Skip to main content

Full text of "Two of the Saxon chronicles parallel, with supplementary extracts from the others;"

See other formats


.-'- ' ..-, m ' 
."'-, . - m 


,,- ft HI 


m ft 

. : 

IB . .- : : 1 MM 

v. : -:-NF;t 

. " ' ' ' lil 

. if : fl';.^ 

: -,,: HBtt 

" "^^^^^^ PI,,] 


85 I . m 

| - ./ -'v;:- ; Sv '-4-? 

' : I 
- i I 

' - 











Sometime Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College and Professor of Anfflo-Saxon 


Erat enim historia nihil aliud nisi annalium confectio : cuius rei memorise- 
que publicae retinendae causa ab iuitio rerum Romanarum usque ad P. Mucium 
Pontificem maximum, res omnes singulorum annorum mandabat literis Pontifex 
maximus referebatque in album et proponebat tabulam domi, potestas ut esset 
populo cognoscendi ; ii qui etiam nunc Annales Maximi nominantur. Hanc 
similitudinem scribendi multi secuti sunt, qui sine ullis ornamentis monumenta 
solum temporum hominum locorum gestarumque rerum reliquerunt. Qui neque 
tenent quibus rebus ornetur oratio, modo enim hue ista sunt importata, et dum 
intelligatur quid dicant, unam dicendi laudem putant esse brevitatem. Non 
exornatores rerum sed tantummodo narratores fuerunt. CICEBO De Oratore 
ii. 12. 52 sqq. 

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's employ- 
ment ; for indeed at first I was in too much hurry. Robinson Crusoe. 




are the simplest form of History ; and early General Pre- 
attempts at History have generally taken the form of Chro- marksonthe 
nicies. When we use the word History in the fullness of its structure of 

. i f i the Clironi- 

meaning, we understand by it the study of human events m cies. 
the complexity of their mutual relations and bearings on each 
other. A Chronicle (as the name implies) is only a narrative 
of events in the order of time and we hardly call it History 
until these facts have undergone a new arrangement, having 
been re-examined, criticised, distributed and grouped. 

Out of this difference between History and Chronicle there 
follows another. A History, when once cast into its form, is 
impatient of after modifications ; the Chronicle admits altera- 
tions indefinitely. History is like a web of cloth ; you cannot 
add to it or take from it without destroying its integrity. The 
Chronicle is like a set of tesserae arranged on a recurring 
mathematical plan that can be continued ad infinitum in any 
direction, and can accommodate insertions in any part. 

There are places in the Saxon Chronicles where the narra- 
tive exhibits a touch of genius and approaches to the dignity 
of history ; nor is there anything in the chronicle-form which 
absolutely excludes the exercise of a higher talent, though it 
provides only an imperfect arena for it. But without any 
special gift a man might make a sufficient Chronicler, as his 
office was merely to write a statement of fact, or to copy an 
extract from an author and insert it under the right date. 
There was no need of observing proportion a great event 
might be told briefly, and yet no reason why a minor event 
should not be told with local prolixity. Nothing more was 
required than that the records should be truly arranged in 
order of time. 



With all this simplicity and elasticity and capacity of de- 
velopment, the Chronicle was particularly calculated to be the 
vehicle of history in early times, when literary facilities were 
scanty, and when the work of history had to be done in fra- 
ternities by a succession of very unequal hands. We do not 
look for shape or symmetry in any Chronicle, more especially 
in Chronicles which have grown without a plan, by the work 
of many hands labouring without concert. After a period of 
accumulation, the compiler enters, and then for the first 
time the whole collection is rendered subject to the law of one 
mind. But his operation turns chiefly on selection or rejection, 
and the new Chronicle shews where modern interests have 
ejected the more ancient. 

For about four centuries the whole of our contemporary 
history (excepting Beda) is contained in vernacular Chronicles, 
and this literature survived a century after the fashion of it had 
been superseded by Latin chroniclers. The main features of the 
anonymous and many-handed Chronicle may be seen in a high 
state of preservation in the Saxon Chronicles. They represent 
various stages of literary progress, and they exhibit the taste 
and historical demands of many different generations. Towards 
their close we have historical composition of considerable 
maturity, but in their most primitive parts we have almost the 
rudest conceivable attempts at history. It is in this wide 
range of variety and diversity, and the illustration it affords 
of the early national progress, that the worth of the Saxon 
Chronicles (considered as a literary monument) must be dis- 
covered ; and they must not be judged, as some writers have 
inconsiderately judged them, by the literary standards of the 
nineteenth century. 

The diversity of language and of style which exists in these 
Chronicles is in some places so palpable that a short ex- 
amination would enable the student to trace it, and mark off 
a series of distinct sections. But as the distinguishing features 
are not everywhere equally plain, and as the investigation is 
sometimes embarrassed by the circumstance that new com- 
pilers imparted something (however little) of their own to the 
old materials ; and further, from the fact that the most 
primitive work is not to be found (where it might perhaps 
be looked for) at the earliest date, or even near it ; it may 


be useful to set before the student a somewhat minute analysis, 
so. as to enable him to resolve the composite work into its 
elementary parts, at least with some approach to verity. This 
dissecting process will fall chiefly upon two of the Chronicles, 
$t and E, the two which are printed entire in this Edition. 
And that will be the case, not by an arbitrary selection, but 
by natural incidence. For these two are, in different senses, 
the most prominent, and challenge the largest amount of 
notice ; the one because it is the highest source, the other 
because it presents the latest and largest development, and 
the most composite structure of the whole set. 

But before we enter upon this analysis, it is desirable to Earliest 
form a right notion of the first rude uses of chronicling, what? 10 e 
Originally a Chronicle was not a device for arranging a store 
of events, and for reducing the accumulations of history to 
literary order. It was not (what it at length became) a 
method, a system of registration, whereby each event was 
put into its chronological place as soon as it reached the 
bureau. The chronicle-form had a more primitive use. This 
was to characterise the receding series of years, each by 
a mark and sign of its own, so that the years might not be 
confused in the retrospect of those who had lived and acted 
in them. The same thing is done in our day when a man 
in middle age begins to experience that the hurry of life 
engenders confusion in the memory, and the bygone years 
grow less and less distinguishable. In such a case he probably 
creates for himself a little ten or twenty years'* chronicle 
very brief, each entry only a single notice. 

Such a Chronicle as this is not a depository of the accu- 
mulations of past events, but a chart of time for preserving 
chronological order among the stores of the memory. This 
is naturally the first kind of Chronicle which men require. 
Perhaps the following may represent the chronological outline 
as inscribed in some cotemporary memories : 

1807. Abolition of the Slave Trade. 

1815. The year of the Peace. 

1829. Catholic Emancipation. 

1830. Death of George IV Accession of William IV. 
1832. The Reform Bill passed. 

1837. The Accession of Queen Victoria. 



1848. Year of Revolutions. 

1851. The Great Exhibition. Anticipations of Universal 

1854. The English and French landed in the Crimea 

The Battle of Alma. 
The Definition of the Immaculate Conception. 

1857. The Indian Mutiny. 

1858. The grand Comet, and the drought so great that 

in some midland parts the green corn was cut 
to feed the cows. 

1859. Magenta and Solferino. The last of the dry 


1860. The severe winter. 

1861. April. Fort Sumter. 

December. The Prince Consort died. 

1862. The International Exhibition. 

In early times the particulars of past events were much 
more trusted to the memory than they are now; and only 
the chronological scaffolding was committed to parchment. 

We are informed in Professor Wilson's Prehistoric Man 
that the Peruvians had a memoria technica, made of knots 
upon diversely-coloured strings. A Peruvian woman shewed 
a bundle of knotted strings, and said her whole life was there. 
Each knot was the index to a story, and all the stories were 
preserved in her memory. 

Our own early Chronicles are something like this series 
of knots; for in their laconic annals much was implied and 
little expressed, and therefore they are a set of knots of 
which the solution died out with their authors. To posterity 
they present merely a name or two as of a battle-field and 
a victor but to the men of the day they suggested a thousand 
particulars, which they in their comrade-life were in the habit 
of recollecting and putting together. That which to us seems 
a lean and barren sentence, was to them the text for a winter 
evening's entertainment. 

Their unfagged memory was richly stored with the events 
of their own day, and the legends of their ancestors. What 
one had forgotten another remembered, and where memory 
failed, imagination came to aid. So far were they from 
needing books as depositories of events, they were overwhelmed 


with the treasures of their own memory, and only needed 
some guarantee of order amidst the riches of which they 
were in possession. Tradition and experience furnished them 
with more facts than they had the capacity to accommodate. 
Where memory failed, fancy promptly entered, as into a 
forfeited domain. The wild and frolic fancy was ever ready, 
in the absence of any controlling system of order, to promote 
dislocation by an arbitrary reconstruction, to foment confusion 
and revel in it, and to conjure up out of the chaos new and 
grotesque combinations. Therefore they wanted not History, 
but Chronology. 

When men had felt the necessity of guarding themselves 
against mytho-poesy, they found their first guarantee for 
the security of historical truth in tables of chronology. As 
long as past events were regarded only as material for 
an evening's entertainment, no one cared to preserve them 
from confusion and embellishment ; but when a desire of 
certainty about the past began to be felt, and unadorned 
facts came to be valued, even above the more specious legend, 
then it is interesting to watch the steps by which they arrived 
at what they wanted. The Saxon Chronicles exhibit this 
process more than any (perhaps) in existence. 

A numerical list of years was prepared, with a blank space, Mechanical 

, -iv . , , m . Structure of 

generally only a single line, opposite each number. I ne chronicles, 
smallness of the space shews that nothing great was de- 
signed, but only a year-mark to know and distinguish the 
year by. As many of these blanks were filled in as the 
compiler had matter ready for, and the rest were left open 
for supplementary insertions. Capgrave in the Dedication of 
his Chronicle of England (to be spoken of below) thus ex- 
plains the utility of such blank spaces : If othir studious 
men, that have more red than I, or can fynde that I fond 
not, or have elde bokes whech make more expression of thoo 
stories that fel fro the creacion of Adam onto the general 
Flod than I have, the velim lith bare, save the noumbir, redi 
to receyve that thei wille set in. Many of them remained 
blank to the last, and in the older Chronicles they are seen as 
blank lines ; but in the later the figures have been copied con- 
tinuously, as if they formed part of the text. Out of this 
mechanical process of construction grew the fashion of begin- 


ning the annals with an adverb not of time but of place, HER, 
in this place, at this point of the series. The blanks which 
were left were not without their use ; they served to give a 
quick and almost pictorial measure of the intervals between 
the entries. 

A tabular system of this sort was appropriately designated 
by a word which we find in the Latin chroniclers, Chronogra- 
phia*, a sketch or chart of time, a time-table. And this is but 
an amplification of the more general term Chronicon, a Chro- 
nicle, a Time-book, a book of years; OWn ^IT ^ ow 
long the historical mind continued to stand at this incipient 
stage, and by what steps it came to require history of a 
maturer sort, may in some measure be seen by the analysis of 
these Chronicles. And as they range through a space of many 
centuries, we must try to fix that point or epoch of time, at 
which they originated and from which they have grown in 
two directions, backward and forward. It will be a main 
object of our analysis to form some clear opinion on this point. 
Dr. Pauli has concurred in the opinion " that the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicles were first commenced under Alfred." That the 
reign of Alfred is an important epoch in the history of these 
Annals, and that in some sense it was a starting-point, is plain 
From the great uniformity of all the several members of the 
series up to a date in Alfred"^ reign, as compared with their 
divergencies after that date. But the difficulties of imagining 
that such a collection of annals (meagre as it often is), covering 
a period of 437 years, could have been made in 892 if Chro- 
nicles had not been kept before, are insuperable. Had there 
been a series of authors like Bede, offering to the collector what- 
ever he chose to select, it would be different. But even during 
the period for which Bede is available^ we find Annals purely 
domestic, and derivable neither from Bede nor from any 
source that is known to us; I propose then to analyze the 
pra3-j;Elfredic Chronicle, not with the expectation of arriving 
at an incontestable natural dissection, but in the hope of ex- 
hibiting as well the heterogeneousness of the materials that 
enter into the compilation, as also the diversities and tran- 

' * " Chronographia pangenda est ; " Ordericus Vitalis, vi. i . " Marianus chrono- 
graphus," Flor. 1052. 


sitions of plan and purpose which mark it as a compilation 
made from earlier Chronicles. 

The seven Chronicles are designated by the seven first letters 
of the Alphabet : ft, B, C, D, E, F, G. " And first of 


A Saxon Chronicle containing Annals from B.C. 60 to A.D. 1070. 
This is a manuscript in the library of Corpus Christ! Col- The win- 


lege, Cambridge. (MS. C.C.C.C. CLXXIII.) That Society ac- Chronicle 
quired it by the gift of Archbishop Parker. It is described 
by Wanley, p. 130, and by Mr. T. Duffus Hardy, vol. i. p. 651. 
It has every title to rank first in the list of Saxon Chronicles. 
Its original handwriting stops at 891, and the summary of 
Wessex Kings with which the book is prefaced ends with 
Alfred. These features indicate a Chronicle which was 
composed in Alfred's reign, or a copy of such a Chronicle. 
Whether it is really a manuscript of the last decade of the 
ninth century I hesitate to judge. 

The penmanship is almost too mature for so early a date. 
The style certainly exhibits archaisms fitting the reign of 
Alfred, but from the irregular way in which they are scat- 
tered up and down, they appear like exceptional instances 
in which the copier lapsed into the manner of his original. 
There are, however, a few ancient forms in the first hand- 
writing which are so constant as to give this MS. an appear- 
ance of the highest originality. Such are a for ea, as in al, 
Walas ; some archaic uses of the rare diphthong ie, as in 
hiera, Miercna; and the form cuom for com. These have 
been sometimes called Mercian, and have been supposed to 
indicate a Mercian nativity for the early parts of the Chronicle. 
But it should be remembered that the vernacular was first 
cultivated in Northumbria, and that the Wessex orthography 
must at first have been more or less borrowed from the north. 

At the Reformation this book belonged to the monastery of 
Christ Church, Canterbury, as we learn from some notes of 
Joscelin's, preserved in a volume of the Cotton Library*. But 

* Vitellius D. vii. See below, in the description of manuscript B, where 
Joscelin's note will be quoted in full. 


its association with Canterbury is almost wholly of the ex- 
ternal kind ; the internal characteristics connect it rather 
with Winchester. It will appear from the analysis of the 
contents that this book or its original was a native of Win- 
chester, and was compiled there in Alfred's reign. If not 
an original, we may suppose that when in process of time this 
Chronicle had become famous and venerable, a careful tran- 
script of it was ordered for the Library of Christ Church, 
Canterbury. (See below on n.) 

But to proceed to our analysis. 

i. The prefatory list of the Wessex kings from Cerdic 
was originally like a Table of Contents to the Chronicle, 
and developed with it pari passu. It seems to have at 
one time stopped at Beorhtric, and then again at ^Ethel- 
wulf, and lastly to have been brought down to Alfred's 
accession, at some time during his reign. It closes with the 
mention of his age at the time of his accession, and computes 
the years from the foundation of the dynasty to the same 
point. To Alfred's reign we must assign all the Annals 
down to 449, and many inserted Annals down to 731. The 
former were derived entirely from Latin authors, and chiefly 
from Bede. They are often a bold verbal translation of 
the Chronological Epitome appended to the Historia Ec- 
clesiastical e.g. Anno 47. Her Claudius oj>er Romana cy- 
ninga Bretene lond gesohte, &c. is a verbal, rendering of 
Bede's " Claudius secundus Romanorum Britannias adiens." 
But the Annals between 449 and 731 are mixed; and here 
we have only to do with those which are borrowed from 
Bede. These are 449, 538, 544, 547 (to onwoc), 565, 601, 
603, 604, 606, 616, 625, 626, 627, 633, 640, 642, 644, 
6 5> 6 5 I ) 6 53> 6 54> part of 655, 660, 664, 668, 670, parts 
of 673 and 675, the last clause in 676, 678, 679, 680, a line 
and half in 685, 688 (the genealogy excepted), half of 690, 
704, 705, the last clause of 709, parts of 716, 725 (part), 
728 (part), 729, 731 (part). 

Of this whole section, only the preface is original ; the rest 
is a work of collection, translation, and bookmaking. It 
belonged to the editorial task of throwing the book into 
shape, and giving it the required completeness as a Chronicle 
embracing the Christian era generally. It was probably done 


about the year 887. The reasons for this opinion will appear 
when we come to that date. 

2. The annals from 455 to 634 which have not been A' 2. 
classed in the former section. This represents the gleanings and 
reconstruction of the half-lost early history of Wessex, at the 
time of the first compilation (855). Embodying antiquities of 
a high type, it is not the oldest composition preserved in this 
Chronicle. It is such history as could still be made out of 
oral traditions, and it probably represents the collected in- 
formation of the bardic memory aided by the runic stones, and 
the roll of kings. Its character is betrayed by an artificial 
chronology, in which the numbers 8 and 4 are prevalent fac- 
tors. We find for example the following series : 457, 465, 
473; 477, 4 8 5- Again, 552, 556, 560, (565 belongs to the 
previous section) 568. Certain statements appear to be 
only fanciful, the offspring of rude etymological speculations. 
Among such may with probability be reckoned the names of 
file's sons in 477, Cymen, and Wlencing, and Cissa, which 
correspond with a suspicious resemblance to three Sussex 
townships, Shoreham (see note on 477), Lancing, and Chi- 
chester. No doubt the first adventurers did often call places 
after their own names, and therefore it cannot be denied that 
the above may be historical. 

But no critic will admit the personality of PORT, who is 
said to have arrived in 501 in the place called (of course, after 
himself) Portsmouth. Clearly the existence of such a hero as 
Port was a presumption that arose out of a mistaken notion 
of the name Portsmouth, a name which embodies the Latin 
word portus, a harbour. 

In 508, a local name, Neatanleah (now Netley], which proba- 
bly meant a pasture for oxen, is ambitiously associated with 
one of the 'most famous of British dynastic names. (See the 
note on 508.) 

That the hero Wihtgar (514, 534, 544) is a fiction, and 
his name merely an eponym for Wihtgaraesburh (530) or 
Wihtgaraburh (544), is beyond doubt; whether we suppose 
-garaBs- or -gara- to be another form of -wara- (= inhabitants), 
as in Cantwaraburh ; or whether we take this " gar " to be 
caer or car (the form usual in Cornwall), the British word for 
a castle or stronghold. 


No general assertion can be made concerning the historical 
quality of this section : each clause must be estimated and 
valued for itself. Some parts are pure dream-work, while 
others have a historical and trustworthy appearance. These 
prevail more and more towards the close of the period, as 
if indicating the existence of better documents, which it is 
natural to suppose would have been kept with more or less 
care from the reception of Christianity. And therefore 
the date 634 has been fixed on as the close of this Section, 
although there is no appearance of a division, the traditional 
being intermingled with the earliest traces of documentary 

3. The annals from 635 to 682, except those which are 
disposed of in i. This period, which covers a long genera- 
tion of men, contains the first documentary annals of this 
Chronicle, and indeed of the whole series of Saxon Chronicles. 
In order to understand the nature of this Section, we must 
carefully exclude adventitious matter. The insertions from 
Bede have already been collected under i . Here and there 
may be seen an annal, expressed in riper language, which 
(though not found in the Chronological Epitome of Bede) 
must be marked as the interpolation of a later Editor. Such 
a one is 650. Further, we must eliminate occasional amplifica- 
tions, also by a later Editor. Two such may be found on 
page 26, in the annals 643 and 648, which have both been 
continued by a later hand. The continuation is betrayed in 
both instances by the employment of the demonstrative SE in 
a peculiar manner. In 643, the original annal, the part which 
alone belongs strictly to this Section, ends at " wifit." A later 
Editor added : " And this Cenwalh bade build the church in 
Winchester" Similar continuations are found also in the 
previous Section, e.g. 597, 611. The probable author of 
these will be pointed out by and bye. When all these accre- 
tions are struck off, there remains a set of very simple and 
sober annals, quite free from the romancing air which dis- 
covers itself in the foregoing Section, and without any of that 
attempt at detail which learning afterwards demanded. These 
annals are mere land-marks of time, points fixed here and 
there to save memory from chaos, a Chronologia rather than 
a Chronicon. 


The note appended to 643 about the foundation of Win- 
chester Cathedral is a guiding one for us in this dissection. 
It gives the o/x^aAo? of which we are in search, the central 
and germinating point of the Chronicle. The Chronicle which 
was begun at Winchester in Cenwalh's church town, supplied 
the base of all after collections and accretions, and to this we 
trace back the course of English History. 

We can hardly suppose that these annals are all strictly 
contemporary. Their irregularity forbids the notion. They 
were from time to time, perhaps not oftener than once in a 
generation, posted up to the current date. Consequently we 
may expect to find here and there some tokens of approach 
to the actual time of writing. Such an indication may per- 
haps be traced in the annal 682, which I have fixed on for 
the close of this Section. It is the first instance in which we 
find " On ]?issum geare " instead of HER. This feature 
recurs 889 ; and the greater certainty of contemporary writing 
in that place may be reflected back on this. 

4. The next trace of an ancient cessation is at the word ft 4. 
'CumbranMn the annal 755. Between 682 and 755 there 
were probably one or more intermediate terminations, and the 
marks of such may perhaps be discovered, with more or less 
distinctness. A likely spot is between J\8 and 7 2 5> wnere 
the annals are strongly archaic, relate almost exclusively to 
Wessex, and are comparatively circumstantial. But at the 
date of 755 we find the conditions of a break more completely 
satisfied. The entries of the Bishops of Winchester, which 
are given with great regularity from Birinus in 634 down to 
the accession of Cyneheard in 754, are henceforth omitted, and 
are never again entered except in the most fitful and accidental 
manner. This seems to indicate a change of some significance. 
Hitherto their accession is recorded as regularly as that of -the 
kings, and even (as in 676) taking precedence of the king : 
but now they are dropped altogether. It is clear that in the 
year 755 the State of Wessex fell into disorder, and that there 
was a political schism if not a civil war. The prolongation of 
the annal of 755 from " and se Cynewulf &c." has been ap- 
pended by a later collector. This Section is almost purely 
composed of royal and ecclesiastical Fasti : not domestic 
merely, but also Kentish, Northumbrian, and Mercian. 

c 2 


5, The next break was probably at the close of 822. In 
the beginning of this Section (758 sqq.) we have mere chrono- 
graphy an ineffectual attempt to fill out the tale of years 
with corresponding events. The annal 784 seems to shew that 
the prolongation of 755 had not yet got into the Chronicle. 

The annal 800 though not very long is very circumstantial, 
and it relates the death of Beorhtric, of whom at the mention 
of his accession in 784 it is said, "and his ryht fsedren cyn 
gae]? to Cerdice ;" being the last instance of this archaic for- 
mula. Of Beorhtric it is used in the prefatory list of Saxon 
Kings, and with him it ceases there, as well as here in the 
body of the Chronicle*. These marks seem to indicate a 
pause somewhere in the reign of Ecgbryht, and it is fixed at 
822 because there the prevalent characteristic of this Section 
suddenly ceases. For this Section is highly ecclesiastical, not 
only by notices of English bishops and synods, but also it 
venerates Rome more than any section previous to the twelfth 
century. Nor may we suppose that this is due to later in- 
sertions ; because the matter is suited to these times, because it 
would be hard to say to what other epoch it should be assigned, 
and because we can trace the same disposition on for a few 
years after 800, which we fix as the first cotemporary pause 
of this chronographer. The same hand may be recognized 
down to the close of 822, where there appears to be a sudden 
change in the character of the entries. No more about Popes 
and Synods ; all is military and political. 

To this hand I should attribute the insertion of that interest- 
ing observation on the death of Abp. Theodore in 690 : ^Er 
wcerun Romanisce biscepas. stylpan wcerun Englisce. 
S 1 6. 6. At the year 855 the Termination of an ancient Chro- 
nicle is plainly seen, like the lines of some ancient sea-coast 
high up in the mainland. At the close of ^E|?elwulf's reign 
we find a grand genealogical demonstration, in a style that 
implies the utmost heraldic effort of which the times were 
capable. In the Preface also we find Jtyelwulf distinguished 
by a pedigree attached to his name, running back to Cerdic. 
But in the Termination of 855 the line of Wessex progenitors 

* The length of the reign of Ecgbryht is not proleptically told at his acces- 
sion, as Beorhtric's is in 784. 


is continued through Cerdic back to Woden, and through 
Woden back into the mists of high mythology, whence the 
line of Scripture patriarchs is laid hold of, and so up to Adam, 
whose name is then spiritualized into Christ. Whether this 
represents merely the epilogue of that ancient royal Stemma, 
of which we have had instalments from time to time, or whether 
it was composed expressly for this place, it is observable that 
from this point forward we have no more of the old pedigrees 
which in the former part are so frequent. Either supposition 
lends itself readily to the probability that here we are nearing 
contemporary history again. For if it was merely a Stemma 
that was incorporated into the Chronicle, the termination with 
JBthehrulf seems to imply that he was at the time of its in- 
corporation the king last deceased. 

There is an appearance of recent interest about the reign 
of ^Ethelwulf. The Capitals at his accession, and in the year 
851, strengthen the significance which we might be inclined 
to attach to the triumphal and solemn air of his Pedigree, 
with its final AMEN. At one time I thought this Section 
might with fair probability be brought home to SwrShun who 
was Bishop of Winchester when ^Ethelwulf died. There is 
something about the second paragraph of 853 and the whole 
of 855 that seems to prompt such an idea. The expression 
pa was domne Leo pap See. would very naturally proceed 
from one who had accompanied Alfred to Rome. Leo died 
the same year as ^Ethelwulf. The first clause in 855 is pro- 
bably there by error instead of under 851, as may be seen by 
a comparison of Asser. Putting that clause aside, the re- 
mainder of 8^5 is very germane to such a character as 
SwiiShun. The devotion of one-tenth of his land to religious 
uses is told with pious satisfaction ; and the troubles, domestic 
and civil, which were averted by -ZEtbrelwulf s return from the 
continent, with a discreet reticence not expressed but only 
glanced at in the phrase, and his people were fain of his 
return. But such an idea seems untenable, if only for the 
following reason. The continuation of 855 and the annal of 
860 appears like a later appendix by the same hand, and as 
the duration of the reign of Ethelbryht is given under 860, 
this could not have been written earlier than 865 whereas 
SwrShun died in 862. 


Any how, we have here an Editor whose work we can 
define and whose hand we can trace even through the mazes 
of this composite Chronicle. To him must be assigned, not the 
Chronicle as it now stands from the beginning, but from 455 
(Hengist and Horsa) to 855, making the necessary exceptions 
for later insertions, chiefly those already indicated in i. 
The Chronicle of SwiiShun then, (for so I may surely be per- 
mitted to call it, honoris causa, as it is at least probable that 
it was first wound up during his episcopate and at his See,) 
consisted of the Sections 2 6. In this Edition the old 
genealogical Preface which had been closed with Beorhtric, 
was carried down to " Cerdicing" (p. 4). To this Editor must 
be assigned all those amplifications of annals, in which the 
connection is eifected by a somewhat marked use of the De- 
monstrative SE with a Proper Name, a use which was not 
continued in the sequel of the language (as it was in Greek, 6 
2coKpdr^s &c.)j but which seems to have had its crisis about 
this time. Instances are 597, 611, 643, 648, 660, 670, 674 
(without Proper Name), 685, 688, 694, 709 (without Proper 
Name), 728, 731, 755, 827, 836, 855, 860. The "se Efel- 
bryht" of 860 is (I think) the last instance of this peculiar 
usage, which is rendered in F by "$es -d&Selbyrht." The 

repeated " se Carl se Carl" of 885 is a different thing. 

Here there is a centra-distinction, like that expressed by the 
Greek 6 /uteV ... 6 be. 

Another little trait may be noticed as marking this Editor. 
He has here and there put a Latin title, dux, 837 and 851, 
domne Leo pap, 853 ; which is a thing that merits notice only 
because of its extreme rarity in these times. On this ac- 
count we may almost venture to fix on the annal 792 as an 
insertion by this Editor, on account of its " Jtyelbryhte rex," 
in which it is not followed by any of the more recent editions 
B C D E F. The prefix domne to the Pope's name had more 
favour, it is kept by B C. In G it is Saxonised thus, " J?a wses 
ftonne Leo papa on Rome." 

Another interesting feature in this Section is the mention 
(for the first time) of the present day, and the appearance 
of the grammatical First Person ; " and these made the 
greatest carnage on heathen marauders that we have heard 
tell of up to the present day" (851). This expression might 


be used in a contemporary annal, but I am inclined to think it 
a later insertion ; and partly because B C D E have a different 
order of the paragraphs here. 

7. The next division is marked by the change of hand- 3 7. 
writing in 891. Whatever uncertainty may beset the previous 
analysis, there is no doubt that here we have a natural Section. 
It covers a period of 27 years, and every year has its annal ; 
a circumstance which (occurring here for the first time) is 
in itself a ground of distinction. Some of the annals are 
full and circumstantial, chiefly 867, 871, 878, and 885; others 
are so in a less degree : while those which are brief, as 869, 
872, 873, 879, 880, 886, contain well-selected matter, even 
where the scene is altogether beyond seas, as in 88 1, 883, 884. 
But these characters change very remarkably at the close of 
887. Here we have a singular transition to trivial notices; and 
one annal, that of 889, consists of a twofold observation, half 
negative and half positive ; one if not both of which would 
soon have perished from memory, had it not been quickly 
committed to writing. What makes it more remarkable, these 
small matters which from their very insignificance indicate a 
contemporary pen, are ecclesiastical, whereas the general 
character of the Section is by no means so. Moreover, it 
is to be observed that the annal 889 opens, not with the 
customary HER, but with On ]>issum geare ; a feature which 
has already been noticed in 3, where the use I made of 
it might seem questionable, but for this confirmatory example. 
Here then it appears to me that we are actually on co- 
temporary ground, and I differ from Mr. Wright (Biographia 
Lit. Asser), who thinks that this part of the Chronicle " was 
most probably not in existence till long after Alfred's death." 
A contrary view of the case would have dispelled one of 
his perplexities, and he would have been at no loss to account 
for the discontinuance of the contribution from the Saxon 
Chronicle at the year 887, in a work which purports to be 
composed in 893. No doubt there were copies made of a 
Chronicle which ended with 887, and one of these was in 
the hands of the composer of the Asserian Biography. The 
last clause of 887 and thence to the close of the first hand 
at "gefor" in 891, is largely the work of a man of peace, 
whereas the Section as a whole sounds of war. Rare inser- 


tions in keeping with this appendix appear at 874, 878, 885. 
In this Section we have some of the most archaic Saxon in 
the whole Chronicle, and this may appear strange to those 
who are not familiar with the intricacies of its structure. The 
annal of 876 is one of the best preserved and least altered 
pieces of pristine Englisc, and its antiquated style has baffled 
the interpreters. Except the story under 755 there is hardly 
anything to match it. And this is only a strong instance 
of what is felt at many parts of this Section ; it is very 
stiff and primitive. The obvious inference is, that the older 
parts have undergone a process of modernisation, to which this 
has not been subjected. But there are certain archaic forms 
which are found both in this and the previous Sections,, which 
we here take leave of. After this Section we have no more 
cuom, cuomon, but com, comon ; no more hiera, but hiora 
and hira ; no more instances of wcerun or other plural praB- 
terites in -un. It appears doubtful what is the exact position 
of the remainder of 891 (after the change of handwriting) 
down to the close of 893. It does not claim to belong to 
the next Section, and it is contained in manuscripts (E F) 
which omit the next Section. The expression at the opening 
of 893, "se micla here J>e we gefyrn ymbe sprsecon," i.e. the 
great host which we before spoke about, seems to claim for 
this isolated portion identity of authorship with the annals 
immediately preceding, and therefore we will consider it as an 
Appendix of this Section. 

8. 8. Here we have the hand of one who is something more 
than an ordinary Continuator, in the author who furnishes 
the six and half pages which follow. This is the most remark- 
able piece of writing in the whole series of Chronicles. It is. 
a warm, vigorous, earnest narrative, free from the rigidity of 
the other annals, full of life and originality. Compared with 
this passage, every other piece of prose, not in these Chronicles 
merely, but throughout the whole range of extant Saxon 
literature, must assume a secondary rank. There is some 
fine diction in C and D, there is fluent and rhetorical language 
in ^Elfric, but the present passage is to these what Thucydides 
is to Xenophon. 

Here the reader may feel the personal presence of the 
narrator more sensibly than anywhere else. It is not merely 


that he speaks in the first person (swa ic ser saede, p. 92).; this 
we may find elsewhere, as in E 1086, which is also a passage 
of much freshness. But this piece of TV is so full of native 
force, that its life seems always fresh in it, and it reads more 
like a narrative of our own times than of Alfred's. 

The writer closes his annual periods with a colophon like 
Thucydides, who sums up as each eros r<j> TroAe/jua re\ez/ra 
r<36e ov &ovKvbibrjs vvypafyev. So this writer : 

and J?8et waes ymb twelf monaft faes j?e hie aer hider ofer 
saa com on. 

J?aet waes ymb twa ger J?aes j?e hie hider ofer sse comon. 

J?aet wses ymb )?reo ger ]?a?s J?e hie on Limene mirSan 
comon hider ofer sse. 

As to the date of this Continuation it is almost superfluous 
to enter into detail, when once the vigour and earnestness of 
the narrative are appreciated. Dr. Pauli in his Life of Alfred 
says, that this was written "in the following century." As 
the end of the century was so near, this may be literally true ; 
it may have been written as late as the spring of 901. I 
should however prefer to believe that it was composed in the 
winter following the campaign of 897, and there is a style 
about the paragraph at the foot of page 94 which invites 
such a conjecture. It flags after 897, and I doubt not it was 
on parchment before Alfred's death in 901. That the Section 
belongs to that group of Anglo-Saxon literature with which 
the name of Alfred has been justly associated, is manifest in 
every part of it, as might be illustrated by several particulars. 
E.g. the unusual expression which puzzled Wheloc, "buton 
swij?e gewaldenum daele" (p. 91) = " except a very considerable 
division. 3 ' This we meet with again in Orosius iv. 9, " mid 
gewealdenan fultume" and I have not noticed it elsewhere. 
(Adverbially gewealden occurs in the fragment of Zosimas, p. 
no. 1. 20. Appendix to my SwiiShun.) 

But while the annals 894-897 form a complete episode in 
themselves, I cannot distinguish them in anything except their 
fullness and exuberance and warmth, from the annals which 
follow down to 924 fin. These two parts appear like the 
work of one mind in different moods. The piece 894897 
exhibits greater intensity of feeling, and so far keeps true to 
the drama of history. That the latter items of 897, and 



especially the paragraph about the death of the king's horse- 
thane, as also (though less manifestly) the annal of 898, are 
contemporaneous entries desultory and incidental jottings in 
a dormant interval of the Chronicle seems, under all the 
circumstances, presumably certain. The death of Alfred and 
the sedition of Mftelwold do not appear to have been inserted 
till after the latter had run its course in 905, or rather perhaps 
until five years later, 910. The two sections of JEftelwold's 
escapade, under 901 and 910, have not the force of the piece 
at the head of the Section, but they bespeak the same hand. 
The ten years 901910 are however but scantily furnished, 
and in a chronographic manner. The notices of ecclesi- 
astics may partly be due to personal distinction, as in the 
cases of Grimbald and Asser; but as they are isolated and 
exceptional, forming part of no sequence (the line of Win- 
chester bishops, for example, having been neglected since 754) , 
we must regard them partly as an eking out of the chrono- 
graphy. From the middle of 910 to the close of 924 we 
have a steady, regular, well-written narrative, homogeneous 
and unmixed in matter, like the head-piece of this Section, 
and unlike all the rest of the Chronicle. It is all sieges and 
battles, and fortifications and garrisons, and surrenders and 
armed pacifications. Not a word of home affairs whether of 
Church or State. It is a model of uniformity both in matter 
and manner. 

One might be prompted to find a break at 920 where 3! 
first parts company with BCD, after they have gone thus far 
together from the beginning. But this indication, standing 
alone, is no evidence of a break in the continuity of 2?, it 
concerns only the literary history of BCD. As in the last 
Section, so in this, the Termination coincides with a change 
in the handwriting; and it may not be amiss to record the 
fact, that this transition of penmanship has only made our 
division to be put at the close of 924 instead of 925, at which, 
from internal evidence (before I noticed the change of hand), 
I had long ago placed it. 

2C9. 9. The annals 925-975. This Section is so conspicuously 
contrasted with the preceding, so clearly defined at its close, 
and so strongly characterized in every respect, that I speak 
with less diffidence in pronouncing it a natural division. In 


the first place it is wonderfully meagre, a charge which is 
often unreasonably alleged against these Chronicles in the 
most undiscriminating manner, but which may be justified here 
by a comparison with the historical literature of two earlier 
generations. When a critic opens the Saxon Chronicle, in the 
seventh century, and cries " How meagre !" we wonder what 
standard of comparison he is thinking of, and we should like 
to be informed where he has found a nobler vernacular work 
produced by any nation at a like stage of its history ! But 
here we are in the Tenth Century, and we have behind us 
a period of 59 years, during which scarcely a year but has 
been chronicled. The earlier chronography or year-marking- 
calendar has gradually expanded, and a genial interest in 
detail has been unfolding itself when by a transition from 
hot to cold we suddenly find ourselves again in a bare chrono- 
graphy such as we took leave of as far back as 832, the last 
year of 5. 

In the next place it is devoid of all uniformity there is no 
appearance of a plan. What served instead of a plan, was a 
taste for collecting and preserving the national songs. This 
Section is as irregular as the last was uniform. The first 
twelve years are disposed of in less than as many lines; the 
first six having only one entry, viz. the demise of the crown. 
Here we find bishops again, the long-neglected succession of 
bishops a mere expedient to fill out the vacant years. This 
poverty is however disguised, and not inadequately redeemed 
by the insertion of those poetical pieces which constitute the 
singular merit and ornament of this Section. There are four 
pieces : The Battle of Brunanburh, 937 ; the Annexation of 
Mercia, 942 ; ^ he Coronation of Edgar at Bath, 973 ; The 
Death of Edgar with attendant circumstances, 975. There is 
a very observable difference between the first three of these 
pieces and the last of them. The first three are concerned 
each with a single and momentary event ; the last is a narra- 
tive poem and covers a considerable space of time. To say 
the least, it enters upon a second year. The first three have 
the semblance of popular songs which the collector of 975 
merely enshrined in the Chronicle ; but the closing poem of 
the Section appears to have been composed for the place in 
which we find it. It would seem to be the work of the collector 


himself, who had a taste for poetry and was himself a poet 
and an admirer of poets. The matters contained in the poem 
of 975 are not heroic or otherwise proper to poetry (as those 
in 937, 942 and 973 are), they are simply historical and would 
make excellent prose. Nothing but that love for versification 
which at a later date produced a special form of rhyming 
literature, can account for the poetic dress of this annal. But 
this singularity on the one hand corresponds strikingly with 
the composition of this Section on the other a Section whose 
chief merit lies in the old songs it has provided a setting for. 
It appears to me we can get at one little particular in the 
biography of this Collector and Poet. He was a friend and 
admirer of Cyneweard, whom he has contrived in the course 
of his brief contribution to mention twice ; once in prose 964, 
as Abbot of Middelton, and once in verse 975, as Bishop. 
We cannot say that Cyneweard's name would have literally 
perished but for these two notices, because his name was 
enrolled among the Bishops of Wells, and there is a Charter 
extant with his signature (Cod. Dipl. 589). But name and 
office are hardly enough to quicken the memory of a man; 
and this Collector it is who has given Bishop Cyneweard a 
niche in history. Not the public importance of the man, but 
the personal affection of the chronicler, dictated the language 
of this commemoration : 

And him tir fsest hseled tyn nihtum ser- 
of Brytene gewat* bisceop se goda 

Jmrh gecyndne craft' dam wses Cyneweard nama. 
And forth away the far-famed hero, ten nights before [Edgar's death] 
from Britain had departed, the bishop who was good 

by inherited craft ; whose name was Cyneweard. 

The expression " from Britain departed " has been inter- 
preted to signify his death. If this is the meaning, it is a great 
solecism, and must be supposed to convey the great loss his 
native land had sustained. But the phrase which tells us 
most about Cyneweard is "se goda Jmrh gecyndne craeft," 
the meaning of which has (I suspect) been overlooked. CrSDft 
is scientia; thus the astronomers are called in this same piece 
crseft gleawe men, scientiaa periti homines ; and Cyne- 
weard is said to have been " good by inherited craft/' bonus 
per patriam indolem, artem, scicntiam ; narp^av Tf^vrjv (Soph. 


El. 1500). And what craft is it likely to have been that 
endeared Cyneweard to our Collector what but the minstrePs 
craft ? I venture to suggest that Cyneweard Bishop of Wells 
was the Poet Laureate of his day, and that he is really the 
author of the three pieces in this Section, which are so nobly 
and truly poetic, and so unlike the rhythmic labours at its 
close. But can we make out anything more about this Cyne- 
weard ? If the above exposition is admitted, Cyneweard was 
a poet, and the son of a poet. Now we have in Anglo- 
Saxon Literature a poet of a kindred name, of whom we would 
gladly know more than we do. The poet of the " Elene " 
has conveyed his name to posterity in Runes, which he has 
woven into his poem, and hence we know that his name was 
Cynewulf. Grimm seeks to connect this Cynewulf with Aid- 
helm, early in the eighth century. To dissent from an opinion 
of Jacob Grimm is like disputing parental authority but in 
regard to the date of the " Elene " I cannot follow him. To 
my eyes it is palpably a work of the tenth century, and I 
know that I am not swayed to this view by the present 
exigency, because I find observations to this effect which I 
had long ago forgotten, and which were made when I had 
no theory to serve in the matter. Indeed the diction of the 
" Elene " is so like that of these three minor poems, that it 
must be pronounced certainly to belong to the same period. I 
venture then to imagine that Cyneweard the Bishop of Wells 
may have been a son of Cynewulf the poet of the "Elene." 
It is well known that in Anglo-Saxon families the first part 
of the name was held in common by many members of the 
family, while the second was changed. Thus four of the sons 
of J&Selwulf had names beginning with ^E^el viz. JSftelstan, 
^E^elwald, ^E^elbriht, and ^E^elred. At another time we find 
the word Ead continued from generation to generation in the 
the Royal Family: Eadweard, Eadmund, Ead red, Ead wig, 
Ead gar, Ead weard. And now as to the ' departure ' of 
Cyneweard, which is expressed in these well-marked words, 

" him of Brytene gewat " it seems to be suited to 

a setting forth to go to a foreign land, and unsuited to signify 
death. It appears to be the just opposite of that on p. 1 15 : 

ofer bradbrimu Brytene sohtari 
over the broad sea, came to Britain. 


As far as this text is concerned, we should not be authorised 
to fix the death of Cyneweard in 975, but rather his quitting 
the country whether into exile or otherwise. His successor 
Sigar dates from 975, which would not prove the death of 
his predecessor, but would provide a sufficient account for 
Cyneweard's death being entered in the Chronicles under 
975 ; which entry would cause an unguarded interpretation 
of this poetical notice about his departure. In the tenth 
century the natural country for an exiled ecclesiastic to retire 
to was Italy ; and it is from Italy that we have obtained the 
only known original of the "Elene," as well as the other 
poems of the Codex Vercellensis. These fragments of our 
tenth century literature, which the desolations of the eleventh 
century caused to perish at home, come back to us (like the 
Paris Psalter) from the lands to which they were carried by 
exiled Englishmen. May not Cyneweard have carried into 
Italy the poems of Cy newulf * ? 

Sio. 10. The annals 9781001. At the close of 1001 the 
handwriting again changes, and it is up to that point that a 
later MS. (G) is copied from this. Also the matter changes; 
so that we have no doubt of a natural Section here. But it is 
hardly worthy of the name of a Section at all ; it shows the 
neglect of an age when the vernacular literature could not 
keep its ground against the now much-cultivated Latin. There 
is this point of interest about it, that the whole Section is 
peculiar to 7C (G). The only annal which merits particular 
notice is the last, that of 1001. This annal has all the 
appearance of contemporaneous writing, and most of the others 
were perhaps a mere chronography to connect this with the 
Chronicle. Also, this annal, and indeed the whole Section, 
bears the local impress of Winchester, thus offering a contrast 
to the subsequent entries. 

is 1 11. ii. The annals 1005-1070. Eleven scattered entries 
covering a period of 69 years, and consisting of matters 
interesting at Christ Church, Canterbury. The succession of 
the Archbishops of Canterbury, and the accession of one or 

* It is not impossible that Cynewulf and Cyneweard may be the same person. 
Examples are not wanting in which the first part of the name remaining con- 
stant, the second part varies: e. g. WigJ?en (833) is Wigfer'S in E. 


two kings, among whom Cnut the benefactor of Christ Church. 
His gift of the harbour of Sandwich is commemorated in 1031, 
a mutilated annal. The annal of most importance is that of 
1070, the year of Lanfranc's arrival in England. This annal 
is the earliest record of the dispute for precedence between 
the Sees of Canterbury and York. It is significant, that this 
Chronicle should cease its vernacular entries at the arrival 
of Lanfranc, that distinguished patron of literature. Such a 
phenomenon as that of a Saxon Chronicle stopping at such 
an epoch, may have been among the causes which led to the 
belief that William the Conqueror had entertained the design 
of extinguishing the native language. If, however, we examine 
the evidence of this Chronicle more closely, we shall be rather 
disposed to conclude that Lanfranc may have been the in- 
strument of bringing this Chronicle to Canterbury, and lodging 
it in the place which kept it till the days of the Reformation. 
For the whole of this Section agrees in diction with its last 
entry was therefore all written at Canterbury and after Lan- 
franc's accession; but the latest previous entry (1001) is con- 
spicuously localised at Winchester the MS. was then probably 
fetched from Winchester about Lanfranc's coming when the 
monks of Christ Church were collecting books, for their own 
Library had been consumed in the recent fire. It was then 
brought down (in a way) to 1070 in Canterbury matters and 
in Canterbury Saxon, and it was never taken in hand again 
until the influence of the continental professor had made the 
learned society of Christ Church look down on their mother 
tongue. This took place about five years after Lanfranc's 
death, and then a summary was appended in Latin, which 
carried the history down to the consecration of Anselm*. 

This Latin continuation represents the transition, which 
(after long vacillation) was at length effected from vernacular 
Saxon to Latin as the language of English history. How- 
ever, the latest work done on this manuscript has yet to be 
noticed, and it is in Saxon. This is by an interpolator 
and reviser of the twelfth century, whose entries are in this 
Edition printed in small italics. I have sometimes indicated 
him by the sign a, as on p. 18 n. Many of his entries are on 

* In the present Edition this is given in the Appendix, p. 271. 


erasures which he has made of ancient matter uninteresting 
to himself and therefore condemned such are especially the 
old pagan pedigrees. Then in his insertions, he discovers 
himself to have a local aifection for Kent (e. g. 784), and 
this, with the likeness of penmanship, makes strongly for his 
identity with the compiler of F. 

The next three manuscripts have so much in common that 
they may be considered as forming a group 

B, C, D. 

The great features which these have in common are as 
follows: : i. Their relationship to 7C is very similar though 
not identical, that is, they are rather cousins to each other 
than sisters. 3. They all belong to a central period, the 
period when the Saxon Literature culminated, and 3. they 
are central in the sense that they are free from provincialisms 
of language, and 4. their local characteristics are frequently, 
though not always, in common e.g. the chronicle of Mercia, 
902-921. 5. These three, and no others after 2C, possess the 
great passage 894-901 ; and indeed this agreement stretches 
further (while E F are almost silent) to the end of 918. 

With these great features in common, they have also their 
several characteristics, which shall next be considered. 


A Saxon Chronicle from the Incarnation to A. D. 977. 

The Chroni- This is one of the Cotton Manuscripts in the British Museum 

(^' ^ Ott * ^er. ^' yi ' ^' I ~34) < I* ^ s described by Wanley, 
p. 224 ; and by Mr. T. Duffus Hardy, vol. i. p. 655. 

This Manuscript had originally a genealogical Frontispice 
like that of 3! ; but carried down to Edward the son of Edgar, 
who was the reigning monarch at the final date of this book. 
This piece is now wanting to the MS., and our knowledge of 
it is derived from notes in the handwriting of Joscelin, and 
from a transcript in the Bodleian, made in the i6th or ryth 
century, before B had lost its Genealogia/ Joscelin'snote 
is preserved in a volume of the Cotton Library (Vitellius D. 
vii.), entitled Joh. Joscelini Collectanea. This is a volume 


of disjointed papers, and on No. 138 Joscelin has copied the 
genealogical Preface, and at its conclusion he notes : 

Hie desinit historia Saxonica . . . [burnt] . . . Chr'i Cant : 
quam habet Doct. Wutton. Tradit jam historia Saxon .... 
Cant : quam habet Joan 3 Tivyne, Cant, selfred heold o^ran . . . 

. . . laes ^e 30 wintra. ^a feng eadweard to selfred ^a he forS 

ferd 8a feng se'Selstan to his t>a feng eadmond 

^er to 3 heold 9 gear 3 6 wucan. ^a feng eadwig eadmundes sunu 
to rice. 3 heold 3 gear 3 36 wucena buton 2 dagum. ^a he forSferd 
fca feng eadgar to his broker 3 heold 1 6 gear 3 8 wucan 3 2 niht 

he forSferd ^a feng eadweard to eadgares sunu 3 heold 

Hie d[esinif] historia Saxonica monasterii Augustini Cant. 

We know from other notes by the same scholar, that his 
Historia Saxonica Monasterii Augustini Cant, is our MS. B : 
and therefore we have Joscelin's evidence as well as that of 
the Bodleian Transcript, to prove that B had a genealogical 
frontispice which terminated in the same reign as the annal- 
istic portion. 

There is a single leaf in a volume of the Cottonian Library 
(Tiber. A. iii. f. 175.) which has been identified both by 
Wanley (p. 199) and Hardy (p. 576) with the missing frontis- 
pice of B. It contains a genealogy almost entirely corres- 
ponding with what we have of Joscelin's copy from B, even 
to the circumstance of breaking off abruptly at and heold . 
The variations are these : Tiber. 2C. iii. has eadmund (eadmond, 
Joscelin) and, ]?a feng eadwig to eadmundes sunu cinges ($a 
feng eadwig eadmundes sunu to rice, Joscelin). Insignificant 
as these variations are, they are perhaps enough to make us 
doubt the identity of the said leaf with that which has disap- 
peared from B. If it is not the identical leaf, the coincidence 
of its fitting our MS. is all the more curious. Dr. Pauli (Life 
of Alfred) thinks it has come from some lost MS. If so, that MS. 
must have been nearly related to our B, for it is plain their 
historical area was coincident, and the penmanship is so like 
that of B, that it requires close scrutiny to distinguish the one 
from the other. Upon careful examination it does however 
appear that the writing of this odd leaf is firmer and more 
vigorous than that of B, and therefore I am inclined to agree 
with Dr. Pauli that it is a fragment from a MS. unknown to 
us, but probably one made at the same time and even the 



same place. A Facsimile of this leaf is given in Mr. Thorpe's 
Edition of the Chronicles. 

The date indicated by the close of this Preface corresponds 
perfectly with the date of 977 at which the annals terminate : 
and everything tends to render it probable that this was the 
true date of this Compilation. As a slight confirmation may 
be noticed the insertion of a single word in the annal for 643. 
It is in B that "the church at Winchester" is first altered to 
"the old church at Winchester" and this emendation would 
naturally occur to a copier in 977, when Bishop M%e\ wold's 
new church was in building. But it does not appear probable 
that B itself is the identical Chronicle that was made in 977. 
It is in the same hand throughout, which though not conclu- 
sive against its originality, is injurious to such a pretension. 
For the autograph itself would have been usually written by a 
scribe down to the close of the Chronicle which served as a 
copy, and after that the Annalist would commence his work 
in his own handwriting. And the appearance of B suggests 
the idea that it is in fact a scribe's copy of this kind prepared 
for a stock to graft further annals upon, which intention was 
never carried out. It is a nice question for the Saxon expert 
to decide, what is the true date of our manuscript B. Mr. 
Duffus Hardy has in fact decided the question differently in 
two places of his Catalogue. When speaking of the odd leaf 
he has attributed it to the eleventh century, and when speak- 
ing of the Chronicle itself he has assigned it to the twelfth. 
Yet he holds that these two are only parts of one whole. 
Verum operi longo fas est obrepere somnum. There is an 
oversight here, and I take Mr. Hardy to mean the eleventh 
century in both cases. First, for the penmanship is decidedly 
bolder and rounder than that of our known examples of the 
twelfth century, such as E, F ; and " a " the interpolator 
of ff. These are specimens of twelfth century handwriting* 
and they already betray a tendency to that pinched angular 
and cursive hand which after the twelfth century changed 
the aspect of MSS. Secondly, the language in so far as 
it has a distinct character, claims kindred with 'K 11, 
of which the date is plainly 1070 or thereabout. In both 
there is a great proneness to ihe termination in -an, instead 
of -on (plural of verbs) and instead of -um (dative). This 


is a variation from which hardly any Anglo-Saxon writing 
is free, but it is found in B in such uncommon abundance 
as to constitute a feature of the text: e.g. gefuhtan 881, 
wurdan, weran, eodan 882, naman 886, forhergodan 887 &c., 
gecyrdan 867, where all the others have -on, and wa3S cuman 
(instead of the participal termination -en) p. 178!., is more 

This manuscript is one of the least valuable of the extant Few 
Chronicles. It has fewer special characteristics than any one 
of the others, and contains very little historical matter which 
is peculiar to itself. Consequently, there is no one of the 
set which could be spared with less detriment to Saxon 
literature. Even those which stand much lower in the scale 
of excellence, such as F and G, are more historically important, 
because they have peculiarities to recommend them. 

Rarely, it offers a variation which is interesting ; there is 
one such at 709, where 2? C D E F all say that Aldhelm was 
bishop on the western side of the wood (se wses be westan 
wuda biscop) B has ' Selwood,' (be westan Selewuda,) to the 
west of Selwood. A peculiarity in 755, utan ymbeodan, where 
the others have the simple be-, is not without its use in illus- 
trating the prefix be-. Where 7? (p. 95 m) with C and D 
have " sume haefdon LX ara " B has the weak form of the 
genitive plural, arena. But most of its peculiarities are of a 
feeble and indistinct kind. Bryten-walda 827, where C D E 
have -wealda, may be called a faint archaism. A singularly 
strange form occurs at 891, betuh which B has with C; 
where betueoh *R, betueoh D G, betwix E, betwyx F. 

B has a marked affinity for the next Chronicle C ; beyond 
that of a common relationship to *R. They have modifications 
of 2, and additions to S, and one peculiarity of arrange- 
ment in common with each other, and in contradistinction 
from the later D E. For example: Anno 643 B C agree 
in the addition ealdan which is not in 7?, and most likely 
was not in D (now mutilated in this part), as far as we may 
judge of the hiatus from its imitator E. Under 855, in the 
close of the genealogy, B and C have Haftra Hwalaing. 
Hwala Bediviging. Bedwig Sceafing. id est filius Noe, 
where D reads Hcfyra. Hwala Beowung. Beowi Sceafing. id 
est filius Noe ; thus exhibiting B and C united in a strong 

e 2 


divergence (we should have said a corruption but Kemble 
accepted the form Bediuig) from D, where all three are 
yet more widely at variance with *R . A decisive instance of 
the agreement of B and C against D and E occurs under 877 
where B and C coincide in an omission that mutilates the 
grammar, while D and E present complete transcripts of 3!, 
thus demonstrating that they derived through a channel inde- 
pendent of B C. The words omitted are, " and \a mette hie 
mycel yst on sse." A second time in the same annal, B and C 
have an omission in common, as compared with 7C, where D 
and E give the full text of r K. The words are, " cer hie on 
]>am fcestene wceron tyoer him, mon to ne mihte." Again, the 
Mercian Chronicle of ^Ethelflsed, which is printed in the Ap- 
pendix (p. 269) has been embodied by B, C, D. But in B 
and C it figures as an indigesta moles after the year 915, 
whereas in D it is chronologized and distributed among the 
other materials. 

From the above considerations I regard B as an eleventh 
century copy (made probably at St. Augustine's) of a Chronicle 
which was compiled about 977, upon the basis (not indeed 
of 'K itself but) of one of that family of transcripts of which 
*& is the extant representative. All the evidence favours the 
supposition that its existence is due to some local stimulus 
which was imparted to literary pursuits in the first half of 
the eleventh century ; and of which G (A) is another relic. 


A Saxon Chronicle from the Invasion of Julius Ccesar to A.D. 1066. 

The Abing- This is one of the Cotton manuscripts in the British Museum ; 

uicie. Cott. Tiberius, B. i. It is described by Wanley, p. 219; by 
Hardy, p. 656. The first handwriting stops at 1046. It 
is preceded by two poetical compositions, with which it is 
written consecutively, and which look as if they had been 
meant to stand as a sort of prelude to the Chronicle. The 
one is a description of the months and marked days of the 
year, a sort of versified Calendar ; the second is a string of 
proverbs. Joscelin has set his Title Chronicle of Abing don at 
the head of both of these pieces. Their intimate association 
with the Chronicle seems to call for their insertion here ; 




and they illustrate the condition of some branches of- know- 
ledge and culture which are cognate to the study of history. 
The first poem may be considered as the text to a Runic 
Club-Almanack. The native month-names are preserved in 
it, while the Roman are put forward more prominently : and 
under the Christian modifications we may perhaps discern 
some traces of the old heathen Calendar. Thus in the month 
of February, after fixing the yth as the day on which winter 
ends and spring begins, it seems the ancient Year-Rime went 
on to tell how the warrior then began to bestir himself, " and 
se wigerid ]?a . . " The sentence thus begun is diverted from its 
original course, and the warrior melts away into S. Matthias, 
whose Festival is seventeen days later. 

Cronica Saxonica Abbingdonice ad annum 1066. 
* Crist wses acennyd cyninga wuldor 

on midne winter msere beoden 

ece eelmihtig on }>y eahteoftan dseg 

haelend gehaten heofon rices weard. 

Swa ba sylfan tiid side herigeas 

folc unmsete habba'S fore weard gear. 

for J>y se kalendus cyme gebiucged 

on bam ylcan dasge us to tune 

forma monofe hine folc mycel 
January ianuarius gerum heton. 

And bses embe fif niht }>set te fulwiht tiid 

eces drihtnes to us cyme's 

bsene twelfta daeg tireadige 

hsele^ heaSurofe liataS on brytene 

in foldan her. 

Swylce emb feower wucan 

bsette solmonafc sige^ to tune 

butan twa nihtum swa hit getealdon geo 
February februarius faer frode gesibas 

ealde eegleawe. And bses embe ane niht 

}> we Marian msessan healda'S 

cyninges modor for Jjan heo Crist on 

beam wealdendes brohte to temple. 

Dsenne |?aes emb fif niht f afered 

* These Poems have been published by Hickes in his Thesaurus (1705), vol. i. 
p. 203, with a Latin translation : and again in a separate form by the Rev. Samuel 
Fox with an English translation) Menologium sett, Calendariiim Poeticum, etc. 







winter of wicum and se wigend J>a 
sefter seofentynu swylc browade 
nihtge rimes nergendes begen 
Mathias msere mine ge frsege 
bses be lencten on tun geliden hsefde 
werum to wicum. 

Swylce eac is wide 

cu3 ymb iii. and twa beodum gewelhwaer 
his cyme Kalend ceorlum and eorlum 
(butan bsenii bises geboden weorSe 
feorSan geare been he furSor cyme's 
ufor anre niht us to tune) 
hrime gehyrsted hagolscuru fserS 
geond middangeard Martius reSe 
hlyda healic. Deenne se halga 
bses emb xi niht sebele scynde 
Gregorius in Godes wsere 
breme in Brytene. Swylce Benedictus 
embe nigon niht bses nergend sohte 
heard and higestrang bsene heria'S wel 
in gewritum wise wealdendes 
J>eowrincas regolfseste swylce eac rimcrseftige 
on J?a ylcan tiid em niht healda'S 
forSan wealdend God worhte set frym^e 
on ]>y sylfan dsege sunnan and monan. 

Hwset ymb feower niht feeder onsende 
J>ses J>e emnihte eorlas healda'S 
heah engel his se hselo abead 
Marian mycle f heo meotod sceolde 
cennan kyninga betst swa hit gecy^ed wearS 
geond middangeard waes f maere wyrd 
folcu gefrsege. 

Swylce emb feower and ]>reo 
niht ge riimes -f te nyrgend sent 
Aprelis mona^' on j;am oftust cym^ 
seo msere tiid mannu to frofre 
drihtnes serist J)sen dream gerist 
wel wide gehwser swa se witega sang.* 
" pis is se dseg ]>8ene drihten us . 
wisfsest worhte wera cneorissu 

* Psalm cxviii. 24. The rhythmical version here quoted is that of the Paris 
Psalter (Oxonii, 1835. Ed. Thorpe) where it is (according to the Latin Psalter) 
Ps. cxvii. 22. 


eallum eorSwarum eadigu to blisse." 

ne magon we ba tide be ge tale healdan 

dagena rimes * ne drihtnes stige 

on heofenas up for ban he hwearfa'S a a 

wisra ge wyrdu ac sceal wintrum frod 

on circule crsefte findan 

halige dagas. Sculan we hwse^ere gyt 

martira gemynd ma areccan 

wrecan wordum forS wisse gesingan 

)? embe nihgon tyne niht 

bses be Easter monafc to us cyme's 

bset man reliquias rseran on ginned 

halige ge hyrste f is healic dseg 

brymylce bentiid bremu. 

mona^S ~ , . , . 

May bwylce in burn raj?e smicere on gearwum 

wudu and wyrtii cyme^ wlitig scri^San 
jjrymlice on tun J>earfe bringe^ 
Maius micle geond menigeo gehwser. 
Swa ]>i ylcan dsege ee]?ele geferan 
Philippus and Jacob feorh agefan 
modige mago]?egnas for meotudes lufan. 
And jjses embe twa niht fte tsehte God 
Elenan eadigre ae]>elust beama 
on ]?am jjrowode }>eoden engla 
/ for manna lufan meotud on galgan 
be feeder leafe. Swylce ymb fyrst wucan 
butan anre niht fte yldum bring^ 
sigelbeorhte dagas Sumor to tune 
wearme gewyderu paen wangas hra^e 
blostmu blowa^ swylce blis astilrS 
geond middangeard manigra hada 
cwicera cynna. cyninge lof secga^ 
maenifealdlice mserne brema^ 
aelmihtigne. paes emb eahta and nigon 
dogera rimes fte drihten narn 
in o^er leoht Agustinus 

blrSne on breostti' jjaas ]>Q he on Brytene her 
ea^mode him eorlas funde 
to Godes willan' swa him se gleawa be bead 
Gregorius. ne hyrde ic guman awyrn * 

* Sic MS. A correction has been indicated by Grein (Glossar. v.fyrn), who 
would, as I understand him, read gumena fyrn. 


anigne aer jefre bringan 

ofer sealtne mere selran lare 

bisceop bremran. nu on Brytene rest 

on Cantwarum cyne stole neah 

mynstre maeru. 

tifta paenne mona^ brings 

a ymb twa and breo tiida lange 

cerra lifta us to tune 

Junius on geard* on j>a gim astihft 

on heofenas up hyhst on geare 

tungla torhtust' and of tille* agrynt 

to sete sigeS. wyle sySSan leng 

grund behealdan and gangan lator 

ofer foldan wang faegerust lohta 

woruld ge sceafta. baeii wuldres begn 

ymb }>reotyne beodnes dyrling 

lohannes in geardagan wearS acenned 

tyn nihtum eac* we ba tiid healdaS 

on midne sumor mycles on aebelum. 

Wide is geweorSod swa f wel gerist 

haligra tid geond hseleSa beam 

Petrus and Paulus, hwset ]>a apostolas 

)>eoden holde )>rowedon on Rome 

ofer midne sumor miccle gewisse 

furfcor fif nihtu folcbealo }>realic 

mserne martyrdom, hsefdon maenige aer 

wundra geworhte geond wserj>eoda m 

Swylce hy aefterj?am unrim fremedon 

swutelra and gesynra J?urh sunu meotudes 

ealdor }>egnas. paenne aedre cymt5 

emb twa niht Jjaes tidliceus 
Julius lulius monaS on |>a lacobus 

ymb feower niht feorh ge sealde 

on twentigu trum in breostum 

frod and faestraed folca lareow 

Zebedes afera. And ]?aes symle scrij) 

ymb seofon niht J>aes sumere gebrihted 

weodmonaft on tun* wel hwaet bringeS 
Augustus Augustus yrmen )?eodum 

* Tille A rare and interesting word, nom. til: which Ethmiiller (Lex. p. 519) 
identifies with the German liet, goal, aim, butt. The sun having ascended to his 
highest elevation, then from his goal descends to the ground. 


hlaf msessan dseg swa ]>ses hserfest cym$ 
ymbe oSer swylc butan anre wanan 
wlitig waestmu hladen wela byS ge y wed 
faegere on foldan. }?sen forS ge wat 
ymb |>reo niht j^aes J^eodne getrywe 
]?urh martyrdom maere diacon 
Laurentius. haefS nu lif wrS ]?an 
mid wuldor feeder weorca to leaner 
Swylce J>aes ymb fif niht faegerust mseg^a 
wifa wuldor sohte weroda God 
for suna sibbe sige faestne ham 
neorxna wange hsefde Nergend >a 
fsegere fostorlean fsemnan for golden 
ece to ealdre. Jjseii calling by^ 
ymb tyn niht ]>ses tiid geweorSad 
Bartholomeus in Brytene her 
wyrS wel ]>ungen. swylce eac wide by^S 
eorlu ge ypped sejjelinges dea'S 
ymb feower niht se J)e fsegere iu 
mid wsetere ofer wearp wuldres cyne beam 
wiga weorSlice be him Wealdend cwaa^ 
^ nan rnserra man geond middangeard 
be tux wife and were wurde acenned. 
Ond j>ses ymbe ]>reo niht geond jjeoda feala 
f te haligmon^ helej?u ge]?inged 
fere^ to folce swa hit foregleawe 
ealde uj?witan seror fundan. 

September Septembres fser and }>y seofo]?an dseg 
f acenned wearS cwena selost 
drihtnes modor. J>sen dagena worn 
ymbe ]>reotyne J'egn unforcu^ 
godspelles gleaw gast on send e 
Matheus his to metod sceafte 
in ecne gefean. Jjseil ealling cym 
ymb )>reo niht j?ses j^eodu wide 
emnihtes dseg ylda bearnuni. 

Hwaet we weorSia'S wide geond eorSan 
heah engles tiid on haar feste 
Michaheles swa f menigo wat 
fif nihtum ufor J>aes |>e folcu by^ 
eorlu geywed emnihtes dseg. 
And J>ses embe twa uiht f se teo^a 



winter on folc fereS frode gej>eahte 
October October 011 tun us to genihte 
winter fylle swa Line wide cig$ 
igbuende Engle and Seaxe 
weras mid wifum. swylce wigena tiid 
ymb twentig ]?8es twegra healdaft 
and fif nihtum samod aetgaedere 
on anne daeg we ]?a se]>elingas 
fyrn ge frunan ]> hy fore maere 
Simon and Judas symble waeron 
drihtne dyre * for J>on hi dom hlutan 
eadigne upweg. and J>ses ofstum bring^ 
embe feower niht folce genihtsum 
blotmonafc on tun beornum to wiste 
November Novembris nr$a bearnu 

eadignesse swa nan o<5er na de^ 
mona'S maran miltse drihtnes. 
And )>y ylcan daege ealra we healda^ 
Sancta symbel ]?ara )>e si^ o^e ser 
worhtan in worulde willan drihtnes. 
Sy)>J>an wintres daag wide ganged 
on syx nihtu sigelbeortne geninrS 
hasrfest mid herige hrimes and snawes 
forste gefeterad be frean haese 
p us wunian ne mot wangas grene 
foldan frsetuwe. j^aes ymb feower niht 
^te Martin' maere ge leorde 
wer womma leas wealdend sohte 
upengla Weard. Jjsenne embe eahta niht 
and feowerum f te fangode 
besenctun on ssegrund sigefaestne wer 
% on brime haran j?e iu beorna felda 
Clementes oft clypia'S to jjearfe. 
and j?aes embe seofon niht sige drihtne lof 
83]>ele Andreas up on roderum 
his gast ageaf on Godes waere 

alibi fus on forS weer. been folcu bringS 


December morgen to mannum mona^ to tune 

Decembris drihta bearnu 
mrra jula. swylce emb eahta and twelf 
niht ge rimes Jjaette nergend sylf 
)>rist hydigu Thomase for geaf 


wrS earfe^um ece rice 
bealdum beornwigan bletsunga his. 
psenne emb feower nibt J>set te fseder engla 
bis sunu sende on bas sidan gesceaft 
"folcum to frofre. nu ge findan magon 
haligra tiid be man healdan sceal 
swa bebugeS gebod geond Brytenricu 
Sexna kjninges on bas sylfan tiid. 

ceastra beo^ feorran gesyne 

orSanc enta geweorc (babe on bysse eorSan syndon) 
wrsetlic weallstana geweorc. wind by^ on lyfte swiftust. 
J>unar by^ J>ragti hludast. brymmas syndan Cristes myccle. 
wyrd by3 swrSost winter by'S cealdost 
lencten hrimigost be by^ lengest ceald 
sumor sun wlitegost * swegel by^ hatost 
hserfest hrefc eadegost heele^um bringe^ 
geres westnaas J?aJ>e him god sendetS. 
so^ bi^ swicolost * * sine by'S deorost 
gold gumena ge hwam and gomol snoterost 
fyrngearu frod se J>e ser feala gebide 1 ^. 
wea brS wundrum cli^bor t wolcnu scri^a^. 
geongne ee^eling sceolan gode gesrSas 
byldan to beaduwe and to beah gife 
ellen sceal on eorle * ecg sceal wrS hellme 
hilde gebidan hafuc sceal on glofe 
wilde ge wunian wulf sceal on bearowe 
earn anhaga' eofor sceal on holte 
to^ msegenes trum til sceal on e^le 
domes wyrcean* daro^ sceal on handa 
gar golde fah * gim sceal on hringe 
standan steap and geap stream sceal on yftum 
mecgan mere flode msest sceal on ceole 
segelgyrd seomian 1 sweord sceal on bearme 
drihtlic isern draca sceal on hlsewe 
frod frsetwum wlanc fisc sceal on wsetere 
cynren cennan cyning sceal on healle 

* This maxim, Truth is most misleading, has a strange Machiavellian look 

but the virtuous rendering of Hickes, Verus facillimd decipitur, can by no means 
be admitted. 

f ' clibbor,' adj. adhesive. Woe is wonderfully clinging. C'f. Halliwell, v. CMbby. 




beagas dselan bera sceal on 

eald and eges full ea of dune sceal 

flod grgeg feran fyrd sceal set sorane 

tir fsestra ge trum treow sceal on eorle 

wisdom on were wudu sceal on foldan 

blsedum blowan beorh sceal on eorj'an 

grene standan God sceal on heofenu. 

dseda demend duru sceal on healle 

rum recedes imrS rand sceal on scylde 

faast fmgra ge beorh- fugel uppe sceal 

lacan on lyfte leax sceal on wa?le 

mid sceote scrrSan scur sceal on heofenu 

winde geblanden in bas woruld cuman' 

peof sceal gangan ]>ystrum wederum 

J>yrs sceal on fenne gebunian* 

ana inn an lande ides sceal dyrne crseffce 

fsemne hire freond ge secean gif heo nelle on folce ge beon 

$ hi man beagu gebicge brim sceal sealte weallan 

lyft helm and lagu flod ymb ealra landa ge hwylc 

flowan firgen streamas feoh sceal on eoran 

tydran and tyman tungol sceal on heofenum 

beorhte scinan swa him be bead Meotud * 

god sceal wr8 yfele geogo^ sceal wrS yldo 

lif sceal wrS dea|>e leoht sceal br$ bystrurn' 

fyrd wrS fyrde feond wrS o^rum 

la^ wi^ la]?e ymb land sacan 

synne stselan. a sceal snotor ycgean 

ymb jjysse worulde ge winn wearh hangian 

fsegere on gildan ^ he ser facen dyde 

manna cynne. Meotod ana wat 

hwyder seo sawul sceal sy$8an hweorfan * 

and ealle }>a gastas j?e for Gode hweorfaft 

seft' dea^ dsege * domes bida^ 

on fseder fse^me is seo forS ge sceaft 

digol and dyrne. Drib ten ana wat 

nergende feeder, nseni eft cyme^ 

hider under hrofas ]>e -f her 

for so^ mannum secge hwylc sy Meotodes ge sceaft 

sige folca ge setu * }>ger he sylfa wunat5 ; 

CRISTES GEFL^scnesse Ac. &c. 

* gewunian (Hickes) weakens the sense, and destroys the alliteration. 





The Abingdon nativity of C rests mainly on the note of 
Joscelin, but it may be corroborated, though not abundantly 
yet in some measure, by internal evidence. Both C and D 
(as compared with the previous Chronicles) tend to enlarge 
our view on the north of the Thames towards the west, in the 
line from Abingdon to Hereford. These two are evidently 
works of nearly the same date ; they are one in language, 
style, and general complexion. 

Their general similarity gives special value to the contrasts 
discoverable between them : an interesting illustration of their 
substantial agreement with verbal differences is to be seen 
under 1040. Some of the independent entries of C counten- 
ance its Abingdon origin. For instance, D is silent where C 
relates in 1044, the promotion of Siward Abbot of Abingdon 
to be. Archbishop of Canterbury, and the election of church- 
warden EtSelstan to fill the vacant Abbacy : 1047, the death 
of Abbot EiSelstan: 1048 Siward's return from Canterbury 
to Abingdon. When we find such entries as these, not appear- 
ing in the intimately related D, occurring in C just before and 
after the date (1046) at which the first handwriting stops, we 
can hardly hesitate to conclude that the* book was written at 
Abingdon in the midst of these events. To the same effect is 
the evidence of the language, which is of the most ripe and 
polished kind, marking the culmination of Saxon Literature. 

Towards the close of the first hand, we find a series of terse 
and spirited annals, offering some of the finest extant samples 
of the highly developed Saxon of the eleventh century. The 
annal of 1040 may be cited as a fine piece of history in small. 
It is full of fact and full of feeling brief and clear and leaves 
no doubt as to the sentiments and judgments of the writer. 
No one could have written that annal who had not a vivid 
remembrance of the occurrences. The like may be said of 
others on p. 1 66 sqq. 

There are some vigorous annals in the Continuation between 
1046 and 1056, after which the narrative is suspended until 
1065. The death of Edward the Confessor is then narrated 
with extraordinary solemnity, and the accession of Harold is 
noticed in terms which imply that the catastrophe of his reign 
was already known. Yet his story is pursued only so far as 
success attended him. Halfway through the drama of 1066 


our anonymous author conducts us, to the point where he 
leaves Harold victorious at Stamford Bridge. This Abingdon 
historian seems to have enjoyed some peculiar opportunity of 
information concerning the two great northern fights of Wednes- 
day, Sept. 2,0, 1066, and the following Sunday; possibly some 
Northumbrian was visiting Abingdon in his travels, and re- 
paying their hospitality by a contribution to their historical 

A Northum- One might go on to surmise, that at last he took the pen 
graph at the in his own hand and added the incident which closes the book. 

close of C 

The dialect of this paragraph is not well defined, but the 
more salient and constant features appear to be northern. 
That old and strong Northumbrian feature of CT where the 
Anglo-Saxon spelling is HT, and which is so familiar to the 
readers of Beda's Church History, who never writes Beorht 
or Berht but Beret, e. g. Bercta, Berctfrid, Berctgils, Beret- 
ham, Berctred, ^Edilberct, Cudberct, Erconberct, &c., as also 
Drycthelm, Wictgils, Wictred, Wictuarii, and many more 
such, this feature is found twice in the strange addition to 
C, without a single case of HT. There is micte for mihte, 
and nactes for nahtes. The (so early) examples of CH as 
gerechen, chinge, michel ; the forms seite, tyurustang, and, not 
least, the Norsk word brunie, seem all to indicate a northern 

There are a few marginal annotations in C, in a hand- 
writing of the sixteenth century, chiefly in the way of identi- 
fying localities. They are the work of a hand whom it would 
be interesting to discover. The first of the series occurs at 
457, and the note on that annal will indicate where the * 
others are to be found. 

In 976 there is an isolated little annal, of a great famine, 
unnoticed in any other Saxon Chronicle : but not overlooked 
by Florence. Another annal peculiar to C is that dated 1039 
(p. 1 66 of this Edition), where the Welsh part of the entry 
seems to answer to what we read in Annales Oambrice under 
the same date. 

The relations between C and D are sometimes so intimate, 
as almost to suggest that the one may have been actually on 
the table at which the other was written. Such a solecism as 
that in 992, where three verbs stand in unbroken series, would 


not survive many transcriptions. Both C and D have " sceol- 
don cunnian meahton hi"=should try whether they could &c. 
but E (who gives the passage almost word for word with C 
and D) varies at this place and writes " gif hi muhton." 

There is no apparent reason for assigning to C a priority 
over D except the undecisive circumstance, that it closes 
thirteen years earlier. The body of C and D is identical, 
being the Chronicle which is represented in the Latin Annals 
of Florence of Worcester. At the same time, together with 
this central agreement, there is a divergence in the accretions 
of each. C embodies extracts from 3! and B, which do not 
appear in D. On the other hand the latter amplified his 
history by the incorporation of northern affairs, and became 
the parent of a strain of Chronicles of which E represents the 
fullest development. 

While therefore it is doubtful whether the serial position of Conclusion 
C between B and D is chronologically true, it is convenient as origin of c. 
an expression of the relation which C bears to B on the one 
hand and to D on the other. I suppose then that in or about 
the year 1045, *^ e community at Abingdon borrowed books 
from Canterbury (B) and from Worcester (D) and composed 
from them the present Chronicle : making use of the briefer 
Canterbury records for the earlier period. That this part 
was copied from a Canterbury book like B, is suggested by an 
omission of an essential clause in 877 init. which C imitates, 
but which is not followed by D. Another argument for the 
close relations between B and C is found in 902, where a 
premature entry of the death of EalhswrS, which must have 
originated in a blunder, appears in B and C only. 


A Saxon Chronicle from the Incarnation to A.D. 1079. 

This is one of the Cotton Manuscripts in the British Museum : The Wor- 
Cot. Tiber. B. iv. It is described by Wanley, p. 220 ; by nicie. 
Hardy, p. 657. It is written in the same hand to A.D. 1016, 
after which it exhibits varieties of penmanship, which are but 
faintly distinguishable. 

This manuscript was called by Josselin ChroniconWigornice : 


and there is internal evidence to confirm this designation. 
Many of its marks of locality are common to it with C and 
accordingly much that might belong here has been anticipated. 

It remains to fix our attention on that which signalizes this 
Chronicle and distinguishes it from the others which have 
been described, but more especially from C. Here, for the 
first time, we find a descriptive Preface taking the place of 
the old genealogical one. But the chief distinction of this 
Chronicle arises from the introduction of additional materials, 
enlarging the field of history by digesting the Mercian and 
Northumbrian Annals in their relative chronological position. 
This amounts, as Mr. Hardy has already hinted, to the incor- 
poration of a distinct Chronicle, or more than one, unless we 
suppose it to have been of a composite nature. 

This element may be discerned forming a part or the whole 
of the annals 737, 744, 752*, 759, 760, 761, 762, 765*, 
766*, 768*, 774, 776*, 777, 778*, 779, 780*, 782*, 785 (the 
legatine embassy from Rome is likewise found first in D), 
788*, 789*, 790, 791*, 792, 793*, 794, 795*. 79 6 , 797, 79 8 *> 
800, 802 (both these are eclipses of the moon, which appear 
to rest upon the northern authority), 803, 806*, at which point 
this source seems to stop. Here there is a large influx of 
material, which appears for the first time in D. The annals 
marked with an asterisk are entirely composed of new (north- 
ern) material. All this mass of particulars now flows into the 
series of our Chronicles for the first time, and through Florence 
it became the heritage of all the historians. Mr. Stubbs has 
supposed (Archaeological Journal, N. 75, p. 236 note) that 
this collection may owe its origin to the distinguished bishop 
of Worcester, Wereferth, who sate from 873 to 915. He was 
one of the chief literary friends and allies of King Alfred, and 
Asser ascribes to him the Saxon Translation of Gregory's 
Dialogues. The part of the Chronicles which would be spe- 
cially attributable to him, are the Mercian and Northumbrian 
materials of the eighth century, which we can trace back to 
Worcester and no further, and of which Wereferth may very 
well have been the collector and curator. It is quite in accord- 
ance with the position of Worcester as a bishopstol of Mercia, 
' that the preservation of these pieces of history should be due 
to that monastery. 


That D obtained the early or Winchester annals, direct 
from Winchester, and not through Canterbury or Abingdon, 
appears by a place in 877 where B and C both omit a clause 
which is necessary to the sense, and where D has the passage 

In the year 915, while keeping otherwise to his copy, lie 
inserts four words [wses Waerincwic getimbrod and] which tell 
the foundation of Warwick. 

In the tenth century it has the annals 925, 926, 947, 948, 
peculiar to itself. And in 959 it is D that first exhibits the 
Rime of the Reign of Edgar. At this part D begins to break 
away from its old companionship with 7C B C and to strike into 
a new line, in which it is followed by E F. Thus we have the 
trio D E F on such salient passages as 959, 973 and 979. At 
983 C joins this group, and C D E go on together till about 
1 020, F sometimes falling in and sometimes falling out. In 
this combination we must look upon D as the leader. 

It is worthy of observation, that certain entries (956, 1023) 
in which the archbishop of York is styled simply "Arch- 
bishop," are traceable to D, and may have resulted from the 
intimacy which existed in the tenth century between the Sees 
of York and Worcester. There is an interesting mark of con- 
temporaneity in 1012. It is there said that mighty works were 
done at the tomb of S. Alphege in London, and eleven years 
later (1123) we have the narrative of his translation to Canter- 
bury. This is told with an interest and warmth peculiar to 
D, and I attribute the entry of 1012 to D rather than to C, 
who shares it. No Chronicle except D has an entry to the. 
year 1026. 

But the part in which D assumes a strong and distinct 
character of its own is after 1043, and the annal 1052(1) 
which relates the outlawry of Godwine is the most brilliant 
passage of this Chronicle. In this part it has several local par- 
ticulars of Western Mercia, (1049, an earthquake was felt at 
Worcester, Wic(?), and Derby,) and of the Welsh wars, which 
are peculiar to itself. More especially to be noticed in this 
respect are the annals 1057-1063. In one of these (1059) is 
the consecration of a tower at Peterborough which is omitted 
by E, doubtless because that tower had been destroyed in' 
the fire of 1116. More unaccountable is the omission in E of 



a fact in D, 1060, viz. that Archbishop Kinsie was buried 
at Peterborough. Was the site of his grave lost in the fire? 
When we come to the year 1066, we find D taking a distinct 
line from C, in that while the latter is entirely engaged with 
the events in the north, D is briefer about the two great fights 
there, and goes on to tell the Battle of Hastings, in which this 
Chronicle is singular, no one of the others giving any account 
of this decisive battle. The narrative is remarkable for its 
Saxon spirit, deploring the catastrophe as a judgment from 
heaven for national sin. In the thirteen years during which 
this Chronicle is continued below the Conquest, the matter is 
entirely new, that is, absent from previous Chronicles, and it 
has been only partially transferred to the pages of E. 

Like C, this book ends with a memorandum by a strange 
hand in a strange dialect only here the historical position 
of the event recorded is as problematical as the person of the 
recording historian. In this Edition it is printed in a distinct 
type, p. 216. 

An interval The gap of time between the close of this Chronicle and 
of chronT- 168 the commencement of that which comes next is over forty 
years, taken at its minimum. The latest entry of D is 1079, 
and the compilation of E took place, as will be shewn, in 1122. 
But the difference in character is far greater than this space 
of time would account for. The local difference must be taken 
into account, D being a western and E an eastern book. The 
compilers of E have written almost, if not entirely, in the cur- 
rent phraseology of their day, and their diction is quite that 
of the twelfth century; whereas in D, though the most im- 
portant part of it was written m the eleventh century, we find 
little to distinguish it from the language of the tenth century, 
and we feel that we have to do with the preserved and culti- 
vated diction of a cloister. But at the same time the matter 
of the history is not so much infected with the spirit of the 
cloister in the earlier group as in the latter. 
The earlier The Chronicles which have hitherto been described are 

not " monas- i i i / * i i -i 

tic." so remarkably free from local colouring, that they barely 

afford sufficient internal evidence as to their native locality. 
It is more by external than by internal evidence that they 
are assigned to this or that monastery. At a later date, viz. 
in the thirteenth century, the Latin Annals acquired a strongly 


monastic character, and this has led to a confused way of 
treating all the early Chronicles,, as if there were no difference 
between them. When it is said, that the monkish annals 
ignore matters of public concern, and that their attention is 
confined to the interests of the house or of the order such 
criticism has no place in regard to !S, B, C, D. If we except a 
late entry in 7? (1031), we shall hardly find a sentence in which 
local partiality has led the record off from the high road of 
national history. (Thus it has been observed by Mr. Hardy 
that E has more notices of Abingdon than D has.) But in 
the Chronicles of the twelfth century the narrowing influence 
of the cloister begins to be felt, though they do not become 
monastic in the full sense in which that term is emphatically 
applied to the Annals of the thirteenth century. 


A Saxon Chronicle from the Incarnation to A.D. 1154. 
This is one of the Laud manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, ThePeter- 

Bodl Laud 636 (formerly, E. 80). It is described by Wanley, 
p. 64; by Hardy, p. 657. In many respects this is the most 
important of the whole series of Chronicles. It gives 75 years' 
history beyond any of the others ; and the variety of styles 
renders it one of the chief luminaries of the English language 
before the Conquest. It is in one hand to the end of 1121. 
It is a book of the Abbey of Peterborough, and affords copious 
proof of its own origin. Its existence is probably due to a dis- 
astrous fire that occurred at Peterborough, on Friday, August 
3, 1 1 16, in which the Minster was entirely consumed and all 
the buildings around except the Chapter House and Dormi- 
tory; most of the town was burnt also. Probably they lost 
their books, and it may have been in consequence of this 
loss that we find a new Chronicle started in 112,1. The work 
may have been brought down to that date under superin- 
tendence, and then have passed from the scribe into the hand 
of the principal, who carried the record down to the close of 
1131. The work being thus divided into an Old Part and a 
New Part, each must have a separate examination. 

i. Down to the close of 892 the Old Part embodies the E. 1. 


contents of ft i to 7 (except the Preface, in which E follows 
D), besides some additional materials. These additions are, 
I. The Anglican Chronicle of the eighth century, which has 
been already traced in D, where it appeared for the first 
time; 2. A small Chronicle of Prankish kings in Latin, e.g. 
769, 778, 800, 810, 812, besides a few Latin entries of 
English history, e. g. 890, 892 ; 3. Large entries (docu- 
mentary or quasi-documentary) on the foundation, endow- 
ment, privileges, &c., of Peterborough Abbey : e. g. 654* 656, 
675, 686, 777, 852. Some of these are not only in the 
diction but also plainly are conceived in the spirit of a 
much later age than their date purports; as in 675 (p. 38) 
the extravagant pretence that the Abbot of Peterborough was 
to be papal legate for all England. 

In these inserted pieces we find a confirmation of the 
date of E's compilation. A comparison of these with the 
language of the continuation after 1121 places it beyond 
doubt that the work was compiled at the date where the 
first hand stops. At the same time the diction of the in- 
sertions cannot be said to be identical with that after 1 1 2 1 ; 
for the insertions have a slovenliness all their own. I surmise 
that the drawing up of these instruments was committed to 
a separate person, who had perhaps special qualifications in 
that respect, and that the scribe copied his whimsical or- 
thography with scrupulous fidelity, as it was legal documents. 
In the rest of the text, though the orthography is modified, it 
is not brought to a uniformity with the insertions, and we mostly 
find the phraseology of the older books preserved in a mechani- 
cal sort of a way. But now and then an alteration seems to 
be forced upon the compiler, where the old phrase was too 
obsolete to be endured : e. g. in 688, H has and se papa hine 
heht Petrus, B and C only change the archaic spelling of 
heht to het, but E transforms the expression into and he 
him scop Petrum to name. The contents of these insertions 
are worthy of their date. Under the year 656, an exemption 
for the Abbey from episcopal superintendence is pretended 
(p. 31), confirmed by pope Vitalianus (p. 33), and under 675, 
confirmed by pope Agatho, whose bull is recited. This, of 
course, is pure fiction, and a transplantation of the monkish 
ambition of the twelfth century back into the seventh. 



2. Between 892 and 991 is a very meagre century. E. 2. 
Sometimes a few brief annals barely redeem the blank, where 
the older books are richest. Together with some scraps from 
the fuller sources is found also some additional matter, es- 
pecially touching northern affairs ; e. g. 921, 927, 928 (Latin), 
933, 942, 949, 952, 963. A few larger pieces, e. g. The 
Rimes of Edgar 959 and 975, and the Elegy on king Edward 
979, complete this meagre century. Into the midst of these 
is inserted in the diction of 1121, the restoration of Peter- 
borough Abbey under Bp. Athelwold, 963. The fine history 
of Edward the Elder, and his victorious career, is utterly 

3. With 991 (the year marked by the famous name of E.s. 
Brihtno^) begins a series of comparatively unbroken con- 
tinuity, if we overlook the gap at 1026, 1027, an d that at 1035, 
where are faults running through all the Chronicles. But 
here we observe traces of a literary motive which has not 
appeared in the earlier Chronicles. The compiler is not so 
much collecting a history as practising the art of book-making. 
Having a good store of records before him, he culls from 
this source and from that source such items as are interesting 
to himself, or where he has no preference he seems to take 
for each year quantum sufficiet. He had such a Chronicle 
as C, and such a Chronicle as D, for sometimes he is in verbal 
agreement with the one and sometimes with the other. He 
agrees with C in 1042, 1043, copying in the latter year a 
fact of merely local interest at Abingdon. And C appears 
to receive his first attention, the harmony between D and E 
being often through the medium of C. But that D was also 
present appears from such a case as 1020, where E has 
copied from D matter not found in C. In addition to C 
and D, however, our compiler had here the help of a chronicle 
which is otherwise unknown to us. From such a chronicle 
must that clause in 1041 have been copied, where king Ed- 
ward is prayed for in terms which could only proceed from 
a contemporary. Healde }>a hwile \e him God unne : May 
he hold it as long as God permits a formula like God 
save the King. Other independent annals about the same 
date, e.g. 1031, 1032, 1043, argue the presence of such a 
source. The author of this unknown Chronicle must be con- 


sidered as the speaker in the spirited record of 1048, where 
he feels warmly on the subject of the Dover quarrel, and 
is on the side of Godwine. While on the one hand E brings 
in new matter from sources unknown to us, and thus swells 
the total of the historical collection, yet on the other hand 
he appears as an abbreviator or excerptor of history wherever 
we can compare his originals. In fact we have here the 
earliest example of a Flores Historiarum. We see large and 
interesting matters rejected, which we are confident met the 
compiler's eye e.g. the deposition of Stigand, 1042. The 
passages relating to Burh (Peterborough) are original and 
earnest, e.g. 1066, 1069; and especially the account of the 
ravaging of the Abbey by Here ward and his gang in 1070. 
This Section closes perhaps with 1075. 

E. 4. 4. This is a Section of peculiar interest. Passing over 

some annals which are mere collectanea and filling up, we 
enter with 1 083 upon the work of a vigorous and sympathetic 
annalist, somewhat despondent and lugubrious, and prone 
to the gloomy view ; but one whose diction has a certain 
gush, and whose whole work has the unity of a genuine and 
original outpouring. I cannot confidently trace his hand 
beyond the close of 1090. His language is pathetic, some- 
times even passionate. The writer was certainly an old man. 
Frequent are such words as reowlic, 1086; and on p. 220 
it occurs four times. It appears already in 1083. The inter- 
jection Eala too, 1086; and twice on p. 220. This Section 
corresponds partially with that portion of the Chronicles 
"which has been assigned"* to Wulfstan, the famous Bishop 
of Worcester. I so far agree with that view as to feel con- 
fident that the Section is dated from Worcester, but I do 
not believe Wulfstan to have been the author. The way in 
which Wulfstan is mentioned in 1087 (p. 224!) seems pre- 
sumptive against his authorship, while it indicates some one 
who was conversant with him. It says : The revered bishop 
Wulfstan seeing these things was greatly disturbed in his 
mind: for he it was who had the charge of holding the 

* Dean Hook (Arckceological Journal, March 1863) accepts this authorship 
on the representation of the work entitled A Regular Dissection of the Saxon 
Chronicle, 1830. 


The writer uses the first person (plural) several times 
(p. 223 1 ; 1089, 1090), and in one oft-quoted place dwells 
on his qualification to describe the person of the Conqueror, 
so as we apprehended him, who looked on him and formerly 
resided at his court (p. 221 h). 

In accordance with the experience claimed by this author is 
the extension of the horizon of observation which may here 
be noted ; e. g. 1086, he notices Spanish affairs. 

In this Section we first fall in with the modern Definite 
Article the: e.g. to J?e cynerice, 1076; )?e Arceb', 1085 ; )?e 
ofter man )?e b'stol on Lundene, 1086. This feature de- 
manded a passing remark ; but the progress of the language 
as exhibited . in these Chronicles is far too la'rge a matter 
to be entered upon here. 

Neither can we here find room to attempt so intricate and 
vext a subject as the Chronology of the Chronicles ; but we 
may just note in passing that this Section seems to contain 
some indications of the year beginning with Lady Day. 
At this period the year mostly begins at Christmas, and 
C 1053 has been pointed out [in M. H. B. p. 118, note (3)] 
as a late example of beginning on March 25. But here we 
have in 1083 a notice of something that happened "the same 
year after midwinter " and in 1085 the annal begins with the 
Easter Court. Of this Section let it suffice to add that it 
must ever reckon among the loci classici of history, and that 
it must be read in the original to be appreciated. 

5. The Section 1091-1121 (at the close of which the E.5. 
first hand comes to an end) may be distinguished from the 
last by its frequent use of the prepositional phrase Onmang; 
e.g. onmang )?am ; onmang J?isum, p. 227 ; onmang J>ison, 
p. 232. Though differing from the former Section in its 
tokens of authorship, it appears to be indebted to the same 
source, at least in the first half of the Section, and to re- 
present Worcester at second-hand. Through all the modifica- 
tions which it receives in passing through the hand of the 
Peterborough compiler, it still preserves much of the splendid 
Wigornian eloquence which is known to us at first-hand in 
Chronicle D. The compiler of E had before him a Wor- 
cester chronicle which had been carried down to 1107, and 
this was his chief resource while it lasted, though he had 


others by the side of it. By comparing Florence in this part 
we find verbal resemblances, and where these fail, we still 
find identity of sequence in the paragraphs. By such tokens 
it plainly appears, that while Florence and 'E have each in- 
dependent materials, yet that there is still a common element. 
Sometimes an original paragraph was inserted, written at 
Peterborough, and then we have an opportunity of seeing 
the contrast between English of Worcester modified at Peter- 
borough, and the genuine English of Peterborough. The 
readiest illustrations of this are in 1107 and 1114, where 
the paragraphs about Ernulf declare their own origin, and 
exhibit a strong contrast of language. The closing paragraphs 
in 1098 and 1102 are also examples. In the former of these 
two the writer feels for the tilth on marsh lands as became a 
resident in the fens. The same may be said of the notice in 
1099 of damage caused by a high flood-tide. The bulletins 
of seasons, crops, &c., is quite a new feature in this Section, 
coming in as they do with a formal regularity at or towards 
the close of most of the annals. Perhaps a succession of bad 
seasons had compelled attention to the subject. These are 
altogether domestic Peterborough work, on which Worcester 
has no claim they are not in Florence. In 1102 we detect 
an omission by E, where Florence gives a list of the 
Abbots who were deposed, and among them Godric, Abbot 
of Burh. These paragraphs are of nearly the same style as 
the large insertions above noticed concerning the Abbey of 
Peterborough. If not so identical as to indicate the same 
hand, they have enough general likeness to be of the same 
time and place. The annal 1114 helps to confirm the prima 
facie date of the compilation of E down to 1121. It ends 
with an ejaculation for the welfare of Ernulf as living : 
and he died in 1 1 24. In 1 106 there is a complication of dates. 
The account of a strange star appears to have been put on 
record at the time of its appearance, and then in 1122 when 
that memorandum was inserted in the Chronicle, a further 
comment was added : Divers persons said that they in these 
times saw more strange stars, but we ivrote it not more par- 
ticularly (openlicor), because we did not see it ourselves. 

It is a strong feature of this Section, that as a rule each 
annal begins with a notice of the King's Christmas Court, 


those of Easter and Whitsuntide being sometimes added. 
It is worthy of notice that there are three expressions for 
Christmas, and that the preposition which goes with them 
is always " to." Thus : to mide wintra to Cristes maessan 
to Natiuiteft. There is no doubt here at what season the 
year begins. At the same time however that the year 
begins at Christmas, we find (1096) January i, after the old 
Roman Calendar, spoken of as geares dceg, i. e. Year's Day, 
Jour de VAn. None of these Curial Fasti are in Florence. 

6. Comprising 11221131. This is probably the con- E.6. 
tinuation of the Peterborough interpolator or of his col- 
laborateur. At any rate, this appears to be ten years of 
genuine Peterborough chronicling. Here therefore we con- 
sider that E is for the first time standing on its own ground. 
The date 1122 seems to have been recognised at Peterborough 
as the beginning of a new local era. The Ckronicon Petro- 
burgense (printed by the Camden Society, Ed. Stapleton) 
begins at 1122; though the main business of that book, viz. 
the administration of Abbot Robert de London, dates from 


With this Section that provincial diction and orthogra- 
phy which has appeared hitherto only at intervals, becomes 
prevalent. The king's name is generally spelt Heanri ; 
and many other words shew ea contrary to the usual or- 
thography. Examples : weas, wearen, forbearnde, hwear, 
%ear, seagon, Gleastingbyrig, geamene, heafde, beteahte, 
heafdon, 1101. Such forms are rarely found in the earlier 
parts : e. g. streangfte, heafde. Other novelties in spelling 
are Norhtwic, Norhthamtune, burch 1122, Burch 1124. That 
this would have been considered negligent English by many 
even at that time we may see by the hand of a corrector 
that has been at work in one or two places. Thus on p. 252 
he has corrected heftninge to the literary form heftnunge, 
and he has supplied a was, indicating that weas or even 
wees was not according to approved orthography. There 
are in this Section three allusions to portions of the Liturgy 
(1122, 1127, 1131), of which the opening words are cited. 
Notices of the physical condition of the people grow more 
explicit, and towards the close of the Section ejaculations 
thicken. There is every appearance that the writing of these 



annals followed close upon the events. For example, the 
closing words of 1127 indicate that the ejection of Abbot 
Henri, which took place in 1132, was at the date of writing 
yet future. 

E.7. 7. The last Continuation, 1132-1154, is also undoubtedly 

a domestic composition of Peterborough. Written twenty-five 
years later, it measures the decadence of the language at the 
self-same spot, and shews what it had become after transmission 
to a succeeding generation, the latest that ever wrote history 
in Englisc. 

In this Section, among other modernisms, we may note that 
th is common, as a substitute for the old % or the older J?. 
Some letters have changed their forms, especially r, which 
is no longer written p, but with a nearer approach to our 
modern r, and becoming withal so like j% the character used 
in Saxon writing for s, that it misled Gibson to edit rachenteges 
as sachenteges, of which word he notes, Qute sit hujus vocabuli 
significatio videant alii. 

The manuscript of this Chronicle (E) has been described by 
Mr. Hardy as ending in a mutilated state ; and Wanley seems 
to convey the same idea by saying abrupte desinit Codex. 
Certainly the manuscript gives this impression at first sight ; 
indeed it requires a minute and patient examination to dis- 
cover the fact that there is no mutilation. The last page 
appears to have been long exposed to accidents without a 
cover, and it has been so rubbed that its contents are but 
partially and faintly legible. Dr. Ingram went far astray in 
reading it, and his interpretation of the closing annal was 
one of the most fanciful things that the study of these Chroni- 
cles has ever engendered. But it will be seen by the text 
here presented that it has been nearly all made out, and that 
the last clause was a pious commendation of the new Abbot, 
and that it terminates formally with a triangular punctuation. 
The italics are not conjectures, but copied from the MS. with 
much difficulty, and consequently some uncertainty. But I 
believe I have not printed (without brackets) a single letter 
which I have not seen. When in doubt, I tested my reading 
by referring to my ever-ready friend, the Rev. Henry Octavius 
Coxe, now Bodleian Librarian. Those only are conjectures 
which are enclosed in brackets. 


This Chronicle appropriately ends with a local record, as 
with a keynote. The pervading spirit of the work is local, 
as that of the former four is national. The old chronicles are 
made use of chiefly as a setting for the Annals of Peterborough, 
and it is sensibly felt throughout that the reader is rapidly 
approaching the time when their cloister was to be all the 
world to the English monks. Political news is entered merely 
as matter of curiosity, and as a contribution to domestic en- 
tertainment. The generous forward and onward movement 
which enlivens the first group is here replaced by a backward 
and retrospective lingering, animated by no stronger passion 
than the desire to save a few scraps out of the general wreck. 
Both E and F are scrap-books of History, and they belong 
to that class of compositions which attained its full develop- 
ment in the Latin Flores Historiarum. 

Our present manuscript was probably one of the very last 
vernacular histories written in England, and almost certainly 
the last ever compiled in Peterborough Abbey. From this 
time they adopted the Latin, and produced many chronicles 
in that language. The collection in Sparke's folio Historic^ 
Anglicance Scriptores are mostly works of Peterborough ex- 
traction, and give Peterborough a prominent place. Hugo 
Candidus appears to have made use of this Chronicle (E), from 
which he took the past history and rights of the Abbey, 
amplifying it rather in treatment than in substance. In his 
first sentences he declares that he wrote nothing de suo pro- 
prio, but that he had found it all in old Histories. 

The Laud MS. has a considerable number of blunders in 
it which all Editors have uniformly corrected. But over and 
above these there are a certain number of cases in which it 
may be doubtful whether we have an error or a provincial 
peculiarity. My rule has been in doubtful cases to keep to 
the reading of the MS. A very common instance is d for $, 
and reversely. I believe I have retained the reading of the 
MS. in such cases more frequently than any other editor ; 
and if I had the text to print again, with eight years more 
experience, I should probably change still less. 

The two Chronicles which remain to be noticed need not 
occupy us long. They are both of Canterbury, and both of 
minor value, but in other respects very dissimilar. 


A Saxon and Latin Chronicle from the Incarnation to A.D. 1058. 
A bilingual This is one of the Cotton manuscripts in the British Museum; 

Chronicle of . . ... _ . TTT , 

Canterbury. Cott. Domitian A. viii. It is described by Wanley, p. 220 ; 
by Hardy, p. 660. This is the " Cod. Cotton " of Gibson. It 
is in one hand throughout, and that a feeble shambling one, 
not unlike the late interpolator (a) in K . A good place for 
identifying these two litterateurs is 943, where the text of 
F fits in exactly to supply a mutilation in a. It must be 
ascribed to the twelfth century; its abrupt ending at 1058 
aifords no token of date. It marks by its bilingual arrange- 
ment the transition period from the use of the vernacular 
to the use of the Latin in English history. There is no 
external tradition informing us to what home it belonged, 
but the internal evidence assigns it to Christ Church, Canter- 

The matter which is peculiar to it belongs to Kentish eccle- 
siastical history, and the first piece is a narrative of the Council 
of Baccancelde at which Wihtred king of Kent presided, in 
694. In 784 his Latin gives a curious double interpretation 
of the HER with which the Saxon Annals begin : 784 Hie 
tune temporis fuit in Cantia rex Ealhmundus. In 1006, it 
shews a very characterizing lection, prutne here and uneargne, 
where C D E have rancne here and unearhne. This is probably 
the oldest example of the French Prud used in our modern 
sense of Proud : and it seems to imply an advanced decade of 
the twelfth century. Some of the entries are only in Latin. 
One of these is Cnut's grant of the port-dues of Sandwich to 
Christ Church, of which S's account (1031) is mutilated. This 
whole Chronicle bears a literary affinity to 1 1 of 7C, which 
we have traced to the Cathedral Minster at Canterbury, and 
we have yet to notice another book which issued (but earlier 
than F) from the same Scriptorium, 



A Saxon Chronicle from Julius Ccesar to A.D. 1001. 

This is one of the Cotton manuscripts in the British Museum, A Canter- 
marked Otho, B. xi. It is noticed in Wanley, p. 219; and of the win-, 
described by Mr. Hardy, p. 654. This volume was supposed Chronicle. 
to have entirely perished in the fire of 1731 that destroyed 
much of the Cottonian Library then at Westminster. But 
three leaves, including annals from 837 to 871, have been re- 
covered, and a facsimile of one of them is given in the Monu- 
mentaHistoricaBritannica. The handwriting is of the eleventh 
century and is most like that of Chronicle B. It also resem- 
bles that of the manuscript of Beowulf. In matter, it is simply 
a copy (without extra insertions) of I 10 of Chronicle 'K, 
and made probably before ? contained any subsequent addi- 
tions. Happily, this manuscript had been printed by Wheloc, 
whose edition is now our authority for most of this text. No 
other copy could have been spared with less damage, because 
no other had been edited without intermixture of texts. 
Among Usher's Collections in Dublin, there is a transcript by 
Lambard, " apparently," says Mr. Hardy, " of this MS." 

Seeing the close resemblance of this manuscript to R, and 
the fact that its antiquity is not clearly inferior to that of any 
manuscript except S, I was dissatisfied with the notation G, 
and I have sometimes designated it as A, a more modern form 
of $C. The sign G wrongs this copy in point of date in placing 
it at the end of the series while on the other hand it fails to 
represent the fact that it now rests on an Edition and not on 
manuscript authority. The sign A as being a shadow of JC, 
or the sign W, the initial of Wheloc, which Mr. Thorpe has 
adopted, expresses this better. There is this objection to Mr. 
Thorpe's notation, that we lose the means of indicating the 
manuscript independently of the edition. 

This edition is really a servile reproduction of *R, with 
nothing original but its spelling. It seems to have been 
made from 2 in the eleventh century at Christ Church (Can- 
terbury) at the time they received *R from Winchester, and 
before they had made any of the later or Kentish Additions 
to K. Had we not possessed K itself, this copy would have 


been highly esteemed. The following are some of its varia- 
tions in spelling: 

a G(A) 

Creoding. Creoda Cry ding. Cry da 626 

j>eode )>iode 627 

huerf hwerf 633 

Eadwig Eadwic 

cyning cyninc 

ponces Seizes 

belocen haefdon belogene wseron 755 

Beorhtric Byrhtric 784 

Wifer}> WiverJ> 

sige syge 800 

scire scyre 851 

ridon hie )>ider rydon by Syder 

hieran hyran 897 

hierdon hyrdon 

gehierdun gehyrdun 

Sigulf Siwulf 905 

hira 1 ( heora 

hiera I \ hiora 

It prefers the "S to the ]?, the y to the i (also for eo) but 
its chief novelties are in the gutturals : e. g. Wicganbeorche 
851, doctor ( = dohtor) 853. 

One thing that distinctly classes G (A) with the elder group 
7C B C D, and distinguishes it from the younger group E F a, 
is its keeping the old genealogies. 

The handwriting exhibits that peculiar y which is a pro- 
minent feature in the calligraphy of 7C, and which may be 
seen in the facsimiles. See Monumenta Historica Britannica 
for a specimen from the earlier annals, and Mr. Thorpe's edition 
for an extract from the tenth century. 

supposed The known copies of Saxon Chronicles having now been 
otE s Saxon described, it remains to consider what likelihood there is that 
more copies may yet be discovered, or whether there are any 
traces or notices in literature which justify such an expecta- 
tion. For there have been surmisings of the kind in more 
quarters than one. Dr. Ingram supposed that the " Hist. 
Petrob." referred to as the authority of certain collations in D, 
indicated a Chronicle which we do not now possess. But a 


comparison of these readings with the text of E will demon- 
strate that no other book is meant, but E itself, which has so 
just a title to be called a Peterborough History. A more 
promising trace seemed to be indicated in the Monumenta 
Historica Britannica (Pref. p. 77 note), where, as a hint to 
future enquirers, is quoted a note of Dr. Brett's citing Dom 
Ruinart's Life of Pope Urban for the fact that there was in 
his time a manuscript Saxon Chronicle in the Abbey of S. 
Germains des Pres. During the French Revolution, the manu- 
scripts of the Abbey of S. Germains that had not already been 
stolen were removed into the Bibliotheque Imperiale, and my 
valued friend M. le Vicomte de la Villemarque made, at my 
request, the most careful search and enquiry to see if any such 
a Saxon Chronicle could there be found. He identified the 
passage in Dom Ruinart, which is as follows ; " "Nusquam 
legitur quot vel qui episcopi ei [synodo] interfuerint, nisi quod 
in veteri chronico Saxonico quod M s . habemus, dicatur Henri- 
cus in ea Synodo a ducentis fere patribus communione ecclesi- 
astica privatus fuisse." What manner of book was indicated 
by this vague expression, whether vernacular or Latin, insular 
or continental, was uncertain, and the doubt would still have 
existed to tantalize the enquirer, had not my indefatigable 
friend a second time renewed the search, and succeeded in 
identifying the volume in the Manuscript Department of the 
Bibliotheque Imperiale. It is marked S. G. P. [S. Germains 
des Pres] N. 440, and is entitled Chronicon Saxonicon, but 
its second title and that which indicates its real character, is 
Chronicon Magdeburg ense ab anno Dni 741 ad annum 1139. 
It is in Latin, and has been published in the Collections of Dom 
Bouquet and of Pertz. 

We proceed next to trace the course of Saxon history as Gradual 
emanating from these Chronicles, and embodied by the earliest Saxon 
Latin Annalists, and then to observe how it gradually fell into 
neglect, until the Revival of Literature again drew attention 
to the originals, and a reconstruction of our early history has 
been the consequence. 

The Biography of Alfred which is attributed rightly or 
wrongly to Asser, has embodied the whole contents of the 
Chronicle from 851 to 887, with other matter; and it is no 
easy problem to solve in what relation these Latin annals 


stand to our Saxon text. In some parts the Latin is the more 
ample (e. g. 853), and one might incline to think the Saxon 
a vernacular abridgment of the Latin original. Reversely in 
855, the Latin wears the aspect of a translation many re- 
moves apart from the original Saxon, the sense of which is 
at once amplified and corrupted. But the whole question is 
surrounded with difficulties, and it does not appear to me 
to find a solution in Mr. T. Wright's rejection of the authen- 
ticity. No theory of the authorship and date of the work 
has ever been proposed which on the whole meets the facts of 
the case better than that set forth in the book itself, that 
it was written in 893. And I consider the fact of the coinci- 
dence with 3! ending so early as 887, at a place where we 
have independent reasons for declaring a natural break (see 
above, 7C 7) in the Saxon Chronicle, is strongly in favour 
of the truthfulness of the professed date. 

The Latin But the first comprehensive Latin work founded on the 
Etheiweard. Saxon Chronicles is that which bears the magnificent name of 
Patricias Consul Pabius Quaestor Ethelwerdus. 
The best judges'* seem to agree in identifying the chroni- 
cler JEthelweard, with that ' Ealdorman Ethelwerd ' to whom 
JElfric addressed certain of his works, and likewise with 
./EiSelward ealdorman who was sent in 994 to Anlaf at 
Southampton. Possibly he is also the same with the ' ^Ethel- 
werd Dux' who signs charters 976-998. 

J^thelweard's Chronicle closes with the last year of Eadgar's 
reign. That it is in the main a translation of vernacular 
Chronicles cannot be doubted. The close resemblance which 
it bears to some which we now possess, especially (as Mr. 
Stevenson says) to 2C, leaves no room for speculation as to 
whence JSthelweard obtained the main body of his material. 
The only uncertainty in regard to his work is, how much 
of that which is peculiar to his Chronicle was found in the 
Saxon Chronicle which he used in other words, how far we 
may assume the existence at the close of the tenth century 
of a Saxon Chronicle or Chronicles like the Latin Chro- 
nicle of ^Etheiweard. It is quite conceivable that with his 

* So Mr. Hardy and Mr. Riley ; the latter in the Gentleman's Magazine. 
July, 1857 an article to which I am under obligations in this Section. 


noble connections and high public offices he might have 
had access to occasional gleanings of new information, and 
thus he may possibly have been not merely a translator 
the most monstrously absurd of all pedantic translators but 
in some little measure an original chronicler and an enricher 
of the stores of history. Provoking and irritating as this 
writer's manner is, we cannot but prize highly the possession 
of his work. He is the only Latin Chronicler that breaks 
the vast blank from Asser to Florence, a space of two cen- 
turies his faults illustrate while they caricature the culture 
of his time and his mistakes afford the best light to 
shew us what originals he was working from. It is specially 
in this aspect that he claims attention here, and therefore a 
few particulars shall be given of the information which is 
peculiar to him, and also of the passages in which he discovers 
an acquaintance with our Saxon Chronicles. 

Describing the Saxon people somewhat after the manner of 
E 449, he adds : Porro Anglia Vetus sita est inter Saxones 
et Giotos, habens oppidum capitale, quod sermone Saxonico 
Slesuuic nuncupatur, secundum vero Danos, Haitheby. Ideoque 
Britannia nunc Anglia appellatur, assumens nomen victorum. 

500. Sexto etiam anno adventus eorum (i. e. of Cerdic and 
Cynric) occidentalem circumierunt Britannia partem, 
quse nunc Uuest-Sexe nuncupatur. 

519. The battle of Cerdicesford, where Cerdic and Cynric 
conquered the Britains and from which dates the rise 
of the kingdom of Wessex, is described as being " in 
fluvio Avene " which Mr. Riley considers decisive for 
Charford on the Avon, Hants. 

658-661. Here are two errors which might hardly be worthy 
of more notice than that bestowed by the Editors of 
M H B, " Hallucinatus est Ethel werdus;" he was clearly 
half asleep when he translated " set Peonnum," i. e. 
at Pen, into Latin by the words " et Pionna/' thus 
" Cenmeath et Pionna reges, &c.," thus transform- 
ing Pen from a battlefield into a king. The other 
case is also that of mere inattention, where he has 
rendered the two words " gehergeade Wulfhere " as 
if Wulfhere were the object instead of the subject of 



the verb. But we have this interesting result, that 
by finding the cause of his errors in our extant Saxon 
text we obtain a demonstration of the fact that ^Ethel- 
weard was translating Saxon Chronicles, and those so 
far identical with our own. 

710. Here the translator makes the Cornish king Gerent to 
be called " Uuthgirete," because his Saxon said that 
Ine and Nun fought " wr3 Gerent/' i.e. against Gerent; 
he blending the preposition with the name, says, 
"Nunna et Ine reges bellum gesserunt contra Uuth- 

787. The passage about the first arrival of the Danes is quoted 
in the Notes to this date. 

823. Of the slain at Ellendun: "et Hun ibi occiditur dux 
provincia) Sumorsseton ; requiescitque nunc in urbe 

855. After JE]?elwulf s pedigree (in which Ba3ldaBg is called 
Balder), he gives a peculiar legend of Scef: " Ipse 
Scef cum uno dromone advectus est in insula oceani quge 
dicitur Scani, armis circundatus, eratque valde recens 
puer, et ab incolis illius terrae ignotus ; attamen ab eis 
suscipitur, et ut familiarem diligenti animo eum custo- 
dierunt, et post in regem eligunt; de cujus prosapia 
ordinem trahit Athulf rex." 

867. "in eodem anno migravit Eanulf dux provinciaB Sumer- 
setun," .... (and presently his burial) . . . . " ducis 
quippe supradicti in coenobio quod Glastingabyrig nun- 

870. The burial of Edmund king of E. Anglia at Bury St. 

Edmunds : " cujus corpus jacet mausoleatum in loco 
qui Beadoricesuuyrthe nuncupate." 

871. He tells a strange story of .zE]?elwulf aldorman, who fell 

at Reading : " Corpus quippe supradicti ducis abstra- 
hitur furtim, adduciturque in Merciorum provinciam, in 
locum qui North worthige nuncupatur, juxta autem 
Danaam linguam Deoraby." But we cannot credit 
extraordinary tales in a writer who is capable of such 
a blunder as that which follows. 


876. Et in ipsius anni decursu, exercitus qui in Grantanbricge 
fuerat, conjecit statum communem cum oc- 
cidental! exercitu, quod ante non usi sunt, 

juxta oppidum quod Vuerham nuncupatur, depopulata- 
que est ab eis pars major provinciae illius. Quinetiam 
rex pactum cum eis pacis confirmat, simulque pe- 
CUniam dando. Unlike as this is to the present 
Saxon texts, it is plain that JEthelweard had our Saxon 
text before him. The clauses peculiar to him are here 
printed in thick type, and indeed they are most peculiar 
and extraordinary. He makes the army at Cambridge 
to join in common quarters (statum communem) with 
the western army, a thing which has no existence 
at all. Yet this community of encampment and that 
visionary western army are both extracted out of the 
genuine Saxon text. He manifestly understood "be- 
stael" in the sense of "installing; 1 " making the same 
mistake (inversely) as that which has been made about 
the word " staelwyrSe," (p. 94, and see note). Hence 
his " conjecit statum communem !" Then the western 
army " cum occidentali exercitu/' is a substitution 
for the opposite party, viz. the West-Saxon militia, 
" Wessexena fierde ! " After this, we need hardly 
trouble ourselves to search for the original of his next 
special piece of information that Alfred bought and 
paid for the treaty ! A thing so incongruous to the 
whole tenor of events must come through better hands 
than ^Ethelweard's before we need concern ourselves 
about it. 

But the Annalist who was the most vigorous of all the Latin The Latin 

i 11 i i i v j j.i a Chronicle of 

compilers, and who more than any other embodied the oaxon Florence of 

** TV/Yirtka4-*yt* 

Chronicles into his work, was Florence of Worcester. 
He died in 1118, four years before the compilation of E, and 
his last annal is 1117. But the first Continuator who carries 
his Chronicle on to 1141 goes over the ground occupied by 
those subsequent annals which are the special property of E. 
The narrative of Florence may often be identified with the 
Saxon Chronicle, more especially with D (for the early part), 
whose words are sometimes rendered into strange forms of 

i 2 


Florence of Latin, as in io<2 (1051) where the micel unrced of D is 

tlT,. .,.,-.., + ,. ^ \ vy / 

Latinized into magnum insilium. The intimacy between 
Florence and D is another proof of the Worcester nativity 
of the latter. For the period after 1079, where our D ceases, 
Florence must certainly have had by him a continuation of 
that same Chronicle (now lost), which continuation was excerpted 
from by the compiler of E. There seems no other way of ex- 
plaining the result of a comparison between Florence and the 
only Saxon Chronicle (E) which here remains to be compared. 
Florence appears to give the whole Chronicle of which E 
presents selections. Thus the death of Wulfstan, which is 
told in Florence with the utmost pomp, is omitted in E. On 
the other hand the great passage of E (1085 sqq.) which 
has been called " The Annals of Wulfstan " are not found in 
Florence a thing quite unlikely had they really been Wulf- 
stan's. After the date of 1107 the affinity with Florence 
disappears. Subsequent historians followed Florence, and the 
narrative of E from 1107 to 1154 remained unknown to 
history until modern times. 

A good illustration of the wide interval between the early 
Saxon Chronicles and Florence is supplied in 901, the account 
of the death of Alfred. There is in the original all the 
simplicity of a contemporary bulletin, but in Florence is seen 
the magnifying effect of two centuries of posthumous fame. 
It is for the sake of this contrast that the parallel passage 
of Florence is given opposite to 7C 901 (p. 97). 

There is often an amplification of language in the Latin 
annalists which might seem at first sight to point to a fuller 
record than these Saxon originals, when it is really no more 
than a rhetorical expansion. The following parallel furnishes 
only an ordinary example : 

D 827. 

and se Ecghryht laedde fyrde to 
Dore wrS NorShymbre and hi 
him jjaer eadmedo budon and 
gej)wsernysse and hi on ]>am 
to hwurfon. 


Deinde suam movit expediti- 
onem ultra Humbrae flumen ; 
cui Northymbrenses, in loco qui 
Dore vocatur, occurrentes pa- 
cifice, ei concordiam humilem- 
que subjectionem obtulere ; et 
sic ab invicem divisi sunt mag- 
na mentis alacritate. 


There are, however, important additions in Florence, both Florence of 
such as might be expected from his seeing Chronicles lost to 
us, and also observations and reflections such as contemporary 
writers were not in a position to make. Thus in 1007, where 
all the Saxon Chronicles merely notice in the fewest words 
the appointment of Eadric as ealdorman of Mercia, Florence 
draws his character and gives enough of his pedigree to ex- 
hibit the degree of kin in which Earl God wine stood to him. 

Where, however, the Saxon is unintelligible, and we expect 
light from early Latin translators, there it is rare to get 
it. They seem to have felt the same difficulties as we do. 
Thus in the next annal to that last noticed, viz. in 1008, where 
there is much obscurity, we find in Florence nothing but a bald 
verbal translation, and we only learn from it that he had the 
same Saxon before him as we have, and could make no more 
of it than we can. 

Simeon Of Durham need only be noticed here with 
reference to the first of the two Chronicles that go by his 
name. Into this composition the Saxon Chronicles do not 
largely enter but he produces between 735 and 802 materials 
from some Northern chronicles or registers that we have 
no other trace of. 

Henry of Huntingdon was wanting in some of the chief 
qualities which make a historian, but he was richly endowed 
with those of secondary rank. He was a bad chronographer, don - 
and not jealous of inaccuracy ; but he delighted in graphic 
narration and he had a poetical love for antiquity. He was 
an amateur and an antiquarian. To him we owe the earliest 
mention of Stonehenge. He had a great fondness for the 
old Saxon Chronicles, which in his day were already some- 
thing curious and out of date, although his Annals close at the 
same date as E, viz. 1 154. He does not decline to notice the 
old genealogies, leading up to Woden or higher, and which 
the enlightened of his day affected to despise. Nay, it is in 
that twilight of history, where the Saxon Chronicle is of most 
dubious authenticity, that he has poured out the wealth of his 
historical rhetoric, imitated from Orosius and perhaps some 
historians of the classic age. Thus in 508 he has expanded 
two lines into a circumstantial battle-field occupying a consider- 
able paragraph. In 514 we have another example of fictitious 


Henry of ornament, only here he draws not upon his classic studies, but 

don. upon his memories of old native poetry, which are far more 

entertaining. On the whole it may be said that not one of 

the early Chroniclers shews so much of the Englishman, and 

none grounded his work so entirely on Saxon Chronicles. 

He is the only one who has attempted a Latin version of 
the old Saxon ballads. His translation has been quoted on 
page 113 opposite to the oid Song of the Battle of Brunanburh, 
and it may readily be seen how the old poetic Englisc puzzled 
him. He was forty or fifty years junior to Florence, and in 
the twelfth century this interval made a great difference in 
the transition of the language. Florence rendered the short 
annal of 67 1 Hcer wees ]>cet micle fugla wcel thus, Avium 
strages facta est permaxima, but Henry of Huntingdon by 
Maxima pugna volucrum in Anglia : and he goes on to con- 
firm the credibility of such an event by averring that a battle 
of the birds had happened at Rouen in his own day, that 
thousands were slain, and that the foreign birds took to flight. 
It cannot be said that the word wcel excludes this interpreta- 
tion ; it is in fact just as dubious as Florence's Latin strages, 
who seems to have exercised a sort of economy in adopting 
this exact verbal rendering. Roger of Wendover took the 
Battle of the Birds for his Flores Historiarum, using the 
phraseology of Henry of Huntingdon, except that the millia 
occisa became multa millia occisa. 

Henry of Huntingdon has the appearance of special know- 
ledge in two or three places concerning the kingdom of Kent 
at the crisis of its fate, wKen it was about to be merged in the 
growing power of Mercia. Lappenberg gives him credit for 
it (Geschichte, vol. i. p. 233), but on examination it comes to 
nothing in every case but one. That one is considered in my 
note A. D. 785. 

On the year 1006 I cannot forbear to notice a rendering 
which has both surprised and gratified me. I have ventured, 
in a note on this annal, to paraphrase what appeared to me 
to be the feeling conveyed in the words to heora ganvan 
feorme, and which I imagined no one had pointed out. Florence 
neglects it, and I had overlooked Henry of Huntingdon who 
has given it admirably: Quocumque autem pergebant, quce 
parata erant hilariter comedentes, cum discederent in retribu- 


tionem procurations reddebant hospiti ccedem hospitio flam- Henry of 
mam. don< 

In the year 1008 we have a specimen of his antiquarianism, 
in the definition, which he has added, of a c Hide* : Hida 
autem Anglice vocatur terra unlus aratri culturce sufficient 
per annum. 

Again in ion, the Sack of Canterbury, we see that he had 
before him the old Elegy Wees %a rcepling &c. (C D E), which 
we cannot trace in the lamentations of Florence. 

These are the Latin Annalists of the first rank after the Neglect of 

Saxon Lite- 
SaXOn Chronicles, and these became the new medium of the rature. 

old Saxon history. We perceive in reading their pages, and 
in Henry more than any other, that Saxon Literature is 
already a thing of the past. If we had not been able to look 
as it were through their eyes at the Saxon Chronicles, we 
could not have discovered how antiquated they had become in 
the twelfth century. Already in 1154, where Henry and E 
alike end, the country had gone far in that transition which 
made Saxon a dead language. The continuation of E down 
to a date which enables it to close abreast of Henry, is a pecu- 
liarity and must be regarded as a mark of special attachment 
to the old neglected vernacular. In those days of local isola- 
tion there were many places in which a fashion or a sentiment 
might hold out as in a stronghold against a prevalent disposi- 
tion for change. Nor is it perhaps altogether foreign to 
remark, that this specimen of a Saxon Chronicle which over- 
lived its day, comes to us from that part of England which has 
the credit of having stood out longest for Saxon independence. 

William of Malmesbury comes after Henry of Huntingdon, wmiam of 

* ' Malmes- 

not as a matter of dates, but as belonging to a new class of bury, 
writers. He aimed at being a historian of a higher order, at 
grouping his history, and making it more instructive and 
entertaining. To a certain extent he succeeded : but he too 
utterly slighted the office of the chronographer. The further 
history departs in form from the Chronicle, the more necessary 
is it that the historian should be strong in his chronographic 
elements. Malmesbury was not so he sometimes inverts the 
order of events. His main idea was entertainment, and for 
that purpose he embodied materials not only from Chronicles 
and other sources properly historical, but also took the attrac- 


tive stories out of the hagiographies. He does not, like 
Wendover, adopt a title which avowedly sets forth this inten- 
tion ; but history was now moving altogether in the direction 
of Flores Historiarum or Elegant Extracts out of History- 

As Malrnesbury used a variety of sources for English History, 
and as he moreover worked in a good deal of contemporary 
foreign history occasionally, and all this without making his 
work much more bulky than that of Florence it follows mani- 
festly that he had less room to spare for the Saxon Chronicles, 
of which large portions were now dropped out of history, not 
again to be taken up, until modern times. For Malmesbury's 
work carried with it a prestige of finality, and it was long 
before any one reopened the sources from whence he had 
drawn. Thus it came to pass, that with the growing mass 
of ever-accumulating materials of history, the later having 
always preference over the earlier, the Saxon period shrunk 
up into the smallest compass and no one ever attempted to 
reconstruct it. The work of Matthew of Westminster two 
centuries later, was the next history that obtained a wide cir- 
culation but it was, as its title bears, a Flores Historiarum. 
When English history had been for three centuries and more 
in the hands of these Latin historians, and when the mother 
tongue begins again to appear in history, Saxon history 
had almost vanished. What place it held in the view of the 
historians of the fifteenth century we may judge from Cap- 
grave's Chronicle of England. The Provincial of the Austin 
Friars composed this work in his old age for his own particular 
use, as a mnemonic of history. Here is his own account of it : 
Now is age com, and I want ny al that fchuld longe 
to a ftudier ; yet it pleafed me, as for a folace, to gader a 
fchort remembrauns of elde ftories, that whanne I loke upon 
hem, and have a fchort touch of the writing, I can fone 
dilate the circumftaunfes. It is instructive to note how 
little Saxon history was appreciated by this diligent student 
and voluminous writer, one of the most learned men of his 
time. His Chronicle is busied about Popes and Emperors and 
Sarasines, &c., insomuch that his Saxon ancestors never get 
mentioned till 701. Then he produces " the Heptarchy" com- 
plete : And undir this Pope too Kyngis of Ynglond went to 


Rome, and were mad there monkis ; and this was aftir the 
Brutes blood was oute of the lond, for than was the lond 
divided in to vii kyngdammes. 

And ye fchal undirftand that this divifion began in the 
firft coming of Saxones, luhech was in the $ere of oure Lord 
455- And here we will exprefse the vii regiones, who [how] 
thei were departed in this lond. 

The firft kyngdam luas in Kent, where the firft Kyng was 
Hengift, fyc. 

After an interval which fills ten octavo pages we have 
another notice of Saxon history, under 855, as follows : 

In this tyme the Danes aryved into Ynglond, with too 
curfed captaynes, Hingivar and Hubba. Thei diftroyed 
the cuntre, and killid the glorious Kyng Edmund y firft with 
fchot of arowis, and then fmete of his heed. 

The history of King Alfred is disposed of in the following 
lines : 

In this, tyme regned Alured in Ynglond, the fourt son of 
Adehvold. He began to regn in the %ere of our Lord 
DCCCLXXII. This man, be the councelle of Seint Ned, 
mad an open Scole of divers fciens at Oxenford. He had 
many batailes with Danes; and aftir 'many conflicted in 
which he had the wers, at the laft he overcam hem ; and be 
his trety Godrus here Kyng was baptized, and went horn 
with his puple. XXVIII $ere he regned, and deled the 
servaunt of God. 

These illustrations will serve to shew to what a state of 
inanition Saxon history was reduced in the fifteenth century. 
Few only of the historical names are known, and these are 
handled with a strangeness suitable only to phantoms like 
Cophetua, Moelmud, and Pharamund. There is a semi-, 
mythical air over the feeble narrative, which might have 
developed into a downright myth, but for lack of interest. 

The ' Heptarchy' itself is a real myth, a thing which no 
writer could have propagated, but under the favouring shadow 
of general ignorance. In short, Saxon history was lost and 
forgotten. It has been admirably observed by Lappenberg, 
that the splendour of the Norman aristocracy extinguished 
the memory of Saxon times, and that Shakspeare, whose 
genius found materials in all lands, and in all ages of European 



historia quam habet Doctor Wutton Decanus EccVice Chri" 

This Dr. Wotton (Nicholas) was the first Dean of Can- 
terbury, made by Henry VIII in 1541, after the Dissolution. 
He was also made Dean of York (1544), and Prebendary 
of York (1545). He managed to hold both Deaneries under 
Henry, Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth. He was one of Henry 
VIII's executors, of Edward VTs privy-council, Secretary of 
State (1549-50), Ambassador to Naples (1551), one of Queen 
Elizabeth's first privy-council. He died January 26, 1567. 
This distinguished and well-endowed ecclesiastic was a papist, 
and therefore Archbishop Parker can hardly be considered 
as an impartial judge of his character ; but he speaks of 
" Mr. dean Wotton " as having been not over scrupulous about 
appropriating church property*. A fine Italian statue of him 
(kneeling) may be seen in the Cathedral at Canterbury, at the 
N.E. curve of the apse, close to where was once the shrine of 
Becket. He was great-uncle to Isaac Walton's Sir Henry 

Joscelin is called by Strype (P. ii. 251), "John Josselyn, 
an Essex man, the Archbishop^s Secretary." In the same 
page it appears that he wrote himself "Mr. John Goscelin." 
Elsewhere he is spoken of as Sir Thomas Josseline's brother, 
an antiquary in the archbishop's house, who wrote the history 
De Antiquitate Britannicce, Ecclesice^. 

The Chronicle C is called by Joscelin not only " Chronicon 
Abbendoniae," but also " MS. Boyer." This is explained by 
Mr. Hardy as follows : " Before it became the property of 
Sir Robert Cotton it belonged to Bowyer, who was keeper of 
the Records in the Tower." 

With the revival of literature English History came to be 
composed on a larger scale, and the list of books which 
Holinshed prefixes to his History of England is an illustration 
that research was now pushing its way back into antiquity, 
although the necessity of reaching the highest sources was 
not yet perceived. It was reserved for John Milton to lead 
his countrymen back to the originals of their early history, 

* Correspondence of Archbishop Parker (Ed. Parker Society), p. 304. 
t Ibid., Introductory Notice. 


by being the first to publish a history of the Saxon period 
derived from the Saxon Chronicles. In exploring the Saxon 
literature he had the guidance of his friend Junius, the 
famous Anglo-Saxon scholar and editor of Caedmon ; and 
who appears from his collations to have contemplated editing 
the Chronicles. But there was already a published edition, 
and Milton was the first historian that had the benefit of a 
printed Saxon Chronicle. Abraham Wheloc, Professor of 
Arabic at Cambridge, had published it in 1643, under the 
title of Chronologia Anglo- Saxonica, at the end of his edition 
of Beda's Historia Ecclesiastica (folio). He used the manu- 
scripts ??, which he calls the Bennett MS., and A (G), which 
he calls the Cotton MS. It was from this latter that he took 
his text, probably because he found it rather the easier to 
understand. The variations were added from 7?. This edi- 
tion is now all the more prized since its principal has been 
almost consumed by fire, and consequently the print has as- 
sumed the place of an original. The three imperfect leaves 
which have been saved, are evidence of the fidelity of Wheloc's 
edition, and establish his text as a true representative of A (G). 
But his translation exhibits mistakes such as might be ex- 
pected in the first revival of the old Englisc historical litera- 
ture. Thus in 894 (p. 91 of this Ed.) buton swij?e gewaldenum 
dasle (except a very considerable division) is translated "ex- 
cepta valida Wallensium parte," and printed "buton swij?e 
Gewealdenum dsele." In the same annal (p. 93) sio laf 
(the remnant) is made a man's name of : " Turn Laf de East- 
Anglis et JNorthymbris magnum exercitum ante hiemem coegit." 
In 897 it is said that Alfred had long ships built, shapen 
neither on the Frisic nor on the Danish model, but just as 
he himself thought most likely to be useful nawfter ne on 
Fresisc gescaepene, ne on Denisc, &c., which Wheloc renders, 
" neque inter Fresones neque Danos fabricabantur." In 937 
he bespeaks the consideration of the reader : " Idioma hie 
et ad annum 942 et 975 perantiquum et horridum Lectoris 
candorem et diligentiam desiderat." In 962, mancwealm an 
epidemic and maribryne a conflagration, with the aggravatory 
prefix man (Germ, mein as in metnetb), are translated as 
if the first syllable were man = homo ; " Eodemque anno 
permagna erat mortalium lues ; mortaliumque magna Londini 


inflammatio." In 975, ofer ganotes baeft (over the gannet's 
bath, i.e. over the sea) is rendered "per Ganotas diluvium." 
Wheloc did not know of the qualities of this oceanic bird, the 
gannet, which from its great powers of flight can traverse 
vast tracts of sea or land in a short time, and which being 
met with very far from its usual haunts, would readily com- 
mend itself as an emblem of the sea to the seafaring mind 
of our ancestors.* 

Gerard Langbaine (who died Provost of Queen's College in 
1658) had been preparing an edition at Oxford, but when 
Wheloc's appeared he relinquished it. Wheloc's was a tolerable 
performance for his day, but Gibson's Edition in 1692 was 
a great improvement on it. The Title is Chronicon Saxoni- 
cum ex MSS. Codicibus nunc primum integrum edidit ac 
Latinum fecit Edmundus Gibson A. B. e Collegia Reginm. 
It was at the instance of John Mill, the laborious author of 
the Exemplar Millianum, that Gibson was moved to under- 
take this work, and to do his best to produce a complete 
Edition. His friend Mill had urged him, he says : Esse 
nimirum Annales istos augustissimum plane Antiquitatis 
monumentum, ac quale frustra apud gentes vicinas quce- 
siveris ; fontem ipsum e quo hausta sunt et ad quern exigenda, 
quce de rebus istorum temporum tradunt Florentius aliique 
posteriores Historici. Chronicon hoc mirifice prcvdicare, 
ejusque editionem Cantabrigiensi multb auctiorem et quidem 
omnibus numeris suis absolutam flagitare eruditos. Gibson 
was greatly helped by the opportune publication of Hickes's 
Saxon Grammar, which enabled him to gain a firmer hold 
on this ancient language. He had also the great advantage of 
applying to Hickes himself in every difficulty. The conse- 
quence was that his Edition, if not quite as perfect as his 
ambition designed, was a great advance upon Wheloc's, and 
altogether an admirable work. His Latin version is in general 
not only correct but happy. Substantially it has been the 
basis of all later versions, although there are a certain number 
of passages which he did not understand. His text was based 
upon E with modifications from 2, B (through a paper-tran- 

* Observations on Natural History, by the Rev. Leonard Jenyns. Van 
Voorst, 1846, p. 193. 


script in the Bodleian), F and G. He considered it his 
business to construct a text by collation of these authorities, 
just as if he had been editing a Classical Author. He pro- 
duced this edition at the early age of 23, and thus laid 
the solid foundation of that knowledge of English antiquity 
for which his name is still celebrated. In working on the 
Saxon Chronicle he acquired that interest in and admiration 
for Camden's Britannia, which led him next to translate and 
enlarge it. 

From Gibson's Saxon-Latin Edition an English translation was 
made by Miss Gurney, and printed anonymously. When her 
work was far advanced, she learnt that Dr. Ingram's Edition 
was expected, and consequently she desisted from ' the idea 
of publication, and took only a limited impression for circu- 
lation among her friends. To this highly endowed and 
benevolent lady, however, belongs the honour of having first 
printed an English translation of the Saxon Chronicle. It 
was entitled, A Literal Translation of the Saxon Chronicle : 
Norwich, 1819. This is not a mere Englishing of Gibson's 
Latin, but a work which displays knowledge of the original. 
I have referred to it in the Notes on 871 and 896; in the 
latter case as giving the only real translation of the passage 
that has appeared up to the present day. In 905 the passage 
" betwuh dicum and Wusan &c." is thus illustrated with the 
translator's local knowledge of East Anglia : "and he laid 
waste their land between the Dyke (the Devil's Ditch) and 
the Ouse as far northward as the fens." The last clause in 
1003, " ferde j?aer he wiste his y3 hengestas," (went where he 
wist his sea-horses were,) had been given up by Gibson with 
the exclamation, Hujusce clausula quis sit sensus me om- 
nino latet. Miss Gurney translated it partly right, only 
she carried the poetical metaphor too far : " and thither he 
carried the irprovender to his horses of the sea, [his plunder 
to the ships]." In j 137 the word " horderwycan" was given 
up by Gibson : but Miss Gurney rendered it " treasurer's 
house," which, though only partly right, has never been 
bettered by any translator except Mr. Stevenson. 

Dr. Ingrain's Edition appeared in 1823, furnished with a 
variety of apparatus, and an English Translation parallel to 
the Saxon. 


Dr. Ingrain's praise consists in this, that he added to his Edi- 
tion the yet unedited matter of the three important chronicles, 
BCD. In his Preface he spoke of the Saxon Chronicle in the 
following grandiloquent terms : " Philosophically considered, 
this ancient record is the second great phenomenon in the 
history of mankind. For, if we except the sacred annals of the 
Jews, contained in the several books of the Old Testament, 
there is no other work extant, ancient or modern, which ex- 
hibits at one view a regular and chronological panorama of 
a PEOPLE, described in rapid succession by different writers, 
through so many ages, in their own vernacular LANGUAGE." 

This is a passage of which it would be as difficult to 
dispute the sentiment, as to defend the diction. The mean- 
ing is plain, viz. that putting aside the Hebrew annals, there 
is not anywhere known a series of early vernacular history 
comparable with the Saxon Chronicles. This appears to be 
no more than the sober truth, and undeserving of the derision 
which Mr. George P. Marsh, in his Origin and History of 
the English Language (1862), has visited Dr. IngranVs ex- 
pressions with. It is to be regretted that an author who has 
treated the latter part of his subject with knowledge and 
ability, should have thought it necessary to deal with a period 
which he has not studied. He has quoted as " fair specimens'" 
of the Saxon Chronicle the annals 449, 473, 509, 616, 671, 
793 ; and after conferring some faint praise on 755, he sums 
up, " But taking the Chronicle as a whole, I know not where 
else to find a series of annals which is so barren of all human 
interest, and for all purposes of real history so worthless." 
(p. 105.) Mr. Marsh has failed to perceive that there might 
be more in the Saxon Chronicles than met his eye at the first 

In the year 1830 there appeared a volume entitled Ancient 
History, English and French, exemplified in a Regular Dis- 
section of the Saxon Chronicle. In this work a spirited at- 
tempt was made to assign each section of the Chronicles to its 
true author but there was too much arbitrary assertion and 
too little historical argument in this Essay. Had the author 
joined the requisite patience and delay to his talent for insight 
into antiquity, he might have cleared up some of the obscure 
passages of Saxon times. 


In the year 1848 appeared the folio volume entitled Monu- 
menta Historica Britannica, which was intended to be the 
first of a Series of the ancient Historians of this Realm ; 
undertaken in pursuance of an Address presented to the 
Crown by the House of Commons in 1822. That plan has 
not been continued, but an octavo Series has been substituted 
for it. This splendid volume contains the Historians down to 
1066, and among others the Saxon Chronicles, so far as that 
date, where they are broken off. The text is partly on the 
syncretistic and partly on the parallel plan, according to tho 
degrees of harmony or divergence between the MSS. in each 
part. It had been prepared with great diligence and care 
by Mr. Petrie, and was completed and edited by Mr. Duffus 
Hardy. An English translation is given parallel to the 
original. The collection of readings at the foot of the page 
offers to the eye a comprehensive view of the varieties of 
orthography which characterize the several manuscripts. 

In the year 1 853 a Complete Translation of the Chronicles 
was published by the Rev. Joseph Stevenson, Vicar of Leigh- 
ton Buzzard, in a Series entitled Church Historians of Eng- 
land (Seeleys). This Translation consisted of the Version in 
the Monumenta Historica Britannica (which Mr. Stevenson 
adopted by permission) as far as 1066 ; and a new or revised 
Version of his own down to 1 154. On the whole, this appears 
to be the best Translation which has hitherto appeared. 

The Master of the Rolls gave us in 1861, by the editorship 
of Mr. Thorpe, a complete Edition of the six manuscript texts 
in parallel columns. The seventh authority (G) was not 
admitted in the text of Wheloc, but only the small fragments 
of it which are preserved in three imperfect leaves of the 
original manuscript. It may be doubted whether the parallel 
scheme properly admits so much correction as the editor has 
supplied, whether for instance it would not have been more 
true to the plan, if the annals of B had been left undated 
where they have been so left in the original but it would be 
ungracious in the extreme to detract from the value of a book 
which must be allowed to be one of the greatest boons that 
could have been conferred on the Saxon student. 

While critics and translators have been at work on the 
texts, the labour of the historian has been supplied by able 



hands, so that the Saxon period has been at length thoroughly 
restored to modern history. In the Histories of Sharon Turner 
(1799-1805), of Sir Francis Palgrave (1832), of Lappenberg 
(1834), and the various works of the late Mr. Kemble, the 
treasures of Saxon History have been explored and are now 
placed within reach of all. 

The present Edition of the Chronicles presents to the student 
the two texts which are most remarkable in themselves and 
most worthy of being set together in contrast, together with 
characteristic parts of the other texts, so as to supply a com- 
prehensive view of the whole series without the omission of 
any important feature. In the Notes an attempt has been 
made to clear away some of the obscurities which still remain : 
and the Glossarial Index has been made as perfect as possible, 
in order both to open up the text and to take the measure 
of the Saxon historical vocabulary. 

In conclusion, I have to thank many friends who have given 
me occasional help and information in the course of the work 
but in particular I must name two, the late Archdeacon 
Hardwick, Fellow of S. Catharine's Hall, Cambridge, who 
compared my printed text of 7C with the MS., and the Rev. 
F. Harrison, Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, who gave me 
important help at a time when I was disabled by an .accident 
in the eye. 

I have also to acknowledge the kind and hospitable manner 
in which the Master and Fellows of Corpus Christ! College, 
Cambridge, enabled me to collate their valuable manuscript 
(?C), not without trouble and contrivance on their part to 
observe the stringent rules by which their manuscript stores 
are guarded, and at the same time to prevent them from being 
an obstacle' or inconvenience to me. 


Page 16 anno 552 for Seaxo read Searo 
57 line lo/or. ser read set 
106 . . 14 for tit read tin 
138 (F. 1003) for Exonia read Exonia 
194 (C. 1065 line 4) for fo read for 
222- line 1 3 /or Mann read mann 
223 .. 30 for waellan read paellan 
248 .. 2 for ealles read ealle 
252 . . 15 for Wundford read Mundford 






acennesse cccc wintra. and xciiii uuintra. j?a Cerdic 
and Cynric his sunu cuom up set Cerdices oran. 
mid v scipum. and se Cerdic wees Elesing. Elesa 
Esling. Esla Gewising. Giwis Wiging. Wig Freawin- 
ing. Freawine Frijmgaring. Fri]?ugar Bronding. Brond 
Bceldseging. Bceldaeg Wodening. 

Ond |?tes ymb vi gear J?aes ]?e hie up cuomon ge eo- 
don West Seaxna rice and J>set uuseron J?a serestan 
cyningas ]?e West Seaxna lond on Wealum ge eodon 
and he haefde J?set rice xvi gear and J?a he ge for ]?a 
feng his sunu Cynric to j?am rice and heold xvii 
winter, pa he ge for J>afeng Ceol to J?am rice and 
heold vii gear, pa he ge for }?afeng Ceolwulfto his 
bro]?ur and he ricsode xvii gear and hiera cyri g<ej> 
to Cerdice. pa feng Cynegils Ceolwulfes brojmr sunu 
to rice and ricsode xxxi wintra and he on feng serest 
fulwihte Wesseaxna cyninga and ]?a feng Cen walh 
to and heold xxxi wintra and se Cen walh waes 
Cynegilses sunu and J?a heold Seax burg his cuen an 
gear J??et rice sefter him. pa feng ^Escwine to rice 
J?ass cyn gcej? to Cerdice and heold ii gear, pa feng 
Cent wine to Wesseaxna rice Cynegilsirig and ricsode 
vii gear pa feng Cead walla to J?am rice J?ses cyn 
gcej? to Cerdice and heold iii gear. Da feng Ine to 
Seaxna rice ]?ces cyn g<ej? to Ceardice and heold 
xxxvii wintra. pa feng yEj?elheard to J?ses cyn g<ej? 
to Ceardice and heold xiiii winter, pa feng CuJ> red 
to J?aes cyn g<ej? to Cerdice and heold xvii gear, pa 



Brittene igland is ehta hund mila lang. and twa hund brad. 
And her sind on J?is iglande fif ge]?eode. J Englisc. and 
Brittisc. and Wilsc. and Scyttisc. and Pyhtisc. and BocLeden. 
Erest weron bugend J?ises landes Biittes. )?a coman of 2 Arme- 
nia. and gessetan sirSewearde Bryttene aerost. pa gelamp 
hit ^ Pyhtas coman suj?an of Scithian. mid langum scipum 
na manegum. and )?a coman aerost on nor)? Ybernian up. and 
J?aer bsedon Scottas "j? hi fter moston wunian. Ac hi noldan 
heom lyfan. forSan hi cwaedon 3 J?a Scottas. we eow magon 
j?eahhwa$ere raed gelseron. We witan o)?er egland her be 
easton. ]?er ge magon eardian gif ge willaft. and gif hwa eow 
wrSstent. we eow fultumiaft. f ge hit magon gegangan. Da 
ferdon ]>a Pyhtas. and geferdon )?is land norj?an weard. and 
suj?an weard hit hefdon Brittas. swa we ser cwedon. And )?a 
Pyhtas heom absedon wif aet Scottum. on )?a gerad ty hi 
gecuron heora kyne cin aa on ]?a wif healfa. )? hi heoldon 
swa lange syS^an. And f>a gelamp hit imbe geara rina. -p 
Scotta sum dsel ge wat of Ybernian on Brittene. and J?es 
landes sumdsel geeodon. and wes heora heratoga Reoda 
gehaten. from J>am heo sind genemnode DselReodi : 

lisc. BrytWylsc. Scottysc. advecti. 

Pihttisc. and Boclseden. D. This Pre- 3 forSan hi cwsedon >a Scottas.] 

face (which is found in D. E. F.) is Here is an omission, occasioned by the 

gathered from the first two chapters of copier jumping to another cwsedon in 

Beda's Eccl. Hist., of which it is a neat advance of him. MS. D. gives the pas- 

summary ; and, excepting Beda's phy- sage correctly : forbon be hig cwaedon 

sical description, very complete. J>aet hi ne mihton ealle aetgsedere gewu- 

2 Armorica is meant. Beda i. i. de nian \>ter. And J>a cwsedon J>a Scottas. 

tractu Armoricano, ut fertur, Brittaniam We magon eow hwseftere reed geleeron. 

B 2 


feng Sige bryht to J?aes cyn g<e}? to Cerdice and heold 
an gear, pa feng Cynewulf to rice J?ses cyn gee]? to 
Ceardice and heold xxxi wintra. pa feng Beorht ric 
to rice J?ses cyn g<ej> to Cerdice and heold xvi gear. 
pa feng Ecgbryht to J>am rice and heold xxxvii 
wintra. and vii monaj? and J?a feng yEj?elwulf his 
sunu to and heold nigon teo$e healf gear. Se yE]?el- 
wulf wees Ecgbryhting. Ecgbryht Ealh munding. 
Ealhmund Eafing. Eafa Eopping. Eoppa Ingilding. 
Ingild Cenreding. and Ine Cenreding. and Cu]?burg 
Cenreding. and Cuenburg Cenreding. Cenred Ceol- 
walding. Ceolwald CuJ?wulfing. CuJ?wulf Cuf> win- 
ing. CuJ> wine Celming. Celm Cynricing. Cynric 

Ond J>a feng yEf>elbald his sunu to rice and heold 
v gear, pa feng yE}?elbryht his brojmr to and heold v 
gear, pa feng /E}?ered hiera bro]?ur to rice and heold 
v gear, pa feng yElfred hiera broj?ur to rice and )?a 
was agan his ielde xxiii wintra. and ccc and xcvi 
wintra J?ses f>e his cyn aerest Wesseaxna lond on 
Wealum geodon:- 

Cristes geflsescnesse Ix wintra. Gaius lulius se 
Casere aerest Romana Bretenlond gesohte. and Brettas 
mid gefeohte cnysede. and hie ofer swij>de. and swa 
J?eah ne meahte J?ser rice gewinnan : 

1. Octavianus ricsode Ivi wintra. and on J>am 
xlii geare his rices Crist wses acenned. 

2. Da tungelwitgan of east dcele cuomon toj?on 
f>83t hie Crist weorj?edon. Snd J?a cild on Bethlem of 
slaegene wserun for Cristes ehtnesse from Herode. 

3. Her swealt Herodus from him selfum ofsticod. 
and Srchilaus his sunu feng to rice. 


Sixtigum wintrum ser J?am J?e Crist were acenned. Gaius 
Julius Romana Kasere mid hund ehtatigum scipum 4 gesohte 
Brytene. per he wes serost ge swenced mid grimmum ge 
feohte. and micelne deel his heres forlaedde 5 . And j?a he 
forlet his here abidan mid Scottum 6 . and gewat into Gal- 
walum. and )?er ge gadorode six hund scipa. mid )?am he ge 
wat eft in to Brytene. And J>a hi serost to gedore ge raesdon. 
j?a man ofsloh $es Caseres gerefan. se wes Labienus 7 ge 
haten. Da ge namon ]?a Walas. and adrifon sumre ea ford 
ealne mid scearpum pilum 8 greatum innan {?am wetere. sy 
ea hatte Temese. J?a ^ on fundon iSa Romani. j?a noldon hi 
faron ofer j>one 9 ford, pa flugon ]?a Bryt Walas to f>am wudu 
fserstenum 10 . and se Kasere geeode wel manega hehburh mid 
mycelum ge winne. and eft ge wat into Galwalum : 

ANNO 1. Octavianus rixade Ivi wintra. and on j?am xlii 
geare his rices. Crist wses acenned. 

2. Da tungel witegan of east dsele coman to ]?an p hi Crist 
wurSoden. And )?a cild on Bethleem of slagene wseron for 
ehtnesse fram Herode. and he swealt ofsticod fram him 
sylfum. and Archelaus his sune feng to rice. 

4 ceolum D. MS. little or none) hiberniam. Smith's 

5 forlsedde] disperdidit. Beda. This Ed. first restored the true reading, 
word puzzled Bp. Gibson, and he pro- ^ gerefan. se wes Labienus] Labie- 
posed to read forlset (forlet). But nus tribunus occisus est. Beda. It was 
forlsedan is quite appropriate here, as really Q. Laberius Durus. Caesar. B. G. 
Beowulf 4084 (Ed. Th.) will bear out. v. 15. 

The usual meaning of forlsedan is to 8 stsengum D. acutissimis sudibus. 

mislead, lead into mischief; or as Kern- Beda i. 2. 

ble has it, Gl. Beow., * in perniciem 9 >one is demonstrative. They forded 

ducere," which suits this place. at another place. Quod ubi a Roma- 

6 forlet his here abidan mid Scot- nis deprehensum ac vitatum est. Beda 
turn] legiones in hiberna dimisit. Beda. i. 2. 

An odd mistake, but quite explained 10 An error of the scribe for fste- 
by the fact that many copies had num. Cf. mor festenum. 878. D. has 
hibernia or (the difference being in westenum, wastes, wildernesses. 

6 THE PARKER MS. (ff) 

4. From frym)?e middangeardes oj? J?is gear wseron 
agan v J?usendu a wintra and cc wintra. 

1 1. Her onfeng H erodes Antipatres sunn to rice in ludea. and 

12. Philippus and Herodes todceldun Lysiarn and 
ludeam feowricum todceldun. 

16. Her feng Tiberius to rice. 

27. Her onfeng Pilatus to gymenne oner \>a ludeas. 

30. Her waes Crist gefulluhtud. and Petrus and 
TCndreas gehwierfede. and lacobus and loannes and 
Philippus and f>a xii apostolas. 

33. Her wses Crist ahangen from fruman middan- 
geardes ymb v J?usendo wintra. and cc and xxvi 

34. Her wses Paulus gehvvierfed. and scs Stephanus 

35. Her se ead*ga Petrus se b apostol gesset biscep 
setl in 5?ntiochia J>aere ceastre. 

39. Her onfeng Gaius rice. 

45. Her se ead*ga Petrus se apostol gesset biscep 
setl on Rome. 

46. Her Herodes aswalt. sej?e lacobum ofslog ane 
geare ser his agnurn dea]?e. 

47. Her Claudius of>er Romana cyninga Bretene 
lond gesohte and ]?one msestan d<el J?aes ealondes on 
his gewald onfeng. and eac swelce Orcadus j?a ealond 
Romana cynedome under J?eodde. piiwufafeu&tffeafe* 

his t ices, and on \>ys ylcan geare gewearft ne mycela hunger on Siria \>e Lucas reti$ 
on \>are boc Acf Aplor'. 

62. Her lacobus frater Domini J>rowode. 

63. Her Marcus se godspellere for}?ferde. 
69- Her Petrus and Paulus ]?rowodon. 
70. Her Uespassianus onfeng rice. 

a The u has been erased, and so has thority of A. 

the o in Jmsendo, infra 33. These b Both here and in 45 the definite 
vowels have been restored on the au- article has been erased. 


11. Frarn frymSe middan eardes oj? Jns gear waeron aganv 
Jmsend wintra. and cc wiiitra 1 . 

12. Philippus and Herodes todaeldon ludeam. iiii ricu to 

16. Her feng Tiberius to rice. 
26. Her on feng Pilatus gymene ofer fa ludeas. 
30. Her wses Crist gefullod. and Petrus and Andreas ge 
hwyrfede and lacobus and loh's and J?a xii apl's. 

33. Haer wes Crist ahangen. fram fruman middan eardes 
ymb v Jmsend wintra. and cc. and xxvi. 

34. Her wses scs Paulus gehwyrfed and scs Stephanus 

35. Her se eadiga apostol Petrus geset biscopsetl on 
Antiochia ceastre. 

39. Her on feng Gaius to rice. 

45. Her se eadiga Petrus se apostol ge set biscop setl on 

46. Her Erodes swealt se Se lacobum of sloh. anum geare 
ser his agenum deaiSe. 

47. Her Claudius Romana cining gewat mid here on Bry- 
tene. and ty igland geeode. and ealle Pyhtas. and Walas 
under ]?eodde Romana rice. Bis ge feoht he ge fremede ]?am 
feorftan geare his rices, pam geare gewearS se mycla hunger 
on Siria. )?e wes forewitegad on Actib; Aprorum Jmrh Aga- 
bum fone witegan. pa feng Nero to rice sefter Claudie. se set 
nextan forlet Brytene igland for his uncafscipe 2 . 

62. Her lacobus fr Dfii ]?rowade. 

63. Her Marcus se godspellere for$ ferde. 

69. Her Petrus and Paulus ]?rowodon. 

70. Her Vespasianus onfeng rice. 

1 This is the Chronology of Eusebius, 
founded on the numbers in the patri- 
archal genealogies according to the Sep- 
tuagint. For once, the teaching of the 
great master is rejected. Beda preferred 
the authority of the Hebrew text, as 
Jerome had done, but so far from gain- 
ing followers, he was almost called a 
heretic for questioning the established 
opinion. Eusebii Chronicon, (Venetiis 
1 8 1 8,) pp. 66, 149. Browne's Ordo 

Sseclorum, p. 334. 

2 uncafscipe, ignavia, neglect, sloth. 
The simple adjective caf is very rare in 
Anglo-Saxon, and in the other Gothic 
dialects almost if not quite lost. In 
the A. S. poets it is found once, Helen 
56, cafe to cease, alacres ad pugnam, 
where see Grimm's note. Diefenbach 
(Gothisches Worterbuch) would give it 
a distant connection with the widely 
branched root cwic, vivus, quick. 


71. Her Titus Uespassianus sunu in Hierusalem 
ofslog ludea cxi J>usenda. 

81. Her Titus feng to rice se{?e Scede J?set he )?one 
daeg forlure J?e he noht to gode on ne gedyde c . 

83. Her Domitianus Tites bro$ur feng to rice. 

84. Her lohannes se godspellere in Pathma ]?am 
ealonde wrat J>a hoc Spocalipsis. 

99. Her Simon se apostol woes anhangen. and lohannes se godspellere hine 
gereste in Epheso. 

101. Her Clemens papa for\>ferde. 

110. Her Ignatius biscep J?rowude. 

155. Her Marcus Antonius and Aurelius his brti&er fengon to rice. 

167. Her Eleutherius on Rome onfeng biscdom. 
and }?one wuldorfsestlice xii winter geheold. To J?am 
Lucius Bretene kyning sende stafas. bed J?aet he 
waere Cristen ge don. and he J>urh teah d J>aet he b<ed. 

And hi syWSon wunodon on rihton geleauon o^8e Diaclecianes rice. 

189. Her Severus onfeng rice and ricsode xvii win- 
ter. Se Breten lond mid dice be gyrdde 6 from se oj? 

SeC. and \>a ge endode on Euerwic. and Bassianus his sunu feng to rice. 
200. Twahundgaera. 
283. Her \>rowade Scs Albanus mr. 
300. Dra> hund gcera. 
379. Her Gratianus feng to rice. 

c The words of the A. S. Orosius, 3 It is hard to fix the idea of bred, 

but not in the original Latin. It seems to represent Beda's duxit, he 

d By a little scraping and patching led or drew a line of wall. And this 

a has converted the simple prose of 2? agrees with the use of the preterite 

into the more pompous form, and him breid a little later, as in Lajamon. 

weertS tij>od J?eet lie beed. The com- But the context suggests rather the 

pound J>urh.teon looked strange in ancient associations of oferbregdan, 

Norman times, and it may be doubted brsegd, Andrew 1307, 1541, where 

whether it lived beyond the age of Grimm renders superstruxit, induxit, 

JElfred. It occurs twice in the A. S. texit. 

Beda (Ed. Smith), p. 642, 30; 647, 2. There is a third phase of the word, 

(Bosw.) In Orosius vi. i (ad fin.) the brsedan, to open, spread, extend. Thus 

participle "Suruhtogen. of the expansion of birds' pinions, 

e This looks as if culled from the Cod. Ex. 289,13, wineleas guma. gesihiS 

A. S. text of Beda i. 5, where the style him beforan. fealwe wegas. ba>ian brim 

is very majestic. . . . and hit begyrde and fuglas. brsedan fej>ra. The upper work 

gefsestnade mid dice and mid eorj?wealle was a palisade. He spread a bulwark of 

fram see to see fram oj>rum elreordigum open staking on the top. breden weall F. 

fteodum. cf. to breed 979 E. 


71. Her Titus Uespasiauus in Jerusalem of sloh ludea cxi 

81. Her feng Titus to rice, se $e sede ^ he [?one dgeg 
forlure fte he naht to gode on ne dyde. 

84, Her Domitianus Tites broftor feng to rice. 

87. Her lohannes se godspellere in Pathma ]?am iglande 
wrat J?a hoc apocalypsin. 

100. Her Simon se apostol wa3s ahangen. and lohaunes se 
godspellere hine ge reste in Effesia. 

101. Her Clemens papa forSferde. 
110. Her Ignatius biscop iSrowade. 

114. Alexander hie constituit aquam benedictam fieri. 

124. Syxtus papa hie constituit ymnum decantare. Scs. 
Scs. Scs. in officio misse. 

134. Telesphorus papa hie constituit ymnum angelicurn 
cantari GLORIA IN EXCELSIS DEO diebus festis. 

155. Her Marcus Antonius. and Aurelius his broSer fengon 
to rice. 

167. Her Eleutherius on Rome onfeng biscop dom. and j?one 
wur]?lice xv wint geheold. To iSam Lucius Brytwalana cing 
sende men. and bead fulluhtes. and he him sona sende. and 
heo siftftan wunodon on rihtan gelefan. o$$e Dioclitianus rice. 

189. Her Severus feng to rice, and ferde mid here on Bry- 
tene. and mid ge feohte ge code ]?es iglandes mycelne dael and 
J?a ge wrohte he weall mid turfum. and bred* 3 weall fer on 
ufon. fram sse to sse. Britwalum to gebeorge. He rixade. xvii 
gear, and )?a ge endode on Eoferwic. Bassianus his sunu feng 
to rice, ofter his sunu wes gehaten Geza. se for wearS. 

202. Victor papa hie constituit ut Pascha die dominico 
celebretur. sicut predecessor ejus Eleutherius. 

254. Cornelius papa hie de catacumbis levavit per noctem 
corpora apostolorum. and posuit Pauli quidem via Ostensi ubi 
decollatus est. Petri autem juxta locum ubi crucifixus est. 

286. Her j?rowade Scs Albanus mr. 

311. Scs Silvester papa xxiii. Hujus tempore celebratur 
Nicenum ccilium. Arelatense quoque primutn, in quo fuit 
Avitianus Rotomagi archiepc. 

379. Her Gratianus feng to rice. 

379. Hoc tempore celebratur Constantinopolitanum con- 
cilium cl patrum adversus Macedonum et Eunomium sub 



381. Her Maximianus se casere feng to rice, he waes 


on Bretene londe geboren f . and J>oii for in Gallia. And 

he ftar ofsloh ftone casere Gratianum. and his broker adraf of c^Sele. se tcces 
gehaten Ualentinianus. And se Ualenimtanui eft yesamnode wtrod and ofsloh 
Maximum, and feny to rice. On \>a.m timan aras Pelayies yedwyld geond mid- 
dan card. 

409. Her Gotan abrcecon Rome burg, and nsefre 
si]?an Romane ne ricsodon on Bretone. >^ .* embe xi 

hand wintra and x wintra \>&s \>e heo getimbred was. Ealles hi rixodon on 
Brytene feower hiind icintra and hund seouanti wintra. sy&San cerost Gaius 
lull us \>cet lond yesohte. 

418. Her Romane gesomnodon al J?a gold hord J>e 
on Bretene wseron. and sume on eorj>an ahyddon. J?aet 
hie nsenig mon sij?);an findan ne meahte. and sume 
mid him on Gallia Iceddon. 

423. Her f)eodosius se ginyra feng t> rice, 
vel Palricius 

430. Her Palladius se bisc vvses onsended to Scot- 
turn J?set he hiera geleafan trymede. from Ccelestino 
J?am papan. 

443. Her sendon Brytwalas to Rome, and heorn fultomes boedon wi<S Peohtas. 
ac hi \>ar ncefdan nanne. for]>an \>e hi fyrdedon wffi JEtla Huna cyninge. And 
\>a sendon hi to Anglum. and Angel cynnes <&$elingas ^ces ylcan bcedan. 

449. Her Mauricius and Ualentines onfengon rice, 
and ricsodon vii wint. 3!nd on hiera dagum Hengest 

F. 444. Her forfiferde Scs Martinus. 

448. Her Johannes Baptista setywede twam munecon )?a comon 
fram eastdsele to gebiddenne hi on Jerusalem, his heauod. on )>are 
stowe )>e hwilan was Herodes wunung. On )>one ylcan timan Mar- 
tianus and Ualentinianus rixodan. and on )>am timan com Angelcynn 
to 8isum lande. geia^ode fram Wyrtgeorne cinge. him to helpe. his 
fynd to ouercumende. Hi comon to )>is lande mid fcrim langon 
scipan. and heora heretogan wseron Hengest and Horsa. Ealra 
serost hi ^es cinges fynd ofslogon. and aweg driuan. and sv#San hi 
wenden agean J>one cing. and agean }>a Bryttas. and hi fardydon 
jnirh fyr and 'Surh swyrdes egge. 

f Maximus in Britannia imperator the Chronicle, probably. In the fol- 

creatus. Bedai.g. In the A. S. version : lowing clause, lia was erased by a, 

Maximus se casere wses on Breotene and walas written over to make Gal- 

acenned. From the Beda it passed into walas. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 11 

380. Her Maximus feng to rice, he wees on Bryten lande 
geboren. and J?anon he for in Galwalas. and he iSser ofsloh 
J?one kasere Gratianum. and his broker adraf of eftele. se wses 
ge haten Valentinianus. and se Valentinianus eft ge samnode 
weorod and ofsloh Maximum, and feng to rice. On j?am 
tidum aras Pelaies gedwild geond middan geard. 

403. Innocentius papa hie misit decretalem epistolam Vic- 
tricio Rotomagensi archiepo. Hie constituit sabbato jejunare 
quia eo die Dns jacuit in sepulchro. 

409. Her wses tobrocen Romanaburh fram Gotum ymb 
xi hund wintra and x wintra. J?aes J?e heo getimbred wses. 
SrSftan ofer *p ne rixodan leng Romana cinigas on Brytene. 
Ealles hi 3a3r rixodan iiii hund wintra. and hund seofenti win- 
tra. srSftan Gaius lulius f land erost ge sohte. 

418. Her Romane gesamnodan ealle ]?a goldhord $e on 
Brytene waeron. and sume on eoriSan be hyddan. }? heo nan 
man sy&San findon ne mihton. and sume mid heom on Gallia 

423. Her Deodosius se gingra feng to rice. 

425. Hujus temporis setate extitit exordium regum Franco- 
rum : primus Faramundus. 

430. Her Patricius wses asend fram Celestine )?am papan 
to bodianne Scottum fulluht. 

431. Hoc tempore diabolus in Greta Judeis in specie Moysi 
apparens ad terram repromissionis per mare pede sicco per- 
ducere promittit ; sicque plurimis necatis reliqui ad X~i gra- 
tiam convertuntur. 

433. Celestinus papa. Hujus tempore aggregate est Ephe- 
siua synodus ducentorum episcoporum cui profuit Cirillus 
Alexandrinus presul adversus Nestorium Constantinopolita- 
num episcopum. 

439. Leo papa. Hie sancivit Calcedonensem sinodum. 

443. Her sendon Brytwalas ofer see to Rome, and heom 
fultumes bffidon wiiS Peohtas. ac hi ]?ser nefdon nsenne. forjmn 
*Se hi feordodan wr5 ^Etlan Huna cininge. and ]?a sendon hi 
to Anglum. and Angel cynnes geftelingas )?es ilcan bsedon. 

449. Hujus tempore celebratur Calcedonense concilium 
dcxxx episcoporum adversus Euticem abbatem et Diosco- 

C 2 


and Horsa from Wyrtgeorne geleaj>ade Bretta ky- 
ninge gesohton Bretene on j?am staj>e J?e is genemned 
Ypwines fleot. serest Brettum to fultume. ac hie eft on 

hie fllhton. Se cing het hi feohtan agien Pihtas. and hi swa dydan. and 
sige haefdon swa hwar swa hi comon. Hi fta sende to Angle and heton heom sendan 
mare fultum. and heom seggan Brytwalana nahtnesse and $<.> landes cysta. Hy 
\>a sendan heom mare fultum. Da comon \>a men of \>rim megftum Germanie. 
of EaldSeaxum. of Anglum. of lotum. Of lotum comon Cantware and Wiht- 
ware. \>aet ys seo mce&S \>e nu eardaft on Wiht. and \>cet cyn on WentSexum \>e 
man gyt hcet lutnacyn. Of EaldSeaxon comon EastSexa and SuftSexa and 
WestSexan. Of Angle com?n. se a syftftan stod westi betwyx lutum and Seaxum. 
East Engla. MidelAngla. Mearca and ealle JVfrr'S hymbra. 

455. Her Hengest and Horsa fuhton wij? Wyrt 
georne J?am cyninge. in J>aere stowe ]?e is gecueden 
Sgceles J>rep. and his brojmr Horsan man ofslog. and 
aefter ]?am Hengest feng to rice and ^Esc his sunu. 

457- Her Hengest and yEsc fuhton wij? Brettas in 
J?aere stowe J?e is ge cueden Crecgari ford, and j?aer 
ofslogon Tni wera. and f>a Brettas f>a forleton Cent 
lond. and rnid micle ege flugon to Lunden byrg. 


465. Her Hengest and ./Esc gefuhton uui)? Walas 
neah Wippedes tfeote and J?aer xii Wilisce aldor menn 
ofslogon and hiera j?egn an J?aer wear}? ofslsegen. J?am 
wees noma Wipped. 

473. Her Hengest and ^Esc gefuhton wij? Walas. 
and genamon un arimedlico here reaf. and ]?a Walas 
flugon )?a Englan swa fyr h . 

477. Her cuom ^Elle on Breton lond and his iii 
suna. Cymen and Wlencing and Cissa. mid iii scipurn 
on f>a stowe )?e is nemned Cymenes ora. and J?aer 
ofslogon monige Wealas. and sume onfleame bedrifon 
on J?one wudu )?e is genemned Sndredes leage. 

F. 482. Her se eadiga abbod Benedictus Jwrli wuldor }>ara mihta 
J>isum middan earde scan, eal swa se eadiga Gregorius rect) on Dia- 
logorum J>are boc. 

* 101 = 4000. feower werod F. feower weras A. cf. Ingrain's note. 
h swa man flicth fyr F. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 13 

rum. Her Martianus and Valentinus onfengon rice, and 
rixadon vii wint. and on ]?eora dagum gelaftode Wyrtgeorn 
Angel cin hider. and hi ]?a coman on J>rim ceolum hider to 
Brytene. on )?am stede Heopwines fleot. Se cyning Wyrt 
georn gef heom land on suiSan eastan ftissum lande. wiSiSan 
J?e hi sceoldon feohton wi'S Pyhtas. Heo ]?a fuhton wr& 
Pyhtas. and heofdon sige swa hwer swa heo comon. Hy iSa 
sendon to Angle heton sendon mara fultum. and heton heom 
secgan Brytwalana nahtscipe. and ]?es landes cysta. Hy iSa 
sona sendon hider mare weored )?am oftrum to fultume. Da 
comon )?a men of J?riin megiSum Germanic. Of Aid Seaxum. 
of Anglum. of lotum. Of lotum comon Cantwara. and Wiht- 
wara. )? is seo megiS )?e nu earda]? on Wiht. and fy cyn on 
WestSexum )?e man nu git hset lutna cynn. Of Eald Seaxum 
coman East Seaxa. and Suft Sexa. and West Sexa. Of Angle 
comon se syftSan stod westig. betwix hitum and Seaxum. 
EastAngla. MiddelAngla. Mearca. and ealla Nor)>hymbra, 
Heora heretogan wseron twegen gebroiSra. Heugest. and 
Horsa. ^ waeron Wihtgilses suna. Wihtgils wa3s Witting. 
Witta Wecting. Wecta Wodning. fram ]?an Wodne awoc call 
ure cyne cynn. and Suftan hymbra eac. 

455. Her Hengest and Horsa fuhton wii5 Wyrtgerne |?am 
cininge on ]?a3re stowe )?e is cweden ./Egeles ]?rep. and his 
bro^or Horsan man of sloh. and sefter ]?onn feng to rice Hen- 
gest. and jEsc his sunu. 

456. Her Hengest and JEsc gefuhton wi^5 Bryttas on ]?ere 
stow J?e is ge cweden Crecgan ford, and J>er ofslogon iiii 
werad. and ]?a Bryttas forleton )?a Kentland. and mid myc- 
clum ege flugon to Lunden byrig. 

465. Her Hengest and ^Esc gefuhton wr3 Walas neh Wip- 
pedesfleote. and ^ser of slogon xii Wilsce ealdormen. and 
heora an J?egn weariS J?aer of slegen. J?am wses nama Wipped. 

473. Her Hengest and ^Esc ge fuhton wift Walas. and ge- 
namon unarimenlicu here reaf. and J?a Walas flugon )?a Englan 
swrSe Dearie. 

477. Her com JEile on Brytenland. and his iii suna. 
Cymen. and Wlencing. and Cissa. mid iii scipum on fta stowe 
J>e is genemnad Cymenesora. and J?aer ofslogon manige 
Walas. and sume on fleame be drifon. on ]?one wudu )?e is 
nemned Andredes lege. 


485. Her yElle gefeaht wij? Walas neah Mearc 
r<edes burnan stcefte. 

488. Her vEsc feng to rice, and was xxiii wintra 
Cantwara cyning. 

491. Her yElle and Cissa ymb saeton Sndredes 
cester and ofslogon alle J?aJ>e ]?ser inne eardedon. ne 
wear]? ]?ser forjxm an Bret to lafe. 

495. Her cuomon twegen aldor men on Bretene. 
Cerdic and Cynric his sunu. mid v scipum. in J?one 
stede J>e is gecueden Cerdices ora. and J?y ilcan daege 
gefuhtun wij? Walum. 

501. Her cuomi Port on Bretene. and his ii suna 
Bieda and Maegla. mid ii scipum. on j?aere stowe Ipe 
is gecueden Fortes mu]?a. and ofslogon anne giongne 
Brettisc monnan. swi]?e cj?elne monnan. 

508. Her Cerdic and Cynric ofslogon senne Brettisc 
cyning. J?am was nama Natan leod. and v Jmsendu 

\>an wear^S 

wera mid him. ^Efter was J>83t lond / nemned Neatan 
leaga oj> Cerdices ford. 

514. Her cuomon WestSeaxe in Bretene mid iii 
scipum. in ]?a stowe J?e is gecueden Cerdices ora. and 
Stuf and Wihtgar. and fuhtun wij? Brettas and hie 


519. Her Cerdic and Cynric y rice on fengun. and 
J?y ilcan geare hie fuhton wif> Brettas )?83r mon nu 

nemnej) Cerdices ford. And oiftan ricsadan West Sexana cynebearn 
of \>an daege. 

527- Her Cerdic and Cynric fuhton wij> Brettas. in 
J?sere stowe f>e is gecueden Cerdices leaga. 

530. Her Cerdic and Cynric genamon Wihte ea- 
lond. and ofslogon feala men on Wiht gara3sbyrg. 

534. Her Cerdic for]?ferde. and Cynric his sunu 
ricsode for)? xxvi wintra. and hie saldon hiera tusem 

call wiht ealand 

nefurn Stufe and Wihtgare Wiehte ealond. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 15 

485. Her Mile gefeaht wiiS Walas neh Mearcredes burnan 

488. Her ^Esc feng to rice, and wses xxxiiii wintra cining. 

490. Hoc tempore beatus Mamertus,, episcopus Vienneusis, 
solennes letanias instituit rogationum. 

491. Her ^Ella and Cissa ymbsseton Andredes ceaster. and 
ofslogon ealle J?ai$e |?serinne eardedon. ne weariS J?3er for]?en 
an Brit to lafe. 

495. Her coman twegen ealdormen on Brytene. Gertie 
and Cynric his sunu raid v scipum on J?one stede. ]?e is ge 
haten Certicesora. and on j?am ilcan daege gefuhton wr3 

501. Her com Port on Brytene. and his twegan sunan. 
Bieda and Ma3gla. mid ii scipum in J>sere stowe j?e is gecwe- 
den Portes mirSa. and sona land namon. and ofslogon senne 
gungne Brytiscne man. swrSe seftelne. 

508. Her Gertie and Cinric ofslogon senne Bryttiscne 
cining. ]?am wses nama Nazaleod. and v )?usend wera mid him. 
and sefter }>an w0es ty land genemnad Nazanleog. a 0)7 Certices 

514. Her com West Seaxa in Brytene mid ]?rim scipum in 
)?a stowe $e is ge cweden Certices ora. and Stuf and Wihtgar 
fuhton wr3 Bryttas. and hi geflemdon. 

519. Her Gertie and Kynric onfengon West Seaxna rice. 
and ]?i ilcan geare hi gefuhton wr3 Bryttas. iSer man nu 
nemnaft Certices ford, and sr&San rixadon West Seaxna cyne- 
barn of ]?am dsege. 

527. Her Gertie and Kynric ge fuhton wr3 Brittas. on J?aere 
stowa fte is gecweden Gertices ford. 

528. Hoc tempore Dionisius in urbe R. circulum paschalem 
composuit. Turic Priscianus profunda grammatica rimatus est. 

530. Her Gertie and Cynric genaman Wihtland. and of 
slogon feala manna, on Wihtgaras birig. 

534. Her Gertie forj>ferde. and Cynric his sunu rixade 
for]? xxvi wintra. and heo sealdon heora twam nefum Stufe 
and Wihtgare eall Wihtland. 

F. 509. Her scs Benedictus se abbad ealra muneca feeder ferde to 

1 The u incuom erased here and in 477, 514. 

16 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

538. Her sunne aj?iestrode xiiii dagum aer Kl'. Mart 
from sermergenne o]? undern. 

540. Her sunne a)?iestrode on xii KF. lulii. and 
steorran hie setiewdon ful neah healfe tid ofer undern. 

544. Her Uuihtgar forj?ferde. and hiene mon be- 
by rgde on Wihtgara byrg. 

547. Her Ida feng to rice. J?onon Norman hyrnbra 

and risode t>relf gear, and he timhrode Bebbanburh. 

cynecyn on woe. k lda wees Eopping. Eoppa Esing. Esa 

seo was cerost mid heg/je be tyned. nnd \>aer aefttr mid wealle. 

waes Inguing. Ingui TCngen witting. Sngenwit Slocing. 
Sloe Benocing. Benoc Branding. Brand Baeldaeging. 
Baeldaeg Wodening. Woden Freo'&olafing. Freoftelaf 
Freo'Sewulfing. Fri^ulf Finning. Finn Godulfing. Go- 
dulf Geating. 

552. Her Cynric gefeaht wij? Brettas in f?aere stowe 
J?e is genenmed J 8et Seaxobyrg. and j?a BretWalas ge- 
fiiemde. Cerdic wses Cynrices feeder. Cerdic Elesing. 
Elesa Esling. Esla Giwising. Giwis Wiging. Wig Frea- 
wining. Freawine Freo8ogaring. Freo'Sogar Branding. 
Brand Bseldseging. Bseldseg Wodening. 

556. Her Cynric and Ceawlin fuhton vvi}? Brettas 
set Beran byrg. 

560. Her Ceawlin feng to rice on Wes seaxum. and 

Idan furfSyefarenitm. and 

yElle feng to NorJ?anhymbra rice. ^Elle waes Yffing. 

heora ceyfter rixade xxac wintra. 

YfFe Uxfreaing. Uxfrea Wilgilsing. Wilgils Wester- 
falcning. Westcrfalcna Saefugling. Seefugl Ssebalding. 
Ssebald Sigegeating. Sigegeat Swebdseging. Swebdaeg 
Sigegaring. Sigegar Wsegdseging. Waegdaeg Wodening. 
Woden Fri'Sowulfing. 

Her feng JEfcelbriht to Cantwara rice, and heold liii wintra. On his 

565. Her Columba msesse preost com of Scottum 

dagum sende Gregorius us fullitht. And Co/umba rnae^e preoat com to Pyhtum. 

in Bryttas. Peohtas to laeranne. and hi in Hii )?am 

and hi pecyrde to Cristes geleauan. }paet aynd \>onne warteras be norftum morum. 

ealonde mynster worhte. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 17 

538. Her sunne aftestrode. on xiiii kP. Mr', from sermor- 
gene 4 o]? underne. 

540. Her sunne afteostrode on xii kP. Julii. and steorran 
heo eetewdon ful neh healfe tid ofer under 5 . 

544. Her Wihtgar forSferde. and nine mon be byrigde on 
Wihtgaras byrig. 

547. Her Ida feng to rice fanon NorShymbra cynekyn 
serost awoc. and rixade xii gear, and he getimbrade Bebban 
burh. sy waes serost mid hegge be tined. and j?ser sefter mid 

552. Her Kynric feaht wr3 Bryttas on J?aere stowe fe is ge 
nemned Searo byrig 6 . and j?a Bryttas geflemde. 

556. Her Kynric and Ceawling fuhton wiiS Bryttas aet 
Beran byrig. 

560. Her Ceawling rice onfeng on Weast Seaxum. and 
^Elle feng to NorShymbra rice. Idan forSgefarenum. and hyra 
segfter rixade xxx wintra. 

565. Her feng ^Ei5elbriht to Cantwara rice, and heold liii 
wintra. On his dagum sende Gregorius us fulluht. and 
Columba messapreost com to Pyhtum. and hi gecyrde to 
Cristes geleafan. -j? sind J>one wserteres? be norSuni morum. 

F. 552. . And Egelberht wearS geboren Eormenraces 

sunu. and [on bam] tigo^an geare his rices he underfeng fulwiht 

serost cinga on Brytene. 

4 seran morgene F. this chain of relations stretches from 

5 Tn the Chronological Table of weorftan at one end, to wyrre 
Eclipses, vol. i. of " IS Art de Verifier (guerre, war) at the other, the ques- 
les Dates," a Total Eclipse is registered tion is, where our word joints in ? 
A. D. 538, Feb. 15, at 8^ A. M. ; and a Very likely it combines the two ideas, 
Total Eclipse A. D. 540, June 20, at 9^ i. inhabitants, 2. possessors, guardians, 
A. M. The dates in the text answer to sentinels, warders. Graff has wartari, 
Feb. 16 and June 20. Where records custos, speculator, from warten = wear- 
tally so nearly with scientific calcula- dian. Yet the data equally suit the 
tions, one discrepancy may well pass sense of shepherds, keepers of cattle . 
for an error. cf. Graff, v. Fihuwart. 

6 geclyped Sselesberic F. k This genealogy is (imperfectly) 

7 wearteresF. Not found elsewhere. erased by a, in order to make room 
Prob. akin to weard in i. andweard, for matter more interesting to himself, 
toweard, for weard, ham weard His substituted text is here given in 
( ward = versus); 2. yrfe weard, Bad interlined Italics. The same has been 
weard (ward = guard = custos), verb the case with the genealogical part of 
weardian; and so to ware, warian, 560, 626: cf. 565, 603, 604. 
warenian (beware), werian : but as ! eet has been erased. 


18 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

and heora cyng him geaealde \>cst iyland ]>e man li nemnaft. \>ar syndon jif hida. 
\>CBS \>e man segg'aft. Dar se Columban getimbrade mynater. and he \>ar was 
abb" 1 , xxxii wintra. and ]>ar for&ferde. \>a he was Ixxvii wintra. Da stowe habbaft 
gyt his yrfnuman. Su$ Pihtas war on cer ypfullode of Ninna biscope. se was on 
Rome gelaered. his mynster ys H wit erne on S. Marlines naman gehnlyod. \>ar 
he rested mid manegum halyum. Nu sceal beon cefre on H abbod. and na biscop. 
and \>an sculon beon under fteodde ealle Scotta biscopas. for \>an \>e Columban was 
abbod. na biscop. 

568. Her Ceaulin and CuJ?a. gefuhton wty yE]?el- 
bryht. and hine in Cent gefliemdon. and tuegen aldor 
men on Wibban dune ofslogon. Oslaf and Cnebban. 

571. Her Cuj? wulf feaht wij? Bretwalas set Bedcan 
forda. and iiii tunas genom. Lygeanburg. and ^Egeles 
burg. Baenesingtun. and Egones ham. and J>y ilcan 
geare he gefbr)>/mfe m . 

577. Her CuJ? wine and Ceawlin f uhton wij? Bret- 
tas. and hie iii kyningas ofslogon. Commail and Con- 


didan and Farinmail. in )?aere stowe ]?e is gecueden 
Deorham. and genamon iii ceastra Gleawan ceaster 
and Cirenceaster and BaJ?an ceaster. 

583. Her Mauritius feng to Romana rice. 

584. Her Ceawlin and CuJ>a fuhton wi]? Brettas. in 
)?am stede ]?e mon nernnef) Fefan leag. and Cu]?an 
mon ofslog. and Ceawlin monige tunas genom. and 
unarimedlice here reaf. and ierre he hwearf Jxman to 
his agnum. 

588. Her yElle cyning for]? ferde. and /Ej?elric ric- 
sode sefter him v gear. 

ric i 

590. Her Ceol t ricsode v gear. 

591. Her micel wtelfill waes set Woddes beorge. 

and Ceawlin WSeS Ut adHfen. and Gregorius feng to papdome 
on Rome. 

593. Her Ceawlin and Cuichelm and Crida for- 
wurdon. and yEj?elfri|? feng to rice on Norfhymbrum. 

m The old fashioned strong form gefor burg, the u has heen made into an i. 
was to be converted by a into the later 8 Cf. Beda ii. i. Gregorii Op. (Ed. 

expression for>ferde, but the operation Bened.), vol. iii. pp. 3, 285. Palmer's 

was left incomplete. Above, in Lygean- Origines Liturgicse, cap. i. 6. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 19 

and heora cyning him ge sealde ^ egland }>e man nemnad li. 
)?8er sindon v hida. Sses ]?e men cwe$a]?. paer se Columba ge 
tymbrade mynster. and $ser he waes abbot xxxii wintra. and 
J>aer forSferde $a $a he waes Ixxvii wintra. Da stowe habbaft 
nugit his erfewaerdes. SuSPyhtas wseron mycle aer geful- 
lode. Heom bodade fulwiht Nimia biscop. se wses on Rome 
gelaered. j?aes cyrice and his mynster is set Hwiterne. on 
Martines naman gehalgod. J?a?r he restaS mid manegum 
halgum waerum. Nu sceal beon sefre on li abbod naes 
bisceop. and )?am sculon under J?sedde ealle Scotta biscopes. 
forj?am $e Columba waes abbod. nes bisceop. 

568. Her Ceawlin and Cuj?a ge fuhton wr3 J^Selbriht. and 
hine on Cent ge flemdon. and ii aeldor men on Wibban duna 
of slogon. Oslac and Cnebban. 

571. Her Cufa gefeaht wi$ Bryt walas. a3t Biedcanforda. 
and feower tunas ge nam. Lygeanbyrig. and JEglesbyrig. and 
Benesingtuu. and Egonesham. and on J?ani ilcan geare he 
for]?for. se Cu]?a waes Ceawlines bro^or. 

577. Her CrSwine and Ceawlin ge fuhton wr3 Bryttas. and 
hi iii ciningas of slogon. Commagil. and Candidan. and Farin- 
magil. in J^sere stowe ]?e is ge cweden Deorham. and ge namon 
iii ceastra. Gleawcestre. and Cirenceaster. and Ba]?an ceaster. 

583. Her Mauricius feng to Romana rice. 

584. Her Ceawlin and CuJ?a ge fuhton wr3 $a Bryttas on 
)?am stede 'Se man nemna)? Fe)?anlea. and Cu)?an man of 
sloh. and Ceawlin maniga tunas genam. and unarimedlice 
here reaf . 

588. Her ^Elle cining forSferde. and ^E^elric rixade sefter 
him fif gear. 

591. Her Ceolric rixade vi gear. Gregorius papa. Hie 
augmentavit in predicatione canonem, " Diesque nostros in 
tua pace disponas 8 ." 

592. Her Gregorius feng to pap dome on Rome, and mycel 
wsel gewearS on Brytene ]?es geares aet Wodnes beorge. and 
Ceawlin waes ut adrifen. 

593. Her Ceawlin and Cwichelm and Crida forwurdon. and 
YEiSelferS feng to rice on NorShymbrum. se wses J^Selricing. 


D 2 

20 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

596. Her Gregorius papa sende to Brytene, Augustinum. mid wel manegum 
munecum. \>e Codes word Engla fteoda godspelledon. 

597- Her ongon Ceolwulf ricsian on West seaxum. 
and simle he feaht and won. oj?]?e wij? ^ngelcyn. oJ>J>e 
uuif> Wai as. o]?J?e wij? Peohtas. oJ?J>e wij? Scottas. Se 
wees CuJ?aing. CuJ?a Cynricing. Cynric Cerdicing. 
Cerdic Elesing. Elesa Esling. Esla Gewising. Gewis 
Wiging. Wig Freawining. Freawine FriSugaring. Fri- 
ftugar Bronding.Brond Btfildseging.BteldsegWodening. 

601. Her sende Gregorius papa Sugustino serce 
biscepe pallium in Bretene and wel monige godcunde 
lareowas him to fultome and Paulinus bisc gehwerfde 
Edwine Nor$hymbra cyning to fulwihte. 

Her JEuf&an Scotta cyng feaht wffi Dcelreoda. and wffi JEelfer\>e 

605. Her wses gefeoht set JEgesan stane. 

Nor\>hymra cynge cet Dceystune. and man ofsloh meest ealne his here. 

Her Augustinus gehalgode ii biscopas. Mellitum and Justum. Mel- 

604. Her EastSeaxe onfengon geleafan and ful- 

litum he sende to bodiende East Seaxum fulluht. "Sar was se cing gehaten Scebyrht. 

wihtes b8e$. under Ssebrihte cinge and Mellite bis- 

Ricolan sunu. JEfcelberhtes swyster. \>one JE&elbyrht gesette to cynge. And JEftel- 


byrht gesealde Mellite biscop setl on Lundewic. and lusto on Hrouesceyastre. seo 
is xxiiii mila from Dorwit ceastre. 

606. Her forSferde Gregorius ymb x gear J?aes)?e he 
us fulwiht sende. 

607. Her Ceolwulf gefeaht wi$ Su^Seaxe. And her 

JEftelfrffi laedde his fcerde to Leger cyestre. and ftar ofsloh unrim Walena. and 
swa wearft gefyld Augustinus witegunge. \>e he cwaft. Gif Wealas nellaft sibbe 
wti$ us, hi sculan aet Seaxana handa far wur\>an. par man sloh eac cc preosta. 
"Sa comon %yder \>at hi scoldon gebiddan for Walena here. Scrocmail was ge haten 
heora ealdormann. se atbcerst ftanon fiftiga sum. 

611. Her Cynegils feng to rice on Wesseaxum. and 
heold xxxi wintra. Se Cynegils wses Ceoling. Ceola 
Cubing. Cu'Sa Cynricing. 

614. Her Cynegils and Cuichelm gefuhton on Bean 
dune, and ofslogon ii f>usendo Wala and Ixv. 

616. Her yE)?elbryht Contwara cyning forj?ferde 
and Ead bald his sunu feng to rice. Se for let hisfuiiuht. and 

leouode on haf&enum \>eawe. swa "t* he hcefde his feeder laue to wiue. pa mynte 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 21 

596. Hoc tempore monasterium sancti Benedict! a Longo- 
bardis destructum est. Her Gregorius papa sende to Brytene 
Augustinum mid wel manengum munucum. )?e godes word 
Engla j?eoda godspellodon. 

597. Her ongan Ceolwulf rixian on Weast Seaxum. and 
symble he feaht and wan. oft*e wr3 Angel cynn. o]?]?e wr3 
Walas o$$c wr8 Pyhtas o$$e wi$ Scottas. 

601. Her sende Gregorius papa Augustine arcebiscope pal- 
lium on Brytene. and wel manega godcunde larewas him to 
fultume. and Paulinus biscop gehwirfede Eadwine NorS- 
hymbra cining to fulluhte. 

603. Her ^Eg^an Scotta cining feaht wiiS Deolreda. and wi$ 
-^Ei$elfer]?e NoriShymbra kining set Dsegsan stane. and man 
ofsloh msest seine his here. j?ser man of sloh Theodbald J3el- 
ferSes broker, mid eallan his weorode. Ne dorste sii^an 
nan Scotta cininga Isedan here on ]?as ]?eoda. Bering Hussan 
sunu Isedde )?one here iSider. 

604. Her Augustinus gehalgode ii biscopas. Mellitum 
and Justum. Mellitum he sende to bodianne East Seaxum 
fulluht. j?ser wes se cing gehaten Sseberht. Bicolan sunu 
J^Selberhtes suster. ]?one J^Selberht ge sette j?ser to cininga. 
and JEftelberht gesealde Mellite biscop setle on Lundenwic. 
And Justo he sealde Hrofes ceaster. seo is xxiiii mila fram 
Dorwit ceastre. 

605. Her forSferde Gregorius papa. And her ^E^elfriiS 
Isedde his ferde to Lega ceastre. and fser ofsloh unrim 
Walana. and swa wear)? gefild Augustinus witegunge ]?e he 
cwaiS. gif Wealas nellaj? sibbe wi^ us. hy sculon aet Seaxena 
handa forwur]?an. pser man sloh eac cc preosta ]?a comon 
iSider ^ heo scoldan gebiddan for Walana here. Scromail waes 
gehaten hyra ealdor. se setbserst ftanon fiftiga sum. 

607. Her Ceolwulf ge faht wi3 Su^ Seaxum. 

611. Her Kynegils feng to rice, on Weast Seaxum. and 
heold xxxi wintra. 

614. Her Kynegils and Cwichelm ge fuhton on Beandune. 
and of slogon ii fmsend Walana. and Ixv. 

616. Her forSferde Jtyelberht Cant ware cining. se rixade 
Ivi wintra. and sefter him feng Eadbold to rice his sunu. se 
forlet his fulluht. and lifode on heftemini J>eawe. swa ty he 
heafde his feder lafe to wife. Da mynte Laurentius )?e $a 

22 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

Laurentius fte \>a was erceV on Cent, p he wolde si& ofer SOB. and eall forlceton. 
ac him com to on niht se apf Petrus. and hine hetelice swang. forftan fte he wolde 
Codes hyrde forlceton. and het hine gan to ]>am cynge. and bodian him rihtne 
ge leafan. And he swa dyde. and se cing ge cyrde to rihtan ge leauan. On tyses 
tinges dagum Laurentius erceV se woes on Cent eefter Agustine. foi]>ferde. iiii 
N. Feb\ and he was be byred be Agustine. eefter him feng Mellitus to arceb'' 
dome, se was biscop of Lund*, and \>as binnan fif wintre Mellitus forftferde. pa 
eefter him feng to arceb^dome Justus, se wan b" 1 of Hrouecistre and \>ar to gehalgode 
Romanum to biscope. 

625, Her Paulinus fram lusto J?am erce bisc waes 
gehadod Nor}?hymbrum to biscepe. 

626. Her Eanfled Ed wines debtor cyninges wses 
gefulwad in J?orie halgan aefen Pentecosten. 2Cnd 
Penda hsefde xxx wintra rice, and he hsefde L wintra 
]?a f>a he to rice feng. "Penda wees Pybbing. Pybba 
Creoding. Creoda Cynewalding. Cynewald Cnebbing. 
Cnebba Iceling. Icel Eomsering. Eomaer Sngel'Seow- 
ing. TCngeVSeow Offing. Offa Wsermunding. Wsermund 
Wihtlseging. Wihtlaeg Wodening. 

F. 616. . To 'Sam timan was Laurentius arceb' and far 

jjare sarinesse ^e he hsefde. far )>es cinges ungeleauon. he hsefde 
gemynt eal j?is land farlsetan. and ouer see faran. Ac Scs Petrus 
se apl' anes nihtes hine heardlice swang. farj?i ^e he wolde Codes 
heorde swa farlseton. and het hine |>am cinge heardlice rihtne ge- 
leauan teecan. And he swa dyde. and se cing gecyrde to rihte. On 
'Syses ylcan Eadboldes cinges deege ]?es ylca Laurentius forjjferde. 
Se haliga Augustinus be his halan Hue hine hadode to biscope. to ^i 
%8et Cristes gelaftung. ^e ^a git was niwe on Engla lande. nane 
hwile eefter his forftsifte nsere butan arcebiscope. Da sefter him feng 
Mellitus to arceb' stole J>e was ser biscop on Lundene. And J>es 
binnan fif wintran after Laurentius forSsy'Se. rixiende Eadbalde. 
Mellitus for to Criste. 

n This genealogy erased in ft; re- troduction to the Fasti Catholici, p. 191 

covered from A. B. C. See 716. sq. For xxx read dxxxi, the year 

9 ge yde = ge eode, acquired, got. from which the Dionysian Cycle dated, 
Cf. above, p. 4. end of TC's Pref. In and xcv years before dcxxvi. Beda was 
Lajamon it appears in the form ieode, the continuer of the Calendar after 
which see in Glos. Laj. Cf. Bouterwek Dionysius : cf. H. E. v. 21. When 
Glos. v. gegangan. the old Calendar was nearly run out, 

10 On the ej/i/ea/catSe/coTTjpis of Dio- there sprung up a mania for calcula- 
nysius Exiguus, cf. Mr. Greswell's In- tion. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 23 

wses ercebiscop on Csent. p he wolde suj? oferse.! and -p eall 
forlseton. ac him com to on niht se apostol Petrus. and hine 
hetelice swang forj?an "p he wolda swa }?a godes hyrde forleton. 
and het hine gan to )?am ciuinge. and him rihte geleafan 
bodian. and he swa dide. and se cining ge cerde. and wearS 
ge fullod. On )?ises cininges dagum Laurentius ercebiscop $e 
wses on Cent sefter Augustinus forSferde. and wses be byrged 
be Augustine in die iiii nonarum FeV. pa sefter him feng 
Mellitus to ercebiscop dome. )?e ser wses biscop on Lundene. 
pa wurdon Lundenware he^ene. )?ser Mellitus ser waes. and 
J?es )?a ymb v wintra rixiendum Eadbaldum Mellitus for to 
Criste. pa sefter feng to J?arn ercebiscop dome Justus, and he 
ge halgode to Hrofeceastre Romanum ]?ser he ser wses biscop. 
617. Her wserft JEftelfrrS NorShymbra cining ofslagen 
fram Reodwalde EastEngla cininge. and Eadwine vElling 
feng to rice, and geyde 9 eall Brytene buton Cant ware anre. 
and adrefde ut j?a e^elingas ^E^elfri^es suna -p wses serest. 
Eanfrid. Oswald, and Oswiu. Oslac. Oswudu. Oslaf. and Ofia. 

624. Her foriSferde Mellitus ercebiscop. 

625. Her Justus arcebiscop ge halgode Paulinum to biscope 
on xii kP Augusti. Hie ciclus Dionisii quinque decennove- 
nalibus constans, hoc est xcv annis ; sumitque exordium a 
xxx anno Incarnationis Domini et desinit in dcxxvi anno. 
Hie ordo decennouenalis quern Graeci ENNIA KAT$ Johanes 
papa KADERIDA vocat, a Scis patribus in Nicea Sinodo fait 
constitutus, in quo xiiii luna Paschalis omni anno sine ulla 
dubitatione 10 . 

626. Her com Eomer fram Cwichelme West Seaxna cininge. 
J?ohte "p he wolde of stingan Eadwine cininge. ac he of stang 
Lilian his ftegn. and ForShere. and j?one cining ge wundode. 
and )?sere ilcan nihte wes Eadwine dohter acenned. seo wses 
ge haten Eanfled. pa ge het se cining Pauline f he wolde his 
dohter ge syllan Gode. gif he wolde abiddan set Gode. -p he 
moste his feond afyllan. J?e )?one seaman )?ider ser sende. and 
he j>a for on WestSeaxum mid fyrde. and afylde j?ser v cin- 
ingas. and pses folces mycel ofsloh. and Paulinus gefullade 
his dohter on Pentecosten twelfa sum. and se cining binnan 
xii monaiS wses ge fullod on Eastrum mid eallum his dugo^e. 
]?a wseron Estran on ii id. Apr. Dis wses ge don on Eoferwic. 
J?ser he ser het getimbrian cyrican of treowe. seo wses ge 


627. Her Edwine kyning wses gefulwad rnid his 
J>eode on Eastron. 

628. Her Cynegils and Cuichelm gefuhtun wi}?P 
Pendan set Cirenceastre. and gej?ingodan J?a. 

632. Her was Eorpwald gefulwad^. 

633. Her Edwine wees ofslsegen. and Paulinus huerf 
eft to Cantwarum. and gesaet J?set biscepsetl on Hrofes 

634. Her Birinus bisc bodude WestSeaxum ful- 

635. Her Cynegils waes gefulwad from Birino J?eem 
bisc in Dorce ceastre. and Oswold his on feng r . 

636. Her Cuichelm waes gefulwad in Dorces ceas- 
tre. and f>y ilcan geare for$ferde. !Snd Felix biscep 
bodade EastEnglum Cristes geleafan 8 . 

639- Her Birinus fulwade Cu'Sred on Dorces ceastre. 
and on feng hine him to suna. 

cum su& gente. Flor. (Beda), Dommuc (Flor.), i. e. Dun- 
P We now say fight with =pugnare wich on the coast of Suffolk, now 

cum hoste, just as we say join with, almost lost in the ocean. Thorpe's 

talk with, agree with. But in the 9th note in Florence, An. 636, gives the 

and loth centuries wi)> was simply after history of this see. 

against, adversus; and mid was with, l This Cadwalla, the British king, 

cum. We have still a trace of the ancient must not be confused with Ceadwalla, 

wij>, in our withstand. the W. Saxon, below, 685. Compare 

1 King of the East Engles, of the the language of Florence : Gloriosus 

Royal Family of the Wuffingas. Beda rex Edwine a pagano rege Mer- 

ii. 15- ciorum Penda, viro strenuissimo, et 

* The words his onfeng mean the Ceadwala rege Britonum seeviore pa- 
same as onfeng hine him to suna, gano, in campo Heathfeld, conserto 
below, 639 ; i. e. was his sponsor and gravi prselio, est occisus. In La3amon 
received him from the font as under- he is, 
taking to guide and instruct him fur- Cadwalan >e kene 
ther in the ways of Christianity. Filium )> e king of Suft londe ; 
de baptiamo suscipere avaSexeff&ai. Cf. and the magnificent story there told of 
Bingham, Church Ant. Bk. xi. c. 8. 7. his exploits with Penda and against 
cf. 994. Edwine is worth reading. Possibly it 

8 His see was in civitate Domnoc is not all fable. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 25 

halgod on see Petres naman. ]?ser se cining sealde Pauline 
biscopsetl. and J?ser he het eft timbrian maran cyrican of 
stane. and her feng Penda to rice, and rixade xxx wintra. 

627. Her wes Eadwine cining ge fullod fram Pauline, and 
eac J?es Paulinus bodad fulluht on Lindisse. ]?ser gelifde arest 
sum rice man mid ealre his dugufte. se wses ge haten Blecca. 
and in $as tid Honorius feng to pap dome sefter Boniface )?e 
sende Pauline hider pallium, and Justus ercebiscop forSferde 
iiii id' Nov. and Honorius wes ge halgod fram Pauline on 
Lincollan. )?am Honorium se papa sende eac pallium, and he 
sende Scottum gewrit )? hi scoldon gecerran to rihtum 

628. Her Kynegils and Cwichelm gefuhton wr3 Pendan 
set Cirnceastre. and ge Jnngodon J?a. 

632. Her wses Eorpwald ge fullod. 

633. Her wearS Eadwine cining of slagan. fram Cadwallan l 
and Pendan on HeiSfelda on ii id' Octob. and he rixade vii 
gear, and eac man sloh his sunu Osfrrft mid him. and j?a 
sy$$an foran Ceadwala and Penda and fordydan call Nor5- 
hymbra land, pa p Paulinus ge seah. )?a ge nam JE'Selburge 
Ead wines lafe. and gewat on scipe to Cent, and Eadbold and 
Honorius him onfengon swrSe arwurftlice. and sealdon him 
biscop setle on Rofescestre. and he J?ser wunode to his ende. 

634. Her feng to Dearne rice Osric. ]?one Paulinus ser ge 
fullode. se wses ^Elfrices sunu JMwines federan. and to Bser- 
nicum feng JEftelftiSes sunu Eanfrift. and eac her Birinus 
bodade serest Weast Seaxum fulluht under Cynegilse cininge. 
se Birinus com ]?ider be Honorius wordum Jes papan. and 
he iSser wes biscop o)? his lyfes ende. And Oswald eac her 
feng to NorSanhymbran rice, and he rixade ix winter, man 
getealde him ty nigonfte for )?an he^enscipe )?e hi drugon ]?e hi 
J?et an gear rixodon betwix him and Eadwine. 

635. Her Kynegils wses ge fullod fram Byrine )?am biscope 
on Dorcaceastre. and Oswold NorShymbra cining his on feng. 

636. Her wses Cwichelm ge fullod on Dorceceastre. and 
j?am ilcan geare he forSferde. and Felix biscop bodade East 
Eanglum Cristes gelefan. 

639. Her Byrinus fullode CuSred on Dorceceastre. and 
on feng hine him to sunu. 


26 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

640. Her Edbald Cantwara cyning forjrferde. and 

he ricsode XXV wintr. He hafde twegene sunu Ermenred and Ercen- 
berht. and \>er Ercenberht rixode after his feeder. And Ermenred gestrynde 
twegen sunu \>a sif&ftan wurftan gemartirode offtunore. 

642. Her Oswald NorSan hymbra cyning of slaegen 

643. Her Cenwalh feng to Wesseaxna rice, and 
heold xxxi wint. and se Cen walh het atimbran J>a 
ciricean on Wintun ceastre. 

644. Her Paulinus forf> ferde se wses serce bisc on 
Eoferwicceastre. and eft on Hrofes ceastere. 

645. Her Cenwalh adrifen was from Pendan cy- 

646. Her Cenwalh wses gefulwad. 

648. Hej" Cenwalh gesalde Cuprede* his maege iii 
Jmsendo londes be yEscesdune. Se CuJ?red wses 
Cuichelruing. Cuichelm Cynegilsing. 

650. Her yEgel bryht of Galwalum. sefter Birine 
J?am Romaniscan bisc onfeng Wesseaxna biscdome. 

651. Her Oswine kyning wees ofslsegen. and Sidan 
bisc forj>ferde. 

652. Her Cenwalh gefeaht set Bradan forda be 

653. Her MiddelSeaxe onfengon under Peadan 
aldormen ryhtne geleafan. 

654. Her Onna cyning wear)? ofslsegen. and Botulf 
ongon mynster timbran. 

t Cenwalh rex de East Anglia rediit 634 and 650. In Florence, An. 645, 

in West Saxoniam : et eodem anno Oswine is called regis Edwini patruelis 

non modicam ruris portionem dedit Osrici filius, which is one with the cor- 

Cuthredo, fratrueli suo, Cuichelmi regis rected text. The A. S. makes English 

filio. Flor. Gibson translates iii J>u- by inversion of the order : Oswine, son 

sendo londes, ter mille hidas terra. of Osric the son of the uncle of Edwine. 

2 Instead of Oswine Edwines, The Latin says, Oswine, son of Tclng 

there is only Oswines in E, but the Edwine's first cousin. Take fedran 

correction is obvious on comparison of suna as a compound, it = patruelis. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 27 

639. Her Eadbald Cantwara curing forSferde. se wses cining 
xxiiii wintra. pa feng his sunu Ercenbriht to )?am rice, se to 
wearp ealla j?a deofel gyld on his rice, and serost Engliscra 
cininga he ge sette Eastor feasten. J?ses dohter wses ge haten 
Ercongota halifemne. and wundorlic man. J?sere modor wses 
Sexburh Annan dohter EastEngla ciningas. 

641. Her wses Osuuald of slagen NorShymbra cining. fram 
Pendan Suj? hymbrum on Maser feld on ftam dsege No Aug. 
and his lie wses be byrged on BearSan ege. J?ses halines and 
wundor wseron syftftan manigfealde gecydde geond 'Sis 
egland. and his handa sindon on Bebbanburh unge brosnode. 
And her Cenwalh feng to Wsest Seaxena rice, and heold xxi 
wintra. se Cenwalh het atimbrian ]?a cyrican on Wintan ceas- 
tre. and he wses Kynegilsing. and }?am ilcan geare $e Oswald 
waes of slagen. feng Oswiu his bro^or to NorSanhymbran 
rice, and he rixode twa Ises xxx geara. 

643. Her forftferde Paulinus sercebiscop on Rofesceastre 
vi id' Octobr. se wses biscop an Ises xx wintra. and ii monftas. 
and xxi daga. And her feng Oswine Edwines 2 fedran suna 
sunu Osrices to Dearne rice, and rixade vii winter. 

644. Her Cenwalh waes adrifen of his rice fram Pendan 

645. Her Cenwalh waes gefullod. 

648. Her Cenwalh ge sealde Eadrede his mege iii J?usenda 
landes be ^Esces dune. 

649. Her JEgelbriht of Galwalum sefter Byrine J>am Ro- 
manisca biscop on feng Sexena biscopdomas. 

650. Her het Oswiu cining of slean Oswine cining on xiii 
kl' Septeb. and J?ses ymbe xii niht forftferde Aidanus biscop 
on ii kP Sept. 

652. Her MiddalEngla onfengon under Pendan ealdor 
msen rihtne ge leafan. 

653. Her Anna cining werS of slagen. and Botuulf ongan 
timbrian mynster set Icanhoe. and her forSferde Honorius 
ercebiscop on ii kl' Octobr. 

E 2 


655. Her Penda forwcar]?. and Mierce wurdon 
Cristne. pa was agan from fruman middan geardes 
v wintra. and DCCC and L wintr. and Peada feng to 
Mercna rice. Pending. 

657. Her forf>ferde Peada. and Wulfhere Pending 
feng to Miercna rice. 

3 The parallel is here dislocated, by 
an enlargement of the Laud MS., all its 
own. It consists of the first two in- 
stalments of a monograph on the Abbey 
of Peterborough, which is subsequently 
continued in parts, under the proper 
dates. This is a leading feature of E, 
and stamps it as a Peterborough Edi- 
tion of the Chronicle. 

It was (in a literary sense) a great 
mistake to embody in a national work 
so disproportionate a mass of local his- 
tory : yet, through this very deformity 
of structure, new sources are opened 
for the illustration of the Chronicle. 
The very clumsiness of the perform- 
ance, as it renders the evidence more 
palpable, enhances the value of the in- 
formation that may be gathered from it. 
With this digression we drop sud- 
denly into a lower stage of the lan- 
guage. The same style recurs only 
with the continuations of the same 
subject, until towards the close of the 
first handwriting, A. D. 1121. 

Thus, the insertions on the one 
hand, and the first pause in the work 
on the other, echo the same sound, 
and mutually determine each other's 
date. Hence we know, that the change 
of handwriting at 1121 is no delusive 
token, that the penman brought his 
history close up to the time of writing, 
and that the insertions now before us 
belong definitely to the same literary 
effort which produced (not merely this 
Edition but even) this particular MS. 
of the Chronicle. 

The result is, that we have in E, 

an unaltered specimen of English of 
a known date. As this appertains to 
a period in which such illustration is 
rare, we must hail it as a real contribu- 
tion to the history of our language. 

The following are some of the pecu- 
liar characteristics of the passage before 
us, and of the era which produced it. 

1. The vowel e is on the increase. 
All vowels, certain diphthongs, and 
even some final consonantal syllables, 
are apt to fade away into this negligent 
and languid sound. Thus, we have e 
instead of a (or even ia) in infinitive 
terminations, as, arwurften, wurftmin- 
ten, areren, wunen, faren, gebidden, 
findgn, wurftigen, Iseden, standen : in 
other parts of speech, as, toforen, J>eo- 
nen, leoue, here, luuen, broftre, swustre, 
oftre godene manne, ealre halgane, 
andswerode : instead of s&, in areren, 
red, hwere, del, mel, lered : instead 
of -urn, -an, o, y, ea, eo, in J?segne, 
haege, gare, betahten, wrohten, alesed- 
nesse, gef, werce, &c. This prevalence 
of e is the most universal feature of 
the Transition from the ancient inflected 
to the modern uninflected language. 

2. At the same time e itself is often 
substituted by eo : less often, eo occu- 
pies the place of a former y. E. g. 
heorotogas, feostnode, steode, seonde, 
geseond, feorde, heot, seotte, heorda, 

3. In the general confusion ee takes 
the place of ea, and (exceptionally) of 
e, eo : e. g. w^rft, ?lle, h<ge, <sst, 

4. The character a no longer repre- 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 29 

654. Her Oswiu ofsloh Pendan on Winwid felda. and xxx 
cynebearna mid him. and )?a wseron sume ciningas. 'Sere sum 
wses J^Selhere Annan broker EastEngla ciningas. Da wses 
agan fram fruman middan geardes fif Jmsend wintra. and 
DCCC wintra. and Peada feng to Myrcena rice Pending. 

3 On his time J?a comon togadere heo and Oswiu Oswaldes 
broker cyningas. and sprecon ty hi wolden an mynstre areren 
Criste to loue and See Petre to wurSminte. And hi swa 
diden. and nama hit gauen Medeshamstede. forf>an )?et iSser 
is an wsel )?e is gehaten Medeswsel. And hi ongunnan ]?a ty 
grundwalla. and )?8eron wrohten. betahten hit j?a an munec. 
SAXULF wses gehaten. He wses swyfte Codes freond. and 
him luuede al Jeode. and he wses swyiSe se]?elboren on weo- 
rulde and rice, he is nu rnycelne riccere mid Criste. 

Oc se kining Peada ne rixade nane hwile. for)?an he wses 
beswicen )?urh his agen cwen on Estrentide. 

655. Her liSamar Rofe ceastre biscop gehalgode Deusdedit 
to Oantwara byrig on vii kl. Apr. 

656. Her wses Peada of slagan. and Wulfere Pending feng 
to Myrcena rice. 

On his time wsex f>et abbodrice Medeshamstede swifte rice, 
j? his broker hafde ongunnen. pa luuede se kining hit 

sents the full and pure vowel-sound in modern English are the representa- 

which had entitled it to the first place tives of a Saxon g. 

in the gamut of letters: it begins to 7. But much as these innovations 

appear interchangeably with several of alter the complexion of a Language, 

the less perfect vowels and diphthongs. their chief value lies in their connexion 

Where the more usual is ea, in al, with the great change of the i2th cen- 

gare, halfe, gehalden : or se, as in tury, the abolition of grammatical in- 

togadere, lawed, ga'S : or e, as in fest- flexions. Of this movement we see 

nia, heorda, halgane. tokens in the interpolations of E. 

5. The letter u is frequently put for Gender, number, case, the govern- 
f, e.g. silver, lowe, hawe, gawen, luwede, ments of prepositions and of verbs, are 
\uuen, leowe, sewestlice, Dereworde, in such confusion as to embarrass in- 
Cliwe, gatde ( = gafole). stead of aiding the operations of Speech; 

6. The g initial or final is changed there was no remedy but to sweep them 
to i in some few cases : tateward, iet- all away. 

ten, ant, dsei. This became very gene- 
ral afterwards, and y rather than i On the nether edge of the leaf, in 
came to be employed for the substi- the MS., is written in a hand of the 
tute; hence a great many of the y's i_3th century; 

ct sfoiu* funtaboiut p'mo ccctam* 

30 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

swifte for his broker luuen Peada. and for his wed brofteres 
luuen Oswi. and for Saxulfes luuen J?es abbodes. cwe$ ]?a 
)?et he wolde hit wurftminten and arwur^en be his broSre 
rsed ^E^elred and Merwala. and be his swustre red Kyne- 
burges and KyneswrSes. and be se sercebiscopes rsed se wses 
gehaten Deusdedit. and be al his gewiten rsed laered and 
lawed f>e on his kynerice waeron. and he swa dide. 

Da seonde se kyning aefter )?one abbode. ]?et he seuestlice 
scolde to him cumon. and he swa dyde. Da cwaed se kyning 
to J>an abbode. La leof Ssexulf ic haue geseond sefter )?e for 
mine saule J>urfe. and ic hit wile ]?e wsel secgon for hwi. Min 
broftor Peada and min leoue freond Oswi ongunnen an myn- 
stre Criste to loue and Sancte Petre. Oc min broker is faren 
of ]?isse liue swa swa Crist wolde. oc ic wile J?e ge bidden la 
leoue freond -p hii wirce seuostlice on fere werce. and ic J?e 
wile finden fserto gold and siluer. land and ahte. and al ]?et 
J?ser to be hofeft. Da feorde se abbot ham and ongan to wir- 
cene. Swa he spedde swa him Crist hufte. swa )?et in feuna 
geare wses ^ mynstre gare. Da )?a kyning heorda ]?a3t ge- 
secgon. ]?a wser'S he swi^e glaad. heot seonden geond al his 
]?eode sefter alle his J?segne. sefter sercebiscop and aefter bis- 
copes. and aefter his eorles and aefter alle )?a ]?e Gode luuedon. 
J?set hi scoldon to him cumene. and seotte J>a dsei hwonne 
man scolde ^ mynstre ge halegon. 

Da man halgode seo mynstre. J>a wses seo kyning Wulfere 
]?aer. and his broker ^E^elred. and his swustre Kyneburg and 
Kynesuuith. And seo mynstre halgode seo sercebiscop Deus- 
dedit of Cantwarbyrig. and seo biscop of Rofecaestre Ithamar. 
and seo biscop of Lundone ]?e waes Wina gehaten. and seo 
Myrcene biscop. leruman waes gehaten. and Tuda biscop. 
And J?aer waes Wilfrid preost ]?e srSftoii waes biscop. and J>ser 
wseron aelle his Segnas )?e waeron on his kynerice. 

Da seo mynstre waes ge halgod on Sancte Petres nama and 
S. Paules and S. Andr'. j?a stod seo kyning up toforen ealle 
his ftsegna. and cwaed luddor stefne. Dancod wurS hit j?on 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 31 

hsege JElmihti God ]?is wurSscipe ty her is gedon. and ic 
wile wurSigen )?is dsei Crist and See Peter, and ic wille )? ge 
ealle ge trSe mine worde. Ic Wulfere gife to dsei See Petre 
and J?one abbode Saxulf and J?a munecas of ]?e mynstre ]?as 
landes and ]?as wateres and meres and fennes and weres and 
ealle ]?a landes ]?a )?ser abuton liggeft fta of mine kynerice 
sindon freolice. swa $et nan man na haue J?aer nan onsting 
buton seo abbot and se muneces. Das is se gife. fram 
Medeshamstede to NorSburh. and swa to "Set stede J?et man 
cleopeft Folies. and swa sel se feon riht to Esendic. and fra 
Esendic to -p steode j?e man cleopeft Fe^er mu$e. and swa -p 
rihte weie x mile lang to Cuggedic. and swa to Eaggewilh. 
and fra Eaggewilh v mile to (?e rihte se )?e ga$ to ./Elm and 
to Wlsebece. and swa abutan iii mile to prokonholt. and fra 
prokonholt riht Jmrh al $e fen to Dereuorde -p is xx mile 
lang. and swa to Grsetecros. and fra Grsetecros Jmrh an scyr 
waeter Bradan se hatte. and J>eonon vi mile to Paccelade. and 
swa forS ]?urh selle |?a meres and feonnes )?a liggeii toward 
Huntendune porte. and j?as meres and laces. Scselfremere 
and Witles mere and selle )?a o]?re ]?a ]?ar abutan liggan mid 
land and mid huses ]?a sindon on sesthalfe Scselfre mere, and 
feouen selle )?a feonnon to Medeshamstede. and fra Medes- 
hamstede al to Welmes forde. and fra Welmes forde to Cliue. 
and J?eonen to ^Estune. and fra JEstune to Stanford, and fra 
Stanford swa swa -p waeter rennet to seo foren sprecone Nor^ 
burh. Dis sindon )?a landes and fta feonnes Je seo kyning 
gef into See Petres mynstre. 

Da cwseft seo kyning. Hit is litel J>eos gife. ac ic wille -p hi 
hit haslden swa kynelice and swa freolice. ty ]?3er ne be numen 
of na geld na gaule. buton to )?a munecan ane. Dus ic wille 
freon ]?is mynstre ]?et hit ne be under J>ed buton Rome ane. 
and hider ic wille p we secan See Petre. ealle J>a }?a to Rome 
na magen faren. 

Betwix ]?as worde ]?a geornde seo abb'e ]>et he scolde him 
tyj>ian ]?et he set him geornde. and seo killing hit him tydde. 

32 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

Ic haue here godefrihte muneces J?a wold en drohtien here 
lif on anker setle gif hi wisten hwere. Oc her is an igland 
^ man cleopeft Ancarig. and wile ]?es geornen j? we 
moten J?ser wircen an mynstre See Marie to lone. )?et hi 
moten fser wunen j?a$a here lif wilen Iseden mid sibbe and 
mid reste. 

Da andswerode seo kyning and ]ms cwaeft. Saxulf la leof. 
ne ]?et an ^ $u geornest oc ealle J?a J?ing ty ic wat J>et $u 
geornest on ure Drihtnes halfe. swa ic lufe and ty$e. And 
ic bidde J?e broker ^E^elred. and mine swustre Cyneburh and 
Cynesuuith. for iure sawle alesednesse. J?et ge beon witnesse. 
and ty geo hit write mid iure fiiigre. And ic bidde ealle J>a 
$a sefter me cumen. beon hi mine sunes. beon hi mine breiSre. 
ou)?er kyningas j?a sefter me cumen. j? ure gyfe mote standen. 
swa swa hi willen beon delnimende on )?a ece lif. and swa 
swa hi wilen setbeorstan ]?et ece wite. Swa hwa swa ure 
gife ou]?er o^Sre godene manne gyfe wansia]?. wansie him seo 
heofenlice iateward on heofonrice. And swa hwa swa hit 
eceft. ece him seo heofenlice iateward on heofenrice. 

Das sindon j?a witnes ]?e ]?ser wseron. and J>a ^ gewriten 
mid here fingre on Cristesmele. and ietten mid here tunge. 
Det wses first seo kyning Wulfere ]?e ty feostnode first mid 
his worde and si&5on mid his fingre gewrat on Cristesmel. 
and Jms cwseft. Ic Wulfere kyning mid J?as kyningas and 
mid eorles and mid heorotogas and mid ]?8egnas J?as ge wit- 
nesse mines gifes toforan J?one eercebiscop Deusdedit ic hit 
festnia mid Cristes mel. -j- . And ic Oswi Nor]?himbre kyn- 
ing J>eos mynstres freond. and J?es abbotes Saxulf. hit loue 
mid Cristesmel. -[- And ic Sighere kyning hit tySe mid 
Cristes mel. + . And ic Sibbi kyning hit write mid Cristes 
mel. -4- . And ic ^E^elred )?es kyningas broker J?et ilce tyde 
mid Cristesmel. -(-. And we J?es kyningas swustre Cyneburh 
and Cynesuith we hit louien. And ic Kantwarabyrig rerce- 
biscop Deusdedit hit tyfte. Sr&San J?a getton hit selle J?a 
o$re )?e J?ser wseron mid Cristes mel. -(- . Det waeron be nam. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 33 

Ithamar biscop of Rofecestre. and Wine biscop of Lundene. 
and leruman se waes Myrcene biscop. and Tuda biscop. and 
Wilfrid preost seo wses srSfton biscop. and Eoppa preost J?e 
seo kyning Wulhfere seonde to bodian Cristen dome on Wiht. 
and Saxulf abbot, and Immine ealdorman. and Eadberht 
ealdorman. and Herefrid seldorman. and Wilberht eeldorman. 
and Abon seldorman. JESelbold. Brordan. Wilberht. ^Elh- 
mund. FreiSegis. )?as and feola oj?re ]?a wseron }?ser kyninges 
]?eonest men hit geotton ealle. Bes writ wses gewriton sef ter 
ure Drihtnes acennednesse dclxiiii. ]?es kyningas Wulhferes 
seoueftende gear. J>es sercebiscopes Deusdedit ix gear. Leidon 
J?a Godes curs and ealre halgane curs and al Cristene folces 
)>e anijnng undyde ty j?ser wses gedon. Swa beo hit. seij? 
alle. Am. 

pa J?is J?ing wses ge don, ]?a seonde seo kyning to Rome to 
seo papa Uitalianus J?e J?a was. and geornde ^ he scolde 
tySian mid his writ and mid his bletsinge eal J?is forsprecene 
J?ing. And seo papa seonde ]?a his writ )?us cwse^end. Ic 
Uitalianus papa geate j?e Wulhfere cyning and Deusdedit 
sercebiscop and Saxulf abb' ealle ]?e J?ing ]?e ge geornon. and 
ic forbede J>et ne kyning. ne man ne haue nan onsting 
buton ]?on abV ane. ne he ne hersumie nan man buton ]?one 
papa on Rome and se sercebiscop on Cantwarbyrig. Gif hwa 
J?is tobrekej? aeni)?ing. See Petre mid hia sweord him ady- 
lige. Gif hwa hit hselt. S. Petre mid heofne keie un do him 
heofenrice. Dus wses seo mynstre Medeshamstede agunnen. 
^ man sr&Son cleopede Burh. 

SrSSon com an o)?re serceV to Cantwarbyrig. seo wses ge- 
haten Theodorus. swifte god man and wis. and heold his 
sino]? mid his biscopes and mid J?e lerede folc. pa wses Win- 
frid Myrcene biscop don of his biscop rice, and Saxulf abb' 
was j?83r ge coren to biscop. and Cuftbald munec of }>e selue 
mynstre waes coren to abbot, pis sinaS was gehalden sefter 
ure Drihtnes acennednesse seox hundred wintra. and iii and 
hund seofenti wintra. 


34 THE PARKER MS. (ff) 

658. Her Cenwalh gefeaht set Peonnum wi)?Walas. 
and hie gefliemde o]> Pedridan. J>is wses gefohten sij?- 
f>an he of EastEnglum com. he wses J>ser iii gear on 
wrece. hsefde hine Penda adrifenne and rices benu- 
menne. forj?on he his swostor anforlet. 

660. Her ^Egelbryht bisc gewat from Cenwale. 
and Wine heold ]?one biscepdom iii gear, and se 
yEgelbryht onfeng Persa bisc domes on Galwalum 
bi Signe. 

661. Her Cenwalh gefeaht in Eastron on Posentes 
byrg. and gehergeade Wulfhere Pending of> ^Esces 
dune. Snd CuJ>red Cuichelming. and Coenbryht 
cyning on anum geare forfferdun. 'Knd on Wiht 
gehergade Wulfhere Pending, and gesalde Wihtwaran 
^Ej?elwalde SudSeaxna cyninge. forf>on Wulfhere hine 
onfeng set fulwihte. Snd Eoppa msesse preost. be 
Wilferf>es worde and Wulfhere cyning. brohte Wiht 
warum fulwiht serest. 

664. Her sunne a]?iestrode and Srcenbryht Cant- 
wara cyng forj?ferde. !Snd Coltnan mid his geferum 
for to his cy'S'Se. py ilcan geare wses rnicel man 
cuealm. ?Cnd Ceadda and Wilfer]? wseron gehadode. 
and J?y ilcan geare Deusdedit forjrferde. 

668. Her peodorus mon hadode to ercebisc. 

669. Her Ecgbryht cyning salde Basse msesse 
prioste Reculf mynster ontotymbranne. 

670. Her for]?ferde Osweo NorJ>an hymbra cyning. 
and Ecgfer]? ricsode sefter him. !Snd HloJ>here feng 
to biscepdome ofer Wesseaxan ^Egelbryhtes bisc nefa. 
and heold vii gear. Jteodor bisc hine gehalgode. and 
se Oswio wses yEf>elferJ?ing./Ej?elfer]?^}?elricing.yE)?el- 
ric Iding. Ida Eopping. 

671. Her wses J?set micle fuglawcel. 

672. Her forj>ferde Cenwalh and Seaxburg an gear 
ricsode his cuen sefter him. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 35 

658. Her Cenwealh ge feaht set Peonnum wij? Walas. and 
heo ge flymde o$ Pedredan. J?is wses ge fohton syS^an he of 
EastEngla com. he waes }?ser iii gear on wreccesiS. hsefde 
hine Penda adrefedne. and rices benumene forj?an j? he his 
swustor forlet. 

660. Her ^Eglbriht biscop ge wat fram Cenwala. and Wine 
heold $one biscop dome iii gear, and seo ^Eglbriht onfeng 
Persa biscop domes on Galwalum be Sigene. 

661. Her Cenwealh feaht on Eastron on Posentes byrig. 
and gehergode Wulfhere Pending of ^Esces dune, and Cu)?red 
Cwichelming. and Centbriht cining on anum geare forSfer- 
don. And on Wiht gehergode Wulfhere Pending, and ge 
sealde Wihtwarum ^E^elwolde SuSSeaxena cininga. for]?an 
Wulfhere hine onfeng set fulwihte. and Eoppa preost be 
Wilferftes worde and Wulfheres cininges brohte Wihtwarum 
fulwiht serost manna. 

664. Her sunne aiSestrode on v no. Mai. and on ftissum 
geare com micel mancwealm on Brytene igland. and on J?am 
cwealme forSferde Tuda biscop. and wses be byrged on Wa- 
gele. and Ercenbriht Cantwara cining forSferde. and Ecgbriht 
his sunu feng to ]?am rice, and Coleman mid his geferum for 
to his cyftfte. and Ceadde and WilferS wseron gehadode. and 
on )>am ilcan geare seo aercebiscop Deus dedit forSferde. 

667. Her Oswiu and Ecbriht sendon Wigheard preost to 
Borne, -p hine man scolde halgian to sercebiscope. ac he for$- 
ferde sona swa he ]?ider com. 

668. Her Vitalianus se papa ge hadode Theodorus to arce- 
biscop. and sende hine to Brytene. 

669. Her Egbriht cining sealde Basse preost Eaculf. myn- 
ster to tymbrianne. 

670. Her Oswiu forftferde NorSanhymbra cining on xv k' 
Mr. and Ecferft his sunu rixade fter him. and Hlothere feng 
to biscop dome ofer WeastSeaxum ^Eglbrihtes biscopes nefa. 
and heold vii gear, and peodorus biscop hine halgode. 

671. Her wses -p mycele fugla well. 

672. Her forSferde Cenwalh. and Sexburh an gear rixade 
his cwen sefter him. 

F 2 


673. Her Ecgbryht Cantwara cyning forjrferde and 
J>y geare wees senoft oet Heorotforda. and See yEj?el- 
dryht ongon ]?aet mynstaer aet Elige. 

674. Her feng ^Escwine to rice on Wesseaxum. se 
wes Cen fusing. Cenfus Cenfer}?ing. Cenfer]? Cu}? 
gilsing. Cu]?gils Ceolwulfing. Ceolwulf Cynricing. 
Cynric Cerdicing. 

675. Her Wulfhere Pending, and ^Escwine. gefuh- 
ton set Biedan heafde. and J>y ilcan geare Wulfhere 
forj?ferde. and yE]?elred feng to rice. 

4 Here the parallel is disturbed a 
second time, by the third article on 
Peterborough Minster. Like the two 
former, it is cemented to the Anna! 
by the phrase On his time. The 
Language is of the same stamp as 
before ; and the following remarks are 
in continuation of the note at p. 29. 

Passing from letters to words, we 
see the old habits of Gender, Number, 
Case, falling out of rule, or dropping 
off altogether. The Article is particu- 
larly sensitive, and exhibits every phase 
of the prevailing perturbation. We 
meet with seo kyning ; \>a kyning ; seo 
mynstre; seo sercebiscop; ^ ilce for- 
giuenesse; se gife; PL se muneces; 
of \>one muneca. But we also find 
\>e mynstre, and here the germ of 
order is already seen in the appearance 
of that impassive monosyllable, which 
soon levelled all distinctions of a dege- 
nerate Accidence, and concentrated in 
itself the once divided functions of the 
Definite Article. In this the English 
made a step, which even French has 
not yet come up to. 

Verbs and Prepositions no longer 
command their wonted Cases. E. g. 
nama hit gauen Medeshamstede be- 
tahten hit J?a an munec of abbod- 
rice be se sercebiscopes rsed to seo 

foren sprecone Norft burh. In these 
instances the Nominative stands where 
the old classic Englisc would have had 
the Dative. This Case went first ; the 
Accusative stood longer, and the Geni- 
tive has partially remained to our own 
day. In the Text, an Accusative often 
fills the place of the old Dative ; e. g. 
geafon and getton ]>one abbot set \>one 
stede to foran ]pone sercebiscop. An 
Accusative even stands for the Nomi- 
native ; swa micel swa \>one abbot wile : 
and a Nominative instead of the Accu- 
sative ; Ic Agatho . . . grete wel seo . . . 
kyning ! 

Of the variety of Declensions little 
now remains; a single letter (s) forms 
the Plural of Nouns, and likewise their 
Genitive Singular. Hence we find the 
Genitives gifes ; Kyneburges and 
KyneswlSes; and the Plurals, sunes, 
heorotogas, landes : all in violation 
of the ancient Grammar. 

Akin to the above, is the frequent 
rejection of the prefix ge before the 
past participle, and some substantives 
which it usually accompanied. Thus 
we find, faren, coren, sprecon, 
wroht, and the substantive writ in- 
stead of gewrit. 

But this decay of an ancient Gram- 
mar only makes way for the bursting 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 37 

673. Her ^Egbriht Cantwara cining forSferde. and Theo- 
dorus eercebiscop gesomnode sinoft set Heortforde. and See 
jEiSeldriJ? ongan )? mynster set Helige. 

674. Her feng ^Escwine to rice on WestSeaxum. 

675. Her Wulfhere Pending and ^Escwine Cenfusing ge 
fuhton set Bedan heafde. and j?a ilcan geare Wulfhere for$ 
ferde. and ^E^elred feng to rice. 

4 On his time J?a seonde he to Rome Wilfrid biscop to J?am 
pape J?e J?a wes. Agatho he wa3s gehaten. and cydde him mid 
writ and mid worde. hu his breftre Peada and Wulfhere and 
se abbot Saxulf. heafden wroht an minstre Medeshamstede 
wses gehaten. and ty hi hit heafden gefreod wiiS kyriing and 
wr3 biscop of ealle J?ewdom. and bed him ^ he scolde -p geten 
mid his writ and mid his bletsunge. And seo papa seonde 
]?a his gewrite to Englalande )>us cweftende. 

Ic Agatho papa of Rome grete wel seo wurftfulle JEftelred 33ulla pape 
Myrcene kyning and se sercebiscop Theodorum of Cantwar 
byrig. and seo Myrcene biscop Saxulf seo aer wses abbot, and 
alle J?a abbotes )?a sindon on Englalande Godes gretinge 
and minre bletsunge. Ic haue geheord seo kyninges JEft el- 
redes geornunge and j?es sercebiscopes Theodorus. and J?es 
biscopes Saxulfes. and }?es abbotes Cuthbaldes. and ic hit 
wille ty hit on selle wise beo. swa swa ge hit sprecon haueu. 
And ic bebeode of Godes half and S' Petres. and ealra 
halgan. and ealre hadode heafde. ]?et ne kyning ne biscop ne 

forth of a young system which fills, plete. Here we gained a march on 
and more than fills, the room of its the cognate dialects, German and 
predecessor. An elaborate Accidence Dutch. Let any one try to imagine 
is picturesque to the fancy, but to the the great works of English Litera- 
operations of the mind it is hampering. ture couched in an inflected Lan- 
One necessity of form begets another. guage. In so strait a garment, they 
Where the noun must be in a certain could never have attained the ease and 
case, it will probably be found neces- expansion for which they are so dis- 
sary to give the clause a particular tinguished. Even this raw composi- 
shape, and that again will have its tion of the 1 2th century shews a sense 
effect on the cast of the entire sen- of new freedom, as it marches along 
tence. It has been a great advantage regardless of the forms of words, mind- 
to us that the Transition took place ing only their sensible worth and lucid 
when it did, and that it was so com- collocation. 

38 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

eorl 5 . ne nan man ne haue nan onsting. ne gafle ne geold 
ne feording 6 ne nanescinnes fteudom ne nime man of f 
abbot rice of Medeshamstede. Ic beode sec -f J>e scyr biscop 
f ne seo swa dyrstlece ^ he ne hading ne haleging ne do on 
J?is abbot rice buton seo abbot hit him bidde. ne biscop wite 
ne sinaft ne naneskinnes j?ing na haue ]?8er nan onsting. 
3fo&as <ruasi And ic wille f seo abbot beo gehealden for legat of Rome 
2>8atus monw ofer eal ^ i g i an a e . and hwilc abbot )?e bej> J?2er coren of J>e 
munecan )? he beo gebletsad of J?an sercebiscop of Cant 
warbyrig. Ic wille and tyfte )> hwilc man swa haueft behaten 
to faren to Rome and he ne muge hit forSian. ouSer for 
untrumnisse. ouSer for lauerdes neode. oirSer for haueleste. 
ouSer for hwilces cinnes ofter neod he ne muge J?ser cumon. 
beo he of Englelande oirSer of hwilc ofter igland beo he. 
cume to ty mynstre on Medesham stede. and haue ^ ilce for- 
giuenesse of Criste and S' Peter, and of J?one abbot and of 
J?one muneca ty he scolde hauen gif he to Rome fore. Nu 
bidde ic )?e broker Theodorus ^ Jm lete bedon geond sel 
Englelande J?et seo sina'S wur^e gegaderod. and )?is write 
wur^e geredd and gehealdon. Al swa ic beode J?e Saxulf 
biscop -p swa swa }m hit geornest. j? seo mynstre beo freo. 
swa ic for beode j?e and ealle J>e biscopas ]>e sefter ^e cumon 
of Criste and of ealle his halgan ^ ge nan onsting ne hauen 
of ^ mynstre buton swa micel swa j?one abbot wile. Nu 
wille ic hit segge mid worde -p hwa swa halt J?is write and 
J?is bode. ]?a wurSe he efre wuniende mid God ^Elmihti on 
heuenrice, and hwa swa hit tobreceft. ]?a wur^e he aman- 
sumed and ani^rod mid ludas and mid ealle deofle on helle 
buton he cume to dedbote. AMEN. 

Das writ seonde seo papa Agatho and an hundred and fif 

5 This title occurs also above (p. 30) 6 I n Cod. Dipl. 990. feording, 

in the previous portion of the Peter- wrong. The Latin text there gives 

borough story. In reference to the the true sense j non census, non tri- 

times spoken of, it is a strong ana- butum, non militia, non aliqua un- 

chronism, for there were no eorlas in quam servitutis occasio &c. Feording 

England then. It was Danish, and =fyrd, fyrding, expeditio, military 

came in with the Danes. service. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 39 

and twenti biscopes bi Wilfrid aercebiscop of Eoferwic to 
Englalande. pis waes gedon aefter ure Drihtnes acenned- 
nesse dclxxx. j?es kininges vi gear J^Selredes. 

Da heot seo kining J?one aercebiscop Theodorus ^ he 
scolde setton ealle gewitenemot aet ]?one stede *p man 
cleopeft Heatfelde. Da hi wseron J?ser gegaderod. J?a leot 
he raedon ]>a ge write ]?e seo papa J?ider seonde. and ealle hit 
getton and fulfeostnodon. 

Da seide se kyning. Ealle J?a )?ing j?e min broker Peada. 
and min broker Wulfere. and mine swuster Kineburh and 
Kynesuith geafon and getton See Peter and ]?one abbot ]?a 
wile ic ^ stande. and ic wile on min daei hit aecon for here 
sawle. and for miure sawle. Nu gife ic See Peter to daei 
in to his minstre Medeshamstede ]?as landes. and eal ty l?aer 
to liggeft. J?et is Bredune. Hrepingas. Cedenac. Swineshaefed. 
Heanbyrig. Lodeshac. Scuffanhalch. Costesford. Stretford. 
Waettelleburne. Lufgeard. Jtyelhuniglond. BarJ?anig. Das 
landes ic gife See Peter eal swa freolice swa ic seolf hit 
ahte. and swa ^ nan min sefter gengles J?ser nan fing of ue 
nime. Gif hwa hit doiS. J?es papa curs of Rome and ealre 
biscope curs he habbe. and here ealre ]?e her be gewitnesse. 
and J>is ic festnie mid Cristes tacne. +. Ic Theodorus serce- 
biscop of Cantwarbyrig am witnesse of )?as ge write of Medes- 
hamstede. and ic festnie mid min ge write, and ic amansumie 
ealle ]?a J^ser anij?ing of breke. and ic bletsie ealle J>a J?e hit 
healden. + Ic Wilfrid serceV of ^Eferwic ic earn witnesse 
of J?as ge write, and ic gsete J?ses ilce curs. + Ic Saxulf )?e 
wses first abbot and nu earn biscop ic gife hi min curs and 
ealle min seftergengle ]?e J?is tobreket. Ic OstrrSe JEftel 
redes cwen hit tyiSe. Ic Adrianus legat hit iete. Ic Putta 
biscop of Rofecestre ic hit write. Ic Waldhere biscop of 
Lundene hit festnie. Ic Cuftbald abbot hit geate swa j?et 
hwa swa hit breket. ealre biscope cursunge and eal Cristene 
foces he hafe. Am. 

40 THE PARKER MS. (ff) 

676. Her ^Escwine for}?ferde. and Hedde feng to 
bisc dome, and Centwine feng to rice, and Centwine 
was Cynegilsing. Cynegils Ceolwulfing. 2nd /E#e 
red Miercna cyning oferhergeada Centlond. 

678. Her oj>iewde cometa se steorra. !Snd WilfriJ? 
biscop wses adrifen of his bisc dome from EcgferJ?e 

679. Her yElfwine wees ofslsegen. and See zEJretyryJ? 
for)? ferde. 

680. Her gesset peodorius serce biscop senoj? on 
Hcef>felda. forj?on he wolde J?one Cristes geleafan 
geryhtan. Snd J>y ylcan geare for]?ferde Hild abbo- 
desse on Streonesheale. 

682. On J>issum geare Centwine gefliemde Bret 
wealas op See. 

685. Her Cead walla ongan sefter rice winnan. Se 
Ceadwalla was Coenbryhting. Coenbrhyt Cading. 
Cadda Cu]?aing. Cuf>a Ceawlining. Ceawlin Cynricing. 
Cynric Cerdicing. Snd Mul was Ceadwallan bro]?ur. 
and )?one mon eft on Cent forbsernde. !Snd J>y ilcan 
geare EcgferJ? cyning mon ofslog. Se EcgferJ? wses 
Osweoing. Osweo ^E)7elferJ?ing. /EJ?elfer]? zEj>elricirig. 
yEJ^elric Iding. Ida Eopping. !Snd HloJ?here J>y ilcan 
geare for)? ferde. 

686. Her Ceadwalla and Mul Cent and Wieht for- 

F. 685. . . . Her wearS on Brytene blodi ren. and meolc and 
butere wurdon gewend to blode. 

7 The fourth piece of the records of prelacy of Egbalth. Such a notice is 
Peterborough, peculiar to E. The in- proper to a monograph, but very in- 
trusion is betrayed, not only by the Ian- congruous in a page of the national 
guage and the subject, but also by the story, where the very key-note of the 
Synchronizing of Theodorus with the era is Theodorus. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 41 

676. Her ^Escwine forSferde. and Hedde feng to biscop 
dome, and Centwine feng to West Seaxna rice, and J3$elred 
Myrcena cining oferhergode Cent land. 

678. Her ateowede cometa se steorra on Auguste. and scan 
iii inoirSas selce morgen swilce sunne beam, and Wilferft bis- 
cop wses adrifen of his biscop dome fram Ecferfte cininge. 
and man ge halgode ii biscopas on his stal. Bosan to Derum. 
and Eatan to Beornicum. and man ge halgode Lindis warum 
to biscope Eadhed. se wses on Lindissi serost biscopa. 

679. Her man of sloh ^Elfwine be Trentan ]?8er $ser EgferiS 
and J&3elred ge fuhton. and her forSferde see yE$eldrr$. and 
Coludes burh for barn mid godcundum fyre. 

680. Her geset Theodorus a3rcebiscopes sinoiS on HseiS 
felda. forj?an ]?e he wolde J;one Cristes ge laefan ge rihtan. and 
J?y geare Hild abbo^essa on Streones heale forSferde. 

681. Her man halgode Trumbriht biscop to Hagustaldes 
ea. and Trumwine Pihtum forj>an hy hyrdon J?a hider. 

682. Her on iSissum geare Centwine geflymde Britwalas 
o}> see. 

684. Her on ftissum geare sende EcgferS here on Scottas. 
and Briht his ealdorman mid. and earmlice hi Godes cyrican 
hyndan and baerndon. 

685. Her hset EcgferS cining gehalgian Cuftberht to bis- 
cope. and Theodorus archieps hine ge halgode on Eoferwic 
J?am forman Eastordsege to biscope to Hagustaldes ham. for 
J?am Trumbriht wses adon of $am biscop dome, and iSy ilcan 
geare man of sloh EcgferS cining be nor^an sse. and mycelne 
here mid him on xiii kl' Junii. He wses xv winter cining. 
and AldfriS his broker feng a3fter him to rice, and her ongan 
Ceadwala winnan sefter rice, and J?y ilcan geare Loftere Cant 
wara cining foriSferde. and man ge halgode lohannes on Agust' 
to biscope. and he J?ser wses o&Se WilfriJ? in com. SySiJan 
feng lohannes to Ceastre biscop dome. forSan Bosa biscop 
wses forSfaren. J?a wses Wilfer^ his preost syftftan ge halgod 
Ceastre to biscope. and f for to his mynstre on Derawuda. f i.e. John. 

686. Her Ceadwala and Mul his broker forhergodan Cent 
and Wiht. 7 paes Credwala gef into see Petres minstre Medes- 
hamstede Hoge. $ is in an igland Heabureahg hatte. J?a wses 
abbot on J?sere minstre Egbalth waes gehaten. heo wses se 
J?ridde abbot sefter Saxulfe. )?a wses Theodorus serceb' on Cent. 



687. Her Mul wear)? on Cent forbaerned. and oj?re 
xii men mid him. and ]>y geare Ceadwalla eft Cent 

688. Her Ine feng to Wesseaxna rice, and heold 
and he getim- xxxvii wifit. Snd Ipy ilcan geare Ceadwalla 

traded Duster ^ ^ Rome and ft^^ Qnf from 

at Glcestmga by- 

rig. J?am papan. and se papa nine heht Petrus. 

and ymb vii niht he forf> ferde. pon was se Ine Cen- 
reding. Cenred Ceolwalding. Ceolwald was Cynegilses 
brojmr. and J?a wseron CuJ>wines suna Ceaulininges. 
Ceaulin Cynricing. Cynric Cerdicing. 

690. Her peodorius serce bisc for}? ferde. and feng 
Beorhtwald to f>arn bisc dome. y& waerun Romanisce 
biscepas. si)?J?an wserun Englisce. 

694. Her Cantware ge|?ingodan wij? Ine. and him 
gesaldon xxx m u . forj?on Ipe hie ser Mul for baerndon. 
!Snd Wihtred feng to Cantwara rice and heold xxxiii 
wiiit. Se Wihtred was Ecgbryhting. Ecgbyrht !S!r- 
cenbryhting. Erconbryht Eadbalding. Eadbald yE]?el- 

703. Her Hedde bisc for]? ferde. and he heold J?one 
bisc dom xxvii wint on Winta ceastre. 

704. Her zEj>elred Pending Miercna cyning onfeng 
munuc hade, and J?aet rice heold xxviiii wintra. J?a 
feng Coenred to. 

705. Her Sldfer]? Norman hymbra cyning forj^ferde 
and Seaxwulf bisc. 

709- Her Tfldhelm bisc for}?ferde. se wses be x westan 
wuda bisc. and waes todceled in foreweardum Danieles 
dagum in tua biscscira WestSeaxna lond and ser hit 
wees an. oj?er heold Daniel. oj>er Sldhelm. yEfter 
!Sldhelme feng ForJ?here to. Snd Ceolred feng to 

n xxx punda B. xxx Jmsend punda thirty men: probably an oversight. No 

to freondscipe F. xxx milia librarum doubt m stands for milia, 
F. Lat. In Mon. Hist. Brit, the read- x Selewuda B. 

ing of 5C is given as xxx manna = 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 43 

687. Her Mul wserS on Cent baerned. and o^re xii men 
raid him. and }?y geara Ceadwala eft forhergode Cent. 

688. Her for Ceadwala cining to Rome, and onfeng fulluht 
set Sergium J?am papan. and he him scop Petrum to name, 
and he sy&San ymbe vii niht forSferde on xii kF Mai under 
Cristes claSum. and he wses gebyrged innan See Petres 
cyrican. and Ine feng to rice on WaestSaexna sefter him. se 
rixade xxvii wintra. and sySftan gewat to Rome, and faer 
wunode o]> his endedaeg. 

690. Her Theodoras serceb' forSferde. he waes xxii wintra 
b'. and he waes bebyrged innan Cantwarbyrig. 

692. Her Brihtwold waes ge coren to aercebiscop on kP 
Jul'. he waes aer abbot on Raculfe. ser jnssan wseron Roma- 
nisce biscopas. and sySftan wseron Englisce. j?a waeron ii 
ciningas on cent. Wihtred. and Waebheard. 

693. Her wses Brihtwald gehalgod to aercebiscope fram 
Godune Galwala biscop on v no Jul'. innan ]?as tyd Gife- 
mund b' forSferde. and Brihtwald ge halgode Tobian on his 
steall. and Brihthelm wses of lyfe ge leed. 

694. Her Cantwara ge ftingoden wr3 Ine and him ge seal- 
don xxx ]?usenda forSan ]>e hi aar Mul forbserndon. and 
Wihtred feng to Cantwara rice, and heold thre and twenti 

697. Her SuiSanhvmbre ofslogon OstrySe ^EiSelredes 
cwen. EcgfrrSes swuster. 

699. Her Pyhtas slogon Berht ealdorman. 

702. Her Kenred feng to Su$ hvmbra rice. 

703. Her Haedde b' forftferde. and he heold ]?one biscop 
dom xxvii wintra on Wintan ceastre, 

704. Her ^E^elred Pending Mircena cining onfeng munuc 
hade, and J?et rice heold xxix wintra. )?a feng Kenred to. 

705. Her AldfriS Nor]?an hymbra cining foriSferde on xix 
kF Jan on Driffelda. )?a feng Osred his sunu to rice. 

709. Her Aldelm biscop foriSferde. seo waes be waestan 
wudu b'. and waes to dasled on fore weardum Danieles dagum 
on ii biscop scyra Wasst Seaxna landes. and aer hit wees an. 
o$er heold Daniel, ofter Aldelm biscop. aefter Aldelme 
Forhere feng to. and Ceolred feng to Myrcena rice, and 
Cenred for to Rome and Offa mid him. and Cenred wses J?aer 
o$ his lifes ende. and J?i ilcan geare WilferS biscop forftferde 

G 2 

44 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

Miercna rice, and Ceonred for to Rome and Ofta mid 

710. Her Beorhtfrfy ealdnrmon feaht wi\> Peohtas. And Ine and Nan his 
mag gefuhton wi\> Gerente Wala cyn'mge. 

714. Her forf> ferde Gu]?Iae se halga. 

715. Her Ine and Ceolred fuhton set Woddes 

716. Her Osred Nor}?an hymbra cyning wear]? of 
slsegen se hsefde vii winter rice ysefter !Xldfer]?e. ]?a 
feng Coenred to rice, and heold ii gear. ]?a Osric and 
heold xi gear. Slid on ]?am ilcan geare Ceolred 
Miercna cyning for]? ferde. !Snd his lie reste]? on 
Licet felda. and yE^elnedes Pendinges on Bearddan 
igge. and f>a feng ./E]?elbald z to rice on Mercium. and 
heold xli winter. yE]?elbald wses Slweoing. Slweo 
Eawing. Eawa Pybing. ]?ses cyri is beforan awriten a . 

Snd Ecgbryht se arwier]?a wer on Hn ]?am ealonde 
}?a munecas on ryht gecierde. J>at hie Eastron on ryht 
heoldon. and ]?a ciriclecan scare. 

718. Her Ingild for]? ferde Ines brojmr. and hiera 
swostur wserun Cuenburg and Cu]?burh. and sio CuJ? 
burh J>aet liif set Win burnan arserode and hio wses 
forgifen Nor]?an hymbra cvninge 3^1d fer]?e. and hie 
be him lifg-endum hie gedeldun. 

721. Her Daniel ferde to Rome, and }?y ilcan geare 
Ine ofslog Cynewulf. 

722. Her yE]?elburg cuen towearp Tantun b and Ine 
sertimbrede. and Sldbryht wr<eccea gewat on Su]?rige 
and on Su]?Seaxe. and Ine gefeaht wi]? Su]?Seaxum. 


725. Her Wihtred Cantwara cyning for]?ferde. }?ses 

Eadberht feng to Centrice. 

cyn is beforan 6 . Snd Ine feaht wi]? Su]?Seaxan. and 
]?ser ofslog Sldbryht. 

728. Her Ine ferde to Rome, and J?ser his feorh 
gesealde and feng yEJ?elheard to Wesseaxna rice and 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 45 

in Undalum. and his lie man laedde to Ripura. he wses biscop 
xlv wintra. J?one EcgferS cining ser bedraf to Rome. 

710. Her Acca WilferSes preost feng to J?am biscop dome 
]?e he ser heold. and J?am ilcan geare feoht BeorhtfrrS ealdor 
man wr3 Pyhtas betwix Hsefe and Caere, and Ine and Nun 
his msei gefuhton wr3 Gerente Weala cininge 8 . and J?am ilcan 
geare man of sloh Hygebald. 

714. Her Guftlac seo halga forSferde. 

715. Her Ine and Ceolred gefuhton set Wodnesbeorge. 

716. Her Osred NorSarihymbra cininga wserS of slagen be 
suftan ge msere. se hsefde vii winter sefter Ealdfer]?e. J>a feng 
Cenred to rice, and heold ii gear, and )?a Osric and heold xi 
gear, and eac on J?am ilcan geare Ceolred Myrcena cining 
forj>ferde. and his lie restaiS on Licet felda. and ^Eftelredes 
Pendinges on BearSan ege. and J?a feng JEiSelbald to rice on 
Myrcum. and heold xli wintra. and Ecgbyrht se arwur)?a wer 
ie hiwan to rihtum Eastrum. and to See Petres scaere. 

718. Her Ingild forSferde Ines broftor. and heo swustra 
weeron Cwenburh and CirSburh. and seo Cu^burh ^ lyf set 
Winburnau aererde. and heo wses forgifen Nor^hymbra cininge 
Ealdfer^Se. and heo be him lifigeiidurn gedaeldon. 

721. Her Daniel for to Rome, and J?i ilcan geare me of 
sloh Cynewulf J?one 8eJ?eling. and her for^ferde se halga biscop 
loh's. se wses biscop xxxiii geara. and viii monftas. and xiii 
dagas. and his lie restaft in Beoferlic. 

722. Her ^E^elburh cwen to wserp Tantun ];one Ine ser 
tymbrade. and Ealdbriht wrecca ge wat on Su^rege. and on 
Su$ Seaxe. 

725. Her Wihtred Cantwara cining for^ferde on nokl'Mai. 
se rixade xxxiiii wintra. and Ine gefeaht wr<5 Suftseaxum. 
and J?ser of sloh Ealdberht J>one 89]?eling J?e he ser utflemde. 

726. Her Ine for to Rome, and feng ^E^elheard to West 
Seaxna rice his msei. and heold xiiii gear. 

y and eefter, the reading of 3", of his troubles, and assured him that 

seems to be an error. he should be king of Mercia. Cf. A. 

z This ^EJ?elbald was forced into Saxon Life of S. Guthlac (Ed. Good- 
exile by Ceolred, and had betaken win), cap. 19. 
himself to St. Guthlac, the Hermit of a Anno 626. b \>e B. 
Crowland : with whom he found refuge c Anno 694. 

and comfort (gebeorh and frofor). The 8 See Smith and Stevenson on E. H. 

holy man predicted a happy issue out v, 18. ( 410. Ed. Stev.) 


hcold xiiii gear !nd f>y geare gefuhton y)?elheard 
and Oswald se <e]?eling and se Oswald was /E]?elbald- 
ing. /EJ?elbald Cynebalding. Cynebald Cuj?wining. Cuf>- 
wine Ceaulining. 

729. Her cometa se steorra hiene of>iewde and Scs 
Ecgbryht for]?ferde. 

730. Her Oswald se ce^eling for]? ferde. 

731. Her was ofslsegen Osric Norman hymbra cy- 
ning and feng Ceoluulf to f>am rice, and heold viii 
gear. Snd se Ceolwulf wses CuJ?aing. CuJ>a CuJ>- 
wining. CuJ>wine Leodwalding. Leodwald Ecgwalding- 
Ecgwald Sldhelming. Sldhelm Ocging. Ocga Iding. 
Ida Eopping. Snd Beorhtwald aercebisc gefor. 

!Snd }?y ilcan geare Tatwine waes gehalgod to aerce 

733. Her yE]?elbald ge eode Sumur tun and sunne 

734. Her wses se mona swelce he waere mid blode 
begoten and ferdon for]? Tatwine and Bieda. 

736. Her No]?helm aercebiscep onfeng pallium from 
Romana bisc. 

737. Her ForJ>here bisc and Fri]?ogiJ> cuen ferdun 
to Rome. 

738. Her Ead bryht Eating Eata Leodwalding feng 
to NorJ?an hymbra rice, and heold xxi wint. and his 
bro]?or wees Ecgbryht Eating serce bisc and hie restaj? 
begen on Eofor wic ceastre on anum portice. 

741. Her yEj>elheard cyning for]? ferde and feng 
Cu]?r<ed to Wesseaxna rice and heold xvi wiiit and 
heardlice gewon wij> /Ej>elbald cyning Snd CuJ>bryht 
wees to serce bisc gehalgod. and Dun bisc to Hrofes 

743. Her jEjrclbald and disced fuhton wi]?Walas. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 47 

727. Her forSferde Tobias biscop in Rofecestre. and on his 
stal Brihtwold aercebiscop gehalgode Aldulf tobiscope. 

729. Her atewoden twegen cometan. and )?i ilcan geare 
Osric forftferde seo waes xi winter cining. and seo halga Ecg- 
briht in li. J?a feng Ceolwulf to rice, and heold viii gear. 

730. Her Oswald deling forSferde. 

731. Her Brihtwold sercebiscop forSferde on Id' Janr. seo 
waes biscop xxxvii wintre. and six monftas and xiiii dagas. 
and J>y ilcan geare man gehalgode Tatwine to sercebiscop. 
seo waes aer in Mercum preost in Breodune. hine halgodan 
Daniel Waentan biscop. and Ingwald Lunden biscop. and Aid- 
wine Licet felda b\ and Aldulf Rofeceastre V. die x Junii 

733. Her ^IC^elbold geeode Sumortun and sunne a-Ses- 
trode. and Acca waes adrifen of biscop dome. 

734. Her waes se mona swilce he waere mid blode begoten. 
and Tatwine for<5ferde erceV. and eac Beda. and man ge 
halgode Ecgbriht to biscope. 

735. Her oufeng Ecgbriht V pallium aet Rome. 

736. Her Noj7helm ercebiscop onfeng pallium fram Ro- 
mana biscope. 

737. Her ForS here biscop. and Fryftegi)> cwen ferdon to 
Rome, and Ceolwulf cining feng to Petres scsere. and sealde 
his rice Edberhte his federan sunu. se rixade xxi winter, and 
.^Eftelwold biscop and Acca forSferdon. and Cynewulf man 
ge halgode to biscope. and ]?y ilcan geare ^Eftelwold hergode 
NorShymbra land. 

738. Her Eadbriht Eating Eata Leodwalding feng to 
NorShymbra rice, and heold xxi wintra. and his broftor wees 
Ecgbriht Eating aerceV. and heo restaft begen on Eoferwic 
ceastre on anum portice. 

740. Her -ZESelherd cining forSferde. and faeng CuSred his 
maeg to West Seaxna rice, and heold xvi gear, and heardlice 
ge wann wi'S ^E^elbold Myrcena cining. and Eadberht waes 
to aerceb' ge halgod. and Dunn b' to Rofescaestre. 

741. Her forbarn Eoferwic. 

743. Her ^E^elbald Myrcena cining and Cuftred West 
Seaxna cining gefuhton wr8 Wealas. 


744. Her Danihel gesaet on Wintan ceastre and 
Hunfer}? f'eng to bisc dome. 

745. Her Danihel for]? ferde. j?a was xliii winf agan 
sif>J?an he onfeng bisc dome. 

746. Her mon slog Selred cyning. 

748. Her wees ofslaegen Cynric Wesseaxna ce]?eling 
and Eadbryht Cantwara cyning for]? ferde. and mheibyrht 

Wihtredes sunu tinges feng to \>am rice. 

750. Her Culp red cyning gefeaht uui]? yEf>elhun 
}?one ofermedan aldorman. 

752. Her CuJ?red gefeaht j?y xii geare his rices set 
Beorg feorda wi]? yEj?elbald. 

753. Her Cu|?red feaht wtyWalas. 

754. Her Cu]?red forj?ferde and Cyneheard onfeng 
bisc dome aefter Hunfer]?e on Wintan ceastre and Cant 
wara burg forbsern ]?y geare and Sige bryht feng to 
Wesseaxna rice and heold an gear. 

755. Her Cynewulf benam Sigebryht his rices and 
WestSeaxna wiotan for unryhtum d<edum. buton 
Ham tun scire. and he haefde J>a oj? he ofslog ]?one 
aldor mon }?e him lengest wunode. and hiene J>a Cyne- 
wulf on Jfndred adraefde. and he |?aer wunade. oj?f>aet 
hiene an swan d ofstang aet Pryfetes flodan. and he 
wrijec J?one aldor mon Cum bran, and se Cynewulf oft 
miclum gefeohtum feaht uuij? Bretwalum. and ymb 
xxxi wint )>aes J?e he rice haefde he wolde adrsefan 
anne ce]?eling se waes Cyneheard haten and se Cyne- 
heard waes J?aes Sigebryhtes bro]?ur. 3md ]?a geascode 
he J?one cyning lytle werode on wif cyj?]?e on Meran 
tune, and hine f>ser berad and Jxme bur utan be code 
aer hine J?a men onfunden ]?e mid J?am cyninge waerun. 
and }?a ongeat se cyning J?aet and he on ]?a duru eode 
and J?a un heanlice hine werede. of> he on ]?one cef>el- 
ing locude and }?a ut raesde on hine and hine miclum 
gewundode. and hie ealle on j?one cyning waerun 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 49 

744. Her Daniel gesset on Wintan csestre. and Un feng 
to b'dome. and steorran foran swyfte scotienda. and Wilferft 
seo iunga se waes V on Eoferwic forftferde on iii kP Mai. se 
wses xxx wintra biscop. 

745. Her Daniel forftferde. ]?a wses xlvi wintra agan syftftan 
he onfeng biscop dome. 

746. Her man sloh Selred cining. 

748. Her wses ofslagen Cynric WestSeaxna se)?eling. and 
Eadbriht Cantwara cining forftferde. 

750. Her Cuftred WsestSeaxna cining gefeaht wift -ZE)?elhun 
ftone eofermodigan ealdorman. 

752. Her CuJ?red WsestSeaxna cining gefeaht J?y xxii 
geara his rices set Beorh forda. wrS J^ftelbald Myrcena cing. 
and hine geflymde. 

753. Her CirSred WsestSeaxna cyning gefeaht wift Wealas. 

754. Her Cuftred WsestSsexna ciuing forftferde. and Cyne 
heard onfeng biscop dome sefter HunferSe on Wintan ceastre. 
and Cantwara byrig forbarn fty geare. and Sigbriht his mseg 
feng to WsestSeaxna rice, and heold i gear. 

755. Her Cynewulf benam Sigebrihte his msege his rice, 
and Wajst Seaxna witan for unrihtum dsedum buton Hamtun 
scyre. and he hafde J?a oft he of sloh ftone ealdorman J?e him 
lengs wunode. and hine J?a Cynewulf on Andred adrefede. 
and he J?ser wunode oj? )? an swan hine of stang set Pryftes 
flodan. sse swan wrsec 'Sone ealdorman Cumbran. and se 
Cynewulf oft feaht mycclum ge feahtum wr3 Britwealas. and 
ymb xvi wintra )?ses )?e he rice hsefde. he wolde adrsefan 
senne se^eling se waes Cyneheard gehaten. se Cyneheard wes 
)?3es Sigebrihtes bro^or. and )?a acsode he ]?one cining lyt 
wyrede on wifcy^an on Merantune. and hine J?ser berdd. 
and ]?one bur uton beeodon. ser hine J?a men afundan }?e 
mid )?am cyninge waeron. and )?a ongeat se cyning ty. and he 
on $a duru code and ]>a un heanlice hine werode. oft he on 
]?one se]?eling locade. and J?a utresde on hine. and hine myc- 
clum gewundode. and he ealle on ftone cining feohtende 

d a quodam subulco juxta Pryfetes- larum Personarum (Thope's Ancient 
flodan lancet perforatur. Flor. There Laws of England), the position, duties 
were two kinds of swine-herd, the free and rights of each class may be ascer- 
and the bond. In Rectitudines Singu- tained. 


50 THE PARKER MS. (ff) 

feohtende oJ?J>set hie hine ofslsegenne haefdon. 
J>a on J?aes wifes gebserum onfundon J?ses cyninges 
J?egnas ]?a unstilnesse and }?a J?ider urnon swa hwelc 
swa f>onne gearo wear]? and radost TCnd hiera se 
ce]?eling gehwelcum feoh and feorh gebead and hiera 
nsenig hit gej?icgean nolde. !Se hie simle feohtende 
wseran op hie alle Isegon butari anum Bryttiscum 
gisle and se swi)?e gewundad wses. 

Da on morgenne gehierdun J?set J?ses cyninges ]?eg- 
nas J>e him beseftan wserun J?set se cyning ofsleegen 
wses f>aridon hie ]?ider. and his aldorman Osric and 
WiferJ? his f>egn and J?a men ]?e he beseftan him 
Isefde ser and Jxme cej>eling on J>sere byrig metton J?ser 
se cyning ofslsegen laeg and ]?a gatu him to belocen 
haefdon and J>a J?8er to eodon. !Snd ]?a gebead he him 
hiera agenne dom feos and londes gif hie him fees 
rices u)?on. and him cyjxlon J>8Et hiera msegas him 
mid wseron |?a ]?e him from noldon. Snd )?a cu<edon 
hie f>83t him nsenig moeg leofra naere Jxmne hiera 
hlaford and hie nsefre his banan folgian noldon and 
J>a budon hie hiera msegum ]?83t hie gesunde from 
eodon. !Snd hie cucedon Ipeet taet ilce hiera geferum 
geboden wsere ]?e asr mid )?am cyninge wserun. ]?a 
cucedon hie }?8et hie hie J?ses ne onmunden ]?on ma 
J>e eowre geferan J>e mid J>am cyninge ofslsegene 
waerun. 3!nd hie J>a ymb J?agatu feohtende W83ron 
oJ?J>aet hie J?ser inne fulgon and Jxme celling ofslogon 
and J?a men J?e him mid waerun alle butan anum se 
wses J>ses aldor monnes god sunu and he his feorh 
generede and J?eah he wses oft gewundad. 

!Snd seCynewulf ricsode xxxi wint. and his lie li]? 
set Wintan ceastre and J?ses ce]?elinges set Sscan mynster 


and hiera ryht feeder cyn gcej? to Cerdice. 

J?y ilcan geare mon ofslog yE{?elbald Miercna 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 51 

wseron. o$ j?et hig hine ofslsegeri hsefdon. and J?a on 
wifes ge baeron onfundon J?ses ciningas ]?egnas J?a unstilnessa. 
and j?a J?ider urnon. swa hwilc swa $onne gearo wear<5 hra- 
"Sost. and se sefteling gehwilcan feoh and feorh bead, and 
heo nsenig ]?icgan noldan. ac heo symle feohtende wseron. 
oj? hig ealle ofslagene wseron. buton anum Brytwyliscum 
gisle. and se swyfte gewundod wses. 

pa on morgen gehyrdon -p j?es ciniges J?egnas J?e him baefton 
waeron p se cining of slagen wses. J?a ridon )?ider and his eal- 
dorman Osric. and WiferS his )?egn. and J?a men J?e he him 
be sefton laefde ser. and )?one seeding on )?sere byrig ge metton 
J?ser se cining of slagen laeg. and heo ]?a gatu heom to belocen 
haefdon. and $a ^er to eodon. and J?a bead he heom heora agene 
dom feos and landes gif heo him J?aes rices ufton. and heom 
cydde )? heora maga him mid wseron $a ]?e him fram noldon. 
and J>a cwe^on hig. -p heom nsenig mseg leofra nsere J?one 
heora hlaford. and heo naefre his banan folgian noldon. and ]?a 
budon hi heora magon )? hi heom gesunde fram eodon. And 
hi cwaedon j? }? ilce heora ge ferum ge boden wsere ]?e ser 
mid J?am cininge wasron. Da cwaedon hi j? *p hi ]?ses ne ge 
mundon )?oun ma J>e heora geferen J?e mid )?am cininge 
wseron ofslagene. hi J?a ymb 'Sa gatu feohtende waeron o$ 
hi }?3er in flugon. and J?one ae)?eling of slogon. and )?a men $e 
mid him waeron ealle buton anum. se waes ]?es ealdormannes 
godsunu. and he his feorh generede. and he waes oft ge 

And se Cynewulf rixade xxxi wintra. and his lie ligiS 
on Wintan ceastre. and j?ses seSelingas on Axan mynster. and 
heora riht fsederan cyn geeft to Certice. 

And J>y ilcan geare man of sloh J^Selbald Myrcene cining on 

F. 755. Her Cynewulf benam Sib'te cinge his rice, and Sib'tes 
broker Cynehard gehaten. of sloh Cynewulf on Merantune. And 
he rixode xxxi gear. And Sas ylcan geares man ofsloh JESelbald 
Myrcena cing on Hreopandune. And Offa gefeng Myrcena rice. 
geflymdon Beornrede. 

H 2 

52 THE PARKER MS. (#) 

cyning on Seecan dune, and his lie lij? on Hreopa 
dune, and Beornr<ed feng to rice, and lytle hwile 
heold and ungefealice. !Xnd )?y ilcan geare Offa feng 

to rice, and heold xxxviiii wint. !Snd his sunu Eg- 

fer heold xli daga and c daga Se Offa wses pincg 

ferjring pincgferj? Ean wulfing Eanwulf Osmoding 
Osmod Eawing Eawa Pybbing Pybba Creoding 
Creoda Cynewalding Cynewald Cnebbing Cnebba 
Iceling Icel Eomsering Eomaer !XngelJ>owing Sngel 
]?eow Offing Offa Wsermunding Waermund Wyhtlseg- 
ing Wihtlseg Wodening. 

758. Her Cu)?bryht arcebisc forj?ferde. 

759. Her Bregowine wses to ercebisc gehadod to 
See Michaeles tide. 

760. Her yEfelbryht Cant wara cyning for)?ferde. 

se was Wihtredes cing sunu. 

761. Her wees semycla wint. 

763. Her lanbryht waes gehadod to aercebisc on 
J?one feowertegan daeg ofer midne winter. 

764. Her laenbryht sercebisc onfeng pallium. 

768. Her forfyferde Eadberht Eating cing. 

772. Her Milred bisc for]?ferde. 

773. Her of>iewde read Cristes mtfil pn hefenum 
sefter sunnan setlgonge and J>y geare gefuhton Mierce 
and Cantware aet Ottanforda and wunderleca n<edran 
wasron gesewene on SuJ>Seaxna londe. 

8 This is the Ceolwulf whose name his abdication and retirement to a mo- 
is famous through the Dedication of nastic life in 737. Monachus apud 
the Ecclesiastical History. GLORIO- Lindisfarnensem insulam factus est. 
SISSIMO REGI CEOLUULPHO (Sim. Durli.) Accounts differ widely 
BAEDA Pamtilus Christ! et Pres- as to the year of his death. He was 
byter. We have had his accession to canonized, and placed in the Calendar 
the Northumbrian throne in 729, and Jan. 15. (Stevenson's Baada.) 


Secandune. and his lie restaiS on Reopandune. and he rixade 
xli wintra. and ]?a feng Beornred to rice, and litle hwile heold 
and unge fealice. and )?a ilcan geare Offa ge flymde Beornred 
and feng to |?am rice, and heold xxxix wintra. and his sunu 
EcgferS heold xli daga. and c daga. se Offa wses pin gc f erring. 

757. Her Eadberht NorShymbra cining feng to scsere. 
and Osulf his sunu feng to j?am rice, and rixade i gear, and 
hine of slogon his hiwan on ix kP Augusti. 

758. Her CuSbriht serceb' forSferde. 

759. Her Bregowine wses to serceb* gehalgod to see 
Michaeles tyde. and Moll ^E^elwold feng to rice on NoriS 
hymbrum. and rixade vi wint. and hit ]?a forlet. 

760. Her ^E^elbriht Cantwara cining forSferde. and Ceol- 
wolf eac forSferde 8 . 

761. Her wses se myccla winter, and Moll Norj?hymbra 
cining ofsloh Oswine set ^E d wines clife. on octauo i<T Au- 

762. Her lanberht wses ge hadod to serceV on iSon xl dseg 
ofer mide winter, and FrrSewald biscop set Witerne forSferde 
on no Mai. se wses ge halgod on Ceastrum on xviii kl' Sept. 
J?am vi wintra Ceolwulfes rices, and he wses b' xxix wintra. 
]?a man gehalgode Pyhtwine to b' set JElfetee on xvi kl' 
Aug' to Hwiterne. 

765. Her feng Alhred to NorShymbra rice, and rixade 
eahta winter. 

766. Her forSferde Ecgberht serceb'. in Eoferwic on xiii 
kr Decemb\ se wses b' xxxvi wintra. and Fri^eberht in Ha- 
gustaldesee. se waas biscop xxxiiii wintra. and man gehalgode 
^E^elberht to Eoferwic. and Ealhmund to Hagustaldes ee. 

768. Her forSferde Eadberht Eating on xiiii kl' Septembris. 

769. Initium regni Karoli regis. 
772. Her Mildred V forSferde. 

774. Her NorShymbra fordrifon heora cining Alhred of 
Eoferwic on Easter tid. and genamon ^E^elred Molles sunu 
heom to hlaforde. and se rixade iiii gear, and men ge segon 
read Cristes mel on heofenum sefter sunnan setlan gange. on 
J?y geare ge fuhton Myrce and Cantwara set Ottan for da. and 
wundorlice nsedran wseron ge seogene on SitSseaxna lande. 

776. Her forSferde Pehtwine biscop on xiii kl' OctoV. se 
wses b' xiiii wintra. 



777. Her Cynewulf and Offa gef uhton ymb Benes- 
ingtun and Offa nam Jx>ne tuun. 

780. Her SldSeaxe and Francan gefuhtun. 

F. 777. Her was ^/Selbyrht gehalgod to b' to Hwit'ne on Euer- 


778. Her feng Alwold to rice and rixad x winter. 

779. Her JESelbyrht arb' forSferde. and Eanbald was gehalgud 
an his loh. and Cynebald geset in Lindisfarna ee. 

780. Her Alcmund b' on Hagstd'ee forSferde. and Tilb'eht 

9 The fifth piece of the records of 
Peterborough Minster. Tt is two old 
documents ; the first a Lease of Abbey 
Lands, the second an instrument of 

The historian has his originals be- 
fore him ; he divests them of their 
technicalities, and gives them a more 
familiar form. So it was with the 
earlier parts also : for we may some- 
times discern in them the fragmentary 
traces of an older form, though we 
know nothing of it from any other 
source. There is a document in ex- 
istence concerning the gift of Ceadwala 
in 686, but it is spurious. It may be 
seen in Mr. Kemble's great work, the 
Codex Diplomaticus JEvi Saxonici 
(No. 40). But the present insertion 
may be compared with extant origi- 
nals ; Cod. Dipl. Nos. 165. 1 68. The 
former identifies itself completely with 
the text, and forms an excellent illus- 

A In nomine gubernantis dei mo- 
narchiam totius mundi! Ego Beonna 
abbas gratia dei, cum conscientia et 
licentia fratrutn deum colentium in 
monasterio quod appellatur Medes- 
hamstede, tradidi Cuthberhto principi 
terram x. manentium, quse nuncupatur 
jet Suinesheabde, cum pratis et pascuis 
ac silbis cunctisque ad se pertinenti- 
bus. Hanc autem terram ille Cuth- 

berht a me digno comparauit prsetio, 
id est mille solidis, et singulis annis 
mihi meisque successoribus unius noc- 
tis pastum aut triginta . . . rauit siclos. 
Hoc territorium prsefatus princeps ea 
conditione adquisiuit, ut post comple- 
tionem diei illius, qui ab eo meruere 
satagunt hseredibus derelinquat, et hse- 
redes prsedecessoris prsefatam conditio- 
nem conseruent in pastu uel pecunia; 
et post uitam illorum absque offendi- 
culo pacis ad ius pristinum antenomi- 
nata terra reuertatur. Huius autem 
rei ita gestse hi fideles testes aderant 
et conscripserunt. 

A Ego Offa gratia dei rex Mercio- 
rum signo crucis Christi propria manu 
roboraui. -f- Ego quoque Ecgferth 
rex Merciorum consensi et subscripsi. 
-f- Ego Hygeberht archiepiscopus fir- 
mando subscripsi. -f Ego Ce[ol]uulf 
episcopus scribendo consensi. + Ego 
Unuuona episcopus scribendo firmaui. 
+ Ego Beonna abbas hanc meam 
munificentiam signo crucis Christi fir- 
maui. -f- Ego Uu[ig]bald presbyter 
et arc consensi. + Ego Beornuuald 
presbyter subscribendo consenso. -|- 
Ego Eanred presbyter subscribe et 
consenso. -\- Ego Til^egn scribendo 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 55 

777. Her Cynewulf arid Offa geflyton ymb Benesingtun. 
and Offa genam J?one tun. And j?y ilcan geare man gehal- 
gode ^E^elberht to biscope to Hwiterne in Eoferwic on xvii 
kl' lulii. 

9 On ]?as kinges daei Offa. waes an abbot on Medeshamstede 
Beonne gehaten. se ilca Beonne J>urh ealle J?a munekered 
of )?ere minstre ]?a let he CuiSbriht ealdorma x bondeland 
set Swinesheafde mid Iseswe and mid maedwe. and mid eal 
pet J?ser to laei. and swa -p seo CuiSbriht geaf ]?one abbote L 
punde J?aerfore. and ilca gear anes nihtes feorme ouiSer xxx 
scyllinge penega. swa eac 'p eafter his dsei scolde seo land 
ongean into )?a mynstre. At ]?is gewitnesse waes seo kining 
Offa. and seo kining EgferS. and seo aerceb' Hygeberht. and 
Ceolwulf biscop. and Inwona V. and Beonna abbot, and feola 
o]?re biscopes and abbotes. and feola o$re rice men. 

On )?es ilca Offa dsei. waes an ealdorman Brordan waes ge 
haten. he geornde at se kyning. ty he scolde for his luuen 
freon his ane mynstre Wocingas het. for]?i 'Set he hit wolde 
giuen into Medeshamstede. and See Peter, and j?one abbote 
J?e ]?a was. he was Pusa gehaten. seo Pusa waes aefter 
Beonna. and seo kining hine luuede swiSe. and seo kyning 
freocle )?a ^ mynstre Wocingas wr3 cining and wi^ biscop 
and wr$ eorl. and wift ealle men. swa j> nan man ne hafde 
j?aer nan onsting. buton S. Peter and j?one ab'. Dis waes 
don on fe cininges tune Freoric burna hatte. 

778. Her jEiSebald and Hearberht ofslogon iii heahge 
refan Ealdulf Bosing aet Cininges clife. and Cynewulf. and 
Ecgan aet Hela ]?yrnum on xi kl' Apr. and j?a feng Alfwold 
to rice, and ^E^elred bedraf on lande. and he rixade x 

Karolus in Hispanias intravit. Karolus Saxoniam venit. Ka- 
rolus Pampileniam urbem destruxit, atque Cesar Augustam : 
exercitum suum conjunxit, et acceptis obsidibus, subjugatis 
Sarracenis, per Narbonam Wasconiam Franciam rediit. 

779. Her Ealdseaxe and Francon gefuhton. and NorS 
hymbra heahge refan forbearndon Beorn ealdorman on Sele 
tune on ix kF Janr. and ^ESelberht erceV forSferde in 
Ceastre. and on J?ses stall Eanbald waes ge halgod. and Cyne- 
bald b' ge sset in Lindisfarna ee. 

780. Her Alchmund biscop in Hagsta'dee foriSferde on vii 


784. Her Cyneheard ofslog Cynewulf cyning and 
he J?ser wear]? ofslaegen and Ixxxiiii monna mid him 
and f>a onfeng Beorhtric Wesseaxna rices, and he 
ricsode xvi gear and his lie lij? set Werham. and his 
ryht fcedren cyn gee)? to Cerdice. TO tysan timan rixode Eaih 

mund cing innon Cent. 

785. Her wses geflitfullic seno]? set CealchyJ?e. and 
laenbyrht sercebisc forlet sumne d<el his biscdomes. 
and from Offan kyninge Higebryht wses gecoren. and 
EcgferJ? to cyninge gehalgod. 

787. Her nom Beorhtric cyning Offan dohtor Ead- 
burge. !Snd on his dagum cuomon serest iii scipu and 
J>a se gerefa j?serto rad and hie wolde drifan to J?aes 
cyninges tune J>y he nyste hwset hie wseron. and hiene 
rnon ofslog. pset waeron ]?a serestan scipu Deniscra 
monna f>e !Sngel cynnes lond gesohton. 

790. Her laenbryht sercebisc for)?ferde. and Ipy ilcan 
geare wses gecoren yE)?elheard abbud to bisc. 

was gecoren )>an to. and Hibald to Lindisfaranaee. and Alwold cing 
sende to Rome sefter pallium to Eanboldes arb' behoue. 

782. Her forftferde Cynewulf b' of Lind' and Sino^ was at Aclea. 

785. Her sset full sino^ at Cealchy^e. and lanberht arb' farlet 
sum dsel of his b'dome. and fram Offan cinge Higbyrht was gecoren. 
and EgferS to cinge gehalgod. and on 'Sis timan wseron serendracan 
gesend fram Adriane papan to Englalande to geniweanne ^one gelea- 
van. Sa scs Gregorius us sende. and hi man mid wurftscipe underfeng. 

787- Her Brihtric cing nam Offan doht' Eadburhge to wive, and 
on his dagan coman serost iii scipa Norftmanna of Here^alande. ]? wse- 
ran 'Sa seroston scipa Deniscra manna Se Angelcynnes land gesohton. 

788. Her was Sino^ gegaderod on Nordhumbralande set Pincan- 

789. Her was Alwold NorShymbra cing weart) ofslagen and heo- 
vonlice lioht was gelome gesawen Sar Sar he cfslagen was. and 
Osred Alcredes sunu feng to rice forSan he was Alwoldes neva. And 
mycel sino^ was at Aclea. 

790. Her lanbyrht arb' forSferde. and 'Sas ylcan geares was ge- 
coren ASelhard Hludensis monasterii abb' to arb'. and Osred NorS- 
hymbra cing was aflymed of rice, and ^E^elred A^elwaldes sunu eft 
feng to rice. 

791. Her Baldulf was gehalgod to b' fram Eanbalde arb' and 
fram ^ESelb'hte b' to Hwit'ne. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 57 

id' Sept. and Tilberht man ge halgode on his steal on vi no 
Octob'. and Higbald man ge halgode to biscop set Soccabyrig 
to Lindisfarna ee. and yElfwold cining sende man sefter pal- 
lium to Rome and Eanbald dyde to serceb'. 

782. Her forSferde Wserburh Ceolredes cwen. and Cyne 
wulf b' in Lindisfarna ee. and seonod wses at Aclea. 

784. Her Cyneheard of sloh Cynewulf cining. and he wser<S 
J?ser ofslagen. and Ixxxiiii manna mid him. and J?a onfeng 
Brihtric West Seaxna cining to rice, and he rixade xvi gear, 
and his lie lift ser Wserham. and his riht fsedern cyn gseft to 

785. Her forSferde Botwine abbot in Hripum. and her 
waes geflitfullic sino^S set CealchySe. and lanberht erceb' 
forlet sumne clsel his biscop domes, and fram Offan cininge 
Hygebriht wes gecoren. and EcgferS to cining ge halgode. 

And in 'Sas tid wseren serendracen ge send of Rome fram 
Adrianum papan to JEngla lande to niwianne )?one geleafan 
and ]?a sibbe i$e scs Gregorius us sende ]?urh ]?one b' Augusti- 
num. and hi man mid wurSscipe under feng. 

787. Her nam Breohtric cining Offan dohter Eadburge. 
and on his dagum comon serest iii scipu NorSmanna of 
HereSa lande. and J?a se gerefa ]?ser to rad. and he wolde 
drifan to iSes cininges tune ]?y he nyste hwset hi wseron. and 
hine man of sloh )?a. Deet waeron ]?a erestan scipu Deniscra 
manna J?e Angel cyunes land gesohton. 

788. Her waes sinoS ge gaderod on NorShymbra lande set 
Pincanheale on iiii no Sept. and Aldberht abb' foriSferde. 

Karolus per Alemanniam venit ad fines Bauuarie. 

789. Her Alfwold NoriSanhymbra cining wses ofslagan 
fram Sigan on ix kF Octobr. and heofenlic leoht wses gelome 
seogen ftser )?er he ofslagen wses. and he wses bebyrged on 
Hagust'dee. innan ]?sere cyrican. and sinoiS wses ge gaderod 
set Aclea. and Osred Alchredes sunu feng to rice sefter him 
se wses his nefa. 

790. Her lanbriht arcebiscop forSferde. and ]?y ilcan geare 
waes ge coren ^EiSelheard abb' to arceb'. and Osred NorSan 
hymbra cining wses be swicen and of rice adrefed. and -#3el- 
red Aftelwaldes sunu eft feng to rice. 

791. Her wses Baldwulf gehalgod to b' to Hwiterne on xvi 
kl' Aug. fram Eanbalde arceb'. and fram JSftelberhte biscope, 



792. Her Offa Miercna cyning het /E]?elbryhte 
rex j?set heafod ofaslean. 

794. Her Xdrianus pap and Offa cyning for]?fer- 
don. and yEj?elred Nor]?an hymbra cyning wses of 
slaegen from his agenre J>eode and Ceolwulf bisc and 
Eadbald bisc of f>sem londe aforon. and Ecgfer}? feng 
to Miercna rice, and ]?y ilcan geare for]?ferde. Snd 
Eadbryht onfeng rice on Cent. j?am was o)?er noma 
nemned Prsen. 

796. Her Ceolwulf Miercna cyning oferhergeade 
Cantware op Mersc and gefengun Praen hiera cyning 
and gebundenne hine on Mierce leeddon. 

797. Her Romane Leone J?8em pap his tungon for- 
curfon and his eagan astungon and hine of his setle 
aflierndon. and f>a sona eft Gode fultorniendum he 
meahte geseon and sprecan. and eft was papa swa he 
ser wses. 

792. Her Offa cing het ^ESelb'hte cinge f heavod ofaslean. 

793. Her wseran re'Se forebycna cumene on NorShymb' land, and 
8 folc earmlice drektan. $ wseran ormete ligrsescas. and wseran ge- 
sawense fyrene dracan on 'Sam lifte fleogende. and sona fylygde mycel 
hunger, and sefter ^am ^es ylcan geares earmlice hse^enra hergung 
adyligodan Godes cyrican in Lindisfarenaee.tmrh reaflac and manslyht. 

794. Her Adrian' papa and Offa cing forSferdon. and A^elred 
Nor^h' cing was ofslagen. and Ceolwulf b' and Eadbald b' of 'San 
lande foron. and Egcfer8 feng to Myrc'rice. and on ftan geare forS 
ferde. and Eadb'ht Prsen onfeng rice on Cent. 

795. Her was se mona a^estred. betwyx hancre and dagung. and 
Eardulf feng to Nordh'rice. and gebletsod to cing fram Eanbalde arb' 
and ^ESelb'hte b'. and Higbalde. and Badewulfe b'. 

796. Her on 'Syson gearse Ceolwulf Myrcna cing overhergode 
Cent, and gefeng Eadberht Prsen heora cing and gebundene Isedde 
on Myrce. and let him pycan ut his eagan. and ceorfan of his hand. * 

797. 798. 799. . . (E. 797) . . and Alfhun b' forSferde on Sudb'i. he 
wearS bebyrged on Domuce. and TidfriS wearS gecoren sefter him. and 
SiricEastsexana cing ferde to Rome. In Sysum ylcan geare Wihtburge 
lichama wearS gefunden eal gehal and unfor . . J . . d a Deorham after 
fif and fifte gearon |>as ^e heo of ^ysum live gewat. (J sine corrup- 
tione. F.Lat.) 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 59 

792. Her Offa Myrcena cining het ^^elbrihte $ heafod 
of slean. and Osred }>e waes Nor)?anhymbra cining sefter wraec 
srSe ham cumenum gelseht wses. and ofslagen on xviii kP 
Octobr. and his lie lig$ aet Tinan mu)?e. and uE^elred cining 
feng to niwan wife, seo wses ^Elfled gehaten. on iii kP Octob. 

793. Her wseron refte forebecna cumene ofer NorSanhym- 
bra land, and j? folc earmlice bregdon. ty waeron or mete lig 
rsescas and waeron geseowene fyrene dracan on j?am lyfte 
fleogende. j?am tacnum sona fyligde mycel hunger, and litel 
aefter ]?am ]?ses ilcan geares on vi id' Jaiir earmlice heftenra 
manna hergung adiligode Godes cyrican. in Lindisfarena ee. 
}mrh reaflac and man sleht. and Sicga forSferde on viii kP Mr. 

794. Her Adrianus papa and OfFa cining forSferden. and 
JEftelred NorSanhymbra cining waes of slagan fram his agenre 
feode on xiii k' Mai. and Ceolwulf V and Eadbald biscop of 
]?an lande aforon. and EcgferS feng to Myrcene rice, and ]?y 
ilcan geare forSferde. And Eadbriht onfeng rice on Cent J?am 
wses ofter nama nemned Praen. And ^EiSelheard ealdorman 
forSferde on k' Aug. and )?a hse^enan on NorShymbrum 
hergodon. and Ecgfer^es mynster set ftone mu)?e berefodon. 
and j?ser heora heretogena sum ofslsegen wearS. and eac 
heora scipu sume J?urh oferweder wurdon tobrocene. and 
heora feala ]?2er adruncon. and sume cuce to ]?am steeiSe comon. 
and ]?a man sona of sloh set fteere ea muSan. 

795. Her waes seo mona aiSistrod betwux hancred and 
dagunge on v kl' Apr. And Eardwulf feng to Norfanhymbran 
cine dome on ii id Mai. and he waes sy&San gebletsod and 
to his cine stole ahofen on vii k' Junii on Eoferwic fram Ean- 
balde arceb' and JSiSelberhte. and Higbalde. and Badewulfe. 

796. Her forSferde Offa Myrcena cining on iiii id' Augusti. 
se rixode xl wintra. and Eanbald arceb' on iiii id Aug' J?aes ilcan 
geares. and his lie lig$ on Eoferwic. and J?es ilcan geares forS 
ferde Ceolwulf b'. and man gehalgode o]?erne Eanbald on J?ses 
o^res stal on xix kP Sept. and ]?y ilcan geare Ceolwulf Myrcena 
cining ofer hergode Cantware and Mersc ware, and ge fengon 
Praen heora cining. and gebundenne hine laeddon on Myrce. 

797. Her Romane Leone j?am papan his tungan forcurfan. 
and his eagan ut astungon. and hine of his setle aflymdon. 
and J?a sona eft Gode ge fultumiendum he mihte ge seon and 
sprecan. and eft waes papa swa he ser wses. and Eanbald 

I 2 


799. Her yEj>elheard sercebisc and Cynebryht Wes- 
seaxna bisc foron to Rome. 

800. Her Beorhtric cyning forjrferde and Worr 
aldormon. 3rid Ecgbryht feng to Wesseaxna rice. 
3nd f>y ilcan dsege rad yEj?elmund aldorman of Hwic- 
cium ofer set Cynem seres forda. pa rnette hine Weox- 
tan aldorman mid Wilssetum. peer wear]? micel ge- 
feoht and J?ser begen ofslsegene J>a aldor men. and 
Wilssetan namon sige. 

802. Her wses gehadod Beorn mod bisc to Hrofes 

803. Her yE^el heard serce bisc forj>ferde and Wul- 
fred wses to serce bisc gehadod. and ForJ>red abbud 

804. Her Wulfred aerce bisc pallium onfeng. 

805. Her Cuf>red cyning forjrferde on Cantwarum 
and Ceolburg abbudesse and Heabryht aldorman. 

812. Her Carl cyning for)?ferde. and hericsode xlv 
wint. !Snd Wulfred arce bisc and Wigbryht Wes- 
seaxna bisc foron begen to Rome. 

818. Her Wulfred serce bisc mid bledsunge j?ses 
papan Leon hwearf eft to his agnum bisc dome and 

F. 806. . (E) . . Eac on Syse ylcan geare. ii no lunii. rode tacn 
wearS ateowed on 'Sam monan. anes Wodnes dseges. innan Sare 
dagenge. and eft on Sysum geare iii kl' Sept. an wunderlic trendel 
wearS ateowed abutan ^are sunnan. (Luna xii, die Dominica, hora 
iiu a mirabilis corona in circuitu sotis apparuit. F. Lat.) 

809. Her seo sunne aftestrode on angynne Sare fifte tide t5as 
dseges xvii kal' August!, ii feria. luna xxix. 

10 Eodem vero die quo rex Brihtri- toniensibus ascendit contra eum; com- 

cus vita decessit, contigit Merciorum missoque gravi prselio, multi ex his et 

ducem JEthelmundum de Mercia cutn ex illis ceciderunt, amboque duces occisi 

suis exiisse, vadumque, quod linguS, corruerunt, victoriam ver6 Wiltonienses 

Anglorum Cymeresford nominatur, habuerunt. (Flor.) 

transisse ; cujus adventu cognito, Wil- 1 Wihstan B. Wehostan C. 

toniensium dux Weohstanus cum Wil- 2 Brihtric's death; Asser 855. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 61 

onfeng pallium on vi id' Sept. and JE^elberht b' forSferde on 
iii kl' Nov. 

798. Her wses mycel gefeoht on NorShymbra lande on 
lengtene on iiii no Apr. set Hweallsege. and fser man of sloh 
Alric Heardberhtes sunu. and oftre msenige mid him. 

799. Her yESelred arceb' and Cynebriht Wsest Ssexna bis- 
cop foran to Roma. 

800. Her wses se mona aftistrad on $sere oft re tid onniht 
on xvii kl' Febr. and Brihtric cining forftferde' 2 . and Worr 
sealdorman. And Ecgberht feng to Wsest Seaxna rice. And J?y 
ilcan dseg rad .ZEfelmund ealdorman of Hwiccum 10 ofer set 
Cynemseresforda. fa gemette hine Weohstan l ealdorman mid 
Wilssetum and ]?ser wserS mycel gefeoht. and fser begen 
ofslagene wseron. ]?e ealdormen. and Wilssete namon sige. 

Karolus rex imperator factus est, et a Romania appellatus 
Augustus ; qui illos qui Leonem papam dehonestaverant morte 
damnavit, sed precibus papa3 morte indulta exilio retrusit. 
Ipse enim papa Leo imperatorem eum sacraverat. 

802. Her afteostrade se mona on dagunge on xiii kl' Jafir. 
and Beornmod waes ge halgod to b' to Rofeceastre J?y ilcan 

803. Her forftferde Higbald Lindisfarna b' on viii F Julii. 
and man gehalgode on his steal Ecgberht on iii id' Junii. and 
JEftelherd arceb' forSferde on Cent, and Wulfred to arceb' 

804. Her Wulfred arceb' onfeng pallium. 

805. Her CuiSred cining forSferde on Cantwarum. and 
Ceolburh abb'e. and Heard berht. 

806. Her se mona aftistrode on kl' Sept. and Eardwulf 
Nor^anhymbra cining w3s of his rice adrifen. and Eanberht 
Hagusteald bs forSferde. 

810. Karolus cum Niceforo imperatore Constantinopol' pa- 
cem fecit. 

812. Her Karl cining forSferde. and he rixade xlv wintra. 
and Wulfred arceb'. and Wigbriht Wsest Saexna b' foran to 
Rome. Cireneius Karolo imperatori legatos suos cum pace 
mittit. Karolus imperator obiit. 

813. Her Wulfred arceb' mid bletsunge ]?aes papan Leon 
hwearf eft to his agenum biscop dome, and ]>y geare ge her- 


}?y geare gehergade Ecgbryht cyning on WestWalas 
from easte weardum op westewearde. 

814. Her Leo seeej>ela pap and se halga for)?ferde. 
arid aefter him Stephanus feng to rice. 

816. Her Stephanus pap for]?ferde. and aefter him 
was Paschalis to papan gehadod. Tfnd J?y ilcan geare 
forborn Ongolcynnes scolu. 

819- Her Cenwulf Miercna cyning forj>ferde and 
Ceolwulf feng to rice, and Eadbryht aldor mon forj> 

821. Her wear]? Ceolwulf his rices besciered. 

822. Her tuegen aldormen wurdon ofslaegene Burg 
helm and Muca. and senoj? waes set Clofes hoo. 

823. Her waes Wala gefeoht and Defna aet Gaful 
forda. ?Cnd Ipy ilcan geare gefeaht Ecbryht cyning and 
Beornwulf cyning on Ellen dune, and Ecgbryht sige 
nam. and J?aer waes rnicel w<el ge slsegeri. pa sende 
he yEj?lwulf his sunu of J?aere fierde and Ealhstan his 
bisc and Wulfheard his aldor mon to Cent micle 
werede and hie Baldred ]?one cyning nor]? ofer 
Temese adrifon. and Cant ware him tocirdon and 
Suf>rige and Suf>Seaxe and EastSeaxe Ipy hie from 
his msegum ser mid unryhte anidde wserun. 

!Snd J?y ilcan geare EastEngla cyning and seo J?eod 
gesohte Ecgbryht cyning him to frij>e and to rnund 
boran for Miercna ege and }>y geare slogon East 
Engle Beornwulf Miercna cyning. 

825. Her Ludecan Miercna cyning and his v aldor 
men mon ofslog mid him and Wiiglaf feng to rice. 

827. Her mona a]?istrode on middes vvintres maesse 

Snd f>y ilcan geare ge code Ecgbryht cyning 
Miercna rice and al J?set be suj>an Humbre waes. and 
he woes se eahtej?a cyning sef>e Bretwalda waes. ^Erest 
^Elle SuJ?Seaxna cyning se Jnis micel rice haefde. se 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 63 

gode Ecgberht cining on WestWalas fram easteweardum oft 

814. Her Leo se seftela papa and se halga forftferde. and 
sefter him Stephanus feng to rice. 

815. Her Stephanus papa forftferde. and sefter him wses 
Paschalis to papan gehalgod. And )?y ilcan geare forbarn 
Angel cynnes scolu. 

819. Her Cenwulf Myrcena cining forftferde. andCeolwulf 3 
feng to rice, and Eadberht ealdorman forftferde. 

821. Her wserft Ceolwulf his rices bescered. 

822. Her twasgen aldormen wurdon of slagene Burhhelm 
and Muca. and sinoft set Clofesho. 

823. Her wees Weala ge feoht and Defena set Gafol forda. 
And J?y ilcan geare ge feaht Ecgberht West Seaxna cining 
and Beornulf Myrcena cining a3t Elian dune, and Ecgberht 
sige nam. and ]?ser wses mycel wsel ge slsegen. pa sende he 
JEftelwulf his sunu of )?a3re ferde. and Ealhstan his b'. and 
Wulfheard his ealdorman to Cent mycele wserede. and hi 
Baldred )?one cining norft ofer Temese adrifen. and Cantwara 
him to cyrdon. and Suftrig. and Suftseaxe. and Eastseaxe. 
J?y hi fram his magum ser mid unrihte anydde wseron. 

And j?y ilcan geare EastEngla cining and seo ]?eod gesohte 
Ecgbriht cining him to frifte and to mundburan for Myrcena 
ege. and J?i ilcan geare slogon EastEngle Beornulf Myrcena 

825. Her Ludecan Myrcena cining. and his v ealdormen 
man ofsloh mid him. and Wiglaf feng to rice. 

827. Her se mona aftistrode on middes wintres messaniht. 

And J?y geare geeode Ecgbriht cining Myrcena rice, and eal 
^ besuftan Humbre waes. and he wses se eahtofta cining se ]?e 
Brytenwealda waes. And a3rest waes JLlle SuSseaxna cining se 

3 Between Cenwulf and Ceolwulf crudelitatis ab Asceberhto, nutritore 

was a brief reign of the sainted king, suo cruentissimo, in vasta sylvaque ne- 

Cenhelm : found in no MS. of the morosa sub arbore spinosa occulte tra- 

Chronicle. Florence celebrates him : ditur jugulo ; verum qui solo teste coelo 

Rex Merciorum S. Kennlphus, .... est jugulatus, coelo teste per columnam 

filium suum Kenelmum septennem lucis postmodum est revelatus, &c. 

regni reliquit hseredem. Sed paucis Dr. Ingram quotes an early English 

mensibus evolutis, germanse suse Quen- Life of S. Kenelm, from a MS. in the 

drythae insidiis, cujus ssevam conscien- Library of Trin. Coll. Oxon. (No. 57. 

tiam dira cupido regnandi armarat, ausu Arch.) 

64 THE PARKER MS. (ff) 

aeftera waes Ceawlin Wesseaxna cyning. sej?ridda waes 
yEj>elbryht Cantwara cyning. sefeorj?a waes Rcedwald 
EastEngla cyning. fifta was Eadwine NorJ?an hymbra 
cyning, siexta wees Oswald se sefter him ricsode. 
seofoj^a wses Oswio Oswaldes brojmr. eahtoj>a wses 
Ecgbryht Wesseaxna cyning. 

^ind se Ecgbryht Ledde fierd to Dore wij? Norman 
hymbre. and hie him ]?8er eaj?medo budon and ge- 
Jjusernesse. and hie on)?am tohwurfon. 

828. Her eft Wilaf onfeng Miercna rices and yE)?el- 
wald bisc forjrferde and J?y ilcan geare Icedde Ecgbryht 
cyning fierd on Norf>Walas. and he hie to ea)?modre 
hersumnesse gedyde. 

829. Her Wulfred sercebisc forj>ferde. 

830. Her CeolnoJ? wees gecoren to bisc and geha- 
dod. and Feologid abbud forjrferde. 

831. Her Ceolno)? eercebisc onfeng pallium. 

832. Her hce)?ne men oferhergeadon Sceapige. 

833. Her gefeaht Ecgbryht cyning wij> xxxv scip 
hlsesta setCarrum. and j?ser wearj? micel Wcel geslsegen 
and }?a Denescan ahton Wtel stowe gewald 3md 
HereferJ? and WigJ^en tuegen biscepas forj?ferdon and 
Dudda and Osmod tuegen aldormen for}?ferdon. 

835. Her cuom micel sciphere on WestWalas and 
hie to anum gecierdon. and wij> Ecgbryht West 
Seaxna cyning winnende wseron. pa he J>aet hierde 
and mid fierde ferde and him wij?feaht set Hengest 
dune, and J?ger gefliemde gef>aWalas e gef>aDeniscan. 

836. Her Ecgbryht cyning forf>ferde and hine haefde 
ser Offa Miercna cyning and Beorhtric Wesseaxna 
cyning afliemed iii gear of Sngel cynnes lande on 
Fronc lond ser he cyning wsere and ]?y fultumode 
Beorhtric Offan J>y he hsefde his dohtor him to cuene 

se Ecgbryht ricsode xxxvii wint' and vii monaj?. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 65 

|?us mycel haefde. oj?ser wses Ceawlin WestSeaxna cining, 
J?ridde ^E)?elbriht Cantwara cining. feorfte Redwald East 
Engla cining. fifta -ZEdwine Norj?an hymbra cining. sixta 
wses Oswald J>e sefter him rixade. seofafte wses Oswiu Os- 
waldes bro]?or. eahtofta wses Ecgbriht WestSeaxna cining. 

And se Ecgbriht Isedde fyrde to Dore wr$ NorJ?anhumbra. 
and hi him f>ser eadmedo budon. and J?wsernessa. and hi mid 
}?an to hwurfon. 

828. Her Wiglaf eft onfeng Myrcena rice, and ^Eftelbald 
b' forSferde. and J?y ilcan geare Ecgbriht cining Isedde fyrde 
on NorS Wealas. and he heom ealle to eadmodere hyrsum- 
nesse gedyde. 

829. Her Wulfred asrceb' forSferde. 

830. Her CeolnoJ? waes to b' gecoren and gehadod. and 
Feolagild abbot forSferde. 

831. Her Ceolnoft serceb' onfeng pallium. 

832. Her hse^ene men ofer hergodon Sceap ege. 

833. Her Ecgbriht cining ge feaht wi^ xxv sciphlsesta set 
Carrum. and )?ser wserh$ mycel wsel ge slagen. and ]?a Denis- 
can ahton waelstowe ge weald, and HereferS and Wigfer^ ii b* 
forftferdon. and Duda and Osmod ii ealdormeu for^ferdon. 

835. Her com inicel sciphere on Wasst Wealas. and hi to 
anum gecyrdon. and wr3 Ecgbriht Wa3stSeaxna cining win- 
nende wseron. pa fyrdode him togeanes. and wr3 him feaht 
set Hengestes dune, and J?aer segfter aflymde ge )?a Wealas 
ge j?a Deniscan. 

836. Her Ecgbriht cining forSferde. and hine ser hsefde 
Offa Myrcena cining and Byrhtric Wsest Ssexna cining 
aflymde iii gear of Angel cynnes lande on Franc land aer 
he cining wsere. and se Ecgbriht rixade xxxvii winter, and 

e These Walas or WestWalas are of Strathclyde, Strsecled "Walas (875, 

the men of Cornwall. So 710, 823. 924). The Old High German calls the 

They are called CornWalas, 891, 99 7E. Latin Language, or any of its dialects, 

The Gothic folks gave the name "Walas Walahisca ; and the designation still 

to strange races on all sides, to the Celts lives in Germ. Wiilsch. In Mid High 

in Gaul and Britain, and to those who German it was used as equivalent to 

spoke the Roman dialects in the South. not -German, as, in alien Welschen 

The Saxons called the natives of Gaul, und in Tiutschen riehen (Ziemanh 

Gal Walas : of Britain, Bret Walas ; M. H. D. Wort.) = in all the world. 

of CerniujCorn Walas or West Walas ; Hence wal-nut,GeTm. wallnuss = foreign 

those north of the Bristol Channel, nut. A. S. wealh, wylen. Cf. Graff, v. 

NorJ> Walas (92 2), now WALES; those Walah. 


66 THE PARKER MS. (55) 

FENG EpElwulf Ecgbrehting toWesseaxna 
rice. !Snd he salde his suna /E)?elstane Cantwararice 
and EastSeaxna and Sufrigea and SuJ>Seaxna. 

837. Her Wulfheard aldorman gefeaht set Ham 
tune wij> xxxiii sciphlsesta and J?ser mieel Wcel geslog. 
and sige nom. and }>y geare forjrferde Wulfheard "Knd 
]>y ylcan geare gefeaht /EJ?elhelm dux wij? Deniscne 
here on Port mid Dornssetum and gode hwile ]?one 
here gefliemde. and J?a Deniscan ahton Wcel stowe ge- 
wald and }?one aldormon ofslogon. 

838. Her Herebryht aldormon wses ofslsegen from 
hcej>num monnum and monige mid him on Mersc 
warum and j?y ilcan geare eft on Lindesse and on 
EastEnglum and on Cantwarurn wurdon monige men 
ofslsegene from J?am herige. 

839. Her wses micel Weelsliht on Lundenne and on 
Cwantawic and on Hrofes ceastre. 

840. Her zE]?elwulf cyning gefeaht set Carrum wij> 
xxxv sciphlaesta. and J>a Deniscan ahton wselstowe 

845. Her Eanulf aldorman gefeaht mid Sumur 
ssetum and Ealch stan bisc and Osric aldorman mid 
Dornsaetum gefuhton set Pedridan mu]?an wi)? De- 
niscne here and J7ser micel w<el geslogon and sige 

851. Her Ceorl alder mon gefeaht wij? hsej>ene men 
mid Defena scire set Wicgan beorge and J?ser micel 
geslogon and sige namon. 

pY ILC3:N geare yEJ^elstan cyning and 
Ealchere dux micelne here ofslogon set Sondwic on 
Cent and ix scipu gefengun and ]?a opre gefliemdon 
and hcejme men serest ofer winter sseton. 

'Knd ]>y ilcan geare cuom feor'Sehealf hund scipa 
on Temese muj?an. and brcecon Contwaraburg and 
Lunden burg and gefliemdon Beorhtwulf Miercna 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 67 

vii monftas. And feng ^Efelwulf his sunu to WestSeaxna rice, 
and ^Eftelstan his ofter sunu feng to Cantwara rice, and to 
Suftrigan. and to Suftseaxna rice. 

837. Her Wulfheard ealdorman ge feaht aet Hamtune wr<$ 
xxxiii sciphlesta. and J?8er my eel wsel gesloh. and sige nam. 
and J?y geare forSferde Wulfheard. and Jtyelhelm ealdorman 
ge feaht wr3 ]?a Deniscan on Port mid Dorssetum. and se 
ealdorman wserS ofslsegen. and J?a Deniscan ahton wselstowe 
ge weald. 

839. Her wses mycel wsel sleht on Lundene. and on Cant 
wic and on Rofes caestre. 

840. Her ^E^elwulf cining ge feaht aet Carrum wr$ xxxv 
sciphlesta. and ]?a Deniscan ahton wselstowe ge weald. 

845. Her Earnulf dux mid Sumorsseton. and Ealchstan 
b'. and Osric dux mid Dorsaeton ge fuhton aet Pedredau mu- 
J?an wiiS Denisce here, and J?aer mycel wsel ge slogon and sige 

851. Her Ceorl ealdorman ge feaht wr3 heftene men mid 
Defene scire set Wic gean beorge. and J7aer mycel wsel ge 
slogon. and sige genamon. and hse^ene men on Tenet ofer 
winter geseeton. 

And )?y ilcan geare com feorj?e healfhund scipa on 
Temese muj>an. and brsecon Cantware burh. and geflymdon 
Brihtwulf Myrcena cining mid his fyrde. and foran ]?a suiS 
ofer Temese on Suftrige. and him ge feaht wi3 ^E^elwulf 
cining. and JEiSelbald his sunu set Aclea mid WsestSsexna 
fyrde. and J?8er ty maeste wael ge slogon on ha3$ene here |?e we 
aefre gesecgan herdon. and J>ser sige namon. 

And ]>y ilcan geare ^Eftelstan cining. and Ealhere dux ge 
fuhton on scipum. and mycelne here of slogon set Sandwic. 
and ix scipu gefengon. and J?a o^re geflymdon. 

852. Her on jris tima leot Ceolred abb' of Medesham 
stede and J?a munecas Wulfrede to hande ]?et land of 
Sempigaham to j? forewearde ^ sefter his daei scolde ty 
land into ]?e minstre. and Wulfred scolde gifen f land of 
Sliowaforda into Medeshamstede. and he scolde gife ilca 
gear into j?e minstre sixtiga foftra wuda. and twaelf foftur 
graefan. and sex foftur gearda. and twa tunnan fulle hlutres 
alo^. and twa slseg naet. and sex hund hlafes. and ten mittan 
Waelsces aloft, and ilca gear an hors and )?rittiga scillinga. 

K 2 


cyning mid his fierde. and foron J>a suj? ofer Temese 
on SuJ>rige and him gefeaht wij? ^Efelwulf cyning 
and yE]?elbald his sunu set Tfclea mid WestSeaxna 
fierde and J^ser J?aet mseste w<el geslogon on hcejmum 
herige J>e we secgan hierdon op ]?isne andweardan 
dseg and J?aer sige namon. 

853. Her bced Burgred Miercna cyning and his 
wiotan 7Ej>elwulf cyning f>aet he him gefultumade j?set 
him Norj?Walas gehiersumade He }?a swa dyde and 
mid fierde for ofer Mierce on Nor]?Walas and hie 
him alle gehiersume dydon. 

Snd J>y ilcan geare sende yE]?elwulf cyning Alfred 
his sunu to Rome pa was domne Leo pap on Rome 
and he hine to cyninge ge halgode and hiene him to 
biscepsuna nam. 

pa ]?y ilcan geare Ealhere mid Cantwarum and 
Huda mid Suj?rigium gefuhton on Tenet wty h<ej> 
num herige and serest sige namon and J?ser wear]? 
monig mon ofslsegen and adruncen on ge hw<ej?ere 

Ond J?8es ofer Eastron geaf /EJ?elwulf cyning his 
dohtor Burgrede cyninge of Wesseaxum on Merce. 

855. Her hcef>ne men serest on Sceapige oferwiiit 
saetun. Snd ]?y ilcan geare gebocude zE)?elwulf cyning 
teo}?an dtel his londes ofer al his rice Gode to lofe and 
him selfum to ecere hcelo. 

!Snd J?y ilcan geare ferde to Rome mid micelre 
weor]?nesse and J?aer wses xii monaj? wuniende and 
J>a him ham weard for and him J?a Carl Francna 
cyning his dohtor geaf him to cuene and sefter )?am 
to his leodum cuom and hie J?ees gefsegene waerun. 
Snd ymb ii gear Jjses'Se he on Francum com he gefor. 
and his lie li]? setWintan ceastre and he ricsode nigon 
teoj>e healf gear. Ond se yE]?elwulf wses Ecgbrehting 
Ecgbryht Ealhmunding Ealhmund Eafing Eafa Eop- 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 69 

and ane naeht gefeormige. Her wees wr<5 se cining Burhred. 
and Ceolred serceb'. and Tanberht b'. and Cenred b'. and 
Alhhun V. and Berhtred b'. and Wihtred abb', and Werht- 
herd abb'. .^EiSelheard ealdorman. Hunberht ealdorman. and 
feola o^re 4 . 

852. Her Burhred Myrcene cining under fteodde him 
NorS Wealas mid Jtyelwulfes cininge fultume. 

And ]?y ilcan geare Ealhhere mid Cantvvarum. and Huda 
mid Su^rigum gefuhton on Tenet wift hse^ene here, and j?Eer 
wseron feala of slsegene and adruncen on segiSre hand, and ba 
ealdormen bege daede. 

And Burhred Myrcene cining feng to ^Eftelwulfes dohtor 
West Seaxna cininges. 

855. Her hse^ene men serest on Sceapege ofer winter 
saeton. And J?y ilcan geare gebocade jEftelwulf cining 
teoftan dsel his landes ofer eal his rice Gode to lofe. and 
him selfum ecre hsele. 

And j?y ilcan geare ferde to Borne mid mycclum wurS- 
scipe. and J?ser wunade xii monaiS. and he feng to Karles 
dohter Francna cining ]?a he hamweard wses. and gesund 
ham com. and J?ses ymbe ii gear forSferde. and his lie lift on 
Wintanceastre. and he rixade ix gear. He wees Ecgbrihting. 

4 Peterborough Record, No. 6. The set Sempingaham and aet Slioforda, and. 

original is extant, and more, it is in bruce 'Sere cirican lafard on Medesham- 

the mother tongue. stede Ses landes set Slioforda, and Wul- 

The philologer, as well as the his- fred '5es on Sempingaham : and he 

torian, will be gratified to have at hand geselle eghwelce gere to Medesham- 

the document upon which the text was stede tua tunnan fulle luhtres alo^, 

based. Cod. Dipl. No. 267. and tua slegneat, and sex hund lafes 

^ and ten mittan waelsces alo^, and iSere 

>J< In nomine patris et filii et spiri- drican lgforde geselle gghwelce ^ 

tus sancti ! Ceolred abbud and iSa higan hors and ^rittig scillinga, and hine ane 

on Medeshamstede sellaiS Wulfrede tSet niht gefeormige fiftene mitta luhtres 

land set Sempingaham in "Sas gered- alo^, fif mitta welsces alo^S, fiftene 

nisse ; "Set he hit hsebbe and bruce sua sestras liftes : and hi sion symle in 

lange sua he life and anum serfeuuarde allum here life eadmode and hearsume 

sefter him ; and elce gere sextig fo'Sra and underj^eodde, and ofer here tuega 

wuda to ftaim ham on Hornan iSeem dseg 'Sonne agefe hio ftet land into 

wuda, and tuelf fo'Ser grsefan and sex 'Sere cirican to Medeshamstede mid 

fo'Sur gerda. End for'Son we him "Sis freodome ; and we him 'Sis sellaiS mid 

land sella^, "Set he "Ses landes fulne felda and mid wuda and mid fenne sua 

friodom bigete in aice aerfeweardnisse fter to belimpe'S. &c. 


ping Eoppa Ingilding Ingild wses Ines brojmr West 
Seaxna cyninges J>ses J?e eft ferde to See Petre and 
J>er eft his feorh ge sealde and hie waeron Cenredes 
suna Cenred wees Ceolwalding Ceolwald Cuj?aing 
Cupa Cu)?wining. Cujnvine Ceaulining Ceawling 
Cynricing Cynric Cerdicing Cerdic Elesing Elesa 
Esling Esla Giwising Giwis Wiging Wig Freawining 
Freawine Frifogaring FriJ>ogar Bronding Brond Bcel- 
dseging Bceldseg Wodening Woden Fri)?owalding Fri- 
J?uwald Freawining Frea laf FriJ?uwulfing Frijwwulfi 
Finning Fin Godwulfing God wulf Geating Geat 
Tcetwaing Teetwa Beawing Beaw Sceldwaing Sceld- 
wea f Herernoding Heremod Itermoning Itermon Hra- 
]?raing se wses geboren in J?sere earce Noe Lamach 
Matusalern Enoh laered Maleel Camon Enos Sed 
!Xdam. primus homo et pater noster. est Xps Smen. 

Ond f>a fengon yEf>elwulfes suna twegen to rice 
yEj>elbald to Wesseaxna rice and yE)?elbryht to Cant 
wararice and to East Seaxna rice, and to Su)?rigea and 
to SuJ> Seaxna rice and f>a ricsode yE]?elbald v gear. 

860. Her yEj>elbald cyng forfferde and his lie lij? 
aet Scira bur nan and feng /Ej>elbryht to allum }?am 
rice his broj?ur and he hit heold on godre gejmser- 
nesse and on micelre sibsumnesse. 

Snd on his daege cuom micel sciphere up and 
abrcecon Wintanceastre. and wij? ]?one here gefuhton 
Osric aldor man mid Ham tun scire and yE)?elwulf 
aldormon mid Bearruc scire and J>one here ge fliem- 
don and Wcel stowe gewald ahton and se yEJ?elbryht 
ricsode v gear and his lie li}? set Scire burnan. 

865. Her saet h<e)?en here on Tenet and genamon 
frij? wi)? Cantwarum and Cant ware him feoh geheton 
wi]? }?am fri)?e and under ]?am fri)?e and f>am feoh 
ge hate se here hiene on niht up best<el. and ofer- 
hergeade alle Cent eastewearde. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 71 

And J?a fengon his ii sunu to rice. ^EiSelbald to WestSeaxna 
rice, and to Suftrigean. And he rixade v gear. 

860. Her ^ESelbald cining forbTerde. and his lie IrS set 
Scireburnan. and feng ^Eftelbriht to eallum J>am rice his 

And on his daage com mycel sciphere up. and abrae- 
con Wintanceastre. and wr3 ]?one here fuhton Osric ealdor 
man mid Hamtune scire. and ^E^elwulf ealdorman mid Bar- 
rucscire and )?one here geflymdon. and wselstowe ge weald 
ah ton. and se JE^elbriht rixade v gear, and his lie lift set 

865. Her sset se hse^ene here on Tenet and genam 
wi$ Cant war um. and Cant ware heom feoh be heton wr$ 
frrSe. and on J?am feoh be hate se here hine on niht up be 
stael. and oferhergode ealle Cent eastewarde. 

B. 855. . (S) . . Itermon Hamming. Ha^ra Hwalaing. Hwala Bed- 
wiging. Bedwig Sceafing. id est filius Noe se wees geboren on bsere 
earce Noes. Lamech. Matusalem. Enoc. lared. Malalehel. Camon. 
Enos. Seth. Adam primus homo & pater nr. Id est Xps. 

F. 861. Her forSferde S. SwrSun b'. and ^E^elbald cing. and he 
IrS on Scirburnan. and ^^elb'ht feng to eallan 'San rice his broker, 
and on his dsege com mycel sciphere and abrsecan Wintanceast' and 
wrS ^one here fuhtan Hamtunscir and Bearrucscir and ^one here 
geflymdon. and ^es J^^elbyrht rixode v gear and his lie IrS at 

f This pedigree outruns all others higher than 7C ; all up to Sceaf, the 

in the Chronicle. It is rare to mount mysterious ancestor of fabled kings, 

higher than "Woden, the divine father This remote progenitor appears in the 

of kings. In 547 we are carried up to Beowulf, but only as the patronym of 

Geat, which is quite transcendental. Scyld, the oldest personage of whom 

But here, the lineage strains after the any doings are there related. The Lon- 

loftiest attainable elevation, quitting gobards preserved the name of Sceaf 

the mythological for the Scriptural at the head of their traditions, as may 

genealogy, and from the summit of be gathered from the Traveller's Song, 

the latter soaring away into the region line 64. For further information cf. 

beyond. Kemble's Preface to his Beowulf, 

In the mythological stage, B. C. D. go vol. ii. 

72 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

866. Her feng /E]?ered /Ej?elbryhtes bro)?ur to Wes- 
seaxna rice !Xnd f>y ilcan geare cuom micel here on 
Sngel cynnes lond and wint'setl namon on East 
Englum and J?8er gehorsude wurdon and hie him 
frij? namon. 

867. Her for se here of EastEnglum oferHumbre 
muj?an to Eofor wic ceastre on Nor]?hymbre Rnd 
J>aer wses rnicel un Jmaernes f>sere J?eode betweox him 
selfum and hie hsefdun hiera cyning aworpenne Os- 
bryht and ungecyndne cyning underfengon /Elian, 
and hie late on geare to f>am gecirdon J?set hie wij? 
)?one here winnende wserun and hie f>eah micle fierd 
gegadrodon and ]?one here sohton set Eoforwic ceastre 
and on J?a ceastre brcecon and hie sume inne wurdon 
and )?8er was ungemetlic w<el geslsegen Norman hym- 
bra sume binnan sume butan. and J>a cyningas begen 
ofslsegene and sio laf wij? J?one here fri]?nam. 

Snd ]?y ilcan geare gefor Ealchstan bisc and he 
haefde J?aet bisc rice L wint' set Scire burnan. and his 
lie lij? J>eer on tune. 

868. Her for se ilca here intian Mierce to Sno- 
tengaham and J>aer wint'setl namon TCnd Burgr^ed 
Miercna cyning and his wiotan b<edon /E)?ered West 
Seaxna cyning and yElfred his bro}?ur J^eet hie him 
gefultumadon f>set hie wij? J?one here gefuhton 'Knd 
}?a ferdon hie mid Wesseaxna fierde innan Mierce oj? 
Snotenga ham. and J?one here J?aer metton on J?am 
geweorce. and ]?8er nan hefelic gefeoht ne wear]? 
and Mierce fri]? riarnon wif> Jxme here. 

869. Her for se here eft to Eoforvvicceastre and 
J?ser sset i gear. 

870. Her rad se here ofer Mierce innan EastEngle 
and wintsetl namon. aet peodforda. 'Knd ]>y wint' 
Eadmund cyning him wij? feaht. and J?a Deniscan 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 73 

866. Her feng J^elred ^EiSelbrihtes broflor to West 
Seaxna rice. And }>y ilcan geare com mycel hseften here 
on Angelcynnes land, and winter setle namon set East 
Englum. and ]?ser ge horsade wurdon. and hi heom wr$ friiS 
ge naraon. 

867. Her for se here of East Englum ofer HumbremirSan. 
to Eoferwic ceastre on NorSan hymbre. and ]?ser wses mycel 
unftwsernesse iSere ]?eode betwux heom sylfum. and hi hsef- 
don heora cining aworpene Osbriht. and ungecynde cining 
under fengon Julian, and hi late on geare to ]?am ge cyrdon. 
^ hi wr$ J?one here winnende wseron. and hi iSeah myccle 
fyrd 4 gegadorodan. and |?one here sohton set Eofewic ceastre. 
and j?a ceastre brsecon. and hi sume inne wurdon. and j?ser 
wses ungemet wsel geslsegen NoriSanhymbra sume binnan 
sume butan. and j?a ciningas bsegen of slsegene. and seo lafe 
wr3 )?one here fry$ nam. 

And )?y ilcan geare gefor Ealhstan V. and he hsefde ^ biscop 
rice set Scireburnan L winter, and his lie Ir3 J^ser on tune. 

868. Her for se ilca here innari Myrce to Snotingham. 
and J?ser winter setle namon. and Burhcred Myrcena cining 
and his witan bsedon ^EiSelred West Seaxna cining and 
j^Elfred his broker J>et hi him fultumedon. J?set hi wi^ ]?one 
here gefuhton. and )?a fserdon hi mid WsestSsexa fyrde in 
on Myrcene o]> Snotingaham. and J>one here metton J>ser on 
J>am ge weorce. and hine inne be setton. and ]?ser nan hefilic 
gefeaht ne wearS. and Myrce fri^ namon wv$ )?one here. 

869. Her for sehere eft to Eoferwic ceastre. and J?ser 
sset an gear. 

870. Her for se here ofer Myrce innon East Jungle, and 
winter setle namon set Beodforda. and on J?am geare see 
^Edmund cining him wift gefeaht. and J?a Deniscan sige 

4 The national force is called fierd, merically defined. If more than 35 

fyrd ; and the invading armament is persons band together, it is here : from 

here. The latter word probably meant 7 up to that number it is only hlo^ : 

at first a body of men, a band; and this 7 or less are merely thieves, 

unprejudiced sense still lives in the The fierd was the national militia, 

Germ. Heer. But in A. S. it con- embodied in each shire under the eald- 

tracted the bad notion of a troop; viz. orman: so called from their marching 

that of waste, pillage, buccaneering. off on Service (faran) ; in Latin named 

Hence the words, hergian, hergung, expeditio. No property in the coun- 

to harry, c. In the Laws of King try was exempt from the obligation to 

Ine it has a criminal sense, and is nu- send its contingent to the fyrd. 



sige namon and ]?one cyning ofslogon. and }?aet lond 
all ge eodon. 

Snd J>y geare gefor Ceolno]? serce bisc. a?id JE\>ered 

Wiltimscire biscop wear}) gecoren to arcebiscpe to Cantuareberi. 

871. Her cuom se here to Readingum on West 
Seaxe and J?ses ymb iii niht ridon ii eorlas up. pa 
gemette hie yE]?elwulf aldorman on Englafelda and 
him J?ser wij? gefeaht and sige narn. ptes yrnb iiii 
niht yE]?ered cyning and yElfred his brojmr ];aer 
micle fierd to Readingum gelceddon and wij? ]?one 
here gefuhton and J?aer waes mi eel Weel geslaegen on 
gehwcef>re hond and yE]?elwulf aldormon wear]? of- 
slaegen and fa Deniscan ahton Wcel stowe gevvald 
!Snd J?aes ymb iiii niht gefeaht /EJ?ered cyning and 
yElfred his brof>ur wi}? alne J?one here on ^Escesdune 
and hie waerun on twsern gefylcum. on oj?rum vvses 
Bachsecg and Halfdene )?a hcej?nan cyningas and on 
oj?rum weeron fa eorlas. and J?a gefeaht se cyning 
yEj^ered wij? )?ara cyninga getruman and ]?aer wear]? 
se cyning Bagsecg ofslsegen. and /Elfred his bro]?ur 
wi]? ]?ara eorla getruman and J>ser wear]? Sidroc eorl 
ofslsegen se alda and Sidroc eorl se gioncga and 
Osbearn eorl and Frsena eorl and Hareld eorl and ]?a 
hergas begen gefliemde and fela ]?usenda ofslaegenra 
and onfeohtende wseron o)? niht. Snd J?ses ymb xiiii 
niht gefeaht yE]?ered cyning and yElfred his broSur 
wi]? ]?one here set Basengum and J?ser ]?a Deniscan 
sige namon 7nd J?ses ymb ii mona}? gefeaht yE]?ered 
cyning and yElfred his bro]?ur wij? ]?orie here eet Mere 
tune and hie wserun on tusem gefylcum and hie butu 
gefliemdon and longe on daeg sige ahton and J?ser 
wear]? micel w<el sliht on gehwae]?ere hond and }?a 
Deniscan ahton Wcei stowe gewald. and }?ser wear]? 
Heahmund bisc ofsloegen and fela godra rnonna and 
sefter ]?issum gefeohte cuorn micel sumor lida. TCnd 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 75 

naman. and )?one cining ofslogon. and "p land call geeodon. 
and fordiden ealle J?a mynstre ]?a hi to comen. on ]?a ilcan 
tima j?a comon hi to Medeshamstede. beorndou and braecon. 
slogon abbot and munecas. and eall ty hi j?ser fundon. mace- 
don hit j?a -p ser waes ful rice. )?a hit wearS to nan fing. and 
)>y geare gefor Ceolno]? arcebiscop. 

871. Her rad se here to Readingum on Westseaxe. and 
)?es ymb iii niht ridon twegen eorlas up. ]?a ge raette J^ftel 
wulf ealdorman hie on Englafelda. and heom ]?ser wiftge 
feaht and sige nam. and wearS )?ser se o]?er of slsegen. ]?ses 
nama waes Sidrac. Da ymb iiii niht ^E^elred cining. and 
^Elfred his broftor )?ser mycle fyrd to Rsedingum gelseddon. 
and wi'S |?one here gefuhton. and ]?ser wses mycel wsel ge 
slaegen on ge hwaftere hand, and J^^elwulf ealdorman wearS 
of slsegen. arid J?a Deniscan ahton wsel stowe ge weald. And 
ymb iiii niht ge feaht J^Sered cining and J^lfred his broftor 
wi^ ealne $one here on ^Esces dune, and hi wseron on twam 
gefylcum. on o^rum wes Basecg and Halfdene 'Sa haa^Sene 
ciningas. and on o"3rum waeron ]?a eorlas. and )?a feaht se 
cining ^E^ered wi^ 'Sara cininga ge truman. and ]?83r wearS 
se cining Bagsecg of slsegen. and JElfred his broker wi^ J>ara 
eorla ge truman and J?ser wearS Sidrac eorl of slsegen se 
ealda. and Sidrac se geonga and Osbearn eorl. and Frsena 
eorl. and Harold eorl. and )?a hergas begeu geflymde. and 
feala ]?usenda ofslagenra. and onfeohtende wseron o$ niht. 
And ^ses ymb xiiii niht ge feaht JEftered cining. and JElfred 
his bro^or wift ]?one here set Basingum. and |?ar J>a Deniscan 
sige genamon. and J?a3s ymb twsegen rnonSas ge feaht ^EiSe- 
red and ^Elfred his bro^or wi^ )?one here set Mseredune. 
and hi wseron on twam gefylcum. and hi butu geflymdon. 
and lange on dseg sige ahton. and )?ar wearS mycel wsel sliht 
on hwseftre hand, and J?a Dseniscan ahton weal stowe ge weald, 
and J>ser Hsehmund biscop of slagen and feala godra manna, 
and aefter Jnsum gefeohte com mycel sumerlida to Readingura. 

L 2 

76 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

J>ses oferEastron gefor yE)?ered cyning and he ricsode 
v gear and his lie lij? set Winburnan. 

J?a feng yElfred yEf>elvvulfing his broj^ur to Wes- 
seaxna rice and J>aes ymb anne monaj? gefeaht /Elfred 
cyning wij? alne J?one here lytle weredeS aet Wiltune 
and hine longe on dasg gefliemde and J>a Deniscan 
ahton Wcelstowe gewald. 

Tfnd J?8es geares wurdon viiii folcgefeoht gefohten 
wi]? J?one here on Jy cynerice be suj>an Temese and 
butan }?am }?e him yElfred ]?ses cyninges bro)?ur and 
anlipig aldormon and cyninges ]?egnas oft rade onri- 
don ]?e mon na ne rimde and J>aes geares wserun 
ofslaegene viiii eorlas and an cyning. !Snd fy geare 
namon West Seaxe iYip wij? Ipoue here. 

872. Her for se here to Lund en by rig from Read- 
ingum and J?ser wint'setl nam. and }?a namon Mierce 
frij? wij? ]?one here. 

873. Her for se here on NorJ?hymbre. and he nam 
wint'setl on Lindesse set Tureces iege and J>a namon 
Mierce frij? wij> ]?one here. 

874. Her for se here from Lindesse to Hreope dune 
and ]?aer wint'setl nam. and J?one cyning Burgr<ed 
ofer See adrseidon ymb xxii wint' J?aes J?e he rice hsefde 
and J?set lond all geeodqn and he for to Rome and 
f>8er gesret h and his lie lij? on Sea Marian ciricean on 
Sngel cynnes scole. Snd ]?y ilcan geare hie sealdon 
anum unwisum cyninges J>egne Miercna rice to 
haldanne, and he him aj?as swor and gislas salde. 
J?aet he him gearo wjere swa hwelcei daege swa hie 
hit habban wolden. and he gearo waere mid him 
selfum. and on allum Ipam }>e him laestan woldon. to 
}?aes heres J?earfe. 

875. Her for sehere from Hreope dune, and Healf- 
dene for mid sumum J>am here on Nor]? hymbre. 
and nam wint' setl beTinan ]?sere ei. and sehere 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 77 

and J?aer aefter Eastron ge for JSftered cluing, and he rixade 
v gear, and his lie lift aet Winburnan mynster. 

Da feng Alfred ^ftelwulfing his broftor to WestSeaxna 
rice and J?aes ymb i monaft ge feaht Alfred cining wift ealne 
}?one here litle werede set Wiltune. and hine lange on dseg 
geflymde. and |?a Deniscan ahton wselstowe ge weald. 

And ]?es geares wurdon ix folcgefeoht gefohten wift )?one here 
on J?am cine rice be suftan Temese. butan J?am )>e hi ^Elfred 
J?es cinges broker, and ealdormen. and ciningas J?segnas oft 
rada onriden )?e man nane rimde and j?ses geares wseron of 
slagene ix eorlas. and an cyning. and J?y geare namou West 
Seaxa frift wift J?one here. 

872. Her for sehere to Lundenbyrig fram Redingum. and 
J?aer nam winter setle. and J?a naman Myrce frift wift J?one 

873. Her nam sehere winter setle. aet Turcesige. 

874. Her for sehere of Lindesse to Hreopedune. and j?ser 
winter setle nam. and )?one cining Burgred ofer sse adrefdon 
ymb xxii wintra j?ges )?e he rice hsefde. and J?et land call 
geeodan. and he for to Rome and J?aar sset. and his lie lift 
on sea Marian cyrican on Angel cynnes scole. And ]?y ilcan 
geare hi sealdon Ceolwulfe anum un wisum cynges J>egne 
Myrcena rice to healdenne. and he him aftas swor and 
gislas sealde. J?et hit him georo wsere swa hwilce daege swa 
hi hit habban woldon. and he geare wsere mid him sylfum. 
and mid eallum J?am ]?e him ge Isestan wolden to ]?aes heres 
]?aerfe 5 . 

875. Her for sehere fram Hreopedune. and Healfdene 
for mid sumum J?am here on Norftan hymbre. and nam 
winter setle be Tinan ]?33re ea. and se here )?et land ge code. 

* ^Ethelweard says: Erat autem exi- 6 Lappenberg remarks, that the 

guus turn Anglorum exercitus propter object of the Danes was not power, 

absentiam regis, qui eodem tempore but plunder. So they did not occupy 

exequias fratris impleverat. the vacant thrones, but placed in them 

h )>ar wunode ealto his lifes ende. F. nominal kings to serve as the instru- 

1 Instead of swa hwelce, B has ments of their rapacity, 
swylce, C swilce. 


J?aet lond geeode. and eft hergade on Peohtas. and on 
StrcecledWalas. 3!nd for Godrum and Oscytel and 
Snwynd. ]?a iii cyningas. of Hreopedune to Grante 
brycge. mid micle here, and saeton J?aer an gear. 

!Snd Ipy surnera for yElfred cyning ut on s<e mid 
sciphere. and gefeaht wip vii sciphlaestas. and hiera 
an gefeng. and ]?a opru gefiiemde. 

876. Her hiene bestcel se here into Werham. Wes- 
seaxna fierde. and wij? J?one here se cyning fri)? nam. 
and him ]?a af>as svvoron on )?am halgan beage. j?e hie 
ser nanre J?eode noldon. }?set hie hrtedlice of his rice 
foren. and hie ]?a under ]?am hie nihtes bestdelon 
]?aere fierde segehorsoda here into Escan ceaster. 

Snd Ipy geare Healfdene Norman hymbra lond ge 
dcelde. and ergende waeron and hiera tilgende. 

877- Her cuom se here into Escan ceastre from 
Werham. and se sciphere sigelede west ymbutan. and 
]?a mette hie micel yst on See. and J?aer forwearj? cxx 
scipa set Swanawic. and se cyning /Elfred sefter 
)?am gehorsudan here mid fierde rad oj? Exan ceaster. 
and hie hindan ofridan ne meahte ser hie on J?am 
fiestene wseron. Tpser him mon to ne meahte. and hie 
him J?ser fore gislas saldon. swa fela swa he habban 
wolde. and micle aj?as sworon. and )?a godne frij? 
heoldon. and J?a on haerfseste gefor se here on 
Miercna lond. and hit gedceldon sum. and sum 
Ceolwulfe saldon. 

878. Her hiene bestcel se here on midne wiiit. ofer 
tuelftan niht. to Cippanharnme. and geridon Wes- 
seaxna lond and gesaeton. micel ]?es folces ofer See 
adrsefdon. and ]?33S oj?res J/one msestan dcel hie gerid- 
on. and him to gecirdon. buton ]?am cyninge yElfrede. 
and he lytle werede. un ief>elice. aefter wudum for. and 
on morfaestenum. 

J?aas ilcan wintra waes Inwseres broj?ur and 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 79 

and oft gehergode on Pehtas. and on StrsetlsedWealas. and 
for Godrum. and Oscytel. and Anwend. J?a ]?ry ciningas of 
Hreopedune to Grantan brycge. myd mycclum here, and 
sseton J?ser an gear. 

And J?y sumera for Alfred cyning ut on sse mid scip here, 
and gefeaht wift vii scip hlesta. and heora an gefeng. and J?a 
oftre geflyinde. 

876. Her hine be stsel se here into Wserham West Seaxna 
fyrde. and srSftan wr$ J>oue here se cyning fri$ nam. and 
him J>a gislas sealdon ]?e on J?am here weor]?uste wseron to 
J?am cyninge. and him )?a a^as sworon on ]?am halgan beage 
J?e hi ser nanre ]?eode don noldon ]?et hi hredlice of his rice 
foron. and hi )?a under J?am hi nihtes be stselon J?sere fyrde 
se gehorsade here into Exanceastre. 

And ]?y geare Healfdene NorSan hymbra land gedselde. and 
hergende weron. and heora tiligende wseron. Kollo cum suis 
Normaniam penetravit. and regnavit annis liii. 

877. Her com se here to Exanceastre fram Werham. and 
se scip here seglode west ymbutan. and f>a gemette hi mycel 
yst on sse. and J?ear forwearS cxx scipa set Swanawic. and 
se cing Alfred sefter ]?am ge horsedum here mid fyrde rad 
o^ Exanceastre. and hi hindan ofridan ne mihte ser hi on 
j?am feastene wseron j?ser him man to ne mihte. and hi him 
)?ar fore gislas sealdon swa feala swa he habbaii wolde. and 
mycele a^as sworon. and ]?a godne frrS heoldan. and )?a on 
herfeste gefor seo heora on Myrcena land, and hit gedaeldon 
sum. and sum Ceolwulfe sealdon. 

878. Her hine be steel sehere on midne winter ofer twelftan 
niht to Cippanhamme. and ge ridan West Seaxna land and 
ge setton. and mycel ]>aes folces ofer sse adrsefdon. and J?ses 
oiSres j?one msestan dsel hi geridon butan ]?am cynge 
^Elfrede litle werede uny^elice sefter wudum for. and on 

And j?es ilcan wintra wses Iweres bro^or and Healf- 

80 THE PARKER MS. (ff) 

Healfdenes on WestSeaxum. on Defena scire. mid xxiii 
scipum. and hiene mon J?ser ofslog. and dccc monna 
rnid him. and xl monna his heres. 

'Knd J>ses on Eastron worhte /Elfred cyning. lytle 
werede. geweorc aet zEJ?elingaeigge k . and of J?am ge 
vveorce was winnende wij? Jxme here, and Sumur 
saetna. se d<el se J>aer niehst waes. pa on J?aere seofo- 
San wiecan ofer Eastron he gerad to Ecgbryhtes stane. 


be eastan Seal wyda. and him to co J>aer ongen 
Sumorsaete alle and Wilsaetan. and Hamtun scir se 
dcel sehiere behinon See was. and his gefaegene waer- 
un. and he for ymb ane niht of J?am wicum to 
Iglea. and ]?a3s ymb ane to E]?an dune, and J?aer ge 
feaht wij alne J>one here, and hiene gefliemde. and 
him aefter rad oj> J?eet geweorc. and J?aer saet xiiii niht. 
and J>a salde sehere him foregislas and micle aj>as. 
J>aet hie of his rice uuoldon. and him eac geheton J?aet 
hiera kyning fulwihte onfon wolde. and hie f>aet 
gelseston swa. Snd J>aes ymb iii wiecan com se 
cyning to him Godrum J>ritiga sum J?ara monna J>e 
in J?am here weor]?uste waeron aet Sire, and )?aet is 
wij? ^EJ?elinggaeige. and his se cyning J?aer onfeng aet 
fulwihte. and his crismlising was set We]?mor. and he 
was xii niht mid J>am cyninge. and he hine miclum 
and his geferan mid feo weorftude. 

879- Her for se here to Cirenceastre of Cippan 
hamme. and saet J?aer an gear. 

!Srjd J?y geare gegadrode onhlo]? wicenga and gesaet 
aet Fullan hamme beTemese. 

'Knd ]>y ilcan geare aj?iestrode sio sunne ane tid 

880. Her for sehere of Cirenceastre on EastEngle. 
and gesaet J?aet lond. and gedcelde. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 81 

denes on West Sexum on Defenan scire. and hine mon )?8er 
sloh. and dccc manna mid him. and xl manna his heres. and 
J?ar wses se guftfana genumen ]?e hi rsefen heton. 

And J?ses on Eastron wrohte JElfred cyning lytle werede ge 
weorc set ^E^elingaige. and of j?am geweorce wses winnende 
wrS f>one here, and Sumerssetena se del ]?e J?ser nehst wses. J?a 
on "Sere seofeftan wucan ofer Eastron he gerad to Ecgbrihtes 
stane be easton Wealwudu. and him comon J?ser ongean 
Sumor ssete ealle. and Will ssete. and Hamtun scyr se dsel J?e 
hire beheonan sse wses. and his gefsegene wseron. and he 
for ymb ane niht of ]?am wicum to ^Eglea. and J?ses ymb ane 
niht to Eftan dune, and ]?ser ge feaht wr<$ ealne here and hine 
ge flymde. and him sefter rad oi$ J?et ge weorc. and j?ser sset 
xiiii niht. and J?a sealde se here him gislas. and mycele aSas. 
]?et hi of his rice woldon. and him eac ge heton ]?et heora 
cyng fulwihte onfon wolde. and hi )? gelseston. and J?ses 
ymb iii wucan com se cyng Godrum. ]?rittigum sum. j?ara 
manna ]?e in )?am here weor'Suste wseron set Alre. and J? is 
wr3 J&Selinga ige. and his se cyng onfeng J?ser set fulwihte. 
and his crism lysing wses set Wedmor. and he wes xii niht 
mid J>am cynge. and he hine mycclum and his geferan mid 
feo weorSode. 

879. Her for se here to Cirenceastre of Cippanhamme. and 
sa3t ]?ser an winter. 

py geare ge gaderodon an hlo$ wicinga. and ge saet set 
Fullanhamme be Temese. 

And J?y ilcan geare a]?y strode seo sunne antid dseges. 

880. Her for sehere of Cirenceastre on EastEngle. and 
gesaet ^ land and gedselde. 

k The " Isle of Princes" was jewel" was found in Newton Park, 

formed and fortified by the stagnate somewhat north of this spot. It is 

waters of the Tone and Parrot at their deposited in the Ashmolean Museum 

junction. Hence the maxima gronnia in Oxford, and it has often been figured 

paludosissima et intransmeabilia and described in books. The legend 

of Asser. It is now drained and cul- upon it gives a point to the locality 

tivated, and known as Athelney Farm, of the discovery, and invests the ob- 

ia the Parish of Stoke St. Gregory, east ject itself with an interest beyond all 

of the line of rail from Bridge water other extant monuments of Saxon Art. 

to Taunton, and about seven miles It says: >J< SELFRED MEC HEHT 
distant from each of those places. In WVRr 

the year 1693 the celebrated " Alfred 



Tfnd ]>y ilcan geare for sehere ofersce }>e aer on 
Fullan homme saet on Fronclond toGend. and saet 
]?aer an gear. 

881. Her for sehere ufor on Fronclond. and J?a 


Francan him wi)? gefuhton. and }?aer t wearj? se here 
gehorsod aefter J?am gefeohte. 

882. Her for se here up on long Maese feor on 
Fronclond. and J?aer saet an gear. 

'Knd Ipy ilcan geare for yElfred cyning mid scipum 
ut on See. and gefeaht vvij? feower sciphlsestas Deniscra 
monna. and J>ara scipa tu genam. and J?a men ofslae- 
gene waeron J?e $er on wseron. and tuegen scip heras 
him onhond eodon. and f>a wseron miclum forslsegene 
and forwundode ser hie onhond eodon. 

883. Her for sehere up on Scald to CundoJ?. and 
J?ser sset an gear. 

884. Her for sehere up on Sunnan to Embenum. 
and j?ser sset an gear. 

885. Her to dcelde se fore sprecena here on tu. o)?er 
dcel east. of>er d^el to Hrofes ceastre. and ymb saeton 
Sa ceastre. and worhton oj?er faesten ymb hie selfe. 
and hie ]?eah J?a ceastre aweredon oj?f>aet yElfred 


com t mid fierde. J>a code sehere to hiera scipum. 
and forlet ]?aet geweorc. and hie vvurdon ]?ser behorsude. 
and sona ]?y ilcan sumere ofer See gewiton. 

!Snd J?y ilcan geare sende ^Elfred cyning sciphere 
on EastEngle. sona swa hie comon on StufemuJ?an. 
]?a metton hie xvi scipu wicenga. and wij? $a gefuhton. 
and }?a scipo alle gercehton. and f>a men ofslogon. 
J>a hie ]?a hamweard wendon mid J?aere here hy]?e. J>a 
metton hie micelne sciphere wicenga. and )?a wij? }>& 
gefuhton f>y ilcan daege. and J?a Deniscan ahton sige. 

py ilcan geare aer middum wintra. for)?ferde Carl 
Francna cyning. and hiene ofslog an efor. and ane 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 83 

And }?y ilcan geare for se here ofer sse J?e on Fullanhamme 
sset on Frangland to Gent, and sset J?ser an gear. 

881. Her for se here ufor on Frangland. and J?a Francan 
him wr3 gefuhton. and J?aer }>a war$ se here horsad sefter 
j?am gefeohte. 

882. Her for se here up andlang Msese ofor on Frang land 
and J?ser sset an gear. 

And ]?y ilcau geare for ^Elfred cyng mid scipum ut on sse. 
and ge feaht wiiS iiii scip hlsestas Deniscra manna, and J?ara 
scipa twa genamon. and ]?a men ofslogon. and twa him on 
hand eodon. and ]?a men wseron myclum of slagene and for 
wundode ser hi on hand eodan. 

883. Her for se here up on Scald to CundoiS. and J?aer sa3t 
an gear, and Marinus papa sende J>a lignum dm JElfrede 
cynge. and J?y ilcan geare Isedde Sighelm. and ^Eftelstan }>a 
selmessan to Rome )?e Alfred cing ge het J>ider. and eac on 
Indea to see Thome, and to see Bartholomee. ]?a hi saeton 
wi$ J>one here set Lundene. and hi J>ser Godes Dances swy^e 
bentig^e wseron sefter f>am gehatum. 

884. Her for se here up on Sunnan to Embenum. and )?8er 
sset an gear. 

885. Her to dselde se forsprecena here on twa. ofter east. 
oiSer dsel to Hrofeceastre. and ymb saeton j?a ceastre. and 
wrohton o$er fsesten ymb hi sylfe. and hi J?eah )?a ceastre 
aweredan o'S^et Alfred cyng com uton mid fyrde. )?a eode 
se here to heora scipum. arid forleton ]?et ge weorc. and hi 
wurdon ]?a3r behorsade. and sona ]?y ilcau sumera eft ofer 
se gewiton. 

Dy ilcan geare saende JElfred cyng scip here of Csent on 
East Engle. sona swa hi comon on Sture muiSan J?a ge 
msetton hi xvi scipa wicinga. and wiiS |?a gefuhton. and J>a 
scipa ealle geraehton. and J>a men ofslogen. ]?a hi |?a ham 
weard wseron mid J>sere here hu^e. ]?a ge metton hi mycelne 
sciphere wicinga. and wi3 J?a gefuhton J?y ilcan dsege. and )?a 
Deniscan ahton sige. 

And ]?y ilcan geare ser middan wintra forSferde Carl 
Francna cyng. and hine of sloh an eofor. and ane geare ser 

F. 884. Her forSferde se welwillenda b' ^Selwold. Hie obiit 
JE^elwoldus episcopus Wentoniensis, et electus est in loco ejus Alfee 
qui alio nomine vocabatur Godwinus. 

M 2 

84 THE PARKER MS. ' (H) 

geare aer. his broftur forjrferde. se hsefde eac J?set west 
rice, and hie wseron begen HloJ?wiges suna. se haefde 
eac J?set west rice, and forj?ferde J?y geare J?e sio sunne 
aj?iestrode. se waes Karles sunu J?e /Ej?elwulf West 
Seaxna cyning his dohtor ha3fde him to cuene. 

Snd Ipy ilcan geare gegadrode mi eel sciphere on 
SldSeaxum. and }?33r wear}? micel gefeoht. tua on 
geare. and }?a Seaxan haefdim sige. and J?aer waeron 
Frisan mid. 

py ilcan geare feng Carl to J?am west rice, and to 
allum J>am west rice behienan Wendel See. and be 
geondan J>isse See. swa hit his J>ridda feeder hsefde. 
butan Lidwiccium. se Carl was HloJ?wiges sunu. se 
HloJ^wig was Carles broj?ur. se wses Iu]?yttan f<eder 
f>e yE]?elwulf cyning hsefde. and hie wseron HloJ?wiges 
suna. se Hlof>wig was j?aes aldan Carles sunu. se Carl 
was Pipperies sunu. 

3ind J?y ilcan geare fbr)?ferde segoda papa Marinus. 
se gefreode Ongel cynnes scole be zElfredes bene 
West Seaxna cyninges. and he sende hirn micla gifa. 
and f>sere rode d<el J>e Crist on J?rowude. 

Snd J?y ilcan geare se here on EastEnglum brcec 
frif> wif> yElfred cyning. 

886. Her for se here eft west f>e aer east gelende. 
and J?a up on Sigene. and }?8er winf setl namon. 

py ilcan geare gesette yElfred cyning Lundenburg. 
and him all Sngel cyn to cirde J>set buton Deniscra 
monna haeftniede was. and hie J?a befaeste ]?a burg 
yEf>erede aldormen to haldonne. 

887- Her for se here up Jmrh J?a brycge aet Paris, 
and J?a up andlang Sigene oj? Maaterne. oj? Cariei. and 
]?a saeton J>ara and innan lonan. tu winter on ]?am 
twam stedum. 

Snd J?y ilcan geare forj?ferde Karl Francna cyning. 
and * Earnulf his broj?ursunu vi wicum ser he forj>ferde 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 85 

his broftor forSferde. se heafde eac -p west rice, se forSferde 
]>y geare )?e seo sunne aftystrode. se wees Carles sunu J?e 
A3elwulf WestSeaxna cyng his 7 dohtor hsefde to cwene. 

By ilcan geare forSferde se goda papa Marinus. se gefreode Marin' 
Angel cynnes scole be ^Elfredes bene West Seaxna cyninges. 
and he sende him myccle gifa 8 . and ]?sere rode dael J?e Crist 
on ftrowode. 

And j?y ilcan geare for se here on Estenglum. and brec 
frift wr$ ^Elfred cyning. 

886. Her for se here eft west )?e ser east ge lende. and j?a 
up on Sigene. and J?ser winter ssetu namon set Paris j?aere 
byrig 9 . 

Dy ilcan geare ge sette JElfred cyning Lunden burh. and 
him call Angel cyn togecyrde. ^ butan Deniscra manna 
hsefnede wes. and he )?a befeste )?a burh JEj?erede ealdormen 
to healdenne. 

887. Her for se -here up Jwrh fta brycge set Paris, and j?a 
up andlang Sigene o$ Maeterne. and ]?a up on Mseterne oft 
Caziei. and |?a sa3ton )?ar innan lonan twa winter on }>am 
twam stedum. 

And ]?y ilcan geare forSferde Carl Francena cyng. and 
Earnulf his broftor sunu hine vi wucan eer he foriSferde be 

7 "He was the son of that Charles present Interrogative and Relative Pro- 
whose daughter ^Ethelwulf had for his noun WHO : up to about the year 1 200 
queen." it had only the function of question- 
When the Language had no distinct ing, but in the early part of the I3th 
Relative Pronoun except the indeclin- century it acquired the position of a 
able ]>e, oblique cases were made out declinable Relative. The two texts of 
by a contrivance which is usual in Lajamon illustrate this fact very well, 
Hebrew, viz. the addition of the Per- instances of Who-Relative occurring in 
sonal Pronoun in the case required. the later text, but (?) not in the earlier. 
Thus >e . . . his = whose 8 micele giua on halidome F. 

J>e . . . hine = whom 9 This siege of Paris is minutely 

J>e . . . hyra = quorum. described by Abbo of Fleury in two 

A more succinct Relative Pronoun Books of Latin Hexameters. Cf. Feli- 

was at length obtained, by the gradual bien, Histoire de la Ville de Paris, 1. iii. 

employment of a word which had (Ingram.) 

hitherto been known only as an Inter- * hine hsefde seems to be wanting 

rogative. Such is the history of our here. 


bercedne set ]?am rice, and f>a wear}? J>aet rice to 
dceled on v. and v kyningas to gehalgode 1 . J?aet waes 
j?eah mid Earnulfes ge)?afunge. and hi cueedon. f>8et 
hie ]>sst to his honda healdan sceoldon. forj?aeri) hira 
nan naes on fcedren healfe to geboren. buton him 
anum. Earnulf J?a wunode on J?sem londe be Eastan 
Rin. and RoJ>ulf J>a feng to f>aem middel rice, and 
Oda to J?8em west dcele. and Beorngar and Wi}?a to 
Long beardna londe. and to f>sem londum on J?a healfe 
muntes. and J?aet heoldun mid micelre unsibbe. and tu 
folcgefeoht gefuhton. and J?aet lond oft and gelome for- 
hergodon. and aeghwce]?er oj?erne oftreedlice ut drcefde. 
Snd J?y ilcan geare J?e se here forfor]? up ofer J>a 
brycge set Paris. /E]?elhelm aldor mon Icedde Wes- 
seaxna ^elmessan and yElfredes cyninges to Rome. 

888. Her Icedde Beocca aldorrnon Wesseaxna el- 
messan and yElfredes cyninges to Rome, and yEf>elswiJ? 
cuen. sio waes /Elfredes sweostor cyninges. forj?ferde 
and hire lie lij? eet Pafian. 

Snd J?y ilcan geare /Ej>eVed ercebisc and /E]?el- 
wold aldor mon. forjrferdon on anum monf>e. 

889. On jrissum geare nses nan fereld to Rome, 
buton tuegen hleaperas yElfred cyning sende mid 

890. Her Icedde Beorn helm abb' WestSeaxna cel- 
rnessan to Rome and ^Elfredes cyninges. 

Snd Godrum se norj?erna cyning forj?ferde. J?aes ful- 
luht nama waes yE}?elstan. se waes yElfredes cyninges 
god sunu. and he bude on EastEnglum. and J?a5t lond 
aerest gesaet. 

'Knd ]?y ilcan geare for se here of Sigene to Sant 
Laudan. J>aet is butueoh Brettum and Francum. and 
Brettas him wij? gefuhton. and haefdon sige. and hie 

bedrifon ut on ane ea. and monige adre^ton. 

Her wees Plegemwid gecoron of Gode m and of eallen his halechen. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 87 

raedde set j>am rice, and |?a wearft )?et rice todseled on v. 
and fif cyningas to ge halgode. )?et weas J>aeh mid Earnulfes 
]?afunge. and hi cwsefton ^ hi him j?et tohanda healdan 
scoldan. forftan J?et heora nan nses of fsedrenhalfe geboreii 
butan him anum. Earnulf wunode on }>am lande be sestan 
Ririe. and Hroftulf ]?a feng to }?am middelrice. and 0)?a J?a to 
J?am weastdsele. and Beorngar and Wr$a to Langbeardna 
lande. and to J?am landum on )?a healfe muntes. and J>et 
heoldan mid my eel unsibbe. and twa folcgefeoht gefuhton. 
and -p land oft and gelome forhergodon. and eeghwefter 
ofterne oftrsedlice utadrsefde. 

And J?y ilcan geare J?e se here forforiS up ofer J?a brycge - 
set Paris. ^E^elhelm ealdorman Isedde WeastSeaxna selmessan JE,lemofina 
and ^Ifredes cyninges to Rome. n 

888. Her Isedde Beocca ealdorman WestSeaxna selmessaii 
and ^Elfredes cyninges to Rome, and ^E^elfriS cwaen seo 
waes ^Elfredes swustor cyninges. and heo forSferde 10 . and 
hire lie lift set Pauian. 

And J?y ilcan geare ^ftered arcebiscop 1 . and A)?ewold 
ealdorman forftferdou on anum mon)?e. 

889. On fissum geare nses nan fsereld to Rome buton 
twegen hleaperes ^Elfred cyng sende mid gewritum. 

890. Her leedde Beornhelm abb^ West Seaxna selmessan to 
Rome, and ^Elfredes cynges. 

And Godrum se norfterne cyning forftfcrde. ]?8es fulluht 
nama wses ^Eftelstan se wses ^Elfredes godsune cyninges. and 
he bude on EastEnglum. and ty land serest gesset. 

And J>y ilcan geare for se here of Sigene to Scandlauclan. 
]?et is betwix 2 Bryttum and Francum. and Brittas him wiftge 
fuhton. and haefdon sige. and hi bedrifon ut on ane ea. and 
manige adrencton. 

Hie Plegemundus archiepiscopus a Deo et omni populo 
electus est. 

1 and fif cingas )>ar wseron to gehal- rice on Cantwareb'i F. 
gode. and mid Arnulfes ge'Safunge. 10 be Rome wege F. cf. Wendover. 

and hie beheton ^ hi on his handa 1 se aerceb' of Cantwaraberi F. 

healdan sceoldon F. 2 betweoh A. betuh B. betwyx F. 

m and of eallan folce to )>am arb' 

88 THE PARKER MS. (ff) 

891. Her for se here east, and Earnulf cyning ge- 
feaht wi'S'Saem raede n here aer J>a scipu cuomon. mid 
East Francum and Seaxum and Baegerurn. and hine 

3!nd f>rie Scottas cuomon to /Elfrede cyninge. on 
anum bate butan <elcum gerej>rum. of Hibernia . jxmon 
hi hi bestcfilon. for]?on ]?e hi woldon for Godes lufan 
on el)?iodignesse beon. hi ne rohton hwser. se bat 
waes geworht of j?riddan healfre hyde f>e hi onforon. 
and hi namon mid him J>aethihaefdun toseofon nihtum 
mete, and J?a comon hie ymb vii niht to londe on 
Cornwalum. and foron J?a sona to yElfrede cyninge. 
]?us hie waeron genemnde. Dubslane and MaccbethuP 
and Maelinmun 1 !. !Snd Swifneh 1 " sebetsta lareow }?e 
on Scottum wees gefor 8 . 

!Snd }>y ilcan geare ofer Eastron. ymbe gang dagas 
oj>]?e aer. aeteowde se steorra J?e mon on boclaeden 
haet cometa. same men cwej?aj> on Englisc J?set hit 
sie feaxede steorra. forjjsem f>aer stent lang leorna of. 
hwilum on ane healfe. hvvilum on selce healfe. 

893. Her on f>ysum geare for se micla here. f>e we 
gefyrn ymbe sprsecon. eft of J?sem east rice westweard 
to Bunnan. and f>aer wurdon gescipode. swa J?aet hie 
asettan him on senne sij? ofer mid horsum mid ealle. 
and f>a comon up on Limene rnuj>an mid ccl hunde 
scipa. se mu}?a is on easte weardre Cent, set J?ses 
mi clan wuda eastende J?e we Sndred hata'S. se wudu 
is east lang and west lang hund twelf tiges mila lang 
oJ>J?e lengra. and Jmtiges mila brad, seo ea J?e we aer 
ymbe spraecon lr$ ut of J?aem weal da. on f>a ea hi 
tugon up hiora scipu oj?)x>ne weald, iiii mila fram 
J>aem muj?an utanweardum. and J?aer abraecon an ge 
weorc. inne on J?aem faestenne saeton feawa cirlisce 
men on and waes samworht. 

pa sona aefter J?aem com Haesten mid Ixxx scipa 
up on Temese mu$an. and worhte him ge weorc set 
Middeltune. and se oj?er here set !Spuldre. 


892. Her for se myccla here J?e we gefyrn ser ymb spraecoii 
eft of ]?am east rice weast ward to Bunan. and j?ser wurdon 
ge scipode swa ty hi assetton hi on senne sr<$ ofer mid horsum 
mid ealle. and ]?a comon up on Limine muSan mid J?ridde 
healf hund scipa. se mufta is on east warde Cent set ]?es 
mycclan wuda east enda J?e we Andrsed hataiS. se wudu is 
west lang and east lang hund twelftig mila lang. o&Se lengre. 
and xxx mila brad, se ea )?e we ser ymb spraecon. lift ut of 
J?am wealda. on ]?e ea hi tugon up heora scipa oftftone weald 
iiii mila fram ]?am mu)?an utanweardum. and j?ser abrsecon 
an geweorc inne on 'Sam faenne 3 saeton feawa cyrlisce men 
on. and wses sam worht. 

pa sona setter j^am com Hsesten mid Ixxx scipa up inne 
Tsemesemu]?e and worhte him geweorc set Middeltune. and 
seo oiSer here set Apuldre. 

Hie obiit Wulfhere Norman hymbrorum arceps. 

3 fsestetme B. fsestene C. D. fenne 
ft. A. F. faenne E. 

Though four of the MSS. have 
fenne (feenne) against three that ex- 
hibit fsestenne (fsestene) : yet from 
the context, and from the evidence 
of the Latin historians, there can be 
no doubt that the latter is the true 
reading. The Editors of the Mon. 
Hist. Brit, restored it to the text, 
and it may be regarded as established, 
^thelwerd says : in Limneo portu con- 
stituunt puppes, Apoldre loco condicto, 
orientali Cantiae parte; destruuntque 
ibi prisco opere castrum, propter quod 
rustica manus exigua quippe intrinse- 
cus erat. Florence thus : quamdam 
arcem semistructam, quam pauci inha- 
bitabant villani, diruerunt; aliamque 
sibi firmiorem in loco qui dicitur Apul- 
treo, construxerunt. 

n rade B. rad D. contra pedestrem 
exercitum Flor. This was an import- 
ant battle, and by it the kingdom of 
Arnolph was rid of the devastators. 
It was fought on the river Dyle, near 
Louvain, Septr. i. 891 : a day long 
afterwards kept up in memory of the 
victory. Cf. Lappenberg, vol. i. p. 341. 

In the next year they had to flee 
before the famine which their own 
ravages had caused, and they fell back 
on those western provinces which were 
under the sway of less doughty war- 
riors than Arnolph. Guided by Hast- 
ing, a viking of great renown, they 
burst upon England like a storm, the 
last which agitated the eventful life of 

The concerted invasion, and the 
promptness of the king to meet the 
foe wherever his dominion was as- 
sailed, are here told in a narrative 
which has all the freshness and reality 
of contemporary writing. 

o Yrlande F. 

P MaccbefiaS B. Machbeftu C. Mac- 
beiSu D. F. 

<i Maelinmuin B. Maelinmumin C. 
Maelmumin D. F as S. 

* Suifne B. 

8 At this point ends the first hand- 
writing in S ; and the narrative is con- 
tinued in a new hand, and on a greatly 
enlarged scale. At the same time, E 
shrinks into the smallest compass : and 
this untoward coincidence will throw 
out the parallel for many pages. 



894. On J?ys geare. J>aet wses ymb twelf inona'S }>ses 
]?e hie on j?sem east rice geweorc ge worht haefdon. 
Norj?hymbre and EastEngle hsefdon ^Elfrede cyninge 
af>as geseald. and EastEngle foregisla vi and f>eh 
ofer }>a treowa, swa oft swa j?a oj?re hergas mid ealle 
herige utforon. ]JOTI foron hie. o)?j?e mid o}?j>e on 
heora healfe an. pa gegaderade Alfred cyning his 
fierd. and for f>set he gewicode betwuh J?aem twam 
hergum. j?ser J?aer he niehst rymet haefde. for wudu 
faestenne ond for waeter fsestenne. swa J?aet he mehte 
segf>erne gersecan gif hie senigne feld secan wolden. 
pa foron hie sij?]?an sefter J?aem wealda hloj?um and 
flocradurn. bi swa hwa]?erre efes swa hit ]>on fierdleas 
waes. and him mon eac mid oj>rum floccum sohte 
msestra daga aelce. 6\>]>e on niht. ge of j?aere fierde. ge 
eac of J?aem burgum. haefde se cyning his fierd on 
tu tonumen. swa }?aet hie wseron simle healfe cet 
ham. healfe ute. butan }>aem monnum )?e J?a burga 
healdan scolden. ne com se here oftor call ute of 
J>sem setum ]?on tuwwa. o|?re sif>e J?a hie aerest to 
londe comon. aer sio fierd gesamnod waere. oj>re sij?e 
J?a hie of ]?aem setum faran woldon. pa hie gefengon 
micle herehy'S. and J>a woldon ferian norf>weardes 
ofer Temese in on EastSeaxe ongean J?a scipu. pa 
for rad sio fierd hie foran. and him wi$ gefeaht aet 
Fearnhamme. and J?one here gefliemde. and )?a here 
hy)?a ahreddon. and hie flugon ofer Temese buton 
aelcum ford a. )?a up be Colne on anne iggaft. pa 
besaet sio fierd hie J?aer utan ]?a hwile }?e hie }?aer 
lengest mete haefdon. ac hie haefdon J>a heora stemn 
gesetenne. and hiora mete genotudne. and waes se 
cyng J?a J>ider weardes on faere. mid J?aere scire J?e mid 
him fierdedon. pa he J?a waes )?ider weardes. and sio 


oj?eru fierd wees ham weardes. and $a Dcniscan saeton 
J?aer be hindan. forj?aem hiora cyning waes ge wundod 
on J?aem gefeohte. J?set hihine ne mehton ferian. 

pa gegaderedon pape in NorJ? hymbrurn bugeaft. 
and on EastEnglum. sum hund scipa. and foron su8 
ymb utan. and sum feowertig scipa norj? ymb utan. 
and ymb saeton an ge weorc on Defna scire be j?aere 
nor)? sae. and pape su8 ymb utan foron. ymb saeton 
Exan cester. Da se cyng J?aet hierde. pa wende he 
hine west wi"& Exanceastres mid ealre )?aere fierde. 
buton swipe ge waldenum daele easte weardes J?aes 

pa foron for"S oppe hie comon to Luridenby rg. and 
pa mid J?aem burgwarum and J?aem fultume pe him 
westan com. foron east to Bearnfieote. waes Haesten 
J>a )?aer cumen mid his herge. pe aer aet Middel tune 
saet. and eac se micla here waes j?a ]>aer to cumen. 
f>e aer on Limene muj?an saet aet !Spuldre. haefde 
Haesten ssr ge worht J?set geweorc aat Beam fleote. and 
wses p-a utafaren on herga]?. and waes se micla here 
.aet ham. J3a foron hie to and gefliemdon J?one here, 
and J?aet geweorc abraecon. and ge nainon eal j?aet J?aer 
binnan waes. ge on feo. ge on wifum. ge eac on 
bearnum. and brohton call into Lundenbyrig. and 
J?a scipu eall o$}?e to brsecon. oppe for bserndon. oppe 
to Lundenbyrig brohton oppe to Hrofes ceastre. and 
Haestenes wif. and his suna twegen mon brohte to 
f>aem cyninge. and he hi him eft ageaf. forpaem pe 
hiora wses oper liis godsunu. oj?er yE'Seredes ealdor 
monnes. haefdon hi hiora on fangen aer Haesten to 
Beam fleote come, and he him haefde ge seald gislas 
and aftas. and se cyng him eac wel feoh sealde. and 
eac swa pa he J?one cniht agef and peet wif. ac sona 
swa hie to Bleam fleote comon. and f>aet geweorc ge 

N 2 

92 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 


worct waes. swa hergode he t his rice ]?one ilcan cnde 
j?e yE}?ered his cum pseder healdan sceolde. and eft 
oj?re si)?e he wses on herga'S gelend on J?aet ilce rice. 
)?a]?a mon his geweorc abraec. 

pa se cyning hine ]?a west wende mid J>aere fierde 
wr3 Exancestres. swa ic ser saede. and se here )?a burg 
be seten haefde. ]?a he ]?aer togefaren waes. J>a eodon 
hie to hiora scipum. 

pa he J>a wi$ J>one here J>aerwaest abisgod waes. and 
]?a hergas waeron J?a gegaderode begen to Sceobyrig 
on EastSeaxum. and j?aer geweorc worhtun. foron 
begen aetgaedere up be Temese. anfl him com micel 
eaca to. aegjper ge of EastEnglum. ge of Nor}?hym- 
brum. Foron ]?a up be Temese oJ>J?aet hie gedydon 
aet Saeferne. ]?a up be Saeferne. pa gegaderode ^Ef>ered 
ealdorrnon. and ^E)?elm ealdorman. and ^EJ?elnoJ? eald- 
orrnan. and ]?a cinges J?egnas ]?e )?a set ham aet f>aem 
geweorcum waeron. of aelcre byrig be eastan Pedredan. 
ge be westan Seal wuda ge be eastan. ge eac be 
nor]?an Temese. and be westan Saefern. ge eac sum 
dael J>aes NorftWealcynnes. pahiej?a ealle gegaderode 
waeron. )?a oiforon hie ]xme here hindan aet Butting 
tune, on Saeferne sta)?e. and hine f>aer utan be saeton 
on aelce healfe. on anum faestenne. pa hie 'Sa fela 
wucena saeton on twa healfe J?aer e. and se cyng waes 
west on Defnum wif> Jxme sciphere. J?a waeron hie 
mid metelieste gewtegde. and haefdon miclne dael J?ara 
horsa freten. and J>a oj?re waeron hungre acwolen. ]?a 
eodon hie ut to 'Saem monnum J?e on east healfe }?aere 
e wicodon. and him wij? gefuhton. and ]?a Cristnan 
haefdon sige. and J?aer weai-'S Ordheh cyninges }?egn 


of slaegen. and eac monige ojpre cyninges )?egn ofslaeg- 
en. and se dael fe J?aer aweg com wurdon on fleame 
ge nerede. pa hie on EastSeaxe comon to hiora ge 

THE PAKKER MS. (ff) 93 

vveorc. and to hiora scipum. f>a gegaderade sio laf eft 
of EastEnglum. and of Nor'Shymbrum. micelne here 
onforan winter, and befseston hira wif and hira scipu 
and hira feoh on EastEnglum. and foron an streces 
daeges and nihtes. J>aet hie gedydon on anre westre 
ceastre on Wirhealum. seo is Legaceaster ge haten. 
pa ne mehte seo fird hie na hindan of faran, aer hie 
waeron inne on ]?an ge weorce. be saeton J?eah J?aet 
geweorc utari sume twegen dagas. and genamon ceapes 
eall J?8et J?aer buton waes. and J?a men ofslogon ]?e hie 
foran forridan mehton butan ge weorce. and j?aet corn 
eall forbaerndon and mid hira horsum fretton on 
aelcere efeneh'Se. and )?aet waes ymb twelf mona'S 
j?aes J>e hie aer hider ofer sae com on. 

895. Ond }?a sona setter ]?8em. on 'Sys gere. for se 
here of Wirheale in on Nor^Wealas. forf>aem hie "Saer 
sittan ne mehton. J>a3t waes for'Sy J?e hie wseron be 
numene segfter ge j?aes ceapes ge ]?8es comes. "Se hie 
ge hergod hsefdon. pa hie Sa eft ut of Nor'SWealum 
wendon mid jpeere herehy*Se fe hie $8er genumen hsef- 
don. )?a foron hie ofer Nor^hymbra lond and East 
Engla. swa swa sio fird hie geraecan ne mehte. ofypset 
hie comon on EastSeaxna lond easteweard. on an 
igland J?aet is ute on J>aere see. ]?aet is Meres ig haten. 

"Knd J?a se here eft ham weard wende. J?e Exanceas- 
ter beseten haafde. J?a hergodon hie upon Su'SSeaxum 
neah Cisse ceastre. and )?a burg ware hie gefliemdon. 
and hira monig hund ofslogon. and hira scipu sumu 

Da J?y ylcan gere on foran winter ]?a Deniscan ]?e 
on Meres ige sseton. tugon hira scipu up onTemese. 
and J>a up on Lygan. pset wses yrnb twa ger J?aes J?e 
hie hider ofer see comon. 

896. On J?y ylcan gere worhte se fore sprecena 
here geweorc be Lygan xx mila bufan Lundenbyrig. 

94 THE PARKER MS. (ff) 

pa j?aes on sumera. foron micel dael ]?ara burgwara. 
and eac swa opres folces. ]?aet hie gedydon set J?ara 
Deniscana geweorce. and )?aer wurdon gefliemde. and 
sume feower cyninges }?egnas ofslaegene. pa J?aes on 
haerfaeste. J?a wicode se cyng on neaweste f>are byrig. 
j?a hwile )?e hie hira corn gerypon. f>aet f>a Deniscan 
him ne mehton J?aes ripes forwiernan. pa sume daege 
rad se cyng up be J?aere eae. and gehawade hwaer mon 
mehte }?a ea forwyrcan. J?aet hie ne mehton J?a scipu 
ut brengan. and hie j?a swa dydon. worhton $a tu 
geweorc. on twa healfe J?sere eas. Da hie fta J?aet ge 
weorc fur)?um ongunnen haefdon. and ]?8er togewicod 
hsefdon. J?a onget sehere J?set hie ne mehton J?a scypu 
ut brengan. pa forleton hie hie. and eodon ofer land 
j?set hie gedydon set Cwatbrycge be Saefern. and J?aer 
gewerc worhton. Da rad seo fird west sefter Jjsem 
herige. and J?a men of Lunden byrig ge fetodon J?a 
scipu. and J>a ealle J?e hie alsedan ne mehton tobraecon. 
and J?a J?e J>aer stselwyr$e waeron binnan Lunden byrig 
gebrohton. and J?a Deniscan hsefdon hira wif befaest 
innan EastEngle aer hie ut of f>aem geweorce foron. 
pa saeton hie f>one wint' aet Cwatbrycge. pact waes 
ymb f>reo ger J?aes J?e hie on Limene mu^an comon 
hider ofer sae. 

897. Da j?aes on sumera on "Sysum gere to for se 
here, sum on EastEngle. sum on Nor^hymbre. Snd 
}?a J>e feoh lease waeron him J?aer scipu begeton. and 
su$ ofer see foron to Sigene. 

Naefde se here. Godes ]x>nces. !Sngelcyn ealles for 
swi'Se gebrocod. ac hie waeron micle swi]x>r gebrocecje 
on J?sem J?rim gearum mid ceapes cvvilde and mowia. 
ealles swi^ost mid J?aem J?aet manige J?ara selestena 
cynges }?ena J?e J?aer on londe waeron. for$ferdon on 
J?aem J?rym gearum. J>ara waes sum Swi'Sulf biscop on 
Hrofes ceastre. and Ceolmund ealdor mon on Cent. 


and Beorhtulf ealdormon on EastSeaxum. and Wulf- 
red ealdormon on Hamtunscire. and Ealhheard biscop 
aet Dorce ceastre. and Eadulf cynges )?egn on Su$ 
Seaxum. and Beornulf wicgefera on Winte ceastre. 
and Ecgulf cynges hors)?egn. and manige eac him 
J?eh ic $a ge$ungnestan nemde. 

py ilcan geare drehton J?a hergas on EastEnglum 
and on Nor$ hymbrum WestSeaxna lond. swi8e be 
]?aem suSstae'Se. mid stael hergum. ealra swi]?ust mid 
$8em aescum }?e hie fela geara aer timbredon. pa het 
Alfred cyng timbran lang scipu ongen $a aescas. J?a 
waeron fulneah tu swa lange swa J?a o$ru. sume haef- 
don Ix ara. sume in a. ]?a waeron aegfter ge swiftran 
ge unwealtran. ge eac hieran J>onne ]?a o'Sru. naeron 
naw'Ser ne on Fresisc gescaepene. ne on Denisc. bate 
swa him selfum 'Suhte \>&t hie nytwyr^oste beon 
meahten. pa aet sumum cirre J?aes ilcan geares. 
cornon J?aer sex scipu to Wiht. arid J?aer my eel yfel 
gedydon. aeg^er ge on Defenum ge wel hwser be 'SaBin 
sae riman. pa het se cyng faran mid nigonum to 
J>ara niwena scipa. and forforon him J>one nmftan 
foran on uter mere. J?a foron hie mid J?rim scipum 
ut ongen hie, and ]?rco stodon set ufeweardum ]?aem 
mu'San on drygum. waaron ]?a men uppe onlonde of 
agane. J?a gefengon hie J?ara Jreora scipa tu set fern 
mu'San uteweardum. and J?a men ofslogon. and ]?set an 
o'Swand. on )?sem waaron eac J?a men ofskegene buton 
fifum. J?a comon for'Sy on weg *Se "Sara o)?erra scipu 
asaeton. J?a wurdon eac swi$e un e"Selice aseten. 
J>reo asaeton on "Sa healfe J?aas deopes Se Sa Deniscan 
scipu aseten waBron. and f>a o8ru eall on o)?re healfe. 
f>aat hira nemehte nan to oSrum. ac Sa }?aet waeter 
waes ahebbad fela furlanga from )?aem scipum. J?a 
eodan "Sa Deniscan from J?aem ]?rim scipum to f>aam 
o^rum J?rim J?e on hira healfe beebbade waeron. 



and t J?a f>aer gefuhton. j?aer wear's ofslaegen Lucumon 
cynges gerefa. and Wulf heard Friesa. and yEbbe Fri- 
esa. and ^E8elhere Friesa. and ^E'Sel ferft cynges ge- 
neat. and ealra monna. Fresiscra and Engliscra Ixii 
and ]?ara Deniscena cxx. J?a com J?aem Deniscum 
scipuin ]?eh aer flod to. aer j?a Cristnan mehton hira 
utascufon. and hie for'Sy uto'Sreowon. J>a waeron 
hie to J?aem gesargode. J?aet hie ne mehton Su'SSeaxna 
lond utan be rowan, ac hira f>aer tu sae on lond wearp. 
and ]?a men mon laedde to Winte ceastre to J>aem 
cynge. and he hie "$aer ahon het. and }?a men comon 
on EastEngle. J?e on ]?am anum scipe waeron. swi"Se 
for wundode. 

Dy ilcan sumera fbrwear'S nolaes J>on xx scipa mid 
monnum mid ealle. be ]?am su'Sriman. 

Dy ilcan gere forftferde Wulfric cynges hors'Segn. 
se wees eac Wealhgefera. 

898. Her on ]?ysum gere gefor ^E'Selm. Wiltunscire 
ealdormon. nigon nihtum ser middum sumere. and her 
for$ferde Heahstan. se wses on Lundenne biscop. 

901. Her gefor yElfred gulfing, syx nihtum aer 
ealra haligra maessan. Se woes cyning ofer call Ongel 
cyn butan 'Sam dasle j?e under Dena on w aide wses. 
and he heold f>83t rice oj>rum healfum lass J?e xxx 
wintra. Snd ]?a feng Eadweard his sunu to rice. 

Da gerad yE"Selwald his faedran sunu. J?one ham aet 
Winburnan. and act Tweoxneam. butan $aes cyninges 
leafe and his witena. pa rad se cyning mid firde. 08 
he gewicode aet Baddan byrig wi'S Win burnan. and 
/E'Selwald saet binnan J?aem ham mid J?aem monnum 
J?e him togebugon. and haefde ealle )?a geatu forworht 
in to him. and saede J?aet he wolde o'Ser o'SSe J?aer 
libban o'S'Se ]?aer licgan. f>a under J>aem J>a be stael 
he hine on niht on weg. and ge sohte J?one here on 
Nor"S hymbrum. and se cyng het ridan aefter. and 



901. Her gefor JElfred cyning vii kl'Noveb'. and he heold 
}?et rice xxviii wintra and healf gear, and j?a feng ^Edward 
his sunu rice 4 . 

F. 901. Her ge forftferde Alfred cing. vii id' Noub'. and he heold 
j> rice xxviii wintra and healf gear, and ^a feng Eadward his sunu 
to rice. Rex JElfred' ob' & fili' ei' Edward' suscep' regnu. vElfred' 
regnau xxviii annis. 

D, 901. Her gefor ^Elfred cyning vii k' Nouembris and heold bone 
rice xxviii wintra and healf gear. And ba feng Eadweard his sunu 
to rice. 

And }>a [gerad] J^belwold seSeling his fsederan sunu bone ham set 
Winburnan. and set Tweoxnam bses cynges unbances and his witena. 
pa rad se cyning mid fyrde. o&Se he gewicode set Baddan byrig wi8 
Winburnan. and Abelwold sset binnan }>am hame mid bam monnum 
be him to gebugon. and he hsefde ealle ba gatu forworhte into him. 
and saede -f he wolde oj>}>e 'Sser libban o&ie bser licgean. J>a under 
j?am }>a rad se seeding onniht aweg and ge sohte bone here on 
NorS hymbrum. and hi hine under fengon him to cyninge and him 

4 Famosus bellicosus victoriosus, vi- 
duaruia pupillorum orphanorum pau- 
perutnque provisor studiosus, poetarum 
Saxonicorum peritissimus, suae genti 
carissimus, afFabilis omnibus, liberalis- 
simusj prudentia fortitudine justitia 
temperantia prseditus ; infirmitate qua 
assidue laborabat patientissimus, in 
exequendis judiciis indagator discretis- 
simus, in servitio Dei vigilantissimus 
et devotissimus, Angul Saxonum rex 
^ELFREDUS, piissimi regis Athulfi 
filius, xxix annis, sexque mensibus regni 
sui peractis, indictione quarta, mortem 
obiit, feria quarta, v kal' Novembris 
28 Oct.], et Wintonise in Novo Mo- 
nasterio sepultus, beatse immortalitatis 
stolam, et resurrectionis gloriam cum 
justis expectat. Huic filius successit 
EADWARDUS, cognomento Senior, lit- 
terarum cultu patre inferior, sed digni- 
tate potentia pariter, et gloria supe- 
rior; nam, ut in sequentibus clarebit, 
multo latius quam pater fines regni sui 
dilatavit, siquidem civitates et urbes 
multas sedificavit, nonnullas vero de- 

structas resedificavit ; totam EastSaxo- 
niam, EastAngliam, Northhymbriam, 
pluresque etiam Mercise provincias, 
quas Dani multo possederant tempore, 
manibus illorum extorsit; Merciam, 
post obitum suse germanae ^gelfledse, 
totam obtinuit et possedit; Scottorum, 
Cumbrorum, Streatgledwalorum, om- 
nesque Occidentalium Britonum reges 
in deditionem accepit; reges et duces 
ab eo, proelio victi, csesique quamplu- 
rimi. Ex muliere nobilissima Ecgwyna 
filium suum primogenitum ^ETHEL- 
STANUM, ex regina autem sua Eadgiva 
filios tres Eadwinum, Eadmundum, 
Eadredum, filiamque, Deo devotissi- 
mam virginem, Eadburgam, tresque 
insuper habuit filias; quarum unam 
Otto, Romanorum imperator octogesi- 
mus nonus, alteram vero in conjugem 
habuit rex Occidentalium Francorum 
Karolus ; cujus amitam, Karoli scilicet 
imperatoris filiam, uxorem duxit rex 
Occidentalium Saxonum Athulfus ; ter- 
tiam autem filiam in uxorem habuit rex 
Northanhymbrorum Sihtricus. (Flor.) 


98 THE PARKER MS. (ff) 

]?a ne mehte hine mon of ridan. pa berad mon }?aet 
wif J?aet he haefde aer genumen butan cynges leafe and 
ofer ]?ara biscopa gebod. for$on 8e heo waes aer to 
nunnan gehalgod. 

!Snd on f>ys ilcan gere for^ferde ^E}?ered. waes 
on Defenum ealdormon. feower wucum aer ^Elfred 

903. Her gefor!S>u1f ealdormon. EalhswiSe broSor. 
and Uirgilius abbud of Scottum. and Grim bald msesse 
preost. via idus luia, 

904. Her com yE$elwald hider ofer sae mid f>aem 
flotan J?e he mid waes on EastSexe. 

905. Her aspon yE$elwald )?one here on East 
Englum to unfri'Se. J?aet hie hergodon ofer Mercna 
land o'S hie comon to Crecca gelade. and foron J>aer 
ofer Temese. and namon aeg'Ser ge on Bradene ge 
^aer ymb utan call J?set hie ge hentan mehton. and 
wendan $a eft hamweard. pa for Ead weard cyning 
sefter. swa he ra'Sost mehte his fird gegadrian. and 
oferhergade eall hira land betwuh dicum and Wusan. 
eall o8'Sa fennas nor$. pa he 8a eft J>onan utfaran 
wolde. J?a het he beodan ofer ealle ]?a fird J>aet hie 
foron ealle ut set somne. pa set saeton ^a Centiscan 
J>aer be aaftan ofer his bebod. and seofon aerend racan 
he him hsefde to asend. pa befor se here hie "Saer. 
and hie 'Saer gefuhton. and J>aer wearS Sigulf ealdor 
mon ofslaegen. and Sigelm ealdormon. and Eadwold 
cynges 'Segen. and Cenulf abbod. and Sigebreht 
Sigulfes sunu. and Eadwald Sccan sunu. and monige 
eac him. ]?eh ic 8a ge "Sungnestan nemde. !Snd on 
Sara Deniscena healfe wearS ofslaegen Eohric hira 
cyng. and ^Eftelwald ae^eling. 'Se hine to )?aem unfri'Se 
gespon. and Byrhtsige Beorno'Ses sunu ae'Selinges. 
and Ysopa hold, and Oscytel hold, and swifte monige 
eac him. )?e we nu genemnan ne magon. !Snd J?aer 

THE PARKER MS. (ft) 99 

waes on gehwse'Sre bond mieel wael ge slaegen. and 
J>ara Denescena J?aer wear^ ma ofslaegen. J>eh hie wael 
stowe gewald ahton. 

Ealh swi'S gefor Jy ilcan geare. 

(F) 903. Her forSferde Gribaldi ]?es sac' and )>ys ylcan geares was ge 
halgod Niwe mynster on Wincest'. and S' ludoces cyme. Ob' S' 
Gribaldi sac'. & aduent' S' ludoci. & dedicat' Noui Monast' Went'. 

(D) tobugon. pa berad man f wif J>et he hsefde ser genumen butan 
jjses cynges leafan and ofer J>aera biscopa gebodu for]?am heo wees 
ser to nunnan gehalgod. 

And on }>ys ilcan geare forSferde ^E)?ered waes on Defenum ealdor 
man. iiii wucan eer Alfred cyning. 

903. Her gefor AJmlf ealdorman. Ealhswy^e broker. Eadweardes 
moder cynges. and Uirgilius abbud of Scottum. and Grimbald msesse 

904. Her com ASelwold hider ofer sse mid eallum ]>am flotan }>e 
he begitan mihte and him to gebogen wses on EastSeaxe. 

905. Her cometa seteowde xiii k' Nouembris. 

Her gelsedde A]>elwold ]?one here on East Engl urn to unfrifte. f 
hi gehergodon ofer eall Myrcna land 08 hi comon to Creoccgelade. 
and foron J>aer ofer Temese and namon seg|>er on Brsedene ge paer on 
baton, call -p hi gehentan meahton. and wendon ]?a east hamweard. 
pa for Eadweard cyning aefter swa he raSost mihte his fyrd gegade- 
rian. and oferhergode eall hyra land betweoh dicum and Wiisan eall 
08 fennas nort>. pa he eft |?anon faran wolde. ]>a het heo beodon 
ofer ealle |>a fyrd. f hi foron ealle ut setsomne. pa aetsaeton J>a 
Centiscan J>aer be asftan ofer his bebod. and vii serend racan he him 
haefde toasend. pa befor sehere hi j?eer. and hi 'Sser gefuhton. and 
Jjaer [wear^] Siulf ealdorman ofslsegen. and Sihelm ealdorman. and 
Eadwold cynges |>eng. and Kenulf abb', and Sigebryht Siulfes sunu. 
and Eadwold Accan sunu. and manige eac to him. }>eah ic }>a ge 
jmngenestan ^nemde. And on J>sera Deniscena healfe wses ofslaegen 
Eoric cyning. and A^elwold sejjeling j?e hi him to cyninge gecurum. 
and Beorht sige Beorht no^es sunu sej>elinges. and Ysopo hold, and 
Oskytel hold, and swrSe msenige eac mid him. )>e we nu genemnan 
nemagon. And J>ser wes on gehwae^ere hand mycel wsel ge slaegen. 
and )>aera Deniscna wearS ma ofslaegen. J>eah hi wsel stowe ge weald 
ahton. And EalhswiS gefor }>y ilcan geare. 

O 2 


906. Her on J?ys geare gefor Alfred waes set 
Baftum gerefa. !Snd on J?aem ilcan gere mon faest- 
node ]?one fri^ set Yttinga forda. swa swa Eadweard 
cyng geraedde. aegfter wiS EastEngle ge wr$ Nor*$ 

908. Her gefor Denulf. se waes on Winteceastre 

910. Her feng FriSestan to biscop dome on Winte 
ceastre. and !Ssser biscop gefor sefter "Seem, se wees aet 
Scireburnan biscop. 

!Snd J?y ilcan gere sende Eadweard cyng firde seg^er 
ge of WestSeaxurn ge of Mercum. and heo gehergade 
swi$e micel on ]>sem nor8 here. aegSer ge on mannum 
ge on gehwelces cynnes yrfe.and rnanega men ofslogon 
]?ara Deniscena. and J>aer waeron fif wucan inne. 

911. Her braec se here on Nor$ hymbrum ]?one 
fri'S. and forsawon aelc fri'S ]?e Eadweard cyng and 
his witan him budon. and hergodon ofer Mercna 
lond. and se cyng hsefde gegadrod sum hund scipa. 
and wses J?a on Cent, and J>a scipu foran be suftan 
east andlang see togenes him. J?a wende se here J?aet 
his fultumes se maesta dael w^aere on J>aem scipum. 
and J>aet hie mehten faran un be fohtene J?aer paer hie 
wolden. J?a ge ascade se cyng )?aet J?aet hie ut on 
herga'S foron. J?a sende he his fird aeg^er ge of West 
Seaxum ge of Mercum. and hie oiforon 'Sone here 
hindan. J>a he hamweard waes. and him ]?a wi'S gefuh- 
ton and Jxme here gefliemdon. and his fela J?usenda 
ofslogon. and J?aer waes Ecwils cyng ofslaegen. 

912. Her gefor ^E'Sered ealdormon on Mercum. 
and Eadweard cyng feng to Lundenbyrg and to Oxna 
forda. and to $aem landum eallum J?e )?aer tohierdon. 

913. Her on J?ys geare ymb Martines maessan. 
het Eadweard cyning atymbran ]?a nor'Sran burg aet 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 101 

906. Her ge festnode Eadward cyng for neode frrS segSer 
ge wr3 EastEngla here, ge wift NorShymbre. 

910. Her Englehere and Dene gefuhton set Teotanheale. 
And ^EJ?ered Myrcena ealdor forSferde. and Eadward cyng 
feng to Lunden byrig. and to Oxnaforda. and to ealle ]?am 
landum ]?e J?aer to gebyredon. And mycel sciphere hider com 
su]?an of Lidwicum. and hergedon swifte be Sefsern. ac hi )?3er 
msest ealle siSftan forforon. 

(F) 909. Her gefor Denulf b' of Winceast'. Denulf eps Wentan' ob'. '/* 

910. Asser b' of Scirb' ob'. Her Eadward cing feng to Lundenb'i and to 
Oxanaforda and to eallu fta landon ]?e ftarto hyrdon. Hie rex Eaduuard' suscep' 
Lundonia & Oxanaford & oms tras q' illis adjacent. Fridestan 3 suscep' ep'atu 

(D) 906. Her waes see Oswaldes lichoma alseded of Beardan igge. 
Her on bysson geare Alfred gefor. waes set BaSumtune gerefa. And 
on bam ylcan geare man gefsestnode bone frift set Ytingaforda. swa 
swa Eadward cyning geraedde. aegbaer ge wi(5 East^Englum ge wiS 
NorS hymbrae. 

909. Her Myrce and West Seaxe gefuhton wrS bone here neh 
Teotanheale. on.viii idus Agustus. and sige haefdon. and by ilcan 
geare JEbelflaed getimbrode Bremesburh. Her gefor Denewulf se 
wees on Wintan ceastre b'. 

910. Her feng FrrSstan to biscopdome on Winta ceastre. and 
Asser gefor sefter bam. se wses set Scireburnan biscop. 

And by ilcan geare sende Eadweard cyning fyrde segber ge of 
West Seaxum ge of Myrcuni. and he gehergode swySe mycel on 
J?am nor^ here, segbser ge on mannum ge on hwylcum yrfe. and ma- 
nege men ofslogon baera Daeniscra. and bser waeron v wucan inne. 

Her ^Engle and Dene gefuhton set Totanheale. And ^Ebelred 
Myrcna ealdor for<5ferde. and Eadward cyning feng to Lunden byrig. 
and to Oxnaforda. and to eallum bam landum be bser to hyrdon. And 
mycel sciphere hider com su'San of Lidwicum. and hergodon swy^e 
be Ssefern. ac hi bser msest ealle sybban forforan. 

911. Her braec sehere bone friS on Nor^hymbrum. and forsawon 
selc riht be Eadweard cyning and his witan him budon. and hergodon 
ofer Myrc land. And se cyning hsefde gegaderod sum hund scipa. 
and waes ba on Cent, and ba scipu foron be su^an east andlang see 
togeanes him. pa wende se here f his fultum wsere se msesta dsel 
on bam scipum. and baet hi mihton unbefohtene faran bserbaer hi 
woldon. pa ge ahsode se cyning bset ]?set hi on hergea^ foron. ba 
sende he his fyrd seg^er ge of West Seaxum ge of Myrcum. and hy 
of foron bone here hindan. ba he hamweard waes. and him wrS ba 
gefuhton. and bone here geflymdon. and his feola of slogen. and baer 
waes Eowilisc cyng ofslaegen. and Healden cyng. and Ohter eorl. and 
Scurfa eorl. and Abulf hold, and Agmund hold. 

912. Her gefor ^Ebelred ealdor man on Myrcum. and Eadweard 
cyning feng to Lunden byrig and to Oxnaforda. and to eallum bam 
landum be ]>ser to hyrdon. 

913. Her ^Ebelfled getimbrode Tameweortte. and eac Stafforda 

102 THE PARKER MS. (3S) 

Heorotforda. betweox Memeran and Beneficcan and 
Lygean x . 

Snd J?a aefter J?am f>aes on sumera. betweox gang 
dagum and middum sumera. )?a for Eadweard cyning 
mid sumum his fultume on EastSeaxe to Maeldune. 
and wicode f>ser J?a hwile Ipe man J>a burg worhte and 
getimbrede set Wit ham. and him beag god dsel J?ees 
folces to ]?e ser under Deniscra manna anwalde waeron. 
and sum his fultum worhte )?a burg J>a hwile aet 
Heorotforda on su]?healfe Lygean. 

917. Her on )?ys gere rad se here ut ofer Eastron 
of Ham tune and of Ligera ceastre. and brsecon J?one 
fri)?. and slogon monige men set Hoc nera tune, and 
J?ser onbutan. and J?a swifte ra]?e sefter J?sem. swa J?a 
o]?re ham comon. J?a fundon hie oj>re floe rade. J?set 
rad ut wi'S Lygtunes. and )?a wurdon }?a land leode 
his ware and him wij? gefuhton. and gebrohton hie 
on fullum fleame. and ahreddon eall J>set hie ge 
numen hsefdon. and eac hira horsa and hira wsepna 
micelne dsel. 

918. Her on ]?ysum geare com micel sciphere hider 
ofer suj>an of Lid wiccum. and twegen eorlas mid. 
Ohtor and Hroald. and foron west onbutan f>set hie 
gedydon innan Sseferne muj>an. and hergodon on 
NorJ>Wealas seghwser be ]?am sse. J?ser hie ]?onne on 
hagode. and gefengon Cameleac biscop on Ircinga 
felda. and Iseddon hine mid him to scipum. and J?a 
aliesde Eadweard cyning hine eft mid xl pundum. 
pa sefter J?am for se here eall up. and wolde farari )?a 
giet on herga)? wi8 Ircinga feldes. J?a gemetton ]?a 
men hie of Here forda and of Gleaweceastre^. and of 
J>am niehstum burgum. and him wi$ ge fuhton and 
hie gefliemdon. and of slogon J?one eorl Hroald and 
J>ses o]?res eorles brof>or Ohteres. and micel J?ses heres. 
and be drifon hie on anne pearruc. and be sseton hie 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 103 

918. Her ^ESelffced forSferde Myrcena hkefdige 5 . 

(D) burh. Her on byssum geare ymbe Martines maessan het Eadward 
cyning atimbrian ba nor&m burh set Heort forda. be tweoh Mseran 
and Beneficean and Ligean. 

And ba eefter bam baes onsumera. betwux gang dagum and middan 
sumera for Eadweard cyning mid sumum his fultume on EastSeaxe 
to Mseldune. and wicode bser J>a hwile be man ba burh worhte and 
ge trymode set Witan ham. and him beah god dsel bses folces to be 
ser under Dseniscra manna anwealde wseron. and sum his fultum 
worhte ba burh set Heortforda on suShealfe Lygean. 

914. Her on gere rad se here ut ofer Eastron of Ham tune and 
of Ligere ceastre. and brsecon bonne frift and slogon manegan maen 
set Hocceneretune. and bser abuton. And ba hwile swy'Se ra^e 
sefter bam. swa obre ham comon. ba fundon hi oSre flocrade f rad 
ut wiS Ligtunes. and ba wurdon }>a landleode his gewaer and him 
wiS gefuhton. and gebrohton hi on fullan fleame. and ahrieddon 
call f hi ge numen haefdon. and eac heora horsa and heora waepna 
mycelne dsel. 

915. Her on J>ison geare wses Wserincwic getimbrod. and com 
mycel sciphere hider ofer su^an. of Lio^wicum. and ii eorlas. mid 
Ohter and mid Hraold. and foron ]?a west abuton f hi gedyde innon 
Ssefern mu'San. and hergodon on NorSWealas eeghwaer be ]>am 
sta^um J>ser hi ]?onne on hagode. and ge fengon Camelgeeac bisceop 
on lercinga felda. and laeddon hine mid him to scipe. and ]>a alysde 
Eadweard cyning hine eft mid xl pundum. pa Defter ]>am ]?a for se 
here call up. and wolde faran )>a git on hergea'S wi^ lercinga feldes. 
pa gemytton hy of Here forda and of Gleawe ceastre and of J?am 
nyxtan burgum. and him wi<5 gefuhton and hi geflymdon. and of 
slogon }>ane eprl Hraold. and J)aes o]>res eorles brojjor Ohteres. and 
mycel J>ses heres. and be drifon hi on anne pearroc. and be sseton hi 

x This and the notice of Hertford a on the opposite bank of the Lea, and 

few lines lower describe the site of that there stands Hertford Castle, 
town as it is at this day. Part of it is 7 " There came against them the 

north of the Lea, between the points men of Hereford and of Gloucester." 
of its junction with the Maran and the 5 See below, pp. 108, 109. 

Beane. The south part of the town is 


J?ser utan. a oj?f>e hie him sealdon gislas. ]?set hie of 
Eadweardes cyninges andwalde afaran woldon. !Snd 
se cyng hsefde funden b J?aet him mon sset wi'S. on suj? 
healfe Ssefern muj?an. westan from Wealum. east o]? 
!&fene mu)?an. j?aet hie ne dorston J?set land nawer ge 
secan on ]?a healfe. pa bestaelon hie hie )?eah nihtes 
upp set surnum twam cirron. set o]?rum cierre be 
eastan Wseced. and set o}?rum cierre set Portlocan. 
pa slog hie mon set seg]?rum cirre. ]>sdt hira feawa on 
weg comon. buton )?a ane J>e ]?aer ut aetswummon to 
]?am scipum. and )?a saeton hie ute on ]?am iglande 
set BradanRelice. o]> Jxme first J?e hie vvurdon swij?e 
mete lease, and monige men hungre acwselon. forj?on 
hie ne meahton nanne mete geraecan. foran J>a 
}?onan to Deomodum. and }?a ut to Irlande. and ]?is 
waes on haerfest. 

'Knd }?a aefter ]?am on ]?am ilcan gere foran to 
Martines maessan. "Sa for Eadweard cyning to Buo 
cingahamme mid his firde. and saet J?aer feovver 
wucan. and geworhte ]?a burga buta on aegj?ere healfe 
eas aer he J>onon fore, and purcytel eorl hine ge 
sohte him to hlaforde. and J>a holdas ealle. and ^a 
ieldestan men ealle maeste. "Se to Bedanforda hierdon. 
and eac monige ]?ara J?e to Ham tune hierdon. 

919. Her on J>ys gere Ead weard cyng for mid 
fierde to Bedan forda. foran to Martines rnsessan. and 
beget J?a burg, and him cirdon to msest ealle J?a burg 
ware J?e hie ser budon. and he sset J?ser feower wucan. 
and het atimbran J?a burg on suj? healfe }?sere eas. asr 
he J?onan fore. 

920. Her on ]?ys gere foran to middum sumera. 
for Eadweard cyning to Maeldune. and getimbrede J?a 
burg and gesta'Solode aer he J>onon fore. 

'Knd ]>y ilcan geare for pur cytel eorl ofer see on 
Froncland. mid J>am mannum J>e him gelsestan wold- 
on. mid Eadweardes cynges fri]?e and fultume. 

921. Her on ]?ysum gere foran to Eastron. Ead 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 105 

921. Her Sihtric cyng ofsloh Niel his broj?or. 

(F) 921. Her Sihtric cing of sloh Niel his broker. Rex Sihtric' occi- 
dit frem suum Niellu, 

(D) J>aer utan o3 hi him sealdon gislas. baet hi of j?ses cynges anwealde 
faran woldon. And se cyng hsefde funden $ him mon sset wi$. on 
suS healfe Sgefernmuban westan fram Wealum. east o]> Afene 
mu]>an. bset hi ne dorstan beet land nawser on ba healfe ge secean, 
pa bestselan hi beah nihtes up set sumum twam cyrrura. aet obrum 
cyrre be eastan Weced, set obrum cyrre set Por locan, pa sloh hi 
mon set segberum cyrre. ^ hyra feawa on weg comon buton ]?a ane 

^seruto^Sswymman mihton to }>am scipum. And ]?a sseton hi ute 
on j?am iglande set Steapan Reolice o^ J>one fyrst ]>e hi wurdon swyf>e 
mete lease, and manege men hungre acwselon. forj>on hi ne meahton 
nsenne mete gersecan, foron ]>a ]>anon to Deomedum. and J>anon to 
Yrlande. and j?is waes on hserfest. 

And J>a sefter J>am on j?am ilcan geare foran to Martines msessan. 
J)a for Eadweard cyning to Buccinga hamme mid his fyrde. and sa3t 
jiser feower wucan. and geworhte ]?a byrig buta on segj>ser healfe eas 
aer he ]?anon fore. And purcytel eorl hine ge sohte him to hlaforde. 
and J?a eorlas ealle. and ]?a yldestan msen ]?e to Bedaforda hyrdon. 
and eac msenige J>sera ]?e to Ham tune hyrdon. 

917- Her JEJjelflaed Myrcna hleefdige Gode fultumiendum foran to 
hlam meessan begeat J?a burh mid eallum ]?am |>e ]?8er to hyrde. )>e is 
gehaten Deoraby. |>ser wseron eac ofslsegene hyre ]?segna feower ]>e 
hire besorge wseron binnan J>am gatan. 

918. Her heo begeat on hyre geweald mid Godes fultume on 
foreweardne gear j>a burh set Ligran coastre. and se msesta dsel J>ges 
herges J>e ]>ser to hyrde wearS hyre under ^eod. and hsefdon eac Eofor 
wicyngas hyre gehaten. and sume onwedde geseald sume mid a]>um 
gefsestnod }> hi on hire rsedinge beon woldon. 

a J?set B. oft C. D. B is fond of opposing their landing on the south 

J>set = wntil, insomuch that, where oft coast of the zestuary of the Severn; 

is more usual : cf. 937. from Cornwall westward, to the mouth 

*> " And the king had arranged for of the Avon eastward." 


(A.D.921) weard cyning het gefaran ]?a burg set Tofe ceastre. 
and hie getimbran. !Snd J?a eft aefter )?am. on J>arn 
ilcan geare to gangdagum. he het atimbran ]?a burg 
set Wigingamere. 

py ilcan sumera betwix hlafmsessan and middum 
sumera. se here brsec ]?one frij? of Ham tune and of 
Ligera ceastre and J?onan nor)?an. and foron to Tofe 
ceastre. and fuhton on J?a burg ealne dseg. and J?ohton 
J?set hie sceoldon abrecan. !Sc hie f>eah awerede J?set 
folc ]?e J?ser binnan wses oj? him mara fultum to com. 
and hie forleton ]?a ]?a burg and foron aweg. !Snd 
J>a eft swi^e raf>e setter J?am. hie foron eft ut mid 
stsel herge nihtes. and comon on un ge arwe men. 
and genorrion utlytel. seg]?er ge on mannum ge on 
ierfe. betweox Byrne wuda and yEglesbyrig. 

py ilcan sif>e for se here of Huntandune. and of 
EastEnglum. and worhton f>aet geweorc set Tcernese 
forda. and hit budon. and bytledon. and forleton J?set 
o]?er set Huntan dune, and J>ohton J?set hie sceoldon 
]?anon of mid gevvinne and mid unfri'Se eft J?ses landes 
mare gersecan. Snd foran J?set hie gedydon set Bedan 
forda. and ]?a foran J?a men ut ongean ]?e {?aer binnan 
waeron. and him wij? ge fuhton and hie gefliemdon 
and hira godne del ofslogon. 

pa eft aefter J?am J?agiet gegadorode micel here 
hine of EastEnglum and of Mercna lande. and foran 
to Jpsere byrig set Wiginga mere, and ymb sseton hie 
utan. and fuhton lange on dseg on. and namon J?one 
ceap onbutan. !Snd J?a men aweredon ]?eah J?a burg 
J?e j?ser binnan waBron. and ]?a forleton hie J?a burg 
and foron aweg. 

pa aBfter J?am J?a3S ilcan sumeres gegadorode micel 
folc hit on Eadweardes cynges anwalde. of J?am nieh- 
stum burgum. f>e hit "Sa gefaran mehte. and foron to 
Teemese forda. and besaeton 8a burg, and fuhton J?aer 


on 08 hi hie abraecon. and ofslogon pone cyning and(A.D.92i) 
Toglos eorl and Mannan eorl his sunu and his bro- 
por. and ealle pa pe paer binnan waeron and hie 
wergan woldon. and namon pa opre and eal paet paer 
binnan waes. 

pa aefter pam pses forhrape gegadorode rnicel folc 
hit on haerfest. segper ge of Cent ge of Suprigum ge 
of EastSeaxum ge aeghwonan of pam nihstum burgurn. 
and foron to Colne ceastre and ymb saeton pa burg, 
and paer on fuhton op hie pa ge eodon. and paet folc 
eall ofslogon. and ge namon eal paet paer binnan waes. 
buton pam mannum pe paer opflugon ofer pone weall. 

pa aefter ]?am J?a giet J?aas ilcan haarfestes gegador- 
ode micel here hine of EastEnglum. aagper ge J?aes 
landheres ge J>ara wicinga Ipe hie him to fultume 
aspanen haefdon. and J?ohton J?aet hie sceoldon ge 
wrecan hira teonan. and foron to Maeldune. and 
ymb sseton J?a burg, and fuhton J>ser on. op ]?am burg 
warurn com mara fultum to utan to helpe. and forlet 
se here J?a burg and for fram. and ]?a foron )?a men 
aefter ut of J?sere byrig. and eac J>a J>e him utan comon 
to fultume. and gefliemdon pone here and ofslogon 
hira monig hund. segper ge sesc manna ge operra. 

pa paas forhrape pses ilcan hserfestes for Eadweard 
cyning mid WestSexna fierde to Passan hamme. and 
saet pasr pa hwile pe mon worhte pa burg eet Tofe 
ceastre mid stan wealle. and him cirde to purferp 
eorl and pa holdas and eal se here pe to Ham tune 
hierde. norp op Weolud. and sohton hine him to 
hlaforde and to mundboran. 

'Knd pa se firdstemn for ham pa for oper ut and 
gefor pa burg set Huntandune. and hie gebette and 
ge edneowade paer heo ser to brocen waes. be Ead 
weardes cyninges haese. and paet folc eal paet paer to 

p 2 


lafe wses J?ara landleoda. beag to Eadwearde cyninge 
and sohton his fri]? and his mundbyrde. 

pa giet sefter J?am J?ses ilcan geres foran to Martines 
msessan. for Eadweard cyning mid WestSexna fierde 
to Colneceastre c . and ge bette ]?a burg and ge ed- 
neowade J>ser heo ser to brocen wses. and him cirde 
mi eel folc to. seg)?er ge on EastEnglum ge on East 
Seaxum. )?e ser under Dena anwalde wees, and eal 
se here on EastEnglum him swor annesse. J?set hie 
eal J?set woldon f>set he wolde. and eall J?aet frij?ian 
woldon f>set se cyng frijnan wolde. aegj?er ge on sae 
ge on lande. and se here J?e to Grantan brycge 
hierde. hine geces synderlice him to hlaforde and to 
mund boran. and J?set fsestnodon mid a}mm. swa swa 
he hit J?a ared. 

922. Her on "Sysum gere betweox gangdagum and 
middan sumera. for Eadweard cyng mid firde to 
Steanforda. and het gewyrcan 8a burg on sufthealfe 
8sere eas. and ftset folc eal "Se to 'Saere norj>erran 
byrig hierde. him beah to. and sohtan him hine to 

3!nd ]?a on J?sem setle 'Se he J?aer sset. f>a ge for 
^Ej?elflaed his swystar set Tame wor]?ige d xii nihtum 
ser middum sumera. Snd ]?a gerad he J?a burg set 
Tamewor]?ige. and him cierde to eall se }?eod scype 
on Myrcna lande. Ipe j^Cf>elflsede ser underj?eoded wses. 
and J?a cyningas on Nor}?Wealum. Howel and Cledauc 
and leojjwel. and eall NorJ>Weallcyn hine sohton him 
to hlaforde. 

pa for he }?onan to Snotingaham and gefor f>a burg, 
and het hie ge betan and ge settan. seg]?er ge mid 
Engliscum mannum ge mid Deniscum. 

Snd him cierde eall J>set folc to J?e on Mercna lande 
ge seten wses. seg)?er ge Denisc ge Englisce. 

923. Her on J>ysum geare for Eadweard cyning 

923. Her Regnold cyng gewan Eoferwic. 


(F) 923. Her Regnold cing gewann Euorwic. Rex Regnold' deuicit 

(D) Ac swjrSe hraedlice bees be hi bus geworden hsefde heo gefor. xii 
nihtum (pridie ID' IUNII) ser middan sumera. binnan TamweorSe by 
eahto^an geare baes )>e heo Myrcna anweald mid rihte hlaford dome 
healdende wses. and hire lie lift binnan Glewe ceastre innan bam east 
portice see Petres cyrcean. 

919. Her eac wearS .^Ebelredes dohter Myrcna hlafordes aelces 
anwealdes on Myrcum benumen. and on WestSeaxe alaeded. brym 
wucum ser middan wintre. se wses haten yElfwyn. 

921. Her Eadweard cyning getimbrode ba burh set Cledemuban. 

923. Her Regnold cyning gewan Eoforwic. 

c At Colchester, Edward " repaired 
and restored the fortress wheresoever 
it had a breach." No mention of new 
constructions as elsewhere (gewyrcan 
ane burg), for the fortifications date 
from Roman times. It seems to be 
established now that Colchester is the 
R. Colony of Camulodunum (Tac. An. 
xiv. 31), which was surprised and 
stormed by the infuriated Boadicea, 
A. D. 61. See "The Military Anti- 
quities of the Romans in Britain" by 
Maj. Gen. Roy, p. 187, and "Colches- 
ter Castle" by Rev. H. Jenkins. Quar- 
terly Review, No. 193. 

The walls, of which particular men- 
tion is made on the previous page, 
form a parallelogram, longer on the 
north and south sides j measuring 
about if m. round. According to 
Maj. Gen. Roy, they are based on a 
Roman valluin, and the whole position 
is such as the Romans would choose 
a commanding point of land, formed 
by the Colne on one side and a ravine 
on the other. 

Such being the strength of the place, 
it was a spirited act of the men of 
Kent, Surrey, and Essex to dislodge 
the Danes, and recover a stronghold 
of so much importance. In this we 

see the good effect of the king's vigor- 
ous conduct upon the temper and reso- 
lution of his people. 

d ^Ethelflsed, the Lady of Mercia, 
died at Tamworth, which seems (from 
the language of some Charters) to have 
been the Residence of the kings of 

jEthelflsed had governed with more 
than feminine energy; she had hum- 
bled the Welsh, and fortified her terri- 
tory against the Dane.". The Latin. 
Chroniclers make a point of giving her 
masculine titles, as Henry of Hunting- 
don says : Hsec igitur domina tantse 
potentiae fertur fuisse, ut a quibusdam 
non solum domina vel regina, sed etiam 
Rex vocaretur ad laudem et excellen- 
tiam mirificationis sui, &c. So D. has, 
mid rihte Jdaford dome. 

Holinshed styles her " the martial 
ladie and manlie Elfleda." Speed calls 
her "another Zenobia." 

On the death of his sister, Eadweard 
occupied Mercia, and united it finally 
with Wessex. A line drawn from the 
mouth of the Mersey to that of the 
Welland, with a free outward curve, 
would now describe the Saxon frontier 
towards the Briton and the Dane. 

110 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

mid fierde on ufan haerfest to pelwaele. and het ge 
wyrcan ]?a burg and ge settan and ge mannian. and 
het oj?re fierd. eac of Miercna J?eode. )?a hwile J>e he 
J?aer sset. gefaran Mame ceaster on NorJ?hymbrum. 
and hie gebetan and ge mannian. Her for\>ferde Piegemund 


924. Her on J>ysum gere foran to middum sumera. 
for Eadweard cyning mid fierde to Snotingaham. and 
het ge wyrcan )?a burg on suj> healfe J?sere eas. ongean 
]?a oj>re. and }?a brycge ofer Treontan be twix f>am 
twam burgum. and for f>a )?onan on Peac lond to 
Badecan wiellon. and het ge wyrcan ane burg J?aer 
on neaweste. and ge mannian. and hine geces J>a 
to faeder and to hlaforde Scotta cyning and eall 
Scotta J>eod. and Regnald and Eadulfes suna and 
ealle J?a)7e on Nor]?hymbrum bugea]?. segj>er ge 
Englisce ge Denisce ge Nor]? men ge o]?re. and eac 
Straecled Weala cyning and ealle Strsecled Wealas. 

925. Her Eadweard cing forj?ferde. and ^EJ^elstan 

his SUnU feng to rice. And See Dunstan wear akcenned. and Wulfelm 
feng to \>an arcebiscoprice on Cantuarebyri. 

931. Her mon hadode Byrnstan bisceop to Wintan 
ceastre iiii kF lunii. and he heold ]?ridde healf gear 

932. Her for]?ferde Fry)?estan bisceop. 

933. Her for ^J?elstan cyning in on Scotland. aeg]?er 
ge mid land here ge mid scyp here, and his micel 
oferhergade. !Snd Byrnstan bisp forj>ferde on Wintan 
ceastre. to Omnium Scorurn. 

934. Her feng ^Elfheah bisp. to bisceopdome. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 111 

924. [Her ^Edward cyning forSferde. and JEJ^elstan his sunu 
feng to rice.] 

925. Her Wulfelm biscop wes ge halgod. and J>y ilcan 
geare ^Edward cyning foriSferde. 

927. Her JE]?elstan cyning fordraf GuSfrrS cyng. and her 
Wulfelm arcb' for to Rom. 

928. WilPm suscepit regnum. et xv annis regnavit. 

933. Her adranc JEdwine seeding on see. 

934. Her for J3j?elstan cyning on Scotland, ge raid land 
here, ge mid sciphere. and his mycel oferhergode. 

(F) 924. Her wear> Eadward cing gecoren to fsedere and to hlauorde of Scotta 
cinge and of Scotton. and Regnolde cinge and of eallu NorShubru. and eac 
Streaclede Waela cinge. and of eallon Streclaed Wealan. Hie Eduuard' fili' 
Alfredi elect' e' a rege Scotie & ab omib' Scottis in patre & drim. & a Regnoldo 
rege & a cunctis de Norft hubra. & a Streclsede rege Uualor' & a pop'lo ei'. 

925. Her Eadward cing for}>ferde. and JEftestan his sunu feng to rice, and 
Wulfelm wear}> gehadod to arb' to Cant' and S' Dunstanus was geboren. Hie 
ob' Eaduuard' rex fili' Alfredi reg' & ^ESestan suscep' regnu & Wlfelm' ordinat' 
e' ad ar'ep'atu Cantie 

& beatus Dunstanus natus e'. 

927. Her JEftestan cing fordraf Gu>fri l S cing and her Wulfelm arb' ferde to 
Rome. Rex ^ESestan' pepulit Guthfridu rege. & Wlfelm' ar'eps perrex 1 Rome 
p' pallio. 

928. Willelmus feng to Normandi. and heald xv gear. Willelm' sucep' Nor- 
mannia regenda et xv annis tenuit. 

931. Her forSferde FriSestan b' Wentanus. and Byrnstanus wear 5 gebletsod 
on his loh. Friftestan' eps Wyntoniensis ob'. et Byrnstan' ordinat' loco ei'. 

934. Her for JESestan cing to Scotlande mid land here ge mid sciphere. and 
his mycel ouer hergode. Rex JE'Sestan' vadit in Scotia cum magno &c. 

935. Her feng ^Elfeah to b' stole on Wine. ^Elf heg' suscep' pontificatu W . . . 

(D) 924. Her Eadweard cyning gefor on Myrcum set Farndune. and 
yElfweard his sunu swybe hra^e bges gefor ymbe xvi dagas set 
Oxanforda. and hyra lie IrS set Wintanceastre. and ^Ebelstan waes 
gecoren to cynge of Myrcum. and set Cyngestune gehalgod. and he 
geaf his sweostor Offse EaldSeaxna cynges suna. 

925. Her ^Ebelstan cyning and Sihtric NorShymbra cyng heo 
gesamnodon set TameweorSbige. iii k' Februarius. and ^Ebelstan his 
sweostor him forgeaf. 

926. Her o^eowdoii fyrena leoman on norSdsele bsere lyfte. and 
Sihtric acwsel. and ^Ebelstan cyning feng to NorS hymbra rice, 
and ealle ba cyngas be on byssum iglande wseron he gewylde. 
serest Huwal WestWala cyning. and Cosstantin Scotta cyning. and 
Uwen Wenta cyning. and Ealdred Ealdulfing from Bebbanbyrig. 
and mid wedde and mid abum fryj? gefaestnodon. on bsere stowe be 
genemned is set Ea motum. on iiii idus lulii. and selc deofol geld to 
cwsedon. and sybbam mid sibbe tocyrdon. 

934. Her for ^Ebelstan cyning on Scotland mid here ge mid 
sciphere. and his mycel ofer hergode. 


937. Her 7EJ>elstan cyning eorla dryhten 
beorna beahgifa and his broker eac 
Eadrnund sej>eling. ealdorlangne tir 
geslogon set ssecce a * sweorda ecgum 
ymbe Brunanburh. Bordweal clufan. 
heowan heaj?olinde hamora lafan b 
c afaran Eadweardes. swa him gesej^ele wses 
from cneomsegum ^ hi set campe oft 
wij? la]?ra gehwsene * land ealgodon d * 
hord and hamas. Hettend crungun 
Sceotta leoda 6 * and scipflotan 
faege feollan. feld dcennede f 
secgas hwatefc sift^an sunne up * 
on morgentid msere tungol 
glad ofer grundas Godes condel beorht 
eces Drihtnes h o*S sio se]?ele gesceaft * 
sah to setle. peer laeg secg msenig 
garum ageted 1 guma nor|?erna 
ofer scild scoten. swilce Scittisc eac 
werig wiges k saed. WesSeaxe for'S 
ondlongne dreg eorodcistum 1 ' 
on last legdun laj>um ]?eodum. 
heowan herefleman m * hindan J>earle 
mecum mylenscearpan 11 . Myrce ne wyrndon 
heeardes hondplegan hselej^a nanum * 
Pj>ae mid Snlafe ofer sera ge bland 1 * 
on lides r bosme land gesohtun 
fsege to gefeohte. Fife laegun 
on J?am carnpstede * cyninges giunge 8 
sweordum aswefede. swilce seofene eac 
eorlas S!nlafes. uririm heriges 1 
flotan and Sceotta. pser geflemed wearS * 
Noi^S manna bregu u nede gebeded x 
to lides stefne litle weorode 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 113 

937. Her j3C$elstan cyniiig laedde fyrde to Brunanbyrig. 

(F) 937. Her ^E^estan cing and Eadmund his broker laedde fyrde to 
Brunanbyri. and bar gefeht wr Anelaf. and Xpe fultumegende sige 
hsefde. Hie factii e' illud magnu & famosu bellu in Brunanbyri &c. 

a geslogan set sake B. geslohgon set 
secce A. 

b heowanheaftolinda hameralafumD. 

c eaforan B. aforan C. eoforan D. 

d gealgodon D. 

6 crungon Scotta leode B. C. D. 

f dennade B. C. dennode D. dyn- 
ede A. 

e secga swate B. C. D j and this 
seems the genuine text. 

h t seo B ; as above 918. a. 

1 garum forgrunden B. 

k wigges B. C. 

1 andlangne dseg cored cystumB.C.D. 

m here flyman B. hereflymon .C. 
heora flyman D. herefliman A. 

n scearpum B.C. mycel scearpum D. 

heardes B. C. D. heordes A. ; the 
true reading. 

P )>e A. J>arae B. C. }>8eraJ>e D. 

4 earge bland B. C. ear- D. 

' liSes C. 

* geonge A. B. C. iunga D. 

* and unrim herges C. 
brego B. C. D. 

* gebseded B. neade gebaeded C. D. 
nyde A. See below 942. c. 

This national song of victory is a 
fine sample of the genius and art of 
Saxon poetry, and a noble memorial 
of the life of our forefathers. Much of 
the Chronicle has the merit (too rare 
in Saxon prose) of being genuine and 
homespun, free from the intrusion of 
strange ideas, and the infection of 
foreign models. But these verses shew 
us the native spirit in its more excited 
mood ; they speak the tumultuous joy 
of brave and simple patriots with the 
rage of battle still tingling in their 
veins. Such glowing words could not 
become extinct : they have scored 
themselves indelibly on the tablet of 

Gibson appreciated the poetry, though 
in his day the sense had not been per- 
fectly made out. He notes : " Idioma 
Me et ad An. 942 et 975 perantiquum 
et horridum, inquit Whelocus. Peran- 
tiquum proculdubio, horridum interim 
haud dicendum ; quippe quod stylum 

Csedmonianum, elegantissimum plane, 
et in quo Ducum res gestee ob ejus 
sublimitatem decantari antiquitus sole- 
bant, aliquatenus saltern referat." 

The song is preserved in five out of the 
seven MSS.; viz., S. A. B. C. D. The 
later Chronicles E and F omit it : under 
Norman rule it had no longer any in- 
terest. Of the Latin historians Henry 
of Huntingdon alone has embodied this 
gem into his work. His version has 
many happy renderings, and likewise 
many curious mistakes, speciously pa- 
raphrased. For the sake of ready 
comparison it is appended here ; the 
more glaring faults being printed in 

' Rex Adelstan, decus ducum, nobi- 
libus torquium dator, et frater ejus 
Edmundus, longa stirpis serie splen- 
dentes, percusserunt in bello, acie gla- 
dii apud Brunesburh. Scutorum muros 
fiderunt, nobiles ceciderwit, domestic^ 
reliquiae defuncti Edwardi. Sic nam- 
que iis ingenitum fuerat a genibus 
cognationum, ut bellis frequentibus 
ab infestis nationibus defenderent pa- 
trise thesauros et domos, pecunias 
et xenia. Gens vero Hibernensium, 
et puppium habitatores, fatales cor- 
ruerunt ; colles resonuerunt. Sudave- 
runt armati, ex quo sol mane prodiit, 
micans hilariter, Icetificans profunda, 
Dei luminare, fax Creatoris, usque quo 
idem nobilis ductor occasu se occuluit. 
Ibi viri jacuerunt multi a Dacia ori- 
undi, telis perforati, sub scutis lanceati, 
simul et Scotti bello fatigati. . Gens 
vero Westsexe, tota simul die, prius 
electi, post indefessi, invisse gentis glo- 
bos straverunt; viri elegantes, hastas 
caedebant, viri Mercenses acuta jacula, 
mittebant, duro nianus ludo. Sanitas 
ibi nulla his qui cum Anlavo trans 
maris campos in ligni gremio terrain 
petierunt, Marte morituri. Quinque 
occubuerunt in loco belli reges juvenes, 
gladiis percussi, ducesque septem regis 
Anlavi j absque numero ceciderunt 
Scotti, deperiitque Normannorum tu- 
mor. Nee enim paucos ad litem belli, 
duxeramt secum : cum paucis vevo 

114 THE PARKER MS. (ff) 

a cread cnearen flot cyning utgewaf 
on fealene flod * feorh ge nerede. 

Swilce j?ser eac sefroda * mid flearne com ' 
on his cy}>}>e norft * Costontinus * 
bar hildering. hreman ne f>orfte 
b msecan gemanan. he wses his maega sceard 
freonda gefylled on folcstede * 
c beslagen aet ssecce and his sunu forlet* 
on wselstowe wundun fergrunden d 
giungne aet gu"$e. gelpan ne ]?orfte * 
beorn blanden feax bil geslehtes 
eald inwidda 6 . ne Snlaf ]>y ma. 
mid heora herelafum hlehhan ne )?orftun 
j?set f heo beaduvveorca beteran wurdun * 

vd cumbel 

on campstede Sculbodgehnades 

garmittinge * gumena gemotes 

waepen gewrixles ]?aes h hi on wselfelda * 

in maris fluctus rex navi provectus, escam paratas. Ergo corvus niger, ore 
intrinsecus gemebat. Simul et Froda cornutus, et buffo livens, aquila cum 
ductor Normannus, cumque suis notis milvo, canis lupusque mixtus colore, 
dux .Constantinus, de Martis congressu, his sunt deliciis diu recreati. Non fuit 
jactare nequierunt, ubi cognationis suse bellum hac in tellure majus patratum, 
fragmen apparuit, ubi amici sui corrue- nee csedes tanta prsecessit istam, post- 
rant, in statione populi bello prostrati, quam hue venerunt, trans mare latum, 
et filium suum in loco proelii vulneri- Saxones et Angli, Brittones pulsuri : 
bus demolitum carum reliquit. Nee clari Martis fabri, Walenses vicerunt, 
Gude Dacus, declamare potuit, licet reges fugaverunt, regna suseeperunt.' 
verbis blandus, et mente vetustus. Nee His causa recreandi interpositis ad 
Anlaf ipse, cum reliquiis suis, mentiri historian redeamus. 
potuit, quod ad hoc negotium sui pros- a Creat D. cnear on A.B.C.D. on 
Stiterint in campo belli, ictuum imma- D. flod A. D. 

nitate, telorum transforatione, in con- ^ mecea B. meca C. mecga D. For 

cilio proborum. Matres vero et nurus He wses B and C have Her waes. 
planxerunt suos belli alea cum Edwardi c forslegen B. beslegen C. beslseg- 

filiis lusisse ; cum Normanni, navibus en D. 

clavatis, et Anlaf tabefactus, ultra pro- d wundum forgrunden A.B.C.D. 

fundum flumen, terras suas, moesto inwittaB.C. inwuda D. 

animo, repetissent. Postea frater uter- t hi C.D. hie A. B. 

que rediit Westsexe, belli reliquias KcumbelA. cumbolgehnastesB.C.D. 

post se deserentes, carnes virorum in h \>e adds D. 



wij? Eadweardes afaran plegodan. 

Gewitan him J>a Nor]?men ^ntegledcnearrum 
dreorig dara^alaf on k dinges mere 
ofer deop waeter ] Difelin secan 
and eft hira land * sewiscmode. 

Swilce J?a ge broker begen set samne 
cyning and aej?eling cylplpe sohton 

Wesseaxena land wiges hramige. 

Letan him behindan "hrse bryttian 
saluwigpadan * Jxme sweartan hrsefn 
hyrnednebban and f>ane hasewan padan 
earn seftan hwit seses brucan 
graedigne guShafoc and J?aet graege deor 
wulf on wealde. Ne wear^ wsel mare 
on J>is eiglande aefer? gieta * 
folces gefylled * beforan j^issum 
sweordes ecgum. J?aes Ipe us secga$ bee * 
ealde uftwitan. si]?]?an eastan hider 
Engle and Seaxe upbecoman 
ofer bradbrimu^ Brytene sohtan * 
wlance wigsmi'Sas Wealles r ofercoman* 
eorlas arhwate eard begeatan. 

1 negled C. dseggled on garum D. 
k dynges B. dyniges D. dinnes A. 
1 Dyflen B. Dyflin C. Dyflig D. 
m and heora land A. Yraland C. D. 
n Hraw B. hra D. 

haso B. hasuC. D. hasean A. 
P sefre B. C. D. 

1 brade B. C. D. brymum brad A. 
r Wealas B. C. D. 

This Ode has been often done into 
English, and it has been the work of 
many hands to smooth its difficulties 
for the modern student. See Guest's 
History of English Rhythms, vol. ii ; and 
the improved Ed. (1840) of Price's War- 
ton's Hist.Engl. Poetry, vol. i; where is a 
rich collection of notes and illustrations. 

In Ellis's Specimens of Early English 
Poets is a ' metrical version' in the style 
of the 1 4th century, which Conybeare 
(Illustrations of Anglo Saxon Poetry, 
p. Ixxxi) praises as a successful imi- 

A faint echo of its sense comes back 
to us from the region of British Legend, 
as represented in the verses of La3a- 
mon. It is in the reign of ./EJ?elstan 
that the story of British nationality is 
brought to its plaintive close, when 
their wandering prince is taught in a 
dream to cease his vain attempts against 
the power of the Saxon, and to wait 
the promised day foretold by their pro- 
phet Merlin. 

Gt 2 


941. Her Jtyelstan cyning forftferde 8 on vi kl' 
Nov'. ymbe xli wintra. butan anre niht. f>ses J?e Alfred 
cyning forf>ferde. Xnd Eadmund aej?eling feng to 
rice, and he waes ]?a xviii wintre. and ^E.}?elstan cyning 
rixade xiiii gear and *x wucan. Pa was Wuifeim arcebiscop 

on Cant. 

942. "Her Eadmund cyning Engla }?eoden 
x maga mundbora * Myrce geeode * 
dyre deedfruma swa Dor scade)?' 
hwitanwylles geat and yHumbra eV 
brada brim stream burga fife* 
Ligora ceaster and Lindcylene 2 * 

and Snotingaham * swylce Stanford eac 
a Deoraby. b Daene wseran aer' 
under Norftm annum nyde gebegde c * 
on hae]?enra haefteclommum 
lange ]?raga d oj> hie alysde eft * 
for his weor]?scipe wiggendra hleo * 
afera Eadweardes Eadmund cyning 
onfeng Snlafe cyninge set fulluhte. and J?y ylecan 
geare ymbtelamicelfaec. he onfeng Raegenolde cyning 
aet bisceopes handa arceUsceop. 

943. e \_Her Eadmund ting S. Dunstane Glas~\tingeberig bet&hte >cer he 
syftftan cerest abbud weairfS. 

944. Her Eadmund cyning geeode eal NorJ?hym- 
bra land him to f ge wealdan. and aflymde ut twegeii 
cyningas. Snlaf Syhtrices sunu. and Rsegenald Gu'S 
ferj?es sunu. 

945. Her Eadmund cyning ofer hergode eal Cum- 
braland. and hit let to eal Malculme& Scotta cyninge. 
on }? gerad h ^ he waere his mid wyrhta segj^er ge on 
see ge on lande. 

946. Her Eadmund cyning for'Sferde on Scs Sgus- 
tinus maesse dsege. and he haefde rice seofo]?e healf 
gear. !Snd f>a feng Eadred ae]?eling his bro]?or to 
rice, and gerad eal Nor]? hym bra land him to ge wealde. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 117 

940. Her ^E^5elstan cyning forftferde. and feng ^Edmund 
to rice his broftor. 

942. Her Anlaf cyning forSferde. 

Et Ricardus vetus suscepit regnum. et regnavit an lii. 

944. Her ^Edmund cyning geeode ealle NorShymbre. and 
ut aflymde twegen cyneborene msen Anlaf and Begnald. 

945. Her ^Edmund cyning oferhergode call Cumbraland. 
948. Her ^Edmund cyning wearS ofstungen. and feng 

^Edred his broftor to rice, and he sona gerad eall Norft- 

D. 941. Her NorShymbra alugon hira getreowa&a. and Anlaf 
of Yrlande him to cinge gecuron. 

942. " Her Eadmund cyning . . (S) . . Eadmund cyning." 

943. Her Anlaf abrsec Tamewurbe. and micel wsel gefeol on 
segbra hand, and ba Denan sige ahton and micele herehube mid 
him aweg Iseddon. bser wses Wulfrun genurnen on bsere hergunge. 

Her Eadmund cyning ymbsset Anlaf cyning and Wulfstan arce- 
biscop on Legra ceastre. and he hy gewyldan meahte. nsere f hi 
on niht utne setburston of bsere byrig. And sefter bsem begeat 
Anlaf Eadmundes cynges freondscipe. and se cyning Eadmund 
onfeng ba Anlafe cyninge set fulwihte. and he him cynelice gyfode. 
And ^y ilcan geare. ymbe tsela mycelne fyrst. he onfeng Regnalde 
cyninge set bisceopes handa. 
' 944 (H). 945 (H). 

946. . . (S) . . dage. j> wses wide cuo\ hu he his dag-as geendode. 
f Liofa hine ofstang. eet Puclancyrcan. And _/EJ?elflsed set Domer- 
hame. ^Elfgares dohter ealdormannes. wses )>a his cwen. and he 
hafde &;c. 

s on Glea we ceastre D. Christianity. This done, they reigned 

* teon D. awhile, Anlaf Sihtricson in the North 

u Eadmund had much ado to secure division, and Regnald Guftferftson in 

his inheritance. The Danes made a the South district of which York was 

new effort to escape from the yoke of the capital. 

Wessex. They called over ANLAF of x msecgea B. mecga C. mseg)>a D. 

Ireland, the discomfited champion of r Humbran B. Hunbran C. Him- 

Brunanburh, to be their deliverer and bran D. 

their king. Eadmund was defeated at z Lindkylne B. Lindcylne C. Lin- 

Tamworth, but he besieged his enemy colne D. 

in Leicester. Through the two Abps a and B.C. D. 

(of whom each side had one) a peace b Denum B. Dene A. C. wseron 

was made, which confined Eadmund aeror B. C. D. 

South of Watling Street, and made c gebseded B. gebseded C. D. Cf. 

ANLAF king of all the North. But 937. x. 

the death of ANLAF soon enabled Ead- d J?rage A. B. C. D. 

mund to recover his lost dominion, e The words within brackets are from 

and to take a firmer hold on those F-to complete the sentence which in 

outlying dependencies. Then were the a is broken. 

Five Burghs reduced to submission, f gewealde A. B. C. D. 

and the two ' kinglets' of the North Malculfe D. 

were awed into the profession of h gearsed D. 


and Scottas him a]?as sealdan. j5 hie woldan eal 
he wolde. 

951. Her for]?ferde JElfheah Wintan ceastres bisc. 
on See Gregories maessedseg. 

955. Her forj>ferde Eadred cining. on See Cle- 
mentes maessedaeg. on Frome. and he rixsade teo]?e 
healf gear. !Snd ]?a feng Eadwig to rice. Eadmundes 

SUnU cinges. And he aflamde See Dunstan ut of landed 

958. Her forSferde Eadwig cyng on kP OctobrV 

and Eadgar his broftor feng to rice \ he scente efter See Dunstane. and gaef him 
\Kiet b'rice on Wigraccestre. and ^cer after \>cet b'rice on Lundene. 

(D) 947. Her com Eadred cyning to Taddenes scylfe. and bser Wul- 
stan se arcebiscop. and ealle NorS hymbra witan. wr8 bone cyning 
hi getreowsoden. and binnan litlan fsece hit call alugon. ge wed and 
eac abas. 

948. Her Eadred cyning oferhergode call NorS hymbra land, for 
jjsem J>e hi hsefdon genumen him Yryc to cyninge. and J?a on jjaere 
hergunge wses ^ msere mynster forbsernd set Rypon. f See 
WilferS getimbrede. And J>a se cyning hamweard wses. J>a offerde 
se here innan Heoforwic. wses J>ses cynges fyrde hindan set Ceaster 
forda. and J>ser mycel wsel geslogon. Da wearS se cyning swa gram 
]> he wolde eft infyrdian. and jjone card mid ealle fordon. pa 
NorS hymbra witan ^ ongeaton. |?a forlseton hi Hyryc and wrS 
Eadred cyning gebeton J>a dsede. 

952. Her on j?yssum geare het Eadred cyning gebringan Wul- 
stan arcebiscop in ludanbyrig on J>sem fsestenne. for};sem he wses 
oft to J>am cyninge forwreged. and on Jjyssum geare eac het se 
cyning ofslean mycel wsell on J>sere byrig Deotforda. on ]?ses abbodes 
wrece Eadelmes. ]?e hi ser ofslogon. 

a 956. Her wses Dunstan abb' fram wintre. B. c. 

Edwie cinge adriuen ut of Engla 1 This Anlaf is distinct from the two 

lande. F. mentioned on pp. 116, 117. In the 

b and Eadgar cing wearj> setter him Annals of Ulster (Rerum Hiber. Scrip- 

ouer eal Brytene. F. agfter ge on tores Ed. O'Conor, vol. iv) he appears 

West Seaxum ge on Myrcum ge on as Amlaibh Cuaran, under the years 

Norft hymbrum. and he waes J?a xvi 944, 946. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 119 

hymbraland him to gewealde. and Scottas him aftas sworon 
p hi eall wolden 'p he wolde. 

949. Her com Anlaf Cwiran on NorShymbra land l . 

952. Her NorShymbre fordrifan Anlaf cyning. and under 
fengon Yric Haroldes sunu. 

954. Her NorShymbre fordrifon Yric. and ^Edred feng to 
NoriShymbra rice. 

955. Her ^Edred cyning forSferde. and feng Eadwig to 
rice Eadmundes sunu. 

956. Her forSferde Wulstan arcb'. 

959. Her Eadwig cyning forbTerde. and feng Eadgar his 
broiSor to rice. 

" On his dagum hit godode georne. and God Tempore 
him geufte -p he wunode on sibbe )?a hwile ]?e he 
leofode. and he dyde swa him J?earf wes. earnode 

bes georne. He arerde Godes lof wide, and Godes quamdiu viveret 

stutus pacis in 

lage lufode. and folces frrS bette swrSost ]?ara nuiio sit i^sus. 

i ! ii i Sine bello omnia 

cymnga ]?e ser him gewurde be manna gemyiide. sui juris Cust0 di. 
and God him eac fylste cyningas and eorlas ^ ^e 
georne him tobugon. and wurden under |>eodde exwbebat, 

, , , Uei ubique erige- 

to J?am J?e he wolde. and butan gefeohte eal he bat, legem Dei m- 

gewilde J?et he sy If wolde. He wear^S wide geond t ur, 
feodland swi^e geweor^ad. forj>am \Q he weorS 

ode Godes naman georne. and Godes lage smeade subject secun- 

dum Deum et sae- 

oft and gelome. and Godes lof rserde wide and cuium sapienter 
side, and wislice rasdde oftost asimle for Gode consulebat - (] 
and for worulde eall his J>eode. Ane misdseda 

(D) 954. Her NorS hymbre fordrifon Yric. and Eadred feng to NorS 
hyrabra rice. Her Wulfstan arcebiscop onfeng eft biscop rices on 

955. . . ("K) . . Frome. and he rest on Ealdanmynstere. And Ead- 
wig feng toWestSeaxena rice, and Eadgar his bro|?or feng toMyrcena 
rice, and hi wseron Eadmundes suna cyninges and See ^Elfgyfe. 

957. Her forSferde Wulfstan arcebiscop on xvii kl' lanuar. and 
he waes bebyrged on Undelan. And on )>am ylcan geare wses Dun- 
stan abb' adrsefed ofer see. 

958. Her on )>issum geare Oda arcebiscop totwsemde Eadwi cyning 
and ^Elgyfe. for]?a?m ]>e hi wseron to gesybbe. 



961. Her gewat Odo arceb'. and See Dunstanfeng to arceb'rice. 

962. Her forftferde ^Elfgar cinges meeg on Defenum 
and his lie rest on Wiltune. Snd Sigferft cyning 
hine offeoll. and his lie ligft set Wimburnan. ^oid 
)?a on geare waes swifte micel mancwealm. and se 
micela manbryne waes on Lundene. and Paules myn- 
ster forbarn. and Jy ilcan geare wear$ eft gesta}?elad. 

On )?ys ilcan geare for Ttyelmod meessepreost to 
Rome and ]?ser forftferde. xviii kl' Septemb'. 

963. Her forSferde Wulfstan diacon. on Cilda 
maessedaege. and aefter J>on forftferde Gyric maesse 

On f>ys ilcan geare feng !S)?elvvold abbod to ]?aein 
bisceop rice to Wintan ceastre. and hine mon gehal- 
gode IN UIGILIA Sci SNDREE. wses sunnan dseg on daeg. 

1 This, No. 8. of the Peterborough 
Record, contains the Revival of that 
Abbey, after a long eclipse. No. 7. 
told of its ruin by the Danes, An. 870, 
the year in which they slew " Edmund 
King and Martyr," and in the period 
when their ravages were most exten- 
sive and desolating. All the Religious 
establishments North of the Thames 
perished ; and before a time of renewal 
came about, their lands had found other 
proprietors. But Aftelwold, Bishop of 
Winchester, succeeded in reviving the 
old foundation of Medeshamstede, and 
in recovering its ancient possessions, 
immunities, and privileges. 

Important writings, we are told, were 
found in the old wall. This is enough 
to set criticism on the alert as to the 
soundness of the antecedent history. 

But here a new chapter opens. The 
eclat of the present movement, and 
the ensuing prosperity of Burch, are 
well described by Gunton ( Hist, of the 
Church of Peterb. 1686) : 

"The Monastery thus re-edified, King 
Edgar desirous to see it went thither, 
with Dumtane then Archbishop of 

Canterbury, and Oswald Archbishop 
of York, attended also with most of 
the Nobility and Clergy of England, 
who all approved and applauded both 
the place and work. But when King 
Edgar heard that some Charters and 
Writings, which some Monks had se- 
cured from the fury of the Danes, were 
found, he desired to see them, and 
having read the priviledges of this 
place, that he had a second Rome 
within his own kingdom, he wept for 
joy : And in the presence of that As- 
sembly he confirmed their former pri- 
viledges and possessions ; the King, 
Nobles, and Clergy offering large obla- 
tions, some of lands, some of gold and 
silver. At this glorious assembly the 
name of the place was changed from 
Medeshamsted to Bwgh ; and by rea- 
son of the fair building, pleasant situa- 
tion, large priviledges, rich possessions, 
plenty of gold and silver, which this 
Monastery was endowed withal, there 
was an addition to the name, as to be 
called Gildenburgh, though in reference 
to the dedication it hath ever since been 
known by the name of Pet&rburgh" 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 121 

be clyde J?eah toswrSe f he setyeodige unsida 
lufode. and hseftene )?eawas innan J?ysan lande 
gebrohte tofseste. and utlsendisce hider intihte. 
and deoriende leoda be speon to )?ysan earde. Ac 
God him geunue ^ his gode dseda swyftran 
wearftan J?onne misdseda. his sawle to ge scyldnesse 
on langsuman sy$e." 

^^' "^ er ^ ram Eadgar cyning to iSe biscopdome on 
Wintanceastra wes gecoren See Aftelwold. And ]?e arc- 
biscop of Cantwarbyrig See Dunstan him gehalgod to biscop 
on J?e fyrste sunnondseg of Aduent. ty wees on iii Id' Decemb'. 

On ]?es oiSer gear syJ?J?on he wses gehalgod. J?a makode he 
feola minstra. and draf lit ]?a clerca of )?e biscop rice. for]?an 
j? hi noldon nan regul healden. and ssetta J?ser muneca. 
He macode j?ser twa abbot rice, an of muneca o$er of nunna. 
p wses call wi^ innan Wintanceastra. Sy^^an J?a com he 
to se cyng Eadgar. bed him ]?et he scolde him giuen ealle j?a 
minstre J?a ha3^ene men hsefden ser tobrocon. for^i )?et he 
hit wolde geeadnewion. and se kyng hit blij?elice ty^ode. 
And se biscop com J>a fyrst to Elig. }>33r See ^EfteldrvS li^. 
and leot macen ]?one mynstre. geaf hit J>a his an munac 
Brihtno^$ waes gehaten. halgode him ]?a abbot, and ssette 
J?ser munecas Gode to ]?ewian. |?8er hwilon wseron nun. bohte 
J>a feola cotlif set se king, and macode hit swyfte rice. 

1 Sy&Son com se biscop Aftelwold to J>8ere mynstre J?e wa3s 
gehaten Medeshamstede. fte hwilon wses for don fra heiSene 
folce. ne fand )?ser nan ]?mg buton ealde weallas and wilde 
wuda. fand )?a hidde in )?a ealde wealle writes f>et Headda 
abb' heafde ser gewriton. hu Wulfhere kyng and ^Ei5elred 
his broftor hit heafden wroht. and hu hi hit freodon wi^ 
king and wr3 b' and wi$ ealle weoruld ]?eudom. and hu se 
papa Agatho hit feostnode mid his write, and se arcb' Deus- 
dedit. Leot wircen ]?a -p mynstre. and ssette J?ser abbot 
se wa3S gehaten Aldulf. macede J?ser munecas )?83r ser ne wses 
nan J>ing. Com ]?a to }>e cyng. and leot him locon J?a ge 
write J?e ser waeron gefunden. and se kyng andswerode J?a 
and cwed. 

Ic ./Edgar geate and gife to dsei to foren Gode and to foren 
]?one serceV Dunstan freodom See Petres mynstre Medes- 
hamstede of kyng and of b'. and ealle J?a j?orpes )?e iSaerto 



lin. -p is ^Estfeld. and Dodes thorp, and Ege. and Pastun. 
And swa ic hit freo ]?et nan biscop ne haue )?ser nane hsese. 
buton se abbot of ]?one minstre. And ic gife )?one tun ]?e 
man cleopaft Vndela. mid eall ]?et )>sertolr3. ^ is )?et man 
cleopeft Eahte hundred, and market and toll, swa freolice 
ty ne king ne V ne eorl ne scyrreue ne haue ]?8er nane 
haese. ne nan man buton se abbot ane and ]?am J?e he ]?8er to 
saet. And ic gife Crist and See Peter, and ]?urh J?es V bene 
Aftelwold. J?as land. ^ is Barwe. Wermingtun. J^sctun. Keter- 
ing. Castra. EgleswurSe. Waltun.WrSringtun. Ege. Thorp, and 
an myneter in Stanford. Das land and ealla J?a oSre ]?e 
lin into ]>e mynstre j?a cwede ic scyr. ]?[et is] saca and socne. 
toll and team and infangenj?ef. pas rihting and ealle o$re 3a 
cweiSe ic scyr Crist and S. Peter' 2 . And ic gife ]?a twa dsel of 
Witlesmere mid watres and mid waeres and feonnes. and 
swa )?urh Merelade on an to 'p wseter ty man cleope'S 
Nen. and swa eastweard to Cyngesdself. And ic wille ty 
markete beo in J>e selue tun. and ^ nan o]?er ne betwix 

year ; and it was presided over jointly 
by the Bishop and the Ealdorman. Ac- 
cording to the terms of this document, 
no Bishop or Ealdorman could sit within 
the Royalty of Burch ; the Abbot and 
his Society would have the power all in 
their own hands. The Latin copy has 
the following near the close : " Hanc 
igitur totius Abbatise tarn in longinquis 
quam proximis possessionibus regificam 
libertatem ab omnibus approbatam, ex- 
cepta modo rata expeditione et pontis 
arcisve restauratione, satagimus per ip- 
sum devotissimum hujus descriptionis 
auctorem Athelwoldum k sede aposto- 
lic& Romanse ecclesiae, juxta primitivam 
ejusdem monasterii institutionem, per- 
petub corroborare." It is remarkable 
in connection with this claim, that in 
the Latin Chronicle of Peterborough 
(Ed. Sparke), one of the many descend- 
ants of this Chronicle, Saxulf the first 
Abbot is styled Comes at the opening 
of the work. This title comprehended 
(at the date of the writer) all the tem- 
poral rights here specified; and looks 
like an attempt to ground them upon 
hereditary proprietorship. 

On the constitution of the scir there 
is a chapter in Kemble's " Saxons in 
England" (book i. c. 3) which contains 
much rare information. On the terms 
Sac and Socu, Toll and Team, and In- 
fangenthef, cf. Intr. to Cod. Dipl. p. xlv. 

2 "These lands and all the others 
which belong to the minster do I de- 
clare to be a sMre; viz., (with) Sac 
and Soon, Toll and Team, and In- 
fangentlief. These rights and all 
others grant I to be the shire of Christ 
and St. Peter." The Latin charter is 
given in Dugdale (No. ix) and in Cod. 
Dipl. No. 575, where it is marked by 
Mr. Kemble as spurious. The passage 
which corresponds to the above stands 
thus : " Sint ergo tarn istse villse quam 
ceterse omnes quse ad ipsutn monaste- 
rium pertinet, cum universis rebus et 
rationibus suis, et totum quod appella- 
tur Saca et Socne, ab omni regali jure 
et ab omni seculari jugo in seternum 
liberae, et in magnis et in minimis, in 
silvis campis pascuis pratis paludibus 
venationibus, omnimodis mercationi- 
bus, theloneis, omnium rerum procu- 
rationibus Dei beneficio provenienti- 
bus." These terms convey to the 
Abbot and Monks a complete territo- 
rial jurisdiction within their extensive 
domains. Not only were they to enjoy 
that independence of episcopal authority 
which religious houses commonly had ; 
but further, there was to be no Ealdor- 
man or scirgerefa (scirreue in the 
text, sheriff) exercising jurisdiction 
within their bounds. 

The business of the scyr was trans- 
acted in the scyrgemot, held twice a 


Stanford and Huntaiidune. And ic wille J?et Jnis be gifen 
se toll, fyrst fra Wytles insere call to J>e cinges toll of Norft- 
mannes cros hundred, and eft ongeanward fra Witlesmsere 
J?urh Merelade on an to Nen. and swaswa -f wseter reon- 
neiS to Crulande. and fra Crulande to Must, and fra Must 
to Cynges dself and to Witles msere. And ic wille -p ealle 
)?a freodom and ealle ]?a forgiuenesse )?e mine forgengles 
geafen )?et hit stande. and ic write and feostuige mid Cristes 
rodetacne. -(-. 

Da andswerade se arcebiscop Dunstan of Cantwarbyrig 
and sseide. Ic ty$e -p ealle ]?a J?ing J?e her is gifen and 
sprecon. and ealle )?a }>ing J?e Jnn forgengles and min geattou. 
J?a wille ic j? hit stande. and swa hwa swa hit tobrecoft. J?a 
gife ic him Godes curs and ealra halgan and ealre hadede 
heafde and min. buton he cume to dsedbote. And ic gife 
to cnawlece See Peter min messe hacel and min stol and 
min rsef Criste to J?euwiah. Ic Oswald arcebiscop of Eofer 
wic geate ealle J?as worde J?urh J?a halgorode ]?et Crist wses 
onj>rowod. -[- Ic Aftelwold biscop blsetsige ealle )?e J?is 
healdon. and ic amansumie ealle )?e )?is tobnecon. buton he 
cume to dsedbote. Her wses ^Elfstan biscop. A]?ulf V. and 
Escwi abbot, and Osgar abb', and ^Eftelgar abb', and ^Elfere 
ealdorman. ^E^elwine ealdorman. Brihtno]?. Oslac ealdorman. 
and feola oftre rice men. and ealle hit geatton. and ealle hit 
writen mid Cristes msel. + Dis wses ge don sy33on ure 
Drihtnes acennediiesse dcccclxxii. ]?es kinges xvi gear. 

Da bohte se abbot Aldulf landes feola and manega. and lie &ltwlfo 
godede ]?a ^ mynstre swifte mid ealle. and wses J?8er J?a swa 
lange ^ se arcebiscop Oswald of Eoforwic wses foriSgewiton. 
and man cses him )?a to erceb ; . And man cses )?a sona oiSer 
abbot of J?e sylfe mynstre. KENULF wees gehaten. se wses 
sy (SiSon biscop in Wiiitan ceastre. And he macode fyrst ]?a 
wealle abutan ]?one mynstre. geaf hit J?a to nama Burch. ]?e 
tmpo0ttum ser het Medeshamstede. wses J?ser swa lange "p man sette him 
to biscop on Wintan ceastre. pa cses man o^er abbot of J?e 
silue minstre. ]?e wses gehaten ^Elfsi. se JElfsi waas ]?a abbot 
sy&Son fiftig wintre. He nam lip Sea Kyneburh and S.'&rgPj&car' 
Kynesui^ )?e laegen in Castra. and S. Tibba J?e lasi in Rihala. 
and brohte heom to Burch. and offrede heom call S. Peter 
on an dsei. and heold J>a hwile ]?e he J?ser wses. 

R 2 

124 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

964. Her draefde Eadgar cyng )?a preostas on 
Ceastre of Ealdanmynstre. and of Niwan mynstre. 
and of Ceortes ige. and of Middel tune, and sette hy 
mid munecan. and he sette JE]?elgar abbod to Niwan 
mynstre to abbode. and Ordbirht to Ceortes ige. and 
Cyneweard to Middel tune. 

971. Her forftferde Eadmund ae^eling. and his lie 
li$ set Rumesige. 

973. Her Eadgar waes * Engla waldend * 

cor$re imicelre * to cyninge gehalgod 
on ftsere ealdan byrig Scemannes ceastre. 
111 eac hi igbuend * oftre worde beornas * 
Baftan nemna)?. pasr waas blis micel * 
on J?am eadgan daege eallum geworden 
}?onne ni^abearn nemna'S and ciga'S- 
Pentecostenes dgeg. paer waes preosta heap * 
micel muneca 'Sreat mine gefrege 
gleawra gegaderod. and $a agangen waes * 
tyn hund wintra geteled rimes 
fram gebyrdtide bremes cyninges- 
leohta hyrdes buton ftaer tolafe- 
n j>a agan wees winter ge teles * f>aes ^e gewritu secgaft 
seofon and twentig. swa neah waes sigora frean* 
$usend aurnen 'Sajja 'Sis gelamp. 
!Snd him Eadmundes eafora haefde 
nigon and xx * niftweorca heard * 
wintra onworulde J?is geworden waes * 
and f>a on "Sam xxx * waes 8eoden gehalgod. 
975. Her geendode * eor$an dreamas 

Eadgar Engla cyning. ceas him ofter leoht 
wlitig and wynsum and J?is wace forlet * 
lif J?is laene. Nemna'S leoda beam 
men on moldan * ]?aene mona'S gehwaer 
in ftisse e^eltyrf. J?a)?e ser waeran 

1 mycclum B. C. m eac hie egbuend B. C. hie buend A. 

n a get wses B. C. *a >is B. * i. e. ^IfSrytJe : cf. Flor. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 125 

964. Hie expulsi suiit canonic! de veteri monasterio. 
966. Her pored Gunneres sunu forhergode West moringa 
land, and Jn ilcan geare Oslac feng to ealdordorae. 

969. Her on ]?issum geare Eadgar cyng het oferhergian 
call Tenet land. 

970. Her forSferde Eadmund sej?eling. 

972. Her wses Eadgar ej?eling gehalgod to cyninge on 
Pentecoste msessedsei on v id' Mai. )?e xiii geare ]?e he to 
rice feng. set HatabaiSum. and he wses J?a ana wana xxx 
wintra. and sona sefter J>am se cyng geleadde ealle his scip 
here to Lsegeceastre. and J?ser him comon ongean vi cyningas. 
and ealle wr$ trywsodon "p hi woldon efenwyrhton beon on 
sse and on lande. 

975. Her Eadgar gefor 

Angla reccent 

WestSeaxena wine 

and Myrcene mundbora. 
CuiS wses J?et wide 

geond feola J?eoda' 

p aferan Eadraund 

ofer ganetes ba$ 
Cyningas hine wide 

wor'Sodon side* 

bugon to cyninge 

swa wses him gecynde. 
Nses se flota swa rang- 

ne se here swa strang. 

^ on Angel cynne 

ses him gefetede. 

J?a hwile J?e se aefela cyning 

cynestol gerehte. 

D. 965. Her on Jjissura geare Eadgar cyning genam *^Elfy^e him 
to cwene. heo wses Ordgares dohtor ealdormannes. 

B. 971. Her forSferde Oskytel arcebisceop. se wses serest to Dorke- 
ceastre to leod bisceope gehalgod. and eft to Eoferwic ceastre be 
Eadredes cinges unnan and ealra his witena. ^ he waes to 
sercebisceope gehalgod. and he wses xxii wintra bisceop. and he 
forSferde on ealra halgena msesseniht x nihton ser Martines msessan. 
set Tame. And purkytel abb' his mseg ferede j>ses bisceopes lie to 
Bedanforda. for^an ]>e he wses ))ser ^a abbud on ^one timan. 


on rimcraefte rihte getogene. 

lulius monoS * ^ se geonga gewat 

Pon J?one eahteSan daeg * Eadgar of life 

beorna beahgyfa. 'Knd feng his beam sy$San 

to cynerice cild unweaxen* 

eorla ealdor ]?am waes Eadweard nama. 

!Snd him tirfaest heeled * tyn nihtum aer 
of Brytene gewat bisceop se goda 
J?urh gecyndne craeft "Sam wees Cyneweard nama. 

Da waes on Myrceon mine gefraege 
wide and wel hwaer Waldendes lof * 
afylled on foldan. fela wear^ todraefed 
gleawra Godesfteowa. j5 waes gnornung micel 
]?arn]?e on breostum waeg byrnende lufan 
Metodes on mode. J)a waes Maer^afruma * 
to swifte forsewen*! Sigora waldend* 
rodera Raedend. pa man his riht tobraec. 
and J>a wear^ eac adraefed deormod haele^ 
Oslac of earde ofer y*Sa gevvealc 1 " 
ofer ganotes bae^S. gamolfeax haele'S 8 
wis and wordsnotor. ofer waetera gearing * 
ofer hwaeles e'Sel * ham a bereafod. 

'Knd ]?a wear's aetywed uppe on roderum * 
steorra on sta'Sole J?one sti'SferhJ^e 
haele'S higegleawe hata"S wide 
cometa be naman craeft glea we men * 
wise so'Sboran*. Waes geond wer^eode 
Waldendes wracu wide gefrege * 
hunger ofer hrusan * ^ eft heofonaWeard 
gebette Brego engla * geaf eft blisse * 
gehwaem egbuendra J?urh eor'Sanwestm. 
978. Her weai^S Eadweard cyning of slegen. on {?ii 
ylcan geare feng jESelred ae'Seling his bro'Sor to rice. 

P eahto^an B. C. eahtateoiSan A. i forsawen B. C. r gewalc B. C. 
gomol B. C. woftboran B. C. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 127 

And her Eadward Eadgares sunu feng to rice, and J?a 
sona on }?am ilcan geare on herfeste seteowde cometa se 
steorra. and com J?a on ]?am eaftran geare swrSe mycel 
hunger, and swySe maenig fealde styrunga geond Angel cyn. 
* and ^Elfere ealdorman het towurpon swyftemanig munuc 
lif ]?e Eadgar cyng het ser J?one halgan biscop Aftelwold 
ge staftelian.* and on J?am timan wses eac Oslac se msera eorl 
geutod of Angel cynne. 

978. Her on ]?issum geare ealle J?a yldestan Angel cynnes 
witan gefeollan set Calne of anre upfloran. butan se halgau 
Dunstan arcebiscop ana set stod uppon anum beame. and 
sume ]?ser swrSe gebrocode wseron. and sume hit ne 1 ge 
dygdan mid J?am life. 

D. 975. . . . * On his dagum 
for his iugofte 
Godes wibaersacan 
Godes lage brsecon- 
^Elfere ealdorman 
and obre manega* 
and munuc regol myrdon' 
and mynstra tostsencton* 
and munecas todrsefdon* 
and Godes J?eowas fesedon* 
\>e Eadgar kyning het ser- 
J>one halgan biscop 
AJ?aelwold gestalian. 
and wydewan bestryptan' 
oft and gelome 1 
and fela unrihta- 
and yfelra unlaga* 
arysan up siStan. 
and aa aafter >am- 
hit yfelode swi^Se.* 

B. 076. Her wses se micla hungor on Angel cynne. 

1)77' Her wses ^ myccle gemot set Kyrtlirigtune. ofer Eastron. 
and baer forSferde Sideman bisceop. on hraedlican deabe. on ii kl* 
Mai. se wees Defna scire bisceop. and he wilnode ^ his lie rsest 
sceolde beon set Cridiantune. a3t his bisceop stole, pa het Eadweard 
cing. and Dunstan arcebisceop. f hine man ferede to Sea Marian 
mynstre. f is set Abbandune. and man eac swa dyde. and he is 
eac arwyrblice bebyrged on ba nor&healfe on Scs Paulas portice. 

C.978. . .(2?). . And he wses on bam ylcan geare to cinge gehalgod. 
On bam geare forSferde Alfwold se wses bisceop on Dorssetum. and 
his lie lift on bam mynstre set Scire burnan. 

1 nyge dydon D. gebohtan F. Here ends MS. B. 

128 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

983. Her forSferde JElfhere ealdorman. 

(C) 979. On Jjys geare wses ^Ej?elred to cininge gehalgod. on }>one 
sunnan deeig feowertyne niht ofer Eastron. set Cinges tune, and ]>ser 
wseron set his halgunge twegen ercebisceopas. and tyn leodbisceopas. 
Py ilcan geare wees gesewen blodig wolcen on oft siSas. on fyres 
gelicnesse. and f wses swy^ost on middeniht ojjywed. and swa on 
mistlice beamas wses gehiwod. ]?onne hit dagian wolde. |>ofi to 
glad hit. 

980. Her on jjys geare. wses JEJ>elgar abbod to bisceope gehalgod. 
on vi Nonas Mai. to j?am bisceop stole set Seolesigge. And on J>am 
ylcan geare wses Sut> hamtun forhergod fram scip herige. and seo 
burh waru msest ofslegen and gehseft. And J>y ilcan geare wses 
Tenet land gehergod. And ]>y ilcan geare wses Legeceaster scir 
gehergod fram NorSscipherige. 

981. Her on }>is geare wses See Petroces stow forhergod. and j>y 
ilcan geare wses micel hearm gedon gehwser be J?am sseriman. 
segj>er ge on Defenum ge on Wealum. And on J>am ylcan geare 
forSferde ^Ifstan bisceop on Wiltunscire. and his lie lift on |>am 
mynstre set Abbandune. and Wulfgar feng ]?a to Sam bisceopdome. 
And on J>am ylcan geare forSferde Womser. abbod on Gent. 

982. Her on )>ys geare comon upp on Dorssetum iii scypu wicinga. 
and hergodon on Portlande. py ilcan geare forbarn Lundenbyrig.' 
and on J>am ylcan geare for^ferdon twegen ealdormenn. ^Ej>elmser 
on Hamtun scire and Eadwine on Su^Seaxum. and yEJjelmseres lie 
li^ on Wintan ceastre on Niwan mynstre. and Eadwines on J?am 
mynstre set Abbandune. pses ylcan geares forSferdon twa abbod- 
essan on Dorsaetum. Herelufu on Sceaftes byrig and Wulfwin on 
Werham. And ]?y ilcan geare for Odda Romana casere to Grec 
lande. and ]>a gemette he |>aKa Sarcena mycele fyrde cuman up of 
sse. and woldon ]m faran on hergo^ on }>set Cristene folc. And j>a 
gefeaht se casere wr& hi. and {jasr wses micel wsel geslaegen on 
gehwse|>ere hand, and se casere ahte wsel stovve geweald. and 
hwse^ere he )>ser wses miclum geswenced ser he J>anon hwurfe. and 
J>a he hamweard for. }>a forSferde his bro]?or sunu. se wses haten 
Odda. and he wses Leodulfes sunu se]?elinges. and se Leodulf wses 
jjses ealdan Oddan sunu and Eadweardes cininges dohtor sunu. 

983. Her forSferde ^Elfhere ealdorman. and feng yElfric to J?am 
ilcan ealdordom scipe. And Benedictus pp' forj>ferde. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 129 

979. Her waes Eadward cyng ofslagen 2 on sefentide set 
Corfes geate on xv k' Apr. and hine man bebyrigde set 
Wserham butan selcum cynelicum wurSscipe. 

Ne wearS Angel cynne nan waersa deed gedon* 

J?onne }?eos wses' 
sy&Son hi serest- Bry ton land gesohton. 

Men hine ofmyrSrodon* 
ac God hine msersode. 

He wses on life- eorSlic cing- 
he is nu sefter dea$e* heofonlic sanct. 
Hine nolden his eorSlican 

magas wrecan' 
ac hine hafa^ his heofonlica fseder 1 

swi^e gewrecen. 
pa eorSlican banan- woldon his gemynd- 

on erSan adilgian- 

Ac se uplica Wrecend- hafaiS his gemynd- 
on heofenum and on eorftan to breed. 

pa J?e nolden ser 1 
to his libbendum lichaman onbugan- 

J?a nu eadmodlice- 
on cneowum abuga^- to his daedum banum. 

Nu we magon ongytan- 
$ manna wisdom- 
and smeagunga- 
and heore raBdas- 
syndon nahtlice 
ongean Godes ge]?eaht. 

And her feng ^E^elred to rice, and he wses sefter ]?am swiiSe 
hrsedlice mid mycclum gefean Angel cynnes witon ge halgod 
to cyninge set Cyningestun. 

980. Her on }?isum geare 3 JElfere ealdorman gefette J?es 
halgan cyninges 4 lichaman set Wserham. and geferode hine 
mid mycclum wurSscipe to Scaeftes byrig. 

981. Her comon serest J?a vii scipu and gehergoden 

983. Her forSferde ^Elfere ealdorman. and feng ^Elfric to 
J?am ilcan ealdordome. 

2 at Corf geate F. 3 F has S. Dunstan and ^Elfere. 

4 F has S. Eadwardes lichama. 


984. Her forftferde se wellwillenda bisceop ^el- 
wold, and seo halgung J>ses sefter filgendan bisceopes 
JElfheages. sefte o$ran naman wses geciged Godwine. 
wses xiiii kl' No. and he gesset ]?on bisceop stol an 
J?ara twegra apostola dsege Simonis and ludse. on 
Wintan ceastre. 

(C) 984. Her forSferde Abelwold b' on kl' Agustus. 

985. Her wses ^Elfric ealdorman ut adrsefed of earde. And on 
bam ilcan geare wses Eadwine to abbode gehalgod to bam mynstre 
set Abbandune. 

986. Her se cyning fordyde $ b'rice set Hrofe ceastre. Her com 
serest se micla yrfcwealm on Angel cyn. 

988. Her wajs Wecedport geheregod. and Goda se Defenisca 
begen ofslagen. and mycel wsel mid him. Her gefor Dunstan arcb'. 
and JEKelgar b' feng sefter him to arcestole. and he lytle hwile sefter 
bsem lyfode. butan i gear and iii monbas. 

990. Her Sigeric wses gehalgod to arceb'. And Eadwine abb' 
forbYerde. and Wulfgar abb' feng to bam rice. 

991. Her wses Gypeswic gehergod. and sefter bon. swrSe ra'Se. 
wses Brihtno'S ealdorman ofslegen set Mseldune. And on bam geare 
man gersedde f rnan geald serest gafol Denescum rnannum. for 
Sam miclan brogan be hi worhton be ftam sse riman. ]> waes serest 
x Susend p. bsene rsed gersedde serest Syric arceb'. 

992. Her Oswald se haliga arceb' forlet bis lif. and geferde 
heofenlice. and ^Ebelwine ealdorman gefor on bam ilcan geare. Da 
gersedde se cyning and ealle his witan fy man gegadrede ealle ^a 
scipu be ahtes wseron to Lunden byrig. And se cyning ba betsehte 
ba fyrde to Isedenne ^Elfrice ealdorman. and Dorede eorlle. and 
^Elfstane b'. and -^Escwige b'. and sceoldon cunnian meahton hv 
bone here ahwser utan betrepan. Da sende se ealdorman ./Elfric. 
and het warnian Sone here, and ba on Ssere nihte be hy on Sone 
dseig togsedere fon sceoldan. ba sceoc he on niht fram bsere fyrde. 
him sylfum to myclum bysmore. and se here fta setbserst butan an 
scyp ^ser man ofsloh. And ba gemette se here a scypu of East 
Englum and of Lundene. and hi 'Sser ofgeslogan micel wsel. and ^ 
scyp genaman eall gewsepnod and gewsedod f se ealdorman on 
wses. And Sa sefter Oswaldes arceb' forftsibe. feng Ealdulf abb' to 
Eoferwic stole, and to Wigerna ceastre. and Kenulf to 'Sam abbud 
rice set Biiruh. 

F. 992. Her Oswold se ediga arb' for"Sferde. and Eadulf abbud feng to 
Euerwic and to Wigorceastre. And her geraedde se cing and ealle his witan 
^ man gegaderode ealle $a scipa }>e ahtes waeran to Lunden byri. to $an \> 
man scolde fandian gif man mihte betraeppan J?ane here ah war wi^utan. Ac 
jSjlfric ealderman. an of J^am )>a se cyng hsefde msest truwe to. het gewarnian 
iSone here, and on ^are nihte $a hi scolde anmorgen togsedere cuman. se sylfa 
^Elfric scoc fram 'Sare fyrde. and se here $a aetbserst. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 131 

984. Her forSferde se halga biscop 5 Aftelwold muneca<Oyj&c3U>!)el[ 
fseder. and her waes Eadwine to abb' gehalgod to Abban- 


985. Her ^Elfric ealdorman wees utadraefed. 

986. Her se cyning fordyde J?et biscop rice set Hrofeceastre. 
And her com serest se myccla yrfcwalm on Angel cyn. 

987. Her Wecedport wes gehergod 6 . 

988. Her wses Goda se Dse[fe]nisca J?segn ofslagen and 
mycel wsel mid him. and her Dunstan se halga arcb' forlet )?is 
lif. and geferde ^ heofonlice. And ^EiSelgar b'7 feng sefter 
him to arcb' stol and he litle hwile sefter )?am leofode. butan 
an gear and iii monSas. 

989. Her ^Edwine abb' forSferde. and feng Wulfgar to. 
and her Siric wses gehadod to arceV. 

991. Her wses Gr[ypes]wic gehergod. and sefter J?am swrSe 
ra$e waes Brihtnoft 8 ealdorman of slsegen set Mseldune. and 
on J?am geare man gersedde ty man geald serest gafol 
Deniscan mannum. for )?am mycclan brogan 9 ]?e hi worhtan 
be )?am sseriman. ty wses serest x J>usend punda. faane rsed 
gersedde Siric arceb*. 

992. Her Oswald se eadiga arceb' forlet )?is lif. and ge 
ferde -j? heofonlice. and ^E^elwine ealdorman ge for on j?am 
ilcan geare. Da gersedde se cyng and ealle his witan ^ 
man ge gaderode )?a scipu )?e ahtes waeron to Lunden byrig. 
and se cyng ]?a be tsehte ]?a fyrde to Isedene Ealfrice ealdor 
man. and porode eorl. and ^Elfstane b\ and ^Escwige b'. and 
sceoldan cunnian gif hi muhton J?one here ahwser utene 
betrasppen. Da sende se ealdorman ^Elfric. and het warnian 
]?one here, and )?a on ]?ere nihte %e hi on iSone dsei togsedere 
comon sceoldon. $a sceoc he on niht fram J?sere fyrde him 
sylfum to mycclum bismore. and se here j>a set bserst. buton 
an scip fser man ofsloh. and )>a gemsette se here i$a scipu 
of EastEnglum and of Lunden. and hi ftser ofslogon mycel 
wsel. and p scip ge namon call ge wsepnod and ge wsedod ]?e 
se ealdorman on wses. And $a sefter Oswaldes arcb' for^ 
siiSe. feng Ealdulf abb' of Burch to Eoferwic stole and to 
Wigeraceastre. and Kenulf to ]?am abbot rice set Burch. 

5 of Wincestre F. 6 for bsernd F. 7 abbod on Niwe mynstre F. 

8 Byrihtnoft D. 9 for -San wundran Jxe &c. F. of Burch only in E. 

s 2 


993. Her on 'Sissum geare com Unlaf mid J?rim 
and hund nigentigon scipum to Stane. and forher- 
gedon ^ on ytan. and for fta 'Sanon to Sandwic. and 
swa $anon to Gipeswic. and j? eall ofereode. and swa 
to Maeldune. !Snd him ]?8er com togeanes Byrhtnoft 
ealdorman mid his fyrde. and him wi'S gefeaht. and 
hy J>on ealdorman J?aer ofslogon. and wselstowe ge 
weald ahtan. ?nd him man nam sy$$an fri'S wi8. 
and hine nam se cing sy'&'San to bisceopes handa. 
'Surh Sirices lare Cantwarebiscpes. and ^Elfeages Wincsestre b'. 

(C) 993. Her on y\s geare wses Bebbanburuh abrocen. and mycel 
herehyj>e 'Sser genumen. And sefter }>am com to Humbran muj>an 
se here, and 8ser mycel yfel worhton. seg)>er ge on Lindes ige ge on 
NorS hymbran. Da gegaderede man swrSe micle fyrde. and |>a hi 
to gsedere gan sceoldon. J>a onstealdan J>a heretogan serest |>one 
fleam. ^ wses Frsena. and Godwine. and Fry]>egyst. On jjyssum geare 
het se cyning ablendan ^Elfgar. -^Elfrices sunu ealdormannes. 

994. Her on 'Sissum geare com Anlaf and Swegen to Lunden 
byrig. on Natiuitas Scee Marise. mid iiii and hund nigontigum 
scypum. and hi ^a on J>a buruh faestlice feohtende wseron. and eac hi 
mid fyre ontendon woldan. Ac hi J)8er geferdon maran hearm and 
yfel J>onne hi sefre wendon. f him senig buruhwaru gedon sceolde. 
Ac seo halige Codes modor. on }>am dsege. hire mildheortnesse J>sere 
buruh ware gecydde. and hi ahredde wi^ heora feondum. And 
hi ]janone ferdon. and worhton ^ mseste yfel 'Se sefre seni here 
gedon meahte on baernette and heregunge and on manslyhtum. 
8egj?er ge be 'Sam saeriman and on EastSeaxum and on Kentlande 
and on Su'SSeaxum and on Hamtunscire. And set neaxtan namon 
him hors. and ridon him swa wide swa hi woldan. and unasecgend- 
lice yfel wyrcgende wseron. Da gersedde se cyning and his witan. 
jj him man to sende. and him behet gafol and metsunge. wrS J?on 
^e hi }>sere heregunge geswicon. and hi 'Sa underfengon. And 
com j>a eall se here to Hamtune. and ^aer winter setl namon. and hi 
mon jjser fedde geond eall WestSeaxena rice, and him mon geald 
feos xvi 'Susend p. Da sende se cyning sefter Anlafe cynge 
^Elfeah b' and ^ESelweard ealdorman. and man gislude ]?a hwile 
into )>am scipum. and hi Sa leeddon Anlaf mid miclum wur^scipe to 
]?am cyninge to Andeferan. And se cyning ^E]?elred his onfeng set 
bisceopes handa. and him cynelice gifode. And him J?a Anlaf behet. 
swa he hit eac geleeste. f he nsefre eft to Angel cynne mid unfrrSe 
cuman nolde. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 133 

993. Her on ftissum geare wses Bsebbanburh tobrocon. 
and mycel heremrSe J?ser genumen. and sefter J?am com to 
Humbranmufte se here, and J?ser mycel yfel gewrohtan 
segfter ge on Lindesige ge on NorShymbran. pa gegaderode 
man swrSe mycele fyrde. and }?a hi to gsedere gan sceoldan. 
j?a on stealdon J?a heretogan serest J?one fleam. ^ wses Frsena. 
and Godwine. and FrrSegist. On j?ysum ilcan geare het se 
cyng ablendan ^Elfgar JElfrices sunu ealdormannes. 

994. Her on ]?isum geare com Anlaf and Swegen to Lun- 
denbyrig on Nativitas see Marie mid iiii and hundnigon- 
tigum scipum. and hi $a on iSa burh festlice feohtende wseron. 
and eac hi mid fyre ontendan woldon. ac hi J?ar ge feordon 
maran hearm and yfel ]?onne hi aefre wendon. }? heom senig 
burhwaru gedon sceolde. Ac se halige Godes modor on 
ftam hire mildheortnisse J?sere burhware gecy^de. and hi 
ahredde wi3 heora feondum. and hi j?anon ferdon. and 
wrohton ^ maeste yfel ]>e sefre senig here don mihte on 
bsernette and hergunge and on manslihtum seg^er be 3am 
saeriman on EastSeaxum arid on Centlande and on SirS 
Seaxum and on Hamtunscire. and set nyxtan naman heom 
hors. and ridon swa wide swa hi woldon. and un asecgendlice 
yfel wirceude waeron. pa geraedde se cyng and his witan ^ 
him man to sende. and him gafol behete and metsunge 
wiS J>on J?e hi J?sere hergunge ge swicon. and hi )?a )?et under 
fengon. and com J?a call se here to Hamtune. and J?ser winter 
setle namon. and hi man J?ser fsedde geond call West Seaxna 
rice, and him man geald xvi Jmsend punda. pa sende se 
cyng setter Anlafe cyninge. JElfeach V and ^E/Selward eald- 
orman. and man gislade ]?a hwile in to ]?am scipum. and hi 
j>a Iseddan Anlaf mid mycclum wurSscipe to J>am cynge to 
Andeferan. and se cyng ^Eftelred his anfeng set biscopes 
handa. and him cynelice gifode. and him )?a Anlaf behet swa 
he hit eac gelseste. -p he nsefre eft to Angel cynne mid unfrrSe 
cumon nolde. 

Hie Ricardus vetus obiit. et Eicardus filius ejus suscepit 
regnum. et regnavit xxxi an. 


994. Her for'Sferde Sigeric arcebiscop. and feng 
^Elfric Wiltunscire bisceop to 8am arcebiscop rice. 

(C) 995. Her on bissum geare seteowde cometa se steorra. and Sigeric 
arceb' forSferde. 

996. Her on ^issum geare waes ^Elfric gehalgod to arceb' to 

997- Her on bissum geare ferde se here abutan Defenan scire 
into Seefern muSan. and bser heregodon segfter ge on Cornwealum 
and on NorSWealum and on Defenum. and eodon him ba up set 
Wecedport. and bser micel yfel worhton on bsernette and on man- 
slihtura. And Defter bam wendon eft abutan PenwiS steort on ba 
suS healfe. and wendon ba into Tamer mu^an. and eodon ba up 08 
hi comon to Hlydan forda. and selc bing bserndon and slogon be hi 
gemitton. and Ordulfes mynster set Tsefingstoc forbserndon. and 
unasecgendlic herehy'Se mid him to scypon brohton. 

998. Her wende se here eft eastweard into From mu'San. and beer 
aeghwser up eodon swa wide swa hi woldon into Dorsseton. And 
man oft fyrde ongean hi gaderede. ac sona swa hi togsedere gan 
sceoldan. }>on wearS J>ser sefre ^uruh sum ]>ing fleam astiht. and 
sefre hi set ende sige ahton. And jxm o$re hwile lagon him on 
Wihtlande. and aeton him )>a hwile of Hamtunscire and of SuS 

999. Her com se here eft abutan into Temese. and wendon |>a up 
andlang Medwsegan and to Hrofeceastre. And com j?a seo Centisce 
fyrd |>ar ongean. and hi Sa Ipser faeste togsedere fengon. ac wala )> hi 
tora^e bugon and flugon. And j?aDeniscan ahton weelstowe geweald. 
and namon }>a hors. and ridan swa hwider swa hi sylf woldon. and 
forneah ealle WestKentingas fordydon and forheregodon. Da rsedde 
se cyning wiS his witan. ty man sceolde mid scyp fyrde. and eac 
mid land fyrde. hym ongean faran. Ac Jm 8a scipu gearwe wseron. 
J?a ylcodan |>a deman fram dsege to dsege. and swencte }> earme 
folc -f on ^am scipon Iseg. and a swa hit for^werdre beon sceolde 
swa wees hit Isetre fram anre tide to oSre. and a hi leton heora 
feonda werod wexan. and a man rymde fram )>sere sse. and hi foron 
sefre forS eefter. And )>onne aet 8am ende. ne beheold hit nan jjing 
seo scypfyrding. ne seo land fyrdin.g. buton folcesgeswinc and feos 
spylling and heora feonda forS bylding. 

F. 996. Her was Wulstan gehadod to b' into Lundenb'i. 
997. Her ^Elfric arb' ferde to Rome aefter his arce pallium. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 135 

995. Her on )?issum geare seteowde cometa se steorra. and 
Siric arch' forSferde. 

996. Her on jnssum geare wses ^Elfric ge halgod to arcb'e 
to Xpescyrcean. 

997. Her on )?issum geare ferde se here abutan Defnan 
scire in to Ssefern mirSon. and J?ser gehergodon segfter on 
Cornwealum ge on NorSwalum. and on Defenan. and eodon 
him J?a up set Wecedport. and J?ser mycel yfel wrohtan on 
bsernette. and on rnanslihtum. and sefter J?am wendon eft 
abutan 8 Penwiht steort on 'Sa suiShealfe. and wendon ]?a in to 
TamermuiSan. and eodon J?a lip o$ ^ hi comon to Hlidafordja. 
and selc)?ing bserndon and slogon ty hi gemetton. and Ordulfes 
mynster set Tefing stoce forbserndon. and un asecgendlice here 
hufte mid him to scipa brohtan. 

998. Her gewende se here eft eastweard into Frommuftan. 
and J?ser seghwser up eodon swa wide swa hi woldan into 
Dorseetan. and man oft fyrde ongean hi ge gaderode. ac sona 
swa hi to gsedere gan sceoldan. )?onne wearS J?8er sefre J?urh 
sum |?ing fleam astiht. and sefre hi set ende sige ahton. and 
J?onne oftre hwile lagen heom on Wihtlande. and eoton heom 9 
]?a hwile of Hamtun scire. and of Su^seaxum. 

999. Her com se here eft abuton into Temese. and wendon 
J?a up andlang Medewaegan to Hrofe ceastre. and com J?a seo 
Centisce fyrde )?ser ongean. and hi )?aer faaste to gedere feng- 
on. ac wala 1 ty hi to hra^e bugon. and flugon. forjwm )?e hi 
nsefdon fultum ]?e hi habban sceoldan. J?a ahton J?a Dseniscan 
wselstowe ge weald, and naman J?a hors 2 . and ridan swa wide 
swa hi woldon sylf. and 3 fornseh ealle weast Centingas for- 
dydon. and forhergodan. Da raedde se cyng wr3 his witan 
^ man sceolde mid scip fyrde. and eac mid land fyrde him 
ongean faran. ac fta J?ascipu gearwe waeron. |?a elkede man 4 
fram dsege to daege. and swencte ^ earme folc )?e on 'Sam 
scipon lagon. and a swa hit forSwearde beon scolde. swa hit 
laetre wses fram anre tyde to oftre. and a hi leton heora 
feonda wserod wexan. and a" man rymde fram J?sere sse. and 
hi ferdon sefre forS a3fter. and J?onne set J?am ende ne be 
heold hit nan ]?ing seo scipfyrding. buton folces ge swine, 
and feos spilling, and heora feonda forSbylding. 

8 Penwsed D. 9 Isegon him . . . seton him D. 1 wala wa D. 

2 horsan D. 3 welueah call WestCfent F. 4 ilkede man D. 


1001. Her on fysum geare woes micel unfri'S on 
TCngel cynnes londe ]?urh scip here, and wel gehwser 
hergedon and bserndon. swa ^ hy upp asetton on senne 
s\]>. ty hy coman to ^E]?elinga dene, and }?a com J?ser 
to geanes Hamtun scir. and him wi$gefuhton. and 
ftser wear$ ^E]?elweard cinges heah gerefa ofslegen. 
and Leofric set Hwitciricean. and Leofwine cinges 
heah gerefa. and Wulfhere bisceopes ftegn. and God- 
wine set Wor$ige. ^Elfsiges bisceopes sunu. and ealra 
manna an and hund eahtatig. and J?ser wear8 f>ara 
Denescra micle ma ofslegenra. J^eah'Se hie wselstowe 
ge weald ah tan. 'Knd foran $a J?anon west oJ>J?set hy 
cornan to Defenan. and him f>aer togeanes com Pallig. 
mid J?an scipan "Se he gegaderian mihte. forf>am )?e he 
asceacen wses fram ^.^elrede cyncge ofer ealle Sa ge 
tryw^a 'Se he him geseald hsefde. and eac se cyng 
him wel gegifod hsefde on hamon. and on golde and 
seolfre. and forbserndon Tegntun. and eac fela o8ra 
godra hama J>e we genemnan ne cunnan. and heom 
man sy'S'San ]?3er fri*S wi'Snam. !Snd hy foran J>a 
]?anon to Exan mu"San. swa J) hy asettan him upp on 
senne si"S o^ hy coman to Peon ho. and J?aer wses 
Kola 'Saes cyninges heah gerefa. and Eadsige J?ses 
cynincges gerefa. togeanes him mid ftaere fyrde 'Se 
hy gegaderian mihtan. and hy "Seer aflymede wurdon. 
and ftaer wear's fela ofslegenra. and $a Deniscean 
ahtan wsel stowe geweald. and "Sees on mergen for- 
bserndon f>one ham set Peon ho. and set Glistune. and 
eac fela godra hama J?e we genemnan na cunnan. and 
foran $a eft east ongean o$ hy coman to Wiht. Snd 
J?ses on mergen forbserndon 8one ham set Wealtham. 

and O&ra COtHfa fela. and heom man ra\>e \><es wtf>\>ingode. and hy 
namon frtiS. 

MS. A. closes here, and has not the latter entries of S. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 137 

1000. Her on $issum geare se cyng ferde in to 3 Cumer 
lande. and hit swi$e neah call forhergode. and his scipu 
wendon lit abuton Legceastre. and sceoldan cumon ongean 
hine. ac hi ne mihton. )?a gehergodon hi Msenige. 

And seo unfrrSflotawses )?ses sumeres ge wend toEicardes 6 rice. 

1001. Her com se here to Exanmu^an. and up $a eodan 
to iSere byrig. and j?ser fsestlice feohtende weeron. ac him 
man swrSe fsestlice wrSstod. and heardlice. Da ge wendon 
hi geond ty land, and dydon call swa hi bewuna wseron. 
slogon and beorndon. pa gesomnode man J?ser ormsete fyrde 
of Defenisces folces. and Sumorssetisces. and hi "Sa tosomne 
comon set Peonnho. and sona swa hi togsedere fengon. J?a 
beah seo Englisce fyrd. and hi J?ser mycel wa?l of slogon. and 
ridan |?a ofer j? land, and wses sefre heora seftra syiS wyrse 
J>onne se aerra. and mid him J?a mycele here hu$e to scipon 
brohton. and J>anon wendon in Wihtland. and ]?ser him ferdon 
on buton swa swa hi sylf woldon. and him nan J>ing ne wr3 
stod. ne him to ne dorste sciphere on see. ne land fyrd. ne 
eodon hi swa feor up. Wses hit J?a on selce wisan hefig tyma. 
forftam ]?e hi naafre heora yfeles geswicon. 

1002. Her on ]?issum geare se cyng gersedde and his 
witan. -p man sceolde gafol gyldon j?am flotan. and friiS wi^5 
hi ge niman wr$ ]?on ]?e hi heora yfeles ge swican sceoldan. 
Da sende se cyng to ]?am flotan Leofsig ealdorman. and he 
J?a ]?8es cynges worde and his witena griiS wiiS hi ge sa3tte. 
and ]>et hi to metsunge fengon and to gafle. and hi J?a f 
under fengon. and him man j?a geald xxiiii J?usend punda. 
Da on gemang J?ysum of sloh Leofsig ealdorman Mftc J?ses 
cynges heah ge refan. and se cyng hine $a ge utode of earde. 
And j>a on )?am ilcan lengtene com seo hlsefdige Ricardes 
dohtor" hider to lande. On iSam ilcan sumera Ealdulf arcb' 
foriSferde. and on ftam geare se cyng het ofslean ealle ^5a 
Deniscan men ]?e on Angel cynne waeron on 8 Bricius messe 
djpg. for]?on J?am cynge wses gecydd )? hi woldon hine be 
syrewian y set his life, and syfrSan ealle his witan. and habban 
syjrSan his rice 1 . 

s Cumber D. 8 S. Britius F. 

6 Rikerdes D. 9 syrwan C. syrewan D. syrwian F. 

1 Ymma ^Elfgiua adds F. Emma 1 butan selcre wi'Scwe'Senessearfc/sF. 
Saxonice ^Elfgiva vocata. (Plor.) 

138 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

1005. Her /Elfricus arceb' forSferde. 

1006. Her mann halgode ^Elfehg to arcebiscope. 

i* the next year 

in 'K. 

F. 1003. Her was Execiester abrocen far anes Frencisces ceorles ftingan 
Hugo hatte. ftone sehlsefdige hefde geset togerefan. and se here }>a burh 
mid ealle fordyde. Da gegaderade man swyj?e mycele fyrde and J?a scolde 
^Elfric ealderman Isedan >a fyrde. ac he teh for)' his ealdan wrencas. Sona 
swa hi waeran swa gehende ~^> aeg)?er heora on oj?er hawede. i$a gebrsede he 
hine to spiwenne and cwaed $ he seoc waere. and swa " folc beswac. Da 
Swegen geseah p hi anraed naeron. 'Sa Isedde his here into Wiltune. and J?one 
tun forbaerndan. and eodan J>a to Searbyrig and )>anon seft to sae. 

Hie destructa e Exonia ppt' quenda Francigena noe Hugonem, que regina 
p'positu fee' : et cong'gatus e magn' exercit' cont' eos, que videlicet Alfric' dux 
ducere debebat. Sed du ventu e ubi uterque exercit' sese invice aspiciunt, 
dux Alfric' fingit se infirmu et sic decep' exercitu. Cum aut' Suan' videret 
exercitu Anglor' esse inconstantem, duxit usq' Wiltonia exercitu suu et co- 
busserunt ea et sic processer't usq' Selesb'i, indeq' ad naves suas. 

1004. Her co Swegen mid his flotan to Nor]?wic. and >a burh eall forhere- 
godan and forbsernde. ^Sa gereadde Ulfcytel wi'S )>a witan on EastEnglu ^ 
man scolde fri'Sian wi'S 'Sonne here, far^an hi unwaeres coman. na he fyrst 
naefde ^ he his fyrde gegaderian mihte. Ac under fta gri"Se bestael se here up 
of scipan. and foran to Heortfordan. and Ufcytel gegaderode his here and for 
sefter and hi j?ar togaedere faestlice fengan. ^ar was EastEngla folces yld mycel 

Hie venit Swan' cu navib' suis ad Norftwic et tota civitate dep'davit igneq' 
cremavit. Tune Ulfcytel consiliu cep' cu p'ncipib' Orientalium Anglor' eo 
quod improvise sup' eos venirent, et exercit' subito cong'gari n' potuit ; pace 
facere cu Suano. Cu aut' inducie date accepteque essent, furtive hostes exier't 
de navib', et perrexer't usq' Heortford. Quos insecutus ide Ulfcytel cu exer- 
citu p'venit usq' ad illos ; et comisit cu eis fortiter. Ibi occisi s't optimi qq' 
senior' p'ncipu Orientaliu. 

1005.. Her on >yssu geare waes se mycla hungar geond Saxonu Angel cynn 
swylce nan man aer negemunde swa grine. and se flota J?aes geares gewende of 
"Sysu earde to Denmearcan. and sona angean cyrde. 

Hie facta e fames valida in Anglia q'anta nuq' antea facta est in t'ra ilia. 
Eod' anno exercit' Danor' rev'sus est in Denmarca ab Anglia, et post n' multu 
teporis regressus e. 

2 buruh C. fon sceoldon. 

3 And on J>am ilcan geare eode se 7 C. D. add >aet hi nsefre wyrsan 
here up into Wiltunscire insert C. D. handplegan on Angel cynne ne gemit- 

4 werd C. D. 5 becyrde C. D. ton. j?onne Ulfcytel him tobrohte. 
6 C. D. insert )>set hi >aer to geedere 8 gearde C. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 139 

1003. Her wses Eaxeceaster abrocen J?urh J?one Frenciscan 
ceorl Hugon ]?e seo hlefdige heafde hire ge sett to ge refan. 
aud se here J?a burh' 2 mid ealle fordyde. and mycele herehufte 
j?ser ge namen. 3 Da ge gaderode man swrSe mycele fyrde of 
Wiltun scire and of Hamtun scire. and swrSe anrsedlice wr3 
J?ses heres weard 4 wseron. Da sceolde se ealdorman ^Elfric 
isedan J?a fyrde. ac he teah for$ J?a his ealdan wrenceas. Sona 
swa hi wseron swa gehende )?et segfter heora on oiSer hawede. 
J?a ge breed he hine seocne. and ongan hine brecan to spiw- 
enne. and cweiS J?et he ge siclod wsere. and swa ty folc 
beswac 5 ^ he Isedan sceolde swa hit ge cweiSen is. )onn 
se heretoga waca% ]>onn bti& call se here swffie ge kindred. 
Da Swegen geseah ty hi anrsede nseron and ealle tohwurfon. 
J>a Isedde he his here into Wiltune. and hi 3a burh' 2 geher- 
godon and forbserndon. and eodon )?a to Searbyrig. aud )?anon 
eft to sse. ferde J^ser he wiste his y$ hengestas. 

1004. Her com Swegen mid his flotan to NorSwic. and j?a 
burh ealle gehergade. and forbaerndon. pa gersedde Ulfkytel 
wi^ J?a witan on EastEnglum. "p him ba3tere weron ^ man 
wr3 |?one here frizes ceapode. ser hi to mycelne hearm on 
J?am earde gedydon. for]?am ]?e hi unwares comon. and he 
fyrst nsefde ty he his fyrde ge gadrian mihte. Da under )?am 
gri^e )?e heom be tweonan beon sceolde. J?a be steal se here 
up fram scipon. and wendan heora fore to peodforda. Da 
Ulfcytel -p under geat. ]?a seonde he -p man sceolde J>a scipu 
toheawan. ac hi abruiSon J?a ^e he to]?ohte. and he J?a ge 
gaderode his fyrde diglice swa he swyiSost muhte. And se 
here com ]?a to peodforda binnon iii wuca J?ses )?e hi ser 
gehergodon NoriSwic. and J?ser binnon ane niht wseron. and 
J?a burh hergodon and forbserndon. J?a on morgen J?a hi to 
scipu woldon. J?a com Ulfcytel mid his werode. 6 and hi ]?aer 
togsedere feastlice fengon. and mycel wsel j>ser on segftsere 
hand gefeoll. Dser wserS EastEngla folces seo yld ofslagen. 
ac gif }?et full msegen J?sere wsere. ne eodan hi nsefre eft to 
scipon. swa hi sylfe ssedon7. 

1005. Her on J>yssum geare waas se mycla hungor geond 
Angel cynn swilce nan man ser ne ge munde swa grimne. and 
se flota j?aes geares gewende of Jnssum earde 8 to Deenemearcon. 
and litelne fyrst let J?et he eft ne com. 

1006. Her forSferde J^lfric arceb'. and ^Elfeah biscop feng 

T 2 

140 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. ioo6)sefter him to $am serce stole, and Brihtwold b ; feng to )?am 
rice 3 on Wiltunscire. and Wulfgeate wses call his are ofge 
numen 1 . and Wulfeah and Ufegeat wseron ablende. and 
^Elfelm ealdorman wearS of slagen. and Kenulf biscop foriS- 
ferde. And |?a ofer ]?one raidne sumor com )?a se Denisca 
flota to Sandwic. and dydon eall swa hi aer ge wuna wseron. 
hergodon and bserndon. and slogon swa swa hi ferdon. pa het. 
se cyng abannan ut ealne iSeodscipe of Westseaxum. and of 
Myrcean. and hi lagon ute }>a ealne J?one herfest on fyrdinge 
ongean J?one here, ac hit naht ne beheold ]?ema ]?e hit oftor 
ser dyde. ac for eallum J>issum se here ferde swa he sylf 
wolde. and se fyrdinge dyde J?sere land leode aelcne hearm. 
j?et him naiSor ne dohte ne inn here 5 ne uthere. 

Da hit winter leohte 6 ]?a ferde se fyrd ham. and se here com 
]?a ofer Martinus messan to his fry^ stole to Wihtlande. and 
tilode him J?ser seghwer ]?8es i$e hi behofdan. and J?a to iSam 
middan wintran eodon heom to heora garwan feorme ut Jmrh 
Hamtunscire intoBarrucscire toRsedingan.and hi dydon heora 
gewuna. atendon heora ?beacna swa swa hi ferdon. and ferdon 
]?a to Wealingaforda. and J>et eall forspeldon 8 . and wsendon 
him J?a andlang jEscesdune Cwicchelmes hlsewe gesohton. 
)?et hi nsefre to sae gdn ne sceoldan. wendon ]?a oiSres wseges 
hamweard. pa wses );aer fyrd gesomnod set Cynetan. and hi 
fser togsedere fengon. and sona ]?et wserod on fleame ge 
brohtan. and sy&San hyra herehuiSe to see fseredon. J?ser 
mihton geseon Winceastre leodan rancne here and unearhne. 
p hi be hyra gate to sse eodon. and msete and madmas ofer L 
mila him fram sse fsettan. 

pa wses se cyng ge wend ofer Temese into Scrobbesbyrig 
scire. and nam )?8er his feorme in J?sere middewintres tide. 
J?a wearS hit swa mycel sege fram )?am here. J?et man ne 
mihte ge)?eoncean ne asmsegian hu man of earde hi ge 

3 b' stole F. episcopatnm Serberien- C. D. runs thus : and waeron him \>& 
sem F. Lat. ane niht set Ceolesige. and wendon him 

4 And on >am ilcan geare waesWulf- f>a iandlang ^Escesdune to Cwicelmes 
geate eall his ar ongenumen C. D. hlsewe. and }>8er onbidedon beotra 

5 inghere C. gylp a - forj'on oft man cw8e"S. gif hi 

6 Isehte C. D. leahte F. Cwicelmes hlsew gesohton. >set hi nsefre 

7 herebeacen C. herebeacna D. to see gan ne scoldon. wendon him J>a 
forswaeldon C. forswselldon I). oiSres weges hamwerd. 

forbernde F. The subsequent passage in 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 141 

bringon sceolde. o&Se j?isne card wrS hi gehealdan. forj?an 
}>e hi hsefdon selce scire on WestSexum strSe gemarcod 
mid bryne and mid hergunge. Agan se cyng georne to 
smeagenne wiiS his witan hwet heom eallum rsedlicost 
fmhte. ^ man ]?isum earde gebeorgan 9 mihte ser he mid 
ealle fordon wurSe. Da gersedde seo cyng and his witan 
eallum ]?eodscipe to j>earfe. ]?eah hit laiS wsere. ^ man nyde 
moste }>am [here] gafol gyldan. Da sende se cyng to J>am 
here, and him cyj?au het ^ he wolde ty heom grrS betweonan 
beon sceolde. and him man gafol and metsunge syllan sceolde. 
and hi $a ealle f under fengon. and him man metsod geond 

1007. Her on iSissum geare wees )?et gafol gelsest J>am un- 
frrSehere. j? wses xxx )?usend punda. And on ftissurn geare 
eac wses ^Edric gesett to ealdorman on Myrcena rice 1 . 

1008. Her be bead se cyng $ man sceolde ofer call Angel 
cynn scipu feastlice wircean. -p is J?onne [of] ]?rym hund 
hidum. and of x hidon senne scegiS 2 . and of viii hidum helm 
and byrnan. 

1009. Her on J?issum geare ge wurdon J?a scipu gearwe ]>e 
we a3r ymbe sprsecou. and heora wses swa feala swa naefre ser 
J?es $e us bee secga^ on Angel cynne ne ge wurdon on 
nanes cynges dseg. and hi man J?a ealle togaedere ferode to 
Sandwic. and J?ser 3 sceoldan licgan. and j>isne card healdan 
wi^ selcne uthere. 4 ac we gyt na3fdon J?a gesel^a. ne ]?one 
wurSscipe ^ seo scip fyrd nytt wsere ^isum earde. J?e ma J?e 
heo oftor ser wass. 

Da ge wear^S hit on J?isum ilcan timan o'SiSe litle ser J?et 
Brihtric Eadrices broker ealdormannes forwregde Wulfno^ 
cild J?one Suftseaxscian 5 to ]?am cyning. and he J?a utge 
wende. and him J>a to aspeon J?et he heafde xx scipa. 
and he j>a hergode aaghwer be ftam su^riman. and aalc 
yfel wrohton. J?a cydde man into J?sere scipfyrde. J?et 6 hi 
mann ea'Se befaran mihte. gif man ymbe beon wolde 7. Da 

9 gebeorghan C. 4 ac hit to nahte gewearft ealswa hit 

1 D. adds Her for ./Elfeah bisceop oftor ser gelamp F. 

to Rome after pallium. 5 F. inserts Godwines feeder eorles. 

2 scoegft D. Cf. Flor. 1008. 6 hy man aeafte D. 

3 scoldon ^>is land werian wi^S eelcne 7 gif man embe wsere C. 
uthere F. 


(A.D. ioo9)genam se Brihtric him to hundeahtatig scipa. and J?ohte 
ty he him myceles wordes wircean sceolde. -p he Wulfnoft 
cuconne oftfte deadne begytan sceolde 8 . ac ]?a hi ]?yderweard 
waeron. J>a com him swilc wind ongean swilce nan mann ser 
ne ge munde. and J?a scipo fta ealle to beot. and to j?rsesc. 
and on land wearp 9 . and com se Wulfnoft sona. and fta scipo 
forbsernde. ] Ba J?is cuft wses to iSam oft rum scipon j?aer 
se cyng wses hu fta oftre geferdon. waes J>a swilc hit call 
raedleas wsere. and ferde se cyng him ham. and j>a ealdor 
menn. and J?a heahwitan. and forleton )?a scipo J>us leohtlice. 
and J>et folc ]?a j?e on ftam scipe wseron fsercodon 2 fta scipo 
eft toLundene. and leton ealles fteodscipes geswincg J?us 
leohtlice forwurftan. and nses se 8 ege na betera j?e eall Angel 
cynn tohopode. 

pa $eos scipfyrd $us geendod waes. );a com sona sefter 
4 hlammessan se ungemetlica unfrifthere 5 to Sandwic. and 
sona wendon heora fore to Cantwar byrig. and j?a burh rafte 
geeodon. gif hi ]>e raftor to him frizes to'ne girndon 6 . and 
ealle EastCentingas wiiS )?one here friiS genamon. and him 
gesealdon iii ]?usend punda. 

7 And se here ]?a sona sefter j?am gewende abuton oft }>et hi 
comon to Wihtlande. and |?8er aeghwer on SirSseaxum. and oh 
Hamtunscire. and eac on Bearrucscire hergodon and bserndon 
swa heora gewuna waesf. )?a het se cyng abannan ut ealne 
]?eodscipe ]?et mann on selce healfe wr$ hi gehealdeii sceolde. 
ac }>eahhweftere hi ferdon loc hu hi woldon. pa sum sr5e 
heafde se cyng hi fore began mid ealre fyrde. ]?a hi to 
scipan woldon. and eall folc gearu wses heom on to fonne. 

8 Da wolde Brihtric geearnian him 3 se sige C. D. and nses . . . hopode 
hereword. and nam fta LXXX scipa for'S not in F. 

mid him. and ftohte ft he wolde Wul- 4 lafmsessan C. D. 

no^ gelseccan cucene o'S'Se deadne F. 5 J>e we heton Durkilles here in C 

Tune cogitavit Brihtricus adquirere sibi only, 

laudem &c. F. Lot. 6 and 'Sa buruli ra^Se geeodon. gif hi 

9 awearp C. fte hraftor to him frizes ne gyrndon C. 

1 Da >is J>us cu^ wsss C. Da ftis 1 This and the next paragraph not 
gehyrde se cing "Se mid )>an o^Sran in F. 

scipan beliuen was. J>a ferde he ham. f swa hiora gewuna is C. swa heora 

and ealle fta ealdermen F. gewuna is D. 

2 fercodon C. D. F. loca C. D. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 143 

ac hit wses "Sa furh Eadric ealdorman gelet swa hit fa 1 
sefre wses. 

Da sefter scs Martinus nisessan. fa ferdon hi eft ongean to 
Cent, and namon him winter settl on Temesan. and lifedon' 2 
of EastSeaxum. and of $am scirum fe fsernyxt wseron 
on twam healfe Temese. and oft hi on fa burh Lundene 
gefuhton. Ac si Gode lof. fet heo gyt gesuiid stent. and hi 
fser aefre yfel ge ferdon. 

Da sefter middan wintra hi namon fa senne upgang lit 
f urh Oiltern. and swa to Oxneforda. and fa burh forbaerndon. 
and namon hit fa on twa healfe Temese to scipan weard 3 
fa gewarnode 4 man hi ty fser wses fyrd set Lundene on 
gean. 5 hi gewendon fa ofer set Stane. and fus ferdon ealne 
f one winter and ftone lencten wseron him on Cent, and bettan 
heora scipa. 

1010. Her on iSissum geare com se fore sprecenda here 
ofer Eastron to Englum. and wendon up set Gipeswic. and 
eodon 6 anreces f ser hi ge axodon Ulfcytel mid his fyrde. Dis 
wses on fam dseg prima ascensio Dni. and j?a sona flugon 
EastEngla. J?a stod 7 Grantabrycg scir fsestlice ongean. faer 
wses of slsegen ^E^elstan ]?es cynges aiSurn. and Oswi and his 
sunu. and Wulfric Leofwines sunu. and Eadwig ^Efices bro- 
iSor. and feala oiSra godra J>egna. and folces ungerim. )?one 
fleam serest astealde purcytel Myranheafod. and J>a Dseniscan 
ahton waelstowe ge weald, and j?ger wurdon gehorsode. and 
syftfton ahton EastEngle ge weald, and J?one eard iii monj?as 
hergodon and baerndon. ge fur^on 8 on ]?a wildan fennas hi 
ferdon. and menn and 9 yrfe hi slogon. and bserndon geond fa 
feonnas. and peodford forbserndon. and Grantabrycge. and 
sy&Son wendon eft sirSweard into Temese. and ridon J?a 
gehorsedan menn ongean fa scipo. and syftfton hrsedlice 
wendon westweard on Oxnaford scire. and fanon to Bucing- 
hamscire. and swa andlang Usan. o$ hi comon to Bedanforda 

1 swa hit gyt sefre wses C. n. hi gewendan ouer at F. 

^ lifdon him of EastSeaxum C. D. 6 anreces C. D. anan )>ar F. 

3 to scypeweard C. D. and naman 7 Grantebrige ana F. 
J>a to scipan weard F. 8 fyr'Son C. 

4 gehwarnede D. 9 O rf ofslogan eal t hi to comon F. 

5 wendon him J?a ofer set C. D. and 

144 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

and swa forS o$ Temesau ford, and a baerndon swa hi ge 
ferdon. wendon J?a eft to scipon mid heora herehuSe. 

And J^one 1 hi to scipon streddon. J?onne sceolde fyrd ut eft 
ongean ty hi up woldon. )?onne ferde seo fyrd ham. and J?onne 
hi wseron be easton. J?onne heold man fyrde be westan. and 
)?onne hi wseron be suSan. )?onne waes ure fyrd be norSan. 
Donne bead man ealle witan to cynge. and man )?onne rsedan 
scolde hu man j>isne card werian sceolde. Ac J?eah man 
hwset ]?onfi rsedde. ^ ne stod furSon senne monaS. set nyxtan 
nses nan heafodman -p fyrde gaderian wolde. ac selc fleah 
swa he msest myhte. Ne furSon nan scir uolde o$re gelaestan 
set nyxtan. 

pa setforan scs Andreas msessan. $a com sehere to 
Hamtune. and ]?one port sona forbserndon. and ]?8er namon 
abuton swa mycel swa hi woldon sylfe. and ]?anon wendon 
ofer Temese into WestSeaxum. and swa wiiS Caningan 
msersces. and -p call forbserndon. pa hi swa feor gegan 
haefdon swa hi )>a woldon. ]?a comon hi to Sam middan wintra 
to scipon. 

1011. Her on )?issum geare sende se cyng and his witan to 
Sam here, and georndon frizes, and him gafol and metsunga 
behetan. wrS ]?am J?e hi heora hergunga geswicon. 

Hi heafdon ]?a ofergan EastEngla i. and EastSeaxe ii. and 
MiddelSeaxe iii. and Oxenafordscire iiii. and Grantabrycge 
scire v. and Heortford scire vi. and Bucingaham scire vii. and 
Bedanford scire viii. and healfe Huntadun scire x. and be 
suSan Temese ealle Centingas. and Sir$ Seaxe. and Haestingas. 
and SuSrig. and Bearruc scire. and Hamtun scire. and micel 
on Wiltun scire. 

C. 1011. Her on J>issum geare sende se cyning and his witan to 
Sam here, and gyrndon frizes, and him gafol and metsunge beheton. 
witl ]?am 'Se hi hiora hergunge geswicon. 

Hi heefdon )>a ofergan i EastEngle. and ii EastSexe. and iii Middel 
Sexe. and iv Oxenafordscire. and v Grantabric scire. and vi Heort 
ford scire. and vii Buccingaham scire. and viii Bede ford scire. and ix 
healfe Huntadun scire. and x micel on Hamtun scire. and be su]?an 
Temese. ealle Kentingas. and SuSSexe. and Hsesting. and SuSrige. 
and Bearrocscire. and Hamtun scire. and micel on Wiltun scire. 

1 >onne C. D. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 145 

Ealle J?as ungesselSa us gelumpon j?urh unrsedes. f mann(A.D. ion) 
nolde him to timan gafol bedan. ac ]?onn hi msest to yfele 
ge don haefdon. ]?onn nam man grr$ and fri^ wrS hi. and 
naiSelses for eallum ]?isum grifte and frr$e and gafole. hi 
ferdon seghwider folcmselum. and hergodon. and ure earme 
folc raepton and slogon. 

And on jnssum geare betwix Natiuit' see Marie and see 
Michaeles rasessan hi ymbessetan Cantwaraburh. and hi ]?8er 
into comon J?urh syrewrenceas. forj?on *Elmaer hi becyrde 
Cantwaraburh 2 }>e se arcb' ^Elfeah ser generede his life. And 
hi ]?a3r J>a ge uaman J>on arcb' ^Elfeah. and ^Elfword J?aes cyuges 
gerefan.and Leofwine abb'. and Godwine b'. And^Elmser abb' 
hi Isetan aweg. and hi )?8er genaman inne ealle ]?a gehadode 
menn. and weras. and wif. "p wjes un asecgendlic senigum 
menn hu mycel J?aes folces wses. and on J?sere byrig si^^on 
wseron swa lange swa hi woldon. and )?a hi hsefdon ]?a burh 
ealle asmeade. wendon him J?a to scipon. and laeddon J?ofi 
arcb' mid him. 

" Wses ^a rseplinsr. se be ser wses Angel Tunc fuit P r * da 

_ * rum, qui paulo ante fuit 

" cynnes heafod and Xpendomes. baer man caput totius Brytannije & 

.. ., n x Xp'ntatis. Potuit tune 

" raihte )?a geseon earm'Se ]?8er man eer ge maxima misena videri, 

(C) Ealle )>as ungesseVSa us gelumpon J>uruh unrsedas. )> man nolde 
him atiman gafol beodon. o]>J>e wi^ gefeohtan. ac. J>oii hi meest to 
yfele gedon hsefdon. ]>oii nam mon frr& and gri^ wi^ hi. And na 
}>e Ises for eallum ]>issiim gri^e and gafole. hi ferdon seghweder floe 
maelum. and heregodon ure earme folc. and hi rypton and slogon. 

And \>a on tSissum geare betweox Natiuitas scse Marise and see 
Michaeles msessan hi ymbsseton Cantwareburuh. and hi into coman 
jmruh syruwrencas. for^an ^Elmser hi becyrde. J>e se arceb' ^Elfeah 
ser generede aet his life. And hi }>ser ^a genaman ]>one arceb' 
^Elfeah. and j'Elfweard cynges gerefan. and Leofrune abb't. and 
Godwine b'. And ^Elfmaer abb' hi leton aweg. And hi Seer ge- 
namon inne ealle }>a gehadodan men. and weras. and wif. f wses 
unasecgendlic senigum men hu micel J?3es folces wses. And on 
jjtcre byrig sy]>))an wseron swa lange swa hi woldon. And }>a hi 
haefdon J?a buruh ealle asmeade. wendon him j?a to scypan. and 
hieddon jxme arceb' mid him. 

" Wses $a rsepling. seSe ser wees heafod Angelkynnes and Cristen- 
" domes. Dser man mihte ^Sa geseon yrm^e j)ser man oft air geseah 

2 Cantwaraburh E only. 


146 THE LAUD MS, (E) 

" seah blisse on bsere aerman byrig. banon uw pndie habebatur ma- 

J ' r J ximura gaudium, & unde 

" us com aerest Xpendom. and blisse lor nows puiiuiavit fides vera, 
" Gode. and for worulde." 

And hi heafdon J?on arcb' mid him swalange o$ j?one 
timan )?e hi hine ge martyredon. 

1012. Her on Jnssum geare com Eadric ealdorman. and 
ealle ]?a yldestan witan gehadode and leawede Angel cynnes. 
to Lunden byrig to foran J?am Eastron. wses JEsterdseg J?a 
on j?am datarum ID' APR', and hi J?sera $a swa lange wseron 
oft -p gafol wees call ge Isest ofer Eastran. -p waes viii Jmsend 

pa on J?one Sseternes dseg wearS swrSe ge stired se here 
on gean J?one biscop. for]?an )?e he nolde heom nan feoh 
behaten. and forbead ^ man nan J?ing wi'S him syllan ne 
moste. wseron hi eac swySe druricene. for)?am J?ser wees ge 
broht win sudan. genamon J?a )?one b'. leaddon hine to heora 
hustinga } on ]?oue Sunnan efen octabas Paschse. and hine |?a 
J?ser oftorfodon mid banum. and mid hryftera' 2 heafdum. and 
sloh hine J?a an heora mid anre sexeyre 3 on ]?et heafod. J?et he 
mid )?am dynte nifter asah. and his halige blod on iSa eoriSan 

" blisse. on J>sere earman byrig. ]?anon com serest Cristendom and 
" blis for Gode. and for worulde." 

And hi hsefdon |>one arceb' mid him swa lange 08 J>sene timan |>e 
hi hine gemartiredon. 

1012. Her on J>issum geare com Eadric ealdorman. and ealle J>a 
yldestan witan gehadode and laewede Angel cynnes. to Lunden byrig 
to foran J>am Eastron. |>a wees Easter daeg on J>am dataru Idus 
Aprilis. and hi 'Saer ]?a swa lange wseron o)> f gafol eal gelaest wees 
ofer $a Eastron. -f wses ehta and feowertig J>usend punda. 

Da on Jjsene Saeternes dseg wear^ )>a se here swy^e astyred angean 
|)one b'. for)>am Se he nolde him nan feoh behaten. ac he forbead 
f man nan J>ing wiS him syllan ne moste. Wseron hi eac swy]?e 
druncene. for^am )>ser wses broht win suSan. Genamon J>a ^one b'. 
Iseddon hine to hiora hustinge on ^one sunnan sefen. octab' Pasce. 
|>a wses xiii kl' Maii. and hine \>&r Sa bysmorlice acwylmdon. oftorf- 
edon mid banum. and mid hry}>era heafdum. and sloh hine ^a an 
hiora mid anre aexe yre on f heafod. f mid )>am dynte he ny]>er 
asah. and his halige blod on )>a eorSan feol. and his haligan sawle 

1 hustinge D. hustingse F. in concilium suum. F. Lat. 

2 hry^eres F. neata heafedum I). .3 eaxe ere D. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 147 

feoll. and his )?a haligan sawle to Godes rice asende. and J?a 
biscopas Eadnoft and ./Elf hun. and seo burhwaru under feng- 
on ]?one haligan lichaman on mergen and feredon nine to 
Lundene mid ealre 4 arwuriSnisse. and nine bebyrigdon on 
scs Paulus mynstre. and }?a3r nu God swutelaft )?3es halgan 
martires mihta. 

Da ]?et gafol gelest wses. and J?a friiSaiSas gesworene. )?a 
toferde se here wide swa he 8er gegaderod wses. Da bugon 
to J?am cyninge of J?am here xlv scipa. and him beheton 
)?et hi woldon )?isne card healdan. and he hi fedan scolde 
and scry dan. 

1013. On )>am seftran geare )?e se arcV wses gemartyrod. 
se cyng gessette Lifing b' to Cantwara byrig to $am arce 

And on J?am ilcan geare toforan )?am monfte August' 
com Swegen cyning mid his flotan to Sandwic. and wende 
swyfte ra$e abutan EastEnglum. into Humbran muiSan. and 
swa uppweard andlang Trentan J?et he com to Gegnesburh. 
and j?a sona abeah Uhtred eorl. and call NorShymbra to 
him. and call ty folc on Lindesige. and sy&San ]?et folc of 
Fif burhingan. and raSe )?3es call here be norftan Wsetlinga 

(C) to Godes rice asende. And mon }>one lichaman on mergen ferode 
to Lundene. and \>a. bisceopas Eadno}> and ^Elfun. and seo buruh- 
waru bine underfengon mid ealre arwurSnysse. and hine bebyrigdon 
on see Paules mynstre. and j>ser nu God sutela^ )>ses halgan mar- 
tires mihta. 

Da ^ gafol gelsest wses. and frrS a|>as asworene waeron. ]>a to 
ferde se here wide swa he ser gegaderod wses. Da bugon to |?ani 
cynge of 'Sam here fif and feowertig scypa. and him beheton )> hi 
woldon (>ysne card healdan. and he hi fedan sceolde and scrydon. 

1013. On 8am seftran geare J>e se arceb' wses gemartyrod. se 
cyning gesette Lyfinc b' to Cantwara byrig to ftam arcestole. 

And on J>isum ilcan geare toforan j>arn mon^e August' com 
Swegen cyning rnid his flotan to Sandwic. and wende )>a swi'Se ratte 
abutau EastEnglum into Humbramu])an. and swa upweard andlang 
Trentan oS he com to Genes bur uh. And j>a sona beah Uhtred eorl 
and ealle Nor^hymbre to him. and eal -f folc on Lindesige. and 
si<5San $ folc into Fif burhingum. and ra$e J>ses eall here be nor^5an 

4 mycelre F. 

u 2 

148 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1013) strsete. and him man sealde gislas of selcere scire. 

he undergeat pet call folc him to ge bogen wees. pa bead he 
p man sceolde his here metian and horsian. and he pa ge 
wende syftiSan suiSweard mid fulre fyrde. and beteehte his 
scipa and pa gislas CNUTE 6 his sunu. and sy$$an he com ofer 
Wseclinga strsete. hi wrohton -p mseste yfel pe eenig here don 
mihte. wende pa to Oxnaforda. "and seo burhwaru sona 
abeah and gislode. and panon to Winceastre. and -p ilce 
dydon. wend on pa panon eastward to Lundene. and my eel 
his folces adranc on Temese. forSam hi nanre brycge ne 
cepton 8 . Da he to psere byrig com. pa nolde seo burhwaru 
abugan ac heoldan mid fullan wige ongean. forSan peer wses 
inne se cyning vE^elred 9 . and purkil mid him. pa wende 
Swegen cyning panon to Wealinga forda. and swa ofer Temese 
westweard to BaiSon. and sset pser mid his fyrde. and com 
./Epelmer ealdorman pider. and pa weasternan peegnas mid 
him. and bugon ealle to Swegene. and gislodon. pa he call l 
pus gefaren heafde. wende pa noriSweard to his scipon. and 
call peodscipe hine heafde for fullne cyning. and seo burh- 

(C) Wseclingastraete. and him man sealde gislas of selcere scire. SySSan 
he undergeat -f call folc him to gebogen wees. ba bead he ty man 
sceolde his here mettian and horsian. and he Sa wende sybban suft 
weard mid fulre fyrde. and betsehte J>a scipu and fta gislas Cnute 
his suna. And syfcfcan he com ofer Wsetlinga straete. worhton f 
mseste yfel f senig here don mihte. Wende J>a to Oxenaforda. 
and seo buruhwaru sona beah and gislude. and J?anon to Winceastre. 
and hi )> ylce dydon. Wende }>a J?anon eastward to Lundene. and 
mycel his folces adrang on Temese. for Sam J>e hi nanre bricge ne 
cepton. Da he to ^sere byrig com. |?a nolde seo burhwaru 
bugan. ac heoldan mid fullan wige ongean. forSan pser wees inge 
se cyng u^EJjelred. and Durcyl mid him. Da wende Swegen cyng 
J?anon to Wealinga for da. and swa ofer Temese westweard to Baj>an. 
and seet ^asr mid his fyrde. And com jE]?elmser ealdorman j>yder. 
and j?a westenan ]>egenas mid him. and bugon ealle to Swegene. and 
hi gisludon. Da he Sus gefaren hsefde. wende ]?a norS weard to his 
scipum. and eal ]>eodscype hine hsefde pa for fulne cyng. And seo 

6 Cnude F. 9 ac mid fullan wige agean heold. 

7 and swa to Winceastre. and ba fla for'San se cing ^EiSelred was ftar inne F. 
burh abugan and gislodan. And swa 1 ael D. gislodon. and siSSan sona 
he ferde eastward &c. F. eal 'Seod hine fullice underfeng. and 

8 quia non curabant queercre pon- heold for fulne cing. and seo burhwaru 
tern F. Lat. csepton D. on Lundene abeah to him and gislode. 


waru sefter J?am on Lundene beah and gislode. forj?am hi (A. 0.1013) 

ondreddon p he hi fordon wolde. bead j?a Swegen full gild 

and metsunga to his here J?one winter, and purcyl bead ^ 

ilce to )?am here ]>e Iseg on Grenawic. and buton )?am hi 

hergodan swa oft swa hi woldon. Da ne duhte naftor J?isse 

feoda ne suftan ne norSan. ]?a wses se cyng sume hwile mid 

]?am flotan j?e on Temese wseron. and seo hlafdige wende J?a 

ofer seo to hire broftor Ricarde. and ^Elsige abbot of Burh 

mid hire, and se cyng sende ^Elfun V mid )?am sefelinge 

Eadwarde and ^Elfrede ofer se. -p he hi bewitan sceolde. 

and se cyng ge wende )?a fram J?am flotan to iSam middan 

wintra to Wihtlande. and wses )?ser |?a tid. and sefter )?8ere 

tide ge wende )?a ofer sse to Ricarde. and wses J?ser mid him 

o'Sftone byre )?e Swegen dead weariS. 

* And ]?a hwile )?e seo Isefdige mid hire broker wa3s begondon 
sae. ^Elfsige abb' of Burh |?e )?8er wa3s mid hire, for to J>one 
mynstre J?e is gehaten Boneual J?ser see Florentines lichama 
Iseg. fand ]?ser serm stede. serm abbot and aBrrne muneces for]?an 
J?e hi forhergode wseron. bohte J>a J?ser set )?one abb' and set 
J?e muneces see Florentines lichaman eall buton J?e heafod to 
v hundred punda. and J?a J?e he ongean com ]?a offrede hit 
Crist and see Peter. 

(C) buruhwaru sefter 'Sam on Lundene beah and gislude. forSon hi 
ondredon f he hi fordon wolde. Da bead Swegen fulgyld and 
metsunge to his here 86ne winter, and Durkyl bead -f ylce to Sam 
here ]>e Iseg set Grenawic. and for eallon J>am hi heregodon swa oft 
swa hi woldon. Da ne dohte na^er |?isse leode ne sirSan ne nor^an. 
Da W38S se cyning ^E])elred sume hwile mid ]>am flotan J>e on 
Temese leeg. and seo lilsefdige gewende |>a ofer sse to hire brewer 
Ricarde. and ^Elfsige abb' of Buruh mid hire. And se cyning 
sende uiElfun b' mid |>am sej)elingum Eadwerde and ^Elfrede ofer 
s?e. ^ he hi bewitan sceolde. And se cyning gewende ]?a fram 
Sam flotan to J?am middan wintra to Wihtlande. and waes Sser J?a tid. 
and sefter ]?aere tide wende ofer Sa sa3 to Ricarde. and wses Sser mid 
him oj? |?one byre Swegen wear^ dead. 

and se cing ^Egelred sende his cwene sylf ferde sefter. and was J>ar begeondan 

^Elfgiue Ymma to hyre broker ofer sae eal "S Swegen wear^ dead. F. 

Ricarde. and ^Elsige abb' of Burh mid * This paragraph is peculiar to E, 

hyre and ^Elfun b' mid "Sam se'Selingum and may reckon as the ninth piece of 

Eadward and yElfrede ouer sse. ^ he hi the domestic Annals of Peterborough 

bewitan scolde. and se cing sona him Abbey. 

150 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

1014. Her on jnssum geare Swegen geendode his dagas to 
candel msessan iii no Febr'. and se flota eall ge curon Cnut 
to cyninge. 

Da ge rseddan J?a witan ealle ge hadode ge laewede ^ man 
aefter )?am cyninge ^Ei5elrede sende. and cwsedon -p him 
nan leofre hlaford nsere J?onfi heora gecynde 5 hlaford. 
gif he hi rihtlicor healdan wolde j?onne he ser dyde. 
Da sende se cyng his sunu Eadward mid his serendracan 
hider. and het gretan ealne his leodscipe. and cwseft J?set he 
heom hold hlaford beon wolde. and selc J?aera J>inga betan J?e 
hi ealle ascunedon 6 . and selc )?aera J?inga forgifan beon sceolde 
J>e him gedon o&Se gecweften wsere. wr3 J?am }>e hi ealle 
anrsedlice buton swicdome to him gecyrdon. and man J?a 
fullne freondscipe gefsestnode mid worde and mid wsedde 
on segftere healfe. and sefre aelcne Denisce cyning utlagede 
of Engla lande ge cwsedon. Da com ^EiSelred cyning irinan 
j?am lenctene ham to his agenre iSeode. and he glsedlice fram 
heom eallum onfangen waes. 

And J?a syS^ori Swegen dead wses. saett Cnut mid his 

(C) 1014. Her on |>issum geare Swegen geendode his dagas to 
Candel msessan iii n Feb'. And se flota J?a eal gecuron Cnut to 
cyninge. , 

Da gerseddon }>a witan ealle J?e on Engla lande wseron ge hadode 
and leewede ^ man sefter |>am cyninge vE]?elrede sende. and 
cwsedon ]> him nan hlaford leofra nsere |>onne hiora gecynda 
hlaford. gif he hi rihtlicor healdan wolde |>oii he ser dyde. Da 
sende se cyning his sunu Eadweard hider mid his serenddracum. 
and het gretan ealne his leodscype. and cwsefc -f he him hold 
hlaford beon wolde. and selc |>sera Singa betan ]>e hi ealle ascunudon. 
and selc |>ara Singa f orgy fen beon sceolde }>e him gedon oj>]?e ge- 
cweden waere. wr8 |>am ^e hi ealle anrsedlice butan swicdome to him 
gecyrdon. And man |>a fulne freondscipe gefsestnode mid worde 
and mid wedde on segj>re healfe. and sefre selcne Deniscne cyng litlah 
of Engla lande gecwsedon. Da com ^EJ?elred cyning innon 'Sam 
Lengtene ham to his agenre j?eode. and he glsedlice fram him eallum 
onfangen wses. 

Da sy^ari Swegen dead wses. sset Cnut mid his here on Genes 

5 cyne hlauord F. 6 ascunodon D. ascunedan F. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 151 

here on Gegnesburh? cv&Sa Eastron. and gewearS him and 
J>am folce on Lindesige anes. "p hi hine horsian sceoldan. 
and sy&San ealle setgaedere faran and hergian. Da com 
se cyning ^E'Selred mid fulre fyrde J?ider aer hi gearwe 
wseroii to Lindesige. and mann J?a hergode. and bsernde 
and sloh call J?et man cynn -p man arsecan mihte. Se Cnut 
gewende him tit mid his flotan. and wearS J?et earme folc 
J?us beswican j?urh hine. and waende ]?a suftweard oi$ *p 
he com to Sandwic. and let 8 J?aer tip ]?a gislas |?e his feeder 
gesealde wseron. and cearf of heora handa and heora nosa. 
and buton eallum Jnsum yfelum se cyning het gyldan jmm 
here J?e on Grenewic laeg xxi Jmsend punda. 

And on Jnssum geare on see Michseles msesse aefan. com 
J?et mycele sseflod geond wide J>isne eard. and sern 9 swa feor 
lip swa naefre ser ne dyde. and adrencte feala 1 tuna, and 
mann cynnes un arimsedlice geteall 2 . 

1015. On j?issum geare wees *p mycele gemot on Oxona 
forda. and ]?3er Eadric ealdorman beswac SigeferS and Mor- 
caer ]?a yldestan )?8egenas into Seofonburgum. bepaehte hi 

(C) buruh oj> j?a Eastron. and gewearS him and |>am folce on Lindesige 
anes. f hi hine horsian woldon. and sy}?]>an ealle eetgsedere faran 
and heregian. Da com se cyning _/E)>elred mid fulre fyrde Jjyder 
ser hi gearwe wseron to Lindesige. and man ]>a hergode and bsernde 
and sloh eal -f man cynn ^ man rsecan mihte. And Cnut ge 
wende him aweig lit mid his flotan. and wearS f earme folc ]?us 
beswicen fturuh hine. and wende }>a su^weard o)> he com to Sand 
wic. and let don up j?ser ^a gislas J>e his feeder gesealde wseron. and 
cearf of hiora handa and earan and nosa. And buton eallura J>issum 
yfelum se cyng het gyldan ]>am here ^e on Grenawic Iseig xxi 
}msend p'd. 

And on Jrissum geare on see Michaeles msessesefen. com -f 
mycle sseflod gynd wide }>ysne eard. and arn swa feor up swa 
nsefre ser ne dyde. and adrencte feala tuna, and man cynnes unari- 
medlic getel. 

1015. Her on j>issum geare wses f mycle gemot on Oxena 
forda. and Sser Eadric ealdorman beswac SiferS and Morcore }>a 
yldestan ]>egenas into Seofonburgum. Bepsehte hi into his bure. 

7 Gseignes- D. 8 Iset man don up D. 9 earn D. 

1 fela D. F. 2 getsell F. 

152 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A. D. 1015) in to his bure. and hi man j?aer inne ofsloh ungerisenlice 1 . 
and se cyng )?a genam eall heora sehta 2 . and het nimon Sige- 
ferSes 3 lafe and gebringon binnon Mealdelmes byrig. ]?a 4 
Defter litlum fece ferdeEadmund deling to. and genam ^ wif 
ofer )?es cynges willan 5 . and heafde him to wife. Da toforan 
natiuitas see Marise ferde se seeding waeston 6 norft into Fif 
burgum. and ge rad sona ealle SigeferSes are and Morcares. 
and -p folc eall him tobeah. 

And j?a on $am ylcan timan com Cnut cyng to 7 Sandwic. 
and wende 8 sona abutan Cent land into WestSeaxen oft he 
com to Fromuftan. and hergode ]?a on Dorssetum and on 
Wiltun scire 9 . and on Sumaersseton. J?a Iseg se cyng seoc set 
Cosham. Da gaderode Eadric ealdorman fyrde and 10 se 
aefteling Eadmund benorftan. Da hi togsedere comon. )?a 
wolde se ealdorman beswicon J?one seeding, and hi tohwurfon 
J?a buton ge feohte for]?am. and rimdon heora feondum. and 
Eadric ealdormann aspeon )?a xl scipa fram J>am cyning. and 

(C) and hi man baer inne ofsloh ungerisenlice. And se cyng ba genam 
ealle hiora sehta. and het niman SiferSes lafe. and gebringan hi 
binnan Ealdelmes byrig. Da aefter lytlum fsece ferde Eadmund 
se|>elinc to. and genam $ wif ofer Sees cynges gewil. and hsefde 
him to wife. Da to foran natiuitas see Mariae ferde se seeding 
]>anon westan nor^ into Fif burgum. and gerad sona ealle SigeferSes 
are and Mocores. and -f folc eal him tobeah. 

And ^a on }>am ilcan timan com Cnut cyng to Sandwic. and 
wende j?a sona abutan Cent land into West Seaxum oft he com to 
FromimrSan. and heregode j?a on Dorssetum and on Wiltun scire. 
and on Sumersaetum. Da laeig se cyng seoc aet Cosham. Da 
gadarade Eadric ealdorman fyrde. and se seeding Eadmund be 
norSan. Da hi togasdere comon. fta wolde se ealdorman beswican 
}>one seeding, and hi toferdon ]?a butan gefeohte forSan. and 
rymdon heora feondum. And Eadric ealdorman aspeon ]>a feowerti 
scipa fram }>am cynge. and beah J>a to Cnute. And WestSexe 

1 ungerysenlice D. ungerisedlice F. 8 eal abutan F. 

2 eahta F. 9 Wiltescire F. 

3 Sifer'Sses D. 10 and >ohte beswican J?one ae'Seling 

4 And sona setter lytlum face F. Eadmund. ac he ne mihte. ac he aspeon 

5 wil D. J?as cynges un)>ances F. xl scipa of $es cinges scipon and abeah 
wsestan D. to Cnut. F. 

1 up at F. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 153 

beah j?a to Cnute. and WestSeaxe bugon and gislodon. and 
horsodon f>one here, and he waes ]?8er ]?a oft midne winter. 

1016. Her on J?issum geare com Cnut cyning mid his here 
clx scipa. and Eadric ealdormann mid him ofer Temese into 
Myrcan set Crsecilade. and wendon ]?a to Wseringscire innon 
J>sere middewintres tide, and hergodon and bserndon and 
slogon call j? hi to com on. 

Da ongan se sefteling Eadmund togadrienne fyrde. pa se 
fyrd ge somnod wees. J?a ne onhagode him buton se cyng 
J?8ere wsere. and hi hsefdon J?3ere burhware 1 fultum of Lundene. 
geswicon J?a {?sere fyrding. and fserde selcmann him ham. 

Da sefter J?8ere tide J>a bead mann eft fyrde be fullum wite. 
^ selc mann ]?e feor wsere forS gewende. and mann sende to 
J?am cyninge to Lundene. and bsedon liine }? he come ongean 
]?a fyrde mid ]?am fultum e J?e he gegaderian mihte. Da hi 
ealle to somne comon. )?a ne beheold hit naht ]?e ma ]?e hit 
oftor ser dyde. pa cydde mann }?am cyninge -p hine mann 
beswicon wolde. J?a ]?e him on fultume beon sceolden. Forlet 
Sa )?a fyrde. and cyrde him eft to Lundene. 

(C) bugon and gislodon. and horsodon J?one here, and he wees jjser a 
o]> midne winter. 

1016. Her on }>issum geare com Cnut mid his here, and Eadric 
ealdorman mid him ofer Temese into Myrcum set Cregelade. And 
wendon )>a to Waerincwicscire innan Saere middanwintrestide. and 
heregodon and baerndon. and slogon eal ^ hi to comon. 

Da ongan se se]?eling Eadmund to gaderigenne fyrde. Da seo 
fyrd gesomnod wses. ^a ne onhagode heom 'Sarto buton f wsere 
f se cyng ^ser mid wsere. and hi hsefdon jjaare burhware fultum of 
Lundene. geswicon Sa J>aere fyrdinge. and ferde him selc man ham. 

Da sefter 'Ssere tide ]?a bead man eft fyrde be fullan wite. }> aelc 
man ^e fere wsere forS gewende. and man sende to Sam cynge to 
Lundene. and bsed hine f he come ongean j>a fyrde mid )>am 
fultume Se he gegaderian mihte. Da hi ealle to somne comon. ]>a 
ne beheold hit nan Sine |?e ma Se hit oftor ser dyde. Da cydde man 
J>am cynge ]? hine man beswican wolde. J>a ]?e him on fultume beon 
sceoldon. Forlet Sa |>a fyrde. and cyrde him eft to Lundene. 

F. 1016. Her com Cnut mid clx scipa. and Eadric ealdennan mid him 
ouer Temese into Myrcan set Crecalade. and wendan J>a to Waeringscire. 
inne "Sare hi bserndan and slogan eal ^ hi to coman. And Eadmund 

1 buruh D. 

154 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1016) Da rad se seeding Eadmund to NorShymbran to Vhtrede 
eorl. and wsende selc mann "p hi woldon fyrde somnian 
ongean Cnut cyng. pa ferdon 4 hi into Stafford scire. and 
into Scrobbes byrig. and to Legeceastre 5 . And hergodon 
hi on heora healfe and Cnut on his. and wende him )?a 
ut Jmrh Buccinga ham scire into Bead aford scire. and Jmnon 
to Huntandun scire. andlang fennes to Stanforda. and iSa 
in to Lincolne scire. ]?anon to Snotingaham scire. and swa to 
Norfthymbran to Eoforwic weard. Da Uhtred geaxode J>is. 
$a forlet he his herguiiga and efeste 6 norSweard. and beah J?a 
fornede. and ealle NorShymbran mid him. and he gislode. 
and hine man ^eahhwaeftere ofsloh. and purcytel Nafanan 
sunu mid him. and ]?a sefter J?am se cyng Cnut ge ssette Yric 
in to NorShymbran to eorle. call swa Uhtred wses. and syiS- 
ftan. wendon him su^ weard o$res weges. call bewestan. and 
Ap. i. com J>a call se here toforan Jmm Eastron to scipon. And se 
se^eling ./Edmund weude to Lundene to his faeder. And ]?a 
sefter Eastron wende se cyng Cnut mid eallum his scipum to 
Lundene weard. 

(C) Da rad se sealing Eadmund to Norfchymbron to Uhtrede eorle. 
and wende selc mon -f hi woldon fyrde somnian ongean Cnut 
cyng. Da fyrdedon hi into Stafford scire. and into Scrobsseton. 
and to Legceastre. and hi heregodon on heora healfe. and Cnut on 
his healfe. Wende him ut Jmruh Buccinga ham scire into Bedan 
ford scire. and ^anon to Huntadun scire. swa into Hamtun scire. 
andlang fennes to Stanforda. and f>a into Lindcolne scire. Jmnon 'Sa 
to Snotingaham scire. and swa to Nor^hymbran to Eoferwic weard. 
Da Uhtred geahsode |>is. tSa forlet he his hergunge and efste nor& 
weard. and beah $a for nyde. and ealle NorShymbro mid him. and 
he gislode. and hine mon 8eahhw8e}>ere ofsloh. ^uruh Eadrices reed 
ealdormannes. and Durcytel Nafenan sunu mid him. And J>a aefter 
^am gesette se cyng Yric into NorShymbron him to eorle. eal swa 
Uhtred wses. and sy&^an wende him su^werd oj>res weges. eal be 
westan. and come }>a eal se here toforan J>am Eastron to scypon. 
And se sealing Eadmund gewende to Lundene to his feeder. And 
fca sefter Eastron wende se cyng Cnut mid eallon his scipon to 
Lunden werd. 

(F) seSeling wende to Lundene to his faeder. and Cnut ferde nrid eallon his 
scipon to Ltmdene weard. 

4 fyrdodon D. 5 Lsegceastre D. Cheshire. efstte D. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 155 

Da gelamp hit j?et se cyng ^ESelred forSferde ser $a scipu (A.D. 1016) 
comon. he ge endode his dagas on scs Georius msesse dsege Ap> 23> 
sefter mycclum geswince and earftySnissum his lifes. and ba 
sefter his ende. ealle J?a witan J?e on Lundene wseron and 
se burhwaru gecuron Eadraund to cynge. and his rice he 
heardlice werode ]?a hwile )?e his tima waes. 

pa comon ]?a scipo to Grenawic to )?am gandagum. and May 7. 
binnon lytlum fsece wendon to Lundene. and dulfon J?a ane 
mycele die on fta suiShealfe and drogon heora scipa on 
west healfe J?sere brycge. and be dicodon sy38on J?a burn 
uton }? nan mann ne mihte ne inn ne lit. and oft reedlice on 
3$a burh fuhton. ac hi heom heardlice wi$ stodou. 

pa wres Eadmund cyng ser ]?am ge wend lit. and ge rad ]?a 
WestSeaxan. and him beah eall folc to. and rafte sefter )>am 

(C) Da gelamp hit ^ se cyning ^E|>elred forSferde ser j?a scypo 
comon. He ge endode his dagas on see Georgius msesse dseig. and 
he geheold his rice mid myclum geswince and earfo^nessum ]>a 
hwile ^e his lif wses. And }>a sefter his ende. ealle $a witan j?a on 
Lundene wseron and seo burhwaru gecuron Eadmund to cyninge. 
and he his rice heardlice werode j?a hwile j?e his tima wses. 

Da comon Sa scypo to Grenawic to }>am gang dagum. And hi 
binnon lytlan fsece gewendon to Lundene. and hi >a dulfon an.e 
mycle die on su^ healfe. and drogon hiora scypo on west healfe 
J?sere bricge. and bedicodon J>a sy&San }>a buruh utan f nan man 
ne mihte ne ing ne ut. and hi oftrsedlice on }>a buruh fuhton. ac hi 
him heardlice wrSstodon. 

Da wses Eadmund cyng ser Sam gewend ut. and gerad J>a West 
Sexon. and him beah eal folc to. And ra8e sefter |>am he gefeaht 

(F) Ac se cing ^Egelred eer forftferde aer J>a scipan coman. he forfiferde on 
St. Georgies maesse daeg aefter miclum geswince and earftySnissum his Hues, 
and aefter his ende ealle Angelcynnes witan gecuron Eadmund to cinge. and 
he his rice heardlice werede on his timan. 

Da comon fta scipa to Grenwic to 'Sam gangdagum. and sona wendan to 
Lundene. and dulfon ane die on fta sufthealfe. and drogon heora scipa on 
westhealfe )?are brigge. and bedicodon siftftan 'Sa burh utan. # nan man ne 
mihte ne in ne ut. and oft on '5a burh fuhtan. and hi heom heardlice 

X 2 

156 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1016) he gefeaht wrS )?one here set Peonnan wr3 Gillinga. and oiSer? 
gefeoht he gefeaht eefter middan sumera set Sceorstane. and 
J?ser my eel wsel feoll on seg'Sre healfe. and ]?a heres him sylfe 
toeodon on $am gefeohte. and Eadric ealdorman and J^lmser 
deorlingc wseron ]?am here on fultume ongean Eadmund 
cyng. And J>a gegaderode he iii srSe fyrde and ferde to 
Lundene. and ]?a burhware ahredde. and ]?one here aflymde 
to scipon. And ]?a waes ymbe twa niht j? se cyning gewende 
ofer set Brent forda 8 . and j?a wiiS ]?one here gefeaht and hine 
aflymde. and J?ser adranc mycel jiEnglisces folces on heora 
agenre gymeleaste. ]?a fte ferdon beforan ]?sere fyrde. and fang 
woldon fon. And se cyning wende sefter )?am to WestSeaxau. 
and his fyrde gesomnode 9 . 

Da gewende se here sona to Lundene. and J?a burh utone 
besseton. and hire stranglice wrSfeaht ge bewsetere ge be 
lande. ac se JElmihtiga God hi ahredde. 

Se here gewende ]?a sefter j?am fram Lundene mid heora 

(C) wrS )>one here set Peonnan wi$ Gillingaham. And o)>er gefeoht he 
gefeaht sefter middan sumera set Sceorstane. and bser mycel wsel 
feoll on segftre healfe. and tia heras him sylfe to eodan. On ^am 
gefeohte wees Eadric ealdorman and ^Elmser dyrling j?am here on 
fultume ongean Eadmund kyning. And |?a gegaderede he )?ryddan 
si^e fyrde and ferde to Lundene. eal be norSan Temese. and swa ut 
jjuruh Clseighangran. and J>a buruhwaru ahredde. arid Jjsene here 
geflymde to hiora scypon. And })a waes ymbe twa niht gewende se 
cyning ofer set Bregent forda. and J?a wrS |>one here gefeaht. and 
hine geflymde. and j?ser adranc mycel wsel Englisces folces. for hiora 
agenre gymeleaste. J>a Se ferdon beforan Jisere fyrde and woldan fon 
feng. And se cyning sefter }>am gewende to WestSeaxurn. and his 
fyrde samnode. 

Da gewende se here sona to Lundene and t>a buruh utan emb sset. 
and hyre stearclice on feaht segSer ge be wastere ge be lande. Ac se 
^Eimihtiga God hi ahredde. 

Se here gewende J>a sefter ]?am fram Lundene mid hyra scypum 

(F) Se here gewende 8a aefter^am fram Lundene mid heora scipum into 
7 oj>aer D. 8 Brsegent forda D. 9 samnade D. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 157 

scipum into Arwan. and far up foran. and feordon on(A.D. 1016) 
Myrcean. and slogon and bferndon swa hwaet swa hi ofer 
foron. swa heora ge wuna wses. and heom metes tilodon. and 
hi drifon segfter ge scipa ge heora drafa into Medewsege. 
Da gesomnode Eadmund cyng iiii stye ealle Engla j?eode. 
and ferde ofer Temese to Brent forda. and ferde innan Cent 1 , 
and se here him fleah be foran mid hira horsa into Sceapige. 
and se cyng ofsloh heora swa feala swa he of faran mihte. and 
Eadric ealdormann gewende J?a 3sene cyng ongean set ^Egeles 
forda 2 . nses nan mare unrsed gered J>onne se waes. 

Se here gewende eft lip on East Seaxan. and ferde into Myr- 
cean. and fordydon call j? he ofer ferde. Da se cyng geaxode 3 
j? se here uppe wses. 3a ge somnode 4 he v srSe ealle Engla )?eode. 

(C) into Arewan. and 'Seer up foron. and ferdon on Myrcaii. and slogon 
and beerndon swa hwset swa hi oforan. swa hira gewuna is. and him 
metes tilodon. and hi drifon segber ge scipu ge hyra drafa into 
Medwsege. Da gesamnode Eadmund cyng feor'San srSe ealle his 
fyrde. and ferde ofer Temese aet Brentforda. and ferde innon Kent, 
and se here him fleah beforan mid hiora horsum into Sceapige. and 
se cyning ofsloh heora swa fela swa he offaran mihte. And Eadric 
ealdorman gewende |>a ^one cyning ongean set Egeles forda. nses 
nan mara unrsed gersed bonne se wees. 

Se here gewende eft up on EastSexan. and ferde into Myrcum. 
and fordyde call -f he ofor ferde. Da se cyning geahsode f se 
here uppe wees. J?a gesomnode he fiftan si^e ealle Engla ]?eode. and 

(F) Arwan. and 'Sar up foran on Myrcan. and slogan and bserndon swa heora 
gewune J?as. Da gegaderode Eadmund cing feor~Se sifte eal Engla "Seode. 
and ferde into Cent, and se here fleg mid horsan into Sceapege. and se cing 
ofsloh swa fela swa he offaran mihte. And Eadric ealderman gewende J>ene 

ongean at Egeles forda. nses nan mare unrsed gersed ftanne se waes Sed 

cum pervenisset rex ad ^Egelesford, dux Eadricus per dolum fecit exercitum 
Anglorum redire. Non fuit pejus concilium factum in Anglia de tali re. 

Se here ferde eft into Myrcan. $ gehyrde se cing. fta gegaderode he fiffca 

1 Csent D. hostes retineret, eo die plena potiretur 

2 .... nisi perfidus dux Edricus victoria. Flor. 
Streona suis insidiis et insiliis apud 3 geahsade D. 
Eaglesford, ne suos persequeretur 4 gesamnade D. 

158 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1016) and ferde him set hindan. and offerde hi innan EastSeaxan 
set J?ere dune ]?e mann hset Assandun. and J?ser togsedere 
heardlice fengon. Da dyde Eadric ealdormann swa he oftor 5 
ser dyde. astealde )?one fleam serest 6 mid Mage sseton. and 
swa aswac his cynehlaforde and ealle j?eode". )?ser hsefde CNUT 

vel ]>eode 

Oct. 1 8. sige. and ge feaht him eall Englaland. J?ser wearS ofslagen 
Eadnoft. and Wulsige 8 abb' and ^Elfric ealdorman. and God- 
wine ealdorman. and Ulfcytel of EastEnglan. and ^E^elward 
^EiSelsiges 9 sunu ealdormannes. and eall se dugoiS on Angel 
cinne J . 

Da aefter ]?isum gefeohte wende Cnut cing upp mid his 
here to Gleawe ceastre scire. f>ser he geherde secgan' 2 }?et 
se cyng wses Eadmund. Da gersedde Eadric ealdormann and 

(C) ferde him set hindan. and offerde hi on East Sexum. at baere dune be 
man hset Assandun. and bar togsedere heardlice fengon. Da dyde 
Eadric ealdormann swa swa he ser oftor dyde. astealde j?sene fleam 
serest mid Magesseton. and aswac swa his cynehlaforde and ealre 
Angel cynnes beode. Dser ahte Cnut sige. and gefeht him ealle 
Engla }>eode. Daer wearS Eadnoj? b' ofslagen. and Wulsige abb* 
and -/Elfric ealdorman. and Godwine ealdorman on Lindesige. and 
Ulfcytel on EastEnglum. and yEbelweard ^E|>elwines sunu ealdor- 
mannes. and eal Angel cynnes dugu^ |?ar wearS fordon. 

Da sefter J)issum gefeohte gewende Cnut kynincg up mid his here 
to Gleau ceastre scire. ^ser he ofahsade )> se cyning wses Eadmund. 
Da gersedde Eadric ealdormann and ^a witan J>e ^ar \vserou ty }>a 

(F) siiSiSan eal Englafteode. and ferde sefter "San here and offerde hine at Assan- 
dune. and iSar togseSere fsestlice fengon. Da dyde Eadric ealdorman. swa 
he oft ser dyde. astealde ]>one fleam serest mid Magesseton. and swa aswac his 
cynehlaforde and ealle }>eode. Dser hsefde Cnut sige. and gefeaht him eall 
Englaland. Der wear 5 ofslagen Eadno'S and Wulsi abb', and ^Elfric ealdor- 
man. and Ulfcytel of EastEnglan. and JE)>elward ^ESelsiges sunu ealdor- 
mannes. and eall seo duga'5 on Angel cynne. 

Da sefter Jnsum gefeohte gewende Cnut cyng upp mid his here to Gleawe 
ceastre scire. >ser he geherde secgan se cyng wses Eadmund. Da gersedde 
Eadric ealdormann and J>a witan fte J?ser wseron. >a cyningas seht namon 

5 ofter D. 6 serast D. JE>elwine was the name : he often 

7 J?eodae D. 8 Wulfsie D. signs documents under ^Ebelred and 

9 Elfwines D. yEthelwardus dux, his predecessors. Cod. Dipl. 

films ducis EastAnglorum ^Ethelwini 1 seo duguft of Angel cynnes J>eode D. 

Dei amici. Flor. Cf. Wendover. 2 ofaxade D. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 159 

J?a witan }?a iSaer a wseron -p j?a cyningas seht namon 4 heom (A.D. 1016) 

betweonan. and hi gislas sealdon heom betweonan. and ]?a 

cyningas comon *> togaedere set Olanige. and 6 heora freond- 

scipe J?ser gefsestnodon. ge mid wedde ge mid a$e. and -p 

gyld setton wr3 )?one here, and hi to hwurfon ]?a mid ]?isum 

sehte. and feng Eadmund cing to WeastSeaxan and Cnut to 

Myrcean 7 . 

Se here ge wende )?a to scipon mid )?am ]?ingum j?e hi ge 
fangen hsefdon. and Lundene waru griftede wr<5 ]?one here, and 
heom frrS gebohtari. and se here gebrohton heora scipa on 
Lundene. and heom winter setle J?ser inne namon. 

Da to scs Andreas msessan forSferde se cyng Eadmund. and Nov. 30. 
is byrged mid his ealdan feeder Eadgare on Glaestinga byrig. 
And on ]?am ilcan geare forftferde Wulfgar ab V on Abbandune. 
and feng ^E^elsige to. 

(C) cynegas seht naman him betwynan. and hi gislas him betwynan 
sealdon. And ba cynegas comon togaedere set Olanege. and hira 
freondscype jjser gefaestnodon. ge mid wedde ge mid a]?e. and f gyld 
setton wrS ]?one here. And hi to hwurfon ^a mid ]>issum sehte. and 
feng Eadmund to WestSexan and Cnut to Myrcan. 

And se here gewende J>a to scypon mid J>am Singon J>e hi gefangen 
haefdon. And Lundenwaru grrSode wi'S J>one here, and him friS 
gebohton. and se here gebrohton hyra scipu on Lundene. and him 
winter setl ^aer inne namon. 

Da to see Andreas msessan forSferde se kyning Eadmund. and his- 
lic li^ on Glaestingabyrig mid his ealdan feeder Eadgare. And on 
Sam ilcan geare forSferde Wulfgar abb' on Abbandune. and ^E}>elsige 
feng to J>am abbodrice. 

(F) heom betweonan. and hi gislas sealdon heom betweonan. And J?a cyningas 
comon togsedere set Olanige. and heora freondscipe J>ser gefaestnodon ge mid 
wedde ge mid afte. and gyld setton wift J?one here, and hi to hwurfon J>a 
mid J)isum sehte. And feng Eadmund cyng to WestSeaxan. and Cnut to- 

Da to St. Andreas maessan forftferde se cing Eadmund. and ys bebyrged 
mid his ealdefaeder Eadgare on Glaestingabyri. 

3 gegaderade adds D. 6 wurdon feolagan and wedbroftra. 

4 geworhtan D. and gefsestnadan D. 
* coman begen D. 7 J>am nor 5 dsele D, 


1017- Her Cnut wear's gecoran to kinge. 

(C) 1017. Her on bissum geare feng Cnut kyning to eallon Angel 
cynnes ryce. and hit to dselde on feower. him sylfan WestSexan. 
and Durkylle EastEnglan. and Eadrice Myrcan. and Irke NorS 

And on bissum geare wses Eadric ealdorman ofslagen. and NorS- 
man Leofwines sunu ealdormannes. and ./Ebelweard .^belmseres 
sunu greatan. and Brihtric ^Elfehes sunu on Defena scire. And 
Cnut cyning aflymde ut Eadwig sebeling. and eft hine het ofslean. 
And J?a toforan kl' Augusti het se cynigc fetian him J>ses cyniges 
lafe yEbelreedes him to wife. Ricardes dohtor. 

1018. Her on bissum geare wses f gafol gelsest ofer eal Angel 
cyn. ]> wses ealles twa and hund seofontig Jmsend punda. buton 
8am be seo burhwaru on Lunden geald. )> wses endlyfte healf 
]>usend punda. And se here Sa ferde sum to Denemearce. and xl 
scypa belaf mid bam cynige Cnute. And Dene and Engle wurdon 
sammsele set Oxnaforda. 

1019. Her gewende Cnut cyng to Denemearcon. and J>ser wunode 
ealne bone winter. 

1020. Her on bissum geare forftferde Lyfing arceb'. And Cnut 
cyning com eft to Englalande. And ba on Eastron wses mycel 
gemot set Cyringceastre. |>a geutlagode man ^E}>elweard ealdorman. 
and Eadwig ceorla cyngc. 

And on ^isum geare se cyng for to Assandune. and Wulfstan 
arceb' and Durkyl eorl and manega bisceopas mid heom, and ge- 
halgodan f mynster set Assandune. 

1021. Her on ^issum geare to Martines msessan Cnut kyning 
geutlagode Durkyl eorl. 

1022. Her Cnut kyningc for ut mid his scipon to Wiht. And 
arceb' for to Rome. 

8 Eiric D. segfter for Gode and for worulde. 

9 on Lundene swy'Se rihtlice inserts 5 F inserts and let tymbrian J>ar 
F. justissime occisus est. F. Lat, an mynster of stane and lime for J?are 

1 >at was ^Elfgiue on Englisc. Ymma manna sawle ]>e }>ar ofslagene wseran. 
on Frencisc. adds F. and gief hit his anum p'ste. J?as nama 

2 to Eadgares lage adds F. was Stigand. 

3 mid ix scipum inserts F. 6 and setter msessan mid )>an papan 

4 D continues And her for'S ferde gereordade. and mid J>as papan blets- 
yElfstan arceb'. se wses Lifing genem- unge gecyrde to his arb' stole. F. 
ned. and he wees swi'Se reedfsest man. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 161 

1017. Her on ]?isum geare feng Cnut cyning to eall Angel 
cynnes rice, and hit todseld on fower. him sylfum West 
Seaxan. and purcylle EastEnglan. and Eadrice Myrcean. 
and Yrice 8 NorShymbran. 

And on |?isum geare wses Eadric ealdormann ofslagen 9 . 
and NoriSman Leofwines sunu ealdormannes. and ^E'Selword 
^E^elmseres sunu j?ses grsetan. and Brihtric .ZElfgetes sunu 
on Dsefenan scire. and Cnut cyng aflymde ut ^Edwig sefteling. 
and Eadwig ceorla cyng. And j?a to foran kl' Aug' het se cyng 
feccan him ^Eftelredes lafe J?es oftres cynges him to cwene 
Kicardes dohtor 1 . 

1018. On ]?isuin geare wses f gafol gelsest ofer eall Angel 
cynn. ^ waes ealles Ixxii ]msend puncla. buton )?am ]?e seo 
burhwaru on Lundene guidon xi ]?usend punda. and se here 
ferde )>a sum to Denmearcon. and xl scipo belaf mid J>am 
cyninge Cnute. And Dene and Engle wurdon sam msele set 
Oxnaforda 2 . And her J^Selsige abb' for<5 ferde on AbVndune. 
arid feng ^E^elwine to. 

1019. Her gewende Cnut cyng 3 to Denmearcon. and J?jer 
wunode ealne winter 4 . 

1020. Her com Cnut cyng to Englalande. and ]?a on 
Eastron waes mycel gemot on Cyrnceastre. |?a geutlagode 
mann JE^elwold ealdorman. 

And on ]?issum geare se cyng for to Assandune r> . and Liuing 
arcb' for^ferde. and ^E>Selno3 munuc and decanus set Xpes 
cyrcan wses ]?e ilcan geare Jmrto gehadod to biscop. Nov. 

1021. Her on ]?ysum geare Cnut cyng to Martin' msessan 
geutlagode purkil eorl. * 

1022. Her Cnut cyng for ut mid his scipum to Wiht. And 
^EiSelnoiS biscop for to Rome, and wses under fangen ]?ser 
fram Benedicte )?am papan myd mycclum wur^scipe. and 
mid his agenum handum him his pallium on sette. and to 
arcb' arwuriSlice gehalgode. and he sy&5an mid J?am pallium 
]?ser msessode 6 swa se papa him gewissode. and he hine ge 
reordode sefter )?am mid J?am papan. and syiS^on mid fulre 
bletsunge ham gewende. And Leofwine abb' se wses unrihtlice 
of Elig adrsefed wses his gefera. and hine J?ser aelces Binges 
geclsensode J?e him mann onssede. swa se papa him tsehte 
on ]?es arcb'es gewitnesse. and on ealles ]?aes geferscipes J>e 
him mid wses. 





1031. Her com Cnut agan to Englalande. Sona 
svva he be com to Engla lande. he geaf in to Xpes 
cyrican on Cantware byri f>a hsefenan on Sandwic. 
and ealla f>a gerihta J?e f>aer of arisa}? of aerSre healfe 
Sare hsefene. swa ^ loc hwenne ^ flod byf> ealra hehst 
and ealra fullost. beo an scip flotigende swa neh J>an 
lande swa hit nyxt meege. and ]?ar beo an mann stande 
on J?an scipe and habbe ane taper gex on his .... 

F. 1028. Her for Cnut cing to Norftwegu of Englalande mid 1 scipu Englis- 
cra J>egena. and adraf Olaf cing of \>& lande and geagenede hi land, et hie 
Cnut ivit Noruuega de Anglia cu 1 navib' de nobilib' Anglie, et expulit Olauu 
rege de trsL ilia et possedit ea. 

1029. Her co Cnut cing eft to Englalande. And sona swa he com to Engla 
lande. he geaf in to Cristes cyrican an Cantware beri J?a hafene an Sandwic. 
and ealle ^ }>ar of arist of aegftre healf >are hefne. swa )>at loc hwenne j> 
flot bi$ ealra heghst and fullost. J>at an scip flotige swa neh "San lande swa hit 
nyxt maege. and an mann stande >ar .... Hie rev'sus e Cnut ad Anglia. Et 
dedit Ecclesise Christi Cantuariae portum de Sanduuic et omnes exitus ejusdem 
aquae ab utraque parte fluminis, ita ut natante nave cum plenum fuerit, quam 
longius de navi potest securis parvula super terram projici, debet a ministris 
Ecclesiae Christi rectitude iiavis accipi; nullusque omnino hominum aliquam 
consuetudinem in eodem portu habet, exceptis monachis Ecclesiae Christi. 
Eorum quoque est transfretatio portus et navicula et theoloneum naviculae et 
omnium navium quae ad Sanduuic venerint, a Pipernsesse usque Nortmuthe. 
Si quid autem in magno mari repertum fuerit delatum Sanduuic, medietatem 
Ecclesia Christi habebit ; reliqua vero pars inventoribus remanebit. 

1031. Her ferde Cnut cing to Rome, and J>es ylcan geares "Sa he ha co he for 
to Scotlande and Scotta cing hi to beah. and twegen o'Sre cingas. MealbaeaiSe. 
and lehmarc. And Rodb't eorl of Normandi ferde to lerl'm and >ar wear'5 
dead, and Will'm "Se was si'S'San cing on Englalande feng to Normandi tSaeh 
he cild wsere. 

1023. Her Cnut cyning com eft to Englalande. and Durcil and 
he wseran anrsede. and he betaehte Durcille Denemearcan and his 
sunu to healdenne. and se cyning nara Durciles sunu mid him to 
Englalande. And he let ferian sySSan see ^Elfeges reliquias of 
Lundene to Cantwarabyrig. 

1028. Her Cnut cing for to Norwegon. mid 1 scipum. 

1030. Her wses Olaf cing ofslagen on Norwegon of his agenum 
folce. and wses sy'S&an halig. And bses geres ser Sam forferde Hacun. 
se dohtiga eorl. on see. 

D. 1023. Her Cnut kyning. binnan Lundene. on see Paules mynstre. 
sealde fulle leafe ^E^elno^e arceb'e and Bryhtwine b'e. and eallon 
bam Godes beowum be heom mid wseron. f hi moston nyman up 
of bam byrgene bone arceb' see ^Elrheah. and hi |>a swa dydon on 
vi Idus lunii. and se brema cyng and se arceb' and leodbiscopas 
and eorlas and swiSe manege hadode and eac Isewede feredon on 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 163 

1023. Her forSferde Wulfstan arcb' and feng ^Ifric to. 
and J?ses ilcan geares JSftelnoft arcbiscop ferede see JElfeges 
arcb' reliquias to Cantwarbyrig of Lundene. 

1024. Hie Ricard' scd's oV. Ricard' fili' ei' regnavit prope 
uno anno. & post eu regn RodbY fr' ei' viii anfi. 

1025. Her for Cnut cyng to Denmearcon mid scipon to 
}?a holme set ea ]?aere halgan. and )?aer comon ongean Vlf 
and Eglaf. and swrSe mycel here segfter ge land here ge 
sciphere of Swafteode?. and J?ser wses swrSe feala manna 
forfaren 8 on Cnutes cynges healfe. segiSer ge Deniscra manna 
ge Engliscra. and |?a Sweon heafdon weallstowe ge weald. 

1028. Her for Cnut cyng of Englalande mid fiftig scipum 
to Norwegum. and adraf Olaf cyning of ]?am lande. and ge 
ahnode him )?et lande. 

1029. Her com Cnut cyng eft ham to Englal'. 

1030. Her com Olaf cyng eft into Norwegum. and J?et folc 
gegaderode him togeanes. and him wrS gefuhton. and he 
wearft J?ser of slagen. 

1031. Her for Cnut cyng to Rome, and J?y ilcan geare he 
for to Scotlande. and Scotta cyng him tobeah Maelcolm. and 
twegen oftre cyningas. Maelb8e]?e. and lehmarc. 

Rodb'tus conies oV in peregrinatione. et successit rex 
Will'mus in puerili setate. 

(D) scype his ]>one halgan lichaman ofer Temese to SuSgeweorke. and 
J>ser ]?one halgan martyr |>an arcebiscope and his geferum betsehton. 
and hi ]?a mid weor^lican weorode. and wynsaman dreame. hine to 
Hrofes ceastre feredan. Da on ]>am )>ryddan dsege com Irama seo 
hlsefdie mid hire cynelican bearne HeardaCnute. and hi }>a ealle mid 
mycclan ]?rymme and blisse and lofsange }>one halgan arceb' into 
Cantwarebyri feredon. and swa wurt51ice into Cristes cyrcan brohton. 
on iii Id' lun. Eft sy^an on ]>am eahteo^an dasge. on xvii kl' 
lulii. JE^elnoS arceb' and JEifsie b' and Bryhtwine b' and ealle J>a J>e 
mid heom waeron. gelogodon see JElfeages halgan lichaman on norS 
healfe Cristes weofodes. Gode to lofe. and ]>am halgan arceb'e to 
wurSmynte. and eallon ]?am to ecere hsePSe ]?e his halgan lichoman 
j>ser mid estfulre heortan and mid ealre eadmodnysse doeghwamlice 
secea'S. God selmihtig gemiltsie eallum Cristenum mannum. j?urh 
see ^Elfeges halgan gegearminga. 

1026. Her for JElfric b' to Rome, and onfeng pallium set lohanne 
papan. on ii Id' Nouemb'. 

7 SweoSode F. 8 farfarene F. 

Y 2 



1032. Her on ]?issum geare atywde -p wildefyr $e nan 
mann aeror nan swylc ne gemtmde. and gehwser hit derode 
eac on manegum stowum. And on ]?am ilcan geare forbYerde 
^Elfsige biscop on Win ceastre. and .^Elfwine ]?aes cynges preost 
feng j?serto. 

1033. Her on j?isum geare forSferde Merehwit V on Sum- 
ersseton. and he is bebyrged on Glsestinga byrig. 

1034. Her forSferde ^>Seric b'. 

1036. Her forSferde Cnut cyng set Sceaftes byrig. and he 
is bebyrged on Winceastre on Ealdan mynstre. and he wses 
cyng ofer eall Englaland swyfte neh xx wintra. And sona 
sefter his forsiiSe wses ealra witena gemot on Oxnaforda. and 
Leofric eorl. and msest ealle J?a )?egenas benorSan Temese. 
and ]?a IrSsmen on Lunden. gecuron Harold to healdes ealles 
Englalandes. him and his broker Hardacnute J?e waes on 

(C) 1034. Her gefor ^Eberic b'. and he IrS on Ramesige. * 

1035. Her forSferde Cnut cing. on ii Id' Nouemb' set Sceftes 
byrig. and hine man ferode banon to Winceastre. and hine ]>8er 

And ^Elfgyfu. Imme. seo hlacfdie. sset )>a ^ser binnan. And Harold 
]?e ssede f he Cnutes sunu waere and fsere o^re 9 J51fgyfe. }>eh hit 
na soS nsere. he sende to. and let niman of hyre ealle )?a betstan 
gsersuma. e heo of healdan ne mihte. |)e Cnut cing ahte. and heo 
sset }>eh forS \>xr binnan 8a hwile }>e heo moste. 

1036. Her com JElfred se unsce&Jiga sej>eling. -.^Ejjelrsedes sunu 
cinges. hider inn. and wolde to his meder }>e on Wincestre sset. ac 
J hit him ne gej>afode Godwine eorl. ne ec o]?re men ]?e my eel mihton 
wealdan. fortSan hit hleot5rode ]>a swifte 2 toward Haraldes. )>eh hit 
unriht waere. 

3 Ac Godwine hine j?a gelette 1 
and hine on hseft sette- 
and his geferan he todraf 
and sume mislice ofslolr 
sume hi man wi^ feo sealde* 
sume hreowlice acwealde* 
sume hi man bende- 
4 sume hi man blende- 
sume hamelode* 
sume hsettode. 

9 ^Elfgyfe >sere Hamtunisca D. 

1 ^ ne ge^afodon ]?a J>e micel weoldon 
on Jnsan lande D. 

2 to Harolde >eah kit D. 

3 Da let he hine on hseft settau. and 
his geferan he eac fordraf. and sume D. 

4 and eac sume blende and heanlice 
kattode D. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 165 

Denemearcou. And Godwine eorl and ealle j?a yldestan 
menn on WestSeaxon. lagon ongean swa hi lengost mihton. 
ac hi ne mihton nan J?ing ongean wealcan. And man ge- 
raedde j?a ^ ^Elfgifu Hardacnutes modor ssete on Win 
ceastre mid J>8es cynges huscarlum hyra suna. and heoldan 
ealle West Seaxan him to handa. and Godwine eorl waes 
heora healdest mann. Sume men ssedon be Harolde j? he 
waere Cnutes sunu cynges and JSlfgiue ^Elfelmes dohtor eald- 
ormannes. ac hit J?uhte swrSe ungeleaflic manegum mannum. 
and he wses ]?seh full cyng ofer call Englaland. 

(C) Ne wearS 5 dreorlicre dsed* 

gedon on J>ison earde* 
syj)j>aa Dene comon- 
and her frrS namon. 

Nu is to gelyfenne 
to ^an leofan Code- 
^ hi blission* 
bli^e mid Xpe' 
}>e wseron butan scylde- 
swa earmlice acwealde. 

Se sej>eling lyfode )?a gyt* 
eelc yfel man him 6 gehet' 
o^ f man gersedde* 
f man hine Isedde- 
to Eligbyrig' 
7 swa gebundenne. 

Sona swa he lende ! 
on scype man hine blende* 
and hine swa blindne* 
brohte to Sam munecon. 
And he par wunode* 
8a hwile J>e he lyfode. 

Sy^San hine man byrigde* 
swa him wel gebyrede* 
ful wur^lice* 
swa he wyr^e wses' 
set }>am west ende* 
j>am 8 styple fulgehende' 
on )>am su<5 portice* 
Seo 9 saul is mid Xpe. 

D. 1033. Her forSferde Leofsie b'. and his lichama rested on Wigra 
ceastre. and Brihteh waes on his setl ahafen. 

5 drcorilicre D. 6 behet D. 7 ealswa D. 8 stypcle D. 9 sawul D. 


1040. Her Eadsige arceb' for to Rome, and Harold 
king for'Sferde. 

1042. Her forSferde Harftacnut king. 

(C) 1037. Her man geceas Harald ofer call to cinge. and forsoc 
HarSaCnut. forSan he waes to lange on Denemarcon. and man draf 
^a ut his modor. ^Elfgyfe Sa cwene. butan selcere mildheortnesse. 
ongean ]?one * weallendan wint'. and heo co tSa to 2 Bricge begeondon 
see. and Baldwine eorl hi ftser wel underfeng. and hig J>eer geheold 
]>a hwile Se hire neod wses. And j?ses geres ser. gefor ^Efic. se seSela 
decanus on 3 Heofeshame. 

1038. Her gefor ^Ej?elnoS se goda arceb' and ^E)>elric b' on Su$ 
Sexum. and ^Elfric b' on EastEnglum. and Byrhteh b' on Wihra 
cestrescire xiii k* Ian. 

1039. Her com se mycla wind, and Byrhtmser b' gefor on Licet- 
felda. And Wealas slogon Eadwine. Leofrices broker eorles. and 
Durcil and ^Elfget and swiSe fela godra manna mid heo. And her 
co ec HarSacnut to Bricge. ]?ar his modor wees. 

1040. Her swealt Harald cing. Da sende man seft' HarSacnute 
to Bricge. wende f man wel dyde. And he com ^a hider mid Ix 
scipum foran to middan siimera. and astealde ]>a swrSe strang gyld. 
^ man hit unease 4 ac5. ^ wses viii marc set ha. and. him waes J?a 
unhold call f his ser gyrnde. and he ne gefremede ec naht cynelices 
}>a hwile ^e he ricxode. He let dragan up ]?aene deadan Harald and 
hine on fen sceotan. 

1041. Her let HarSacnut hergian eall Wihracest'scire. for his 
twegra huscarla Jnngon 'Se f strange gyld budon. )>a sloh f folc hi 
binnan port, innan 'Sam mynstre. 

And J>ses geres sona c5 Eadward his broker on medren. fra be- 
geondan see. ^Ej^elraedes sunu cinges. ^e wses ser for fela gearon of 
his earde adrifen. and ^eh wses to cinge gesworen. and he wunode 
J>a swa on his brofior hirede )?a hwile Se he leofode. 

And on ]>ison gere ec swac HarSacnut Eadulf eorl under his grifte. 
and he waes |>a wedloga. 

1042. Her gefor HarSacnut swa f he set his drince stod. and he 
fseringa feoll to Jjsere eorSan mid egeslicum anginne. and hine ge- 
Isehton ^e ]>ar neh wseron. and he sySSan nan word ne gecwaeS. and 
he forSferde on vi Id' lun'. And eall folc underfeng $a Eadward to 
cinge. swa him gecynde waes. 

1 wallendan D. 2 Brygce D. 3 Eofesham D. 4 mihte acuman D. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 167 

1037. Her man drsefde lit ^Elfgife Cnutes cynges lafe. seo 
wses Hardacnutes cyuges modar. and heo gesohte J?a Bald- 
wines grift be suftan sse. and he 5 geaf hire wununge on 6 Bricge. 
and he hi mundode. and heold |?a hwile J?e heo J?ser wses. 

1038. Her forfcferde 7jE8elno arceb' on Id' Nouemb'. 
and 8 J?aes ymbe lytel JEftelric b' on SuftSeaxum. and J>a 
toforan Xpes msessan Brihteh b' on Wigra ceaster scire. 
9 and rafte )?8es J^lfric b' on EastEnglum. And J?a feng 
Eadsige *b' to j?am arc' rice, and Grymcytel to 3am on SirS 
Sexum. and Lining b' to Wigra ceaster scire and to Gleaw 
cestre scire. 

1039. Her forSferde Harold cyng on Oxnaforda on xvi 
k' Apr', and he wses bebyrged set West mynstre. And he 
weolde Englalandes iv gear and xvi wucan. and on his 
dagum man geald xvi scipan set selcere hamulan viii marc, 
call swa man ser dyde on Cnutes cynges dagum. And on J?is 
ilcan geare com Hardacnut cyng to Sandwic vii nihtum ser 
middan sumera. And he wses sona underfangen ge fram 
Anglum ge fram Denum. J?eah J?e his rsedesmenn hit syftfton 
strange forguldon. Da hi gersedden ]?et man geald Ixii scipon 
set selcere hamelan viii marc. And on J?is ilcan geare eode se 
ssester hwsetes to Iv penega and eac furSor. 

1040. Her wses ]?et heregeold gelsest. -p wseron xxi Jmsend 
punda and xcix punda. and man geald syiSSan xxxii scipon xi 
jwsend punda and xlviii punda. 

And on 3is ilcan geare com Eadward JEftelredes sunu 
cinges hider to lande of weallande. se wses Hardacnutes 
broker cynges. hi wseron begen ^Elfgiues suna. seo wses 
Ricardes dohtor eorles. 

1041. Her forSferde Hardacnut cyng set LambhyiSe on vi 

D. 1038. Her forSferde ^ESelnoS se goda arceb' and ^E]>selric b' 
on SirSSexan. se gewilnode to Gode j> he hine ne lete lybban nane 
hwile sefter his leofan fseder ^E^elno^e. and he eac binnan seofon 
nihton JJBBS gewat. and Brihteh b' on Wigra cestre xiii Id' Ian. 

D. 1041. And her man hadode ^Egelric b' to Eoferwic on iii Id' 

5 gif hyre wununga F. Su$ Sexan. F. 

6 Brigge and wurdlice hi heold F. 9 'Sas sona F. 

7 ./Egelnoft F. ! ^ses cinges p'st F. capellanus re- 

8 embe litel fyrst ^Egelric b' of gis. F. Lat. 


1043. Her Wees Eduuard gehalgod to kinge. 

(C) 1043. Her wses Eadward gehalgod to cinge on Wincestre. on 
forman Easter dseig. mid myccelum wyrSscype. and fta wseron 
Eastron iii Non' Apl'- Eadsige arcebisceop hine halgade. and to 
foran call am bam folce hine wel leerde. and to his agenre neode and 
ealles folces wel manude. 

And Stigant preost wses gebletsad to biscp' to EastEnglum. And 
raSe bses se cing let geridan ealle ba land be his modor ahte him to 
handa. and nam of hire eall -f heo ahte on golde. and on seolfre. 
and on unasecgendlicum bingum. forSam heo hit heold ser to feeste 
wi$ hine. And rafie bees, man sette Stigant of his bisceoprice. and 
nam eal f he ahte barn cinge to handa. forSam he wses nehst his 
modor rsede. and heo for swa swa he hire rsedde. bees ^e men 

1044. Her Eadsige arceb' forlet $ bisceopr' for his untrumnysse. 
and bletsade beerto Siward abb' of Abb'dune to bisceope. be Sees 
cinges leafe and rsede and Godwines eorles. hit wses elles feawum 
mannum cuS ser hit gedon wees, forSam se arceb' wende f hit sum 
o^er man abiddan wolde obbe gebicgan. be he wyrs truwode and 
ire. gyf hit ma manna wiste. And on 'Sisum gere wses swy'Se 
mycel hunger ofer eall Englaland. and corn swa dyre swa nan man 
sr ne gemunde. swa }> se sester hweetes code to Ix pen. and eac 

And J>ees ylcan geres se cinge for ut to Sandwic. mid xxxv 
scypori. And ^E]>elstan cyricwyrd feng to J>am abbodrice set 
Abbandune. And on pam ylcan gere Eadward cing nam Eadgy)>e. 
Godwines eorles dohtor. him to wife x nihtum ser Candel msessan. 

D. 1043. Her wses Eadward gehalgod to cynge set Wincestre. on 
forrnan Easter dseg. 

And j>ses geres xiiii nihton ser Andreas msessan. man geraedde 
]>an cynge -p he rad of Gleawcestre. and Leofric eorl and Godwine 
eorl and SigwarS eorl mid heora genge to Wincestre. on unwser on 
|?a hleefdian. and bereafedan hi set eallon ]?an gsersaman J>e heo ahte. 
]?a wseron unatellendlice. for)>an |>e heo wses seror |>am cynge hire 
suna swrSe heard, f heo him Isesse dyde J>on he wolde ser }>a j>e he 
cyng weere. and eac sy&San. and leton hi |>eer si^an binnan sittan. 

2 wel lerde to his agenre neode, and tern sibi subjecti populi. F. Lot. 

to ealles folces freme F. Edsinus ... 3 quatinus nimis tenacitcr ea contra 

docuit eum . . . ea quae sibi facienda ilium tenuit. F. Lat. 
erant ad honorem suum, et ad utilita- 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 169 

id'. Iim. and he wses cyng ofer eall Englaland twa gear 
buton x nihtum. and he is bebyrged on Ealdan mynstre on 
Winceastre mid Cnute cynge his fseder. And ear J?an ]?e he 
bebyrged waere. eall folc geceas Eadward to cynge on Lun- 
dene. healde f>a hwile J?e him God unne. And eall p gear 
wses swrSe hefig time on manegum fingum and mislicum. ge 
on unwsederum ge on eoriSwsBstmum. and swa mycel orfes 
waes J?ses geares forfaren. swa nan man ser ne gemunde. 
segSer ge )?urh mistlice coiSa ge Jmrh ungewyderu. And on 
j>is ilcan tyme forSferde JSlf.* abbot of Burh. and man ceas j?a 
Arnwi munec to abb'. for]?an J?e he wees swrSe god man and 
swrSe bilehwit. 

1042. Her wses JSiSward gehalgod to cyng on Winceastre 
on ^Ester daeg mid mycclum wurSscipe. and ]?a wseron 
Eastron on iii non' Apr'. Eadsige arcb' hine halgode. and 
foran eallum folce hine well Ia3rde. and to his agenre neode 
and ealles folces well monude' 2 . 

And Stigand preost waes gebletsod to biscope to East 
Englum. And rafte J?ses se cing let geridan ealle )?a land 
)?e his modor ahte him to handa. and nam of hire eall ^ 
heo ahte on golde and on seolfre. and on unasecgendlicum 
j?ingum. for]?an heo hit heold to feste wrS hine 3 . 

1043. Her Eadsige arcb' forlet J?et biscoprice for his un- 
trumnisse. and bletsode J?serto Siward abbot of Abbandune to 
biscope be ]?3es cynges laefe and rseda and Godwines eorles. 
hit waes elles feawum mannum cirS ser hit gedon wees. for)?an 
se arcbiscop wende "p hit su o^er mann abiddan wolde o&Se 
gebicgean. ]>e he his wyrs truwude and u^e. gif hit ma manna 
wiste. And on J>isum waes swy^e mycel hunger ofer Engla 
land, and corn swa dyre swa nan mann ser ne gemunde. swa 
^ se sester hwaetes eode to Ix penega. and eac furSor. 

And J>89S ylcan geares se cyng for lit to Sandwic mid xxxv 
scipon. And ^E^elstan cyriceweard feng to Sam abbotrice set 
Abb'ndune. And Stigand feng to his biscoprice. 

1043. Her nam ^Edward cyng Godwines dohtor eorles him 
to cwene. And on )>is ilcan geare forftferde Brihtwold b'. 
and he heold J?8es biscop rices xxxviii wintra. and Hereman 
]>es cynges preost feng to )?am biscoprice. And on ]?ysum 
geare man halgode Wulfric to abb' set See Augustine to Xf es 


170 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

maessan on Stephanes msesse dseg. be j>es cynges gelsefan and 
^Elfstanes abbotes for his mycelre untrumnysse. 

1044. Her forbYerde Liuing b' on Defenascire. and Leofric 
feng j?serto se wses J?ses cynges preost. And on ]?isum ilcan 
geare forSferde ^Elfstan abbot set See Augustine iii non' lulii. 
And on J?is ilcan geare wearS aflemed ut Osgot Clapa. 

1045. Her forSferde Grymkytel b' on SuiSSexum. and feng 
Heca ftes cynges preost j?8erto. And on j?ysum geare for$ 
ferde JrClfwine biscop on Winceastre. on iiii k' Septemb'. and 
feng Stigand b' benorSan ]?8erto. And on ftam ilcan geare 
ferde Swegen eorl ut to Baldewines lande to Brycge. and 
wunode J?ser ealne winter, and wende )>a to sumere ut. 

Bellum apud Vallium Dunas. 

1046. Her forSferde ^E]?elstan abbot on Abbandune. and 
feng Spearhafoc munuc to of See Eadmundes byrig. And on 
j?is ilcan geare forSferde Siward biscop. and feng Eadsige 
arcb' eft to eallum ]?a b'rice. 

And on J?is ilcan geare comon to Sandwic. Lo$en and 

(C) 1045. Her on )>ysum geare forftferde Bryhtwold b' on x kl' Mai. 
and Eadward cyng geaf Heramanne his preoste )> bisceoprice. 

And on )>an ylcan sumera for Eadward cyng ut mid his scypan to 
Sandwic. and j?ar AVSGS swa mycel here gegsederod. swa nan man ne 
geseh scyphere nsenrie maran on ]>ysan lande. And on )>is ylcan 
geare forSferde Lyuync b'. on xiii kl' Apr', and se cyng geaf Leofrice 
his preoste f biscoprice. 

1046. Her on )>ysum geare for Swegn eorl into Wealan. and 
Griffin se nor]>erna cyng forS mid him. and him man gislode. Da 
he hamwerdes wses. |>a het he feccan him to }>a abbedessan on 
Leomynstre. and heefde hi |>a while ]>e him geliste. and let hi sy}>]jan 
faran ham. And on J>is ylcan geare man geutlagode Osgod Clapan. 
foran to middan wintre. 

And on J>is ylcan geare. sefter Candelmsessan. com se stranga 
winter, mid forste and mid snawe and mid eallon ungewederon. ^ 
nses nan man )?a on Hue f mihte gemunan swa stragne winter swa 
se wses. ge jmrh mancwealm ge }?urh orfcwealm. ge fugelas and fixas 
Jmrh ]?one micelan cyle and hunger forwurdan. 

104/. Her on J>ysum geare for^ferde Grimcytel bisceop. he wses 
on Su&Sexan b'. and he lift on Cristes cyrican on Cantwara byrig. 
and Eadward cyncg geaf Hecan. his preoste. -f b'rice. And on ]>is 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 171 

Yrling mid xxv scipon. and namon ]?ser unasecgendlice here 
hufte. on mannum and on golde and on seolfre. ]?et nan man 
nyste hwset ]?8es ealles wes. and wenclon ]?a onbuton Tenet, 
and woldon j?ger J?et ilce don. ac J>et landfolc hardlice wiiS 
stodon. and forwerndon heom segfter ge up ganges ge wseteres. 
and aflymdon hi )?anon mid ealle. and hi wendon heom 
J?anon to EastSeaxan. and hergodon )?aer and namon menn 
and swa hwaet swa hi findan mihtan. and gewendon him 
J?a east to Baldewines land, and sealdon J?8er ]?et hi gehergod 
hsefdon. and ferdon heo syftfton east j?anon )?e hi ser comon. 

1046. Her on ]?isum geare wses se myccla synoft eet See 
Remei. Dser wses on Leo se papa, and se arcb' of Burgundia. 
and se arceb' of Bysincun. and se arceb' of Treueris. and se 
arceV of Remis. and manig mann ]?aerto. ge hadode ge Isewede. 
and Edward cyng sende Jnder Dudocc b'. and Wlfric abb' of 

(D) 1045. Her gefor ^Elf'ward b' on Lundene. on viii kl' Ag'. He 
waes abb' on Eofeshamme serest. and ]? mynst' wel gefor^ode ]?a 
hwile ]>e he jjser wses. gewende |)a to Ramesege. and j?ser his lif 
aleet. And Manni wses to abbode gecoren and gehadod. on iiii id' 
Ag'. And jjses geres man draf Gunnilde ut. -f ae^ele wif. Cnutes 
cynges magan. and heo sy%$an sset set Brygee lange hwile. and for 
to Denmarcon srS'San. 

1046. Her gefor Brihtwold b'. on Wiltune scire. and man sette 
Hereman on his setle. On ]>a geare gegaderade Eadward cyng 
mycele scypferde on Sandwic. ]?urh Magnus J?reatunge on Norwegon. 
ac his gewinn and Swegenes. on Denmarcon. geletton he her 
ne com. 

1047. Her forSferde Lyfing se wordsnotera b' x kl' Apr', and he 
hsefde iii b'rice. and on Defena scire. and on Cornwalon. and on 
Wigracestre. pa feng Leofric to Defena scire and to Cornwalon. 
and Aldred b' to Wygracestre. And her man utlagode Osgod stal- 
lere. And Magn' g'wann Denmarcon. 

1048. Her wses se stij>a wint'. and |>aes geres forSferde jElfwine 
b' on Wincestre. and Stigand b' wses on his setl ahafen. And eer 
}>a. on J>an ilcan gere. forSferde Grimcytel b' on Su<5Sexum. and 
Heca preost feng to |>am b'rice. And Swegen eac sende hider. baed 
him fylstes ongean Magnus Norwega cyng. )? man sceolde sendan L 

This should be 1044 &c. (so Flor.), but D has omitted that figure. He 
rights it at length by putting 1052 twice. ,M. H. B. 

z 2 



(A.D. 1046) See Augustine, and Elfwine abb', ty hi sceolden J?am cynge 
cyftan hwaet J?ser to Xpendome gecoreu waere. 

And on ]?is ylcan geare ferde Eadward cyng lit to Sandwic 
mid mycclan sciphere. 

And com Swegn eorl in mid vii scipon to Bosenham. 
and grrSode wiiS j?one cyng. and behet man him ^ he 

(C) ylcan geare forSferde ^Elfwine b'. on iiii kl' Sept. and Eadward 
cyncg geaf Stigande b'. ]> bisceoprice. And ^Ejjelstan abb' on 
Abbandune forSferde on |>an ylcan geare on iiii kl' Aprl'. |>a wses 
Ester deeig iii non' Aprl'. And wses ofer call Englaland swy}>e 
my eel mancwelm on ]>an ylcan geare. 

1048. Her on Jnsum geare wses my eel eorSstyrung wide on 
Englalande. And on j>a ylcan geare man gehergode Sandwic. 
and Wiht. and ofslohan }>a betsta men J>e J>ar wseron. And Eadward 
cining and }>a eorlas foran sefter J>a ut mid heora scypun. And on 
)>a ylcan geare Siward b' forlet f bisceoprice for his untrunysse. 
and for to Abbandune. and Eadsige arceb' feng eft to J>a bisceoprice. 
and he forSferde J>ses binnan viii wucan. on x kl' Nouembris. 

1049. Her on )>isum geare se casere gaderode unarimedlice fyrde 
ongean Baldewine of Brycge. jmrh ]?)> he brsec ]>sene palant set 
Neomagan. and eac fela o^ra un)>anca J>e he him dyde. seo fyrd wses 
unatellendlic J>e he gegaderod hsefde. Dser wses Leo se papa of 
Rome, and fela mserra manna of manegan J?eodscipan. He sende 
eac to Eadwerde cingce and bsed hine scip fultumes. )> he ne gej>a- 
fode f he him on wsetere ne setburste. And he for Sa to Sandwic. 
and J>ser Iseg mid my clan scyphere forS. )> se casere hsefde of Bald- 
wine call ^ he wolde. 

Dar com eft ongean Swegen eorl to Eadwerde cinge. and gyrnde 
to him landes. f he mihte hine on afedan. Ac Harold his broker 
wrScwse'S. and Beorn eorl. )> hig noldon hi agyfan nan }>ingc }>aes 
)>e se cing heom gegyfen hsefde. He com hider mid hiwunge. cwseS 
)> he wolde his man beon. and bsed Beorn eorl }> he him on 
fultume wsere. ac se cingc him selces J>inges forwyrnde. Da ge- 
wende Swegen to his scypon to Bosanham. and for God wine eorl 
fra Sandwic mid xlii scypon to Pefenasse. and Beorn eorl forS mid 
him. and ]>a se cing lyfde eallon Myrceon ham. and hig swa dydon. 
Da cydde man )>am cinge )? Osgod lage on Ulpe mid xxix seypon. 
|>a sende se cing aefter |>am scypon. J>e he ofsendan mihte. J>e innan 
NorS muj?an lagon. Ac Osgod sette his wif on Brige. and wende 
eft ongean mid vi scypon. and ]>a o'Sre foron on EastSeaxon to 
Eadolfes nsesse. and )>ser hearm dydon. and wendon eft to scypon. 



moste wurSe [beon] selc )?sera J?inga )?e he ser ahte. Da (A. 0.1046) 
wrSlseg Harold eorl his broftor and Beorn eorl. ^ he ne 
moste beon nan J?aera J?inga wurfte )?e se cyng him geunnen 
hsefde. ac sette man him iv nihta grift to his scipon. Da 
wearft hit under ]?am ]?et J?am cynge com word, ty unnfrift 

(D) scypa him to fultume. Ac hit J>uhte unrsed eallum folce. and hit 
wearS J>a gelet j?urh -j? }>e Magn' hsefde micelne scypcrseft. And 
he J>a aytte }>a Swegen ut. and mid mycclan man slihte j> land 
gewann. and Dena him mycel feoh guidon, and nine to cynge 
underfengon. And ]>i ylcan geare Magn' forftferde. 

1049. Her com eft Swein to Denamarcon. and Harold for to 
Norwegum. Magn' fsedera. syfrSan Magn' dead wees. and Normen 
hine underfengon. and he sende ymb fry^ hider to lande. And 
Swegen eac sende of Denmarcon. and bsed Eadward cyng scyp 
fultumes. Dset sceolde beon set laestan L scypa. ac call folc wrS- 

And her waes eac eorSstyrung on kl' Mai on manegum stowum on 
Wygracestre. and on Wic. and on Deorby. and elles gehwser. and 
eac wees switte mycel mancwealm and orfcwealm. and eac $ wilde 
fyr on Deorby scire micel yfel dyde. and gehweer elles. 

1050. On ]>isan geare se casere gegaderode un arimedlice fyrde 
ongean Baldwine of Brygce. )>urh f he braec ]?a palentan set Neo- 
magon and eac fela oj>ra un}>anca ]?e he him dyde. seo fyrd wses 
un arimedlic J?e he gegaderad haefde. j)ser wses se papa on and se 
patriarcha. and fela o^ra mserra manna of gehwilcu leodscypum. he 
sende eac to Eadwarde cynge. and bsed hine scyp fultumes -f he ne 
ge]>afode -f he ne aatburste on wsetere. and he for )>a to Sandwic. 
and Iseg Jjser mid myclu scyphere forS -f se casere hsefde of Balda- 
wine call f he wolde. 

Dser com eac Swegen eorl. |>e for ser of J>isan lande to Denmarcon. 
and J>ser forworhte hine wrS Denum. He com hider mid hiwunge. 
cwse'S f he wolde eft bugan to )?am cynge. And Beorn eorl him 
gehet f he him on fylste beon wolde. Da sy&San |>3es caseres seht 
wses and Baldwines. foron fela scypa ham. and se kyng belaf bseftan 
aat Sandwic mid feawu scypu. and Godwine eorl eac for mid xlii 
scypum fram Sandwic to Peuenesea. and Beorn eorl him for mid. 
Da cy^de man )>am cynge f Osgod lage on Ulpe mid xxxix scypon. 
and se cyng )>a sende sefter j?am scypum ]?e he ofsendan mihte. J>e 
aer ham wendon. And Osgod sette his wif on Brygce. and wendon 
eft ongean mid vi scypum. And \>a o^re foron on Su^Sexe to 
Eadulfes naesse. and J>ser hearm dydon. and wendon eft to scypon. 



(A.D. io46)scipa laegen be westan and hergodon. Da gefwende] God- 
wine eorl west onbuton mid J?es cynges ii scipum. j?am anan 
steorde Harold eorl and J?am oftran Tostig his broftor. and 
landes manna scipa xlii. Da scyfte man Harold eorl up ];0es 
cynges scipe ]?e Harold eorl ser steorde. j?a gewendon hi west 
to Peuenesea. and Isegeii j?8er wederfeste. Da ]?es binnon 
ii dagum. }?a com Swegen eorl j?ider. and spec wift his feder 
and wift Beorn eorl. and bed Beorn )? he sceolde faran mid 
him to ftam cynge to Sandwic. and fylstan him to J?aes 
cynges freondscipe. and he J?ses trSode. gewendon heom J?a 
swylce hi woldon to "Sam cynge. Da amaug ]?am )?e hi ridon. 
]?a baed Swegen hine ]?et he sceolde faran mid him to his 
scipon. tealde ^ his sciperes woldon wsendon frarn him. 
buton he )?e raiSor come. Hi gewendon J?a begen J?ser his 
scipu laegen. J?a hi J>yder comon. ]?a bsed Swegen eorl hine 
p he sceolde gewendon mid him to scipe. he forweornde 
swrSe. swa lange oft his sciperes gefengon hine and wurpon 
hine on )?one bat. and bundon hine and reowan to scipe and 
dydon hine J?ser on. tugon J?a up heora segel. and urnon 
west to Axamuftan. and hsefdon hine mid heom oft ]?et hi 

(C 1049) Da Iseg Godwine eorl. and Beorn eorl. on Pefenasse. mid heora 
scypon. Da co Swegen eorl mid facne. and bsed Beorn eorl -f 
he his gefera wsere to |>a cinge to Sandwic. cwse^ -p he hi a)>as 
swerigan wolde. and him hold beon. Da wende Beorn. for j>sere 
sibbe f he him swican nolde. nam Sa iii geferan mid him. and ridon 
J?a to Bosanham. call swa hi sceoldon to Sandwic. J?aer Swegenes 
scypa lagon. And hine man sona geband. and to scype laedde. and 
ferdon j?a to Dserenta imrSan. and hine J>ar let ofslean. and deope 
bedelfan. Ac hine Harold his mseg \>ser fette. and to Wincestre 
laedde. and }>ser bebyride wi'S Cnut cing his earn. And se cing J>a 
and call here cwsedon Swegen for nixing, viii scypa he hsefde ser he 
Beorn amyrSrode. sy^an hine forleton ealle butan ii. And he 
gewende ]>a to Bricge. and )>ar wunode mid Baldwine. 

And on J>ysum geare for^ferde Eadno^. se goda b' on Oxnaford- 
scire. and Oswig abb' on Dornige. and Wulfno'S abb' on Westmyn- 
stre. and Eadwerd cing geaf Ulfe his preoste f b'rice. and hit yfele 

And on |>yson ylcan geare Eadwerd cing scylode ix scypa of male, 
and hi foron mid scypon. mid eallon. anweg. and belifon v scypa 
bseftan. and se cing heom behet xii mona'S gyld. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 175 

ofslogon hine. and namon ]?one lichaman and bebyrgedon 9 
innari anre cyrican. And comon )?a his freond and litsmen 
of Lundene. and namon hine up and feredon l hine to Win 
ceastre to Ealdan mynstre. and he is j?aer byrged wiiS Cnut 
cyng his earn. And Swegen gewende J?a east to Baldewines 
lande. and sset J?aer ealne winter on Brycge mid his fullan 

And on )?am ylcan geare forSferde Eadnoft V benorSan. 
and sette man Ulf to biscop. 

1047. Her on }>isum geare waes mycel gemot on Lundene 
to midfestene. and man sette ut ix lits manna scipa. and fif 
belifan wrSseftan. 

and heorn com ba strang wind to. swa -p hi wseron ealle forfarene (D 1050) 
buton feower. ba man ofsloh begeondan sse. On bam be Godwine 
eorl and Beorn eorl lagon on Peuenesea. ba com Swein eorl. and 
baed Beorn eorl. mid facne. )>e wses his eames sunn, f he his gefera 
wsere to bam cynge to Sandwic. and his wisa wiS hine gebette. He 
wende ba. for bsere sibbe. mid breom geferum. mid him. and he hine 
Isedde ba toward Bosanham. bser his scypu lagon. and hine man ba 
geband. and to scypa Isedde. Wende ba banon mid him to Derta- 
mu^an. and hine j?ser het slean. and deope bedelfan. Hine man 
funde eft. and ferede hine to Wincestre. and byrigde wi^ Cnut cyng 
his earn. Lytle ser ]?an, J?a men of Haestinga ceastre and J?aerabutan. 
gewunnori his twa scypa mid heora scypan. and ]?a men ealle of- 
slogon. and ]>a scypa brohton to Sandwic to J>an cynge. Ehta 
scypu he ha3fde ser he Beorn beswice. sy&Jan hine forleton ealle 
buton twam. 

On J>am ilcan geare comon upp on Wylisce Axa. of Yrlande. xxxvi 
scypa. and j?ser abutan hearmas dydon. mid Gryfines fultume. )>8es 
Weeliscan cynges. Man gegaderade \>a folc togenes. }>ser wses eac 
Ealdred b' mid. ac hi hsefdon to lytelne fultum. and hi comon 
unwser on heom. on ealne serne mergen. and fela godra manna J>ser 
ofslogon. and J>a oj>re setburston for'S mid }>a b'e. J)is wses gedon on 
iiii kl' Aug'. 

Dses geres forSferde . . on Oxnafordscire. Oswi abb' on Dornege. 
and WulfnoS abb' on Westmynstre. And Ulf pr' wses geset ]>am 
b'rice to hyrde ]>e Eadno'S hsefde. ac he waes sy^an ofadryfon. 
for|>an )>e he ne gefremede naht biscoplices J>aeron. swa -f us sceamaS 
hit nu mare to tellanne. And Sigward b' gefor. se lige^ on Ab- 

9 bebyrigendan F. 1 ferendon F. 


1050. Her for'Sferde Eadsige arceb'. and Rodbert 
feng to arceb'rice. 1% 

(C) And on bam ylcan geare ferde Hereman b' and Ealdred b' to 
Rome, to Sa papan. on bees cinges eerende. 

1050. Her on bysum gere comon ba bisceopas ham fram Rome, 
and man geinlagode Swegen eorl. And on bys ylcan geare forS- 
ferde Eadsige arceb' on iiii kl' Nouembris. and eac on J>ys 
ylcan geare ^Elfric arceb' on Eoferwic cestre. on xi kl' Feb'. and 
his lie lift on Burh. Da heefde Eadwerd cing witenagemot on 
Lunden to midlencten. and sette Hrodberd to arceb' to Cantware 
byrig. and Sperhafoc abb' to Lunden. and geaf RoSulfe b' his msege 
f abbudrice on Abb'dune. And bses ylcan geares he sette ealle )>a 
litsmen of male. 

1051. Her on Jjysum geare com Rodbeard arceb' hider ofer sse 
mid his palliu. And on bys ylcan geare man flymde Godwine 
eorl. and ealle his suna. of Englalande. And he gewende to Bricge. 
and his wif and his iii suna. Swegen. and Tostig. and GyrS. and 
Harold and Leofwine wendon to Irlande. and bser wunedon baene 
winter. And on bys ylcan geare forSferde seo ealde hlsefdige. 
Eadwerdes cinges moder and HarSacnutes. Imme hatte. ii id' Mart, 
and hyre lie IrS on Ealdan mynstre wi$ Cnut cing. 

(D) And her man halgode -f miccle mynst' set Remys. Daer waes se [1046 E] 
papa Leo. and se casere. and mycelne sinoS bser hsefdon embe Codes 
beowdom. Done sino^ f cresset scs Leo papa, hit is earfcyS to witane 

bara biscopa be baer to comon. and huru abbuda. and heonon of lande 
wseron twegen g'sende. of see Agustine and of Rammesege. 

1051. On |>isan geare gefor Eadsie arceb' on Cantware byri. and 
se cyng sealde Rotbearde. ban Freoncyscan be ser wees b' on Lundene. 
f arcerice. And Spearhafoc abb' of Abbandune feng to J>an b'rice 
on Lundene. and hit wees eft of him genumen ser he gehadod wsere. 
And Hereman b' and Ealdred b' foron to Rome. 

2 sed fere perdidit ibi baculum suum, 8 )>a wolde his an man herebeorgian 
quia nescivit ministerium suum. F. Lot. at anes mannes his un'Sances. swa ^ he 

3 stsef F. wundode ]?one hus bunda. and se hus 

4 gerihta F. bunda of sloh J?one man. Da wses Eu- 

5 1050 F. Hie Eaduardus rex dedit statius swySe wra^S. and wearS upon 
Rodberto, qui fuit abbas Gemeticensis, his horse, and his men. and ferdon to 
archiepiscopatum Cantuarise. F. Lot. and ofslogon j?one ylcan husbandan. 

6 Abbaddune F. and eac to eacan him ma >onne xx 

7 >a he hsefde gespaecen }>at he men. F. 
wolde. J>a cyrde he agen F. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 177 

And on ]?ysum ilcan geare com Swegen eorl into Engla 

And on J?ysum ilcan geare wses se mycele sinoiS on Rome, 
and Eadward cyng seude ]?ider Hereman b* and Ealdred b'. 
and hi comon J?yder on Easter sefen. And eft se papa hsefde 
sinoiS on Tiercel, and Vlf b' com )?serto. and 2 forneah man 
sceolde to brecan his stef ;J . gif he ne sealde J?e mare gersu- 
man. forSan he ne cirSe don his gerihte 4 swa wel swa he 
sceolde. And on J>isum geare forSferde Eadsige arceb' iiii 
kl' Nouemb'. 

1048. ^Her on Jnsum geare Eadward cyng gesette Rodbyrd 
on Lundene to arceb' to Cantwara byrig. on Lengtene. And 
J?ses sylfan Lentenes he for to Rome^aefter his pallium, and 
se cyng geaf J>et biscoprice on Lundene Sparhafoc abbot of 
c Abbandune. and se cyng geaf \$~\ abbot rice Roftulfe b' his 
msege. Da com se arceb' frarn Rome ane dsege ser scs Petr' June 28 
msessesefene. and gesset his arceb'stol set Xpescyrcean on scs 
Petr' msesse dseg. and sona ]?aes to ]?am cyng ge wamde. Da com 
Sparhafoc abV bewegfe] to him mid j?ses cynges ge write and 
insegle. to J?an ]?et he hine hadian sceolde to b' into Lundene. 
j?a wr3 cwe^ se arceb'. and cwse^ J?et se papa hit him for- 
boden haefde. J?a gewende se abb' ongean J?one arceb' eft 
to 'Sam. and J?ser J>es biscophades gernde. and se arceb' him 
anraedlice forwernde. and cwse^ J?et se papa hit him forboden 
heefde. Da gewende se abb' to Lundene. and sset on )?am 
biscoprice )?e se cyng him aer geunnan hsefde be his fulre 
leafe. ealne J?one sumor and )?one hserfest. 

And com J?a Eustatius fram geondan see sona sefter J?ani 
biscop. and gewende to $am cynge. and spaec wi^ hine "^ f 
he J?a wolde. and gewende J?a hamweard. pa he com to 
Cantwarbyrig east J?a snaedde he J>aer and his menn. and to 
Dofran gewende. Da he waes sume mila oftSe mare be- 
heonan Dofran. ]?a dyde he on his byrnan. and his geferan 
ealle. and foran to Dofran. pa hi Jnder comon. J?a woldon hi 
innian hi J?aer heom sylfan gelicode. 8 J?a com an his manna, 
and wolde wician set anes bundan huse his un^ances. and 
gewundode J?one husbundon. and se husbunda ofsloh ]?one 
ofterne. Da wear's FJustati' uppon his horse, and his ge 
feoran uppon heora. and ferdon to J>a husbundon. and of- 
slogon hine binnan his agerian heorSse. and wendon him ]?a 

A a* 

178 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1048) up to J?gere burgeweard. and ofslogon aegiSer ge wrSinnan ge 
wrSutan. ma j?anne xx manna. And J?a burhmeii ofslogon 
xix menn on oftre healfe. and gewundoden ^ hi uystan hii 
fela. And Eustatius aetbserst mid feawum mannum. and ge 
wende ongean to J?am cynge. and 6 cydde be daele hu hi 
gefaren haefdon. and wearS se cyng swij?e ? gram wi$ J?a 
burhware. and H ofssende se cyng Godwine eorl. and bsed 
hine faran into Cent mid unfrrSa to Dofran. for)?an Eustatius 
haefde gecydd )?am cynge ]?et hit sceolde beon mare gylt 
J?sere burhvvaru }?onne his. ac hit nses ua swa. and se eorl 
nolde na ge $wa3rian J?sere infare. forj?an him wses laft to 
9 amyrrene his agenne folgaft. 

Da sende se cyng sefter eallon his witan. and bead heom 
cuman to Gleaweceastre neh J?8ere aeftre sea Maria msessan. 
pa haefdou ]?a welisce menn gewroht aenne castel on Here- 
fordscire on Swegenes eorles folgofte. and wrohten selc J?a3ra 
harme and bismere \>&s cynges mannan )?8er abutan J?e hi 
mihton. Da com Godwine eorl and Swegen eorl and Harold 
eorl togsedere aat By feres stane. and manig mann mid heom. 
to fton ty hi woldon faran to heora cynehlaforde. and to J?am 
witan eallon J?e mid him gegaderode waeron. f hi fses cynges 
rted hsefdon and his fultum and ealra witena. hu hi mihton 
j?ses cynges bismer awrecan and ealles ]?eodscipes. Da waBron 
}>a wselisce men ] taatforan mid )?am cynge. and forwregdon 
i5a eorlas. J?et hi ne moston cuman 2 on his eagon ge sih'Se. 
For^an hi ssedon ^ hi woldon cuman J?ider for ]?es cynges 
swicdome. Wses ]?ser cuman Si ward eorl and Leofric eorl. 
and mycel folc mid heom norj?an to }?am cynge. and wses 
)?am eorle Godwine and his sunan gecydd *p se cyng and J?a 
menn ]?e mid him waeron. woldon raedon on hi. and hi 
trymedon hi faestlice ongean. ]?seh him la^ waere -p hi ongean 
heora cynehlaford standan sceoldan. Da geraedden J?a witari 
on aeg^er halfe ^ man $a aelces yfeles geswac. and 3 geaf se 
cyng Godes grrS. and his fulne freondscipe on aegiSre healfe. 

6 saede fta ciuge wyrs 'Sonne hit suum, dissimulavit ire illuc^ F. Lat, 
wse.-e F. 9 amyrrende F. 

7 wraft F. I Beror F. 

^ pficcopit . . , ut congregaret exer- - neh "San einge F. 

citum et intraret Cautiam, omnia de- ^ se cing gif "Sa eorlan his Cullan 

vastandOj et maximc Dofras. Sed freondscipe F. 
^ nolens d<. j struro coinitatuncv 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 179 

Da ^gersedde se cyning and bis witan p man sceolde oiSre (A.D. 1048) 
sySan habban ealra gewitena 3 gemot on Lundene to hser- 

(D) 1052. Her forSferde Citric arceb'. on Eoferwic. swifte arwyrSe 
wer and wis. And on J?an ylcan geare alede Eadward cyng f 
heregyld f .'E^elred cyng ser astealde. -Jj waes on j?ara nigori and 
jmttigoSan geare }>3es J>e he hit ongunnon haefde. Deet gyld 
gedrehte ealle Engla }>eode on swa langum fyrste. swa hit bufan 
her awriten is. ]? waes sefre setforan o^rura gyldum |>e man myslice 
geald. and men mid monigfealdlice drehte. 

On J>am ylcan geare com Eustatius up set Doferan. se haefde Ead- 
wardes cynges sweostor to wife. Da ferdon his men dyslice seft' 
inne. and sumne man ofslogon of }>am porte. and o'Ser man of }>a porte 
heora geferan. swa ^ ]>3er lagon vii his geferana. And micel hearm 
}>ser gedon wses on seg^re healfe. mid horse and eac mid wsepnum. o'S 
f folc gegaderede. and hi |>a aetflugon ^ hi comon to J>am cynge to 
Gleawcestre. and he heom gry$ sealde. Da undernam Godwine eorl 
swy^e ty on his eorldome sceolde swilc geweor^an. ongan j?a gadrian 
folc ofer call his eorldom. and Swein eorl his sunu ofer his. and Harold 
his oSer sunu ofer his eorldom. and hi gegaderedan ealle on Gleaw- 
cesterscire. set Langatreo. mycel fyrd and unarimedlic. ealle gearwe 
to wige ongean j?one cyng. buton man ageafe Eustatsius and his 
men heo to hand sceofe. and eac |?a Frencyscan |?e on }>an castelle 
waeron. Dis waes gedon vii nihton aer |>sere lateran sea Maria Sep. 
msessan. Da wses Eadward cyng on Gleawcestre sittende. Sende 
j?a sefter Leofrice eorle. and norS a?fter Siwarde eorle. and ba?d 
heora gencges. And hi him }>a to comon aerest mid medemum 
fultume. ac srSSan hy wiston hu hit J>aer be suSan waes. Jm sendon 
hi norS ofer ealne heora eorldom. and leton beodan mycele fyrde. 
heora hlaforde to helpe. and Raulf eac ofer his eorldom. and comon 
$a ealle to Gleaweceastre }?am cynge to helpe, J>eah hit Iset waere. 
Wurdan J?a ealle swa anraede mid j?am cynge. $ hy woldon God- 
wines fyrde gesecan. gif se cyng f wolde. Da leton hy surne. -f 
mycel unraed wsere. ^ hy togedere comon. forj>am }>a?r woes meest 
^ rotoste f waes on Englalande on |>am twam gefylcu. and leton )? 
hi urum feondum rymdon to lande. and betwyx us sylfum to myc- 
clum forwyrde. Geraeddon J?a ^ man sealde gislas betweonan. and 
setton stefna ut to Lundene. and man bead j?a folce }>ider ut ofer 
ealne |>isne noi^ende on Siwardes eorldome. and on Leofrices. and 
eac elles gehwser. and sceolde Godwine eorl and his suna jjser cuman 

4 gehet F. 5 gewitena F too. 

A a 2 


(A.D. 1048) festes emnihte. and het se cyning barman ut here. segSer ge 
be suSan Temese ge be norSan call "p sefre betst wses. )a 
cwseiS man Swegen eorl utlah. and stefnode 6 man Godwine 
eorle and Harolde eorle to ]?on ge mote swa ra'Se swa hi hit 
gefarau mihton. pa hi )?ider utcomon. ]?a stefnede heom 
man to ge mote. J?a gyrnde he grimes and gisla. f>et he moste 
unswican into gemote cuman. and ut of ge mote. Da gyrnde 
se cyng ealra J?sera J>egna ]?e J?a eorlas ser hsefdon. and hi 
letan hi ealle him to handa. pa sende se cyng eft to heom. 
and bead heom "p hi comon mid xii mannum 7 into J>ses 
cynges rsede. pa geornde se eorl eft grimes and gisla. p he 
moste hine betellan set tele J?sera Jringa )?e him man 8 onlede. 
9 pa wyrnde him mann $era gisla. and sceawede him mann v 
nihta grrS ut of lande tofarenne. And gewende J?a Godwine 
eorl and Swegen eorl to Bosenham. and scufon ut heora 
scipu. and gewendon heom begeondan see. and gesohton 
Baldewines grift, and wunodon )>8er ealne )?one winter. And 
Harold eorl ge wende west to Yrlande. and wses j?ser ealne 
J?one winter on ]?es cynges grrSe. And sona J?ses J>e J;is wses. 
|?a forlet se cyng j?a hlsefdian. seo wses gehalgod him to 
cwene. and let niman of hire eall "p heo ahte. on lande and 
on golde and on seolfre and on eallon J?ingon. and betsehte 
hy his swyster to ] Hwerwillon. 

And ' 2 Sparhafoc abb' weariS ^a adrifen ut of )?a biscoprice 
on Lundene. and wes WilPm )?ses cynges preost gehadod 
J?serto. And man sette ]>a Oddan to eorle ofer Defenascire. 
and ofer Sumersseton. and ofer Dorseton. and ofer Wealas. 
And mann sette ^Elfgar Leofrices sunu eorles ^ane eorldom 
on handa j?e Harold ser ahte. 

6 bead F. E misses 1049, 1050, 1051, and 

7 to fta cinge F. agrees with C and D upon 1052, where 

8 me F. harmony is restored between C and D 

9 )>a wyrnde men him and bead him by the repetition of 1052 in D. The 
ut binnan v nihtan. and he ferde ofer death of Emma is put by C under 1051 
see to Baldwin lande. F. (p. 176), his year ending at Easter. 

1 HwerewylleF. M. H. B. 

2 Spearhauoc F. 

THE LA IT) MS. (E) 181 

1052. Her on ^isum geare forSferde ./Elfgiue Ymma Ead- 
wardes cynges modor and Hardacnutes cynges. 

(D) to wij>ermale. Da comon hy to Suj> geweorce. and micel msenegeo 
mid heom of WestSsexum. ac his wered wanode sefre J?e leng ]>c 
swifior. And man borhfseste J?am kyninge ealle )>a ]?cegnas ]?e wseron 
Haroldes eorles his suna. and man utlagode ]?a Swsegn eorl his 
o^Serne sunu. Da ne onhagode him to cumenne to wrSermale 
ongean |?one cyng. and agean ]>one here j?e him mid wses. For *6a. 
on niht awseg. and se cyng hsefde }>?es on morgen witenagemot. and 
cwse'S hine utlage. and eall here, hine and ealle his suna. And he 
wende su'S to Dornege. and his wif. and Swegen his suna. and 
Tostig and his wif. Baldwines mage set Brycge. and Ger& his suna. 
And Harold eorl and Leofwine foran to Brycgstowe. on }> scip J>e 
Swegen eorl hsefde him silfum eer gegearcod and gemetsod. And 
se cining sende Ealdred b' of Lundene mid genge. and sceoldon 
hine of ridan eer he to scipe come, ac hi ne mihton. o&Se hi noldon. 
And he wende }>a ut of Afenernu<5an. and feng swa stiS weder f he 
unease awseig com. and him |?aer micel forferde. Wende J?a for^ to 
Irlande. 'Sa him weder com. and Godwine and )>a J>e mid him wseron 
wendan of Dornege to Brycge. to Baldwines lande. on anum scipe. 
mid swa miclum gsersuman swa hi mihton |?seron msest gelogian to 
selcum mannum. Dset wolde ^yncan wundorlic aelcum men J?e on 
Engla lande wees, gif asnig man s&r |>am ssede f hit swa gewur]>an 
sceolde. foi^am ]je he waes ser to J?am swy(5e upahafen. swylce he 
weolde J>ses cynges and ealles Engla landes. and his sunan wseron 
eorlas. and j>a3S cynges dyrlingas. and his dohtor jjsem cynge be- 
weddod and beaswnod. J>a man gebrohte to Hwserwellan. and hy 
|>eere abedissan betsehton. 

Da sone com Willelm eorl fram geondan sse mid mycclum werode 
Frencisra manna, and se cyning hine underfeng. and swa feola his 
geferan swa him to onhagode. and let hine eft ongean. Dses ilcan 
geres man sealde Wyllelme preoste -f b'rice on Lundene. |>e wses ser 
Spserhafoce geseald. 

1052. Her forj>ferde ^Elfgyfu seo hlefdige. JESelredes laf cynges 
and Cnutes cynges on ii non' Mar. 

On ]>am ilcan gere hergode Griffin, se Wylisca cing. on Hereford 
scire f he com swyj?e neah to Leomynstre. and men gadorodon 
ongean. seg^er ge landes men ge Frencisce men of 'Sam castele. and 
man J>ser ofsloh swy]>e feola Engliscra godra manna, and eac of }>am 
Frenciscum. -f wses )>ses ylcan dseges. on Sreottene geara. }>e man r 
Eadwine ofsloh mid his geferum. 

182 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A. D. 1052) And on ]?am sylfan geare geraedde se cyng and his \vitan -j? 
mann sceolde forSian ut to Sandwic scipu. and setton Raulf 
eorl and Oddan eorl to heafodmannum bserto. Da gewende 
God wine eorl ut fram Brycge mid his scypum to Yseran. and 
let ut ane dsege ser midsumeres maesse sefene ^ he com to 
Nsesse. )?e is besuiSan Rumen ea. pa com hit to witenne 
J?a eorltim ut to Sandwic. and hi fa gewendon ut aefter 

F 1051 . . [E 1052] . . And Godwine eorl ferde ut of Brige mid his scipan 
to Yseran. and swa to Englalande. and com up at Naesse be suiSan Rumenea. 
and ferde swa to Wiht. and na t>ar ealle ~5a scipan $a to ahte mihtan and 
gislas. and cyrde hi swa eastward. And Harold was cumen mid ix scipon 
up at Portlocan. and ofsloh ftar mycel folc. and na orf. and menn. and eahta. 
and ge wende hi east ward to his faeder. and hi begen ferdan to Rumon ea. 
to HiSe. to Folcstane. to Doferan. to Sandwic. and aefre naman ealle '8a 
scipan t>e hi fundan "Sa to ahte mihte. and gislas. eal swa ferdan and gewendon 
fta to Lundene. Da hi to Lundene comon. "Sa laeg se cing and ealle his eorlas 
J>ar ongean mid L scipon. Da sendan fla eorlas to fta cinge. and georndan 
t> hi moston beon heora )nnga and are wurfte fte heom mid unrihte benumen 
was. Da wift leg se cing sume hwile. ac Stigand. J>e was J>es cinges rsed gifa 
and his hand preost. and fta oftre wise men geraeddan. ^ man getrymde gislas 
on aegftrae healfe. and swa scolde se freondscipe beon gefaestnod. Da Rodbert 
arb' ft geaxode. fla nam he his hors. and ferde him to Eadulfes naesse. and 
wearS him on anum unwraecum scipe. and ferde him on an ofer sae. and for let 
his pallium. Da cwaeS man mycel gemot wicS uton Lundene. and on >a gemote 
wasran "Sa betstan men J>e waeran on "Sysen lande. Dar basr Godwine up his 
mal. and betealde hine wi5 Eadward cing be eallum fta, "Singan tJe him was on 
geled. and his bearnum. And man cwaeft Rodbert arb' utlaga. and ealla "Sa 
Frencisce men. for)>an hi waeran intinga J>are wrae'Se ^Se was betwyx him and 
i5an cinge. And Stigand b' feng to "San arb'rice on Cantuareb'i. 

(C) 1052. Her com Harold eorl of Irlande mid scipum on Saefern 
muSan. neh Sumerseetan gemseran and Defenescire. and baer mycel 
gehergode. and -f land folc him ongean gaderodan. segfter ge of 
Sumersaeton ge of Defene scire. and he hig aflymde. and baer ofsloh 
ma bonne xxx godera begena. butan o^rum folce. and sona a?ft' 
ban for abutan PenwrS steort. And ba let Eadward cyng scypian xl 
snacca. Da lagan set Sandwic manega wucan. ba sceoldon ssetnian 
Godwines eorles be on Brycge wa?s ba?ne winter, and he beh com 
hider to lande serest. swa hig hit nysten. And on ftam fyrste be he 
her on lande wses. he gespeon him to ealle Kentingas. and ealle ba 
butse carlas of Hsestingan and baer seghwar be bsere sae riman. and 
eallne basne Eastende. and SuSSexan. and SirSrigan. and mycel 
elles to eacan ban. Da cwaedon ealle )> hi mid him woldon licgan 
and lybban. Da geaxedon $ lr& ^ on Sandwic liieg embe Godwines 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 183 

J?am oftrum scipum. and bead man land fyrde ut ougean J?a (A. D. 1053) 

scipu. pa atuang ]?ison J?a wearS Godwine eorl ge warned. 

and gewende him J?a into Pefenesea. and wearS f wseder 

swrSe strang. "p J?a eorlas ne mihton ge witan hwet Godwine 

eorl gefaren hsefde. And gewende j?a Godwine eorl ut 

agean ^ he com eft to Bryege. and $a o$ra scipu gewenden 

heom eft ongean to Sandwic. And gersedde man J?a "p Ja 

scipu gewendan eft ongean to Lundene. and sceolde man 

setton o$re eorlas and ofire hasaeton to ]?a scipum. Da 

lengde hit man swa lange j? seo scipfyrd eall belaf. and 

gewendon ealle heom ham. Da geaxode Godwine eorl ]?et. 

and teah j?a up his segl and his lift, and gewendon heom ]?a 

west on an to Wiht. and eodon J?aer up. and hergodon swa 

lange J?aer -p j? folc geald heom swa mycel swa hi heom on 

legden. And gewendon heom J?a westweard 0$ j?et hi comon 

to Portlande. and eodon )?ser up and dydon to hearme swa 

hwet swa hi don mihton. 

pa wes Harold gewend lit of Yrlande mid nigon scipon. 
and com J?a up set Port locan. and wes J?ser mycel folc gega- 
derod ongean. ac he ne wandode na him metes to tylienne. 
code lip and ofsloh )?8er mycelne ende J?es folces. and nam 
him on orfe. and on mannum. and on sehtum. swa him ge- 
wearS. and gewende him J?a eastweard to his feder. And 
gewendon heom J?a begen eastweard $ hi comon to Wiht. 
and namon Ip&r ty him ser wr$ aeftan wses. and gewendon 
heom J?a )?anon to Pefenesea. And begeat forS mid him swa 
fela scipu swa )?a3r fera waeron. and swa forS ^ he com to 

And sona com Harold eorl of Irlande mid his scipum to (D 105*^ 
Saefern mu'San neh Sumer sseton gemsere and Dafenascire and J?aer 
mycel gehergode. and f landfolc him ongean gaderode. segj>ser ge 
of Suinor sseton ge of Defnascire. and he hyg aflimgde. and J?ser 
ofsloh maj>on xxx godra ^egna baton o'Sre folce. and sona a?ft' Sam 
for abuton PenwrS steort. And j>a laet Eadward cyng scypian xl 
snacca }>a lagon set Sandwic. J>a sceoldon cepan Godwines eorles t5e 
on Bryege wa?s }>one wint'. and he ^cah co hider tolande serest swa 
hy hit nystan. and on J>a \>e he her on lande wses, he gespeon ealle 
Centingas. and ealle )>a butsekarlas of Hsestingu and J?ser seghwan 
abuton be |>3ere sse riman. and ealne EastSexan. and Suj>erege. and 
mycel elles to eacan J>am. J^a cwsedon ealle ^ hi woldon mid him 
libban and licgean. pa ge axedon ^ li^ ^ on Sandwic lacg cmbc 

184 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1052) Nsesse. and begeat ealle }>a scipu J?e wseron on Rumen ea. 
and on HyJ?e. and on Folcesstane. And gewendon )?a east 
to Dofran. and eodon J?ser up. and namon him j?3er scipu. and 
gislas. swa fela swa hi woldon. and ferdon swa to Sandwic. 
and dydon hand ^ sylfa. and heom man geaf seghwer gislas 
and metsunga. ]?ser ]?a3r hi gyrndon. And gewendon heom 

(C 1052) fare, setton }>a eefter. And he heom eetbaerst. and him sylfan gebearh 
jjser J?aer he ]>a mihte. and -f IrS wende agen to Sandwic. and swa 
hamwerd to Lunden byrig. Da Jja Godwine geaxode ]> }> IrS }>e on 
Sandwic keg wa?s ham gewend. |>a for he eft ongean to Wiht. and 
}>ser abutan be j^a sseriman swa lange Iseg f hig comon toga3dere. 
Harold eorl his sunu and he. And hi na mycelne hearm ne dydon 
sy^an hig togaedere comon. buton ^ heo metsunge namon. ac 
speonnon heom eall ]> landfolc to be o7i sue rim an. and eac up on 
lande. and hig foron towerd Sandwic. and la?son a?fre for mid 
heom ealle }>a butse carlas J>e heo gemetton. and comon )>a to Sand- 
wic mid geotendan here. Da Eadwerd cyng ty geaxode. )>a sende 
he up sett' maran fultume. ac hi comon swy'Se late. And Godwine 
sah him a?fre towerd Lundenes mid his liSe. -f he com to Su$ 
geweorce. and ]?3er on bad sume hwile o^ -f flod up code. On }>a 
fyrste he eac gefadode wiS |>a burhware. -f hi woldon msest ealle f f 
he wolde. Da he heefde ealle his fare gerecenod. J>a com se flod. 
and hig brudon up ^a sona heora ancran. and heoldon ]?urh ]?a 
brycge be 8a syS lande. and seo landfyrd com ufenon and trym- 
edon hig be j?a strande. and hi hwemdon }?a mid |>a scypon 
wit$ |?aes norSlandes. swylce hig woldon ]>9es cynges scipa abutan 
betrymman. Se cyng hsefde eac mycele landfyrde on his healfe 
to eacan his scyp mannum. ac hit wa?s heom maest eallon laS $ hig 
sceoldon fohtan wr& heora agenes cynnes mannum. for]?an ]>ar waes 
lyt elles |>e aht mycel myhton buton Englisce men. on segSer healfe. 
and eac hig noldon -f utlendiscum }?eodum waere |>es card j?urh -f j?e 
swi^or gerymed ]>e hi heom sylfe alc o^erne forfore. Gerseddon ]?a 
f man sende wise men betweonan. and setton grrS on seg^re healfe. 
And Godwine for upp. and Harold his sunu. and heora IrS swa 
rnycel swa heom }>a ge)>uhte. And wses )>a witenagemot. and man 
sealde Godwine cleene his eorldom. swa full and swa forcS swa he 
fyrmest ahte. and his sunum eall swa eall ji hi a?r ahten. and his 
wife and his dehter. swa ful and swa forft swa hi ar ahton. And hi 
gefa?stnodon heom }>a fulnc freondscipe betweonan. and ealluin folce 
gode lage beheton. And gcutlageden }>a ealle Frcncisce men j?e er 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 185 

}m to NorSmirSan. and swa* to LundenewearS. and sume j?a(A,D. 1052) 
scipu gewendon binnon Scepige. and dydon }?eer mycelne 
hearm. and gewendon heom to Middeltune j?3es cynges. and 
forbearndon ty call, and wseron heom to Lundeneweard 
sefV )?a eorlan. Da hi to Lundene comon. )?a Iseg se cyng 
and J?a eorlas ealle ]?ser ongean raid L scipum, pa sendon )?a 
eorlas to J>a cynge. and gerndon to him ty hi moston beon 
wurSe selc J?aera j?inga J?e heom mid unrihte ofgenumen wses. 

Godwines fare, setton }>a eft', and he heom setbserst. and f IrS (D 1052) 
wende ongean to Sandwic and swa hamweard to Lunden byrig, pa 
J>a Godwine geaxede f f IrS |>e on Sandwic Iseig wses ham gewend. 
a for he seft ongean to Wiht. and j?eer abutan be |>a sse riman swa 
lange f hi comon togsedere Harold eorl his suna. and hi noldon no 
mycelne hearm don sy'SSon. buton jj hyg metsunge namon. Ac 
speonnan heom ]?a call f landfplc to. be ^am sse riman. and eac 
uppon lande. and hy foran toweard Sandwic and Iseson sefre for^ 
mid heom ealle J>a butsecarlas )>e hy gemetton and coman ]>a to 
Sandwic mid geotendan here, pa Eadward f geaxode J>a sende he 
upp seft' maran fulltume. ac hy coman swi]?e leete. and Godwine sseh 
him aefre toward Lundenne mid his lij>e f he com to Suj^weorce. 
and J>ser abad sume hwile. o$ f f flod upp code, on J>am fyrste and 
sec ser he gefadode wij) Sa burhwaru. f hi msest ealle woldon ^set 
he wolde. pa]?a he hsefde ealle his fare gereconod. J>a com^f flod and 
hy brudon sona upp heora ancras and heoldan |>urh )>a brycge aa bi 
|>em su|> lande. and seo landfyrde coman ofenan and trymedon hy 
be jjsem strande. and hy hwemdan 8a mid J>am scipu swylce hy 
woldon Ses cynges scypu abuton betryman. Se cyning hsefde eac 
micle land fyrde on his halfe to eacan his scip mannu. Ac hit wes 
msest eallan la^ to feohtanne wiS heora agenes cynnes mannu. for- 
}>ser wses lytel elles }>e aht mycel myhton butan Englisce on 
e healfe. and eac hi noldon f utlendiscu mannu wsere )>es eard 
}>urh f $e swiSor gerymed ]?e hi him sylfe selc oj?erne forfore. Ge- 
rseddan }>a ^ man sende wyse men be tweonan and setton grrS on 
aegSre halfe. and Godwine for upp and Harold and heora litS swa 
micel swa heom ]?a ge)mhte. and wses ]>a witenegemot and man 
sealde Godwine claene his eorldom swa full and swa for$ swa he 
fyrmest ahte. and his sunu eallu call ^ hy ser ahton. and his 
wife and his dohtor swa full and swa for$ swa hi ahton and hi 
fsestnedon ]?a fulne freondscipe heom betweonan. and allii folce 
fulle lagu beheton. and geutlagedon ealle J?a Frenciscean ]?e ser 


186 THE PARKER MS. (ff) 

1053. Her Goduuine eorl forSferde. 


(C) unlage rserdon' and undom demdon- and unrsed rseddon* into ^issum 
earde. baton swa feala swa hig gerseddon f |>am cynge gelicode mid 
him to haebbenne. ]?e him getreowe wseron and eallum his folce. 
And Rodbeard bisceop. and Willelrn b'. and Ulf b'. unease set 
burstan. mid )>a Frenciscum mannum J>e heom mid wseron. and 
swa ofer sse becomon. And Godwine eorl. and Harold, and seo 
cwen sseton on heora are. Swegen for seror to Hierusale of 
Bricge. and wearS hamweard dead set Constantinopolim to Micha- 
heles msesse. Dset wses on ]?one Monandseg seft' sea Marian msesse 
ty Godwine mid his scipum to SirSgeweorce becom. and J?ses on 
merigen. on }>one Tiwesdaeg. hi gewurdon sehte. swa hit her beforan 
stent. Godwine }?a gesiclode hraSe )>3es }>e he up com. and eft ge- 
wyrpte. ac he dyde ealles to lytle dsedbote of )>sere Godes are }>e he 
hsefde of manegum halgum stowum. On J?am ylcan geare com se 
stranga wind on Thomes msesse niht. and gehwser mycelne hearm 
dyde. Eac man sloh Hris |?ESS Welscan cynges broker. 

1053. On J>ysum geare wses se cyning on Winceastre on Eastran. 
and Godwine eorl mid him. and Harold eorl his sunu. and Tostig. 
Da on oSran Easter daege sset he mid 'Sam cynincge set gereorde. }>a 
fseringa sah he nrSer wiS }>ses fotsetles. sprsece benumen. and ealre 
his mihte. and bine man 'Sa breed into 'Sees kinges bure. and 'Sohtan 
f hit ofergan sceolde. ac hit nses na swa. ac Jwrh wunode swa un- 
specende and mihteleas for^ o'S ]?one Dunresdseg. and ^a his lif 
alet. and he lift J>aer binnan Ealdanmynstre. And his sunu Harald 
feng to his eorldome. and let of San J?e he ser hsefde. and ^Elfgar 
fengc ^aerto. 

Dses ylcan geares gefor Wulfsie b' on Licedfelda. and Leofwine 

(D) unlagon rserdon' and undom demdon' and unrsed rseddan* into 8issu 
eardu. buton swa fela swa hi gerseddon }> }>am cynge gelicode mid 
hi to habbenne )>e him getreowe wseron and eallu his folce. And 
Rodbeard arceb'. and Willelm b'. and Ulf b'. uneaSe setburstan mid 
J?a Frenciscean mannu ]>e hi mid wseron. and swa ofer sse comon. 

1053. Her waes se micla wind on Domes msesse niht. and eac eall 
)>a mide winter wses mycel wind. And man rsedde -f man sloh Hris. 
J>ses Wyliscean cynges broker, for^y he hearmas dyde. and man 
brohte his heafod to Gleacestre on twelftan sefen. And ]?ses ylcan 
geres. foran to alra halgena maessan. forSferde Wulfsyg b' set Licet- 
felda. and Godwine abb' on Wincelcumbe. and ^Egelward abb' on 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 187 

Da wr3 laeg se cyng sume hwile ]?eah. swa lange o$ )?et folc 
)?e mid J?a eorle wes. wearft swrSe astyred ongean ]?one cyng. 
and ongean his folc. swa "j? se eorl sylf earfoiSlice gestylde 
p folc. J?a ferde Stigand biscop to mid Godes fultume. and 
)>a wise nienn. segftser ge binnan burh ge buton. and ge- 
rseddon ty man tremede gislas on segiSer healfe. and man 
swa dyde. Da geaxode Rotberd arcb' and ]?a Frencisce 
menn -p. genamon heora hors. and gewendon sume west to 
Pentecostes castele. sume norS to Eodb'tes castele. And 
Rodberd arcb' and Ulf b' gewendon ut set JEstgeate. and 
heora geferan. and ofslogon and elles amyrdon manige iunge 
men. and gewendon heorn on an to Ealdulfesnsese. and wearS 
him J?ger on anon unwrseste scipe. and ferde him on an ofer 
see. and forlet his pallium and Xpendom ealne her on lande. 
swa swa hit God wolde. }>a he ser begeat ]?one wur^scipe swa 
swa hit God nolde. Da cwseiS mann mycel gemot wiftutan 
Lundene. and ealle )?a eorlas and )?a betstan menn J>e wseron 
on J?ison lande wseron on J>a gemote. )?8er bser Godwine 
eorl lip his mal. and betealde hine ]?a3r wr$ Eadward cyng 
his hlaford and wift ealle landleodan. )?et he wses unscyldig 
J?ses )?e him geled wses. and on Harold his sunu. and ealle his 
beam. And se cyng forgeaf J?a eorle and his bearnum 
his fulne freondscype and fulne eorldom and call ]?et he ser 
ahte. and eallon ]?am maimon )?e him mide wseron. and se 
cyng geaf J?sere hlsefdian eall ^ heo ser ahte. And cwe$ 
man utlaga Rotberd arcb ; fullice. and ealle )?a Frencisce 
menn. forftan ]?e hi macodon msest ]?et unseht betweonan 
Godwine eorle and J?a cynge. And Stigand V feng to J?a 
arcb' rice on Cantwarabyrig. And on fis ilcan tyme forlet 
Arnwi abb' of Burh abbot rice, be his halre life, and geaf 29 
hit Leofric munec be ]?es cynges leafe and be ]?8ere munece. 
and se abbot Arnwi lifode sy$$on viii wintre. And se abbot 
Leofri[c go]dede J?a ^ mynstre swa -p man hit cleopede J>a 
Gildeneburh. )?a wsex hit swi$e on land and on gold and 
on seolfer. 

1053. Her on J?isum geare foriSferde Godwine eorl 6 on 
xvii k' Mai. and he is bebyrged on Winceastre. on Ealda- 
mynstre. and feng Harold eorl his sunu to ftam eorldome. 

6 Her was Godwine eorl dead. F. 

B b 2 

188 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

and to eallum )?am J?e his faeder ahte. and feng ^Elfgar eorl 
to ftam eorldom ]>e Harold ser ahte. 

1054. Bellum apud mare mortuum. Her on J?isum geare 
forSferde Leo se halga papa on Rome. And on )>isum geare 
wses swa my eel orfcwealm. swa man ne gemunde fela wintrum 
ser. And Uictor wses gecoren to papan. 

(C) abb' on Cofantreo feng to $a bisceoprice. and ^Egelward abbud on 
Glaestingabyrig gefor. and Godwine abb' on Wincelcumbe. 

Eac Wylsce menn geslogan mycelne dael Englisces folces $aera 
weardmanna. wiS Wsestbyrig. 

On ^isson geare nees nan arcebisceop on Nissan lande. butan 
Stigand b' heold f bisceoprice on Cantwarabyrig on Cristescyrcean. 
and Kynsige on Eoforwic. and Leofwine and Wulfwi foran ofer sae. 
and leton hig hadian j?ser to bisceopum. se Wulfwi feng to 8am 
biscoprice J>e Ulf haefde. be him libbendum. and ofadraefdum. 

1054. Her for Siward eorl mid mycclum here into Scotlande. and 
mycel wael of Scottum gesloh. and hig aflymde. and se cing set 
baerst. Eac feoll mycel on his healfe. aeg^er ge Densce ge Englisce. 
and eac his agen sunu. Daes ylcan geares man halgode )> mynster 
on Eofeshame. on vi id' Octobris. On ^a ylcan geare ferde 
Ealdred biscp suS. ofer sa?. into Sexlande. and wearS j>ser mid 
mycelre arwar^nesse underfangen. Dy ylcan geare swealt Osgod 
Clapa. fseringa swa swa he on his reste leeg. 

1055. On J>ysum geare forftferde Siward eorl. on Eoforwic. and 
his lie IrS binnan )>a mynstre set Galmanho. ]>e he sylf ser getim- 
brade. Gode to lofe. and eallum his halgum. Da Saerseft' binnan 
lyttlan fyrste. wses witenagemot on Lundene. and man geutlagode 
j?a ^Elfgar eorl. Leofrices sunu eorles. butan selcan gylte. and he 
gewende Sa to Trlande. and begeat him ^aer li^. -f wses xviii scipa. 
butan his aegenan. and wendan 8a to Brytlande. to Griffine cinge. 
mid J>am werede. and he hine underfeng on his grrSe. And hig 
gegaderadan ^a mycle fyrde mid ^a Yriscan mannan and mid 
Walkynne. and Rawulf eorl gaderade mycele fyrde agean to Here- 
ford port. And hi sohtan hi ^aer. ac ser J>ser waere eenig spere 
gescoten. a?r fleah ^aet Englisce folc. for^an ]?e hig waeran on 
horsan. and man sloh ^ser mycel wsel. abutan feower hund manna, 
o^e fife, and hig naenne agean. And hig gewendan 8a to Sa 
porte. and Saet forbaerndan. and maere mynster Se JE]>elstan. se 
arwur^a biscop. aer let getimbrian. -f hig beryptan and bereafodan. 
?et haligdome. and set hreaue. and aet eallon ^ingan. and ^ folc 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 189 

1055. Her on Jnsum geare forSferde Siward eorl. and ]?a 
bead man ealre witena gemot vii nihton ser mid lenctene. and 
utlagode mann ^Elfgar eorl. forSon him man wearp on. j? 
he wses ]?es cynges swica. and ealra landleoda. and he JJJES 
?geanwyrde wes. eetforan eallum ]?a mannum )?e J?ser gega- 
derode waeron. )?eah him ty word ofscute his unn)?ances. 

(D) Glestingabyrig. ealle binnan anum mon)>e. and Leofwine feng to 
J>am b'rice set Licetfelde. and Aldret b' feng to bam abb' rice on 
Wincelcube. and ^EgelnaS feng to ba abb' rice on Glestincga- 
byrig. And bses ylcan geres forSferde ^Elfric. Oddan broker, on 
Deorhyrste. and his lichama rested on Perscore. And bses ylcan 
geres forSferde Godwine eorl. and him geyfelode bser he mid ba 
cynge sset on Wincestre. And Harold his sunu feng to ba eorl- 
dome be his fa?der ser hsefde. and ^Elfgar eorl feng to bam eorldome 
J>e Harold ser hsefde. 

1054. Her ferde Siward eorl mid miclum here on Scotlande. 
seg'Ser ge mid scypbere and mid landfyrde. and feaht wrS Scottas. 
and aflymde J>one kyng Macbeot5en. and ofsloh eall f ]>aer betst wses 
on j>a lande. and Isedde j>onan micele herehuj>e. swilce nan man aer 
ne begeat. Ac his sunu Osbarn. and his sweostorsunu Sihward. 
and of his huscarl'. and eac J>ses cynges. wurdon j>aer ofslsegene. 
on ]?one daeg Septem Dormientiu. Daes ilcan geres for Aldred b' 
to Colne. ofer see. J>ses kynges aerende. and wearS ]>ser underfangen 
mid mycclan \veor8scipe fra ]?am casere. and )>ser he wunode wel 
neh an ger. and him geaf seg'Ser ]?eneste ge se b' on Colone. and 
se casere. And he lofode Leofwine b'e. to halgianne }> mynst' set 
Eofeshamme. on vi id' Octb'. And on ]>isan geare swalt Osgod. 
faeringa on his bedde. And her forSferde scs Leo papa, and Uictor 
wses to papa gecoren on his stede. 

1055. On j>isan gere forSferde Syhward eorl. on Eoferwic. and 
he ligeft set Galmaho. on J>a mynstre )>e he sylf let timbrian. and 
halgian on Godes and Olafes naman. And Tosti feng to ]>an eorl- 
dome )>e he hsefde. And Kynsie arceb' fette his pallium set Uictore 
papan. And ]>3erseft' sona man utlagode ^Elfgar eorl. Leofrices 
sunu eorl'. forneh butan gylte. Ac he gewende to Hirlande. and 
Brytlande. and begeat him |>ser micel genge. and ferde swa to Here- 
forda. ac him com j>aer togenes Raulf eorl mid mycclan here, and mid 
lytlan gewinne hi on fleam gebrohte. and micel folc on ]?an fleame 

7 and he was J>as gewyrde F. Et quod ipse ante cognovit ita esse, licet 
Algarus comes exul factus est propte- verbum illud improvise exprimerit. 
rea quod debuit esse delator patriae ; F- Lat. 

190 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

And se cyng geaf ]?one eorldom Tostige Godwines sunu 
eorles. iSe Siward eorl ser alite. 

And JElfgar eorl gesohte Griffines g'heald on NorSWealan. 
And on ]?isum geare Griffin and ^Elfgar forbaerndon see JSftel- 
bryhtes mynster. and ealle j?a burh Hereford. 

1056. Hie Henricus Eomanorum iraperator obiit ; cui suc- 
cessit filius ejus Henricus. 

1057. Her on )?isum geare com ^Edward seeding Ead- 
mundes sunu cynges hider to lande. and sona j?ses gefor. and 

(C) slogan, and sume onweg laeddan. Da gaderade man fyrde geond 
eall Englaland swy'Se neah. and hig coman to Gleaweceastre. and 
wendan swa unfeorr ut on Wealas. and ]>aer lagon sume hwile. and 
Harald eorl let dician Sa die abutan )? port J>a hwile. Da on fta. 
]>a spsec man to frifte. and Harald eorl and ^a 'Se mid him wseron 
coman to Bylgeslege. and ftser friS and freondscipe heom betweonan 
gefsestnodan. And man geinlagode }>a ^Elfgar eorl. and man ageaf 
him eall f him wses ser ofgenumen. and f scipliS gewende to Lege- 
ceastre. and ^a3r abiden heora males )>e ^Elfgar heom behet. Se 
mannslyht wees on ix Id' Noub'. On 6am ylcan geare forSferde 
Tremerig se Wylsca biscop sona aefter 'Ssere hergunge. se wses ^E]>el- 
stanes biscopes gespelia sy$8an he unfere wses. 

1056. Her gefor ^E)>elstan se arwurSa b'. on iiii id' Febrii. and 
his lie lift on Hereford port, and man sette Leofgar to biscupe. se 
wses Haroldes eorles msesse preost. Se werede his kenepas on his 
preosthade o^set he wses biscop. Se forlet his crisman. and his 
hrode. his gastlican wsepna. and feng to his spere and to his sweorde. 
seft' his biscuphade. and swa for to fyrde ongean Griffin }>one 
Wyliscan cing. and hine man 8ar ofsloh and his preostas mid him. 
and ^Elfno^ scir gerefa. and manega gode menn mid heom. and Sa 
o'Sre setflugon. Dis wses viii nihton ser middan sumera. Earfo^lic 
is to atellanne seo gedrecednes. and seo fare call, and seo fyrdung. 
and f geswinc and manna fyll. and eac horsa. j?e eall Engla here 
dreah. o^set Leofric eorl com wrS. and Harald eorl. and Ealdred b'. 
and macedan seht j>ser betweonan. swa f Griffin swor at>as -f he 
wolde beon Eadwarde kinge hold under kingc. and unswicigende. 
And Ealdred b' feng to 'Sam biscuprice J?e Leofgar hsefde ser xi 
wucan and iiii dagas. On 'Sara ylcan geare gefor Cona se casere. 
Dses geres gefor Odda eorl. and his lie IrS on Perscoran. and he 
waes to munece gehadod ser is ende. he gefor on ii kl* Septb'. Jo6 & 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 191 

his lie is bebyrged innon scs Paulus mynstre on Lundene. (A.D. 1057) 
And Uictor papa forSferde. and waes Stephan' gecoren to 
papan. se wses abbot on Monte Cassino. And Leofric eorl 

(D) ofsloh. and gewendon ]?a into Hereford porte. and forhergode f . and 
forbsernde f msere mynst' }?e yE]?elstan b' getimbrode. and ofsloh 
}>a preostas innan }?an mynstre. and manege j?ser toeacan. and namon 
jjserinne ealle )>a magmas, and mid heom aweg laeddon. And J>a }>a 
hi hsefdon msest to yfele gedon. man gersedde j?one rsed ]? man 
^Elfgar eorl geinnlagode. and ageaf him his eorldom. and call j? 
him ofgenumen wees. Deos hergung wees geworden on non' kl' 
Nouemb'. On ]?am ilcan geare forSferde Tremerin se Wylisca b'. 
sona sefter J>sere hergunge. and he wses ^E]?elstanes b' gespelia siSSan 
he unfere wses. 

1056. Her forlet ^Egelric bisceop his bisceoprice set Dunholm. 
and ferde to Burh to see Petres mynstre. and his broftor ^Egelwine 
feng 'Saerto. 

And eac her for&ferde ^E^elstan biscop. on iiii id' Feb. and 
his lie IrS on Hereforda. and man sette Lefegar to b'. se wses 
Haroldes eorles msessep'. and on his preosthade he haefde his 
kenepas o'S-j? he b' wees. Se forlet his crisman and his rode 
and his gastlican wsepnu. and feng to his spere and to his swurde. 
and swa for to ferde ongean Griffin |?one Wyliscan cining. and he 
wearS J>ser ofslagen and his preostes mid him. and ^Elfno'S scir 
gerefa. and manega oSre gode men. Dis wses ehtannihte ser 
middan sumere. And Ealdred bisceop feng to SSa b'rice }>e Leofe- 
gar hsefde xi wucan and iiii dagas. Dees geares forSferde Odda 
eorl. and he liS on Perscora. se wses to muneca gehadod eer his 
ende. god man and clsene and swrSe se^ele. And he gewat on ii kl' 
Sept'. And Cona se casere for&ferde. 

1057. Her com Eadward se|>eling 
to Englalande* 

se wses Eadwerdes 
broker sunu kynges 
Eadmund cing* 
Irensid wses geclypod 
for his snellscipe. 

Disne seeding Cnut cyng 
hsefde forsend 
on Ungerland 
to beswicane. 

192 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

forSferde. and feng ^Elfgar his sunu to ]?a eorldome j?e se 
feeder ser haefde. 

1058. Her on )?isum geare forftferde Stephanus papa, and 
wses Benedict' gehalgod to papan. se ylca ssende Stigande 

(D) Ac he baer gej>eh 

to godan men- 

swa him God u'Se 

and him wel gebyrede' 

swa )? he begeat 

j?ses caseres maga to wife' 

and bi J>sere fsegerne 

beam team gestrynde* 

seo waes Agathes gehaten. 
Ne wiston we 

for hwylcan intingan 

f gedon wearS' 

)? he ne moste 

his maeges Eadwardes 

cynges geseon. 

Wala f waes hreowlic sit5 

and hearmlic 

eallre J>issere ]>eode' 

^ he swa ra^e 

his lif geendade* 

J>8es ]?e he to Englalande com' 

for ungesaelh^e 

]?issere earman J^eode. 

On )>an ilcan gere forSferde Leofric eorl. on ii kl* Otb'. se waes 
swi^e wis for Gode and eac for worulde. -f fremode eallre jnsre 
^eode. he Ir5 set Cofentreo. and his sunu ^Elfgar feng to his rice. 
And on ]>am geare forSferde Raulf eorl. on xii kl' Ian', and lift on 
Burh. Eac gefor Heca V on SuSSexum. and ^Egelric wees on his 
setl ahafen. And her Uictor papa forSferde. and Stephan' waes to 
papa gecoren. 

1058. Her man ytte ut ^Elfgar eorl. ac he com sona inn ongean 
mid strece. jmrh Gryffines fultum. And her com scyphere of Nor- 

F M...Her forftferde Stephan' p'pa. and Benedict' was gebletsed >arto. 

se ylca sende Stigande ar'b' to lande. and Heca b' for'Sferde and Stigand 

ar'b' hadode Agelric on Xpescirican to b' to SuftSexu. and Siward abb' to b' 
to Rof. 

Here ends MS. F; much worn and effaced, 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 193 

arcb' pallium hider to lande. And on ]?isum geare forSferde 
Heaca b' on SuiS Seaxan. and Stigand arcebiscop hadode 
JSgelric ifi set Xpescyrcean to b' to SuiSSeaxum. and Siward 
abbot to biscop to Hrofeceastre. 

1059. Her on j?isum geare wses Nicolaus to papan gecoren. 
se wses biscop set Florentie J?aere burh. and wses Benedict' 
utadrifen se wses ser papa. 

1060. Hie Henricus rex Francorum obiit ; cui successit 
Phylippus films ejus. On j>issum geare forftferde Kynsige 
arcb' on Eoforwic on xi kl' lanr. and feng Ealdred b' j?ser to. 
and Walter feng to j>am b'rice on Hereforda. 

1061. Her on ]?isum geare forSferde Duduc b' on Sumer 
sseton. and feng Gisa to. And on J?am ilcan geare forSferde 
Godwine b' set see Martine on vii Id' Mr'. And on J?am 
sylfan geare forftferde Wulfric abb' set see Augustine innon 
J?sere Easter wucan on xiiii k' Mai. Da com fam cynge 

(D) wegan. hit is langsum to atellanne eall hu hit gefaren waes. On 
j>a ilcan gere Ealdred b' halgode ^ mynst' on Gleawcestre j>e 
he sylf geforSode. Gode to lofe and see Petre. and swa ferde to 
Hierusale. mid swilcan weorSscipe swa nan ot5er ne dyde aetforan 
him. and hine sylfne j>aer Gode betaehte. and wurSlic lac eac geof- 
frode to ures Drihtenes byrgene. )> waes an gylden calic on fif 
marcon. swiSe wundorlices geworces. On J>am ilcan gere fort5ferde 
Stefan' papa, and Benedict' waes to papan geset. se sende pallium 
Stigande b'e. and ^Egelric waes to b'e gehadod to SuS Sexum. 
and Sihward abb' to bpe to Hrofecestre. 

1059. Her on j>isan gere waes Nicolaus gecoren to papan. se waes 
b' aer aet Florentia |>aere burh. and Benedict' waes utadryfen )>e )>aer 
waes aer papa. And on j>isan gere waes se stypel gehalgad aet Burh 
on xvi kl' Noub'. 

1060. On J>isan gere wacs micel eorSdyne. on translatione sci 
Martini, and Heinric se cyng forSferde on Francrice. And Kynsie 
arceb' on Eoferwic gewat on xi kl' lanr. and he lige^ on Burh. and 
Ealdred b' feng to J>am rice. And Waltere feng to ]>am b'rice on 
Herefordscire. and Duduc b' eac forSferde. se waes b' on Sumersaetan. 
and man sette Gisa preost on his stede. 

1061. Her for Ealdred b' to Rome aeft' his pallium, and he hine 
underfeng aet }>am papan Nicolae. And se eorl Tostig. and his wif 
eac foron to Rome, and se bisceop and se eorl gebidan mycele 
earfo^nysse J>a hi hamward foran. And her forSferde Godwine b' 
aet see Martine, and Wulfric abb' set see Agustinc. on iiiix kl' April. 

c c 

194 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

word -p se abb' Wulfric for$ gefaren wses. ]?a geceas he 
^E^elsige munuc ]?aer to of Ealdon mynstre. folgode ]?a Sti- 
gande arcb'. and wearS gehalgod to abb' set Windles oran. 
on scs Augustin' maessedseg. 

1062. Hoc anno subjugata est Cynomannia comiti Nor- 
mannie WnTmo. 

1063. Her for Harold eorl and his broiSor Tostig eorl. 
segfter ge mid landfyrde ge mid sciphere into Brytlande. and 
J;et land geeodon. and ^ folc heom gislodon and to bugon. 
and foron syftftan to and ofslogon heora cyng Griffin, and 
bfohton Harolde his heafod. and he sette oj^erne cyng 
J?ser to. 

1064. Her on j?isum geare foron NorShymbra togsedere. 
and utlagodon heora eorl Tostig. and ofslogon his hired 
menn ealle J?a hi mihton tocuman segiSer ge Englisce ge 
Daenisce and namon ealle his wepna on Eoferwic. and gol 
and seolfor. and ealle his sceattas j?e hi mihton ahwar J?ser 
geaxian. and senden sefter Morkere ^Elfgares sune eorles. 
and gecuron hine heom to eorle. and he for su$ mid eallre 
J?sere scire. and mid Snotinghamscire. and Deorbiscire. and 
Lincolnascire. oiS he com to Hamtune. and his broSor Ead- 
wine him com togeanes mid j?am mannum J?e on his eorl- 
dome wseron. and eac fela Bryttas comon mid him. Dser 
com Harold eorl heom togeanes. and hig laegdon serende on 
hine to J?am cynge Eadwarde. and eac serendracan mid him 
sendon. and bsedon ^ hi moston habban Morkere heom [to] 
eorle. And se cyng J?ses geufte and sende eft Harolde heom 

(C) 1065. Her on J>issu geare foran to hlafmsessan het Harold eorl 
bytlian on Brytlande set Portascih^ ]?a }>a he hyt gegan hsefde. and 
}>ar mycel god gegaderode and ]?ohte ]>one kingc Eadward J>ar to 
habbenne fo huntno]>es Jjingon. and )>a hyt eall msest gegaderod 
waes. ]>a for Cradoc. Griffines sunu to mid eallu |)a j?e he begytan 
mihte. and f folc msest eall ofsloh ]>e |>ar tinbrode. and f god gena 
}>e |>ar gegaderod wses. And se mannsliht wees on see Bar)>olomeus 
maesse daeig. And )>a seft' Michaheles msessan. foran ]>a ]>egnas 
ealle on Eoferwicscire to Eoferwic. and Tostiges eorles huskarlas 
)>ar ofslogon ealle )>a )>e hig geaxian mihton. and hys gsersuman 
namon. And Tostig wses J>a set Brytfordan mid |>am kinge. And 
j>a wel ra^e }>ar seft' wses mycel gemot set Nor8hamtune. and swa 
on Oxenaforda. on )>on dseig Simonis and lude. And waes Harold 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 195 

to to Hamtune. on see Simones and ludan msesse eefen. and (A.D. 1064) 

(D) And Nicolaus papa forSferde. and Alexander wses to papan gecoron. 
se wses b' aet Lucan. 

1063. On )?issum geare for Harold eorl. seft' middan wintre. of 
Gleaweceastre to Rudelan. J>e Griffines wses. and ]>one ham for- 
bsernde. and his scipa and alle }>a gewseda \>e J>serto gebyrede. and 
hine on fleame gebrohte. And ]>a. to J>am gongdagan. for Harold 
mid scipum of Brycgstowe abutan Brytland. and )? folc gri]?ede and 
gisledon. and Tostig for mid landferde ongean. and }> land geeodon. 
Ac her. on Nissan ilcan geare. on herfeste. wear]> Griffin kync of- 
slangen. on nonas Agusti. fram his agenum mannum. Jmrh f gewin 
J>e he won wi]> Harold eorl. Se wses kyning ofer call Wealcyn. 
and man brohte his eafod to Harolde eorle. and Harold hit J>am 
kynge brohte. and his scipes heafod. and J?a bone J>er mid. And se 
kyng Eadward betsehte land his twam gebro|>ran. Ble}>gente and 
Rigwatlan. and hig a)>as sworon and gislas saldan )>aem cynge and 
]>sem eorle. -f heo him on allum j>ingum unswicende beon woldon. 
and eighwar him gear we. on wsetere and on lande. and swylc of 
J>am lande gelsestan swylc man dyde toforan ser oj?rum kynge. 

1065. Her on Jjissum geare. foran to hlafmsessan. het Harold eorl 
bytlian on Brytlande set PortascilrS. ]>a j?a he hit gegan hsefde. and 
J>ser mycel god to gegaderode. and J?ohte J>onne cyng Eadward J>ser 
to habbane for hunto^es }>ingon. Ac )>a hit call wses gearo. ]>a for 
Cradoc to. Gryffines sunu. mid eallon )>am genge |>e he begotan 
mihte. and -f folc call msest ofsloh j?e j>ser timbrode. and -f god |>e 
)>ser gegearcod wses namon. Ne wisten we hwa J?one unrsed serest 
gersedde. Dis wses gedon on see Bartholomeus msesse dseg. And 
sona seft' }>isan gegaderedon J>a }>egenas hi ealle on Eoforwic scire 
and on NorS hymbra lande togsedere. and geutlagedan heora eorl 
Tosti. and ofslogon his hired menn ealle |>e hig mihten tocumen 
segj>er ge Englisce ge Denisce. and naman ealle his wsepna on 
Eaforwic. and gold and seolfer. and ealle his sceattas ]>e hig mihton 
ahwser J?ser geacsian. and sendon sefter Morkere JElfgares sunu 
eorles. and gecuron hine heom to eorle. and he for sirS mid ealre 
J>sere scire. and mid Snotinghamscire. and Deorbyscire. and Lin- 
colnascire. 08 he com to Hamtune. and his broj?or Eadwine him 
com togeanes mid J?am mannum j?e on his eorldome weron. and eac 
fela Brettas comon mid him. Der com Harold eorl heom togeanes. 
and hig Isegdon aerende on hine to j?am cyninge Eadwarde. and 
eac serendracan mid him sendon. and bsedon -f hi moston habban 
Morkere heom to eorle. And se cyning J>ses geu^se and sende 
sefter Harald heom. to Hamtune. on see Symones and luda msesse 

c c 2 

196 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A. D. 1064) kydde heom ^ ilce. and heom )?et on hand sealdon. and he 
niwade j?ser Cnutes lage. And J?a norSerne men dydan 
mycelne hearme abutan Hamtune. ]?a hwile j?e he for on 
heora serende. segfter f hi ofslogon men. and bserndon hus 
and cornn. and namon call )?et orf j?e hi mihton tocuman. 
f wses fela jmsend. and fela hund manna hi namon. and 
Iseddon noriS mid heom. swa ]?et seo scyre and )?a oftra scyre 

(C 1065) eorl j>ar. and wolde heora seht wyrcan gif he mihte. ac he na mihte. 
ac call hys eorldom hyne anrsedlice forsoc. and geutlagode and ealle 
J>a mid hym \>e unlage rserdon. for|>am }>e rypte God serost. and 
ealle }>a bestrypte ]>e he ofer mihte set life and set lande. And hig 
namon heom )>a Morkere to eorle. and Tostig for J>a ofer see. and 
hys wif mid him. to Baldwines lande. and wint'setl namon set see 
Audomare. And Eadward kingc com to Westmynstre to j>am 
middan wintre. and f mynster )>ar let halgian }>e he sylf getim- 
brode. Gode to lofe and see Petre. and eallum Codes halgum. and 
seo circhalgung wees on Cilda msesse daeig. And he forfcferde on 
twelftan sefen. and hyne man bebyrigde on twelftan dseig on |>am 
ylcan mynstre. swa hyt hersefter seigft. 

Her Eadward kingc- Engla hlaford* 

sende sojjfseste* sawle to Criste' 

on Godes wsera* gast haligne. 

He on worulda her- wunode ^rage- 
on kynej>rymme' crseftig rseda. 

xxiiii* freolic wealdend' 

wintra gerimes* weolm brytuodon. 
And healfe tid- haele^a wealdend- 

weold wel gejnmgen- Walum and Scottum- 

and Bryttum eac* byre ^^elredes- 

Englum and Sexunr oret maegcum- 
Swa ymbclyppa^' ceald brymmas- 

p call Eadwarde- se^elum kinge* 

hyrdon holdlice* hagestealde menn. 
Wses a bli^e mod' bealuleas kyng- 

)>eah he lang air lande bereafod' 

wunode wraeclastunr wide geond eortian* 

syfrSan Cnut ofercom- kynn 

and Dena weoldon- deore rice- 

Engla landes- xxviii- 

wintra gerimes- welan brynodan. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 197 

j?e j?ser neh sindon. wurdon fela wintra [?e wyrsan. And (A. D. 1065) 
Tostig eorl. and his wif and ealle }>a )?e woldon *p he wolde. 
foron suiS ofer sae mid him to Baldwine eorle. and he hig 
ealle underfeng. and hi wseron ealne )?one winter J?ser. 

sefen. and kySde heom -j> ilce. and heom )> ahand sealde. and he (I> 1065) 
nywade j>ser Cnutes lage. And }>a Ry^renan dydan mycelne hearm 
abutan Hamtune. J>a hwile J>e he for heora serende. aeg]?ser -f hi 
ofslogon menn. and baerndon mis and corn, and namon call }>set orf 
]>e hig raihton tocuman. ]?set wses feola jmsend. and fela hund manna 
hi naman. and laedclan nortS mid heom. swa -f seo scir. and |?a o'Sra 
scira ]>3e ^ser neah sindon. wurdan fela wintra ^e wyrsan. And 
Tostig eorl. and his wif and ealle ]>a ^e woldon j>aet he wolde. faran 
su^ ofer see. mid him. to Baldwine eorle. and he hi ealle underfengc. 
and hig wseron ealne J>one winter j>aer. And Eadward cyng com 
to Westmynstre to ]>am middan wintre. and ]?et mynster }>8er let 
halgian |>e he silf getimbrode. Gode to lofe and see Petre. and 
eallum Codes halgum. and seo cyrichalgung waes on Cildamaessae 
deig. And he forSferde on twelftan sefen. and hine man bebyrigde 
on twelftan dseg on j?am illcan minstre. swa hit heraefter ssegS. 
Her Eadward cing f Englene hlaford* 

sende so^feste* saule to Kriste 4 

on Codes wera* gast haligne. 

He on weorolda her- wunodae J>ragse - 

on kinejjrymme* creftig rseda. 

xxiiii* freolic wealdand* 

wintra rimes' weolan britnode. 

And he haelotid* hselefta wealdend 1 

weold wel ge'Sungsen* Walum and Scottum 1 

and Bryttum eac' byre ^E^elredes- 

Englum and Ssexunv oret maagcum. 
Swa ymbclyppajr cealda brymmas* 

'Saet call Eadwardae* aej>elum kinge' 

hyrdan holdelice- hagestalde menn. 
Wses a bli'Se mod' bealeleas king 4 

^ah he langa ser landes bereafod* 

wunodse wreclastunv wide geond eor^air 

seo^^an Knut ofercom* cynn JEt5elredes' 

and deona weoldon* deore rice 4 

Engla landes 4 xxviii 4 

wintra gerimes 4 weolan brytnodon. 

198 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

1066. Her for'Sferde Eaduuard king, and Harold 
eorl feng to "Sam rice, and heold hit xl wucena and 

(C) SySSan for$ becom freolice in geatwunr 

kyningc kystum god* claene and milde* 

Eadward se aeftela' eftel bewerode' 

land and leode. 0*8 f lunger becom' 

dea'S se bitera* and swa deore genam. 

./)>elne of eorftan* englas feredon- 

soj>faeste sawle' innan swegles leoht. 
And se froda swa ]>eah* befeeste }> rice' 

heah'Sungenu memv Harolde sylfum* 

se]>elum eorle' se in ealle tid' 

hyrde holdlice* haerran simmr 

wordura and daedunr wihte ne agselde- 

)>3es J>e J>earf waes* j>aes Jjeodkyninges. 

And her wearS Harold eac to kynge gehalgod. and he lytle stillnesse 
|>ar on gebad. }>a hwile )>e he rices weold. 

1066. On ]>isu geare co Harold kyng of Eoforwic to Westmyn- 
stre. to ]>a Eastran J>e waeron seft' J>a middan wintran J>e se kyng 
forSferde. and }>a Eastran on ]?one dseig xvi kl* Mai. Da wearS 
geond call Englaland swylc tacen on heofenu gesewen swylce nan 
mann ser ne geseh. Sume menn cwsedon -f hyt cometa se steorra 
wsere. J>one sume menn hata'S }>one fexedon steorran. and he aet- 
eowde aerest on ]?one asfen LETANIA MAIOR. -f ys viii kl' Mai. and 
Swa scean ealle j>a vii niht. And Sona |?ar aefV co Tostig eorl fra 
begeondan see into Wiht. mid swa miclu Iit5e swa he begytan mihte. 
and hi man geald j>ar aeigfter ge feoh ge metsunge. And for J>a 
]>ano. and hearmas dyde aegwar be )>a sse riman )>ar he to mihte. o^ 
f he beco to Sandwic. Da cydde man Harolde kynge |>e on Lun- 
dene waes. -f Tostig his bro.Sor waes cumen to Sandwic. ]>a gega- 
dorade he swa mycele scipfyrde and eac landfyrde swa nan cingc 
aer her on lande ne gegaderade. for fca, J>e hi waes to so^an gessed -f 
Willelm eorll fra Normandige. Eadwardes cingces maeg. wolde hider 
cuman and }>is land gegan. call swa hit syS'San a code. Da Tostig 
f geaxode f Harold cing waes toward Sandwic. }>a for he of Sand- 
wic. and na of ]>a butse karlon sume mid hi. sume j>ances sume 
un)>ances. and gewende |>a nor$ into [Humbran]. and J>aer hergode 
on Lindesege. and J>aer manega gode men ofsloh. Da Eadwine eorl 
and Morkere eorl -f undergeaton. |>a coman hi jjyder. and hine of 
|>ae lande adrifon. and he for ^a to Scotlande. and Scotta cynning 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 199 

1066. On jnssum geare man halgode )?et mynster set West 
mynstre on Cilda msesse daeg. And se cyng Eadward for$- 
ferde on twelfta msesse eefen. and hine mann bebyrgede on 
twelftan msesse dseg. innan ]?sere uiwa halgodre circean on 

(D) SrS^an forS becom freolic in geatwunv 

kinigc cystum god* clsene and milde* 

Eadward se aeSele- eftel bewarede- 

land and leodan. o^aet lunger becom' 

dea'S se bytera- and swa deore genam. 

^Selne of eorSan- englas feredon- 

softfeste sawle* inne swegles leoht. 

And se froda swa &ealr befseste J>set rice* 

heahSungena menn- Harolde sylfunv 

8e8elum eorle- se in ealne tid' 

herdse holdelice- herran synunr 

wordum and dsedunr wihte ne agselde* 

j>ses ]je ^earfe wees* 'Sees Jjeodkyngces. 

And her wear^ Harold eorl eac to cynge gehalgod. and he lytle 
stilnesse J?aer on gebad. ]?a hwile j>e he rices weold. 

1066. On jjissum geare com Harold cyng of Eoferwic to Westmyn- 
stre. to }>am Eastran }>e wseron aefter J>am middan wintre J>e se cyng 
fortSferde. and waeron J>a Eastran on }>one daeg xvi kl' Mai. Da 
wearS geond call Englaland swylc tacen on heofenum gesewen 
swylce nan man ser ne geseah. Sume men cwedon }> hit cometa se 
steorra wsere. |>one sume men hata^ pone fsexedon steorran. and he 
seteowde aerest on J>one sefen LETANIA MAIOR. viii kl' Mai. and 
Swa scan ealle ]?a seofon niht. And Sona J>er aefter com Tostig eorl 
in fram begeonde sse into Wiht. mid swa miclum liSe swa he begitan 
mihte. and him man geald )>9er seg]>aer ge feoh ge metsunge. And 
Harold cyng. his broj>or. gegsedrade swa micelne sciphere. and eac 
land here, swa nan cyng her on lande ser ne dyde. for J>am ]>e him 
wses gecy^d jjset Wyllelm bastard wolde hider and 'Sis land ge- 
winnen. call swa hit sy^an a code. And J>a wile com Tostig eorl 
into Humbran mid sixtigum scipum. and Eadwine eorl com mid 
lanferde and adraf hine ut. And ]>a butsacarlas hine forsocan. and 
he for to Scotlande mid xii snaccum. And hine gemette j>aer 
Harold cyng of Norwegon mid J>reo hund scypu. and Tostig him 
tobeah. and his man wearS. And hi foron )?a begen into Humbran. 
o'S )> hi comon to Eoforwic. and heo j?ser wi^ fuhton Eadwine eorl. 
and Morkere eorl. his bro^or. ac ha Normen ahton sige. Man 


(A.D. 1066) aenne dgeg. and her com Willelm and gewann 

(C 1066) hine grrSede. and hi to metsunge fylste. and }>ser ealne sumor 
wunode. Da co Harold ciningc to Sandwic. and j>ser his IrSes abad. 
for j?a J>e hit wses lang ser hit man gegaderian mihte. and J>a his lr$ 
gegaderad waes. ]>a for he into Wiht. and )>ser Iseg ealne ]>one sumor 
and Jjone hserfest. and man hsefde land fyrde seghwar be see. }?eh hit 
set }?a ende naht ne forstode. Da hit wses to Natiuitas scse Maria? . J>a 
wses manna metsung agan. and hig nan man )>ar na leng gehealdan 
ne mihte. Da lyfde man mannu ham. and se cyngc rad up. and 
man draf }>a scypu to Lunde[ne]. and manega forwurdon aer hi 
J>yder comon. Da $a scypu ha coman. |>a com Harold cyning of 
Norwegan norS into Tinan on unwaran. mid swy^e miclu scip 
here, and na lytlan. }> mihte beon [mid *6reo hund scypuni] oSo'e 
ma. And Tostig eorl hi co to mid eallu j>a J?e he begiten hsefde. 
call swa hy ser gesprecen hsefdon. and foran }>a begen mid eallu Sa 
IrSe. andlang Usan up to Eoferwic ward. Da cydde man Harolde 
cynge be su'San }>a he of scipe cumen wses. f Harold cyng on 
Norwegan and Tostig eorl wseron up cumene neh Eoferwic. Da 
for he norSweard. da?ges and nihtes. swa hra^e swa he his fyrde 
gegaderian mihte. Da ser j>a }>e se cynning Harold Jjyder cuman 
mihte. }>a gegaderode Eadwine eorl and Morkere eorll of heora 
eorldome swa mycel werod swa hi begitan mihton. and wiS jxme 
here gefuhton. and mycel wsel geslogon. and J>ser wses J>ses Engliscan 
folces mycel ofslagen. and adrenct. and on fleam bedrifen. and 
Normen ahton wselstowe gewald. And Jns gefeoht wses on VIGILIA 
MATHEI APLI'. and wses Wodnesdseg. And j?a asft' }>a gefeohte for 
Harold cyningc of Norwegan and Tostig eorl into Eoferwic. mid 
swa raiclu folce swa heo J>a ge]>uhte. And hi mon gislade of J>sere 
burh. and eac to metsunge fylste. and swa J>anon to scipe foran. and 
to fullan fritSe gesprsecon. -f hig ealle mid hi su^ faran woldon. 
and Jris land gegan. Da amang )>issan co Harald Engla cyningc. 
mid ealre his fyrde. on Sone Sunnan da?g. to Tada. and |>ser his IrS 
fylcade. and for )>a on Monandseg ]?urhut Eoferwic. and Harold 
cyningc of Norwegan. and Tostig eorl. and heora gefylce wseron 
afaren of scipe begeondan Eoferwic to Stanford brycge. for )>a |>e 
hi wseron behaten to gewissan. -p hi man |>ser of ealre }>sere scire 
ongean hy gislas bringan wolde. Da co Harold Engla cyning heom 
ongean. on unwaran. begeondan J?sere brycge. and hi J>ser togsedere 
fengon. and swyfce heardlice lange on dseg feohtende wseron. and 
J>ser wses Harold cyning of Norwegan and Tostig eorl ofslagen. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 201 

Westmynstre. And Harold eorl feng to Englalandes cyne (A. D. 1066) 

rice, swa swa se cyng hit him ge ufte. and eac men hine j?ser 

to gecuron. and wees gebletsod to cynge on twelftan msesse 

daeg. And J?y ilcan geare ]?e he cyng wses. he for ut mid 

scip here to geanes WilPme. and ]?a hwile com Tostig eorl 

into Humbran mid Ix scipum. Eadwine eorl com landfyrde. 

and draf hine lit. and ]?a butsecarlas hine forsocan. And he 

for to Scotlande mid xii snaccum. and hine gemette Harold 

se Norrena cyng mid ccc scipum. and Tostig him to beah. 

and hi bsegen foran into Humbran. oft )?et hi coman to 

Eoferwic. And heom wift feaht Morkere eorl. and Eadwine 

eorl. and se Norrena cyng ahte siges geweald. And man 

cydde Harolde cyng hu hit wses J?ser gedon and geworden. 

and he com mid mycclum here Engliscra manna, and ge- 

and ungerim folces mid he5. segfSer ge Normana ge Englisca. and (C 1066) 
|>a Norm en flugon ]>a Englisca. 

Da wes fyer an of Norwegan ]>e wv&stod tyet Englisce folc. \et hi ne 
micte \a brigge oferstiyan. ne sige gerechen. Da seite an Englisce mid 
anre flar. ac hit nactes ne wfSstod. fend \a co an o}>er under \ere brigge. 
end hine ^urustang en under ^ere brunie. J>a com Harold Engla chinge 
ofer \ere brigge and hys furde for> mid hine. and Ipere michcl wel 
geslogon. ge Norweis ge Flaming, and ]>es cyninges sui Hetmundus let 
Harold faran ham to Norweie mid alle \d scipe. 

cy^de J>a Harolde Engla cynge )> j?is wses ]>us gefaren. and }>is (D 1066) 
gefeoht wses on uigilia sci Mathsei. Da com Harold ure cyng on 
unwser on }?a Normenn. and hytte hi begeondan Eoforvvic. set 
Stemford brygge. mid micclan here Englisces folces. and ]>ser wear^ 
on daeg swi^e stranglic gefeoht on ba halfe. Dar wear^ ofslsegen 
Harold Harfagera and Tosti eorl. and Jja Normen ]?e J>&er to lafe 
wseron wurdon on fleame. and J>a Engliscan hi hindan hetelice 
slogon. oS -p hig sume to scype coman. sume adruncen. and sume 
eac forbsernde. and swa mislice forfarene. j) ]?ser wses lyt to lafe. and 
Engle ahton wselstowe geweald. Se kyng J?a geaf gryft Olafe. }>8es 
Norna cynges suna. and heora b'pe. and ]?an eorle of Orcanege. and 
eallon J>an j?e on |>a scypu to lafe wseron. and hi foron J>a upp to uran 
kyninge. and sworon a^as. -f hi sefre woldon fryS and freondscype in 
to jjisan lande haldan. and se cyng hi let ham faran mid xxiiii scypu. 
Das twa folc gefeoht wseron gefremmede binnan fif nihtan. 

End of MS. C. The last paragraph is in later English, and it is printed in 
Italics to shew distinct. 



(A.D. 1066) land, and her on "Sison geare barn Xpes cyrc. and her 
atiwede cometa xiiii kl' Mai. 

(D 1066) Da com Wyllelm eorl of Normandige into Pefnesea. on see 
Michaeles msesse sefen. and sona j?ses hi fere wseron. worhton castel 
set Hsestinga port. Dis wearS J>a Harolde cynge gecydd. and he 
gaderade ]?a mycelne here, and com him togenes set }>sere haran 
apuldran. and Wyllelm hi com ongean on unwser ser his folc gefylced 
wsere. Ac se kyng J>eah him swrSe heardlice wrS feaht mid j>a 
mannu ]?e him gelsestan woldon. and }>ser wearS micel wsel geslsegen 
on seg^re healfe. Daer wearS ofslsegen Harold kyng. and Leofwine 
eorl his broker, and Gyrft eorl his broker, and fela godra manna, 
and ]>a Frencyscan ahton wsel stowe geweald. eall swa heom God 
irSe for folces synnon. Aldred arceb' and seo burhwaru on Lun- 
dene woldon habban )>a Eadgar cild to kynge. eall swa him wel 
gecynde wses. and Eadwine and Morkere hi beheton ]> hi mid him 
feohtan woldon. Ac swa hit sefre forSlicor beon sceolde. swa wearS 
hit fra dsege to deege Isetre and wyrre. eall swa hit set J>a ende eall 
geferde. Dis gefeoht wses gedon on ]>one dseg Calesti pape. And 
Wyllelm eorl for eft ongean to Heestingan. and geanbidode j>ser 
hwsefter man him to bugan wolde. Ac |>a he ongeat ty man him to 
cuman nolde. he for upp mid eallon his here j>e him to lafe waes. 
and hi syftSan fra ofer sse com. and hergade ealne }>one ende ]>e he 
oferferde. o^ -f he com to Beorhhamstede. And J>ser hi com ongean 
Ealdred arceb'. and Eadgar cild. and Eadwine eorl. and Morkere 
eorl. and ealle J>a betstan men of Lundene. and bugon J>a for neode. 
)>a msest wses to hearme gedon. and f wses micel unrsed f man seror 
swa ne dyde. ]?a hit God betan nolde for urum synnu. and gysledan. 
and sworon him a&as. and he heom behet ]> he wolde heom hold 
hlaford beon. and ]?eah onmang j>isan hi hergedan eall f hi ofer 
foron. Da on midwintres dseg hine halgode to kynge Ealdred 
arceb' on Westmynstre. and he sealde hi on hand mid Xpes bee. 
and eac swor. a?r J>an J>e he wolde |>a corona him on heafode settan. 
j> he wolde ]>isne J?eodscype swa wel haldan swa senig kynge setforan 
hi betst dyde. gif hi him holde beon woldon. Swa j?eah leide gyld 
on mannii swi^e sti^. and for )>a on ]?am lengtene ofer see to Nor- 
mandige. and nam mid hi Stigand arceb'. and ^Egelna'S abb' on Gl'br 
[Gl<estingabiri~]. and Eadgar cild. and Eadwine eorl. and Morkere eorl. 
and Wselj>eof eorl. and manege o^re gode men of Englalande. And 
Oda b' and Wyllelm eorl belifen her sefter. and worhton castelas' 
wide geond |>as Jieode' and earm folc swencte* and a sy^an 1 hit 
yflade swi^e. Wur^e god se ende' j>onne God wylle. 



mette hine set Stsengfordesbrycge. and hine ofsloh and J?one (A.D. 1066) 
eorl Tostig. and eallne ]?one here ahtlice ofercom. 

And J?a hwile com WilFm eorl lipp set Hestingan on see 
Michaeles maesse dseg. and Harold com norSan and him wi$ 
feaht ear J?an |?e his here come call, and J?eer he feoll. and his 
twsegen gebroftra GyriS and Leofwine. and Willelm J?is land 
ge code. 

And com to Westmynstre. and Ealdred arceb' hine to cynge 
gehalgode. and menn guidon him gyld. and gislas sealdon. 
and sySiSan heora land bohtan. 

And j?a wses Leofric abbot of Burh set ^ ilca feord. and LeofAt &fcfoa0 
sseclode )?ser and com ham. and wses dsed sone J?ser sefter on 
selre halgan msesseniht. God are his saule. On his dseg 
wses ealle blisse and ealle gode on Burh. and he wses leaf call 
folc. swa -p se cyng geaf see Peter and him ty abbotrice on 
Byrtune. and se of Couentre j? se eorl Leofric j?e wses his 
earn ser heafde macod. and se of Crulande. and se of porneie. 
And he dyde swa mycel to gode into ty mynstre of Burh on 
golde and on seolfre and on scrud and on lande. swa nefre 
nan oftre ne dyde toforen him ne nan sefter him. pa wearS 
gildene burh to wrecce burh. f)a cusen ]?a munecas to abbot 
Brand puost. forSan -p he wses swrSe god man and swvSe wis. 
and senden him j?a to ^Edgar seeding. foriSan J>et ]?e landfolc 
wendon ^ he sceolde cyng wurSen. and se seeding hit him 
geatte )?a blij>olice. pa J?e cyng Willelm ge herde p secgen. 
]?a wearS he swiSe wra^. and ssede ^ se abbot him heafde 
forsegon. pa eodon gode men heom betwenen and saht- 
loden heom forSan ^ se abbot wses goddera manne. Geaf 
J?a j?one cyng xl marc goldes to sahtnysse. and )?a lifede 
he litle hwile J?ser sefter buton J?ry gear. Sy^on comen 
ealle drseuednysse and ealle ifele to )?one mynstre. God hit 

1067. Her for se cyng ofer sse. and hsefde mid hi gislas 
and sceattas. and co J?ses o^res geares on see Nicolaes msesse 
dseg. and j?ses dseges forbearn Xpes cyrce on Cantwara byrig. 
and he geaf selces mannes land ba he ongean co. And bses 


(D) 1067- Her com se kyng eft ongean to Englalande. on see Nico- 
laes msesse dsege. and j)ses dseges forbarn Cristes cyrce on Cantware 
byri. and Wulfwi b' for^ferde and is bebyrged set his b' stole on 
Dorkacestre. And Eadric cild and |>a Bryttas wurdon unsehte and 

D d 2 

204 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1067) sumeres for Eadgar cild ut. and Mserleswegen. and fela manna 
mid heom. and foran to Scotlande. and se cyiig Melcolm hi 
ealle under feng. and gena ]>es cildes swuster to wife Mar- 

(D 1067) wunnon heo wift )>a castelmenn on Hereforda. and fela hearmas hed 
dydon. And her se kyng sette micel gyld on earm folc. and )>eah 
hwseftre let sefre hergian call f hi oferforon. And |?a he ferde to 
Defenascire. and besset )?a burh Exancester xviii dagas. and ]?aer 
wearS micel his heres forfaren. ac he heom wel behet. and yfele 
gelseste. and hig him }>a burh ageafon for |>an ]?a Jjegenas heom ge- 
swicon hsefdon. 

And }>ses sumeres Eadgar cild for ut. mid his modor Agatha 
and his twam sweostran. Margareta and Xplna. and Mserlaswegen. 
and fela godra manna mid he5. and comon to Scotlande on Malcho- 
lomes cyninges gry'S. and he hi ealle underfeng. Da begann se 
cyngc Ml' gyrnan his sweostor him to wife Margaretan. ac he and 
his menn ealle lange wiftcwsedon. and eac heo sylf wiSsoc. 
And cwaVS fy heo hine ne nanne habban wolde* 
gyf hire seo uplice arfeestnys geunnan wolde* 
p heo on mseg^hade mihtigan drihtne' 


mid lichoman heortan- on J>isan life sceortan' 

on clsenre forhsefednysse cweman mihte. 

Se kyng befealh georne hire brefter oS f he cwse^ ja wift. and eac 
he elles ne dorste. for]>an ]>e hi on his anwald becumene waeron. 
Hit wearS ]>a swa geworden swa God fore sceawode on a?r. and elles 
hit beon ne mihte. call swa He sylf on His godspelle sserS. )> furfton 
an spearwa on gryn ne mcey befeallan forutan his foresceawunge. Se 
forewitola scyppend wiste on ser hwset he of hyre gedon habban 
wolde. for)?an |>e heo sceolde on jjan lande Godeslof geeacnian 1 and 
J>one kyng gerihtan of j>am dweliandan pseiSe. arid gebegean hine to 
beteran wege and his leode samod. and alegcean j>a unj>eawas J>e seo 
j?eod ser be code eallswa heo sy^an dyde. Se kyng hi ]>a under 
feng ]>eah hit hire unjjances wsere. and hi gelicade hire jjeawas and 
]?ancode God ]>e hi swylce ge ma?ccean mihtiglice forgeaf. and wis- 
lice hine be)>ohte swa he full witter wses. and awende hinesylfne to 
Gode. and selce unsiuernysse oferhogode. Be]?amj?e apostol Paulus 
ealra )>eoda lareow cwse'S. Salvabit' vir infidelis ^ muliere fidele. 
Sic et mulier infideV ^ viru fidele. et rl'. ^ is on uran ge)>eode./w/ 
oft se ungeleaffulla wer bift gehalgad and gehaled }>urh ty rihtwise 2 

1 Over eacnian is written ycean. 2 Over rihtwise is written leaffulle. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 205 

1068. Her on Jussu geare WilFm cyng geaf Rodberde eorle 
j?one eorl dom on Norft hymbra land. Da comon J?a landes 
menn togeanes hi. and hine ofslogon. and ix hund manna 

wif. and swagelice ty wif \urJi geleaffulne wer. Deos foresprecene (D 1067) 
cwen seoSSan on )>a lande manege nytwyrSe dseda gefremede Gode 
to lofe. and eac on ]>a kynewisan wel ge]?eh eallswa hire gecynde 
wees. Of geleaffullan and aeSelan cynne heo wses asprungon. hire 
faeder wses Eadward ae]?eling Eadmundes sunu kynges. Eadmund 
JE)>elreding. ^E]?elred Eadgaring. Eadgar Eadreding. and swa for$ 
on )> cynecynn. and hire modorcynn gse'S to Heinrice casere J>e 
hsefde anwald ofer Rome. 

And her ferde Gy'Sa ut Haroldes modor. and manegra godra 
manna wif mid hyre into Bradan Reolice. and ]?ser wunode sume 
hwile. and swa for ]?anon ofer sse to see Audomare. 

On ]>isan Eastron com se kyng to Wincestre. and ]?a wseron Eastra 
on x kl' Apr'l. and sona seft' ]?am com Mathild seo hlsefdie hider to 
lande. and Ealdred arceb' hig gehalgode to cwene on Westmynstre 
on Hwitan Sunnan dseg. J>a ky^de man j>an kyninge -f }> folc be 
norSan haefdon heo gegaderad togsedere and woldon him ongean 
standan gif he come, he for J>a to Snotingaham and worhte Jjser 
castel. and for swa to Eoferwic and J>aer worhte twegen castelas. and 
on Lincolna. and ge hwar on ]?an ende. and Gospatric eorl and ]>a 
betstan menn foron into Scotlande. 

And amang )?isan com an Haroldes suna of Yrlande mid scyphere 
into Afenan mu'San unwser. and hergode sona ofer call J?one ende. 
foron ]?a to Brygc stowe and }>a burh abrecan woldon. ac seo burh- 
waru heo heardlice wiSfeaht. and J>a hi ne mihton of }>sere burh naht 
gewinnan. hi foron J?a to scypan mid J?an ]?e hi gehergod haefdon. 
and swa hi foron on Sumersseton. and ]?8er upp eodon. and Eadnoft 
stallere heom wi5 gefeaht. and wear^ tycer ofslaegen. and manege gode 
menn on segSre healfe. and ]?anon aweig foron ]>e )>aer to lafe wseron. 

1068. Her on Jjissu geare Willelm cyngc geaf Rodbearde eorle. 
]>one ealdor dom ofer NorS hymbra land, ac |?a landes menn hine 
be foron innan j>sere burh ?et Dunholme. and hine ofslogon and ix.c 
manna mid him. and sona j^serseft' Eadgar seSeling com mid eallum 
NorShymbrii to Eoforwic. and ]?a burh menn wiS hine gry^edon. 
And Wyllelm kyng com su^an on unwser on heo mid geotendan 
here, and hi aflymde. and J>a ofsloh J?a jje setfleon ne mihton. ^ wseron 
fela hund manna, and ]>&. burh forhergode. and see Petres mynst' to 
bysmere macede. and ealle J>a o^re eac forhergode. and forhynde. 
and se seeding for eft ongean to Scotlande. 


1070. Her Landfranc se J?e waes abb' on Kadum 
com to jErigla lande. se efter feawum dagum wear's 
arceb' on Kantwareberig. He waes gehaded iv kl' 
Septeinbris. on his agenum biscpsetle fram eahte 
biscopum his under 8i oddum. fta oj>re "Se }?ser naeron. 
J?urh aerend rakean and Jmrh ge write atiwdon hwi 
hi "Seer beon ne mihton. On f>am geare THOMAS se 

(D 1068) JEffi )>isu coman Haroldes sunas of Yrlande to j>a middansumera 
mid Ixiiii scypu into Tawmu'San. and )>ser unwserlice upeodon. and 
Breon eorl com on unwser heo togeines mid unlytlan weorode. 
and wrSgefeaht. and ofsloh |?8er ealle j?a betstan menn J>e on ]>a 
lyfce wseron. and j>a oftre lytlan werode to scypu setflugon. and 
Haroldes sunas foron eft to Yrlande ongean. 

Her forSferde Aldred arceb' on Eoferwic. and is J?ser bebyrged set 
his V stole, and he gewat on Jjone dseg. Proti and Jacinthi. and he 
heold j>one arcestol mid mycclan weorSmynte x gear baton xv 
wucan wanan. Sona J?ser seft' coman of Denmarcon }>reo Swegenes 
suna kyninges mid cc scypu and xl and Esbeorn eorl. and purkyl 
eorl. into Humbran. and heom com ]>ser togenes Eadgar cild. and 
WaldJ>eof eorl. and Mserleswegen. and Gospatric eorl mid NorS 
hymbru and ealle ]>a landleoden. ridende and gangende mid un 
msetan here swit$e faegengende. and swa ealle anrsedlice to Eoferwic 
foron. and ]?one castel tobrsecon and towurpan. and unarimendlice 
gsersuman jjaerinne gewunnan. and fela hund manna Frenciscra J>ser 
ofslogon and fela mid heo to scypan laeddan. and ser J>an )>e )>a 
scypmenn jjider-comon haefdon )>a Frenciscan ]>a burh forbserned. 
and eac f halie mynst' scs Petrus eall forhergod and forbeerned. 
pa se kyng J)is geaxode. J?a for he nor^ward mid ealre his fyrde ]>e 
he gegaderian mihte. and ]>a scipe mid ealle forhergode and aweste. 
and f liS Iseig ealne wint' innan Humbre. jjaer se kyng heo to cuman 
ne mihte. And se kyng wses Jjone mid wintres dseig on Eoferwic. 
and swa ealne )>one wint' on ]?a lande. and com to Wincestre on }>a 
ilcan Eastrou. and ^Egelric b' wses forwreged j>e wses on Burh. 
and hine man Isedde to Westmynstre. and utlagode his broker 
^Egelwine b'. 

1070, 1071. Her se eorl Wseljieof gry^ode wi^ Jjone cynge. and 
|>ses on lengten se kyngc let hergian ealle )>a myristra \>e on Engla 
lande waeron. And )>ses geres wses micel hunger, and man hergade 
j> mynst' set Burh. f waeron J>a menn |?e se b' ^Egelric ser amansum- 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 207 

mid hi. And Eadgar seeding co J>a mid eallu NoriS hymbram 
to Eoferwic. and ]?a port men wr3 hine grrSedon. And se cyng 
WnTm co suSan mid eallan his fyrde. and ]?a burh forher- 
gode. and fela hund manna of sloh. and se sefteling for eft to 

1069. Her man wrsegde ]?one biscop ^Egelric on Burh. and Be 
sende hine to Westmynstre. and \itlagode his broker ^gel- 
wine b\ pa betwyx ]?a twam sea Marian msessan. comon 
easton of Dsenmarcun mid ccc scipti. ^ wseron Swsegnes sunan 
cynges. and his broker Osbearn eorl. And ]?a ferde se eorl 
WalSeaf lit. and co he and Eadgar seiSeling. and fela hund 
manna mid heo. and gemetton J?et liiS innan Humbran. and 
ferdon to Eoferwic. and uppeodan and J?a castelas gewunnan. 
and of slogon fela hund manna, and to scipe Iseddon sceattas 
fela. and J?a heafodmen hsefdon on beandon. and lagon be- 
twyx Vsan and Trentan ealne J?one winter. And se cyng 
WilPm for into j?sere scire. and hi call for[dy]de. And on ]?isu ^ 
ilcan geare. forft ferde Brand abb' of Burh. on v kF Decembr'. 

1070. Her se eorl Watyeof griiSede wi^ ]?one cyng. And 
J?ses on lengten se cyng let hergian ealle J?a mynstra |?e on 
Engla lande wseron. pa on )?a ilcan geare com Swegn cyng 
of Denmarcan into Humbran. and )? landfolc comen him 
ongean and griftedon wiiS hine. wsendon ^ he sceolde J?et land 
ofergan. pa comen into Elig Xpistien J?a Densce b' and 
Osbearn eorl and J?a Densca hus carles mid heo. and J?et 
Englisce folc of call ]?a feon landes comen to heo. wendon -p 
hi sceoldon winnon call ^ land, pa herdon |?a munecas of 
Burh saegen ty heora agene menn wolden hergon J?one myn- 
stre. ^ wses Hereward and his genge. ^ wses for'San )?et hi 
herdon ssecgen )?et se cyng heafde gifen -p abbot rice an 
Frencisce abbot Turolde wses gehaten. and ^ he wses swi'Se 
styrne man. and wses cumen J>a into Stanforde mid ealle hise 
Frencisce menn. pa waes J?8ere an cyrce weard Yware wses 
gehaten. na ]?a be nihte call ]?et he mihte. j?et waeron Xpes 
bee and msesse hakeles and cantelcapas and reafes and swilce 
litles hwat. swa hwat swa he mihte. and ferde sona ser dseg 
to j?ofi abbot Turolde and ssegde hi -p he sohte his griiSe. and 
cydde hi hu J?a utlages sceolden cumen to Burh. -f he dyde 
eall be j?sere munece rsede. pa sona on morgen comen ealle 
]?a ut laga mid fela scipe. and woldon into ]?am niynstre. and 

208 THE PARKER MS. (ft) 

(A.D. 1070) waes gecoran biscp to Eferwic. com to Cantwareberig 
^ man hine "Seer gehadede efter f>an ealdan gewunan. 
DajSa Landfranc crafede faestnunge his gehersumnesse 
mid a'Sswerunge. J>a forsoc he. and ssede -J? he hit 
nahte to donne. pa ge wra'Sede hine se arceb' Land- 
franc, and bebead f>am biscopan "Se }?ar cumene wseran 
be 8as arceb' L. hsese J?a serfise to donde. and eallan 
J?an munecan. ^ hi scoldan hi unscrydan. and hi be 
his haese swa didan. Swa Thomas to ]?am timan 
agean ferde buton bletsunga. pa son a setter ]?ysan 
be lamp j? se arceb' Landfranc ferde to Rome and 
Thomas for$ mid. paj?a hi J?yder comon and umbe 
o)?erj?ing gesprecon haefdon umbe ^ hi sprecan 
woldon. J?a angan Thomas his spsece hu he com to 
Cantuuarebyri. and hu se arceb' axode hyrsumnesse 
mid aj?swerunge at him. and he hit forsoc. pa 
agann se arceb' L. atywian mid openum gesceade. ^ 
he mid rihte crafede )?as )?a he crafede. and mid 
strangan cwydan ^ ylce gefaestnode toforan )?am 
papan Slexandre. and to foran eallan J?am concilium 
j?e J>ar gegadered was. and swa ham foran. ^Efter 
J>vsan com Thomas to Cantwarebyri and eal j? se 
arceb' set him crafede eadmedlice gefylde. and sy]?J?an 
f>a bletsungan under feng. $ 

(D 1070, 1071) ade. for }>on ]>e hi namon j)ser call ^ he ahte. And J>ees ilcan sumeres 
com -f li^ into Temese. and lagon }>ser twa niht. and heoldon sy^an 
to Denmarcon. and Baldawine eorl forSferde. and Arnulf his sunu 
feng to J>an rice, and Francena kyning and Wyllelm eorl sceoldon 
beon his geheald. ac J>aer com Rodbeart. and ofsloh Arnulf his 
mseig and jxme eorl Wyllelm. and )?one kyngc aflymde. and ofsloh 
his manna fela Jmsenda. 

Here ends the Englisc text of closes with the consecration of his suc- 
MS. X. A later hand has continued cessor Anselm. This piece will be given 
the history of Lanfranc in Latin, and in the Appendix. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 209 

}>a munecas wrSstoden )? hi na mihton incumen. pa Isegdon (A.D. 1070) 
hi fyr on. and forbserndon ealle |?a munece huses and call j?a 
tun buton ane huse. pa comen hi Jmrh fyre in set BolhrSe 
geate. and J?a munecas comen heo togeanes. beaden heo 
grrS ac hi na rohten na J>ing. geodon into j?e mynstre. 
clumben upp to )?e halge rode, nameii J?a )?e kynehelm of 
ure Drihtnes heafod call of smeate golde. namen f>a J>et fot 
spure ]?e wses undernaeiSen his fote. ty wses call of read golde. 
Clumben upp to ]?e stepel. brohton dune ^ hsecce j?e J?aer 
wses behid. hit wees call of gold and of seolfre. hi namen 
j?sere twa gildene scrines and ix seolferne. and hi namen 
fiftene mycele roden. ge of golde ge of seolfre. hi namen J?sere 
swa mycele gold and seolfre and swa manega gersumas on 
sceat and on scrud and on bokes swa nan man ne meei ofter 
tsellen. ssegdon p hi hit dyden for ftes mynstres holdscipe. 
Sy&Son geden heo to scipe, ferden heom to Elig. betaehtan 
J?ser ]?a ealla )>a gsersume. J?a Denescse menn wsendon ^ hi 
sceoldon ofercumen }?a Frencisca men. )?a todrefodon ealle 
)?a munekes. beleaf )?8er nan butan an munec he wses gehaten 
Leofwine lange. he laei seoc in J?a secraemanin. Da co 
Turold abbot and sehte si)?e twenti Frencisce men mid hi 
and ealle fullwepnode. pa he J?ider co ]?a fand he forbsernd 
wiiSinnan and wiiSutan. call butan J?a cyrece ane. J?a wseron 
J?a utlagas ealle on flote. wistan ty he scolde Jnder cumen. 
pis wses don J?ses dseges iv non ; Junii. pa twegen kyngas 
WilFm and Swsegn wuriSon ssehtlod. )?a ferdon )?a Dsenesca 
menn lit of Elig mid ealle ]?a foren sprseceiia gsersume and 
Iseddon mid heo. pa hi comen on middewarde J?e sae. J?a co 
an mycel storm and todrsefede ealle J?a scipe J?ser J?a ger- 
sumes wseron inne. sume ferdon to Norwsege. sume to 
Yrlande. sume to Dsen marce. and call ty )?ider co p wses 
)?one haecce and sume scrine and sume roden and fela of J?a 

oftre gsersume. and brohten hit to an cynges tun hatte. 

and dyden hit call J?a in )?one cyrce. Da sy^fton ]?urh heora 
gemelest and ]?urh heora druncen hed on an niht for bsernde 
]?a cyrce. and call J>et J?ser innse waes. Dus wees se mynstre corr<b " stto 
of Burch forbaernd and forhsergod. selmihtig God hit ge- 
miltse )?urh his mycele mild hertnesse. And J?us se abbot 
Turold co to Burh. and J?a munecas comen ]?a ongean. and 
dydan Xpes ]?eudom in J?sere cyrce. f ser hsefde standen fulle 

E e 


seofeniht forutan selces cynnes riht. Da herde 
biscop J>et gesecgon. ]?a amansumede he ealle ]?a men J?a ^ 
yfel daede haefden don. Da wses mycel hunger ]?ses geares. 
and )?a j?aes sumeres co )?et lift norSan of Humbran into 
Tsemese. and lagou )?ser twa niht. and heoldan syftfton to 
Dsen mercan. And Baldewine eorl forft ferde. and his sunu 
Arnulf feng to rice, and WilFm eorl sceolde ben his geheald. 
and Franca cyng eac. and co ]?a Eodbriht eorl and of sloh 
his mseg Arnulf. and j?one eorl. and j?one cyng aflymda. and 
his menn of sloh fela Jmsenda. 

1071. Her ^dwine eorl arid Morkere eorl uthlupon and 
mislic ferdon on wudu and on felda. Da gewende Morkere 
eorl to Elig on scipe. and Eadwine eorl wearS ofslagen 
arhlice fra his agenu mannu. and co se V Egelwine. and 
Siward Beam, and fela hund manna mid heo into Elig. 
And )?a J?e se cyng WilPm ^ geaxode. J>a bead he lit scip 
fyrde and landfyrde. and )?et land abutan saet. and brycge 
gewrohte. and inn for. and seo scip fyrde on )?a saehealfe. 
And J?a ut lagan ]?a ealle on hand eodan. )? waes Egelwine 
b\ and Morkere eorl. and ealle J?a ]?e mid heo wseron buton 
Herewarde ane and ealle ]?a ]?e mid hi woldon. and he hi 
ahtlice litlsedde. And se cyng gena scipa and waepna and 
sceattas manega. and ]?a men he ateah swa swa he wolde. 
and J?one b' Egelwine he sende to Abban dune, and he j>ser 
for5 ferde sona J?8es wintres. 

(D) 1072. Her Eadwine eorl and Morkere eorl hlupon ut. and mislice 
ferdon on wuda. and on feldon. o'S -f Eadwine wear^ ofslsegen fram 
his agenum mannum. and Morkere mid scype gewende to Helig. 
and Jjser com ^Egelwine b'. and Sigwar^ Barn, and fela hund manna 
mid heom. Ac J>a se kyngc Wyllelm }>is geahsade. ]>a. bead he 
ut scyp fyrde. and landfyrde. and -f land call utan embsette. 
and brygce worhte and scypfyrde on j>a ssehealfe. and hi ealle J>a 
eodon ]>an kyninge on hand. )> wses JEgelwine b'. and Morkere eorl. 
and ealle |>a ]>e mid heom waeron. buton Herewerde anum. and ealle 
]?a |>e mid him setfleon mihton. and he hi ahtlice utahedde. and se 
kyng nam heora scypa and wsepna. and manega sceattas. and |>a 


1072. Her Willelm cyng Isedde scip fyrde and land fyrde 
to Scotlande. and ty land on Jra ssehealfe mid scipu ymbe 
laeg. and his land fyrde set J?a Gewsede in Isedde. and he J?ser 
naht ne funde J?ses ]?e him ]?e bet wsere. And se cyng Mel- 
colm co and grrSede wi$ ]?one cyng Willelm and gislas 
sealde. and his man wses. and se cyng ha gewende mid 
ealre his fyrde. And se b' Egelric forS ferde. he wees to 
biscop hadod to Eoferwic. ac hit wees mid unriht him of 
genumon. and man geaf him ty b'rice on Dunholme. and he 
heafde hit )?a hwile ]?e he wolde. and for let hit syiSSan. and 
ferde to Burch to see Petres mynstre. and J?ser drohtnode xii 
gear. Da aeft* J?a J?e Willelm cyng gewan Engla lande. ]?a 
na he hine of Burch and sende hine to West mynstre. and 
he for$ ferde on id' OctoV. and he is bebyrged ]?ser innan 
J?a mynstre. innon scs Nicolaus portice. 

1073. On )?isum geare Willelm cyng laedde Engliscne here 
and Frencisce ofer sse. and gewan $ land Mans, and hit 
Englisce men swyfte amyrdon. win gearSas hi for dydon- and 
burga for baerndon. and swi'Se )?et land amyrdon. and hit call 

(D) raenn ealle he toe. and dyde of heom $ he wolde. and ^gelwine b' 
he sende to Abbandune. and he ]?aer for^ferde. 

1073. Her Wyllelra kyng Isedde scyp ferde and landfyrde to Scot 
lande. and ]> land on ]>a ssehealfe mid scypum ymblseig. and him sylf 
mid his landfyrde ferde inn ofer -f Wse/S. and he J>ser naht ne funde 
}>ses ]>e heom )>e betere wsere. and Malcolm cyngc com and gry^ode 
wrS Wyll'm cyngc and wses his mann. and hi gyslas salde. and he 
sy^an ham gewende mid ealre his fyrde. and se b' ^Egelric for 
ferde. he wses to b'pe gehadod to Eoforwic. ac hit wses mid unrihte 
hi of genumen. and geaf him )> b'rice set Dunholme. and he hit 
hsefde J?a hwile J>e he wolde. and forlet hit syfrSan and ferde to 
Burh. to see Petres mynstre. and j>ser drohtnode xii gear. )>a seft' 
J>am )>e Wyllelm gewann Engla land, he let hine nyman of Burh. 
and sende hine to Westmynstre. and he jjaer forSferde. on id' Oct'b. 
and is )>ser bebyrged innan see Nicolaes portice. 

1074. On j>isan gere Willelm cyngc Isedde Englisce fyrde and 
Frencisce ofer see. and gewann }> land Mans, and hit Englisce menn 
swifte amaerdon. wingeardas hi for dydon. and burga forbserndan. 

E e 2 


abegdoir Willelme to handa. and hi sy&5on ha gewendon- to 
Engla lande. 

1074. On ]?isri geare for Willelm cyng ofer sse to Nor- 
mandig. and Eadgar cild com of Scotland to Normandige. 
and se cyng hine geinlagode and ealle his men. and he wses 
on J?es cynges hyrede. and na swilce gerihta swa se cyng 
him geufte. 

(D) and -f land swrSe amyrdon. and eall $ land ge begdan ]>an kyninge 
to handan. and hig seo&ian ham gewendan. 

1075. On Jnssii gere Wyllelm cyngc for ofer sse to Normandige. 
And Eadgar cild com of Fleminga lande into Scotlande. on see 
Grim baldes msesse daeg. and se kyngc Malcholom and his sweostor 
Margareta hine underfengon mid mycclan weorSscype. On J>sere ilcan 
tide sende se kyng of Francrice Filipp' gewrit to him. and bead hi 
]> he to hi come, and he wolde geofan him J>one castel set Mustrsel. 
f he mihte sy^an deeghwamlice his unwinan un)>ancas don. Hwset 
j>a se cyngc Malcolm, and his sweoster Margareta. geafon hi myccla 
geofa. and manega gsersama. and eallon his mannan. on scynnan 
mid pselle betogen and on merSerne pyleceon. and graschynnene. 
and hearma scynnene. and on psellon. and on gyldenan faton and on 
seolfrenan. and hine and ealle his scyperan mid mycclan weorftscipe 
of his grySe alsedde. Ac on J>sere fare heom yfele gelamp. ]>a hi ut 
on see wseron. p heom on becom swifte hreoh weder. and seo wode 
sse. and se stranga wind hi on -p land awearp }> ealle heora scypa 
to burston. and hi sylfe earfo^lice to lande coman. and heora 
gaersama for neh eall losade. and his men eac wurdon sume gelsehtse 
of Frencyscan mannan. ac he sylf and his ferestan menn ferdon eft 
ongean to Scotlande sume hreowlice on fotan gangende. and sume 
earmlice ridende. Da gereedde se kyngc Malcholom him f he 
sende to Wyllelme cynge ofer sse. and bsede his gry^es. and he eac 
swa dyde. and se cyngc him Jjses ge tirade, and seft' him sende. and 
se kyngc eft Malcolm and his sweostor. him and eallon his mannan 
unarimede gsersama geafon. and switte weorftlice hine eft of heora 
gry^e sendon. and se scirgerefa of Eofervvic com him to geanes set 
Dunholme. and ferde ealne weig mid him. and let hi findan mete 
and foddor. set selcan castelle ]?ser hi to comon. 08 )? hig ofer sse to 
]>am kynige coman. and se kyngc Wyllelm mid micclan weorSscype 
}>a hine underfengc. and he waes ]>8er ]>a on his hirede and toe swilce 
gerihta swa he him gelagade. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 213 

1075. On ]>isii geare WilFm cyng geaf Raulfe eorle 
WilFmes dohtor Osbearnes sunu. and se ylca Raulf wses 
Bryttisc on his moder healf e. and his feeder wses Englisc 
Raulf hatte. and wses geboren on NorS folce. )?a geaf se 
cyng his sunu J?on eorl dom on Nor$ folc and SuiS folc. ]?a 
Iredde he -p wif to NorS wic. 

pser wes -p bryd eala 

mannu to beala. 

Dser wses Roger eorl. and Watyeof eorl. and biscopas and 
abbotes. and rseddon J?ser swa "p hi woldon ]?one cyng ge- 
settan lit of Englalandes cynedome. And hit wearS sona 
gecydd J?a cynge to Norinandige hu hit wa3s gersed. ty wses 
Roger eorl. and Raulf eorl. )?e wseron yldast to 'Sam unreode. 
and hi speonan ]?a Bryttas heo to. and sendon east to Den 
mearcan a3ft' scip here heo to fultume. And Roger ferde 
west to his eorl dome, and gegaderode his folc. to J>8es cynges 
un)?earfe. ac he wearS gelet. And Raulf eac on his eorl 
dome wolde foriS gan mid his folce. ac ]?a castel men ]?e 
wseron on Engla lande and eac j? land folc hi to geanes 
comen. and gemacodon )) he iiaht ne dyde. ac for to scipe 

(D) 1076. On J>issan geare Wyllelra cyngc geaf Raulfe eorl Wyllelmes 
dohtor Osbarnes sunu. and se ylca Raulf wses Bryttisc on his modor 
healfe. and Rawulf his feeder wses Englisc. and waes geboren on 
NorS folce. and se kyngc geaf for]?i his suna J?8er ]?one eorldom. and 
SuSfolc eac. He j>a Isedde f wif to NorSwic. 
P3r wses -f bryd ealo- 
f wses manegra ma'nna bealo. 

Dser wses Rogcer eorl and Watyeof eorl. and biscopas. and abbodas. 
and rseddon j?ser f hi woldon beora kynehlaford of his cynerice 
adrifan. and J>is wses j>am kyninge sona to Normandie gecy^ed. 
Rawulf eorl and Rogcer eorl wseron hofdingas set ]>isan unrsede. 
and hi speonon heom to |>a Bryttas. and sendon eac to Dene- 
marcon seft' scyphere and Rogcer ferde west to his eorldome. 
and gaderad his folc J>an cyngce to un]>earfe he }>ohte. ac hit 
wear<5 heom seolfan to mycclan hearme. Rawulf eac wolde mid 
his eorldome forS gan. Ac }>a castel menn }>e weeron on Engla 
lande. and eac f land folc heom tpgenes comon. and hi ealle ge- 
letton. hi naht ne dydon. ac wses fsegen -f he to scypum set fleah. 


(A.D. 1075) set NorSwic. And his wif wses innan J?a castele. and hine 
heold swa lange ^ man hire grift sealde. and heo ut ferde ]?a 
of Engla lande. and call hire men ]?e hire mid woldon. And 
se cyng srSftan co to Engla lande. and gena Roger eorl his 
mseg. and gefestnode hine. and Watyeof eorl he gena eac. 

And sona sefter ]?atn comon eastan of Denmearcan cc scipa. 
and j?aer on wseron twsegen heafodmenn. Cnut Swsegnes sunu 
and Hacun eorl. and hi ne dorstan nan gefeoht healdan wr3 
WilPm cynge. ac heoldon ofer sae to Flandran. 

And EadgrS seo hlsefdig forft ferde on Winceastre vii nihton 
ser Xpes maessan. and se cyng hi let bryngan to Westmynstre 
mid mycclan wurftscipe. and laegde hi wr3 Eadward kyng hire 

And se wees on Westmynstre J>one mide winter, and man 
fordyde ]?a3r ealle ]?a Bryttas J>e wseron set )?am brydealoft set 
NoriS wic. sume hy wurdon ablaende and sume of land adrifene. 
swa wurdon WilFmes swican genrSrade. 

(D 1076) and his wif belaf seft' in ]?a castele. and hine swa lange heold o$ f 
man hire gry8 salde. and heo }>a ut ferde of Engla lande. and ealle 
hire menn }>e hire mid woldon. and se kyngc sySftan com to Engla 
lande. and gefeng Rogcer eorl his mseg. and sette on prisun. And 
WalJ?eof eorl ferde ofer sse. and wreide hine sylfne and bsed forgy- 
fenysse and bead gsersuman. Ac se kyngc let lihtlice of o'S ^ he 
com to Englalande. and hine let sy^an tacan. 

And sona seft' J>isan coman of Denemarcon twa hund scypa. }>seron 
wseron heafdesmenn Cnut Swegnessunu cynges. and Hacon eorl. and 
ne dorston nan gefeoht healdan wift Willelme cynge. ac ferdon to 
Eoforwic. and braecon see Petres mynst'. and tocon Jjserinne mycele 
sehta and foron swa aweg. ac ealle J?a forferdon ]>e set J>a rsede waeron. 
f wses Hacones sunu eorles and manege o^re mid him. 

And Eadgy'S seo hlasfdie forft ferde. seo wees Eadwardes cynges 
geresta. seofon niht ser Xpes msessan on Wincestre. and se cynge 
hig let bryngan to Westmynstre mid mycclan weorSscype. and leide 
heo wrS Eadwarde cynge hire hlaforde. 

Se kyngc wses J>a jxme midwint' on Westmynstre. ]>ser mon for 
demde ealle }>a Bryttas )>e wseron set )>a brydlope set NorSwic. 

Sume hi wurdon geblende* 

and sume wrecen of lande- 

and sume getawod to scande* 

]?us wurdon J>ses kyninges 

swican geny^erade. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 215 

1076. On ]?isu geare forSferde Swsegn cyng on Dsenmercan. 
and Harold his sunu feng to ]?e cynerice. 

And se cyng geaf Westmynster Vithele abbode se wees ser 
abb' on Baernege. And Watyeof eorl wes beheafdod on Win 
ceastre. and his lie wearS gelead to Crulande. 

And se cyng for ofer sse. and laedde his fyrde to Brytlande. 
and beset J?one castel D61. and ]?a Bryttas hine heoldon ^ se 
cyng co of Franc land, and Willelm ]?anon for. and J?ser for 
leas seg^er ge men ge hors. and feola his gersuma. 

1077. Her on ]?isu geare wurdon ssehte Franca cyng and 
Willelm Englalandes cyng. ac hit heold litle hwile. 

And j?es geares for barn Lundenburh anre nihte ser As- comb| 
sumptio see Marie swa swyfte swa heo nsefre ser nses sy<$ 
J?an heo gestabeled wses. 

And on J?isii geare forS fyrde ^Egelwig abb' on Euesha on 
J?a dsege xiv k' Mr'. And Hereman b' eac for^ ferde on f>a 
dsege x k* Mr'. 

(D) 1077- On ]?isan geare fortS ferde Swegen kyngc on Denemarcon. 
and Harold his sunu feng to his cyne rice. Her Wyllelm cyngc 


geaf f abb' rice set Westmynstre FiJ?ele abbode. se wees ser munuc 
aet Bernege. And her wses Watyeof eorl be heafdod. on Wiocestre 
on see Petronella msesse dseg. and his lie wearS gelsed to Crulande. 
and he J>ser is bebyrged. And Wyllelra cyngc for ofer sae. and Isedde 
fyrde to Brytlande. and be sset ]x>ne castel aet D61. ac J>a Bryttas 
hine heoldon o^ -f se cyngc com of Franc rice, and Wyllelm cyngc 
J?a J>anon for. and j?aer for leas aeg&er menn and hors and unarimede 

1078. Her se mona aj>y strode j?reom nihton ser Candelmeessan. 
and -^Egelwig se woruld snotra abb' on Eofeshamme forSferde. on 
sea Juliana msesse dseg. and Waltere wses to abb'e geset on his 
stede. and Hereman b' forS ferde. se wses b' on Bearrucscire. and on 
Wiltunscire. and on Dorssetan. and Her Malcholom kyngc gewann 
Mselslsehtan modor. * ;: ' *#*#''# ^ 
* -x- * and ealle his betstan menn and ealne his gsersuman. and 
his orf. and he sylf unease setbserst. 




and her wses se dria sumor. and wilde fyr com on manega scira and 
forbsernde fela tuna, and eac manega burga forbu[r]non. 


1079. On Jnsu geare co Melcolm cyng of Scotlaride into 
Engle lande betwyx J?a twa Mariam msessan mid mycclu 
fyrde. and gehergode NorShymbra land oiS hit com to Tine, 
and of sloh feala hund manna, and ham Isedde manige sceattas 
and gersuma. and menn on heftninge. 

And y\ ilcan geare se cyng Willelm gefeaht to geanes his 
sunu Kotbearde wiiSutan Normandige be anu castele Ger- 
borneft hatte. and se cyng WilPm wearS J>aer gewundod. and 
his hors ofslagen )?e he onsset. and eac his sunu Willelm 
wear^S J?aer gewundod. and fela manna ofslagene. 

1080. On J?isum geare wses se V Walchere ofslagen on 
Dunholme set aim gemote. and an hund manna mid him 
Frencisce and Flemisce. and he sylf wses on Hlo^eringa ge- 
boren. J>is dydon NorShymbran on Maies monSe. 

1081. On J?isu geare se cyng leedde fyrde into Wealan. and 
J?ser gefreode fela hund manna. 

1082. Her nam se cyng Odan b'. and her wtes mycel 

(D) 1079. Her Rodbert bses cynges sunu Will'm. hleop fram his 
feeder, to his eame Rotbryhte on Flandron. for ban be his feeder ne 
wolde him Isetan waldan his eorl domes on Normandige be he sylf 
and eac se kyng Filipp' mid his gebafunge him gegyfen hsefdon. and 
\>z |>e betst weeron on ]?a lande heefdon a^as hi gesworon. and hine 
to hlaforde genumen. Her Rotbert feht wrS his fseder and hine on 
j?a hand gewundade. and his hors wearS under of scoten. and se ]>e 
hi otier tobrohte weai"5 jjgerrihte mid anan arblaste of scoten. f wses 
Tokig Wig godes sunu. and fela J>ser wurdon ofslsegen and eac 
gefangene. and Rotb't eft gewende to Fleminga lande. ne wylle 
we J?eh her na mare sca^e awritan J>e he his feeder ge * * * * 

1 080. Her wer\ Anagus ofsleien frdm Scotta e6re. and \>er wer\ 
micel weell ofsleigen mid him. ^er wes codes rtyt ge sochen on him for 
lp(e he wes all for sw66rn.^ 

MS. D closes with this curious the time of the rebellion of Angus earl 

piece of English, which was added to of Murray against David I. Buchanan 

the book after a considerable interval. touches on it : " . . . -/Enea Moraviae 

The date is faulty, and instead of Comite cum suorum magna multitu- 

MLXXX, should probably be, as Tngratn dine cseso ..." Rer. Scot. Hist. vii. 

has shewn, MCXXX, which was about 29. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 217 

1083. On J>isu geare aras seo ungehwsernes on Glsestinga 
byrig betwyx ]?a abbode purslane, and his munecan. ^Erest 
hit c5 of J?ses abbotes unwisdome. )? he mis bead his munecan 
on fela Jnngan. and ]?a munecas hit msendon lufelice to hi. 
and beadon hine ^ he sceolde healdan hi rihtlice. and lufian 
hi. and hi woldon hi beon holde and gehyrsume. Ac se 
abbot nolde j?ses naht. ac dyde heo yfele. and beheot heom 
wyrs. Anes dseges J?e abbot code into capitulan. and sprsec 
uppon J?a munecas. and wolde hi mis tukian. and sende sefV 
Isewede mannu. and hi comon into capitulan on uppon J?a 
munecas fullgewepnede. And J?a wseron ]?a munecas swrSe 
aferede of heo. nyston hwet heo to donne weere. ac to 
scuton. sume urnou into cyrcean. and belucan J?a duran into 
heo. and hi ferdon seft' heo into J>a mynstre. and woldon 
hig utdragan. ]?a^a hig ne dorsten na utgan. Ac reowlic 
]?ing J?ser gelamp on dseg. )? J?a Frencisce men brsecen ]?one 
chor and torfedon towserd ]?a weofode J?ier ^a munecas 
wseron. and sume of ftarn cnihtan ferdon uppon J?one upp 
flore. and scotedon a dunweard mid arewan toweard J?a 
haligdome. swa ^ on J?sere rode ]?e stod bufon )?a weofode 
sticodon on msenige arewan. and J>a wreccan munecas lagon 
on buton Ipa weofode. and sume crupon under, and gyrne 
cleopedon to Gode his miltse biddende. ]?a f>a hi ne mihton 
nane miltse aet mannu begytan. Hwret magon we secgean. 
buton ^ hi scotedon swrSe. and J?a o'Sre $a dura brsecon j?ser 
adune and eodon inn. and ofslogon sume )?a munecas to 
deafte. and msenige gewundedon J?ser inne. swa ty %et blod 
co of iSa weofode uppon J?a gradan. and of 'Sam gradan on j?a 
flore. J>reo f>ser wseron ofslagene to dea^e. and eahteteone 

And on J?ses ilcan geares for$ ferde Mahtild Will'mes cynges 
cwen. on ]?one dseg seft' ealra halgena msesse dseg. 

And on ]?es ylcan geares aeft' midewint^ se cyng let beodan 
mycel gyld and hefelic ofer eall Engla land, ty wses set selcere 
hyde twa and hund seofenti peanega. 

1084. Her on Sisum geare for$ ferde Wulfuuold abb' on 
Ceortesege. on J?a dseg xiii k' Mai. 

1085. On J>isu geare menn cwydodon and to softan 
ssedan. )? Cnut cyng of Den mearcan Swsegnes sune cynges 
fundade hiderward. and wolde gewinnan ]?is land mid Bod- 


218 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A. 0.1085) beardes eorles fultume of Flandran. forSan j?e Cnut heafde 
Rodbeardes dohter. Da Will'm Englalandes cyng J?e }>a 
wees sittende on Normandige. forSig he ahte segfter ge Engla 
land ge Normandige. J>is geaxode. he ferde into Engla lande 
mid swa mycclan here ridendra manna and gangendra of 
Franc rice and of Bryt lande. swa nsefre ser j?is land ne 
gesohte. swa ^ menn wundredon hu jns land mihte call 
]?one here afedan. Ac se cyng let toscyfton ]?one here 
geoiid call J?is land to his mannon. and hi fseddon J?one 
here selc be his land efne. And men heafdon mycel geswinc 
J?aes geares. and se cyng lett awestan -p land abutan j?a see. 
J?et gif his feond comen upp. ^ hi nsefdon na on hwam hi 
fengon swa rsedlice. Ac J?a se cyng geaxode to softan ty his 
feond gelsette wseron. and ne mihten na geforSian heora fare. 
J?a lett he sum )?one here faren to heora agene lande. and 
sum he heold on J?isu lande ofer winter. 

Da to J?a midewintre wses se cyng on Gleawe ceastre mid 
his witan. and heold )?8er his hired v dagas. and syfrSan ]?e 
arceb' and gehadode men hsefden sinoft J?reo dagas. Dser 
wses Maurici' gecoren to b' on Lundene. and WilFm to 
NorSfolce. and Rodbeard to Ceaster scire. hi wseron ealle 
J>ses cynges clerecas. ^Efter ]?isu hsefde se cyng mycel ge- 
]?eaht. and swiiSe deope spsece wi^ his witan ymbe }?is land 
hu hit wsere gesett. o^^e mid hwylcon mannon. Sende )?a 
ofer call Engla land into selcere scire his men. and lett agaii 
ut hu fela hundred hyda waeron innon )>sere scire. o$$e hwet 
se cyng him sylf hsefde landes and orfes innan }>a lande. 
o$$e hwilce gerihtse he ahte to habbanne to xii monjmm of 
"Saere scire. Eac he lett gewritan hu mycel landes his arce b's 
hsefdon. and his leod b's. and his abb^s. and his eorlas. and 
j?eah ic hit lengre telle. hwset o^iSe hu mycel selc mann 
hsefde ]?e land sittende wses innan Engla lande. on lande 
o#3e on orfe. and hu mycel feos hit wsere wuriS. Swa swyfte 
nearwelice he hit lett utaspyrian. ^ nses an selpig hide, ne 
an gyrde landes. ne furSon. hit is sceame to tellanne. ac hit 
ne Jmhte hi nan sceame to donne. an oxe. ne an cii. ne n 
swin. nses belyfon. -p uses gesset on his gewrite. and ealle ]?a 
gewrita wseron gebroht to him syiSftan. 

1085. Her se cyng bser his corona and heold his hired on 
Win ceastre to )>a Eastran. and swa he ferde ^ he wses to 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 219 

fa Pentecosten set Wsest minstre. and dubbade his sunu (A.D. 1085) 

Henric to ridere Ipser. SySftan he ferde abutan swa ty he 

com to Lammsessan to Searebyrig. and J?ser hi comon to 

his witan. and ealle J?a landsittende men. J?e ahtes wseron 

ofer call Englaland. wseron ]?ses mannes men ]?e hi wseron. 

And ealle hi bugon to hi. and weron his menn. and hi 

holdaftas sworon -p hi woldon ongean ealle oftre men hi 

holde beon. Danon he ferde into Wiht. forj?ig he wolde 

faran into Normandige. and swa dyde sy&San. And J?eah he 

dyde serest sefter his gewunan. begeat swrSe mycelne sceatt 

of his mannan )?ser he mihte aenige teale tohabban oiSfte mid 

rihte oftfte elles. Ferde )?a sySftan into Normandige. and 

Eadgar seeding ^Edwardes mseg cynges beah J?a fra hi. 

for]?ig he naefde na mycelne wurSscipe of hi. ac se selmihtiga 

God hi gife wurSscipe on J?am toweardan. And Cristina 

J?ses seiSelinges swuster beah into mynstre to Bumesege. and 

under feng halig rest. 

And J?ses ilcan geares wses swi^e hefelic gear, and swrSe 
swincfull and sorhfull gear innan Englelande on orfcwealme. 
and corn and wa3stmas wseron aetstandene. and swa mycel 
ungelimp on wsederunge swa man uaht se^elice gefencean 
ne mseg. swa stdr funring. and Isegt wes. swa ty hit acwealde 
manige men. and aa hit wyrsode mid mannan swrSor and 
swi^or. Gebete hit God elmihtiga. )?onne his willa sy. 

1086. ^Efter ure Drihtnes Hselendes Cristes gebyrtide. an 
Jmsend wintra and seofan and hnnd eahtatig wintra. on ]?a 
a"n and twentigan geare fses [>e WilFm weolde and stihte 
Engleland swa hi God u^e. gewearS swi^e hefelic and 
swi'Se wold berendlic gear on )?issu lande. Swylc cofte co 
on mannum. ^ full neah sefre f>e ofter man wear^S on )?a 
wyrrestan yfele. j?et is on $am drife. and }?et swa stranglice. 
^ msenige menn swulton on $am yfele. Sy^^an co ]?urh 
J?a mycclan ungewiderunge ]>e comon swa we beforan tealdon. 
swyfte mycel hunger ofer eall Engle land, ty manig hundred 
manna earmlice deafte swulton J?urh ]?one hunger. Eala hu 
earmlice and hu reowlic tid wses i5a. Da i$a wreccae men 
Isegen for drifene full neah to deaiSe. and sy$$an co se scearpa 
hungor and adyde hi mid ealle. 

Hwa ne mseg earmian swylcere tide? oftfte hwa is swa 
heard heort ty ne meeg wepan swylces ungelimpes? Ac swylce 

F f 2 

220 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1086) ]?ing gewurSa)? for folces synna -p hi nellaft lufian God and 
rihtwisnesse. Swa swa hit waes J>a on $am dagu. ty litel 
rihtwisnesse wses on J?isu lande mid senige menn. buton mid 
munecan ane J?ser j?ser hi wsell ferdon. Se cyng and ]?a 
heafod men lufedon swrSe and ofer swi$e gitsunge. on golde. 
and on seolfre. and ne rohtan hu synlice hit wsere begytan 
buton hit come to heo. Se cyng sealde his lande swa 
deore to male swa heo deorost mihte. Donne co su o3er 
and bead mare J?onn j?e o$er ser sealde. and se cyng hit 
lett ]?a menn J?e him mare bead. Donne co se ]?ridde. and 
bead geat mare, and se cyng hit let ]?a men to handa J?e 
hi eallra meast bead, and ne rohte na hu swrSe synlice ]?a 
gerefan hit begeatan of earme mannon. ne hu manige un- 
laga hi dydon. Ac swa man swyftor spsec embe rihte lage. 
swa mann dyde mare unlaga. hy arerdon un rihte tollas. 
and manige o^re un rihte hi dydan. J?e sindon earfe]?e to 

Eac on iSam ilcan geare setforan hserfeste for barn -p halige 
mynster see Paule )?e b'stol on Lundene. and msenige o^re 
mynstres. and -p mseste dsel and ^ rotteste ealle fsere burh. 
Swylc eac on $am ilcan timan for barn full neah aslc heafod 
port on eallon Engle lande. Eala reowlic and weperidlic tid 
wses J?ses geares. f>e swa manig ungelimp wses for^ bringende. 

Eac on ]?am ilcan geare to foran Assumptio see Marie for 
WilFm cyng of Normandige into France mid fyrde. and her- 
gode uppan liis agenne hlaford Philippe )?a cynge. and sloh 
of his mannon mycelne dsel. and forbearnde J?a burh Maftante. 
and ealle ]?a halige mynstres )?e waeron innon J?sere burh. and 
twegen halige menn ]?e hyrsumedon Gode on ancer settle 
wimiende. ]?ser wseron forbearnde. 

Dissu J>us gedone. se cyng Willelm cearde ongean to Nor- 
mandige. Reowlic ]?ing he dyde. and reowlicor hi gelap. 
Hu reowlicor? him geyfelade. and f him stranglice eglade. 
Hwset mseg ic teollan? Se scearpa deaft )?e ne for let ne rice 
menn ne heane. seo hine gena. 

He swealt on Normandige on ]?one nextan dseg seft^ nati- 
uitas see Marie, and man bebyrgede hine on Ca]?um set see 
Stephanes mynstre. serer he hit arserde. and sy^San mseni 
fealdlice gegodade. 

Eala hu leas and hu un wrest is ]?ysses middaneardes wela. 


Se ]?e wses serur rice cyng. and maniges landes hlaford. he (A. D. 1086) 
nsefde )?a ealles landes buton seofon fot nisei, and se ]?e wses 
hwilon gescrid mid golde. and mid gimmu. he Iseg ]?a ofer 
wrogen mid moldan. 

He Isefde sefter hi )?reo sunan. Rodbeard het se yldesta. 
se wses eorl on Normandige seft' him. se o^er het Willelm. 
]?e bser seft' him on Engleland ]?one kinehelm. Se J?ridda 
het Heanric. J?a se fseder becwseiS gersuman un ateallend- 

Gif hwa gewilnigeft to gewitane hu gedon mann he wses. 
o&Se hwilcne wurftscipe he hsefde. o&Se hu fela lande he 
wsere hlaford. Donne wille we be hi awritan swa swa we 
hine ageaton. $e hi onlocodan. and o3re hwile on his hirede 
wunedon. Se cyng Willelm ]?e we embe speca$ wses swrSe 
wis man. and swrSe rice, and wurSfulre and strengere 
]?onne seriig his foregengra wsere. He wses milde J?a godu 
mannu J?e God lufedon. and ofer call gemett stearc )?a 
mannu ]?e wiiScwsedon his willan. On ^a ilcan steode J?e 
God him geu^e ty he moste Engleland gegan. he arerde 
msere mynster. and munecas J?ser gessette. and hit wsell ge- 
godade. On his dagan wses )? msere mynster on Cantwar- 
byrig getymbrad. and eac swrSe manig o^er ofer call Engla 
land. Eac f>is land wses swrSe afylled mid munecan. and J?a 
leofodan heora lif seft' scs Benedict' regule. and se Xpen- 
dom wses swilc on his dsege -p selc man hwset his hade to 
belumpe. folgade se J?e wolde. Eac he wses swy^e wur^ful. 
J?riwa he bser his cyne helm selce geare. swa oft swa he wses 
on Engle lande. on Eastron he hine bser on Winceastre. on 
Pentecosten on West mynstre. on mide wintre on Gleawe 
ceastre. And (?senne wseron mid hi ealle ]?a rice men ofer 
call Englaland. arcebiscopas. and leod b's. abbodas and eorlas. 
J?egnas and cnihtas. Swilce he wses eac swyfte stearc man 
and rseiSe. swa ^ man ne dorste nan J>ing ongean his willan 
don. He haefde eorlas on his bendu. J?e dydan ongean his 
willan. Biscopas he ssette of heora biscop rice, and abbodas 
of heora abb' rice, and j?segnas on cweartern. and set nextan 
he ne sparode his agenne bro^or Odo het. he wses swrSe 
rice b* on Normandig'. on Baius wses his b' stol. and wses 
manna fyrmest to eacan j?a cynge. And he hsefde eorl 
do on Engle lande. and J?onne se cyng on Normandige. 

222 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1086) J?onne waes he msegest' on J?isum lande. and Line he saette 
on cweartern. Betwyx oftru J?mgu nis na to forgytane "p 
gode frrS f>e he macode on Jrisan lande. swa ^ n man j?e 
him sylf aht wsere. mihte faran ofer his rice mid his bosum 
full goldes un gederad. and nan man ne dorste slean ofterne 
man. naefde he naefre swa mycel yfel gedon wiiS )?one oiSerne. 
And gif hwilc carl man hsemde wrS wimman hire mrSances. 
sona he for leas ]?a limu J>e he mid pleagode. 

He rixade ofer Englseland. and hit mid his geapscipe swa 
J?urh smeade. j? nses a"n hid landes innan Englse lande. ^ he 
nyste hwa heo hsefde. o&Se hwaes heo wur$ waes. and sy&San 
on his gewrit gessett. Brytland him waes on gewealde. and 
he J?aer inne casteles gewrohte. and )?et Mann cynn mid ealle 
gewealde. swilce eac Scotland he hi under J?sedde. for his 
mycele streng)?e. Norrnandige p land wees his gecynde. and 
ofer J?one eorldo ]?e Mans is gehaten he rixade. and gif 
he moste ]?a gyt twa gear libban. he hsefde Yrlande mid his 
werscipe gewunnon. and wrSutan selcon wsepnon. Witodlice 
on his timan hsefdon men mycel geswiric. and swrSe manige 
teonan. castelas he let wyrcean. and earme men swrSe 
swencean. Se cyng wses swa swiSe stearc. and bena of his 
under )?eoddan man. manig marc goldes. and md hundred 
punda seolfres. Det he na be rihte. and mid mycelan tin 
rihte of his leode- for littelre neode. he waes on gitsunge 
befeallan. and graedinsesse he lufode mid ealle. he saette 
mycel deor fri^- and he leegde laga ]?8er wr<5. ^ swa hwa swa 
sloge heort oftfte hinde* ^ hine man sceolde blendian. he 
for bead J?a heortas- swylce eac J?a baras. swa swi^e he lufode 
j>a headedr- swilce he wsere heora feeder, eac he saette be 
)?a haran- j? hi mosten freo faran. his rice men hit msendon. 
and j?a earme men hit becedrodan. ac he swa sti^* "p he ne 
rohte heora eallra ni^S. ac hi moston mid ealle 
]?es cynges wille folgian 
gif hi woldon libban- o&Se land habban- 
land oiS^e eahta- o^e wel his sehta- 
Wala wa' ^ aenig man sceolde modigan swa* 
hine sylf uppaheb ban' and ofer ealle men tellan. 
Se a3lmihtiga God cy)>3e his saule mild heortnisse- 
and do hi his synna for gifenesse. 
Das ]?ing we habbaiS be hi gcwritene. aegiSer ge gode ge 


yfele. )? J?a godan men niman eeft' j?eora godnesse. and for (A. D. 1086) 
leon mid ealle yfelnesse. and gan on ftone weg. J?e us lett to 
heofonan rice. 

Fela Jnnga we magon writan J>e on $am ilcan geare ge- 
wordene weeron. Swa hit wees on Den mearcan. ^ ]?a 
Daenescan ]?e wees eerur geteald eallra folca getreowast. 
wurdon awende to ]?sere meste untriw^e. and to )?a msesten 
swicddme j?e sefre mihte gewurSan. Hi gecuron and abugan 
to Cnute cynge. and hi a^as sworon. and sy$$an hine earh- 
lice ofslogon innan aure cyrcean. Eac wearS on Ispanie 
^ J?a hseftenan men foran and hergodan uppon* J?a Xpenan 
manuan. and mycel abegdan to heora anwealde. Ac se 
Xpena cyng Anphos wees gehaten he sende ofer call into 
eelcan lande. and gyrnde fultumes. and hi co to fultu of selcen 
lande J?e Xpen wses. and ferdon and ofslogon and aweg adrifan 
eall J>et hseftena folc. and gewunnon heora land ongean. J?urh 
Godes fultum. 

Eac on ]?isan ilcan lande on J?a ilcan geare. forS ferdon * 
mane^a rice men. Stigand b^ of Ciceastre. and se abb' of see 
Augustine, and se abb' of Bafton. and J?e of Perscoran. and 
]?a heora eallra hlaford Willelm Englselandes cyng. J>e we ser 
beforan embe spsecon. ^Efter his dea^e his sune. WilTm 
hset eallswa ]?e feeder, feng to |?a rice and wearS gebletsod 
to cynge fra Landfrance arceb^ on Westmynstre. J>reo 
dagum ser Michaeles msesse dseg. and ealle ]?a men on 
Engla lande hi to abugon. and him aiSas sworon. Disti ]?us 
gedone. se cyng ferde to Win ceastre. and sceawode ty madme 
hus. and J?a gersuman Je his feeder ser gegaderode. |?a wseron 
un asecgendlice senie men hu mycel ]?33r waes gegaderod. on 
golde and on seolfre. and on faton. and on wsellan. and on 
gimman. and on manige oiSre deorwurSe )?ingon. )?e earfoiSe 
sindon to ateallene. Se cyng dyde j?a swa his feeder him 
bebead ser he dead weere. dselde J>a gersuman for his feeder 
saule. to eelcen mynstre }?e wes innan Engle lande to suman 
mynstre x marc goldes. to suman vi and to eelcen cyrcean 
uppeland Ix peen. and into eelcere scire man seonde hundred 
punda feos. to dselanne earme mannan for his saule. And ser 
he forSferde he bead ty man sceolde unlesan ealle J>a menn 
]?e on hseftnunge wseron under his anwealde. and se cyng waes 
on $am midewintre on Lundene. 


1087. On J7isu geare wses |?is land swiiSe astirad. and mid 
mycele swicdome afylled. swa p J?a riceste Frencisce men J?e 
weron innan J?isan lande. wolden swican heora hlaforde ]?a 
cynge. and woldon habban his broker to cynge Rodbeard )?e 
waes eorl on Normandige. On )?isu rsede wses aerest Oda 
b'. and GosfrrS b'. and Will'm V on Dtinholme. Swa wsell 
dyde se cyng be J>a b'. j? eall Englaland fserde seft' his 
rsede. and swa swa he wolde. and he J?ohte to donne be him 
eall swa ludas Scarioth dyde be ure Drihtene. And Rogere 
eorl wses eac set J?a un rsede. arid swrSe mycel folc mid 
heo ealle Frencisce men. and J?ses unrsed wserS gersed innan 
J?a lengtene. Sona swa hit co to J?a Eastron. J>a ferdou hi 
and hergodon and bserndon and aweston )?ses cynges feorme 
hames. and eallra fsera manna land hi for dydon ]?e wseron 
innan J>ses cynges holdscipe. and heora selc ferde to his 
castele. and J?one mannoden and metsoden swa hig betst 
mihton. GosfrrS b' and Rodbeard amundbrseg ferdon to 
Bricgstowe and hergodon and brohton to J;a castele j>a 
hergunge. and sy^on foron ut of iSam castele and her- 
godon Ba^on. and eall -p land J?ser abutan. and eall Beorclea 
hyrnesse hi awseston. And |?a men )?e yldest wseron of Here 
forde. and eall )?eo scir foriS mid. and ]?a men of Scrob scyre 
mid mycele folce of Bryt lande comon and hergodon and 
bserndon on WrSre ceastre scire forS -p hi comon to ]?a porte 
sylfan. And woldon ]?a ftsene port bsernen. and ^ mynster 
reafian. and J?a3S cynges castel gewinnan heo to handa. Das 
J?ing geseonde se arwurSa b' Wlstan. wear^ swi^Se gedrefed 
on his mode. for'Sig him wses betseht )?e castel to healdene. 
J?eahhwe3er his hired men ferdon ut mid feawe mannan of 
J?a castele. and )?urh Godes mildheortnisse and jmrk ]?8es b's 
geearnunga ofslogon and gelsehton fif hundred manna, and 
)?a o^re ealle aflymdon. Se b^ of Dun holme dyde to hearme 
^ he mihte ofer eall be norSan. Roger het an of heo: se 
hleop into J?a castele set NorSwic. and dyde git eallra wserst 
ofer eall -p land. Hugo eac an ]?e hit ne gebette nan 
jnng. ne innan Lsegre ceastre scire. ne innan Norfthatune. 
Be b' Odo ]?e J?as cyng of awocan ferde into Cent to his 
eorldome. and for dyde hit swyfte. and J?ses cynges land, and 
]?3es arceb's mid ealle aweston, and brohte eall -p god into his 
castele on Hrof'e ceastre. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 225 

Da ]?e cyng under geat ealle J>as )?ing. and hwilcne swicdo (A.D. 1087) 
hi dydon toweard his. J?a wearS he on his mode swiiSe ge- 
drefed. sende J?a sefter Englisce mannan. and heo fore ssede 
his neode. and gyrnde heora fultumes. and behet heom 
J?a betsta laga J?a sefre ser wses on J>isan lande. and selc un 
rihtgeold he for bead, and geatte mannan heora wudas. and 
slsetinge. ac hit ne stod nane hwile. Ac Englisce men swa 
J?eah fengon to ]?a cynge heora hlaforde on fultume. ferdon 
J?a toweard Hrofe ceastre. and woldon f>one b' Odan begytan. 
J?ohtan gif hi haefdon hine )?e wees serur heafod to $am un 
raede. p hi mihton ]?e bet begytan ealla )?a oftre. hi comon 
J?a to ]?a castele to Tonebricge. J>a wseron innan J?a castele 
Odab's cnihtas. and oiSre manige ]?e hine healdon woldan 
ongean Ipon cyng. ac ]?a Englisce men ferdon and to 
brsecon j?one castel. and J>a men J>e )?8er inne wseron. gri^- 
odon wr$ )?one cyng. Se cyng mid his here ferde toweard 
Hrofe ceastre. and wendon 'p se b' wsere J>3er inne. ac hit 
wearS J?am cynge cu$ |?et se b' wses afaren to ^Sam castele 
Apefenesea. and se cyng mid his here ferde seft\ and bessett 
J?on castel abutan. mid swrSe mycele here fulle six wucan. 

Betwyx J?issu se eorl of Normandige Eodbeard J>es cynges 
broker gaderode swi^e mycel folc. and ]?ohte to gewinnane 
Engleland mid J>sera manna fultume J?e wseron innan ]?isan 
lande ongean ]?on cyng. and he sende of his mannan to J?isu 
lande. and wolde cuman himsylf seft\ Ac }?a Englisce men 
J?e wserdedon ]?9ere sse. gel?ehton of J?a raannon. and slogon. 
and adrengton ma }?onn senig man wiste to tellanne. 

SyiS^an heo ateorede mete wrSinnan J>a castele. $a 
gyrndon hi gri'Sas. and agefan hine J>a cynge. and se b j 
swor -p he wolde lit of Engle lande faran. and na mare 
cuman on ftisan lande butan se cyrig hi seft' sende. and ^ 
he wolde agifan )?on castel on Hrofe ceastre. Ealswa se b' 
ferde and sceolde agifan J>on castel. and se cyng sende his 
men mid hi. i$a arisan J?a men |?e wseron innan J?a castele. 
and namon ]?one b' and J?es cynges men. and dydon hi on 
hseftnunge. Innan J>a castele waeron swi^e gode cnihtas. 
Eustati ? J?e iunga. and Rogeres eorles ]?reo sunan. and ealle 
]?a betst boren men. ]?e w^eron innan )?isan lande. o^^e on 

Da se cyng under geat J?as Jang. )?a ferde he geft' 



(A. D. 1087) mid }>a here ]?e he Saer hsefde. and sende ofer eall Engla 
lande. and bead ^ selc man j?e wsere un nifting sceolde 
euman to hi. Frencisce and Englisce. of porte and of uppe 
laiide. Hi co J>a mycel folc to. and he for Hrofe ceastre. 
and bessett J?one castel. o&Set hi griiSedon j?e )?ser inne 
waeron. and ]?one castel ageafon. Se b j Odo mid ]?a mannu 
J>e innan J?a castele wseron ofer sse ferdon. and se V swa for 
let ]?one wurSscipe )?e he on )>is land hsefde. Se cyng syftftan 
sende here to Dun holme, and let besittan J?one castel. and se 
b' griftode and ageaf )?one castel. and for let his biscop rice, 
and ferde to Normandig'. Eac manige Frencisce men for 
leton heora land, and ferdon ofer see. and se cyng geaf heora 
land j?a mannu J?e him holde wseron. 

1089. On ]?isum geare se arwurSa muneca feder and frouer 
Landf'ranc arcb' gewat of ]?issu life, ac we hopiaft "p he ferde 
to "p heofanlice rice. Swilce eac gewarS ofer eall Engleland 
mycel eor^ styrunge. on ]?one daeg iii idus Aug'. and wses 
swi^e Isetsum gear on corne. and on selces cynnes wsestmum. 
swa *}? manig men rsepon heora corn onbutan Martines mses- 
san. and gyt lator. 

1090. INDICTIONE xui. Dissu fus gedon. eall swa wse ser 
abufan ssedan be )?a cynge. and be his broker, and be his 
mannon. se cyng wses smsegende hu he mihte wrecon his 
broker Rodbeard swi^ost swencean. and Normandige of him 
gewinnan. Deah ]?urh his geapscipe. o$$e J?urh gsersuma he 
begeat ]?one castel set see Waleri. and |;a haefenan. and swa 
he begeat ]?one set Albemare. and J>ar inne he sette his 
cnihtas. and hi dydon hearmes uppon )?a lande on hergunge 
and on bsernete. ./Eft' ]?isu he begeat ma castelas innan J?a 
lande. and )?8er inne his rideras gelogode. 

Se eorl of Normandige R J sy&San he under geat ^ his 
gesworene men him trucedon. and agefon hera castelas him 
to hearme. j?a sende he to his hlaforde Philippe Francena 
cynge. and he co to Normandig' mid mycelan here, and se 
cyng and se eorl mid ormsetre fyrde besseton J>on castel 
abuton. J?ser J?ses cynges men of Engle land inne wseron. Se 
cyng Willelm of Engla lande sende to Philippe Francena 
cynge. and he for his lufan ofrSe for his mycele gersuma for 
let swa his man J>ofi eorl Rodbeard and his land, and ferde 
ongean to France and let heo swa weorftan. And betwyx 

THE LAUD MS. ,(E) 227 

Jnsum );ingu J?is land wees swifte for don. on unlagagelde. and 
on oft re manige ungelimpe. 

1091. On J?isu geare se cyng WilFm heold his hired to 
Xpesmessan on Wsest mynstre. and J>aer sefV to Candel 
maessan he ferde for his browser unj?earfe ut of Englalande 
into Normandige. Onmang j?a J>e he )?ser wses. heora sehte 
to gsedere eode. on ty gerad )? se eorl hi to handan let 
Uescam. and J?one eorldo a3t Ou. and Kiaeres burh. and 
j?ser to eacan J?es cynges men sac leas beon moston on ]?a 
castelan. )?e hi ser )?es eorles un]?ances begiten haefdon. And 
se cyng hi ongean J?a Manige behet. J?e aer heora fgeder 
gewann and )?a fra J?a eorle gebogen waes. gebygle to 
donne. and call ty his feeder J?aer begeondan hsefde. butan 
J?a ]?e he J>a cynge J?a geunnen heefde. And "p ealle J?a ]?e on 
Englelande for ]?a eorle asror heora land forluron. hit on 
|?isum sehte habbaii sceoldan. and se eorl on Englelande eall 
swa mycel swa on heora forewarde wses. And gif se eorl forS 
ferde butan sunu be rihtre sewe. wsere se cyng yrfe numa of 
eallon Normandig. be J?isre sylfan forewarde gif se cyng 
swulte. wsere se eorl yrfe numa ealles Englalandes. Das 
forewarde gesworan xii J?a betste of j?es cynges healfe. and 
xii of |?es eorles. J>eah hit syftftan litle hwile stode. 

On mang ]?isa saehte wearft Eadgar Deling belandod. of 
J?a }?e se eorl him seror )?8er to handa gelseten hsefde. and ut 
of Normandig for to ]?a cynge his aftume to Scotlande. and 
to his swustor. 

On mang )?a j?e se cyng W. ut of Engle lande wses. ferde 
se cyng Melcolm of Scotlande hider into Englu. and his 
mycelne dael oferhergode. oft ^ J>a gode ma3n )?e J?is land 
bewiston. hi fyrde ongean ssendon. and hine gecyrdon. Da 
)?a se cyng W. into Normandige Jns gehyrde. ]?a gearcode 
he his fare, and to Englelande co. and his brofter se eorl 
Rodbeard mid hi. and sona fyrde het ut abeodan. segfter 
scip fyrde and land fyrde. ac seo scip fyrde ser he to Scotlande 
cuman mihte. selmsest earmlice forfdr. feowan dagon toforan 
see Micha^les mjessan. And se cyng and his brofter mid 
]?sere land fyrde ferdon. ac J?a ft a se cyng Melcolm gehyrde 
^ hine man mid fyrde secean wolde. he for mid his fyrde ut 
of Scotlande into Loftene on Englaland and J?ser abad. Da 
J?a se cyng W. mid his fyrde genealehte. )?a ferdon betwux 


228 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1091) Rodbeard eorl and Eadgar seeling and J?8era cinga sehte swa 
gemacedon. *p se cyng Melcolm to uran cynge co. and his 
man wearft to eallswilcre gehyrsunisse swa he ser his fseder 
dyde. and -p mid afte gefestnode. and se cyng W. him behet 
on lande and on ealle finge ]?ses j?e he under his fseder ser 

On jrisu. sehte weariS eac Eadgar ej?eling wr3 }>one cyng 
gessehtlad. and J?a cyngas )?a mid mycclu sehte tohwurfon. 
ac j? litle hwile stod. And se eorl Rodbeard her oi$ Xpes 
meesse forneah mid J?a cynge wimode. and litel softes J?ser 
on mang- of heora forewarde onfand. and twa dagon ser 
J?sere tide on Wiht scipode. and into Normandig for. and 
Eadgar seeding mid him. 

1092. On J?isu geare se cyng W. mid mycelre fyrde ferde 
noriS to ] Cardeol. and J>a burh gese^sta]?elede. and ]?one castel 
arerde. and Dolfin utadraf J?e seror ]?3er )?es landes weold. 
and J?on castel mid his mannan gesette. and sy&San hider 
su'S gewsende. and mycele msenige 2 Eyrlisces folces mid 
wifan and mid orfe J?yder ssende. J?ser to wunigenne ^ land 
to tilianne. 

1093. On )?isu geare to )?a laengtene wariS se cyng W. 
on Gleawe ceastre to )?a swi^e geseclod. -p he waes ofer call 
dead gekyd. And on his broke he Gode fela behsesa behet. 
his agen lif on riht to Isedene. and Godes cyrcean griiSian 
and frrSian. and nsefre ma eft wi^ feo gesyllan. and ealle 
rihte lage on his J>eode to habbene. and -p arceb'rice on 
Cant war by rig )?e aer on his agenre hand stod. Anselme be- 
tsehte. se wses ser abb' on Bsec. and Rodbeard his cancelere 
p biscoprice on Lincolne. and to manegan mynstren land 
geufte. ac ^ he syftftan astbraBd. )?a hi gebotad wses. and ealle 
}>a gode laga forlset. )?e he us ser behet. 

Da seft' Jnsson sende cyng of Scotlande. and j?sere fore- 
warde gyrnde j?e hi behaten wses. and se cing W. him steof- 
node to Glowe ceastre. and hi to Scotlande gislas sende. and 
Eadgar 8e]?eling a^ft'. and J?a men syiSiSan ougean. ]?e hine 
mid mycclon wuriSscipe to ]?a cynge brohtan. Ac J?a ^a he 
to )>a cynge co. ne mihte he beon weoriSe na^er ne ure 
cynges spa3ce. ne )?aera forewarde ]?e hi ser behatene wseron. 
and forjn hi J?a mid mycelon un sehte tohwurfon. and se 

l Carleol : Gibson's correction. 2 Englisces : Gibson's correction. 


cyng Melcolra ha to Scotlande gewaende. Ac hrafte J?ses J>e (A. D. 1093) 
he ha com. he his fyrde gegaderode. and into Englelande 
hergende mid maran unraede ferde f>one hi abehofode. and 
hine J?a Rodbeard se eorl of NorS hymbran mid his mannan 
unwseres besyrede and of sloh. Hine sloh Morsel of Bsebba- 
burh. se wses J?ses eorles stiward. and Melcolmes cynges god 
sib. Mid hi wses eac Eadward his sune of slagen. se seft' hi 
cyng beon sceolde. gif he hit gelifode. Da j?a seo gode cwen 
Margarita ]?is gehyrde. hyre J?a leofstan hlaford and sunu Jms 
beswikene. heo wearS oiS deaft on mode geancsumed. and 
mid hire prestan to cyrcean code, and hire gerihtan under 
feng. and set Gode absed. f heo hire gast ageaf. And j?a 
Scottas J?a Dufenal to cynge gecuron Melcolmes broker, and 
ealle J?a Englisce utadrsefdon. J?e ser mid }?a cynge Melcolme 
wa3ron. Da ]?a Dunecan Melcolmes cynges sunu J?is call 
gehyrde J?us gefaren. se on J?ses cynges hyrede W. wses. swa 
swa his fseder hine ures cynges feeder ser to gisle geseald 
hsefde. and her swa sy&San belaf. he to J?a cynge co. and 
swilce getrywfta dyde. swa se cyng set him habban wolde. 
and swa mid his unne to Scotlande for. mid J?a fultume ]?e 
he begytan mihte Engliscra and Frenciscra. and his msege 
Dufenal J?es rices bena. and to cynge weariS under fangen. 
Ac J?a Scottas hi eft sume gegaderoden. and forneah ealle 
his msenu of slogan, and he sylf mid feawu setbserst. Sy^^an 
hi wurdon sehte. on )?a gerdd ^ he nsefre eft Englisce ne 
Frencisce into )?am lande ne gelogige. 

1094. Her lisefde se cyng W. to Cristes msessan his hired 
set Gleawe ceastre. and him ]?ider fram his broker Rodbearde 
of Normandig bodan com an. J?a cyddon ty his broker gri^ 
and forewarde call seft'cwseiS. butan se cyng gelsestan wolde 
call J?et hi on forewarde hzefdon ser gewroht. and uppon j? 
hine forsw^orenne and trywleasne clypode. buton he }?a fore- 
warda geheolde. o^iSe J?ider ferde and hine f>ser betealde j?ser 
seo forewarde ser wa3s gewroht and eac gesworen. 

Da ferde se cyng to Haestingan to j?a Candel msessan. and 
on mang )?a J?e he )>ser wederes abad. he let halgian -p mynster 
set J?sere Bataille. And Herbearde Losange j?a b 7 of peot 
fordan his stsef bena. and ]?ser seft' to mid lengtene ofer sse 
for into Normandige. Sy^an he }?ider co. he and his broker 
Rodbeard se eorl gecwseftan. f hi mid grii5e togsedere cuman 

230 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. io94)sceoldan. and swa dydon. and gesemede beon ne mihtan. 
Syftftan eft hi togsedere coman mid J?a ilcan mannan )?e ser 
p loc makedon. and eac J?a aftas sworen. and ealne J>on bryce 
uppon ]?one cyng tealdon. ac he nolde J?ses ge)?afa beon. ne 
eac J?a forewarde healdan. and forjm hi )?a mid mycelon un- 
sehte tocyrdon. 

And se cyng syftftan J?on castel set Bures gewann. and J>es 
eorles men J?ser inne gena. j?a sume hyder to lande sende. 
Dser togeanes se eorl mid ]?es cynges fultume of France ge- 
wa"nn j>one castel a3t Argentses. and ]?ear inne Rogger Peiteuin 
gena. and seofen hundred J?es cynges cnihta mid hi. and syft- 
ftan J?on aet Htilme. and oftrredlice heora eegfter uppon ofterne 
tunas bsernde and eac menne Isehte. 

Da sende cyng hider to lande. and het abeodan ut xx 
J?usenda Engliscra manna him to fultume to Normandig. ac 
J?a hi to sse coman. pa het hi man cyrran. and )) feoh syllan 
to J?8es cynges behofe }?e hi genumen hsefdon. J?et WEBS selc 
man healf punda. and hi swa dydon. 

And se eorl innon Normandig reft' ]?ison mid J?a cynge of 
France and mid eallon J?an ]?e hi gegaderian mihton ferdon 
towardes Ou J?a3r se cyng W. inne wses. and )?ohtan hiiie inne 
to besittanne. and swa foran oft hi coman to Lunge uile. Daer 
wearS se cyng of France J>urh gesmeah gecyrred. and swa 
syftiSan eal seo fyrding tohwearf. Her on mang Jrison se 
cyng W. sende sefter his brofter Heanrige. se wees on )?a 
castele set Damfront. ac forj>i J?e he mid frifte J>urh Norman- 
dig faran ne mihte. he hi sende scipon softer, and Hugo eorl 
of Ceastre. Ac J?a fta hi towardes Ou faran sceoldan paer 
se cyng wses. hi foran to Engle lande. and up coman set 
Hamtune on ealra halgena msessesefne. and her syftfton 
wunedon. and to Xpes msessan wseron on Lunden. 

Eac on J?isu ylcan geare J?a Wylisce menu hi gegaderodon. 
Rnd wift J?a Frencisce |?e on Walon. oftfte on pa3re neawiste 
wseron and hi ser belandedon. gewinn up ahofon. and manige 
festena and castelas abrsecon. and men ofslogon. and syftftan 
heora gefylce weox. hi hi on ma to dseldon. WiiS sum J?a3ra 
dsele gefeaht Hugo eorl of Scrobscire and hi aflymde. Ac 
]?eah hwefter ]?a oft re ealles J>jcs geares nanes yfeles ne ge- 
swicon ]?e hi d<5n mihton. 

Discs geares eac J?a Scottas heora cyng Dunecan besyredon 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 231 

and of slogan, and heo sy$$an eft o^re syfte his fsederan 
Dufenal to cynge genamon. )?urh ]?es lare and to tihtinge he 
wearS to deafte beswicen. 

1095. On J?isu geare waes se cyng Will'm to Xpes msessan 
]?a feower fore warde dagas on Hwitsand. and sefter ]?a feorSan 
dsege hider to lande f6r. and upp com set Doferan. And 
Heanrig j?es cynges broker her on lande oft lengten wunode. 
and J?a ofer sse for to Normandig mid mycclon gersuman. on 
J?3es cynges heldan uppon heora broSer Rodbeard eorl. and 
gelomlice uppon J?one eorl wann. and him mycelne hearm 
segfter on lande and on mannan dyde. 

And J>a to Eastran heold se cyng his hired on Win ceastre. 
and se eorl Rod beard of NorS hymbran nolde to hirede cu- 
man. and se cyng forSan wearS wift hine swifte astyrod. and 
hi to ssende and heardlice bead gif he griftes weorfte beon 
wolde. ^ he to Pentecosten to hired come. On j?isu geare 
waeron Eastron on viii k' Apr', and J>a uppon Eastron on see 
Ambrosius msesseniht. ^ is ii no Apr' wses gesewen forneah 
ofer eall )?is land swilce forneah ealle J?a niht swrSe maani 
fealdlice steorran of heofenan feollan. naht be anan o33e 
twam. ac swa ]?iclice ^ hit nan mann ateallan ne mihte. Her 
seft' to Pentecosten wses se cyng on Windlesoran. and eall 
his witan mid hi. butan j?a eorle of Nor$ hymbran. forj?a se 
cyng him na]?er nolde ne gislas syllan. ne uppon tryw^an 
geunnon ^ he mid gri^e cumon moste and faran. 

And se cyng for|?i his fyrde bead, and uppon J?on eorl to 
NorS hymbran for. and sona J?es }?e he J?ider co. he manege 
and for neah ealle J?a betste of ]?es eorles hirede innan anan 
fsestene gewann. and on hseftene gedyde. And J?on castel set 
Tine muftan besset o^^et he hine gewann. and ]?ses eorles 
broker J?ser inne and ealle J?a J?e hi mid wa3ron. and syftftan 
ferde to Bebbaburh. and ]?on eorl J?ser inne besset. Ac J?a iSa 
se cyng geseah ty he hine gewinnan ne mihte. J?a het he 
makiaii senne castel toforan Bebbaburh. and hine on his 
spsece Malueisin het. $ is on Englisc yfel nehhebur. and 
hine swifte mid his mannan gesa3tte. and sy$3an su^ weard for. 
Da sona seft' )?am )?e se cyng wses su$ afaren. feorde se eorl 
anre nihte ut of Bebbaburh towardes Tine muftan. ac J?a J?e 
innan J?am niwan castele waeron. his gewser wurdon. and him 
seft ; foran and onfuhton, and hine gewundedon. and sy&San 


(A.D. io95)gelaehton. and j>a j?e mid hi waeron sume of slogan, sume lifes 

On mang ]?ison wearft J?a cynge cu$. ^ J?a Wylisce men 
on Wealon sumne castel heafdon to broken Muntgumni 
hatte. and Hugon eorles menn ofslagene j?e hine healdon 
sceoldan. and he forj?i oftre fyrde het fearlice abannan. and 
eeft' see Michaeles msesse into Wealan ferde. and his fyrde 
to scyfte. and *)? land call J?urh for. swa ty seo fyrde call to- 
gaedere co to ealra halgena to Snawdune. Ac )?a Wylisce a 
toforan into muntan and moran ferdan j? heo man to cuman 
ne mihte. and se cyng ]?a haweard gewende forj?a he geseah *p 
he ]?aer ]?es wintres mare don ne mihte. 

Da j>a se cyng ongean co. j?a het he niman )?on eorl 
Rotbeard of NorShymbran and to Baebbaburh laedan. and 
segSer cage ut adon. buton J>a )?e j?ser inne waeron ]?on castel 
agyfan woldan. Hine heoldan his wif. and Moreal se wses 
stiward and eac his maeg. Durh |?is wear^ se castel )?a 
agyfen. and Moreal weariS ]?a on )?es cynges hirede. and Jwrh 
hine wurdon manege aeg^er ge gehadode and eac kewede 
geypte. |?e mid heora raede on ]?es cynges unheldan waaron. 
)?a se cyng sume ser )?8ere tide het on hseftnefte gebringan. 
and sy&San swiiSe gemahlice ofer call )?is land beodan. ^ 
ealle ]?a ]?e of J>a cynge land heoldan. call swa hi frrSes 
weoriSe beon woldari. p hi on hirede to tide waeron. and j?one 
eorl Rotbert het se cyng to Windlesoran laedan. and J?aer 
innan ]?a castele healdan. 

Eac on jns ylcan geare togeanes Eastron c5 J?aes Papan 
sande hider to lande. -p waes Waltear bisceop swrSe god lifes 
man of Albin J>aere ceastre. and J?a arce b' Ansealme uppon 
Pentecosten of J?aes Papan healfe Urban^ his palliu geaf. and 
he hine under feng aet his arce stole on Cantwarabyrig. And 
se biscop Waltear her on lande J?aes geares sy&San lange 
wunode. and man srSSan -p Rom gesceot be hi sende. swa 
man manegan gearan aeror ne dyde. 

Discs ylcan eac geares waeron swrSe un tid gewidera. and 
for)?i geond call ]?is land wurdon eor^waestmas call to 
medemlice gewende. 

1096. On ]?ison geare heold se cyng Will'm his hired to 
Xpes m3ssan on Windlesoran. and WilFm bisc of Dunholmc 
J?aer forS ferde to geares daege. and on Octab' Epiphan' waes 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 235 

se cyng and ealle his witan on Searbyrig. pser beteah (A.D. 1096) 
Gosfrei Bainard Will'm of Ou j>es cynges mseg "p he heafde 
gebeon on J?es cynges swicdome. and hit hi ongefeaht. and 
hine on orreste oferco. and sy$$an he ofercumen wses. hi 
het se cyng ]?a eagan ut adon. and syj?$an belisnian. and his 
stiward WilFm hatte. se wses his modrian sunu. het se cyng 
on rode ahon. Dser wearS eac Eoda eorl of Capaine J?ses 
cynges aftum and manege oSre belende. and sumne man to 
Lundene Isedde. and J?ser spilde. 

Discs geares eac to J?a Eastran wearS swrSe mycel styrung 
geond ealle )?as J>eode and fela o$ra )?eodan J>urh Urban' se 
wses Papa gehaten J?eah J?e he J?ses setles naming nsefde on 
.Rome, and ferde un arimedlice folc mid wifan and cildan to 
Jri -p hi uppon hseftene ]?eodan winnan woldan. Durh J?as 
fare wearS se cyng and his bro$or Rodbeard eorl sehte. swa 
^ se cyng ofer sse for. and call Normandig set hi mid feo 
alisde. swa swa hi Jm sehte wseron. And se eorl syftftaii 
ferde. and mid hi se eorl of Flandran. and se of Bunan. and 
eac manige o$re heafodmen. and se eorl Rodbeard and ]?a 
J?e mid him ferdon j?on winter on Puille wunedon. Ac )?es 
folces j?e be Hungrie for. fela jmsenda ]?83r and be wsege 
earmlice forforan. and fela hreowlice and hunger bitene on- 
gean winter ha tugon. 

Dis wa3s swrSe hefigtyme gear geond call Angel cyn. segfter 
ge J>urh maanigfealde gylda. and eac J>urh swi^e hefigtymne 
hunger. |?e ]?isne card ]?8es geares swi^e gedrehte. 

Eac on Jnson geare ]?a heafodmen J>e J?is land heoldan 
oft rsedlice fyrde into Wealon sendon. and maenig man mid 
]?a swiiSe gedrehtan. ac man J?83r ne gespsedde. butan man 
myrringe. and feoh spillinge. 

1097. Her on J?ison geare weas se cyng Willelm to Xpes 
maessaii on Normandig. and J>a togeaiies Eastron hider to 
lande for. for]?a he J>ohte his hired on Win ceastre to heald- 
enne. ac he wearS )?urh weder gelet. o^^et Eastre aefen ^ he 
up co eerost set Arundel. and forj>i his hired set Windlesoran 

And f>ser seft' mid mycclu here into Wealon ferde. and ^ 
land swrSe mid his fyrde ]?urh for. ]?urh sume )?a Wyliscean 
Ipe hi to wseron cumen and his Ised teowas wseron. and J?ser 
inne wunode fra middesumeran forneah o^ August, and myccl 

H h 

234 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1097) J?ser inne for leas on mannan and on horsan. and eac on 
manegan oftran Jnngan. Da Wylisce men sy&Son hi fra )?a 
cynge gebugon. heo manege ealdras of heo sylfan gecuron. 
sum J?sera wses Caduugaun gehaten )?e heora weorSast wses. 
se wses Griffines broker sunu cynges. Ac ]?a i$a se cyng 
geseah -p he nan }>ingc his willes J?ser geforiSian ne mihte. he 
ongean into J?ison lande for. and hrafte sefter J?a. he be ]?a 
gemseron castelas let gemakian. 

Da uppon see MichaeF msessan iv non' Octobr'. setywde dn 
selcuiS steorra on sefen scynende and sona to setle gangende. 
He wses geseweii su'Sweast. and se leoma j?e hi of stod. wses 
swrSe lang ge)?uht su^east scinende. and forneah ealle )?a 
wucan on J>as wisan setywde. manige men leton "p hit 
cometa wsere. 

Sona seft' ]7yson. se arceb' Ansealm of Cant war byrig leafe 
set J?a cynge na. )?eah hit ]>a cynge ungewill waere )?ses )?e men 
leton. and ofer sse for. forj?a him ]mhte ^ man on fisne |?eodan 
lytel sefter rihte and seft' his dyhte dyde. 

And se cyng J>ser seft^ uppon see Martines msessan ofer see 
into Normandig for. ac )?a hwile J?e he wederes abad. his 
hired innon J?a sciran J?ser hi lagdn. )?on mseston hearin 
dydon J?e sefre hired oft$e here innon fri^ lande don sceolde. 
Dis wses on eallon J?ingan swi^e hefigtyme gear, and ofer 
geswincfull. on ungewederan J?a man o^iSe tilian sceolde 
oftfte eft til'Sa gegaderian. and on ungyldan J?a neafre ne 
ablunnon. Eac manege sciran j?e mid weorce to Lundenne 
belupon. wurdon J?serle gedrehte. J?urh ]?on weall ]>e hi 
worhton onbutan j?on tur. and )?urh )?a brycge ]?e forneah 
eall toflotan wses. and jmrh J?ses cynges h ealle geweorc J?e 
man on Westmynstre worhte. and msenige man J?ser mid 

Eac on J?ysu ylcan geare sona uppon see Michaeles 
msessan ferde Eadgar sej?eling mid fyrde )?urh fses cynges 
fultu into Scot lande. and ]?et land mid stranglicu feohte 
gewann. and ]?on cyng Dufenal lit adrsefde. and his mseg 
Eadgar se wses Melcolmes sunu cynges and Margarite J?sere 
cwenan he J?ser on J>ses cynges Willelmes heldan to cynge 
gesette. and sy&San ongean into Engleland for. 

1098. On j?ysum geare to Xpes msessan wass se cyng W. 
on Normandig. And Walcelin b' on Win ceastre and Baldewine 


abb' on see ^Edmund innan )?sere tide bsegen forSferdan. (A. 0.1098) 
And on J>isu geare eac Turold abb' of Burh forSferde. 

Discs geares eac to j>an sumeran innan Barruc scire set 
Finchastsede an mere blod weoll. swa swa manige trywe men 
ssedan he bit geseon sceoldan. 

And Hugo eorl weariS ofslagen innan Angles ege fra tit 
wikingan. and his broker Rodbert wearS his yrfenuma. swa 
swa he hit set J>a cynge of code. 

Toforan see Michael' msessan setywde seo heofon swilce 
heo forneah ealle )?a niht byrnende wsere. Dis wees swvSe 
geswincfull gear J?urh manigfeald ungyld. and Jmrh mycele 
renas J?e ealles geares ne ablunnon. forneah selc til$ on mersc 
lande forferde. 

1099. Her waes se cyng WilPm to midewintra on Nor- 
mandig. and to Eastron hider to lande co. and to Pentecosten 
forman sr5e his hired innan his niwan g'byttlan aat West 
mynstre heold. and j?aer Rannulfe his capellane p biscoprice 
on Dunholme geaf. ]?e aeror ealle his gemot ofer call Engle 
land draf and bewiste. and sona J?8er8eft/ ofer sse for. and 
J?on eorl Elias of J?aere Manige adraf. and hy syiSi5an on his 
geweald gessette. and swa to see Michael' msessan eft hider 
to lande co. 

Discs geares eac on see Martin massse dseg. asprang up to 
J?answr$e sse flod. and swa mycel to hearme gedyde. swa nan 
man ne g'munet j? hit sefre seror dyde. and wses ftses ylcan 
dseges luna p'ma. 

And Osmund biscop of Searbyrig innon Aduent forSferde. 

1100. On ]>ison geare se cyng W. heold his hired to Xpes 
maessa on Gleaweceastre. and to Eastron on Winceastre. and 
to Pentecost' on West mynstre. 

And to J?a Pentecost' waes gesewen innan Barruc scire set 
anan tune blod weallan of eor]?an. swa swa msenige saedan J>e 
hit g'seon sceoldan. And J?ser a3ft' on morgen seft' hlamaesse 
dsege wear^ se cyng Willelm on huntno^e fra his anan men 
mid anre fla ofsceoten. and sy&San to Winceastre gebroht. 
and on )?a biscoprice bebyrged. ty waBS J?ses ]?reotte^an geares 
]?e he rice onfeng. 

He wa3s swi^e strang and refte ofer his land and his msenn. 
and wr3 ealle his neahheburas. and swrSe on drasdendlic. and 
|?urh yfelra manna rsedas )?e hi sefre gecweme wseran. and 

H h 2 

236 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. noo)]?urh his agene gitsunga. he sefre fas leode mid here and mid 
ungylde tyrwigende wses. forfan J?e on his dagan selc riht 
afeoll. and selc unriht for Gode and for worulde uparas. 
Godes cyrcean he nyiSerade. and J?a b'cop rices and abb' rices 
]?e )?a ealdras on his dagan feollan. Ealle he hi o&Se wrS feo 
gesealde. o$$e on his agenre hand heold. and to gafle gesette. 
for]?an J>e he selces mannes gehadodes and Isewedes yrfenuma 
beon wolde. and swa ^ j?ses daeges ]?e he gefeoll. he heafde 
on his agenre hand -p arceVriee on Cantwarbyrig. and -p 
bisceoprice on Winceast'. and ^ on Searbyrig. and xi abb' 
rices, ealle to gafle gesette. And )?eah j?e ic hit Iseng ylde. 
call j?et ]?e Gode wses laiS and rihtfull' mannan. eall f wses 
gewunelic on Jusari lande on his tyman. and forj>i he wses for 
neah ealre his leode laft. and Gode andssete. swa swa his sende 
jetywde. for)>an J?e he on middewardan his unrihte buten 
behreowsunge and selcere dsedbote gewat. 

On j?sene punresdseg he wses ofslagen. and ]?ges on morgen 
bebyrged. and syiSJ>an he bebyrged waes. ]?a witan ]?e ]?a neh 
handa waeron. his broker Heanrig to cynge gecuran. and he 
f>a)rrihte j) bisc'rice on Winceast' Will'me Giffarde geaf. 
and siJ?J>an to Lundene for. and on )?an Sunnandsege )?8er seft' 
to foran J?a weofode on West mynstre Gode and eallan folce 
behet ealle J?a unriht to aleggenne J?e on his broiSer timan 
wseran. and J?a betstan lage to healdene ]?e on seniges 
cynges dsege to foran him stodan. And hine sy&San seft' 
f>a se biscop of Lundene Maurici' to cynge gehalgode. and 
hi ealle on j?eosan lande to abugan. and a$as sworan. and his 
men wurdon. 

And se cyng sona seft' ]?a be ]?8ere rsede J?e hi abutan 
wseran. J>on biscop Rannulf of Dunholme let niman. and into 
j?a ture on Lundene let gebringon. and J?ser healdan. Da to 
foran see Michael' msessan co se arce biscop Ansealm of Cant 
warbyr' hider to lande. swa swa se cyng Heanrig be his 
witena raede hi aeft' sende. forfan J>e he waes lit of )?is lande 
gefaren. for )?an mycelan unrihte )?e se cyng Wiirm him dyde. 

And sr3]?an sona herseft' se cyng gena Mahalde hi to wife 
Malcolmes cynges dohter of Scotlande. and Margareta )?8ere 
goda cwsene Eadwardes cynges magan. and of ]mn rihtan 
^Englalandes kynekynne. and on see Martines msessedaeg 
heo wearS him mid mycelan weorSscipe forgifen on West 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 237 

mynstre. and se arcebisc' Ansealm hi hi bewseddade. and (A. D. i roo) 
siiSiSan to cwene gehalgode. And se arceb' Thomas of 
Eoferwic hersefV sona forSferde. 

Deoses ylces geares eac innan haerfest co se eorl Rotbert 
ham into Normandi. and se eorl RotVt of Flandr'. and Eu- 
stati' eorl of Bunan fra lerusale. And sona swa se eorl R. 
into Normandig com. he wearS fra eallan )?a folce bltyelice 
under fangen. butan J?a castelan $e wseron g'ssette mid |?8es 
cynges Heanriges manna, togeanes ]?an he manega gewealc 
and gewinn heefde. 

1101. Her on jnsu geare to Xpes msessan heold se cyng 
Heanrig his hired on West mynstre. and to Eastran on 
Win ceastre. 

And )?a sona ]>ser softer wurdon J?a heafod men her on lande 
wrSer rseden togeanes ]?a cynge. segfter ge for heoran agenan 
mycelan ungetrywftan. and eac )?urh ]?on eorl Eodbert of 
Normandig. J>e mid unfrrSe hider to lande fundode. And se 
cyng syftftan scipa ut on sse sende his broker to dsere and to 
Isettinge. ac hi sume seft set J?8ere iieode abru^on. and fra J?a 
cyuge gecyrdon. and to ]?a eorle Rotb'te gebugan. Da to 
middesumeran ferde se cyng lit to Pefenesa3 mid call his 
fyrde togeanes his broker and his J?8er abad. Ac onmang 
)^ison co se eorl Rotb't up a3t PortesmuiSan xii nihtan toforan 
Hlafmaessan. and se cyng mid ealre his fyrde hi togeanes 
co. Ac )?a heafod men heo betwenan foran. and J?a bro^ra 
gesehtodan on J>a gerad. )?et se cyng for let call ^ he mid 
streangfte innan Normandig togeanes )?a eorle heold. and f 
ealle fa on Engle lande heora land ongean heafdoii. ]?e hit ser 
]?urh )?one eorl forluron. and Eustaties eorl eac call his feeder 
land her on lande. and }?et se eorl Rotb't selce geare sceolde 
of Engla lande J?reo )?usend marc seolfres habban. and loc 
hwefter j?aera gebroiSra o^erne oferbide. wasre yrfeweard 
ealles Engla landes and eac Normandiges. buton se for$ 
farena yrfe numan heafde be rihtre sewe. and ]?is J?a mid a$e 
gefestnodan xii J?a hihste of segftre healfe. And se eorl syiS- 
^an o^ ^et ofer see Michael' msesse her on lande wunode. and 
his men my eel to hearme sefre gedydon swa hi geferdon. J>a 
hwile j>e se eorl her on lande wunode. 

Discs geares eac se b' Rannulf to )?a Candel msessan lit of 
J?a ture on Lunden nihtes oiSbserst )?8er he on h?pftne'Se wses. 

238 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. noi)and to Normandige for. j?urh ]?es macunge msest and to- 
spryttinge se eorl Rotb't J?ises geares Jns land mid unfriSe 

1102. On j?isu geare to Natiuite^ WSGS se cyng Heanrig on 
Westmynstre. and to Eastron on Winceastre. 

And sona J?aer seft' wurdon un sehte se cyng and se eorl 
Rotb't of Bselsesme se hsefde J?on eorldo her on lande on 
Scrobbes byrig )?e his fseder Roger eorl ser ahte. and micel 
rice J?serto. segfter g' beheonon sse ge begeondon. And se 
cyng ferde and besaet J?on castel set Arundel. ac J?a he hine 
swa hrafte gewinnan ne mihte. he let J?ser toforan castelas 
gemakian. and hi mid his mannan gesette. and sy&San mid 
ealre his fyrde ferde to Brigge. and J?ser wunode oiSiSet he 
]?one castel hsefde. and )?one eorl Rotbert belaende. and ealles 
bensemde. f>es he on Engla lande hsefde. and se eorl swa ofer 
sse gewa"t. and se fyrde sy3$an ha cyrde. 

Da J?aer seft' to see Michael' msessan wses se cyng set Wsest 
mynstre. and ealle ]?a hsefod men on ]?is lande g^hadode and 
Isewede. and se arceb j Ansealm heold g'hadodra manna sinoiS. 
and hi J?ser manega beboda setton ]?e to Xpendome belimpa*S. 
and segfter manige Frencisce and Englisce J>ser heora stafas 
and rice forluron. f>e hi mid unrihte begeaton. o$3e mid 
woge )?seron lifedon. 

And on ^isu ylcan geare on Pentecosten msessan wuce. J>a 
coman J?eofas sum of Aluearnie. su of France, and su of 
Flandres. and breokan j?a mynstre of Burh and ]?ser inne 
naman mycel to gode on golde and on seolfre. J>et waeron 
roden and calicen and candelsticcan. 

1103. Her on ]?isu geare to midewintra wses se cyng Hean- 
rig set West mynstre. And J?ser seft' sona ferde se b' Willelm 
Giffard ut of }>is land. forj?an )?e he ongean riht nolde his 
hades on fon set J?a arce b' Girarde of Eoferwic. And j?a to 
j?an Eastran heold se cyng his hired on Win c'. And J?ser 
seft' ferde se arce b' Ansealm of Cantwarbyrig to Rome, swa 
swa hi and ]?a cynge gewearS. 

Discs geares eac co se eorl Rotbert of Normandig to sprec- 
ene wiiS |?one cyng her on lande. And ser he heonne ferde he 
for geaf j>a )?reo Jmsend marc J?e hi seo cyng Heanrig be fore 
weard eelce geare gifan sceolde. 

On J?isum geare eac set Heamstede innan Barrucscire. wa3s 


gesewen blod of eorftan. Dis waes swrSe gedeorfsum gear (A. D. 1103) 
her on lande. J?urh maenifealde gyld. and )mrh orfcwealm. 
and waestma for weorj^enesse aegiSer ge on come and eac on 
eallon treow wsestman. Eac on morgen uppon see Laurent' 
ma?ssedseg gedyde se wind swa mycel to hearme lier on lande 
on eallon wsestman. swa nan man ne gemunde J? aefre aenig 
aer gedyde. 

On ftisum ylcan geare Matliias abb' of Burh forSferde. se 
ne lyfode na leng ]?a an geare. syftftan he abb' waes. Mft' 
see Michael' maessan on xii k' Nov' he waes mid procession 
under fangan to abb', and on 3a ylcan dsege j;es o^res geares 
he wearS dead on Gleaw ceastre. and j?ser bebyrged. 

1104. Her on J?isu geare to Xpes msessan heold se cyng 
Heanrig his hired set Waest minstre. and to Eastron on Win 
ceastre. and to Pentecosten eft on West mynstre. 

Discs geares waes se forma Pentecostes daeg on no Jun'. 
and on ]?am Tiwaesdaege )?aeraeft' setywdan feower circulas to 
J?a mid dsege onbutan ]?sere sunnan hwites hiwes. selc under 
o^ran gebroiden. swylce hi gemette wseron. Ealle J?e hit 
g'sawon wundredon. forj?an hi nsefre aer swilce ne gemundon. 

Heraeft' wurdon sehte se eorl Rotb't of Normandig. and 
Rotb't de Baelesme f>e se cyng Heanri aeror belaend haefde 
and of Engla lande adrifen. and |?urh heora sehte wurdon 
wrSerraede se cyng of Englalande and se eorl of Normandig. 
and se cyng his folc ofer sae into Normandig sende. and ]?a 
heafod men ]?aer on lande hi underfengon. and on heora hlaf- 
ordes J?aes eorles swicdome into heora castelan gelogodan. 
J?anon hi manige gedrecednissa on hergunga and on bserninge 
)?am eorle gedydon. Eac )?ises geares Willelm eorl of Moretoin 
heonon of lande into Normandig for. ac syftiSan he afaren 
wes. he wr3 )?one cyng g'worhte. for hwan hine se cyng ealles 
benaemde. and belaende )?aes ]?e he her on lande haefde. 

Nis eafte to asecgenne J>ises landes earm^a- \>e hit to }>ysan 
timan dreogende waes* |?urh mistlice and maanig fealdlice un 
riht and gyld- J?ae naefre ne geswican ne ne ateorodon. and 
aefre ealswa se cyng for* ful hergung |?urh his hired uppon 
his wreccea folc waes. and ]?ser on mang for oft baerneta and 
man slihtas. 

Eall ]?is waes God mid to gremienne. 
and j?as arme leode mid to tregienne. 

240 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

1105. On fisu geare to NatiuiteS heold se cyng Heanrig 
his hired set Windlesoran. 

And f seraeft' to fa lengtene he for ofer sse into Normandig 
uppon his broker Rotbert eorl. And onmang fa fe he faer 
wunode he gewann of his broker Caf urn and Baius. and 
msest ealle J?a castelas and fa heafod men faer on lande hi 
wurdon under feodde. and se sy$$an to herfest eft ongean 
hider to lande co. And ^ he on Normandig g'wunnen haafde. 
syftftan on sibbe and hi gebygle wunode. butan fa fe fa 
eorle WilPme of Mortoin ahwaer neah wunedon. fa he gelom- 
lice gesweencte swa he swiiSost mihte. for his land lyre her on 
lande. And fa toforan Xpes rnsessan co Rotb't de Baelesme 
hider to lande to fa cynge. 

Dis wses swrSe gedyrfsum gear her on lande f urh waestma 
forwordenessa. and furh fa maenigfealde gyld fe naefre ne 
gesvvican aer se cyng ofer fore, and fa hwile fe he faer waes. 
and eft sySftan he ongean com. 

1106. Her on fison geare waes se cyng Henrig to NatiuiteS 
on West mynstre. and f aer his hired heold. and uppon f sere 
tide Rotbert de Btelesme mid unsehte fra fa cynge lit of 
fison lande into Normaudige for. 

Da her seft' on foran Isengtene waes se cyng set NorS ha 
tune, and se eorl Rotbert his broker of Normandig f yder to 
hi co. and forf a se cyng hi nolde agifan -p fe he on Nor- 
mandig' uppon hi genumen hsefde. hi mid unsehte tohwurfou. 
and se eorl ferde ofer se sona eft ongean. 

On fsere forman laengtenwucan on fon Frige daeg i. e. xiiii 
k' Mr' on aefen aetywde n ungewunelic steorra. and lange 
stunde faerseft' waes selce sefen gesewen hwile scinende. Se 
steorra setywde innon ^ su^ west, he waes litel gef uht. and 
deorc. ac se leoma fe hi fra stod waes swrSe beorht. and 
swilce ormaete beam gef uht norSeast scinende. and Sune 
aefen waes gesaewen swilce se beam ongean weardes wr$ fes 
steorran ward fyrcliende waere. Gehwylce saedon -p hig ma 
on fison timon un cuiSra steorra gesawon. ac we hit openlicor 
ne awriton. forf a f e we hit sylfe ne sawon. On fa niht f e on 
morgen waes CENA Dni. j? is se punres daeg toforan Eastran. 
waeron gesewen twegeu monan on faere heofonan toforan 
f am daege ofter be eastan. and se ofter be westan begen fulle. 
and faes ylcan daeges waes se raona xiiii a . 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 241 

To Eastran wses se cyng set Ba$an. and to Pentecosten set (A.D. 1106) 
Searbyrig. forj?a ]?e he nolde on his fundunge ofer sse hired 
healdan. Bser setter toforan August ferde se cyng ofer sse 
into Normandig. and ealle msest ]?e J?ser on lande wseron hi 
on his willan to gebugon. wiftuton Rotb't de Bselesme. and 
]>a eorle of Moretoin. and feawa oftre of ]?a heafodrnannan ]?e 
mid J?a eorle of Normandige J?e gyt heoldan. and forjjan se 
cyng syiSftan mid fyrde for. and besset J?ses eorles senne castel 
of Moretoin Tenercebrai hatte. On mang )?, J>e se cyng )?on 
castel besset. co se eorl RotVt of Normandig on see Michael' 
msesse sefen uppon ]?one cyng mid his fyrde. and mid hi 
RotVt de Bselesme. and Willelm eorl of Moretoin. and ealle 
J?a |?e mid heo woldan. ac seo streong'Se and se sige wearS 
]?ses cynges. Dser wearS se eorl of Normandig gefangen. 
and se eorl of Moretoin. and RotVt de Stutteuile. and to 
Engla lande sr&San gesende. and on hseftneSe gebrohte. 
Rotb't de Beelesme |?ser wear^S aflymed. and Will'm Crispin 
g'lseht. and manige for^mid. Eadgar se]?eling )?e litle ser fra 
]?a cynge to J?a eorl wses gefaren )?ser wses eac gefangen. ]?one 
let se cyng sy^aii sac leas faran. SyfrSan geeode se cyng 
call -p on Normandige wa3s. and hit on his willan and ge- 
weald gesette. 

Dises geares eac wseron swrSe hefige and sinlice gewinn 
betwux ]?a Casere of Sexlande and his sunu. and on mang 
]?a g'winnan se fseder foriS ferde. and se sunu feng to J?am 

1107. On j?isu geare to Xpes msessan waes se cyng Henri 
on Normandig. and }? land on his gVeald dihte and sette. 
and J?ser seft' to laengtene hider to lande co. and to Eastran 
his hired on Windlesoran heold. and to Pentecosten on West 
mynstre. And syftiSan eft to Augustes anginne on West myn- 
stre wses. and J?ser J?a biscopricen and abbodric geaf and 
sette. )?e on Engle lande oftSe on Normandige buton ealdre 
and hyrde. Dera waeron swa fela swa nan man nses J?e ge- 
mvnde p a3fre ger swa fela togaedere gyfene wseron. 

And set ]?es ylcan sySe. on mang )?a o^re ]?e abV rices 
under fengon. Ernulf )?e ser wses prior on Cant war byrig feng 
to |?a abb' rice on Burh. Dis wses rihtlice ymbe vii gear fees 
]?e se cyng Henri cynedomes on feng. and wses -p an and 
fowertigeiSe gear ]?ses J?e Francan fyses landes wcoldan. 

I i 


(A. D. 1107) manege ssedon J?et hi on ]>a monan ]?ises geares mistlice 
tacna gesawon. and ongean cynde his leoman wexende and 

Discs geares forSferdon. Maurici' biscop on Lunden. and 
Kotb't abb' on see Eadmundesbyrig. and Ricard abb' on Elig. 
Dises geares eac foriS ferde se cyng Eadgar on Seotlande id' 
JanV. and feng Alexander his broker to J?a rice swa se cyng 
Henri hi geufte. 

1108. Her on j?isu geare wes se cyng Henri to Natiuiteft 
on West mynstre. and to Eastron on Win ceastre. and to 
Pentec eft on West mynstre. and j^sersefV toforan Aug' he 
ferde into Normandig. 

And se cyng of France Philipp' for$ ferde non' Aug'. and 
feng his sunu Loftewis to }>a rice, and wurdon syftiSon manege 
gewinn betwux J?a cynge of France and J?a of Englelande. J?a 
hwile J>e he on Normandig wunode. 

On j?isu geare eac forS ferde se arceb' Girard of Eoferwic 
toforan Pentecost', and wearS sy&San Thomas )?8er to gesett. 

1109. Her on J?ison geare wses se cyng Henri to Xpes 
meessan and to Eastron on Normandig. and toforan Pentec 
hider to lande co. and his hired on West mynstre heold. Daer 
wurdon ]?a forewearda full worhte. and )?a aiSas gesworene his 
dohter J>a Casere to gifene. 

Dises geares g' wurdon swrSe fela J?unra. and f>a swiiSe 
segeslice. And se arceb' Ansealm of Cantwara byrig for$ 
ferde on J?a dsege xi k' Apr', arid vvses se forma Easter dseg 
on Letania maior. 

1110. On j?isu geare heold se cyng Henri his hired to Xpes 
maessan set West mynstre. and to Eastron he wa3S aet Mserle 
beorge. and to Pentec forman sij>e his hired on J?a niwan 
Windlesoran heold. 

Dises geares sende se cyng toforan^ laengtene hjs dohter 
mid maenig fealdan madman ofer sae. and hi ]?am Casere for 
geaf. On J?aere fiftan nihte on Males moniSe. setywde se 
mona on aefen beorhte scinende. and sy^i5an litlan and 
litlan his leoht wanode. swa -p he sona nihtes to J?a swiiSe 
mid ealle acwanc. ^ na|?er ne leoht rie tnendel rie nan J?ing 
mid ealle of hi waes gesaewen. and swa )?urh wunode fullneah 
o$ dseg. and sy$j?an full and beorhte scinende yetywde. he 
waes ]?8es ylcan d?eges feowertyne nihta eald. Ealle }>a niht 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 243 

wses seo lyft swifte clene, and J?a steorran ofer call )?a heofon (A.D. mo) 
swi$e beorhte scinende. and treow wsestmas wurdon l?sere 
nihte J?urh forste swrSe fornumene. Daer seft' on Junies 
moniSe setywde an steorra norSaneastan. and his leoma stod 
toforan hi on )?et suftwest. and ]?us manega niht wses ge- 
ssewen. and furSor nihtes sy$$an he ufor astah. he wses 
g'sewen on bsec on ^ norSwest gangende. 

Dises geares wurdon belaende Philipp' de Brause. and 
WilFm Mallet, and Will'm Bainart. 

Eac ]nses geares forSferde Elias eorl. )?e ]?a Mannie of fa 
cynge Heanri geheold. and on cweow. and aefV his forsiSe 
fengto se eorl of Angeow. and hi togeanes ]?a cynge heold. 

Dis wses swiSe gedeorfsu gear her on lande |?iirh gyld J?e 
se cyng nam for his dohtergyfte. and Jmrh ungewsedera. for 
hwan eoriS westmas wurdon swrSe amyrde. and treow westmas 
ofer call ]?is lane} forneah eall for wurdon. 

Dises geares me began serost to weorcenne on ]m niwan 
mynstre on Ceortesaege. 

1111. On J>ison geare ne baer se kyng Henri his coronan 
to Xpes maessan. ne to Eastron. ne to Pentec. And innan 
August he ferde ofer sae into Normandig. for un sehte J?e 
wr$ hi hsefdon sume be ]?a gemaeran of France, and swr<Sost 
for J?a eorle of Angeow J?e )?a Mannie togeanes him heold. 
and syiSiSan he ]?yder ofer co. mauega un rada and bsernetta 
and hergunga hi heo betweonan gedydan. 

On }?ison geare for^ ferde se eorl Ttotbert of Flandran. and 
feng his sunu Baldewine ]?8erto. 

Dises geares wses swrSe lang wint' and hefigtyme and 
strang. and ]?urh -p eor^S wsestmas wurdon swrSe amyrde. and 
se massta orfcwealm )?e aenig mann mihte gemunan. 
. Eall ]?is gear wunode se cyng Henri on Normandig 
for feere un sehte J?e he hsefde wift France, and wrS )?on eorl 
of Angeow J?e )?a Mannie togeanes hi heold. And on mang 
j?a ]?e he J?fer waes. he belsende fofi eorl of Eureus and Will'm 
Crispin, and ut of Normandi adraf. and Philippe de Braus his 
land ageaf |?e ser wses beleend. and Rotb't de Bselesme he let 
niman and on prisune don. 

Dis waes swi^e god gear and swrSe wistfull on wudan and 
on feldan. ac hit wses swifte hefigtyme and sorhfull J?urh 
ormaetne mancwealm. 

I i 2 

244 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

1113. Her on )?isou geare wses se cyng Henri to Natiuiteft 
and to Eastron and to Pentec on Normandig. And )?ser 
seft' to sumeran he ssende hider to lande Rotb't de Bselesme 
into J>am castele to Weerha. and hisylf sona faerseft' hider to 
lande com. 

1114. On )?ison geare heold se cyng Henri his hyred to 
Natiuiteft on Windlesoran. and ]?ses geares syfrSan he ne 
heold hired nan oftar. 

And to middan sumeran he ferde mid fyrde into Wealon. 
and J?a Wylisceau coman and wi$ )?on cyng grrSedon. and he 
let J?ser inne castelas weorcean. And J?ser seft' innan Septemb' 
he for ofer sse into Normandig. 

Discs geares on sefteward Mai wses geseweu an selcu^ 
steorra mid langan leoman manege niht scinende. Eac on 
J?is ylcan geare wses swa mycel ebba aeghwser anes dseges swa 
nan man seror ne g'munde. and swa ty man ferde ridende and 
gangende ofer Taemese be eastan j?sere brigge on Lunden. 
pises geares wseron swrSe mycele windas on October mon^e. 
ac he wses or msete mycel on ]?a niht Octab J sci Martini, and 
p gehwesr on wudan and on tunan gecydde. 

Eac on ]?isu geare se cyng geaf ]?et arceb'rice on Cant 
warabyrig Raulfe. se wses seror biscop on Hrofeceastre. And 
se arceb' on Eoferwic Thomas forS ferde. and feng Turstein 
)?serto. se wses aeror J?ses cynges capelein. 

On fses ylcau tyme feorde se cyng toweard )?on see and 
ofer wolde. ac wseder hi Isette. }>a hwile )?a sende he his writ 
aft' )?on abb' Ernulf of Burh. and bebead hi ^ he efeostlice 
scolde to hi cuman. for|?i "f he wolde sprecon mid hi dserne 
sprece. Da he to hi co. )?a neodde he hi to J?a biscop rice 
of Hrofeceastre. and ]?a arc biscopes and biscopes and p 
duge^ ]? wses on Engla lande for^ mid se cyng. and he lange 
wi$stod. ac hit ne forheol naht. and se cyng J>a bebead 
Jjofi arc b j f he sceolde hi Iseden to Cantwara byrig and 
blsetson hi to b j wolde he noldehe. Jns waes don on J?3ere 
tuna J?a man cleopa^S Burne. p wses J?es dseges xvii k' Octobr 7 . 
Da ]>e munecas of Burch hit herdon ssegen. ]?a wseron hi 
swa sari swa hi nasfre aar ne wseron. forj?i ^ he waes swrSe 
god and softe man. and dyde mycel to gode wrSinnan and 
wi^utan. J>a hwile ]?e he J?ser wunode. God selmihtig wunie 
sefre mid hi. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 245 

Da sona ^serseft' )?a geaf se cyng ]?on abb' rice an mimec (A.D. iu 4 ) 
of Sseis Johan wses g'haten. J?urh j?8es arceb' gearnunge of 
Cantwarbyrig. And sona j^serseft' sende se cyng hi and 
se arceb' of Cantwarb' to Rome seft' )>es serceb' pallia, and 


an munec mid hi Warner is gehaten. and ]?on serce dieecne 
Johan |?es arceb' neafe. and hi fser well spasddon. Dis waas 
don J>es daeges xi k' Oetobr'. on ]?one tuna )?e man cleopaiS 
Rugenore. and ]?es ylces daeges eode se cyng on scipa on 

1115. Her wa?s se cyng Henri to NatiuiteiS on Normandig. 
and on mang ]?a )?e he |?ser wa?s. he dyde f ealle ]?a heafod 
msen on Normandig dydon manrseden and holda^as his sunu 
Will'me J>e he be his cwene hsefde. and seft' ]?an syS^an innon 
Julies mon'Se hider into lande co. 

Discs geares wses swa strang wint' mid snawe and mid 
forste. swa nan man );e J^a lifode a3rj?an nan strengre ne 
g'munde. and wearS J?urh^ imgemsete orfcwealm. 

On ]?ison geare saande se papa PaschaF llaulfe serceb' on 
Cantwarabyrig palliu hider to lande. and he his onfeng mid 
mycelan wur^scipe set his arce stole on Cant'byrig. Hine 
brohte Arisealm abb' of Rome se waes nefa Ansealmes serceb'. 

and se abb' Johan of Burh. 

1116. On ]?ison geare waes se cyng Henri to Natiuiteft set 
see Albane. and J>ser let ^ mynster halgiari. and to Eastron 
on Wudiham. And wes eac f>yses geares swi^e hefigtyme 
winter and strang and lang. wrS orf and wiiS ealle j?ing. And 
se cyng seft' Eastron sona ferde ofer sse into Normandig. and 
wurdon manega imrada and rsefunga and castelas g'numene 
betwux France and Normandig. Mnest ]?is unsehte waas 
for]?an ]?e se cyng Henri fylste his nefan |>a eorle Tsedbalde 
de Blais. ]?e )?a wyrre heefde togeanes his hlaforde J?a cynge of 
France Lo^ewis. 

Dis wses swi^e g'swincfull gear and byrstfull on eoriS 
waestman. Jnirh ]?a ormsete reinas J?e coman sona onforan 
August, and swrSe gedrehton and geswencton )?e gyt ]?e co 
Candel maessan. Eac ]?is gear wses swa gsesne on msestene. 
swa ty on eallon ]?ison lande ne eac on Wealon ne g'hyrde me 
of nanan segcean. Dis land and ]?as leodon wurdon eac ]?yses 
geares oftrsedlice sare geswencte. |?urh ]?a gyld }>e se cyng na. 
ge binnan burgati and butan. 

246 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

comfcustto On }?isu ylcan geare baernde eall -p mynstre of Burh. and 
tCfl'tl eallae J>a husas butan se Captelhus and se Slsepperne. and J>yer 
to eac bsernde eall J?a mseste drel of Jm tuna. Eall J?is belap 
on an Frigdseg. j? wses ii NO Aug't. 

1117. Eall ]?is gear wunode se cyng Henri on Normandig. 
for )?es cynges unsehte of France and his o$ra nehhebura. 
And J>a to $an sumeran co se cyng of France and se eorl of 
Flandra mid hi mid fyrde into Normandig. and ane niht Jer 
inne wunedon. and on morgen butan gefeohte ongean ferden. 
And Normandig wearS swrSe gedreht. segiSer g' ]?urh gyld ge 
Jmrh fyrde J?e se cing Henri J?ser ongean gaderode. Eac )?eos 
]?eode ]?urh ]?is ylce J?urh manigfealde gyld. wearS strange 

Discs geares eac on J?sere nihte kF Decemb' wurdon or- 
msetlica wsedera mid )>unre. and lihtinge. and reine. and 
hagole. And on J?sere nihte iii id' Dec wearS se mona lange 
nihtes swylce he eall blodig wsere. and syiS^an a^istrode. 
Eac on J?8ere nihte xvii kF Janr ? wses seo heofon swySe read 
geseweri. swylce hit bryne waere. And on Octab' sci Johis 
Eug?a3 wses seo mycele eor^Sbyfung on Lumbardige. for 
hwan manega mynstras and turas. and huses gefeollon. and 
mycelne hearm on manrian gedydon. Dis waes swyfte byrst- 
ful gear on corne. J?urh )?a renas )?e forneh ealles geares ne 

And se abb' Gilebert of West mynstre for'S ferde viii id* 
Dec. and Farits abb' of Abbandune vii k' Martn. And on 
]?isum ylcan geare 

1118. Her eall j?is gear wunode se cyng Henri on Nor- 
mandig. for ]?es cynges wyrre of France, and J?aes eorles of 
Angeow. and ]?ses eorles of Flandrari. And se eorl of Flandra 
wariS innan Normandig gewundod. and swa gewundod into 
Flandran for. Durh J?isra un sehte wear^ se cyng swy$e 
gedreht. and mycel for leas, segfter ge on feoh and eac on 
lande. and maest hine dryfdon his agene msen ]>e hi gelome 
fra bugon. and swicon. and to his feoudan cyrdon. and heo 
to J?ses cynges hearme and swicdome heora castelas ageafon. 
Eall Jns strange gebohte Englaland. j?urh |?a msenigfealdlice 
gyld ]>e ealles J>ises geares ne geswicon. 

On )?ison geare on ]?8ere wucon Theophauie wses aries sefenes 
swyfte mycel lihtinge, and ungemetlice slsege )?aer a?fV. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 247 

And seo cvven Mahald forS ferde on West mynstre |>ses (A. D. m8) 
dseges kP Mai. and J?aer wses bebyrged. And se eorl Rotbert 
of Mellent j?ises geares eac for<$ ferde. 

Eac on J?ison geare to see Thomas msesse. wses s\va swiiSe 
ungemetlice mycel wind. ^ nan man )?e }>a lifode neenne 
maran ne gemunde. and ty waes seghwer geseone. seg'Ser ge 
on husan and eac on treowan. 

Discs geares eac for^ ferde se papa PaschaP. and feng Johan 
of Gaitan to j?a papddme. J?a wses oiSer nama Gelasius. 

1119. Bis gear eall wunode se cyng Henri on Normandig. 
and wses J?urh J?ses cynges wyrre of France, and eac his 
agenra manna J?e hi mid swicdome fra wseron mid abugon. 
oftrsedlice swyj?e gedreht. ofrSet )?a twegen cyngas innan 
Normandige. mid heoran folcan coman togtedere. j?aer wear$ 
seo cyng of France aflymed. and ealle his betste msen genum- 
ene. and sySiSan )?8es cynges mseri Heanriges manega hi to ge 
bugen. and wr3 hine acordedan J?e aeror mid heora castelan hi 
togeanes wseron. arid sume J?a castelas he mid strengiSe gena. 

Discs geares ferde Willelm ]?8es cynges sunu Heanriges and 
J?sere cwene Mahalde into Normandige to his fseder. and J?ser 
wear^ hi forgifen and to wife beweddod J?ses eorles dohter 
of Angeow. 

On see Michael' msesse sefen wees mycel eorS bifung on 
suman steodan her on lande. ]?eah swyiSost on Gloweceastre 
scire. and on Wigre ceastre scire. 

On ]?is ylcan geare forS ferde se papa Gelasius on j?as halfe 
j?aere muntan. and wees on Clunig bebyrged. and aeft' hi se 
arce b* of Uiana wearS to papan gecoren. J?am wearS nam 
Calixtus. Se sy^an to see Lucas msessan eug'lista co> 
into France to Rseins. and J>ser heold concilia, and se arce b 5 ' 
Turstein of Eoferwic ]?yder ferde. and forj?i J?e he togeanes 
rihte and togeanes J?a arce stole on Cant wara byrig. and 
togeanes J?8es cynges willan his had set ]?am papan under 
feng. him wrScwse^ se cyng selces gean fares to Engla lande. 
and he ]?us his arceb' rices J?aernode. and mid $am papan 
towardes Rome for. 

Eac on j?ison geare forS ferde se eorl Baldewine of Flandran 
of )?a wundan ]?e he innan Normandige gefeng. and aafter hi 
feng Carl his fa^asunu to }>am rice, se waes Cnutes sunu J?yes 
haligan cynges of Denmarcan. . 


1120. Discs geares wurdon selite seo cyng of FJngle lande 
and se of France, and sefter heora sehte acordedan ealles ]?ses 
cynges Heanriges agene msen wi$ hine innan Norraandige. 
and sc eorl of Flandran. and se of Puntiw. SyftSan her sefter 
ssette se cyng Henrig his castelas and his land on Normandi 
sefter his willan. and swa toforan Aduent hider to lande for. 

And on ]?am fare wurdon adrincene ]?ses cynges twegen 
sunan Willelm and Ricard. and Ricard eorl of Ceastre. and 
Ottuel his bro$or. and swySe manega of J^ses cynges hired 
stiwardas and bur)?enas and byrlas and of mystlicean wican. 
and ungerirn swySe asnlices folces forS mid. Dysra deaS 
wses heora freondan twyfealdlic sar. an ]?et hi swa fearlice 
]?ises lifes losedan. o^er -p feawa heora lichaman ahwser sySftan 
fundena wseron. 

Dises geares com ]?et leoht to Sepulchru Dhi innan lerusale 
twiges. senes to Eastron. and oiSre si^e to Assuptio see Marie 
swa swa geleaffulle ssedon )?e Ration coman. 

An se arce b' Turstein of Eoferwic wearS J?urh ]?one papan 
wiiS J?one cyng acordad. and hider to lande com. and his 
biscoprices onfeng. J?eah hit ]?a arceb' of Cantwarabyrig 
swySe ungewille waere. 

1121. Her wses se cyng Henri to Xpes masssan on Brain- 
tune, and j>ser aefter to forau Candel msessan on Windlesoran 
him to wife f orgy fen A^elis and sy^^an to cwene gehalgod. 
seo wa3s J?aBs here togan dohtor of Luuaine. 

And se mona aj;y strode on J?aere nihte None Apr', and wses 
xiv luna. 

And se cyng wses to Eastran on Beorclea. and J?ser sefter 
to Pentecosten he heold mycelne hyred on Westmynstre. 
and syftftan )?33S sumeres mid ferde into Wealan for. and f>a 
Wyliscean him ongean coman. and sefter j?es cynges willan hi 
wr$ hine acordedan. 

Dises geares com se eorl of Angeow fra lerusale into his 
lande. and syftftan hider to lande sende. and his dohter let 
feccean. seo wses WilFme ]?es cynges sune seror to wife for 

And on J>sere nihte uigilia Natal' Dni wses swyfte mycel 
wind ofer eall J?is laud, and J?et wearS on manegan Jnugan 
swySe gesene. 

Here ends the first hand in MS. E. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 249 

1122. On J?is geare waes se king Heanri on Cristes msessan 
on Norhtwic. and on Pasches he weas on Norht hamtune. 

And on J?one lententyde J?aer toforen for beam se burch on combust 
Gleawe ceastre. ]?a hwile J?e }>a munecas sungen J?aere raesse. 
and se daecne hafde ongunnan ]?one godspel P'TERIENS Iftc. 
fa co se fir on ufen weard ]?one stepel. and for bearnde ealle 
J?e minstre. and ealle J?a gersuraes fe faor binnen wseron 
foruton feawe bee. and iii messe hakeles. ]?et wes )?es dseies 
viii id' Mr'. 

And J?aer setter |?e Tywesdaei sefter Palmes Sunendsei 
wses swrSe micel wind on ^ daei xi k' Apr'. ]?ser sefter 
coraen feale tacne widehwear on Englaland and feole 
dwild wearen geseogen and geheord. And j?es niht viii k j 
Aug' waes swrSe micel eorS dyne ofer eal Sumer sete scire 
and on Gleawe cestre scire. SrSiSon on j?aes daei vi id' Sept' 
J?et wses on see Marie messe daei. J?a wear^ swi^e myccl wind 
fra )?a underndseies to )?a swarte nihte. 

peos ilce geares for$ ferde Raulf seo serce biscop of Cant 
warbyrig. -p wees on J?ses dseies xiii k j Nouemb'. pser sefter 
wseron feole scip men on sa3. and on wseter. and sa3don -p hi 
saegon on norS east fir mycel and brad wi^ f>one eorSe. and 
weax on lengfe up on an to )?am wolcne. and se wolcne un 
dide on fower healfe and faht J?ser togeanes. swilc hit scoldc 
a cwencen. and se fir weax na )?a ma up to )?e heouene. past 
fir hi seagon in $e daei rime and Iseste swa lange ty hit wscs 
liht ofer call. )?et wses |?aes daeies vii idus Decembr'. 

1123. On )>yssum geare wses se king Henri on Cristes tyde 
a3t Dunestaple. and fser comen ]?es eorles sander men of An- 
geow to him. and J?eonen he ferde to Wudestoke. and his 
biscopes and his hird eal mid him. pa tidde hit on an Wod- 
nesdei. J?et waes on iv id' Jafirii. J?et se king rad in his derfald 
and se biscop Roger of Seres byrig on an half him. and se 
biscop Rotbert Bloet of Lincolne on ofter half him. and riden 
J?ser sprecende. pa aseh dune se biscop of Lincolne and seide 
to j?am kyng. Laferd kyng ic swelte. and se kyng alihte dune 
of his hors and alehte hine bctwux his earmes. and let hine 
beran ham to his inne. and wearS J?a sone dead, and man 
ferode hine to Lincolne mid micel wurSscipe. and bebyrigde 
hine toforen see Marie wefod. and hine bebyrigde se b' of 
Ceastre Rotbert Pecceft wses gehaten. 


250 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1123) Da sone ]?ser sefter sende se kyng hise write ofer call Engla 
lancle. and bed hise biscopes and hise abbates and hise j?eignes 
ealle ]?et hi scolden cumen to his gewitenemot on Candel 
messe deig to Gleawceastre him togeanes. and hi swa diden. 
Da hi waerau J>ser gegaderod. )?a bed se cyng heom J?aet hi 
scoldon cesen hem serce biscop to Cantwarabyrig swa hwam 
swa swa hi woldon. and he hem hit wolde ty]?ian. Da sprsecon 
i$a biscopas hem betwenan. and sseden J?set hi nsefre mare ne 
wolden hafen munec hades man to ercebiscop ofer hem. ac 
iedon ealle samodlice to J?one kyng and ieornden )? hi mosten 
cesen of clerc hades man swa hwam swa swa hi wolden to 
ercebiscop. and se kyng hit hem tidde. Dis wses eall ear 
gedon $urh se biscop of Seres byrig. and j?urh se biscop of 
Lincolne ser he wsere dead. forSi J?et nsefre ne luueden hi 
munece regol. ac wseron sefre togsenes muneces and here 
regol. And se prior and se munecas of Cantwarabyrig. and 
ealle ]?a oftre |?e iSasr wa3ron munec hades men hit wiiScwte^en 
fulle twa dagas. ac hit naht ne beheld, for se biscop of Sseres 
byrig wses strang and wealde eall Engleland. and wses J?ser 
togeanes eall ^ he mihte and cufte. Da cusen hi an clerc 
Willelm of Curboil wses gehaten. he was canonic of an myn- 
stre Cicc hatte. and brohten him toforen se kyng. and se 
kyng him geaf $one serce biscop rice, and ealle j?a biscopas 
him under fengen. him wrS cwae^en muneces and eorles and 
J?eignes ealle mest J?e ]?8er wseron. 

On )?a ilca tyma ferden J?es eorles sandermen mid unssehte 
fra kyng. na of his gyfe naht ne rohton. 

On J?a ilca tyma com an Legat of Rome Henri wses gehaten. 
he wses abbot of see Johs mynstre of Anieli. and he co sefter 
}?e Rome scot, and he ssede ]?one cyng ^ hit wses togeanes 
riht )? man scolde setten clerc ofer muneces. and swa swa hi 
hsefden cosen aerce biscop seror in here capitele sefter rihte. 
ac se cyng hit nolde undon. for )?es b' luuen of Sseres byrig. 
Da ferde se serce biscop sone J?ser sefter to Cantwarabyrig 
and wses J?ser underfangan j?aeh hit wsere here unj?ancas. and 
was ]?3ere sone gebletsod to biscop fram se biscop of Lundene. 
and se b' Ernulf of Roueceastre. and se V Will'm Gifard of 
Winceastre. and se b' Bernard of Wales, and se b' Roger of 
Scares byrig. Da sone in ]?e leiiten ferde se rerce biscop to 
Rome sefter his palliu. and mid him ferde se b' Bernard of 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 251 

Wales, and Sefred abbot of Gleasting byrig. and Ansealm (A.D. 1123) 
abbot of s' ^Edmund, and Johan serce dsecne of Cantwara 
byrig. and Gifard wses j?es kinges hird clerc. 

On J?a ilca tima ferde se serce biscop Durstari of Eoferwic 
to Rome Jmrh J>es papes hese. and com J>ider ftre dagas ser se 
serce b' of Cantwarabyrig come, and wses ]?sere under fangan 
mid micel wurSscipe. Da co se serce b' of Cantwarabyrig 
and wses ftsere fulle seoueniht ser hi mihte cumen to J?es 
papes sprsece. -p wses for]?an -p hit wses don ftone pape to 
under standen ^ he hsefde under fangen ftone serce biscop rice 
togeanes ]?a muneces of ]?e mynstre and togeanes rihte. Ac 
^ ofer co Rome J?et ofercumeft call weoruld -p is gold and 
seolure. and se pape sweftolode and gaf hi his pallium, and se 
serce b' swor him underj>eodnysse of ealle fta [?ing -p se papa 
hi on leide on s j Petres heuod and s' Paules. and sende him 
ha ^a mid his bletsunge. 

Da hwile *p se serce b' wses ut of lande geaf se kyng ^one 
biscop rice of BaiSe )?es cwenes canceler GodefrerS wses ge- 
haten. he wses boren of Luuein. -p wses J>es dseiges Annuntiatio 
s' Marie at Wudestoke. Da sone J>er sefter ferde se king to 
Winceastre and wses ealle Eastrentyde J?sere. and )?a hwile 
p he )?ser wses J?a geaf he ]?one biscop rice of Lincolne an 
clerc Alexander wses gehaten. he wses )?es biscopes nefe of 
Scares byrig. ]?is he dyde call for J?es biscopes luuen. 

Da ferde se kyng ]?enen to Fortes mir<Se. and Isei J?sere call 
ofer Pentecostewuce. ]?a sone swa he hsefde wind swa ferde 
he ofer into Normandie. and betsehte J>a call Engle land to 
geamene and to wealden J?one b' Roger of Scares byrig. Da 
wses se kyng eall J>es geares in Normandie. and weax J?a 
micel unfrrS betwux him and hise ]?eignas. swa -p se eorl 
Walaram of Mellant. and Hamalri. and Hugo of Mundford. 
and Wiirm of Rom are. and fela oft re wendan fra him and 
helden here castles him togeanes. And se kyng held strang- 
lice he togeanes. and ]?es ylces geares he wan of Walaram his 
castel Punt Aldemer. and of Hugo Mundford. and srSften he 
spedde sefre leong ]?e bet. 

Des ylce geares ser se biscop of Lincolne co to his b'rice 
for beam eall meast se burh of Lincolne. and micel un gerime 
folces wsepmen and wimmen forburnen. and swa mycel hearm 

K k 2 

252 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

pser wses gedon swa nan man hit cufte oper secgen. pet wses 
pes dseges xiv kP Junii. 

1124. Eall pis gear wes se king Heanri on Normandi. ^ 
wes for se miccle unfrift ^ he heafde wi$ se king Lodewis of 
France, and wr3 se eorl of Angeow. and wrS his agene men 
alre mest. 

pa gelamp hit on pes dseges Annuntiatio see Marie ty se 
eorl Waleram of Mellant ferde fra his an castel Belmunt het 
to his an o$er castel Watteuile. mid hi ferde pes kinges 
stiward of France Amalri. and Hugo Gerueises sunu. and 
Hugo of Munford. and fela oftre godre cnihte. pa cornen 
hem togeanes pes kinges cnihtes of ealla pa casteles $a pser 
abuton wseron and fuhton wi$ hem and aflemden he and 
namen pone eorl Waleram and Hugo Gerueises sunu. and 
Hugo of Wundford. and fif and twenti oftre cnihtes and 
brohton he to pone kinge. and se king let don pone eorl 


Waleram and Hugo Gerueises sunu on heftninge on iSone 
castel on Roftem. and Hugo of Mundford he sende to Engle 
land, and let hine don on ifele bendas on pone castel on 
Gleucestre. and of pa o$re swa fela swa hi puhte he sende 
norS and su$ to hise castelas on heftnunge. Da siftSon ferde 
se king and wan ealle pes eorles castelas Walera pa waerori on 
Normandi. and ealle pa o$re pa his wi^re wines healden hi 


Eall t pes unfrift for pes eorles sunu Rotbert of Nor- 
mandi Willelm het. Se ilce WilFm hefde numen Fulkes 
eorles gingre dohter to wife of Angeow. and forSi se king of 
France and ealle pas eorles heolden mid hi. and ealle pa rice 
men. and sseidon pet se king heold his broker Rotbert mid 
wrange on heftnunge. and his sunu Will'm mid unrihte 
aflemde ut of Normandi. 

Des ilces geares wseron fsela untime on Engle lande. on 
corne and on ealle westme. swa ^ betweonen Cristes messe 
and Candel messe man sselde "p acerssed hwsete p is twegen 

sedlsepas to six scillingas. and )? bserlic p is pre sedlaepas 

' is 

to six scillingas. and ^ acer said aten j? t feower sed laepas to 

feower scillingas. pet wses forpi p corn wses litel. and se 
penig wses swa if el 'p se man pa hsefde at an market an pund 
he ne mihte cysten pserof for nan ping twelfe penegas. 

TIJE LAUD MS. (E) 253 

On ]?es ilces geares forS ferde se eadig biscop Ernulf of (A. 0.1124) 
Roueceastre se seror wses abbot on Burch. ]?et wses }?es dseies 
id' Martii. And J?ser sefV forS ferde se king Alexander of 
Scotlande on J?es dseies ix kl' Mai. and Dauid his broker j?a 
wses eorl of NorShamtune scire feng to rice and hsefde iSa 
baiSe togedere J?one kinerice of Scotlande. and ]?one eorldom 
on Engle lande. And on j?ses dseies xix kP Janr' forft ferde 
se pape on Rome Calistus wses gehaten. and Honorius feng 
to papedom. 

Des ilces geares seft' s' Andreas messe toforeri Cristes 
messe held Raulf Basset and J?es kinges iSaeines gewitenemot 
on Le]?ecsestre scire at Hundehoge. and ahengen J?ser swa 
fela ]?efas swa naofre ser ne wseron. J>et wseron on J>a litle 
hwile ealles feower and feowerti manne. and six men spilde 
of here segon and of here stanes. Fela softfeste men sseidon 
ty |?8er wseron manege mid micel unrihte gespilde. oc ure 
Laford God aelmihtig J?a eall digelnesse se^ and wat. he seoiS 
'f man Iset ^ serme folc mid ealle unrihte. serost man hem 
bersefoft her eahte and siJrSon man he of slseiS. Ful heui gser 
wses hit se man ]?e seni god heafde. him me hit bersefode mid 
strange geoldes and mid strange motes. ]?e nan ne heafde 
staerf of hunger. 

1125. On ]?is gser sende se king Henri toforen Cristes 
messe of Normandi to Engla lande and bebead ]?et man Nota He| 
scolde beniman ealle }?a minitere ]?e wseron on Engle lande 
heora liman. )? wses here elces riht hand and heora stanen 
beneftan. ty wses for se man i5e hafde an pund he ne mihte 
cysten senne peni at anne market. And se biscop Roger of 
Sseres byrig sende ofer eall Engla lande and bebead hi ealle 
j? hi scolden cumen to Winceastre to Cristes messe. pa hi 
ftider coman i$a nam man an and an and benam selc iSone 
riht hand and )?a stanes berieiSan. Eall j?is wses gedon wr$ 
innon )?a twelf niht. and ty wses eall mid micel rihte foriSi ty 
hi hafden for don eall -p land mid here micele fals. -p hi ealle 

On )?es ilces gaores sende se papa of Rome to ftise lande an 
cardinal Johan of Creme waes gehaten. He com first to 
]?one king on Normandi. and se king hine under feng mid 
micel wuriSscipe. beteahte hine sr&Son ]?one serceb' W. of 
Cantwarabyrig. and he hine ledde to Cantwarabyrig. and 

254 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. ii25)he waes ]?aer under fangen mid raicel wurSscipe and mid 
micel processione. and he sang iSone heh messe on Eastren 
daei set Cristes wefod. And sr33on he ferde ofer call Engla 
lande to ealle ]?a biscop rices and abbot rices J?a wseron on ]?is 
lande. and ofer call he wses under fangen mid wurSscipe and 
ealle hine isefen micele gife and msere. And sr&Son he heold 
his concilie on Lundene fulle J>reo dagas on natiuitas see 
Mariae on Septemb' mid sercebiscopes and mid leodbisc and 
abbotes and lasred and lawed. and bead J>8er ]?a ilce lagas J?a 
ANSELM aerceb' haefde aeror beboden and feala ma J?eah 
hit lit el for stode. And J?eonon he for ofer sse sone seft' see 
Michaeles messe and swa to Rome and se aerceb' W. of Cant 
warabyrig. and se aerceb' T. of Eferwic. and se bisc A. of 
Lincolne. and se V of Lo)?ene J. and se abbot of see Alban 
G. and waeran J?ser under fangen of }?one pape Honori' mid 
micel wurftscipe. and wseron ]?a^re call ]?one wintre. 

On iSes ilces geares wearS swa micel flod on see Laurent' 
messe dseig ty feola tunes and men weorfton adrencte. and 
brigges to brokene. and corn and msedwe spilt mid ealle. and 
hunger and cwealm on men and on erue. and on ealle westme 
swa micel untime wearS swa hit ne waes feola gear aer. 

And J?es ilces geares forS ferde se abbot Jo. of Burch on ii 
id' Octobris. 

1126. Eall J?is gear waes se kyng Heanri on Normandi call 
to seft' heruest. J>a co he to ]?is lande betwyx natiuit' see 
Marie and Michaeles messe. mid hi co se cwen and his dohter 
j? he a3ror hafde giuen ]?one kasere Heanri of Loherenge to 
wife. And he brohte mid him J?one eorl Waleram and Hugo 
Gerueises sunn, and ]?one eorl he sende to Brigge on heft- 
nunge. and feonon he sende hi to Walingeforde si^on. and 
Hugo to Windles ofra. and let hine don on harde bande. 

And ]?a aeft' Michaeles messe com se Scotte kyng Dauid 
of Scotlande hider to lande. and se kyng Heanri under feng 
hine mid micel wurSscipe. and he wunode J>a call J>et gear on 
)?is lande. 

On )?es ilces geares let se kyning nimen his broker Rotbert 
fra j?one biscop Roger of Saeres byri. and betahte hine his sune 
Rotbert eorl of Gleucsestre. and let hine Iseden to Bricstowe 
and J?8er diden on ]?one castel. pset waes call don iSurh his 
dohtres rsed. and Jmrh se Scotte kyng Dauid hire earn. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 255 

1127. Bis gear heald se kyng Heanri his bird set Cristes $ft Iuu| 
msesse on Windlesoure. }?ser wses se Scotte kyng Dauid. and 
call i$a heaued Isered and Iseuued "p wses on Engleland. And 
J?ser he let sweren ercebiscopes and biscopes and abbotes and 
eorles and ealle j?a Seines i$a J?aer wseron his dohter JE^elic 
Engle land and Normandi to hande sefter his dsei. J>e ser wses 
)?es Caseres wif of Sexlande. And sende hire sr&Sen to Nor- 
mandi. and raid hire ferde hire broker Rotbert eorl of Gleu 
cestre. and BRIAN J?es eorles sunu Alein Fergan. and leot 
hire beweddan ]?es eorles sunu of Angeow GosfrerS Martsel 
wses gehaten. Hit of j?uhte na)>ema ealle Frencisc and Englisc. 
oc se kyng hit dide for to hauene sibbe of se eorl of Angeow. 
and for helpe to hauene togsenes his neue WilFm. 

Des ilces gseres on )?one lenten tide wses se eorl Karle of 
Flandres of slagen on ane circe J?ser he Isei and bsed hine to 
Gode to for ]?one weofede amang J?ane messe fra his agene 
manne. And se kyng of France brohte )?one eorles sunu 
WilPm of Normandi and isef hine )?one eorldom. and ]?et land 
folc him wr$ toe. pes ilce WilPm hsefde aeror numen 'Ses 
eorles dohter of Angeow to wife oc hi wseron srSften to 
tweamde for sib reden. J?et wes call fturh J>one kyng Heanri 
of Engleland. SiiSiSen J?a na he J?es kynges wifes swuster of 
France to wife, and for]?i isef se kyng him ]?one eorldom of 

Des ilce gseres he gaef J?one abbot rice of Burch an abbot abV ?m' 
Heanri wpes gehaten of Peitowe. se hsefde his abbot rice s' 
Johs of Angeli on hande. and ealle J?a serce biscopes and 
biscopes seidon ty hit wses togeanes riht. and ^ he ne mihte 
hafen twa abbot rices on hande. Oc se ilce Heanri dide J?one 
king to under standene p he hsefde Iseten his abbot rice for ^ 
micele un sibbe ^ wses on ^ land, and -p he dide fturh J>es 
papes rsed and leue of Rome, and $urh )?es abbotes of Clunni. 
and J>urh J?aet he wses legat of 3one Romescott. Oc hit rie 
wses naftema eallswa. oc he wolde hauen bafte on hand, and 
swa hafde swa lange swa Godes wille wses. He wses on his 
clserchade biscop on Scesscuns. sr&San wariS he munec on 
Clunni. and srSiSon prior 011 J?one seolue minstre. and 
he wser^ prior on Sauenni. )?ar seftor ]?urh j? he wses 
kynges msei of Engleland and ]?es eorles of Peitowe j>a geaf 
se eorl him ]?one abbot rice of s' Johs minstre of Angeli. 

256 Tlltt LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. ii27)Srfr$on Jmrh his micelc vvrences fta beitiet he )?onc eercebiscop 
rice of Besencun and Imcfde hit ]m on hande J?re dagas. j?a 
forlses he -p mid rihte for]?i -p he hit hsefde seror beieten mid 
imrihte. srSiSon J>a beiet he J?one biscoprice of Seintes -p wses 
fif mile fra his abbot rice ^ he haefde ful neah seoueniht on 
hande. j?enon brohte se abbot him of Clunni swa swa he seror 
dide of Besencun. pa be]>ohte he him ^ gif he mihte ben 
rotfest on Engleland *p he mihte habben eal his wille. be- 
sohte J?a ftone kyng and sseide hi -p he wscs eald man and 
for broken man and p he ne mihte ftolen j?a micele un rihte 
and J?a micele un sibbe $a waeron on here land, and isernde 
Jm j?urh hi and fturh ealle his freond nacuSlice J?one abbot 
rice of Burhc. and se kyng hit hi isette for^i ^ he waes his 
msej. and for^ij? he wses an hsefod fta a'S to swerene and 
witnesse to berene )?8er ^Sa eorles sunu of Norrnandi and J?es 
eorles dohter of Angeow waeron totwemde for sibreden. pus 
earmlice waes ]?one abbot rice gifen betwix Cristesmesse and 
Candelmesse at Lundene. and swa he ferde mid j>e cyng to 
Wincestre and |?anon he co to Burch. and ]?8er he wunede 
call riht swa drane do$ on hiue. Eall 'p ]?a beon dragen 
toward swa frett )?a drane and dragaiS fraward. swa dide he 
eall -p he mihte tacen wrSinnen and wiftuten of leered and of 
Isewed swa he sende ouer sse and na god J?^er ne dide. ne na 
god iSser ne Iseuede. Ne J?ince man na sellice ^ we soiS 
seggen for hit waes ful cu$ ofer eall land ^ swa radlice swa 
he J?8fer co ^ waes J?es Sunnendseies ^ man singa^S EXURGE 
QUARE o. D. J?a son J?ajr aeft' J?a sjiegon and herd on fela men 
feole huntes hunten. Da huntes wseron swarte and micele 
and ladlice. and here hundes ealle swarte and bradegede and 
ladlice. and hi ridone on swarte hors and on swarte bucces. 
pis wses segon on J?e selue derfald in J?a tune on Burch and 
on ealle J?a wudes $a weeron fra J?a selua tune to Stanforde. 
and }?a mimeces herdon $a horn blawen hi blewen on 
nihtes. SoSfeste men heo kepten on nihtes. sseidon |?es }>e 
heo )?uhte ^ J7aer mihte wel ben abuton twenti o$er fritti 
horn blaweres. pis wees ssegon and herd fra "p he J?ider co 
call ^ lented tid on an to Eastren. pis was his in gang, of his 
utgang ne cimne we iett noht seggon. God scawe fore. 

1128. Eall J>is geare weas se kyng Heanri on Normandi 
for );one un fri$ ^ wses betwencn him and his nefe 3one eorl 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 251 

of Flandres. Oc se eorl weariS gewundecl at an gefiht fram (A.D. 1128) 
anne swein. and swa gewundod he for to s' Berhtines minstre. 
and sone )?ear wearS munec and liuode siftfton fif dagas. and 
he wearS J?a dasd and ]?aer bebyriged, God geare his sawle. 
^ wses ftes dales vi kP Aug*. 

Bes ilces geares forS ferde se biscop Randulf Passe flabard 
of Dtmholme. and J^sere bebyriged on no' Sept'. 

And )?es ilces geares ferde se foren sprecene abbot Henri 
ha to his ageu minstre to Peitou be ]>es kynges leue. He 
dide 'Sone king to under standen ^ he wolde mid alle for- 
laeten }?one minstre and ^ land and J?ser wunien mid hi on 
Englalande and on $one mynstre of Burh. Oc hit ne was 
naftema swa. he hit dide forSi ty he wolde Jmrh his micele 
wiles iSear beon wser it tweolf monft o$$e mare, and srftSon 
ongeon cumen. God aelinihtig haue his milce ofer f wrecce 

Des ilces geares co fra JerFm Hugo of ]?e teple to ftone 
kyng on Normandig. and se kyng hi under feng mid micel 
wurftscipe. and micele gersumes hi geaf on gold and on 
silure. And si^i5on he sende hi to Englalande. arid ]?aer he 
wses under fangen of ealle gode men. and ealle hi geauen 
gersume and on Scotlande ealswa. and be hi senden to JerPrn 
micel eahte mid ealle on gold and on silure. And he bebead 
folc ut to JerFm. and J?a for mid hi and aefter hi swa micel 
folc swa nsefre ser ne dide srSfton -p se firste fare was on 
Unbanes dsei pape J?eah hit litel behelde. He seide ^ fulle 
feoht was sett betwenen 3a Cristene and J?a he^ene. J?a hi 
pider comen ^a ne was hit noht buton Isesunge. )?us earmlice 
wearS call f folc swengt. 

1129. On )?is gear sende se kyng to Englaland sefter J?one 
eorl Walera. and seft' Hugo Gerueises sunu. and j?ser hi 
gisleden hem. and Hugo ferde ha to his agen land to France, 
and Waleram belaf mid J?orie kyng. and se kyng hi geaf call 
his land buton his castel ane. SrSfton J?a co se kyng to 
Englaland innon heruest. and se eorl co mid hi. and wuriSon 
J?a alswa gode freond swa hi wseron seror feond. 

Da sone be j?es kynges reed and be his leue sende se aerce 
b' Will'm of Cantwarbyrig ofer eall Englaland. and bead 
biscopes and abbotes and sercedsecnes and ealle )>a priores 
muneces and canoriias )?a wseron on ealle ]?a cellas on Engla 

L 1 - 

258 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A. D. 1 129) land, and aeft' ealle J?a J?et Cristendome haefdon to begemen 
and to locen. and ty hi scolden ealle cumeii to Lundene at 
Michaeles messe. and J?ser scolden sprecon of ealle Godes 
rihtes. pa hi ftider comen ]?a began j? mot on Monen dseig 
and heold on an to fte Fridseig. pa hit call co forft )?a weor<$ 
hit call of earce daecnes wifes and of preostes wifes ^ hi 
scolden hi forlseten be scs Andreas messe. and se J?e j? ne 
wolden done, forgede his circe and his hus and his ham and 
nefra ma nan clepunge J?eerto na hafde mare. )?is bebsed se 
aerce b' WilFm of Cantwarabyrig and ealle fa leod biscopes 
fta J?a waeron on Englalande. and se kyng hem geaf ealle 
leue ha to farene. and swa hi ferdon ha. and ne forstod noht 
ealle )?a bodlaces. ealle heoldon here wifes be j?es kynges leue 
swa swa hi ear didon. 

Dis ilces geares forS ferde se biscop Will'm Giffard of Win 
ceastre and J?ear bebyriged on viii kP Febr\ and se kyng 
Henri geaf f one biscop rice aeft' Micheles messe J?one abbot 
Henri his nefe of Glasting byri. and he waes gehalgod to 
biscop fra )?one aerceb' Will'm of Cantwarabyri J?es dseies 
xv k' DeceV. 

pes ilces geares forS ferde Honori' papa. ^Er he waere wel 
ded. )?a wre fser coren twa papes. Se an waes gehaten Petr'. 
he waes munec of Clunni. and weas boren of J?a ricceste men 
of Rome, mid hi helden $a of Rome, and se due of Sicilie. 
Se oiSer het Gregori'. he waes clerc and waerft flemd ut of 
Rome fra J?on o^er pape and fra his cinnes men. mid hi held 
se Kasere of Sexlande and se kyng of France and se kyng 
Heanri of Engleland. and ealle J?a be J?is half J>a muntes. Nu 
waerS swa mycel dwyld on Cristendom swa it naefre ser ne 
wees. Crist sette red for his wrecce folc. 

Dis ilces geares on s' Nicholaes messe niht litel aer daei 
wses micel eoriS dine. 

1130. Dis geares waes se mynstre of Cantwarabyri halgod 
fra )?one aerce b' WilPm )?es daeies iv no' Mai. Daer waeron 
J?as biscopes. Johan of Roue ceastre. Gilbert Uniu'sal of Lun- 
dene. Heanri of Win ceastre. Alexander of Lincolne. Roger 
of Saeresbyri. Simon of Wigorceastre. Roger of Couentre. 
Godefreith of Bathe. Eourard of Noruuic. Sigefrid of Cicaes- 
tre. Bernard of s' Dauid. Audoen' of Euereus of Normand'. 
Johan of Saeis. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 259 

Bes feorSe daeges J?serseft' wses se king Heanri on Roue (A. D. 1130) 
ceastre. and se burch forbernde selmsest. and se serceb' 
Will'm halgede s' Andreas mynstre and $a for sprecon bisc 
mid hi. And se kyng Heanri ferde ouer sse into Normandi 
on heruest. 

Bes ilces geares co se abbot Heanri of Angeli seft' JEsterne itfuvg' 
to Burch. and seide $ he hsefde forlseten ]?one mynstre mid 
ealle. Mft 9 him co se abbot Clunni Petr' gehaten to Engle 
lande bi ]?es kynges leue and wses under fangen ouer call swa 
hwar swa he co mid mycel wurSscipe. To Burch he co. and 
j?ser behet se abbot Heanri hi -p he scolde bejeton hi fone 
mynstre of Burch ^ hit scolde beon underfed into Clunni. 
OC man serS to biworde. lisege sitteft l>& aceres deeleth. 

God selmihtig adylege iuele rsede. And sone J?ser seft' ferde 
se abbot of Clunni ham to his serde. 

1131. Bis gear sefter Cristesmesse on an Moneniht set )?e 
forme slsep wees se heouene o^e norS half call swilc hit waere 
bsernende fir. swa f ealle fte hit ssegon wseron swa of feered 
swa hi na3fre ser ne wseron. ^ waes on iii id' Janr'. Bes ilces 
geares wses swa micel orf cwalm swa hit nsefre ser ne wses on 
manne gemynd ofer call Engle land. ^ wses on nset and on 
swin. swa -p on |?a tun J?a wses tenn ploges ofter twelfe 
gangende ne belsef J?ser noht an. and se man ]?a heafde twa 
hundred o$)?e ^re hundred swin ne beleaf him noht an. pser 
seft' swulten J?a henne fugeles. J?a scyrte fta flescmete and se 
ceose and se butere. God hit bete J?a his wille be^. 

And se kyng Heanri co ha to Engle land toforen heruest 
seft' s % Petres messe |?e firrer. 

Bes ilces geares for se abbot Heauri toforen Eastren fram 23ui*g* 
Burch ofer sae to Normandi and j?ser spreac mid J?one kyng. 
and sseide hi J?et se abbot of Clunni heafde hi beboden ^ he 
scolde cumen to hi and betsecen hi fone abbot rice of Angeli. 
and sr3}?en he wolde cumen ha be his laafe. and swa he ferde 
ha to his agen mynstre and J?ser wunode eall to midsumer 
dsei. And $es o^er dseies sefter s' Johes messe dsej. cusen 
J?a muneces abbot of he self and brohten hi into cyrce mid 
processione. sungen TE D'M LAUD', ringden ]?a belle, setten 
hi on J>es abbotes settle, diden hi ealle hersunesse swa swa hi 
scolden don here abbot, and se eorl and ealle J?a heafedmenn 
and )?a muneces of ]?a mynstre flemden se ofter abbot Heanri 

L 1 2 

260 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.D. 1131) ut of )?a mynstre. hi scolden iiedes. on fif and twenti wintre 
ne biden hi nsefre an god dsej. Her hi trucode ealle his 
mycele crseftes. nu hi behofed ^ he crape in his mycele codde 
in eelc hyrne gif J?ser wsere hure an unwreste wrenc ^ he 
mihte get beswicen anes Crist and eall Cristene folc. pa 
ferde he into Clunni and jjser man hi held f he ne mihte na 
east na west, saeide se abbot of Clunni ^ hi heafdon forloron 
s' Jofces mynstre Jnirh hi and j?urh his mycele sotscipe. pa 
ne cu)?e he hi na betre bote bute behet hem and aftes swor 
on halidom f gif he moste Engleland secen )?et he scolde 
begeton he ftone mynstre of Burch. swa ty he scolde setten 
)?aBr prior of Clunni and circeweard and hordere and reityein 
and ealle ]?a fting J?a wseron wr<5inne mynstre and wrSuten 
eall he scolde he be tsecen. pus he ferde into France and 
]?ser wunode eall ty gear. Crist ra?de for }>a wrecce muneces 
of Burch and for -p wrecce stede. nu he behofed Cristes helpe 
and eall Cristenes folces. 

$ 113.2. Dis gear co Henri king to J?is land. ]?a co Henri 
abbot 3 uureide ]>e muneces of Burch to )?e king forjn iS 
he uuolde under ]?eden % mynstr' to Clunie. sua ft te king 
was welneh bepaht. ^ sende eft' J?e muneces. 3 ]?urh 

Godes milce 3 J?ur )?e b' of Seresb'i y te b' of Line 
^ te o]?re rice men J?e )?er wserou ]?a wiste ]?e king ^ he 
feorde mid suicdo. pa he na mor ne mihte. J?a uuolde he % 
his nefe sculde ben abb' in Burch. oc Xpist it ne uuolde. 
Was it noht suithe lang ]?er eft' J>at te king sende eft' hi. 3 
dide hi gyuen up % abb' rice of Burch 3 faren ut of lande. 
^ te k m g jaf ^ abb'rice an prior of s' Neod Martin was 
gehaten. he co on s' PET' messe dei mid micel wurscipe into 
the minstre. 

1135. On ]ns gsere for se king H* ouer sse set te Lamasse. 
y ft o}>er dei ]?a he lai an slep in scip. )?a ]?estrede J?e dsei 
ouer al landes and uuard J?e sunne suilc als it uuare thre 
nihtald mone. an st'res abuten hi at middsei. 

Here begins the final Continuator, which written literature is possible, 

who wrote, probably, before 1160. His But it is just this combination of the 

work has not much chronological ar- feeble with the strong, decrepit lan- 

rangement, but it is full of vigour, ear- guage with indignant patriotism, that, 

nestness, and pathos. The language is while it cripples the narrative, enforces 

very rude. Saxon seems now to have the lamentation, and makes us regard 

reached the lowest stage of decline at it with tenderness and reverence. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 261 

Wurj?en men suifte ofuundred 3 ofdred 3 Sweden ft (A. 0.1135) 
micel }>ing sculde cum her eft', sua dide. for |;at ilc gaer 
warth ])& king ded. ft ofer dsei eft' s' Andreas masse daei on 
Norm, pa westre sona J?as landes. for seuricman sone rce- 
uede o]?er J?e mihte. pa namen his sune ^ his frend 3 
brohten his lie to Engle P 3 bebiriend in Reding'. God man 
he wes 3 micel geie wes of hi. Durste nan man mis don 
wift ofter on his time. Pais he makede men ^ dser. Wua 
sua bare his byrthen gold 3 sylure. durste na man sei to hi 
naht bute god. 

En mang }?is was his nefe cumen to Engle P Stephne de 
Blais. 3 co to Lundene. 3 te Lundenisce folc hi under 
feng. 3 senden seft' J?e serceb' WilPm Curbuil 3 halechede 
hi to kinge on mide wintre dsei. On J?is kinges time wes al 
unfrift ^ yfel "j rseflac. for agenes hi risen sona J?a rice 
men ]?e wseron swikes. Alre fyrst Balduin de Reduers "3 
held Execestre agenes hi. 3 te king it besa3t. 3 si^an 
Bald ' acordede. pa tocan J?a oftre y helden her castles 
agenes hi. y Dauid king of Scotland toe to uerrien hi. J>a 
J?ohuuethere ]?at here sandes feorden betwyx heo. y hi to 
gsedere comen ^ wuriSe ssehte. ]?o)7 it litel forstode. 

1137. Bis gaere for ]?e k' Steph' ofer sse to Normandi ^ 
ther wes under fangen for]?i ^ hi uenden ft he sculde ben 
alsuic alse the eo wes. 3 for he hadde get his tresor. ac he 
to deld it "3 scatered sotlice. Micel hadde Henri k' gadered 
gold 3 syluer. 3 na god ne dide me for his saule thar of. 

pa king S' to Engle 1' co )?a macod he his gadering 
set Oxeneford. 3 J?ar he na J>e V Roger of Sereb'i 3 Alex' tnt' 
V of Lincol "3 te Canceler Rog' hise neues. y dide selle ct 
in psun. til hi iafen up here castles, pa the suikes under 
gseton ft he milde man was 3 softe 3 god. 3 na justise 

ne dide. )?a dide hi allewunder. Hi hadden hi manred 
maked 3 athes suoren. ac hi nan treuthe ne heolden. alle 
he waeron forsworen and here treothes forloren. for seuric 
rice man his castles makede y agaenes hi heoldeu. 3 fylden 
J?e land ful of castles. Hi suencten suyfte J?e uurecce 
men of ]?e land mid castel weorces. ]?a ]?e castles uuaren 
maked |?a fylden hi mid deoules y yuele men. pa namen 
hi J;a men ]?e hi wenden ft ani god hefden. bathe be nihtes 
j be dseies. carl men and wlmen. 3 dideii heo in psun 

262 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

( A. D. 1 137) eft' gold 3 syluer. y pined heo. untellendlice pining, for ne 
uuaeren naeure nan martyrs swa pined alse hi waeron. Me 
henged up bi the fet 3 smoked heo mid ful smoke. Me 
henged bi the ]?ubes. other bi the he fed. 3 hengen bryniges 


on fet. Me dide cnotted strenges abuton here haeued. 3 
uurythen to % it gsede to }?e hsernes. Hi dyden heo in 
quarterne ]?ar nadres 3 snakes 3 pades waeron inne. 3 
drapen heo swa. Sume hi diden in crucethus ft is in an 
ceeste ]?at was scort 3 nareu. 3 undep. 3 dide scaerpe 
stanes j?erinne. 3 J?rengde ]?e man J?ser inne. ft hi brsecon 
alle ]?e limes. In mani of j?e castles waeron lof } gri. ft 
wseron rachenteges ft twa oj>er thre men hadden onoh to 
bseron onne. J?at was sua maced. ft is faestned to an beom. 
3 diden an scaerp iren abuton J?a mannes throte and his 
hals. ft he ne myhte nowiderwardes. ne sitten ne lien ne 
slepen. oc baeron al ft iren. Mani Jmsen hi drapen mid 

J ne can ne i ne mai tellen alle J?e wunder ne alle ]>e 
pines ft hi diden wreccemen on j>is land. 3 ft lastede j?a 
xix wintre wile Stephne was king 3 aeure it was uuerse 3 
uuerse. Hi laeiden gaeildes o[n] the tunes aeureuwile 3 
'clepeden it tenserie. )?a ]?e uureccemen ne hadden namore 
to gyuen. ]?a rasueden hi 3 brendon alle the tunes, ft wel ]?u 
myhtes faren all adaeis fare sculdest thu neure finden man 
in tune sittende. ne land tiled, pa was corn daere. y flee 
3 csese "3 butere. for nan ne waes o ]?e land. Wreccemen 
sturuen of hungaer. sume ieden on aelmes J?e waren su wile 
rice men. sume flugen ut of lande. 

Wes nseure gaet mare wreccehed on land, ne naeure hethen 
men werse ne diden ]?an hi diden. for ouersithon ne for 
baren^nouther circe ne cyrceiserd. oc nam al )?e god ft )?ar 
inne was. -3 brenden sythen ]?e cyrce y altegaedere. Ne 
hi ne forbaren b'land ne abb' ne preostes. ac raeueden 
munekes 3 clerekes. y aeuric man other )?e ouer myhte. Gif 
twa men oj?er iii coman ridend to an tun. al }?e tunscipe 
flugaen for heo. wenden ft hi waeron raeueres. pe biscopes 
and lered men heo cursede aeure. oc was heo naht j?ar of. for 
hi uuerori al forcursaed 3 forsuoren ^ forloren. 

War sse me tilede. )?e erthe ne bar nan corn, for J?e land 
was al for don. mid suilce daedes. 3 hi saeden openlice ft 


xrist slep. 3 his halechen. Suilc 3 mare )>anne we cunnen(A.D. 1137) 
ssein. we ]?oleiiden xix wintre for ure sinnes. 

On al J?is yuele time heold Martin abbot his abbot rice Sfturg' 
xx wint' 3 half gaer y viii dseis. mid micel suinc. 3 fand 
J?e munekes 3 te gestes al J?at heo behoued y heold mycel 
carited in the hus. 3 )?o]?wethere wrohte on J>e circe 3 
sette ]?arto landes 3 rentes. 3 goded it suythe 3 Iset 
it refen 3 brohte heo into j?e neuuse mynst' on S' PETRES 
msessedsei mid micel wurtscipe. $ was anno ab incarn D' 
Mcxl. a cobustioe loci xxiii. And he for to Rome. 3 J?ser 
wses wael under fangen fra ]?e pape Eugenie, and bega3t thare 
puilegies. an of alle j?e landes of ]?abbotrice. 3 an o]?er of 
j?e landes )?e lieu to )?e circe wican. ^ gif he leng moste liuen 
alse he mint to don of ]?e horderwycan. And he beg99t in 
landes |?at rice men hefden mid strengthe. of WilFm Malduit Ka 
J?e heold Rogingha J?3e castel. he wan Cotingha 3 Estun. and DC &et)t>' 
of Hugo of Walt'uile he uuan HyrtlingV. and Stanewig. ^ tie 

Ix soF of Aldewfngle. And he makede manie munek' 
plantede winiserd. 3 makede mani weorkes. 3 wende }?e tun 
betere ]?an it ser wses. ^ wses god munec 3 god man. 3 for]?i 
hi luueden God 3 gode men. 

Nu we willen ssegen su del wat belamp on Steph' kinges 2^^ jfcc'o 
time. On his time J?e Judeus of Noruuic bohton an xpisten SOTl'mo 
cild beforen Estren 3 pineden hi alle )?e ilce pining % ure 
Drihten was pined. 3 on langfridsei hi on rode hengen for 
ure Drihtines luue. 3 sythen byrieden hi. Wenden % it sculde 
ben forholen. oc ure Dryhtin atywede $ he was hali mr. 3 
to munekes hi namen. and bebyried hi heglice in ]?e minstV 
and he maket |?ur ure Drihtin wunderlice 3 manifaeldlice 
miracles. 3 hatte he S' Willelm. 

1138. On |?is gaer co Dauid king of Scotl' mid ormete 
faerd to ]?is land, wolde winnan f>is land, and hi co to gaenes 
WilFm eorl of Albamar J?e ]?e king adde beteht Euorwic 
3 to other seuezmen mid fseumen and fuhten wid heo. 3 
fleden )?e king set te Standard. 3 sloghen suithe micel of his 

1140. On j?is gser wolde ]>e king Steph' tsecen Rodb't eorl 
of Gloucestre ]?e kinges suue Henries, ac he ne myhte for he 
wart it war. 

per eft 5 in j?e lengten }>estrede )?e sunne "3 te daei. abuton 

264 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

(A.I). ti 4 o)nontid daeies, J>a men eten. $ me lihtede candles to seten bi. 
and ]?at was xiii k' Ap'l. waaron men suythe ofwundred. 

per eft' fordfeorde Will' aarceb* of Cantwarb'. 3 te king 
makede Teodbald aarceV J?e was abbot in the Bee* 

per eft* wsex suythe micel uuerre betuyx |?e king 3 Randolf 
eorl of Csestre noht for J>i ft he ne iaf hi al ft he cuthe axen 
hi. alse he dide alle othre. oc sefre )?e mare he iaf heo. (?e 
wserse hi wseron hi. pe eorl heold Lincol agaanes ]?e king, 
j bena hi al ft he ahte to hauen. ^ te king for f>ider 3 
besa3tte hi 3 his brother Will'm de R[om]are in J?e castel. 
3 te seorl stael ut 3 ferde eft' Rodb't eorl of Gloucestre. "j 
brohte hi Jnder mid micel ferd. 3 fuhten suythe on Candel 
masse daai agenes heore lauerd. 3 namen hi for his men him 
suyken ^ flugaan. ^ laed hi to Bristowe 3 diden J?ar in psun. 
^ . . . teres. pa was al EngleF styred mar j?an ser waes. y al 
yuel wses in lande. 

per eft' co J>e king' doht j Henries )?e hefde ben Emperice 
in Alamanie. ^ nu wses cuntesse in Angou. y co to Lundene 
3 te Lundenissce folc hire wolde teecen. y scse fleh y forles 
)?ar micel. 

per eft' ]?e biscop of Wincestre Henri j?e king' brother 
Steph' spac wid Rodb't eorl 3 wyd J?eperice "3 suor heo 
athas $ he neure ma mid te king his brother wolde halden. 
3 cursede alle J?e men |?e mid hi heoldon. 3 saede heo $ he 
uuolde iiuen heo up Wincestre. 3 dide heo cumen jnder. 
pa hi fear inne wseren. J>a co J?e king' cuen [mid al] hire 
strengthe. ^ besaat heo. ^ ]?er wass inne micel hungaer. pa 
hi ne leng ne muhten )?olen j?a stali hi ut 3 flugen. ^ hi 
wurthen war widuten 3 folecheden heo. ^ namen Rodb't eorl 
of Glouc. ^j ledden hi to Rouecestre. ^ diden hi j?are in psun. 
3 te emperice fleh into an minstre. pa feorden )?e wise men 
betwyx j>e kinges freond ^ te eorles freond. y sahtlede sua 
ft me sculde leten ut J?e king of psun for J?e eorl. 3 te eorl for 
j?e king. 3 sua diden. 

Sithen J?ereft' sahtleden J?e king 3 Randolf eorl at Stan 
ford. 3 athes suoren 3 treuthes fseston ft hernouj?er sculde 
be suiken other. 3 it ne for stod naht. for J?e king hi sithen 
na in Hatun. J?urhc wicci rsed. ^ dide hi in psun. ^ ef sones 
he let hi ut Jmrhc waarse red. to ft forewarde ft he suor on 
halido i gysles fand. J?at he alle his castles sculde iiuen up. 

THE LAUD MS. (E) 265 

Sume he iaf up 3 surne ne iaf he noht. 3 dide ]?anne wserse (A. D. 1140) 
J?anne he haer sculde. 

pa was Engleland suythe to deled, sume helden mid te 
king. 3 sume mid }?eperice. for ]?a J?e king was iu psun ]?a 
wenden j?e eorles 3 te rice men ]?at he neure mare sculde 
cum ut. 3 saehtleden wyd J?eperice. 3 brohten hire into Oxen 
ford. 3 iauen hire ]?e burch. pa J?e king was ute ]?a herde 
$ saegen. 3 toe his feord ^ besaet hire in J?e tur. 3 me laet 
hire dun on niht of J>e tur mid rapes, y stal ut. 3 scae fleh 3 
ieede on fote to Walingford. 

peer eft' scee ferde ouer sae. 3 hi of Normandi wenden 
alle fra J?e king, to }?e eorl of Angseu. sume here J>ankes 3 
sume here un)?ankes. for he besaet heo til hi a iauen up here 
castles. 3 hi nan helpe ne haefden of ]?e k'. 

pa ferde Eustace ]?e king 7 sune to France ^ na J?e king 7 
suster of France to wife, wende to bigzeton Normandi |?ser 
Jmrh. oc he spedde litel. y be gode rihte for he was an 
yuel man. for warese he [com he] dide mare yuel ]?anne 
god. he reuede J?e landes 3 laeide micfele gildejs on. he 

brohte his wif to Engleland. 3 dide hire in j>e caste 

teb'. eod wiman sca3 wses. oc scse hedde litel blisse mid hi. 
3 Xpist ne wolde iS he sculde lange rixan. 3 wserd ded ^ his 
moder beien. 

"3 te eorl of Angseu wserd ded. y his sune Henri toe to J?e 
rice. *] te cuen of France todselde fra J>e king. 3 scae co to 
J?e iunge eorl Henri, y he toe hire to wiue. 3 al Peitou mid 
hire, pa ferde he mid micel faerd into Engleland. 3 wan 
castles. 3 te king ferde agenes hi mid micel mare ferd. 3 
]?oj>w33there fuhtten hi iioht. oc ferden ]?e a3rceb 7 ^ te wise 
me" betwux heo. 3 makede $ sahte $ te king sculde ben 
lauerd 3 king wile he liuede. ^ seft' his dsei ware Henri king. 
3 he helde hi for fader ^ he hi for sune. "3 sib 3 ssehte sculde 
ben betwyx heo. 3 on al Engleland. pis 3 te othre foruuardes 
J>et hi makeden. suoren to halden j?e king 3 te eorl 3 te b' & 
te eorles 3 rice men alle. pa was J>e eorl under fangen aet 
Wincestre 3 set Lundene mid micel wurtscipe. y alle diden 
hi man red. ^ suoren j?e pais to halden. ^ hit ward sone suythe 
god pais. sua i$ neure was here, pa was ]>e k 7 strengere 
Jeanne he seuert her was. 3 te eorl ferde ouer sac. ^ al folc hi 
luuede for he dide god iustise ^ makede pais. 

M m 

266 THE LAUD MS. (E) 

1154. On )?is gser wserd j?e king Steph' ded 3 bebyried 
)?er his wif 3 his sune wseron bebyried aet Fauresfeld. f>aet 
minstre hi makeden. pa )>e king was ded. ]?a was j?e eorl 
beionde see. 3 ne durste nan man don o]?er bute god for 
j?e micel eie of hi. pa he to Engleland co. j?a was he under 
fangen mid micel wurtscipe. and to king bletcsed in Lundene 
on J>e Sunnen dsei be foren midwintMeei. and held }?ser micel 

pat ilce dsei J?at Mart' abb' of Burch sculde J?ider faren. )?a 
sseclede he 3 ward ded iv NO. Jan. ^ te munek' innen dseis 
cusen o)?er of heo saalf. Will'm de Walt'uile is gehaten. god 
clerc y god man. 3 wsel luued of )?e k' ^ of alle gode men. 
and o[n cyricjen byrie' J>abb' hehlice ^ sone J?e cosan aV ferde 
^ te muneces [mid him to] Oxen ford to j?e king [and he] iaf 
hi J>at abb'rice. ^ he ferde hi sone [to Linc]ol y was ]>cer 
bletcaed to abbot ser he ham come. 3 sithen was under fangen 
mid micel wurtscipe at Burch. mid micel pcessiun. "3 sua he 
was alsua at Ramesaeie. 3 at Torn'. 3 at ... 3 Spall' 3 at 

S.I. bares. 3 3 WM * abbot. ^ /ir haued begunnon. 



To give tJie whole of the historical material 

preserved in the series of Saxon Chronicles, 

a few more supplementary pieces, 

for which no place was found 

in the body oftfie work, 

are added in the 



I. F 796. continued from the asterisk on page 58. 

796. . . . And let him pycan ut his eagan. and ceorfan of his 
handa. Ond A'Selard arceb' of Cantwareb' sette syno^S. and ge- 
trymde and gefaestnode. 8urh Sas papan heese Leones. ealle 'Sa 'Sing 
be Codes mynstran. 'Sa wseron gesett be Wihtgares dsege. and be 
o'Sra cinga dsege. and ^us cwseft. Ic A'Selard. eadmod arceb' of 
Cantwareb'i. mid anmodan rsede ealles sino'Ses. and mid ealra 'Sare 
gegaderungse ealra 'Sara mynstra ^a be ealdan dagan frignesse was 
geauen fram geleaffullan mannum. on Godes naman. and 'Surh his 
bifigendan dom. ic bebeode swa swa ic hsese habbe of 'San papan 
Leone. $ heononforS nan ne dyrstlaBce ceosan him hlauordas of 
Isewedan mannan ouer Godes erfwyrSnysse. Ac eal swa swa hit ys 
on San gewrite Se se papa hsefi5 giuen. oSSe Sa haligan weras ge- 
setton. 'Se beoS ure feederas and ure lareowas be haligum mynstrum. 
swa hi beliuon unawemed butan selcre anssece. Gif seni mann ys 
'S |)is Godes and urses papan and ure bebod healdan nelle. ac 
farseo^ and far naht healda'S. witan hi 6 hi sculon gifan gescead to 
foran Godes domsetle. And ic A'Selhard arceb'. mid twelf biscopan. 
and mid )>rim and twentigan abbodan. |>is ylce mid rodetacne Cristes 
getrima'S and gefeestnia. 

II. A curious note (peculiar toF) of the traditions of Christ Church, 
Canterbury. In Saxon and Latin : from the margin of F. 

870. ... Da ferde ^ESered cing to and Alfred his broker, and 
naman ^E^elred Wiltunscire b'. and settan hine to arceb' to Cantuare 
b'i. forSan he was ser munec of 'San ylcan mynstre of Cantwareb'i. 
Ealswa hraSe swa he com to Cantuareb'i and he warS getremmed 
on his arce stole. ]>a he Sohte hu he mihte ut adrsefan Sa clericas J>e 

M m 2 


]?ar binnan . a . . . . ]>a se arceb' CeolrioS ]>ar biforan sette far swylcre 
neode ge . ft . . swa we seggan wyllaS. Das forman geares ]>e he 
to arceb' geset was. j>a wearS swa mycel man cwealm )? of eallan 
J>a muneca |>e he ]?ar binnan ftmde. na belifan na ma )>one fif 
munecas. Da far ]>are and .... ge he his hand preostas. and eac 
sume of his tun prestan. }> hi scoldan helpan )>a feawan munecan 
J>e jjar bylifen wseran to donne Xpes Seowdom. for 'San he na inihte 
swa ferlice munecas findan. )?a mihtan be bed sylfum Jxme ^eowdom 
don. and far Syssen he het f ^a prestas )>a hwile eal }> God giefe 
sibbe on J>is lande J>a munecan helpan scoldan. To J>an ylcan 
timan was ]>is land swyjje geswent mid gelomlican feohten. and 
farj)i se arceb' na ]>ar embe beon. far 'San ealne his timan was 
gewinn and sorhge ofer England, and for]?i belifan ]?a clericas mid 
'San munecan. Nas nsefre nan tima -f |>ar nseran munecas binnan. 
and a?fre hefdan j>one hlafordscipe ofor $a prestas. Eft se arceb' 
Ceoln' ]>ohte and eac to )>an ^e mid him wseran saede. eal swa 
hraj>e swa God gif|? sibbe on )>isan lande. o^e J>as prestas scolan 
munecas beon. oftfte ca. ellos hwar munecas eal swa fela don binnan 
J>a minstre wylle ^ magan ]>one 'Seowad be heom sylfan don. far 
'San God wat % ic 

Cum autem venisset Cantuariam, statim cogitare ccepit quomodo 
possit eicere clericos de ecclesia Christi, quos Ceolnothus pro tali 
necessitate compulsus ibi posuit. Primo igitur anno ordinationis 
suse tanta mortalitas facta est in ecclesia Christi, ut de tota congre- 
gatione monachorum non remanerent nisi quinque. Qua de causa 
quia ita subito non potuit invenire tot monachos qui ibi servitium 
Dei facere possent, ex simplicitate cordis praecepit capellanis clericis 
suis, ut essent cum eis usque quo Deus paciticaret terram, quse tune 
nimis erat turbata propter nimias tempestates bellorum. Accepit 
etiam de villis suis presbiteros, ut essent cum monachis, ita tamen 
ut nionachi semper haberent dominatum super clericos. Cogitavit 
idem archiepiscopus et saepe suis dixit, quia statim cum Deus pacem 
nobis dederit, aut isti clerici monachi fient, aut ego ubicumque 
monachos inveniam quos reponam. Scit enim Deus inquid, quod 
aliter facere non possum. Sed nunquam temporibus suis pax fuit in 
Anglia, et ideo remanserunt clerici cum monachis, nee ullo tempore 
fuit ecclesia sine monachis. Sed nee iste ^Seredus archiepiscopus 
potuit facere. 


III. This is a little Mercian Register of a period of twenty years, 
and may be styled "The Annals of JE^elfl&d." It was unskilfully 
jointed into B and C after date, and so stands out conspicuous and 
isolated from the midst of the surrounding compilation. But the 
compiler of MS. D made selections from this piece, and mingled 
them with materials from other sources, digesting the compound 
into chronological order. So that we have here the opportunity of 
contemplating a portion of our history both in its earlier isolated 
and in its later compiled aspect. 

The MSS. B and C, after closing the year 915 (918 K), fetch back 
to 902, and introduce the present episode, which may be considered 
to close at 921. Barren from 921 to 924, they here fall in again 
with the usual current of history, and relate the death ofEadweard 
(!S 925), but in a manner of their own. Both are then vacant 
for ten years, and to exhibit their poverty at this point, the extract 
has been continued two annals beyond the termination of the Mer- 
cian Register or Annals of jE^elflced. 

The text is from C, and at the foot are given the variations ofB. 

902. Her EalhswrS 1 forttferde. and }>y 2 ilcan gere wees ty gefeoht 
set ]>am Holme Cantwara and )>ara Deniscra. 

904. Her mona a]>ystrode 3. 

905. Her setywde4 cometa. 

907- Her waes Ligcester5 ge edniwod. 

909. Her wses see Oswaldes He gelseded 6 of Beardanigge on 

910. On jjysum gere 7 Engle and Dene gefuhton 8 set Teotanheale 
and Engle sige namon9. and J>y ilcan geare JESelflsed 10 getimbrede 
J>a burh set Bremesbyrig. 

911. Da &ses oj>res geares gefor Jeered Myrcna hlaford. 

912. Her com J5j>elflsed Myrcna hlsefdige on pone halgan sefen 
Inventione see crucis to Scergeate. and }>ser ^a burh getimbrede. and 
jjses ilcan geares pa 11 set Bricge. 

913. Her Gode forgyfendum I2 for ^Epelflsed Myrcna hlsefdige 
mid eallum Myrcum to TamaweorSige. and \>& 1 3 burh pairH getim- 

1 Ealhswyft. 2 J>y ilcan geare. 3 afteostrode. 4 oj>ywde. 

r > Ligceaster geedneowad. 6 gelsedd. ^ geare. ^ gefuhtan. 

9 naman. 10 j/E^elflsed. U J>a. 12 forgifendum. 13 J>a. 
14 -5ter. 


brede. on foreweardne sumor. and baes foran tohlaf 'Smaessan. ba set 
Staef forda. 

914. pa 'Sees 16 obre geare ha 1 / set Eades byrig on foreweardne 
sumor. and bses ilcan geres 18 eft on ufeweardne hserfest ba J 9 set 
Wsering wicum *. 

915. pa Sacs 21 o)>re geare on ufan midne winter j>a 22 set Cyric 
byrig. and ba 2 3 set Weard byrig. and $y ilcan gere^ foran to middan 
wintra ba set Rumcofan 2 5. 

916. Her waes 26 Ecgbriht abbud unscyldig ofslegen foran to 
middan sumera. on xvi kl' IVL'. by ilcan daege waes see Ciricius 
tid 2 7 bses 'Sroweres. mid his geferum. and ^aes embe }>reo * 8 niht 
sende ^Ebelflsed fyrde 2 9 on Wealas. and abrsec Brecenan mere and 
baer genam t5a3s3 cinges wif3* feower and ftritiga sume. 

917. Her .^Ebelflsed Myrcna hlaefdige Gode fultumgendum3 2 foran 
to hlsefmsessan begeat j?a burh mid eallum )>am e J>ser to 33 hyrde. 
j>e ys haten34 Deoraby. |)32r waeron eac ofslegene hyre }>egna feower 
Se hire besorge wseron binnan J?am35 gatum. 

918. Her heo begeat on hire geweald mid Godes fultume3 6 on 
foreweardne gear gesybsumlice37 J>a burh aet Ligra3 8 ceastre. and 
se msesta dsel |>8es herges )>e t5ser39 to hirde4 wearS under]?eoded4 I 
and hasfdon eac4 2 Eforwicingas hire gehaten43 and sume onwedde 
geseald. sume mid ajmm gefsestnod -f hi 44 on hyre 45 rsedenne beon 
woldon46. Ac swi'Se47 hrsedlice JJSBS t5e hi4 8 jjaes geworden hsefde 
heo gefor. xii nihtun49 ser middan sumera. binnan Tamaweorjjige 
o*y5 eahtoj>an geare |>8es %e$ l heo Myrcna anweald5 2 mid riht 
hlaford dome healdende wses. and hyre lie IrS 53 binnan Gleaw 
cestre54 on J>am east portice see Petres cyrcean55. 

919. Her eac wearS ^EJ>eredes dohtor5 6 Myrcna hlafordes selces 
anwealdes57 on Myrcum benumen. and on West Sexe aleded5 8 . ]>rim 
wucum 9er middan 59 wintra. seo waes haten .^Elfwyn. 

15 hlaf. 16 a J>aes. 17 > a ; 18 geares. 19 J>a. 20 wicon. 

21 $a >ses. 22 J? a . 23 }> a . 24 J>y ilcan geare. 25 Rum cofan. 

26 wearS. 27 tid. 28 J>a;s ymb iii. 29 fyrd. 30 ^ges. 31 wif. 
32 fultmigendum. 33 )?8erto. 34 \>Q is hatan Deoraby. and \>&r wseron 

eac ofslegene hire. 35 -gam. 36 fultome. 37 gear gesimbsumlice. 

38 Legra. 39 J>ser. 40 hyrde. 41 >yded. 42 eac. 43 Eoforwic 
(no more) gehaten. 44 hie. 45 hire. 46 beon woldan. 47 swi}>e. 
48 j?e hie. 49 nihtu. 50 Taman weor-Se J?y. 51 > e . 52 anwald. 

r '3 He lij). 54 ceastre. 55 ciricean. 56 dohtar. 57 onwealdes. 

58 alseded. 59 ger middum. 


921.f Her Eadweard cing getimbrede }>a burh eet Clede mu)>an. 

924. Her Eadweard cing gefor 60 on Myrcum set Fearndune. and 
-^Elfwerd 61 his sunu swiSe hra'Se 62 jjses gefor 6 3. set Oxna forda. 
and hira lie IPS 6 4 set Wintan ceastre. and ^E)>elstan 6 5 waes of 
Myrcum gecoren to cinge. and aet Cingestune 66 gehalgod. and he 
geaf his sweostor 6 7 

934. Her for JE]>elstan 68 cing on Scot land a?g]>er ge mid land 
here ge mid scyphere and his micel ofer hergode. 

t 921. This Annal not in B. 

60 gefor. 61 ^Elfweard. 62 swi>e hraj>e. 63 J>se S gefor. 

64 heora licgaft. 65 ^J>estan. 6(5 tune. 67 swystor cf. D. p. in. 

IV. A fragment supplied from D (F). 

1021. . . (E) . . . * And JElfgar b'. se selmesfulla. for^ferde on 
Cristes msesse uhtan. 

V. The piece promised in the foot-note, page 208. 

1066. Secundo anno ordinationis suse [Lanfrancus] Romam 
ivit, quern papa Alexander in tantum honoravit, ut ei contra 
morem assurgeret ; et duo Pallia, ob signum prsecipui amoris, 
tribueret. Quorum unum Romano more ab altare accepit ; 
alterum vero ipse Papa, unde missas celebrare consueverat, 
sua manu porrexit. In cujus prsesentia Thomas de primatu 
Cantuariensis Ecclesise, et de subjectione quorundam Episco- 
porum calumniam movit ; quse qualem finem postea in Anglia 
accepit, Lanfrancus breviter et absolute scribit in Epistola, 
quam prsefato Alexandro Papse direxit. Hoc quoque anno 
generale consilium Wentonia3 celebratum, in quo et Vultiri- 
cum, novi Monasterii Abbatem deposuit ; multaque de Chri- 
stianse religionis cultu servanda instituit. Post dies paucos, 
in Lundonia Osbernum Essecistrensem Episcopum, et Can- 
tuarise Scotlandum Ecclesire sancti Augustini Abbatem sa- 


Tertio anno, in Cloeciatria sacravit Petrum, Licifeldensem 
sive Cestrensem Episcopum. Hoc quoque anno habitum est 
magnum placitum in loco qui dicitur Pinenden ; in quo 
Lanfrancus diratiocinatur, se suamque Ecclesiam omnes ter- 
ras, et consuetudines suas ita liberas, terra marique habere ; 
sicut Eex habet suas, exceptis tribus ; videlicet, si regalis via 
fuerit effosa; si arbor incisa juxta super earn ceciderit; si 
homicidium factum, et sanguis in ea fusus fuerit : in iis qui 
deprehensus est, et ab eo pignus acceptum fuerit ; Regi enim 
dabit ; alioquin liber a Regis exactoribus erit. 

Quarto anno, Patricium Dublinise civitati in Hibernia 
sacratum Episcopum Lundonise, a quo et professionem acce- 
pit ; et literas ei deferendas regibus Hibernise, dignas valde 
memorise contradidit. 

Quinto anno, generale Concilium Lundonise celebratum : 
cujus gestionem, rogatu multorum. literis commendavit. 

Sexto anno, dedit Hernosto Monacho in Capitulo Ecclesiae 
Christi Ecclesiam Rofensem regendam, quern et Lundonise 
sacravit. Wentonia3 Concilium celebratum : et Hernostus hoc 
ipso anno ab hac vita migravit. 

Septimo anno, Gundulfo Ecclesiam Rofensem tradidit; 
quern etiam Cantuarise sacravit. Hoc quoque anno misit ei 
literas Thomas Archiepiscopus Eboracensis; in quibus rogavit 
ut sibi mitterentur duo Episcopi ad consecrandum Clericum 
quendam, qui ei literas de Horgadis insulis detulit ; ut ipsa- 
rum insularum Episcopus consecretur. Cujus petitioni Lan- 
francus annuens, mandavit Wulstano Wigorniensi, et Petro 
Cestrensi Episcopis, ut Eboracum irent, et cum Thoma tan- 
tarn rem complere satagerent. 

Octavo anno, Concilium Lundoniae celebratum, in quo Ail- 
nodum Glastingensis coenobii Abbatem deposuit. 

Anno undecimo, celebratum Concilium apud Claudiam 
civitatem, ubi et Thomas Archiepiscopus Eboracensis, jubente 
Rege, et Lanfranco consentiente, sacravit Wilielmum Dunel- 
mensem Episcopum, eo quod a Scotorum Episcopis qui sibi 
subjecti sunt, habere adjutorium non potuit. Hujus ministe- 
rii cooperatores fuerunt, Lanfranco prsecipiente, Wolstanus, 
Osbernus, Giso, Rotbertus, Episcopi. Eo quoque tempore, 
misit in Ilibcruiam Donnaldo Episcopo literas, sacrse doctrinse 
pinguedine refertas. 


Sexto decimo anno, sacravit Donatum monachum suum 
Cantuariae, ad regnum Dublinise, petente Rege, clero, et 
populo HiberniaB, quibus etiam literas exhortatorias misit. 
Hoc quoque anno, apud Cleucestriam Concilium celebravit, 
in quo Wulfecetelum Crulandensis coenobii Abbatem depo- 
suit. Rotbertum Cestrensem, et Willielmum Helmeanensem 
simul uno die Episcopos Cantuarise sacravit. Mauritium 
Lundoniensi Ecclesise apud Wentoniam consecravit ; qui 
sacratus, post paucos dies matri suse Ecclesiae Cantuariensi, 
cum honestis muneribus, se preesentavit. 

Octavo decimo anno, mortuo Rege Wilielmo trans mare, 
filium ejus Wilielmum sicut pater constituit Lanfrancus, 
in Regem elegit, et in Ecclesia beati Petri, in occidental! 
parte Lundonise sita, sacravit, et coronavit. Eodem anno 
Godefridum Cicestrensis Ecclesise Antistitem ; et Widonem 
Ecclesise S. Augustini Abbatem ; et Johannem Wellensi Ec- 
clesias Episcopum Cantuariae in sede Metropoli examinavit, 
atque sacravit. In crastino hujus consecrationis Widonem 
Abbatem per semetipsum Lanfrancus, associate sibi Odone 
Baiocensi Episcopo fratre Regis qui tune Cantuariam 
venerat, ad S. Augustinurn duxit : maudatis fratribus ejus- 
dem Ecclesise, quatenus eum susciperent, ut proprium Abba- 
tem, atque pastorem : qui unanimiter animati responderunt, 
se illi nee velle subesse, nee ilium suscipere. Venit itaque 
Lanfrancus adducens Abbatem ; et cum Monachos pertina- 
citer videret resistere, nee ei velle parere; praecepit ut omnes, 
qui sibi nollent obedire, continuo exirent. Exierunt ergo 
pariter fere omnes, et Lanfrancus cum suis, Abbatem hono- 
rifice introductum, in sede locavit; et Ecclesiam commendavit. 
Priorem autem ejusdem Ecclesise nomine .ZElfwinum, et alios, 
quos voluit, cepit : et Cantuariam claustrali custodia servandos 
protenus transmisit : eos vero qui fortiores. et caput scandali 
extiterant, in castellum duci, ibique in carcere custodiri 
praecepit. Cumque omnibus rite peractis domum rediret, 
nunciatum est ei Monachos, qui exierant, sub castro, secus 
Ecclesiam S. Miltrudae consedisse. Quibus mandavit ut, si 
vellent, ante horam nonam, ad Ecclesiam impune redirent : 
sed si illam praeterirent, non jam libere, sed ut fugitivi reve- 
nirent. Hoc audito, in ambiguo habebant redire, vel rema- 
nere. Hora autem refectionis, cum esurirent, plures ex iis 

N ri 


poenitentes sua? pertinacise, ad Lanfrancum raiseruut, et ei 
omnein obedientiam promiserunt. Quibus continue pepercit, 
mandans ut redirent. et professionem suam prsefato Abbati 
se servaturos sacramento confirm arent. Itaque redierunt, et 
se deinceps fore fideles, et obedientes Widoni Abbati super 
corpus beati Augustini juraverunt. Qui vero remanserant 
cepit Lanfrancus, et per Ecclesias Angliee divisit; constrinxit, 
donee eos obedientiam profiteri coegit. Circa idem tempus 
zEluredum unum ex illis vagantem fugiendo cepit, et Can- 
tuarise in sede metropoli, cum quibusdam sociis illius, qui 
Abbati malum moliti sunt, ferro cornpeditos. multis diebus 
rigorem ordinis in claustro discere fecit : sed postquam suffi- 
cienter humiliati sunt, ut sestimatum est, et emendationem 
promiserunt, raisertus eoruin Lanfrancus de singulis locis, 
quo eos disperserat. prsecepit reduci; et suo Abbati recon- 

Eodem anno, dissentione reiterata, perniciem Abbati clam 
machinati sunt ; et dum unus ex eis, nomine Columbanus, 
deprehensus fuisset, jussit eum Lanfrancus sibi adduci. Cum- 
que coram eo astaret, interrogavit si Abbatem uoluisset peri- 
mere. Qui confestirn, Si, inquit, potuissem, pro certo eum 
interfecissem. Praecepit itaque Lanfrancus, ut ante portas 
beati Augustini, spectaute populo, ligaretur nudus, flagellis 
afficeretur : deinde prseciso capitio, ab urbe pelleretur. Factum 
est ut imperavit, et ex hoc, inquietudinem casterorum, donee 
vixit, sua formidine quassavit. 

Nono decimo anno, defunctus est Lanfrancus venerabilis 
Archiepiscopus, et sepultus est in sede Metropoli Cantuaria3 ; 
qui in sede Poutificali sedit annis decem et octo mensibus 
ix duobus diebus. De cujus actibus, asdificiis, eleemosynis, 
laboribus, scriptura quas in ejus auniversario legitur ex 
parte commemorat. Multa enim erant valde. Post ejus 
obitum, Monachi S. Augustini, prsefato Abbati suo Widoni 
palam resistentes, cives Cantuarise contra eum concitaverunt ; 
qui ilium armata manu in sua domo interimere tentaverunt. 
Cujus familia cum resisteret, pluribus utrinque vulneratis, et 
quibusdam interfectis, vix Abbas inter manus illorum illsesus 
evasit ; et ad matrem Ecclesiam, quasrendo auxilium, Can- 
tuariam fugit. Hujus facti fama citati suffraganei ejnsdem 
Ecclesia3, Walkelmus Wentanus et Gundulfus Rofensis Epi- 


scopi, Cantuariam, cum quibusclam nobilibus, quos miserat 
Rex, veniimt : ut tantse off'ensse vindictam adhibeant. Audi- 
tis ergo rationibus seditionis, Monachi k culpa excusari non 
poterant : quos coram populo subire disci plinam, quia palam 
peccaverant, ii qui advenerant, decreverunt : sed Prior, et 
Monachi Ecclesiae Christi, pietate moti restiterunt ; ne si 
palam punirentur infames deinceps fierent ; sicque eorurn 
vita ac servitus contemneretur. Igitur concessum est, ut 
in Ecclesia fieret, ubi non populus, sed soli ad hoc electi 
admitterentur. Vocati sunt ad hoc Monachi Ecclesiee Christi, 
Wido videlicet, et Normannus, qui disciplinam ad Episcopo- 
rum imperium intulerunt. Deinde divisi sunt per Ecclesias 
Angliae, et loco illorum xxiv Monachi Ecclesise Christi ad- 
missi, cum Priore nomine Antonio, qui Sub-prioratus officio 
Cantuarise fungebatur. Gives vero, qui Abbatis curiain ar- 
mata manu intraverant, capti; et qui se ab ejus impugnatione 
purgare non poteraut, oculos amiserunt. 

Post obitum Lanfranci caruit Ecclesia Christi Pastore qua- 
tuor annis mensibus ix et diebus ix in quibus multa adversa 
perpessa est. Anno vero Dominicse incamationis mxciii datus 
est Pontificatus Cantuarberise Anselmo Beccensi Abbati, ii 
Non. Martii, viro probo, bono, apprime erudito, et sui tem- 
poris nominatissimo. Venit autem Cantuariam vii kal. Octob. 
multis eum causis rationabilibus detinentibus, quod prius ve- 
nire nolebat ; et sacratus est ii Non. Decemb. 

N n 2 


The letters t, h, m, I, b, attached to the figure of a page, mean top, 
high, middle, low, bottom. 


p 2 1. Wesseaxna] This is the form which survives in 
the name of Wessex. The form without the t occurs in many 
places in IS and its earlier successors ; but never in E. E. g. p 4 : 
A. D. 560, 6n, 643, 650, 670, 827, 836. In 855, C exhibits the 
archaic form, where S has the t. It has been questioned whether 
Wes- had the same meaning as the later West- ; and this doubt 
would apply also to the parallel case of the Visigoths =Westgoths. 
Forstemann, Ortsnamen, p 133, treats the identity as certain, and 
produces Visula and Bisula as acknowledged forms of the river-name 
Vistula, which river he supposes was once the western boundary of 
the Gothic tribes. 

p 3 t. gej?eode] gej>eodu D. This word means, not nations or 
peoples, but languages. The translators have been misled by the 
sequel, which goes on to speak of them as peoples ; following Beda 
in rough epitome. The Latin of fif gej?eode is quinque gentium 
linguis. Gens, natio is J>eod, but gej>eod is the national language : 
cf. Matth. i. 23. on ure ge]?eode = in our speech. As j?eod was thus 
affected by the prefix ge-, so by the suffix -isc : J>eodis?c= language, 
both in A. S. (Boeth. 19) and in the continental dialects; whence 
Theotiscus, Tedesco, Deutsch, Dutch. 

Among the five languages used in Britain, Beda enumerated 
Latin. A glance at his text will shew that this would be included 
quite naturally from his point of view, which was to enumerate the 
languages used in this island in the services of religion. In D, the 
list stands unaltered ; but E, who did not go to the original, but 
copied from (such as) D, not catching the idea, tried to make five 

280 NOTES 

languages in the common secular sense, and therefore he resolved 
the Bryt Wylsc of D into two, Brittisc and Wilsc. The sense 
which he attached to this distinction was Welsh and Cornish. See 835 
and foot-note. We find Wales called Brytland in 1063, 1086 (p 222). 
This alteration of E was followed by F. 

Book-Latin is the usual but inapt rendering of Boc-Leden. 
Book-language would be a truer equivalent. Already, before the 
date of D, had the word Leden attained that ' Common-Noun' state, 
in which it equalled language in general, or a strange, mysterious, 
learned language in particular ; and from which it was able to form 
its derivative Latimer=an interpreter. See Genesis xi. 6. Dis is 
an folc and ealle hig spreca'S an Lyden=This is one folk and they 
all speak one language. The determinative Boc- would not have 
been prefixed, so long as Leden was regarded as a Proper Name. 
In Chaucer, Squier's Tale, it is used of the discourse of birds. 

p 3 h. Scithiam] Meaning Scandinavia, or as it is expressed in 
Smith's note in Beda i. i. " Scythiam citeriorem." The tendency 
to transform names into those of classical celebrity is seen just above, 
where Armenia stands for Armorica. 

P3l. Scotta sumdael gewat of Ybernian on Brittene] = 
Some of the Scots emigrated from Hibernia into Britain. And that 
emigration proved the cause of transferring the national name. 
The name of Scotland appears to date from the eleventh century ; 
previously it was ' Albania.' In the Saxon Chronicles we find earlier 
mention of the Scots' in the north of Britain, as at 684, 937 ; but 
we do not find ' Scotland' until 1066 (p 201). The Scots' in 891 
are plainly those in Hibernia. 

p 3 b. Reoda from ]?am heo sind genemnode Dsel 

Beodi] The Irish authorities give a different account of this 
name. They say that British Dalrieda (a kingdom comprehending a 
large part of South -Western Scotland, namely, Argyle, Kantire, &c., 
founded by an Irish colony A. D. 503) was named from the territory 
of Dalrieda in Antrim, because its chiefs were from the Irish 

It was probably the Dalriedan king who gave lona to Columbkille, 
and not the Picts, as stated by Beda. King's Hist, of Irish Church 
vol. i. p 85, referring to Lanigan ii. 159. 

425 E. A Latin Chronicle, apparently Prankish, of which we 
have had instalments above, is incorporated from time to time. 
Faramundus in Prankish story is the traditional name of the 
founder of the monarchy. His personality was doubted by De Thou ; 
and Sorel (La Bibliotheque Franqoise, Paris, 1667, p 373) went so 

NOTES 281 

far as to say : " On est fort peu asseure si Pharamond fut jamais au 
monde." Buckle, Civilization, p 705. 

430 X. Palladius] This mistaken correction by the interpolator 
a, was probably borrowed from some MS. like E, the only one that 
reads Patricius. It is the only notice of S. Patrick in the Saxon 
Chronicles. As to Palladius and Patricius, see some annals of Ma- 
rianus in Monumenta Historica Britannica, P523 foot. Also Nennius 
c. 55 and 56. The earliest authority is said to be Prosper, who was 
a contemporary of Palladius and Patricius. The date given for the 
preaching of S. Patrick is 43 1, the year after the mission of Palladius. 
The proximity of the dates, and the comparative obscurity of Palla- 
dius, led to the substitution of S. Patrick in his place. Prosperi Chro- 
nicon apud H. Canisium. Lect. Ant. vol. i. pjoi. Ed. Basnage. 

457 R" Crecgan ford] In margin of C is written in an Elizabethan 
hand : nunc creyford non longe a dartford&ud at top of page, 
partly cut away in binding : Crea fl intrat [?] ...... dartford, 

ejusque fons est ad orpyngton, super earn sunt seint Mary 
crey, powles crey, north crey, beckesley $* creaforde. This and 
some other notes, (chiefly topographical) in C, may possibly belong 
to the collection of material for Camden's Britannia; but the hand- 
writing is unknown. See Introduction, description of C. Infra 477, 
49 1 ' 577' 59 T 6 48> 673, 679, 685, 752, 763, 822, 874, 875, 878, 
880, 893, 894 (p 93). 

477 K. Cissa] ab hoc Cissa puto Chichester dictam Cissan- 
ceast' C marg. : cf. note on 45 7 S. 

477- Cymenes ora] Camden and, after him, Gibson say this 
place must have been near Wittering on the coast of Sussex. They 
rely on a Charter which Kemble (Cod. Dipl. 992) has marked as 
spurious, but which was no doubt constructed with a regard for pro- 
bability. In it this name occurs as Cumeneshora, a form which 
countenances Ingram's guess that Shoreham is the place ; quasi 

491 IS. Andredes cester] Hcec (ut puto) ab hoc Cissa post 
dicta est Cissanceaster C marg. In Cod. Dipl. 1094 there is a 
Cissanbeorh. The site of Andredes ceaster is discussed in Archseol. 
Journal, vol. iv. p 203 ; and decided in favour of Pevensey. 

508. Natanleod] This is equivalent to Naiton Rex (Pictorum 
Beda v. 21) or Wectanus Hex in Annals of Tighernac 717 (Ann. 
Ulster 716). There is also a Nechtain Ann. Ulst. 709. The indices 
to the Irish Annalists will give sundry others in the seventh and. 
eighth centuries. This name Natan, Naiton, Nechtain was evi- 

o o 

282 NOTES 

dently a name frequently borne by Keltic princes. It entered also 
into names of places : Dunnichen near Forfar is identified with the 
Duin Nechtain of Tighernac 686 quoted below, note on 685 E. 
The word leod is identical with clwydd or 11wy6.=prince ; which is 
seen in the Welsh compound Arglwydd = Lord : and which is so 
well known as a family name of Welsh extraction Lloyd. See 
Garnett's Philological Essays, p 329. 

I copy from Mr. Hawker, Vicar of Morwenstow, the following 
Cornish illustration of this name : " In a rocky Glen, midway between 
the Castles of Eottreaun and Dundagel, there is a Fall of Waters 
into a hollow Cauldron of native Stone, which has borne for Ten 
Centuries the Name of St. Nectan's Kieve. He was the brother of 
St. Morwenna, and like her a famous Saint of this Northern Shore. 
He founded the Stations of Hartland and Wellcombe ; and be- 
queathed his Name to other Sacred Places along the Sea, in the 
Former Ages of Cornish Faith." The Quest of the Sangraal. Exeter 
1864. Appendix A. 

Since the above was written I am glad to discover from a note on 
p 56 of Mr. Pearson's Early and Middle Ages of England, that Dr. 
Guest has already given this sense to leod in Philolog. Trans, vol. i. 
No. 2. He translates Natan-leod, king of the Nattas. 

534. There was in the time of Edward the Elder, a barrow at 
Stoke near Hurstbourne (Hants) known as Ceardiees beorg, the 
hill or (?) barrow of Cerdic. Cod. Dipl. 1077. For this remark I am 
indebted to an article in the Archaeological Journal, July 1 85 7 a 
posthumous paper of Mr. Kemble, who has rendered such services 
to our early literature and history by his Translation of Beowulf and 
other works ; but above all by the invaluable store of materials he has 
brought together in the Codex Diplomaticus JEvi Saxonici. 

556. Beranbyrg] Probably Barbury Camp between Swindon 
and Marlborough. " This is a large camp, in excellent preservation. 
It is nearly circular, and girdled by a double ring of ditch and 
rampart ; the inner very strong, sloping full 50 feet to the bottom 
of the ditch." Murray's Hand Book, Wilts. 

577. This Annal with that of 584 record two important steps 
in the advance of the West Saxons upon the British population, 
bringing our ancestors, according to. Dr. Guest, along the Severn 
valley, so far as Faddiley (Fe]>an leag) on the confines of the Vale 
Royal of Cheshire. 

Deorham, where the battle of 577 was fought, by which the 
important triangle of Gloucester Cirencester Bath became Saxon, 
is identified with Dyrham, on the turnpike-road between Bath and 

NOTES 283 

Gloucester. In Domesday it is written Dirham ; and Gibson (Glos. 
ad Sax. Chr. sub voc.) says it was called Durham in his day. 

Commail, Condidan, Farinmail may have been (as suggested 
by Dr. Guest) the princes of those three cities, and they may have 
made a stand at Deorham with their combined forces, against the 
aggressive Saxon. 

M, de la Villeraarque has adopted the view of Sharon Turner, 
identifying Condidan with Kyndylan son of Kyndruyn, whose fall 
in the Saxon invasions is the theme of a celebrated Welsh Elegy by 
the cotemporary bard, Llywarch Hen. Dr. Guest, who makes that 
Elegy apply to 584, contends that this view is faulty, because Kyn- 
dylari in the Elegy is slain near Shrewsbury, whereas Condidan in 
the Chronicle falls at Deorham. But it is a curious coincidence, that 
among Kyndylan's companions in arms in the Elegy, there figures 
conspicuously Garanmael son of Kyndylan. Goreu gwr Garanmael : 
Bravest hero Garanmael. See Les Eardes Bretons du vi e Siecle, par 
M. de la Villemarque, pp 66, 107. 

The ' many towns' and ' countless spoil' of 584 come out very 
well under the theory of Dr. Guest. For if Fej?anleag is in Cheshire, 
the expedition passes through Powys-land, of which the capital was 
Pengwern (Shrewsbury). Of this district M. de la Villemarque 

says : " Powis, ce paradis des Cambriens ce pays de la 

poe"sie et de la renommeV' referring to the expressions of the 
Welsh bards. That the desolation of Uriconium may with high 
probability be referred to these invasions, has been shewn in a very 
convincing manner by Dr. Guest in the Paper so often referred to 
(Archaeological Journal, No. 75 : On the English Conquest of the 
Severn Valley} ; a remarkable example of approach to certainty in 
the twilight scenes of our early history. 

These Annals, so distinctly original, were hardly penned before 
the events were on the verge of oblivion therefore, if a transposition 
of names or other slight adjustment seems to be required by the 
Welsh remains, historical criticism could not object. The Saxons 
had arms, and the Britons arts. 

577. Cirenceaster] cyceter C marg. : cf. note on 457 "R. 
Gibson in his Glos. to Sax. Chron. spells it Ciceter. 

591. Woddes beorge] Wodebryg' in Suthf oik from Ipswych 
v myle C marg. Again 715. Gibson says : Hodie Wodnesburh 
in agro Wiltun. Viculus fossae cuidam admiranda? adsidens, quse 
Wodnesdic appellatur, et totam earn regionem transversa inter- 
secat. E has set Wodnesbeorge. 

603 R. set .ZEgesan stane] The readings set Egisan stane BC 

o o 2 

284 NOTES 

set Dsegsan stane (E) cet Daegstane (a) are pretty clearly 
identical in origin. The D form is according to Beda i. 34, in loco 
celeberrimo qui dicitur Degsastan id est Degsa lapis. So it would 
seem as if in the resolution of coherent dentals the D was lost, and 
hence the form in !S" B C. Gibson says : Dawston (Cumberland) 
Ingram conj. Theekstone (Yorks. N. R.). 

633. HeSfelda] Hatfield (with Hatfield Moor, Hatfield Chace) 
in West Riding of Yorkshire : cf. Beda ii. 20, Smith's note ; Cough's 
Camden, vol. iii. p 273. 

641 E. Maserfeld] This place is matter for conjecture. Smith 
(Beda iii. 9 note) produces a place of the same name in Lancashire. 
Gibson fixes it at Oswestry (Oswaldestre) because this name 
has Oswald in it. Ingram guesses Mirfleld, Yorkshire West 

643 . )>a ciricean] }>a ealdan cyricean B C. For the importance 
of this insertion see the description of MS. B in the Introduction. 
In F it stands : Des cing het getimbrian }> mynster on Wintanceastre 
on See Petres naman. 

648. JEscesdune] Aschedownforesta yn Suthesexe C marg. : 
cf. note 457 r R. 

There are three other mentions of this same place, and all very 
significant. In 66 1, Wulfhere king of Mercia carries his ravages 
as far as this in 871, JE^ered and ^Elfred fight with the whole 
Danish army on this down and in 1006, we have the Danes passing 
from the neighbourhood of Wallingford " along Ashdown ;" and 
we next find them at East Kennett, not far from Marlborough. 
JEscesdun is clearly that mass of chalk-hills between Wallingford and 
Marlborough, on which is the famous white horse of Berkshire, and 
on which a private residence, Ashdown Park near Uffington, pre- 
serves the ancient name. Here it was that king Cenwalh gave a 
large tract of country to his cousin Cuthred ; probably with a view 
to make the position secure against the Mercians. It is remarkable 
that 66 1, when Wulfhere advanced to ^Escesdun, is the year of 
Cuthred's death. Perhaps he fell defending his territory. Cuthred's 
father Cwichelm was also famous in those parts, for " Cwichelm's 
low" was somewhere near Ashdown (1006). Cf. Cod. Dipl. 693. 

652 E. Pendan] An error of the scribe for " Peadan." 

653 E. set Icanhoe] set yceanho' BC ; on Icanho F. Gibson 
supposes this place to be Boston in Lincolnshire, quasi Botulfeston. 

654. for]>an |>et ^ser is an wsel] Smith on Beda iv. 6 disputes 
this derivation d, fonte voraginoso, and explains the name as Locus 
habitation** in pratis. 

NOTES 285 

656. p3ot. wedbro'Seres] This relationship, whatever it was, must 
be understood as between Peada and Oswi not Wulfhere arid Oswi. 
The Northumbrian victory of 654 had broken the power of Mercia, 
and made it dependent on Northumbria. Peada ruled by Northum- 
brian favour, and as having a Northumbrian princess for his consort. 
It is the family alliance and pledged brotherhood between Peada 
and his father-in-law Oswiu that is represented in the word wed- 
bro^eres : whether the writer of this slovenly interpolation so , un- 
derstood it or not. In Beda iii. 24 fin. it is said that Oswiu gave 
Peada the government of South Mercia eo quod esset cognatus suus. 
There was a double marriage between the families : Peada married 
Alchfled daughter of Oswiu, and Alchfrid son of Oswiu married 
Cyneburg sister of Peada. Yet we must not understand wed- by 
its modern association with marriage : but simply as signifying that 
a covenanted alliance existed between the parties, which made them 
bound to stand by each other like (or even more than) natural 

Sir Frederic Madden (La^amon, vol. iii. p 354) has adopted the 
more usual explanation of this passage, brother by baptism. 

656. p 30 h. for hwi] The Demonstrative to this Interrogative is 
for J>i; e. g. p 256 t. 

656. p 33 h. ]>eonest men] This appears like the Danish tjeneste 
= service; which also compounds with a noun of the person who 
serves, as, Tjeneste-dreng = serving-boy : Tjeneste-folk = serving- 
folk : Tjeneste-mo or Tjenste-pige = serving- girl : Tjeneste-qvinde = 
serving- woman. Molbech v. Tjeneste. 

656. p33 m. undyde] irritum redderet : disannul. It is not 
usual to find tindon in this sense of KaraAveu/, egovQevelv, dderelv : its 
prevalent use is that of opening what is shut, as below in the same 
page, of S. Peter with his keys undoing, opening the doors of heaven. 
Infra 1 1 22, of the phenomenon of a cloud seeming to burst open, 
and divide into four parts (se wolcne undide on fower healfe). In 
Fragments of S. SwiShun, p 6. line 17, J>a eagan undyde = opened 
his eyes. In ^Elfric's Homilies, vol. i. p 548, undyde his mu^ 
( = opened his mouth); otherwise expressed in the same page "geo- 
penode his mu^." 

658. set Peonnum] " Pen, an obscure village now, but antiently 
famous, being ordained by destinie as it may seeme to the overthrow 
both of Britans and Danes. For at this verie place Keniwalch a 
West Saxon, had such a day of the Britans, that they would scarsely 
ever after abide to come into the field against the English Saxons. 
And many a yeare after that, king Edmund surnamed Ironside, 

286 NOTES 

gave there a notable foil to the Danes, as he pursued Canutus their 

This is Pen3lewood, or Penscellwood, i. e. Pen-Selwood, or head 
of Selwood, (locally pronounced Zilw'cl,) on the confines of Wiltshire, 
Somersetshire, and Dorsetshire. The place is famous for the " Pen 
Pits," which are said to be the vestiges of an ancient British town. 
In the neighbourhood there is an earthen fortress of large area, 
known as " Keniwilkins's Castle" a name which bears a strong 
resemblance to that of Cenwalh. 

664. Wagele] This passage is from, Beda (iii. 27), but the name 
of Tuda's burial-place is so different here from that which is found 
in the text of Beda, that it becomes a topographical question be- 
longing to the Saxon Chronicles. In the Eccl. Hist, it is Psegnalsech : 
in the Anglo-Saxon version it is Peginaleah. Smith, the editor of 
Beda, thinks the similarity of name is enough to identify it with 
Pincanheal (now Finchale two miles from Durham), where a Synod 
was held in 788. Ingram, who brings forward another form of the 
word, Vegnalech, from Leland Bed. Collect, ii. 143. ed. 1774, 
conjectures that it is Whalley, or as he otherwise writes it (I know 
not whether upon authority or by way of etymology) Wayleigh. 
This Whalley is an extensive parish, lying in three counties, Lan- 
cashire, Cheshire, and Yorkshire, containing several towns, chapelries, 
and townships, with a fine Abbey Church so that it is not unlikely 
to have been of ancient celebrity. But the identification of Wagele 
must after all be left to the local antiquarian. 

671. wodl] rvina ^Ethelweard. strages Flor. Henry of Hunting- 
don and Roger of Wendover both make it a battle among the birds ! 

673. .Styeldryht] alias etheldrythe C marg. : cf. infra 679 
note; and supra 457 note. 

6/5- P. 38 h. onsting] Cf. Mr. Baron's Edition of Johnson's Ec- 
clesiastical Laws, vol. i. p i 27 and note. Cod. Dipl. 843. 

675. p38h. hwilc abbot ]>e hwilc man swa] = what 

abbot soever what man soever, &c. 

675. p 38!. ge redd] read, published by reading. For the sake 
of any reader who may not be familiar enough with his mother- 
tongue to perceive the comparaiive rnodernness of this and such like 
late insertions, this word is selected as a palpable illustration. No- 
where in the elder Chronicles will this verb be found in the modern 
sense of dvayivao-Ku, legere. Rsedan is to plan, counsel, advise ; e. g. 
pi 57, where the same participle gered means resolved upon. 

675. p 38 1. Al swa ic beode J>e Saxulf, &c.j And as on the one 
hand I ordain unto thee that (according as thou desirest) the minster be 

NOTES 287 

free so on the other hand do I forbid thee and all the bishops that come 
after thee in the name of Christ and of all His Saints that ye have 
no claim on the minster but according to the Abbot's will. This pre- 
tension would appear to be set up as early as 656 (p 33 1), but the 
expression is not so distinct there as here. In this place the language 
is so distinct that no doubt can remain about the anachronism. The 
first real case of exemption of an English monastery from episcopal 
jurisdiction appears to have been that of Battle Abbey. Hallam's 
Middle Ages, vol. ii. pi6 note. Robertson, Church Hist. vol. ii, 
pp 103, 203. 

675. p 39111. toligge^] See Glossary to Ormulum, Ed. White, 
v. Toll)?. 

6 75 P39 ra - Bredune. Hrepingas. Cedenac] See a Paper by 
Mr. Stubbs in the Archaeological Journal of 1861, p202. 

678 E. Eatan] There is a life of this Eata in vol. viii of the Surtees 
Society Publications, entitled, " Miscellanea Biographica." 

679. ^EJjel]>ry|?] sej>eldrrS C. Jet audrye C marg. : cf. Gough's 
Camden's Brit. ii. 194, and supra 673 note. See E 963 ; and Halli- 
well, v. Tawdry. 

685. Cedwalla quondam Rex Souths exicefundator Cicestren' 
ecclesice C marg. See note on 457 R. But as to the foundership 
which this annotator attributes to Ceadwalla, cf. Gough's Camden, 
vol. ii. pp 1 94, 195. 

685 A. EcgferJ) cyning mon ofslog] E adds be norSan sse. 
The commencement of his expedition against the Scotti is noticed in 
684 E. The battle in which he fell is called the battle of Dunni- 
chen, and is thus recorded in the mixed language of the Annals of 
Tighernac : 686. Cath Duin Nechtain [?'. e. The battle of Duin 
Nechtain] xx die m. Maii Sabbati die factum est, in quo Ecfrit me 
Ossu \i. e. Ecgfer> son of Oswiu] Rex Saxonum, xv anno regni 
sui, consumata magna cum caterva militum suorum interfectus est 
la Brudhi me Bili Rege Fortrein [i. e. by Bruide son of Bill king of 

685 E. Agust'] For Hagustaldesham (as above) or Hexham. 

Ceastre] This means York. So again 762. Many places were 
locally called Ceaster; but with the progress of centralization it 
became necessary to keep up their distinctive prefixes, as fFmchester, 
MVwchester, &c. Only one great place has come to be known by the 
simple name of Chester ; with obscure places such as Caistor, Castor, 
&c., it was more easy, and probably there are several of them in 

688 E. under Cristes cla^um] Rex vero secundum votum infra 

288 NOTES 

septem dies in albis mortuus est. Hen. Hunt. The ancient practice 
was to put off the white on the eighth day after Baptism. Bingham 
xii. 4. 3. Cf. note on 878. 

693 E. Brihthelm] The true name Dryhthelm is preserved 
only in D. This is the Drycthelmus of Beda v. 1 2 ; a Northum- 
brian thane of Incuneningum (prob. Cuningham) who died in the 
evening and woke to life in the morning, and remembered what he 
had seen in the other world, while out of the body. The narrative 
of his vision was long used in church teaching, and Wanley notices 
in his Catalogue five different volumes in which homilies or narra- 
tives of Drihthelm's vision are extant. Dr. Ingram (Appendix to 
Sax. Chron.) has pointed out that Dryhthelm's remains were de- 
posited at Melrose according to Hugo Candidus (ap. Sparke, p4o) 
and also that the wonderful vision of Charles le Gros, related by 
Malmesbury, Gesta Regum Angl. lib. ii, was probably founded on 

694. xxx m] Allen, Royal Prerogative, pp 177, 178, supposes 
that the were paid for Mul's murder by the men of Kent was 
30,000 sceattas, and nut shillings or pounds. Pearson's Early and 
Middle Ages of England, cap. ix. 

694. Here F has an insertion which should have been put in the 
Appendix. It is " King Wihtred's Grant of Privileges" (as entitled 
in Johnson's Canons, Ed. Baron, Anno 692) made at the Synod of 
Baccancelde (Bapchild, Kent). " And sona 'Sas fte he cing was. he 
het gaderian mycel concilium on 'Sare stowe $e ys geclypod BAC- 
CANCELDE. On Sare was Wihtred sittende: Cantware cing. and 
se arceb' of Cantuarebyri Brihtwald. and se biscop Tobias of Hroue- 
ceastre. and mid heom abbodas and abbedessen. and manige wise 
menn ar weeron gegaderade. ealle to smeagende embe Codes cyrcan 
bote 'Sa beo^ innan Cent. Nu agan se cing to specende. and ssede. 
Ic wylle )> ealle 'Sa mynstre and Sa cyrican 'Sa waeron giuene and 
becweSene Gcde to wyrSmynte be geleafulra cinga dagan. minra 
forengenglan. and be minra magan dagon. be ^Egelberhtes cinges. 
and ]>ara ^e him efter fyligdan. swa beliuan Gode to wurSmynte. and 
faestlice standan. a to ecnesse seure ma. ForSon Ic Wihtred eor]?lic 
cing. fram 'San heouenlice Cinge oribryrd. and mid andan Sare riht- 


wisnesse anseld. of uran ealdran fsederan gesetnesse ic habbe }> gele- 
ornod. )>at nan Isewede man nah mid rihte to stingan hine an annare 
cirican. na an an 'Sara 'Singan 'Se to cyrcan belimp'S. And forSi 
stranglice and truwlice we gesettaS and denial, and on Godes 
naman J>es ealmihtiges. and on ealra halgena. we forbeoda'S eallon 

NOTES 289 

uron seftergengan. cingan. and ealdermannum. and eallan laewedan 
niannum. seure senne hlauordscipe ouer circan. and ouer eallan heora 
Cingan. ^e ic o'S'Se mine yldran. on ealdon dagan^ giuan Xpe to loue 
on ece erfwyrSnesse. and ure hleefdian Sea Marian, and 'San halgan 
apostolan. Ac loc hwenne hit gewurSe -f biscop. o'ftSe abbod. o'S'Se 
abbedesse. gewite of 'Sysan Hue. sy hit gecydd 'San arb', and mid his 
reede and ge'Seahte sy gecoren swilce wurj?e beo. and his lif ^e man 
sceal to swa gedonne 'Singe cysan asece se arb'. and his clsennesse. 
and ... an nane wisan ne wurpe gecoraen nan. na to swa gedonan 
Cingan gehalgod. butan J>es arb' rsede. Cyngas sceolan settan eorlas 
and ealdermen. scirereuan and domesmenn. and arb' sceal Godes 
gela'Sunge wissian and raedan. and biscopas. and abbodas. and abbe- 
dessan. preostas. and diacona?. ceosan and settan. halgian and ge- 
tryman. mid godan mynegunga and forebysene. ]?e laeste }>e ssni of 
Godes heorde dwelie and losie." See more in the Latin version in 
Cod. Dipl. 996 ; and, with some variations, in Spelman, vol. i. p 189. 
After the place where F leaves off, Spelman's version continues thus : 
" Hoc praeceptum statuimus hiis monasteriis quorum nomina hsec 
sunt annotata. Primum, primi Apostolorum principis Petri, id est, 
Vpmynster, Raculf, Sudmynster, Dofras, Folcanstan, Hymming 
(Lymming Wilkins), Stepeis&Hor. Haec omnia interdicimus (sicut 
ante diximus) ut nullus habitus ex numero laicorum ad se pertrahat 
vel suscipiat nullutn monasterium de hiis prsenominatis." 

699 E. In the Annals of Ulster this is entered under 697. Bellum 
inter Saxones et Pictos ubi cecidit filius Remit qui dicebatur Brectrid. 
Tighernac 698. 

705. Mit dem Tode Aldfrid's begann der Lichtpunct der Geschichte 
Northumbriens zu verbleichen. Lappenberg, vol. i. p 205. Compare 
note on 731. 

710. Gerente Weala cininge] The name Gerent recurs in 
British history. In this place it is that Gerent king of West 
Wales (i. e. Devon and Cornwall) to whom Aldhelm, when Abbot 
of Malmsbury, addressed a letter or treatise (librum egregium ad- 
versus errorem Brittonum Bed. v. 18) about conformity to the 
Roman Ritual. Titled thus : Domino gloriosissimo, occidentalis regni 
sceptra gubernanti, quern ego, ut mild Scrutator cordis et rerum Testis 
est,fraternd caritate amplector, Geruntio Regi, simulque cunctis Dei 
Sacerdotibus per Domnonia conversantibus, Aldhelmus, sine meritorum 
prerogatives Abbatis officio functus, optabilem in Domino salutem! 
Aldhelmi Opp. Ed. Giles, p 83. 

We know of an earlier Gerent, also connected with Devonshire, 
through an elegy upon his death by Lly warch Hen. It is the first 


!90 NOTES 

n M. de la Villemarqud's Bardes Bretons ; and is entitled, Maronad 
Gerent Mab Erbin = J[egy of Cerent son of Erbin. This Gerent is 
ilmost of the times and cycle of Arthur : though M. de la Villemarque 
<vould vindicate him for history by identifying him with the " swij>e 
aej>elne monnan" who fell fighting the Saxons ; above 501. 

Mr. Pearson, Early and Middle Ages of England, p 35 note, says 
the mythical Vortigern is a transformation of that Gerontius, a native 
of Briton, who transferred the diadem from the usurper Constantine 
to the head of his friend Maximus. 

Gerrans in Cornwall is connected with ' king Gerennius' by a 
very distinct and circumstantial tradition. On the highest ground 
in * Roseland,' overlooking Gerrans Bay, is Veryan Beacon, or (in 
the Ordnance Map) Carne Beacon, a tumulus of the first magnitude, 
Tradition calls it the tomb of king Gerennius, who lived in a palace on 
yonder side of the bay, and his corpse was rowed across in a golden 
boat with silver oars, which were all buried along with him. This 
mound was opened in 1853 by the Rev. John Adams [Newdigate 
Prize-man 1847],, the Hon. and Rev. J. T. Boscawen, and others; 
and a Report which appeared in the Cornwall Gazette, written by 
Mr. Adams, ought to be enshrined in some less ephemeral publication. 
The effect of the opening was to establish the sepulchral character 
of the Beacon ; for after some days' excavation, they reached a 
kist-vaen of massive unhewn rocks, fit for the resting-place of a king. 
All within had mouldered to dust. Mr. Adams assigns a date to this 
interment, from a place in the Register of Llandaff, which says that 
S. Teilo on his way homeward from Brittany (whither he had retired 
during the prevalence of the ictericia pestis) visited Gerennius king 
of Cornwall, and attended his death-bed. The date of this event is 
A. D. 596 (Stubbs, p 1 56). 

7 jo E. Hsefe and Csere] " Loca duo sunt in agro Northymbrensi 
decem plus minus mille passuum invicem distantia, Carehouse et 
Heefeld, paulum ultra vallum Pictorum. Etsi non ausim affirmare ea 
olim fuisse dicta Csere et Hsefe, videtur tamen illud suadere turn 
nominum antiquorum et hodiernorum similitude, turn etiam locorum 
situs. Circa limites enim Pictorum et Northymbrorum prseliatum 
fuisse, non est cur dubitemus." Gibson. " Heugh and Caraw" 

Ann. Tighernac 711. Strages Pictorum in Campo Monand a 
Saxonis ubi Findgaine me Deleroith immatura morte jacuit. Con- 
gressio Brittouum et Dalriadha for Loirgeclat [loingg ecclet. Ann. 
Ulst. 710] ubi Britones devicti. Ap. Skene, Collectanea de rebus 

NOTES 291 

7 1 6 X. J>a ciriclecan scare] the ecclesiastical tonsure, as K B C ; 
or Sancte Petres scsere, S. Peter's tonsure, as DEF : cf. 73 7 E, 
757 E. This tonsure was circular like a crown, and was called the 
corona ; whereas that in use in the Scotian Churches was crescent- 
shape from ear to ear. See Robertson's Church History, vol. ii. 
p 61 

Ann. Tigh. 718. Tonsura Corona s.v. familiam lea dat', which 
Mr. Skene renders, " The Coronal Tonsure imposed upon the com- 
munity of lona." 

722. Tantun] Comparing this with 658 we measure the west- 
ward progress of Saxon dominion. Taunton was now its most ad- 
vanced station. The Tone here passes through the gate of the 
country, as the Thames does at Reading. Taunton commanded the 
narrow plain between the Quantocks and the Wellington Pillar 
Heights. In the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History 
Society's Proceedings for 1853 is an excellent paper on the position, 
history, and present condition of Taunton Castle, with a plan and 
illustrations, by the Rev. F. Warre. It was placed in the angle made 
by a small stream flowing into the Tone. 

728 !. Ine ferde to Borne] In a highly demonstrative epistle 
from Gregory II. to Leo the Iconoclast, quoted in Gibbon, c. 49, the 
Roman bishop makes a diplomatic use of the zeal and submissive- 
ness of the converted barbarians of the West; and there is room 
to imagine (as the historian has done in a note) that this pilgrimage 
by king Ine was in the writer's mind. 

731. Ceolwulf was king of Northumbria when Beda died; it 
was to him that he had dedicated his Ecclesiastical History (see 
foot-note supra, p 52) : in the last chapter of which he left a sentence 
of gloomy foreboding as to the future prospects of his country. His 
foresight was justified by events, as may be seen by the divisions and 
crimes and instability marked in the Northumbrian Annals 757, 
759, 774, 778, 789, 790, 794: cf. note on 705. 

The turn of Mercia comes next : hitherto its conflicts had been 
with Northumbria, but now we see it expanding and becoming ag- 
gressive in the direction of Wessex (733) ; taxing Cu'Srsed's efforts 
(741, 752); in alliance with Cuj>raed against the Welsh (743) ; fight- 
ing against Kent (773), and under the dread king Offa wresting 
Bensington from Wessex (777), who extorts from the Abp. of Can- 
terbury a cession of part of the primacy, to render Mercia ecclesiasti- 
cally independent (785) ; orders the king of E. Anglia to be put to 
death (792), and throws up " OfFa's Dyke" (Asser). Under Ceolwulf 
they overrun Kent (796), and continue to hold the leadership in 

pp 2 

292 NOTES 

Britain till the close of the century. But from the accession of 
Ecgberht.(8oo), the power of Wessex begins to aim at the position 
which it ultimately attained. 

740. jEaeflberht] Error of scribe for CirS- : cf. 758. 

745. Daniliel] Daniel of Winchester, the correspondent and 
counsellor of Boniface, Missionary Bishop of the Germans. Robertson, 
Church History, vol. ii. p 95 sqq. 

752 2L Beorg feorda] Burford C marg. : cf. 457 note. 

755. In this circumstantial narrative the reader should bear in 
mind the arrangements of a Saxon residence. The chief building 
was the hall, around which grouped the other apartments, each en- 
tered from the court ; the whole surrounded by a wall or rampart 
of earth, and therefore named a burh. The common external en- 
trance was the gate (geat), which was an opening in the wall; but 
the entrance to any of the enclosed buildings was a door (duru). 
The description in this Annal seems to imply that the residence at 
Merton covered a considerable area. 

The king was in the lady's chamber (bur the ' bower' of mediaeval 
romance), and Cyneheard surprised him there (hine \xsr berad) by 
riding in unexpectedly through the outer gate into the court, before 
the king's attendants, who had retired to the hall, were aware (cer 
hine ]>a men onfunden \e mid \am cyninge wceruri). Then the fight 
between the king and his foe takes place at the door (duru) of the 
lady's bower, and there the king was slain. And now the lady's 
screams had, for the first time, alarmed the king's guard in the hall. 
They hasted to the rescue, scorned Cyneheard's proposals, and fought 
till all but one were slain. Next morning the rest of the king's 
party came up, and found Cyneheard in occupation, and in a posture 
of defence (}>one cefteling on ]><ere by rig metton). His party had closed 
the outer gates (]>a gatu), and meant to defend them. After a 
fruitless parley, they fought about the gates (ymb \a gatu) till the 
party inside was obliged to yield. See Mr. Wright's very interesting 
work, " Domestic Manners and Sentiments," p 13. 

755. }>one bur utan beeode] [>a burh utan ymbeodan B; ]>a 
burh utan beeodan C ; ]>one bur utan beeodon D. 

755. p 50 t. on j)9BS wifes gebserum] by the woman's cries. So 
gebserum Oros. iv. 10. 2 ; Ed. Bosw. Psalm xxxiv. 15. In these 
two instances it might be questioned whether ' gestures' or ' cries' 
were the sense. In Oros. i. 12. i . wifa geb&ra is vague. In our text 
it is clearly ' cries ;' and so Sir F. Madden renders it in Glos. Lajamon 
v. z'bere. 

The use of the preposition on in an instrumental sense was widely 

NOTES 293 

spread, and is still in extensive provincial use. The expression 
'along of is but a modification of the genuine ' along on' to 
convey cause or occasion. Thus Chaucer (Canones Yemannes 

Tale) : 

I cannot tell whercw it was along, 
But wel I wot gret strif is us among. 

755- P 5 h- & U e Isegon] all lay, i. e. were corpses. No lateHn- 
ventions of human language have rendered death with more expres- 
sion, than that which was the most obvious and probably the very 
oldest the motionless prostration as of a felled tree. This thought 
produced Trroi/ia and cadaver. In Job xiv. 10. it is put forward pro- 
minently, but our version has overlooked it. Renan : Mais quand 
I'homme meurt, il reste etendu. De Wette : Aber der Mann, stirbt 
er, so liegt er da. Compare Zosimas in Appendix to SwrShun, p no. 
1 7, ]>aet msegn J>aes licgendan. 

And as licgan=to lie, is used for the state of death ; so lecgan, 
transitive, to lay or fell, is used of slaying; like occidere and occidere. 
See Schmid, Gesetze Glos. v. lecgan. 

755- P5 ora - hiera agenne dom] their own terms. 
755. psol. oj?j>aet hie )>8er inne fulgon] until they penetrated, 
or forced an entrance. Grein seems to be right in rendering felgan 
simply intrare. Kemble v. filhan. The word is an obscure one, and 
perhaps was never in general use : so B avoids it by writing wurdon ; 
and E has recourse to the wild substitute Jlugon, which is quite out 
of place. 

761 E. Florence says : juxta Clivum Edwini, clitonem quendam 
nobilissimum Oswinum occidit. Hen. Hunt, is more ample : Mol 
rex Nordhumbre interfecit Oswine fortissimum ducum suorum, qui 
committens prselium erga dominum suum apud Eadwinesclive, jure 
gentium spreto, jure Dei occisus est. Simeon Dun. describes the 
battle-field as, juxta Eldunum secus Melros. Wrjtten Eladunwn 
in Hoveden and Chr. Mailros. This word El with its variants 
Al, Hel, seem to have designated a height, rock, or mountain. Beda 
E. H. i. 12. has Alcluith, quod lingua eorum sigm&cat petram Cluith. 
Helvellyn is rendered yellow mountain, on the authority of Dr. Guest, 
"as Rhiwvelen, that name so common in Welsh topography, meant 
yellow slope." Archaeological Journal, No. 75. p 2 14. 

763. }>one feowertegan dseg ofer midne winter] id est 
Candelmas day C marg. : cf. 457 note. 

773. read Cristes msel] Hardly " a fiery crucifix" (MHB); but 
as Mr. Thorpe, " a red cross." Literally, Cristes mael means the 
sign or emblem of Christ. Florence has it, Rubicundi coloris sig- 

294 NOTES 

num in crucis modum in ceelo apparuit post solis occasum. Infra 
p 1 23 1, the cross of signature is called by this name. 
. 778 E. heahgerefan] Kemble (Saxons in England, vol. ii. c. 5) 
thinks these high-reeves were no part of the ordinary machinery of 
government, but officers occasionally commissioned with extraordinary 
powers. Simeon of Durham calls them duces here and in 780. The 
title occurs again 1001 "R (three times), and 1002 E. The only other 
light we get on the subject is from a little code on Wergilds (Thorpe's 
Ancient Laws, 8vo. p 1 86 ; fol. p 79. Schmid, Anhang vii) in which 
the heahgerefa ranks with the hold (having the same wergild) ; 
above the thane, but below the bishop and ealdorman. In having a 
wergild at all, he is, as Schmid remarks, distinguished from other 
gerefan, who have no wergild as gerefan. In all other cases 
where gerefa has a prefix, it is a substantive, expressive of the pro- 
vince of his reeveship; e.g. Scirgerefa= reeve of the shire, sheriff; 
burhgerefa, charged with the maintenance of a fortress (burh) ; port- 
gerefa, provost of a market-town ; wicgerefa, village-reeve ; tunge- 
refa, farm-bailiff; swangerefa, supervisor of the swdnas or swine- 
herds, and controller of the forest-pasturage. 

780 E. p 57. ^Elfwold cining sende man] man delendum. 
As it now stands, it would mean that the king was sent &c. The 
odd thing is that the error is in D also, so that it may have pervaded 
several chronicles. Unless perhaps a sense can be found for it, which 
escapes me ? 

780. P57- The Pallium recurs so frequently in our records, and is 
a symbol of such historical importance, that the following paragraph, 
dated April 20, 1863, cannot fail to interest the student of these 
annals : 

"The Archbishop of Paris received the Pallium yesterday from 
the hand of the Papal Nuncio, in the small church of the Lazarists, 
in the Rue de Sevres. The ceremony was comparatively private, 
though a large body of clergy and several bishops were present. 
The religious papers tell us that the stuff out of which the Archi- 
episcopal vestment called the Pallium is manufactured, is made from 
the wool of ten white lambs, which have received the Apostolic be- 
nediction in the church of St. Agnes at Rome, on the day of the 
festival of that saint. These lambs are afterwards kept in a convent 
until the shearing- time arrives. The Palliums made from this wool, 
without any admixture, are then deposited on the tomb of St. Peter, 
and remain exposed there during the night preceding the/<#e of that 
Apostle. The next day they all receive benediction at the altar, and 
are despatched wherever they are required. The Pallium, in shape, 

NOTES 295 

is composed of two woollen bands, about two inches in breadth, 
which hang suspended down the back and chest." The Guardian, 
April 22, 1863. 

The chief points of interest in the history of the Pall may be 
readily seen in Dean Hook's Lives of the Archbishops, vol. i. p 27 ; 
where the main authorities are given. Originally it was an undefined 
mark of honour, but at length it acquired a special reference to the 
exercise of the metropolitan dignity, and as such it was defined in a 
Canon of the Council of Lateran 1215. The conventional shape of 
the Pall is seen in the archiepiscopal arms of Canterbury, Armagh, 
and Dublin. 

785. and Ecgferj? to cyninge gehalgod.] Hen. Hunt, says, 
Eodem anno Egfert sacratus est in regem Kentensis provincise. 
There is no older authority for making Ecgfer)> king of Kent : and it 
may be a confusion on the part of that chronicler with what hap- 
pened in the dynasty of Wessex in the next century. But still the 
whole subject of the succession to the throne of Kent becomes at 
this period so obscure, and the pretensions of Mercia must have 
grown so absolute by the event of 773, that it would be unsafe to 
reject Henry's statement, which makes Kent an appanage of Mercia. 
Moreover, it is to be observed that the elevation of Eadbryht Prsen 
(794) coincides with the death of Offa. The ultimate expulsion of the 
Mercians from Kent is recorded in 823. If E's reading ' gehalgode' 
is anything more than a blunder, and we attach any value to it, its 
meaning would be, that the new Mercian archbishop consecrated the 
royal candidate. 

787. se gerefa] This is the weard or landweard of Beowulf 
457 3777 (Kemble). The incident was clearly a celebrated one at 
the time and long after : it is thus recorded in the magniloquence of 
jjEthelweard : Regnante Ryrhtrico rege piissimo super partes Anglorum 
occidentales, jam innocentia protensi populi arms sereno cum tranquilli- 
tate dabant squalidis sulco, et oneriferce bourn costce proximo amore 
colla jugo subdebant ; advecta est subito Danorum ardua non nimia 
classis, dromones numero tres ; ipsa et advectio erat prima. Audito 
etiam, exactor regis,jam morans in oppido quod Dorceastre nuncupatur, 
equo insilivit, cum paucis pracurrit ad portum, putans eos magis nego- 
tiatores esse quam hostes ; et prcecipiens eos imperio, ad regiam villam 
petti jussit ; a quibus ibidem occiditur ipse, et qui cum eo erant : nomen 
quippe exactoris erat Beaduheard. 

Henry of Huntingdon gives it thus : Brichtricus anno regni sui 
quarto, duxit in uxorem Eadburh filiam regis Offce Merce : unde com- 
fortatus est in regno et provectus in superbiam. His autem diebus vene- 

296 NOTES 

runt Dad cum trlbus puppibus in Britanniam pr&dationis causa. Quod 
preEpositus regis illius provinc'ue videns, occurrit eis debito securius, ut 
comprehensos ad regium duceret castrum. Nesciebat autem qui easent 
qui appulerant, vel cur appulissent. Statim vero immixtus eis occisus 
est. Hie primus fuit Anglorum cams a Dacis, post quern multa millia 
millium ab iisdem ccesa sunt : et ha puppes primte fuerunt quas hue 
Daci adduxerunt. 

This gerefa, weard, landweard, exactor regis or prsepositus regis, 
affords an analogy for the office of the much discussed Comes Litoris 

It appears from the Annales Cambrise, that the south coast of 
Ireland was likewise visited by the Danish ships this year for the 
first time : " Primus adventus gentilium apud dextrales ad Hiber- 

787. |>a serestan s.cipu Deniscra monna] What these ships 
were like we may at some future time know better than we do at 
present. In a recent extraordinary find of antiquities at Nydani 
Moss in Denmark, there has been discovered a perfect ship, built for 
oars, 72 feet long and 9 feet in the beam. The planks are of oak, 
with large iron bolts, and clamps cut out of solid oak. The excava- 
tions being followed up under the eye of the late king, Frederick VII, 
they found another boat 44 feet long, of deal. Roman coins ac- 
companying this find, the latest A. D. 217. For full particulars see 
the account in Gent. Mag., December 1863, by Professor George 

790 E. eft feng to rice] Not " proxime capessit regnum" 
(Gibson); nor merely " succeeded" (Ingram); nor "afterwards suc- 
ceeded" (Thorpe) : but " again obtained" (MHB). He returned to 
the throne from which he had been expelled (778), four years after 
his accession (774); where he is called Molles sumi, and here sunu. His father was Moll JESelwald (759). See 
parallel cases in 828, 1046 (p 170). This is the special function of 
eft, to signify iterum, denuo, rursus, re-, ofcennat, irdXiv or avdis. See 
Dr. White, Gl. Orm. v. Efft. Its general, or base-meaning, is " after- 
wards ;" but this sense almost vanishes in the prose literature. 

At the early date of 685 there appears to be a clear case of eft= 
"afterwards;" that on p 12, ac hie eft on hie fuhton, is of later 
date, and " afterwards" is not an adequate rendering. Rather thus : 
" but they afterwards turned and fought against them." 

In 797, of the two instances, one may be doubtful. In 838, and 
j>y ilcan geare eft = and a second time the same year. In 894 (p 91 1), 
eft-ageaf= restored, gave back without ransom. In 918, and }>a 

NOTES 297 

aliesde Eadweard cyning hine eft ; it is equivalent to the compound 
eft-aliesde = redemit. See p5; also 633, 869, 937 (pi 15), 1048 
(p 180 tw.) t 1068 (p 207). 

F 796. p 58*. Here a privilege is inserted in F: And ASelard 
arb' of Cantwareb'. sette synoS. and getrynide and gefaestnode. Surh Sas papan 
hsese Leones. ealle 5a Sing be Godes mynstran. Sa waeron gesett be Wihtgares 
daege. and be oSra cinga daege. And ftus cwaeS. Ic ASelard. eadmod arb' of 
Cantwareb'i. mid anmodan raede ealles sinoSes. and mid ealraSare gegaderunga 
ealra 'Sara mynstra. 0am be ealdan dagan frignesse was geauen fram geleaf- 
fullan mannum. On Godes naman. and Surh his bifigendan dom. ic bebeode. 
swa swa ic haese habbe of "San papan Leone, fy heononforS nan ne dyrstlaece 
ceosan him hlauordas of laewedan mannan ouer Godes erfwyrSnysse. Ac eal 
swa swa hit ys on San gewrite Se se papa haefS giuen. oSSe Sa haligan weras 
gesettan. Se beoS ure faederas and ure lareowas be haligum mynstrum. swa hi 
beliuon unawemmed butan aelcre ansaece. Gif aeni mann ys t> J>is Godes and 
uraes papan and ure bebod healdan nelle. ac farseoS and far naht healdaS. 
witan hi ^ hi sculon gifan gescead toforan Godes domsetle. And ic ASelhard 
arb'. mid twelf biscopan. and mid J>rim and twentigan abbodan. }>is ylce mid 
rode tacne Xp'es getrimmaS and gefaestnia. 

797. The history of the case is in Gibbon, c. 49 ; but this legend 
is a transfer to Leo of the famous miracle of the African Confessors, 
which puzzled Gibbon (c. 37), and which Dean Milman (Latin 
Christianity, vol. i. p 332) calls the one post-apostolic miracle which 
appears to rest on the strongest evidence. In a note at the end of 
the volume he quotes a surprising parallel from a recent traveller. 

Matth. Westm. (Flores Hist.) has here a very different story about 
this Leo having cut off his own hand, to avoid a certain contami- 
nation, and having originated the practice of kissing the foot instead 
of the hand of the pope. 

800. Cynemseresforda] Kempsford in Gloucestershire ; or 
Commerford in Wiltshire, concerning the claims of which latter 
place, see Camd. Brit. col. 106. (Stevenson.) 

819. Cenwnlf Miercna cyning] There is a leaden bulla of this 
king in the British Museum. It bears on the obverse >J< EOENVVLFI 
REEIS ; and on the reverse >J< MEREIORVM. (Sir F. Madden, 
in Archaeol. Journal, 1856, p 369.) 

822. Clofeshoo] Cleofeshoo C; doctor Hethes benyffyce 
C marg. : cf. 457 note, See the Chronicles of Abingdon edited by 
Mr. Stevenson for the Master of the Rolls. Where it appears that 
the monastery of Abingdon was founded near a town called Seukesham 
or Seovescham or Sheovesham* The locality is central for Mercia 
and Wessex. Gibson (Glos. Sax. Chron.) maintains it is Abingdon; 
and unlike himself, growing warm in his argument, he deems that 
hand facile* sanus quispiam . ... in hdc re harere possit. Ingram 


298 NOTES 

silently, "Cliff at Hoo, Kent." In Cod. Dipl. 1034 the place is 
written Clobesham. Where may Dr. Hethe's benefice have been ? 

823. G-afulforda] Hodie (opinor) Camelford in agro Cornubi- 
ensi, quod oppidam alicubi vocari Gaffelford asserit Camdenus 
(Gibson). The substitution of F for M appears elsewhere, e. g. 
Boethius, c. xxxv. 4 : the name of Nimrod or rather Nemrod 
(Vulg.) is rendered 'Nefrod.' Semington (Wilts) has an alias 
* Sevington.' Compare the variations efn- or emn-, stefn or stemn. 

This seems to have been a check given by the Welsh of Cernyw 
to the advance of Wessex settlers, who probably designed to push 
beyond the Tamar by turning it high up und so wenig verbreiteten 
sich die Angel sachsen iiber den Tamarfluss hinaus, dass dieser noch 
viele Tahrhunderte hindurch eine der merkwiirdigsten Sprach- und 
Volker-Scheiden Europas geblieben ist (Lappenberg). 

823. and Cantware him tocyrdon . . . wserun] The esta- 
blished translation of this passage runs thus : " And the men of Kent, 
Surrey, Sussex, and Essex submitted to him (viz. king Ecbryht), for 
formerly they had been unjustly forced ^from his kin," (i. e. severed 
from connection with the Wessex family.) Such a connection is 
made out by Henry Hunt, in the person of Eadbert Praen, whom he 
brings into his rendering of this passage " rex Ecbricht in dominium 
suscepit quos prius cognatus suus Pren injustd amiserat." This is 
one of * die wichtigen Notizen' peculiar to Henry Hunt., on which 
Lappenberg here builds ; and if it be accepted, all difficulty is ob- 
viated. To me it does not bring conviction. MHB emphatically 
questions Eadberht Pren's kinship to Ecgbriht, " sed de cognatione 
ejus cum Egberto adhuc quaerendum" (p 733). Next it is to be 
observed that the grammar has to be stretched, and " him to" must 
be referred to Ecgbriht, over a distance which nothing less than 
certainty as to the sense could bridge over. In this state of the case, 
I will venture to propose a new translation which is a little specu- 
lative, but which may be worth trying where the old one stands on 
such dubious ground. " They drove Baldred the king over the 
Thames ; and the Kentish men threw off their allegiance to him, as 
did Surrey, Sussex, and Essex, on the ground that they had ori- 
ginally been unjustly subdued by his family." The two words on 
which this great alteration of sense turns, are tocirdon and from. 
From instead of meaning removal, separation, ' away from / is here 
made to be passival, and to mean ' by' of the agent. This use, though 
archaic and uncommon, is well enough known, and need not be 
questioned if we can settle the other. It is tocirdon, which 
I venture to suspect may mean the very opposite of that sense 

NOTES 299 

which ordinarily, and not groundlessly, has been assigned to it. 
The old rendering may be justified by many passages, e. g. Exod. 
xxxiv. 3 1 , ]>a clipode he hig. \>a cirde Aaron and |>a yldestan men 
to him = Then called he them; then turned Aaron and the rulers 
to him. Notwithstanding, I think that him to cirde in our text is 
' turned from him,' rejected him, cast him off. The 'to' is not the 
'to' of adhesion; but the other, which means severance (Lat. dis-, 
German zer-). See compounds with to- in Glossary. A happy 
illustration is in E 1094 (p 230 t), 'hi j>a mid mycelon unsehte to 
cyrdon' = cum gravibus inimicitiis discesserunt (Gibson) ; they parted 
with great dissension (Stevenson) ; they separated with great ani- 
mosity (Thorpe). If my version is right, all the Latin chroniclers 
are wrong, which on the one hand gives a check to my confidence ; 
but on the other, it would throw a great light on the history of the 
Language to recover a sense which to Ethelweard and his successors 
was remote and obscure. 

The expression (to which anidde in this place is pro- 
bably equivalent) occurs repeatedly in Orosius, of forced adhesion, 
e. g. Book iii. c. ix. 6. in Ed. Bosworth. " And srS'San for on Cilicium, 
and j>3et folc to him genydde ; and srS&an on Ro'Sum Jjset igland, and 
j>set folc to him genydde. And sefter jrnra he for on Egypti, and hy 
to him genydde." Also Book v. c. xii. 4 : and in Book v. c. xv, 3. 
we have the inverse ; " Germanic gesohton Agustus ungenydde him 
to frifte" =The Germans voluntarily besought the favour of Augustus. 

827 'R. j>us micel rice] Haefde serest *6ysses gemetes rice ^Elle 
&c., Beda ii. 5. 

827. Dore] near Sheffield, just within the border of Derbyshire. 
Again 942. Here, as there, it marks the verge of Mercia and the 
confines of Northumbria. 

835. Her cuom . . . winnende wseron] Florence renders thus : 
Dani multa cum classe in Occidentalium Britonum terram quse Cur- 
valia vocatur, appulerunt ; cum quibus Britones fcedus paciscuntur, et 
eos secum ducentes, fines regni Ecgbrihti regis depopulantur. 

836. iii gear] ein Irrthum fur dreizehn. (Lappenberg). Ecgbryht 
spent the time of his exile at the court of Charlemagne. 

839 X. Cwantawic] Cantwarabirig C ; Cantwic D E. See note 
in MHB. 

840. This Annal looks rather like a repetition of 833 ; but both 
are found in all the Chronicles, Saxon and Latin. 

851. JE]>elstan cyning] brother of Jtyelwulf and king of Kent. 
Chr. Melrose. 

300 NOTES 

85 1 X. SND pY ILCSN] These capitals probably represent 
the national exultation at so novel and promising an event as a naval 
victory over the vikings. In B it is explicitly said, that they fought in 
ships gefuhtan on scipum and so also C D E, and even F, ^E^elstan 
cing gefeht on scipe agean haej>en8e. Cf. Dean Hook, Lives of the 
Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. i. p 292. 

852 E. grsefan] This doubtful word was boldly rendered by 
Gibson as mineral coal, " duodecim plaustra carbonum fossilium ;" 
and so all the Editors since ( f coal,' Ingram, Stevenson ; ' pit-coal,' 
Thorpe), except MHB, where it is prudently left untranslated. We 
have hardly an indication that this kind of fuel was known in Saxon 
times. Mr. Wright ("Domestic Manners," p 21) thinks he finds 
one in the Vocabularies, where col and synder are rendered carbo and 
scorium. The item reads very well as fuel in association with those 
before and after it ; and a suitable etymology is obvious, as Mr. Ste- 
venson has noted, from grafan, to dig, mine, quarry. But it may be 
asked, is it likely, if grsefa had been once a word in Lincolnshire, 
North ants, &c., for coal ; and if this article had been so well known 
that Peterborough Abbey received twelve loads of it every year 
from a single estate ; is it likely that this name of a useful commo- 
dity would have quickly disappeared ? Yet no trace of it is found 
anywhere. Another consideration may influence our interpretation. 
Where should the lessee of Sempringham, as it is now called, in 
the south of Lincolnshire, procure twelve load of pit- coal ? A glance 
at a geological map shews no coal measures nearer than Derbyshire ! 
I conclude that the pit-coal must be given up, and that graefa was 
gravel for the annual repair of the dykes, embankments, and roads, 
so necessary a provision in the Fens. It is quite possible that the 
wood mentioned before, and the fagots or stakes which come after, 
may, one or both, have regarded the same service. 

We find at a later date the representatives of the Abbey of Peter- 
borough are held responsible for considerable works of this nature^ 
as the following extract will shew. In an Ordnance of the Com- 
mission of Sewers for the Fens (A.D. 1616) it stands : " And that 
the Old Ea being another branch of the river Neene, from Claylake 
unto Middlehome, hard att Bulldyke End neere Peterborough, shall 
be roaded and cleansed to the old bottome and antient breadth, and 
all dames and other stopps therein shall be avoyded and utterly 
taken away by the Deane and Chapter of Peterborough or theyre 
tennants." Wells' History of the Bedford Level, vol. ii. p 45. 

852 E. fo^ra . . . fo^ur . . . ftySur] Either horse-loads, or else 

NOTES 301 

some definite quantity by weight or measure. Halliwell v. Father, 
says 19 cwt. It occurs in Chaucer, Prologue 532, where the reading 
is not ylaid (Tyrwhitt), but jladde (Bodl. MS. 3360). 

852 E. mittan] In the Lindisfarne Gospels, sub modio Matt. v. 1 5, 
is rendered under mitte vel under sestre ; and in Rushworth, under 
mytte ; where in the WS. Gospp. it is under cyfe. 

853. domne Leo] This form is found also in the Saxon 
Beda iii. 14. " min domne bisceop," for the Latin " domine 

855 K. ftdam. primus homo et pater noster. est Xps.] In this 
ascension from Adam to Christ, we have something like the train of 
thought by which Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom, vi. vii. p 769) 
deduces the pedigree of Greek philosophy from Christ as the pri- 
maeval source. Later philosophers being descendants of Zeno, 
Aristotle, Epicurus, Socrates, these of Pythagoras, Pherecydes, 
Thales, the parents of these again having been the Egyptians, 
Indians, Babylonians ; the scale at length ascends to the original 
parents of mankind; and these received all their light from Him 
that lighteth every man that cometh into the world. Blunt, Early 
Fathers, p 174. 

865. him feoh geheton wfS ]?am frrSe] See Dean Hook, 
Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. i. p 291. The version of 
Asser (whose chronology differs by a year) is as follows : Anno 
dominicse incarnationis DCCCLXIV Pagani hyemaverunt in insula 
Tanet, et firmum foedus cum Cantuariis pepigerunt ; quibus Cantuarii 
pecuniam pro fcedere servato reddere promiserunt ; interea tamen 
vulpino more Pagani noctu clam castris erumpentes, foedere disrupto, 
et promissionem pecunise spernentes (sciebant enim majorem pecuniam 
se furtiva prseda quam pace adepturos) totam orientalem Cantise 
plagam depopulati sunt. 

865. upbestgel] It is strange that the force of up should have 
been overlooked by the classical scholars who have laboured on the 
Chronicles, since it is exactly like the well-known use of ava> for 
going up the country' or inland, from the coast. The enemy was 
encamped on Thanet, but they stole a raid into the heart of the 
country. In 901, where the transaction is all inland, the same ex- 
pression occurs without up : cf. also 876. Other instances are, uppe 
on londe, 897 (p 95 1) ; upbecoman = they landed, p i 15 ; upeodon, 
998; upgang=3in inland expedition, 1009 (p 143): but the most 
decisive place is in 1046 (i), seg'Ser ge upganges ge wseteres. Com- 
pare ^Elfric's Homilies, vol. i. p 3 i 2 (Ed. Thorpe) ; where, speaking 
of Pharaoh's pursuit of the Israelites into the Red Sea, Da^a he com 

302 NOTES 

on middan 'Ssere SEC, J>a waes f>aet Godes folc upagan = By the time he 
(Pharaoh) had reached the middle of the sea, the people of God was 
safe on shore. Also up on lande, id. p 162. 

866 S. jeered] ^/Selred E. The form ^E]>ered is constant in 
!S! here and 868 and elsewhere, not only of this king, but also of the 
Archbishop ^E}>ered, 888. So also BCD agree with 'K, and E is the 
earliest that introduces the form JLSelred. But at 888 all the MSS. 
down to F agree in omitting the /. 

867. ungecyndne cyning] See Abp. Trench on " a kindly king," 
in English Past and Present, p 136. Cf. infra, p 126 h, ... goda 
]>urh gecyndne craeft= natures indole bonus (Gibson); and p 222 m, 
Normandige f land wses his gecynde= Normandy was his birth- 

867. late on geare] The word late = serb, is a word which the 
modern English possesses in common with the Low German dialects, 
where the Hoch Deutsch has spat. At Hamburg, you may hear 
the boatmen who have been in good time for a chance, call out to 
those who come up afterwards, that they are ' al to laat.' 

867. to j>am gecirdon ]>set] they resolved that they would fight 
&c., MHB; they came to the resolution that &c., Thorpe. 

871. wij? alne ]>one here on JSscesdune] This is the Battle 
of Ashdown which the White Horse of Berkshire is supposed to 

871 S. Meretune] MerantuneB; MereduneD; MareduneE; Me- 
rentune F. Gibson says this is generally set down as Merdon (Wilts), 
meaning the place which is now written Marden near Devizes 
but that others maintain it is Merton 3 m. from Bicester. He com- 
mends the enquiry to the attention of local antiquarians. Merton 
in Surrey, mentioned 755, Gibson does not bring in here. So generic 
a name is a poor geographical guide. 

871. sumorlida] Miss Gurney translated this "summer pesti- 
lence" on the authority of Lye ; and also because it appeared to her 
more probable than the testiva qvies of Gibson, or the astivus exerciius 
of ^Ethelweard and Henry of Huntingdon. Mr. Thorpe, Trans- 
lation of Lappenberg, vol. ii. P45, pronounces Ethelwerd's version 
4 undoubtedly right.' Lappenberg (Geschichte, vol. i. p 3 1 2) would 
correct the text and read sumor IrSa, i . e. sestiva classis. But we find 
y^lida for a ship in Beowulf 395. The accompaniments of the root 
li^an=to go, cannot easily be separated off from those which belong 
to the German verb leiden=to suffer. Diefenbach (Gothisches 
Worterbuchj vol. ii. pi3i) throws them into one group, and re- 
marks on the abnormal shifting of the dental, and also on the 

NOTES 303 

confused intermingling of the two senses, i. going, 2. suffering, which 
he is at a loss how to connect, save by the medium-idea of fatigue. 
He prefers after all to suppose that two distinct roots have run 

8;i3:. p 76. anlipig aldormon] Only in S. In B C D E the 
adjective is dropped, and the substantive put in the plural. Gibson 
translates, singulis ducibus. MHB has, single ealdormen. Mr. Thorpe, 
individual aldermen. We have not in English a proper adjective 
which like anlipig in Saxon and singulus in Latin conveys the 
idea of numerous and solitary undertakings. Infra, p2i8 b, 'an 
selpig' represents only one of these ideas, ' one single/ In the 
parable where they received ' every man a peny,' and where the 
Gospel has 'syndrige penegas,' a Homily has *j>a underfengon hi 
senlipige penegas.' Thorpe's Analecta, p 74. In the Paris Psalter, 
Ps. xiii. 2, it appears in the simple sense, 'no forSon anlepe' = non 
est usque ad unum. In Wiclif it appears as oonlypi, Luke vii. 12 ; 
viii. 42 ; ix. 38. 

874. Hreopedune] Rippon C marg. : cf. 45 7 note. 

874 2Y. anum unwisum] B C D E give the name, Ceolwulfe 
anum &c. Of this Ceolwulf II. of Mercia there is extant ' a beautiful 
and unique penny,' in the possession of Mr. Assheton. It is figured in 
Mr. Hawkins's account of the Cuerdale coins : Numismatic Chronicle, 
vol. v. p 10, 1843. Jubilee Edition of the Works of King Alfred, 
part ii. p 142. 

875. Hreopedune] Rypon non Rypton upon Trent C marg. 
The annotator is mistaken. In Beda v. i . we have the Saxon form 
for Rypon as 'Inhrypum/ This is rendered ' Repton' by MHB. 


875- P 78- eft hergade on Peohtas] The correction of a oft 
instead of eft is supported by the other Chronicles B C D E, and 
justified by the sense. Here is a point in common with the Irish 
Annalists. Ann. Ulst. 874. Congressio Pictorum/or Dubgallu (i. e. 
against the Danes) et strages magna Pictorum facta est. 

876. Her hiene bestsel se here into Werham Wesseaxna 
fierde] In rendering this archaic passage, modern translators have 
gone wrong, first by taking Asser and Florence for their guides rather 
than the Saxon words ; and, next, by a misapplication of the Latin. 
Thus the word fLerde has come to be a castle. ' Castellum' in Ass. 
Flor. is (an extra, descriptive of Werham, but it is) not offered as 
an equivalent of fierde ; he ignores the words ' Wesseaxna fierde/ 
The fact appears to be that the translator, whoever he was, of that 

304 NOTES 

version which is common (or nearly so) to Asser and Florence, seems 
not to have found it convenient to render these words. It is of 
course possible that they were absent in his copy the phrase would 
still be complete without them (e. g. 865) but it is difficult to adopt 
this explanation when we find the said words in R. B C D E. We have 
the less hesitation in thinking that the same difficulty was felt by 
the ancient as by the modern translators, because one of them, and 
he the earliest to whom a date can be assigned, viz. ^Ethelweard, 
has made the most romantic nonsense in his attempt to turn it into 

The obscurity results from two causes, i. The indistinctness of 
the case- ending of flerde. It is a genitive, in construction with a 
compound verb in be- privative. If it had been a conspicuous 
genitive like 'rices besciered' 821,, no one would have mistaken 
it. Or again, if it had had its article before it, as bestselon \>sere 
fierde' = stole away from the army (Thorpe) in this same annal, 
it would have been a little clearer. But, 2. what has tended still 
more to obscure the relation between bestsel and flerde, is the 
awkward and, I suppose we may say, archaic and even rude collo- 
cation. In the case quoted from 821, as well as in the parallel 
case in this same annal, the genitive is inseparate from its verb. 
But the meaning certainly is : Here the invading force deluded the 
national army and got into fVerham. 

876. aj>as sworon on |>am halgan beage] beah. is generally 
a ring; and thence particularly any circular ornament, frontlet, 
bracelet, necklace ; all which notions may be seen condensed in its 
modern form badge. Those who are familiar with the collections of 
barbarian antiquities, such as are to be seen at Copenhagen or 
Dublin, know how largely primitive wealth was invested in ringed 
or spiral ornaments. The fashion survives in the ' crown' which is 
its most select example, and in the e wedding ring' which is its most 
universal. These are still 'holy badges' upon which oaths are 
sworn. The Norsk name for the ring-oath was Baug-erSr: cf. 
Egilsson in voc. 

Other Saxon instances of the word may be seen, e. g. Cod. Dipl. 
694 " anes beages is on syxtigum mancussum goldes" apparently 
a golden crown 60 mancus- weight. In JElfric's Homilies, vol. i. 
pp 416, 41 7, the martyr's ' crown of glory ' is wuldor-beah ; and he 
who is ' crowned with glory' is (p 5 2) said to be gewnldorbeagod. 
In Wright's Vocabularies, p 61, Dextrochirium=brad earm-beah ; 
p 94, Umbo=rand-beah. 

NOTES 305 

The French retain the word in bague, a ring ; yet more significantly 
in the phrase bagues et joyaux, for valuables in jewellery ; and une 
bague au doigt=a. feather in one's cap. 

876. and ergende wseron and hiera tilgende] "and were 
ploughing and some of them (?) were tilling." This hiera seems to 
be an archaic use of the genitive, in the sense of some=et- avr&v. 
The Asser- Florence version is founded on a confusion with here = 
army : " illamque cum suo exercitu coluit." 

877. This annal is very awkwardly put together, but I do not 
now, as I once did, suspect a dislocation. The sequence of events 
is made clear, if we observe that " and se cyning JElfred sefter J>am 
gehorsudan here mid fierde rad" looks back to the movement of the 
mounted Danes at the close of the previous annal, and 'rad' may 
conveniently be regarded as a pluperfect=Aac? ridden. The whole 
of this sentence down to "... to ne meahte" is parenthetical, and 
inserted here, because as the scene shifts from Swanawic to Exeter, 
it is necessary to report how ^Elfred had come to Exeter. The treaty, 
hostages, &c., are not therefore in consequence of Alfred's pursuit to 
Exeter, but of the disaster at Swanawic. 

In Florence the whole .narrative is omitted, which is strange, as 
it is unconsciously repeated in Asser ; the first time more fully than 
in the Saxon, and a second time more meagrely. The two relations 
are given as of distinct events, and are connected by " Eodem anno." 
This delusion is partly sustained by the diversity of corruption which 
the name Swanawic has undergone. In one of the two accounts it 
is Gnavewic, and in the other Suanavine. The superior purity of 
the Saxon Chronicles appears here as at so many other places ; for 
the modern name of Swanage bears testimony to the genuineness 
of ' Swanawic' = the village of swineherds. Swanage has been thus 
described by Mr. Kingsley : " A little semicircular bay on the E. of 
the Isle of Purbeck, its northern horn of chalk cliffs, and the southern 
of Purbeck marble. A quaint old-world village slopes down to the 
water over the green downs; quarried like some gigantic rabbit- 
burrow, with the stone- workings of 700 years. Land-locked from 
every breeze, huge elms flourish on the dry sea-beach, and the 
gayest and tenderest garden-flowers bask under the hot stone-walls." 
Illustrated London News, December 26, 1857; * n connection with 
Mr. Beckles's geological diggings. 

878. buton )>am cyninge -ffiJlfrede] " Four words very powerful 
in their plain simplicity" (Pauli). 

878. sefter wudum] per sylvestria (Asser) : cf. p 90 h, sefter jjsem 
wealda. In Somersetshire they still say, going along ' after the wall,' 

R r 

396 NOTES 

' after the stream, to signify following the line of. It is by transition 
from this usage, that we have the phrases * After this manner,' and 
' Deal not with us after our sins.' 

878. p 80. on West Seaxum on Defenascire] Asser describes 
the scene of this decisive conflict by name, as ' Arx Cynuit/ Various 
attempts have been made along the north coast of Devon to identify 
this Arx Cynuit. Mr. Kingsley, in the opening of Westward Ho, 
brings it in as one of the historical features of the neighbourhood of 
Bideford. His young hero, temp. Eliz., is on the high ground that 
overlooks the estuary of the Torridge. " Beneath him on his right, 
the Torridge, like a land-locked lake, sleeps broad and bright between 
the old park of Tapeley and the charmed rock of the Hubbastone, 
where seven hundred years ago, the Norse rovers landed to lay siege 
to Kenwith Castle, a mile away on his left hand ; and not three 
fields away are the old stones of 'The Bloody Corner/ where the 
retreating Danes, cut off from their ships, made their last fruitless 
stand against the Saxon sheriff and the valiant men of Devon. 
Within that charmed rock, so Torridge boatmen tell, sleeps now the 
old Norse Viking in his leaden coffin, with all his fairy treasure and 
his crown of gold ; and as the boy looks at the sppt, he fancies, and 
almost hopes, that the day may come when he shall have to do his 
duty against the invader as boldly as the men of Devon did then." 
Such is the illusory effect of tradition, even in modern times, that a 
mere conjecture of Camden's has taken root as a local reality. One 
would suppose from the above, that there was a genuine ' Kenwith 
Castle/ which the writer identifies with the historical event alluded 
to. But Camden knew of no such name in his day. He says : 
" Hinc Tawus Towridgi aquis auctior Sabrinianum mare petit. An 
ver6 Chimligh ilia sit Kinuith castrum cuius meminit Asserius, 
non facilS dixerim." A far more probable spot appears to me to be 
' Countesbury' near Linton ; and possibly, if an elder form of that 
name could be found, it might approach nearer to * Cynuit/ 

878. p 80. Ecgbryhtes stane] Probably the judgment-seat of 
the district, and where the hundred-gemot or the scir-gemot was 
held, as set JEgelno^es stane. Cod. Dipl. 755. The name has been 
identified with Brixton Deverill near Warminster. 

878 E. p 81. Wealwudu] All the earlier Chronicles have ' Sel- 
wood/ but we need not suppose this to be a mere blunder of E. The 
meaning of ' Selwood' is the * great wood/ and the meaning of 
'Wealwudu' (cf. * Weallande/ 1040 E) is the ' Welsh wood/ Sel- 
wood was for a long period the barrier between the Saxon and the 
Welsh territories, and it is quite conceivable, that it may have been 

NOTES 307 

purposely spoken of as Welsh wood. At the risk of seeming to ex- 
plain ignotum per ignotius, I cite ' Wychwood' as meaning ' Hwiccian 
wood,' if we may be guided by the spelling ' Hwiccewudu' in Cod. 
DipL 247. 

878 IS 1 , p 80. behinon S9B]=on this side the channel. Infra, 
p 84, behienan Wendel sse = this side the Mediterranean. 

To this word answers the Latin citra, and that rare preposition 
of middle English, behither, which is found in Barnabas Oley's 
Preface to Herbert's Country Parson : " I have not observed any one 
thing (behither vice) that hath occasioned so much Contempt to the 
Clergy, as Unwillingness to take, or keep, a poor Living." 

878. p 80 m. EJ>andune] Edyngton C marg. : cf. 457 note. 

This place and Iglea have been variously identified. Iglea has 
been fixed at Clay Hill near Warminster (Gough and Sir C. Hoare); 
Leigh near Westbury (Gibson); Highley Common near Melksham 
(Whitaker), which seems every way the most probable. 

EJjandun has been identified with Edington near Westbury, 
partly because of its name, and partly because of its White Horse 
and Bratton Camp. Dr. Thurnam in Wiltshire Archaeological and 
Natural History Magazine, 1 853, maintains the view of Mr. Whitaker, 
that it is Yatton, five miles N. W. of Chippenham. I am inclined 
to place it at Heddington, on the line of the Roman road from Bath 
to Marlborough ; to* which it was assigned by Milner, History of 
Winchester, 1798. Dr. Thurnam objects strongly to this opinion, 
because the place is spelt Edin/on in Domesday. 

878. p 80. Alre] Aller (Somersetsh.) locally pronounced Oiler. 
Many years ago, a friend took me to view the place and to call on 
Dr. Young, then Incumbent of Aller. My eye was caught by a vase, 
looking like a rude font, erected at the bottom of the lawn. On 
enquiry, it had been got out of the deep moat-like pond, which is at 
the foot of the slope. From time immemorial this water had never 
been cleared out, till Dr. Young had it done, and then this font 
came to light. Everything about the present church betokens ener- 
getic restoration in Norman times, and it is natural to conclude that 
then this old font was thrown aside. Of course this cannot be the 
very font at which Alfred stood sponsor to Guthrum ; for the simple 
and conclusive reason, that such a thing is too good to be true. 

878. p Sol. crismlising] chrismatis solutio. Asser. Flor. 

This was a rite in use up to the Reformation, Maskell i. 36; iii. 
xxi. note. 

Unction (xpio-pa ; in English, ' chrism' and later ' chrysom ;' in 
French, ' le saint chreme') was used in Baptism, Confirmation, Coro- 

RT 2 


nation. A linen band was then put about the head or other anointed 
part, and kept on for certain days. This was the vestis chrismalis, 
pannus chrismalis, or simply chrismale. The removal was done with 
ceremony, and in church (" tertia die vadant ... ad ecclesiam ad 
chrismalia deponenda," Rubric in Maskell i. 36). This is the 

After Coronation it was not removed till the eighth day. " In the 
old account of the coronation of Henry VI. we find, after the 
anointing : ' And then they leyd a certevn softe thynge to all the 
places so annoynted. And on his hede dyd a white coyfe of silk, 
and so he went and lay viij dayes. And the viijth daye they shuld 
wasshe it of hym.' Also in the Devyse for the coronation of 
Henry VIII : ' He shall put vpon the kyng's hed a coyfe, the same 
to be broughte to the grete chamberlayne : whiche shall contynuelly 
abyde on the kings hed to the viijth daye next folowing, at whiche 
viij dayes [end], after a solempne masse seyd by a Bisshop before 
the king, the seid Bishop shall take the coyf from the kyng's hed/ " 
Maskell iii. xxi. From a note on this page in Maskell it would 
appear that this passage of our Chronicle is the most ancient mention 
known to Ritualists of the deposition of the Chrismale. 

De Quincey ("Essays") says that, to this hour, in our London 
bills of mortality, there is one subdivision headed, " Chrysom 
children/' viz. those which have died within & month from birth. 
It was the custom to bury them in baptismal robes ; to which the 
northern Spaniards (Biscay) add, " A happy garland of the pure 
white rose." The value anciently attached to chrism in baptism is 
traceable in the fact, that the word stamped itself on a whole round 
of objects. There was the chrysom itself, or act of anointing; the 
chrysom-oil ; the chrysom- child ; the chrysom- vesture. 

879. wicenga] This Saxon form is less delusive as to its ety- 
mology than the Norsk form viking, which has suggested the erro- 
neous connection with ' king.' Mr. Dasent has already pointed out 
that this word is a derivative from vik = a creek, sinus mar is, which 
might well have been the basis of their designation, as they used 
creeks for piratical lurking-places. Possibly, however, a more general 
sense attached to the word ; for vik was used also of the open sea, 
and viking might have been merely ' son of the sea,' one who lived 
by sea-plunder, a sea-rpver. 

880. Ciren ceastre] cyceter C marg. : cf. 457 note. 

881 . ufor] This is not merely ' further' (MHB), ' ulterius' (Grimm, 
Gr. i. 247), nor ' up' (Thorpe) but as Ingram has it, ' higher up,' 
superius, ai/a>re/>a>, It is the comparative of an old and lost uf (a 

NOTES 309 

dialectic variety of up) extant in German in the prep, auf but which 
in the Northern dialects faded into of, (as ufor into ofor (882), 
unde ofer, subst. adv. prep.) This modified or corrupt of came thus 
to be confusable with our modern preposition of; and hence one 
probable cause of the neglect of the former. But it is important to 
make acquaintance with this of, because though nowhere found alone, 
it continued in use in compounds. The A.S. verbs in of- have been 
ill understood, from the error of association with of= afc = OTTO, instead 
of of=ciuf, with a force in composition much like that of ofer-. The 
simple positive uf or life we probably have in the proper name 
Ufegeat (p 140) [ = Highgate]: also in Offa, Yffi (Bd. ii. 14, 20), 
Yffe (560), Uffingas, Ubii. Comparative ufor, in its adj. use in 
Bd. v. 2. on Ssem uferan daele = in superiore parte : Jos. iv. 6. on 
uferum dagum, in days to come. Superlative, Gen. xl. 17. on 6am 
ufemystan windle = in the uppermost basket. Adverb of place, ufan 
=ava>0ev, desuper. In 882, feor (!X) is probably a mere error for 
ufor, as appears from BCD. 

883 E. selmessan to Rome J>e JElfred cing gehet J?ider] 
F Lat. : Rex ^Elfredus misit elemosinam quam voverat dum sederet 
contra exercitum cum paucis, cum multi essent inimici, Romse. 

F 884. An insertion misplaced by a hundred years : this Chronicle 
(F) has the death of ^E^elwold again under its true year 984. 

885. p84- Wendel see] This name for the Mediterranean indicates 
a time when that sea was known to the northern nations through or 
in connection with the Slavonic people, who were formerly known 
collectively by the name Winidae. See Professor Max Miiller's 
Lectures, p 204. 

886. |?e ser east gelende] qui antea in Oriente appulerant 
(Gibson) ; that before were bent eastward (Ingram) ; which before had 
drawn eastward (MHB); which had before landed in the east (Thorpe). 
The reference is to the opening of 885, where the piratical army 
parts in two, " o]?er dsel east" = altera pars Orientem versus. That 
division which had then moved eastwards, now reversed its course. 
This is plainly the sense ; but the word is not easily accounted for. 
The same verb is used again below, p 92 t, in the participle, 'he wses 
on herga^ gelend'=:^e was gone foraging : where it is a reiteration 
of the ' ut afaren on herga]?' some lines above. I am not aware of 
any instance of this verb in the sense of ' to land, appellere/ which 
Mr. Thorpe has assigned to it in his Anal. Glos. v. Gelendian. There 

>is a 'gelende' on p 45 of the Analecta (Ed. 1846) which has to 
do with ' land' in the sense of ager : " pa seofon mynstru he gelende 

310 NOTES 

mid his agenum" = These seven minsters he endowed with land from 
his own property. As the counterpart of this ' gelende,' we have in 
Chronicle E (p 233 t) ' belende' = deprived of lands. 

But this ' gelende' is quite foreign to our text, which has to do 
with movement ; and if connected with ' land' at all, is so only in the 
vaguest and most general way. We have our word again in Orosius, 
Book iii. c. i. 4. Ed. Bosworth ; " sefter |>am Conon gelende to 
Ahtene ;'' where Professor Bosworth has ju&tly rendered it, " Conon 
came to Athens." 

I suspect a connection between this verb and the adjective lang= 
long ; of which we have derivatives signifying movement of the desires ; 
e. g. langian, verlangen lango^, desiderium langung, desiderium 
langung-hwil, tempus tadii : and we still use the verb to long for 
the expression of urgent desire. I imagine then that * gelende' is quasi 
'gelencgde' a preterite of 'lencgan or lengan,' of which we have 
'lengde' below 1072, only in the sense of delay. Whether the Ger- 
man ' lenken' is of this root or not, it is a very inviting word in this 
connection. Sich rechts links lenken is just the notion required. 

After five centuries we find it again, e. g. in " Cheuelere Assigne," 
line 5 (Roxburghe Club), not much modified in sense : 

For this I saye by a lorde was lente in an yle 
That was called Lyor, a lond by him selfe. 

Also, compare Halliwell's Archaic Dictionary, v. lent; where is 
cited the following MS. instance : 

On a laund are thay lent 
By a forest syd. 

886. gesette -ZSlfred Lundenburg &c.] Interea obsidetur a 
rege JElfredo urbs Lundonia : et quern ingenio quern occursu non super- 
averat civilis discordia seeva, hunc ut redemptorem suscepere cuncti, et 
maxime genus Saxonum, excepto Barbara? gentis et his qui sub manu 
eorum turn captivi tenebantur. Etiam post nianus catervte confirmatas, 
ibi constituitur dux jEthred & rege prcefato, custodiendi arcem. ^Ethel- 

jElfred Angulsaxonum rex, post incendia urbium stragesque popu- 
lorum, Lundoniam civitatem honorifice restauravit et habit abilem fecit; 
quam genero suo ^Etheredo Merciorum comiti commendavit servandam, 
ad quern regem omnes Angli et Saxones, qui prius ubique dispersi fue- 
rant, out cum Paganis sub [v. I. sine] captivitate erant, voluntarie 
converterunt et suo dominio se subdiderunt. Asser. Flor. 

Hex Anglorum post incendia urbium stragesque populorum, Londoniam 

NOTES 311 

permaximam civitatem honorijice restauravit e$ habitabilem fecit, quam 
Ethelredo prcecipuo duel Merciorum commendavit servandam. Omnes 
verb, Angli et Saxones, qui prius ubi ubi erant dispersi cum Pagan is 
aut d, captivitate liberati, venerunt sponte ad regis pnesentiam, sponte 
se suo domino inclinantes. Ipse autem ut erat clementissima mentis 
cunctis indulsit patrocinium SUCE benlgnitatis. Simeon Dunelm. 

Alfredus rex Londoniam obsedit, quia maxima vis Dacorum secuta 
fuerat Gallicanum exercitum, omnes autem Anglici statim ei subditi 
sunt et receperunt eum. Dad numque avfugerunt. Rex verb tradidit 
JEdredo duel civitatem in custodiam. Henry of Huntingdon. 

King Alfred laid siege to the city of London and took it ; the Angles 
flocked to him, and the Danes retreated. He entrusted Ethelred, the 
earl of the Mercians, with the restoration of the city. Chron. Melrose 
(tr. Stevenson). 

In these versions there is a manifest contradiction. According to 
some, London was desolate through the ravages of the wars (Asser, 
Flor., Simeon) according to others, it was in a state fit to be 
besieged (^Ethelweard, Hen. H., Melrose). Nay more, according to 
Henry Hunt, the opportunity to lay siege to it arose out of the 
abstraction of important numbers which had joined the army for 
Gaul ; implying that its normal condition at that time was so 
populous and strong as to defy attack. 

It is plain to see that these conflicting accounts have risen out 
of the text before us,, and how they have risen. The divergence was 
caused by the different senses put upon the word gesette. This word 
means founded, instituted, colonized, peopled (Oros. B. i. c. 10. 5. and 
B. iii. c. 5. 2. Ed. Bosworth ; also see infra 890, the intr. gesaet) ; 
but it seemed a strange thing to say of so ancient a city, that 
"Alfred founded it." Hence the explanations of Asser- Flor. &c. 
about the desolations of the wars, by which, in conjunction with a 
modified version of gesette (viz. honorifice restauravit et habitabilem 
fecit), the paradox of 'founding London' was eluded. 

The other class of Latinizers could not by any contrivance bring 
themselves to admit a founding or even a refounding of London, and 
so they virtually changed gesette into bestet. Such a clumsy solution 
need not astonish us either in ^Ethelweard (cf. Introduction) or in 
Henry of Huntingdon (cf. p 1 13 note). They translated a word which 
means he founded by he besieged. 

Yet with all this violence, they are able to render better justice 
to their original than the accommodating Asser-Flor. They are 
able at least to bring out a reasonable sense, without disturbing the 
order of the original. Which Asser-Flor. has not been able to do. 

312 NOTES 

For what sense could there be in interposing a general adhesion of 
all Angli et Saxones everywhere, between what Alfred did for London, 
and what hands he left the place in ? So Asser-Flor. has coupled the 
two latter items, and then appended the adhesion. Both classes have 
found it necessary to do violence to the text. 

It is easier to see that the Latiners are wrong, than to supply the 
correction. I offer the following rather with the hope of stimulating 
enquiry, and particularly among local archaeologists, rather than as 
expecting it will be received as final. London was a flourishing and 
opulent city, the chief emporium of commence in the island, and the 
residence of foreign merchants. Properly, it was now an Angle 
city, the chief city of the Anglian nation of Mercia, but the Danes 
had settled there in great numbers, and they had numerous captives 
that they had taken in the late wars. Thus the Danish population 
had a preponderance over the Anglian free population, and the 
latter were glad to see Alfred come and restore the balance in their 
favour. It was of the greatest importance to Alfred to secure this 
city, not only as the capital of Mercia (caput regni Merciorum 
Malmesb.), but as the means of doing what Mercia had not done, 
viz. of making it a barrier to the passage of pirate ships inland. 
Accordingly, in the year 886, Alfred planted the garrison of London 
(i. e. not as a town is garrisoned in our day, with men dressed in 
uniform and lodged in barracks, but) with a military colony of 
men to whom land was given for their maintenance, and who would 
live in and about a fortified position under a commanding officer. 
It appears to me not impossible that this may have been the first 
military occupation of Tower Hill, but this is a question for the 
local antiquary. 

All I would insist upon here, is this ; that Lunden burh is not to 
be taken as merely equivalent to Lunden. 1 have counted 63 places 
in the Chronicles in which the latter occurs, but I have only been 
able to discovery instances of Lundenburh. In one of these, 896 
init., the Danes are said to have gone up the Lea and made a strong 
work 20 miles above Lundenburh. This description would be par- 
ticularly appropriate, if Lundenburh occupied the site of the Tower. 
Also, one then sees why they should go up the Lea, viz. because 
their old passage up the Thames was intercepted. Upon this view, 
the whole sentence is in sense and order : The same year Alfred 
founded the burh of London, and he was joined by all Londoners of 
Angle-race who were not compulsorily prevented by Danish servitude. 
And he committed the burh to aldorman Atf&ered to hold. 

I know not how much weight is to be given to the text of F in 

NOTES 313 

this place, but it certainly has an appearance of being independent 
of the other Chronicles, and it rather lends countenance to the em- 
phasis I have claimed for the word burh. Her gesette JElfred dng 
\a burh Lundene. and him call Angelcynn tocyrde. 

It is a pleasure for once to observe that ^Ethelweard, against whom 
we have so much to say, is here (as the nearest in date ought to be) 
the best interpreter (e. g. catervce arcetn), so far as his meaning can 
be discerned through the mist of his puzzle-headed rhetoric. 

887. The deposition of Charles-le-Gros. His accession is given 
above at 885 ; both dates true. For the details of Carlovingian 
affairs, consult the voluminous " Histoire Litteraire da la France," 
by the Benedictines of St. Maur. 

887. p 86. togeboren] born to the inheritance of the empire. 
The to here acts a semi-prepositional part, as in to gehalgode 
three lines above. But the compiler or copier of E in the twelfth 
century, though he understood to gehalgode, did not understand 
togeboren. The verbal prefix to, so largely used in our ancient 
language, had already begun to fade out of importance, in proportion 
as it extended its purely prepositional functions. Within the literary 
period since 1611, educated men lost sight (for a time) of the mean- 
ing of a verb compounded with this prefix, although it stood in a 
tolerably conspicuous situation, viz. Judges ix. 53. 

887. p 86. -ZEjjelhelm aldor mon] JEthelhelm comes Wiltunen- 
sium (Asser). At the record of his death, below 898, he is called 
in H, &8elm Wiltunscire ealdormon. He is a person of mark, as the 
protector of the young Dane Odo, who was driven from his home 
for embracing Christianity, and who afterwards became Archbishop 
of Canterbury. Dean Hook, vol. i. p 362. 

887. p 86 ; and 888. Isedde . . . selmessan] So in Yorkshire 
they talk of leading hay, leading corn &c. from the field, in carts and 
wagons. The modern phraseology is, ' to convey certain presents, 
&c.' Dean Hook, vol. i. p 364. 

Chaucer's Ploughman in the Prologue, 1.532, was one 'That 
hadde ilad of dong ful many a fothur,' i. e. who had carried a-field 
a great many horse-loads of dung. This reading has been restored 
in the Edition of the Percy Society, by Mr. Thomas Wright. 

891. butan selcum gere^rum] Stevenson translates " without 
any rudder." Ingram, " without any oars." The Saxon comprises 
both. The rowage and steerage were not so distinct as now. The 
steering was done by oar over the ship's side, as may be seen in old 
illuminations. Hence the term ' starboard' = " the steering side." 
In Ohthere's Narrative (Oros. i. i) steorbord and bsecbord stand for 


314 NOTES 

starboard and larboard. But perhaps Gibson's " sine ullo remige" is 
the best of all. In the Vocabularies we find Remex, re]?ra (Wright, 
p 48) : Nauta, gere}>ru as well as Aplustre, gere}>ru (p 56): 
Remex vel nauta, re^ra (pp 73, 88). By butan selcum gere^rum 
was probably meant, without any mariners to navigate the craft. 

891. Xnd Swifneh sebetsta lareow J>e on Scottum wses 
gefor.] The cast of this phrase implies the scholastic celebrity which 
Ireland at this time enjoyed among the nations. " Swifneh died, 
chief doctor in Hibernia, the Academy of Europe." Scotus Erigena 
[Erin-born Scot], the beacon of learning and the ornament of the 
Frankish Court, was dead a few years earlier. Mr. Goldwin Smith 
says : " Daring the seventh and eighth centuries, and part of the 
ninth, Ireland played a really great part in European history." Irish 
History and Irish Character, p 28. It will please a philological eye to 
see these foreign names in their native form. Through the zeal of 
the Dublin scholars, the stores of Irish History are now open, and 
the distinguished names of each period are accessible. These four 
names are all found in the Index to the Annals of Ireland, by the 
Four Masters (Ed. O'Donovan), as borne by memorable personages 
about this date. The Irish forms are, 


Mac Beathaidh, 

Maolionmain (Maelinmhain, Mod. Irish), 


The latter the great teacher of Ireland is identified in the Irish 
Obituary of 887. He is " Suibhne, son of Maclumha, anchorite and 
scribe of Cluain-mic-Nois." The Editor notes that the date 892 
given in Sax. Chron. is the true year of his death, and that a tomb- 
stone inscribed with hia name is still preserved at Clonmacnoise. 
He refers to Petrie's Round Towers, p 323. 

Of the three pilgrims, it is possible that one of them is the 
" Maolionmairi eccnaidh ancoire Glinne da locha" = wise man and 
anchorite of Glendaloch ; whose death is recorded in 953, sixty years 
after the present date. The probability is greatly heightened by the 
fact that this is the only individual of the name in the Index. 

891 . same] An archaism which has survived the handling of the 
copier in this manuscript only. All the others have altered it to 
sume, a foolish reading as if there were two opinions, and "some 
men" held the identity of the comet with the stella crinita. It 
is either a relative pronoun = " which same," cWep ; or else an 
adverbial conjunction, meaning likewise, withal, pariter, etiam. The 
latter is- rendered the more probable by Csedmon 397, swa some = 

NOTES 315 

likewise ; and by passages in Alfred's version of Boethius, where we 
have swa same, or eac swa same, i. e. ' likewise also.' In 
Orosius, P45 Ed. Bosworth, women fight as well as (swa same swa) 
men; and in Apollonius, p 3, Ed. Thorpe, we read that he who 
rightly answered the riddle was led to execution swa same swa, 
i. e. just the same as he who interpreted it wrongly. This phrase is 
frequent in Old Saxon in the form so same ; see Schmeller's Heliand, 
Glossary, v. Same. Also Ettmiiller, Lex. Sax. p625. 

In another form it occurs in Orosius, cap. i. Narrative of Wulfstan, 
where a tribe of Esthonians is said to possess the art of making water 
to freeze, sam hit sy sumor, sam winter, just the same, whether it 
be winter or summer. Numerous examples of sam-, as a particle in 
composition, may be seen in Grimm, Gr. ii. p 764. 

893 K. Bunnan] to bunan C ; Boloniam que et bononia, 
hodie boleyn C marg. : cf. 457 note. 

893 . swa j>aet hie asettan him on senne si)>] Cf. i oo i : swa $ 
hy upp asetton on senne sty ....... swa -j> hy asettan him upp on 

a3nne srS. 

893 25. If8 ut of J>8em wealda] runs out of the weald. 115 3rd 
sing. pres. of liSan, to go, to pass, to move; from which came a 
family of words, mostly appropriated to navigation. See Ettmiiller's 
Lexicon, p 190. Compare the following from a Copenhagen MS. 
(communicated in Archaeological Journal, 1859) : Se j>e brS of earde 
and feor of his cy^e. hu ma?g he ham cuman gif he nele leornian 
hu se weg lioge j>e IrS to his cy&Se ? = He who is absent from his 
land and far from his people, how can he get home if he will not 
learn how the way lies that goes to his country ? 

893. on )>a ea hi tugon up hiora scipu o)>)>one weald, iiii 
rnila fram J>sem mujjan utan weardum] They towed their ships 
up that river so far as the weald, four miles from the outside of the 
harbour. So much has the coast changed in that part, that there 
is no river now to be found which would admit the Danish ships. 
(As to their probable size, see note on 787.) But there are three 
places where, in the early condition of this shifting shore, vessels may 
have passed up to what is now the high land N. of the shore. Ac- 
cording to the present aspect of the ground, Rye seems the most 
likely spot, as indicating the former outflow of a large river ; next in 
promise, comes Romney, where there must once have been a large 
estuary. When we search for the inland spot towards which they 
made their way, it is the gap between Appledore and Ebony Chapel 
that is selected alike by the explorer of the country and the explorer 
of the map. There is a line of fault in the deeper seated strata 

s s2 

316 NOTES 

from Tenterden through the alluvial plain by Appledore, and ex- 
tending on towards Romney, which may indicate an old channel. 
Probably there were two or three outlets diverging by Appledore. 
The elevated ground of Appledore, Playden, Ebony Chapel, Ken- 
nardington, &c., probably once formed the actual coast-line. These 
were high lands in early British times, with inlets of the sea con- 
verging to the N. W., and receiving the currents of the Weald 
country. That there was once a capacious river crossing the plain, 
was proved not many years ago by the discovery of a large vessel 
which was dug out of the alluvial soil two miles E. of Newenden. 

But neither Rye nor Romney will satisfy all the conditions for 
identification with the mu}>a of the text. Off at the eastern extreme 
of the plain we observe the name Lympne, which obviously claims 
connection with the ancient river ' Limen,' as well as with the harbour 
and Roman station ' Portus Lemanis,' which has been fixed in the 
Ordnance Map near Lympne. The question then rises, whether 
there was ever a river skirting that side of the plain and running 
out by Hythe. There is physical evidence to shew that the expanse 
of shingle between Hythe and Dymchurch is a very modern deposit, 
and that it is now gradually increasing. And there is some remarkable 
documentary evidence. In Cod. Dipl. 47 (A. D. 715) certain land is 
defined as lying " ad australem quippe fluminis qua? appellatur 
limin aea," the river being the N. boundary : and in No. 234 
(A. D. 833) the river Limen or Limin is used as a S. boundary 
"ab austro fluvius qui dicitur limin aee." In both these cases, the 
river is represented as holding a course E. and W. This evidence, 
joined with the other data, helps to the conclusion that in the eighth 
and ninth centuries a river ran from Appledore due E. towards 
Hythe, where was a harbour which is now represented by the shingle 
between Hythe and Dymchurch. The line of this river would be 
nearly the same as that of the new canal. It appears then that so 
late as the close of the ninth century, the river Limen flowing out 
by Hythe was the chief effluent of this Delta ; but that the channel 
being silted up and the harbour filled with shingle, all superficial 
evidence of this river has disappeared. It seems that the next chief 
outlet was by way of Romney, perhaps not a great while after 
the Conquest. At length Romney harbour itself was stopped by a 
great storm about 300 years ago, which closed the inlet with shingle. 
Since that, the chief drain of water has been through the Rother to 
Rye, and this remains now the only extant channel of the three. At 
first, the three coexisted, though the other two may have been in- 
significant while the Limen was in full action. Of one we find 

NOTES 317 

mention in Cod. Dipl. 1072, Jlumen quod vocatur Rumen ea ; and of 
the other we have evidence in the name Bother, which is an ancient 
river name, far older than the highest date contemplated in this 

As to the shifting character of this district, Mr. Etheridge of the 
Geological Survey of Great Britain, to whom I am indebted for the 
materials of this note, says, that Lydd and New Romney once stood 
on the shore, and the coast is now increasing at the rate of eight 
yards per annum, the Lighthouse on Denge beach standing so much 
farther in every year. " I think the great alluvial plain of Romney 
Marsh and Walling Marsh covers up much of the early Physical 
History of that coast. There is no reason whatever why, in former 
times, there may not have been an extensive river running up to 
Appledore either from Romney or Rye or even Hythe." 

There can be no doubt that ^puldre, which is mentioned in the 
next paragraph, and again on p 91 , as the station of the Danish ships, 
is identical with this Appledore. The clearance of the forest of the 
Weald has caused the rivers to shrink, as the clearance of the sides 
of the Apennines has made the Campagna suffer from drought. 

894 t. foregisla] It is not clear what is the signification of the 
fore- here and at 877, 878. Whether it expresses the representative 
function of the hostages, as being for their nation, or whether it 
signifies hostages from the foremost persons. Asser ad loc. speaks 
of "electos obsides." Except this, there is nothing in the Latin 
historians to distinguish foregislas from the simple gislas. But 
in 877 and 878, where hostages and oaths are combined, the latter 
are in both cases magnified by the adj. micle, so that fore would 
appear to have a like effect on the former. 

894 h. o}>]>e on heora healfe an. pa] A too rigid adherence to 
the MS. has here led me into an impracticable reading. The testi- 
mony of the next MSS. is for the reading, o\\e on heora healfe. 
Ond }>a &c. 

894 h. rymet] room, space, opening. This uncommon word is 
found in Joshua i. 3, and it occurs repeatedly in Cod. Dipl. 594. 

894 h. bi swa hwa]?erre efes swa hit f>on flerdleas wses] 
The word efes, which we retain only for the eaves of the roof, seems 
to have been habitually appropriated to the maryent'of the wood: 
cf. Cod. Dipl. 209, to J>aes wudes efese = to the wood's edge ; 353, o$ 
hit circled to fcrcre efese. 'Sonne a norS be wyrtwalan &c. ; also 715, 
Hrisebyrgan be Cilternes efese = Risborough on the edge of Chiltern. 

894 1. here hyS] army -supplies, provisions. See notes to S. 
Maria ^Egyptiaca, p 1 15. 

318 NOTES 

894 b. iggaS] river-island, 'eyot.' 

stemn gesetenne] stemninge gesetene B C ; steminge ge- 
setene D. Here we have the participle of an intransitive verb in 
concord with its indirect object, which is rather super-grammatical. 
It seems to have been attracted into conformity with the ' mete 
ge notudne' that was coming, and which is quite normal, as ' mete' 
is, in technical grammar, an accusative governed by 'notian.' 
Chaucer has, 

It is ful faire a man to bear him even 

For al day meten men at unset steven. C.T. 1525. 

In this passage the verb is settan\.o appoint, statuere ; but in our 
text it is sittan^to sit, seder e. For want of observing this dis- 
tinction, Ettmuller (Lex. p 728) has wrongly rendered this place, 
illi habuerunt tempus prcestitutum. It is, They had sate out or served 
their term of service : cf. 92 i, se fird stemn for ham. 

894. p9ih. buton swi]?e gewaldenum daele easteweardes 
}>3d8 folces] besides a very considerable body moving eastward, but 
they were of the people, self-enlisted volunteers, and no part of the 
Herd. This distinction bet ween folc and fierd appears again, p 107 h, 
' gegadorode micel folc hit.' 

894. p 92 t. cumpseder] The Latin word compater, which pro- 
bably at this date was still understood in its etymological sense, of 
the relation subsisting between two men who were godfathers to 
the same child, or between a godfather and the natural father. 
Alfred and y^Sered were both in this relation to Hsesten, as appears 
in the previous sentences. Cf. Cod. Dip). 709, Eadrico meo compatri. 
The word soon became generalized ; and in the Lexicon Manuale 
Jnfimce Latinitatis, par Maigne D'Arnis, it is rendered " Sodalis, 
amicus ; camarade, ami." It began and ended much as our gossip 
(Sax. God sib, quasi coram Deo affinis). 

Mary Queen of Scots, writing to the Constable de Montmorency, 
begins " Man Compere;" in which case Miss Strickland says it was 
merely a term of familiarity. However, we find the feminine still in 
earnest use, in a letter of Melville to Queen Elizabeth, asking her to 
be gossip at the baptism of Mary's infant son James. For (says he) 
in England they call the comers (commeres) gossips. 

894. p 92 m. Buttingtune] Two places have hitherto contended 
for this site, viz. Bodding-ton near Cheltenham and Buttington in 
Montgomeryshire near Welshpool. But Mr. Ormerod (Archaeologia, 
vol. xxix ; and Strigulensia, p 60) has put forward a claim for But- 
tinton in Tidenham, on the peninsula formed by the Severn and the 
Wye. There are traces of works here, though less considerable than 

NOTES 319 

those at Buttington in Montgomeryshire. Mr. Ormerod grounds his 
claim mainly upon Matthew of Westminster's " paganos tarn navali 
quam terrestri exercitu circumcinxit." No such thing appears in the 
text before us, but to the opposite effect. One is almost tempted to 
suspect that this ' Verwirrer der Geschichte (as Lappenberg calls 
Matthew of Westminster) caught sight of ' sciphere' in the next line 
and imagined the rest. But it must be allowed, Mr. Ormerod's 
position has its advantages. It does not, however, suit ' J>a up be 
Sseferne,' if this means that they went up-stream, which would seem 
to be its meaning, though not in Florence. 

894. p 92 1. miclne] The omission of the ' e' is not mere haste ; 
B has myclne. It is as proper a form as micelne. 

894. p93. westre ceastre] Westcti civitas legion est C 
marg. : cf. 457 note. They reached a waste or deserted fortress in 
Wirrall called Legaceaster. This is the true source of the name of 
" West Chester," which Richard of Cirencester, a contemporary of 
Chaucer, identifies with Deva, B. i. c. 6. 27. All idea of this name 
having any connection with the ' West' is dissipated by this place 
in the Chronicle, for west=occidens, cannot take the inflection 
westre. That Chester was for a period desolate, like Uriconium 
or Silchester, may surprise any one to whom it is new, but it is no 
way contrary to the analogy or probability of history. 

894. p93. on selcere efenelrSe] on every plain, or pasture field. 
The substantive efenelrS is the abstract of efen=even, smooth ; and 
corresponds to the OHG forms ebanod, in. ; e\)a.nbti,f.=planities 
(cf. Graff) . This word both in England and in Germany has served 
for local names : we have it well preserved in Emneth near Wisbeach ; 
and in Germany are found Ebriet, Ebnit, Breitebnet. Die Deutschen 
Ortsnamen von Ernst Fbrstemann : Nordhausen, 1863, p 62. 

895. onforan winter] on forwerdne B ; on forweardne C ; 
on forweard D. 

896. p 94 h. gerypon .... ripes] In Mr. Wright's dnglo-Saxon 
Vocabularies, p 74, Messor, riptere ; Messis, gerip: cf. Matth. ix. 
38. In Somersetshire ' reaping' is pronounced 'ripping.' 

gehawade] surveyed, inspected, reconnoitred; perlustravit. In 
Zosimas Fragm. p 108. 1. 22. to J>sere halgan Godes cennestran 
hawiende=intuens, drevi^ova-a. Paris Psalter xiii. 3. See the few 
words of this family in Ettmuller, p 485 ; who observes that its ana- 
logue is not found in the other dialects. 

Cwat brycge] Brycge D ; below Bricge B C, and Brygcge D. 
Gibson shews it to be Bridgenortb, which place in his day was still 
known as ' Brigge.' 

320 NOTES 

896. p94m. stsel wyrfte] The rendering ' captu dignse' of Gibson 
is based on association with the verb 'to steal,' which is incongruous 
here. This stsel is identical with the German Ste\le=place, room, 
station: and ships are stselwyrSe which are fit for their place, 
worthy of their post, seaworthy, serviceable. An analogous com- 
pound may be seen p 95 m, nytwyrSoste ;' and in Boethius xl. i, 
*nytwyr]>e.' The first English translation of this word is by Mr. 
Thorpe, who renders it by a later form of itself, stalworth. The only 
form of this word known to modern English is the Scottish (?) form 
stalwart; or it may be the alterate of stealweard, custos loci, the 
keeper and maintainer of the position. 

I am indebted to my friend Mr. Baron for some excellent illus- 
trations of this hitherto obscure word. Wiclif in Dan. viii. 24, " and 
his strengthe schal be maad stal worth e" = et roborabitur fortitude 
ejus (Vulg.) other instances in the Glossarial Index of the Oxford 
Edition. See also references in H. Coleridge's Glossarial Index, v. 
stalward and following words. Mr. Baron gives me Stallworthy 
as an existing surname. 

Since the above was written, I have been surprised to find that 
Miss Gurney (1819) has here the palm over all the translators before 
or since. Thus : And all that were serviceable they brought into 

897. p95 h. geSungnestan] Again 905. In Mr. Wright's Vo- 
cabularies, P47, " Emeritus, provectus, ge)>ungen." 

897. p 95 m. unwealtran] less liable to roll ; unwaltier as we may 
say now, since Longfellow has restored the word to literature, in 
"The Phantom Ship" (1858): 

But Master Lamberton muttered, 
And under his breath said he, 
" This ship is so crank and walty 
I fear our grave she will be !" 

D has here the very beautiful and interesting v. 1. untealtran=/ess 

897. p 95 m. uter mere] = outer sea, open sea; as opposed to the 
creek or aestuary. Chaucer, Cant. Tales, 1. 15966, has " to thin utter 
eyen" which is rendered in the margin of one of the MSS. "ex- 
terioribus oculis" (Tyrwhitt). Troil. iii. 665. "And I wol in that 
utter house alone." 

897. p 96 h. cynges geneat] " Lye understands this as meaning 
' the king's neat-herd ;' but ' geneat' signifies a companion, and is 
probably the Saxon representative of the Latin comes." (Stevenson) 
Geneat is the German genoffen. In the Laws of Ine, 19, the 

NOTES 321 

wergild of a cynges geneat is 1 2005., the same as that of a cyninges 
J>egen, and the high rank of the title is apparent here from the fact 
of particular mention. See Schmid, v. geneat. 

897. p 96 m. Wealh gefera] Wealhgerefa BCD, which Kemble 
(Saxons, vol. ii. p 178) adopts, without noticing the reading of 'R. 
The same variation occurs on the previous page, line 4 ; where BCD 
read wicgerefa. Kemble thinks he was a royal reeve to whose care 
Alfred's Welsh serfs were committed - } and is not inclined to think 
that he was a margrave, commissioned to watch the Welsh border. 
I must think the reverse, as I know nothing about Alfred's Welsh 
serfs, and as there is evidence that the Welsh border was continually 
under surveillance. The king of Mercia had been wont to keep 
guard along the line of Offa's Dyke. The property in that neigh- 
bourhood was subject to an impost for the maintenance of this 
guard. In 855, Burgred, king of Mercia, gave land to the monastery 
of Blockley in Worcestershire, adding to his gift an exemption d, 
pastu et refectione illorum hominum quos Saxonice nominamus Walh- 
fareld (Cod. Dipl. 278), by which I understand the patrolling corps 
on the Welsh border. The same body seems spoken of C 1053, 
pi 88 of this vol.: "'Ssera weardmanna" = the ward-men who were 
slain by the Welsh near Westbury. Whether we read Wealhgefera or 
-gerefa, I understand the commander of this force, charged with the 
defence of the border ; and I prefer Wealhgefera because of its 
correlativeness with Walhf8sreld= Wallica expeditio. At a later 
period, the line was fortified with castles. We read of William Rufus 
in 1097, he be }>am gemceron castelas let gemakian. 

In a genuine charter of the eighth century, Cod. Dipl. 95, one 
Alda signs as cinges gefera. 

901. "Albrit rex Giuoys moritur" (Annales Cambrise), i.e. rex 

901. Da gerad .... pa rad . . . . ] Here is a good place for ob- 
serving a special use of the prepositive ge-. It has not unfrequently 
the force of turning an intransitive verb, such as * to go,' 'to ride/ into 
a transitive ' to go and get/ ' to ride and win/ or ' to win by going, 
by riding &c.' So here, ^E^elwald rode and secured the ham . . . . , 
and thereupon the king rode with the militia till &c. 

A strong instance is gewinnan (1090) = to win; which sense, 
now so intimately identified with this root, is not in the simple verb 
winnan until compounded with ge. Winnan is to toil, fight, 
contend: gewinnan is to get by striving, fighting, contending; 
i. e. in one word, to win : cf. 685. 

901. Tweoxneam] "hodie, ab aede Christo sacra, Christ- 

T t 

322 NOTES 

church ; olim, quod inter amnes interpositum, Twinamburne, eodem 
plank sensu quo Italiae Interamna. Hsec Camd. in descriptione agri 
Hamtunensis. Certe vox Saxonica Tweoxneafm] (quae duplicem 
fluvium significat [rather, inter fluvios}} antique isti noraini optimo" 
respondet, nee, mea quidem opinione, alibi quserendus est hie locus. 
Quod etiam confirmat Winburnce (agri Dorsaetensis oppidi) vicinitas ; 
haec enim duo, parvo temporis intervallo, dicitur ^Ethelwaldus in 
suam potestatem redegisse." Gibson. 

901 . p 98. pa berad mon )>set wif] The lady was arrested sud- 
denly by surprise on the part of those who claimed her. Those who 
had might to capture or imprison a legal adversary were allowed 
under certain conditions the right of doing so, in the Laws of Alfred 
(42, i ); and in this concession the verb beridan occurs as descrip- 
tive of the process that would be used. 

905 . Crecca gelade] Crac- B ; Creacc- C ; Greece- D. Below 
1016, it is by C spelt Cregelade ; by E, Craecilade ; by F r Crecalade. 
Now Cricklade. All these are varying forms of the British cerrig= 
a stone. 

917. Hocneratime] Hocenertune BC; Hocceneretune D. In 
Cough's Camden ii. p 14. this is identified with ' Hocknorton or 
Hokenorton' (Oxon), now written Hook Norton. "The large 
round barrows of Tadmerton were probably cast up on this occasion 
by the Danes, and the smaller (rather square) at Hocknorton by the 

918. Lidwiccum] Cf. 885 (p 84). A strange derivation of this 
name is given in a (doubtful) passage of Nennius xxiii : " Britones 
namque Armorici, qui ultra mare sunt, cum Maximo tyranno hinc 
in expeditionem exeuntes, quoniam redire nequiverant, occidentales 
partes Gallise solo tenus vastaverunt nee mingentes ad parietem 
vivere reliquerunt : acceptisque eorum uxoribus et filiabus in con- 
jugium, omnes earum linguas amputaverunt, ne eorum successio 
maternam linguam disceret ; unde et nos illos vocamus in nostra 
lingua Letewicion, id est semitacentes, quoniam confuse" loquuntur." 
Whatever this be worth, it illustrates Ethnic Names of the ftapftapot 
type. See a collection of these in Words and Places, by Rev. Isaac 
Taylor, c. iv. Camden says : " Haec regio primum Armorica dicta 
erat, i. ad mare sita, deinde BritanicS Llydaw, i. littoralis, Latind 
Letavia apud nostros mediae aetatis scriptores, unde Letos fuisse sus- 
picor quos in Gallia nominat Zosimus, postrem6 Britannia Minor a 
Britannis nostris :" p 57. Ed. 1594. Is it possible that the corrupt 
' Lemo vices' in Caesar's Catalogue of the Armorican States (B. G. 
vii. 75) may be our ' Lidwiccas' in disguise ? Mr. Thorpe (Lappenberg, 

NOTES 323 

vol. ii. p 95) thinks the form ' Lidwicingum* in 885 (C D), and in the 
Traveller's Song, would countenance a derivation from lid, ship, and 
wicing, pirate. It is not at all improbable that these words may 
have had an after-influence on the Saxon form of the name, in the 
way of what the Germans call 5clf&eti)mctogie, 

918. be J>am see] Instead of sse, BCD have sta'Sum. The text 
of X appears imperfect as it stands ; the intended expression was 
probably be j?am sseriman; as in p 95111, and E 991, 994. We 
should hardly expect to find see masculine at this date, and even if 
the gender were not a difficulty, the expression is at best a strong 

Of the word stafrum we have a dative -singular, pp5 h, be j?eni 
su^stse^e. The change of the inner vowel SB in the singular, and 
a in the plural, depends on the principles of what Grimm (Deutsche 
Grammatik, Bk. i) has named Umlaut and Ruckumlaut. This fine 
point of orthography had vanished by the time of La3amon : " uppen 
Seuarne staj>e," 1. 7. And the word itself has quite dropped out of 
standard English. But it still retains a good local hold ; see Halli- 
well's Archaic Dictionary, v. Stathe. In Aldhelm's Psalter xxii. 2 
(our xxiii) it stands : And fedde me be wsetera sta'Sum. 

918. Cameleac] Cimeliauc bishop of Llandaff. Stubbs, p 156. 

Ircinga felda] " Fortasse ab Arwonio veteri oppido, cujus in hoc 
tractu meminit Antoninus, inquit Camd." (Gibson). Ariconium 
seems to have been either at Ross or at Weston-under-Penyard, 
2 m. from Ross. Was Ircinga feld an old name of the Forest of 
Dean or of an open tract at the north of it ? The name implies an 
open wild or forest country, as in the Norwegian ' Dovre Fjeld ;' 
and as in the ' fells' of Cumberland. The modern use of ' field,' 
ager, had not yet come in. The word for this was <ecer (i 130), as 
in German also Slcfer. 

918. pearruc] This word is quite a curiosity, to appear here in 
an Englisc text of the tenth century. It is one of the few Keltic 
words which continued to hold a place in the language of the Anglo- 
Saxons. At their first occupation of the country they adopted many 
words from the older inhabitants. But these borrowings were local, 
and rarely came to the surface of general literature. This word lay 
for centuries in obscurity, till it came to light in the modern park. 
It still exists in spoken British. In French-Brittany it is the most 
common word for a small close or paddock near home. Also, in 
Devonshire, small fields near the farm-house are often named, Little- 
Park, Great-Park, Higher-Park, &c. See Halliwell's Archaic Dic- 
tionary, v. Park. The modern and grandiose use of the word park 


324 NOTES 

is apt to mislead us, unless we observe the fundamental idea of ,a 
(little) inclosure of ground from the open country. The inclosure 
is the point in the text; the enemy once in it were as in a trap. 
There is an interesting parallel in Boethius xviii. 2, where the com- 
paratively small area of the habitable world (rj OCKOV/ZCI^) is dwelt 
on. In the previous chapter it was swelee an lytel caferttin= 
like a little court. But in cap. 2. it is on Sisum lytlum pearroce. 
I think Forstemann (Ortsnamen, p 83) is mistaken in identifying 
Park with ahd. pferrich, nhd. pferch=a hurdle, pen for cattle; ex- 
cept in so far as it may have got blended with the Keltic word. 

918. p 104. hsefde funden j?set] effecerat ut. In the Lindisfarne 
Gospels, Matt. xiii. 22, efficitur=:gefunden bi8. 

918. p 104. eetswummon] D has oSswymman mihton. The 
prepositional prefix set bears here and in some other compounds 
the notion of escape, exemption, deprivation; they swam away, got 
away by swimming. So likewise setbregdan ; e. g. Sy 'Sam arleasan 
eetbroden seo gesihS Codes wuldres is the rendering of Tollatur 
impius ne videat gloriam Dei (verbally thus : Impio auferatur visio 
Dei gloria?), ^Elfric, Horn. i. psoo. setberstan : setfleon : sst- 
windan : e. g. setfleon ne mihte = could not escape, Joshua x. 35 
in Job i. the repeated phrase, " and I only am escaped alone to tell 
thee," is thus variously rendered in the A. S. version ; and ic ana 

setbserst j?set ic J?e ]>is cydde ic ana sstwand ic ana 

setneah (Thwaites, Kept, p 1 65). See also below in the Glossary, 
vv. (stbterst, cetbr&d. 

921. p 106 t. Wiginga mere] We must not stray across the 
country to fix this place, as Gibson does, at Wigmore in Hereford- 
shire. Mr. Thorpe (ap. Flor.) says, " Supposed to be Waymere 
Castle, on a small island near Bishop's Stortford." This at least 
keeps to the right side of the map. Yet in his Index to the Saxon 
Chronicle, Mr. Thorpe has gone back to Wigmore in Herefordshire ! 
If we consider the whole list of fortifications, which Eadweard esta- 
blished between 9 [3 and 924, we see that they must be regarded as 
a series, and identified with one continuous line of country : Hertford, 
Witham (Essex), Buckingham, Bedford, Maldon, Towcester, Wiginga- 
mere, Huntingdon, Colchester, Stamford, Tamworth, Nottingham, 
Thelwall, Manchester, Nottingham (the south burg), Bakewell. 

92 1. p 1 06 h. hlaf msessan] What the origin of this hlaf is, has 
puzzled many. Macpherson, in his Ed. of Wyntoun, conjectured 
that Lammas was curt for " S. Petri ad Vincu/a mass." This may 
seem too ingenious to be true, but there is no better explanation as 
yet. We do find this feast spoken of by the abbreviation of " Ad 

NOTES , 325 

Vincula," e. g. in Mr. Shirley's Letters of the Reign of Hen. III., No. 
xxxiii : " nona die ante Ad Vincula." If this is the derivation, the 
H and F have come in on a false understanding, and the later form 
' Lammas' is the better. 

921. p 107 m. wicinga sesc manna] Both translated 

pirates by Florence : " Quod Dani East-Angliam incolentes graviter 
ferentes, suamque injuriam ulcisci cupientes, cum piratis quos in aux- 
ilium sibi contraxerant ad Mseldunam profecti sunt, et earn tamdiu 
obsidentes impugnabant, quoad Anglis de finitimis locis auxiliarii 
venissent ; quos cum Dani adventare vidissent, ab urbis impugnatione 
recesserunt. Hoc viso, Angli illos magno impetu persecuti, multa 
millia et de piratis et de cseteris prostraverunt, reliquos vero fuga- 

921. p 107 m. ge wreean hira teonan] suamque injuriam ulcisci 
cupientes, Flor. The phrase lived on into the fourteenth century 
it is found in the Tale of Gamelyn, which is included in the 
Canterbury Tales in some editions, but which is somewhat older 
than Chaucer. " Gamelyn overtook the porter, and his teene 
wrak." Chaucer, Ed. R. Bell, vol. i. p 249. 

921. p 107 I. Passanhamme] " Hodie Pasham in agro North- 
amtunensi," Gibs. But in A.K. Johnston's General Gazetteer (1850) 
it is " Passenham, 8m. S.E. Towcester. It has an entrenchment, 
supposed to have been raised by Edward the Elder, to defend the 
passage of the Ouse against the Danes." 

922. Howel] This is the favourite name in Welsh history, as 
Alfred in English. In the Brut y Tywysogion 948, he is described 
as Howel da, vab Kadell, penn a molyant yr holl Vrytanyeit = Howel 
the good, son of Cadell, chief and glory of all the Britons. 

923. pi 10. on ufan hserfest] 'late in the harvest,' Ingram: 
'after harvest,' MHB : Florence has simply, autumnali tempore. 
I am inclined to believe that it means ' before harvest' or ' in the 
early part of the autumn.' The usual phrase for ' after harvest' 
would be ' ofer hserfest.' 

924. segj>er ge Englisce ge Denisce ge Workmen ge oj>re] 
A peculiar interest attaches to this passage because it indicates that 
the terms * Denisce' and * Workmen' were not equivalents. This 
feature has not been brought out by the translators with the dis- 
tinctness which is due to it ; save Gibson, who renders with fidelity, 
" sive Angli, sive Dani, sive Normanni, sive alii [quicunque] :" 
whether English or Danish or Northmen or others. 

937. p ri4t. cread cnearen flot] This reading of K is cor- 
rupt, but the next MSS. give good help. See the foot-notes. I 

326 NOTES 

would correct the passage thus : cread cnear on flot, i. e. he (the 
king) thrust out his bark on the deep ; crowded his knar a-float ; 
or, in modern nautical phrase, shoved her off. 

The modern idea of crowding is thronging, o^Xos but at this date 
it was thrusting onwards, driving forwards, iroOev not. In Cod. Exon. 
384, 15, we have it in 3rd sing. pres. indie., bonne heah gearing on 
cleofu crydeS = when the high swell dashes on the cliffs. In Norfolk 
and Suffolk they talk of crowding a wheel-barrow, or, as it is also 
called, a crou^-barrow. See Forby and Halliwell, in voc. This 
illustration must not give the word an ignoble aspect, for in early 
times it is found in dignified associations ; as in the text. It occurs 
three times in Chaucer's Man of Lawes Tale, which is written in the 
grand style. It figures twice in one stanza containing a majestic 
apostrophe to the firmament, regarded astrologically as the ruthless 
engine of human destiny (Tyrwhitt's Ed. 1.4716; Ed. R. Bell, 
vol. ii. p 16): 

O firste moving cruel firmament, 
With thy diurnal swegh that croudest ay, 
And hurtlest al from Est till Occident, 
That naturally wold hold another way ; 
Thy CTOuding set the heven in swiche array, 
At the beginning of this fierce viage, 
That cruel Mars hath slain this manage. 

Further on in the same tale (1.5221, Ed. Tyrwhitt ; P33> Ed. R. 
Bell) we find a more exact parallel to our text : 

But in the same ship as he hir fond, 

Hire and hir yonge sone, and all hire gere, 

He shulde put, and crowde fro the londe, 

And charge hire, that she never eft come there. 

Cnear occurs again on the next page in dat. pi. cnearrum. In 
both cases it is used of the ships of the Northmen ; and in both 
places the errors of the scribes attest the strangeness of the word. 
In MS. D, ' nsegled cnearrum' is transformed into ' daeggled on 
garum.' Icelandic knorr and also knarri=riavis. See Mr. Da- 
sent's Article in Oxford Essays. In a historian of the eleventh Century 
we get the word in a Latin guise : Ordericus Vitalis, Lib. viii. c. 23, 
anno 1095, says : Quatuor naves magnae quas Canardos vocant, de 
Northwegia in Angliam appulsse sunt. 

Plot is the right word here, and nod in the next line. The 
former regards the surface, and is represented by the modern afloat : 
the latter regards the aggregate of water, as still in flood. 

937- P I]I 5- n dinges mere] Wheloc : in procelloso mari. 

NOTES 327 

But what is ' dinges ?' It recalls the onomatopaeia of no\v<p\oi(rpoio 

937. p 1 15. Difelin secan] Worsaae (in " Danes and Northmen," 
P3 1 ?) gi ves a -List of Norsk Kings in Dublin, from Lindsay's 
" Coinage of Ireland," among which is " Anlaf, 934." In the 
Appendix to " Danes and Northmen" is figured a silver coin, which 
had before escaped notice, with the legend (as read by the author), 
"Oolaf i Divielin," i.e. " Olaf in Dublin." He decides that this 
coin was struck in Dublin in the tenth century. The chief positions 
of the Danish princes in Ireland, were Dublin, Limerick, and Water- 
ford the last a town of their own founding. Robertson's Church 
History, vol. i. p 430. 

937- P I! 5- saluwig padan] Not in apposition to lira (as 
Thorpe), but of the raven. So in Csedmon, 1443 (p 87. Ed. Thorpe), 
salwigfe^era is used of the raven that Noah sent out of the ark. 
Compare a striking parallel in Judith, 1 1 : 

paes se hlanca gefeah Thereof fain was the lank 

wulf in walde, wolf in the wold, 

and se wanna hrefn and the wan raven 

wsel-gifre fugel j carnage-fond fowl ; 

wistan begen wist they both 

J?8et him Sa >eod-guman that the sons of men 

]?ohton tilian were minded to give them 

fylle on fsegum ; a spread of fate's victims ; 

ac him fleah on laste next in their wake flew 

earn setes georn, eagle corpse-eager, 

urigfeSera dew-be-gemmed 

salowig pada sable-robed 

sang hildeleoft, he sang battle-psean, 

hyrned nebba. horny -cheeked. 

Saluwig-pad-an means one that possesses (-an, worn, -a), a jacket 
(pad), which is dusky (saluwig). 

The word pad appears in Anglo-Saxon nowhere out of compo- 
sition, but its simple form is found in the kindred dialects. Tn Gothic 
it is paida, which occurs five times in the Gospels : also there appears 
a Gothic verb ga-paidon = V8v> in Ephesians vi. 14 (Loebe's 
Glossary to Ulfilas). Other dialectic forms are given in Grimm's 
Grammar, vol. iii. p 447 ; among the most interesting is that from 
the Heliand (a Gospel -Narrative in Old Saxon), in which peda is the 
word for the seamless coat. 

942. Dor] No doubt the same as above 827, and it may safely be 
identified with Dore 5 m. from Sheffield. It was probably so called 
because it was ths door or entering in of Northumbria from Mercia, 

328 NOTES 

It is associated with " hwitan wylles geat" = Whitewell's 
gate ; and not far from Dore we find Whitewell, and both of them 
on the verge of the shire. Indeed, this word dor seems to have 
been used as a common noun for a mountain pass, as we see in 
Cod. Dipl. 570 (p 79) that in a description of bounds a dor occurs 
between two brooks, " of secgbroce to ftan hean dore ; of hean dore 
to brydbroce." 

scade)?] divides, i. e. the waters, and likewise the nations. It is 
from this word that we have the ' water- shed/ in the sense of a 
line of division. Physical Geography has lately brought this word 
forward out of its provincial obscurity. See Wilbraham's Cheshire 
Glossary, v. Shed; Miss Baker's Northants Glos. v. Sheth. In 
Wright's Vocabularies, p 183 ; discrimen, shade of the here. So in 
Jamieson, to shed hair, is to separate it so that it fall to either side. 

942. nyde gebegde] Here we have a case of transition from the 
verb which was anciently established in this connection, to a sub- 
stituted modern verb of proximate meaning. The old verb is pre- 
served in BCD. Above 937 x , we have the old verb in S, but the 
genuine orthography is only found in BCD. The old verb is 
gebsedan^o compel, from an obscure word bad, found only in the 
compound nydbad= exaction, toll, compulsory payment. Cod. Dipl. 
95 ; Schmid, v. bad. The verb is found so often with the adverb 
nyde, that nydegebsedan might almost be regarded as a compound 
dvayKa&iv. Grein, v. geb&dan. 

The new verb is gebegan = flectere, transitive of gebugan = to 

962. manbryne] Contrary to all the translators from Gibson 
downwards, who understand by this word an epidemic fever, I take 
it for a great and disastrous fire in London. In many places of 
Csedmon, bryne is incendium ; see Bouterwek. And fcerbry ne = terri- 
ble burning of the sun's heat, CsefL 3001. Man-bryne is a bad or 
destructive fire ; according to the analogy of man-bealo, malum per- 
niciosum (Bouterwek). 

One cannot but be struck with the singular parallelism between 
this annal and the events of A. D. 1665, 1666. 

963. pi 23m. messehacel] mass-hackle, i. e. mass-vestment, 
cope. In the West of England the word hackle is specially used of 
the conical straw roofing that is put over bee-hives. Also, of the 
" straw covering of the apex of a rick," says Mr. J. Yonge Akerman, 
Glossary of Wiltshire Words, v. Hackle. 

963. p 123 1. And he macode fyrst J>a wealle abutan |>one 
mynstre. geaf hit J>a to nama Burch. J>e ser het Medeshamstede.] 

NOTES 329 

Though the language here is of the twelfth century, yet this state- 
ment is apparently authentic. The great fortifying era in England 
had been initiated by Edward the son of Alfred. Fortified monasteries 
became common, and Peterborough was probably one of the earliest 
instances. Fortification changed the character and the moral aspect 
of the monastic institution, and the change of name was a natural 
consequence. The irregular cluster of humble edifices, which shewed 
like any other " homestead" of the open country, was now encircled 
with a wall, like one of the fenced cities. Henceforth it is no more 
Medeshamstede or the Meadow-homestead; but Burn or Burch, the 
garrison and capital of a dependent region. The fortified place became 
also the market-place of its district, and hence it reaped commercial 
advantages, direct and incidental. Laws of Edw. i. i. Atheist, ii. 12. 
Cod. Dipl. 575. 

963. pi 23 last line, and heold |>a hwile }>e he j?ser wses] 
What did he hold ? Gibson's version is as follows : " casque devexit 
ad Burch, et consecravit omnes sancto Petro uno die, retinuitque 
quamdiu ibi esset." The Mon. Hist. Brit, renders, and observed it 
the while that he was there, Mr. Thorpe, and held it the while that 
he was there. Plainly Gibson means that he retained possession of the 
forenamed relics of saints, and did not part with them. The MHB 
version is equally plain, that Abbot ./Elfsi, in succeeding years, made 
a point of keeping the day of the Translation of the Relics as a high- 
day. Mr. Thorpe's rendering is verbal. Gibson's version appears 
to me preferable, both as most suitable to the language (as far as 
anything can be rested on it, where the construction is so lax, as 
throughout this piece), and also most apposite to the habits of the 
age in treating relics as merchandize. In adverse times, an em- 
barrassed abbot made ready money of his relics, just as kings of 
Judah got out of their difficulties by cutting off the gold and silver 
of the Temple. ^Elfsige was not a seller but a buyer of such trea- 
sures, when he met with impoverished abbots, as may be read below, 
anno 1013. 

973. on ^aere ealdan byrig Acemannes ceastre] I do not 
think this ancient name for Bath is rightly explained by reference 
to the sufferings alleviated by the Bath waters, quasi ache-man- 
chester. Ake- seems to be simply a corruption of the Latin Aqua ; 
like Aix, Ax> Dax (=de aquis), and the German Sladjen. Whether 
the next part -man- meant homo, appears to me highly doubtful. 
The genitive given to it in the tenth century ('-mannes') must not 
weigh much with us ; any more than the uncritical form in Florence, 

u u 

330 NOTES 

Acamanm civitas. In .ancient British, man signified place ; and this 
would make a suitable appendage here. 

973. sigora frean] Cf. pi 26m, Sigora waldend. A good deal 
of doubt hangs over the interpretation of this word sigora. It 
seems to be a gen. pi., but of what subst. is not clear. The phrase 
may mean either lord of victors or lord of victories : cf. Bouterwek, 
Glossar, vv. sigor and sigora. 

978. upfloran] "Solarium, upflor;" Semi-Saxon Vocabulary, 
Ed. Wright, p 93. Upflora ; ^Elfric Horn., Ed. Thorpe, vol. i. 
p 3 1 4 : upfleringe, id. pp 296, 3 i 4. 

979 E. set Corfes geate] This subsequently slid into the ac- 
ceptation of " the gate of Corfe Castle ;" and hence the picture of 
the arched gateway, and the horseman stabbed while drinking. Gib- 
son, though dissatisfied, could not mend the conventional rendering. 
He says, " Est autem Corfe castrum vetustum in medio Insulae 
Purbecke dictse, in agro Dors&tensi ; cui ' geate' adjectum videtur 
indicare, ^Elfritham Eadweardo Regi insidias struxisse in ipso castri 
vestibulo, sive via ad castrum ducente." It did not occur to him 
that there was no Castle there at that time. The name Corfes geat 
or Corf geat (F) signifies the singular cut or cleft in the line of chalk 
hills, wherein Corfe Castle has since been pitched, on a minor 
eminence. The ' geat' is a gate, not of art, but of nature ; as above 
942, ' hwitanwylles geat.' 

982 C. SarcenaJ This is not the earliest mention of the Saracens 
in Saxon literature. See Bede's E. H. v. 23, where the genitive plural 
is Sarcina. 

991. -f man geald serest gafol Deniscan mannum] This 
tallies exactly with the dates of Anglo-Saxon money found in 
Denmark and Sweden ; in both which countries it has been exhumed 
in large quantities, but especially in Sweden. The dates range from 
./Eftelred to Edward Conf. ; and coins of some of the intermediate 
reigns have been found in Denmark and Sweden in larger numbers 
than in England. Anglosachsiska Mynt i Svenska Kongl. Myntkabi- 
nettet af Bror Emil Hildebrand. 4to., Stockholm, 1846. 

992. gif hi muhton J?one here ahwser utene betrseppan} 
v. 1. utan betreppan C D ; gif man mihte betrseppan J>ane here 
ahwar wijmtan F, Cf. ^Elfrici Colloquium (Thorpe's Analecta, 
p 25), where the bird-catcher takes birds mid treppan = decipula. 
The project was to environ the hostile force by surprise. Florence 
says, " ut, si quo modo possent, Danorum exercitum in aliquo 
portu circumvallando comprehenderent." And Henry of Hunt- 

NOTES 331 

ingdon, " rex Dacis insidias molitus est ut interciperent 


Utene is not to be joined with ahiv(er=. any where without (Ingram), 
anywhere abroad (Thorpe), as if utene meant " out at sea," " out 
on their cruise," " out about the coasts" but it goes almost into 
one word with betrseppan=to take or catch the foe by surround- 
ing him on the outside, utene-betraeppan, or (better) utan-be- 
treppan, is to beleaguer. Florence had the same Saxon before 
him as we have, and he renders it word for word fully and faith- 
fully. ahwser=in aliquo portu : utene = circumvallando : betrseppan 
= comprehenderent. MHB's " anywhere betrap the army about" is 
admirable, utan (utene) is ega>6ev, not ew. See the Glossary, v. utan. 

994. and hi ahredde] and rescued them. We retain this verb in 
our Bible ; " rid me and deliver me out of great waters." Ps. cxliv. 
7, u, and Ixxxii. 4. 

994. -ZE^elward ealdorman] This is supposed to be the histo- 
rian "Patricias Consul Fabius Quaestor ^Ethelwerdus." See MHB 
in Pref. pSi. 

995. This Annal is prolonged in F as follows: And 
Wiltunscire b'. wearft gecoren. on Easter dsei on Ambresbyri. fram 

cinge. and fram eallen his witan. Des ^Elfric was swySe gewis mann. pet nas nan 
snottere man on Englalande. Da for^Elfric to his arcestol. and pa he pider com. 
he was underfange of pam hades mannum \>Q him ealra uneattest was. pat was of 
clerican. And sona ef s . . ealla pa wisuste men he awar gecneow. and swylce sefter 
ealdan mannum. J>a cuSan pat soSuste seggan hu selc ping wearS on pis lande be 
heora yldrau dagan. to eacan pan he sylf geleorned hsefde on bocan. and at wisen 
mannum. Him tealdan pa swySe ealde menu, segtfcr ge gehadode ge laewede. 
heora yldran heom tealdan hu hit was gelagod sona sypjran S. Augustinus to pisan 
lande com. Da pa Augustinus }>one b'. setl fenge hsefde on J>are burh. J>a was he 
arceb' ofer ealles }>es cinges rice ^Egelberhtes. swa hit ys gersed on Ystoria 

Anglorum . . . . ne setl wyrcan be }>es cinges fultume on 

ealdan Romaniscan wearde onginnon. sa . . . and forft to sprytanne. Of J>am 
geferscipe wseran )>a fyrmestan. Mellitus. Justus. Paulinus. Rufianus. Be ]>ysan 
sende se eadiga papa pone pallium, and J>arto gewrit. and tacnunge. hu he b' 
halgian. and an hwylcum stowe on Britane hi settan scolde. And )>am cinge M . . 
he sende gewrita. and manega woruldgiua of mistlicum J)ingum. And >a cyrican 
]>e hi gegearcod haefdan. he het halgian on Drihtnes naman hselendes Cristes. and 
sancta Marian, and himsylfum J>ar eardung stowe sette. and his sefter filigendum 
eallan. and pat he scolde par innan settan }>es ylcan hades menn J?a he peder to 
lande sende. and pa he sylf was. and eac pat eelc oper b. scolde ~beon mwnec 
hades mann pe pone arb'stol gessete an Cantwarebyri. and >at scolde beon sefre 
gehealden be Godes leafe and bletsunge. and be S. Petrus. and be ealra pa setter 
him coman. Da peos sand angean com to ^iEgelberhte cinge. and to Agustine. hi 
wurftan swyfte bliSe J?urh swilce wissunge. And se arb' pa halgode pat mynstre 
on Cristes naman and S. Marian on \>am dage pe ys gecweden twegra martira 
msessa dsei. Primi et Feliciani. and par binnan munecas gelogode eal swa See 

U U 2 

332 NOTES 

Gregorius bebeod. And hi Godes }>eowdom claenlice beeodan. and man nam of }>an 
ylcan nmnecan biscopas to gehwylcre stowe. swa ]>u rseddan miht on Ystoria Anglo- 
rum. Da wasElfric arb' swySe bliiSe. ]>athe swa fela gewitnesse hsefde \>ara \>e mihtan 
betst to )>am tima'n wift J>one cing. Gyt J>a ylcan witan J>e mid J>an arb'. weeran 
cwsedan. Dus eal swa we geteald habbaft f urn wunedan munecas on Cristes cyrican 
on Agustines dage. and on Laurenties. Mellites. lustes. Honoms. Deusdedit. 
Deodores. Brihtwoldes. Tatwines. Nothelmes. Cuthbertes. Bregwines. lanbertes. 
ASelhardes. Wulfredes. Felogild. Ac >es ea . . . geares. J>a CeolnoS com to ]>an 
arb' rice. wearS swylc mancwealm J>at na belaf binnan Cristes cyrcan butan fif 
munecas. To eallan his timan. wearS gewinn and sorh on Jjysum lande. )>at nan 

mann ne mihte ]>encan embe naht elles butan Nu Gode J>anc ys hit on J>as 

cinges anwealda and on ]>ynum hwaefter hi leng )>ar binnan lengre beon motan. 
forj>on na rmhte man hi nsefre ut bet bringan Jxmne man nu mai gif J>as cing' willa is 
and |>in. Se arb' )>a butan selcre lettinge mid eallan \>am wisum mannum ferde anan 
to J>am cinge. and cyddan him eall ealswa we her beforan tealdan. Da wearS se 
cing swiSe bliSe Jwssere tidunge. and cwseS to >am arb' and to ]>am oftran. Me J?inS 
rsed J?at J?u ealra serost fare to Rome setter Jnnon serce and J>u }>am papan cySe 
eal >is. and sylvan be his rsede far. And hi ealle andswaredan J?at >at was se betsta 
rsed. Da \>a preostas j>is gehyrdan. )>a rseddan hi. >at hi naman twegen of heom. and 
sen dan to }>am papan. and budon him mycelne garsuman and sealfer. wiS ]>an 
J?e he scolde gifan heom Jxrne erce. Ac J>a hi to Rome coman. )>a nolde se papa 
naht )>at don for hi ne brohtan nan gewrit. naSer na of )>am cinge na of J>an 
folce. and het hi faran loc whar hi woldon. Sona swa J>a preostas J>anon gecyrred 
wseron. com se arb' ^Elfric to Rome, and se papa hine underfeng mid mycelan 
wurscipe. and het hine a morhgen msessian at S. Petres weofode. and se papa sylf 
dyde on his agene pallium and hine swyfte wyr'Sede. Da Jns was gedon. se arb' 
ongan to tellende >am papan eal embe }>a clericas. hu hit gefaran was. and hu hi 
binnan )>an mynstre at his arb' rice waeran. And se papa him agean gerehte hu 
t>a preostas to him cuman wseran. and mycelne gsersuman budan. for >i >at he 
scolde heom >one pallium gifan. Ac cwsetS se papa, far nu to i%Zalande an- 
gean. mid Godes bletsunge. and S. Petres. and minre. and swa |m ham cume. do 
into Hnan mynstre J>as ylcan hadesmenn. )>e beatus Gregorius bebead Augustine 
]>ar inne to londe. be Godes bebode. and S. Petres. and minre. Se arcebisceop >a 
mid J>ysan gecyrde to Englalande. Sona swa he ham com. he gesset his arb'stol. 
and si)>]>an to J?an cinge ferde. and se cing and ealle his leode Gode ]>ancode his 
angeancumes and >at he swa geserndod swa );an ealra leofuste wes. He J>a eft to 
Cantwarebiri ferde and )>a clericas ut of barn mynstre adraf. and J?ar biunan munecas 
sette. eal swa se papa him bebeod. 

Iste fuit prudens valde, ita ut illo in tempore nullus sapientior haberetur in 
Anglia. Recedente itaque inde rege, JElfricus pergit Doroberniam. Ubi cum 
venisset, receptus est, a tali ordine clericorum, a quo minus vellet. Cogitavit 
igitur et multum secum tractans, quali modo possit eicere eos, quos sciebat in 
Ecclesia Christi injuste mansisse. Ut supra diximus, valde fuit prudens, et eccle- 
siasticis disciplinis plurimum instructus. Itaque prsecepit congregari omnes quos 
sciebat prudentiores per totam Angliam, et maxime senes. Ad quern cum pro 
reverentia viri festinauter venissent, requisivit ab eis si quid aut ipsi a suis an- 
tecessoribus de Ecclesia Christi Cantiee audissent, aut ipsi in aliquo loco legissent, 
quis ordo in prsedicta ecclesia Deo servire debuisset, clericorum aut monachorum, 
aut quis eo tempore postquam Augustinus Angliam ingresset, ibi locatus esset in 
initio. Ipse vero multa a multii an tea inde audivit, et in libris legit. Tune 

NOTES 333 

seniores et prudentiores narraverunt ei, quod inde a suis patribus audissent. 
Postquam Deus, inquiunt, per beatum Augustinum aperuit cor regis ^Edelberti 
ad suscipiendara fidein Christi, ipse Augustinus elegit sibi sedem in civitate Do- 
robernia quce erat caput totius regni ^Edelberti regis, ubi invenit quoddam opus 
inceptum Romano opere, quod auxiliante rege statuit perficere. Quod dum per- 
fectum esset rex yEgelbertus coepit consilium quserere ab Augustino et a cseteris 
consiliariis suis, quern ordinem monachorum vel clericorum convenientius in ilia 
ecclesia ad serviendum Deo constituere potuisset. Qui omnes dederunt consi- 
lium, ut rex ex sua parte mitteret nuntios suos, et Augustinus monachos suos 
cum nuntiis regis Romse, ad papam Gregorium, et ejus consilio sicut antea idem 
Augustinus venit in Angliam, ita et ecclesia jam nominata dedicaretur et ordina- 
retur. Quod et factum est. Nam rex statim paratis nuntiis suis, misit Romse, et 
Augustinus nichilominus suos. Cum autem venissent ad papam, et nuntiassmtf 
quod Angli suscepissent fidem Christi, gavisus est valde. Auditis itaque omnibus 
quse a regeret Augustino mandata fuerant, statim remisit nuntios, cum quibus hos 
viros misit Augustino ut essent ei in adjutorium ad fidem Christi confirmandam ; 
Mellitum, Justum, Paulinum, Rufinianum. Per istos etiam misit Augustino pallium, 
atque in quo loco deberet episcopos co-ordinare, et ponere mandavit ; ecclesiam 
quoque quam fecerat in honorem Jhesu Ohristi, et S. Marise matris ejus, preecepit 
dedican', e;wsdemque ordinis quo ipse Augustinus, et alii quosipse sibi misit, erant, 
in eadem ecclesia ad serviendum Deo ponere, sibique ibidem sedem archiepiscopalem 
et omnibus successoribus suis statuere, omnesque archiepiscopos sibi succedentes 
monachos esse debere, ex parte Dei viventis, et beati ex sua, et omnium suc- 
cmorum prsecepit. Cum autem nuntii reversi, venissent ad regem, et ad Augus- 
tinum, gaudio maximo repleti sunt pro tali mandato. Tune Augustinus festinanter 
dedicarit ecclesiam illo die quo festum sanctorum Primi et Feliciani, v. Idus Junii, 
habetur, posuitque in ea monachos sicut papa mandavit; et ex ipsis ordinabantur 
episcopi per Angliam sicut ipse legisti in Ystoria Anglorum. Itaque cum ista 
jElfricus archiepiscopus audisset, et tales testes habuisset, qui illo tempore maxime 
in consilio regis erant, gaudio repletus est. Addiderunt adhuc praedicti viri : Ita 
sicut diximus, permanserunt monachi in ecclesia Christi Cantuarise, tempore Au- 
gustini, Laurentii, Melliti, Justi, ffonmi, Deusdedit, Theodorii, Brihtwaldi, 
Tatwini, Nothelmi, Cuthberti, Bregwini, Janberti, Athelhardi, Wulfredi, Feolo- 
gildi. Illo vero primo anno quo Chelnodus suscepit archiepiscopatum Cantise 
tanta mortalitas facta est, ut in Ecclesia Christi non remanerent nisi v. monachi, 
et ideo pro tali necessitate idem C. archiepiscopus accepit de clericis suis presbi- 
teros, qui quousque restauraret ecclesiam monachis, juvarent paucos monachos qui 
remanserunt. Nunc autem est in potestate regis et tua, si diutius vultis ut ibi 
clerici . . maneant, quia postquam pro tali necessitate ibi positi sunt, non potuerunt 
levius eici quam modo. Tune archiepiscopus cum magna festinatione cum his 
omnibus quos secum ibi habebat, perrexit ad regem ^Egelbertum, et indicavit ei 
per ordinem hsec omnia. Tune dixit accepto consilio rex : Hoc videtur mihi 
melius consilium, ut eatis Romse pro pallio vestro, et indicetis apostolico omnia, 
et secundum suum consilium per omnia fieri concede. Dixerunt omnes optimum 
esse consilium regis. Archiepiscopus autem paratis rebus suis perrexit Romam. 
Statim vero ut clerici audierunt consilium regis, paraverunt duos ex ipsis qui irent 
Romse, portantes secum multum auri et argenti, quod darent papse pro pallio. 
Sed nuntii archiepiscopi prsecesserunt. Nam cum clerici pervenerunt ad papam, 
respondit se nolle illorum verba suscipere, quia nullum signum nee a rege nee a 
populo terrse secum haberent. Discedentibus clericis, venit archiepiscopus ad 

334 NOTES 

papam, qui suscepit eum cum magno honore. In crastino fecit eum celebrare 
missam ad altare beati Petri, et ipse impostdt ei proprium pallium suum. Gum 
hsec ita facta essent, archiepiscopus coepit dicere papee de clericis, et de Ecclesia 
Christi sicut supradictum est, et papa ei de clericis quomodo venerint ad eum^ et 
quod obtulerunt sibi magnam pecuniam pro pallio ; et adjecit papa : Redite in 
Angliam cum benedictione Dei, et Sancti Petri, et in ecclesia tibi commendata, 
ejusdem ordinis in ea ponite quern papa Gregorius Augustino preecepit, et hoc 
tibi praeeipio ex parte Dei et beati Petri, et nostra. Tune archiepiscopus ita 
rediit. Cum autem revertisset in Angliam, statim adiit ecclesiam suam, et post 
adiit regem, et laetatus est rex, et omnis Anglia, de reditu suo et quod omnia 
secundum voluntatem regis peregit. Post hsec reversus ad sedem suam, et ejectis 
clericis, locavit ecclesiam monachis sicut papa ilium imperaverat, secundum quod 
B. Gregorius prsecepit Augustino facere in primordio ecclesise. F ' Lat. 

997. Penwiht steort] steort, tail, is the Saxon addition. The 
Keltic name is represented by Penwiht, which C gives PenwrS, and 
D Pen weed. The latter appears nearest to the Welsh, from the 
following passage of the Brut y Tywysogion : " King Henry collected 
an army against Gwynedd and Powys or van eithiaf o Gyrnyw lie 
gelwir Pengwayd, hyt y vann eithiaf o Brydyn llegelwir Penblathaon" 
i. e. from the land's end of Cornwall, which is called Pengwayd, to 
the land's end of Prydyn, which is called Penblathaon. 

looj. Tegntun] Locus in agro Devoniensi ; .... sed e pluribus 
in isto agro hujus appellationis locis, quis sit nescio (Gibson). One 
among many instances of his scrupulous fidelity. His successors, 
Ingram and MHB, retained the name unaltered in their translation ; 
but Mr. Thorpe has tacitly given it as Teignmouth, first in his Trans- 
lation of Lappenberg (vol. ii. p 162), and since in his Edition of the 
Chronicles for the Master of the Rolls. Both name and site speak 
for Kingsteignton, three miles up the estuary of the Teign. 

Peon ho] Now Pinho, three miles N. E. of Exeter, and a favourite 
walk with residents of the western capital. It is near the Clists, one 
of which is here indicated by the name ' Glistune.' 

The composition of the name Peon ho is tautological ; the latter 
being a Saxon translation of the former part, which is British. Gib- 
son (strangely) confounded it with aet Peonnum, 658. 

1003. gebrsed he nine seocne] feigned he himself sick: cf. 
La3amon, vol. i. p 284, be king hine breid seac. 

1004. ac hi abrutfon ba e he tobohte] "but they in whom 
he trusted failed to do it," MHB ; " but they .whom he trusted in 
failed him," Thorpe. This passage may help to justify the reading 
of the manuscript of Lajamon (vol. i. p 82. Ed. Madden): 

al heo tileden 
ase heo to >ohten 

^they tilled whatever they set their minds on where the Editor has 

NOTES 335 

suggested an emendation. In JE>\fnc Horn. vol. i. p 268, ac we 
sceolon biddan ]> God us gescylde, ]> we ne abreo^on on ftaere fan- 
dunge=but we must pray that God would shield us, that we fail 
not in the trial : mox, swa he oftor on 'Saere fandunge abry^, swa he 
forcu^ra bi$ = the often er he fail in trial, the more desperate he 
will be. Below 1101, set jjsere neode abnrSon. 

abrufton is the pi. pret. of abreo^an, well illustrated by Grein, 
Bibliothek der Angelsachsischen Poesie, Glossar s. v. 

1006. p 140 m. Da hit winter leohte] winter laehte C D. When it 
became winterly or winterish. This verb seems to be formed from an 
adj. winterlic; sumorleecan from sumorlic, &c. So in OHG, 
nalihhon, ga-ebanlichon are ranged by Graff under Tjih=similis. 
Bat 88 does not often present itself as an alterate of i ; and Grimm is 
embarrassed by the unconformability of the verbs in -leecan. Deutsche 
Gramrnatik, vol. ii. pp 119 and 283. 

The following list is taken from the first volume of the Homilies 
of ^Elfric (Ed. Thorpe) : 

ge-anlsehte ....... page 318. 

ge-cneordlaecende .... 436. 

ge-cuftlsehte ....... 388 ; cf. LaBamon, vol. iii. p 492. 

ge-dyrstlsecS ...... 456. 

ge-edlaehte ....... 28, -296. 

efenlsecendra ..... 396. 

ge-ferlaehte ...... 132, 414, 494, 496, 532, 544. 

ge-lomlaecendum .... 578, 614. 

nealsecan ....... 584. 

ge-rihtlsecon ...... 494, 578, 618. 

sumorlseh'S ..... 614. 

518, 548, 6 1 6, 700. 

To this list may be added from the Vocabularies (Ed. Wright, 
p54), " Venusto, ic cyrtenla?ce :" cf. Ettmiiller's Lex. p386. Also, 
ge]>rystl[sehte] in the fragment of Zosimas, p 104, 1. 17, in the Ap- 
pendix to my SwrShun. Ettmuller (Lex. p 184) gives wrSerlsecan = 
privare ; but I cannot verify his reference. 

1006. p 140 m. to his fryS stole to Wihtlande] C D omit the 
second to ; F has, to his fri]> stole into Wiht ; ad Asylum nempe 
Vectam (Gibson). A metaphorical use of frrS stol is found also in 
the Paris Psalter, Ps. Ixxxix. i, xciii. 21: and of frrSstow, Ps. 
xvii. i ; where the Latin version has, in all three cases, refugium. 
The literal fri$ stol was a seat in a privileged ' sanctuary.' " In 
several English churches there was a stone seat beside the altar, for 
those who fled to the peace of the church. One of these still remains 
at Beverley, another at Hexham. To violate the protection of the 

336 NOTES 

frrS stol was not to be compensated by a pecuniary penalty ; it was 
bot-leas" Prof. Cosmo Innes, Scotland in the Middle dges, p 195. 
The friS stol in Hexham Abbey would grace a more advanced 
position if one may criticise arrangements which appear to be ruled 
by good taste and good feeling. 

1006. pi 40 m. to heora garwan feorme] There is a bitter 
pleasantry about this, of which the point is, that the pirates regarded 
the well-stored farms of Berkshire and Hampshire as so much pro- 
visions laid up for their own winter entertainment. It is not easy 
to devise a modern form of words which shall reflect the spirit here 
manifested it is somewhat of this kind : at Christmas they made a 
progress to those hospitable quarters where they knew they were always 

1006. p 140111. Cwicchelmes hlsewe] E. S.E. of Wantage is 
"Cuckhamsley Hifl or Cuchinslow, a large barrow on a wide plain 
overlooking White Horse Vale." Gough's Camden, i. 225. In Cod. 
Dipl. 693, we have a scirgemot set Cwicelmes hlaewe. 

beotra gylpa] This would have been in the text of E but for an 
accidental omission, which has been supplied in the foot-note from C. 
It is a genuine Saxon idiom = out of insolent bravado. It is a sort 
of genitive absolute, a good example of which may be seen in a 
Charter communicated by the late Mr. Kemble to the Archaeological 
Journal, No. 53 (1857), p 60; ungebetra J>inga=MrMow having 
mended matters. 

and sona \>et wserod on fleame gebrohtan] 3 hi $ar En- 
glisce folc a fleame brohtan F. 

rancne] prutne F. 

1 008. This tantalizing annal prompts a conjecture that the annalist 
had access to public accounts which he cared little to understand, 
and contented himself by making a hasty extract. The formality of 
the paragraph, with its videlicet (j? is j>onne) the anag Xfyopcvov 
scegS the allusion in the next annal to books which can hardly 
mean published books might thus be accounted for. 

In this rating of land for raising a navy, the numbers are so un- 
conformable to the statistical numbers preserved elsewhere, and so 
incommensurate with each other, that they must be received with 
suspicion. All the texts agree, except D, which, of all extant texts, 
is probably the nearest to the source. In the confusion of the text 
of D, may possibly be found materials for a future emendation. 

But, taken at its worst, the annal is rich in interest. We 
learn the curious fact, that it was incumbent on each of the landed 
subdivisions, to provide the king with a ship and its armour. The 

NOTES 337 

government did not levy ship-money, but required each county to 
find its quota of ships. This would apply as well to the inland 
districts, as to those on the sea-bord. And here we find the expla- 
nation of an otherwise inexplicable bequest of good Abp. JElfric, 
who died two years before this date. He gave one ship to the folk 
of Kent, and one to Wiltshire. The will is in Cod. Dipl. 716. 
Doubtless, in each of the cases, the bequest was intended as an alle- 
viation of the heavy imposts under which the people groaned. His gift 
being to the shire, is an argument that the assessment was by shires. 
It appears to me probable that each shire had to furnish one ship 
for every three Hundreds contained in the shire. Thus a shire 
containing thirty Hundreds would have to furnish ten ships. (Ac- 
cordingly, D may be right: of J>rym hundscipum : ? = of three 
Hundreds, unbertfd)aften.) This burden would fall upon the whole 
body of the people, according to their rating. But the wealthy land- 
owners had a special burden besides. He who had property up to 
or over the extent of ten hides, would have to furnish a sceg'S and 
every thane under ten hides, had to furnish a helmet and breastplate. 

feastlice] faestlice C D ; intentt Flor. 

sceg^] Wright's Vocabularies, p 47, Scapha vel trieris, litel scip 
vel sceig'S; p 56, Trieris scerS ; p 63, Trieris scseg^. See Schmid, 
Glos. v. ScerSman ; and Cod. Dipl. 755, Winsig scseg-^man. This 
word appears to have been borrowed from the Northmen : SkerS, 
navis cursoria, Egilsson. 

1009. p 143. lencten] Here it is seen by the relation in which 
Lencten stands to Winter, that the original sense is not Lent, but 
Spring ; as Lem, still used in poetic German : 
Und Lenz wird kommen, 
Und Winter wird gehn. 

Wilhelm Muller's "Trockne Blumen." 

And this is the sense in which it entered into Lent-lilies,' Old 
English (now provincial) for daffodils. 

In like manner hserfest originally meant autumn> like the German 

ion. p 145. f woes un asecgendlic senigum menn] inenar- 
rabile verb cuiquam (Gibson); it was impossible for any men [man] to 
say (Ingram). 

rsepling] This rare word occurs but this once in the Saxon 
Chronicles. It is found in Genesis xxxix. 20; Ps. Ixviii. 38, Ed. 
Spelman : in both cases of prisoners, vincti. Above in the same 
page is rsepton from r8epan=o>ype>, they seized, took captive. 
See the family of words in Ettm. p 267, who connects it with rap, 




rope. Henry of Huntingdon has caught up the sound of this lament : 
Videres autem spectaculum horrendum, faciem urbis antiquse et 

pulcherrimae totam in cineres redactam, caput fidei fontem- 

que doctrinse Anglorum vinculis mancipatum opprobriose pertrahi. 

10 1 2. hry'Sera] "Horned beasts are still designated in Dorset, 
and in other parts of England, Rotker Cattle; likewise in Stat. 3 
and 4 Edw. vi. c. 19, mention is made of ' Rother beastes, as oxen, 
steres, noutes, kyen, heighfers and calves.' Piers Ploughman de- 
scribes the husbandman driving his team offoure rotheren." Archaeo- 
logical Journal, i 860, p 157. 

1012. and his halige blod on ^a eorSan feoll] Elphege was 
martyred at Greenwich, whither he had been conveyed from Canter- 
bury by Sandwich. An old triforium window in the north choir 
aisle of Canterbury Cathedral represents, in three compartments, the 
story of Elphege : i. The siege; 2. The embarking at Sandwich; 
3. The martyrdom at Greenwich, when Thrum, whom the Abp.had 
baptized, put him out of pain by a blow of his axe (' impieta tepid'). 

Elphege is buried in the Cathedral at Canterbury on the N. side 
of the ascent of steps towards the high altar, under the spot where 
now is the altar-tomb of the late Archbishop Hooley. Opposite to 
Elphege, at the other end of the same steps, is the resting-place of 
Dunstan, where are still remains of the fret-work of his shrine. In the 
midst of the ascent is the site of the grave of Odo, predecessor of 

The scene of the martyrdom was Greenwich, and probably the 
very site on which Greenwich church stands ; they would no doubt 
have wished to plant the church on the identical spot, and would 
have taken pains to ascertain it. The church is dedicated to St. 
^Elfheah. See Osborn's Life of Alphege in Anglia Sacra 1475 
also Acta Sanctorum, Ap. 19 and 21. 

1013. p 149. byre] Only this once in the Chronicles. It is not 
'time,' so much asfavourable circumstance, occasion, opportunity, tempo?. 
The word seems to be at home in the North, where byrr is ventus 
secundus (Egilsson), and analogous in its derivative meanings to 
ovpos. Connected with this is the Norsk impers. verb mer byrjar, 
me decet ; and the corresponding Saxon hit gebyraft, it is seasonable, 
appropriate. The only other case of byre, which I find in Saxon, is 
in the Lay of ByrhtmrS 121, Ed. Grein : Thorpe's Analecta, p 135, 
J>a he byre hefde = when he had opportunity. 

1014. Candel msessan] The Purification, February 2. For the 
history of this Festival, which is not one of the ancient ones, but 
traced back only to the times of Justin or Justinian, sixth century, 

NOTES 339 

see Suicer, v. ^nairavrr] : Bingham. Bp. Sparrow, A Rationale of 
the Book of Common Prayer, quotes S. Bernard for the Procession 
and Candles. This last feature has stamped the day in several 
modern languages ; in French, La Fete de la Chandeleur. And in 
Swedish I find kyndilmasso (Bonaventuras Betraktelser, cap. 10). 

10 1 6. Crsecilade] Above 905, in the older form, Creccagelade. 
The second part is lad, gelad, a ford or ferry, a passage of a river. 
It is seen in the sister-name of Lechlade, and other names in 
Gloucestershire, as S. Mary Lode, Abload, Evenlode, Framilode. 
The first part, which is now shrunk up to Crick-, is probably Cerrig, 
the British word for stone, which is still an important element in 
names, not only in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, but also in England 
and France. In Ireland the common form is Carrick, e. g. Carrick- 
fergus &c., also Creagh ; in Scotland, Craig, e. g. Craigmillar &c., 
or Craw, as Crawford ; in Wales, Cerrig, Craig, Crick, e. g. Crick- 
howel (i. e. Howel's stone) &c. In England we have Crichton, 
Crick House, Craik (Co. Durham), repeated instances of Crawley, 
Cray, Creake, which occur in divers counties. In France there is 
" La Crau" near Aries, which is the Aid&ftes or Stony Plain of Strabo 
iv. 7. Camden was the first to point out this derivation : . . . 
" Gallis hodie la Craux dicitur. Nominis tamen rationem nesciunt, 
at lapides Craig Britannica lingua nominantur." 

1016. p 154. eall bewestan] This phrase filled out full, would 
stand thus "be westan dsele;" and Gibson has rendered it ex- 
cellently, per plagam occidentalem. Of the English translators, none 
has surpassed Ingram's " all by west" the later version of MHB 
and Thorpe, " all to the west," being no improvement. 

1016. pi 55. Georius] GeorgiusCD; Georgies F. Concerning 
S. George, an Anglo-Saxon Poem of about this date, or a little later, 
was edited by Mr. Hardwick for the Percy Society, 1850. The 
Preface shews that this Saint was well known in Saxon times, and 
that his celebrity did not rise out of the Crusades. But his quality 
of Patron-Saint of England does date from that period. 

1016. p 155. gandagum] So D ; C and F have the usual form 
gang dagum. The Rogation days before Ascension Day, in which 
litanies were sung in procession round the fields. The petition of 
the litanies was for the kindly fruits of the earth. This is the going 
to which the etymology of the word points. A faint image of the 
procession still survives in the annual custom of beating the parish 
bounds at this season. 

1016. p 156. set Sceorstane] ". . . . in Wiccia, in loco qui 
Scearstan nominatur, Flor. ; i.e. (interprete Camdeno) Comitatus lapis. 

340 NOTES 

Putatur enim lapis esse terminalia qui quatuor Comitatus, Oxoniensem, 
Gloccstrensem, Wigorniensem, et Warwicensem distinguit" (Gibson). 
Mr. Thorpe ap. Flor. Wigorn. ad loc. has an ingenious method for 
bringing about an identification of this place with Chimney in Ox- 

1016 C. p 158. Dser ahte Cnut sige. and gefeht him ealle 
Engla)>eode] = There Knut was victorious and conquered all the 
English nation. In D it stands gefeaht him w'ti ealle,' to the con- 
fusion of the sense. A new hand begins at ' gefeaht' in the middle 
of the sentence, and hence probably the error. 

1016. p 159. and ]>a cyningas comon togsedere set Olanige] 
Here the manuscript D has a noticeable amplification : set Olanige. 
witS Deorhyrste. and wurdon feolagan and wedbroSra. and 
)>set gefsestnodon &c. The locality is still more distinctly indi- 
cated by Florence : . . . ambo reges, ad locum qui Deorhyrst nomi- 
natur, in unum convenerunt : Eadmundus cum suis in occidentali ripd 
Sabrina, Canutus verb in orientali cum suis consedit. Dein uterque 
rex in insulam qua Olanege appellatur, et est in ipsius fluminis media 
sita, trabariis advehitur; ubi pace amicitia fraternitate, et pacto et 
sacramentis confirmata, regnum dividitur. Gibson says, " Hodie IZTiK 
3Etgf)t, insula in agro Glocestrensi, quam Sabrinse fluminis aquae 
sese diffindentes efficiunt." There is hardly any doubt that it is 
Alney Island, close to the city of Gloucester ; whether this be The 
Eight of Gibson or not. Either the description " near Deerhyrst" 
must be a mistake, or " Deerhyrst" must be other than the place of 
that name near Tewksbury. The MS. D and Florence are too nearly 
allied to strengthen each other's statement. 

This meeting of Cnut and Edmund is represented as a duel by a 
great majority of later historians. Sharon Turner gives the following 
list of authorities for the duel : Henry of Huntingdon ; Matthew of 
Westminster ; The Peterborough Chronicle, ap. Sparke ; Knyghton ; 
Brompton ; Higden ; Rieval ; Radulf Niger (MS. Vesp. D. 10, p 25) ; 
Anglo-Saxon History, vol. iii. p 267, note 13. In Malmesbury and 
the Encomium Emma, Cnut is said to have declined battle. The 
following authorities make no mention of duel or challenge : Saxon 
Chronicles ; Florence ; Simeon of Durham ; Hoveden ; Knytlinga 

It became in the course of time one of the established sensation 
scenes of History. Speed, Baker, and Grafton describe the wager 
of battle circumstantially, with stand-up speeches, after the man- 
ner of the early books of Livy. Camden adopts the Monomachia. 
Hume does not notice it. Turner relates it with a precise comparison 

NOTES 341 

of authorities. Lingard introduces it guardedly thus : "To account 
for the final success of Canute, it was said that the two kings fought 
in single combat in the Isle of Olney, &c. &c." 

The question was elaborately stated and examined by Mr. Hogg 
in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, vol. v., New 
Series ; and the conclusion was in favour of the Single Combat. 
This view is moreover supported by the Rev. S. Lysons of Hempsted 
Court, the Archaeologist of Gloucestershire, to whom I am indebted 
for many curious particulars in illustration of the locality. 

The name of the island in which the kings met, is found in a late 
historian spelt Holenghege, and this has seemed to countenance 
the combat view. The Northmen had a custom, when great issues 
were to be decided by single combat, to choose for the arena a river- 
island, to which the principals repaired, accompanied only by their 
seconds, while the other supporters waited the event on the opposite 
banks. This was called Holm-gang, Island-going. Mr. Hogg and 
others, who support the combat view, see in the late form Holen- 
ghege some touch of this Holm-gang. But it is really only an aspi- 
rated form of spelling Olanige or Alney. 

Another circumstance has been urged as bearing upon the 
question. The strand of the Severn, opposite to the Island, is now 
called Coggins, and was temp. Edw. I. known as Cockayne ; a word 
which Du Cange renders querelle, disputation, contention. But per- 
haps this spot, which lay between the Castle of Gloucester and the 
river, was the public exercising ground, and thus the continual scene 
of an emulative ' contention.' (But cf. Mr. Lysons in Gent. Mag., 
June 1 86 1, p63i.) 

It appears to me that the combat owes its existence in history to 
a single expression in the Saxon Chronicles, viz. comon togsedere. 
There is no doubt from the context that the intention of the Saxon 
Chronicler is to relate an amicable conference. But in employing 
the words comon togsedere he inadvertently gave occasion for a 
misunderstanding, inasmuch as this is also used (like 6/ioVe tivai) of 
hostile meetings : cf. 992, 1001, p 158. Orosius, p4i6. Ed. Thorpe : 
iv. 10. 2. Ed. Bosworth. In the Coke's Tale of Gamelyn, 1. 236, 
" Whan Gamelyn and the champioun togider gon to goon." 

1021*. D alone adds, And ^Elfgar b'. se selmesfulla forSferde 
on Cristes msesse uhtan. 

1 02 2. swa se papa him tsehte] instructed can hardly be the word 
for this place, as the later translators have rendered it. It sounds 
too much like partisanship in the judge. 

Better follow Gibson : " et ipsum ab omni crimine purgavit, cujus 

312 NOTES 

(ut t Papa didicerat) fuerat insimulatus, testante Archiepiscopo, et 
toto comitatu qui apud eum aderat." 

But this is not satisfaptory. The word tsehte, if it signify any 
help that Leofwine obtained from the Pope, it can only be help in 
the way of directions as to the requisite process for his clearance. 
We should thus say, " as the Pope directed or enjoined him." And 
this sense seems to be borne out by Cod. Dipl. 693, where the word 
is thus used once if not twice. The only other possible meaning 
seemed to be " as the Pope pronounced to him, in the presence of 
&c.," viz. that he had successfully cleared himself. 

1025. to J>a holme sot ea j>sere halgan] The river-name 
" Helge-Aa" is here translated, " at the holy river." This, river is 
now in Sweden, with the town of Christianstad on one of its lakes. 
But it was then the boundary between Sweden and the Danish pos- 
sessions, and was accordingly liable to witness conflicts between 
Danish and Swedish leaders. 

But the accuracy of this record has been questioned because of a 
more famous disaster for Cnut which took place two years later than 
this date. In 1027 king Olaf of Norway discomfited Cnut's navy 
by an ingenious stratagem at the river " Helge-Aa." The similarity 
between the two events has led to the suspicion that they have 
grown out of one. Yet there are some distinct features in this 
entry, which speak for its genuineness. There is the ' holm,' and 
the names of the leaders on the Swedish side, Ulf and Eglaf, which* 
Munch finds agreeable to the Swedish history of the time. This is 
not " Ulf larl," brother-in-law of Cnut but Ulf and Eglaf were 
two sons of Ragnvald larl, who had been in the service of the king 
of Sweden. Munch's Norske Folk's Historic, vol, ii. pp 733-735. 

1028. geahnode him J>ot lande] vindicated to himself that 
land, made good his claims. This is the proper meaning of the 
verb ; see apposite quotations in Schmid, Glos. vv. agnian, agnung : 
Grein, vv. agnian, geagnian. Cf. Cod. Dipl. 693. Cnut had heredi- 
tary claims to the sovereignty of Norway. 

J03i R. Her com Cnut agan] Cf. Luke xix. 15. 

1036 C. h83ttode] ? scalped : it can hardly be fayed? cute capitis 
abstracta, Flor. In Cnut's Laws, repeated theft is punishable by 
certain mutilations, and among these hsettian, a word which Grimm 
did not know and would have altered : cf. Schmid, v. htettian and 
v. Strafen. His quotation from Cod. Colb. leaves little room for 
doubt: corium capitis cum capillis (auferatur) quod Angli dicunt 
beh(Ettie. It would be connected with Germ, to* = skin; our 

NOTES 343 


1036. p 165. ongean wealcan] contra moliri ; as Ettm. Lex. 
p 78, who prints the two words in one, as a compound. The old 
High German preserves the elementary idea of this word in Y7alkan 
=volvere, q. v. in Graff. Above, p95m, unwealtran = unrolling-er, 
is from a collateral form, with T instead of C. In ^Elfric's Homilies, 
vol. i. p 448 m, weolc the preterite, in the transferred sense of 
revolving in the mind. Here it is of bringing a powerful agitation 
to bear on a political question, for which the word was well prepared 
by the familiar phrase, y8a gewealc, fluctuum rolutatio, the rolling 
swell of the waves. See reff. in Bouterwek, Glos. Ceedm. To the 
same effect F says, Godnine eorl and ealle >a betstan men on West- 
sexan wPScw&don. ac hi naht ne gespeddan. and he was fya fullice cing 
ofer eal Englaland. 

1036. Englalandes * * him and his broker] Though the 
MS. shews no lacuna here, there is reason to suspect one. Malmes- 
bury's text is here akin to ours, and he supplies the sentence of 
which we have only the latter end in E : " Angli diu obstiterunt ; 
magis unum ex filiis Ethelredi, qui in Normannia morabatur, vel 
Hardecnutum filium Cnutonis ex Emma, qui tune in Denemarchia 
erat, regem habere volentes." 

1039. hanmlan .... hamelan] This being a dative feminine, 
the nom. must be harrmle, hamele ; at first perhaps signifying a 
rowlock- strap, and so symbolizing some subdivision of the crew 7 . 
There is not money enough to give eight marcs to every rower. 
Cf. Ettm. p466. Egilsson, v. Hamla. 

1040. of weallande] from abroad, from foreign parts, from 
exile. See note, page 65, and below on 1048, p 178 m. 

1 046. p 1 73 . \Q se cyng him geunnen hsefde] him is sibimetipsis, 
to them, the pleaders, Harold and Beorn, who urged that Swegen 
must not be invested with any of the things (offices or possessions) 
which the kmg had already granted away to themselves. The expres- 
sions of C are more distinct. 

1 050 D. p 173. and se cyng ]>a sende sefter |>am scypum |>e 
he ofsendan mihte. ]?e ser ham wendon] and the king then sent 
after such ships as he could overtake (of those) which recently went 

1046. p 174 t. Da scyfte man Harold eorl up j?ses cynges 
scipe ]?e Harold eorl ser steorde] The^confusion of this passage 
will be remedied if we suppose the first Harold to be an error for 

1 046. p 1 74. tealde] This and tealdon ( 1 086) are to be noted 
as probably the earliest extant instances of their use in a sense 

344 NOTES 

identical with the modern ' tell, told.' Before this the verb tellan 
is u&ed for " to count numerically, to enumerate, to account as &c. ;" 
but it is a step in the history of the word when it appears as the 
mere equivalent of "to say." It seems less like a developement in 
direct line, than an introduction from a collateral dialect, or from 
provincial or colloquial usage. Yet telle, tellanne in 1085, where 
the sense is to recount, narrate, may represent the connecting link. 

1048. p 178 t. to- J)8ere burge -weard] When we call this 
Tmesis, as we were taught to do in reading Homer, we speak 
pr&postere, inversely to the order of facts. We are familiar with 
toward as one word, and therefore we regard it as a severance of 
that which has been coherent, when we find it written as two 
words. Here, we see that the two parts have become coherent as a 
consequence of their being frequently brought near together. We 
still keep them apart in certain phrases, as, to the east ward from 
the north ward where the practice of writing east-ward, north-ward, 
as compounds, is a mistake of the syntax. Examples from the 
Authorized English Bible are given in my SwrShun, p 115. To those 
may be added, wv3 heofenas weard, ^Elf. i. p 46. 296 ; to mynstre 
weard, id. P336; wi$ Petres weard, id. 376. An example of older 
growth is the compound preposition between, which we only 
just catch a glimpse of in its earlier state, in the poetical phrase 
be s8Dm tweonum= between seas. The accidental and local cha- 
racter of this compound is seen in the fact, that the analogue in 
Dutch and German is simple, viz. tusschen, gurifd)ett=tween. 

1048. p 178!!. ofssende] Not 'sent off/ but * sent /or, sent 
after,' /tereTr/^aro. Compare La^amon, vol. ii. p 235, J>at he ofsende 
Magan, f wes a selcuS mon, i. e. that he should send for Magan, who 
was a marvellous man. Again, p 324 (where we accept the Editor's 
emendation as unquestionable), ofsende'S biscopes, and boc-ilarede 
men, i. e. send for bishops, and book-learned men. The renderings 
are Sir Frederic Madden's. Cf. ^Elf. Horn. i. p 400, ' of-arn Sone 
Segen Naaman' = ran after the thane Naaman, So in our text, above 
p 98 t, ' ne mehte hine mon of ridan' = tfAey were not able to ride him 
downy to overtake him, equitando assequi. Gen. xiv. 13, 'and efste 
wrS jjses heres o]> f he hig of rad'= and pursued the army till he over- 
took them. The verb ofahsian (or ofaxian) is interesting. Meaning 
etymologically 'to ask after, enquire;' it came like irvvQavecrQai to 
mean ' get information, be told, learn, hear of;' and in 1016 (p 158) 
C and D have ofahsade (ofaxade) where E and F have geherde 
secgan, heard say. Cf. below, notes on 1050 D; and on 1098, 
'of code.' 

NOTES 345 

1048. p 178 h. sceolde] This verb has here a force still known 
in the dialects, and in high activity in German. It characterises the 
statement as being merely the version of Eustace. 

1048. pi 78m. |>a welisce menn] This means simply "the 
foreigners ;" as also below, J?a wselisce men : in both cases indi- 
cating the Normans or Frenchmen. See note, p 65, and on 1040. In 
Devonshire the walnut is called ' French nut/ in Somersetshire it is 
' Welsh nut,' but the signification is the same in the two cases, both 
alike meaning foreign nut. At the time when the English name of 
ihejuglans was fixed in Somersetshire, the current word for foreign 
was Welsh when, at a later date, it was fixed in Devonshire, the 
common adjective for foreign was French, which it may almost be 
said to be still. 

1048. p i So h. ealra ]>8era j)egna] Qu. )>inga ? 

1048 E. ad Jin. Oddan] He is named again p 182, and his death 
is recorded 1056 D with a character. There is a slab among the 
Arundel marbles at Oxford, which was found in 1675 near Deerhurst 
Church in Gloucestershire. It bears the following inscription in 
letters of Saxon times : 










The death of the said JSlfric, brother of Odda, is recorded 1053 D 
(p 189). The quaintnesses of the inscription are partially reproduced 
in Parker s Glos. of Architecture, Companion, p 26. 

1052. pi 83 h. hasseton] rowers. Norsk hassetan: cf. Mr. Da- 
sent's Article on Iceland, in Oxford Essays. 

1052. pi 83 m. wandode] he hesitated not, was not shy of, 
shrunk not from, the risk of foraging : cf. Gospels, Matt. xxii. 16, )>u 
ne wandast for nanum menn \ bi$ urn Sfciewanb fiimmerfl. De Wette. 

1052. p 185. Nor$ xmrSan] Nothing has been done for the 
identification of this place since Gibson : Hodie, opinor, ostium 
Medwcegi quod vocatur tf)e feuog in tl)C Koforc. Putarem esse 
< NortJ)=Jporlant) nisi mutt adjiceretur, quod semper ostium designat. 
Ingram : the Nore. Later Editors, verbally, Northmouth. 

Y y 

346 NOTES 

1052. p 185. to Middeltune J>ses cynges] This can be no 
other than the ancient town of Milton (Royal), situated on " Milton 
Creek," landward of the Isle of Sheppey. The associations at 892 
and 894 shew that the Middeltun there is also the same place, 
viz. in Kent. Gibson says, ' Middleton in Essex ;' but I cannot find 
any such place that is passable here. The Middeltun of 964 is 
Milton Abbas, near Blandford, Dorset : " Ibi enim hujus nominis 
locus est, ubi vetusti ccenobii parietes conspiciuntur, quod ^Ethel- 
stanus Rex fundavit, ut fratris sui manes expiaret" (Gibson). A 
document, N. 375 in Kemble's Cod. Dipl., appertaining to this 
foundation, is of later date, and otherwise suspicious-looking. 

1052. pi 87 h. unwrseste scipe] a crazy, unsafe, unseaworthy 
ship. The simple adj. is wr8est=/zn?j, steady, secure; (Ettmiiller, 
Lexicon, p i 55) as in the paraphrased Psalter, Ps. li. 6, on his welan 
spede wr83ste getruwode = in the multitude of his riches lie firmly 
trusted. Other examples in Bouterwek, Glos. v. vrasst. Unwrsest 
occurs in E three times. The second time is at p 220 b, where it is 
used morally : " Alas, how delusive and insecure (unwrest) is this 
world's riches!" In the third place, p 260 t, Abbot Henry is repre- 
sented as searching for some device which shall never profit him : an 
unwreste wrenc = some lame pretence, or bootless, desperate imposture. 
At La3amon's date, this forcible adj. retained only the faded and 
vague sense of poor, wretched, weak, wicked ; and from the repeated 
blunders of the scribes in writing the word, it appears almost obso- 
lete in the thirteenth century : cf. Madden's Glossary to L^amon, 
v. unwrsest ; and White's Ormulum, Glos. v. umrwrseste. 

From Grosseteste's "Castell of Loue," I am enabled, by the kind- 
ness of Mr. Weymouth, who is engaged in editing it, to cite the 
line, "And for vre speche vnwreste and vyl" (1. 1149). ' n some 
other instances one of his manuscripts has rejected the word as 
obsolete. Instead of vnwreste (1. 335) the said manuscript substitutes 
gret synne vnwresteschipe (1. 1:41) is replaced by gret gult vn- 
wrestliche (1. 1464) by unkyndely. 

1055. p 190. see .^elbryhtes mynster] This is Hereford 
Cathedral. The name thus honoured is that of the East Anglian 
king, who was killed by order of Offa, as related above 792. He 
was regarded as a martyr, and the brief reign of Offa's son was 

deemed a vindication of the innocence of king ^Ethelbriht : quin 

et Deus adeo evidentibus signis sanctitatem ejus prodidit, ut hodie- 
que sedes episcopalis Herefordi sub ipsius nomine consecretur. Nee 
ineptum debet videri aut incongruum quod antecessores nostri, 
probi et religiosi viri, vel taciturnitate toleraverunt, vel auctoritate 

NOTES 347 

roboraverimt. William of Malmesb., Gesta Regum ii. 210. The 
Cattle Fair at Hereford on May 20, is still called St. Ethelbert's 

1066. p20i. butse carlas] ship-men, mariners. This butse is 
probably the same word as the East Anglian buss for a boat, as 
used by the fishermen of Yarmouth, who speak of their herring- 

1066. p 201. se Norrena cyng] This is the Norsk adjective 
itself: cf. Egilsson, M Lexicon Poeticum Antiquse Linguae Septen- 
trionalis," v. Norrsenn, Norvegicus. This king was not Harold 
Harfagera, as stated in MS. D, and by Florence both here and 
above 1048 (where see note, Ed. Thorpe); but Harold Sigurdson, 
alias Hardrada. The time of Harfagr is earlier, he died in 936. 

1066. p 203 m, earn] uncle. The native word, which the Ger- 
mans have kept in their Dfjeim, has, after a struggle, been displaced 
by the Latin avunculus in its French form oncle. In Spenser we 
find erne and uncle used of the same relation in continuous stanzas. 
Faerie Queene, B. ii. C. x ; Stanzas 47 and 48. The banished word 
has left its genitive case behind in the family name EAMES. 

1067 D. p 205 m. Hwitan Sunnan dseg] Probably this was not 
what we now call Whitsunday, but the First Sunday after Easter, 
called Dominica in Albis, because the White Garments of those who 
had been baptized on Easter Day were worn on the Octave for the 
last time. How this name should have been transferred to Pentecost 
is a curious question, about which there was an active debate in the 
Guardian in 1859. Some held that, like the German Pfingsten, our 
name is really a corruption of Pentecost, passing through an inter- 
mediate form Whingsten to the modern Whitsun, and that therefore 
it is Whitsun-Day and not Whit-Sunday. Mr. Baron (Aug. 1 7, 1 859) 
demolished this theory by quoting this place of D, and by references 
to La3amon (v. Glossary), to prove the high antiquity of the name 
White Sunday. 

But one thing was still unexplained, viz. why the name was 
transferred from after Easter to Pentecost. The solution may be, 
that Pentecost, being a few weeks later in the year, was preferable 
in our climate for Baptism ; and accordingly that it bore away the 
name of White, which continental practice had associated with 
Easter Tide. 

1 070. )>a Densca huscarles] " Hus-carls were the ' King's Own/ 
the body-guard of the Danish Sovereigns. They were retained after 
the restoration of the Anglosaxon line, and then they seem to have 
formed a class of Thanes .... The great Earls had Hus carls, like 

Y y 2 

348 NOTES 

the King." " They were also called Hirdmen." Palgrave's English 
Commonwealth, p ccclxxxi. 

1070. cantelcapas] Chanters' capes or copes. In Cod. Dipl. 940, 
there are " iii cantercseppa :" cf. La^amon, Glos. v. Cantelcape. 

f he dyde eall be J>sere munece rsede] quod fecit omnino 
monachorum consilio ; and not as Gibson, " se autem hsec omnia 
fecisse Monachorum consilio." All the translators, except my friend 
Mr. Stevenson, have followed Gibson, and have fixed a most un- 
merited stigma upon the worthy churchwarden's name. Even Mr. 
Stevenson's translation betrays an uncertainty, which in such a scholar 
is almost stranger than oversight. He translates, " and that he did 
all by the advice of the monks;" leaving it open for the reader to 
take that as a conjunction to the dishonour of Yware, or as a relative 
pronoun which would mark the churchwarden as a true man, honoured 
with the confidence of his fraternity. If Mr. Stevenson had only 
adhered to the rule he seems to have set himself, and translated 
verbally, he would have avoided the ambiguity which now attaches to 
his version, through the intrusion of the conjunction " and." 

Had there been an ' and' in that place of the original, it would 
have appeared to assert the conjunctional dependence of ]>aet upon 
saegde. But even then we should have had a means of correcting 
the mistake by the expression just above, and swilce litles hwat 
= and such like trifles. It is plain the removal of these objects was 
no treachery, but in the interest of the society, when the chronicler 
could thus speak of it. The Peterborough monks were not more dis- 
posed than others to make light of their wrongs. This may be seen a 
few lines further on. In this place the writer is evidently regretting 
that the churchwarden could not have included in his parcel the crown 
of beaten gold, and the bracket of red gold, and many other valuables, 
enumerated on p 209, which became the prey of the outlaws. 

sceolden cumen] were expected to come, were said to be coming. 

1071. arhlice] basely, cowardly, dastardly. Compare earhlice 
ofslogon, p22^h: rancne here and unearhne, pi 40!; Jxme 
ungemetlice eargan = /*e excessively timid. Boethius, Ed. Cardale, 
p 298!!. 

1072. set j?am G-ewsede inlsedde] D. ferde inn ofer f WeeS. 
Gibson treated this as an error for 'Tweed.' The annalist of 
Waverley appears to have read '.Scodwade.' David Macpherson, 
" Geographical Illustrations," conjectured that it meant the " Scotte- 
wattre or Wattyr of Forth." 

The Wattyr o/Sulwaywzs specially known as Scottis-se or Scottis- 
wath ; and Macpherson quotes from Snorro (Hist. Reg. Norweg. 

NOTES 349 

c. 21), " Deir foro yfir a nockra, bar sem heitir Skiotans-vad edr 
Vapna-vad" = They passed over a certain river at a place called 
Skiotans-ford or Weapon-ford. Hence it may be supposed that the 
term vad, wath, w&th, was generally applied to the friths or fiords of 
Scotland; and the Gewsede or Wee^ may have been the Frith of Forth. 

A word of this sort, signifying ford or passage, ,must once have 
been widely used. In a grant to Shap Abbey (temp. Hen. II), 
brought to my knowledge by Mr. Albert Way, " totam terrain quse 
fuit Karl, scilicet per has divisas, de vado de Karlwath &c." Several 
local names of Waithe seem to belong here, e. g. Waithe near Great 
Grimsley, Waith Common at Ewerby near Sleaford. 

According to Florence, William penetrated to Abernethy, and 
therefore left both the Tweed and the Frith of Forth in his rear. 

1075 D. hearma] Ermine. Wright's Vocabularies, p 22, " Ne- 
tila, hearma." Shall we call this a gen. pi. or suppose it stands 
undeclined in composition ? In fact it was a mere foreign sound, 
and had acquired no grammatical attributes in English. This delicate 
fur coming from N. Asia by Armenian merchants was called in Italy 
Armellino ; and the word passed, along with the article, through 
the courts of Europe. Diez, Etymologisches Wbrterbuch der Roman- 
ischen Sprachen. 

1075. p2i4- genrSrade] pessundati (Gibson), subdued (Ingram, 
Stevenson), crushed (Thorpe): nrSerian is in its etymological and 
original sense, e.g. Luke xiv. n, to put down, deprimere ; but its 
prevalent use was " to condemn," e. g. Matt. xii. 7, 37, 42, xx. 1 8 ; 
Luke vi. 37. The former seems preferable here, as the translators 
have taken it. 

The narrative of D preserves the tragic lines in a less mutilated 
form than E. Among them occurs " sume getawod to scande," 
which has been the subject of some debate. The word scande 
needs little elucidation. It is Germ. <Sd)attbe f disgrace. In Wright's 
Vocabularies, p2i, we find Ignominia, scande. In the Laws of 
HloShsere and Eadric, n, scandlice gretan, is to insult a person 
with opprobrious epithets ; or, as they would be called in Devon, 
scandalous ! More apposite is La3amon, vol. iii. p i 76 : 

preostes he blende 
al )ns folc he scende. 

The verb * to shend' is not uncommon in Elizabethan poetry, e. g. in 
Spenser's Protkalamion : 

these twain, that did excel 

The rest, so far as Cynthia doth shend 

The lesser stars. 

350 NOTES 

and Fairfax, Tasso i. Canto vi : 

Tortosa won, lest winter might them shend, 
They drew to holds, and coming spring attend. ' 

In Shakspeare the preterite or participle shent occurs several 

The verb tawian will be best understood by a view of the group 
to which it belongs, as collected and illustrated in Ettmiiller's Lexicon, 
p 528. It appears to have been, in its proper sense, associated with 
rude manufacturing operations, such as dressing hides ; and hence 
its fitness for expressing shameful handling, when applied to humanity. 
Compare as a kindred phrase " to sceame tucode," Judges xv. 8. The 
details of this shameful handling are stated in Florence thus : quos- 
dam erutis oculis vel manibus truncatis deturpavit. 

1076. Vithele] Vitalis, Abbot of Westminster. His monument, 
in the Cloisters of Westminster Abbey, is the earliest English tomb 
with an effigies; according to Mr. Westmacott, in the Archceologlcal 
Journal, 1860, p 304. 

1077. forbarn Lundenburh] This fire of London is found in 
no Saxon Chronicle except E ; nor do I find it repeated by any of 
the Latiners. 

1083. "Amongst the causes of this new sort of war, one of the 
chief was the zeal of Thurstan the abbot to introduce the Norman 
service, or rather the way of singing begun by William a monk of 
Feschamp, and to thrust out that of Gregory the Great, which had 
before been commonly used by the English monks." Inett, History 
of the English Church, part ii. c. 3. 6. vol. ii. p 90. Ed. Griffiths. 
Quoting Malmesb. de Antiq. Glaston. Eccles. p33i. Coll. Gale, 
[p 114. Ed. Hearne.] 

1083. mistukian] This seems to signify the infliction of some 
irregular and capricious punishment : cf. Ettm. p 534, and Glossarial 
Index by Herbert Coleridge, v. Tuke. Gibson was so far influenced 
by the parallel narrative in Florence, as to render perperam docere, 
explaining it of the abbot's attempt to substitute a modern chant in 
place of the Gregorian, by which means he obtains but a poor 
harmony, and does violence to the word mistukian. Compare " to 
sceame tucode," Judges xv. 8. 

1 085. p 2 LSI. lett agan ut] scrutari, Gibson ; marking well the 
inquisitorial character of tFie proceeding. Some doubt may be felt 
about this word agan, what it is. I take it for a compound of gan 
or gangan = to go ; and identical with gegangan, gegan, of which the 
pret. ' geeodon,' p 2 m ; ' geyde,' 617, conveys the notion of invasion 

NOTES 351 

and conquest. So here, there is the sense of acquiring statistics by 
invasion of the Englishman's home ; expressed below in other words, 
Swa swy^e nearwelice he hit left utaspyrian. An admirable illustration 
occurs in the Laws of ^Ethelbirht, 29 : Gif f rim an edor gegange'S 
= If a freeman enter (violently or intrusively) a habitation, &c. 

1085. p 2i9h. teale] incrimination ; complaint with or without 
ground ; declining rather to the latter aspect, so that the word often 
stands as equivalent to calumnia, /SXao-^/ita. Thus it is used by 
yElfric, who writes it according to the standard form tal. The 
forms tsel arid teal are provincial ; e. g. ^Elc synn and tal brS for- 
gifen behreowsigendum mannum, ac J?ees Halgan Gastes tal ne br5 
naefre forgifen. peah ^e hwa cweSe tallic word ongean me &c.= 
All sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven to repentant men, but blasphemy 
of H. G. shall never be forgiven. Even though one utter injurious 
language against me &c., Horn. i. p 498. And ^a ludeiscan boceras 
mid hete |?set tseldon; ac heora tal nses na of rihtwisnysse, ac of 
nrSe = And the Jewish scribes censured that with warmth, but their 
censure was not of justice, but of envy, Id. p 338. peah waare 
Codes rihtwisnys eallunga untsele = Yet would God's justice be quite 
unassailable, Id. p 112. The prevalence of tssHnys, false accusation, 
is one of the cotemporary evils complained of in a passage about 
to be quoted from a Homily on the Life of S. Neot, which has 
been thought to belong to this date. The present Annal closes 
with a tale of distress which in the next year swells into a long and 
loud wail of lamentation. In the same general strain, and agreeing 
with it in several particulars, is the peroration of this Life of 
S. Neot. Mr. Duffus Hardy has said (Catalogue, p 539) that this 
Homily must be assigned to one of the two epochs of murrain and 
general distress, 986 or 1086. He prefers the former, because 
of the supposed approach of the end of the world. If this appre- 
hension ceased at icoo, this single feature of the Homily is enough 
to decide its date, and it must belong to 986. But all the other 
features coincide so much better with the narrative of our Chronicle 
at certain later dates, e.g. 1085-6; orin6; or again 1131: that 
I am inclined to suppose the miseries of the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries may have tended to prolong the anticipation of impending 
doom. And it appears to me that not only is the good time of 
Alfred's reign here commemorated ; the loss of a native dynasty is 
touched in accents not loud but deep. It must be admitted that 
the earlier date represents very bad times, a weak government, 
want and distress, conspicuous crimes, Danish ravages. The pas- 
sage is as follows : Eac is to wytene f se king ^Elfred manega bee 

352 NOTES 

|)urh Codes Cast gedyhte ; and binnen twam and twentig gearen 
his cynerices and (?) J?iss eorSlice lif forlet, and to J?an ecen gewende, 
swa him God geirSe for his rihtwisnysse. 

Eala meen )>a leofe, j?a wseron gode dages on )>an gode time, for 
Cristenes folcas ge earnunge and rihtwisra heafod manna. Nu is 
seighwanen heof and wop, and orefcwealm mycel for folces synnen, 
and wsestmes seig'Ser gea on wade gea on felde ne synd swa gode 
swa heo iu wa?ron, ac yfele'S swy'Se call eorSewsestme. And unriht- 
wisnysse mycele wexe wide geond wurlde, and sibbe tolysnysse, 
and tselnysse ; and se ^ineS nu wserrest and geapest }>e o^erne mseig 
beswican, and his sehte him of anymen. Eac manswereft man mare 
)>one he scolde, )?y hit is ]>e wyrse wide on eorSe, and beo }>an we 
mugen understanden f hit is neh domes da?ge. Ne spared nu se 
fseder ]>an sune, ne nan roann o^ren, ac selc man win^ ongean o'Sren, 
and Codes lage ne geme^, swa swa me scolde. Beo }?an we mugen 
ongyten j) ]>iss wurld is aweigweard, and swy^e neh }>an sende ]>ysser 
wurlde. Eale gesselig by^ se ]?e hine sylfen on time gebyrege^. 
Uten nu bidden georne Seinte Neoten and o^re halgen -^ heo ure 
|>ingeres beon to }>an heofon kinge, ^ we neefre ealles to yfelne time 
ne gebiden on J>yssen carmen life, and j? we moten sefter for^si^e to 
ecere reste becumen. = You should know also that the said king 
Alfred was the author of many books by the Spirit of God ; and 
within twenty-two years from the settlement of his kingdom, he left 
this earthly life, and went to that which is eternal, by divine favour, 
for his righteousness. 

Ah, brethren, those were good days, in that good time, for the 
Christian life of the people, and the blessing of just rulers ! Now it 
is a groan and a cry on every side, and huge murrain for the 
people's sins, and the fruits of the wood and the field are not so 
good as they were formerly, but all the fruits of the earth are seri- 
ously damaged. And injustice is vastly on the increase far and 
wide, and dissolution of amity, and slanderous accusation ; and that 
man is now thought shrewdest and cleverest who can betray another 
and defraud him of goods. Men perjure themselves too, even when 
they are not under pressure, and this makes it worse, all the world 
over, and thereby we may understand that it is nigh doom's day. 
Now, the father has no mercy on his son, nor one man on another, 
but each man is at strife with his neighbour, and God's law is not 
respected, as it should be. Thereby we may learn that this world 
is on the wane, and that it is very near to the end of this world. 
But withal, he shall be saved that taketh heed to himself in time. 
Let us entreat S. Neot and other saints, that they be our advocates 

NOTES 353 

with the heavenly king, that our lot be not cast on too utterly bad 
a time, and that we may after death attain to everlasting rest. 
MS. Cott. Vespas. D. xiv. f. 148. 

1085. p2i9m. corn and wsestmas waeron setstandene] 
segetes etiam et arborum fructus segnius maturescebant (Gibson), 
corn and fruits were at a stand (Ingram), corn and fruits were left 
standing (Stevenson), corn and "fruits were at a stand (Thorpe). 
The only other case of set-standan that I find is in Beowulf 1776 
(Kemble, 891 Grein), where it is used of the sword-blade that has 
passed through the dragon's body. But whether the verb set-stod 
in that place signifies that it stood out conspicuous, or that it stuck 
in to the wall beyond, is doubted. Kemble takes the former, and 
renders set-standan by exstare : Thorpe the latter ; and also Grein, 
if I understand his German, 


ben uwnbetbaven SShtrm, bop an ber SSanb e3 anftunb. 
If Kemble is right, aet-standene might signify cereals sprouting in 
the ear. 

1086. p 220 b. un wrest] Cf. below, the note on 1 131 (p 260 1). 

p 221 m. wurSful] majestic, worshipful, dignified, kingly. 

p22ib. fyrmest toeacan J?am cynge] the most prominent, 
the first man next to the king. 

p222h. sona he forleas &c.] This was law in Saxon times; 
cf. Alfred's Laws, 25, i ; and still in Bracton. 

p222m. werscipe] "and if he might have lived two years 
longer, he would have won Ireland by his valour, and without any 
weapons" (Stevenson). Gibson, Ingram, Thorpe, substantially the 
same. But one may ask, What is this antithesis between valour and 
weapons ? How should his valour act without weapons ? If it be 
answered, By the terror of a great military renown then we reply, 
that this cause is speedy in operation, and is not helped by the lapse 
of time ; why then the words " two years longer ?" 

Plainly, werscipe is, by a negligent orthography, for wserscipe ; 
and has nothing to do with wer=vir, but with W95r=pactum,foedus, 
cautela. So wes for wses, weron for wseron (see Glossary) . Then 
a clear sense comes out : if he might have lived two years longer, he 
would have won Ireland with his wary negotiation, and without any 

" It (the Conquest of Ireland) was simply the sequel of the Nor- 
man Conquest of England." Prof. Goldwin Smith, Ireland, p 45. 
" Ireland was struck by the last languid wave of a deluge of conquest, 
which had overwhelmed all the neighbouring nations." Id. p 47. 

z z 

354 NOTES 

p 223 t. forleon] sic MS. for fleon, Gibson, Ingram, Thorpe. 

p 223. Eac weartS on Ispanie &c.] The only notice of Spain 
in these Chronicles. But though Spanish affairs generally were not 
much heard of at Peterborough, yet the struggles of Spain at this 
date, which agitated the heart of Christendom and produced the 
Cid el Campeador, might well come to the knowledge of a historian 
who had lived at the Conqueror's court. 

In 1085, Toledo was wrested from the Moors after they had held 
it 372 years. This was achieved by Alphonse VI, king of Castile 
and Leon, the " Christian king Anphos" of our text. Here was 
the first step in the Christian Keconquest of Spain. 

So startled were the Emirs, that they rashly invited over Youssouf 
ben Taschfin, parvenu king of Fez, who readily came with his 
formidable Almoravides. The terror of this army roused France to 
make common cause with the Christian states of Spain. The con- 
federates met the Africans at Zelaca, near Badajoz, and suffered a 
tremendous defeat. But this victory was turned by the ambitious 
Youssouf against his own allies. He subjugated the Mussulman 
governments, and established the sway of the Almoravides. Toledo 
remained in the hands of the Christians. 

In the next generation the struggle was continued. Another 
Alphonse drove the son of Youssouf from Saragossa, and made that 
city the capital of Aragon (1118). This Alphonse (" the warrior") 
even marched an army into Granada (1125), and attempted the 
work that was reserved for Ferdinand. His romantic expedition, 
though disastrous, shed lustre on the Christian cause. 

It almost looks as if our chronicler wrote this paragraph late 
enough to have heard something of all this, otherwise his closing 
words are loose and incorrect. 

1086. p 223 b. to selcen mynstre and to selcen 

cyrcean uppe land] This is a good passage to illustrate the early 
relations between the minster and the country church. The religious 
organization is here seen to repose upon the minster as its unit 
and base, where we should now put the parish church. 

1087 m. Rodbeard amundbrseg] A Saxon corruption of the 
name De Mowbray : cf. Flor. ad annum. 

1087 b. De b' Odo ]?e ]>as cyng ofawocan] Here 'cyng' is a 
blunder for 'j>ing;' = Tyw? bishop Odo with whom these things ori- 

1087. p 225 h. heora wudas and slsetinge] sylvas suas et 
venatus, Gibson : their woods and chaces, Ingram : their woods and 
[the right of] killing [the deer] t Stevenson : their woods and liberty 

NOTES 355 

of the chace, Thorpe. See Halliwell, v. Slate; and Herbert Cole- 
ridge, v. Slating. 

1090. Albemare] Mr. Thorpe identifies this with Aumale on the 
Brele, formerly called the Eu, the boundary between Picardy and 
Normandy : quoting Mr. Stapleton's Paper in Archaeologia, vol. xxvi, 
which I have not the opportunity of consulting. Moreri, Diction- 
naire, gives Albamala as the Latin form of Aumale. 

1091 h. j?es eorles unj>ances] It is not enough to render this 
*' Comite invito" (Gibson) " against the will of the Count" (Thorpe). 
Unjjances is the adverbial genitive of unj>anc, or more properly 
imge]?anc, of which the meaning is " mala intentio" (cf. Grimm's 
Gr. ii, 777. for the force which the prefix un- imparts), " an adverse, 
hostile purpose." Hence the expression in the text means " to the 
detriment or prejudice of the count ; or, in pursuance of hostile de- 
signs against the count." It would appear to have been by retro- 
action upon the simple Dances, that the latter grew to signify gratis, 
ultro, gratia, &c. ; and in this movement we discern the pivot of 
transition from think, cogitare, to thank, gratias agere. 

1091 b. ut of Scotlande into LoSene on Englaland] 
Malcolm moved out of Scotland into Lothian, which was in (the 
Engles' land, or) England. Here we see that ' England' was at that 
time bounded by the Frith of Forth, and Lothian was in < England' 
and not in 'Scotland.' Cf. Geographical Illustrations of Scottish 
History, by David Macpherson, 1 796, v. Louthian. But it must be 
observed, " Engla land" here, is purely an ethnological and not a 
political term. As to government, it appears to have been held by 
the kings of Scotland under the crown of England, and to have 
been one of those districts which made it a confused question how' 
far the Scotch throne was feudatory to the English. 

Mr. Thorpe renders " into the district of Leeds," because Flor. 
has " in provincia Loidis/' 

1091. p228. tohwurfon] they separated, parted, took leave of 
each other. The verbs in to- have so much lost their ancient cha- 
racter, that the investigator of the English language as it is, naturally 
takes this to to be a preposition, and supposes an ellipse of the governed 
substantive. In the old language there were the compound verbs 
to-brsecan, to-sceotan, to-tseran, &c. ; but now we hear of ' breaking 
to pieces,' * tearing to shreds,' &c. : and Dean Alford says, ' that in the 
expression " shutting to," it is the preposition, and not the adverb, 
that is used ; that to which the door is shut being omitted.' The 
Queen's English, p 32. 

1093, J?e ser on his agenre hand stod] which before was in 


356 NOTES 

his own tenancy. William Rufus was the first sovereign who kept 
bishoprics and abbeys vacant for the sake of their revenues. Queen 
Elizabeth was the last. Mr. Griffiths ad Inett, part ii. c. iv. 3." 
Stephen's Commentaries, book iv. part i. c. vii. 

1094. p 230 h. Isehte] Of this root we have the latch of a door, 
and the verb is preserved in full use in Norfolk, where men say of 
a cricket-ball, " If yo'll hull it, I'll latch it," i. e. If you will throw it, 
I will catch it. t 

1095. p 232 m. ser J?8Bre tide to tide wseron] 

Gibson took ' tide' in these places for festival, season, as we still 
speak of Christmas-tide, Whitsun-/z'efe. This is surely right, and it 
is not easy to see why the modern translators have not followed 
him. His version is as follows : Eorum aliquos Rex ante illud festum 
jussit in custodias tradi ; et postea admodum minaci edicto per totam 
hanc terram [misso] jussit omnes qui a Rege terras tenebant, mod6 
pace dignos haberi se vellent, adesse suse Curise infesto. 

gemahlice] In Wright's Vocabularies, pp 50, 55, gemah is put 
for the Latin words procax, pervicax, importunus ; and gemahnys 
for procacitas, pervicacia. See quotation in note on 1098. 

1096. p 233 t. hine on orreste overcom] vanquished him in 
(judicial) combat. Orrest is a Danish word, which was probably 
well understood in the neighbourhood of Peterborough. Egilsson, 
Lexicon Poet. Septent. v. Orrosta, prcdium and, Folkorosta, 
pralium acie commissum. I am not aware that the word is found 
elsewhere in the Saxon remains. Ettmiiller, Lexicon Anglo Sax., 
p 41, gives orrestscipe, ignominia, on the authority of a Cotton 
MS. Vocabulary. I have searched Mr. Wright's Edition of the 
Vocabularies for it in vain. On p 2 1 there is " Ignominia, scande." 
If Ettmiiller's instance is not a pure error, the word can hardly have 
anything to do with our orreste it would probably be a compound 
of or and estscipe. 

The genuine Saxon term would have been on gefeohte ; but as 
the verb gefeaht had just preceded, the variation is useful. Already 
we see the language profiting by the commixture of different national 

1096. p 233 h. J>ses cynges aSum] Eude, earl of Champagne, 
had married William's half-sister, and on this ground he is called 
the king's a^um, a term which commonly means son-in-law. In 
Wright's Vocabularies, we have Gener, ajjum, p 52 ; and Gener, 
o]>am, p 88. It is not found that language produces a special term 
to denote each grade of family relationship, until after a long 
and elaborate discipline in jurisprudence, such as that which the 

NOTES 357 

Latin passed through. The vagueness of the terra ' brother' in 
Hebrew is well known ; our word ' nephew' formerly denoted two 
different relations, and l cousin' in our own day is still found con- 
venient to express indeterminate kinship. It is therefore a very 
moderate deflection of a'Sum from a daughter's husband to a sister's 
husband. The same use is found above, 1091 m. 

1096. p 233 m. and eall Normandig set him mid feo alisde, 
swa swa hi ]?a sehte wseron] There is nothing to add to the 
translations of Gibson and Stevenson, the two who have under- 
stood the passage, except that alisde (' mercaretur,' Gibson ; ' pur- 
chased,' Stevenson) is identically our modern verb leased. In Latin 
documents it was represented by redimere, and reversely this Latin 
word was supplied in Anglo Saxon theology by the verb alysan. 
Ps. Ixix. 7, Alysend= Redeemer : cf. Ps. xlix. 16. ^Elfric's Horn. i. 
p 138, God bebead, on ]?3ere ealdan ee, his folce J?aet hi sceoldon him 
offrian selc frumcenned hysecild, ofrSe alysan hit ut mid fif scyllin- 
gum^God bade his people, in the old law, that they should offer 
to him every first-born male child, or redeem it with five shillings. 

It may seem strange that this verb should be used for an act 
which is almost the opposite to redeeming, viz. the taking as pledge 
or security. But this migration of a word is not hard to parallel ; 
and we still hear the verb to lease used both of lessor and lessee. 

1097. p 234 t. sum J)3era wsds Caduuagan gehaten] one of 
them was named Cadwgan. All the translators agree here in trans- 
lating s\}JXL=one ; and this rendering 'might be advantageously ex- 
tended to many other cases. Thus in 605 E, fiftiga sum is not 
'with about fifty' or 'some fifty,' but simply 'one of fifty' So 
626 E, twelfa sum=oe of twelve: 794 E, heretogena sum= 
one of the leaders : 894, p 92 m, sum dsel = (not ' some part,' but) 
a part : 911 R, sum hund scipa = o;/e hundred ships. There are 
doubtless instances in which nothing but the modern ' some' can be 
used to express it, but these are less numerous than is supposed. 
How nearly it is equivalent to the numeral * one' may be seen from 
Mark iv. 8, where it alternates with an ; ' and an brohte ]?rytigfealdne, 
sum syxtigfealdne, sum hundfealdne. 1 

1097. p 23 4 h. manige men leton J>aet hit cometa waere 

m. }>8es ]>e men leton] many men supposed 

as men surmised. 

The verb thus repeated here, is not found else in the Chronicles, and 
it may be doubted whether it is preserved in any other Anglo Sax on 
text. The law of Eadgar about burying in the church (Wilkins, 
p 84, 29) seems to contain, not this 'verb, but the well-known laetan, 

358 NOTES 

to permit, allow, grant, let: ]>set man innan circan aenigne man ne 
birige, bute man vyite J>set he on life Gode to J>am wsel gecweme 
ware ]>set man Surh J>aet Isete J>aet he sy =Saes legeres wyrj?e = that 
within the church they bury no man, unless they know that in life 
he so pleased God, that upon this ground concession be made of so 
honourable a resting-place. 

But leton in our text has nothing to do with laetan. It would be 
vain to look for its infinitive, arid other parts, for it is simply a 
Danish word. The Danish verb Lede is to seek minutely for an 
obscure thing, from corner to corner. Man kan ikke 'lede' efter 
et Skib paa Oceanet ; i. e. this verb ' lede' is not used of looking for 
a ship on the wide ocean. Molbech, v. Lede. In Swedish it is 
Leta, which is in abundant use, and has various applications, all 
branching from the sense to search, enquire. 

The root of this verb is found also in the southern branch of the 
Gothic family, but in the opposite voice. Instead of bearing the 
active sense, of searching, peering into ; it bears the passive sense of 
being seen, seeming, videri. In Platt-Deutsch we find Laten rendered 
by cwffefyen, fd^einen, gaftattet fetytt. Bremisch-Nieder saechsisches Woerter- 
buch, Bremen, 1768. So in Cheshire, Leeten means, you pretend 
to be ; e. g. you are not so mad as you leeten you. Grose and 
Pegge's Provincial Glossary. 

Both of these senses spring out of that train of ideas which is 
associated with wlite, the human face. 

1098. p 235. ofeode] This word, which signifies attainment, 
acquisition, answers in a general way to the English verb to obtain. 
Gibson's impetraverat goes beyond the original, and conveys that it 
was obtained by simple request. This is not in ofeode, nor does 
history supply it. In Cod. Dipl. 594, the word is used for acquisition 
by involuntary purchase. It is not very clear how the elements of 
this compound should have led to the sense which it obviously bears. 
Mr. Thorpe is at fault upon this word (Glossary to Analecta, v. 
ofeode and ofgangan). Ettmiiller omits it. Under these circum- 
stances some illustration is desirable. " We sceolon }>urh gehyrsum- 
nysse and forhaefednysse and eadmodnysse, anmodlice to urum e^ele 
stseppan, and mid halgum msegnum ^one card ofgan, j>e we 'Surh 
leahtras forluron ;" i. e. " We should, by obedience and continence and 
humility, resolutely march to our inheritance, and with holy virtues 
attain that congenial land which by our vices we lost." ^Elfric's 
Homilies (Ed. Thorpe), vol. i. p 1 1 8. " So^lice gemagnys is ]>am 
so^an Deman gecweme, }>eah ^e heo mannum un&ancwurSe sy ; 
forSan $e se arfaesta and se mildheorta God wile )>aet we mid gemag- 

NOTES 359 

licum benum his mildheortnysse ofgan, and he nele swa micclum swa 
we geearnia'S us geyrsjan ;" i. e. " In fact, importunity is pleasing to 
the true Judge, though it is offensive to men ; for it is the will of the 
just and merciful God that we with importunate prayers obtain (=con- 
quer, win) his mercy, and he will not be angry with us according to 
our deservings." Id. vol. ii. p 126. 

Other verbs of motion, compounded with of, give this sense of 
assequi, adipisci; viz. ofridan, 877, 901; offaran, p 157. Cf. 
Thwaites, Heptateuch, Joshua ii. 5. Cf. note on 1048 (p 178 h), 
'of saende.' 

1 1 oo. swa swa maenige ssedan J>e hit geseon sceoldan] 
as many said who professed to have seen it. This clause has occurred 
a little before, 1098. By the word ' sceoldan,' the writer is exempted 
from all share in the statement, like Herodotus so often, e. g. vii. 
152: 'E-yo) 6e 6(j)fL\a) Aeyety TO. Xeyd/zei/a, Treidfo'dai ye p,fv &>v ov Travrdiracri 


1 100. p 236 t. tyrwigende] distressing, harassing, oppressing. 
This verb tyrwigan, tyrigan or tyrian, is not found in any other 
place of the Chronicles. But it occurs in ^Elf. Horn. i. p 562 : pa 
gelamp hit )>aet sume ]?a hgeftenan wurdon mid andan getyrigde &c.= 
Then it happened that some heathens were disturbed with envy &c. 
Other examples in the Lexicons, Ettmiiller, p 522. 

1100. p 237. bewseddade] wedding meant betrothal, and was 
not, as now, another word for marriage. There is a highly interesting 
chapter in the Saxon Laws, entitled, Be wifmannes beweddunge, 
which Mr. Thorpe has put among the Laws of Edmund (vol. i. 
p 254); but Schmid has given separately, Appendix vi. The various 
legal steps in the process, from the enquiries preliminary to betrothal 
(weddian) down to the religious forms that are to be observed at the 
marriage (set J>am giftan), are stated very distinctly. Below, p 243, 
we have the expression for marriage, " for his dohter gifte," i. e. 
giving away : cf. " Who giveth this woman &c. ?" 

1 101. J>e mid unfrrSe hider to lande fundode] " who came 
here to this land in a hostile manner," Stevenson : " who was 
meditating a hostile invasion of this land," Thorpe. It is not easy 
to find in modern English a simple rendering for fundian in this 
place. It is not exactly the act of coming or the intention of 
coming, but the impulse of coming, the move, the start of the 
expedition. Perhaps it would be best translated, "who started for 
this country with hostile intent." The word was selected here, to 
express by anticipation the abortiveness of the project. Above 1085, 
fundode hiderward may be rendered hue proficisceretur, was preparing 

360 NOTES 


to advance against this country. To say that Cnut meditated an 
attack on England, would have been almost superfluous, from what 
was known of his position and character. Munch, Det Norske Folks 
Historic, vol. iii. p39psqq. To say that he came, would contradict 
the sequel. 

The verb does not occur in the Chronicles more than in these 
two places; but we have 1 106 (p 241 t) the expression "on his 
fundunge ofer sse/' which means, on the eve of his departure, or 
when he was in actual motion to depart over sea. The verb fundian 
is related to the poetical adjective fus, ready to set q/", identical 
with OHG funa=pronus, prornptus, Graff. 

The poetical examples of fundian have been collected by Bouterwek 
and Grein. Some of the best prose examples are in the translation 
of Boethius, where it is rather a frequent word, e. g. to J>0em gode 
ealle J>a gesceafta fundia)> ^e heora gecynd healdaj? to that good 
(viz. the summum bonum) all the creatures tend, that keep true to 
their nature, xxxv. v. p 256, Ed. Cardale : gif twegen men fundiaj) 
to anre stowe = if two men are setting out for one place, xxxvi. iv. 
init. Probably there are not many languages that could furnish 
a precise match to this verb ; o/j/zaa&u is that which most readily 
offers itself. 

1 1 o i . abruSon] See above, note on 1 004. 

1 103. swa swa him and )?am cynge gewearS] sicut ei et regi 
convenit, Flor. This is the right meaning, according to agreement 
between him and the king. But how is the simple and vague geweairS 
with a dative (eyeWro avrois) able to convey this idea ? Perhaps 
this is an instance of that readiness to adopt an elliptical phraseology, 
which is of the genius of the English language. Above, p 151 t, 
we have the original and full expression, " gewearS him and )>am 
folce on Lindesige &3ies" = an agreement was made between him and 
the folk in Lindsey. This sentence could be rendered verbally in 
Latin or Greek or any cultivated language almost ; but perhaps we 
should search far without finding an idiom such as this, with the 
main and most significant substantive (anes = covenant) omitted. 
Cf. Dean Alford, Queens English, p 65. In Cod. Dipl. 1302, are 
repeated and strongly marked examples of this idiom. 

1104. gebroiden] quisque sub alio collocatus, Gibson; each 
described under the other, Ingram ; who in his note takes a severely 
mathematical view of the passage, but very happily quotes Matth. 
Westm. " albi, picti, et mirabiliter implicati." It cannot be doubted 
that Matthew's words are derived from the Saxon here before us. 
Thorpe translates " each twined under the other." This gebroiden 


is the word, when mention is made of braided or broided hair, as it 
ought to stand in i Tim. ii. 9, instead of ' broidered hair.' See 
Trench, English Past and Present, p 198. 

swylce hi gemette wseron] quasi essent picti, Flor. A painting- 
is meting, as in the following interesting passages from ^Elfric : 
'* On o$re wisan we sceawiaft metinge, and on o^re wisan stafas. 
Ne gae^ na mare to metinge buton }>aet J>u hit geseo and herige : 
nis na genoh }?set J>u stafas sceawige, buton Jm hi eac raede, and 
j>set andgit understande" = There is a difference between the way in 
which we look at a picture, and the way in which we look at writing. 
For a picture, you have only to see and praise it, but it is not enough 
to take a view of writing, unless you also read it, and understand the 
meaning. Horn. i. p 186. In the other passage he is saying that 
though in heaven the saved will command a view of the woes of the 
lost, yet it will not diminish their felicity; " ac heora tintrega becymS 
}>am gecorenum to maran blisse, swa swa on metinge brS forsewen 
seo blace anlicnys, J>set seo hwite sy beorhtre gesewen" = 6w4 their 
pains will have the effect of enhancing the bliss of the elect, in the same 
manner as in a picture a dark figure is put in, that the fair one may 
shew the brighter. 

1 1 06. p 241 m. sac leas] unimpeached, unaccused. Sometimes 
it means innocent, e. g. nanne sacleasan man forsecgan = inculpate 
no innocent man. Laws, ^Ethelred iii. 4. And so it is used by 
Sir Walter Scott, " whether she was sackless o' the sinfu' deed." 
Heart of Mid Lothian, cap. v. 

i 1 10. p 243 h. and oncweow] It would be quite an innovation 
on the part of an Editor of the Saxon Chronicles to pass this cele- 
brated difficulty over without note or comment. But before a new 
remedy is proposed, the previous suggestions should be reviewed. 

Lectio fortasse vitiosa; certe vocabuli significatio me latet. 

Ingram translates, " who held Maine in fee-tail of Henry ;" 
adding the following in a note : " That is, the territory was not 
a. fee-simple, but subject to taillage or taxation; and that particular 
species is probably here intended, which is called in old French * en 
queungej an expression not very different from that in the text 

Mr. Stevenson provisionally adopts Ingram's translation, adding : 
" The rendering here adopted is that of Ingram, which is allowed 
to stand, though unsatisfactory, no better explanation having as yet 

Mr. Thorpe proposes, instead of "oncweow," to read " Angeow," 

3 A 

362 NOTES 

translating it thus, "who held Le Maine of king Henry and 
Anjou;" and adding the following note: "If the reading of 
'Angeow/ for the senseless 'oncweow' of the text, be well founded, 
it shews that Helie held of both princes, of Henry as count of Nor- 
mandy, and of the count of Anjou." 

No one will think that Mr. Thorpe's emendation, either for its 
historical or philological probability, is worthy to displace that of 
Ingram, which has at least the merit of ingenuity. To Ingram's it 
may be objected, that it takes no account of the conjunction 'and/ 

It appears to me that the place may possibly be mended by 
simpler means. Instead of 'oncweow' I would propose to read 
' oncneow.' This is then a verb coupled with geheold, and standing 
in an antithetical position to the next apoclosis 'and hi togeanes 
}>am cynge heold.' The translation would in this case be as follows : 
Also this year died Count Helie, who held Maine under king Henry 
and acknowledged [the dependency]; and after his death the Count of 
Anjou had it, and held it against the king. 

1 1 10. p 243m. Ceortes sege] This ancient foundation dates 
from a little after the middle of the seventh century, as it owes its 
origin to Erkenwald, who was bishop of London 675-693, and of 
whom Bede (iv. 6) says, that he founded the two monasteries of 
Chertsey and Barking (Essex) before he was bishop. After the 
Danish ravages it appears to have been resuscitated, and it was 
among the first of those on whom the Reform of Dunstan took 
effect, above 964. The death of an Abbot is noticed 1084. 

In the year 1853, workmen who were employed on the site came 
on some encaustic tiles,, which happily caught the eye of Mr. Shur- 
lock, who ensured their preservation. They are now in the South 
Kensington Museum. The style of art on these tiles is not unlike 
the illustrations in Csedmon and other Anglo Saxon manuscripts. 
Mr. Shaw refers them to the thirteenth century. Tile Pavements from 
Chertsey Abbey, Surrey, by Henry Shaw, F.S. A., i 857. He remarks : 
" It is somewhat singular that although the destruction of this ex- 
tensive and richly endowed Abbey was so complete that scarcely 
one stone was allowed to remain upon another or even a tile to 
escape mutilation, no record has yet been found of the time when 
this destruction took place, under whose authority it occurred, or of 
any of the circumstances attending it." 

In 1861, the site was sold by auction, and Mr. T. R. Bartrop, one 
of the honorary secretaries of the Surrey Archaeological Society, was 
the purchaser. In Bede the name is spelt CerotaBsei (v. I. Ceorotesei); 
in Cod. Dipl. 987 (marked spurious by Kemble) it is Cirotesege. 

NOTES 363 

i T 1 6, byrstfull] This word occurs again in the next annal. It 
may be illustrated by a comparison of the two versions of Lajamon, 
vol. i. p. 104: 

vnder Jrissere blisse vnder J>ane blisse 

J>er comen muchele burstes. pare come manie harmes. 
The same variation is repeated in page 247. 

1116, gsesne on msestene] barren in mast. An article of great 
importance when swine were the chief live stock. In Cod. Dipl. 843, 
mid m0este = cum porcorum esca, 

gsesne, barren, sterilis, expers. Cf. Grimm's Andreas und Elene, 
p 124. 

i j 1 8. Theophanie] As Epiphania became ' Epiphany,' so Theo- 
phania was Englished down to ' Tiffany.' See Miss Yonge's History 
of Christian Names, vol. i. p 433. 

1 1 21. A^elis] Adeliza of Louvain is the best known form, of 
which ' A^elis' may be a Saxon rendering. She is also called Alix la 
Belle. Our English form is Alice. The name which Queen Adelaide 
has lately planted among us, a name representing the Old High 
German Adalheid, i, e. nobilitas, nobleness (as to this -held, see 
Grimm, Gr. ii. p 498), is probably the same. See more in Miss 
Yonge's History of Christian Names, vol. ii. p 398. A late discovery 
presents us with this Queen's name in what may be deemed an 
authorized form. Fair impressions of her seal have for the first 
time come to light in the muniments of the Marquis of Westminster, 
bearing SIGILLVM-AALIDIS. In the Foundation Charter of 
Reading Abbey, preserved at the Rolls, it is written " signum Ade- 
leidis reginse." A grant to the Abbey, printed in Kennett, begins 
"ego Aelidis regina." Archceological Journal, September 1863, 
p28i. Below 1 127, ^E