
is required by the law of his abstinence. 

22 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

23 Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, 
saying, Thus'' shall ye bless the children of 
Israel, saying unto them, 

24 ^ The Lord bless thee, and preserve 
thee : 

25 ^f The Lord make his face shine unto 
thee, and be gracious to thee : 

26 *\\ The Lord lift up his countenance 
unto thee, and give thee peace. 

27 ^1 And they shall put my name" upon 
the children of Israel : and I will bless them.* 



* As usual with other pcacc-offcrings. 

" You shall not bless them with a blessing of your 
own, as a man says : IMay such a good come upon the 
head of that one ; but unto me shall ye pray that I may 
bless them ; as it is said here, " May the Loun bless thee ;" 
and I will hear your voice and bless Israel. — Kasiiham. 
The blessings, however, arc not for the bestowal of worldly 
goods merely ; for they also refer to the Divine grace and 
light, which are the greatest good unto man. 

° This cither means, as Rashi says, that in blessing the 
people the priests should pronounce the most holy name 
of tlio liOHi), or that they should, as s.aid already, refer 
the issue of events to God alone, who would bless as might 
seem best in his wisdom. 

' After the altar had been duly consecrated by the cere- 
monies and sacrifices detailed in their proper places, the 
princes of the congregation volunteered yet more than the 
166 



CHAPTER VII. 

1 ^ And it came to pass on the day that 
Moses had finally set up the tabcniacle, and 
had anointed, and sanctified it. and all its ves- 
sels, as also the altar and all its vessels, and 
had anointed them, and sanctified them ; 

2 That the princes of Israel, the heads of 
their family divisions, who were the princes 
of the tribes, the same who had superintended 
the numbering, offered. 

3 And they brought their offering before 
the Lord, six covered wagons, and twelve 
oxen ; a wagon for two princes, and an ox 
for each one: and they presented them be- 
fore the tabernacle. 

4 And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying, 

5 Take it from them, that they may be 
used to do the service of the tabernacle of the 
congregation ; and thou shalt give them unto 
the Levites, to every man according to his 
service. 

6 And Moses took the wagons and the 
oxen, and gave them unto the Levites. 

7 Two of the wagons and four of the oxen 
he gave unto the sons of Gershon, according 
to their service : 

8 And four of the wagons and eight of the 
oxen he gave unto the sons of Merari. accord- 
ing to their service, under the supervision of 
Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest. 

9 But unto the sons of Kehath he gave 
none ; because the service of the sanctuary 
belonged inito them, they Avere to bear upon 
their shoulders. 

10 The princes also offered for the dedi- 
cating of the altar on the day that it was 
anointed ; and the princes presented their 
offering before the altar.* 



large gifts bestowed by them for the erection of the taber- 
nacle, to testify their devotion for the religion which they 
had received. The first offering they brought, consisting 
of six covered wagons, with twelve draught oxen, Moses 
would not accept, till he was ordered to do so, and to ap- 
ply them to the use of the Levites. Now the most holy 
things, as the ark, the altars, the table, and the candle- 
stick, were intru.sted to the sons of Kehath; but as all 
these were to be carried upon the shoulder, no beast of 
burden was assigned to them. Different, however, was it 
with those who were charged with the transportation of 
the heavier articles belonging to the tabernacle, to wit, 
the sons of Gershon, and they received therefore two 
wagons and four oxen, while those who carried the 
boards, pillars, and sockets, &c., of the tabernacle and 
court, the sons of Merari, obtained four wagons and eight 
oscn to aid them in their more laborious work. In addi- 



NUMBERS VII. NAHSSO. 



11 And the Lord said unto Moses, One 
prince each on a given day, shall they offer 
their offering, for the dedication of the 
altar.* 

12 ^ And he that offered his offering on 
the first day Avas Nachshon the son of 'Am- 
minadab, of the tribe of Judah : 

13 And his offering was one silver charger, 
the weight whereof was a hundred and thirty 
shekels, one silver liowl of seventy shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary ; both of 
them full of fine flour mingled Avith oil for a 
meat-offering; 

11 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full 
of incense ; 

15 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first year, for a burnt-offering ; 

16 One he-goat for a sin-offering; 

1 7 And for a sacrifice of peace-offering, two 
oxen, five rams, five he-goats, five sheep of 
the first year ; this was the offering of Nach- 
shon the son of 'Amminadab. 

18 ^ On the second day Nethanel the son 
of ZuJir, the prince of Issachar, did offer : 

19 He offered for his ofi'ering one silver 
charger, the weight whereof was a hundred 
and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy 
shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary ; 
both of them full of fine flour mingled with 
oil for a meat-offering ; 

20 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full 
of incense ; 

21 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first 3'ear, for a burnt-offering ; 

22 One he-goat for a sin-offering ; 

23 And for a sacrifice of peace-offering, two 
oxen, five rams, five he-goats, five sheep of 
the first year; this was the offei'ing of Ne- 
thanel the son of Zuiir. 

24 1[ On the third day Eliab the son of 
Chelon, the prince of the children of Zebulun, 
did offer : 

25 His offering was one silver charger, the 
weight whereof was a hundred and thirty 
shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of 



tion to these presents, the prinees also came charged each 
with the same sacrifices and vessels for the use of the 
sanctuarj- ; and so well was this liberality received by the 
Most High, that Jloses was ordered to enjoin upon the 
princes that the sacrifices should not be offered all at once, 
but during a period of twelve days, and that they should use 
the order in which they moved forward in their march : 



them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a 
meat^oftering ; 

26 One s^joon of ten shekels of gold, full 
of incense ; 

27 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first year, for a burnt-offering; 

28 One he-goat for a sin-offering ; 

29 And for a sacrifice of peace-offering, two 
oxen, five rams, five he-goats, five sheep of 
the first year ; this was the offering of Eliab 
the son of Chelon. 

30 *\] On the fourth day Elizur the son of 
Shedeiir, the prince of the children of Reuben, 
did offer : 

31 His ofiering was one silver charger, the 
weight whereof Avas a hundred and thirt}' she- 
kels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after 
the shekel of the sanctuary ; both of tliem full of 
fine flour mingled with oil for a meat-offermg ; 

32 One sj^oon of ten shekels of gold, full 
of incense ; 

33 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first year, for a burnt-ofl'ering ; 

34 One he-goat for a sin-offering ; 

35 And for a sacrifice of peace-offering, 
two oxen, five I'ams, five he-goats, five sheep 
of the first .year; this was the offering of 
Elizur the son of Shedeiir. 

36 ^\ On the fifth day Shelumiel tlie son 
of Zurishaddai, the prince of the children of 
Simeon, did ofler: 

37 His ofiering Avas one silver charger, the 
weight Avhcreof Avas a hundred and thirty 
shekels, one sih'er bowl of seventy shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of 
them full of fine flour mingled Avith oil for a 
meat-offering ; 

38 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of 
incense ; 

39 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first year, for a burnt-offering; 

40 One he-goat for a sin-offering; 

41 And for a sacrifice of peace-offering, 
tAvo oxen, five rams, five he-goats, five sheep 
of the first year; this Avas the ofiering of She- 
lumiel the son of Zurishaddai.'^' 



Judah first, then Zebulun, Issachar, &c., ending with 
Naphtali, not according to the order of the birth of the fa- 
thers of the tribes. There was no difference whatever in 
tlie gifts of the various chiefs; tiius showing that all were 
alike acceptable, whetlicr descended from Leah and Rachel, 
or from Zilpah and Bilhuh. This is also probably the 
rea.son why they are all separately recorded. 

167 



NUMBERS VII. NAHSSO. 



42 ^ On the sixth day Elyassaph the son 
of Deiiel," the in-ince of the children of Gad, 

id offer : 

43 His offering was one silver charger, the 
weight whereof was a hundred and thirty 
shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of 
them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a 
meat-offering; 

44 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of 
incense ; 

45 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first year, for a burnt-offering; 

46 One he-goat for a sin-offering: 

47 And for a sacrifice of peace-offering, 
two oxen, five rams, five he-goats, five sheep 
of the first year; this was the offering of 
Elyassaph the son of Deiiel. 

48 Ti On the seventh day Elishama the 
son of 'Ammihud, the prince of the children 
of Ephraim, did offer : 

49 His offering was one silver charger, the 
weight whereof was a hundred and thirty 
shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of 
them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a 
meat-offeruig ; 

50 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of 
incense ; 

51 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first year, for a burnt-ofiering; 

52 One he-goat for a sin-offering; 

53 And for a sacrifice of peace-offering, 
two oxen, five rams, five he-goats, five sheep 
of the first year; this was the offering of 
Elishama the son of 'Ammihud. 

54 ^ On the eighth day Gamliel the son of 
Pedahzur, the prince of the children of Me- 
nas.seh, did offer: 

55 His offering was one silver charger, the 
weight whereof Avas a hundred and thirt}' 
shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of 
them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a 
meatroffering; 

5G One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of 
incense ; 

57 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first year, for a Inirnt-offering; 

58 One he-goat for a sin-offering ; 

59 And for a sacrifice of peace-offering, 



* This name is elsewhere (■!!. 14) given as Reiiel, the T 
resh being substituted for i daleth. 



two oxen, five rams, five he-goats, five sheep 
of the first year; this was the offering of 
Gamliel the son of Pedahzur. 

CO ^ On the ninth day Abidan the son of 
Gidoni, the prince of the children of Benja- 
min, did offer: 

61 His oflering was one silver charger, the 
weight whereof was a hundred and thirty 
shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of 
them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a 
meat-offering; 

62 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of 
incense ; 

63 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first year, for a burnt-offering ; 

64 One he-goat for a sin-ofiering; 

65 And for a sacrifice of peace-offering, 
two oxen, five rams, fixe he-goats, five sheep 
of the first year; this was the oflering of 
Abidan the son of Gidoni. 

66 Tl On the tenth day Achiezer the son 
of 'Amniishaddai, the prince of the children 
of Dan, did offer : 

67 His oflering Avas one silver charger, the 
weight whereof was a hundred and thirty 
shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of 
them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a 
meat-ofleriug ; 

68 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, full of 
incense : 

69 One 3'oung bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first 3'ear, for a burnt-oflering ; 

70 One he-goat for a sin-oflering ; 

71 And for a sacrifice of peace-oflering, 
two oxen, five rams, five he-goats, five sheep 
of the first year; this was the oflering of 
Achiezer the son of 'Amniishaddai.* 

72 T[ On the eleventh day Pagiel the son 
of 'Ochran, the prince of the children of 
Asher, did ofl'er: 

73 His offering was one silver charger, the 
weight whereof was a hundred and thirty 
shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of 
them full of fine flour mingled with oil lor a 
meat-ofl'ering ; 

74 One spoon of ton shekels of gold, full of 
incense ; 

75 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first year, for a burnt-oflering ; 

76 One he-goat for a sin-t)flering; 

77 And for a sacrifice of peace-offering, 



NUMBERS VII. VIII. BEHANGALOTECIIA. 



two oxen, five rams, five he-goats, five sheep 
of the first year; this was the offering of Pa- 
giel the son of 'Ochran. 

78 ^ On the twelfth day Achira the son 
of 'Enan, the prince of the children of Naph- 
tali, did offer : 

79 His oflering was one silver charger, the 
weight whereof was a hundred and thirty 
shekels,- one silver Ijowl of seventy shekels, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of 
them full of fine flour mingled Avith oil for a 
meat-offering; 

80 One spoon of ten shekels of gold, fuU of 
incense ; 

81 One young bullock, one ram, one sheep 
of the first year, for a burnt-offering ; 

82 One he-goat for a sin-ofiering; 

83 And for a sacrifice of peace-offering, 
two oxeu, five rams, five he-goats, five sheep 
of the first year; this was the offering of 
Achira the sou of 'Euan. 

84 ^ This was the dedication-offering of 
the altar, on the day when it was anointed, 
from the princes of Israel: twelve silver 
chargers, twelve silver bowls, twelve golden 
spoons ; 

85 A hundred and thirty shekels was the 
weight of each silver charger, and seventy of 
each bowl ; the silver of all the vessels was 
two thousand and four hundred shekels, after 
the shekel of the sanctuary; 

86 Twelve golden spoons, full of incense ;* 
ten shekels was the weight of each spoon, 
after the shekel of the sanctuary ; all the gold 
of the spoons was a hundred and twenty 
shekels.* 

87 All the oxen for the burn t-ofliering were 



' Rashi, after Talmud Mcnachoth, remarks: "We find 
no mention of incense for an individual, nor such an offer- 
ing upon the outer altar, (i'. c. that of burnt-offering,) ex- 
cept in this instance, (('. e. at the consecration of the 
tabernacle,) and it was merely permitted as n;'!? nxiin a 
temporary rule only for the time." In farther explana- 
tion of this view, it may be added, that incense was a na- 
tional offering, ordered to be burnt upon the golden altar, 
before the vail, morning and evening, and to be carried 
within the vail on the d-iy of atonement. A special dis- 
pensation must therefore have been granted to do as the 
princes did at the consecration, though probably the mix- 
ture was not identical with that prepared for the sanctuary 
under the superintendence of Moses. This, however, in 
no wise abolishes the force of the general prohibition, nor 
can it legalize our deviating therefrom, unless by an equally 
authoritative dispensation ; and thus a strange incense 
could on no account be offered on either altar, after the 
W 



twelve bullocks, the rams were twelve, the 
.sheep of the first year twelve, with their 
meat-offering ; and the he-goats for sin-offering 
were twelve. 

88 And all the oxen for the sacrifice of the 
peace-offerings were twenty and four bullocks, 
the rams were sixty, the he-goats sixt}-, the 
sheep of the first year sixty; this was the 
dedication-offering of the altar, after it had 
been anointed. 

89 And when Moses went into the taber- 
nacle of the congregation to speak with Him, 
then heard he the voice speaking unto him 
from off' the mercy-seat that was upon the 
ark of testimony, from between the two che- 
rubim : and thus he spoke unto him. 

Ilaphtorah in Judges xiii. 2 to 25. 



SECTION XXXVI. BEHANGALO- 

TECHA, inSrnn. 

CHAPTER Vm. 

1 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 Speak unto Aaron, and say unto him, 
When thou lightest the lamps,'' then shall the 
seven lamps give light toward the body of the 
candlestick. 

3 And Aaron did so; toward the body of 
the candlestick did he light its lamps; as the 
Lord had commanded Moses. 

4 And this was the workmanship of the 
candlestick: It was of beaten gold, from the 
shaft thereof, unto the flowers thereof, it was 
beaten work; according unto the pattern 



event under consideration. There are other instances in 
Scripture, of a temporary suspension of certain precepts, 
such as the officiating of Moses before Aaron's assumption 
of the priestly office; the sacrifice of Elijah on Carmel, 
against the positive order of the law not to offer any 
thing at any other place save the chosen sanctuary. But 
it will always be seen that there were weight}- reasons for 
the .suspensions, — that they were sanctioned or ordained 
by the Holy Spirit; and that conse(|Uently we are from 
such premises not authorized to suspend any precept by 
our own authority, except there be an absolute necessity 
which compels us to disobey. 

'■ The middle light, which was not on the branches, 
but on the body of the candlestick ; the wicks of the six 
lamps, upon the six branches, of the three eastern, as well 
as of the three western, were turned toward the middle 
lamp. — K.\sHi. In this manner the whole seven lights 
were all turned to one point. 

169 



NUMBERS VIII. BEIIANGALOTECHA. 



which the Lord had sho^vn Moses, so made 
he the candlestick. 

5 T[ And tlieXoRD spoke unto Moses, saying, 

6 Take the Levites from the midst of the 
children of Israel, and cleanse them. 

7 And thus shalt thou do unto them, to 
cleanse them: Sprinkle upon them water of 
puriiication, after they have let the razor pass 
over all their flesh, and then let them wash 
their clothes, and so shall they be clean. 

8 And they shall take a young bullock 
with his meat-oflering, fine flour mingled 
with oil; and another young bullock shalt 
thou take for a sin-ofl'ering. 

9 And thou shalt brmg near the Levites 
before the tabernacle of the congregation: 
and thou shalt assemble together the whole 
congregation of the children of Israel. 

10 And when thou hast brought near the 
Levites before the Lord, then shall the chil- 
dren of Israel lay their hands upon the Le- 
vites : 

11 And Aaron shall make with the Le- 
vites a waving before the Lord from the chil- 
dren of Israel, that they may be ready to 
execute the service of the Lord. 

12 And the Levites shall lay their hands 
upon the heads of the bullocks: and thou 
shalt prepare the one as a sin-offering, and 
the other as a burnt-offering, unto the Lord, 
to make an atonement for the Levites. 

13 And thou shalt place the Levites before 
Aaron and before his sons, and make with 
them a waving before the Lord. 

14 Thus shalt thou separate the Levitts 
from the midst of the children of Israel; and 
the Levites shall be mine.* 

15 And after that shall the Levites go in 
to do the service of the tabernacle of the con- 
gregation: after thou shalt have cleansed 
them, and made with them a waving. 

10 For they are wholly given" unto me 
from the midst of the children of Israel; in- 
stead of every one that openeth the womb, 
of every first-bom of the children of Israel, 
have I taken them unto me. 



' Kashi comments on D'jn: D'jn: " they are given for 
carrying, given for singing." (See, however, for a differ- 
ent version, according to our authorities, above, iii. 9.) 

^ i'. c. At this period they should commence to learn 
the service, which they entered on at thirty years. Rash- 
bam reconciles the difficulty of iv. 3, kc, where thirty 
years arc named, that that limit applied only to the ear- 
170 



17 For mine are all the first-born of the 
children of Israel, both of man and beast : on 
the day that I smote every first-born in the 
land of Egypt did I sanctify them imto my- 
self 

18 And I have taken the Levites, instead 
of all the first-born among the children of Is- 
rael. 

19 And I have given the Levites as a gift 
to Aaron and to his sons from the midst of 
the children of Israel, to do the ser^^ce of 
the children of Israel in the tabernacle of 
the congregation, and to make an atonement 
for the children of Israel; that there be no 
plague among the children of Israel, when 
the children of Israel come nigh unto the 
sanctuary. 

20 And so did Moses, and Aaron, and all 
the congregation of the children of Israel, to 
the Levites; according unto all that the Lord 
had commanded Moses concerning the Le- 
vites, so did the children of Israel unto them. 

21 And the Levites purified themselves, 
and they washed their clothes; and Aaron 
made with them a waving before the Lord: 
and Aaron made an atonement for them to 
cleanse them. 

22 And after that went the Levites in to _ 
do their service in the tabernacle of the con- ■ 
gregation before Aaron, and before his sons; ■ 
as tlie Lord had commanded Moses concern- 
ing the Levites, so did they unto them. 

2.3 ][ And the Lord spoke imto Moses, 
saying, 

24: This shall be the rule for the Legates : 
From twenty and five'' j-ears old and upward 
shall he go into the ranks to do the service ■ 
of the tabernacle of the congregation ; T 

25 And from the age of fifty years shall he 
go out of the ranks of the ser\'ice; and he 
shall serve no more : 

2G But he shall wait on his brethren in 
the tabernacle of the congregation, to kee}) 
the charge, but the service shall he not per- 
form; thus shalt thou do unto the Levites in 
the discharKC of their oflice.* 



rying of the holy vessels and parts of the tabernacle, 
which also terminated with the fiftieth year; but that all 
other Levitical functions commenced at twenty-five and 
continued while the faculties lasted. Oukclos and Iliishi 
also render verse 2G, "But he shall serve triih his 
brethren," thus also confining the excluded service to 
the carrying of the s.inctuary. 



NUMBERS IX. BEIIANGALOTECIIA. 



CHAPTER IX. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses in 
the -nalderness of Sinai, in the second year 
after their coming out of the land of Egypt, 
in the first month, saying, 

2 That the children of Israel shall prepare 
the passover-lamb at its appointed season. 

3 On the fourteenth day of this month, to- 
Avard evening, shall ye prepare it at its ap- 
pointed season : according to all its ordi- 
nances, and according to all its prescribed 
rules, shall ye prepare it. 

4 And Moses spoke unto the children of 
Israel, that they should prepare the passover- 
lamb. 

5 And they prepared the passover-lamb on 
the fourteenth day of the first month toward 
evening in the wilderness of Sinai : according 
to all that the Lord had commanded Moses, 
so did the children of Israel. 

6 But there Avere certain men, who had 
been defiled by the dead body of a man, and 
they could not prepare the passover-lamb on 
that day: and they came before Moses and 
before Aaron on that day. 

7 And these men said unto him, "We are 
defiled by the dead body of a man : where- 
fore shall we be kept back, so as not to offer 
the sacrifice of the Lord at its appointed sea- 
son in the midst of the (other) children of 
Israel ? 

8 And Moses said unto them. Wait ye, and 
I Avill- hear what the Lord will command con- 
cerning you. 

9 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

10 Speak unto the children of Israel, sa}-- 
ing, If any man whatever should be unclean 
by reason of a dead body, or be on a distant 
journey," among you or your posterity: yet 
shall he prepare the passover-lamb unto the 
Lord; 

11 In the second month on the fourteenth 
day toward evening shall they prepare it, 
with unleavened bread and bitter herbs shall 
they eat it. 

12 They shall leave none of it until morn- 
ing, and no bone shall they break on it : ac- 



* This is explained to mean any distance which pre- 
vents one from being within the precincts of the temple 
at the time of the slaying of the passover-lamb. 



cording to the Avhole ordinance of the pass- 
over-laml) shall they prepare it. 

13 But the man that is clean, and is not 
on a journey, and forbeareth to prepare the 
passover-lamb, even that same soul shall be 
cut off from his people ; because the ofl'ering 
of the Lord hath he not brought at its 
appointed season, his sin shall that man 
bear. 

14 And if a stranger sojourn among you, 
and will prepare the jjassover-lamb unto the 
Lord : according to the ordinance of the pass- 
over-lamb, and according to its prescribed 
rule, so shall he prepare it ; one statute shall 
be for you, both for the stranger, and for the 
native born in the land.''- 

15 ^[ And on the day that the tabernacle 
was reared up the cloud covered the tabernacle 
of the tent of the testimony : and in the even- 
ing there was upon the tabernacle as it were 
the appearance of fire, until morning. 

IG So it used to be always : the cloud co- 
vered it (l)y day,) and the appearance of fire 
by night. 

17 And as the cloud was taken up from 
the tabernacle, then after that did the chil- 
dren of Israel journey forward : and in the 
place Avhere the cloud halted, there did the 
children of Israel encamp. 

18 At the order of the Lord did the chil- 
dren of Israel journey forward, and at the 
order of the Lord they encamped : all the 
days that the cloud abode upon the taberna- 
cle did they remain in camp. 

19 And when the cloud tarried upon the 
tabernacle many da}s, then did the children 
of Israel keep the charge of the Lord, and 
journeyed not. 

20 And at times it was, that the cloud re- 
mained but a few daj's u])on the tabernacle ; 
at the order of the Lord they abode in camp, 
and at the order of the Lord they journeyed 
forward. 

21 And at times it was, that tlie cloud 
remained from evening until morning; and 
when the cloud was taken up in the morning, 
they journeyed forward; or a day and a night, 
and when the cloud was taken up, they jour- 
neyed forward ; 

22 Or two days, or a month, or a year; so 
long as the cloud tarried upon the tabernacle, 
to remain thereon, did the children of Israel 
remain encamped, and journeyed not forward ; 



NUMBERS IX. X. BEHANGALOTECHA. 



but when it was taken up, they journeyed 
forward. 

23 At the order of the Lord they remained 
in camp, and at the order of the Lord they 
journeyed forward : the charge of the Lord 
they kept, at the order of the Lord by the 
hand of Moses. 

CHAPTER X. 

1 % And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 

2 Make unto thyself two trumpets of silver, 
beaten out of one piece shalt thou make them; 
and they shall serve thee for the calling of 
the congregation, and for the setting forward 
of the camps. 

3 And Avhen they shall blow \yiih both, 
all the congregation shall assemble themselves 
unto thee at the door of the tabernacle of the 
congregation. 

4 And if they blow* with but one, then shall 
assemble themselves unto thee the princes, the 
heads of the thousands of Israel. 

5 And when ye blow an alarm, then shall 
set forward the camps that encamp on the 
east side. 

6 And when ye blow an alarm the second 
time, then shall set forward the camps that 
encamp on the south side : an alann shall 
they blow for their setting fonvard. 

7 But at the assembling of the assembly, 
ye shall blow, but }-e shall not sound an 
alarm. 

8 And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall 
blow ^vith the trumpets ; and they shall be 
to you for an ordinance for ever throughout 
your generations. 

9 And if ye go to war in your land against 
the oppressor that oppresseth you, then shall 
ye blow an alarm with the trumpets ; and ye 
shall be remembered'' before the Lord your 
God, and ye shall be saved from your enemies. 

10 And on the day of your gladness, and 
on your appointed festivals, and on the begin- 
nings of your months, shall ye blow with the 
trumpets over your burnt-offerings, and over 
the sacrifices of your peace-offerings ; and they 
shall be to you for a memorial before your 
God ; I am the Lord your God. 

• The "simple blowing" n;'"pn and the '-alann" n;'nn 
are the sounds now blown on the coraet in the New-Year's 
festival. 

172 



11 ^ And it came to pass in the second 
year, in the second month, on the twentieth 
da}' of the month, that the cloud was taken 
up from off the taljeniacle of the testimony. 

12 And the children of Israel set forward 
on their journeys from the wilderness of Si- 
nai, and the cloud halted in the wilderness 
of Paran. 

13 And they set forward for the first time 
at the order of the Lord by the hand of 
Moses. 

14 And the standard of the camp of the 
children of Judah set foi-ward at the first, ac- 
cording to their armies: and over their host 
was Nachshon the son of 'Amminadab. 

15 And over the host of the tribe of the 
children of Issachar was Nethanel the son of 
Zuar. 

16 And over the host of the tribe of the 
children of Zebulun was Eliab the son of 
Chelon. 

17 And (in the mean time) the tabernacle 
was taken do^vn; and then set fonvard the 
sons of Gershon and the sons of Merari, the 
bearers of the tabernacle. 

18 Then set fonvard the standard of the 
camp of Reiiben, according to their armies: 
and over their host was Elizur the son of 
Shedeiir. 

19 And over the host of the tribe of the 
children of Simeon was Shelumiel the son of 
Zurishaddai. 

20 And over the host of the tribe of the 
children of Gad was Elyassaph the son of 
Deiiel. 

21 And then set fonvard the Kehathites, 
the bearers of the sanctuary:'^ and the 
others set up the tabernacle against they 
came. 

22 Then set forward the standard of the 
camp of the children of Ephraim according to 
their annies: and over their host was Eli- 
shama the son of 'Ammihud. 

23 And over the host of the tribe of the 
children of Menasseh was Gamliel the son of 
Pedahzur. 

24 And over the host of the tribe of the 
children of Benjamin was Abidan the son of 
Gidoni. 



^ Obedience to God alone proves that those who claim 
his protection are worthy of his favour. 
' i'. e. The holy vesseb. (See iv. 4.) 



NUMBERS X. XI. BEHANGALOTECllA. 



25 Then set forward the standard of the 
camp of the children of Dan, the rereward of 
all the camps, according to their hosts: and 
over their host was Achiezer the son of 'Am- 
mishaddai. 

26 And over the host of the tribe of the 
children of Asher was Pagiel the son of 
"Ochran. 

27 And over the host of the tribe of the 
children of Naphtali was Achira the son of 
'Enan. 

28 In this order were the joumeyings of 
the children of Israel according to their ar- 
mies, when they set forward. 

29 Tl And Moses said unto Chobab, the 
son of Reiiel the Midianite, the father-in-law 
of Moses, We are journeying unto the place 
of which the Lord hath said. This will I give 
unto you : come thou with us, and we will do 
thee good; for the Lord hath spoken (to 
bring) good upon Israel. 

SO And he said unto him, I will not go ; 
birt to my own land, and to my birthplace 
will I go. 

31 And he said, Do not, I pray thee, leave 
us ; since thou cUdst find out the places where 
we were to encamp in the wilderness, and 
thou hast" been to us instead of eyes. 

32 And it shall be, if thou go with us, yea, 
it shall be, that the same goodness which the 
Lord may do unto us, will we do unto thee. 

33 And they set forward from the mount 
of the Lord a three da^'s' journey: and the 
ark of the covenant* of the Lord went before 
them in*" the three da^s' journey, to search 
out for them a resting-place. 

34; And the cloud of the Lord was over 
them by day, when they set forward from the 
camp.'-' 

35 ^ And it came to pass, when the ark 
set forward, that Moses said, Ri.se up, Lord, 
and let thy enemies be scattered; and let 
those that hate thee flee Ix'fore thy face. 

30 And when it rested, he said, Return, 
Lord, among the myriads of the thousands of 
Israel. 

CHAPTER XI. 
1 \\ And it came to pass that as the people 



* After Amheim ; others render, "and thou wilt be," kc. 
' Others translate, "a distance of a three days' journey." 
' "The place of burning," bah'er, from -^yi "to burn." 



complained in a manner displea.'iing in the 
ears of the Lord: the Lord heard it, and his 
anger was kindled, and the fire of the Lord 
burnt among them, and consumed at the ut- 
tennost part of the camp. 

2 And the people tJien cried unto Moses; 
and Moses prayed unto the Lord, and the fire 
disappeared. 

3 And he called the name of the place Ta- 
berah;" because the fire of the Lord bunit 
among them. 

4 And the mixed multitude that was 
among them felt a lustful longing: and the 
children of Israel also wept again, and said, 
Who -n-ill give us flesh to eat? 

5 We remember the fish, which we could 
eat in Egypt for naught ; the cucumbers, and 
the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, 
and the garlic; 

C But now our soul is faint: there is no- 
thing at all, only to the manna are our eyes 
(directed) . 

7"^ But the manna was like coriandei-seed, 
and its colour as the colour of the bdellium. 

8 The people went about, and gathered it, 
and ground it in a mill, or jwunded it in a 
mortar, and boiled it in a pot, or made cakes 
of it : and its taste was as the taste of cakes 
mixed with oil." 

9 And when the dew fell upon the camp 
in the night, the manna fell upon it. 

10 And Moses heard the people weep ac- 
cording to their families, every man at the 
door of his tent: and the anger of the Lord 
was kindled greatly ; and in the eyes of Moses 
also was it displeasing. 

11 And Moses said unto the Lord, Where- 
fore hast thou done evil to thy servant? and 
wherefore have I not found fovour in thy 
eyes, that thou layest the burden of all this 
people upon me? 

12 Was it I Avho have conceived all this 
people ? or was it I who have Ix^gottcn them ? 
that thou shouldest say unto me, Carry them 
in thy bosom, as a nursing father beareth 
the sucking child, unto the land which thou 
hast .sworn unto their fathers? 

13 Whence shall I obtain flesh to give 
mi to all this people? for they weep around 



Verses 7, 8, and 9 must be taken as a parenthesis | of oil." 



explaining the e.tcellence of the manna which the people 
despised. The narrative recommences at verse 10. 

After Onkelos. Amheim gives, " the marrow (best) 



NUMBERS XL BEHANGALOTECHA. 



me, saying, Give us flesh, that we may 
eat. 

14 I am not able by myself alone to bear 
all this people, because it is too heavy for me. 

15 And if thou wilt thus deal with me, 
then slay me, I pray thee, at once, if I have 
found favour in thy eyes; that I may not see 
my wretchedness. 

16 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, 
Gather unto me seventy men of the elders of 
Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders 
of the people, and its officers ; and take them 
unto the tabernacle of the congregation, and 
they shall stand there with thee. 

17 And I will come down and speak with 
thee there : and I will take some of the spirit 
which is upon thee, and I will put it upon 
them ;" and they shall bear with thee the bur- 
den of the people, and thou shalt not bear it 
by th}'self alone. 

18 And unto the people shalt thou say. 
Hold yourselves ready against to-morrow, that 
ye may eat flesh ; for ye have wept in the 
ears of the Lord, saying, Who shall give us 
flesh to eat? for it was better with us in 
Egypt : thus will the Lord give you flesh, 
and ye shall eat. 

19 Not one day shall ye eat, nor two days, 
nor five days, nor ten days, nor twenty days ; 

20 But up to a full month, until it come 
out at your nostrils, and it become loathsome 
unto you ; because that ye have despised the 
Lord who is in the midst of you, and ye have 
wejit before him, saying. Why did we come 
forth out of Egypt ? 

21 And Moses said, Six hundred thousand 
men on foot is the people, in the midst of 
whom I am ; and yet thou hast said. Flesh will 
I give them, that they may eat a whole month. 

22 Shall flocks and herds be slain for them, 
that they may suffice for them ? or sliall all 
the fish of the sea be gathered together for 
them, that they may suflice for them? 

23 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Should 
the Lord's hand ])e too short? now .shalt 
thou see whether my word shall come to pass 
unto thee or not. 

24 And Mo.ses went out, and spoke to the 
people the words of the Lord ; and he assem- 



' Unto what wa.s Moses like at that hour ? to a lamp 
standing upon ii candlestick, by which all light their 
lamps, while its light is in nowise diminished. — Kasiu. 
174 



bled seventy men from the elders of the people, 
and placed them round about the tabernacle. 

25 And the Lord came down in a cloud, 
and spoke unto him ; and he took some of 
the spirit that was upon him, and put it ujjon 
the seventy men, the elders : and it came to 
pass, that, when the spirit rested upon them, 
they prophesied, but they did not so any more. 

2G And there remained two men in the 
camp, the name of the one was Eldad, and 
the name of the other Medad ; and the spirit 
rested upon them; and they were of those 
that were written down,*" but they had not 
gone out unto the tabernacle : and they pro- 
phesied in the camp. 

27 And there ran a young man, and told 
to Moses, and said, Eldad and Medad are 
prophesying in the camp. 

28 And Joshua the son of Nun, the servant 
of Moses from his youth, answered and said, 
My lord Moses, forbid them. 

29 And Moses said unto him, Art thou zeal- 
ous for my sake? And oh that one mi^it 
render all the people of the Lord prophets, 
that the Lord would put his spirit upon 
them !* 

30 And Mo.ses retired back into the camp, 
he with the elders of Israel. 

31 And a wind went forth from the Lord, 
and drove up quails from the sea, and scat- 
tered them over the camp, alx)ut a day's jour- 
ney on this side, and about a day's journey 
on the other side, round about the camp, and 
about two cubits high over the face of all the 
earth. 

82 And the people arose all that day, and 
all that night, and all the following day, and 
they gathered the quails ; he that had taken 
the least, had gathered ten chomers: and they 
spread them out for themselves roiuid about 
the camp. 

33 The flesh was yet between their teeth, 
it wa.s not yet chewed : when the wrath of 
the Lord was kindled against the i)eoi3le, and 
the Lord smote among tlie people a very great 
plague. 

34 And he called the name of that place 
Kibroth-hattaiivah f because there they bu- 
ried the people that had lustfully craved. 



' It is probable that seventy-two, sis from each tribe, 
were first written down, wherefore two were left over. 
" i'. e. " The graves of the desire." 



NUMBERS XI. XII. XIII. SHELACH LECHA. 



35 From Kibroth-hattaiivah the people 
journeyed unto Chazeroth ; and the}^ remain- 
ed at Chazeroth. 

CHAPTER XII. 

1 ^ And Miriam and Aaron spoke against 
Moses, on account of the Ethiopian woman 
whom he had married ; for an Ethiopian wo- 
maii had he married. 

2 And they said, Hath then only with" 
Moses the Lord spoken? hath he not also 
with us spoken ? And the Lord heard it. 

3 (But the man Moses was very meek, 
more so than any man who was upon the 
face of the earth.) 

4 ][ And the Lord said suddenly unto 
Moses, and unto Aaron, and unto Miriam, 
Go out ye three unto the tabernacle of the 
congregation ; and these three went out. 

5 Ajad the Lord came down in a pillar of 
cloud, and stood at the door of the taberna- 
cle ; and he called Aaron and Miriam, and 
both of them went out. 

6 And he said. Hear now my words : If 
there be a prophet of your kind, I, the Lord, 
do make myself known unto him in a vision,*" 
in a dream do I speak with him. 

7 Not so is my servant Moses, in all my 
house is he faithful. 

8 Mouth to mouth do I speak -with him, 
even evidently, and not in dark speeches ; 
and the similitude of the Lord doth he behold : 
wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak 
against my servant, against Moses ? 

9 And the anger of the Lord was kindled 
against them, and he went away. 

10 And the cloud departed from off the 
tabernacle ; and, behold, Miriam became le- 
prous, (white) as snow; and Aaron turned 
toward Miriam, and, behold, she was le- 
prous. 

11 Then said Aaron unto Moses, Alas, my 
lord, do not, I beseech thee, account to us as 
sin that whei-ein we have done foolishly, and 
wherein we have smued. 



• After Onkclos. Others give " through." 
^ Marah, the feminine, denotes the indistinct, dream- 
like perception, followed as it is by "dream;" march, 
however, the masculine, expresses the clear perception of 
Divine things. Arnheim translates, moreover, v. 8, in 
this manner: "To him I speak from mouth to mouth, 
and visibly, not in riddles, that he should see only an 
image of the Eternal," conceiving the word nS "not" 
to be understood before U'a' ; but the con.struction is too 



12 Let her not be as a dead-bom child, of 
which half the flesh is consumed, when it 
Cometh out of its mother's womb. 

13 And Moses cried unto the Lord, saying, 
God! do thou heal her, I beseech thee.* 

14 ^[ And the Lord said unto Mo.ses, If her 
father had spit in her face,- would she not 
be ashamed se^'en days? let her be shut up 
seven da3's outside of the camp, and after that 
let her be brought in again. 

15 And Miriam was shut up outside of the 
camp seven days; and the people did not .set 
forward till Miriam was brought in again. 

10 And afterward the people removed from 
Chazeroth, and encamped in the -s^dldemess 
of Paran. 

Ilaphtorah in Zcchariali ii. 14 to iv. 7. 



SECTION XXXVII. SHELACH LECHA, 

rhu. 



1"' 



CHAPTER XIII. 

1 "^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 

2 Send thou out some men that they may 
spy out the land of Canaan, which I give 
mito the children of Lsrael ; one man each of 
every tribe of their fathers shall ye send, 
every one who is a prince among them. 

3 And Moses sent them out from the wil- 
derness of Paran by the order of the Lord : 
they all were men, (who) were heads of tlie 
children of Israel. 

4 And these are their names : of the tribe 
of Reiibeu, Shammua the son of Zaccur. 

5 Of the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat the son 
of Chori. 

6 Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of 
Yephunneh. 

7 Of the tribe of Issachar, Yigal the son of 
Joseph. 

8 Of the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea, the son 
of Nun. 



forced, njinn given in our text, as in Genesis i. 20, 
with "similitude" or "likeness," refers to the higher 
conception which Moses had of God's power, and of his 
government of the world ; and is to be considered 
merely a continuation of the preceding "and not in 
dark .speeches," which is, the indistinct perception which 
all prophets had of what they themselves foresaw and 
foretold, when compared with Moses. (See Daniel 
xii. 8.) 

175 



NUMBERS XIII. XIV. SHELACH LECHA. 



9 Of the tribe of Benjamin, Palti the son 
of Raphu. 

10 Of the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel the son 
of Sodi. 

11 Of the tribe of Joseph, of the tribe of 
Menasseh, Gaddi the son of Sussi. 

12 Of the tribe of Dan, 'Ammiel the son of 
Geraalli. 

13 Of the tribe of Asher, Sethur the son 
of MichaeL 

14 Of the tribe of Naphtali, Nachbi the 
son of Vophsi. 

15 Of the tribe of Gad, Geiiel the son of 
Machi. 

16 These are the names of the men whom 
Moses sent to spy out the land; and Moses 
called Hoshea the son of Nun, Jehoshua." 

17 And Moses sent them to spy out the 
land of Canaan, and he said luito them, Go 
you up this way at the south side, and go up 
into the mountain ; 

18 And see the land, what it is; and the 
people that dwell therein, whether they be 
strong or weak, whether they be few or 
many; 

19 And what the land is on which they 
dwell, whether it be good or bad; and what 
the cities* are in which they dwell, whether in 
open places, or in strongholds ; 

20 And what the laud is, whether it be fat 
or lean, whether there be trees therein, or 
not; and take ye courage, and take away 
some of the fruit of the land. Now the time 
was the season of the first ripening of grapes.--' 

21 And they went up, and spied out the 
land from the wilderness of Zin unto Rechol), 
on the road to Chamath. 

22 And they ascended on the south side, 
and came unto Hebron ; and there were Achi- 
mau, Sheshai, and Talmai, the children of 
'Anak; (now Hebron had been built seven 
years before Zoiin in Eg}-pt.) 

2.3 And they came unto the valley of Esh- 
col, and they cut down from there a branch 
with one cluster of grapes, and they bore it 
upon a barrow between two; and (thoy took 
some) of the pomegranates and of the figs. 



* Signifj-ing, "May the Lord aid (thee.)" Some sup- 
pose that this name was given to Iloslica at the time he 
entered the service of Moses; others, however, that it was 
bestowed at the present occasion, and is to be viewed as a 
prayer: "May the Lord save thee from the counsel of the 
spies." 

17G 



24 That place was called the valley of 
Eshcol,'' on account of the cluster which the 
children of Israel cut down from there. 

25 And they returned from sp_)ing out the 
land at the end of forty days. 

26 And they went and came to Moses, and 
to Aaron, and to all the congregation of the 
children of Israel, unto the wilderness of Pa- 
ran, to Kadesh ; and they brought back word 
unto them, and unto all the congregation, and 
showed them the fruit of the land. 

27 And they told him, and said. We came 
unto the land whither thou didst send us, 
and truly doth it tiow with milk and honey;" 
and this is its fruit. 

28 Nevertheless the people are strong that 
dwell in the land, and the cities are very 
strongly walled, and great; and the children 
of 'Anak also have we seen there. 

29 The Amalekites dwell in the southern 
country; and the Hittites, and the Jebusites, 
and the Emorites, dwell in the mountains; 
and the Canaanites dwell by the sea, and by 
the margin of the Jordan. 

30 And Caleb stilled the people toward 
Moses, and he said. We can easily go up, and 
take possession of it; for we are well able to 
overcome it. 

31 But the men who had gone up with 
him said. We are not able to go up against 
the people; for they are stronger than we. 

32 And they brought up an evil report of 
the land which they had spied out unto the 
children of Israel, saying, The laud through 
which we have passed to spy it out, is a land 
that consumeth its inhabitants; and all the 
people that we saw in it are men of a great 
stature. 

33 And there we saw the giants, the sons 
of Anak, of the giants' (family :) and we were 
in our own eyes as grasshoppers, and so were 
we in their eyes. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

1 And all the congregation lifted up their 
voice, and cried aloud; and the people wept 
that night. 



'' Eshcol signifies "cluster." 

" To obtain credibility for their evil report, they spoke 
first in praise of the products of the land; and then they 
expatiated on the strength of the people, while they 
averred that the uuhealthincss of the climate caused the 
death of the Driants even. 



NUMBERS XIV. SHELACII LECHA. 



2 And all the people murmured against 
Moses and against Aaron; and the whole 
congregation said unto them, Oli who would 
grant that we had died in the land of Egypt! 
or that we might but die in this wilderness ! 

;> And wherefore doth the Lord bring us 
unto yonder land, to fall by the sword? that 
our wives and our children may become a 
prey? is it not better for us to return to 
Egypt? 

4 And they said one to another, Let us ap- 
jioiut a chief, and let us return to Egypt. 

5 Then fell Moses and Aaron on their faces 
before all the assembly of the congregation of 
the children of Israel. 

And Joshua, the son of Nun, and Caleb 
the son of Yephunneh, of those that had spied 
out the land, rent their garments. 

7 And they said unto all the congregation 
of the children of Israel, as followeth, The 
land, through which we have passed to spy it 
out, this land is exceedingly good.* 

8 If the Lord have delight in us, then 
will he luring us into this land, and give it to 
us; a land which is flowing with milk and 
honey. 

9 Only against the Lord do ye not rebel;" 
and then ye need not fear the people of the 
land; for they are our bread: their shadow"* 
is departed from them, while the Lord is with 
us ; fear them not. 

10 But all the congregation said to stone 
them with stones; when the glory of the 
Lord appeared in the tabernacle of the con- 
gregation unto all the children of Israel. 

11 ][ And the Lord said unto Moses, How 
long yet shall this people provoke" me? and 
how long j-et will they not believe in me, 
with all the signs which I have shown in the 
midst of them ? 

12 I will smite them with the pestilence, 
and root them out, and I will make of thee a 
nation greater and mightier than they. 

13 And Moses said unto the Lord, But 
when the Egyptians hear, from the midst of 



' That is to say, It is rebellion only which can make 
the Canaanites formidable enemies to the sons of Israel ; 
since, if obedient to God, the conquest will be an easy 
thing, the people being as readily overcome as bread can 
be used for food. 

' "Shadow" means, in Hebrew, "protection," "secu- 
rity." Rishi therefore explains, "the shadow of God is 
departed from them ;" upon which then the next clause 
follows correctly, "while the Ijord is with us." 
X 



whom thou hast brought up in thy might 
this people; — 

14 And when they tell to the inhabitants 
of this land, who"* have heard that thou. 
Lord, art in the midst of thi.s people, tiiat 
face" to face thou. Lord, art seen, and that 
thy cloud standeth over them, and that in a 
pillar of cloud tliou goest before them by day, 
and in a j)illar of fire by night; — 

15 That thou hast killed this i>eople a.s one 
man: then will the nations that have heard 
thy fame, say in this manner, 

IG That becau.se the Lord was not able to 
bring this people into the land which he bad 
sworn unto them, hath he slain them in the 
wilderness. 

17 And now, I beseech thee, let the greats 
ness of the power of the Lord be made mani- 
fest, as thou hast spoken, saying, 

18 The Eternal is long-suffering, and.abun- 
dant in beneficence, forgiving iniquity and 
transgression; but who will by no means 
clear the guilty, visiting the inicpiity of the 
fathers upon the children, upon the third 
and upon the fourth generation. 

19 Pardon, I beseech thee, the iniquity of 
this people, according to the greatness of 
thy beneficence, and as thou hast been indul- 
gent to this people, from Egypt even until 
hitherto. 

20 And the Lord said, I have pardoned ac- 
cording to thy word 

21 But as truly as I live, and a.s all the 
earth is filled with the glory of the Lord: — 

22 That all the men who have seen my 
glory, and my signs, which I have displaced 
in Egypt and in the wilderness, and have 
tempted me these ten times, and have not 
hearkened to my voice, 

23 Shall surely not see the land which I 
have sworn unto their fathers, yea all those 
that have provoked me .shall not see it. 

24 But my servant Caleb, as a reward that 
he had another .'jpirit with him, and followed 
me fully, therefore will I bring him into the 



° R«ject me. — Arnheim. 

" The word "who" is supplied, according to Onkelos. 
The connection of the verses I:i-1G is given after Arnheim, 
and is to be taken in this manner: "When the Egyptians 
hear, and when the inhabitants of this laud (Canaan) are 
told, that God hath killed the people: then will all of 
them say, that it wa.s inability in God to accomplish his 
promise." 

• Ileb. "Eye in eye," i'. c. seeing and seen. 

177 



NUMBERS XIV. XV. SHELACII LECHA. 



land whereinto he went; and his seed shall 
possess it. 

25 And the Amalekites and the Canaanites 
dwell in the valley; to-morrow turn you, and 
set forward into the wilderness by the way to 
the Red Sea.'=' 

2G ]| And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
unto Aaron, saying, 

27 How long (shall indulgence be given) to 
this evil congregation, that murmur against 
me ? the murmurings of the children of Israel, 
which they murmur against me, have I heard. 

28 Say unto them. As truly as I live, saith 
the Lord, as }-e have spoken in my ears, so 
will I do to you : 

29 Li this wilderness shall your carcasses 
fall, and all that were numbered of you, ac- 
cording to your whole number, from twenty 
years old and upward; ye who have munnured 
against me; 

30 Truly ye shall not come into the land, 
concerning which I have lifted up my hand 
to let you dwell therein; save Caleb the son 
of Yepliunnoh, and Joshua the sou of Nun. 

31 But your little ones of which ye said, 
They would become a prey, them will I bring 
in, and they shall know the land which ye 
have despised. 

32 But as for you, your carcasses shall fall 
in this wilderness. 

33 And your children shall wander about 
in the wilderness forty years, and bear your 
backslidings, until your carcasses be spent in 
the wilderness. 

34 After the number of the days in Avhich 
ye spied out the land, forty days, yea, each 
"one day for a year, shall ye bear for your ini- 
quities, forty jcars ; and ye shall experience 
my withdrawal" (of protection.) 

35 I the Lord have spoken it, surely, this 
will I do unto all this evil congregation that 
have asseml)lcd against me : in this wilderness 
shall they be spent, and therein shall they 
die. 

3G And the men whom Moses had sent to 
spy out the land, and who returned, and 
caused all the congregation to murmur 
against him, by bringing up an evil report 
against the land, 



* lliislii renders, " And ye shall know that you have 

withdrawn your heart from me." Onkelos gives more 

freely, " that ye have murmured against nio." But in the 

present text, the idea of Mendelssohn, that tlic word " with- 

178 



37 Even these men that had brought up 
the evil rejiort of the land, died*" by the plague 
before the Lord. 

38 But Joshua the son of Nun, and Caleb 
the son of Yephunneh, remained alive of those 
men, who had gone to spy out the land. • 

39 And Moses spoke these Avords unto all 
the children of Israel; and the people mourned 
greatly. 

40 And they rose up early in the morning, 
and went up to the top of the mountain, say- 
ing, Lo, here we are, and we will go up unto 
the place of which the Lord hath spoken ; for 
we have sinned. 

41 And Moses said. Wherefore now do ye 
transgress the order of the Lord ? and it wiU 
not prosper. 

42 Do not go up, for the Lord is not among 
you ; that ye may not be smitten before your 
enemies. 

43 For the Amalekites and the Canaanites 
are there before you, and ye will fall by the 
sword; since, because ye are turned away 
from the Lord, the Lord also will not be with 
you. 

44 Yet they persisted to go up unto the 
top of the mountain ; but the ark of the cove- 
nant of the Lord, and Moses, did not move 
out of the camp. 

45 Then came down the Amalekites, and 
the Canaanites that dwelt on that mountain, 
and smote them, and discomfited them, even 
unto Chormah. 

CHAPTER XV. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them. When ye shall have come into 
the land of xouv habitations, which I give 
unto 30U, 

3 And ye will prepare a fire-oflfering unto 
the Lord, a burnt-ofl'ering, or a sacrifice in 
performing a pronounced vow, or as a free- 
will-oflering, or on your solemn feasts, to pre- 
pare a sweet savour unto the Lord, of the 
herds or of the Hocks : 

4 Then shall he that bruigeth his offering 
unto the Lord, bi-iug as a meat-offering a 



drawal" refers to an act of God, has been adopted; and it 
means then, that the people should experience the differ- 
ence between the Divine protection and wrath. 
'' i. v. A sudden, unnatural death. 



NUMBERS XV. SHELACII LECHA. 



tenth' part of fine flour mingled with the 
fourth of a hin of oil. 

o And Avine for a drink-ofiering, the fourth 
of a hin, shalt thou prepare with the burnt- 
offering or sacrifice, for each one sheep. 

G But for a ram, shalt thou prepare as a 
meat'Offering two tenth parts of fine flour 
mingled with the third of a hin of oil. 

7 And wine for the di'ink-oflt'ring, the 
third of a liin, shalt thou bring, for a sweet 
savour unto the Lord.''' 

8 And when thou preparest a bullock for a 
burnt-offering, or for a sacrifice, in performing 
a pronounced vow, or as a peace-oflering unto 
the Lord: 

9 Then shall he bring with the bullock as 
a meat-ofiering, three tenth parts of fine flour 
mingled with half a hin of oil. 

10 And wine shalt thou bring for a drink- 
offering, half a hin, as a fire-oflering of a sweet 
savour unto the Lord. 

, 11 Thus shall it be done for each one bul- 
lock, or for each one ram, or for a lamb, be it 
of the sheep or of the goats. 

12 Accoi'ding to the number that ye may 
prepare, so shall ye do to every one according 
to their number. 

13 All that are born'' in the country shall 
do these things after this manner, in offering 
a fire-offering of a sweet savour unto the 
Lord. 

14 And if a stranger sojourn with you, or 
Avhosoever may be among you in your gene- 
rations, and will make an offering made by 
fire, of a sweet . savour unto the Lord : as ye 
do, so shall he do. 

15 Congregation !° one statute shall be for 
you, and for the stranger that sojourneth; a 
statute for ever in your generations; as ye 
are, so shall the stranger be before the 
Lord. 

16 One law and one code shall be for you, 
and for the stranger that sojourneth with 
you.* 

17 ^[ And the Lord spoke luito Moses, sa}^- 
iug, 



' Whenever this term is used, it means "a tenth of an 
cphah." 

' In offering a sacrifice, nothing must be omitted which 
the law requires, in order to make it acceptable on 
liigh. 

' This word is merely to be taken as an address to the 
entire people, whether native or adopted strangers. 



18 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them, When ye come into the land 
whither I Ijring you, 

1!) Tlien shall it be, that, when ye eat of 
the bread of the land, ye shall set aside a 
heave-oflering unto the Lord. 

20 As the first** of your doughs shall ye set 
aside a cake for a heave-oflering; like the 
heave-oflfermg of the thrcshuig-floor, so shall 
ye set this aside. 

21 Of the first of jour doughs shall ye give 
unto the Lord a heave-offering, in your gene- 
rations. 

22 ^ And if ye err," and do not observe all 
these commandments, which the Lord hath 
spoken unto Moses, 

23 All that the Lord hath commanded you 
by the hand of Moses, from the day that the 
Lord commanded (the same) and thencefor- 
Avard, among j-our generations : 

24 Then shall it be, if, through inadver- 
tence of the congregation, it was committed 
by ignorance, that all the congregation shall 
prepare one young bullock for a bumt-ofTer- 
ing, for a sweet savour unto the Lord, with 
his meat-offering, and his drink-offermg, ac- 
cording to the prescribed manner, and one he- 
goat for a sin-offering. 

25 And the priest shall make an atonement 
for all the congregation of the childi'en of 
Israel, and it shall be forgiven unto them; for 
it is (a sin of) ignorance: and they have 
brought their oflering, a sacrifice made by fire 
unto the Lord, and their sin-offering before 
the Lord, for their (sin of) ignorance : 

26 And it shall be forgiven unto all the 
congregation of the children of Israel, and 
unto the stranger that sojourneth among 
them; for by all the people (was it done) in 
ignorance.* 

27 ^ And if any person sin through igno- 
rance, then shall he bring a she-goat of the 
first year for a sin-offering. 

28 And the priest shall make an atonement 
for the person that hath erred, in his sinning 
through ignorance before the Lord; to make 



' " Before ye eat of your dough, you shall offer a por- 
tion to the Lord." — RAsni. This was given to the priest, 
and had no fixed proportion by the letter of the law; but 
the llabbins state, a twenty-fourth part by a housekeeper, 
and a forty-eighth by a baker. 

" This refers to the sin of idolatry, according to our 
authorities. 

179 



NUMBERS XV. XVI. KORACH. 



an atonement for him, that it may be forgiven 
unto him. 

29 For the native bom among the children 
of Israel, and for the stranger that sojoumeth 
among them ; — one law shall be for you, for 
him that acteth through ignorance. 

30 But the person that doeth aught with a 
high hand," be he one born in the land, or a 
stranger, tlae same dishonoureth the Lord; and 
that person shall be cut off from among his 
people. 

31 Because the word of the Lord hath he 
despised, and his commandment hath he 
broken ; that person shall be cut off, his ini- 
quity is upon him. 

32 ^ And while the children of Israel were 
in the wilderness, they found a man gather- 
ing'' sticks upon the sabbath-day. 

33 And they that found him gathermg 
sticks brought him for judgment unto Moses 
and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. 

34 And they put him in ward; because it 
had not been declared what should be done 
to him. 

35 T[ And the Lord said unto Moses, The 
man shall be put to death : all the congrega- 
tion shall stone him with stones without the 
camp. 

36 And all the congregation brought him 
forth to without the camp, and they stoned 
him with stones, and he died; as the Lord 
had commanded Moses.* 

37 T[ And the Lord said unto Moses, as 
foUoweth, 

38 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say to them, that they shall make themselves 
fringes'' on the corners of their garments 
throughout thoir generations, and that they 
shall put upon the fringe of the comer a 
thread of blue : 

39 And it shall be unto you for a fringe, 
that ye may look upon it, and remember all 
the commandments of the Lord, and do them ; 
and that ye seek not after (the inclination of) 
your own heart and (the delight of) your 



' )■. c. Wilfully; and for such sin no sacrifice can avail. 

*■ Arnhcim suggests, that loiam may mean "making 
small," "chipping," or "splitting wood;" wherefore he 
committed a direct and well-defined labour on the sab- 
bath. 

° Mendelssohn and his successors have rendered nS'S 
with " schaii/iiilen," literally, "threads to be looked upon." 
The word " fringes" has been retained here, because there 
180 



eyes, in pursuit of which ye have been led 
astray. 

40 In order that ye may remember, and 
do all my commandments, and be holy unto 
your God. 

41 I am the Lord your God, who brought 
you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God ; 
I am the Lord your God. 

Ilaphtorah in Joshua ii. 1 to 24. 



SECTION XXXVIII. KORACH, Hip. 

CHAPTER XVL 

1 ^ Now Korach, the son of Yizhar, the 
son of Kchath, the son of Levi, was presumj)- 
tuous,* together with Dathan and Abiram, 
the sons of Eliab, and On, the son of Peletli, 
sons of Reuben : 

2 So that they rose up before Moses, with 
certain men of the children of Israel, in num- 
ber two hundred and fift}'; (who were) princes 
of the congregation, called to the assembly, 
men of renown. 

3 And they assembled themselves against 
Moses, and against Aaron, and said unto 
them. Ye assume too much ; for the whole of 
the congregation are all of them holy, and the 
Lord is among them; whei'efore then will 
you lift yourselves up above the congregation 
of the Lord ? 

4 And when Moses heard it, he fell upon 
his face : 

5 And he spoke unto Korach and unto all 
his company, saying, To-morrow, then will 
the Lord make known Avho is his, and who is 
holy, that he may cause them to come near 
unto him ; and him whom lie shall choose 
will he cause to come near unto him. 

G This do ye : Take yourselves censers, 
Korach and all his company ; 

7 And put therein fire, and put upon them 
incense before the Lord, to-morrow ; and it 
shall be that the man whom the Lord will 



is no English word nearer to the true meaning, from a 
root either signifying "a lock of hair" or "something to 
look on." Israelites are well acquainted with the " corner 
fringe," which is to be regarded as a memento of the com- 
mandments, a simple yet cfiieient symbol to call to mind 
the duty \vc owe to God. 

' He presumed to set himself apart from the commu- 
nity to quaiTcl about the priesthood. — IIashi. 



NUMBERS XVI. KORACH. 



choose, he shall be the holy one ; you assume 
too much, ye sons of Levi. 

8 And Moses said unto Korach, Hear, I 
pray you, ye sons of Levi : 

9 Is it too little for you, that the God of 
Israel hath separated you from the congrega- 
tion of Israel, to bring you near unto himself, 
to do the service of the tabernacle of the Lord, 
and to stand before the congregation to minis- 
ter for them ? 

10 And he hath brought thee near, and all 
thy brethren the sons of Levi with thee : and 
now will ye seek the priesthood also ? 

11 For which cause (beware),* thou and 
all thy company that ai'e gathered together 
against the Lord ; for Aaron, what is he, that 
ye should murmur against him ? 

12 And Moses sent to call Dathan and 
Abiram, the sons of Eliab; but they said, 
We will not come up : 

13 Is it too little that thou hast brought 
us up out of a land flowing witlx milk and 
honey, to kill us in the wilderness, that thou 
wilt assume to make thyself also a prince 
over us ?''' 

14 Moreover thou hast not brought us into 
a land flowing with milk and honey, and thou 
hast not*" given us inheritance of fields and 
vineyards : wilt thou bore out the eyes" of 
these men ? we will not come up. 

15 And this displeased Moses greatly, and 
he said unto the Lord, Have no respect unto 
their offering : I have not taken away an ass 
of any one of them, nor have I done wrong 
to any one of them. 

IG And Moses said unto Korach, Thou 
and all thy company, be ye before the Lord, 
thou, and they, and Aaron, to-morrow : 

1 7 And take ye every man his censer,* and 
put incense upon them, and bring ye near 
before the Lord every man his censer, two 
hundred and fifty censers; thou also, and 
Aaron, each his censer. 

18 And they took every man his censer. 



* After Mendelssohn, who renders jdS in the sense it is 
used in Gen. iv. 15, as a threat. Philippson gives it, 
" Do you therefore assemhle — against the Lord ?" Arn- 
heim, "Surely — you assemble against the Lord." But 
the n in oni'jn favours the version in our text. 

'' After Rashi. Arnheim translates, "so that thou 
couldst give us," &.c. 

° i. e. " Wilt thou presume to blind the people to thy 
assumption of undue power and breach of promise ?" 



and put fire on them, and laid incense there- 
upon ; and they stood at the door of the ta- 
bernacle of the congregation with Moses and 
Aaron. 

19 And Korach assembled against them 
all the congregation unto the door of the ta- 
bernacle of the congregation ; and the glory 
of the Lord then appeared unto all the con- 
gregation.''' 

20 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
unto Aaron, saying, 

21 Separate yourselves from the midst of 
this congregation, and I will make an end of 
them in a moment. 

22 And they fell upon their faces, and said, 
God, the God of the spirits of all flesh," this 
one man doth sin, and with all the congrega- 
tion wouldest thou be wroth ? 

23 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 

24 Speak unto the congregation, saying. 
Get you away from about the dwelling of 
Korach, Dathan, and Abiram. 

25 And Moses ix)se up and went unto Da- 
than and Abiram ; and there went after him 
the elders of Israel. 

26 And he spoke unto the congregation, 
saying, Depart, I pray you, from the tents of 
these wicked men, and touch nothing which 
belongeth to them, lest ye be destro^x'd 
through all their sins. 

27 So they got away from the dwelling of 
Korach, Datlian, and Abiram, on every side : 
and Dathan and Abiram came out, standing 
(boldly) at the door of their tents, with 
their wives, and their sons, and their little 
ones. 

28 And Moses said, Through this shall ye 
know that the Lord hath sent me to do all 
these deeds ; that (I have) not done them 
out of my own heart. 

29 If these men die a.s all men die, and if 
the visitation of all men be visited on them : 
then hath the Loud not sent me. 



* This refers back to verse 5. Moses said there to 
Korach, that on the following day God would declare who 
was the holy and chosen servant of the tabernacle. The 
test now proposed was, that all who claimed the right to 
act as priests, should come with incense before the sanc- 
tuary, though it would be at great peril; since it would 
be destruction to all but the one who was justly chosen. 
The text tolls the sequel. • 

' Arnheim gives this word elsewhere with "mortals." 

181 



NUMBERS XVI. XVII. KORACH. 



30 But if the Lord do create* a new thing, 
and the earth open her mouth, and swallow 
them up, with all that appertaineth unto 
them, and they go down alive into the pit : 
then shall ye understand that these men have 
provoked the Lord. 

31 And it came to pass, when he had 
made an end of speaking all these words, that 
the ground that was under them was cloven 
asunder : 

32 And the earth opened her mouth, and 
swallowed them up, and their houses, and all 
the men that appertained unto Korach, and 
all their goods. 

33 And they went down, they, and all 
they that appertained to them, alive into the 
pit; and the earth closed over them, and 
they disappeared from the midst of the con- 
gregation. 

34 And all Israel that were round about 
them fled at their cry ; for they said, Perhaps 
the earth may swallow us up (also). 

35 And there came out a fire from the Lord, 
and consumed the two hundred and fifty men 
that had offered the incense. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

l*" ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 

2 Speak unto Elazar the sou of Aaron the 
priest, that he lift up the censers out of the 
l)urning, and throw out the fire far away ; 
for they have been hallowed : 

3 The censers of these sinners against their 
own lives; and they shall make of them 
Ijroad plates for a covering for the altar ; for 
they brought them near before the Lord, and 
they have thus become hallowed f and they 
shall serve for a sign unto the children of 
Israel. 

4 And Elazar the priest took the copper 
censers, which they that were burnt had 
brought near ; and they beat them out for a 
covering unto the altar : 

5 As a memorial unto the children of 
Israel, in order that no stranger, who is not 
of the seed of A.aron, should come near to 
burn incense before the Lord ; that he be- 



' The sudden destruction of the rebels is called a crea- 
tion, and Moses appealed to such an unheard-of display 
of power, a.4 a verification of Ws truth. 

^ The English version commences ch. xvii. at verse 16. 
182 



come not as Korach, and as his company ; as 
the Lord had sjDoken to him by the hand of 
Moses. 

G Tf And all the congregation of the chil- 
dren of Israel murmured against Moses and 
Aaron, on the morrow, saying. It is you"* Avho 
have cau.sed the people of the Lord to die. 

7 And it came to pass, when the congrega- 
tion assembled against Moses and against 
Aaron, that they looked toward the taberna- 
cle of the congregation, and, behold, the cloud 
covered it; and the glory of the Lord ap- 
peared. 

8 And Moses came with Aaron before the 
tabernacle of the congregation.* 

9 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

10 Remove yourselves from the midst of 
this congregation, that I may consume them 
in a moment. And they fell upon their faces. 

11 And Moses said unto Aaron, Take the 
censer, and put therein fire from oft' the altar, 
and put on incense, and carry (it) quickl}' 
unto the congregation, and make an atone- 
ment for them ; for the Avrath is gone forth 
from the Lord; the plague hath begun. 

12 And Aaron took as Moses had com- 
manded, and he ran into the midst of the as- 
sembly ; and, tehold, the plague had begun 
among the people : and he put on the incense, 
and made an atonement for the people. 

13 And he stood between the dead and 
the living ; and the plague was stayed. 

14 And those who died in the plague were 
fourteen thousand and seven hundred, besides 
those that had died about the matter of 
Korach. 

15 And Aaron returned unto Moses, to the 
door of the tabernacle of the congregation, af- 
ter the plague had been stayed.* 

16 ^f And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 

ing» 

17 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
take from them one staff each for a family 
division, from all their princes, according to 
their family divisions, twelve staves : the name 
of each man shalt thou write upon his st;iff. 

18 And the name of Aaron shalt thou 



° Although the sacrifice was in sin, still the offering 
sanctiBcd the instruments used. 

'' They a.'cribed the death of the elders to the agency of 
Moses and Aaron. 



NUMBERS XVII. XVIII. KORACH. 



write upon the staff of Levi ; for there shall 
be but one staff for the head of their family 
division. 

19 And thou shalt lay them down in the 
tabernacle of the congregation before the tes- 
timony, where I usually meet with you. 

20 And it shall come to pass, that the staff 
of the man whom I shall choose, shall blos- 
som :* and I will allay from around me the 
murmurings of the children of Israel, which 
they murmur against you. 

21 And Moses spoke unto the children of 
Israel, and all their princes gave him each a 
staff, one for every prince, according to their 
family divisions, twelve staves : and the staff 
of Aaron was among their staves. 

22 And Moses laid down the staves be- 
fore the Lord in tlie tabernacle of the testi- 
mon}'. 

23 And it came to pass on the morrow, 
that as Moses went into the tabernacle of the 
testimony, behold, the staff of Aaron for the 
house of Levi had budded ;'' and it brought 
forth buds, and produced blossoms, and yielded 
ripe almonds. 

24 And Moses brought out all the staves 
from Ijefore the Lord unto all the children of 
Israel ; and they looked (at them,) and took 
away every one his staff.* 

25 '\\ And the Lord said unto Moses, Carry 
back the staff of Aaron before the testimony', 
to be kept as a token against the children of 
rebellion, that there may be an end of their 
murmuiings from around me, and they die 
not. 

2G And Moses did so ; as the Lord had 
commanded him, so did he. 

27 ^ And the children of Israel said unto 
Moses, thus, Behold, we perish, we are lost, 
we are all lost. 

28 Every one that cometh near at all unto 
the tabernacle of the Lord must die : shall we 
totally perish ?° 



* In the preceding narrative, the selection of Aaron was 
demonstrated by the punishment of those who contended 
against him. The present attestation was, however, to 
be one of peace, to confirm the institution of the priest- 
hood. 

*■ llashbam comments, that the evident meaning of this 
is, that when Moses first brought out Aaron's staff to the 
people it had just budded ; and it was before them that 
the buds expanded, opened into blossoms, and yielded ripe 
almouds. Kashi renders yx with " tlie young fruit" 
which appears immediately on the blossom's falling. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

1 T[ And the Lord said unto Aaron, Thou 
and thy sons and thy father's house with thee 
shall bear the initjuity'' of the sanctuary ; and 
thou and thy sons with thee shall bear the 
iniquity of your priesthood. 

2 And also thy brethren, the tribe of Levi, 
the tribe of thy father, bring thou near with 
thee, that they may be joined Avith thee, and 
minister unto thee ; while thou and thy sons 
with thee shall be before the tabernacle of 
the testimon}-. 

3 And they shall keep thy charge, and the 
charge of all the tabernacle : only unto the 
vessels of the sanctuary and unto the altar 
shall they not come near, that they may not 
die, either they or you. 

4 And they shall be joined unto thee, and 
keep the charge of the tabernacle of the con- 
gregation, respecting all the service of the ta- 
bernacle : and a stranger shall not come nigh 
unto you. 

5 And ye shall keep the charge of the 
sanctuary, and the charge of the altar; that 
there be not any more wrath upon the chil- 
dren of Israel. 

6 And I, behold, I liave taken 3"our bre- 
thren the Levites from the midst of the chil- 
dren of Israel ; unto you are they given as a 
gift for the Lord, to perform the service of the 
tabernacle of the congregation. 

7 And thou and thy sons with thee shall 
keep your priesthood concerning everj^ mat- 
ter of the altar, and for that within the 
vail, where }-e shall serve : as a service of 
gift do I give you your priesthood ; and the 
stranger that cometh nigh shall 1x5 put to 
death. 

8 ][ And the Lord spoke unto Aaron, And 
I, behold, I give thee the charge of my heave- 
offerings ; of all the hallowed things of the 
children of Israel, mito thee have I given 



" {. e. Since every attempt to approach proves fatal. 

'' "Against the sanctuary ;" " against your priesthood." 
— Arnheim. "On you I place the punishment of the 
strangers that may commit sin through the hallowed 
things which arc intrusted to you (the priests and the 
sons of Kchath :) — you -shall sit and warn every stranger 
that approaches, from touching them ; while thou and thy 
sons the priests shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood, 
because this is not intrusted to the Levites, and you shall 
warn these not to interfere in your proper service." — 
Rashi. 

183 



NUMBERS XVIII. KORACH. 



them as an official portion, and to thy sons, 
as a fixed right for ever. 

9 This shall belong to thee of the most 
holy things, from the fire-(oflferings) :" every 
oblation of theirs, namely, every meat-ofler- 
ing of theirs, and every sin-offering of theirs, 
and every trespass-offering of theirs, which 
they shall render unto me, shall, as most holy 
things, belong to thee and to thy sons. 

10 In a most holy place shalt thou eat it : 
every male shall eat it ; holy shall it be unto 
thee. 

11 And this shall be thine, as the heave- 
offering of their gift, of all the wave-offerings of 
the children of Israel ; unto thee have I given 
them, and to thy sons and to thy daughters 
with thee, as a fixed portion for ever: every 
one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof. 

12 All the best of oil, and all the best of 
wine, and of com, the firstrfruits thereof which 
they shall offer unto the Lord, to thee have I 
given them. 

13 The first ripe fruit of whatsoever is in 
their land, which they may bring unto the 
Lord, shall be thine ; every one that is clean 
in thy house may eat thereof. 

14 Every thing devoted in Israel shall be 
thine. 

15 Whatever openeth the womb of all 
flesh, which they bring unto the Lord, be it 
of men or of cattle, shall be thine : neverthe- 
less thou shalt redeem the first-born of man, 
and the firstling of the unclean cattle shalt 
thou redeem. 

16 And those that are to be redeemed from 
a month old shalt thou redeem, according to 
the usual estimation of five shekels of silver, 
after the sliekel of the sanctuary, which is 
twenty geralis. 

17 But the firstling of an ox, or the firsts 
ling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou 
shalt not redeem ; they are holy : their blood 
shalt thou sprinkle upon the altar, and theu* 
fat shalt thou l^urn as a iire-offering, for a 
sweet savour unto*the Loud. 



* After Aben Ezra; Oukclos, Raslii, and othoi-s, "what 
is left from the fire," ('. c. after the fat has licen burnt. 

'' That is, " as unvarying and iinitorm as the salt, 
which never becomes eorrujit or putrid." — After Rasui. 

° The priests and servants of the LoKD should not Lave 
political power through extended possessions. 

'' I. f. Wine and oil, which are produced by means of 
expressing the grajjc and olive ; properly therefore, " with 
184 



18 And their flesh shall be thine, as the 
breast that is waved and as the right shoulder 
shall it be thine. 

19 All the heave-offerings of the holy things, 
which the children of Israel set apart unto the 
Lord, I have given to thee, and to thy sous and 
to thy daughters with thee, as a fixed portion 
for ever : it is a covenant of salt** for ever before 
the Lord for thee and for thy seed with thee. 

20 And the Lord said unto Aaron, In their 
land shalt thou have no inheritance, and any 
portion shalt thou not have among them :° I 
am thy portion and thy inheritance among 
the children of Israel.* 

21 Tl And to the children of Levi, behold, I 
have given every tithe in Israel, for an inhe- 
I'itauce, in lieu of their ser\'ice which they 
r'ender, the service of the tabernacle of the 
congregation. 

22 And the children of Israel shall not 
henceforth come nigh unto the tabernacle of the 
congregation, to bear sin, to die thereby. 

2-3 But they of the tribe of Levi themselves 
shall perform the ser\dce of the tabernacle of 
the congregation, and they shall bear their 
iniquity : a statute for ever shall it Ije through- 
out your generations ; and among the children 
of Israel shall they not possess any inheritance. 

24 But the tithes of the children of Israel, 
which they ofler as a heave-oflering unto the 
Lord, have I given to the Levites for an in- 
heritance ; thei'efore have I said unto them, 
Among the children of Israel shall they ob- 
tain no inheritance. 

25 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 

2G And unto the Levites shalt thou speak, 
and say unto them. When ye take from the 
children of Israel the tithes which 1 liave 
given you from them for your inheritance : 
then shall ye separate t herefrom a heave-oft'er- 
ing of the Lord, the tenth part of the tithe. 

27 And your heave-oflering shall be reck- 
oned unto you, like the corn of the threshing- 
floor, and as the fulness of the wine-press.'' 



what the wine-press is filled." The verse itself is to bo 
so under.itood : The Israelites were commanded to give 
a fiftieth part of their annual product to the priests; this 
gift was called a heave-oftoring nonji; and the tithes be- 
ing the jA'vites' threshing-floor and wine-press, that is, 
their means of livelihood, they were ordered to give from 
their income also a portion to the priests, before they 
could legally use it for their own purposes. 



NUMBERS XVIII. XIX. CIIUCKATII. 



28 Thus shall ye also offer a heave-offering 
unto the Lord from all your tithes, which ye 
may receive from the cliildren of Israel ; and 
ye shall give thereof the heave-oftering of the 
Lord to Aaron the priest. 

29 From all your gifts shall ye set apart 
every heave-offering of the Lord, from every 
best part thereof, its hallowed portion there- 
from. '•• 

30 And thou shalt say unto them, When 
ye have separated the best thereof from it : 
then shall (the remainder) be counted unto 
the Levites as the produce of the threshing- 
floor, and as the produce of the wine-press. 

31 And ye may eat it in every place, ye 
and your households; for it is your reward 
in lieu of your service at the tabernacle of the 
congregation. 

32 And ye shall not bear any sin by rear 
son of it, when ye have separated its best part 
from it : and the holy things of the children 
of Israel shall ye not profane, lest ye die. 

Haphtorah in 1 Samuel xi. 14 to xii. 22. 



SECTION XXXIX. CHUCKATH, npn 



CHAPTER XIX. 



1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
unto Aaron, saying, 

2 This is the statute* of the law which the 
Lord hath commanded, saying. Speak unto 
the children of Israel, that they bring unto 
thee a completely red cow, on which there is 
no blemish, upon which no yoke hath ever 
come. 

3 And ye shall give her unto Elazar the 
priest, and he shall lead her forth to witliout 
the camp, and some one shall slay her before 
his face: 

4 And Elazar the priest shall take some of 
her })lood with his finger ; and he shall sprin- 
kle in the direction of the front of the tal^er- 
nacle of the congregation of her blood seven 
times. 

5 And some one shall bum the cow before 
liis eyes; her skin, and her flesh, and her 
blood, with her dung, shall he burn. 



* i. e. An ordinance for which no reason is to be sought 
further than that it is the will of the Loud, who instituted 
it as a test of obedience to Israel. 

'■ "The stranger" here signifies one that has adopted 



6 And the priest shall take cedar-wood, 
and hyssop, and a scarlet string, and cast it 
into the mid.st of the burning of the cow. 

7 And the priest shall wash his clothes, 
and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and 
afterward may he come into the camp; and 
the priest shall be unclean until the even- 
ing. 

8 And he that bumeth her shall wash his 
clothes in water, and bathe his flesh in water; 
and he shall be unclean until tlic evening. 

9 And a man tliat is clean shall gather up 
the ashes of the cow, and lay them uj) with- 
out the camp in a clean place ; and it shall be 
kept for the congregation of the children of 
Israel for a water of sprinkling : it is a jjurifi- 
cation-offering. 

10 And he that gathereth the ashes of the 
cow shall wash his clothes, and be miclean 
until the evening: and it shall Ikj unto the 
children of Israel, and unto the stranger'' that 
sojourneth among them, for a statute for 
ever. 

11 He that toucheth the dead body of any" 
human person shall be unclean seven daj-s. 

12 Such a one shall purify himself with it 
on the third day and on the seventh day, 
when he shall be clean ; but if he purify him- 
self not on the third day and on the seventh 
day, he shall not te clean. 

13 Whosoever toucheth the dead body, the 
person of any man that is dead, and purifieth 
himself not, hath defiled the tabernacle of 
the Lord; and that .soul shall be cut oft" from 
Israel; because the water of sprinkling was 
not sprinkled upon him, he shall be unclean; 
his uncleanness is'yet upon him. 

14 This is the law, when a man dieth in a 
tent: Every one tliat cometh into the tent, 
and all that is in the tent, shall be unclean 
seven days. 

15 And every open vessel, on which there 
is not a closely fitting cover, is unclean. 

16 And whosoever toucheth in the open 
field one that hath been slain with a sword, 
or a dead body, or a bone of a man, or a 
grave, shall be unclean seven daj-s. 

17 And they shall take for the unclean 
person some of the ashes of the burnt purifi- 



the law of Israel. The same is the case whenever this 
word occurs in reference to observance of religious duties. 
° Meaning, whether the dead be an Israelite or gen- 
tile. 

185 



NUMBERS XIX. XX. CHUCKATH. 



cation-offering, and they shall put thereupon 
running water in a vessel.* 

18 And a clean person shall take hyssop, 
and dip it in the water, and sprinkle it upon 
the tent, and upon all the vessels, and upon 
the persons that have been there, and upon 
him that hath touched the bone, or the one 
slain, or the dead, or the grave : 

19 And the clean pei-son shall sprinkle 
upon the unclean on the third day and on the 
seventh day; and when he hath purified him 
on the seventh day, then shall he wash his 
clothes, and bathe himself in Avater, and shall 
be clean at evening. 

20 But a man that is unclean, and doth 
not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off 
from among the congregation; because the 
sanctuary of the Lord hath he defiled; the 
water of sprinkling hath not been sprinkled 
upon him; he is unclean. 

21 And it shall be unto them for a per- 
petual statute; and he that sprinkleth* the 
water of S2;)rinkling shall wash his clothes; 
and he that toucheth the water of sprinkling 
shall be unclean until the evening. 

22 And whatsoever the unclean person 
may touch shall be unclean; and the person 
that toucheth him'' shall be unclean until the 



evenmg. 



CHAPTER XX. 



1 ^ And the children of Israel, the whole 
congregation, came into the desert of Zin in 
the first month, and the people abode in Ka- 
desh; and Miriam died there, and was buried 
there. 

2 And there was no water for the congre- 
gation; and they assembled themselves to- 
gether against Moses and against Aaron. 

3 And the people quarrelled with Moses, 
and said thus, Oh that we had but perished 
when our brethren perished before the Lord ! 

4 And why have ye brought the congrega- 
tion of the Loud into this wilderness, to die 
there, we and our cattle? 



* The wise men expound this, that he who sprinkles 
the water of purification shall nut be rendered unclean, ho 
is merely to wash his garments; while all others engaged 
in this sacrifice are made unclean thereby, till evening. 
Hence, in view of the.se peculiarities, it is pre-eminently a 
statute, or a positive ordinance of the Louu, given as the 
will of our Legislator. 

^ i'. r. One defiled by touching a dead body. 

° "The Scriptures here declare, that had it not been 
18G 



5 And wherefore have ye cau.sed us to 
come up out of Egypt, to bring us in unto 
this evil place? it is no place for sowing, or 
of figs, or of vines, or of pomegranates ; and 
water even there is none to drink. 

G And Moses and Aaron went from the 
presence of the assembly unto the door of the 
tabernacle of the congregation, and they fell 
ujion their faces : and the glory of the Lord 
appeared unto them.* 

7 Tl And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

8 Take the staff, and gather the assembly 
together, thou, with Aaron thy brother, and 
ye shall speak unto the rock before their eyes, 
that it shall give forth its water; and thou 
shalt bring forth for them water out of the 
rock, and give drink to the congregation and 
their cattle. 

9 And Moses took the staff from before the 
Lord, as he had commanded him. 

10 And Moses and Aaron assembled the' 
congregation together before the rock, and he 
said unto them. Hear now, ye rebels! shall 
we out of this rock bring forth water for you? 

11 And Moses lifted up his hand, and he 
smote the rock with his staff twice : and there 
came out much water, and the congregation 
drank, together with their cattle. 

12 Tl And the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
Aaron, Because ye have not confided'" in me, 
to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of 
Israel : therefore shall ye not bring this con- 
gregation into the land which I have given to 
them. 

13 These are the waters of Meribah;** where 
the children of Israel quarrelled with the 
Lord, and through which" he was sanctified.* 

14 ^ And Moses sent messengers from Ka- 
desh unto the king of Edom, Thus saith thy 
brother Israel. Thou knowcst all the hardship 
that hath befallon us. 

15 How our fathers went down into EgA^it, 
and we dwelt in Egypt many days; and the 
Egyptians did evil to us, and to our fathei's : 



for this sin, they would have entered into the land, that 
it should not be said of them that they were punished for 
the transgression of their generation, against whom the 
decree had been pronounced, that they should not come to 
Palestine." — Rashi. 

'' Merihah means quarrelling. (Sec also Exodus xvii. 7.) 
' This refers to "the water," according to Kashi, who 
adds, "When the Lord executes judgment upon his 
saints, he becomes feared and sanctified among men." 



NUMBERS XX. XXI. CHUCKATH. 



16 And we cried unto the Lord, and he 
heard our voice, and he sent a messenger, 
and caused us to go forth out of Egy])t ; and, 
behold, we are in Kadesh, a city at the out- 
most end of thy border. 

17 Let us pass, we pray thee, through thy 
country; we will not pass through field, or 
through vineyard, and we will not drink the 
water of the wells: by the king's highway 
will we go, we will not turn to the right hand 
nor to the left, until we have passed thy border. 

18 And Edom said unto him, Thou shalt 
not pass through my land, lest I come against 
thee with the sword. 

19 And the children of Israel said unto 
him, We will go by the highway : and if we 
drink of thy water, I and my cattle, then will 
I pay its value; I will do thee no injury," 
only on foot will I pass through. 

20 And he said. Thou shalt not pass 
through; and Edom came out against him 
with much people, and with a strong hand. 

21 And as Edom thus refused to permit 
Israel to pass through his border, Israel 
turned away from him.* 

22 ^ And they set forward from Kadesh; 
and the children of Israel, the whole congre- 
gation,'' came unto mount Hor. 

23 And the Lord said unto Moses and 
Aaron at mount Hor, by the boundary of the 
land of Edom, as followeth, 

24 Aaron shall be gathered unto his peo- 
ple ; for he shall not enter into the land which 
I have given unto the children of Israel, be- 
cause ye rebelled against my order at the 
waters of Meribah. 

25 Take Aaron and Elazar, his son, and 
cause them to go up unto mount Hor: 

2G And cause Aaron to take off his gar- 
ments, and clothe therewith Elazar his son; 
and Aaron shall be gathered in, and he shall 
die there. 

27 And Moses did as the Lord had com- 
manded ; and they went up to mount Hor be- 
fore the eyes of all the congregation. 



• After Onkclos. Arnheim, " It is not the least even 
(I desire)." PLilippson, "It is surely nothing." 

''All righteous and ready to enter Palestine; there 
was none left among them of those who had the decree of 
exclusion pronounced against them ; for the whole of them 
had already perished, and of those who then remained, it 
was said, " And ye who have adhered unto the LoRD your 
God, are all alive this day." — Basui. 



28 And Moses caused Aaron to take off his 
garments, and he clothed therewith Elazar 
his son; and Aaron died tliere on the top ol' 
the mount; and Moses and Elazar then came 
down from the mount. 

29 And when all tlie congregation saw that 
Aaron was departed, they wept for Aaron 
thirty days, even all the house of Israel. 

CHAPTER XXI. 

1 ^ And when the Canaanite, the king of 
'Arad, who dwelt in the south, heard tliat 
Israel was coming by the way of the spies :" 
he made an attack on Israel, and took from 
them some prisoners. 

2 And Israel made a vow unto the Lord, 
and said. If thou wilt but deliver this people 
into my hand, then will I devote their cities. 

3 And the Lord hearkened to the voice of 
Israel, and he deliverd up the Canaauites; 
and they devoted them and their cities : and 
they called the name of the place Chonnah. 

4 ]| And they set forward from mount Hor 
by the way to the Red Sea, to go round the 
laud of Edom : and the spirit of the people 
became impatient because of the way.* 

5 And the people spoke against God, and 
against Moses, Wherefore have 3-e brought us 
up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness ? for 
there is no bread, and there is no water ; and 
our soul loatheth this miserable bread. 

G And the Lord let loose against the j^eople 
poisonous serpents, and they 1)it the jjcople; 
and there died much jwople of Israel. 

7 And the people then came to Moses, 
and they said. We have sinned, for we have 
spoken against the Lord, and against thee; 
pray unto the Lord, that he take away from 
us the serpents. And Moses prayed for the 
people. 

8 And the Lord said unto Moses, Make 
thyself a serpent," and set it upon a pole : and 
it shall come to pass, that whoever is bitten 
shall look at it, and he shall live. 

9 And Moses made a serpent of copper, and 



° According to the Septuagint, D'lnKH is the name of 
a place, "Atharim." 

'' Although, as just said, the people had been purified 
by the death of the fathers, still the sons also murmured 
when they themselves were yet detained from Palestine. 

° When they looked upward and subdued their heart 
to their Father in heaven, they were healed; and if not, 
they perished. — YoMA. 

187 



NUMBERS XXI. CHUCKATH. 



put it upon a pole ; and it came to pass, that, 
when a serpent had bitten any man, and he 
looked up to the serpent of copper, he re- 
mained alive.'^' 

10 And the children of Israel set forward, 
and encamped in Oboth. 

11 And they journeyed from Oboth, and 
encamped at 'lye-ha'abarim, in the wilder- 
ness, which is before Moiib, toward the rismg 
of the sun. 

12 From there they set forward and en- 
camped in the valley* of Zared. 

1.3 From there they set forward, and en- 
camped on the other side of Arnon, which is 
in the wilderness, and which cometh out of 
the boundary of the Emorites ;. for Arnon is 
the border of Moiib, between Moiib and be- 
tween the Emorites. 

14 Therefore mention is made in the book 
of the wars of the Lord, of Vaheb in Supha,* 
and of the brooks of Arnon, 

15 And the descent of the brooks, that 
tunieth toward Shebeth-'Ar, and leaneth upon 
the border of Moiib ; 

16 And from there to the well ; this is 
the well where the Lord said unto Moses, 
Assemble the people and I will give them 
water. 

17 1[ Then did Israel sing this song, Come 
up, well ; sing ye unto it : 

18 Well, which the prmces have dug, which 
the nobles of the people have hollowed out 
with the sceptre, with their staves; — and 
from the Avildemess to Mattauah; 

19 And from Mattanah to Nachaliel; and 
from Nachaliel to Bamoth ; 

20 And from Bamoth to the valley, which 
is in the fields of Moiib, to the top of Pis- 
gah, which looketh toward the desert.''' 

21 Tl And Israel sent messengers unto Si- 
chon king of the Emorites, saying, 

22 Let me pass through thy land ; we will 
not turn aside into field, or into vineyard; 
we will not drink the water of a well : by the 



* The wadys, or deep valleys, in the neighbourhood of 
I'alcstinc, generally have a stream running through them, 
which swells greatly in the rainy season. Ilcncc Snj sig- 
niBes both " valley" and " stream." 

'' These places, and those mentioned farther, are names 
which occur in the book of the wars of the Lord, and are 
unknown to us now. Arnon has several branches which 
form the main stream. The descent next spoken of refers 
to these rivulets, which unite and flow toward the city of 
188 



king's highway will we go along, until we 
have i^assed thy border. 

23 But Sichon would not suffer Israel to 
pass through his border ; and Sichon assem- 
bled all his people together, and went out 
against Israel into the wilderness ; and he 
came to Yahaz, and fought against Israel. 

24 And Israel smote him with the edge of 
the sword, and took possession of his land 
from Arnon unto Yabbok, even unto the chil- 
dren of 'Ammon ; for the border of the chil- 
dren of 'Ammon Avas strong." 

25 And Israel took all these cities; and 
Israel dwelt in all the cities of the Emorites, 
in Cheshbon, and m all the villages thereof. 

2G For Cheshbon was the city of Sichon 
the king of the Emorites ; and he had fought 
against the former king of Moiib, and taken 
all his land out of his hand, up to the Arnon. 

27 Therefore said the poets. Come into 
Cheshbon, let the city of Sichon be built and 
established. 

28 For a fire is gone out of Cheshbon, a 
flame from the city of Sichon : it hath con- 
sumed 'Ar-Moiib, the men of the high places 
of the Arnon. 

29 Wo to thee, Moiib! thou art lost, 
people of Kemosh : he hath suflered his .sons 
to become fugitives, and his daughters to go 
into captivity, unto the king of the Emorites, 
Sichon. 

30 We have thro-\\ni them down; lost is 
Cheshbon even unto Dibon, and we have laid 
waste (all) up to Nophach, which reachetli 
unto Medeba. 

31 Thus Israel dwelt in the land of the 
Emorites. 

32 And Moses sent to spy out Ya'zer, and 
they captured the villages thereof, and drove 
out the Emorites that were there. 

33 And they turned and wont up liy the 
way to Bashan; and 'Og. the king of Baslian, 
went out against them, he, and all his people, 
to the battle at Edrei.* 



'Ar-Moiib, here called Shebeth-'Ar, literally, "dwelling 
of 'Ar ;" whence the river turned to the well, Beer, which 
was discovered probably in a country otherwise destitute 
of good drink water. Onkelos renders, " .\nd thence was 
the well given them." English version, " And from 
thence they went to Beer." In this version, Aruheim's 
translation has been followed. 

° "And what was its strength ? the prohibition of God, 
who had told them, ' Attack them not,' " &c. — Rasih 



NUMBERS XXI. XXII. BALAK. 



34 And the Lord said unto Moses, Fear 
him not; for into thy hand have I delivered 
him, and all his people, and his land; and 
thou shalt do unto him as thou hast done 
unto Sichon, the king of the Emorites, who 
dwelt at Cheshbon. 

35 And they smote him and his sons, and 
all his people, until there was none left unto 
him that escaped; and they took possession 
of his land. 

CHAPTER XXII. 

1 And the children of Israel set forward, 
and encamped in the plains of Moab, on this 
side of the Jordan, opposite Jericho. 

Ilapbtorah in Judges xi. 1 to 33. 



SECTION XL. BALAK, pS^. 

2 Tl And Balak the son of Zippor saw all 
that Israel had done to the Emorites. 

3 And MoJib was greatly afraid of the peo- 
ple, because it was numerous ; and Moab was 
distressed because of the children of Israel. 

4 And Moab said unto the elders of Midian, 
Now will this assemblage devour all that is 
round about us, as the ox devoureth the grass 
of the field; and Balak the son of Zippor was 
king of Moab at that time. 

5 And he sent messengers unto Bil'am" the 
son of Becir to Petlior, Avhich is by the river, 
in the land of the children of his people, to 
have him called; saying. Behold, there is a 
people come out from Egypt ; behold, it cover- 
eth the surface of the earth, and it is abiding 
opposite to me : 

And now do but come, curse me this 
people; for it is too mighty for me; perad- 
venture I may be able to smite it, that I may 
drive it out of the land ; for I know that he 
whom thou blessest is blessed, and he whom 
thou cursest is cursed. 

7 And the elders of Moiib and the elders 
of Midian departed with the rewards'" of divi- 
nation in their hand; and they came unto 
Bil'am, and spoke unto him the words of 
Balak. 



* Eng. ver. "Balaam." 

^ According to Midrash Rabba, quoted by Rashi, the 
translation should be, "with instruments of divination in 
their hands." 

° By not stating the reasons for this refusal, the mes- 
sengers were left in doubt as regards them. Hence they 



8 And he said unto them. Remain 3()u 
here this night, and I Avill bring you woixl 
again, as the Lord may sjieak unto me; and 
the princes of Moiib abode with Bil'am. 

9 And God came unto Bil'am, and said. 
Who are these men with thee? 

10 And Bil'am said inito God, Balak the 
son of Zippor, the king of Moiib, hath sent 
unto me, (saying,) 

11 Behold, there is the peoi)le that is come 
out of Egypt, and covereth the face of the 
earth : now come, denounce it lor me ; perad- 
ventvu'e I shall be able to fight against it, and 
drive it away. 

12 And God said unto Bil'am, Thou shalt 
not go with them : thou shalt not curse the 
people; for it is blessed.* 

13 And Bil'am rose up in the morning, 
and said unto the princes of Balak, Go lj;ick 
to your land; for the Lord refuseth to give 
me leave to go with" you. 

14 And the princes of Moiib rose up, and 
they went unto Balak, and said, Bil'am refus- 
eth to come with us. 

15 And Balak sent jet again princes, more 
in number, and more honoural)le than those. 

16 And they came to Bil'aui, and said to 
him. Thus saith Balak the son of Zippor, Do 
not suffer tlnself, I pray thee, to be prevented 
from coming unto me; 

17 For 1 will honour thee greatlj-, and 
whatsoever thou mayest say unto me will I 
do : and only come, I pray thee, denounce me 
this people. 

18 And Bil'am answered and said unto the 
servants of Balak, If Balak would give me his 
house full of silver and gold, I could not 
transgress the order of the Lord my God, to 
do a small or a great thing. 

19 And now, I pray you, tarry ye also 
here this night, that I may know Avhat the 
Lord Avill farther speak with me. 

20 And God came unto Bil'am at night, 
and said unto him, If to call thee the men 
have come, rise up, go with them; but only 
the word which I shall speak unto thee, that 
shalt thou do.* 



and the king thought, perhaps, that it was because the de- 
putation had not been commensurate with the dignity of 
the prophet; wherefore Balak despatched a second more 
numerous and honoured deputation to call him, and 
then for the first time did Bil'am reveal his powerless- 



NUMBERS XXII. XXIII. BALAK. 



21 And Bil'am rose up in the morning, 
and saddled Ids ass, and went with the princes 
of Mojib. 

22 And the anger of God was kindled, be- 
cause he went; and an angel of the Lord 
placed himself in the way to be a hindrance 
to him; and he was riding upon his ass, and 
his two servants were with him. 

23 And the ass saw the angel of the Lord 
standing in the way, with his sword drawn in 
his hand ; and the ass turned aside out of the 
way, and went into the field: and Bil'am 
smote the ass, to make her turn into the 
way. 

24 But the angel of the Lord stepped into 
a path between the vineyards, (with) a wall 
on this side, and a wall on that side. 

25 And when the ass saw the angel of the 
Lord, she forced herself against the wall, and 
pressed Bil'am's foot against the -wall : and he 
smote her again. 

26 And the angel of the Lord went yet 
farther, and stood in a narrow place, where 
there was no way to turn either to the right 
or to the left. 

27 And when the ass saw the angel of the 
Lord, she lay do^\m under Bil'am : whereupon 
Bil'am's anger was kindled, and he smote the 
ass with a stick. 

28 And the Lord opened the mouth of the 
ass, and she said unto Bil'am, What have I 
done unto thee, that thou hast smitten me 
these three times? 

29 And Bil'am said unto the ass, Because 
thou hast mocked me : had I but a sword in 
my hand, I would assuredly have now killed 
thee. 

30 And the ass said unto Bil'am, Am not 
I thy ass, upon which thou hast ridden from 
thy commencement* unto this day? was I 
ever wont to do so mi to thee? and he said, 
No. 

31 Then the Lord opened the eyes of 
Bil'am, and he saw the angel of the Lord 
standing in the way, with his sword drawn in 
his hand : and he l^owed down his head and 
prostrated himself on his f;ice. 

32 And the angel of the Lord said unto 



• Hcb. "From thy first being," which the commentator 
to Mciidcl.s.sohn's translation cxplain.s, "from the first time 
thou diiL«t ride." 

' Mendelssohn, after Rashi; and it means that though 
permission had been given to the gentile prophet to go to 
190 



him, Wherefore hast thou smitten thy as.s 
these three times? behold, I went out to be 
a hindrance; because the journey which is 
odious to me was too quickly begun.'' 

33 And the ass saw me, and turned aside 
before me these three times; if she had not 
turned aside from me, I would surely now not 
only have slain thee, but saved her alive. 

34 And Bil'am said unto the angel of the 
Lord, I have sinned; for° I knew not that 
thou wast standing against me in the way: 
but now, if it be evil in thy eyes, I Avill return 
home again. 

35 And the angel of the Lord said unto 
Bil'am, Go with the men ; however, only the 
word which I will speak unto thee, that shalt 
thou speak f and Bil'am went with the princes 
of Balak. 

36 And when Balak heard that Bil'am was 
come, he went out to meet him unto 'Ir-Moab, 
which is on the border of Arnon, which is at 
the outmost end of the bomidary. 

37 And Balak said unto Bilam, Did I not 
earnestly send unto thee to have thee called? 
wherefore camest thou not unto me ? in truth, 
am I not able to honour thee? 

38 And Bil'am said unto Balak, Lo, I am 
come unto thee ; have I now any power what^ 
ever to speak the least? the word that God 
may put in my mouth, that alone must I 
speak.* 

39 And Bil'am went with Balak, and they 
came unto Kiryath-chuzoth. 

40 And Balak slew oxen and sheep, and 
sent to Bil'am, and to the princes that were 
with him. 

41 And it came to pass in the morning, 
that Balak took Bil'am, and brought him up 
into the high places of Baiil, and he saw 
thence a portion of the people. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

1 And Bil'am said unto Balak, Build me 
here seven altars, and prepare me here seven 
bullocks and seven rams. 

2 And Balak did as Bil'am had spoken; 
and Balak and Bil'am ofl'ered a bullock and a 
ram on everv altar. 



Balak, he nevertheless showed too great and culpable an 
eagerness to attempt cursing the people of God. 

" Aruheim renders o with "that;" Philippson, with 
"nevertheless." 

^ Bil'am was evidently anxious to injure Israel. 



NUMBERS XXIII. BALAK. 



3 And Bil'am said unto Balak, Place thy- 
self by thy bumt-offering ; and I will go, per- 
adventiire the Lord will come to meet me, 
and whatsoever he may show me I will tell 
thee; and he went thoughtfully alone.* 

4 And God met Bil'am : and he said unto 
him. The seven altars have I made ready, 
and I have offered a bullock and a ram upon 
every altar. 

5 And the Lord put a word"" in Bil'am's 
mouth, and said. Return unto Balak, and thus 
shalt thou speak. 

6 And he returned unto him, and, lo, he 
was standing by his burnt-oflfering, he, and all 
the princes of Moiib. 

7 And he took up his parable, and said, 
From Aram did Balak send for me, the king 
of Moiib, out of the mountains of the east, 
Come, curse me Jacob, and come, defy Israel. 

8 How shall I denounce, whom God hath 
not denounced? and how shall I defy, whom 
the Lord hath not defied? 

9 For from the top of rocks I see him, and 
from hills I behold him: lo, it is a people 
that shall dwell alone, and among the nations 
it shall not be reckoned. 

10 Who can count the dust of Jacob, and 
number the fourth part of Israel ? May my 
soul die the death of the righteous, and may 
my last end be like his !° 

11 And Balak said unto Bil'am, What hast 
thou done unto me ? to denounce my enemies 
did I take thee, and, behold, thou hast even 
blessed them. 

12 And he answered and said. Must I not 
take heed to speak that only which the Lord 
may put in m}^ mouth?''' 

13 And Balak said unto him, Come, I pray 
thee, with me unto another place, from where 
thou canst see them; nevertheless a portion 
of them only wilt thou see, but the whole of 
them thou wilt not see : and denounce them 
for me from there. 

14 And he brought liim to the field of the 
watchmen, on the top of Pisgah, and he built 



' Mendelssohn renders, "to a mountain-top;" but On- 
kclos gives n'ri' "alone;" Rashi agrees with this. Arn- 
heim renders "devoutly." In the present version it has 
been endeavoured to unite both these ideas. 

^ Mendelssohn, "answer;" Philippson, "speech." 

• i. e. The people, personified as an individual. 

" Onkelos refers both "iniquity" and " perverseness" 
to the worship of idols, and so is it rendered by Amheim. 
ibo Hi'nn is given after Onkelos. Rashi, Rashbam, and, 



seven altars, and offered a bullock and a mm 
on every altar. 

15 And he said unto Balak, Place thy.sclf 
here by thy burnt-offering, while I will repair 
to 3'onder place. 

IG And the Lord met Bil'am, and put a 
word in his mouth, and said, Return unto 
Balak, and tlius shalt thou speak. 

17 And he came to him, and behold, he 
was standing by his burnt-offering, and the 
princes of Moiib with him; and Balak said 
unto him. What hath the Lord spoken? 

18 And he took up his parable, and said. 
Rise up, Balak, and hear; bend hither thy 
ear unto me, son of Zippor ! 

19 God is not a man, that he should lie; 
nor a son of man, that he should repent; 
hath he said, and shall he not do it? and 
hath he spoken, and shall he not fulfil it? 

20 Behold, to bless I have received (the 
word) ; and he hath blessed, and I cannot re- 
verse it. 

21 He hath not beheld iniquity'^ in Jacob, 
nor hath he seen perverseness in Israel : the 
Lord his God is with him, and the glory of 
the king dwelleth among him. 

22 God, who brought them out of Egypt, 
is to them like the heights" of the reem. 

23 For there is no enchantment in Jacol), 
nor is there any divination in Israel : at the 
proper time shall it be said to Jacob and to 
Israel, what God doth work. 

24 Behold, it is a people, that shall rise up 
as a lioness, and as a lion shall it raise itsell': 
it will not lie down until it have eaten the 
prey, and have drunk the blood of the slain. 

25 And Balak said unto Bil'am, Neither 
shalt thou denounce them, nor shalt thou any 
wise bless them. 

26 But Bil'am answered and said unto Ba- 
lak, Have I not spoken unto thee, saying, 
All that the Lord will speak, that must 1 
do?* 

27 And Balak said unto Bil'am, Come, I 
pray thee, I will take thee unto another 



after them, Amheim, render it with "love" or "kindness." 
Philippson, "the joyous shout of the king." 

= Amheim, after whom this verse is given, thinks that 
it means "God is to the people a sure refuge, like the 
Alpine heights are to the reem, which he supposes to be 
here the chamois, where it is safe against the hunter." On- 
kelos translates " the strength and height are his," (God's,) 
meaning that He is mightier than all. 0. does not re- 
eard therefore DNi as the name of an animal in this verse. 
^ 191 



NUMBERS XXIII. XXIV. BALAK. 



place ; peradventure it may be pleasing in the 
eyes of God that thou mayest denounce them 
for me from there. 

28 And Balak took Bil'am unto the top of 
Peor. that looketh toward the desert. 

29 And Bil'am said unto Balak, Build me 
here seven altars, and prej)are me here seven 
bullocks and seven rams. 

30 And Balak did as Bil'am had said, and 
he ofl'ered a bullock and a ram on every altar. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

1 And when Bil'am saw that it was pleas- 
ing in the eyes of the Lord to bless Israel, 
he went not, as at other times, to seek for en- 
chantments, but he set his face toward the 
wilderness. 

2 And Bil'am lifted up his eyes, and when 
he saw Israel encamped according to their 
tribes, there came upon him the spirit of 
God. 

3 And he took up his parable, and said, 
Thus saith Bil'am the son of Beor, and thus 
saith the man whose eyes are open ; 

4 Thus saith he who heareth the sayings 
of God, who scetli the vision of the Almighty, 
falling down, with unvailed eyes : 

5 How beautiful are thy tents, Jacob, 
thy dwellings, Israel ! 

G As streams" are they spread forth, as 
gardens by the river's side, as aloe-trees, 
which the Lord hath planted, as cedar-trees 
beside the waters. 

7 Water runneth out of his'' buckets, that 
his seed may be moistened by abundance of 
water; and exalted above Agag shall be his 
king, and raised on high shall be his kingdom. 

8 God, who brought him forth out of 
Egypt, is to him like the heights of the reem; 
he will devour nations, his oppressors, and 
their bones will he break, and pierce (them) 
through with his arrows. 

9 He couchcth, he lieth down as a lion, 
and as a lioness: who shall make him rise up? 
They tiiat bless thee be blessed, and they that 
curse thee be cursed. 

10 And the anger of Balak was kindled 



* Others, "valleys," 

' Ariiliuim refers " IiIh" to God, who is reprcBonted as 
planting the trees of Israel by flowing streams, the great 
fertilizers in all countries, particularly in warm climates; 
the buckets of God, his clouds, then .send forth a con- 
stant supply, that the seed of the trees spoken of may be 
1U2 



against Bil'am, and he struck his hands to- 
gether : and Balak said unto Bil'am, To de- 
nounce my enemies did I call thee, and, be- 
hold, thou hast even blessed them these three 
times. 

11 And now flee thou to thy place: I 
thought to honour thee greatly ; but, lo, the 
Lord hath kept thee back from honour. 

12 And Bil'am said unto Balak, Did I not 
already speak to thy messengers, whom thou 
sentest unto me, saying, 

13 If Balak would give me his house full 
of silver and gold, I could not tran.sgress the 
order of the Lord, to do good or evil out of 
my own heart ; Avhat the Lord will speak, 
that must I speak ?''^ 

14 And now, behold, I am going unto my 
people : come, I \vill advise thee against what 
this people will do to thy people in the end 
of days. 

15 And he took up his parable and said, 
Thus saith Bil'am the son of Betir, and thus 
saith the man whose eyes are open ; 

10 Thus saith he who heareth the sa^-ings 
of God, and knoweth the knowledge of the 
Most High, who seeth the vision of the Al- 
mighty, falling down, with unvailed eyes : 

17 1 see him, but not now; I behold him, 
but not nigh ; there steppeth forth a star out 
of Jacob, and there ariseth a sceptre out of 
Israel, and he pierceth the chiefs'' of Moid), and 
destroyeth all the children of Sheth. 

18 And Edom shall be a conquest, and 
Se'ir shall be a conquest for his enemies ; and 
Israel shall do valiantly. 

19 And there shall rule the one from Jacob, 
and he shall destroy whatever escapeth out 
of the city. 

20 And he looked on Amalek, and he took 
up his parable, and said. The first of nations'" 
is Amalek ; but his latter end shall be de- 
struction" for ever. 

21 And he looked on the Kenites, and 
took up his parable, and said. Strong is thy 
dwelling-place, and placed on the rock is thy 
nest.' 

22 Nevertheless the Kenite shall be wast> 



blessed by the abundance of the element through which 
they grow. 

° After Oukelos. Aruheim and others, "corners." 

^ To war again.st Israel. — Onkelos. 
Leadoth to destruction. — AnNHEiM. 

' i. i\ The mountain-strongholds of the Kenites. 



NUMBERS XXIV. XXV. XXVI. PINECIIAS. 



cd ; wbitlier'' will Asshur carry thee away 
cajDtive ? 

23 And he took up his parable, and said, 
Alas, Avho shall live when God doth appoint 
this one ?*" 

2-4 But ships will come from the coast of 
Kittim, and will afflict Asshur, and will afflict 
'Eber, and he also will be given to destruction 
for ever. 

25 And Biriim rose up, and went and re- 
turned to his place ; and Balak also went his 
way. 

CHAPTER XXV. 

1 "U And Israel abode in Shittim, and the 
people began to commit incest with the 
daughters of Moiib. 

2 And they called the people unto the sa- 
crifices of their gods : and the people did eat, 
and bowed themselves down to their gods. 

3 And Israel joined themselves unto Baiil- 
peiir; and the anger of the Lord was kindled 
against Israel. 

4 And the Lord said unto Moses, Take 
all the heads of the people, and (cause them 
to) hang" them up before the Lord, in the face 
of the sun, that the fierce anger of the Lord 
may be turned away from Israel. 

5 And Moses said unto the judges of Isi'ael, 
Slay ye every one his men that have been 
joined unto Baal-peor. 

6 And, behold, one of the children of Israel 
came, and brought unto his brethren a Midi- 
auitish woman, before the eyes of Moses, and 
before the eyes of all the congregation of the 
children of Israel, and these were weeping by 
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation.* 

7 And when Phinehas, the son of Elazar, 
the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up 
from the midst of the congregation, and took 
a javelin in his hand; 

8 And he went after the man of Israel into 
the tent, and thrust both of them through, 
the man of Israel, and the woman through 
her body ; and the plague was stayed from 
the children of Israel. 



' Rashi. How long will it be when Asshur will, &c. 
— Arnheim. 

'' ('. e. When God sends Asshur to execute his will. 
See Isaiah x. 5. — Philippson, "Wo! who might live, if 
God dispense it !" 

° And judge and slay those who deserve death. — 
Onkelos. 

Z 



9 And those that died in the plague were 
twenty and four thousand. 

Ilaphtorah in Micah v. to vi. 8. 



SECTION XLI. PINECHAS, DnrS. 

10 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

11 Phinehas, the son of Elazar, the son of 
Aaron the priest, hath turned away my wrath 
from the children of Israel, while he was zeal- 
ous in my stead'' in the midst of them, that I 
consumed not the children of Israel in my 
indignation. 

12 Therefore say. Behold, I give unto him 
my covenant of peace ; 

13 And it shall be unto him and unto his 
seed after him a covenant of an everlasting 
joriesthood; because he was zealous for his 
God, and made an atonement for the children 
of Israel. 

14 Now the name of the man of Israel that 
was slain, who was slain wdth the Midianitish 
woman, was Zimri, the son of Sahlu, a prince 
of a family division among the Simec/nites. 

15 And the name of the Midianitish wo- 
man that was slain was Cozbi, the daughter 
of Zur ; he was head of tribes, of a family di- 
vision in Midian. 

16 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, 
saying, 

17 Attack the Midianites and smite them; 

18 For they are enemies unto you with 
their wiles, wherewith they have beguiled 
you in the matter of Peor, and in the matter 
of Cozbi, the daughter of a prince of Midian, 
their sister, who was slain on the day of the 
plague for the sake of Peor. 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

1 And it came to pass after the plague, 

^ That the Lord spoke unto Moses and 
unto Elazar the son of Aaron the priest, say- 
ing, 

2 Take ye the sum of all the congregation 
of the children of Israel, from twenty yeai-s 



* Heb. " In his avenging my vengeance ;" meaning, 
that Phinehas executed the judgment which the Lord 
would otherwise have executed upon the daring Zimri. — 
The word "indignation" is used here for Tixjp^, as this 
expresses the idea of " wrath existed by the exhibition 
of the apostasy" spoken of in the first verses of this chap- 
ter, better than "jealousy." 

193 



NUMBERS XXVI. PINECHAS. 



old and upward, by the descent from their 
fathers, all that are able to go forth to war in 
Israel. 

o And Moses with Elazar the priest spoke 
Avith them in the plains of Moiib by the Jor- 
dan opposite Jericho, saying, 

4 (Take" the sum of the people,) from 
twenty years old and upward ; as the Lord 
commanded Moses and the children of Israel, 
who went forth out of the land of Egypt.* 

5 Reiiben, the eldest son of Israel : the 
children of Reuben, of Chanoch, the family 
of the Chanochites ; of Pallu, the family of 
the Palluites; 

6 Of Chezron, the family of the Chezron- 
ites ; of Carmi, the family of the Carmites. 

7 These are the families of the Reiibenites; 
and those that were numbered of them were 
forty and three thousand and seven hundred 
and thirty. 

8 And the sons of Pallu : Eliab. 

9 And the sons of Eliab : Nemuel, and Da- 
than, and Abiram. These are Dathan, and 
Abiram, men called to the assembly, who 
([uarrelled against Moses and against Aaron 
in the company of Korach, at the time they 
quarrelled against the Lord; 

10 AVhen the earth opened her mouth, and 
swallowed them up together with Korach, 
while that company died, when the fire de- 
voui'ed the two hundred and fifty men ; and 
they became a sign.'' 

11 But the sons of Korach did not die. 

12 ^ The sons of Simeon after their fami- 
lies : of Nemuel, the family of the Nemuelites; 
of Yamin, the family of the Yaminites; of 
Yachin, the family of the Yachinites ; 

13 Of Zerach, the ftimily of the Zarchites; 
of Shaiil, the family of the Shaiilites. 

14 These are the families of the Simeon- 
ites, twenty and two thousand and two hun- 
dred. 

15 T[ The children of Gad after their fami- 
lies : of Zephon, the family of the Zephonites; 
of Chaggi, the family of the Chaggites ; of 
Shuni, the family of the Shunites ; 



' The words enclosed in parentheses are not in the He- 
brew, as is likewise the case with nearly all others marked 
thus in this version; but they are such as are absolutely 
ref|uireil by the context. 

^ Tho punisliniciit inflicted on the trangressors must 
always be li)cikod iipim as a moans of guarding others 
against fnllnwing tlie sinful course through which the 
I'.M 



IG Of Ozni, the fixmily of the Oznites ; of 
'Eri, the family of the 'Erites ; 

17 Of Arod, the fomily of the Arodites; of 
Areli, the family of the Arelites ; 

18 These are the families of the children 
of Gad according to those that were numbered 
of them, forty thousand and five hundred. 

19 If The sons of Judah Avere 'Er and 
Onan ; and 'Er with Onan died in the land of 
Canaan. 

20 .And the sons of Judah after their fami- 
lies were : of Shelach, the family of the She- 
lanites ; of Perez, the family of the Parzites ; 
of Zerach, the family of the Zarchites. 

21 And the sons of Perez were : of Chez- 
ron, the family of the Chezronites; of Char 
mul, the family of the Chamulites. 

22 These are the families of Judah, accord- 
ing to those that were numbered of them, 
seventy and six thousand and five hundred. 

23 *[[ The sons of Issachar after their fami- 
lies : of Tola', the family of the Tola'ites ; of 
Puva, the family of the Punites : 

24 Of Yashub, the family of the Yashubites ; 
of Shimron, the family of the Shimronites. 

25 These are the I'amilies of Issachar ac- 
cording to those that were numbered of them, 
sixty and four thousand and three hundred. 

26 ^ The sons of Zebulun after their fami- 
lies : of Sered, the finnily of the Sardites ; of 
Elou, the lamily of the Elonites ; of Yachleel, 
the family of the Yachleelites. 

27 These are- the families of the Zebulon- 
ites according to those that Avere numbered of 
them, sixty thousand and five hundred. 

28 T[ The sons of Joseph after their fiimi- 
lies are Menassch and Ephraim. 

29 The sous of Menasseh : of Machir, the 
family of the Machirites ; and Machir begat 
Gil'ad ; of Gil'ad, the family of the Gil'adites. 

30 These are the sons of Gil'ad : of I'ezer, 
the family of the I'ezerites; of Chelek, the 
family of the Chelkites ; 

31 And of Assriel, the family of the Assri- 
elites; and of Shechem, the family of the 
Shichmites ; 



evil was brought upon the sinners ; hence the persons in 
the text are said to have become a " sign," or, more pro- 
perly, a " banner," or a signal raised up on high, as a land- 
mark for those who may pass the road where the banner 
is plantod. Kashi, therefore, eomnients, "As a sign 
and uicraoiial, in order that no siraugcr shall in future ap- 
proach to contend about the priesthood." 



NUMBERS XXVI. PINECHAS. 



32 And of Sliemida', the family of the She- 
niida'ites ; and of Chepher, the family of the 
Chephrites. 

33 And Zeloplichad the son of Chepher 
had no sons, but only daughters; and the 
names of the daughters of Zeloplichad were 
Machlah, and No' ah, Choglah, Milcah, and 
Tirzah. 

34 These are the families of Menasseh ; and 
those that were numbered of them were fifty 
and two thousand and seven hundred. 

35 ^ These are the sons of Ephraim after 
their families : of Shuthelach, the family of 
the Shuthalchites ; of Becher, the family of 
the Bachrites : of Tachan, the family of the 
Taehanites. 

36 And these are the sons of Shuthelach : 
of 'Eran, the family of the 'Eranites. 

37 These are the families of the sons of 
Ephraim according to those that were num- 
bered of them, thirty and two thousand and 
five himdred; these are the sons of Joseph 
after their families. 

38 ^ The sons of Benjamin after their 
famiUes : of Bela', the family of the Bal'ites ; 
of Ashbel, the family of the Ashbelites; of 
Achiram, the family of the Achiramites ; 

39 Of Shephupham," the family of the 
Shuphamites ; of Chupham, the family of the 
Chuphamites. 

40 And the sons of Bela' were Ard and 
Na'aman : of Ard, the family of the Ardites ; 
and of Na'aman, the family of the Na'am- 
ites. 

41 These are the sons of Benjamin after 
their families ; and those that were numbered 
of them Avere forty and five thousand and six 
hundred. 

42 ][ These are the sons of Dan after their 
families : of Shucham, the family of the Shu- 
chamites ; these are the families of Dan after 
their families. 

43 All the families of the Shuchamites, 
according to those that were numbered of 
them, were sixty and four thousand and four 
hundred. 

44 ^ The children of Asher after their 
famiUes : of Yimna, the family of the Yim- 



' In comparing the names of the families of Israel with 
those of the fathers who first came into Egypt, there will 
be found considerable variation in some of them; for in- 
stance, the name in the text is Shephupham ; in Genesis 
xlvi. 21, it is Muppim ; so likewise Nemuel is in Genesis 



nites ; of Yishvi, the family of tlie Yishvifes ; 
of Beri'ah, the family of the Bori'itos. 

45 Of the sons of Beri'ah : of Cheber, the 
family of the Chebrites ; of Malkiel, the family 
of the Makielites. 

46 And the name of the daughter of Asher 
was Serach. 

47 These arc the families of the sons of 
Asher according to those that were numljerod 
of them, fifty and three thousand and four 
hundred. 

48 1[ The sons of NaphtaU after their fomi- 
lies : of Yachzeel, the family of the Yachzeel- 
ites ; of Guni, the familj- of the Gunites : 

49 Of Yezer, the family of the Yizrites : of 
ShUlem, the family of the Shillemites. 

50 These are the families of Naphtali ac- 
cording to their families ; and those that wei'e 
numbered of them were forty and five thou- 
sand and four hundred. 

51 These were the numbered of the chil- 
dren of Israel, six hundred thousand, and one 
thousand, seven hundred and thirty.* 

52 •[[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
mo* 

53 Unto these shall the laud be divided for 
an inheritance accorduig to the number of the 
names. 

54 To the large tribe shalt thou give the 
more inheritance, and to the small shalt thou 
give the less mheritauce : to each according to 
those that were numbered thereof shall its in- 
heritance be given. 

55 Nevertheless, through the lot shall the 
land be divided : according to the names of 
the tribes of their fathers shall they obtain 
their inheritance. 

56 By the decision of the lot shall the in- 
heritance of each be divided, according as they 
are many or few. 

57 ^ And these are those that were num- 
bered of the Le\ates after their families : ol 
Gershou, the family of the Gcrshunites; ot 
Kehath, the family of the Kohathites ; oi 
Merari, the family of the Merarites. 

58 These are the families of Levi : the 
family of the Libnites, the family of the Che- 
bronites, the family of the Machlites, the 



Temuel ; Zochar there, is Zerach here ; Yob is Yashub, 
&c. The reason of these changes is not very apparent : 
perhaps the original founders of the family were known 
by both names, or these may have become corrupted iu 
the process of time. 



NUMBERS XXVI. XXVII. PINECHAS. 



family of the Musliites, the family of the 
Korchites ; and Kehath begat 'Amram. 

59 And the name of 'Amram's wife was 
Yochebcd, the dauglitcr of Levi, whom (her 
mother) Ijore to Le\i in Egypt ; and she bore 
unto Ann-am, 'Aaron and Moses, and Miriam 
their sister. 

GO And there were born unto Aaron, Na- 
dab, and AInhu, Ehizar, and Ithaniar. 

Gi And Nadab and Abihu died, when they 
offered a strange fire before the Lord. 

G2 And those that Avere numbered of them 
were twenty and three thousand, all the males 
from a month old and upward ; for they Avere 
numbered among the children of Israel, be- 
cause there was not given unto them any in- 
heritance among the children of Israel. 

G3 These are those that were numbered by 
Moses and Elazar the priest, who numbered 
the children of Israel in the plains of Moab by 
the Jordan, opposite Jericho. 

04 And among these there was not one 
man of those whom Moses and Aaron the 
priest had numbered, who numbered the 
children of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai. 

Co For the Lord had said of them. They 
shall surely die in the wilderness ; and there 
was not leit of them one man, save Caleb the 
Bon of Yephuuneh, and Joshua the son of 
Nun. 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

1 T[ And there came nigh the daughters of 
Zelophchad, the son of Chepher, the son of 
Gil' ad, the son of Machir, the son of Menas- 
Beh, of the families of Menasseh the son of 
Joseph : and these are the names of his 
daughters, Machlah, No' ah, and Choglah, and 
Milcah, and Tirzah. 

2 And they stood before Moses, and before 
Elazar the priest, and' before the princes, and 
all the congregation, by the door of the taber- 
nacle of the congregation, saying, 

3 Our hither died in the wilderness ; but he 
was not among the company of those that 
gathered themselves together against the Lord 
in tlie company of Korach ; but in his own 
sin he died, and sons he had not. 

4 Why should the name of our father be 
done away from the midst of his fjimily, be- 



* Meaning, that they had omitted to sanctify God. 
Mendelssohn, therefore, translates freely, " Because you 



cause he hath no son ? Give unto us a po.s- 
session among the brothers of our father. 

5 And Moses bi'ought their cause before 
the Lord.* 

G ][ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, sa}'- 
ing, 

7 The daughters of Zelophchad speak 
rightly : thou shalt indeed give them a pos- 
session as an inheritance among the brothers 
of their father; and thou shalt cause the in- 
heritance of their father to pass unto them. 

8 And unto the children of Israel shalt 
thou speak, sa^'ing. If a man die, and have no 
son, then shall ye cause his inheritance to 
pass unto his daughter. 

9 And if he have no daughter, then shall 
ye give his inheritance unto his brothers. 

10 And if he have no brothers, then shall 
ye give his inheritance unto his father's bro- 
thers. 

11 And if his father have no brothers, then 
shall ye give his inheritance imto his kinsman 
that is next to him of his family, and he shall 
inherit it ; and it shall be unto the children 
of Israel a statute of justice, as the Lord hath 
commanded Moses. 

12 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, Go 
thou up into this mount of 'Abarim, and 
see the land which I have given unto the 
children of Israel. 

13 And when thou hast seen it, then shalt 
thou also be gathered unto thy people as 
Aaron thy brother hath been gathered. 

14 Because ye rebelled against my order in 
the desert of Zin, at the quarrelUng of the 
congregation, to sanctify" me through the 
waters before their eyes ; these are the Avaters 
of Mei'ibah in Kadesh, in the Avilderncss of 
Zin. 

15 ^ And Moses spoke unto the Lord, say- 

16 Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of 
all flesh, appoint a man over the congregation, 

17 Who may go out Ix'fore them, and who 
may come in betbrc them, and who may lead 
them out, and who may l)ring them in; that 
the congregation of the Lord be not as a flock 
Avhich have no shepherd. 

18 And the Lord said unto Moses, Take 
to thyself Joshua the son of Nim, a man in 



should have sanctified me, on the occasion of the water, 

before their cj-es." 



NUMBERS XXVII. XXVIII. PINECHAS. 



whom there is a spirit, and thou shalt lay thy 
hand ujion him ; 

10 And thou shalt cause him to stand be- 
fore Elazar the priest, and before all the con- 
gregation ; and thou shalt give him a charge" 
before their eyes. 

20 And thou shalt put some of thy great- 
ness upon him ; that all the congregation of 
the children of Israel may be obedient. 

21 And before Elazar the priest shall he 
stand, and he shall ask of him after the judg- 
ment of the Urim before the Lord : at his'' di- 
rection shall they go out, and at his direction 
shall they come in, he, and all the children 
of Israel Avith Mm, and all the congrega- 
tion. 

22 And Moses did, as the Lord had com- 
manded him ; and he took Joshua, and caused 
him to stand before Elazar the priest, and be- 
fore all the congregation ; 

23 And he laid his hands upon him, and 
gave him a charge; as the Lord had com- 
manded by the hand of Moses.* 

CHAPTER XXVm. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

2 Command the children of Israel, and say 
unto them, My offering, my bread for my sa- 
crifices consumed by fire, for a sweet savour 
unto me, shall ye observe to offer unto me 
in its due season." 

3 And thou shalt say unto them. This is 
the offering made by fire which ye shall offer 
unto the Lord : Sheep of the first year with- 
out blemish, two on every day, as a continual 
burnt-offering. 

4 The one sheep shalt thou offer in the 
morning, and the other sheep shalt thou offer 
toward evening; 

5 And a tenth part of an ephah of fine 
flour for a meat-offering, mingled with the 
fourth part of a bin of beaten oil. 

6 It is a continual burnt^offering, as it was 
prejsared at mount Sinai, for a sweet savour, a 
sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord. 

7 And the drink-offering thereof shall be 
the fourth part of a bin for the one sheep; in 
the holy place shalt thou cause the strong 



* Give him publicly a distinct injunction of the manner 
in which he is to administer the government, exercise 
justice, and be a valiant leader in battle. 

•■ That is, of Elazar. The priest invested with the 



wine to be poured out as a drink-offering unto 
the Lord. 

8 And the other sheep shalt thou offer to- 
ward evening: as the meat-offering of the 
morning, and as the drink-offering thereof, 
shalt thou prepare it; an offering made by 
fire, for a sweet savour unto the Lord. 

9 T[ And on the sabbath-day two sheep of 
the first year without blemish, and two tenth 
parts of fine flour for a meat-offering, mingled 
with oil, and the drink-offering thereof 

10 This is the burnt-oflering of the sabbath 
on every sabbath, laesides the continual burnt- 
offering, and its drink-ofi'ering. 

11 ][ And on the beginnings of your 
months shall ye offer as a burnt-oflering unto 
the Lord, two young bullocks, and one ram, 
seven sheep of the first year without blemish. 

12 And three tenth parts of fine flour for a 
meat-offering, mingled with oil, for each one 
bullock ; and two tenth parts of fine flour for 
a meatrofferiug, mingled with oil, for the one 
ram; 

13 And a tenth part of fine flour mingled 
with oil for a meat-offering for every one 
sheep : as a burnt-offering for a sweet savour, 
a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord. 

1-4 And their drink-offerings shall be half 
of a hin of wine for each bullock, and the 
third part of a hin for the ram, and a fourth 
part of a hin for every sheep: this is the 
burnt-offering of the new moon for every 
month throughout the months of the year. 

15 And one he-goat for a sin-oft'oring unto 
the Lord; besides the continual burnt-offering 
shall it be prepared with its drink-offering.* 

16 ^ And in the first month, on the foui'- 
teenth day of the month, the passover-lamb 
(must be offered) unto the Lord. 

17 And on the fifteenth day of this month 
is the feast; seven days shall unleavened 
bread be eaten. 

18 On the first day is a holy convocation; 
no manner of servile work shall ye do ; 

19 And ye shall offer as a sacrifice made 
by fire for a burnt-offering unto the Lord, two 
young bullocks, and one ram, and seven sheep 
of the first year; without blemish .shall they 
be unto you; 



knowledge derived from the judgment of the Urim, should 
impart to the political chief the Divine injunctions for the 
government of the people. 

° Whether on sabbath or week-days 

197 



NUMBERS XXVIII. XXIX. PINECHAS. 



20 And their meat-offering shall be of fine 
flour mingled with oil ; three tenth parts for 
each bullock, and two tenth parts for the ram 
shall ye offer; 

21 A tenth part each shalt thou offer for 
every sheep, of the seven sheep; _ 

22 And one goat for a sin-offering, to make 
an atonement for you. 

23 Besides the burnt-offering of the morn- 
ing, which is for a continual burnt-offering, 
shall ye offer these. 

24 After this manner' shall ye prepare 
daily, throughout the seven days, the food of 
the "sacrifice made by fire, for a sweet savour 
unto the Lord; beside the continual burnt- 
offering shall it be prepared with its drink- 
offering. 

25 And on the seventh day shall ye have 
a holy convocation; no servile work shall 
ye do. 

26 ^ And on the day of the first-fruits,*" 
when ye bring a new meat-offering unto the 
Lord, after your weeks are out, shall ye have 
a holy convocation; no servile work shall 
ye do. 

27 And ye shall bring as a burnt-offering 
for a sweet savour unto the Lord, two young 
bullocks, one ram, seven sheep of the first 
year; 

28 And their meat-offering of fine flour 
mingled with oil, three tenth parts for each 
one bullock, two tenth parts for the one ram, 

2'J A tenth part each for every sheep, of 
the seven sheep; 

30 One he-goat to make an atonement for 
you ; 

31 Besides the continual burnt-offeruig and 
its meat-ofi'ering shall ye prepare them; with- 
out lik'niish shall they be unto you together 
with their driuk-oftcrings. 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

1 ^f And in the seventh month, on the 
first day of the month, shall ye have a holy 
convocation; no servile work shall ye do: a 



' Ileb. "Like these." 

'' Tlie feast of weeks, which is at the end of the seven 
weeks from tlic beginning of the harvest, or the scconJ 
day of the passovcr. It is called the day of first-fruits, 
on account of the two loaves of tlie first wheat sacri- 
ficed tlicrcon. 

' Though the first day of the seventh month is an espe- 
cial festival, it nevertheless is also a new-moon day; eon- 
sefjuently the sacrifices ordained above (xxviii. 11-15) 
198 



day of blowing the comet shall it be unto 
you. 

2 And ye shall prepare as a bimit-offering 
for a sweet savour unto the Lord, one young 
bullock, one ram, seven sheep of the first year 
without blemish ; 

3 And their meat>offering of fine flour min- 
gled with oil, three tenth parts for the bul- 
lock, and two tenth parts for the ram, 

4 And one tenth part for each one sheep, 
of the seven sheep ; 

5 And one he-goat for a sin-offering, to 
make an atonement for you ; 

6 Besides the burnt-offering of the new- 
moon," and its meat-offering, and the daily 
burnt-offering, and its meat-offering, and their 
drmk-ofterings, according unto their prescrib- 
ed manner; for a sweet savour, a sacrifice 
made by fire unto the Lord. 

7 ^ And on the tenth day of this seventh 
month shall ye have a holy convocation ; and 
ye shall afflict* ^our jiersons; no manner of 
work shall ye do. 

8 And 3-e shall bring as a burnt-offering 
unto the Lord for a sweet savour, one young 
bullock, one ram, seven sheep of the first 
year; without blemish shall they be unto 
you. 

9 And their meat-oflering shall Ix" of fine 
flour mingled with oil, three tenth parts for 
the bullock, two tenth parts for the one 
ram, 

10 A tenth part each for every sheep, of 
the seven sheep; 

11 One he-goat for a sin-offering; besides 
the sin-offering of the atonement," and the 
continual burnt-oflering. and the meat-oflering 
thereof, and their drink-offerings.* 

12 ][ And on the fifteenth day of the 
seventh month shall ye have a holy convoca- 
tion; no servile work shall ye do; and ye 
shall keep a feast unto the Lord seven days. 

13 And ye shall bring as a bin'ntK)flering, 
a sacrifice made by fire, for a sweet savour 
unto the Lord, thirteen young bullocks,' two 



must be brought, in addition to tlie festivc-oficring com- 
manded in this section. 

"* I. c. By fasting. 

° In addition to the sin-offerings, the blood of which 
was carried into the holy of holies, the goat for ' A/..izel, 
and the ram for a burnt-ofTering, mentioned in Leviticus 
xvi., shall those sacrifices bo made. 

' As the whole scheme of sacrifices is merely an autho- 
ritative enactment of the Lord, it would be needless to 



NUMBERS XXIX. XXX. PINECHAS. 



rams, and fourteen sheep of the first year; 
■without blemish shall they be. 

14 And their meat-offering shall be of fine 
Hour mmgled with oil, three tenth parts for 
each one bullock of the thirteen bullocks, two 
tenth parts for each one ram of the two rams, 

15 And a tenth part each for every sheep 
of the fourteen sheep. 

10 And one he-goat for a sin-oflfering; be- 
sides the continual burnt-offering, its meat- 
offering, and its drink-offering. 

17 ^1 And on the second day, twelve young 
bullocks, two rams, fourteen sheep of the first 
year without blemish; 

18 And their meat-ofiering and their drink- 
oflerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and 
for the sheep, shall be according to their num- 
ber, after the prescribed manner; 

19 And one he-goat for a sin-offering; be- 
sides the continual burntroffering, and the 
meat-oflfering thereof, and their drink-offer- 
ings. 

20 ^ And on the third day eleven bul- 
locks, two rams, fourteen sheep of the first 
year without blemish; 

21 And their meat-offering and their drink- 
offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and 
for the sheep, shall be according to their num- 
ber, after the prescribed manner; 

22 And one goat for a sin-offering; besides 
the continual burnt-oflering, and its meat- 
oflering, and its drink-offermg. 

23 ^\ And on the fourth day ten bullocks, 
two rams, fourteen sheep of the first year 
without blemish; 

24 Their meat-offering and their drmk- 
offeriugs for the bullocks, for the rams, and 
for the sheep, shall be according to their num- 
ber, after the prescribed manner; 

25 And one he-goat for a sin-offering; be- 
sides the continual burnt-offering, its meat- 
offering, and its drink-oflering. 

26 ^[ And on the fifth day nine bullocks, 
two rams, fourteen sheep of the first year 
without blemish; 

27 And their meat-offering and their drink- 
offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and 
for the sheep, shall be according to their num- 
ber, after the prescribed manner; 



seek for any particular reason for the diversity in the va- 
rious festivals. Only when offered as ordained, were burnt 
and other offerings acceptable, as acts of obedience and 
submission to the supreme will of Israel's Ruler and King. 



28 And one goat for a sin-offering; besides 
the continual burnt-offering, and its meat- 
ofiering, and its drink-offering. 

29 ^] And on the sixth day eight bullocks, 
two rams, fourteen sheep of the first year 
without blemish ; 

30 And their meat-offering and their drink- 
offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and 
for the sheep, shall be according to their num- 
ber, after the prescribed manner; 

31 And one goat for a sin-offering; besides 
the continual burnt-ofiering, its meat-ofiering, 
and its drink-ofierings. 

32 ][ And on the seventh day seven bul- 
locks, two rams, fourteen sheep of the first 
year without blemish ; 

33 And their meat-ofiering and their drink- 
offerings for the bullocks, for the rams, and 
for the sheep, shall be according to their num- 
ber, after their prescribed manner; 

34 And one goat for a sin-offering; besides 
the continual burnt-offering, its meat-offering, 
and its drink-offering.'"' 

35 T[ On the eighth day shall ye have a 
solemn assembly ;" no servile work shall ye do. 

36 And ye shall bring as a burnt-oflering, 
a sacrifice made by fire, for a sweet savour 
unto the Lord, one bullock, one ram, seven 
sheep of the first year without blemish. 

37 Their meat-offering and their drink- 
offerings for the bullock, for the ram, and for 
the sheep, shall be according to their number, 
after, the prescribed manner ; 

38 And one goat for a sin-offering; besides 
the continual burnt-oflering, and its meat- 
offering, and its drink-oflei'ing. 

39 These shall ye prepai'e unto the Lord 
on your appointed festivals ; besides your vows, 
and your freewill-oflerings, consistmg of j'our 
burnt-offerings, and of your meat-offerings, 
and of your drink-offerings, and of your peace- 
ofi'erings. 

CHAPTER XXX. 

l*" And Moses said to the children of Israel 
according to all that the Lord had command- 
ed Moses. 

naphtorah in 1 Kings xviii. 46 to xix. 21 ; but if it bo after tlie 
17th of Tamuz, in Jeremiah i. 1 to ii. 3. 



Hence, also, it is useless to seek for an exact solution of 
the various ceremonies atteudiup; them. 

" "A conclusion feast."- — Puilippson. 

'' The English version commences ch. xxx. at ver. 2. 

199 



NUMBERS XXX. XXXI. MATTOTH. 



SECTION XLII. MATTOTH, mtOO. 

2 Tf And Moses spoke unto the heads of 
the tribes of the children of Israel, saving, 
This is the thing which the Lord hath com- 
manded. 

3 If a man make a vow unto the Lord, or 
he swear an oath to bind his soul with an 
obligation :" he shall not profane his word ; 
according to all that proceedeth out of his 
mouth shall he do. 

4 And if a woman make a vow unto the 
Lord, and bind herself by an obligation, be- 
ing in her father's house in her youth ; 

And her father hear her vow, and her 
obligation wherewith she hath bound her 
soul, and her father be silent to her: then 
shall all her vows stand, and every obligation 
wherewith she hath bound her soul shall 
stand. 

6 But if her father disallow her on the 
day that he heareth it: all her vows or her 
obligations, wherewith she hath bound her 
soul, shall not stand; and the Lord will for- 
give her, because her father hath disallowed 
her. 

7 And if she be given to a man, and have 
vows upon her, or what she may have uttered 
with her lips, wherewith she hath bound her 
soul ; 

8 And her husband hear it, and be silent 
to her on the day that he heareth it: then 
shall her vows stand, and her obligations, 
wherewith she hath bound her soul, shall 
stand. 

9 But if on the day of her husband's hcar- 
ijig it, he disallow her: then doth he annul 
her vow which is uj)on her, and that Avhich 
she hath uttered with her lips, wherewith she 
hath bound her soul ; and the Lord will for- 
give her. 

10 But regarding the a'ow of a widow, or 
of her that is divorced, all, wherewith she 
hath bound her soul, shall stand for her. 

11 And if she had vowed in her husband's 



* That is, to prohibit oneself something which other- 
wise is pcrmittcJ to liim, whereas a vow uiuy refer to do 
Boiiiething which otherwise would not ho obligatorj'. In 
either ca.-ie, wliether it was by an oath or siniiile declara- 
tion, we are warned not to violate our w^ord, called in the 
text to profane it. 

' Verse 8 refers evidently to oaths made before the en- 
gagement of tlie fenmlo to lidr husband, altlmuch a second- 
200 



house,'' or had bound her soul by an obliga- 
tion with an oath; 

12 And her husband heard it, and was 
silent to her, and disallowed her not : then all 
her vows shall stand, and every obligation, 
wherewith she hath bound her sOul, shall 
stand. 

13 But if her husband hath annulled them 
on the day he heard them : then whatsoever 
proceeded out of her lips, concerning her vows, 
or concerning the obligation of her soul, shall 
not stand ; her husband hath annulled them ; 
and the Lord will forgive her. 

14 Every vow, and every binding oath to 
afflict the person, her husband may confirm 
it, or her husband ma}- annul it. 

15 But if her hu.'^band should be silent to 
her from day to day : tlien hath he confirmed 
all her vows, or all her obligations, which are 
upon her; he hath confirmed them, because 
he was silent to her on the day that he heard 
them. 

IC But if he should annul them after (the 
day) that he hath heard them : then shall he 
bear her iniquity. 

17 These are the statutes, which the Lord 
commanded Moses, between a man and his 
wife, between the father and his daughter, 
being yet in her youth, in her father's house.* 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

1 T[ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saj - 

2 Execute the vengeance of the children of 
Israel on the Midianites, after which thou 
shalt be gathered unto thy people. 

3 And Moses spoke unto the people, say- 
ing. Arm yourselves some men for the army, 
and let them go against the Midianites, to 
execute the vengeance of the Lord on Mi- 
dian. 

4 A thousand each for every tribe, of all 
the tribes of Israel, shall ye send to the 
army. 

5 And there were levied out of the thou- 



ary rule concerning the vows of a minor, who is betroth- 
ed, is also drawn from it; whereas the present addresses 
itself to those wade after marriage, while the wife is in 
her hu.sband's house. It is also inferred from this that, 
if a woman, during her husband's life, has made a vow, 
to take effect after a certain time, and he dis;ilIow it, 
though he should die before the time, still the vow is an- 
nulled . 



NUMBERS XXXI. MATTOTH. 



sands of Israel, a thousand of every tribe, 
twelve thousand armed for the army. 

6 And Moses sent them, a thousand of 
every tribe, to the army; them and Phinehas 
the son of Elazar the priest, to the army, Avith 
the holy vessels, and the trumpets for blowing 
the alarm in his hand. 

7 And they marched out against the Mi- 
dianites, as the Lord had commanded Moses; 
and they slew every male. 

8 And the kings of Midian they slew, be- 
sides the rest of their men that were slain; 
namely, Evi, and Rekem, and Zur, and Chur, 
and Reba', the five kings of Midian; and 
Bil'am the son of Beor they slew Avith the 
sword. 

9 And the children of Israel took captives 
the women of Midian, and their little ones; 
and all their cattle, and all their flocks, and 
all their goods, they took as si)oil. 

10 And all their cities wherein they dwelt, 
and all their castles they burnt with tire. 

1 1 And they took all the spoil, and all the 
booty, both of men and of cattle. 

12 And they brought unto Moses, and to 
Elazar the priest, and unto the congregation 
of the children of Israel, the captives,* and 
the boot}', and the spoil, unto the camp, to 
the plains of Moiib, which are by the Jordan 
opposite Jericho.* 

13 ^ And Moses, and Elazar the priest, 
and all the princes of the congregation, went 
forth to meet them, to without the camp. 

14 And Moses was wroth with the officers 
of the host, the captains over the thousands, 
and the captains over the hundreds, who had 
come from the war-campaign.- 

15 And Moses said unto them, Have ye 
allowed all the females to live? 

16 Behold, these cliiefly Avere the cause 
unto the children of Israel, through the coun- 
sel of Bil'am, to commit the gross trespass 
against the Lord in the matter of Peor; 
through Avhich there was the plague among 
the congregation of the Lord. 

17 And now kill ye every male among the 



" The word "captives" '32^ refers to human beings; 
"spoil" hhiy to inanimate things, "booty" nipS:^ to the 
cattle. But when they are not all enumerated together, 
both SSiy and nipSo refer to all things taken in war, as 
the English word sjmil. 

^ In obedience to the injunction contained in chap, xix., 
by which every one touching a dead body is rendered un- 
2 A 



little ones, and every Avoman that hath knoAA'n 
man by Ij'ing Avith him shall ye kill. 

18 But all among the Avomen-children, that 
have not known a man by lying Avith him, 
keep alive for yourselves. 

19 But ye, — you must abide Avithout the 
camp seven days : all ye Avho have killed any 
person, and all who have touched any one 
slain, shall purify yourselves on the third 
day, and on the seventh day;*" both you and 
your captiA'es. 

20 And every garment, and Avhatever is 
made of skins, and every Avork of goats' hair, 
and every vessel made of Avood, shall ye 
purify unto yourselves. 

21 ][ And Elazar the priest said unto the 
men of the army Avho had gone to the battle. 
This is the ordinance of the laAv Avhich the 
Lord hath commanded Moses : 

22 Nevertheles.s" the gold, and the silver, 
the copper, the iron, the tin, and the lead, 

23 Every thing that cometh into the fire 
shall ye make go through the fire, and it shall 
be clean; only it shall be purified Avith the 
waters of siDrinkling: and AvhatsoeA'er doth 
not come into the fire shall ye cause to go 
through the Avater. 

24 And ye shall wash your clothes on the 
seventh day, and ye shall be clean, and after 
that may ye come into the camp.* 

25 ^ And the Lord said unto Moses, as 
foUoweth, 

26 Take the sum of the booty of the cap- 
tives, both of man and of cattle, thou, AAdth 
Elazar the priest, and the chiefs of the fami- 
lies of the congregatioii : 

27 And thou shalt divide the booty, be- 
tAveen those that carried on the war, who 
Avent out to the army, and between all the 
congregation ; 

28 And thou shalt levy a tribute unto the 
Lord from the men of Avar Avho Avent out to 
the army, one individual fi'om cA-ery fn-c hun- 
dred, of the persons, and of the oxen, and of 
the asses, and of the sheep ; 

29 From their half shall ye take it; and 



clean, and remains so, till sprinkled with the ashes of the 
red cow. 

° " Although Moses only instructed you respecting the 
law of uncleanness, you are now to be instructed, in addi- 
tion, concerning the purification of vessels used for forbid- 
den food. 'Only' means an exception: you are not to 
use such articles even after they have been cleansed from 

201 



NUMBERS XXXI. XXXII. MATTOTH. 



thou shalt give it unto Elazar the priest, for a 
heave-offering of the Lord. 

30 And from the half of the children of 
Israel, slialt thou take one individual, as it 
may come," from any tifty, of the persons, of 
beef-cattle, of the asses, and of the Hocks, of 
all manner of cattle, and give the same unto 
the Levitcs, who keep the charge of the taber- 
nacle of the Lord. 

31 And Moses with Elazar the priest did, 
as the Lord had commanded Moses. 

32 And the booty, being the rest of the 
spoil which the men of the army had taken, 
was of sheejD and goats, six hundred thousand 
and seventy thousand and five thousand, 

33 And of beef-cattle, seventy and two 
thousand, 

34 And of asses, sixty and one thousand, 

35 And of human persons, of women that 
had not known man Ijy l}ing with him, in all 
thirty and two thousand. 

3G And the half, the portion of those who 
had gone out in the army, was, in the number 
of sheep and goats, three hundred thousand 
and seven and thirty thousand and five hun- 
dred. 

37 And the tribute unto the Lord of the 
Hocks was six hundred and seventy and five. 

38 And the beef-cattle were thirty and six 
thousand; and the tribute thereof unto the 
Lord was seventy and two. 

39 And the asses were thirty thousand 
and five hundred; and the tribute thereof 
unto the Lord was sixty and one. 

40 And the human persons were sixteen 
thousand; and the tribute thereof unto the 
Lord was thirty and two persons. 

41 And Moses gave the tribute, the Lord's 
heave-oil'ering, unto Elazar the priest, as the 
Lord had commanded Moses.* 

42 And from the half of the children of Is- 
rael, which Moses divided off from the men 
that had goiu^ forth in the army, — 

43 (Now the half of the congregation was, 
of sheep and goats three hundred thousand 



and thirty thousand, seven thousand and five 
hundred, 

44 And beef-cattle, thirty and six thou- 
sand, 

45 And asses thirty thousand five hundred, 

46 And human persons sixteen thousand;) 

47 And Moses took from this half of the 
children of Israel, as it came, one from every 
fifty, of man and of cattle, and gave the same 
unto the Levites, who kept the charge of the 
tabernacle of the Lord; as the Lord had com- 
manded Moses. 

48 And there came near unto Moses the 
officers who had been over the thousands of 
the anny, the captains of the thousands, and 
the captains of the hundreds, 

49 And they said unto Moses, Thy ser- 
vants have taken the sum of the men of war 
who have been under our command, and 
there lacketh not one man of us. 

50 We have therefore brought an oblation 
unto the Lord, each what he hath gotten of 
vessels of gold, chains, and bracelets, finger- 
rings, ear-rings, and tablets, to make an atone- 
ment'' for our souls before the Lord. 

51 And Moses with Elazar the priest took 
the gold from them, all kinds of wrought 
articles. 

52 And all the gold of the offering that 
they offered up to the Lord, was sixteen thou- 
sand seven hundred and fifty shekels, from 
the captains of the thousands, and from the 
captains of the hundreds. 

53 The men of the army had taken spoil, 
every man for himself. 

54 And Moses and Elazar the priest took 
the gold from the ca})tains of the thousands 
and of the hundreds, and they brought it into 
the tabernacle of the congregation, as a memo- 
rial for the children of Israel before the Lord.* 

CHAPTER XXXII. 

1 ^ Now the children of Reuben and the 
children of Gad had a very great multitude 
of cattle ; and they saw the land of Ya'zer, 



the unclcanness of the dead, till they have been treated 
after the manner prescribed in this section. — After 

llASIII. 

* inx means " to seize ;" the participle here employed 
means, therefore, "just as it came," or "as it was seized 
hold of," that is, no particular care being employed in 
making the selectiim. 

"* By referring to Exodus xxx. 12, it will 1)0 found that 
t!02 



when numbering the people, it was ordained that every 
one should offer half a shekel a.s an atonement, that 
"there might he no plague among the children of Israel." 
It was no doubt this commandment, at the taking of the 
general census, which induced the captains of the army to 
offer a similar gift as an atonement for the numbering of 
the men intrusted to their command, at the partial census 
which tliev had instituted. 



NUMBERS XXXII. MATTOTH. 



and the land of Gil'ad, that, behold, the place 
was a place for cattle. 

2 And the chikh'en of Gad and the chil- 
dren of Reiiben came, and said unto Moses, 
and unto Elazar the priest, and unto the 
2)rinces of the congregation, as followeth, 

3 'Ataroth, and Dibon, and Ya'zer, and 
Nimrah, and Cheshbon, and El'aleh, and Se- 
bam, and Nebo, and Be'on, 

4 The country which the Lord hath smit- 
ten before the congregation of Israel, is a land 
for cattle ; and thy servants have cattle. 

5 ^ And they said. If we have found grace 
in thy eyes, let this land be given unto thy 
servants for a possession; do not compel us 
to go over the Jordan. 

6 And Moses said unto the children of 
Gad, and to the children of Reuben, Shall 
your brethren go to the war, and will ye" sit 
here ? 

7 And wherefore Avill you turn aside the 
heart of the children of Israel from going over 
into the land which the Lord hath given 
them? 

8 Thus did your fathers, when I sent them 
from Kadesh-barnea' to see the land. 

9 For they went up as far as the valley of 
Eshcol, and "they saw the land, and then they 
turned aside the heart of the childi-en of 
Israel, so that they would not go into the 
land which the Lord had given them. 

10 And the anger of the Lord was kindled 
on that day, and he swore, saying, 

11 Surely none of the men that came up 
out of Egypt, from twenty years old and ui> 
ward, shall see the land which I swore unto 
Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob; be- 
cause they have not wholly followed me :'' 

12 Save Caleb the son of Yephunneh the 
Kenizzite, and Joshua the sou of Nun; for 
they have wholly followed the Lord. 

13 And the anger of the Lord was thus 
kindled against Israel, and he made them 
wander about in the wilderness forty years. 



' Moses thought, probably, that it was an unwillingness 
on the part of the petitioners to enter Palestine, which 
caused them to prefer the eastern side of Jordan; and 
that their refusal to participate in the conquest of the 
western part might perhaps induce the other tribes to re- 
bel, which again would c^iuse the wandering in the desert 
to be continued for an indefinite length of time. Hence 
his remonstrances, and their assurance that it was simply 
because the land was suited for the pasture of their cattle 
that their request was made. 



until all the generation was spent, that had 
done the evil in the eyes of the Lord. 

14 And now, behold, ye are risen up in 
your fathers' stead, a new race of sinful men, 
to augment yet more the fierce anger of the 
Lord toward Israel. 

15 For if ye turn away from after him, he 
will yet longer leave them in the wilderness ; 
and ye will thus be destruction to all this 
people. 

16 ^ And they came near unto him, and 
said, Sheepfolds Avill we build for our cattle 
here, and cities for our little ones ; 

17 But we ourselves will go ready armed 
before the childi'cn of Israel, until that we 
have brought them unto their place ; and our 
Uttle ones shall dwell in the fortified cities, 
because of the inhabitants of the land. 

18 We will not return unto our houses, 
until the children of Israel have acquired for 
themselves every man his inheritance. 

19 For we will not take possession with 
them on the other side of the Jordan, and 
farther on ; when" our inheritance hath come 
to us on this side of the Jordan eastward.* 

20 Tl And Moses said unto them. If ye will 
do this thing, if ye will arm yourselves before 
the Lord for the war; 

21 And every armed man of you will go 
over the Jordan before the Lord, until he 
have dri^•en out his enemies from Ijefore him ; 

22 Aiid Avhen, only after the land hath 
been subdued before the Lord, ye will return, 
and ye be thus guiltless* before the Lord, and 
before Israel: then shall this land be yours 
for a possession before the Lord. 

23 But if ye will not do so, behold, ye 
have sinned against the Lord; and ye shall 
experience the punishment" of your sin which 
will overtake you. 

24 Build yourselves cities for your little 
ones, and folds for your flocks; and that 
which hath proceeded out of your mouth shall 
ye do. 



" Ileb. "They have not filled after me;" meaning, that 
they had not rendered their hearts fully willing to follow 
the Lord. 

"= Oukelos and others, "because." 

■" Arnheim renders D'pj Dn"ni with "ye have discharged 
the duty." — We can derive from this a lesson, that it is 
not enough for us to act justly before God, but we should 
also strive to avoid suspicion from man. 

° nson properly signifies "the sin," and then also the 
punishment which follows on the same. 

203 



NUMBERS XXXII. XXXIII. MASSAY. 



25 And the children of Gad and the children 
of Reuben said unto Moses, as followeth, Thy 
servants will do as my lord commandeth. 

2G Our little ones, our wives, our flocks, 
and all our cattle, shall remain there in the 
cities of Girad; 

27 But thy servants will pass over, every 
one that is armed for the army, before the 
Lord, to the war, as my lord speaketh. 

28 And Moses commanded concerning 
them Elazar the priest, and Joshua the son 
of Nun, and the chiefs of the families of the 
tribes of the children of Israel ; 

29 And Moses said unto them, If the chil- 
dren of Gad and the children of Reuben do 
pass with you over the Jordan, every one 
that is armed for the war, before the Lord, 
and the land shall be subdued before you: 
then shall ye give to them the land of Gil' ad 
for a possession ; 

30 But if they should not pass over armed 
with you, they shall take possessions among 
you in the land of Canaan.* 

31 And the children of Gad and the chil- 
dren of Reuben answered, sayuig. That which 
the Lord hath said unto thy servants, even 
so will we do. 

32 AVe will indeed pass over armed befoi-e 
the Lord into the land of Canaan, Avhile ours 
remaineth the possession of our inheritance 
on this side of the Jordan. 

33 And Moses gave unto them, the chil- 
dren of Gad, and to the children of Reuben, 
and to half the tribe of Menasseh the sou of 
Joseph, the kingdom of Sichon, the king of 
the Emorites, and the kingdom of 'Og, the 
king of Bashan, the land, with its cities -with- 
in the boundaries, the cities of the country 
round about. 

34 And the children of Gad built Dibon, 
and 'Ataroth, and 'Aro'er, 

35 And 'Atroth-shophan, and Ya'zer, and 
Yogbehah, 

36 And Beth-nimrah, and Beth-haran, forti- 
fied cities, and folds for flocks, 



• As each tribe bad to secure its possession by couqucst, 
(see Judges i.,) it was a proper denunciation of punish- 
ment for the lleiibcnites and their associates to be com- 
pelled to ae<(uifc new territory, if they forfeited the land 
already eoiKiuered, by their breach of this covenant. 

" The c'oiiuiiontutor to Mendelssohn's translation sup- 
poses that Sichon, in conquering the part of the country of 
Moab mentioned above, xxi. 26, had given new names to 
204 



37 And the children of Reiiben built Chesh- 
bon, and El'aleh, and Kiryathayim, 

38 And Nebo, and Ba'al-me'on, (their 
names being changed,) and Sibmah ; and they 
gave the former names'' unto the cities which 
they built. 

39 And the children of Machir the son of 
Menasseh went to Gil'ad, and conquered it, 
and dispossessed the Emorites who were m it.* 

40 And Moses gave Gilad unto Machir 
the son of Menasseh ; and he dwelt therein. 

41 And Yair the son of Menasseh went and 
conquered the small to^\ais thereof, and called 
them Chavoth-^a'ir. 

42 And Nobach went and conquered Ke- 
nath, and the villages thereof, and called it 
Nobach, after his own name. 

Ilaphtorah in Jeremiah i. 1 to ii. 3. 



SECTION XLIII. MASSAY, 'VDD. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. 

1 ^ These are the journeys of the children 
of Israel, who went forth out of the land of 
Egypt according to their armies under the 
guidance of Moses and Aaron. 

2 And Moses wrote their departures ac- 
cordmg to their journeys by the order of the 
Lord ; and these are their journeys according 
to their departures. 

3 And they set forward from Ra'meses in 
the first month ; on the fifteenth day of the 
first month, on the morrow after the pass- 
over-sacrifice" the children of Israel went out 
with a high hand before the eyes of all the 
Egyptians. 

4 And the Egyptians were biu-ying all the 
first-born, whom the Lord had smitten among 
them ; and upon their gods also did the Lord 
execute judgments. 

5 And the children of Israel i-emo\-ed from 
Ra'meses, and encamped in Succoth. 

6 And they removed from Succoth, and en- 



the cities; and that the Rciibenites adopted again the 
Mo'abitc names, except Nebo and Ua'al-Me'on, which they 
changed. But Arnhcim renders, " And they called by 
various names the cities which they built;" meaning, that 
they applied new names to the towns erected by them in 
their country. 

" /. c The day after the sacrifice of the passover-lamb. 
Sec note above, to Leviticus xsiii. 5. 



NUMBERS XXXIII. MASSAY. 



camped iu Etham, -which is on the edge of 
the wilderness. 

7 And the}^ removed from Etham, and re- 
turned unto Pi-hachiroth, which is before Ba- 
"al-zephon : and they encamped before Migdol. 

8 And they removed from before Pi-liachi- 
roth, and passed through the midst of the sea 
into the wilderness; and they went a three 
days' journey in the wilderness of Etham, 
and encamped in Marah. 

9 And they removed from Marah, and 
came unto Elim ; and in Elim there Avere 
twelve springs of water, and seventy palm- 
trees ; and they encamped there. 

10 And they removed from Elim, and en- 
camped by the Red Sea.* 

11 And they removed from the Red Sea, 
and encamped in the wilderness of Sin. 

12 And they removed from the wilderness 
of Sin, and encamjjed in Dophkah. 

13 And they removed from Dophkah and 
encamped in Alush. 

14 And they removed from Alush, and en- 
camped at Rephidim, and there was no water 
for the people to drink. 

15 And they removed from Rephidim, and 
encamped in the wilderness of Sinai. 

16 And they removed from the desert of 
Sinai, and encamped at Kibroth-hattaavah. 

17 And they removed from Kibroth-hat- 
taavah, and encamped at Chazeroth. 

18 And the}' removed from Chazeroth, and 
encamped in Rithmah. 

19 And they removed from Rithmah, and 
encamped at Rimmou-perez. 

20 And they removed from Rimmon-perez, 
and encamped in Libnah. 

21 And they removed from Libnah, and 
encamped at Rissah. 

22 And they removed from Rissah, and 
encamped in Kehelathah. 

23 And they removed from Kehelathah, 
and encamped in mount Shapher. 

24 And they removed from mount Shapher, 
and encamjied in Charadah. 

25 And they removed from Charadah, and 
encamped in Makheloth. 

26 And they removed from Makheloth, 
and encamped at Tachath. 

27 And they removed from Tachath, and 
encamped at Tarach. 

28 And they removed from Tarach, and 
encamped in Mithkah. 



29 And they removed from Mithkah, and 
encamped in Chashmonah. 

30 And they removed from Cha.shmonah, 
and encamped at Mosseroth. 

31 And they removed from Mosseroth, and 
encamped in Bene-ya'akan. 

32 And they i-emoved from Bene-}a'akan, 
and encamped at Chor-hagidgad. 

33 And they removed from Chor-hagidgad, 
and encamped in Yotbathah. 

34 And they removed from Yotbathah, 
and encamjied at 'Abronah. 

35 And they removed from 'Abronah, and 
encamped at 'Ezj-on-geber. 

36 And they removed from 'Ezyon-geber, 
and encamped in the wilderness of Zin, which 
is Kadesh. 

37 And they removed from Kadesh, and 
encamped at mount Ilor, on the edge of the 
land of Edom. 

38 And Aaron the priest went up on 
mount Hor by the order of the Lord, and died 
there, in the fortieth year after the going out 
of the children of Israel from the land of 
Egypt, in the fifth month, on the first of the 
month. 

39 And Aaron was a hundred and twenty 
and three years old when he died on mount 
Hor. 

40 T[ And the Canaanite, king of 'Arad, 
who dwelt on the south side in the land of 
Canaan, heard of the coming of the children 
of Israel. 

41 And they removed from mount Hor, 
and encamped in Zalmonah. 

42 And they removed from Zalmonah, and 
encamped in Punon. 

43 And they removed from Punon, and en- 
camped in Oboth. 

44 And they removed from Oboth, and en- 
camped in 'lye-ha'abarim, on the .border of 
Moiib. 

45 And they removed from lyim, and en- 
camped in Dibon-gad. 

46 And they removed from Dibon-gad, and 
encamped in 'Almon-diblathaymah. 

47 And they removed from 'Almon-diblar 
thaymah, and encamped on the mountains of 
'Abarim, before Nebo. 

48 And they removed from the mountains 
of 'Abarim, and encamped in the plains of 
Moab by the Jordan opposite Jericho. 

49 And they encamped by the Jordan, 

205 



NUMBERS XXXIII. XXXIV. MASSAY. 



from Beth-hayeshimoth even unto Abel-ha- 
.shittim ill the plains of MoJib.* 

50 ]f And the Lokd spoke unto Moses in 
the plains of Moiib by the Jordan opposite 
Jericho, saying, 

51 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them, When ye pass over the Jordan 
into the land of Canaan : 

52 Then shall ye drive out all the inhar 
bitants of the land from before you, and ye 
shall destroy all their statues, and all their 
molten images shall ye destro}', and devastate 
all their high places. 

5.3 And ye shall drive out (the inhabitants 
of) the land, and ye shall dwell therein ; for 
unto you have I given the land to possess it. 

54; And ye shall divide the land by lot for 
an inheritance among your families; to the 
numerous shall ye give the more inheritance, 
and to the small in number shall ye give the 
less inheritance : there, where the lot desig- 
nateth it for him, shall every one's possessions 
be; according to the tribes of your fathers 
shall ye divide it among yourselves. 

55 But if ye will not drive out the inhabit- 
ants of the land from before you : then shall 
it come to pass, that those whom ye will let 
remain of them shall be as thorns in your 
eyes, and as stings in your sides, and they 
shall trouble you in the land wherein ye 
dwell. 

56 And it shall come to pass, that as I 
l)urposed to do unto them, will I do unto 
you. 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 

1 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
in?, 

2 Command the children of Israel, and say 
unto them, When ye come into the land of 
Canaan, shall tliis be the land that shall fall 
unto you for an inheritance : the land of Ca- 
naan according to its boundaries. 

3 And the southern side shall be unto you 
from the wilderness of Zin along by tlie 
boundary of Edom, and your southern border 
shall commence at the outmost edge of the 
Salt Sea on its east side. 

4 And the border shall turn for you from 



' A different mount from the one where Aaron died; 
the one here being a headland on the north-west, now call- 
20G 



the south of the ascent of 'Akrabbim, and 
pass on to Zin ; and its terminating points 
shall be to the south of Kadesh-barneil', and 
shall go on to Qhazar-addar, and pass on to 
'Azmon ; 

5 And the border shall turn from 'Azmon 
unto the river of Egypt, and its terminating 
points shall be at the sea. 

G And as the western border, shall ye have 
the Great Sea for a border : this shall be your 
western border. 

7 And this shall be unto you the northern 
border : from the Great Sea shall ye mark out 
for you (the boundaiy to) mount Hor;" 

8 From mount Hor shall ye mark out (the 
boundary) unto the entrance of Chamath ; 
and the terminations of the border shall be 
toward Zedad ; 

9 And the border shall go on to Ziphron, 
and its terminations shall Ijc at Chazar-'enan ; 
this shall be unto you the northern border. 

10 And ye shall turn 3-ourselves to the 
eastern border, from Chazar-'enan to Shepham ; 

11 And the boundary shall go down from 
Shepham to Riblah, to the eastward of 'Ayin; 
and the boundary shall descend, and shall 
touch upon the coast of the sea of Kinnereth, 
eastward ; 

12 And the border shall go down to the 
Jordan, and its terminations'" shall l)e at the 
Salt Sea : this shall be your land after its 
boundaries round about. 

13 And Moses commanded the children of 
Israel, sajang, This is the land which ye shall 
divide among yourselves by lot, which the 
Lord hath commanded to give unto the nine 
tribes, and to the half tribe. 

14 For the tribe of the childi'en of Reuben 
according to their family divisions, and the 
tribe of the children of Gad according to their 
foniily divisions, have received, — and the half 
of the tribe of Menasseh ha\-c received their 
inheritance ; 

15 The two tribes and the half tribe have 
received their inheritance on this side of Jor- 
don opposite Jericho eastward, toward the 
rising of the sun.* 

IG ][ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 



ed Eas-al-shaka, between Beirut and Trablos (Tripoli ;) 
whereas the other is at the sonth-c.-ust. 

^ i'. c. The farthest pointsofthe boundary in thatdirection. 



NUMBERS XXXIV. XXXV. MASSAY. 



17 These are the names of the men who 
shall parcel out unto j^ou the land : Elazar 
the priest, and Joshua the son of Nun. 

18 And one prince each from every tribe 
shall ye take to parcel out the laud. 

19 And these are the names of the men : 
Of the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Ye- 
phunneh ; 

20 And of the tribe of the children of Si- 
meon, Shemuel the son of 'Ammihud ; 

21 Of the tribe of Benjamin, Elidad the 
son of Kisslon ; 

22 And of the tribe of the children of Dan 
the prince, Bukki the son of Yogli ; 

23 Of the children of Joseph, for the tribe 
of the children of Menasseh the prince, Chan- 
niel the son of Ephod ; 

2-4 And of the tribe of the children of 
Ephraim the prince, Kemuel the son of 
Shiphtan ; 

25 And of the tribe of the children of 
Zeljulun the prince, EUzaphan the son of 
Parnach ; 

26 And of the tribe of the children of Issa- 
char the prince, Paltiel the son of 'Azzan ; 

27 And of the tribe of the children of 
Asher the prince, Achihud the son of She- 
lomi ; 

28 And of the tribe of the children of 
Naphtali the prince, Pedahel the son of 'Am- 
mihud. 

29 These are they whom the Lord hath 
commanded to divide out the inheritance 
unto the children of Israel in the land of Ca- 
naan.* 

CHAPTER XXXV. 

1 ]]" And the Lord spoke unto Moses in 
the plains of Moab by the Jordan opposite 
Jericho, saying, 

2 Command the children of Israel, that 
they give unto the Levites from the inheri- 
tance of their jDossession cities to dwell in; 
and an ojDen space for the cities round about 
them shall ye give (also) unto the Levites. 



' "And afterward he mentions two thousand. How is 
this ? He gives them two thousand cubits all round, and 
of these the inner thousand are for the open space, and 
the outer thousand for fields and vineyards." — Rashi and 
Rashbam. But Philippson conceives that the whole 
should form a square of two thousand cubits, in the centre 
of which the city should be situated, which would make 
the line one thousand cubits only from each side of the 



3 And the cities shall serve them to dwell 
in ; and their open spaces shall be for their 
cattle, and for their goods, and ibr all their 
requirements. 

4 And the open spaces of the cities, which 
ye shall give unto the Levites, shall reach 
from the wall of the city and outward a 
thousand" cubits round about. 

5 And ye shall measure from witliout the 
city on the east side two thousand cubits, and 
on the south side two thousand cubits, and on 
the west side two thousand cubits, and on the 
north side two thousand cubits, with the city 
in the midst : this shall be to them the open 
spaces of the cities. 

6 And the cities which ye shall give unto 
the Levites shall be the six cities of refuge, 
which ye shall appoint that the mansla}er 
may flee thither; and in addition to them 
shall ye give forty and two cities. 

7 All the (other) cities which ye shall give 
to the Levites shall be forty and eight cities, 
they with their open spaces. 

8 And the cities which ^e shall give of the 
possession of the children of Israel, from the 
tribe that hath many shall ^e give many; but 
from the one that hath few shall ye give few : 
every one according to its inheritance which 
it may inherit shall give of its cities unto the 
Levites.* 

9 ^ And the Lord spoke unto Moses, say- 
ing, 

10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and 
say unto them, When ye have passed over the 
Jordan into the land of Canaan : 

11 Then ye shall appoint unto yourselves 
proper cities, that they be cities of refuge for 
you ; and thither shall flee the manslayer who 
killeth any person at unawares. 

12 And these cities shall be unto you for a 
refuge from the avenger ; that the manslayer 
die not, until he have stood before the congre- 
gation for trial.*" 

13 And the cities which ye shall give, shall 
be six cities of refuge unto you ; 



city wall. But Rashi's opinion seems preferable, cspe- 
ciaUy if we consider that the space of one thousand cubits 
was to be for pasture, &c., and they would have thus had 
nothing for fields and vineyards. 

^ DDWoh, to be judged and inquired into whether the 
deed was murder or accidental homicide, or whether it 
happened at all. — This also shows us that even open mur- 
der had to be tried by the public courts. 

t!07 



NUMBERS XXXV. XXXVI. MASSAY. 



14 Throo of these cities shall ye give on 
this side of the Jordan, and the three other 
cities shall ye give in the land of Canaan; 
cities of refuge shall they be. 

15 For the children of Israel, and for the 
stranger, and for the sojourner among them, 
shall these six cities be for a refuge: that 
every one" may flee thither that killeth any 
person at unawares. 

IG And if he have smitten him with an 
instrument of iron, so that he die, he is a 
murderer : the murderer shall surely be put 
to death. 

17 And if he have smitten him with a 
stone which one can take in the hand,** where- 
with he may die, and he die, he is a murder- 
er : the murderer shall surely be put to death. 

18 Or if he have smitten him with an arti- 
cle of wood, which one can take in the hand, 
wherewith he may die, and he die, he is a 
murderer : the murderer shall surely be put 
to death. 

19 The avenger of the blood himself shall 
slay the murderer; when he meeteth him, 
shall he slay him. 

20 And if he push" against him out of 
hatred, or he have hurled at him (any thing) 
by lying in wait, that he die ; 

21 Or if in enmity he have smitten him 
with his hand, that he died, he that smote 
him shall surely be put to death ; (for) he is 
a murderer: the avenger of the blood shall 
slay the murderei", when he meeteth with him. 

22 But if he have pushed against him ac- 
cidentally without enmity, or have cast upon 
him any thing without lying in wait, 

23 Or with any stone wherewith a man 
may die, without seeing him, and he have let 
it fall upon him, that he died; whereas he was 
not his enemy, and did not seek his harm : 

24 Then shall the congregation judge l^e- 
tween the slayer and the avenger of the blood 
according to these institutions; 



• Another injunction to treat the stranf^cr well. 

^ That is, asllashi says, a .stone that fills the hand, and 
is large enough to produce death ; so also with wood. A 
small piece of iron, however, can produce death; no size, 
therefore, is mentioneil. Jfcndel.ssohn renders, " If he 
take a stone, with which one can be slain, in the hand, 
and smite some one," &c. But the evident intention of the 
law is to provide that the stone or wood must be of a size 
likely to produce death, and to exclude from wilful mur- 
der when the article was of that kind as to prcoludc a 
•208 



25 And the congregation shall deliver the 
manslayer out of the hand of the avenger of 
the blood, and the congregation shall restore 
him to the city of his refuge, whither he had 
fled ; and he shall abide in it until the death 
of the high-priest, who hath been anointed 
with the holy oil. 

■26 But if the manslayer should at any 
time jDass the boundary of the city of his 
refuge, whither he may have fled ; 

27 And the avenger of the blood should 
find him beyond the boundary of the city of 
his refuge, and the avenger of the blood should 
kill the manslayer: he shall not be guilty of 
blood ; 

28 Because in the city of his refuge shall 
he remain until the death of the high-priest; 
but after the death of the high-priest the man- 
slaj-er may return vmto the land of his pos- 
session. "^ 

29 And these things shall be unto you for 
a statute of justice throughout your genera- 
tions in all your dwellings. 

30 Whoever it be that killeth a person, 
according to the testimony of w^itnesses shall 
the mvu'derer be put to death ; but one witness 
shall not testify against any person to cause 
him to die. 

31 Moi'eover ye shall take no redemption 
money for the person of a murderer," who is 
guilty of death ; but he shall surely be put to 
death. 

32 And ye shall take no redemption money 
for him that hath tied to the city of his i-efuge, 
that he should come again to dwell in the 
land, until the death of the priest. 

33 And 3e shall not defile the land wherein 
ye are ; for the blood it is which defileth the 
land : and no atonement can l)e made imto 
the land for the blood which hath been shed 
therein, except through the blood of him that 
hath shed it. 

34 And ye shall not render unclean the 



murderous intent, though death should have accidentally 
ensued. 

" "Push him down from a high place." — AnK.v Kzu.v. 

■■ At this return he is free from civil punishment ; con- 
sequently, to kill him would be a punishable murder. 

' This prohibition, not to take money to redeem a mur- 
derer ft-om his punishment, permits by implication that it 
is permitted to assess a fine for inflicting a wound on ano- 
ther, and not to take actually eye for eye or tooth for 
tooth. This also was the practice of Jewish courts. 



NUMBERS XXXVI. MASSAY. 



land which ye inhabit, in the midst of which 
I dwell ; for I the Lord dwell in the midst of 
the children of Israel.* 

CHAPTER XXXVI. 

1 ^ And there came near the chiefs of the 
divisions of the family of the children of Gil- 
'ad, the son of Machir, the son of Menasseh, 
of the families of the sons of Joseph ; and they 
spoke before Moses, and before the princes, 
the chiefs of the divisions of the children of 
Israel ; 

2 And they said, The Lord hath command- 
ed my lord to give the land for an inherit- 
ance by lot to the children of Israel ; and my 
lord hath been commanded by the Lord to 
give the inheritance of Zelophchad our brother 
unto his daughters. 

3 And if they become the wives of any of 
the sons of the (other) tribes of the children 
of Israel ; then will their inheritance be taken 
from the inheritance of our fathers, and be 
added to the inheritance of the tribe where- 
among they may be married;" and from the 
lot of our inheritance vdll it be taken away. 

4 And whenever the jubilee shall be to 
the children of Israel, then will their inherit- 
ance be added unto the inheritance of the 
tribe whereamong they may be married ; and 
from the inheritance of the tribe of our fathers 
will their inheritance be taken away. 

5 And Moses commanded the children of 
Israel by the order of the Lord, saying, The 
tribe of the sons of Joseph have spoken well. 

6 This is the thing which the Lord hath 
commanded'' concerning the daughters of Ze- 



* D'wh is here again understood; hence the word "mar- 
ried" has been supplied. 

' It is probable that the restriction now made known was 
a part of the law of inheritance communicated to Moses 



lophchad, saying. To those who are pleasing 
in their eyes may they become wives; however 
only to the fimiily of the tribe of their father 
shall they become wives. 

7 And the inheritance of the children of 
Israel shall not pass from tribe to tribe ; but 
the children of Israel shall adhere every one 
to the inheritance of the tribe of his fathers. 

8 And every daughter that inheriteth any 
possession out of any tribe of the children of 
Israel, shall become the wife unto one of the 
family of the tribe of her father ; in order that 
the children of Israel may inherit every one 
the inheritance of his fathers. 

9 And no inheritance shall pass from one 
tribe to another tribe ; but the tribes of the 
chidren of Israel shall adhere, every one, to 
his own inheritance.* 

10 Even as the Lord had commanded 
Moses, so did the daughters of Zelophchad ; 

11 And Machlah, Tirzah, and Choglah, 
and Milcah, and No'ah, the daughters of Ze- 
lophchad became the wives of the sons of 
their uncles. 

12 (To persons) of the families of the sons 
of Menasseh the son of Joseph did they be- 
come wives, and their inheritance remained 
in the tribe of the family of their llvther. 

13 These are the commandments and the 
ordinances, which the Lord commanded by 
the hand of Moses unto the children of Israel, 
in the plains of Moiib by the Jordan opposite 
Jericho. 

Haphtorah in Jeremiah ii. 4 to 28 ; to which the Germans add 
iii. 4; and the Portuguese, iv. 1 and 2. 



with the other clauses above, xxvii. 7 toll, but was with- 
held until the elders most interested came to inquire, as 
might have been at once expected, so as to give the matter 
greater sanction and force. 



2B 



THE BOOK OF DEUTERONOMY, 

DEBARIM, DHD"!. 

CONTAINING A RECAPITULATION OF THE HISTORY OF THE ISRAELITES IN THE 
DESERT, AND OF SEVERAL LAWS; EMBRACING ALSO SOME NEW ENACTMENTS, 
AND AN ACCOUNT OF THE LAST DAYS OF MOSES. 



SECTION XLIV. DEBARIM, Dnm. 

CHAPTER I. 

1 ^ These are the words which Moses 
spoke unto all Israel on this side of the Jor- 
dan" in the wilderness, in the plain opjjosite 
Suph, between Paran, and Tophel, and La- 
ban, and Chazeroth, and Di-zahab. 

2 It is a journey of eleven days from Ho- 
reb by the way of mount Seir unto Kadesh- 
barneii'. 

3 And it came to pass in the fortieth'' year^ 
in the eleventh month, on the first day of the 
month, that Moses spoke unto the children 
of Israel, according to all that the Lord had 
commanded him concerning them ; 

4 After he had smitten Sichon the king of 
the Emorites, who dwelt in Cheshbon, and 
'Og the king of Bashan, who dwelt at 'Ashta- 
roth in Edre'i. 

On this side of the Jordan, in the land of 
Moiib, began Moses to explain this law, saying, 

() The Lord our God siwke unto us in IIo- 
reb, saying. Ye have tariied long enough at 
this mount; 

7 Turn you, and take your journey, and 
go to the mountain of the Emorites, and unto 
all its neighbouring places, in the plain, in 
the mountain, and in the vale, and in the 
southern country, and by the coast of the 
sea, to the land of the Canaanites, and unto 
the Lebanon, up to the great river, the river 
Euphrates. 

8 Behold I have given up the land before 



* Properly "Yardcn." 

'' 1. e. After the going out from Egypt, which is always 
the era mentioned in the Bible up to the Babylonian 
eaptivity. 

° This verse is a parenthesis: Moses says in the pre- 
ceding one that he was not able to bear all the labour of 
the great multitude; and adds, nevertheless, may it be 
210 



you : go in and take possession of the land 
which the Lord hath sworn unto your fathers, 
to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give 
it unto them and to their seed after them. 

9 And I said unto you at that time, as fol- 
loweth, I am not able alone to bear 3-ou ; 

10 The Lord your God hath multiplied 
you, and, behold, ye are this day as the stars 
of heaven for multitude. 

11 May'' the Lord the God of your fathers 
make you a thousand times as many more as 
ye are; and bless you, as he hath spoken 
unto you.* 

12 How can I by myself alone bear your 
cumbrance, and your burden, and your strife ? 

13 Furnish for yourselves wise and under- 
standing men, and those known among your 
tribes,'' and I will place them as chiefs over 
you. 

14 And ye answered me, and said. The 
thing wliich thou hast spoken is good to do. 

15 And I took the chiefs of your tribes, 
wise and known men, and I set them as heads 
over you, captains over thousands, and cap- 
tains over hundreds, and captains over fifties, 
and captains over tens, and as officers lor 
your tribes. 

IG And I commanded your judges at that 
time, saying. Hear tlie causes between jour 
brethren, and judge righteously, between a 
man and his brother, and between his stran- 
ger." 

17 Ye shall not respect persons in judg- 
ment; the small as well as the great shall ye 



the will of God to add to them a thousand-fold as many; 
and then contiuucs with the narrative. 

'' According to the Massorah, "and those well known, 
according to your tribes." 

• The law knows of no distinction between the Israelite 
and the foreigner ; all are alike before the Supreme Judge 
of the world. 



DEUTERONOMY I. DEBARIM. 



hear ; ye shall not be afraid of any man ; for 
the judgment belongeth to God: and the 
cause that is too hard for you shall ye bring 
unto me, and I will hear it. 

18 And I commanded you at that time all 
the things which ye should do. 

19 And we departed from Horeb, and we 
went through all that great and terrible wil- 
derness, which ye have seen, by the way of 
the mountain of the Emorites, as the Lord 
our God had commanded us; and we came 
as far as Kadesh-barnea'. 

20 And I said unto you. Ye are come unto 
the mountain of the Emorites, which the 
Lord our God doth give unto us. 

21 Behold, the Lord thy God hath given 
up'' tlie land before thee : go up and take pos- 
session of it, as the Lord the God of thy 
fathers hath spoken unto thee; do not fear, 
and be not discouraged.* 

22 And ye alP came near unto me and 
said. Let us send out men before us, that they 
may search out for us the land, and bring us 
word again concerning the way by which we 
must go up, and the cities to which we shall 
come. 

23 And the thing was pleasing in my eyes; 
and I took of you twelve men, one man for 
every tribe : 

24 And they turned and went up into the 
mountain, and came unto the valley of Eshcol, 
and spied it out. 

25 And they took in their hand some of 
the fruit of the land, and brought it do^vn 
itnto us ; and they brought us word again, and 
said, The land which the Lord our God doth 
give us is good. 

26 But you would not go up, and ye re- 
Ijelled against the order of the Lord your 
God; 

27 And ye murmured in your tents, and 
said. On account of the hatred of the Lord 
toward us, hath he brought us forth out of 
the land of Eg\'pt, to deliver us into the hand 
of the Emorites, to destroy us. 



* Meaning, "surrendered, yielded up;" elsewhere called 
"to give into the hands." 

^ "Confusedly; and elsewhere (v. 19) it is said, 'The 
chiefs of your tribes and elders,' &c.; that approaching 
was a worthy one, the young men honoured the elders by 
letting them go in advance; and so did the elders to the 
chiefs; but in this case you all came in confusion, young 
men pushing aside the elders, and the elders the chiefs." 
— Rashi. 



28 Whither shall we go up? our brethren 
have made faint our heart, saying. The peo- 
ple is greater and taller than we; the cities 
are great and fortified up to lieaven ; and 
moreover the sons of the 'Anakim have we 
seen there. 

29 And I said unto you. Have no dread, 
nor be ye afraid of them. 

30 The Lord your God who goeth before 
you, he it is who will fight for you all ; just as 
he did for you in Egypt before your eyes ; 

31 And in the wilderness which" thou hast 
seen, where the Lord thy God bore thee, as a 
man doth bear his son, on all the way that 
ye have gone, until ye came unto this place. 

32 Yet in this thing do ye not believe in 
the Lord your God, 

33 Who goeth before you on the way to 
seek out for you a place for your encamping, 
in fire by night, to cause you to see on the 
way in wliich ye are to go, and in a cloud 
by day. 

34 And the Lord heard the voice of your 
words; and he was wroth, and swore, say- 
in o* 

35 Surely there shall not one of these men 
of this evil generation see that good land, 
Avhich I have sworn to give unto your fathers ; 

36 Save Caleb the son of Yephunneh, he 
shall see it, and to him will I give the land 
upon which he hath trodden, and to his chil- 
dren; because he hath wholly followed the 
Lord. 

37 Also with me was the Lord angr}"* for 
your sakes, saying, Also thou shalt not go in 
thither. 

38 Jo.shua the son of Nun, who standeth 
before thee, he shall go in thither: him en- 
courage; for he shall cause Israel to inhe- 
rit it.* 

39 And your little ones, of whom ye said, 
They will become a prey, and your children 
who know not this day either good or evil, 
these shall go in thither; and unto them will 
I give it, and they shall possess it. 



° According to Rashi, this ought to read, "Where thou 
hast seen that the Lord, &c." But in either way the sense 
is the same. 

^ As Moses was relating the doom of " the generation of 
the desert," as they are called by our writers, he includes 
also the decree which was pronounced upon him, since he 
too did not pass over the Jordan. "For your sakes" 
means only that the disobedience of the people caused his 
own transgression. 

211 



DEUTERONOMY I. II. DEBARIM. 



40 But as for you, turn you, and take your 
journev into the wilderness by the way of the 
Red Sea. 

41 And ye ansAvered and said unto me, 
We have sinned against the Lord; we indeed 
will go uj) and we Avill fight, according to all 
that the Lord our God hath commanded us; 
and ye girded on every man his weapons of 
war, and ye insisted to go up into the moun- 
tain. 

42 And the Lord said unto me, Say unto 
them, Go not up, and do not fight; for I am 
not among you; lest ye be smitten before 
your enemies. 

43 And I spoke unto you; but ye would 
not hear; and ye rebelled against the order 
of the Lord, and you were presumptuous, and 
w^ent up into the mountain. 

44 And the Emorites, who dwelt in that 
mountain, came out against you, and they 
pursued you, as the bees do, and they over- 
threw j'ou in Se'ir, as far as Chormah. 

45 And ye returned and wept before the 
Lord; but the Lord hearkened not to your 
voice, nor gave ear unto you. 

46 And ye tarried in Kadesh many days, 
according unto the days that ye tarried there. 

CHAPTER IL 

1 Then we turned, and took our journey 
into the wilderness by the way of the Red 
Sea, as the Lord had spoke unto me : and w^e 
travelled around mount Seir many days.* 

2 ^ And the Lord said unto me, as fol- 
loweth, 

3 Ye have travelled long enough around 
this mountain; turn yourselves northward. 

4 And the people command thou, saying, 
Ye are passing l)y the liorder of your brethren 
the children of Esau, who dwell in Se'ir; and 
they will be afraid of you ; therefore take ye 
good heed unto yourselves : 

5 Do not contend with them; for I will 
not give inito you of their land, even so much 
as a foot's breadth ; because unto Esau have I 
given mount Seir for an inheritance. 

G Food shall ye buy of them for money, 
that ye may eat ; and water also shall ye buy 
of them for money, that ye may drink. 



* Mo.nning, that they could have no excuse for asking 
favours of men, since their wealth, abundant as it was, 
had been supplied by the liberal hand of their God. 

' Hob. j'T, "he hath known;" a knowledge of a per- 



7 For the Lord thy God hath blessed thee 
in all the works of thy hand ;° he hath pro- 
vided for*" thy wandering through this great 
wildeniess: these forty years the Lord thy 
God hath been with thee; thou hast lacked 
nothing. 

8 And we passed away from our brethren 
the children of Esau, who dwell in Seir, from 
the Avay through the plam, from Elath, and 
from 'Ezyon-gaber. 

][ And we turned and passed the way of 
the wilderness of Moab. 

9 And the Lord said unto me, Do not at- 
tack the MoJibites, nor contend with them in 
battle; for I will not give thee from their 
land any inheritance; because unto the chil- 
dren of Lot have I given 'Ar for an inherit- 
ance. 

10 The Emim in times past dwelt therein, 
a people great, and numerous, and tall as the 
'Anakim; 

11 As Repha'im" were also they accounted, 
ecMially with the 'Anakim; and the Moiibites 
called the Emim. 

12 And ill Seir dwelt the Chorim in times 
past; but the children of Esau drove them 
out, and they di^strnyed them from before 
them, and dwelt in their stead ; as Israel hath 
done unto the land of his inheritance, which 
the Lord hath given unto them. 

13 Now rise up, and get 3'ou OAcr the 
brook Zered; and we passed over the brook 
Zered. 

14 And the time which we came from Ka- 
desh-barnea', until we had passed over the 
brook Zered, was thirty and eight years ; until 
all the generation of the men of war were 
spent fi'om out the midst of the camp, as the 
Lord had SAvoni unto them. 

15 And also the hand of the Lord was 
against them, to destroy them from the midst 
of the camp; until they were spent. 

16 So it came to pass, when all the men 
of war were spent by dying from the midst of 
the people, 

17 ^f That the Lord spoke unto me, say- 
ing, 

18 Thou art passing this day by the bor- 
der of Moiib, by ' Ar, 



son's wants being requisite, before his benefactor can fur- 
nish hiui with the needful. 

° "Mighty ones." — Onkelos. "Giants." — English 



DEUTERONOMY II. III. DEBARIM. 



19 And thou comest nigh opposite the chil- 
dren of 'Amnion : do not attack them, nor 
contend with them; for I will not give unto 
thee of the land of the children of 'Ammon 
any mheritance; because unto the children 
of Lot have I given it for an inheritance. 

20 As a land" of Repha'im was it also ac- 
counted : Repha'im dwelt therein in times 
past; and the 'Ammonites called them Zam- 



zummun : 



21 A people great, and numerous, and tall, 
as the 'Anakim ; but the Lord destroyed them 
before them ; and they drove them out, and 
dwelt in their stead : 

22 As he hath done te the children of 
Esau, who dwell in Se'ir, from before whom 
he destroyed the Chorim; and thoy drove 
them out and dwelt in their stead, even unto 
this day. 

23 And the 'Avvim, who dwelt in open 
tovsTis,"' as far as unto 'Azzah, — the Caphtor- 
im, who came forth out of Caphtor, destroyed 
them, and dwelt in their steaiL 

24 Ripo ye im, set forwnrrl, and pass over 
the brook Arnon; behold I have given into 
thy hand Sichon king of Choshbou, the Emo- 
rite, and his land: he^'r: to drive him out, 
and contend with him in battle. 

25 This day will I begin to put the dread 
of thee and the fear of thee upon the nations 
that are under the whole heaven; whoever 
will hear the report of thee, shall tremble, 
and shall quake because of thee. 

26 And I sent messengers out of the Avil- 
demess of Kedemoth unto Sichon, the king of 
Cheshbon, with words of peace, saying, 

27 Let me pass through thy land: ahvays 
by the highway will I go along; I will not 
turn unto the right hand or unto the left. 

28 Food shalt thou sell me for money, that 
I may eat; and water for money shalt thou 
give me, that I may drink : only let me pass 
through on foot; 

29 (As the children of Esau who dwell in 



' Not only the land of 'Og, the king of Bashan, was 
the one at times called the "giant country," Eretz Re- 
pha'im; since the people of Moiib and 'Ammon also had 
taken possession of two districts belonging to the same 
general tribe of men. 

'' Rabbi Joseph Scliwarz, in his Geography of Palestine, 
renders this with "the towns called Chazer," or "Chaze- 
rim;" as there were several in the southern district hav- 
ing this as a general name. 

" This must not be understood as if the Israelites had 



Seir, and the Moabites" who dwell in 'Ar, 
have done unto me;) until tiiat I shall pa.ss 
over the Jordan into the land wliich the Lord 
our God giveth us. 

30 But Sichon, the king of Cheshbon, would 
not suffer our passing by him; for the Lord 
thy God had hardened his spirit, and had 
made obstinate his heart, that he might de- 
liver him into thy hand, as (hath happened) 
this day.'== 

31 T[ And the Lord said unto me, Behold, 
I have begun to give up Sichon and his land 
before thee : begin to drive him out, that thou 
mayest inherit his land. 

32 And Sichon came out against us, he 
and all his people, to the battle at Yahaz. 

33 And the Lord our God gave him up be- 
fore us ; and we smote him, and his sons, and 
all his people. 

34: And we conquered all his cities at that 
time, and devoted every inhabited city, and 
the women, and the little ones ; we left none 
tiitvt escaped. 

35 Only the cattle we took as booty unto 
ourselves, and the spoil of the cities which we 
had captured. 

36 From 'Aro'er, which is by the bank of 
the brook of Arnon, and the city that is in 
the brook, even unto Gil'ad, there was not one 
city which was too strong for us; the whole 
did the Lord our God. give up before us. 

37 Only unto the land of the children of 
'Amnion didst thou not come nigh, unto the 
whole margin of the brook Yabbok, and the 
cities in the mountains, and unto whatsoever 
the Lord our God had forbidden us. 

CHAPTER III. 

1 And we turned, and went up the way to 
Bashan; and 'Og the king of Bashan came 
out against us, he and all his people, to the 
battle at Edre'i. 

2 And the Lord said unto me. Fear him 
not; for into thy hand have I given him, and 



been permitted to pass through the countries of Moiib 
and Edom : Moses's request was twofold, to pass through 
the country and to purchase provisions. We can therefore 
infer that the Edumeans and Moabites sold provisions to 
the Israelites, while Sichon alone prepared to attack them. 
But as the Moabites were relatives of Israel, their sordid- 
ness in refusing to meet them with bread and water, wait- 
ing till money was offered, and their hiring Bil'am to 
curse the people, caused them afterward to be prohibited 
the right of becoming proselytes. (Deut. zxiii. 4.) 

213 



DEUTERONOMY III. VAETCHANNAN. 



all his people, and his land; and thou shalt 
do unto him as thou hast done unto Sichon, 
the king of the Emorites, who dwelt at Chesh- 
bon. 

3 And the Lord our God gave into our 
hands also 'Og the king of Bashan, and all his 
people; and we smote him until none was 
left to him who escaped. 

4 And we conquei-ed all his cities at that 
time, there was not a city" which we took not 
from them, sixty cities, all the region of Ar- 
gob, the kingdom of 'Og in Bashan. 

5 All these were fortified cities, with high 
walls, gates, and bars; besides the unwalled 
towns, which were a great many. 

6 And we devoted them, as we had done 
unto Sichon king of Cheshbon, devoting every 
inhabited'' city, the women, and the little 
ones. 

7 But all the cattle, and the spoil of the 
cities, we took as booty to ourselves. 

8 And Ave took ,at that time out of the 
hand of the two kings of the Emorites the 
land which is on this side of the Jordan, from 
the river of Anion unto mount Chennon ; 

9 (The Sidonians call Chermon Siryon; 
and the Emorites call it Senir;) 

10 All the cities of the plain, and all Gil' ad, 
and all Bashan, mito Salchah and Edre'i, the 
cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan. 

11 For only 'Og king of Bashan had been 
left of the remnant of the Rephaim ; behold, 
his bedstead was a bedstead of iron ; lo ! it is 
in Rabbah of the children of 'Ammon : nine 
cubits is its length, and four cubits its breadth, 
after the arm" of a man. 

12 And of this land, of which we took pos- 
session at that time, from 'Aro'er, which is by 
the river Anion, and half mount Gil'ad, and 
the cities thereof, I gave unto the Reiibenites 
and to the Gadites. 

13 And the rest of Gil'ad, and all Bashan, 
the kingdom of 'Og, I gave unto the half 
tribe of Menasseh ; all the region of Argob, 
with all Bashan, this is called the land of 
Rephaim. 



' "Fortified place." — Arnheim — who thus distin- 
guishes between n'lp and vy "fortress" and "simple 
city." I'crhaps n'lp is derived from TO "walls," "a 
town fenced in by a wall." 

' Fiit. " (^ity of men;" and this means again, "The 
nieu who lived therein." 

° "The cubit of a man." Mendelssohn however ren- 
ders " Vorderarm," or, " the forepart of the arm," which 



14 Yair the son of Menasseh took all the 
region of Argob up to the border of the Ge- 
shurites and the Ma'achathites ; and he called 
them the (land of) Bashan, after his own 
name, the villages of Yair,"' unto this day.''-^ 

15 And unto Machir I gave Gil'ad. 

16 And unto the Reiibenites and unto the 
Gadites I gave from Gil'ad even unto the 
brook Arnon, the land within" the river and 
that adjoining, even unto the brook Yabbok, 
the border of the childi'en of 'Amnion ; 

17 The plain also, and the Jordan, and the 
adjoining laud, from Kinnereth even unto the 
sea of the plain, the Salt Sea, under the de- 
clivities of Pisgah, eastward. 

18 And I commanded you at that time, 
saying. The Lord your God hath given you 
this land to possess it: armed shall ye pass 
over before your brethren the children of 
Israel, all that are fit to bear arms. 

19 But your wives, and your little ones, 
and your cattle, (I know that ye have much 
cattle,) shall abide in your cities which I have 
given you ;* 

20 Until that the Lord have given rest 
unto your brethren, as well as unto you. and 
they also have taken possession of the land 
which the Lord your God giveth them beyond 
the Jordan : then shall ye return every man 
unto his possession which I have given you. 

21 And Joshua also I commanded at that 
time, saying. Thy own eyes have seen all 
that the Lord your God hath done unto these 
two kings ; thus will the Lord do unto all the 
kingdoms Avhither thou passest. 

22 Ye shall not fear them ; for the Lord 
your God it is who fighteth for you. 

llaphtorah in Isaiah i. 1 to 27. 



SECT. XLV. VAETCHANNAN, pnnxi. 

23 ^ And I besought the Lord at that 
time, saying. 

24 Lord Eterxal, thou hast begun to 
show th}^ servant thy greatness, and thy 



is certainly not the usual length of the cubit, which is the 
entire arm. 

^ Chavvoth-jM'ir. 

• This is rendered according to Onkclo.i, who hsis been 
followed by Arnheim. 1in is in this sense a noun, signify- 
ing " that within ;" and means then the land comprised 
within the bed of the river ; and the banks on both sides 
are comprised by the word 'jaji, as Rashi explains. 



DEUTERONOMY III. IV. VAETCHANNAN. 



mighty hand ; for what god is there in heaven 
or on earth, that can do aught like thy Avorks, 
and like thy mighty deeds ? 

25 Let me go over, I pray thee, that I may 
see the good land which is on the other side 
of the Jordan, this goodly mountain, and the 
Lebanon. 

26 But the Lord was wroth Avith me for 
j-our sakes, and he Avould not hear me : and 
the Lord said unto me. Let it suffice thee; do 
not continue to speak unto me any more of 
this matter. 

27 Get thee up unto the toj) of Pisgah, and 
lift up thy eyes, westward, and northward, 
and southward, and eastward, and behold it 
Avith thy eyes; for thou shalt not pass over 
this Jordan. 

28 And do thou charge Joshua, and strength- 
en him, and encourage him; for he shall go 
over before this people, and he shall divide 
out to them the land which thou shalt see. 

29 And we abode* in the valley opposite 
Beth-peor. 

CHAPTER IV. 

1 ^ And now, Israel, hearken unto the star 
tutes and unto the ordinances which I teach you 
to do ; in order that ye may live, and go in and 
take jDossession of the land which the Lord, the 
God of your fathers, giveth unto you. 

2 Ye shall not add unto the word which I 
command you, nor shall ye diminish aught 
from it ; that ye may keep the commandments 
of the Lord your God which I command you. 

3 Your own eyes have seen that which the 
Lord hath done because of Baiil-peor; for 
every man that followed Baiil-peor, "" him the 
Lord thy God hath destroyed from the midst 
of thee. 

4 But ye that did cleave unto the Lord your 
God, are alive, every one of you, this day.'=' 

5 See, I have taught you statutes and oi'di- 
nances, just as the Lord my God commanded 
me; that ye may do so in the midst of the 
land whither ye go to take possession of it. 



' Here must be supplied, "at the time that this occurred." 

*■ As idolatry was the prevailing sin among all ancient 
nations, Moses commences by calling the attention of the 
people pre-eminently to the consequences of their relapse 
in the country of Mo'ab ; how that so many that trans- 
gressed died, while those firm in the service of God re- 
mained alive. 

" Others render, " in all things." 

« " For your souls' sake." — Arnheim. 



6 Keep therefore and do them ; for this is 
your wisdom and your undenstanding before 
the eyes of tlie nations, that shall hear all 
these statutes, and they Avill say. Nothing but 
a wise and understanding people is this great 
nation. 

7 For what great nation is there that hath 
gods so nigh unto it, as is the Lord our God 
at all times'' that Ave call upon him ? 

8 And Avhat great nation is there that hath 
statutes and ordinances so righteous as is all 
this law, Avhich I lay befoi-e you this day?* 

9 Only take heed to thyself, and guard 
thy soul diligently, that thou do not forget 
the things Avhich thy eyes have seen, and 
that they depart not frona thy heart all the 
days of thy life ; but thou shalt make them 
knoAvn unto th}^ sons, and unto thy sons' 
sons ; 

10 The day that thou stoodest before the 
Lord thy God at Horeb, Avhen the Lord said 
unto me. Assemble for me the people, and I 
will cause them to hear my Avords, Avliich 
they shall learn, to fear me all the days that 
they shall li\'e upon the earth, and Avhich 
they shall teach their children. 

11 And ye came near and stood at the 
foot of the mountain ; and the mountain Avas 
burning Avith fire unto the midst of the 
heaven, (from amidst) darkness, clouds, and 
thick darkness. 

12 And the Lord spoke unto you out of 
the midst of the fire ; the sound of AVords ye 
heard, but any similitude ye saAV not; there 
was nothing but a sound. 

13 And he told unto you his coA^enaut, 
Avhich he commanded you to perform, the 
ten commandments; and he Avrote them upon 
tAVO tables of stone. • 

14 And me the Lord commanded at that 
time to teach you statutes and ordinances, 
that ye might do them in the land Avhither 
ye go over to possess it. 

15 Take ye therefore good heed of your 
souls f for ye saAV no manner of similitude" on 



" The great King of Israel did not make himself mani- 
fest under any bodily shape. All on the mountain wa,s 
darkness and cloud. A loud voice was heard, audible 
words reached the ear of all at once, one impression was 
made upon all alike. Hence the energetic prohibition 
against the folly of representing the Invisible and Incom- 
prehensible under any outward shape, even the most 
beautiful and strong. All will fail of reaching him ; con- 
sequently all are odious to the Deity. 

215 



DEUTERONOMY IV. VAETCHANNAN. 



the day that the Lord spoke unto you at 
Horeb out of the midst of the fire : 

IG That ye become not corrupt, and make 
youi'selvcs a graven image, the similitude of 
an>- idol-figure, the likeness of a male or of a 
female, 

17 The likeness of any beast that is on the 
earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that 
flietli in the air of heaven, 

18 The likeness of any thing that creepeth 
on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is 
in the waters beneath the earth ; 

19 And that thou lift not up thy eyes unto 
the heavens, and thou see the sun, and the 
moon, and the stars, all the host of heaven, 
and be misled to bow down to them, and to 
serve them, those which the Lord thy God 
hath assigned" unto all nations under the 
whole heaven. 

20 But you did the Lord take, and he 
brought you forth out of the iron furnace, 
out of Egypt, to be unto him a people of 
inheritance, as ye are this day. 

21 Farthermore the Lord was angry with 
me for your sakes, and he swore that I should 
not go over the Jordan, and that I should not 
go in unto that good land, which the Lord 
thy God giveth unto thee for an inheritance : 

22 For 1 must die in this land ; I shall not 
go over the Jordan ; but ye will go over and 
take possession of this good land. 

23 Take heed unto yourselves, that ye do 
not forget the covenant of the Lord your God, 
which he hath made with you, and make 
yovu'selves a graven image, the likeness of any 
thing, which the Lord thy God hath forbid- 
den thee. 

24 For the Lord thy God is a consuming 
fire, 3'ea, a watchful God. 

25 ^ When thou begettest children, and 
children's children, and ye shall have re- 
mained long in the land, and ye become cor- 
rupt, and make a graven image, the like- 



* "To give them light." — Talmud MEniLi.Aii, fol. 9. 
"But the text evidently means that the Lord had not in- 
terfered with the nations in their false worship. AVith 
Israel, however, he acted otherwise, taking them from 
slavery to be his people." — Uashbam. 

'' As the verse stands, it means that under the oppres- 
sions of the times, many will fall ofiF to idolatry and false 
worship. This prediction has come to pass, during the 
many persecutions which have occurred. Onkelos, how- 
ever, paraphrases, "And ye shall serve there nations, 
2ir, 



ness of any thing, and do the evil in the eyes 
of the Lord thy God, to provoke him to 
anger : 

20 I call this day the heavens and the 
earth to witness aginst you, that ye shall soon 
perish from oft' the land whereunto ye go over 
the Jordan to possess it; ye shall not remam 
many days upon it, but ye shall surely Ije de- 
stroyed. 

27 And the Lord will scatter you among 
the nations, and ye will be left few in number 
among the nations, whither the Lord will lead 
you. 

28 And ye will serve'' there gods, the work 
of man's hands, Avood and stone, which neither 
can see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell. 

29 But thou wilt seek from there the Lord 
thy God, and wilt find him, if thou apply to 
him with all thy heart and with all thy 
soul. 

30 When thou art in tribulation, and all 
these things have overtaken thee, in the lat- 
ter end of days, then wilt thou return to the 
Lord thy God, and be obedient unto his voice. 

31 For a merciful God is the Lord thy 
God; he will not forsake thee, nor destroy 
thee ; and he will not forget the covenant of 
thy fathers which he hath sworn unto them. 

32 For do but ask of former days, which 
Avere before thee, since the day that God cre- 
ated man upon the earth, and from the one 
end of the heavens unto the other end of the 
heavens, Avhether there hath been the like of 
this great thing, or Avhether the like liath 
been heard? 

33 Hath ever a people heard the voice of 
a° god, speaking out of the midst of the fire, 
as thou hast heard, and remained alive ? 

34 Or hath a god assayed to go to take to 
himself a nation from the midst of a nation, 
by proofs, by signs, and by wonders, and by 
Avar, and by a mighty hand, and by an out- 
stretched arm, and by great terrors, like all 



worshipping error, (idolatry,) the work of the hands of 
men," conceiving, probably, as the commentator to Men- 
delssohn observes, that to worship idols is a sin, not a 
punishment. 

° Meaning, the gods of any other nation ; did such ever 
speak to their followers? and so also in the succeeding 
verse. But Onkelos, Jonathan, Aben Ezra, and others 
refer God to the Supreme, and the text then says that 
the mercy which Israel witnessed was imparted to no other 
people 



■^ 



DEUTERONOMY IV. V. VAETCHANNAN. 



that which the Lord your God hath done for 
you in Egjpt before tiiy eyes? 

35 Unto thee it was shown, that thou 
mightest know, that the Eternal is the God; 
there is none else besides him. 

36 Out of the heavens he caused thee to 
hear his voice, to correct thee : and upon the 
earth he caused thee to see his great fire ; and 
his words didst thou liear out of the midst of 
the fire. 

37 And therefore, because he loved thy 
fathers, he chose their seed after them, and 
brought thee out in his presence* with his 
mighty power out of Egypt; 

38 To drive out nations greater and mightier 
than thou art, from before thee, to bring thee 
in, to give unto thee their land for an inheritr 
ance, as it is this day. 

39 Know therefore this day, and reflect in 
thy heart, that the Eternal is the God in 
the heavens above, and upon the earth be- 
neath: there is none else. 

40 And thou shalt keep his statutes, and 
■his commandments, which I command thee 
this day, that it may go well with thee, and 
with thy children after thee; and that thou 
mayest live many days upon the land which 
the Lord thy God giveth thee, for all times.* 

41 ^ Then Moses set aside three cities on 
this side of the Jordan, toward the rismg of 
the sun; 

42 That thither might flee the "manslayer, 
who should kill his neighbour unawares, when 
he had not been an enemy to him in times 
past; and that he should flee unto one of 
these cities and live. 

43 Bezer in the wilderness, in the plain 
country, for the Reiibenites ; and Ramoth in 
Gil'ad for the Gadites ; and Golan in Bashan 
for the Menassites. 

44 And this is the law which Moses set 
before the children of Israel : 

45 These are the testimonies, and the star 
tutes, and the ordinances, which Moses spoke 



' "In his own person." — Arnheim. "With his own 
word." — Onkelos ; who, by the by, frequently renders 
the holy Name with "memcra" NlO'D prefixed, as in Gen. 
iii. 8, vi. 6, xv. 6, &c.; perhaps the idea of ^oyo5, com- 
mon in his time, as the mysterious creative power of the 
Deity. 

*■ Others render this word with " springs ;" others with 
•' the foot ;" others with " heights ;" but it probably means 
the direction which streams take in quitting a mountain, 
2C 



unto tlie children of Israel, when they came 
forth out of Egypt, 

4G On this side of the Jordan, in the valley 
opposite to Beth-petir, in the land of Sichon 
the king of the Emorites, who dwelt at Chesh- 
bon, whom Moses and the children of Israel 
smote, after they were come forth out of Egypt ; 

47 And they took possession of his land, 
and of the land of 'Og the king of Bashan, 
the tAvo kings of the Emorites, who were on 
this side of the Jordan toward the rising of 
the sun; 

48 From 'Aro'er, which is on the bank of 
the river Arnon, even unto Mount Sion, which 
is Chermon, 

49 And all the plain on this side of the 
Jordan eastward, even unto the sea of the 
plain, under the declivities'" of Pisgah.* 

CHAPTER V. 

1 ^ And Moses called all Israel, and 
said mito them, Hear, Israel, the statutes 
and the ordinances which I speak in your 
ears this day, that ye may learn them, and 
that ye may observe to do them. 

2 The Lord our God made a covenant with 
us in Horeb. 

3 Not with our fathers did the Lord make 
this covenant, but with us, we who are here 
all of us alive this dayi 

4 Face" to face did the Lord speak with 
you, on the mount out of the midst of the 
fire, 

5 (P was standing between the Lord and be- 
tween you at that time, to announce to you 
the word of the Lord ; for ye were afraid by 
reason of the fire, and ye went not up into 
the mount;) saying, 

6 ]| I am the Lord th}^ God, who have 
brought thee out of the land of Egypt, from 
the house of slavery. 

7 Thou shalt have no other gods before me. 

8 Thou shalt not make unto thyself any 
graven image, any likeness of any thing that 



or the slope; here, therefore, the points where the slopes 
of the Pisgah commence. (See Num. xxi. 15.) 

° 1. e. Without a mediator. — Abe.n Ezr.\. 

^ This is a parenthesis, explaining the reason why the 
people would not themselves receive the commandments, 
and of the appointment of Moses as the messenger between 
God and the people; the word "saying" is to be understood 
as though it followed immediately upon the words " of the 
fire," in verse 4. 

217 



DEUTERONOMY V. VAETCHANNAN. 



is in the heavens abo-\e, or that is on the 
earth beneath, or that is in the water under 
the earth : 

9 Thou slialt not bow thyself down unto 
them, nor serve them; for I the Lord thy 
God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity 
of the fathers upon the children, and upon the 
third and upon the fourth generation of them 
that hate me, 

10 And shoAving mercy unto the thousandth 
generation of them that love me, and keep 
my commandments. 

11 ^ Thou shalt not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain ; for the Lord will not 
hold him guiltless that taketh his name in 
vain. 

12 Tl Keep the sabbath-day to sanctify it, 
as the Lord thy God hath commanded" thee. 

13 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all 
thy work; 

14 But the seventh day is the sabbath in 
honour of the Lord thy God ; on it thou shalt 
not do any work, neither thou, nor thy son, 
nor thy daughter, nor thy mau-sjervant, nor 
thy maid-servant, nor th}^ ox, nor thy ass, nor 
an}' of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is 
within thy gates; in order that thy man-ser- 
vant and thy maid-servant may rest as well as 
thou. 

15 And thou shalt remember that thou 
hast been a servant in the land of Eg^-pt, and 
that the Lord thy God brought thee out from 
there by a mighty hand and by an out- 
stretched arm ; therefore hath the Lord thy 
God commanded thee to observe the sabbath- 
day. 

16 ^ Honour thy father and thy mother, 
as the Loud thy God hath commanded thee ; 
that thy days may be prolonged, and that it 
may go well with thee, in the laud which the 
Lord thy God givetli thee. 

17 ^['Thou shalt not kill. 

^ Neither'' shalt thou commit adultery. 
^1 Neither shalt thou steal. 



' " As the Lord thy God commanded thcc in Marah, 
before the giving of tlic law." — llAsni. Otherwise the 
phrase is merely general, referring to the institution of 
the sabbath as a divine thing, and is an expression of 
Moses in his address to the people, calling their attention 
to the necessity of obedience, because it is the will of God. 
Hence the introduction of the exodus from Egypt in 
verse 15. See also verse IG, where the same phrase oc- 
curs again. 
218 



^ Neither shalt thou bear false witness 
against thy neighbour. 

18 ^ Neither shalt thou covet thy neigh- 
bour's wife. 

^ Neither shalt thou desire" thy neighbour's 
house, nor his field, nor his man-servant, nor 
his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor 
any thing that is thy neighbour's.* 

19 ][ These words did the Lord speak unto 
all your assembly on the mount out of the 
midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick 
darkness, with a great voice, but he did so no 
more f and he wrote them on two tables of 
stone, and he gave them unto me. 

20 And it came to pass, when ye heard the 
voice out of the midst of the darkness, while 
the mountain was burning Avith fire, that ye 
came near unto me, even all the heads of 
your tribes, and }our elders ; 

21 And ye said. Behold, the Lord our God 
hath caused us to see his glory and his great- 
ness, and his voice have Ave heard out of the 
midst of the fire ; this day have Ave seen that 
God can speak Avith man, Avho nevertheless 
may live. 

22 But noAv Avln- should aa-c die? for this 
great fire ma}- consume us; if Ave continue to 
hear the A'oice of the Lord our God any more, 
then shall Ave die. 

2-3 For Avhere is there any flesh, that hath 
heard the A'oice of the liA-ing God speaking- 
out of the midst of the fire, like us, and hath 
remained aliA'e ? 

24 Do thou approach, and hear all that 
the Lord our God may say ; and thou shalt 
speak unto us all that the Lord our God 
may speak vuito thee; and Ave Avill hear and 
do it. 

25 And the Lord heard the voice of your 
Avords, Avhile ye Avere speaking unto me ; and 
the Lord said unto me, I haA-e heard the A-oice 
of the Avords of this people, Avhich they have 
spoken unto thee; they haA^e done Avell in all 
that they have spoken. 



'' Tlie English version makes separate verses of all the 
comm.andments ; so also in Exodus xs. 

° If we consider that the repetition of the Decalogue 
was only to recall the general tenor thereof to the people, 
the variations from the text in Exodus xi. will readily ex- 
plain themselves ; it is there the very word of God ; here 
Moses teaches what had been confided to him. 

'' Meaning, that this was the only time that God spoke 
to the people without a mediator, as Moses himself was. 



DEUTERONOMY V. VI. VAETCHANNAN. 



26 Who would gTant" that this their heart 
might remain in them, to fear me, and to keep 
all my commandments at all times; in order 
that it might be well with them, and with 
their children for ever! 

27 Go, say to them, Return you into your 
tents. 

28 But as for thee, remain thou here by 
me, and I will speak mito thee all the com- 
mandments, and the statutes, and the ordi- 
nances, which thou shalt teach them, that 
they may do them in the land which I give 
them to possess it. 

29 Observe ye then to do as the Lord your 
God hath commanded you ; ye shall not turn 
aside to the right or to the left. 

30 Altogether in the Avay, which the Lord 
your God hath commanded you, shall ye 
walk ; in order that ye may live, and that it 
may be well with you, and that ye may re- 
main many days in the laud which ye will 
possess. 

CHAPTER VI. 

1 And this is the commandment, with 
the statutes, and the ordinances, which the 
Lord your God hath commanded to teach 
you, to do them in the land whither ye are 
passing over to possess it : 

2 In order that thou mayest fear the Lord 
thy God, to keep all his statutes and his com- 
mandments, which I command thee, thou and 
thy .son, and thy son's son, all the days of thy 
life ; and in order that thy days may be pro- 
longed. 

3 Hear, therefore, Israel, and observe to 
do them ; that it may be well ^vith thee, and 
that ye may increase greatly, as the Lord the 
God of thy fathers hath spoken to thee, (in) 
the land flowing with milk and honey.* 

4 ^ Hear, Israel ! The Lord, our God, is 
the 0>iE Eternal Being.'' 

* God is represented as speaking in the fashion of man. 
Piety is here shown to be voluntary ; as no Divine force is 
spoken of as compelling to obedience. Hence the mira- 
cles, however astonishing they were, were nevertheless 
evanescent, and left human nature unchanged. Hence 
the wish that the will then expressed might last for 
ever. 

^ Philippson translates, "Hear, Israel, the Eternal, 
our God, the Eternal is One." But every attempt to 
convey in another language the simplicity of the Hebrew 
must fail. Here we have the third revelation of God's 
being; in Genesis ivii. he is revealed as the Almighty; 



5 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God 
with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and 
with all thy might. 

6 And these words which I command thee 
this day, shall l)e in thy heart : 

7 And thou shalt teach them diligently 
unto thy cliildren, and thou shalt speak of 
them when thou sittest in thy hou.se, and 
when thou walkest by the way, and when 
thou liest down, and when thou risest up. 

8 And thou shalt bind them for a sign 
upon thy hand, and they shall be as frontlets 
between thy eyes. 

9 And thou shalt write them upon the 
door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates. 

10 ^ And it shall be, when the Lord thy 
God shall bring thee into the land which he 
hath sworn unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to 
Isaac, and to Jacol), to give unto thee," great 
and goodly cities, which thou didst not build, 

11 And houses full of all good things, which 
thou didst not fill, and wells hewed out which 
thou didst not hew, vineyards and olive-trees, 
wliich thou didst not plant; and thou hast 
eaten and art satisfied : 

12 Then beware that thou do not forget 
the Lord, who hath brought thee forth out of 
the land of Eg3'pt, from the house of slavery. 

13 The Lord thy God shalt thou fear, and 
him shalt thou serve, and hy his name shalt 
thou swear. 

14 Ye** shall not go after other gods, of the 
gods of the nations which are round about 
you; 

15 For the Lord thy God is a watchful' 
God among you; so that the anger of the 
Lord thy God may not be kindled against 
thee, and he destroy thee from ofl" the face of 
the earth. 

16 ^ Ye shall not tempt the Lord ^-our 
God, as ye tempted him in Massah. 

17 Ye shall diligently keep the command- 



in Exodus vi. as the Eternal ; and now as the one, un- 
ecmpound, indi^nsible, and not liable to change or increase. 
We have thus the complete idea of the Godhead, as the 
highest Power, Eternity, Unit}-. — After Philippson. 
° Here we must understand " replete with." 
^ As Moses addresses all the people of Israel, he occa- 
sionally employs the singular, they being but one body in 
his eyes; and again the plural, as they are composed of in- 
dividuals. Hence the frequent changes observable in the 
text. 

" One who sees iniquity and is ever ready to recom- 
pense it with retribution. 

219 



DEUTERONOMY VI. VII. AYKEB. 



merits of the Lord your God, and his testimo- 
nies, and his statutes, which he hath com- 
manded theo. 

18 And tliou shalt do that which is right 
and good in the eyes of the Lord; in order 
that it may be well with thee, and that thou 
mayest go in and take possession of the good 
land with the Lord hath sworn unto thy 
fathers, 

19 To cast out all thy enemies from before 
thee; as the Lord hath spoken. 

20 ^ When thy son should ask thee in 
time" to come, saying, What mean the testi- 
monies, and the statutes, and the ordinances, 
which the Lord our God hath commanded you ? 

21 Then shalt thou say unto thy son, We 
were bond-men imto Pharaoh in Egypt; and 
the Lord brought us out of Egypt with a 
mighty hand ; 

22 And the Lord let come signs and won- 
ders, great and sore, on Egypt, on Pharaoh, 
and on all his household, before our eyes; 

23 And us he brought out from there; in 
order to bring us in, to give us the land which 
he had sworn unto our fathers. 

24 And the Lord commanded us to do all 
these statutes, to fear the Lord our God ; that 
it might be well with us at all times, and^ 
that he might preserve us alive, as it is at 
this day. 

25 And it shall be accounted righteousness 
unto us, if we observe to do all this command- 
ment before the Lord our God, as he hath 
commanded us. 

CHAPTER VII. 

1 ][ When the Lord thy God shall bring 
thee into the land whither thou goest to pos- 
sess it, and cast out many nations befoi'e thee, 
the Ilittites, and the Girgashites, and the 
Emorites, and the Canaanites, and the Periz- 
zites, and the Ilivites, and the Jebusites, seven 
nations, greater in number and mightier than 
thou; 

2 And when the Lord thy God shall give 
them up before thee, and thou dost smite 
them: thou shalt utterly destroy them; thou 
shalt not make any covenant with them, nor 
show mercy unto them. 



' Heb. ina "to-morrow," any time after to-day. 
"" " Son" stands here for the entire people ; therefore it 
is properly followed by the plural in the next phrase. 
° i. e. The one who is in truth God the Creator, while 
220 



3 Neither shalt thou make marriages with 
them ; thy daughter shalt thou not give unto 
his son, and his daughter shalt thou not take 
unto thy son. 

4 For he would turn away thy son'' from 
following me, so that they might serve other 
gods; and the anger of the Lord would be 
kindled against j^ou, and he would destroy 
thee speedily. 

5 But thus shall ye do unto them : their 
altars shall ye pull down, and their statues 
shall ye break, and their groves shall ye cut 
down, and their graven images shall ye bum 
with fire. 

G For thou art an holy people unto the 
Lord thy God; of thee the Lord thy God 
hath made choice to be unto himself a special 
people, above all the nations that are ujjon 
the face of the earth. 

7 Not because ye are more in number than 
all the nations, did the Lord desire you and 
make choice of you ; for }e are the fewest of 
all the nations; 

8 But on account of the love of the Lord 
for you, and because he kcepeth the oath 
which he hath sworn unto your fathers, hath 
the Lord brought you out with a mighty 
hand, and redeemed you out of the house of 
bond-men, out of the hand of Pharaoh the king 
of Egypt.* 

9 Know then that the Eternal thy God, is 
the"" God, the faithful God, who keepeth the 
covenant and the mercy with those that love 
him and with those that keep his command- 
ments to the thousandth generation; 

10 And repayeth those that hate him to 
their face,'^ to destroy them ; he will not de- 
lay to him that hatetli him, he will repay 
him to his face. 

11 Therefore shalt thou keep the command- 
ment, and the statutes, and the ordinances, 
which I command thee this day, to do them. 

Ilaphtorah in Isaiah il. 1 to 20. 



SECTION XLVI. AYKEB, apr. 

12 ^ And it shall come to pass in reward 
for that ye \n\\ hearken to these ordinances, 



the other deities are false, powerless, imaginary beings, 
therefore not God. In this sense must the definite article 
in this and other instances be understood. 

* J. e. At once, promptly, (Arnheim, "in their life- 



DEUTERONOMY VII. VIII. AYKEB. 



and keep, and do them, that the Lord thy 
God will keep unto thee the. covenant and 
the kindness which he hath sworn unto thy 
lathers : 

1 3 And he will love thee_, and bless thee, 
and multiply thee; and he will bless the 
fruit of *thy womb, and the fruit of thy land, 
thy corn, and thy wine, and thy oil, the in- 
crease of thy cattle, and the young of thy 
Hocks, in the land which he hath sworn unto 
thy fathers to give unto thee. 

14 Blessed shalt thou be above all the na- 
tions; there shall not be a barren male or 
female among thee, nor among thy cattle. 

15 And the Lord avIU take away from thee 
all sickness, and all the evil diseases of Egypt, 
which thou knowest, will he not put upon 
thee; but he will lay them upon all those 
that hate thee. 

16 And thou shalt consume all the nations 
which the Lord thy God givetli unto thee; 
thy eye shall not look with pity upon them : 
and thou shalt not serve their gods; for that 
would be a snare unto thee. 

17 ^ If thou shouldest say in thy heart. 
These nations are more numerous than I; 
how shall I be able to dispossess them? 

18 Thou shalt not be afraid of them; (but) 
thou shalt well remember what the Lord thy 
God did unto Pharaoh, and unto all Egypt; 

19 The great proofs" which thy eyes have 
seen, and the signs, and the wonders, and 
the mighty hand, and the outstretched ann, 
whereby the Lord thy God brought thee out : 
in this wise will the Lord thy God do unto 
all the people of whom thou art afraid. 

20 Moreover the hornet will the Lord thy 
God send out against them, until they that 
are left, and hide themselves from thee, be 
destroyed. 

21 Thou shalt not be affrighted at them; 
for the Lord thy God is in the midst of thee, 
a mighty and terrible God. 

22 And the Lord thy God will chase out 
these nations before thee, little by little ; thou 
shalt not be able to make an end of them 



time,") so that the guilt be expiated in the fourth genera- 
tion, while the righteousness of the fathers is remembered 
to the thousandth of their descendants. iNjiyS means 
"every one of those who hate him." 

" Onkelos renders "wonders;" Rashi and Mendelssohn, 
"temptations;" but it appears to be as above, iv. 34, to 
denote the positive exhibitions of God's power, or wonders 



speedily, lest the beasts of the field increase 
upon thee. 

23 And the Lord thy God- will give them 
up before thee, and he Avill bring among 
them a mighty confusion, until they be de- 
stroyed. 

24 And he will give their kings into thy 
hand, and thou shalt destroy their name from 
under the heavens : no man shall, be able 
to stand up before thee, until thou have de- 
stroj^ed them. 

25 The graven images of their gods shall 
ye burn with fire; thou shalt not covet the 
silver or gold that is on them, so that thou 
wouldest take it unto thyself, lest thou be 
ensnared thereby; for it is an abomination to 
the Lord thy God. 

26 And thou shalt not bring an abominan 
tion into thy house, lest thou liecome accursed 
like it : thou shalt utterly detest it, and thou 
shalt utterly abhor it; for it is accursed. 

CHAPTER VIIL 

1 Tl All the commandment which I com- 
mand thee this day shall ye observe to do ; in 
order that ye may live, and m^tiply, and go 
in and take possession of the land which the 
Lord hath sworn unto your fathers. 

2 And thou shalt remember all the way 
which the Lord thy God hath led thee these 
forty years in the wilderness, in order to afflict 
thee, to prove thee, to know what is in thy 
heart, whether thou wouldest keep his com- 
mandments, or not. 

3 And he afflicted thee, and suffered thee 
to hunger, and he gave thee manna to eat, 
which thou knewest not, and which thy 
fathers had not known; in order that he 
might make thee know that not by bread 
alone man doth live, but by every thing that 
proceedeth out of the mouth'' of the Lord 
doth man live. 

4 Thy garment did not fall worn out from 
thee," and thy foot did not swell,* these forty 
years. 

5 And thou shalt consider in thy heart, 



sent as proofs of the truth of the prophetic mission of 
Moses. 

' i. e. Whatever is produced by the will of God. God's 
word creates; hence every thing proceeds out of his 
mouth. 

° After Arnheim. 

■* i'. e. From walking barefoot in the sand. 



DEUTERONOMY VIII. IX. AYKEB. 



that, as a man chasteneth his son/ so doth 
the Lord thy God chasten thee. 

G And thou shalt keep the commandments 
of the LoKi) thy God, to walk in his ways, 
and to fear hira. 

7 For the Lord thy God bringeth thee into 
a good land, a land of brooks of water, of 
fountains and depths'" that spring out of val- 
leys and hills; 

8 A land of wheat, and barley, and of the 
vine, and the fig-tree, and the pomegranate; 
a land of the oil-olive, and of honey; 

9 A land wherein thou shalt cat bread 
without scarceness, wherein thou shalt not 
lack any thing; a land the stones whereof 
are iron, and out of whose hills thou canst 
hew copper. 

10 And Avhen thou hast eaten and art 
satisfied, then shalt thou bless the Lord thy 
God for the good land wliich he hath given 
thee.* 

11 Take" heed ma to thyself that thou for- 
get not the Lord thy God, so as not to keep 
his commandments, and his ordinances, and 
his statutes, which I command thee this day; 

12 That Mfcen thou hast eaten and art 
satisfied, and hast built goodly houses, and 
dwelt therein; 

13 And when thy herds and thy flocks 
multiply, and thy silver and thy gold are 
multiplied, and all that thou hast is multi- 
plied : 

14 Thy heart be then not lifted up, and 
thou forget tlie Lord thy God, who hath 
brought tliee fortli out of the land of Egypt, 
from the house of slavery; 

15 WIio liath led thee through the great 
and terrible wilderness, wherein are snakes, 
poisonous serpents, and scorpions, and drought, 
where there is no water; who hath brought 
forth for thee water out of the flinty 
rock ; 

IG Who hath fed thee in the wilderness 
with niiinna, which thy fiithers knew not; 
in order to alllict thee, and in order to prove 
thee, to do thee good at thy latter end; 



* The father punishes the son to correct him of some 
evil habit or propensity; in the same manner did the 
Lord punish the Israelites to cure them of their sinful- 
ness. 

^ "Lakes." — Arniieim. 

° All from this verse to v. 17 inclusive is one sentence, 
and must be so understood : Moses warns the people not 
to imagine, after all the dangers should be passed, that it 



17 And thou say in thy heart, My power 
and the strength of thy hand have gotten me 
this wealth. 

18 But thou shalt remember the Lord thy 
God; for it is he that giveth thee power to 
get wealth ; in order that he might fulfil his 
covenant which he hath sworn ulito thy 
fathers, as it is this day. 

19 ^[ And it sh.all come to pass, that if 
thou shouldst forget the Lord thy God, and 
walk after other gods, and serve them, and 
bow thyself down to them, I testify against 
you this day that ye shall surely perish ; 

20 Like the nations which the Lord de- 
stroyeth l^efore you, so shall ye iierish ; in 
recompense of that ye would not hearken 
unto the voice of the Lord your God. 

CHAPTER IX. 

1 T[ Hear, O Israel : Thou art to pass this 
day over the Jordan, to go in to drive out 
nations greater and mightier than thou, (to 
conquer) cities great and fortified up to 
heaven, 

2 A people great and tall, the children of 
the 'Anakim, whom thou knowest, and of 
whom thou hast heard say. Who can stand 
before the children of 'Anak ! 

3 Understand therefore this day, that the 
Lord thy God it is who goeth over before 
thee, he is a consuming fire ; he will destroy 
them, and he will subdue them before thy 
face; and thou wilt drive them out, and de- 
stroy them quickly,"* as the Lord hath spoken 
unto thee."'' 

4 Thou must not say in thy heart, when 
the Lord thy God doth cast them out from 
before thee, as foUoweth, For my righteous- 
ness hath the Lord brought me in to possess 
this land; and that for the wickedness of 
these nations the Lord doth drive them out 
from before thee. 

5 Not for thy righteousness, nor for the 
uprightness of thy heart, dost thou go in to 
possess their land; but for the wickedness of 
these nations doth the Lord thy God drive 



was thoir strength which had accomplished all, but to look 
upon their acquisitions as the gift of God; man indeed must 
labour, but God alone can grant success. 

" This is no contradiction to vii. 22 ; for there it merely 
says that the conquest shall be gradual ; here that, though 
it take place in this way, it would still be in less time than 
the Israelites, from their unprepared state to cope with 
their enemies, could rationally expect. 



DEUTERONOMY IX. AYKEB. 



them out from before thee, and in order that 
he may fulfil the word which the Lord hath 
sworn imto thy fathers, to Al^raliam, to Isaac, 
and to Jacob. 

6 And thou shalt know, that not for thy 
righteousness doth the Lord thy God give 
unto thee this good land to possess it; for 
thou art. a stiff-necked people. 

7 Remember," do not forget, how thou 
didst provoke the Lord thy God to wrath in 
the wilderness : from the day that thou went- 
est out of the land of Egypt, until ye came 
unto this place, have ye been rebellious 
against the Lord. 

8 Also at Horeb ye provoked the Lord to 
wrath, so that the Lord was angry with you 
to destroy you. 

9 When I was gone up into the mount to 
receive the tables of stone, the tables of the 
covenant which the Lord had made with you, 
and I abode on the mount forty days and 
forty nights, bread did I not eat, and water 
did I not drink. 

10 And the Lord gave unto me the two 
tables of stone inscribed by the finger of God ; 
and on them (was written) according to all 
the Avords, which the Lord had spoken with 
you on the mount out of the midst of the fire 
on the day of the assembly. 

11 And it came to pass at the end of forty 
days and forty nights, that the Lord gave 
unto me the two tables of stone, the tables of 
the covenant. 

12 And the Lord said unto me, Arise, get 
thee down quickly from here; for thy people 
which thou hast brought forth out of Egypt 
have become corrupted; they have quickly 
turned aside out of the way which I have 
commanded them; they have made them- 
selves a molten image. 

13 And the Lord said unto me, thus, I 
have seen this people, and, behold, it is a stiff- 
necked people : 

14 Let me alone, and I will destroy them, 
and blot out their name from under the 
heavens; and I will make of thee a nation 
mightier and more numerous than they. 

15 And I turned and came do\vn from the 



* Since men are so apt to imagine all they receive as 
justly their due, the prophet here impresses upon the 
people, that they had deserved punishment, not the great 
mercj' which was and would be shown them. 

• Although Moses had already spoken of the rebellion 



mount, and the mount was burning with fire ; 
and the two tables of the covenant were upon 
my two hands. 

16 And I looked, and, behold, ye had sin- 
ned against the Lord your God, ye had made 
yourselves a molten calf; ye had turned aside 
quickly out of the way which the Lord had 
commanded you. 

17 And I took hold of the two tables, and 
cast them out of my two hands, and I broke 
them before your eyes. 

18 And I threw myself dovm. before the 
Lord, as at the first, forty days and forty 
nights; bread did I not eat, and water did I 
not drink ; on account of all your sins which 
ye had committed, in doing what is evil in 
the eyes of the Lord, to provoke him to 
anger. 

19 For I was afraid of the anger and the 
indignation, wherewith the Lord was wroth 
against you to destroy you; but the Lord 
hearkened unto me also at that time. . 

20 And with Aai'on was the Lord very 
angry to destroy him; and I prayed also for 
Aaron at the same time. 

21 And your work of sin, which ye had 
made, the calf, I took and burnt it in fire, 
and stamped it, grinding it very small, until 
it was as fine as dust : and I cast the dust 
thereof into the brook that descendeth from 
the mount. 

22 And at Taberah, and at Massah and at 
Kibroth-hattaiivah, have ye been provoking 
the Lord to wrath. 

23 And when the Lord sent you from Ka- 
desh-barneii','' saying, Go up and take posses- 
sion of the land Avhich I have given you : 
then rebelled ye against the order of the Lord 
your God, and ye believed not in him, and ye 
hearkened not to his voice. 

24 Rebellious have ye been against the 
Lord, from the day that I have known you. 

25 And I threw myself down before the 
Lord those forty days and forty nights, which 
I threw myself down ; because the Lord had 
said that he would destroy you. 

20 And I prayed unto the Lord, and said," 
Lord Eternal, destroy not thy people and 



upon the occasion of the spies, he sums up here this event 
also as a connected portion of their series of obdurate sin- 
ning. 

° As was said above with the ten commandments, so it 
is here : Moses gives merely the substance of what oc- 

223 



DEUTERONOMY IX. X. AYKEB. 



thy heritage, which thou hast redeemed 
through tliy greatness, which thou hast 
brought forth out of Egypt with a mighty 
hand. 

27 Think of thy servants, of Abraham, of 
Isaac, and of Jacob; turn not unto the stu}> 
boniness of this people, nor to its wickedness, 
nor to its sin : 

28 Lest (the inhabitants of) the land 
wlience thou hast brought us out say, Out of 
want of ability in the Lord to bring them 
into the land which he had promi.sed them, 
and out of his hatred to them, hath he 
bi'ought them out to slay them in the wilder- 
ness. 

29 Whereas they are thy people and thy 
heritage, whom thou hast brought out by thy 
mighty power and by thy outstretched arm.* 

CHAPTER X. 

1 ^ At that time the Lord said unto me, 
Hew for thyself two tables of stone like unto 
the first, and come up unto me into the 
mount; and make thyself an ark of wood. 

2 And I will write on the tables the words 
that were on the first tables which thou hast 
broken; and thou shalt put them in the ark. 

3 And I made an ark of shittim-wood, and 
hewed two tables of stone like unto the first ; 
and I went up into the mount, with the two 
tables in my hand. 

4 And he wrote on the tables, like the first 
writing, the ten commandments, which the 
Lord had spoken unto you on the mount out 
of the midst of the fire on the day of the as- 
sembly; and the Lord gave them unto me. 

5 And I turned myself and came down 
from the mount, and I put the tables in the 
ark which I had made; and they have re- 
mained there, as the Lord hath commanded 
me. 

G And the children of Israel took their 
journey from the wells of the children of Ya'iv 
kan to Mossera : there" Aaron died, and he 



curred, and confines himself not to the exact words which 
were spoken. His object is to condense, aild occasionally 
to add some particulars not before dwelt upon. 

* This verse is thus explained by Aben Ezra: "Above 
it is said that Moses prayed also for Aaron ; and he did 
not die then, but at the end of forty years." The places 
mentioned here are either divisions of Mount Ilor, or 
neighbouring places thereto. The former opinion is pro- 
bably the most correct. 
224 



was buried there ; and Elazar his son became 
priest in his stead. 

7 From there they journeyed unto Gudgo- 
dah ; and from Gudgodah to Yotbatha, a land 
of brooks of waters. 

8 At that time'' did the Lord separate the 
tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covenant 
of the Lord, to stand before the Lord to 
minister unto him, and to bless in his name, 
unto this day. 

9 Therefore was not assigned unto Levi 
any portion or inheritance Avith his brethren ; 
the Lord is his inheritance, as the Lord th}- 
God hath spoken to him. 

10 And I stayed on the mount, like the 
first da^s, forty days and forty nights; and 
the Lord hearkened unto me also at that 
time, the Lord would not destroy thee. 

11 And the Lord said unto me. Arise, go 
on the journey before the ]x?ople, that they 
may go in and take possession of the land, 
which I have sworn unto their fathers to give 
unto them.* 

12 ]| And now, Israel, what doth the Lord 
thy God require of thee, but to fear the Lord 
thy God, to walk in all his ways, and to love 
him, and to serve the Lord thy God with all 
thy heart and with all thy soul, 

13 To keep the commandments of the 
Lord, and his statutes, which I command thee 
this day, for thy own good ? 

14 Behold, to the Lord thy God belong 
the heavens and the heavens of heavens, and 
the earth with all that is thereon ; 

15 Yet only in thy fathers had the Lord 
delight, to love them ; he chose, therefore, 
their seed after them, namely 3-ou, from all 
the nations, as it is this day. 

16 Remove" therefore the obduracy of your 
heart, and be no more stifl-necked.^ 

17 For the Lord your God is the God of 
gods, and the Lord of lords, the great, the 
mighty, and the terrible God, Avho hath no re- 
gard to persons, and taketh no bribe; 



•■ At the time first mentioned, when the golden calf was 
made. 

° The phrase employed in the Hebrew is so peculiarly 
idiomatic, that it has been freely rendered, more so than 
any other hitherto in this version. Whatever is odious 
among the Israelites is called "uncircumcised ;" hence, to 
convert the heart, to be no longer disobedient, is called 
" circumcising the heart." 

'' Lit. "And cause not your neck to bo stiff any more." 



DEUTERONOMY X. XI. AYKEB. 



18 Who executeth justice for the fatherless 
and the widow, and loveth the stranger, to 
give him food and raiment. 

19 Love ye then the stranger ; for you have 
been strangers in the hand of Egypt. 

20 The Lord thy God shalt thou fear; him 
shalt thou serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, 
and by his name shalt thou swear. 

21 He is thy praise, and he is thy God, 
who hath done lor thee these great and fear- 
ful things, which thy own eyes have seen. 

22 With seventy persons did thy fathers 
go do^\ai into Egypt ; and now the Lord thy 
God hath made thee hke the stars of heaven 
in multitude. 

CHAPTER XL 

1 Thou shalt therefore love the Lord thy 
God, and keep his charge, and his statutes, 
and his ordinances, and his commandments, 
all the days. 

2 And ye shall know this day, that (I 
speak) not with your children who have not 
known, and who have not seen the chastise- 
ment of the Lord your God, his greatness, his 
strong hand, and his outstretched arm ; 

3 And his signs, and his acts, which he 
displaj'ed in the midst of Egypt, unto Pharaoh 
the king of Eg}q3t, and unto all his land; 

4 And what he did unto the army of 
Eg3'pt, unto its horses, and to its chariots; 
over whom he caused the water of the Red 
Sea to flow, as they pursued after you, and 
whom the Lord destroyed unto" this day; 

5 And what he did unto you in the wilder- 
ness, until ye came unto this place; 

G And what he did unto Dathan and Abi- 
ram, the sons of Eliab, the son of Reuben; 
how the earth opened her mouth, and swal- 
lowed them up, and their households, and 
their tents, and all the livmg substance that 
followed them, in the midst of all Israel ; 

7 But*" it is your own eyes which have seen 
all the great acts of the Lord which he hath 
done. 

8 Ye shall therefore keep all the command- 



* Mendelssohn renders freely: "And the Lord des- 
troyed them to such a degree, that none of them is to be 
seen any more." It appears, however, that the phrase is 
merely the strong affirmative frequently used by Moses. 

' With this verse ends the sentence commenced with 
verse 2. 

° " In Egypt it was necessary to bring water from the 



ment which I command you this day, that ye 
may be strong, and go in and take possession 
of the land, whither ye go over to po.ssess it; 

9 And in order that ye may live many 
days in the land, which the Lord hath sworn 
unto your fathers to give unto them and to 
their seed, a land flowing with milk and 
honey.* 

10 ^ For the land, whither thou goest in to 
possess it, is not like the land of Egypt, from 
where ye came out, where thou sowest thy 
seed, and waterest it with thy foot," as a gar- 
den of herbs ; 

11 But the land, whither ye go over to 
jjossess it, is a land of mountains and valleys, 
from the rain of heaven doth it drink water: 

12 A land which the Lord thy God careth 
for ; always are the eyes of the Lord thy God 
upon it, from the beginning of the year even 
unto the end of the year. 

13 ][ And it shall come to pass, if ye will 
hearken diligently unto my commandments 
which I command you this day, to love the 
Lord your God, and to serve him with all 
your heart and with all your soul, 

14 That I will send rain for jour land in 
its due season, the first rain and the latter 
rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, 
and thy wine, and thy oil. 

15 And I will give grass in thy field for 
thy cattle ; and thou shalt eat and be satisfied, 

16 Take heed to yourselves, that your 
heart be not deceived, and ye turn aside, and 
serve other gods, and worship them ; 

17 (For) then the Lord's wrath will be 
kindled against you, and he will shut up the 
heavens that there be no rain, and the land 
will not yield her products; and ye shall 
perish quickly from off the good land which 
the Lord giveth unto you. 

18 Therefore shall ye lay up these my 
words in your heart and in your soul ; and ye 
shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, 
and they shall be as frontlets between your 
eyes. 

19 And ye shall teach them to your chil- 



Nile on foot," (hence the expression in the verse,) " and 
to water it, like the vegetable garden, which has not 
enough from the rain of heaven." — Rashi. It however 
probably alludes to the water-wheels used in the East for 
purposes of irrigation, which are worked by treading upon 
them, in the manner of a tread-mill ; in this view, the foot 
actually does the watering. 

225 



DEUTERONOMY XI. XII. REAY. 



dren, to speak of them when thou sittest in 
thy house, and when thou walkest by the 
way, and when thou liest down, and when 
thou risest up. 

20 And thou shalt write them upon the 
door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates. 

21 In order that your days may be multi- 
plied, and tlie days of your children, in the 
land which the Lord swore unto your fathers 
to give unto them, as the days of the heavens 
over the earth .°'-" 

22 ^[ For if ye will diligentl}- keep all this 
commandment which I command you, in order 
to do it, to love the Lord your God, to walk 
in all his Ava}-s, and to cleave unto him : 

2.3 Then will the Lord drive out all these 
nations from before }"ou, and ye shall supplant 
nations greater and mightier than yourselves. 

24 Every place whereon the sole of your 
foot may tread shall be yours : from the wil- 
derness and the Lebanon, from the river, the 
river Euphrates, even unto the Western Sea'' 
shall be your boundary. 

25 There shall be no man able to stand up 
before you ; the fear of you and the dread of 
you will the Lord }-our God lay upon all the 
land which ye may tread upon, as he hath 
spoken unto you. 

Ilaphtorali in Isaiah slix. 14 to li. 3. 



SECTION XLVII. REAY, nxn. 

26 T[ Behold, I lay before you this day a 
blessing and a curse : 

27 The blessing, if ye will hearken unto 
the commandments of the Lord your God, 
which I command you this day; 

28 And the curse, if ye will not hearken 
unto the commandments of the Lord 3-our 
God, and ye turn aside out of the way which 
I command you this day, to go after other 
gods, which ye know not. 

29 ^ And it shall come to pass, when the 
Lord thy God shall have brought thee in 

' {. e. While the sky is visible over the earth, or always. 

"■ 1. e. The Jlcditerranean Sea, which is at the west of 

Palestine; so called in reference to the Sea of Kinncreth, 



unto the land whither thou goest to possess 
it, that thou shalt put the blessing" upon 
mount Gerizzim, and the curse upon mount 
'Ebal. 

30 Behold, they are on the other side of 
the Jordan, far away in the direction of the 
going down of the sun, in the land of the Ca- 
naanitcs, who dwell in the 2)lain, opposite 
Gilgal, near the grove of Moreh. 

31 For ye are about to i:)ass over the Jor- 
dan to go in to take possession of the land 
which the Lord your God giveth you ; and ye 
will pos.sess it, and dwell therein. 

32 And ye shall then observe to do all the 
statutes and ordinances which I set before you 
this day. 

CHAPTER XII. 

1 The.se are the statutes and ordinances, 
which ye shall observe to do, in the land 
which the Lord, the God of thy fathers, giveth 
unto thee to possess it, all the da^s that ye 
live upon the earth. 

2 Ye shall utterly destroy all the places 
whereon the nations which ye are about to 
drive out served their gods, upon the high 
mountains, and upon the hills, and under 
every green tree; 

3 And ye shall overthrow their altars, and 
break their pillars, and their groves shall ye 
burn with fire ; and the graven images of their 
gods shall 3-e hew down, and ye shall destroy 
their name out of the same place. 

4 Ye shall not do so** unto the Lord your 
God; 

5 But unto the place which the Lord j-our 
God may choose out of all j'our tribes to put 
his name there, even unto his habitation 
shall ye repair, and thither shalt thou come ; 

6 And ye shall bring thither yoin- burnt- 
offerings, and your sacrifices, and your tithes, 
and the hea\'e-oft'erings of your hand, and 
your vows, and your freeAvill-ofierings, and 
the first-born of your herds and of jour 
flocks ; 



'' "Ye shall not saerificc unto Heaven in every place," 
&c. — R.\sill. This is another energetic prohibition against 
following the heathen practices. On every promontory. 



which is at the cast, innx is in this sense opposed to ' hill, or remarkable place, temples and statues were erected; 
imp, "west" and "east," not "last" and "first." — After i| and to this day similar customs prevail among the gen- 
Arnhkim. I tiles; but not so should Israel do : they were one people ; 

' The manner of doing this will be found farther es- they had but one God ; they needed no mediator, so they 
plained in chap, xivii. ,! should have but one temple, and one altar. 



DEUTERONOMY XII. REAY. 



7 And ye shall eat there before the Lord 
your God, and ye shall rejoice with all the 
acquisition of your hand, ye and your house- 
holds, wherewith the Lord thy God may have 
blessed thee. 

8 Ye shall not do after all the manner that 
we do here this day, every one whatsoever is 
right in his own eyes. 

9 For ye are not as yet come to the rest 
and to the inheritance, which the Lord thy 
God giveth thee. 

10 But ye will go over the Jordan, and 
dwell in the land which the Lord j-our God 
causeth you to inherit, and he will give you 
rest from all your enemies round about, so 
that ye may dwell in safet}^'-' 

11 And then shall it be, that the place 
which the Lord your God will choose to 
cause his name to dwell there, — (even) thither 
shall ye bring all that I command you ; your 
burnt-offerings, and your sacrifices, your tithes, 
and the heave-offering of your hand, and all 
your choice vows which ye may vow unto the 
Lord; 

12 And ye shall rejoice before the Lord 
your God, ye, and your sons, and your daugh- 
ters, and your men-servants, and your maid- 
servants, and the Levite who is within your 
gates; because he hath not any portion nor 
inheritance with you. 

13 Take heed to thyself that thou offer not 
thy burnt^offerings in every place which thou 
mayest see ; 

14 But in the place which the Lord will 
choose in one of thy tribes, there shalt thou 
offer thy bunit-offei-ings, and* there shalt thou 
do all that I command thee. 

15 Notwithstanding, according to all the 
longing of thy soul, mayest thou kill and eat 
flesh, according to the blessuag of the Lord 
thy God Avhicli he hath given thee, in all thy 
gates: the unclean and the clean may eat 
thereof, as of the roebuck, and as of the hart. 

16 Onl_v the blood shall ye not eat; upon 
the earth shall ye pour it out as water. 

17 Thou mayest not eat within thy gates 
the tithe of thy corn, or of thy Avine, or of thy 
oil, nor the first-born of thy herds or of thy 
flocks, nor any of thy vows which thou mayest 

* In this and in v. 14, permission is granted to kOl ani- 
mals for food, beyond the precincts of the temple, prohi- 
bited during the journey on the desert. (Lev. xxvii. 3, 4.) 



vow, nor thy freewill-offerings, and the heave- 
offering of thy hand ; 

18 But before the Lord thy God must thou 
eat them in the place which the Lord thy 
God may choose, thou, and thy son, and thy 
daughter, and thy man-servant, and thy maid- 
servant, and the Levite Avho is within thy 
gates; and thou shalt rejoice before the Lord 
thy God with all the acquisition of thy hand. 

19 Take heed to thyself that thou forsake 
not the Levite as long as thou livest upon thy 
land. 

20 T[ When the Lord thy God will enlarge 
thy border, as he hath spoken unto thee, and 
thou dost say, I wish to eat flesh, because thy 
soul longeth to eat flesh: then mayest thou, 
according to all the longing of thy soul, eat 
flesh. 

,21 K the place which the Lord thy God 
may choose to put his name there be too far 
for thee : then mayest thou kill of thy 
herds" and of thy flocks, which the Lord hath 
given thee, as I have commanded thee; and 
thou shalt eat in thy gates according to all 
the longing of thy soul. 

22 But as the roebuck and the hart are 
eaten, so shalt thou eat the same : the unclean 
and the clean may eat thereof together. 

23 Onl}' be firm so as not to eat the blood ; 
for the blood is the life; and thou shalt not 
eat the life with the flesh. 

2-4 Thou shalt not eat it; upon the earth 
shalt thou pour it out like water. 

25 Thou shalt not eat it ; in order that it 
may go well with thee, and with thy children 
after thee, when thou wilt do what is right 
in the eyes of the Lord. 

26 Nevertheless thy holy things which 
thou mayest have, and thy Vows, shalt thou 
take, and go unto the place which the Lord 
may choose : 

27 And thou shalt offer thy burnt-offerings, 
the flesh and the blood, upon the altar of the 
Lord thy God ; and the blood of thy sacrifices 
shall be poured out upon the altar of the 
Lord thy God, and the flesh shalt thou eat. 

28 Observe and hear all these words which 
I command thee ; in order that it may go well 
with thee, and with thy children after thee 

Of such killing, the clean and unclean may eat together. 
Verse 26 again enjoins that whatever has been sanctified, 
must nevertheless be brought to the altar. 

227 



DEUTERONOMY XII. XIII. REAY. 



for ever, when thou wilt do what is good and 
right in the eyes of the Lord thy God.* 

29 T[ When the Lord thy God will cut oflf 
the nations, whither thou goest to drive them 
out from before thee, and thou succeedest 
them, and dwellest in their land : 

30 Then take heed to thyself that thou be 
not snared by following them, after they have 
teen destroyed from before thee; and that 
thou inquire not after their gods, saying. How 
did these nations serve their gods? even so 
will I do likewise. 

31 Thou shalt not do so unto the Lord thy 
God; for every abomination" to the Lord, 
which he hateth, have they done unto their 
gods; for even their sons and their daughters 
have they burnt in the fire to their gods. 

CHAPTER Xm. 

1 What thing soever I command you, even 
that shall ye observe to do : thou shalt not add 
thereto, and thou shalt not diminish there- 
from.'' 

2 T[ If there arise in the midst of thee a 
prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and he giv- 
eth thee a sign or a token, 

3 And the sign or the token come to pass, 
whereof he spoke unto thee, saying. Let us go 
after other gods, which thou dost not- know, 
and let us serve them: 

4 Then shalt thou not hearken unto the 
words of that prophet, or unto that dreamer 
of dreams; for the Lord your God proveth 
you, to know whether ye indeed love" the 
Lord your God with all your heart and with 
all your soul. 

5 After the Lord your God shall ye walk, 
and him shall ye feai", and his commandments 
shall ye keep, and his voice shall ye obey, 
and him shall ye serve, and unto him shall 
ye cleave. 

6 And that prophet, or that dreamer of 
dreams, shall be put to death; because he 
hath spoken revolt against the Lord your 
God, who hath brought you out of the land 



' Inasmuch as the worship of the heathens presented .so 
many abominations, the Israelites are here prohibited 
from copying any of their customs in this respect; only 
that which (lod commanded could be lawfully considered 
Divine worship, and no addition, however elegant, could 
be tolerated. The next verse, therefore, follows properly 
a.i a farther exposition. 

"■ The English version commences chap. xiii. at verse 2. 
228 



of Egypt, and who hath redeemed you out of 
the house of l)ond-men, to mislead thee from 
the way which the Lord thy God commanded 
thee to walk therein ; and thou shalt put the 
CAal away from the midst of thee. 

7 ^ If thy brother, the son of thy mother, 
or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of 
thy bosom, or thy friend, who is (dear to thee) 
as thy own soul, should entice thee, in secret, 
saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which 
thou dost not know, either thou, or thy 
fathers ; 

8 Some of the gods of the nations which 
are round about you, that are nigh unto thee, 
or that are far off from thee, from one end of 
the earth even unto the other end of the 
earth : 

9 Then shalt thou not consent unto him, 
nor shalt thou hearken unto him ; nor shall 
thy eye look with pity on him, nor shalt thou 
spare, nor shalt thou conceal it for him ; 

10 But thou shalt surely kill him ; thy hand 
shall be the first upon him to put him to death, 
and the hand of all the people afterward. 

11 And thou shalt stone him with stones, 
that he die; because he sought to mislead 
thee from the Lord thy God, who hath brought 
thee out of the land of Eg}pt, from the house 
of bond-men. 

12 And all Israel shall hear it, and they 
shall be afraid, and they shall not do any 
more such a wicked deed as this is in the 
midst of thee. 

13 ][ If thou shouldest hear concerning one 
of thy cities, which the Lord thy God hath 
given thee to dwell there, sa}'ing, 

14 There have gone forth men, children of 
worthlessness,** from the midst of thee, and 
have misled the inhabitants of their city, say- 
ing; Let us go and serve other gods, which ye 
have not known : 

15 Then shalt thou inquire, and make 
search, and ask diligently ; and, behold, if it 
is true, the thing is certain, such abomination 
hath been wrought in the midst of thee : 



° The Divine legislation is the standard of truth ; conse- 
quently no miracle, should such be wrought, can bo con- 
sidered as an evidence of Divine mission, if it contradict 
the law. The will of God is expressed in his revelation, 
and he is no man, that he should change. 

^ hty 'Sa " without yoke, who have thrown oiF the yoke 
of Heaven." — Rashi. "Sons of Belial" has no mean- 
ing. 



DEUTERONOMY XIII. XIV. REAY. 



16 Then shalt thou smite the inhabitants 
of that city with the edge of the sword, de- 
voting it utterly, and all that is therein, and 
the cattle thereof, to the edge of the sword. 

17 And all its spoil shalt thou gather into 
the midst of the market-place thereof, and 
thou shalt bum with fire the city, and all its 
spoil entirely, unto the Lord thy God; and it 
shall be a ruinous heap for ever; it shall not 
be built again. 

18 And there shall not cleave to thy hand 
aught of the devoted things; in order that the 
Lord may turn from the fierceness of his 
anger, and grant thee mercy, and have mercy 
upon thee, and multiply thee, as he hath 
sworn unto thy fathers ; 

19 When thou wilt hearken to the voice 
of the Lord thy God, to keep all his com- 
mandments which I command thee this day, 
to do what is right in the eyes of the Lord 
thy God.* 

CHAPTER XIV. 

1 T[ Ye are the children of the Lord your 
God : ye shall not cut yourselves, nor make 
any baldness between your eyes for the 
dead. 

2 For a holy people art thou unto the 
Lord thy God, and the Lord hath made 
choice of thee to be unto himself a peculiar 
nation above all the nations that are upon 
the fiice of the earth. 

3 ][ Thou shalt not eat any abominable 
thing. 

4 These are the beasts which ye may eat : 
the ox, the sheep, and the goat, 

5 The hart, and the roebuck, and the fal- 
low-deer, and the chamois, and the gazelle, 
and the wild ox, and the antelope. 

6 And every beast that hath parted hoofs, 
and whose feet are cleft into two claws, and 
cheweth the cud among the beasts — that 
alone may ye eat. 

7 Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of 
those that chew the cud, and of those that 
possess the divided cloven hoof: the camel. 



and the hare, and the coney; for they chew 
the cud, but divide not the hoof; unclean are 
they unto you; 

8 And the swine, because it divideth the 
hoof, yet cheweth not the cud, it is unclean 
unto you ; of their flesh shall ye not eat, and 
their dead carcass shall ye not touch. 

9 T[ This may ye eat of all that is in the 
waters : all that hath fins and scales may ye 
eat; 

10 And whatsoever hath not fms and 
scales shall ye not eat; it is unclean unto 
you. 

11 Tl Every clean bird may ye eat. 

12 But these are they which ye shall not 
eat of them : the eagle, and the ossifrage, and 
the osprey, 

13 And the glede, and the kite, and the 
vulture after his kind, 

14 And every raven after his kind, 

15 And the ostrich, and the night-hawk, 
and the cuckoo, and the hawk after his kind, 

16 The little owl, and the great owl, and 
the swan," 

17 And the pelican, and the gier-eagle, and 
the cormorant, 

18 And the stork, and the heron after his 
kind, and the lapwing, and the bat." 

19 And every winged insect is unclean 
unto you : it shall not be eaten. 

20 All clean fowls may ye eat. 

21 Ye shall not eat any thing that dieth 
of itself: unto the stranger'' that is in thy 
gates canst thou give it, that he may eat it; 
or thou mayest sell it unto an alien ; for thou 
art a holy people unto the Lord thy God; 
thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's 
milk.* 

22 ^ Thou shalt truly tithe all the pro- 
duce of thy seed, which the field bringeth 
forth year by year. 

23 And thou shalt eat before the Lord thy 
God, in the place which he will choose to 
cause his name to dwell there, the tithe of 
thy corn, of thy wine, and of thy oil, and the 
first-born of thy herds and of thy flocks ; in 



* "The bat," according to Rashi and Mendelssohn. Al- 
though this word has been left unchanged from the Eng- 
lish version, it is not probable that the rendering "swan" 
is correct; the word nnB'jn being also applied among the 
creeping animals as synonymous with "mole," conse- 
quently used here most probably to denote the flying 
species, "the bat." 



•> "The swallow." — Mendelssohn; who, singularly 
enough, doubtless by an oversight in transcribing, renders 
this word in Lev. xi. 19, with^^" Wicihhojif," English 
"pewet" or "lapwing," "hoopoe." 

' These things not being interdicted for their unhealthi- 
ness, but because God chose to forbid them to Israel, 
they may be eaten by others, if they will. 



DEUTERONOMY XIV. XV. REAY. 



order that thou may learn to fear the Lord 
thy God all the days. 

24 And if the way be too long for thee, so 
that thou art not able to carry it; because 
the place is too far from thee, which the 
Lord thy God will choose to set his name 
there, because the Lord thy God will bless 
thee : 

25 Then shalt thou turn it into money, 
and bind up the money in thy hand, and 
thou shalt go unto the place which the Lord 
thy God will choose; 

2G And thou shalt lay out that money for 
whatsoever thy soul longeth after, for oxen, 
or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, 
or for whatsoever thy soul asketh of thee; 
and thou shalt eat it there before the Lord 
thy God. and thou shalt rejoice, thou, and thy 
household. 

27 And the Levite, who is within thy 
gates, him shalt thou not forsake; for he 
hath no portion nor inheritance with thee. 

28 ][ At the end of three years shalt thou 
bring forth" all the tithe of thy produce in 
the. same year, and thou shalt lay it down 
within thy gates: 

29 And then shall come the Levite, be- 
cause he hath no portion nor inheritance with 
thee, with the stranger, and the fatherless, 
and the widow, that are within thy gates, 
and they shall eat and be satisfied ; in order 
that the Lord thy God may bless thee in all 
the work of thy hand which thou doest.* 

CHAPTER XV. 

1 ^f At the end of (every) seven years 
shalt thou make a release. 

2 And this is the manner of the release: 
Every creditor shall relea.se the loan Avhich 
he hath lent to his neighbour; he shall not 
exact it of his neighbour, or of his brother; 
becau.se the release year in honour of the 
IjORD hath been proclaimed. 

8 Of a foreigner thou ma>est exact (pay- 
ment) ; but that which is thine with thy 
l)rother shall thy hand release. 

4 Although'' indeed there .should l)e no 
needy man among thee; for the Lord will 
greatly bless thee in the land which the Lord 



* t. c. Out of the hou.sc. Every third je.ir the tithe 
which at other times was eateu at Jerusalem, was reserved 
for the poor in all cities. 
2.30 



thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to 
po.s.sess it: 

5 Yet only if thou wilt carefully hearken 
unto the voice of the Lord thy God, to ob- 
serve to do all this commandment which I 
command thee this day. 

G For the Lord thy God blesseth thee, as 
he hath spoken unto thee; and thou shalt 
lend unto many nations, but thou shalt not 
borrow; and thou shalt rule over many na- 
tions, but over thee shall they not rule. 

7 ^ If there be among thee a needy man 
of one of thy brethren within any of thy 
gates in thy land which the Lord thy God 
giveth thee : thou shalt not harden thy heart, 
nor shut thy hand from thy needy brother. 

8 But thou shalt open wide thy hand unto 
him, and thou shalt surely lend him sufficient 
for his need, which his want requireth. 

9 Beware that there be not a wicked 
thought in thy heart, saying. The seventh 
year, the year of release, is at hand ; and thy 
eye be thus evil against thy needy l)rother, so 
that thou wouldest give him nought; and if 
he cry concerning thee unto the Lord, it will 
be sin in thee; 

10 Thou shalt surely give him, and thy 
heart shall not be grieved when thou givest 
unto him ; for because of this thing the Lord 
thy God will bless thee in all thy work, and 
in all the acquisition of thy hand. 

11 For the needy will not cease out of the 
land; therefore do I command thee, saying. 
Thou shalt open wide thy hand unto thy 
brother, to thy poor, and to thy needy, in 
thy land. 

12 T[ If thy brother, the Hebrew, or a He- 
brew woman, be sold unto thee, he shall serve 
thee six years ; and in the seventh year shalt 
thou let him go free from thee. 

13 And when thou lettest him go out free 
from thee, thou shalt not let him go away 
empty : 

14 Thou shalt furnish him liberally out of 
thy flocks, and out of thy threshing-floor, and 
out of thy wine-prcss; wherewith the Lord 
thy God hath blessed thee, that shalt thou 
give unto him. 

15 And thou shalt remember that thou 



*■ This verse has been rendered according to Mendels- 
sohn; but it evidently means that the poor should be very 
few ; hence to relieve them will be no difficult duty. 



DEUTERONOMY XV. XVI. REAY. 



hast been a bond-man in the land of Egypt, 
and that the Lord thy God hath redeemed 
thee ; therefore do I command thee this thing 
to-day. 

16 And it shall be, if he say unto thee, I 
will not go away from thee ; because he loveth 
thee and thy house, because he is well with 
thee : 

17 Then shalt thou take an awl, and 
thrust it through his ear unto the door, and 
he shall be unto thee a servant for ever;'' and 
also unto thy maid-servant shalt thou do like- 
wise. 

18 It shall not seem hard unto thee, when 
thou sendest him away free from thee, that 
for double the wages of a hired labourer hath 
he served thee six years; and the Lord thy 
God will bless thee in all that thou doest.''' 

19 ^ All the firstrborn males that come of 
thy herds and of thy flocks shalt thou sanctify 
unto the Lord thy God; thou shalt do no 
work with the first-born of thy bullock, and 
not shear the first-born of thy sheep. 

20 Before the Lord thy God shalt thou 
eat it year by year, in the place Avhich the 
Lord will choose, thou with thy household. 

21 And if there be any blemish thereon, 
if it be lame, or blind, or have any (other) ill 
blemish, thou shalt not sacrifice it unto the 
Lord thy God. 

22 Within thy gates shalt thou eat it; 
the unclean and the clean together, as the 
roebuck, and as the hart. 

23 Only the blood thereof shalt thou not 
eat ; upon the ground shalt thou pour it out 
as water. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

1 ^ Observe the month of Abib,** and pre- 
pare the passover-sacrifice unto the Lord thy 
God ; for in the month of Abib did the Lord 
thy God bring thee forth out of Egypt by 
night. 

2 And thou shalt sacrifice the passover- 
offering unto the Lord thy God of sheep and 
oxen, in the place which the Lord will choose 
to let his name dwell there. 

3 Thou shalt not eat therewith any leaven- 
ed bread; seven da3's shalt thou eat there- 
with unleavened bread, the bread of affliction ; 



' i. e. Till the jubilee, when all servitude terminates. 
' I. e. The ripening of the grain. 



for in haste didst thou go forth out of the 
land of Egypt; in order that thou mayest I'e- 
member the day of thy going forth out of the 
land of Egypt all the days of thy life. 

4 And there shall not be seen with thee 
any leaven in all thy borders seven days; 
neither .shall there any of the flesh, which 
thou sacrificedst in the evening, on the first 
day, remain all night until the morning. 

5 Thou mayest not slay the passover with 
in any of thy gates, which the Lord thy God 
giveth thee; 

G But at the place which the Lord thy 
God will choose to let his name dwell in, 
there shalt thou slay the passover at even- 
ing, at the going down of the sun, at the 
season that thou camest forth out of Egypt. 

7 And thou shalt roast" and eat it in the 
place which the Lord thy God M'ill choose; 
and thou shalt turn in the morning, and go 
unto thy tents. 

8 Six days shalt thou eat unleavened 
bread; and on the seventh day shall be a 
solemn assembly to the Lord thy God : thou 
shalt do no work. 

9 ^ Seven weeks shalt thou number unto 
thyself: fi-om the time thou beginnest to put 
the sickle to the corn, shalt thou begin to 
number .seven weeks. 

10 And thou shalt keep the feast of weeks 
unto the Lord thy God with a tribute of a 
freewill-offering of thy hand, which thou shalt 
give; according as the Lord thy God shall 
have blessed thee. 

11 And thou shalt rejoice bcfox'e the Lord 
thy God, thou, and thy son, and thy daugh- 
ter, and thy man-servant, and thy maid-ser- 
vant, and the Levite that is within thy gates, 
and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the 
widow, that are in the midst of thee, in the 
place which the Lord thy God will choose to 
let his name dwell there. 

12 And thou shalt remember that thou 
hast been a bond-man in Egypt; and thou 
shalt observe and do these statutes.* 

13 T[ The feast of taternacles shalt thou 
hold for thyself seven days, when thou hast 
gathered in the produce of thy threshing- 
floor and of thy wine-press : 

14 And thou shalt rejoice on thy feast, 



Heb. "Boil;" but the preparation of the passover was 



by roasting 



281 



DEUTERONOMY XVI. XVII. SHOPHETIM. 



thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy 
man-servant, and thy maid-servant, and the 
Levite, and tlic stranger, and the fatherless, 
and the widow, that arc within thy gates. 

15 Seven days shalt thou keep a solemn 
feast unto the Lord thy God in the place 
Avhich the Lord will choose; because the 
Lord thy God will bless thee in all thy pi'o- 
duct, and in all the work of thy hands, and 
thou shalt onl}' rejoice. 

10 Three times in the year shall every one 
of thy males appear before the Lord thy God 
in the place which he will choose: on the 
feast of unleavened bread, and on the feast of 
weeks, and on the feast of tabernacles; and 
no one shall appear before the Lord empty; 

17 Every man according to what his hand 
can give, according to the blessing of the Lord 
thy God which he hath given thee. 

Ilaphtorah in Isaiah liv. 11 to Iv. 5. 



SECTION XLVIII. SHOPHETIM, D'OSC*. 

18 ^ Judges and officers shalt thou appoint 
unto tiiyself in all thy gates, which the Lord 
thy God givetli thee, throughout thy tribes : 
and they shall judge the people with a just 
judgment. 

I'J Thou shalt not wrest judgment; thou 
shalt not respect persons, and thou shalt not 
take a bribe; for the bribe blindeth the eyes 
of the wise, and perverteth the words of the 
righteous. 

20 Justice, only justice shalt thou pursue; 
in order that thou mayest live, and retain 
possession of the land which the Lord th}- 
God giveth thee. 

21 ^ Thou shalt not plant unto thj'self a 
grove, any tree, near the altar of the Lord 
thy God, which thou shalt make unto thy- 
self. 

22 Neither shalt thou set thee up any 
statue," which the Lord thy God hateth. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

1 ^ Thou shalt not sacrifice unto the Lord 
thy God any bullock, or lamb, whereon there 



• Lit. " Monument," or " standing stone." Single 
stones were erected by heathens for altars to idols, and 
some idols even were represented by rude unsculptured 
blocks; hence the prohibition of them, and of all figures 
or statues put up aa monuments. 
232 



is a blemish, any thing evil ; for it is an abo- 
mination unto the Lord thy God. 

2 ^ If there be found in the midst of thee, 
within any one of thy gates, which the Lord 
thy God giveth thee, a man or a woman, that 
doth the wickedness in the eyes of the Lord 
thy God, to transgress his covenant, 

3 And he hath gone and served other gods, 
and worshipped them, either the sun, or the 
moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I 
have prohibited; 

4 And it be told thee, and thou hearest of 
it: then shalt thou inquire diligently; and, 
behold, if it is true, the thing is certain, such 
abomination hath been wrought in Israel : 

5 Then shalt thou bring forth that man or 
that woman, who have committed this wick- 
ed thing, unto thy gates, the man or the 
woman, and thou shalt stone them with 
stones till they die. 

6 Upon the evidence*" of two witnesses, or 
of three witnesses, shall he that is worthy of 
death be put to death ; he shall not te put to 
death upon the evidence of one witness. 

7 The haiid of the witnesses shall be first 
upon him to put him to death, and the hand 
of all the people at the last; and thou shalt 
put the e^■il away from the midst of thee. 

8 ^ If a matter be unknown' to thee for 
decision, between blood and blood, between 
plea and plea, and between bodily injury and 
injury, (or) matters of controversy within thy 
gates: then shalt thou arise, and get thee up 
unto the place which the Lord thy God will 
choose ; 

9 And thou shalt come unto the priests, 
the Levites, and unto the judge that may be in 
those days, and thou shalt inquire, and they 
shall inform thee of the sentence of the case : 

10 And thou shalt do according to the .sen- 
tence, which they may tell thee from that 
place which the Lord will choose, and thou 
shalt oljserve to do according to all that they 
may instruct thee; 

11 In accordance with the instruction 
which they may instruct thee, and according 
to the decision which they may sav unto thee, 
shalt thou do : thou shalt not depart from the 



" Heb. " Mouth," or that spoken by the mouth ; here, 
"evidence." 

" nSd' from nSs "a wonder;" hence "extraordinary," 
"too difficult," or "unknown." The last word has been 
selected as best comprising all the shades of meaning. 



DEUTERONOMY XVII. XVIII. SHOPHETIM. 



sentence which they may tell thee, to the 
right, or to the left. 

12 And the man that will act presump- 
tuously, so as not to hearken unto the priest 
that standeth to minister there before the 
Lord thy God, or unto the judge, even that 
man shall die; and thou shalt put away the 
evil from Israel. 

13 And all the people shall hear, and be 
afraid, and not act presumptuously any more.* 

14 •[[ When thou art come unto the land 
which the Lord thy God giveth thee, and 
thou hast taken possession of it, and dwellest 
therein, and thou sayest, I wish to set a king 
over me, like all the nations that are round 
about me : 

15 Then maj^est thou indeed set a king 
over thee, the one whom the Lord thy God 
will choose; (but) from the midst of thy 
brethren shalt thou set a king over thee; 
thou ma^est not set over thee a stranger, who 
is not thy brother. 

IG Only he shall not acquire for himself 
many horses, so that he may not cause the 
people to return to Egypt," in order to acquire 
many horses; whereas the Lord hath said 
unto you. Ye shall henceforth not return on 
that way any more. 

17 Neither shall he take to himself many 
wives, that his heart may not turn away ; nor 
shall he acquire for himself too much silver 
and gold. 

18 And it shall be, when*" he sitteth upon 
the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write 
for himself a copy of this law in a book out 
of (that which is) before the priests, the Le- 
vites ; 

19 And it shall be with him, and he shall 
read therein all the days of his Ufe; in order 
that he may learn to fear the Lord his God, 
to keep all the words of this law and these 
statutes, to do them. 

20 So that his heart be not lifted up above 
his brethren, and so that he turn not aside 
from the commandment, to the right, or to 



" Egypt being the country which produced the best 
horses. 

^ "At the commencement of his reign." — Aben Ezra. 

" Tradition fixes a sixtieth portion, and with a posses- 
sion of not less than five sheep. 

'' This version of the English Bible is nearly in accord- 
ance with Aben Ezra. Mendelssohn renders, " Besides his 
income of his property at home which he may sell." Am- 
heim, however, refers this part of the verse back to verse 
2E 



the left: in order that he may live many 
days in his kingdom, he, and his children, in 
the midst of Israel.* 

CHAPTER XVIII 

1 ^ The priests, the Levites, and all the 
tribe of Levi, shall have no portion nor in- 
heritance with Israel ; the fire-oflferings of the 
Lord, and his inheritance shall they consume. 

2 But any inheritance shall he not have 
among his brethren; the Lord is his inherit/- 
ance, as he hath spoken unto him. 

3 Tl And this shall be the priests' due from 
the people, from them that slay an animal, 
whether it be ox or lamb: then shall each 
one give unto the priest the shoulder, and the 
two cheeks, and the maw. 

4 The first-fruit of thy corn, of thy wine, 
and of thy oil, and the first shearing" of thy 
sheep, shalt thou give him. 

5 For him the Lord thy God hath chosen 
out of all thy tribes, to stand to minister in 
the name of the Lord, he and his sons all the 
days.* 

6 ^ And if the Levite come from any one 
of thy gates out of all Israel, where heso- 
joumeth, and come with all the longing of 
his soul unto the place which the Lord will 
choose : 

7 Then can he minister in the name of the 
Lord his God, like all his brethreii the Le- 
vites, who stand there before the Lord. 

8 They shall have like portions to eat, be- 
sides that which cometh of the sale"* of his 
patrimony. 

9 ][ When thou comest into the land which 
the Lord thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not 
learn to do after the abominations of those 
nations. 

10 There shall not be found among thee 
any one who causeth his son or his daughter 
to pass through the fire, one who useth divi- 
nation, one who is an observer of times, or an 
enchanter, or a conjurer, 

11 Or a charmer, or a consulter with fa- 



1 : — The priests, the Levites, &c., shall have no property, 
"except the assigned portions (see Lev. xsv. 34) which 
shall remain in the family divisions;" taking ijo-d in the 
light of "assigned portion," and nuxn as noxn 'n3 
"family divisions," and understanding vrr before Si'. 
Compare with Num. xxxvi. 12. This construction is in- 
genious, but certainly too improbable. Rashi refers this 
section to the priests, who are also called Levites, as they 
are the only ones entitled to take part in the sacrifices. 

238 



DEUTERONOMY XVIII. XIX. SHOPHETIM. 



miliar spirits, or a wizard, or who inquireth 
of the dead. 

12 Fur an ahomination unto the Lord are 
all that do those things; and on account of 
these abominations the Lord thy God doth 
drive them out from before thee. 

13 Perfect shalt thou be with the Lord 
thy God.* 

14 For these nations, which thou art about 
to dispossess, hearken unto observers of times, 
and unto diviners; but as for thee, the Lord 
thy God hath not assigned the like unto thee. 

15 A prophet from the midst of thee, of 
thy lirethren, like unto me, will the Lord thy 
God raise up unto thee; unto him shall ye 
hearkeu ; 

16 According to all that thou didst desire 
of the Lord thy God at Horeb on the day of 
the assembly, saying, I wish no more to hear 
the voice of the Lord my God, and this great 
fire I Avish not to see again, that I die not. 

17 And the Lord said unto me, They have 
done well in what they have spoken. 

18 A prophet will I raise up unto them 
from among their brethren, like unto thee; 
and I will put my words in his mouth ; and 
he shall speak mito them all that I may com- 
mand him. 

19 And it shall come to pass, that if there 
be a man who will not hearken unto my 
words which he shall speak in my name, I 
myself will require it of him. 

20 But the prophet, who may presume to 
speak a word in my name, which I have not 
commanded him to speak, or who may speak 
in the name of other gods — even that prophet 
shall die. 

21 And if thou shouldest say in thy heart, 
How shall we know the word which the Lord 
hath not spoken ? 

22 That wliich the prophet speaketh in 
the name of the Lord, and the thing do not 
ha])pen and cijuie not to pas.s — this is the word 
wliicli the Loud hath not spoken; in pre- 
sumption hath the jirophet spoken it; thou 
shalt not be afraid of him. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

1 T[ When the Lord thy God shall have 
cut off the nations, whose land the Lord thy 
God giveth thee, and thou hast driven them 
out, and dwellest in their oities, and in their 
houses : 

■J.t4 



2 Then shalt thou set apart three cities for 
thyself in the midst of thy land, which the 
Lord thy God giveth thee to possess it. 

3 Thou shalt put in order* for thyself the 
(way to them,) and divide into three parts the 
territory of thy land, which the Lord thy God 
will give thee to inherit, and it shall serve, 
that every man-slayer may flee thither. 

4 And this is the case of the man-slayer, 
who shall flee thither, that he may live: 
Whoso smitcth his neighbour without know- 
ledge, when he hath not been an enemy to 
him in time past; 

5 And he that goeth into the forest with 
his neighbour to hew wood, and his hand 
fetcheth a stroke with the axe to cut down 
the tree, and the iron slippeth from the helve, 
and striketh his neighbour, that he die : this 
one shall flee unto one of these cities, and 
live ; 

6 That the avenger of the blood pursue not 
the man-slayer, while his heart is hot, and 
overtake him, because the way is long, and 
smite him dead; whereas he de.serveth not a 
judgment of death, inasmuch as he was not 
an enemy to him in time past. 

7 Therefore do I command thee, saying, 
Three cities shalt thou set apart for thyself. 

8 And if the Lord thy God enlarge thy 
boundary, as he hath sworn unto thy fathers, 
and give thee all the land which he hath 
spoken to give unto thy fathers ; 

9 Because thou dost keep all this com- 
mandment to do it, which I command thee 
this day, to love the Lord thy God, and to 
walk in his ways all the days : then shalt thou 
add for thyself three cities more, unto these 
three ; 

10 That innocent blood te not shed in the 
midst of thy land, which the Lord thy God 
giveth thee for an inheritance, and blood- 
guiltiness be brought upon thee. 

11 ^ But if any man be an enemy to his 
neighbour, and he lie in wait for him, and 
rise up against him. and smite him mortally so 
that he die, and ho floo unto one of those cities : 

12 Then shall the elders of his city send 
and fetch him thence, and they shall deliver 
him into the hand of the avenger of the 
blood, that he may die. 



• The road was to be made level, and guide-posts put 
up, so that the murderer might not be detained needlessly. 



DEUTERONOMY XIX. XX. SHOPHETIM. 



13 Thy eyes shall not look with pity on 
him ; but thou shalt put away the (shedding 
of) innocent blood from Israel, that it may 
go well with thee.''' 

14 ]f Thou shalt not remove the landmark 
of thy neighbour, which they of old time have 
set, in thy inheritance which thou shalt in- 
herit, in the laud that the Lord thy God giv- 
eth thee to possess it. 

15 ^[ There shall not rise up one single 
witness against a man for any iniquity, or for 
any sin, in any sin that he sinneth : upon the 
evidence of two witnesses, or upon the evi- 
dence of three witnesses, must a case be es- 
tablished. 

16 If a witness of violence rise up against 
any man to testify against him for any 
wrong : 

17 Then shall both the men, who have the 
controversy, stand before the Lord, before 
the priests and the judges, who shall be in 
those days; 

18 And the judges shall inquire diligently; 
and, behold, if the witness be a false witness, 
he hath testified a falsehood against his bro- 
ther : 

19 Then shall ye do unto him, as he had 
purposed to do unto his brother; and thou 
shalt put away the e\al from the midst of 
thee. 

20 And those who remain shall hear, and 
be afraid, and shall henceforth commit no 
more any such evil thing in the midst of thee. 

21 And thy eye shall have no pity: but 
life (shall go) for life, eye for eye, tooth for 
tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot. 

CHAPTER XX. 

1 ^ When thou goest out to battle against 
thy enemies, and thou seest horse, and chariot, 
people more in number than thou, be not 
afraid of them ; for the Lord thy God is with 
thee, who brought thee up out of the land of 
Egypt. 

2 And it shall be, when ye come nigh unto 
the battle, that the priest shall approach and 
speak unto the people; 

3 And he shall say unto them, Hear, 



* t. e. Inhabiting it for the first time ; the first use of a 
thing is called " consecration." No doubt, however, that 
religious ceremonies were not omitted on such occasions, 
as we owe to it the thirtieth Psalm of David. 

^ At the fourth year from the planting. 



Israel, ye come nigh this day unto the battle 
against your enemies : let not your heart be 
faint, fear not, and be not downcast, and do 
not tremble because of them ; 

4 For the Lord your God it is who goeth 
with you, to light for you against your ene- 
mies, to help you. 

5 And the officers shall speak unto the 
people, saying. What man is there who hath 
built a new house, and hath not dedicated" 
it? let him go and return unto his house, 
lest he die in the battle, and another man 
dedicate it. 

6 And what man is there who hath planted 
a vineyard, and hath not redeemed'' it? let 
him go and return unto his house, lest he die 
in the battle, and another man redeem it. 

7 And what man is there that hath be- 
trothed a wife, and hath not taken her ? let him 
go and return unto his house, lest he die in 
the battle, and another man take her. 

8 And the officers shall speak yet further 
unto the jjeople, and they shall say. What 
man is there that is fearful and faint-hearted ? 
let him go and return unto his house, that the 
heart of his brethren become not as faint as 
his heart. 

9 And it shall be, when the officers have 
made an end of speaking unto the people, 
that they shall aj^point captains of the ai-mies 
at the head of the people.'^''' 

10 ^ When thou comest nigh unto a city 
to make war against it, then summon it with 
words of peace. 

11 And it shall be, if it make thee an an- 
swer of peace, and open (its gates) unto thee : 
then shall it be, that all the people that are 
found therein shall be tributaries unto thee, 
and they shall serve thee. 

12 But if it will not make peace with thee, 
and wageth war against thee, then thou shalt 
besiege it; 

13 And when the Lord thy God hath de- 
livered it into thy hands, thou slialt^ smite 
every male thereof with the edge of the 
sword ; 

14 But the women, and the little ones, and 
the cattle, and all that may be in the city, all 



° Mendelssohn renders this, "Then shall some chiefs 
commence the mustering at the head of the people." 

* It would appear from the general idea, that " shalt" 
is not a command, but a mere permission, yet prohibiting 
the molestation of the women and children. 

235 



DEUTERONOMY XX. XXI. KI TETZAY. 



the spoil thereof, shalt thou take as booty 
unto thyself; and thou shalt enjoy the spoil 
of thy enoniies, Avhich the Lord thy God hath 
given thee. 

15 Thus shalt thou do unto all the cities 
■which are very far off from thee, which are 
not of the cities of these nations. 

10 But of the cities of these people, which 
the LoKD thy God doth give thee for an in- 
heritance, shalt thou not let live a single soul. 

17 But thou shalt utterly devote them; 
namely, the Hittites, and the Emorites, the 
Canaanites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, 
and the Jebusites ; as the Lord thy God hath 
commanded thee; 

18 In order that they may not teach you 
to do in accordance Avith all their abominar 
tions, which they have done unto their gods; 
and ye would thus sin against the Lord your 
God. 

19 ^ When thou besiegest a city a long 
time, to make war against it to capture it, 
thou shalt not destroy the trees thereof by 
forcing an axe against them ; for of them thou 
maycst eat, and thou shalt not cut them 
down, (for man liveth of the trees' of the 
field,) to employ them in thy siege ; 

20 Only those trees of which thou knowest 
that they are not fruit-trees, thou maj-est de- 
stroy and cut down ; and (thus) thou canst 
build Ijulwarks against the city that wageth 
war with thee, until it be subdued. 

CHAPTER XXI. 

1 ^ If there be found a slain person in the 
land which the Lord thy God givetli thee to 
possess it, lying in the field, (and) it be not 
known who hath slain him : 

2 Then shall thy elders and thy judges go 
forth, and they shall measure unto the cities 
which are round about the one that is slain. 

3 And it sliall l)e, tliat the city which is 
the nearest unto the slain person, even the 
ciders of tliat city shall take a heifer, which 
hath not been wrought with, which hath not 
drawn in a yoke; 



' Onkolos, Ra,shi, and Mendelssohn render, "Is then the 
tree of the fieUl like man, that thou shouldst put it in a 
Htatc of siege?" And K.i.shi add.s, " Why wouldst thou 
destroy it?" The English version ha.s been followed in 
our text, and it agrees with Abcn Ezra, Aruhcim, and the 
commentator to .Mendelssohn's translation. The l.xst 
cluu.se may read: "to put (the city) in siego before thee." 



4 And the elders of that city shall bring 
down the heifer unto a rough'' valley, which 
is neither tilled nor sown, and they shall 
break there the neck of the heifer in the valley ; 

5 And the priests the sons of Levi sliall 
come near ; for them the Lord thy God hath 
chosen to minister unto him, and to bless in 
the name of the Lord; and after their deci.'^ion 
shall be done (at) every controversy and 
every injury; 

G And all the elders of that city who are 
nearest unto the slain person shall wash their 
hands over the heifer, the neck of which is 
broken in the valley;* 

7 And they shall commence and say, Our 
handshave not shed this blood, and our ey