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Full text of "Two treatises: in the one of which, the nature of bodies; in the other, the nature of mans soule, is looked into: in way of discovery of the immortality of reasonable soules .."

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rro r^EAT ISES-. 

In the one of which, 


In the other, 




O F 


Animt nttttraw, abjque totiw ntfurt, 
Suffcientcrcognofcifoflc, extjlitnts ? 

Plato in Phoedr. 


Printed for lohn Williams , and are to be fold at the 
Crownc in S. Pauls Church-yard. 


S N N E 

calamity of this time being 
fuch, as hath bereft me of the 
ordinary means of exprefsing 
my affe&ion to you ; I have 
been cafting about, to finde 
fome other way of (doing that 
in fuch fort, as you may receive moft profit 
by it. Therein I foone pitched upon thefe 
confederations ; That Parents owe unto their 
children, not onely materiall fubfiftence for 
their Body, but much more, fpirituall contri- 
butions to their better part, their Mind. I am 
much bound to God, that he hath endued you 
with one, very capable of thebeft inftru&i- 
ons : and withall,! doe therefore efteeme my 
felfe obliged, to doe my utmoft for moulding 

A 2 it 


it to its moft advantage. If my ayme therein 
doe prove fucceflTefull, you will with more 
eafe digeft thofe inconveniences &c diftrefies, 
which already you have begun to be acquain- 
ted with , and that threaten daily worfe 
unto you. For how can a man iuffer his 
heart to be dejected at the privation of any 
temporall blefsings, whiles he confidereth the 
inanity of them 5 and that nothing is worthy 
his ferious thought, but what may accompa- 
ny him to his eternall habitation ? What nee- 
de:h he feare the delegations of Warre,and the 
word that they can do againft him, who have 
his eftate in their power,when he may be rich 
with a much nobler trealure, that none but 
himfelfe can rob him of? Without doubt, he 
that fhall feriouily reflect upon the excellency 
of his owne nature, and upon the admirable 
perfect and happy ftate he flial moft certainly 
arrive unto, if he but weane himfelfe from 
thofe worldly impediments ,that here clog his 
Joules flight 5 cannot choofe but look with a 
difdainfull eye, upon the glittering trifles, 
that weak ipirits delight themielves withall. 
If he deeme it not requifite (as of old, the fa- 
mous wife man did) to throw away thole 


encumbrances, to the end he may the more 
freely attend unto divine contemplations (for 
worldly goods, duly ufed,may be very advan- 
tagious both to ones felfe and to others) yet at 
the leaft, he will not repine at Fortnnes recal- 
ling of what fhe formerly had but lent him, 
and but permitted him the ufe of. 

To the end then that you may be armed a- 
gainft the worft that may arrive unto you, 
.in this unhappy ftate of affaires, in our di- 
ftreffed Country ; I fend you thole confidera- 
tions of the nature and Immortality of hu- 
mane foules, which of late, have been my 
chiefe entertainment. The progrefle you have 
already made in the ftudy of Phylofophie, 
hath (I am perfwaded) enabled you to bene- 
fit your felfe, with what I have written upon 
this iubject : on the ferious examining of 
which , if you will employ but half the time, 
that I have done in fpinning out my thoughts, 
and weaving them into the piece you fee, I 
doubt not but you will thereby receive fb 
much contentment, as well as profit, that you 
will not repent you of your paines. Befides 
that, intelledtuall entertainments are the pu- 
reft, and the nobleft, and the moft proporti- 

A 2 onate 

onate to mans nature,and prove the moft de- 
lightfull to him, when they are duly relifhed. 
You will prelently agree, that the matter I 
handle, is the moft important and the moft 
weighty, within the whole extent of humane 
nature, fora worthy perfon to employ him- 
felfe about. The advantage which Man hath 
over unreafonable creatures, is, that what he 
doth,is by election - and he is himfelfe mafter 
of all his actions 5 whereas they are impelled 
by outward caufes, unto all they doe: it is 
properly (aid of them, that aguntur magis cjuam 
agunt : He onely is free ; and in all varieties of 
circumftances, hath the power to choofe one 
and to reject another. Now, to have this ele- 
ction wifely made, and becomming a man 
requireth that it be fleered by knowledge. To 
doe any thing well, a man muft firft know 
throughly all that concerneth the a&ion he is 
about j and chiefly the end of it. And certain- 
ly, of all his actions, the government of him- 
felfe, is the moft important,and neerlieft con- 
cerning him. The end of that government, 
and of all a mans aymes, is by all men agreed 
to be Beatitude : that is, his being complete- 
ly well, and in a condition of enjoying the 


moft happinefle, that his nature is capable of. 
For arrival! whereunto , it is impolsible to 
pitch upon the direct and fure meanes,unlefle 
it be firft determined, whether the Beatitude 
we fpeak of, doe belong to this life, or be not 
to be attained, till we come to the nextior ra- 
ther, whether or no, there be another life be- 
fides this, to be happy in. For if there remai- 
neth an eternity unto us, after the fliort revo- 
lution of time we fo fwiftly run over here on 
earth ; it is cleare, that all the happines which 
can be imagined in this fleeting ftate, is not 
valuable, in refpect of the future ; nor any 
thing we doe here is confiderable, otherwise 
then as it conduceth to the making our con- 
dition then , better or worfe. Now the way 
to be furc of this, is either infallible authori- 
ty, or evident fcience. They that rely on the 
firft, depend of others : and they onely who 
know,are abfolutely complete of themfelvesj 
and have within themfelves, the principles 
whereby to govern their actions, in what is 
of higheft confequence to them. It is true, e- 
vcry body is not of a ftraine of wit and judge- 
ment, to be of this rank: and who are not, 
muftbe contented to beleeve others, and be 

A 4 iatis- 

fatisfyed with what is taught them. But he 
that will be of a fuperior orbe, muft make this 
his ftudy. This is the adequate entertainment 
of a worthy perfon. 

To conceive how high and excellent, this 
fcience of governing a man in order to Beati- 
tude in the next world is, we may confider, 
how among all arts that concern this life, 
the art of a Statesman, unto whom belongeth 
to fee a Common- wealth well govrned,is by 
much the nobleft. All other arts, are but mi- 
nifterially to him. He maketh ufe of the Sol- 
dier,of the Lawyer, of the Orator, of the An- 
tiquary, of the Phyfitian, as bed eonduceth to 
the end he aymeth at, of making the Com- 
monwealth he governeth , happy and flou- 
rifliing. All other meaner Trades ferve him 
in a yet lower degree. Yet after all, he muft 
take his meafures from the Metaphyfitian or 
Divine. For fince the government of a foci- 
ety of men, aymeth at giving them the beft 
being they are capable of; and fince Mans 
well-being here in this life, is but inftrumen- 
tally good, as being the meanes for him to be 
well in the next life ; It is evident, ' that the 
, is but inftrumentall to that, 


which flieweth, how every particular man 
muft governe his life, to be partaker of a hap- 
py eternity. And confequently, if a States- 
man hath not this fcience, hemuftbefubject 
to a braver man then himfelfe, whofe pro- 
vince is to direct all his actions unto this end. 
We are told , how reverently great C<efar lift- 
ned to the difcourfes of learned sfcboreus, how 
obfervant Alexander was of his Mafter ^rifto* 
tie, how fecure Nero trode, whiles Seneca gui- 
ded his fteps, how humble Conftantine was to 
Saint Sjlvefters precepts, how Charlemaine go- 
verned himfelfe in his moft important acti- 
ons>by Alcuims advice :In a word,all the great 
men of Antiquity ,as wel among the Romans, 
as among theGretians ? had their Philolbphers, 
and Divines in thdr kind,belonging to themj 
from whom they might derive rules of living 
and doing as they ought upon all occafions,if 
themfelves were not Mafters in that fuperiour 
inxl all-directing fcience. He that feeth not by 
his ownc lightjrnuft in this dangerous Ocean 
fteere by the lanterne which another hangeth 
out to him. If the perfon he relyeth upon,d- 
ther withholdeth the light from him , or 
fiicweth him a falfe one, he is prefently in the 


darke,and cannot faile of lofing his way.How 
great an authority had the Augurs and Priefts 
among the rude Romans, to Forbid any pub- 
like aft, or to break any aflembly upon pre- 
tence of Religious duties, when they liked 
not the bufinefle that was in agitation ? The 
like may intereffed Divines among Chri- 
ftiansdoe, if the Minifters of State have not 
lome infight into Divinity. He leadeth a ve- 
xatious life, that in his nobleft actions is (b 
gored with fcruples, that he dareth not make 
a ftep, without the authority of another to 
warrant him. 

Yet I doe not conclude,that he by whom I 
defign by the character of a brave man,fliould 
beaprorefled or a complete Metaphyfitian 
or Divine, and confiimmate in every curious 
circumftance that belongeth to this fcience 5 it 
fufficeth him to know it in bulke-and to have 
fo much Divinity, as in common occurrents, 
to be able to governe himfelfe^ and in fpeciall 
ones, to underftand what, and why his Di- 
vine perfwadeth him to any thing ; (b that e- 
ven then, though not without help,yet he go- 
verneth himfelfe,and is not blindly governed 
by another. He that aymeth at being a perfect 


Horfeman, is bound to know in generall(be- 
fides the art of riding) the nature and temper 
of Horfes . and to underftand the different 
qualities of Bits, Saddles, and other utenfils 
of a Horfeman 5 But the utmoft exactnefle in 
thefe particulars, belongeth to Farryers, Sad- 
lers, Smiths , and other Tradefinen } of all 
which, the judicious Rider knoweth how to 
make due ufe, when he hath occafion,for his 
principall end , which is, orderly governing 
his Horfe. In like manner, he whom we de- 
figne by a complete brave man, muft know 
folidly the maine end of what hee is in the 
World for : and withall, muft know how 
to ferve himfelfe when hee pleafeth, and 
that it is needfull to him, of the Divines high 
Contemplations, of the Metaphyfitians fub- 
tile Speculations., of the naturall Philofophers 
minute Obiervations, of the Mathematicians 
nice Demonftrations ; and of whatibever elfe 
of particular Profefsions, may conduce to his 
end ; though without making any of them 
his profefled bufineffe. 

To lay grounds for fuch knowledge as 
trusts the fcope of my enfuing Difcourie.My 
firft ayme, was to beget it in myfelfe: to 


which end, thedigefting my thoughts into 
order, and the fetting them downe in wri- 
ting, was neceflary : for without fuch ftrift 
examination of them, as the penning them, 
affordeth onemeanes to make s they would 
hardly have avoyded being disjoynted and 
roving ones. Now that I have done that, 
my next ayme is that you, unto whom I wifh 
as mucfy good as unto my felfe, may reap as 
much benefit by the ftudying it, as I have 
done by the compofing it. 

My end then being a private one, as (loo- 
king no further then you my fonne, and my 
felfe) I have not endeavoured to exprefle my 
conceptions either in the phrafe,or in the lan- 
guage of the Schooles. It will ferve our 
turne, to comprehend the fubftance, without 
confining our felves to any fcrupulous exacl- 
neffe, in what concerned* onely forme. And 
the fame confideration hath made me paffe 
{lightly over many particulars , in my firft 
Treatife of the Nature of Bodies^ upon which 
learned and witty men might (pin out large 
Volumes. For in that part, I ayme no fur- 
ther, then to (hew what may be effected by 
corporeall agents. There, pofsibility ferveth 


my turne, as well as the determinate indivifi- 
ble point of truth. I am obliged to that,onely 
in my maine great theme 5 which is the foule. 
In regard of which, the numerous crooked 

^7 ' 

narrow cranies, and the reftrayned flexuous 
rivolets of corporeall things, are all contemp- 
tible, further then the knowledge of them 
ferveth to the knowledge of the foule. And a 
gallant man, whofe thoughts flye at the high- 
eft game , requireth no further infight into 
them, then to iatisfie himfelfe by what w r ay 
they may be performed ; and deemeth it far 
too meane for him, to dwel upon the fubtileft 
of their myfteries for fcience fake. 

Befides this liberty that the fcope I ayme 
at alloweth me of pafsing very curfbrily o- 
ver fundry particulars^! find now at my read= 
ing all over together, what I have written to 
deliver it to the Printer , that even in that 
which I ought to have done to comply with 
my owne defigne and expectation , I am 
fallen very fliort ib that if I had not unwa- 
rily too farre engaged my felfe for the pre- 
fent publishing it, truly I fhould have kept it 
by me, till I had once againe gone over it. I 
find the whole piece very confufedly done ; 


the ftile unequall and unpolifhed - y many par- 
ticulars (when they are not abfolutely necef- 
fary to my maine drift) too (lightly touched, 
and far from being driven home : and in a 
wordjall of it feemeth to be rather but a looie 
modell and roughcaft of what I defign to do, 
then a complete work throughly finiflied. 

But fince by my overforward promifing of 
this piece to feverall friends, that have been 
very earned for it,I have now brought my felf 
to that pafle, that it would ill become me to 
delay any longer the publifliing of fomething 
upon this fubject and that obligations of ano- 
ther nature permit me not at the prefent to 
dwell any longer upon this (b elides that, fo 
lazieabraineas mine is,groweth fbon weary 
when it hath fo entangled a skeane as this is 
to unwind)! now fend it you as it is^but with 
a promife, that at my firft leifure, I will take a 
ftricl: furvey of it j and then in another Editi- 
on, will polifh, correct and adde what fliall 
appeare needfull to me. If any man fliall take 
the Book out of your hand,invited by the Ti- 
tle and fubject to look into it;I pray you in my 
behalfe reprefent unto him , how diftant my 
profefsion island how contrary my education 


hath been from writing of Books. In every 
Art, the plaineftthat is, there is an Apprenti- 
fhip neceflary, before it can be expected one 
fliould Work in it a faflhionable piece.The firft 
attempts are alwayes very imperfect aymings ; 
and are fcarce diicernable what they are mea - 
ned for,unlefle the Mafter guide his Scholars 
hand. Much more will the fame happen in fo 
difficult and fpiny an affaire, as the writing 
upon fuch a nice and copious fubjecl: as this 
is, to one who isfo wholly ignorant of the 
lawes of Method as I am. 

This free and ingenuous acknowledgment 
on my fide, will I hope prevaile with all in- 
genuous perfons, who fhall read what I have 
written, to advertife me fairely (if they judge 
it worth their while) of what they diflike in 
it : to the end that in another more accurate 
Edition- 1 may give them better (atis faction. 
For befides what faylings may be in the mat- 
ter ,1 cannot doubt but that even in theexpref- 
fions of it, there muft often be great obfcuri- 


ty and fhortneffe which I, who have my 
thoughts filled with the things them(elves,am 
not aware of. So that,what peradventure may 
feeme very full to me,becauie every imperfect 


couch bringeth into my mind the entire noti- 
on and whole chain or circumftances belong- 
ing to that thing I have fo often beaten upon } 
may appeare very crude and maymed to a 
ftranger, that cannot gueffe what I would be 
at,otherwife then as my direct words do lead 

One thing more I fliall wifh you to defire 
of them who happily may perufe thefe two 
Treadles -. as well for their owne lakes, as for 
mine.And that is,that they wil not paffe their 
cenfure upon any particular piece, or broken 
parcell of eyther of them, taken by it felfe.Let 
them draw the entire thred through their fin- 
gers, and let them examine the confequent- 
nefle of the whole body of the doctrine I deli- 
ver and let them compare it by a like furvey 
with what is ordinarily taught in the Schools: 
and if they find in theirs, many bracks and 
fliort ends which cannot be fpun into an even 
piece, and in mine,a faire coherence through- 
out; I fhall promife myfelfe a favourable 
doome from them, and that they will have an 
acquiefccnce in themfelves to what I have 
here prefented them with : whereas, if they 
but ravell it over loolely, & pitch upon difpu- 


ting againft particular conclufions, that at the 
firft encounter of them fingle,may feem harfh 
unto them, (which is the ordinary courfe of 
flafhy wits, w r ho cannot fadome the whole 
extent of a large difcourfe)it is impofsible but 
that they fhould be very much unfatisfyed of 
me j and goe away with a perfwafion , that 
fbme iuch truths as upon the whole matter 
are moft evident (one ftone in the arch fup- 
porting another, and the whole) are meere 
chymeras and wild paradoxes. 

But (Sonne) it is time my Booke fhould 
fpeake it felfe, rather then I fpeak any longer 
of it here.Read it carefully over,and let me lee 
by the effects of your governing your felf,that 
you make fuch right ufe of it, as I may be 
comforted in having chofen you to bequeath 
it unto. God in heaven bleffe you. <Paris the 
, 1644. 

Your Loving Father, 



Ttfis writing was defatted 1 9 htvefeen the light un- 
der the name of one Treatife. But after it was drA wn 
in paper; <ti I caft a view over it J found the Proaenti- 
allpart (which is that which treatcth of Bodies) ft ample in 
rejpefi of the other (which was th'e end of it ^ and for wboftLs 
fake 1 medledwith it) that I readily apprehended my Reader 
would think I had gone much aflrayfrom my Text t when pro- 
pofing tofteak of the Immortality of Mans Soulc, three partf 
of four e of the whole I>ifcourfe y jbouldnotfo much as in ont^? 
word mention that fettle > whofe nature and proprieties I aymed 
atthedifcovery of. To avoid this incongruity ^eccafioned me 
to change the name and unity of the work $ and to make thc_s 
furvay of bodies^ a body by it felfe : though fubordinate to the 
TreatifcoftheSoule. Which not with [landing it be lejfe in 
bulke then the other , yet I dare promife my Reader^ that if he 
beftew the paines requifite toperfeb? himfelfe in itjje will find 
as much time wellftent in the due reading ofit^ as in the^> 
reading of the former Treatifc^ th$*ghfar more large. 

But I di ft erne an objection obvious to be made^ or rather A 
)ueflion , Why ifbould ftendfo much time in the con/ideati- 
on if Botits, whereof nine that hath formerly written of this 
fubjeCt^ hath in any meafure done the like ? 

I might anfwer that they had , upon other oecafons, frfl 
written of the nature ofBodits : a* I may infance in Ari- 

ftotlc 5 

Tfie Preface. 

ft ode , andfundry others, who either have themselves pro- 
fefledly treated the Science of Bodies, or have fuppofed that 
fart fuffaiently performed by other pens . But truly, I was by 
an unavoidable necefsity hereunto obliged: which is ^cur- 
rent of dcchinethat at this day^ much raigneth in the Chrifti- 
A* Schooles, where bodies and their operations^ are explicated 
afttr the manner of fyirttuall things. For we having very 
(lender knowledge of fyirituallfubftanccs^ can reach no fur- 
ther into their ntture, then to know that they have certain^ 
powers ', or qualities 5 but can feldome penetrate fo deep^ as to 
defcend to the particulars offrch Qualities^ or Powers . Now 
our modern Philofophers have introduced fuch a course of lear- 
ning into the Schooles, that unto all queftions concerning the 
proper natures of Bodies, and their operations, it is heldjuffi- 
cient to A nfwer^ they have a quality 5 or a power to doefuch a 
thing. And afterwards they dilute whether this Duality or 
Power j be an Entity diftintffrom itsfubjeff, or no 5 and how 
it is fep arable, or unfep arable from it^andthe like. Conforma- 
ble to this^ who will looke into the books jvhich are in vogue in 
thefe Schools^ fhattfindfufh anfwers andfuch controversies c- 
very where, and few others. As^ of the {enable qualities :atkc 
what it is to be white or redjvhat to be facet orjowre, what to 
be odoriferous or finking^ what to be cold or hot ? And you 
are -prefently paid with jhat it is afenftble quality ^ which hath 
the power to make a wall white or red^ to make a meat agreea- 
ble or disagreeable to the tafte, to make agratefullor ungrate- 
fuHfmetlto the noje^&c. Likewife they make the fame quefti- 
ons and re folutionS) of Gravity and Levity : as whether they 
be qualities , that #, entities diftinttfrom their fub\e ft : and 
whether they be atfive orpafivc , which when they have di- 
ftutedflightly.and in common ^with Logic all arguments; they 
reft thcrejvithout any further fearchinginto thephyficallcau- 
fuor effetfs of them. The like youjkalfndofallflrangeeffefts 

B a of 

The Preface. 

of them. The Load ft one an A Electric All bodies Are 
formirACuloM, and not under ft andable things And in which, 
it muft be acknowledged, that they wo/ k by hidden qualities, 
that mans wit cannot reAchunto. And afcending to living 
bodies^ they give it for A Uaxime : that life is the aftion of 
the fame Entity upon it felfe : thatfenfe is likewife A worke of 
an intrinfecatl power 5 in the fart we (All Senfe, ufon it felfi. 
Which ,our predecefjors held the greateft abfurdities that could 
betoken in Pkylofophie. Even feme phyfitiansjhAt take upon 
them to teach the curing of our bodies . doe often pay ut with 
fuchtermfs -, among them, you have long dijcourfes of a re- 
tentive, of an expulfive, of A Purging^ of a conldUdating fa- 
culty : andfo of every thing that either pa^eth in our bedy^or 
is Apply ed for remedy . And the meaner fort of Phyfitians knew 
ns more^ but that fuch faculties are - though indeed they that 
are truly Phyfit'tAns, know alfoin what they confifi , without 
which know ledge it if much tobefeArect^ Phyfitiws wi&dot-j 
more hwme then good. 

But tt rcturne t$ ourfub\etf : this com 'fe efdotfrine in tht 
Schools ^ hath forced me to a great dcale ofpAinesirtfeeking 
to dtfcover the nature of a// fuch actions (or of the mainepan 
of them ) as were famed for incomprehenfible : for what hope 
could lhave t out of the actions of the joule to convince the 
nature of it to bi incorporeal! -, if I could give no other account 
of bodies operations , then that they were performed by quali* 
ties occult, fyecificall^ or incomprehenfible ? Would not my ad- 
verfary prcfentlyarif\ver^ that Any operation >out of 'which I 
fhould prefte the foules being fl>ir tua/l, was performed by 4 
ccrporeall occult quality ': And that AS he muft acknowledge it 
to It incomprehensible, Jo muft I likewifc acknowledge other 
qualitie's of bodies jo be as incomprehen}ible:& t her! ore could 
not with reafon preffe hin*^ to fbew how a body was able to dee 
fitch An operation: & Ifhouldwferremuft ofneceftty proceed 


The Preface. 

fromajpiritjfivce neither could I give Account how the 
lotdftone drew iron^ or looked to the North; how aftsne , and 
other heavy things were carried downewards -, how fight or 
fantafie was made -, htw dtgcjtion or f urging were ejfetfcd-, 
and many other fuch queftions , which are Jo ftightly refol- 
vedinthe Schooles ? 

Be fides this rcafonjhe very defire of knowledge in myfelfr 
andAwiUingnefletobeAVMUble unto others (at the le aft fo 
farre AS to Jet them on faking for />, without having a preju- 
dice of impofsibility in attaining it) was unto me a Jufficient 
motive^ to ia large my difcourfe to the bulk it is rifen unto. For 
what A mifery is it, that the flower and beft wits ofchriften- 
dome^ which ftock to the Vniverfities^ under petence and up- 
on ho ft of gaining knowledge flculd be there deluded^ and af- 
ter manyyeares oj toyle and expence 5 bee fent home againe^ 
with nothing acquired morel hen a faculty^ and readineffe to 
talke like Parrats of many things but not to under ft and fo 
much as anyoHC: f andwith.illivithaperfwa<lon that in truth 
not hinge an be knowne' For fating knowledge afde^hat can 
it avAile A man to le able to talke of any thing '. What are 
t/.ofe wr -anglings , where the difcovery of truth is neither 
fought, nor hoped, for , but meerly vanity and oftentation? 
Doth not all tend, to make him feem and appear e that wh'ch 
indeed he is net? Ncr let any body take it ill at my hands jhat I 
fycakthus of the modcrne Schooles: for indeed it is rather 
themfclve s then I that fay it. Excepting Mrthematicks , let 
all the other Schooles pronoun; e their owne minds, and fay in- 
gcniotijly^ whether they themfelves beleeve they have fo much 
as any one demon ftration, from the beginning to the ending of 
the whole c our fe of their learning. And if all, or the moft pArt^ 
will agree that any one pofition ts demonftrated perfeflly y 
and as it ought to bee , and as thoufands of conclusions Are 
demonftrated tn Mrthematickes -, I am ready to undergoe 

Bj the 

The Preface. 

the blame of having calumniated them , and will as readily 
make them amends. But if they neither will , nor can $ tbe n 
,their owne verdiff cleareth me : and it is not [b much I 9 
as they, that makethisprofefsion of the jhallownefle of their 
detfrine. Andto this purpofe I have, often heard the lamenta- 
tions of divers , as great volts as any that converfe in the 
Schooles^ complaining ef this defett . But info great an evi- 
dence of the effetf,f roof es are fuperfluoit*. 

Wherefore Iwitt leave this (ubjecJ , to declare what I have 
here dcfigned, and gone about, towards the remedy of this in- 
convenience. Which # , that whereat in the Schooles, there is 
A loo fe method, or rather none-, but that it is law full, by the li- 
berty of a Commentator^ to handle anyqueflion , in any place 
(which it the caufe of the flight neffe of their deftrwt^and can 
never be the way to anyfcience tr certitude) I have taken mj 
beginnings from the commonefl things that are in nature : 
namely y from the notions of Quantity, and its firft differences: 
which are the moft fimplc, and radicall notions that are , and 
in which all the reft are to be grounded. From them I endea- 
vour by immediate compoftion of them ^ and derivation from 
them, to bring dovne my difcourfe t9 the Elements, which are 
the primary and moftfimple bodies in nature . From thefe , / 
proceed to compounded bodies ^firftjo thofe that are catted mi- 
xed-, and t hen , to living bsdies : declaring in common the pro- 
prieties and operations that belong unto them. And by occafton- 
as Ipaffe along , / light here and there on thofe operations^ 
which jeemmoft admirable in nature, to /hew how they arc 
performed-, or at the leaft, how they may be performed : that 
though Imiffe in particular oftheinduftry of nature , yet I 
may nevertheleffe hit my intent; which #, to trace out a way^ 
how thefe^andfuch like operations may be cffetfcd by jncxafl 
diftofition, and ordering (though intricate] of quantitative 
ad corptreall parts : and to jhewythat they oblige us not to 


The Preface. 

recttrre unto hidden andunexphcabtc qualities. And if I have 
declared fo many ofthefe y as way beget aprobableperfwafion in 
my reader, that the reft y which I have net touched 5 may like- 
wife be difylayed y andfhewed to faring out of the fame grounds 5 
if curious andcenflant fearchers into nature, will make their 
taske to penetrate into them^ / have therein obtained my defire 
and intent-^ which is onely ., tofhew front what principles , all 
kinds of corporeall operations doe proceed-, and what kind of 
operations allthefe inufi be^ which may iffueottt of thcfe prin- 
ciples : to the end) that I may from t hence ^ make aflep)o raife 
my dtfcourfe to the contemplation of thefoule-, and fhew , that 
ber operations arefuch y as cannot proceed from thofe princi- 
ples^ which being adequate and common to all bodies', we may 
refl ajjured, that what cannot iffuefrom them^ cannot have a 
body fcr itsfottrce. 

I will therefore end this preface^ with entreating my Rea- 
der to confider, that in a difcourfeproceeding in fuch order as 
1 have declared he muf not expect to under ft and, and btfaiii - 
fed^ with what itfaidtn any middle or latter part , unleffe he 
jirft have read^and under food what goeth before. Wherefore^ 
if be cannot refelve with himfelfe^ to take it along orderly as 
it lyethfrom the beginning, he flail dse himfelfe (as well as 
me) right ^not to meddle at all with this booke. Bat if bee will 
employ any time upon it jo receive advantage by it fa mufl be 
content to take thepaines to understand throughly every parti- 
cular as it is fet downe. And if his memory will not ferve 
him to carry every one along with him, yet at the leiftjet him 
be Jure to remember the place where it is handled, and upon oc- 
cafion } return a look back upoi it, when it may ft and him in 
flead. if hethinketh this diligence too burthenfom.e 3 let him 
conpder that the writinghereof hath coft the Authour much 
more pains : vtlo at hf will efteem them exceedingly well em- 
) if they may contribute ought to the content or advan- 

The Preface. 

tagc of any free And ingenuou* mind ^ jo if any others Jhali 
exfreffe a negletf of what he hath withfo much labour hewed 
out $f the hard rock of Nature -^ or fia/l difcourteoujly cavill 
at the notions he (0 freely imparteth unto them ; 4// thc^> 
reffentmertt hefiull make thereof, will be to defire the frjl^ to 
confider^ thM their flight e 'ft eeme of his worke^ obligeth them 
10 entcrtainc their thoughts veithfome more noble and morels 
frof table fub]eff, and better treated, then this is : And the /4- 
ter fort, to ]ujlife their dtflike ofhisdotfrine, by delivering 
a fairer And more complete bodyofPhilofophj, of their ownc. 
Which if hereupon they doe, his being t he eccApon o 
ones bettering themfehes^ And of the others bettering 
) will be the befl fucceff'e he can ivijh his Bnke. 

A Table (Viewing what is contained in the 

feverall Chapters and Se&ions in this 

7re*tife concerning B O D I E S. 

The figures after the Chapters, are the Sections be- 
longing to every Chapter: which Sections the 
Reader Chall find in every Chapter by their 
figures in the margine. 


rHc Preface. A Preamble to 
the whole difcourfe con- 
cerning notions in generall. 

Quantity is the fir ft, and mo ft 
obvious ajfettion of a body. 
Words do not cxprcffc things at 

ing t expreffe * moref articular 
orftudied notion. 

Of Quantity. 

i. Wemuftkn* the vulgar and 
common notion of Quantity that 

t hey are in themfelves^but one- we may underhand the nature 
ly as they are painted in the of it. 

minds ofmeu. 2. Extcnfion or di-vijibtlitie is the 

3. The fir [t err our that may arife common notion of Quantity, 
fromhence'which is a multiply- 3. Parts of Quantity are not 

actually in their whole. 
4. If parts were actually in their 
whole, Quantity would be com- 
pofed ofindivijibles. 

ing of things, -where no fuch 
multiplication is really found. 
4. A fecond errour\ the concei- 
ving of many diftintt things as 
really one thing. 

5. Great care to be taken to avoid 
the errours which may arife 
from our manner of under ft and- 
ing things. 

6. Two forts of words to exprefle 
our notions-) the one common to 
all men y tht other yrofer to 

j. Cjreat errours arife by wre fling 
words from their common mean. 

j. Quantity cannot Ire compofed of 

6. An objett ion to prove that parts 
are actually in Quant itte with 
a declaration of the miflake 
from whence it proceedeth. 

7. The folutien of the former ob~ 
jfclitn : vnd that fenfe cannot 
dtfcern whether one part be di- 
fttnguifoedfrom another y or no. 

8. An enumeration of the feverall 

*. fpeciefe 

A Table. 

fpeciefes of Quantity, which 

confirm eth that the effence of it 
if flivifibilitie. 

Of Rarity and Denfity. 

What if meant by T{arity and 

It is evident that font e bodies 
are rare and others denfe 
though obfcurc, how they are 

ex/ brief enumeration of the 
fever all properties belonging to 
rare and denfe bodies. 

The opinion of thofe Philo- 
fophers declared , who put 
rarity to confift in an atln- 
alldivijion of a body into little 

The former opinion rejected, 
and the ground of their err our 
di [covered. 

The opinion of thofe Philofo- 
phers related, who put rarity to 
confift in the mixtton of vacui- 
ty amonv bodies. 

TL r r 

/ he pin ton of vacutttes refu- 

Rarity an.l Denftty cenfift in 
the feverall proportions which 
Quantity hath to tts fub- 

Ail muft admit in 
bodies > * Metaphyficdll 


Of the fourcfiift qualities : and 
of the foure Elements. 

1. The notions of dcnfity and ra- 
rity have a latitude capable of 
infinite variety. 

2. How moiftncftc and drinetfe 
are begotten in denfe bodies. 

3. Hovt moiftncflc and dryneffe 
are begotten in rare bodies. 

4. Heat is a property of rare bo- 
dies, and cold 'of denfe onef. 

j. Of the tiro denfe bodies, the 
Ifflc denfe is more cold : but of 
the two rare ones, the lejfe rare 
is /e/f hot. 

6. The extreme denfe body is 
more drie > then the extreme 
rare one. 

j. There are but.foiirc fimple bo- 
dies: and the fe are rightly na- 
med Elements. 

8. The Authour doth not deter- 
mine whether every element 
doth comprehend under its 
name one onely loweft fpecies, or 
many : nor whether any tfthcm 
be found pure. 


Of the operations of the Elements 
ingenerall. And of their A&K. 
vitics compared with one ano- 

i . The fir& operation of the Ele- 
ments is dtvijion, out of which 


A Table. 

refulteth locall motion. 

2. What place is both nationally, 
and really. 

3. Loctll motion is that dtvifion, 
whereby it body changtth its 

4. The nature of quantity of it 
felf is fufficient to unite a body 
to its place. 

5. All operations amongst bodies 7 
are either locatl motion , or 
fuch of follow out of to call mo- 

6. Earth compared to water in 

7. Tht manner -whereby fire get- 
tcthinto fewell, proveth that 
it exceedeth earth in activity. 

The third reason, becaufe if 
we imagine to our felvcs the 
fftbflance of fire to be rtrificd, 
it will have the fame appearen- 
ces which light hath. 
6. The fourth reafon, from the 
manner .of the generation and 
corruption of light, which a. 
greet h with fire. 

Tht fifth rtafon, becaufefuch 
properties belong to light as a- 
gree onely unto bodies. 


Two obje&ions anfwered againft 
light being fire, a more ample 
proofe of its being fuch. 

ner, whereby fire cometh out of, 
fetvell and wtrketh upon other 2. 

8. The fame is proved by the watt- \ i. That all light is hot and apt 

to heat. 

The reafon why our bodies for 
the most part do not feel the 
heat of pure light. 
The experience of burning glaf~ 
fes, and of foultry gloomy wea- 
ther, '-prove light to be fire. 


Of Light, what it is. 

1. In what fen fe the Author rc- 
jelteth qualities. 

2. In what fenfe the Author doth 
admit of qualities. 

5. Five arguments propofed to 
prove that light is not a body. 

4. The two firft reafons to prove 
light to be a body are, the re- 
femb lance it hath with fire^and 
because if it were a quality, it 
would always produce an equal 
to it felf. 

4. Philofophers ought not to 
judge of things by the rales of 
vulgar people. 

5. The different names of light 
and fire , proceed from diffe- 
rent notions of the fame fub- 

6- The reafon why many times 
fire and heat are deprived of 

7. Whatbecometh of the body of 
light when it dieth. 

* a 8. 

A Table. 

8. An experiment if fome who 
pretend) that light may be pre- 
cipitated into powder. 

p. The Authors optnton concern- 
ing lamps, pretended to have 
teen found in tombcs,with /- 
cottfum^tible lights. 


An anfwer to three other obje&i- 
ons formerly proposed, againft 
light being a fubftance. 

\. Light is net really in evcrypart 
of the room it enlightneth,nbr 
fillet h entirely any fefiblepart of 
it, though it feem to utto do fo. 

2. The leaft fenfible point of * di- 
tphanotu body, hath room Ef- 
ficient to contain both aire and 
light, together with A multitude 
of beams tffuing from fever all 
lights without penetrating one 

3. That light doth not enlighten 
any room in an in ft ant, and that 
the great celerity of its motion 
doth make it inpercepttble to 
our fenfes. 

4. The reafon why the motion of 
light, is not difcerned coming 
towards us, and that there is 
fome reall tardity in it. 

j. The planets are not certainly 
ever in that place where they 
appear to be. 

6. 7 he reafon why light being a 
body, doth not by tts motion 

fratter other bodies into pieces. 

7. The reafon why the body of 
light if never perceived to be 
fanned by the wind. 

8. The reafons for, and againft 
lights being a body, compared 

9. t/f fummary repetition of the 
reafons which prove that light 
it fire. 


Oflocall motion in common. 

1 . "\f locall motion cat* be per- 
formed without frtccejfton. 

2. Time is the common meafure 
f all fuccejjlon. 

J. What velocity is, and, that it 
cannot be infinite. 

4. No force fo little , that if 
not able to move the greateft 
weight imaginable. 

J. The chief principle of Mecha- 
nick^dedxce&tftt of the former 

6- T^o mveable can pafle from 
rtft te* any determinate degre* 
of velocity, or from a lejfer de- 
gree to a greater, without paf- 
fing through all the intermedi- 
ate degrees which are below the 
obtained degree. 

7. The conditions which help tt 
motto*, in the moveable are 
three; in the medium* one. 

8. 2\^ body hath any intrinfecall 
virtue to move it felf towards 
any determinate part of the u- 
niverfe. 9. The 

A Table. 

The encrtafc wf mttittt u at- of all the firmer doctrine touch- 
wayef made in the proportion of { ing gravity. 
the odde numbers. \ 6. Gravity and levity do not fig- 

nific an intrinfecall inclination 
to fuch a motion in the bodies 
themfelves which are termed 
heavy and light, 
j. The more denft a body , the 

morefwiftly it defcendeth. 
8. The velocity of bodies defcend~ 
ing doth not encreafe in propor- 
tion to the difference that may 
be between their fevtrall den- 

p. Mor e or lejfe gravity doth pro- 
duce a fwifter or a jlovter dcf- 
cendino- of a heavy body, jfri- 


Jrotles argument to difprove 
motion in vacuo, it made good. 
IO. The reafon why at the inferior 
quarter of a circle, a body doth 
defcend fafter by the arch of 
that quarter, then by the cord 
of ^. 

10. 3^0 motion can encreafe for 
ever, without comin? to a pe- 

o / 


1 1. Certain problemes refolved 
concerning the proportion o 
fame moving Agents compare 
to thetr effects. 

1 2. When a moveable cometh t 
reft, the motion doth decrea[e 
according to the rules of en- 


Of Gravity and Levity; andoflo- 
fall Motion, commonly term- 
ed Naturall. 

\. Thofe motions are called natu- 
raU, which have constant eau- 

fes ; and t ho ft violent, which 

are contrary to them. 
2. The firft and moft generall o- 

feration of the funne , if the 

making and raijiug of at owes. 
5. The light rebounding from the 

earth with atonies, caufeth two 

ftreams in the aire ; the one af~ 

c ending, the other defc ending ; 

and both of them in a perpen. 

dicular line. 
4* 9s4 denfe body placed in the , 

aire between the afcending and 


depending ftream, mutt needi 
5. A more particular explication 

An anfwer to objections again ft 
the caufes ofnaturall motion, 
avowed in the former chapter ; 
and a refutation of the contra- 
ry opinion. 

The firft objection anf-cvered 
why a hollow body defcendeth 
flower then afolid one. 

The fecond objection an fiver ed 
and the reafonsfyown, why a- 
tomes do continually overtake 
" 3 tht 

the defcending 

^4 curious qttcftion left un- 

The fourth objection anfwered, 
why the defcent of the fame 
heavy bodies, is equall in fo 

inequality of the at owes 

catije it. 

5. The reafon why thefhelter of a 
thick, body doth not hinder the 
descent of that which is un- 
der it. 

$. The reafon why fame bodies 
finkj others fwimme. 

7. The* fifth objection anfwered 
concerning the descending of 
heavy bodies tn flreams. 

8. The fixth objection finger- 

ed ; and that all heavy ele- 
ments do weigh in thetr owne 

p. The feventh objettion anfwer- 
ed, and the reafon why we do 
not feel the courfe of the aire, 
and atomes that beat continu- 
ally upoa tu. 

10. How in the fame body, gravi- 
ty may be greater then denftty, 
and denjtty then gravity 
though they be the fame 

11. The opinion of gravities be- 
ing an intrittfecall inclination 
of a btdy to the center , refuted 
by reafon. 

I j. The fame opinion refuttd by 
feverall expediences. 

A Table. 

denfe bo- CHAP. XII. 

Of violent Motion, 

The flat e of the ejue/lion touch- 
ing the caufe of violent mo- 

That the medium is the onely 
caufe, which continueth vio- 
lent motion. 

9^4 further explication of the 
former doctrine. 
That the aire hath Jlrength 
enough to continue vtolent mo- 
tion in a moveable. 
An anfwer to the first objecti- 
on ; that aire is not apt to con- 
ferve motion ; and how vi- 
olent motion cometh to 

6. -An anfwer to the fecond obje- 
Elton y that the aire hath no 
power over heavy bodies. 

7. An anfwer to the third obje- 
ction, that an arrow foould fly 
fafl-er broad wayes then long 


Of three forts of violent motion, 
Reflexion, Undulation, and Re- 

I. That reflexion 


violent motion. 

Reflection is made at tqualt 

7 he caufes and properties of 

A Table. 

4, Refraction at the entrance into 
the reflectent body is towards 
the perpendicular ; At the going 
cut , it is from it ; -when the 
fccond fuperfictes is parallel to 
the firjt. 

5-. A refutation of Afonficurdes 
Canes his ex fit cat ton of re- 

6. An anfwer to the arguments 
brought in favour of Monfleur 
des Cartes his opinion. 

7. The true caufe of refraction of 
itght both at its entrance, and 
at its going out from the refle- 

it ing body. 

8. A generall rule to know the 
nature of reflection and refra- 
ctions in all forts ofjurfaces. 

$ A body of greater farts and 
greater f ores, maketh a greater 
refraction then one of leffer 
farts and leffer fores. 

10. A confirmation of the former 
doctrine, out of the nature of 
bodies that refract light. 


Of the compofition, qualities, and 
generation ofrnixed bodies. 

I. The connexion of this chapter 

with the re fl, and the Authors 

tntent in it. 
1. That there is a leaflcife ofbo- 

dtes ', and that this leafl cife is 

found in fire. 
3 The firfl conjunction of farts 

is tn bodies ofletft cife ; and it 
is made by the force of Quan- 

The fecond fort of conjunction, 
is compact edne/e infmfle E- 
lements, and it froceedeth from 

The third conjunction is of 
farts of different elements, and 
it froceedeth from quantity and 
dcnfity together. 

6. The reafon why liquid bodies 
do eafily joyn together and dry 
ones difficultly. 

7. That no two hard bodies can 
touch one another immediately. 

8. How mixed bodies are framed 
tn generall. 

cj. The caufe of th*. feverall de- 
grees tf folidity in mixed bo- 

10. The rule whereunto are redu- 
ced all the feverall combina- 
tions of Elements in compound- 
ing of mixed bodies. 

1 1 . Earth and water are the bafis 
of all fermancnt mixed bodies. 

12. What kind of bodies thcje are 
where water is the bafis, and 
earth the fredominaat Element 
over the other tiro. 

13. Ofthofe bodies > where water 
being the bafis aire is the pre- 
dominant Element. 

14. What k^nd of bodies -refult, 
where, water is the bnfis, and 
fire the fredominant Element. 

I j. Ojf thofe badies, where water 

A Table. 

// i except, it alone being both 
the baft*) and the predominant 

1 6- Of thofe bodies, where earth 
alone is the bajis, and alfo the 
predominant in excejfe over the 
other three Elements* 

17. Of thofe bodies where earth is 
the, bafts, & water the predomi- 
nant element over the other two 

1 8. Of thofe bodies, where tarth 
being the bafis aire if the pre- 

ip. Of thofe bodies, where earth 
being the bafts, fire it the pre- 

20. ^// the fecond qualities of 
mixed bodies, arife from f eve- 
rail combinations of the firft 
qualities* and are at laft refol- 
ded into fever all degrees of ra- 
rity and denfity. 

21. That in the planets andftarres 
there is a like variety of mixed 
bodies caufed by light at here 
upon tarth. 

22. l what manner the Elements 
do worl^upou one another, in the 
compo/ition of mixed bodies: and 
in particular fire which is the 
moft active. 

23. tsf particular declaration 
touching the generation of me- 


Of the diflolution of mixed bodies. 

I. Why fame bodies arc brittle, 

and others tough , are apt tt 
withftand outward violence the 
fir ft inurnment to dijftlvc mix- 
ed bodies. 

a. How outward violence doth 
work^ upon the mo ft cmpatled 

5. The feverall efttts of fire, the 
fecond and chiefefl instrument 
to di/o/ve all compounded bediet 

4. The reafon why fome bodies are 
not dijfolved by fire. 

5. The reafon why fire meltetk 
gold, but cannot consume it. 

6. Why lead, is eafily confttmed and 
calcined by fire. 

j. Why and how fome bodies are 
divided by fire into fpirits, wa- 
ters, oyls,falts and earth. And 
what thofe parts are. 

8. How water the third instrument 
to dijfolve bodies ,dijfolveth calx 
into fait; and fo into t err a dam- 

p. How water mingled with fait, 
becometh a moft powerfull A- 
gent to dijjolve other bodies. 

10. How putrefaction is caufed. 


An explication of certain Maxims 
touching the operations , and 
qualities of bodies: and whether 
the Elements be found pure in 
any part of the world. 

I. What is the Iphere ofaftivitj im 
corporeaH trcnts. 

A Table. 

in diftance. 

. An ob (ft ion anfwered again/I 
the manner of explicating the 
former axiome. 

. Oj reaction: and firft in jure 
loc*ll motion., that each Agent 
mrtft foffcr * n acting *nd aft in 

, The former doctrine apply ed to 
other locall motions dejigneib by 
particular names. e/^W that 
Suijfeths argument is of no force 
again ft this way of doctrine, 

6* That yce is not water rarified 
but condenfed. 

7. How wind, fnow, and hail are 
made- t and wind by rain allaid. 

8. How parts of the fame or divert 
bodies, are joyned more ftrongly 
together by condenfation. 

p. Vacuities cannot be the retfon, 
why water impregnated to the 
full with one kind of fait, will 
notveithftanding receive more of 

lo. The true reafon of the former 

5. Why fame notions do admit of>n. The reafonivhy bodies of the 

intention and remijfion', axd o- 
thers do not. 
7. That in every part of our ha- 
bitable world; all the foure ele- 
ments, are found pure in fmall 
atomes ; but not in any great 

Of rarefaction and condcnfation 
the two firft motions of particu- 
lar bodies. 

1. The AHthvurs intent in this 
and the following chapters. 

2. That bodies may be rarified, 
both by outward heat} and how 
this is performed. 

3. Of the great effects of T^are- 

4. The firft manner of condenfa- 
tion by heat. 

5. The fecond manner of condttt- 
fation by cold. 

fame nature do joy ft more ea/tljf 
together then others. 


Of another motion belonging to 
particular bodies, called Attra- 
ction; and of certain operations 
termed Magicall. 

1 . What Attraction is, and from 
whence it proceedeth. 

2. The true fenfe of the Maxime, 
that Nature abhorreth from va- 

3. The true reafon of attraction. 

4. Water maybe brought by the 
force of attraction to what 
height foever. 

5. The doctrine touching the at 
traction of water in fyphsnt. 

6. That the fyphon doth not 
prove water to weigh in its ow* 


A Table. 

*ctrn;vg attraftio* caufed 

C H A P. X X. 

by fire. 

8. (Concerning attraction made by 
virtue of hot bodies, an.ulets, 

p. The naturall reafon gtven for 
divers operations, eftecmed by 
fome to be m&gicatt. 


Of three other motions belonging 
to particular bodies, Filtration, 
Reilicucion, and Ele&ricall at- 

1. What is Filtration and how it 
is effected. 

2. What caufeth the water in fil- 
tration to afcend. 

g. Why the filter will not drop un- 
le(fc the labell hang lower then 
the water. 

q. Of the motion of Reflitution : 
and why fome bodies ftandbcnt, 
others not. 

]. Why fome bodies return onely 
in part to their naturall figure', 
others entirely. 

6. Concerning the nature ofthoff 
badies which do fhrinl^ and 

j. How great and wonder full 
effetts, proceed from fmall,plain, 
audftmplc principle f. 

?. Concerning Ele&ricall attra- 
ction, and the cattfcs of it. 

p. Ca.betts his opinion refuted con- 
cerning the caufc of Eleftrieall 

Ofthe Loadtfones generation; and 
its particular motions. 

1. The extreme heat of the funng 
under the z,odiack^, draweth A 
ftream of aire from each Pole 
into the torrid 

2. The atomes of thefe two 
streams coming together are apt 
to incorporate with one ano- 

3. By the meeting and mingling 
together of thefe ftreams at the 
Equator, divers rivolets of 
atomci of each Pole, are conti- ed from one Pole to the 

q. Of thefe atomes incorporated 
with fome fit matter in the 
bowels of the earth, is made * 

j. This flone workfth by emana- 
tions j joyned with agreeing 
ftreams that meet them in the 
aire', and in fine it is 4 load- 

6. o^ met ho de for making expe- 

riences ftpon an 

7. The loadstones generation by 
atomes flying from both 
Poles-, u confirmed by experi- 
ments obfervcd i the stone it 

8. Experiments to prove that the 
loadftone worketh by emanati- 
ons, meeting with, agreeing 
ft reams. 


A Table. 


Portions drawn out of the former 
do&rine, and confirmed by ex- 
pcrimentall proofs. 

I . The operations of the loadftone 

are wrought by bodies and not 

by qualities. 
2. Objections against the former 

po fit ion anfwered. 
j. The loadstone is imbued with 

his vertue from another body. 
q. The vertue of the load/lone is 

a double , and not one fimple 

j. The virtue of the loadflone 

worketh more flrongly in the 

Poles of it , then in any other 


6. The loadflone fendeth forth itr 
emanations fphcrically. Which 
are of two kjnds : and each kjnd 
isftrongeftin that hemisphere, 
through whofe polar j parts they 
ijfite out. 

7. Tutting two loadflone s within 
thtfphere of one another, every 
part of one loadstone doth not a- 
gree with every part of the other 

8. C oncern i n & th* declination and 
other refpefts of a needle , to- 
wards the loadstone it toucheth 

p. The virtue of the loadftonc go- 
eth from end to end in lines al- 
moft parallel! to the axis. 

10. The virtue of a loadstonf is 
not perfettlj fphericall though 
thcftenc be fuch. 

11. T he intention of nature in aft 
the operations of the loadflone> 
is to make an union betwixt t-he 
attrftive and the at trailed bo- 

12. The main globe of the earth 
not a loadftone. 

13. The loxdftone is generated in 
all parts or climates f the earth 

14. The conformity betwixt the 
t vfo motions ofmagnetickjhings 
and of heavy things. 


A (blution of certain Probleires 
concerning the loadftone, and a 
fhort fumme of the whole do- 
ctrine touching it. 

1 . Which is the North, and which 
the South Poleof a loadftone. 

2. Whether any bodies be fides ma- 
gnet ick^ ones he attractive. 

3. Whether an iron placed perpen- 
dicularly towards the earth doth 
get a magnet ical virtue of poin- 
ting towards the north, or to- 
wards thefouth in that end that 
lieth downwards. 

4. Why load/tones affect tron bet- 
ter then one another. 

J. Gilberts rtafon refuted touch- 
ing a capped loadftont, that ta- 
keth up more iron then one not 
capped; and an iron impregnated 
that in fame cafe draweth more 
ftrongly then the ftone itfelf. 

6. Galileus his opinion touching 
* * z f ht 

A Table. 

the former effects refuted. 
7. The Authours folution to the 

former questions. 
g. The reafon why in the former 

cafe, a lejfer loa'dfrone doth draw 

the interjacent iron from the 


9. Why the variation of a touched 
needle frem the north, is greater 
the nearer jau go to the Tole. 

10. Whether in the feme fart of 
the world A touched needle may 
at onetime vary more from the 
north, And at another time lefle. 

1 1 . 7 he whole doctrine of the load" 
ftom fummed up infliort. 


A defection of two forts of living 
.creatures ; Plants and Animals: 
& how they are framed in com- 
mon to perform vitall motion. 

i. The connexion of the follow- 
ing Chapters with the precedent 


2. foncernin? fevcrall cemfofiti- 
ovs of mixed bodies. 

3. Two forts df living creatures. 

4. v9n engine to exfrejfe the fir ft 
fort of living creatures. 

5. An other engine by which may 
be expreffed the fc-cond fart of 
living creatures. 

6. The -two former engines and 
fame other comparisons apply ed 
40 cxprtjfefhe tw fiver-all forts 
*f living creatures. ^ 

8. How fcnfitivc creatures are 


CHAP. XX II 1 1. 

A more particular furrey of the 
generation of Animals; in which 
is difcovered what part of the 
animal is firft generated. 

1. The opinion that the feed con- 
taineth formally every part of 
the parent. 

2. The former vptnfan rejected. 

3. The Authffurs opinion of this 

q. Their opinion refuted } who hold 
that every thing eontaineth for- 
mally all things. 

j. The Aut hours opinion concern, 
ing the generation of Animals 
declared and confirmed. 

(5- Th*t one fttb fiance is clianved 
into another. 

j. Concerning the hatching of 
chickens, and the generation of 
other animals. 

8. from whence it hoppeneth that 
the deficiences or excrcfcenccs 
of the parents body, are often 
Jeen in their children. 

p. The difference between the au- 
thottrs opinion, and the former 

IO. That the heart is imbuedwitb 
the general! jfrccifick^virtues of 
the whole body; whereby is con- 
firmed the doctrine of the U 
former paragraphs. 

ii. That 

A Table. 

1 1 . Th*t the heart ts thtfirftptrt 
generated in * I wing creature. 


How a. Plant or Animal cometh 
to that figure it hath. 

1. That the figure of an Animal 
is produced by ordinary fecond 
cattfes, as well a* any other cor- 
pereall effect. 

2. That -the feverall figures of bo- 
dies proceed from a defect in one 
of the three dimenfions, caufed 
by the concurrence of 4cciden- 
tall caufes. 

5. The former doctrine is confirm- 
ed byfeverall inflaitces. 

4. The fame doctrine applyed to 

5. The fame doctrine declared in 
leafs of trees. 

6. Thefameapplytdto the bodies 
of Animals. 

j. In what fenfe the Authottr doth 
Admit of Vis formatrix. 


How motion fceginneth in living 
creatures. And of the motion of 
the heart, .circulation of 'the 
bloud, Nutrition, Augmentati- 
en, and corruption or death . 

I. from whence doth proceed the 
primary mot tin and growth in 

r dts 

nion touching the motion f the 

3. The former opinion rejected. 

A % The tSfuthottrs opinion con- 
cerning the motion of the heart. 

j. The motion of the heart depen- 
deth originally of its fibers trri- 
gated by blond. 

6. An objection anfivered againft 
the former doctrine. 

7. The circulation of the bloud ,& 
other effects that follow the mo- 
tion of the heart. 

8. Of Nutrition. 

p. Of ^Augmentation. 
IO. Of death and pcknejfe. 


Of the motions of fenfe, and of the 
fenfiblc qualities ingencrall, and 
in particular of thole which be- 
long to Touch, Taft, and Smel- 

1. The comtexi&nofthe fabfcqn 
chapters with the precedent. 

2. Of the fenfes *nd fenfible And of the end 
for which they ferve, . 

3. Of the fenfe of touching : and 
that both it AttdiH qttalit.ies are 

4. Of the iaftjtnd its qualities : 
that they are bodies. 

5. That thefmell and tts qualities 
are reall bodies. 

6. Of tht conformity betwixt the 

* * 3 7- 

A Table. 

j. The reafon why the fenfe of 
fine II ing is not fa perfctt in man 
at in bcafts-' with a 
hiftorte of a man who could 
wind 4 ^nt A* well at any beaft, 


Of the fenfe of hearing, and of the 
fenfible qtiality,(ound. 

j. Of the fenfe of hearing: and 
that found is purely motion. 

2. Of divers arts belonging to the 
fenfe of hearing: all which con- 
firm found is nothing but 

3. The fame is confirmed by the 
cffetts cxufed by great noifcs. 

4. That folid bodies may convey 
the motion of the aire or found 
to the organe of hearing. 

5. Whtre the motion is tntgrrttp- 
ted there if no found. 

6. That not onelj the notion of the 
atre, but all other motions co- 
ming to our cars make founds. 

7. How one fenfe may fupply the 
want of another. 

8. Of one TV ho could difctrn founds 
of words with his eyes. 

p. Divtrs reafons to prove found 
to be nothing elfe but a motion 
f feme re all body. 


Of fight and colours. 

X, That colours are nothing bttt 

light mingled with darkjtejfe' t or 
the difyo/ttionf* bodies fuyer- 
fides apt to refleft light fo min- 

2. Concerning the dtfyofition ef 
thofe bodies which produce white 


3. The former dottrine confirmed 
by s/triftotles Authority jrcafon, 
find, experience. 

4. How the diversity of colours 
do follow out of ' vartoM degrees 
of runty and den fit y. 

j. Why fame bodies are diaphanous 
o ers o^acow. 

6. The former dottrinc of colours 
confirmed by the generation of 
tvhtte And bLuck^tn bsdtes. 


Of luminous or apparent colours. 

1. Apparitions of colours through 
tprifme or triangular glaffc art 
of two forts. 

2. The feverall parts of the objetl 
make feverall angles at their 
entrance into theprifme. 

3. The reafon why fometimes the 
fame objctt appears through the 
prifme in two places: and in one 
place more lively, in the other 
place more dinsme. 

The reafon of the various co- 
lours that appear in looking tho- 
rough a prifme. 

The reafon why the prifme iff 
one pofition, may make the co- 
lours appear quite contrary to 


they did, when it 

another portion. 
6. Thereafon of the vtri 

lours in generall, by pure light ^ 

tafflnf through a prifme. 
- Upon what fide every colour ap- 
'' tears that is made by pure light 



A Table. 

2. The Authors opinion touching 

g. Reaftns to perfwade the c>^#- 
t hours opinion. 

q. That vttall jpirits are the im- 
mediate inftruments of fen fat ion 
by conveying fenfible qualities 
to the brain. 

j. How found it conveyed to the 
brain by vitallfpirits. 

The caufes of certain appearances 
in luminous colours; with a con- 
clufion of the difcourfe couching 
the fcnfes & the fenfible qualities 

, . The reafon of etch fever all co- 
lour tn particular cattjed by 
livht paffingthroughaprijme. 

2. A difficult probleme refolded 

, Of the rainbow,and how bj the 

'' colour of any body,ve may knov 
the compofition of the body tt 
r if 

That all the fen^le Dualities 
are reaft bodtes refulting out of 
fever Att mixtures of rarity and 

xumber: with a conclon of all 
the former dtfrine concerning 

Of fenfation.or the motion where- 

by fenfe is properly exercifcd. 
i. Afonfteurdes Cartethh t opinion 
touching fenfattoff. 

6. HOT* colours are conveyed to the 
brain by vitall tytrits. 
T^eafons againjt Monjteur des 
Cartes his opinion. 

8. That thefymptomts of the pal- 
jte, do no way confirm (JMonfi- 
eur des Cartes his opinion. 
That (JMonfieur des C" rtes *>** 
opinion, cannot give a good ac- 
count,how things are conferved 
in the memory. 


Of Memory. 

How things are conferved in 
the memory. 

How things conferved in the 
memory are brought backjr.t* 
the phaxtafic. 

, ts* confirmation of the former 

How things renewed in the 
phantafie, return with the 
fame circum fiances that they 
had at fir -ft. 

. How the memory ofthtngs pa ft. 
is loft-> or confounded : and how 
it is repaired again. 

A Table. 


Of voluntary motion, naturall fa- 
culties, and paffions. 

r. .Of what matter the brain if 

2. What vr voluntary motion. 

5. What thofe pothers are which 

Are c Ailed, tutwrxll faculties. 
4. ffo*> the attractive andfecre- 

t iff faculties work^ 
j. Concerning the concoftitre fa- 

6. Concerning the retentive and 
expulfive faculties. 

7. Concerning cxpxljivn made by 
Phjfick, ' 

8. How the brain is moved to 
work^volantstry mvtion. 

9. Why plevtfing objects do dilate 
thefpiritSj and difpleafixgones 
contratt them* 

10. Concerning tht five fenfes for 
what ufe and end they are. 


Of the matcriall inftrument of 
Knowledge and Paflion ; of the 
fererall efFe6ls of Paifions ; of 
Pain and Pleafiire ; and how 
the vitall ipirits are lent from 
the brain into the intended parts 
of the body, without miltaking 
their way. 

1. That Septum Lucidum // the 
feat of the phtnfie. 

2. what cattfeth MS to remember 

not ontly the o6jett it felf t but 
alfo that we have thought of it 

3. How the motions of the phanta- 
fie, are derived to the heart. 

4.. Ofpainandpleafare. 
?. OfPtfliott. 

6. Of fever all pulfes caufed by 

7. Offc-verallothercffcfts canfed 
naturally in the body by -f affiant 

8. Of the diaphragma. 

9. Concerning patn and pleafttre 
caufed by the memory of thing* 

10. KOT fo fmaH bodies M atomel 
are, can caufe fo great motions 
in the heart. 

11. Hoiv the vitaft fpiritf fent 
.from the brat, do ruvne to the 

intendcdpart of the body With- 
out miftake* 

1 2. How men are blinded by paffon 


Of fome a&ions of beafts,that feem 
tobefbrmall als ofreafon, as 
doubting, refolving, inventing. 

1 . The order and connexion of the 
fttbfequent chapters. 

2. From whence proceedeth the 
doubting ofbeafls. 

%. Concerning the invention of 
foxes and ether beaftt. 

4. Of foxes that catch hens by ly- 
ing under their rooft^tnd by ga- 

upon them. 

j. from 

A Table. 

r. From whence proceeds the foxes 2 
invention to ridhimfelfof flea* 

6. An explication of two other in- 
ventions if foxes. 

7. Concerning (JMontagucs Argu- 
ment, to prove that dogs make 

8. A declaration how fome tricks 
are performed by foxes, which 
feem to argue difcourfe. 

p. Of the JaccAtrays invention in 

c Ailing beafts to himself. 
JO. Of the J ac calls defigne in fer- 

vtng the Lien. 

11. Of fever All inventions offifhes. 

12. A dtjcovery of divers things 
dene by hAres, which fcem to ar- 
gue difcourfe. 

13. Of a foxe reported to have 
weighed a goofe , before he 
would venture with it over A 

Of the Baboon that flayed on A 

Of the teaching ofElephants& 
other be aft s to do divers trick;. 

Of the orderly tr^in of aft ions 
performed by btafts in breeding 
their young ones. 

river, and of fabulous ftories in 

14. Of the fever aH cry ings &tonc* 
ofbeaftj : with a refutation of 
thofe Authors who maintain the 
to have compleat languages. 


Of the docility of fome irrationall 
animals, and of certain continu- 
ate actions of a long tracl: of 
time fo orderly performed by 
them, that they leem to argue 
knowledge in them. 

I. How hawkes and other crea- 
tures are taught to do what 
they art brought up to. 

Ofprefcience of future events, pro- 
vidcncies,the knowing of things 
never feen beforehand fuch other 
adions, obferved in fome living 
creaturesAvhich feem to be even 
above the rcafon that is in man 

1 . Why beafts are afraid of men- 

2. How fome qualities caujed at 
first by chance tn beafts, may 
faffe by generation to the whole 

g. How the parents phantafie doth 
oftentimes worl^ftrAngeeffctts 
in their tjfue. 

4. Of Antipathies. 

y. Of Sympathies. 

6. That the Antipathy of bctifts 
towards one an other, may be 
taken away by ajfuefattion. 

j.Of longing marks feen in childre 

8. Why divers men hate fan e cer- 
tain meats, & particularly cheefe 

9. Concerning the providence of 
Ants in I Ay ing up in ft ore for 

10. Concerning the foreknowing of 

The conclufion of the firft Treatifc. 

A Table fliewing what is contained in the feverall 

Chapters and Sections in this fecond Ttcatife, 

Concerning MANS SO U L. 


He Prcfjce. Of fimple Ap- 

I . What is A right apprehenjien of 

A thing. 
2. The very thing it ft If if truly 

in his under ft anding^who right- 

ly arehendfth it. 

The apprehenjion of things co- 


ld. -A mult it tide of things may be 
united in mans under/landing 
without being mingled or con- 
founded together. 

II. Of abftrafttd and concrete 


nting unto us by our fenfes, are 
refolvable into other more Jim - 
fie apprehenfions. 

4. The apprehenfion 'of a Being is 
the mo ft Jimple and Bafis of all, 
the reft. 

5. The apprehetijiott ef a thing if I 
in next degree to that of Being, 
and it is the Bafis of all the fub- 2 
fequent ones. 

6.The a^prehenjion of things k^nown \ 
to w by our fen fe s doth conjift in 3 
certain rcfpefts betwixt two 

j. Refpctt or relation hath not re- 
ally any form all being, but onely 
in the appreheafiox-of man. 
That Exigence or Being is the 
proper affection of man: and that 
mam foul it a comparingpower. 
A thing by coming into the un- 

12. Of univerfa.ll Kotiovf. 

i 5. Of apprehending a multitude 

under one notion. 
14. The p ower of the understanding 

rencheth as farre as the extent 
of Being. 

Of Thinking and Knowing. 

How a judgement is made by 
the understanding. 

7 hat two or more apprehettfions 
are identified in the foul by u- 
ntting them inthefteck. 0f being 

How the notions of a fubftan- 
tive and an adieclive.are united. 
in the foul by the common flock, 
of Being. 

That a fettled judgement be- 
cometh a part of our foul. 
How the foul cometh to deem or 
fettle a judgement. 

How opinion if begotten in the 

derftanding of man } lofeth no- , 7. How faith if begotten in the 
thing of its own peculiar nature. I uxdcrftanding. 

* * * a 8. Why 

A Table. 

J, W^j truth is the perfection of a 
reasonable foul: and -why tt is 
not found in Jimple apprehenfi- 
ovs M we/I at in Snuntiations. 

9, What if a [olid judgement, and 
ivhat a (light ne. 

jo. What is an acute judgement, 
and what a dull one. 

11. In what conjifteth quicknejfc 
and clearneffc of judgement : and 
there oppojtte vices. 

Of Difcourfing. 

1. Haw dffcourfe if made. 

2. Of the figures and moods of fjl- 

3. That the life of man as man, 
doth ce(tsl in difcourfe, ttnji of 
the vaft extent of it. 

4. Of humane actions, and ofthafe 
that concern our felve s. 

5. Of humane attions as they con- 
cern our neighbours. 

6. Of Lo^ick* 

7. Of Grammar. 

9. Of Toetry. 

10. Of the power of fpeaking. 

I r . Of arts that concern dumbe 
and infcnfiblt creatures. 

12. Of Arithmetic)^ 
\^. Of Prudence. 

14. Obferv at tons ttpon what hath 
teen faid in this chaffer. 


How a man proceeded! to a&ion. 

1. That humane aft ions proceed 
from two fever all prtnciplcs,nn- 
der Standing and fen fe. 

2. Havff our generall *nd inbred, 
ntaximes do conettrre to httmtnc 

^. That the rules and maximes f 
arts do roor^ojitivelj in /, 
though tve thinly not of them. 

^. How the understanding doth 
caft about *h<, it n^ntetftfuffi, 
dent grounds for tttion. 

j. HOTV reason doth rult over 
fenfe andpajfion. 

6. How tve recall our thoughts 
from distractions. 

j. How reafon is fometimes over- 
come by fenfe andpajfion. 


Containing proofs out of our fingle 
apprehenfions , chat our foul is 

i. The connexion ofthefubfeqttcnt 
chapters with the precedent. 

2. The exiftence of corpereall 
things in the foul by the power 
of apprebenjtox, doth -prove her 
to be immateriall, 

3. The notion of being,w>&/V^ /'/ /- 
note in the foul, doth prove the' 

4. The fame is proved by the noti- 
on of refpc&s. 

5. That 

A Table: 

'.. That ctrpereatl things arc fpirj- 
tuali^ed it the undtrflanding, 
by means of the fott/s working 
tn and by refpctts. 

6. That the abftraftixg of notions 
from all particular and indivi- 
dual! accidents, doth prove the 
immaterialitie of the foul. 

7. That the HMivcrfalitie of ab- 
ftratted notions do prove the 

8. That collective apprchcn(fosdo 
prove the fame. 

p. The operations of the foul draw- 
ing alwayes front multitude to 
ttnitte, do prw fit* fame. 

10. The difference betwixt the no- 
tion of a thing in our under- 
ftanding,and the imprejfion that 
cerrefpondeth to the fame thing 
in our phanjte , doth prove the 

1 1 . The apprehenjto n of negat ions 
& privations do prove the fame. 


Containing proofs of our fouls o- 
perations in knowing or deeming 
any thing, that (he is of a fpiri- 
tuall nature. 

I .The manner of judging or deem- 
ing by apprehending two things 
to be identified, doth prove the 
foul to be immateriall. 

2. The fame is proved by the man- 
ner of apprehending oppofition in 
4 negative judgement. 

3. That things in themCclves op- 

pojtte to ene another having no 

oppojitioM in the foul y doth prove 

the fame. 
4. That the firft truths are identi- 

fied to the foul. 
^.That the foul hath ax infinite ca- 

pacity , and consequently is im- 

6. That the oppofitton f contra- 

dittory proportions in the foul 

doth pr0ve her immaterialitie. 
j. How proportions of eternall 

truth, do prove the immateria- 

litie of the foul. 

That our diicourfing doth prove 

OUr ioul to be i 

I .That in difcourjing the foul con- 
taineth more in it at the fame 
time then is in the phanta/ie, 
which proveth her to be imma- 

2. That the nature ofdifcourfe doth 
prove the foul -to be ordered to 
infinite knowledge, and confe- 
cjxently immateriall. 

%.That the woft naturaft objects of 
the foul are imn<tattria,lL& COH- 
feqnently the foul herfelfisfxch 

Containing proofs out of our man- 
' ner of proceeding to aftion, that 
our foul is incorporeal!. 

I. That the fouls being a- power 
to order things, prove th ' 

be i 

A Table. 

2; That the fouls being able to p. The fame /'/ froved front her 

move without being moved, 

doth prove her to be imma- 

5. That the foxls proceeding to 

fittion with an universality , 

find tndijfercncy doth prove the 

A.. That the quiet proceeding of 

reafon doth prove the fame. 
c. A conclufion of what hath 

been f4td hitherto tn this Je- 

cond i reattfe. 

C II A P. I X. 
Tim onr foul is a Subftance, and 

1 . 7 'hat Alans feu I is a fab fiance. 

2. 1 'hat man is compounded of 
fame other fubslanee be fides his 

g. That the foul doth fubfitt 

of tt [elf independently of the 

A. Twt other arguments to prove 

the fame: ovepofitive, the other 


5. The fane is proved becaufe 
the foul cannot be obnoxious 
to the eaufc of mortality. 

6. The fame is proved becaufe the 
foul hath no contrary. 

7. The fame is proved from the 
end , for which the foul was 

8. The fame is prtved bccaufejhe 
f*n move without being moved. 

manner of operation which it 
in being. 


10. Laftlj, it is proved from the 
fcience of <JMoralitie, the prin- 
ciples whereof would be dcftroj- 
ed, if tie foul were wort all. 


Declaring what the foul of a man 
fcparated from his bodyjs : and 
of her knowledge and manner 

1. That the foul is one fimple 
knowing all , ivfi><-& ^ a, pure 
f/>j2ance, and nothing but fub- 

2. That a feparated foul if in no 
place, and yet is not abfent from- 
any place. 

3. That * feparated foul is not in 
time, nor fftbjecl: to it. 

4. That the foul is a* afttve fub- 
ftancc* and all in it is attivi- 

J. A defcription of the foul. 

6. That a feparnted fottlknoweth 
all that which (he knew wbilcft 
floe wot in her body. 

7: That the leaft knowledge which 
the foul accjuireth in her body 
of any one thing, doth caufe in 
her, when foe is feparatedfrom 
her body a complete knowledge 
of all things what foever. 

g." An anfwer to the objettitns of 
fome Peripatcticks* tvhf main- 

A Table. 

tainthefoul to piri(h with the 

9. The former Teripateticks re- 
futed out of sSf rift otic. 

10. The operations of a feparated 
foul compared to her operations 
in her body. 

11. That a feparated foul is in a 
ft ate of pure being, and confc- 
ejuently tmmortall. 


Shewing what effeih the divers 
manners of living in this world 
do caufe in a foul, after (he is fe- 
parated from her body. 

1. That a foul in this life is fub- 
jetl to mutation, and may be 
ferfetted in knowledge. 

2. That the knowledges which a 
foul getteth in this life , will 
make her knowledge in the next 
life more per feel and firm* 

3. That the fowls of men addicted 
to fctence whileft they lived 
here, are more perfett in the 
next world,then the fouls of un- 
learned men. 

4. Th*t thofe fouls which em- 
brace virtue in this world, will 
be mo ft per f eft in the next' and 
thofe which embrace vice, moft 

y. The ft ate of a vitiow foul in 
the next life. 

6. The fundament all reafon why 
at well happinejfe as mifery is fs 
exceffive in the next life. 

7. The reafon why maus foul re. 
cjuireth to be in a body, and 
to live for fame fpace of time 
joyned with it. 

8. That the nttfery of the foul in 
the next world proteedetk out of 
inequality, and not out of ' ftlfity 
of her judgements. 


Of the perfcverance of a fbuJ, in 
the ftate flic ftndfth her felf in, ac 
her firft fepa ration from her body 

1. The explication, and ^r oof of 
that maxime, that, If the caufe 
be in a6t,the efFed: muft alfo be. 

2. The effects of all fuch agents as 
work_ins~iantaHeoufly, are com- 
plete in the fir ft in si ant that the 
agents are put. 

3. <>s4ll pure fpir its do worl> in- 

4. That afoul feparated from her 
body, cannot f after any change 
after the fir ft in ft tint of her /e- 

'. That t emyor all finite s are jnttly. 
h eternal', pains.. 







A Prcamblt tt the /W<? difcourfe : Concerning 

on of a Body. 

N delivering any Science, die cleareft ajdd ; 
irnootheit n^thodcj a lid rnoft agreeable to na- is the 
ture, is to beg }n with tla* confidential of shofe 
things that are weft cowmoe and obvious; 
by the difle&ion of theaa to defcead by orderly 
<icgres.and ftcps fas they lie in the way ) unto 
the examination of the moft particular and remote ones. Now 
in our preterit intended furvey of a Bodie^ thciirft thing which 
occurred) to ou-r fen(e indie peruiall of k, \s\tsQMstntitif, 
bulk,-or inapnitufticiand this tecrceth by all mankind to i>e coa- 
ccived foinicparnihle from a body, flswjfafjja man would di- 
{iinguifli a corpor-eall fubftance from a fpirituali/ooe ( whjch ii 
accounted indivisible} he naturally pitcbtdh upon anapprehen- 
fion of its havjf>g buj4c, and (being folid, tangible, 'and apt to 
make imprefsion upon ot>r outward fenfej; according to tibot 
exprcffion of Lucrecius, w-ho Ihidying Nature in a familiar and 
rationall manner telleth us, Tangere e nim & tangi, nifccarbtu 
null* pot eft res : Aod therefore in oar-inquiry of Buxdrts , we 
will obferve tiwt plain methode which Nature reacherh us, and 
will begin with examining, -Wh^t Quant it* it, as being riieb 

A firft 

A TrfAtife of B O D I E S. Chap. r. 

firft and primary affection; and that which maketh the things: 
we treat of, be what we intend to fignifie by the name of Body. 
But becaufe there is a great variety of apprehensions framed 
by learned men of the nature of Quantity (though indeed no- 
' s thing can be more plain and fimplc then it is in it felf) I con- 
IC ceive it will not beamifle, before we enter into the explication 
of it, to confider how the myfterie of dilcourfing and exprefsing 
the mindsof our thoughts to one another by \\ordi ( a prerogative belong- 
ing onely to man ) is ordered and governed among us ; that Ib 
we may avoid thofe rocks , which many and for the moft 
part, fuch as think they fpin the fineft thrids, do fuffer ftiip- 
\vraek againft in their fubrileft-difcourfes. The moft dangerous 
of all which, affuredly is when they confound the true and reall 
natures of things, with the conceptions they frame of them in 
their own minds. By which fundamental! mifcarriage of their 
reafoning, they fall into great errours and abfurdities : and 
whatfbever they build upon fo ruinous a foundation, proveth 
but ulelefle cobwebs or prodigious Chymeias. It is true, words 
fervc to exprefle things; but if you obferve the matter well, you 
, will perceive they do fo, onely according to the pictures we 
make of them in our own thoughts, and not according as the 
things are in their proper natures. Which is very reafonable ic 
fliould be fo, fincc the foul, thatgiveth the names, hath nothing 
of the things in her but thefe notions : and knoweth not the 
thing? otherwife then by thcfe notions ; and therefore cannot 
give other names but fuch as muft fignifTe the things by me* 
diacion of thefe notions. In the things, all that belongeth un- 
to them is comprised under one entire Entity : b:it in us, there 
areframed as many fererall diftincl: formall conceptions, af 
that one thing fhcweth it felf unto us with different faces. 
Every one of which conceptions fecmeth to have for its ob- 
ject adiftinft thing, becaufe the conception it felf is as much fe- 
vered and diftinguifLed from another conception or image, 
arifing out of the yery fame thing that begot this, as it can be 
from any image painted in the underftanding by art abfolutely 
other thing. 

^. It will not be amiflc to illuftrate this matter by fome farni- 

Thefiift errour liar example. Imagine I have an apple in my hand : the fame 
fem hcncV' fC fruit worketli different effetts upon my fcverall fenfes : rny eye 


; W7y.'//?*/BODIES. 

tclle:h me it is green or red: my nofc that it hath a mellow lent: ^khUt 

C7 * t' PI VI f2 Or 

my tafte that it is fvvcct, and my hand that it is cold and weigh- thing* xviirre 
tie. My fcnfes thus affe6ted, fend meflcngers to my phanralie pil/^;]" 
vvich news of the diicoverics they have made : and there, all of aliy found 
thera make fcverall and diflincl: pictures of what cntereth by 
their doors. So chac my Realbn ( which dilcourfeth upon 
what it findeth in my phantafic ) can confidcr grcennefic by' 
itfelf, or mellownefle, or fwectncfle , or coldnetfc, or any- 
other quality whatsoever , fingly and alone by ic felf, without 
relation to any other that is painted in me by the fame apple : 
in which, none of thefe have any diftindtion at all, but are one 
and thefimcfubftanceof the apple, that maketh various and 
different itnprcflions upon me, according to the various difpo- 
fitions of my feverall fenfes : as hereafter we fliall explicate 
at large. B-;t in my mind, every one of thcfe notions is a di- 
ftinct picture by it felf, and is as much fevered from any of 
the reft arifing from the fame apple , as it would be from 
any imprefsion or image made in me; by a {tone or any o- 
ther fubftancc whatfoevcr, that being entire in it felf" and cir- 
cumicribed within its own circle, is ablblutely fequeftred from 
any communication with the other : fo that what is but one 
entir* thing in it (elf, fecmeth to be many diftinft things in 
my under/landing : wherebyj if 1 be not very cautious, and in 
a manner wreftle with the bent and inclination of my un- 
derftanding ( which is apt to refcrre the diftin& and com- 
plete ftamp it findeth within it felf, unto a diftinfl and 
complete originall character in the thing ) I (hall be in dan- 
ger before I am aware , to give a<5tuall Beings to the quanti- 
ty, figure, colour, fmcll, taft , and other accidents of the ap- 
ple, each of them diftinft one from another , as alfofrom the 
fubftancc which they clothe; becaufe I find the notions of 
them really diftinguifhed ( as if they were different Entities ) 
in my mind. And from thence I may inferre, there is no 
contradiction in nature to have the accidents really fevered 
from one another , and to have them actually fubfift without 
their fubftance : and fuch other miflaken fiibtilties, which arife 
,out of our unwary conceiting that things are in their own na- 
tnres afier the fame fafhion as we confider them in our under- 

" A 2 And 


cond er- 


**Tf**tife ^/BODIES. Chap, r. 

And this courfe of the minds di(guifing and changing the 
imprefTions it receiveth from outward objects, into appearances 
quite differing from what the things arc in their own reall na- 
tures ; rauiy be oblervcd not onely in multiplying Entities 
where in tr.:th there is but one : but alio in a contrary man- 
ner, by compriimg (evernli dittinc} things under one fingle 
notion j which if aftet wards it be reflected back upon the 
things themielves , is the occasion of cxceedioggrcatcrrours, 
entaiigltthi >cme in unfupetabk difficulties. As for exam* 
t Looking i:poa ftrcrall cubes or deyes^ whereof one Us of 
> another of lead, atfea^d of ivory > a fourth of wood , a. 
fcfth of giaflc, atid whttc o:het matter you pieate ; all thefc fe- 
verall thing* agree together in my undetftanding, and are 
there comprehended under, one frngle notion of artibe- whick 
( lifce a paimer that wew to deitgnc them onely in black and 
white) roaketlh OJYC figute that reprefcntetli them all. Now >if 
removing my 'coniideration from this ifnpreifion which the ft- 
veralltut>es makeirt my iinderttanding, unto the cubes them- 
feivet, I Khali unwarily fufrer my fdf to pia this o^>e notion 
upon every one of them, and accordingly conceive it to be re* 
ally itiihem; it will of neceflity fall out by this rnifapplying of 
noiridft t& the reall things, that I murt *llovy 
tOKKher emities, which never had noi-tan have any 
in nature. 

From this toticeptton , Plato's Idea's had their birth; for he 
ifthis under (randing ortfe imivedall notion that agreed 
to evety individuall of the fame fpecks of fub&ance, 
which itnprinttd that notion in him and conceiving that the 
pi&areof anything rmift have an exafl correlpondence with 
thethin it l-eprefenteth ; and not codfrderiMg that this was hut 
an imperfect piclwrc of the individuall ttiat rnadeic: he did 
thence conceive, there was actually in every indi^dnall lub- 
ftanceont uniterfall Nature rtinning through all of that fpeties, 
which made them be what they were. And then toftfidering 
that cofp6reky, quantity, and other accidents of matter, could 
not agree with this uniYCHall fubfitlcnt Nature, h <knied all 
ihofetjf it: and To, "afeftrai^ing from all materiality in his I<:'CA"^ 
nnd giving them vt reall & aihiall fubfi-ftence in nature, he made 
them like Angels, whole eflenccs and fonnall reafons wtrc to bt 


Chap", i. esfrreMtfeofBODlES. 

the Eflcnce and to give Exfiftence unto corporeall individuals: 
and Co each Idea was embodied in every individuall of its 
/pec-ies. Unto which opinion ( and upon th fame grounds). 
Averroes did lean, in the particular of mens fouls. Likewilc 
Scotus finding in his undemanding an univerfall notion 
Springing from the impreflion that individuals make in it,will 
have alike univerfall in the thing it (elf, fo determining uni- 
verfals ( to ufe his own language and terms) to be a parte rti; 
and cxpreflfing the diftin&ion they have from the reft of the 
thing, by the terms o{attttformaliter,fed non remitter and 
thereby maketh every individuall comprife an univerfall fub- 
fiftent nature in it. Which inconvenience other modern Phi- 
lofbphers fceking to avoid, will not allow thefc univerfalls a 
reall and a<5hiall fubfiiknce; but will lend them onely a fiffa- 
tious Being, fo making them as they call them Entia rationis. 
Bat herein again they (after themfeives to be carried down the 
ftream before they are aware by the undcrftanding fwhich is 
apt to pin upon the objects, the notions it findeth within it 
felf resulting i'rom them) and do confider an unity in the 
things which indeed is onely in the underftanding. 

Therefore one of our greateft cares in the guidance of our y. 
dilcourfe, and a continuall and fedulous caution therein,ought Great care t 
tobeufed in this particular, where every errour is a funda- void^hTerro 
mentall one, and leadeth into inextricable labyrinths, and hich may > 
where that which is all our level to keep us upright and even nerof undcr- 
C our underftanding) is fo apt, by reafon of its own nature 
and manner of operation, to make us flide into miftaking and 
crrour. And to fumme up in fhort what this difcourfe aimcth 
at, we muft narrowly take heed , left reflecting upon the no- 
tions we have in our mind, we afterwards pin thofe aiery /- 
perttru&ures upon the materiall things themfeives, that be- 
got them; or frame a new conception of the nature of any 
thing by the negotiation of our underftanding, upon thofc 
imprefTions which it felf maketh in us : whereas we fhould 
acquiefce and be content with that naturall and plain notion, 
which fpringeth immediately and primarily from the thing it 
felfrwhich when we do not,the more we fecm to cxcell in fub- 
tilty, the further we go from reality and truth;hkean arrow, 
which being wrong levelled at hand,falleth widcft when (hot 
in the ftrongcft bow. A 3 Now 

common :o 

6 A Tredtife of B O D I E S. Chap, r . 

6. Now to come to another point that maketh toourpre- 

TWO iom of font pnrpofc. We may obiervc there arc two forts or hn- 

nod- guage to exprefle our notions by : The onr hc-longeth in ge- 

ne nera ji to all mankind, and the hmpleii perfon, that cm but 

o a'l . r i 

he ochcr apprehend and Ipeak ienic, is as much of it as tha 
greateft Dolour in the fthooJs : and in this, the words cx- 
prefle the things properly and plainly, accordingto the ns- 
turall conceptions that all people agree in making of them. 
The other fort of language is circled in with* narrower 
bounds ; and is underftood onely by thofc that in a parti- 
cular and exprefle manner haveb-ren trained up unto it : and 
many of the words which are proper to it .have been, by the 
authours of it,tranflated and wrefted from the gencrall con- 
ceptions ofthe fame words, by Come metaphore, or fimilitude, 
or aJlufion, to fervc their private turns. Without the firft 
manner of exprefling our notions, mankind could not live in 
{bciety together, and converfe with one another : whereas, 
the other hath no further extent, then among (iich perfonsas 
have agreed together to explicate and defigne among them- 
felves particular notions peculiar to their arts and arrairs. 

Of the firft kind, arethofe tennc generall heads, which 
Arirtetlc calleth Predicaments: under which he (who was 
the moft judicious orderer of notions, and dire&our of mens 
conceptions that ever lived ) hath comprhcd whatsoever 
hath, or can have, a being in nature. For when any object 
occtirreth to our thoughts, we either confider the effrntiall 
and fundamcntall Being of it ; or we re ferre it to Tome fpecies 
of Quantitie; or we di/cover fome qualities in it ; or we per- 
ceive that it doeth< or that itfuffereth fbmething; or we con- 
ceive it in fbmc determinate place, or time, and the like. Of 
all which, every man living chat enjoyeth but the ufe of rea- 
fon findeth naturally within oimfelf at the very firrt naming 
of them, a plain, complete, and fatisfying notion ; which is 
the fame without any the leaft variation, in all mankind ; 
unleOe it be in fuch, as have induftruoufly, and by force, and 
with much labour, perplexed and depraved thofe primary 
and finccre imprcflions, which nature had freely made in 

Of the fccond fort, arc the particular words of art by 


Chip. i. A rrexife ^/BODIES. 

which learned men tife to exprcffe what they m?an in Scicn- 
cci ; and the names of inftruments, and of fuch things as be- 
long to trades, and the like : as a fine, a tangent, an epicycle, 
a. deferent, an axe, a trowell, and fuch others ; the incelli- 
gcMice of which bclongcth not to the generality of man- 
Kindij but cntly to Geometricians , Aftronomers > Car- 
penters, Mafbns, and fuch perfons as convecie familiarly 
and frequently with thofe things. To learn the true fignifi- 
cation of fuch words, we muft confult with thofc that have 
the knowledge and pradrilc of them : as in like manner, to 
under ft and the other kind of plain language* we muft ob~ 
ferve how the words that compote it are apprehended, ufed, 
and applied by mankind in gencralljand not receive into this 
examination the wreflcd "or Metaphorical! n(es of any 
learned men, who feek oftentimes ( beyond any ground in 
nature) to frame a general! notion that may comprehend all 
the particular ones, which in any fenfe, proper or improper* 
may arife out of the life of one word. 

And this is the caufe of great errours in dilcoiirfe ; fo great 
and important, as I cannot too much inculcate the caution 
requifitc to the avoyding of this rock. Which that it may be fting words 
the better apprehended, I will infhnce in one example of a 

common mea- 

moft plain and eafie conception wherein all mankind nacu- nin to xprefl 

r n . . _ . a more parcicu- 

rally agrceth, how the wreiting it from its proper gen we> Jaror.ftudicd 
and original! fignification, leaded one into, ftwngc abftudtr notion - 
Vies, ; and yet they pa(Te for fubtill fpeeulations. The notion 
of being in a place, is naturally the fame ia all men living : 
ask any fimple artifan , Where fuch, a man, fueh a houie,fuch 
a tree> or fuch a thing is ; and he will anlw-er you in the very 
fame manner as the learnedeft Philofopher would do: he will 
tell you, the man you ask for, is in fuch a church, fitting in 
fuch a piew, and in fuch a corner of it ; that the houfe you 
inquire after, is in fuch a ftrect, and next to fuch two build- 
ings on each fide of it; that the tree you would find out, is in 
fuch aforeftj upon fueh a hill, near fuch a fountain, and by 
fuch a bufh ; that the wine you would drink o is in fuch a 
cellar, in fuch a part of it, and in fuch a cask. In conclufion, 
no man living that fpeaketh naturally and freely out of the 
notion he findeth clearly in his understanding, will give you 

A 4 other 

A Treatife ^/BODIES. Chap, i . 

other anfwer to the queftion of, tvhe re A thing //, then fuch a 
one as plainly expreficth his conceit of being in place, to be 
no other, then a bodies being environed and mclofed by Tome 
one, or feverall others that arc immediate unto it ; as the 
place of aliqnour, is the vefieJl that comaineth it ; and the 
pkceofthe veflell, is fuch a part of the chamber or houle 
that it retteth upon, together with the ambient aire ; which 
hath a (hare in making up the places of moft things. A net 
this being the anther, that every man whatsoever will readi- 
ly give to this queftion and every asker being fully fatisfied 
\vith it ; we may fafely conclude, That all their notions and 
conceptions of being in a place, are the fame; and confe- 
quenly, that it is the naturaJl and true one. 

But then feme others, considering that fuch conditions as 
thefe will not agree umo other things, which they likewife 
conceit to be in a place ( for they receive it as an axi- 
orne from their fenie, that whatfover is muft be fo-ne vherc, 
and whatsoever is no where, is not at all) they fall to caftmg . 
about how they may frame fome common notion to compre- 
hend all the ieverall kinds of being in place, which they 
imagine in the things they difcourle of. If there were no- 
thing but bodies to be ranked by them in the Predicament of 
Place, then that defcription I have already fet down would 1 
be allowed by them, as fufficient. But fince that fpirits and 
fpirituall things (as Angels, rationall fouls, verities, fcien- 
cies. arts, and the like ) have a being in nature and yet will 
not be comp ; ifcd in fuch a kind of place as a body is contain- 
ed in ; they rack their tho -ghts to f peculate out fbmc com- 
mon notion of being in place, which may be common to 
theie, as well as to bodies ; like a common accident agreeing 
to diverfe fiibjeib. And fo in the end they pirch upon an 
Entity, which tbey call an #/ : and they conceit the nature 
and formall rea on of that to be, the ranking of any thing in 
a place when that Entity is thereunto affixed. And then they 
have no further difficulty, in fettling an Angeil, or any pure 
fpirit or immateriall eflence, in a pbce as properly, and as 
completely, as if it were a fubfrance. It is but 
afTigmng nn Ubi to fuch a fpirit, and he is prelently riveted 
t what place you plealc > and by multiplying the llbies , 

Ch ap. 2 . *A Trtttife of B O D I E S . 

any individuall body unto which they are afligned, is at the 
fameinftanc in as many diftant places, as they allot it different 
Ubics : and if they afTigne the fame Ubi to fcyerall bodies, fo 
many feverall ones as they afligne it unto will be in one and 
the tame place: and noc onely many bodies in one place, but 
even a whole bodie in an indivifible, by a kind of Ubi that hath 
a pow er to refume all the extended parts and incloie them in a 
point of place. All which prodigious conceits and impofTibili- 
ties in nature do fpring out of their mifhkein framing Meta- 
phyficall and abftra&ed conceptions , inftced of contenting 
themfelves with thofe plain, ealie, and primary notions, which 
nature ftampeth alike in all men of common fenfe, and un- 
derftanding. As who defireth to be further inftrudted in this 
particular, may perceive, if he take the pains to look over 
what M. White hath difcourfed ofP/ace,in the fit ft of his Dia. 
logues *Z)* Mundo. Unto which book Khali from time to 
time ( according as I fhall have occafion ) referre my Reader 
in thofe fubje&s the Authour takcth upon him to prove ; being 
confident that his Metaphyficall demonstrations there, are aj 
firm as any Mathematical] ones ( for Metaphyficall demon- 
ftrations have in themfelves as much firmnefle, certainty and 
evideneie as they ) and fo will appear as evident as they, unco 
whofbever fhall underftand them throughly, and fhall frame 
right conceptions of them : which ( how plain foevcr they feem 
to be) is noc the work of every pretender to learning. 

Of QtttMtitie. 

\ Mong thofe primary afFeftions which occurre in the per- 
j^ ul'iill of a body, Quantitie ( as I have obferved tn the 
precedent chapter ) is one, and in a manner the firtt and the thc vul * ai *". d 

r / c 'mmon not>- 

root of all the refi. Therefore ( according to the caution we r.nofQ.,anrin< 
have been fb prolix in giving, beeaufe icis offb main impor- un^^a't'fci 
ta nee) if we aim at right undcrftanding the true nature of it, nature ofic. 
we mufl examine, what apprehenfion all kinds of people ( that 
is, mankind in generall ) maketli of it. By which proceeding, 
-we do not make the ignorant multitude judge of that learning 
which grovveth out of theconiideration of Quantitie: but one- 

i-o A TreAtlfe of B O D I E S. Chap. 2. 

lyofthc natu rail notion which fervoth learned men for a ba(is 
and foundation to build fcicntificall iiiperftruclures upon. For 
although fciencies be the works and ftruftures of the under- 
fi a nding governed and levelled by the wary and tt;ift rules of 
moft ingenuous artificers, yet the ground upon which they arc 
railed, are ftich plain notions of things", as naturally and vyith^ 
out any art, do. prefect themfelves to every mans apprehenfion: 
without which for matter to work upon, thofe artificial! refle-r 
&ions would leave the underftanding as unfatisfied, as a cook 
x^ould the appetite by adifli upon which hcfhould have exerci- 
fcd all his art in drefting it, but whofe firft fubftancc were not 
meat of folid nutriment : it is thccourfe market that mil ft deli- 
ver him plain materialls to employ his cunning upon : And in 
like manner, it is the indifcipJincd multitude that mutt fur- 
nifh learned men with naturall appjthenn'ons and notions 
to exerciie their wits about : which when they have , they 
may ufe ami ovdera,nd reflet upon them as they plcafe : but 
they mutt fir/J receive them in that plain and naked form, as 
mankind in general! pidlureth them out in their imagina- 

And therefore the firft work of fcholars is to learn of the 
people, Quern pexet, avfatriftm eft & jus & nerma hquen.dis 
vvlut is the true meaning and figniJication of thefe primary 
names, and what notions shey begot in the generality of man- 
kind of the things they defigac. Of the common people then 
wemuft enquire What Quantity is: and we fLall foon be in- 
formed, if we butconfider what anfwer any ienfible man will 
make upon the fudden to,a queftion whereof that is the fubjeft: 
for fuch unftudied replies exprefle fincerely the plain and na- 
tural! conceptions which they that make them have of the 
things they ipeak of. And this of Qnaacity is the plained and 
the firft that nature printeth in us, of all the things we fee, 
feel, and converfe withall; and that mutt ferve for a ground un- 
to all our other inquiries and reflexions : for which caufe we 
mutt be fure not to receive it \v retted or dilguifed from its own 
i. nature. 
Bxt . ( :" f ?? n< ? If then any one be asked, What Quamitie there is in fucli a 

dmfibility is , . . / J*5 . . , . j n j 

thing, or how greatit is ; he will preleutly in bis underltana- 
i n g compare it with fome other thing ( equally known by both 


Chap. 2 . A TrtAtife ^/BODIES. 

parties) that may (erve for a mcafure unto it; and then anAver, 
That it is as big as it, or twice as big, or not half fo big, or the 
like : in fine., that it is bigger or lefler then another thing, or 
equall to ir. 

It is of main importance to have this point throughly and 
clearly mulerftood; therefore it will not be amuTe to turn it and 
view it a little more particularly. Jf you ask what quantity 
there is of iuch a parcell of cloth , how much wood in fucha 
piece of timber, ho 1 v much gold in iuch an ingott how much 
wine in fuch a veflel, how much rime was taken up in fuch an 
a6tion?he that is to give you an account of them meafureth them 
by ells, by feet, by inches, by pounds, by ounces by g Jlons. by 
pints, by dayev, by hourcs, and the like; and then cclleth you, 
how many of thole parts are in the whole that you enquire of. 
Which anfwer, every man living will at the inftant, without 
ftudy, make to this queftion; and with it, every man that fhall 
ask will be fully appayed and fatisfied : fo that it is moft evi- 
dent, it fully exprefleth the notions of them both , and of all 
mankind, in this particular. 

Wherefore, when we consider that Quantity is nothing elfe, 
but the extenfion of a thing; and that this extenfion is exprefled 
by a determinate number of lefler extenfions of the fame nature; 
('which lefler ones, arc {boner and more eafily apprehended 
then greater bccaufe we are rirft acquainted and converfanc 
with iuch ; and pur understanding grafpeth, weigheth and di- 
cerneth fuch morefteadily ; and maketh an exaer judgement 
of them ) and that fuch letter ones are in the greater which they 
mcafure, as parts in a whole; and that the whole by compre- 
hending thofe parts, is a mere capacity to be divided into them; 
we concludc,That Quantity or BigHefle^s nothing elfe but divi- 
fibility ; and that a thing is big, by having a capacity to be di 
vided or ( which is the fame ) to have parts made of it. 

This is yet more evident ( if more may bo)in Difcretc Quan- 
tity ( that is, in number ) then in continued Quantity, or ex- 
tenfion. For if we con/lder any number whatfoever, we fhall 
find the eflence of it confifteth in a capacity of being refolved 
and divided into fo many unities, a$ are contained in ft; which 
are the parts of it. And this fpecics of Quantity being fimpler 
tlien the other, fcrveth for a rule to determine h by ; as we may 


1 1 A Treat! fe of BODIES. Chap, 2. 

observe in the familiar anfwers to qucftions of continued Quan- 
tity, which exprefie by number the content of it : as when one 
delivereth the Quantity of a piece of ground, by fuch a number 
of furlongs, acres, perches, or the like. 

* But we mutt take heed of conceiving, that thofe parts, which 

Pans of Qiian- \ve confider todifcern the nature of Quantity, are actually and 
Sul'iyb* their really in the whole of any continued one that contajneth them, 
whale. Ells, feet, inches, are no more reall Entities in the whole that is 

meafured by them, and thatmaketh impreffions of fuch notions 
in our understanding ; then in our former example, colour, fi- 
gure, mellownefTe, taft, and the like,are feverall fubftances in rhe 
apple that aflfe&eth our feverall fenfes with fuch various impre 
fions. It is but one whole, that may indeed be cut into fo many 
feverall parts : but thofe parts are not really there, till by divi- 
fion they are parcelled out : and then, the -whole ( out of which 
they are made ) ceafeth to be any longer : and the narts iuccecd 
in lieu of it; and are every one of them a new nko/e. 

This truth is evident out of the very definition we have ga- 
thered of Quantity. For fjnce t is divifibility ( that is, a bare 
capacity to divifion ) it followeth, that it is not yet divided: and 
confequently, that thofc parts arc not yet in it, which may be 
made of it; for divifion, is the making two or more things of 

4 But becaufe this is a very great controverfie in fchools, and fo 

aa ny iTthVr i m P or t ant to be determined and fettled, as without doing fo, we 

whole, Quan. fhall be lyable to mainerrours in fearching the nature and ope- 

cSi^ofedo? rations of bodies; and that the whole progrefTe of our difcourfc, 

indivifibics. will be uncertain and wavering, if this principle and foundation 

be not firmly laid ; we muft apply our felves, to bring fbmc 

more particular and immediate proof of the verity of this afler- 

tion. Which we will do, by (hewing the inconvenience, impoP 

fibility and contradiction , that the admittance of the other 

Icadeth unto. For if we allow a&uall parts to be diftinguifhcd 

in Quantity, it will follow that it is compofed of points or in- 

divifibles, which we (hall prove to be impoffible. 

The firft will appear thus : if Quantity were divided into all 
the parts into which it is divifible, it would be divided into in- 
divifibles ( for nothing divifible, and not divided , would re- 
main in it) but it is difiinguifhed into the fame parts jnto which 


Chap. 2. ATrettlfeof BODIES, j^ 

ir would be divided 3 if it were divided into all the parts into 
which ic is divifiblc; therefore ic is di/iinguRhcd into indivifi-. 
bles. The major proportion is evident to any man that hath 
eyes of understanding. The minor, is. the confcfiion or rather 
the pofition of the sdvcrfiry. when he faitii that ail its parts are 
actually diftinguiflu'd. The consequence CHI no: he calumniated, 
(iflce that indivifibles, whether they ,bc lef>i rated 01- joyncd, are 
(till but indivifibles; though that \vhidi is cocnpoied of {hem b 
divifible. It rauft rhen be granted that all the parts which are in 
Quantity, are indivifibles- which parts being actually in it, and 
the whole being compoled of theft pares onely, ic folio weth, that 
Quantity is compoled and made of itidivifib/es. 

If any fliouid caviiJ at the Supposition, and fay, we firetch ic 
furrtitr then they intend it /"by taking all the parts to be diftitt*- 
guifhed; whereas they mean onely that there arc parts a&uaHy 
in Quantity, abftrailiog fromW.- by reafon that alt, in this 
matter, would infcrre an infinity j which to be avfrtuaUy in any 
created thing, they will allow to be iinpoffible. Our anfwer will 
fce, to reprelent unto them how this is barely fatd, without any 
/ground or coiour of reafon, merely to evade the inconvenience 
that the argument driveth them unto. For if any parts be a&u- 
aHy diftinguifliedj why jfhould not all be fof What prerogative 
liave foiric that the others have not ? And how came .they \yy 
'\~J If they have their ahiall diftkidHon out oftheif ilaojre of 
being parts, then ail mft enjoy it alike, and all be equally di- 
ftmgutfhed/as the foppofaion goeth : andthtymuft all be in- 
<3ivifibles as we have proved. Behdes to prevent the cavill upon 
the word *8> we may change the expreflion of the Proportion 
into a negative : for if they admit ( as they do ) that there is no- 
part in Quantity, but is diftinguifbed as farre as it may be di- 
fiingupfHed, then the (ame conclusion followeth wkh 110 lei& 
evicrcnce; and all wi(i prove mdivifrbks, as before. 

Bm it is impoflible that indivifibles fhould make Qirantny-; 5. 
for if they fhouldjit muft be done either by a finite and deter- Quantity can, 
minate number, or by an infinite multitude ofthfctn. If you fay pofedof indif 
by a finke; !t us take ( for example ) three .indivifibles, and by 
adding them together, let us fuppoiealine to be cQinpo<{c<l; 
whofe extent being onely longitude, it is the firft and {implied 
fpcdcs of Quamity, and therefore -wbatfocvor is divifible into 


, 4 'ATnalftif BODIES. Chap. 2. 

parts, mnft be at the leaft a line. This line thus made, cannot be 
conceived to be divided into more parts then into three ; fincc 
doing fo you reduce it into the indivisibles that compofed it. 
But Euclidc hath demonstratively proved beyond all cavill ( in 
the tenth proportion of his fixth book of Elements ) that any 
line vvhatfoever may be divided into wbatfcever number of 
parts; fo that if this bea line, it muft be divisible into a hundred 
or a thoufand, or a million of parts : which l.-ing importable in 
a line, that being divided into three parts onely, every one of 
thofe three is incapable of further division : it is evident, that 
neither a line, nor any Quantity vvhatfoever, is competed or 
made of a determinate number of indivifibles. 

And fince that this capacity of being divifible into infinite 
parts, is a property belonging to all cxcenfion ( tor Euclides de- 
monftration is univerfall ) we muft needs conftfle that it is the 
nature of indivifibles, when they are j'oyned together, to be 
drowned in one another , for otherwise there would refult a 
kind of extenfion out of them, which would not have that pro- 
perty; contrary to what Euclide hath demonftrated. And from 
hence it followeth that Quantity cannot be compoied of an in- 
finite multitude of fiich indivifibles; for if this be the narure of 
indivifibles, though you put never fc great a number of them 
together, they will ftill drown thcmfelves all in one indivihble 
point. For what difference can their being infinite, bring to 
them, of fuch force as to deftroy their eflence and propcrcy ? If 
you butconfider how the eflentiall compofition of any multi- 
tude whatfbever, is made by the continuall addition of unities, 
till that number arife; it is evident in our cafe that the infinity of 
indivifibles muft alfo arife , out of the continued addition 
of ftiJl one indivifible to the indivifibles prefuppofed : then lee 
us apprehend a finite number of indivifibles, which ( according 
us we have proved ) do make no extenfion, but are all of them 
drowned in the firft; and obferving how the progreife unto an 
infinite multitude, gocth on by the (reps of one and one, added 
ftill to this prefuppoicd number : we fhall fee that every in- 
divifible added , and confequcndy the whole infinity, will be 
drowned in the fiift number , as that was in the firft indivi- 

Which will be yet plainer, if we confider that the nature of 


Chap. 2. A Trewft of BODIES. 

extenfion rcquireih that one part be not in the fame place, 
where theother is : then if this cxtenfion be compofedof indi- 
vifiblcs, let us take two points of place in which this extension 
is, and inquire whether the indivifibles that arc in each one of 
thefe points, be finite or infinite. If it be anfwered that they arc 
finite, then the finite indivifibles in thefe two points make an 
extenfion ; which we have proved impoffible. But if they be 
faid to be infinite ; then infinite indivifibles are drowned in one 
point, and confequently have not the force to make extenfion. 
Thus then it remaineth firmly eftablifhed, That Quantity if 
not cempofed of inAivifiblcs ( neither finite, nor infinite ones } 
and con.equently, That p<*rts are not attually in it. 

Yet before we leave this point, although we have already 
been fbmevvhat long about it> I conceive it will wot be tedious, An 
if we be vet a little lonper, and bend our djfcourfe to remove a to provc ll l u 

, - ' , n / n/- / i t n ^ prts are actu 

difficulty that even Seme it felt feemeth to object unto us.. For ally in Quand- 
doth not our eye evidently inform us, there are fingers, hands, d a ; ra TioJof d th 
arms, legs, feet, toes and variety of other pans in a mans bo. nftake from 
dy? Thefe are actually in him, and fecm to be diftinit, things in 
him, fo evidently, that we cannot perfwaded, but that we lee, 
and feel the diftin&ion between them * for every one of them 
hath a particular power of auall working and doing what 
belongeth unto its nature to do r each finger is really there;, 
the hand is different from the foot; the leg from the arm ; and 
fb of the reft. Are not thefe parts then actually and really in a 
mans body ? And is not each of them as really diftinguiftied 
from any other ? 

This appeareth at the firft fight to be an infuperable objecti- 
on, becaufe of the confirmation and evidence thatfenfe feemeth 
to give it. But looking nearly into the matter, we fhall find 
that the difficulty arifeth not from what fenfe informeth us ofj 
but from our wrong applying the conditions of our notions un- 
to the things that make imprelfions upon our fenfe.. Senfc 
judgeth not which is a finger, which is a hand, or which is a 
foot. The notions agreeing to thefe words, as well as the words 
themfelves, are productions of the underftanding : which con- 
fidering feverall impreflions made upon the fenfe by the fame 
thing as it hath a virtue and power to feverall operations, fra- 
tncth feverall notions of k: a& in our former example, it doth 


16 A Treaty of&Q DIES. 

of colour, figure , f?ft,nnd the like, in an apple. For as tbcfc arc 
not different bodies or fubftanccSj diftiiiguifhed one from ano- 
ther; bin arc the fame one entire thing, xverklng level-ally upon 
the fcn!es, arid that accordingly, maketh thefc dirTerent pi&urcs 
in the micd; which are there as much di{tinguifhed, as if they 
were piftin-es of dirTerent fubftanccs. So, the parts which are 
conhdered in Quantity, arc not divers things : but are onely a 
virtu* or power to be divers things : which virtue, making ie- 
vernll imprefliorre upon the fenfes, occafioneth fcrcrall notions 
in the understanding : and the underftanding is (o much the 
more prone to conceive thofe parts as diftin& things, by how 
much Quantky is nearer to be diftin& things, then the qualities 
of theappfe are. For Quantity, i$ a poflibility to be made di- 
ftin<5l things by divifion : whereas the others, are but a virtue 
to do diftincl: things. And yet ( as we have touched above) 
nothing can be more manifeft, then that if Quantity be divifi- 
bility ( which is a portability, tiiat many things may be m^eof 
it ) thefe parts ait not yet divers thing?. So that, if ( for exam- 
ple) a rod belaid before us, and half of it be hid from our 
fights and the other half appear; it is not one part or thing that 
flieweth it (elf, and another part or thing that doth not fhew ic 
fclf : bit it is the fame rod or thing, \rhich fhevvcth it lelf ac- 
cerding to the poffibility of being one new thing, but doth not 
fhevv it fclf according to the poflibility of being the other of 
the two things it may be made by divifion. Which cyampik if 
k be well ccufidercd will make it oioch more eafty fink into 
us> that a hand, or eye, or foot, is not a diftincl: cbing by it (elf; 
but that it is the man, according as he hath a certain viimie or 
power in torn to diftin^t operations. For if you fever atiy of 
%he(e-pftrrs f/oni the wh-ofc body; cl'e 'hand can no more hold; 
nnrtihe eye fee ; nor tlie r fooc'walk ; which are the powers that 
dBentiallycopyftittitc them -to be what they -are : and chereftM* 
y. . they are r>o longer a hnnd, r.n eye, or a foor. 

Thcfoiuuonof Now then to come to ?he objection ; let us e-xmnine how 
f<at."nd~ fcrre'Scnfe may-bc-3'Kowcdio-bc judge inthis difficahy:and we 
that scnfc can- -fh^]\ find, tlvat Senff cannot dere-hmrjne any one port in a Uody: 
SethtTone f r lfr ' r cflnrld, it \\ot?!<! prccifcly tcH, where that part beginncth 
parr be ii'ftin- -oremleth: butirlxrinn forced irvn rhatit bc*pinnethanden<ieth 

uu (lied from ,..,../-,,.. . L t - , 

another or no. 'in mdivff)bles;it is ccrwin,thot Sonic onnot dcrcrnunc oi them. 


Chap. 2; A Twitfe ^/BODIES. ! 7 

If then fcnfe cannot determine any one part, how (hill it fee 
that it is diftinguifhcd from all other parts? Again; considering 
that all that whereof Ten fe is capable is divisible, it {fill telJeth 
us, that in all it fceth, there are more pares then one: and there- 
fore it cannot difcern, nor inform us of any that is one alone: 
nor knoweth what it is to be one ; for it never c ould difcem 
it : but what is many, is many ones and cannot be known, by 
that, which knoweth not, what it is to be one: and confcquent- 
ly fenfc cannot tell us, that there arc many. Wherefore it is 
evident, that we may not rely upon fcnfc for this qucftion. 
And as for reafon, (he hath already given her verdiiir. 

So that nothing remaineth but to fhcw, why we talk as we 
do, in ordinary ditcourfc, of many parts : and that what we 
fay in that kind, is true,notwithrtandmg che unity of the thing. 
Wliich will appear plainly, ifweconfider that our underftand- 
ing hath a cuftome for the better difcerning of things, to im- 
pofe upon a thing as it is under one notion, the exclufion of it 
ielf as it is under other notions. And this is evident unto all 
fchollars, when the mark of exclufion is cxpreffcly put: as 
when they fpeakof a white thing, addiwg the reduplication, AS 
it is white : which excludcth all other confederations of that 
thing befidcs the whitencfle of it : but when it cometh under 
fbme particular name of the thing, it may deceive thofethac are 
not cunningrthough indeed, moft men difcovcr it in fuch names 
as \ve call abftraacd as humanity, animalky, and the like. 
But it cafily deceiveth when it cometh in concrete names ; as it 
doth in the name of Part in generall, or in the names of parti- 
cular parts ; as a hand, an eye, an inch, an elle, and others or* 
the like nature : for as you fee that a part excludeth both the 
notion of the whole, and of the remaining parts; (b doth a 
hand, arreye, an elle, exclude all the reft of that thing, where- 
of the hand is a hand, and the elle is an elle. and fo forth. Now 
then, a? every man feeth evidently that ic cm not be laid, the 
wall as it is whiteis platter or : no more emit be Cud, 
that the hand of a mm is his foot ; becatiie the word hand fi- 
gmfieth as much in it fclf, as if the irnn were taken by rcdu- 
plicanon, to be the man as he is hand or as he hath the power 
ofholding. So likewife, in the rod we 'p^ke of before: itcannot 
be laid that the part fccn is the part unicen j becauie the part 

B feen, 

!$ *>fTrc*tifefff BODIES. Chap.*; 

feen, fignifieth the rod as it is a poflibilitie to be made by divi- 
fion fuch a thing,as it appeareth to the fight. And thus it is dear 
how the difficulty of this point, arifeth out of the wrongful! ap- 
plying the conditions of our notions! and of names, to the ob- 
1 jecls and things which we kno.v : whereof we gave warning in 
Chap.t..i.j the beginning. 

8. After which there retnaincth no more to be faid of this fub- 

Anemiirerari- j e &, to enumerate the feverall fpeciefes Of Qliantitie, ae- 
on ot the leve- .. . .. . r i i T f ~^~" r -i- / 

rolifyeeiefeiof cording to that divihon which Logitians tor more racilme of 
Ojiantity.which djf cour f e have made of it. Namcly : thefefix,magnitudine, place, 

confirmed! that . j i /-vr i t i r n 

rnotion 3 time, number and weight. Of which, the two firft are 
permanent, and lie ftill expofcdto thcpleafureof whofocver 
hath a mind to take a furvcy of them. Which he may do by 
meafuring what parts they aredivifible into ; how many ells, 
feet, inches, a thing is long broad or deep ; how great a place 
is; whether it be not bigger or lefTer then fuch another; 
and by luch confederations as thefe ; which do all agree 
in this, that they exprefTe the efTence of thofe two fpeciefes 
of Quantitie, to confift in a capacity of being divided into 

The two next ; -motion and time; though they be of a fleet- 
ing propriety, yec it is evident that in regard of their originall 
and effcntiall nature, they are nothing elfe but a like divifibilitie 
into parts; which is meafured by pafling over fb great or fo 
little diltance ; and by years, dayes,hours,minutes, and the like. 
Number we alfo fee is of the fame nature ; for it is divifiblc in- 
to fo many determinate parts> and is meafured by unities, or by 
lefler numbers fo or fo often contained in a propofed greater. 
And the like is evident of weight, which is divifibJe into 
pounds, ounces, drammes, or grains ; and by them is meafured. 
So that looking over all the feverall fpeciefes of Quanni tie ; 
it is evident, our definition of it is a true one, and expreffeth 
fully the effence of it, when we fay it is diT*ifibiUtic t oi a ca- 
pacitie to be divided into parts; and that no other notion what- 
faevcr, befides this, rcacheth the nature of it. 

Of Raritirand Denjitie. 

I Intend in this Chapter to look as farrc as I can into the na- 
tureand caufcs ofthe twofirft differences 'of bodies which 
follow out of Qiiamitic as it concurred! with fubftanceto Q 
make a body : for, the difcovery of thetrij and of the various 
proportions of them among themfclves, will be a great and 
important ftep in the journey we are going. But thelcircitie of 
our language is fitch, in fubjc&s removed from ordinary conver- 
fation (though in others., I thin k none is more copious orcx- 
prefTivc } as afFordeth us not apt words of our own to expreflc 
Significantly fuch notions as I muft bufie my felf about in this 
difcourfe. Therefore I will prcfume to borrow them from the 
Latine fchool, where there is much ado about them. I would 
expreffe the difference between bodies , that under the fame 
mcafurcs and outward bulk, have a greater thinnefle and 
cxpanfion, or thicknefle and foliditie, one then another ; 
which terms, (or any I can find in English) do not fig- 
nific fully thofe affeftions of Quamitic that I intend hereto 
declare : therefore I will do it under the names of Raritieancl 
Denfitiej the true meaning of which will appear by what we 
fhall hereafter fay. 

It is evident unto us, that there are different forts of bodies, 2 . 

of which though you take equall quantities in one regard, yet it is evi^t 
they will be unequall in another. Their magnitude* may be ifeVanTrarc"' 
the fame, but their weights will be different or contrariwife, ^J Q &"* 
their weights being cquall, their outward meaiures will not be obfcare^h^ 
fo. Take a pintc of aire; and weigh it againft a pinte ofwa- the / are fuc ^ 
ter, and you will lee the ballance of the laft go down amain* 
but ifyou drive out the airc by filling the pinte with lead, 
the other pintc in which the water is, will rife again as faft : 
which ifyou poure out, and fill that pinte with quickfilver, 
you willperccire the lead to be much lighter : and ngain> you. 
will find a pinte of gofd heavier then fb much Mercuric. And in 
like manner, ifyou take a way- of the lieavje bodies till they a- 
grec in weight with thelighter,they will take up & fill different 
proportions^and parts ofthe mcafure that fhall contain them. 

But from whence this effect arifeth, is the difficultie that we 

B 2 would 

2 o A TrtAtifeofKOVlES. Chap. 3. 

would lay open. Our meafures tell us their quantities are cquall, 
and re'afon affurcth us, there cannot be two bodies in one a.nd 
the fame place; therefore when we fee that a pinte of one thing 
outweighcth a pinte of another that is thinner , we muit con- 
clude that there is more body compared together in the heavie 
thing then in the light: for el/e how cor.ld lo little of a folide oil 

c? C? 

denfe thing be (hecched out to take up fo great room, as we fee 
in a bafin of water that being rarified into fmoke or airejfilleth 
a w hole chamber ? and again, fhrink back into fo little room, 
as when it returaeth into water, or is contracted into ice ? But 
bow this comprchenfion of more body in equall room is eftcsfl- 
ed- doth not a little trouble Philcfephers. 

To find a way that may carry us through thefe difficulties that 
oftViT C * stifc out of the Rarity and Denfitie of bodies, let usdoasA- 
i> Tcraii pro- fhcnomcrs when they enquire the motions of the Spheres and 
f^^T.M Planets: they take all the Phenomena or icvcrall appearances 

jnc ro i lie r*ic j 41 

ard denfc bo- of them to our eyes; and then attribute to them iuch orbs, cour- 
fcs, and periods, as may fquare and fit with everyone of them; 
and by fuppofing them, they can exactly calculate all that 
will ever afcer happen to them in their motions. So let us 
take into our consideration the chief properties of rare and 
denfe bodies, and then caft with our felves to find out an hy- 
pothefis or fuppofition (if it be poflible ) that may agree with 
them all. 

Fitft, it fccmeth unto us that denfe bodies have their parts 
more clofe and compacted then others have that are more rare 
and fubtil. Secondly, they are more heavy then rare ones. A- 
gain, the rare are more eafily divided then the denfe bodies: for 
water, oyl, milk, honey.and fuch like fub.ftances will not oncly 
yield eafily to any harder thing that ftiall make its way through 
them; but they are fo apt to divifion and tolofe their continu- 
ity, that their own weights will overcome and break it:whcrc- 
as in iron , gold, marble , and fiich denfc bodies , a much 
greater weight and forqc is ncceflary to work that eftetSr. 
And indeed if we look well into it, we fhall find that the ra. 
rer things are as divifible in a lefTer Quantity , as the more 
denfc arc in a greater : and the fame force will break the rarer 
thing into more and IcfTcr parts, then it will an equall one 
that is more denfe. Take a ftick of light wood of fuch a big- 


Chap. f. A rw.ife ef B O D I E S. a i 

nefle that being a foot long, you may break it with your 
and another of the fame bignefle , but of a more heavic and 
compared wood, and you fhall not break it> though it be two 
foot k>ng : and with equall force you may break a loaf of bread 
into more and lefle parts , then a lump of lead that "i$ of the 
fame bignefle. Which alfo will rcfift more to the divifion of 
fire ( the fubtilUft divider that is) then fb much water will; 
for the little atomes of fire ( which we (hall difcourfe of here- 
after,) will pierce and cut out in the water, almofl as little parts 
asthemfclves, and mingling themfelves with them they will flic 
away together,and Co convert the whole body of water into fub- 
tile flnoke: whereas the fame Agent, afccr long working upon 
lead, will bring it into no lefle parts then fmall grains of duft, 
which it calcineth it into. And gold, that ismoredcnfe then 
lead, rtfifteth peremptorily all the dividing power of fire; and 
will not at all be reduced into a calx or lime, by fuch operation 
as reduced lead into it. 

So that remembring how the nature of Quantity is Divifi- 
bility; and confidcring that rare things are more diviiible thea 
denfe ones ; we muft needs acknowledge that the nature of 
quantity is fome way more perfe&ly in things that are rare. then 
in thofc that are denfe. On the other fide, more compafted and 
dcnfe things, may haply feem to fbme to have more Quantity 
then thofe that arc rare; and that it is but fhrtink together : 
which may be ftretched out and driven into much greater di- 
menfions then the Quantity of rare things, taking the quanti- 
ties of each of them equall in outward appearance. As gold 
may be beaten into much more and thinner leaf, then an equall 
bulk of filvcr or lead. A wax candle will burn longer with 
equall light, then a tallow candle of the fame bignefle; and 
confequcntly, be converted into a greater quantity of fire and 
aire. Oyl will make much more flame then fpirit of wine, that 
is farrc rarer then it. 

Thefc and fcch like confederations have much perplexed * 
Philofophers> and have driven them into divcrfe thoughts to THco P m ; on of 
find out the reafbns of them. Some obferving that the dividing ^eKdcciarcd 
of a body into little parts, makcth it lefle apt todefcend, then -ho put rarity* 
\vhen it is in greater; have believed the whole can fc of lightueffe SSfJiSX 
and rarity to be derived from divifion. As for example, they ofBodyim 

B 3 find Utlicpsrc< ' 

Treaty cf BODIES. Chap.j . 

find that lead cut mro little pieces, will not go down To faft in 
water,as when it is in bulk : and ic may be reduced into fo fmall 
atonies, that ic will for fome (pace Twimme upon the water like 
dft of wood. 

Which afliimtion is proved by the great Gahleus ; unto 
whofe excel lent wit and admirable mduftry the world is be- 
holding, not onely for his wonderfull difcovcries made in the 
heavens, but alfo for his accurate and learned declaring of thofe 


very things that lie under our feet. He, about the 90. pae of 
his firft Dialogue of motion, doth clearly demonftrate how 
any reall medium muft of neceflity refift more the defcent of a 
little piece of lead, or any other weighty matter, then ic would 
a greater piece : and the refiftence will be greater and greater, 
as the pieces are lefler and lefler. So that as the pieces are 
made lefle,they will in the fame medium fink the flower; -and do 
feem to have acquired a new nature of lightneffe by the dimi- 
nution: not onely of having lefle weight in them then they hod; 
as half an ounce is lefle then a whole ounce: but alfo of having 
in themselves a lefle proportion of weight to their bulk then 
they had ; as a pound of cork is in regard of its magnitude 
lighter then a pound of lead: fb as they conclude, that the thing 
whofe continued parts arc the leflcr, is in ks own narure the 
lighter and the rarer ; and other things who/e continued parts 
are greate^, they be heavier and denfer. 

j But this difcourfe reached? not home: for by it the weight of 

The former opi- an y body being discovered by the proportion k hath to the me- 

andthc ground dium in which it defcendeth, it muft ever fuppofc a body lighter 

f , tlicire !: rour then it fdf in which it may fink and go to the bottome. Now 

of that lighten body, I enquire, what makcth it be fb; and you 

muft' anfwer by what you have concluded, that it is lighter then 

the other, becaufe the parts of it are leflc,and more levered from 

one another : for if they be as clo(e together, their divjhon a- 

vaileth them nothing , fince things fticking faft together, do 

Vork as if theywere but one, and Co a pound of lead though it 

be filed incofmaJlduft, if it be compacted hard together., will 

link as faft as if it were in one bulk. 

Now then allowing the little parts to be feparared', I ask, 
V/hat other body fiUcth up the fpaces between thole little parts 
f the medium in which your heavy body dcfccnded ? For if 


Chap." 3. 

the parts of water arc more fevered then the parts of lead,there 
muft be fome other fubftancc to keep the parts of it afunder: let 
us fuppofc this to be aire: and I ask, Whether an cquall partof 
aire be as heavie as fo much water? or whether it be not ? If 
yo^fay, it is; then the compound of water and aire muft be as 
lieavieas lead.; fceiagthat their parts one with an other are as 
much compacted as the parts of lead are. For there is no diffe- 
rence whether thofe bodies, whole little parts are compared to- 
gether, be of the lame fubftance.,or ofdivers, or whether the one 
be divided into fmallcr parts then the other , or no> ( fo they be 
ofequall weights ) in regard" of making the whole equally hea- 
vie : as you may experience, if you mingle pin-duft with a 
fand of equal! weight, though it be beaten into far re Irnaller di- 
viiions then the pin-duft, and put them in a bag together. 

But if you fay, that aire is not fo heavy as water; it muft be, 
becaufe every part of aire hath again its parts more fevered by 
fome other body, then the parts of water are fevered by aire. 
And then I make the fame inftance of that body which feveredi 
the parts of aire. And fb at the laft ( fince there cannot a&ually 
bean infinite procefle f bodies one lighter then another ) you 
mutt come to one, whole little parts filling the pores and (paces 
between the parts of the others, have no fpaces in thcmfelves to 
be filled up. 

But aflbon as you acknowledge fuch a body to be lighter 
and rarer then all the reft, you contradict and deftroy all you 
faid before. For by reafon of its having no pores, it followeth 
by your rule, that the little parts of it muft be as heavy , if not 
heavier, then the little parts of the fame bignelTc of that bodie 
whofe pores it filleth ; and confequencly it is proved by the ex- 
perience we alledged of pin-duft mingled with fand, that the 
little parts of it cannot by their mingling with the parts of the 
body in which it is immediately contained, make that lighter 
then it would be if thefe little parts were not mingled with it. 
Nor would both their parts mingled with the body which im- 
mediately containeth them, make that body lighter. And fo 
proceeding on in the fame fort through all <the mingled bodies, 
till you come to the laft, that is immediately mingled with wa- 
ter; you will make water nothing thelighter,fb? being mingled 
with all thefe; and by confequence It fhould be as heavie and 
as denfc as lead. B 4 Now 

24 A rr^i/eo/BODIES. Chap. 3. 

Now that which deceived the authours of this opinion, was 
that they had not a right intelligence of the caufes which made 
little parts of bodies ( naturally heavie) defccnd flowly, in re- 
gard of the velocitie of greater parts of the fame bodies deicend- 
iag : the doctrine of which we intend to deliver hereafter. 
, Others therefore perceiving this ride to fall fliort, have in- 

Tiie opinion of deavoured to piece it out by the mixtion of vacuitic among bo- 
thoic Phiiofo- jjjgj . believing it is that which maketh one rarer then another. 


rhcrs related, . 

Uho put rarity Which mixtion they do not put alwayes immediate to the 
to eonfift in the nia j n ^ , ( , con fij cr . b ut jf j t nave O rh e r rarer and liohter 

mixtion or \a- i j i i v i- ... c . 

cuity among bodies mingled with it, they concerVe this mixtion imrnrnediate 
oncly to the rareft, or lighted. As for example ; a cryftall be- 
ing lighter and confequently rarer then a diamond, they will 
not fay that there is more vacuity in a cryftall then in a dia- 
mond; but that the pores of a cryftall are greater, and that con- 
fequently there is more aire in a cryftall to fill the pores of it,' 
then is in a diamond ; and the vacuities are in the aire, whicrr 
abounding in a cryftall, more then in a diamond, maketh that 
lighter and rarer then this, by the more vacuities that arc in 
the greater Quantitie of aire which is mingled with it. 

Butagainft thisfuppofition, a powerfull adverfary is urged: 
for Ariftotle, in his 4. book of Phyncks, hath demonstrated 
that there can be no motion in vacuity. It is true, they indea- 
vour to evade his demonftration ( as not reaching home to 
their fijppofition ) by acknowledging it to be an evident one 
in fuch a vacuity as he there fpeaketh of ; which he fuppofed 
to be fo great a one that a bodie may (wimme in it as in an 
ocean, and not touch or be near any other body .- whereas 
this opinion cxcludeth all fuch raft inanitie, and admicteth no 
vacuities but fo little ones as no body whatfocver can come un- 
to but will be bigger then they; and confequently, muft on 
fome fide or other touch the corporeall parts which thole va- 
cuities divide;fbr they are the (eparacions of theleaft parts* that 
are, or can be, actually divided from one another : which 
parts muft of neccffitie touch one another on fbme fide ; or 
elft they could no: hang together to compofe one fubftanccjond 
therefore, the dividing vacuities, muft be JefTe then the divided 
parts. And thu$, no bodic will ever be in danger of floating up 
and down without touching any thing : which is the diffccultie 
that Ariftotle chiefly irnpugncth. 1 

Chap. 3. 4 TreAtife of BODIES. 25 

I confefle I fhould be very glad that this fuppofition might 7. 
fcrvc our turn > and lave the Phenomena that appear among The opinion of 
bodies, through their varictie of Raritie and Denfitic: which d. um 
if it might be, then would I ftraight go on to the inquiring af- 
ter what followed out of this ground, as Aftronomers ( to u(e 
our former fimilitude) do calculate the future appearances of 
the celettiall bodies out of tho(e motions and orbcs they affignc 
unto the heavens. For as this apprehenfion of vacuitie in bo- 
dies is very cafie and intelligible : fb the other ( which I con- 
ceive to be the truth ofthe cafe ) is exceedingly abflra.fted, and 
one ofthe moft difficult points in all the Metaphyficks : anti 
therefore I would (if it were poflible ) avoid touching upon it 
in this difcourfe, which I defire fliould be as plain and eafie, and 
as mach removed from fcholaftick terms, as may be. 

But indeed, the inconveniences that follow out of this fup- 
pofition of vacuities, are fo great, as it is impoflible by any 
means to flide them over. As for example ; let us borrow of Dialog. T .d e r. 
Galileos the proportion of weight between water and airc, He Moiim - 
fheweth us how the one is 400. times heavier then the other. 
And Marinus Ghetaldus teacheth us that gold is 19. times hea- 
vier then water . fb that gold mufl be 7600 times heavier then Arclum 
aire. Now then confidering that nothing in a body can weigh, Promot> 
but the folid parts of it ; it followeth,that the proportion ofthe 
parts ofgold in a fphere of an inch diameter, is to the parts of 
aire of a like dimenfion as 7600 is to one. Therefore in aire it 
felfthe vacuities that are fuppoied in it, will be to the folid 
parts of it in the fame proportion as 7600 to one. Indeed, the 
proportion of difference will be greater : for even in gold many 
vacuities muft be admitted, as appeareth by the heating of it 
which fhewech that in every the Icaft partitis exceeding po- 
rous. But according to this rate, without prcfifing the incon- 
venience any further ; the aire will by this reckoning appear 
to be like a net, whole holes and diftances, are to the lines and 
thrkJs, in the proportion of 7600 -to -one ; and fb, would Lely- 
able to have little parts of its body fwimmein thole greater 
vacuities ; contrary to what they ftrivc to avoid. Which would 
be exceedingly more, if we found on the one fide any bodies 
heavier and denfer then gold.& that were fo folide as to exclude 
all vacuities; Sc on the other fide fhould bullancc them vvith fuch 


a* A Trtatfi tf B D I E S. Chap. 5. 

iuxijtt a rc lighter and rarer tlicn aircj as fire is, and as fome 
will have the ather to be. But already the difproportion is fo 
great, and the vacuity fb (hangely excecdeth the body in which 
it is, as were too great an abfurdity to be admitted. 

And beftds, it would deftroy all motion of fmall bodies in, 
the aite, if it be true ( as ode hath demonftrated in the 
fbiiith book of his Phyfieks ) that motion cannot be made but 
among bodies, and not in UACUO. 

Again, if rarity were made by vacuity, rare bodies could not 
be gathered together , without lofing their rarity and be- 
coming denfe. The contrary of which, we learn by conftant 
experience ; as when the fmith and glaffemendcr drive their 
white and fury fires., (as they term them;) when aire piercech 
moft in the (harp wind ; and generally we fee that more of the 
faijae kind of rare bodies, in IciTe place, workcth moft efficaci- 
oufly according to the nature that refultcth out of that degree 
of rarity. Which argueth, that every little part is as rare as ic 
was before ( for elfe it would lofe the virtue of working ac- 
cording to that nature; ) but that by their being crowded toge- 
ther, they exclude all other bodies that before did mediate be- 
tween the little parts of their main body; and fo, more parts 
being gotten together in the fame place then formerly there 
were, they work more forcibly. 

Thirdly, if fuch vacuities were the cajfeof rarity, it would 
follow,that fluide bodies being rarer then folid ones,thcy would 
be of themfelves /landing, like nets or cobwebs : whereas con- 
trariwife, we fee their natures are to run together, and to fill up 
every little creek and corner : which cffeft, following out ofthc 
very nature of the things themfelves ; mutt needs exclude va- 
cuities out of that nature. 

And laftly , if it be true ( as we have (hewed in the laft 
Chapter )that there are no a&uall parts in Quantity; it follow*- 
th of neccflity, that all Quantity muft of it fclf be one; as Me- 
taphyficks teach us : and thcn A no diftance can be admitted be- 
tween one Quantity and another. 

And truly, if I underftand Ariftotlc right, he hath per- 
fectly demonftrated : that no vacuity is poflible in nature; neither 
great nor little : and confequemly, the whole machine raifed 
upon that fuppoficion> muft be ruinous. His argument is to this 


Chap; 3. ^ Twtije of B O D I E S. 17 

purpoie: What is nothing, cannot have parts : but vacuum is 
nothing ( becaufe as the adversaries conceive it, vacuum is the 
want or" a corporeaJl fubftance in an cnclofing body, within 
whofc fides noth/ng is, whereas a certain body might be con- 
tained within them, as if in a pail or bowl of a gallon, there 
were neither milk, nor water, nor aire , nor any other body 
\vhatibevcr ) therefore, vacuum cannot have parts. Yet thofe 
who admit it do put it exprefly for a fpace; which doth eflen- 
tially include parts. And thus they put two contradi&ories, 
nothing and parts, that is, parts and no parts; or fomething and 
* nothing; in the fame proportion. And this, I conceive to be ab- 
folutely unavoidable. 

For thcfe reafons therefore, I muft entreat my readers fa- g. 
your, that he will allow me to touch upon metaphyficks a little Rarity and 
more then I defire or intended : but it fhall be no otherwife, i^thl 
then as is faid of the dogs by the river Nilus fide ; who being proportions 
thirfty, lap haftily of the water, onely to ferve their necefficy as hath t 
they run along the fliorc. Thus then ; remembring how we ftaace ' 
determined that Quantity is Divifibihty : it followeth, that if 
befidcs Quantity there be a fubftancc or thing which is divifi- 
ble that thing, if it becondiftinguifhed from its Quantity or 
Divifibility, muft of it felf be indivifible : or ( to fpeak more 
properly ) it muft be, notdivifible. Put then fl'ch fijbfrance ta 
be capable of the Quantity of the whole world or univerfe ; 
and confcquemly, you put it of it felf indifferent to all, and to 
any part of Quantity : for in it, by reafon of the negation of 
Divifibility, there is no variety of parts , whc-reof OIK fhould 
be tha liibfe& of one part of Quantity, or another of an<- 
ocher ; or that one fliould be a capacity of more, another of 
Icfle. ' 

This then being fo, weha-ve-the ground of more or IdTe'pro- 
ponion between iubllance and quantity': for if the wholdquan- 
tity of the univerfe be put into it, the proportion of Quantity 
to the capacity of that ft.'bftance., will be greater then if but half 
that quantity were imbibed in the fame (ubftaoee. A-ud txcaufe 
proportion changeth on both ficics by the fingle change of onely 
one fide : it followeth, that in the latter, the proportion of that 
fubftance to its Quantity, is greater* and that in the former, it is 
Jcfle; how-beic the fubiiancc in it Icif be indivifibk*- 


A frutife of B O D I E S. Chap. 3. 

What we have faid thus in abftract, will (ink more eafily in-' 
to us if we apply it to fome particular bodies here among us, in 
which we fee a difference of Rarity and Denfity; as to aire, wa- 
ter* gold, or the like; and examine if the effects that happen to 
them, do follow out of this difproportion between fubftance and 
Quantity. For example,let us conceive that all the Quantity of 
the world were in one uniform fubftance, then the whole uni- 
verfe would be in one and the fame degree of Rarity and Derrfi- 
ty : let that degree, be the degree of water; it will then follow, 
that in what part foever there happeneth to be a change from, 
this degree, that part will not have that proportion of quantity 
to its fubftance, which the quantity of the whole world had to 
the prefuppofcd uniform fubftance. But if it happeneth to have 
the degree of rarity which is in the aire, it will then have more 
quantity in proportion to its fubftance, then would he due unto 
it according to the prefuppofed proportion of the quantity of . 
the univcrle to the forefaid uniform fubftance; which in this cafe 
is as it were the ftandard to try all other proportions by. And 
contrariwise , if it happeneth to have the degree of Denfity 
which is found in earth or in gold; then it will have lefTc quan- 
tity in proportion to its fubftance, then would be due unto it ac- 
cording to the forefaid proportion, or common ftandard. 

Now to proceed from hence t with examining the effects 
which refult out of this compounding of Quantity with fub- 
ftance, we may firft confider, that the definitions which Ari- 
ftotlc hath given us of Rarity and Denfity, are the fa me we 
drive at : he telleth us, that that body is rare whofe quantity is 
more, and its fubftance leflc; that, contrariwifedenfe, where the 
fubftance is more and the quantity leflc. Now if we look into 
the proprieties of the bodies we have named, or of any others, 
we (hall fee them all follow clearly out of thcfe definitions. For 
firft, that one is more diffufed, another more compacted ; fuch 
diffusion and companion feem to be the very natures of RarL 
ty *id Denfity, fuppofing them to be fuch as we have defined 
them to be ; feeing that, fubftance is more diffufed by having 
more parts, or 6y being in more parts; and is more compacted 
by the contrary. And then, that rare bodies are more divifible 
then denfeones, you fee is coincident into the fame conceit with 
their diffufion and compaction. And from hence again ic fol- 


Chap. 3. 'viTM'ifc < BO DIES. 29 

oweth, that they are more eafily divided in great, and likc- 
wife, that they nrc by the force of naturall Agents divifible into 
lefler parts : for both thcfc ( that is, facility of being divided, 
andeafie divisibility into lefler parts ) are contained in being 
more divifible; or in more enjoying the effeil ofquantity^which 
is divifibility. From this again followeth, that in rare bodies 
there is Icfle refiftance to the motion of another body through 
it, then in denfe ones ; and therefore a like force paffeth more 
calily through the one , then through the other. Again ; 
rare bodies are more penetrative and active then denfe ones; be- 
caufe being ( by their overproportion of quantity ) eafily divi- 
fible into limll parts, they can fun into every little pore, and fo 
incorporate themfelves better into other bodies then more denfe 
ones can. Light bodies likewife muft be rarer., becaufe moft di- 
vifible, if other circumftances concurre equally. 

Thus you fee decyphered unto your hand, the firfr divilion 
of bodies flowing from Quantity as it is ordained to fubftance 
for the competition of a bodie : for fince the definition of a bo- 
dy is, A thing which hath parts^ and quantity is that, by which 
it hath parts ; and the firfl propriety of quantity is, to be big- 
ger or ft/f', and confequently the firft differences of having 
parts, are to have bigger or lefle, more or fewer; what divifion 
of a body can be more fimple, more plain, or more immediate, 
then to divide it by its Quantity as making it have bigger or 
Icfle, more or fewer parts in proportion to its fubftance? 

Neither can I juftly be blamed for touching thus on Meta- 
phyficks,to explicate the nature of thefc two kinds of bodies; for 
Metaphyficks being the iciencc above Phyficks, it belon^eth 
unto her to declare the principles of Phyficks : of which, thele 
we have now in hand, are the very firft f}ep. But much more, 
if weconfider that the competition of quantity with fubftance, 
is purely Metaphyficall ; we mufrneccrTarily allow the inquiry 
into the nature of Rarity and Denfity. to be wholly Mctaphy- 
ficall; feeing that the efTcnce of Rarity and Denfiry ftandeth in 
the proportion of quantity to fubftance; if we believe Ariffotlc, 
C the greateft matter that ever was, erf finding oi;t definitions 
and notions ^and trufl to the iincontroulable reaibns we have 
brought in the precedent diicourfe. 

This explication of Rarity and Denfity, by the composition. 5?. 


? o A Treatife cf B C D I E S. Chip. 3. 

.Ann-lift aV offubfbncc with quantitic, may peradventure give littlcf:ni$fa 

i-i Phvficall bo- . r i r -j l ,[ i I U U 

die, a Mera. cbcn unto filch as are not u ted to raile their thougnts above 
phvficaiicom- Phyficall and naturall fpeculations ; who are apt to conceive 

pofition. . .* . r '. /- i i r i / 

there is no other competition or relolunon, but lech as our icn- 
Ses fhew us in compounding and dividing of bodies according 
to quantntive parts. Now this obligeth us to fhew that fuch a 
kind of composition and division as this, mufi ncceff:rily be al- 
lowed o even in thatcourfe of doSrinc which fecins moft con- 
trary to owrs. To which purpofe, let us fuppofe that the pofici- 
on of Dcmccritus or of Hpicurus is true; to wu, chat the origi- 
nail compofition of all bodies, is out of very little ones of vari- 
ous figures ; all of them indivifible, not Mathematically, but 
Phyfically : and that this infinite number of indivifibles, doth 
float in an immenfe ocean of vacuum or imaginary ipace. In 
this pofition, let any man who conceiveth their grounds may 
be maintained, explicate how one of thefe little bodies is mo- 
ved. For taking two parts of vacuum, in which this body fix> 
ceflivcly is; it is cleare^that really, and not onciy in my under- 
ftanding, it is a difference in the faid body to be now here now 
there: wherefore when the body is gone thither, the notion of 
being here is no more in the body; and confequently is divided 
from the body. And therefore when the body was here , there 
was a compoluion between the body and its being here; which 
feeing it cannot be betwixt two parts of Quantity, rnuft of ne- 
cefsity be fuch a kind of composition, as we put between quan- 
tity and fubftance. And certainly, let men wrack their brains 
never fo much, they will never be able to fhew how motion is 
made, without fbme fuch composition and divifion, upon what 
grounds ibever they proceed. 

And if then they tell us, that they underftand not how there 
can be a divisibility between fubftance and quantity; we may 
reply, that to fuch a divisibility two things are required; firft, 
that the notions of fubftance and quantity be different; Second- 
ly, that the one of them maybe changed without the other. 
As for the firSr., it is moft evident we make an ablblute diftin&i- 
on between their two notions; both when we Say that Socrates 
\vas bigger a man then a boy; and when we conceive that 
milk or water whiles it boyleth , or wine whiles it vvorketh, 
fo as chey run over the veflcls they are in arc greater, and 


Chap. 3. A Treattfe of B O D I E S. 

poflcfle more place thrn when tJiey were cool and quiet, and 
filled not the veflel to the brim. For bo-vfoever witty explica- 
tions may feem to evade, that the fame thing is now greater 
now letter ; yet it cannot b; avoidcd> butthac ordinary men 
who look not into Philofbphy, do both conceive it to be ib,and 
in their familiar dilcotirle expreffe it foj which they could not 
do, ifthey had not different notions of the fiibttancc, and of the 
quantity of the thing they fpeak of. And though we had no 
fuch evidences, the very names and definitions of them would 
put it beyond ft rife : all men calling (iibrtance, a thing; qnanti- 
tie, bignelfe : and referring a thing to Being' t as who would 
fay, that which is : but bigneflc to fome other of like nature, 
unto which it is compared; as, that his half as big , twice as 
big, or the like. 

This then being unavoidable, that the notions are diftin- 
guifhed; there remaineth no difficulty but onely in the Second, 
namely that the one may be changed, and the other not. Which 
rcafon and demonstration do convince, as wchave fhewed. 
Wherefore if any fhall yet further reply, that they do not un- 
derftand how fuch change is made; we Shall anfwer, by asking 
them whether they know how the change of being Sometimes 
here Sometimes there is made by locall motion in vacuum.with- 
outa change in the body moved. Which queftionif they can- 
not Satisfie,they muft either deny that there is any locall motion 
in vacuum; or elfe admit a change in quantity without a change 
in fubftance; for this latter is as evidently true, as they Hippolc 
the foimer to be; though the manner how they are effefl- 
cd be alike obfcure in both, and the rcafon of the obfcurity the 
lame in bpch. 

. With which we will conclude the prefent Chapter ; adding 
onely this note: That if all Phyficall things and nattirall chan- 
ges do proceed out of the constitution of rare and dcnfe bodies 
in this manner as we do put them, ( as the work we have in 
hand intendeth to fhew ) then,fo manifold effects will fo con- 
vince the truth of this doctrine which we have declared, that 
there can remain no doubt of it : neither can there be any 
'of the divisibility of quantity from fubrtance; without which 
this doctrine cannot confift. For it cannot be undcrflood, 
how there is a greater proportion of qnandtie then cf fub- 


5 i A 7V<w//*0/BODIES. Chsp, 4. 

fiance; or contrariwife, of fubftance then of quantity; if there 
be not a reall divifibility between quamity and fubftance. And 
much leflecan it be conceived, that the fame thing hath at one 
time a greater proportion of quantity, and at another time a 
leffe , if the greater or lefTer proportion be not feparable from 
it; that is, if there be not a divifibility betwixt it and-fub- 
ftancc , as well as there are different notions of them. 
Which to prove by the proper principles belonging to this 
matter, would require us to make a greater inrodc into the 
very bowels of Metaphyficks , and to take a larger circuite 
then is fitting cither for the fub;er, or for the intended brevity 
of this Treatife. 

Ofthefourefirft qualiticsttnd. of the fonre Elements. 

x> *"T^ He fubje6r of our difcourfe hitherto hath been three fimple 
Thcnotionsof JL notions ; Quantity, Rarity, and Denfity. Now it {hall be 
denfity and ra- t o enquire if by compounding thefe with gravitie or weight 

nty have a lati- / , * . <!-/ r \ t 

nidccapabieof ( which is one or thelpecicles of Quantity above mentioned, 
infinite variety. and of - which j (hall .(J, C ak at large hereafter ; we may 
beget any further qualities, and fb produce the foure firft bodies 
called Elements. In imitation of Logitians, who by compound- 
ing fuch propositions as of themfelvcs are evident to mans 
nature affoon as they are propofed , do bring forth new 
knowledges : which thrids they frill entermix and weave 
together , till they grow into a fair piece. And thus the 
{ciences they fb much labour for , and that have fo great 
an extent, do rcfult out of few and fimple notions in their 

But before we fall to mingling and comparing them toge- 
ther, I think it will not be amiffe to (et down and determine 
Mvhat kind of things we mean by rare, and what by denfe; co 
the end that when the mmes arc agreed upon, we may flio in- 
to no errour by miftaking them. So then although there be fe- 
vcrall confederations in regard ofwhich,rarity and dcnlity may 
be differently attributed to bodies: yet becaufe mans discerning 
them, robe able to difcourfe accordingly otthem,is the principal 
rcfpect for which their denominations are to be allotted them: 


Chap. 4: A Trt4!ife ^/BODIES. 

\\c may with reafon call thofe things denfe, wherein a man 
findeth a fenfible difficiiltie to part them and thofe rare, where 
the refinance is imperceptible. * 

And unto thefe two notions of rarity ana denfity, we muft 
allow a great latitude, farre from confifting in an indivifible 
(late; for feeing that rarefaction makcth a lefler bodie equall 
to a bigger ; and that all inequalitie betwixt two bodies, hath 
the conditions of a bodic ; it followeth that the excefie of one 
bodic over an other, confifteth of infinite parts into which it 
might be divided .- and consequently, that what is rarificd, paf- 
fethasmany degrees as the inequalitie or excefle hath parts. 
And the fame law being in condenfation, both denfe and rare 
things muft be acknowledged to be capable of infinite varietie, 
and diverfity of flates in regard of more and leflc in the fame 

Thefe things being premifed; and calling to mind that it is 2. 
the nature of dcnhty to make the parts of a denfe thing com- How moi 
^paA^ndftick togerher, and be hardly divifible ; and on the tbeeo!te 
confrary fide, that it is the nature of rarity, to dirrufcand ex- ^"'c bodie*. 
tend a rare thing, and to prepare and approch it. to divilion, 
according to the proportion of the degree of rarity which ic 
hath ; and that weight doth abound where there is exceflfeof 
denfitie, and is very little or none in excefie of rarity : we imy 
now begin in our imagination to put thefe qualities into the 
fcales one againftanother,to fee whatefFec^s they prodi ce in bo- 
dies. And firft, let us weigh gravity againil denfitie or (licking 
together of parts: which fticking or compa&ednefle being natu- 
rall to derjfitie, requireth feme execfle of gravitic in proportion 
to t e dcnfjty-, or fomc o:her outward violence, to break it. If 
then in a denfe body the gravity overcome the denfity, and do 
make the parts of it break afunder,it will draw them down- 
wards towards the center that gravity tendcch unto, and will 
never let them reft till they come thither, unleffe fome impedi- 
ment meet them by the way and flop their journey : fothat 
fuch a body will, as near as poflibly it can, lie in a perfect fphe- 
ricall figure in relpecl: of the center and the parts of it will be 
changed and altered, and thurft on any fide that is the ready 
way thither ; Co that by the force of gravity working upon it, 
it will run as farre as it mceteth with nothing to hinder it from 

C attaining 

34 A Trettifs of BODIES. Chap, 4 . 

attaining this fphericali fuperficies. Wherefore fuch bodies, for 
the molt part, have no fettled outlule of their own ; but do re- 
ceive their figure rfhd limits from fuch lets as hinder chem from 
attaining to that (phericalneile they aim at. 

Now Ariftode ( vvhofe definitions, are in thefc matters ge- 
nerally received, as fully exprefling the nodons of mankind,) 
telleth us, and our own experience confirmed! it, that we uie 
to call thofc things m*ift, which run in fuch fort as we have 
here letdown ; and that we term thofe thingsd'ry, which have 
a confidence within thcmfelves ; and which to injoy a deter- 
minate figure, tio not require the flop or himierance of another 
body to limit and circle them in * which will be the nature of 
thofe that have a greater proportion of dcnfity in rclpe^ of 
their gravity. 

And thus, out of the companion of denfitie with weight, we 
have found two more qualities then we yet had mctwichall, 
namely wetncfle and dryneffe. For although a body be denfc, 
( which of its own nature, fmgly confidered, would prcferve 
the continuity of its parts, as making the body hardly divifiblej 
wkercby it would be dry ) yet if the gravity that workech up- 
on it, be in proportion greater then the denfitic ; it will fever 
the parts of it, and make them run to the center, and fo be- 
come fluide and moift : though not in the emincntett deorce 
that may be of fluidity and moilturc; by rcafon chat if the like 
overproportion of gravity happen in a rare body, it will there 
more powerfully wcrk its cfteci, then it can in a denfe body ; 
becaufe a rare body w ill more eafily obey, and yield to the gra- 
vitie that maftereth it, then a denfe one will ; and confequcnt- 
ly, will be more fluide and moiii then it. 

Now on the other fide, in weighing rarity againft gravity ; 
3* _ ifit happen that the rarity overcome the gravity, then the 

How moiftncfic '.,, , ir rt.jr 

anddryncffc gravity will notchaBgc the ngure of a body !o proper tion<ed, 
* reb f8ocn m ^ ut w ^ at figure it hath from its proper narurall caaies, the fame 

r: bodies. . o t . , . i - i r i t 

will (till remain vvith it : and confeqnently, iuch a body will 
have terms of its own, and will not require an ambient body 
to limit, and circle it in : which nature, we call dry. 

But if the proportion of the gravity be the greater and do 
overcome the rarity ; then, by how much the rarity is greater, 
fo much the more will the gravity force it ; to apply it Iclf equal- 

Chap. 4. ^ T/tMtifi of B O D I E S. 3 j 

ly ami on all fides t the center : and fuch a body will the more 
eafily recci've its figure From another, and will be Jefie able to 
cenfid of it felf : which properties, we attributcto wetnefleor 
rnoidure. So that it appeareth, how the qualities of wet and 
dry, which fird we found in things than were dcnfe, are 
common to that nature of bodies, which we term rare. 

And thus, by our fird inquiry afccr \vhatkind of bodies do 
rcfult out ofthe compounding of rarity and deniitic with gra- 
vity, \ve difcover foure different forts : fbme dcnie ones thac are 
dry, and others likcwife denfe that are moid : then again>fome 
rare ones that arelikewifemoiff,& other rare ones that are dry. 

But we mud not reft here : let us proceed a little further, to 4,' 
fearch what other properties thefe foure kinds of bodies will H ,, r " 1: "r p a ra " 
hare ; which wefhali bed difcover, if we apply them fcverally boiics.and 
to fome other compounded body (of which nature, are all thole 0^' denle 
weconverfe with or fee ^ and then confider the efte&s which 
thefe do work upon it. To beginne with that, which we faid 
is fo executively rare that gravity hath no power over it. If we 
look upon the multitude oHittle parts it may be divided into> 
whereof every one will fubfid by it fclf (for we have already 
proved ic dry ) and then fuppofe them to be moved with force 
and ftrength againft the body we apply them to: it muft ncce 
farily follow, that they will forcibly get into theporouinefTe of 
it, and pafle with, violence between part and part, and ofnccef- 
fity feparate the parts of that thing one from another ; as a knife 
or wedge doth a folide ftibftance,by having their thinned parts 
prefled into it : fo that if in the compounded thing, fome parts 
be more weighty, others more light, (as of neceflitie there mud 
be ) the hcavied will all fall lowed, the lighted will fly upper- 
rood, and thofe which are of a mean nature between the two 
extremes, will remain in middle. In fumme, by this a^ion of 
as extreme rare body upon a compounded one, all the parrs of 
one kind that were in the compounded one, will be gathered 
into one place ; and thofe of divers kinc!> into divers places : 
which is the notion whereby Aiidorlc hich expreflfed the na- 
ture of heat ; and is an effect, which daily experience in burn- 
ing and boyling, teacheth us to proceed from heat. And there- 
fore we cannot doubt, but that fuch extreme rare bodies are as 
Well hot as dry. 

C 2 On 

1* A Trutifecf BODIES, Chap. 4, 

On the other fide, if -a den 'c thing be applyed to a com- 
pound, it will ( becaufe ic is we ; ghty ) prefle ic together : and 
ifthat application be continued on all fides, fothat no part of 
the body that is prcfTed be free from the fiege of the denfe body 
that prefleth it, ic will form it into a narrower room, and keep 
in the parts of it, not permitting any of them to flip out. So 
that what things foever it findeth within its power to mafter, 
be they light or heavy, or of what contrary natures focvcr, it 
compieffeth them as rm:ch as it can, and draweth them into a 
lefle compaflTe, and holdeth them ftrongly together, making 
them flick faft to one another. Which eflreft, Ariftotlc took 
for the proper notion ofcold; & therefore gave for definition of 
the nature of it, that it gathereth things of divers natures: 
and experience flicweth us in frecfing, and all great coolings, 
that this effect proceedeth from cold. 

5. But if we examine which of the two forts of denfe bodies 

of the two A. nc fluidc or the confiftant ) is mofr efficacious in this opera- 

dcnlc bod'Cs, '. /-i it r i i iin-jr ii/^ 

the icflc dcnfe tion ; we (hall hnd that the lelie denfe one is more capable of 
but of^hemo being a ppty c d round about the body it fhall befiege; and there- 
fore will ftop clofer every little hole of ic, and will more eafily 
fendfubtile parts into every little vein of it ; andbyconie- 
quence, fhrink it up together and coagulate, and confrrmge it 
more ftrongly, then a body can that is extremely denfe 5 which 
by reafon of its great dcnfity , and the ftubborncfTe of its parts, 
cannot fo eafily bend and plie them to work this erTeft. And 
therefore, a body that is moderately denfe is colder then ano- 
ther that is fo in excefle; feeing that cold is an a6tive or work- 
ing power, and that which is lefle dcnfe doth excell in work- 

On the contrary fide, rare bodies being hot, becaufe their 
fubtile parts environing a compounded body will fink into the 
pores of it, and to their power feparatc its parts ; it followeth 
that thofe wherein the gravity ovcrcomcth the rariry, are lefle 
hot then fuch others as are in the extremity, and higheft cxccfTc 
of rarity : both, bceaufe the former are not able to pierce fb 
little parts of the refitting denfe body , as extreme rare 
ones arc; and likewife, becaufe they more eafily take ply by 
the obftacle of the iolide ones they meet vmh, then thefe 


rat e ones, the 
lefle rare is 
Itffi: hot. 

Chap. 4. A Trettifi of B O D I E S. 37 

So that out of this difcourfe we gather, that of fuch bodies 
that differ prccifcly by the proportion of Rarity and Denfity ; 
thofc which are extremely rare, arc in the exccfle of heat, and 
are dry with all : that weighty rare bodies arc extremely hu- 
mide, and meanly hot : that fluidc denfe bodies arc moift, 
though not in fuch cxcefle as rare ones that are fb ; but are 
coldeft of any : and laftly, that extreme denfe bodies arc leflc 
cold then fluide dente ones, and that they arc dry. 

But whether the extreme denfe bodies be more or leflfe dry 6". 
then fuch as are cxtre.nely rare, remaineth yet to be decided. dt'eTodyls 
Which we fhall eafily do, if we but reflect that it is deniuy ""^edry, then 
which maketh a thing hard to be devided, and that rarity ma- rarVonef" 
kch it eafic : for a facility to yield unto divifion, is nothing 
clfe but a plyablenefle in the thing that is to be divided, where- 
by it eafily recciveth the figure, which the thing that dividcth 
it doth caft it into. Now this plyablenefle belongcth more to 
rare then to denfe things : and accordingly, we fee fire bend 
more eafily, by the concameranon of an oven, then a ftone can 
be reduced into due figure by hewing. And therefore, fince dry- 
nefleis a quality that makech thofc bodies wherein it reigneth, 
to conferve thcmfelves in their own figure and limits, and to 
refift the receiving of any from another body; it is manifest 
that thofe arc drieft., wherein thefe eflfefts are moft leen; which 
is, in dcnfc bodies : and consequently, cxcefle ofdrynefle rnuft 
be allotted unto thcnr, to keep company with their moderate 

Thus we fee that the number of Elements afligned by Ari- 7. 
ftotle is truly and exactly determined by him ; and that there There are buc 

, . , ' i /r r i ii ! 1 tollre fim P le 

can be neither more nor leflc of them ; and that their qualities bodies : and 

are rightly allotted to thorn : which to fettle more firmly in our [y ^[ e n?ht * 

minds, i will not be mifle-fpcnt time to fumme up in fhort the racntj. 

eflfeft of what we have hitherto faid to bring us unro this con- 

clufion. Firft, we flicwedthat a body is made^ and conftituted 

a body by quantity. Next, that the firft divifion of bodies is inro 

rare and den<e ones;as differing oncly by having tYiore and jcflc 

quantify. And laftly, that the conjunction of graviry wkh 

thefe two, brcedeth two other forts of combinations : each of 

which is alfb twofold ; the firft fort, concerning rarity ; oat o " 

which arifeth one extremely hot and moderately dry, and an- 

r- ^ 

3$ A Treatife of BODIES. Chap, 4. 

other extremely humideand moderately hot : the fecond fort, 
concerning denfity; out of which, is produced one that is ex- 
tremely cold and moderately wet, and another extremely dry 
and moderately cold. And thefe are the combinations whereby 
are constituted fire, aire, water, and earth. 

So that we have thus, the proper notions of the foure Ele- 
ments; and have both them and their qualities driven up and 
refolved into their moil fimple principles: which are, the no- 
tions of Quantity, and of the two mod fimple differences of 
qualitative things, Rartty and 'Denfity. Beyond which, mans 
wit cannot penetrate ; nor can liis wiflies aim at more in this 
particular ; feeing he hath attained to the knowledge of what 
they are, and of what makech them be fo, and that it is impofli- 
ble they (liould be otherwife : and this, by the moft fimple and 
firft principles, which enter into the compofition of their na- 
ture. Out of which it is evident, that thcfc foure bodies arc - 
lemcnts : fince they cannot be refblved into any others, by way 
of phyficall compofition; themfelves being constituted by the 
moft fimple differences of a body. And again, all other bodies 
whatibever muft of neeeffity be refolved into them, for the fame 
reafon; becaufe no bodies can be exempt from the firft diffe- 
rencies of a body. Since then, we mean by the name of a-n Ele- 
mentj a body not compofed of AHJ former bodies, and^of vt>htch 
all other bodies tire compofed^e. may reft Satisfied that thefc are 
rightly fo named. 

g. But whether every one of thefe foure elements, do compre- 

The Atuhour hcnd under its name one oncly lowert fpecies or many (as, 
S Sci""" whether there be one onely fpecies of fire, or fcverall; and the 
every dement ijfc e o f the reft ) we intend not here to determine. Yet we note, 
bend 'umleHcs chat there is a great latitude in every kind ; feeing that, Rarity 
name one <mciy anc j [) cn fi c y f as wc'havc faid before ) are as divifible as quan- 

lowcft fiiccics rV / . i i i i 

or many: nor tity. Which laritiidcs, in the bodies we convcric withall, arc fb 
of h th h e " b? l im >ttd that what maketh it fclf and other things be feen ( as 
found pure. being accompanied by light ) is called fire. What admitteth the 
illuminative acTion or" fire, and is not fccn, is called aire. What 
adm'itteth the Hi me aftion and is fcen (in the rank of Ele- 
ments ) is called water. And what through thedenfity of it ad- 
mitteth not that awlion.j but abfblucely reflcd'eth itj is called 


Chap. 4. ^ Tftatifi ^/BODIES. 

And out of all we faid of thefe fbure Elements, it is mani- 
fcft there cannot be a h"f;h : as is to be feen at large in every 
Ariftotelian Philofbpher that writeth of this matrer. I am noc 
ignorant that there are fundry objc&ions ufed to be made, both 
againft thefe notions of the firft qualities, and againft the divi- 
fion of the Elements : butbrcaufe they, andtheir folutions, arc 
to be found .in every ordinary Philofbpher; and that they be 
not of any great difficulty ; and that the handling them, is too 
particular for the defignr of this dilcourfe, and would make it 
too prolix ; 1 rcferrethe Reader to feek them, for his latisfa<5H- 
on, in thofeauthours that treat phyficks profeiTcdly, and have 
delivered a complcat body of Philofbphy. 

And I xvill end this Chapter witli advertising him (left I 
fliould be misonderflood ) that though my difquifition here 
hath pitched upon the rbure bodies of fire, airc, water, and 
earth; yet it is not my intention to affirm, that thefe which we 
ordinary call fb, and doralidayly within our u(e, are fuch as 
I have here expretfed them: or chat thefe Philo'bphicall ones 
('which arife purely out of the combination of the firft quali- 
ties ) have their rclidence or confidence in great bulks, in any 
places of the world, be they never fo remote : as fire, in the 
hollow of the moons orb ; water, in the bottome of the fea; 
aire, above the clouds ; and earth below the mines. But thefe 
notions arc onely to ferve for certain Idea's or Elements ; by 
which, the foure named bodies, and the compounds of them, 
may be tryed and receive their doom of more or lefle pure and 
approaching ro the nature from whence they have their deno- 
mination. And yet I will notdenie, but that fuch perfect Ele- 
ments may be found in fome very little quantities, in mixed bo- 
dies .- and the greater! abundance of them, in thefe fourc known 
bodies that we call in ordinary pra&ife, by the names of the 
pure ones : for they are leaft compounded, and approach mod 
to the fimplenefie of the Elements. But to determine ab.blute- 
ly their exigence, or not evidence, either'in bulk or in little 
parts; dependeth of the manner of action among bodies: which 
as yet we have noc meddled with. 

4 CHAP, 

40 A Tn.itife ^/BODIES, Chap, j. 


Of the oyerAtioHf f tht Elements in gcnerall. tx/W of 
their aft ivi ties compared with one another. 

T . T TAving by our former difcourfe inquired out what degrees, 
ope- JL land proportions of rarity and denfity compounded with 
gravity,are necctfary for the produ&ion of the Elemencs,& firft 
Tifion.oucof qualities ; whofe combinations, frame the Elements : our next 

wlvch rcfultcth * r i t Ji rC L ,-i 

iccali motion, confideranon in that orderly progreflc we nave propofed unto 
our (elves in this treatife (wherein our aim is, to follo\v fuc- 
celfively the fteps, which nature hath printed out unto us ) will 
be to examine the operations of the Elements, by which they 
work upon one another. To which end, let us propofc to our 
felves a rare and a denfe body encountring one another by 
the impulfe of lomc exterior agent. In this cafe, it is evident, 
that fincc rarity implyeth a greater proportion of quantity , 
and quantity is nothing but divifibility, rare bodies muft needs 
be more divisible then denfe ones : and consequently, when 
two fi.'ch bodies arc prefled one againft another ; the rare body 
not being able to refift divifion {b ftrongly, as the denfc one is; 
and being not permitted to retire back, by reaibn of the ex- 
tern violence impelling it againft the denfe body; it followeth, 
that the parts of the rare body muft be fevered, to let the denfe 
one come between them : and fb the rare body becometh di- 
ridcd, and the denlc body the divider. And by this we fee that 
the notions of divider and divifible do immediately follow 
rare and denfe bodies; and dofo much the more properly agree 
unto them,as they exceed in the qualities of Rarity arid"benfity. 
Likcwiie, we are to obferve in our cafe, that the denfe or di- 
viding body muft neccflarily cut and enter further and further 
into the rare or divided body; and fo the fides of it be joyned 
fucceffively to new and new parts of the rare body thatgiveth 
way unto it, and forfake others it parteth from. Now the rare 
body being in a determinate fituation of the univerfc, ( which 
we call being in a place, and is a neceflary condition belonging 
to all particular bodies) and the denfc body coming to be 
within the rare body, whereas formerly it was not fb : it fol- 
loweth , thit it lofcth the place it had, and gaineth another. 
This efreft, is that which we call locall motion. 


Chap. f. vtTrtatife ^/ BO DIES. 41 

And thus we fee, by explicating the manner of this a^ion, 2. 
that locall motion is nothing el.'c but the change of that refpeci Wh ?'* 

I-ILLJ JLI 1,1 -i bath nonoiully 

or relation, which the body moved hath to the reft ot the uni- and really, 
rerfe, following out of Divifion: and the name of locall moti- 
on, formally fignifieth oncly the mutation of a refpeft to other 
cxtrinfccall bodies, fubfequcnt to that divifion. And this is fo 
evident and agreeable to the notions that all mankind ( vvho^as 
\\ehavefaid, is judge and raafter of language) naturally fra- 
meth of places as I wonder much why any will labour to give 
other artificiall and intricate doctrine of this that in it (elf is fo 
plain and clear. What need is there to introduce an imagina- 
ry fpace ( or with Joannes Grammaticus, a fubfiftent quan- 
tity) that muft run through all the world; and then entayl 
to every body an aiery entity, an uncohceiveable mood, an 
unintelligible Ubij that by an mtrinlecall relation to fuch a part 
f the imaginary fpace, mtift thereunto pin and fallen the bo- 
dy it is in ? It muft needs be a ruinous Philosophy that is 
grounded upon fuch a contradi&ion, as is the allotting of parts 
unto that, which theauthours themfelves ( upon the matrer)ac- 
knowledge to be merely nothing; and upon (o weak a fhift ( to 
deliver them from the inconvemcncies that in their courfe of do- 
ctrine other circumftances bring them unto) as is the volunta- 
ry creating of new imaginary Entities in things , without any 
ground in nature for them. Learned men fliould exprefle the 
advantage and fubtility of their wits, by penetrating further 
into nature , then the vulgar; not by vexing and wrefling it 
from its own courfe. They fhould refine and carry higher, not 
contradict anddeftroy the notions of mankind, in thole things 
that it is the competent judge of: as it undoubtedly is of thole 
primary notions which Anttorle hath ranked under ten heads: 
which (as we have touched before) every body cm con- 
ceive in gioffc : and the work of fcholars is to explicate them 
in particular ; and not to make the yulgir believe they arc 
mirtakcn , in framing thole apprehenfions that nature tai;ghc 

Out of that which ha th been hitherto refblved it is manifeft, 
that place really, and abftra&ing from the operation of the un- 
derftaoding> is nothing elfe but the inward fuperficics of a body 
that compaffcth and immediately contained) another. Which 


4* jTreatiJeofSODlES. Chap. 5. 

ordinarily being of a rare body that doth not fliew it felf unto 
LS (namely, theaire) is for the molt pare unknown by us. But 
bee a ulc nothing can make imprcffion upon our mind, andcaufe 
us to oivc it a nameotherwile then by being known : therefore 
our underftanding to make a complete notion, muft adde fome- 
thint? elfe to this fleering and unremarkable luperScies that may 
bring it unto our acquaintance. And for this end we may con- 
fidcr further, that as this fuperficies hath in it fe'f, k> the body 
cnclofed in it gnineth a certain determinate refp \^ unto the fta- 
ble and immoveable bodies that environ it. As for example, we 
underftand fuch a tree to be in Inch a place by having r^ch and 
fuch refpe&s to fuch a hill near it, or to fi'ch a hou'e chat fiand- 
eth by it, or to fuch a river that runneth under ic, or to f -ch an, 
immoveable point of the heaven that from the funncs riling ia 
the equinox is called Euft, and fuch like. To which urpoie, it 
impoitech not whether thefc that we call immovtobie bodies 
and points be truly fo, or do but feem fo to mankind. For man 
talking of things according to the notions heframeth of them 
in his mind ( ibeecii being nothing elfe but an exprellion co an 
other man, of the images he hath within himfelfj and his noti- 
ons being made according to the feeming of the things, he rnuft 
needs make the fame notions, whether the thing? be truly fo in 
themfelves, or but teem to be fo, when that feeming or appea- 
rance is alwayes conftantly the fame. 

Now then when one body dividing another, getteth a new 
Locaii. Morion immediate clothingjand eonfequendy new refpeils to the ftable 
Is thatdivifion anc j immoveable bodies (or leemino fudOthat environ it; we do 

whereby a body - , . C D /1 , J . , , 

changcthits vary m our felvcs the notion we hi it had of that thing; concei- 
p'acc. yifig it now accompanied with other circumftances and other 

rcfpeits then formerly it had. Which notion we expreffe by 
faying, it hath ch-inged its place, and is now no longer where ic 
xvas at the firft. And this change of place we call Loc^lt moti- 
on: to wit, the departing of a body from that hollow fuperficies 
which incloled it ; and its changing unto an other , whereby it 
gaineth new refpe&s to thofc parts of the world that have, or 
in fome <~ort may feem to havCjimmobility and fixed ftablcnefle. 
So as rence it is evident that the fubft ince of locall motion con- 
fifteth in division; and that the alteration of Locality follow- 
cth divi/ionj in fuch fort as becoming like or unlike of one wall 


Chap. J. ^ Treat ft of B O D I E S. 43 

to another, followeth the action whereby one of them beco- 
meth white. 

And therefore in nature we are not to fcek for any entity or 
fpcciall caufe of apply ing the moved body to a place as place, ThenatJreof 
(which is but a refpeft confequent to the erre& of diviiionj but 5 l !?" t l cy rc F - it 

i rj I it j L r n n- \ fcinsfulhcient 

one'y to coniider what real! and pnylicall action unitetn it to to unite a body 
that other body, which is called its place, and truly (erveth for iaits P lacc * 
that effect. And confcquently, they who think they have di. 
covered a notable fubtilty by bringing in an Entitle to unite a 
body to its place, have ft rained beyond their ftrengt:h,and have 
grafped but a fhadow. which will appear yet more evident, if 
they but mark well how nothing is divifible but what of it (elf 
( abstracting from divilion) is one. For the nature of divifion 
is the making of many- which implycth, that what is to be di- 
vided muit of neceffity be not many before ic be divided. Now 
quantity being the fubj'ect of divifion, it is evident that purely 
of itfelfand without any force or adjoyned helps, ic muft 
needs be one, wherefoever feme outward agent doth not intro- 
duce multiplicity upon it. And whenfoever other things work 
upon quantity as quantity, itis not the nature and power of 
their operation to produce unity in it and make it one; for it is 
already one: but contrariwife,the immediate neceflary effect that 
flowcth from them m this cafe, is re make one quantity many, 
according to the cireumfrances that accompany the divider, and 
that which is to be divided. And therefore, although we may 
feek caufes why fome one rhing fticketh farter together then 
feme other, yet to ask abfolutcly why a body fticketh together, 
were prejudicial! to the nature of quantity; whole eflence is to 
have parts flicking together, or rather to have fuch unity, as 
without it all divihbihty mutt be excluded. . 

Our of which, difcourfe it folioweth, that in locall motion 
we are to look onely for a cauie or power to divide, but not for 
any to unite. For the very nature of quantity unitcth any two 
parts that are indittant from one another, without needing any 
other cement to glevv them together as we fee the parrs of 
water and all liquid fubftanccs, do presently unite themfelvcs 
to other parts of like bodies when they meet with them, and 
ro folid bodies if they chance to be next unto them. And there- 
fore it is vain to trouble oar heads with Unions and imagina- 

44 A Treaties ^/"BODIES. Chap. ?. 

ry Moods to unite a body to the place it is m, vvhen their own 
nature maketh them one as foon as they are immediate to each 
other. And accordingly if when we fee a boul move, we would 
examine the caufes of that motion, we mutt confider the quanti- 
ty of aire or water it maketh to break from the parts next unto 
it, to give place unto it felf: and not fpeculate upon an intrinfe- 
call relation from the body to a certain part of the imaginary 
fpacc they will have to run through all things. And by ballan- 
cing that quantity of aire or water which it dividech , we may- 
arrive to make an eftimate of what force the boul needeth to 
have for its motion. 

5. Thus having declared that the locality of motion is but an 

All operations extrinfccall denomination, and no reality in the thing moved- 

amonou bodies, n n ' , & 

arc either local \ve may now caft an eye upon a rait confequence that may be 

fuch ^,^(1 out of what we hare hitherto faid. For if we confider 

as follow out ot i i . i i i j i 

local! motiwi. the nature ot a body, that is that a body is a body by quantity; 
and that the forrnall notion of quantiry is nothing die but divi- 
fibility; and that the adequate acl: of divifibility is divifion: it is 
evident there can be no other operation upon quantity, nor (by 
confequence^ among bodies, but muft cither be fuch divifion as 
we have here explicated, or what muft necetfarily follow out of 
fuch divifion. And divifion ( as we have even now explicated ) 
being locall motion; it is evident, tha: all operations among bo- 
dies are either locall motion, or fuch as follow out of locall mo- 
tion. Which conclufion, howfocver unexpected, and may at 
the firft hearing appear a Paradox, will nevertheleffe by the 
enfumg work receive fuch evidence as it cannot be doubted 
of; and chat not onely by force of argumentation and' by 
neceflRtic of notions ( as is already deduced } but alfb by 
experience , and by declaration of particulars as they (hall 

6- But now to apply what we have faid to our propofcd fub- 

J C( ^ ; lt * s obvious to every man, that fccing the divider is the a- 
g en t in divifion and in locall motion; and that denle bodies are 
by their nature diyiders ; the earth muft in that regard be the 
mott aftive among the elements , fince it is the moft dcnle of 
them all. But this feemeth to be againft the common judgement 
of all the fcarchcrs o^naturc, who unanimoufly agree that fire is 
thc^rnoft active clement. As alfo it fectneth to irnpugne what we 


Chap. J. *4 Trf aft fe of BODIES. 45 

our fclves have determined,when we faid^there were two active 
qualities, heat and cold, whereof the firft was in its grcateft cx- 
celle in fire, and the latter in water. 

To reconcile thefe,. we are to confider that the action ofcold 
in its greateft height is compofed of two parts;the one is a kind 
of prelling, and the other is penetration which requireth appli- 
cability. Of which two the former arifeth out of denfity, but 
the latter out of moderation of denfity , as I have declared in 
the precedent Chapter. Wherefore the former will exceed more . 6. 
in earth, though the whole be more eminent in water. For 
though confidering oncly the force of moving ( which is a 
more fimpleand abffradfced notion, then the determination and 
particularization of the Elements, and is precedent to it) there- 
in earth hath a precedency over water : yet taking the a&ion as 
it is determined to be the afrion of a particular Element, and as 
it concurreth to the competition or diflolution of mixed bo- 
dies; in that consideration ( which is the chief work of Ele- 
ments, and requireth an intime application of the Agents } 
water hath the principality arid excefle over earth. 

As for fire it is more avlive then either of them; as it j. 
Will appear clearly if we confider, how when fire is apply- T hc manner 
cd to fewell, and the violence of blowing is added to its own eetteth uro C 
motion ; it incorporatcth it fclf with the fewell , and in a f wc !>P rov ^]v 

,, . c thatir cxcced- 

fmall time converteth a great part of it into its own nature, ch eart 
and fhattereth the reft into fmoke and afhes. All which pro- 
ceedeth from the exceeding fmalnefie and drynerTe of the 
parts of fire; which being moved with violence againft the 
fewell , and thronging in multitudes upon it ; they cafily 
pierce the porous fubftance of it, like fo many extreme fharp 

And that the force of fire is as great and greater then of 
earth, we may gather out of our former difcourfe; where ha- 
ving refolved that denfity is the virtue by which a body is 
moved and doth cut the medium'; and again confidering that 
celerity of motion, is a kind ofdenfitie, (as we fhall bv and by 
declare) it is evident, that fince blowing muft of nccefficy prcflfe 
violently and with a rapid motion, the parts of fire againft the 
fewel, and fo condenie them exceedingly there, (both by their 
celeriry;andby bringing very many parts together thcre;)itmnft 


4$ '**Tre*tifc of B O D I ES. Chap. j. 

needs alfo give them activity and virtue to pierce the body they 
a*e beatc againft. 

Now, that celerity is a kind of denfity, will appear by com- 
paring their natures. For if we confider that a d?nie body may 
be dilated fo as to poiTefTe and fill the place of a rare body that 
exceeded it in bignefTe ; and by that dilatation, may be divided 
into as many and as great parts as the rare body was divifible 
into; we may conceive that the fubftance of thole parts, was by 
a fecret power of nature folded up in that little cxtenfion in 
which it was before. And even fo, if we refleft upon two ri- 
vers of equall channels and depths, whereof the one goeth fvviC- 
ter then the other ; and determine a certain length of each 
channell, and a common meafure of time : we fhall fee that in 
the fame meafure of time, there palteth a greater bulk of wa- 
ter in the dcfigned part of the channel of the fwifter ftream, 
then in the defigned part of the flower, though thofe parts be 

Neither doth it import, that in velocity we take a part of 
time, whereas in dcnfity it leemcth that an inftant is fufrlcient; 
and confcquently, there would be no proportion between them. 
For knowing Philofbphers do all agree that there are noin- 
ftants in time, and that the apprehcnfion of them proceedeth 
merely from the manner of our underftanding. And as for parts 
in time, there cannot be afTumed any fb little, in which thccom- 
parifon is not true : and fo in this regard, it is abiblutely good. 
And if the Reader have difficulty at the difparity of the 
things which are prcfled together in denfity and in celerity; for 
that in denfity there is onely fubftance, and in celerity there is 
alfb quantity, crowded up with the fubftance ; he will foon re- 
ceive fatisfaftion, when he fhall confider that this difparity is 
to the advantage of what we fay, and maketh the nature of 
denfity more perfect in celerity, and confequently more power- 
full in fire then in earth. Befides, if there were no difparity, it 
g. would not be a diftincl: fpeties of denfity, but the very fame. 
The fame i$ By what we have fpoken above, it appeareth how fircgetteth 

manner, where- mto fewcll ; now let us confider how it cometh out : for the 
^ fire cometh activity ofthat fierce body will not let it lie ftill and relias lone 

ontorfcwell -LI/- . 11 r 

andvorkcth *s it natn lo many enemies round about it to roufe it up. We 
upon other f cc t h cn t h ac as foon as ,ic hath incorporated it fclf \\ith the 

odics. A ., ., 


Chap. 7. A Trettift of B O D I E S. 

fewell and is grown maPccr of it by introducing into it fb ma- 
ny of its own parts, ( like fb many fouldicrs, into an enemies 
town ) they break out again on every fide with as much vio- 
lence as they came in. For by reafon of the former refiftancc of 
thefcwcll; their continuall ftreaming of new parts upon it, 
and one overtaking another there where their journey was 
flopped, ( all which is encreafed by the blowing ) doth fb ex- 
ceedingly condenfc them into a narrower room then their na- 
ture afrc6teth, that as foon as they get liberty, and grow ma- 
flers of the fewell, ( which at the nrft was their prifon) they 
enlarge their place, and confcqucntly come out and flie abroad; 
ever ayming right forwards from the point where they be- 
gin their journey : for the violence wherewith they feck to ex- 
tend themfelves into a larger room, when they have liberty to 
do fo; will admit no motion but the fhorteft, which is, by a 
ftraight line. 

So that if in our phantafic.we frame an image of a round bo- 
dy all of fire; we mutt withal! prefently conceive, that the 
flame proceeding from it, would diffufe it fclf every way in- 
differently in ftraight lines; in fuch fort, that the fburce ferving 
for the center, there would be round about it an huge fphere of 
fire and of light; unlcfTe fome accidcmall and extern caufe 
fhould determine its motion more to one part then to ano- 
ther. Which compafie , becaufe it is round, and hath the fi- 
gure of a fphere, is by Philofophers termed the fphere of its 

So that it i's evident, that the moft fimple and primary moti- 
on offircjsa flux in a direct line from the center of hr, to its cir- 
cumference, taking the fewell for its center; asalfo, that when, 
it is beaten agiintf a harder body, it may be able to deftroy it, 
although that body be in its OWH nature more denfe then fire. 
For the body againft which it prcflech, either hath pores, or 
hath none, ( as, the Elements have none : ) if it hath pores ; 
then the fire, by reafon of the violent motion of the impellent:, 
driveth out the little bodies which fill up thofe pores, and fuc- 
ceeding in their room, arid being multiplyed there, caulech thofe 
effects which in our difcourfe of the Elements we affigned to 
heat. But if it have no pores ; it will be either rare or denfe : 
if it be rare; then, in cafe that the force of the impellent be 


A Tre<st;fe cf B O D I E S. Chap". 6. 

greater then the refinance of the rare body, it will force the 
fire to divide the rare body. But if it be denle ; as, feme atomc 
of earth -, then, though at the firft it cannot divide it ; yet by 
length of time and by contintiall beating upon it, it may come 
to wear off feme part of it, the force of the impellent by little 
and little bending the atomeof the earth, by driving a conti- 
nuall llrcam of a letter part of fire, cgainft fome detcrmate part 
of the atome.By which word j4tox?e y no body will imagine we 
intend to exprefie a perfect indivifiblc, but onely, the leaft fore 
of nattirall bodies. 

Of Light : iv hat it is. 

f r T Aving {a d thus much of fire; the near relation that is be- 
fenfe "JLcv een itand light, invketh us in the next place to bend 


"a our C 7 CS co tnat V^'0 u ^ c ^ co d***U theirs who look unwari- 
lyupon it. Certainly, as among all the fenfjble qualities, it is 
the principal!; fo among all corporeall (eemcth to 
aim rightert at a fpirituall nature^ and to come nearefl unto it. 
And by fbmc hath been judged to be ipiriwall ; if our eyes be 
capable to fee fpirits. No meaner man then Ariftotle leadeth 
the dance to hold light a quality, and mainly to deny it any 
bodily fubfiftence. And there hath followed him no fewer, then 
almcft all the world ever fince. And the queftion importeth no 
leffe, then the whole doftrine of qualities ; for admit light to 
be a body, and hardly any man will hold up his hand in de- 
fence of any other quality: but if it be a quality; then all 
others come in by parity and for company. 

But before we go any further, i: will not be amifle to ex- 
preffe what we mean- when we reject qualities ; and how, in 
fome fenfc, we are content to admit them. According to that 
de/cription that Philofbphers ordinarily do make of them , 
( and efpecially the modern ) we can by no means give way 
unto them. I confeflc ingcnuoufly , I underftand not w'hac 
they mean by them ; and I confident , that neither do they. 
For the very notion , that their firft words feem to expreffc 
of them, they contradict again , before they make an end of 
defcribing what they arc. They will have them to be real! 


Chip. 6. 

Entities or Things , diftinft from the bodies they accom- 
pany : and yet, they deny them a fubfiftencc or felf-bcing; 
faying they do but inhere in their fubjecl: , which fupport- 
erh them ; or which is all one, that their being is a dependence 
of a fubjecl. 

If they will reflect upon what they fay , and make their 
thoughts and their words agree j they will find, that the firft 
part of their defcription maketh them compleat fubftances; 
which afterwards, in words they flatly deny : and it is impof- 
fible to reconcile thefe two meanings. A reall Entity or thing 
inuft ncceffarily have an Exigence or Being of its own: which 
they allow them. And whatfoever hath fo , becometh a fub- 
ftance : for it fubfifteth by its own Exigence; or ( to fay plain- 
er) is what it is by its own Being; and needcth not the exi- 
ftence of another thing to give it a Being. And then prefcntly 
to fay that it doth not fubfiit of it felf ; or that it requireth the 
fubfifteuce of a fubftancc, to make it Be-, is a pure contradii- 
on to the former. 

This arifcth from a wrong notion they make to themfclvcs 
of* fubftance, exiftencc and {uwiftcnce : and from their not con- 
fulting fufficiently with their own thoughts, as well as ftudy- 
ing in books. They meet there with different terms; by help of 
which, they keep themfelves from contradiction in words, but 
not in effect. If the terms were rightly conceived, and notions 
duely fitted to therm f which requireth deep meditation upon 
the things themfelyes, and a brain free from all inclination to 
fiding, or aflfe^ion to opinions for the authonrs fakes, before 
they be well underftocd and examined ) many ofthofe dilutes 
would fall to the ground , in which oftentimes both fides lofe 
themfclves, and the qucftion, before they come to an end. They 
are in the dark before they are aware : and then they make 
a noife, onely with terms ; which like too heavy weapons that 
they cannot weild, do carry their ftrokes beyond their aim. 
Of fuch nature arc the qualites and moods, that feme modern 
Philofophers have fo fubtilifed upon. And in that fcnfe, we ut- 
terly dcnie them : which being a qucftion appertaining to Me- 
taphyficks, it belongeth not to our prefent purpole to ing*gc 
our fclves further in it. 

But, as they are ordinarily underftood in common conver- a. 

D fation, 

$o 'JTrtttiJi tf/ BO DIES. Chap.rf, 

T K W A at h fcnfc f at ' 0n> wc a ^ ow them. And our work is but to explicate 
dothadmiToir and (hew the particulars in retail, of what men naturally 
qualities. /peak in grofTe. For that fcrveth their turn to know what 
one another meaneth : whereas, it belongeth onely unto a Phi- 
lofopher , to examine the caufes of things . Others arc con- 
tent with the effects : and they fpeak truly and properly when 
they defignc them. As for example: when they fay that fire 
burneth by a quality of heat that it hath , or that a deyc is 
fquare by the quality of a cubicail figure that is in it ; they 
fpeak as they Should do. But if others will take occafion 
upon this , to let their understanding give a Being unto 
theft qualities , diflinS from the fubftaraces in which they 
conceive them; there they rniiTe. If we confider the fame man 
hungry/or thirfty* or weary, or fleepy, or ftanding, or fitting; 
the undcrftanding prefemly maketh within it felf reall 
things of fleep, hunger, thirft, wearinefTe , ftanding, and 
fitting. Whereas indeed , they are but different affections or 
Situations of the fame body. And therefore we muft beware of 
applying thefe notions of our mind, to the things as they are 
in therafclvcs : as much as we muft, of conceiving thofe 
parts to be actually in a continued quantity , whereof we can 
frame actually diftinct notions in our understanding. But as, 
when ordinary men fay, that a yard ccntaineth three feet; 
it is true in this fcnfe, that three feet may be made of it; but 
that whiles it is a yard , it is but one quantity or thing, and 
not three things : fo, they who make profcflion to examine ri- 
goroufly the meaning of words , muft explicate in what fenfc 
it is true that heat and figure (our former examples ) are qua- 
lities : for fi:ch we grant them to be ; and in no wife do con- 
tradict the common manner of fpeech; which entereth not into 
the Philofophicall nature of them. 

We fay then, that qualities aic nothing elfc but the proprie- 
ties, or particularities wherein one thing differeth from another. 
And therefore Logicians, call fubftamiall tlifferencies, fubfian- 
tiall qualities : and lay, they arc predicated in QH*IC quid. But 
the Predicament of Quality is ordered by Ariftotle to con- 
clude in it thofe differences of things, wh'ch are neither fub- 
fhntiall nor quantitative, and yet are intrinfecall and abfblute. 
And & that which the undcrfttndingcallech heat, and maketh a 


Chap.*. <t^7>^//j?0/BODIES. yi 

notion of, diftinft from the notion of the fire from whence it 
iffueth to burn thtf wood that is near it ; is nothing elfe, in the 
fire, but the very fubftance of it in fuch a degree of rarity; or 
a continual! ftream of parts ifluing out of the main ftock of 
the fame fire, that entreth into the wood, and by the rarity of 
it makctb its way through every little part, and divideth them. 
All which a&ions are comprifed by the understanding under 
one notion of burning : and the power, ( which is fire it felf ) 
to do thefc actions, under one notion of the quality of heat : 
though burning in effect, and explicated Philofbphically, be 
nothing elfe but the continuance of thofc materiall motions 
we have even now defcribed. In like manner, the cubic-all fi- 
gure of a deye, is nothing clfc but the very body of the deye ic 
lelf, limited by other bodies from being extended beyond thole 
dimenfions it hath : and fo the quality of figure or fquare- 
ncfle , which in common fpeech is faid to be in it ; is truly, the 
fubftance it felf, under fuch a confederation as is exprefTcd by 
that word. 

Bat to come to our queftion, npon the dccifion of which dc- 3. 
pendeth the fate of all the fictitious Entities which in the fchools F:VC "Jj 
are termed qualities. The cheif motives that perfwade light to 
be one of thofej may, to my beft remembrance, be reduced to 
five feverall heads. The firft' is, that it illuminateth the airein 
aninftant,and therefore cannot be a body: fora body re- 
quireth fucccflion of time to move in : whereas, this feemeth to 
fpread it felf over the whole hemifphere in aninftant; for as 
farre as the funnc is diftant from us, he no {boner raifeth his 
head above our horizon, but his darts are in our face : and ge- 
nerally, no imagination can be framed, of any motion it hath 
in its dilatation. 

The next is j that whereas no body can admit another into 
its place,without being removed away it felf, to leave that room 
unto the advcnient one neverthclefle, plain experience flicw- 
eth us dayly, that two lights may be in the fame place ; and 
the firft is fo farre from going away at the coining of the ie- 
cond, that the bringing in of a fecond candle, and fetting it near 
the firft, encreafcth the light in the room ; which diminifheth 
again when the fecond is removed away. And by the fame rea- 
fon; if light were a body, ic fliould drive away the airc 

D 2 (which 

52 e/fTrMh'jZfl/BODIES. Chap. 6. 

(vvhicM is likcwife a body) vvhcrefoever it is admitted: for 
within the whole iphcre of the irradiation of it, there is no 
point wherein one may fet their eye, but light is found. And 
therefore , if it were a body there would be no room for aire in 
that place which light taketh up. And likewife, we fee that it 
penetratcth all folid bodies, ( and particularly glafle, ) as expe- 
rience fheweth, in wood, ftone , metals , and any other body 
vvhatfbcver, if it be made thinne enough. 

The third argument, why light cannot be a body, is, that if 
it were fo, it can be none other but fire, which is the fubtileftj 
and moft rarified of all bodies whatfoever. But if u be fire, then 
it cannot be without heat : and confequently, a man could not 
feel cold in a funne-fhining day. The contrary of which is 
apparent all winter long; whofe brightcft dayes oftentimes 
prove the coldeft. And Galileus with divers others fince, did 
nfe from the funne to gather light in a kind of frone that is 
found in Italy ( which is therefore by them called, U caUmit*. 
deRa luce ) and yet no heat appeared in it. A glow-worm wili 
give light to read by, but not to warm you any whit at all. And 
it is faid, that diamonds and carbuncles will fhine like fire in 
the grcateft darks; yet no man ever complained of being ferved 
by them as the fooHfti Satyrc was by killing of a burning coal. 
On the contray fide; if one confitler how great heats may be 
made without any light at all, how can one be pcrfwaded .that 
light & heat ftiould be the fame thing,or indeed any whit of kin? 

The fourth motive to induce us to believe that light cannot 
be a body , is the fudden extinction of it, when any folid body 
cometh between the fountain of it, and the place where he fend- 
eth his beams. What becometh of that great expanfion of light 
that fhined all about, when a cloud interpoleth it fclf between 
the body of the 'funne and the ftreams that come from it.? Or 
when it leavcth our horizon to light the other world? His head 
is no fooneroutof our fight ; but at the inftant all his beams 
are vanished. If that which filleth fb va(r a room were a body, 
fomething would become of it : it would at Jeaft be changed 
to ibme other fubftance; and forne rcliques would be left of it; 
as when afhcs remain of burned bodies : for nature admittetb 
not the annihilation of any thing. 

And in the hit place; we may conceive that if light were a bo- 

Chap. 6, ^ TrMife of B O DI E S. y $ 

dy, it would be fliaken by the winds, and by the motion of the 
aire ; and we fliould fecit quaver in all bluftering weather. 
Therefore, fumming up all we have faid; it fcemeth mofi 
improbable, and indeed wholly impoffiblc , that light flioulcf 
be a body ; and confequemly> muft have his place among qua- 

But on the other fide; before we apply our fclves to anfxvcr 4. 
thefe objections , let us make a fliort furvey of thole induce- ^ two firft 

I -1 U If i- U L J -i rcafons to prove 

merits, that prevail with us to believe light a body, notwith- light to be a 
ftanding fo forcible oppofitions. I admit fo farre of the third JSimbUneele 
argumcnt> as to allow light to be fire : for indeed it cannot be hach with fire; 
imagined .to be any thing clfe; all properties agreeing fo fully f^cl^L 
between them. But withall I muft addc ; that it is not fire in ty,i:wou\iai- 
every form, or fire joyned with every fubftance, thatexprefleth 
it felf by light; but it is fire extremely dilated, and without fclf> 
mixture of any other grofle body. Let use hold a piece of linen 
or paper clofe by the flame of a candle, and by little and little, 
remove it further and further off ; and me thinks my very eyes 
tell me, that there is upon the paper fome part of that which I 
lee in the candle; and that it groweth ftill lefle and lefle like 
as I remove the paper further from it : Co that, if I would be- 
lieve my fenfe , I fliould believe it as very a body upon the 
paper, as in the candle; though enfeebled, by the laxity of the 
channel in which it floweth. 

And this feemeth to be ftrengthened, by the confederation of 
the adverfaries pofition : for if it we^e a quality; then, feeing it 
hath no contrary to deftroy or flop it, it fliould ftill produce an 
cquall to it felf, without end or growing feeble, whenfoever ic 
meeteth with a fubjeft capable to entertain ir, as aire is. 

The better to apprehend how much this faint refemblance 
of flame upon the paper, maketb for our purpofe; let us turn 
the leaf, and imagine in our thoughts, after whatfafliion that 
fire which is in the flame of a little candle, would appear unto febftanceof' 
us, if it weredilated and ftretchcd out to the utmoft extent that !l r y obc i!T" 

* r i f r i ned.ic will hare 

cxccfle or rarity can bring it unto. Suppofe that fo much the- fame ap- 
flame, as would fill a cone of two inches height and half wS^iu 
an inch diameter fliould fuflfcr fo great an expanfion as to hath - 
replenish with his light body a large chamber: and then, 
what can we imagine it would feera to be? How would the con- 

D 3 tinuall 

5 4 Trctifi of BODIES. Chap. 6. 

tinuall driving it into a thinner fubftance, a it ftreameth in a 
perpetuairflond from the flame; feemto play upon the paper? 
And then judge whether it be likely to be a body or no> when 
our difcourfe fuggefteth unto us, that if it be a body, thoft very 
appearances m uft follow, which our eyes give us evidence are 
fb in eflFeft. If gold beaten into fo aiery a thinneflc as we fee 
guilders ufe, doth remain ftill gold notwithftanding the won- 
derfull cxpanfion of ic : why fhall we not allow, that fire dila- 
ted to his utmoft period,fhall ftill remain fire; though extreme- 
ly Tariffed beyond what it was ? 

g. We know that fire is the rareft and the fubtilcft fubfttnce 

The fourth' that nature hath made among bodies ; and we know likewife, 
!feWaMr f that it is ingcndered by the dcftroying and feeding upon fome 
ih: generation ot hcr more grofTc body . let us then calculate, when the ovl, 

and corruption , r 11 L. L. 11 r r i MI 

rf ;ihr, which or tallow or wax of a candle, or the bulk of a faggot or billet, 
^rccth.wiih j s dii atc( i an d ra rified to the degree of fire ; how vaft a place 
muft it take up ? 

To this let uj adde what Ariftotle teacheth us ; that fire if 
not like a ftanding pool, which coatinueth full with the fame 
water ; and as it hath no waft, fo hath it no fupply : but it i$ 
a fluent and brooklike current. Which alfo we may learn, out 
of the perpetuall nutriment It requireth : for a new part of few- 
ell, being converted into a new part of fire ( as we may ob 
ferve, in the little atomes of oyl, or melted wax, that continu- 
ally afccnd apace up the week of a burning candle or lamp ) of 
ncccffity the former muft be gone to make room for the latter j 
and fo, a new part of the river is continually flowing. 

Now then, this perpetuall flux of fire, being made ofa grofit 
body that fb rarified will take up fuch a vaft room ; if it die not 
at the inftantof its birth, but have fbme time to fubfift ( be it 
never fo (hort, ) ic muft needs runne Come diftance from the 
fountain whence ir (pringcth. Which if it do ; you need not 
wonder, that there rfiould be fo great an extent of fire as is 
rcquifite to fill all that fpace which light rcplcniflieth; aor that 
it (liould be ftill fupplycd with new, as faft as the cold of 
the airc killeth it . for confidcring that flame is a much 
grofler fi;bftance then pure fire, (by reafon of the mixture 
with it, of that vifcous oyly matter, which being drawn 
cut of the wood and candle, fcrvedi for fcwcll to the fire, and 


Chap, 6. A TrtAtife ^/BODIES. J 

is by little and little converted into it; _) and withaJl reflefting 
upon the nature and motion of fire, ( which is, to dilate it felt" 
extremely, and to fly all about from the center to the circumfe- 
rence; Jyou cannot choofe but conceive,that the pure fire ftrug- 
gling to break away from the oyly fewell ( which is ftill turn- 
ing into new fire ) doth at length fiee his wings from that bird- 
lime, and then flyeth abroad with extreme fwiftnefle,andfwel- 
leth & dilateth it felf to a huge bulk,now that it hath gotten li- 
berty ; and Co filleth a vaft room ; but rcmaineth ftill fire till it 
die : which it no fooner doth, but it is ftill flipplycd with new 
dreams ofit,that are continually ftrained> & as it were fquecf- 
ed.out of the thick flame,which did imprifbn ir,and kept it with- 
in it;till growing fuller offire then it could contain(by rcafbn of 
the continual! attenuating thcoyly parts of it, and converting 
them into firejitgiveth liberty unto thofe parts offire, that arc 
next the fuperficies,to fly whither their nature will carry them. 

And thus, difcourfe would inform a blind man ( after he 
hath vrell reflected on the nature of fire ) how it muft needs 
fill a mighty extent of place ; though it have but a narrow be- 
ginning at the fpringhead of it : and that there., by reafbn of 
the condenfation of it, and mixture with a groflerbody, it muft 
needs burn other bodies ; but that when it is freed from fuch 
mixture, and fufTereth an extreme cxpanfion, it cannot have 
force to burn, but may have means to exprdTe it (elf to be there 
prefent by fome operation of it upon (bme body that is refined 
and fubtilized enough to perceive it, Arid this operation a fee- 
ing man will tell you is done upon his eyes, ( who fe ficnefTc 
to receive impreffton from fo fubtiie an Agent>Anatomiftes will 
teach you.) And I remember, how a blind fchoolmafter that I 
fccpt in my houfe to teach my children, fwho had extreme fub- 
tiie fpirits, and a great tenderaeflc through his whole body; 
and met with few diftra&ions, to hinder him from obferv ing 
any imprcflion, never fb nicely made upon him ) ufed often to 
tell me, that he felt it very preceptibly in fcverall parts of his 
body ; but efpecially in his brain. j t 

But to fettle us more firmly in the perfwafion of light his be- The fifth * 
ing a body(and consequently fire;) let usconfider that the pro- SpropSJfes' 
perties of a body, are perpetually incident to light ; look what belong to light 
rules a ball will keep in its rebounds ; the fame, doch light in 

D 4 its 

$6 A rreAtife cf B O D I E S. Chap. 7. 

its reflexions : and the fame dcmonftration doth alike convince 
the one and the other. Befides, light is broken like a body- as 
when it is fnappcd in pieces by a tougher body. It is gathered 
together into a little room by looking or burning glafTes ; as 
\\ateris, by ordering the gutters of a houfe fb as to bring into 
one cittern all that raincth difpeifedly upon the whole roof. It 
is fevered and difperfed by other glaffes ; and is to be wrought 
upon, and caft hither and thither at pleafure ; all by the rule of 
other bodies. And what is done in light , the fame will hke- 
\vife be done in heat, in cold, in wind, and in found. And the 
very fame inftruments that are made for light , will work their 
cffc&s in all thefe others, if they be duly managed. 

So that certainly, were it not for the authority of Ari- 
ttotle and of his learned followers that prcfleth us on the one 
fide ; and for the feemingnelfe of thofe reafbns we have alrea- 
dy mentioned, which perfwadeth us on the other fide ; our 
very eyes would carry us by ftream into thii content, that 
light is no other thing but the nature and fubftance of fire, 
fpred farre and wide, and treed from the mixture of all other 
grofle bodies. Which will appear yet more evident in the foluti- 
ons of the oppofitions we have brought againft our own opini- 
on : for in them there will occurrc other arguments of no 
lefle importance to prove this verity, then thcie we have al- 
ready propofed. 


Two obicttioHS anftvered againft light being fire, with 4 more 
awp/ff proof of its being fuch. 

TT Aving then faid thus much to pcrfwade us of the corpo- 
Thar aii'iight ij A J reity of this fubtile thing, that fo queintly playech with 
hot and apt to O ur eyes : we will in the next place eiaminc thole objections 
that a: the beginning we did fct down againft its being a body: 
and if after a through difcuflion of them, we. find they do in 
truth conclude nothing of what at the firft fight they bear fo 
great a fhew of; but that we fliall be able perfectly to fblve and 
cncrvc their force; no body will think it rafhneflc in ui to crave 
leave of Arittotlc that we may difTcnt from him in a matter thar 
lie hath not looked to the bottom of; and whoic opinion therein 


Chap. ? 'vfTrcAtifc */ BO DIES. 57 

cannot be defended from plain contradictions and impoflibili- 
tiej. Ic is true, never any one man looked fb farre as he inco the 
bowels of nature; he may be rigbtly termed the Genius of it; 
and whofocver followed! his principles in the main, cannot be 
led into errour: but we muft not believe that he or any man ellc 
that relieth upon the ftrength and negotiation of his own rea- 
ibn, ever had a priviledge of infallibility entailed to all he faid. 
Let us then admire him for what he hath delivered us : and 
where he falleth fhort or is weary in his fearch, and fuffereth 
himfelf to be born down by popular opinions againft his 
own principles ( which happeneth very fcldome to him ) let us 
feek to fupply and relieve him. 

But to purfue our intent : We will begin with anfwer- 
rng the third objection ; which is , that if light were fire, 
it muft heat as well as enlighten where it fhineth. There 


is no doubt but it doth fb : as is evident by the wcather- 
glafles, and other artificiall muficall inftruments ( as organs 
and virginals that played by themfelves ) which Cornelius 
Drebbel ( that admirable mafter of mechanicks ) made to 
(hew the king. All which depended upon the rarefaction and 
condenfation of fome fubtilc body, conferved in a cavitie with- 
in the bulk of the whole inftrument : for a (Toon as the funne 
fliincd, they would have motion and play their parts. And 
there is no doubt but that grew out of the rarefaction of the 
fubtile liquor he made uic of, which was dilated aflfoon as the 
aire was warmed by thefunne-beams. Of vvhofe operation it 
was fo fenfible, that they no fooncr left the horizon , but 
its motion ceafed. And if but a cloud came between the in- 
ftrument and them , the mufick would prcfently go flower 
time. And the ancient miracle of Memnons ftatue , feemcth 
to be a juggling of the Ethiopian Priefts made by the like 

But though he and they found fomc fpirituall and refi- 
ned matter, that would receive fuch notable impreffions, fr m TKereafonwhv- 
fo fmall alterations of temper; yet it is no wonder that our ** bodies for 
grofle bodies are not fenfible of them : for we cannot foci lieat doV^c feel '[he.- 
unlefle it be greater then that which is in our fenfe. And the jl e " tof F urc - 
hcac there muft be in proportion to the heat of our blond; which 
is an high degree oif warmth, And therefore it is very pof- 

5 a 'Jr7>Mf//**/BODIES. Chap; 7; 

fibletnat ah exceeding rarified fire, mtycaufc a farre lefTc im. 
prefTion of heat then we are able to feel. Confider how if you 
fet pure fpirit of wine on fire, ami fo convert it into a&uall 
flame; yet it will not burn, nor fcarce warm your hand : and 
then ca# you erpefr. that the light of a candle which fillcth a 
great room, fhould burn or warm you as far as itfhincth ? 

If you would exaftly know what degree of heat, and 
power of burning that light hath, which (for example J ill i- 
iie:h upon the wall in a great chamber , in the middeft where- 
of there frandeth a candle j do but calculate what overpro- 
porticn of quamitie all the light in the whole room bcarcch 
to the quantity of the little flame at the top of the candle, and 
thar is the ovcrproportion of the force of burning which Is in 
the candle, to the force of burning which is in fo much light 
at the wall as in extcnfion is equal! to the flame of the can* 
die. Which when you have considered, you will not quarrell 
at its not warming you at that diffance ; although you grant 
it to be fire, ftreamingout from the flame as from the fpring 
that feedeth it , and extremely dilated ( according to the na- 
ture of fire, when it is at liberty) by going fb farre, without 
any other groflc body to imprilbn or clog it. 

It is manifeft , that this rule of examining the proportion 
of burning in fo much of the light as the flame is, ( by calcu- 
lating the proportion of the quantity or extenfionof all the 
light in the room to the extenfion of the flame of the candle, 
and then comparing the flame of the candle to a part of liglu 
equall in extenfion unto it) is a good and infallible one, if 
we abftra&from accidentall inequalities : Cncc both the light 
and the flame arc in a perpetuall flux ; and all the light was 
iirft in the flame, which is the fpringfrom whence it continu- 
ally floweth. As in a river wherein evry part runneth 
with a fettled ftrcam; though one place be ftraightcr, and 
another broader ; yet of neceffitic , fince all the water that 
is in the broad place came out of the narrow, it muft follow 
that in equall portions of time, there is no more water where 
it hath the liberty of a large channell, then where the banks 
prefle it into a narrower bed , fb that there be no inequalities in 
the bottome. 

In like manner, if in a large ftoye a bafifl of water be con- 

Chap. 7. -A Trutije <?/ B O D I E S. 

verted into fteam ; that ratified water which then filleth the 
whole ftove, is no more then what the bafin contained before : 
and consequently, th power of raoiftening which is in a foots 
extenfion (for example) of the ftove wherein that fteam is, 
muft be in proportion to the virtue of wetting in the foots ex- 
tenfion of water ; as the quantity of that great room which 
the fteam filleth, is to the quantity of the water contained in 
the bafin : for although the rarificd water be not in every leaft 
part of that great place it fecmcth to take up; by reafon that 
there is aire in which it muft fwim ; yet the power of wetting 
that was in the bafin of water, is dilated through the whole the conjunction of the myft or dew to all the {enfiblc 
parts of the airc that is in the room;and confequently the pow- 
er of wetting which is in any foot of that room, is in a manner 
as much leftc then the power of wetting which was in the foot 
of water, as if the water were rarified to the quantity of the 
Trthole room, and no airc were left with it. 

And in the fame manner it farcth with dilated fire , as ic 
doth with dilated water : with onely this difference pcradven- 
ture, that fire groweth purer and more towards its own na- 
ture by dilatation ; whereas water becomcth more mixed 
and is carried from its nature by fuflfering the like effetSh 
Yet dilated water will in proportion moyften more then dila- 
ted fire will burn; for the rarefaftion of water bringcth ic 
nearer to the nature of aire (whole chief propriety is moi- 
fture , ) and the fire that accompanied! it when it raifeth it in- 
to (team, giveth it more powerful! ingreflion into what body 
it meeteth withall : whereas fire when it is veiy pure, and 
at entire liberty to ftrtch and fpread it iclf as wide as the na- 
ture of it will carry it, gettcth no advantage of burning by 
its mixture with airc : and although it gaincth force by its pu- 
rity, yet by reafon of its extreme rarc&dion it muft needs be 
extremely faint. But if by the help of glafles you will gather 
into Icfle room that which is diffufed into a great one ; and fo 
condenfe it as much as it is (for example^} in the flame of a can- 
dle ; then that fire or compa6lcd light will burn much more 
forcibly then fo much flame : for there is as much of it in quan- 
tity (excepting what is loft in the carriage of it; ) and it is 
held in together in as little room ; and ic hath this advantage 


rfo -^ Treatifi of B O D I E S. Chap. 7. 

bcfidesi that it is clogged with no grofTe body to hinder the 
a&ivity of it. 

3. It feemeth to me now, that the very anfvvering this objeAU 

The experience on doth (beildes repelling the force of it ) evidently prove that 

of burning- ga<- . i c i_- j j- i j- 

s, and ofiouf. light is nothing but hre in his own nature, and exceedingly cli- 
" latcd: for if you fuppofc fire (for example,thc flame of a candle) 
be fire, to be ftretched oiit to the utitioft expanfion that you may well 
imagine fuch a grofle body is capable of; it is impoffibJc it 
fhould appear and work otherwife then it doth in light, as I 
have fheu-ed above. And again, we fee plainly that light ga- 
thered together burneth more forcibly then any other fire what- 
ibever, and therefore mutt needs be fire. 

Why then fhall we not confidently conclude, that what is 
fire before it getteth abroad , and is fire again when it cometh 
together, doth likewife remain fire during all its journey . ? Nay, 
even in the journey it felf we have particular teftimony that it 
is fire: for light returning back from the earth charged with lit- 
tle atomes (as it doth in Tbultry gloomy weather) heateth much 
more then before; juft as fire doth when it is imprifoned in a 
dcnfc body. 

. Philofophers ought not to judge by the fame rules that the 

pherj common people doth. Their grofle fenfc is all their guide: and 
udge of' 'thtnss therefore they cannot apprehend any thing to be fire, that doth 
bytheruiesof not make it felf be known for fuch by burning them. But he 

vu'gar people. _ .11 i 

that judicioufiy exammeth the matter, and traceth the pedigree 
and period of it; andfeeththc reafon why in ibmecircumftan- 
ces it burneth, and in others it doth not; is too blame, if he fufl 
fer himfclf to be led by others ignorance contrary to his owa 
reafon. When they that are curious in perfumes>will have their 
chamber filled with a good fent in a hot feafon that agrceth not 
with burning perfumes, and therefore make fbme odoriferous 
water be blown about it by their (ervants mouths that are dex- 
terous in that miniftery , fasisufedin Spain in the fummer 
time;) every one that feeth it done, though on a fudden the wa- 
ter be loft to his eyes and touch , and is onely dilcernable by 
his nofe ; yet he is well fatisfied that the fent which recrcateth 
him, is the very water he faw in the glafTc cxtremly dilated 
by the forcible fproutmg of it out from the fervants mouth, 
and will by little and litcle fall down and become again pal- 

Chap. ?: ** Trtatife of B O D I E S. 61 

pable water as it was before ; and therefore doubteth not but 
ic is Hill water whiles it hangeth in the airc divided into little 
atomcs. Whereas one that law not the beginning of this ope- 
ration by water, nor obfervcd how in the end it fheweth it fclf 
again in water, might the better beexcufed ifhefhould not 
think that what he fmelled were water blown about the aire,nor 
any fubftancc of it felf (becaufehe neither feeth nor handleth 
it) but fome adventitious quality he knoweth not how adhe- 
ring to the aire. The like difference is between Philofbphers 
that proceed orderly in their difcourfcs, and others that pay 
themfelvcs with terms which they underfrand not. The one 
lee evidence in what they Conclude ; whiles the others gueffe 
wildly at randome. 

I hope the Reader will not deem it time loft from our main - 
drift, which we take up thus in examples and digreffions : for if The different 
1 be not much deceived, they ferve exceedingly to illuftrate "n",^ 1 ^ 1 * 
the matter : which I hope I have now rendred fo plain , as ceedfromdif- 
no man that fliall have well weighed it, will expect that fire 
dilated into that rarified fubftance which mankind ( who ac- 
cording to the different appearance of things to their fenfe, 
giveth different names unto them) calleth light , (houldburn 
like thatgroffer fubftance which from doing fo they call fire; 
nor doubt but that they maybe the fame thing more or lefle 
attenuated ; as leaf-gold that flyeth in the aire as light a* 
down i is as truly gold as that in an ingot which being 
heavier then any other fubflance, falleth moft forcibly unto 
the ground. 

What we have faid of the unburning fire ( which we call 
light) ftreaming from the flame of a candle, may cafily be 
applyed to all other lights deprived of fenfible hear, whereof 
/bme appear with flame , others without it: of the firft fort of 
which, are the innoxious fLimes that are often fcen on the hair 
of mens heads, and horfes manes, on the marts of fhips, over 
graves, and fat marifh grounds, and the like : and of the lat- 
ter fort are glow- worms, and the light- conicrving ftoncs, rot- 
ten wood, fome kinds offifli and of flefh when they bcg ; n to. 
putrifie, and fome other things of the like nature. 

Now to anfwer the fecond part of this objection , chat we 
daily fee great heats without any Iight> as well as much 

The reafba 
wLy m*ny 
times (ire and 
heat are depri 
ved o! Italic. 

A Twtrfe of B O D I E S. Chap. 7, 

without any heat , and therefore light and fire cannot be the 
fame thing : you may call to mind how denfc bodi are capa- 
ble of great quantities of rare ones; and thereby it cometh to 
paflc, that bodies which repugnc to the dilatation of flame, 
may ncvertheleflc have much fire enclofcd in them. As in i 
ftove, let the fire be neyer fo great, yet it apncareth not out- 
wards to the fight, although that ftove warm all the rooms near 
it : So when many little parts ofheat are imprifoned in as ma- 
ny little cells of grofle earthly fubftancc, ( which arc like fb 
many little ftoves to them ) that imprifonment will not hinder 
them from being very hot to the fcnfc of feeling ( which is moft 
perceptible of denfc things.) But becaufc they are choaked with 
the clofenefle of the grofle matter wherein they are cnclofed, 
they cannot break out into a body of flame or light, fb to dif- 
cover their nature : which (as we hare (aid before ) is the moft 
unfit way for burning; for we fee that light muft be condcnfed 
to produce flame and fire; as flame muft be to burn violently. 

Having thus cleared the third objection, ( as I conceive;) let 
us go on to the fourth; which requireth that we fatisfic their in- 
qtr.fition, who ask what becometh of that vaft body of fliining 
light (if it be a bodyj that fillcth all the diftance between 
heaven and earth ; and vanifheth in a moment aflbon as a. 
cloud or the moon interpofeth it lelf between the funne and 
us, or that the funne quitteth our hemifpherc ? No figne at all 
remaineth of it after the extinction of it, as doth of all other 
fubftanees, whofe deftru&ion is the birth of fbme new thing. 
Whither then is it flown > We may be perfwaded that a myft 
is a corporeall fubftance, becaufe it turneth to drops of water 
upon the twigs that it invironeth: and fo we might believe light 
to be fire , if after the burning of it oat, we found any aflics re- 
maining; but experience afTureth us, that after it is cxtinguifh- 
ed, it leavcth not the leaft veftigium behind it of having been 

7. Now, before we anfwer this objection , we will entreat our 

of!h" w" 1 ^" 11 a< ^ vcr ^ ar y to ca ^ to m ind, how we hare in bur folution of the 
light when it former declared and proved that the light, which (for example) 
fhineth from a candle, is no more then the flanae is, from 
whence it fpringcth, the one being condcnfed and the other di- 
lated ; and that the flame is in a perpctuall flux ofconfumption 


about the circumference, and of reftauration at the center, 
where it fucketh in the fevvell : and then we will enquire of 
him, what brccmeth of that body of flame which fo continual- 
ly dieth and is renewed, and leaveth no remainder behind it; 
as well as he doth of us, what becometh of our body of light, 
which in like manner is alwayes dying and alwayes fpringing 
frefli ? And when he hath well confidcrcd it, he will find that 
one anfwer will (erve for both. 

Which is, That as the fire ftreameth out from the fountain of 
it, and growcth more fubtilc by its dilatation, it finketh tht 
more cafily into thofe bodies it meetcth withall : the firft of 
which and that environcth it round about, is aire. With airc 
then it mingleth and incorporatcth it felf, and by confequencc 
with the other little bodies that are mingled with the aire : and 
in them it receiveth the changes which nature worketh : by 
which it may be turned into the other elements, if there be oc- 
cafion; or be ftill confcrved in bodies that require heat. 

Upon this occafion, I remember a rare experiment that a j 4 
noble man of much fincerity, and a fingular friend of mine, An experiment 
told me he had feen: which was, That by means of glafles made JceS W th 
in a very particular manner, and artificially placed one by ano- light may be < 
ther, he had feen the fun-beams gathered together , and preeipi- 
tated down into a brownifh or purplifh red powder. There 
could be no fallacy in this operation : for nothing whatfocver 
was in the glafles when they were placed anddifpofed for this 
intent : and it murt be in the hot time of the yeare, elfe the ef- 
fect WQuld not follow. And of this Magiftry he could gather 
fornc dayes near two ounces in a day. And it was of a ftnnge 
volatile nature, and would pierce and imprint his fpirituall qua- 
lity into gold it felf (the heavicft and moft fixed body we 
converfe withall ) in a very fhortcime. If this be plainly fo, 
without any miftaking ; then niens eyes and hands may tell 
them what becotncth of light when it dieth, if a great deal of 
it were fwcpt together. But from what caufe foever this experi- 
ence had its effect, our rcafon maybe fatisfied with what we 
have faid above: for I confefle, for my part, I believe the appea- ^ 
ring body might be fomething that came along with the fun- 
beams, and was gathered by them; but not their pure fubftance. 

Some pcradvcnture will ob;e chofc lamps, which both an- 

T A Treattfe of B O D I E S. 

Chap. 7; 

r-e Vigours 

with inconru 
p.ible lights. 

dent and modern writers have reported to have b?en found in 
fonibcs and urns, long time before clofcd up from mens repair 
m;n"iaps unto them to fupply them with new fcwcll : and therefore they 
r tcn-ieci to believe fuch fires to feed upon nothing; and consequently, to 
be inconfumptible and perpetuall. Which if they be, then our 

do&iinc tnat X vill have light to be nothing but the body of fire 

i\ a - c n j 

perpetually Mowing from its center, and perpetually dying; can- 

not be found: for in time ftich fires would neceflfarily (pend 
thernfelvcs in light: although light be fo fubtile a fubftance that 
an exceeding little quantity of fetvcll may be dilated into a 
vaft quantity of light. Yet ftill there would be fomc con- 
fumption, which how imperceptible (bever in a fhorttime, yec 
after a multitude of revolutions of years, it muft needs difcover 
it fclf. 

To this I anfwcr: Thit for the moft partj the witnefTcs who 
tcftifie originally the ftories of thcfc lights, are fuch as a ratio- 
nail man cannot expect from them that exa&nefle or nicetic 
of observation, which is requifite for our purpofe ; for they arc 
ufually grofle labouring people, who as they dig the ground for 
other intentions, do ftumble upon thefe lamps by chance be- 
fore they are aware : and for the moft part, they break them in 
the finding; and they imagine they fee a glimpfe oflight,which 
vaniflieth before they can in a manner take notice of it; and is 
perad venture but the glittering of the broken glafle or glazed 
pot, which reflefteth the outward light, aflbon af by 
rummaging in the ground and difcovering the glafle, the light 
ftrikcth upon it; ( in fuch manner as foraetimes a diamond by 
a certain cneountring of light in a dusky place, may in the 
firft twickling of the motion, feem to fparkle like fire : ) and 
afterwards when they ftiew their broken lamp , and tell their 
talc to fbme man of a pitch of wit above them, who is curious 
to inform himfelf of allthecircumftanccs that may concern 
fuch lights ; they ftrain their memory to anfwer him fatisfa&o- 
rily unto all his demands : and thus for his fake they per- 
f wade themfelres to remember what they never faw : and he 
again on his fide, is willing to help out the ftory a little. And 
fo after a while , a very fbrmall and particular relation is 
made of it. As happeneth in like fort in reporting of all 
ftrangc and iwufuall things ; which even thofc that in their 


Chap. 8. A Trtttife of B O D I E S. rf 

nature abhorre From lying are naturally apt to flrain a little and 
fjiliion uj^in a handfome mould; and almoft to perP.vade thcm- 
felvcs they faw more then they did : fo innate it is to every man, 
to defirc the having of fomc preeminence beyond his neigh- 
bours ; be it but in pretending to have icen fomething which 
they have not. 

Therefore, before I engage my felf in giving any particular 
anfwer to this objection of pretended inconfumptible lights, I 
\vouldgladty fcetheeffefl certainly averred and undoubtedly 
proved : for, theteftimonics which Fortunius Licetusproducetli 
fwho hath been very diligent in gathering then), and very fub- 
tile in di'courfing upon tl em ; and is the exa&eft Authour that 
hath written upon this fubjeft) do not feem iinto me to make 
thatcertaimy, which is required for the eftablifliing of aground 
in Philofophy. Neverthelefle, if there be any certain experi- 
ence in this particular, I fhotild think thac there might be ibmc 
Art by circulation of fewell, to maintain the fame light for a 
great company of years. But I fhould not eafily be pcrfwaded, 
that either flame or light could be made without any manner 
of confuming the body which lervcth them for fewell. 


9s4* anfwer to three other ob]e&ions formerly 

frofofed, **i*ft light being 

a {ubfttncc. 

HAving thui defended o*r {elves from their objections, who Lloht '" n 
would not allow light to be fire; and having fatisfied ally ia 'ctct/ 
their inquifition, who would know what bccomcth of it when f *" of f h f 

j i_ -c- L L j -it i /-i roomitcnlioht. 

it cyetn, if it be a body : we will now apply our felves to an- n t h,oor fii h 
fwer their difficulties, who ivill not let it pa(fe for a body, Ste^tTfS; 
becaufc it is in the /amc place with an other body ; as, when though it item 
the funne- beams enlighten all the aire, and when the (everall 
lights of two diftinft candles arc both of them every where in 
the fame rooir. Which is the fubftance of the fecond main 

This of the j'uftling of the aire, rs eafily anfwcred thus : that 
the aire being a very divifible body, doth without refinance 
yield as much place as is requisite for light. And that light, 

E though 

46 'A TrMtft of B O D I E S. Chap. 8. 

our eyes judge it diffufed every \vhere, yet is not truly 
in every point or atomc of aire : buc to make us fl it every 
nvhere, it ft.fficeth that it be in every part of the aire which is as 
big as the black or fight of our eye ; fo that we cannot fee our 
eye i;i :i;y pofition where it recciveth not imprefTions of light. 
In the fame manner as perfumes ; which though they be ib 
m'o-fic bodies that they may be fenfibly wafted by the wind ; nc- 
verthclefTe, they do fo fill the aire, that we can put our noic in 
no part of the rocm, where a perfume is burned, but we fhall 
fmell it. And the like is ofmifts j as alfo of the fprouted water 
to make a perfume, which we mentioned above. 

But bccauie pure difcourfcs, in fuch fmall thrids as thefe, do 
but weakly bind fuch readers ns are not accuftomcd unto them; 
and that I would (if itfcc rcfliblej render this Treatife iiKclligi- 
ble to every rationall man, hovy ever little vcrfed in {cholaftick 
learning (among whom I expe'&it will hayc a fairer paflage, 
then among thole that are already deeply imbued with other 
principles :) let us try if we can herein inform our fclves by our 
fcnfe, and bring our eyes for witncffe of what we fay. He 
then that is defirous to fatisfie himfelf in this particular, may 
put hitnfelf in a dark room, through which' the funne fcnderh 
hisl5eams by a cranie or little hole in the wall 5 and he will 
difcovcr a multitude of little atomes flying about in that little 
ftrcam oflight ; which his eye cannot difcerne when he is en- 
vironed on all (ides with a full light. Then let him examine 
whether or no there be light in the midft of thofc little bodies : 
and his owne rcafon will eafily tell him, that if thofc bodies 
were as perspicuous as the aire, they would not reflect upon our 
eyes the beamcs by which we fee them. And therefore he will 
boldly conclude, that at the Jcaft fuch parts of them as reflec-1 
light unto us, do not admit it, nor let it fink into them. Then 
let him confider the multitude of them ; and the little diftance 
betwixt one another ; and how ncverthelefic they hinder not 
our fight; but we have it free to difcover all obje&s beyond 
them, in what pofition focver we place our eye : and when he 
thus pcrcciveth that thefe opacous bodies, which ire every 
where, do not hinder the eye from judging light to have an 
equall plenary diffufion through the whole place that it irra- 
drateth; he can have no difficulty to allow aire, ( that isdia- 


Chap. 8. ^TV^/J^/BODIES. 67 

phanous, and more fubtile far then they, and confequently, divi- 
fible into IcfTcr atomes, and having fefler pores, giveth IcflTe 
fcope onto our eyes to miflc light, then they do^ to be every 
where mingled with light, though we fee nothing but light, and 
cannot difcern any breach ordivifionofit. 

Efpecially, when he fhall adde unto this consideration ; that 
rhefubtile body which thus filleth the r.ire, is the moft vifiblc 
thing in the world ; and that, whereby all other things arc 
Teen : and that the airc which it mingleth it felfe wich, is not at 
all vifible, by reafon of the extreme diaphaneity of it, and eafic 
reception of the light into every pore of it without anyrefi- 
ftance or reflexion : and that fuch is the nature of light, as it 
eafily drowneth an obfcure body, if it be not too big: and not 
onely fuch, but even other light bodies; for fo we know as well 
the fixed ftarres as the planets are concealed from our fight, by 
ncarncfle to the funne; neither the lightnefle of the one,nor the 
bigneflc of the other, prevailing againft the darkning of an ex- 
uperant light: and we havedaily experience of the fame in very 
pure chryftall glafles, and in very clear water , which though 
we cannot diicern by our fight if they be in certain pofitions; 
neverthelefle by experience we find that they reflect much light: 
arid eonfcquently have great ftore ofopacous parts: and then hfc 
cannot choofe but conclude,that it is impoflible but light fliould 
appear at it doth, to be every where, and to be one continued 
thing; though his difcourfc withall affure him it is every where 
mingled with aire. 

And this very anfwer I think will draw Xvith itbyconfc- 2. 
quence , the folution of the other part of the fame objection; The leaft fcnfi. 

which is, of many lights joyning in the fame placejand the fame 

is likewife concerning the images of colours every where cro . 

r -u 1 J T> T 1 fufficicncco 

fing one another without hinderance. But to raife this contcm- 
plation a ftrain higher^ let us confider how light being the moft 
rare of all known bodies, is of its own nature ( by rcafbn .of 
the divifibility that followe^i rarity ) divifiblc into Ic/Ter parrt 
then any other; and partici -larly then flame; which bring mi- lights, vithoue 
xed with fmoke and other corpulency/alleth very fliort of lighr. 
And this, to the proportion in which it is more rare then the 
body it is compared unto. No\v a great Mathematician ha- 
vingdeviicd how to meafurethe rarefaction of gunnc-pov^- 

E 2 der 

of BODIES. Chap.8. 

tier into flame, found the diameter ro. times encreafcd ; and fo 
concluded, that the body of* the flame was in proportion to the 
body of the gunne-powder ic was made of, as 125000. is to 
one. Wherefore by the immediately proceeding contcqucnce. 
we find that 125000. parts of flame may be couched in the 
room of ens Icaft part of gunne-powdcr, and peradventure ma- 
ny iro;e, confijcring how porous a body gunne-powder is. 
Which being admitted, it is evident that although light were 
as grofic as the flame of gunnc-powder , and gunne-powder 
were asfolidc asgold; yet there might paflc 125000. rayes of 
light, in the fpace wherein one Icaft part of gunne-powder 
might be contained j which (pace would be abfolutely invifible 
unto us, and be contained many times in the bignefle of the fight 
of a mans eye. Out of which we may gather what an infinity 
of objects may feem unto us to erode themfelves in the fame in- 
diyifible place, and yet may have room fufficicnc for every one 
to paflc his way, without hindering his fellow. Wherefore, fee- 
ing that one finglc light could not fend rayes enough to fill eve- 
ry little fpace of aire that is capable of light, ( and theleffc.the 
furtner it is from the flame) it is obvious enough to conceive, 
how in the fpace where the airc is,there is capacity for the layes 
of many candles. 

Which being well fumnied up, will take away the great ad- 
miration how the beams of light, though they be corporeal!,' 
can in fuch great multitudes without hindering one another, 
enter into bodies and come to our eye : and will (hew that it is 
the narrowneflfe of our capacities, and not the defect of nature, 
which maketh thefe difficulties fcem fo great.; for fhe hath fuffi- 
cicntly provided for all thcfc fubtiie operations of fire; as alfb 
for the enhance of it into glafle, and into all other fblide bo- 
dies that are diaphanous (upon which was grounded the laft 
inftance the fccond objection prefled :) for all fuch bodies be- 
ing conftituccd by the operation of fire( which is alwayes in 
motion ) there muft needs be wayes lefc for it both to enter in, 
and to evaporate out. And this is moft evident in glafle which 
being wrought by an extreme violeut fire and fwelling with it, 
as water and other things do by the mixture of fire; mufr necef- 
farily have great ftore of fire in it felf whiles it is boyling; as 
W-: fee by its being red hot. And hence it is, that the workmen 


Chap. 8. 4 Tr<4tift*f BODIES. $ 9 

arc forced to let it cool by degrees in fuch relenting* of fire, as 
they call their nealing heats, left itfliould fliiverin pieces by a 
violent fucceeding of airc in the room of the fire; for that being 
of gre-ater parts then the fire, would ftrain the pores of the 
ghfle too fuddcnly, and break it all in pieces to get ingrefsion: 
whereas in thole nealing heats the aire being rarer, lefler parts 
of itfuccecdto the fire > andlcifurcly ftrccch the pores without 
hurt. And therefore we need not wonder that light pafleth fo 
eafily through glaflc; and much lefle, that it gctteth through 
other bodies ; feeing the experience of Alchymifts doth a- 
fure us , that ic is hard to find any other body fb impenetrable 
as glafle. 

But now to come to the anfvver of the firft, and in appea- 
rance moft powerful), objeftion againft the corporeity flight; That light doth 
which urgeth that his motion is performed inaninftant, and not cnli fi h . rc 

it it i i -i a "vroaminaa 

therefore cannot belong to what is matenall and clothed with inftantjamichat 
quantity. We will endeavour to fhew how unable thcfenfe is *^f^_ 
to judge of fundry forts of motions of Bodies, and how greffe- n doth make 
ly it is miftakcn in them. And then, when it fhall appear that 
the motion of light muft neceflarily be harder to be obfer- 
ved then thofe others: I conceive , all that is raifed againft 
our opinion by fo incompetent a judge, will fall flat to the 

Firft then, let me put the Reader in mind , how if ever he 
marked children when they play with fire-flicks , they 
move and whirle them round fo faft , that the motion will 
cofen their eyes , and reprcient an entire circle of fire un- 
to them : and were it fomewhat diftant > in a dark night, 
that one played fo with a lighted torch , it would ap- 
pear a conftant wheel of fire without any difcerning of 
motion in it. And then, let him confidcr how flow a 
motion that is in refpc& of what it is pofslble a body may 
participate of : and he may fafely conclude , that it is no 
wonder though the motion of light be not dcfcried, and that 
indeed no argument can be made from thence , to prove that 
light is not a body. 

But let us examine this confideration a little further , and 
compare it to the motion of the earth or heavens : let the ap- 
pearing circle of the fire, be fbme three foot diameter, and the 

E time 

7 o A TrCAtife of BODIES. Chap, 3. 

time of one entire circulation of it, be the fixtietli part of a mi- 
nute ; of which minutes, there arc 60. in an houre fo that in 
a whole day, there will be but 86400. of thofe parts of time. 
Now the diameter of the wheel of fire being but of three foot, 
the whole quantity of fpace that it movcth in that atome of 
time will be at the moft i o, foot; which is three paces and a 
foot : of which parts, there are near eleven millions in the 
coinpafle of the earth : fo that if the earth be moved round in 
24, hours, it muft go near 1 30. times as faft as the boyes ftick 
doth, which by itsfwifc motion deceiveth our eye. But if we 
allow the funne, the moon, and the fixed ftarres to move ; 
how extreme fwift mutt their flight be, and how imperceptible 
would their motion be in fuch a compafle as our fight would 
reach unto ? And this being certain, that whether the earth or 
they do move, the appearances to us are the fame ; it is evident, 
that as now they cannot be perceived to movef as peradvea- 
turc they do not ; ) fo it would be the very fame in fhew to us, 
although they did move. If the funne were neai us, and gal- 
loped at that rate ; furely we could not diftingtiifh between 
the beginning and ending of his race: but there would 
appear one permanent line of light from Eaft to Weft, 
without any motion at all : as the torch feemcth to make, with 
fo much a flower motion, one permanent immovcable wheel of 

But contrary to this erfeil, we fee that the funne and 
ftarres by onely being removed further from our eye?, do 
cofcn our fight fo groilely that we cannot difcern them 
to be moved at all. One would imagine that fo rapide and 
fwift a motion, fliould be perceived in fome fort or other, 
(which, whether it be in the tarth, or in them, is all one 
to this purpofe. ) Either we ftiould fee thm change. their 
places whiles we look upon them, as arrows and birds do 
when they fly in the aire : or clfe, they fhould make a ftream 
of light bigger then themfelves, as the torch doth. But none 
of all this happeneth : let us gaze upon them fo long and 
fo attentively that our eyes be dazeled with looking and 
all that while they feem to ftand immovable : and 
our eyes can give us no account of their journey till it 
be ended. They difcern it not whiles it is in doing : 


Chap. 8. :*tttffjp*/-BOp!-E& 71 

to chat if we canfulc with no better counfclour then them, 
we may wonder to ice that body at n ; ght Jetting in 
the Weft, which in the morning we behclti riling in the 

But that which leemeth to be .yet more ftrange, is, 
that thefe bodies move crofle us, and nevcrtheleflc are not 
perceived to have any motion at all. Confider then how 
much eafier it is for a thing that movetb towards us, to be 
with us before we are aware. A nimble fencer will put in 
a thruft fo quick, that the foil will be in your bofbme, 
when you thought it a yard off; becaufc in the fame mo- 
ment you faw his point fo farrc diftant, and could noc di(- 
cern it to move towards you, till you felt the rude falutation 
it gave you. If then you will compare the body of light 
with thefc others that thus deceive us in regard of motion ; 
you muft needs agree it is much raflrmefle to conclude it hath 
no motion, becaufe we cannot difcern the fucceflion of. Con- 
fider that it is the fubtileft of all the bodies that God hath 
made. Examine the paths of it, which for the fmallneflfeof 
their thrids, and the extreme divisibility ofthcm, and their pli- 
ant application cfthemfelves to whatsoever hath pores, are al- 
moft without refinance. Calcnhte the ftrange multiplication 
of it, by a perpetuall momentary renovation of its ftreams. 
And caft with yourfelf, with what extreme force it fpringeth 
out and flyeth abroad. And on the other fide, reflect how all 
thefe things are directly oppofite and contrary in thofe 
ether great bodies , whofe motion nevertheless appeareth 
not unto us till it be done and part. And when you have 
well weighed all thii ; you muft needs grant that they who in 
this cafe guide themfelves merely by what appeareth unto 
their eyes, arc ill judgers of what they bavc not well ex- 

But peradrenturc fome who cannot all of a fudden be wea- ^ 
ned from what their fcnfc hath fb long fed them with ; may Thereafon 
ask yet furthcr,How it chanceth that we have no efFe^s ofthis ^n^' 5 " 
motion ? Itfhcweth not it felf in the aire, coming to us afarre notdifccmed 
off. It ftayeth not a thought, or flackneth his fpeed in flying (b wTds usTand 
vaft a (pace as is from the funne to us. In fine, there is no dif- ^"dicreis 

[ c . Jome rcall {ar^ 

coYeryofit,. %ifliH 

E 4 But, 

A -Treatifi ^/BODIES. Chap, 8. 

But if Gnlilcus his conception be well grounded ; that light- 
ning giveth us an incling of its motion, beginning from a 
little and encreafing ro a greater ; or if Monfieur des Cartes his 
opinion that it goeth flower in rcfraCHon, be true: we fhall 
not need to ftudy long for an anfvver. But in Galileus his ex- 
perience, it may be the breaking of the cloud which receivedi 
that fucceflion of motion which we fee : and no flownefTe that 
light can acquire by the refiftancc of the refracting body-can be 
fb great as to make that difference of lines wlrch Monfieur 
DCS Cartes molt ingenioufly C though I much doubt not truly ) 
hath applycd to yield the reafon of refraction : as will appear 
in our further difcourfe. 

Therefore, thefe being uncertain ; we will, to fhew the un- 
reafonablenefleofthisqueftion, fuppofe there may be fomcob- 
fervable tardity in the motion of light ; and then ask of them, 
how we fhould arrive to perceive it ? What fenlc fhould we 
hr.ploy in this difcovery ? It is true, we are fatisfiedthat found 
takcth up time in coming to our cares : but it is, becaufc our 
eyes are nimbler then they, and can perceive a good way di- 
ftant the carpenters ax falling upon the timber that he hewetb, 
or the fire flafhing out of the canon, before they heare any 
newesof them : but fhut your eyes ; or inquire of a blind 
man ; and then neither you nor he can tell whither thofe 
founds fill your cares at the very inftant they were begotten, 
or have fpcnt fome timt in their journey to you. Thus then our 
eyes inftruA our cares. But is there any fcnfe quicker then the 
fight? or means to know fpeedier then by our eyes ? Or can 
they fee light, or any thing elfe ; untillitbc with them? We 
may chen afluredly conclude, that its motion is not to be diC- 
cerned as it cometh upon us ; nor it fclf to be perceived, till its 
beams are in our eyes. 

But if there were any means to discover its motion, furcly 
it muft be in fome medium, through which it muft ftrugg le to 
get, as fire doth through iron ; which increasing there by de- 
grees, at laft ( when it is red hot ) fendeth beams of light quite 
through the plate that at the firft refufcd them paflage. And it 
maketh to thif purpoie, that the light-conferving ftoncs which 
are gathered in Italy, muft be fet in the funne for fome while 
before they retain light: and the light will appear in them 


Chap. 8- A Trtatiff of B O D I E S. 75 

when they are brought back into the dark, greater or leficr 
(untill they come to their utmott period ) according as they 
have been longer or a lefler while in the iunnc. And our eyes 
the longer they remain in the light, the more dazeled they are 
ifthey be fuddenly parted into the dark. And a curious experi- 
enccr did affirm, that the likencfle of any objei^ ( but particu- 
larly he had often obferved it of an iron grate ) if it be ftrong- 
ly inlightned will appear to another, in the eye of him that 
lookech (trongly and fteadily upon it till he be dazeled by it; 
even after he Hiall have turned his eyes from it. And the wheel 
of fire could never be made appear unto our eye by the whirl- 
ing of the fireftick we even now fpoke of;unle(lc the impreflion 
made by the fire from one place, did remain in the eye a while 
afcer the fire was gone from the place whence it fent that ray. 
Whence it is evident, that light, and the pictures of objets,do 
require time to fettle and to unfettlc in a fubjeft. Ifthen light 
ma keth a greater imprcilion with time, why fliould we doubt 
but the firft cometh alfb in time ; were our fenfe fo nimble as 
to perceive it ? 

But then it may be obje$ed, that the funne would never j. 
be truly in that place in which unto our eyes it appeareth to be.- ^ O h t eplan "j are 
becaufc that, it being feen by means of the light which iflucth eyrr in that 
from it; if that light required time to move in,thc funne (whole 
motion is fo fwift _) would be removed from the place where be. 
the light left it, before it could be with us to give tidings of 
him. To this I anfwer, allowing that peradvcntureit may be 
fb. Who knoweth the contrary? Or, what inconvenience would 
follow, if it be admitted ? Indeed, how can it be otherwife ? In 
refraction, we are fureit isfo: and therefore at no time but 
when the funne is perpendicularly over our heads, we 
can be certain of the contrary although it fhould fend 
its iJght to us In an inftant. Unlefle happely the truth of 
the cale fhould be, that the funne doth not move about us; but 
We turn to his light : and then, the objection alfo lofeth its 
aim. 6. 

But the more we preffe the quieknefTe of light ; the more we 
ingageour felves in the difficulty why light doth not fhatter the 
aire in pieces, as likewife all folid bodies whatfoevcr: for the 
matters of naturaJl Philofophy do tell us, that a foftcr thing other bodies 

. P into nieces. 

A Treatife cf B O D I E S. Chap. 8. 

with a great velocity, is as powerful"! in effect when it gireth a 
blow, as a harder thing going (lowly. And accordingly expe- 
rience teacheth us, that a tallow candle (hot in a gun will go 
throrgha board or kill a man. Wherefore light having fuch 
an infinite celerity, fhould allb have an unrefutable force, to 
pierce and fhatter, not onely the aire, but even the hardeft bo- 
dies that are. Peradventure fome may think it reafonable to 
grant the confluence ( in due circurnftances ) fince experience 
teacheth us , that the congregation of a little light by a 
glafle, will fet very folid bodies on fire, and will melt metals 
in a very fhort fpace ; which fheweth a great activity : and the 
great a&ivity fheweth a great percufliom burning being effe<5t- 
ed by a kind of attrition of the thing burned. And the great 
force which fire fheweth in gunnes, and in mines, being but a 
multiplication of the fame, doth evidently convince that of its 
own nature it maketh a ftrong percuflion, when all cfue cir- 
curnftances concurre. Whereas it hath but little erTcft. if the 
due circurnftances be wanting; as wetnayobferve in the infen- 
. fible burning of fo rarified a body as pure fpirit of wine converv 
ted into flame. 

But we muft examine the matter more particularly,and muft 
feek the caufe why a violent effect doth not alwaycs appear, 
wherefcever light ftriketh ; for the which we are to note 
that three things do concurre to make a percu/TJon great: The 
bigneflfe, the denfity, and the celerity of the body moved. Of 
which three there is onely one in light ; to wit, celerity: for it 
hath the greateft rarity, and the rayes of it are the fmallcft par- 
cels of all naturall bodies. And therefore fince oaely celerity is 
confiderable in the account of lights percuflions, we muft exa- 
mine what celerity is neceflary to make the ftroke of a ray feofi- 
ble-- firft then we fee that all the motes of the aire, nay even fea- 
thers and ftraws, do make no fenfible percuflfion when they fall 
upon us: therefore we muft in light have at the leaft a celerity 
that may be to the celerity of the ftaw falling upon our hand 
( for example ,) as the denfity of the ftraw is to the denfity of 
light, that the percuffion of light may be in the leaft degree fen- 
/iblc. But let us take a corn of gunpowder in ftead of a ftraw 
(between which there cannot be much difference) and then 
putting that the denfity of fire is to the denfity ofgunpowder as 

Chap. 8. 4 Trtdtije of B O D I E S. 75- 

i. to 125000; and that the den/ity of the light we have here in 
the earth, is to the denfity of that part of fire which is in the 
funncs body, as the body of the funne isto^that body which is 
called Orbis tnagnus ( whole femidiamccer is the diftance be- 
tween the funne and the earth;) which muft be in fubtriple 
proportion of the diameter of the funne to the diameter of the 
great orb: it fblloweth that 125000. being mulciplyed by the 
proportion of the great orb unto the funne (which Galileo tcl- 
Icth us is as 106000000. unto one) will give a fcantling of what 
degree of celerity light muft have more then acorn of gunpow- 
der, to rccompencc the excefle of weight which is in a corn of 
gunpowder.above that which is in a ray of light,as big as a corn 
ofgunpowdcr. Which will amount to be much greater then the 
proportion of the femidianietcr cfiOrbismAgnttsxo the femidia- 
meter of the corn of gunpowder: for if you reckon five grains of 
gunpowder to a barly-corns breadth.and 1 2.of them in an inch, 
and 12. inches in a foot, and 3. feet in a pace, and 1000. paces 
in a mile, and 5500. miles in the femiJiameter of the earth, and 
' 1208' femidiameters of the earth in the femidiameter of the Or- 
kit magnns, there will be in it but 9152480000000. grains of 
gunpowder ; whereas the other calculation maketh light to be 
i 3250000000000. times rarer then gunpowder; which is almort 
ten times a greater proportion then the other. And yet this cele- 
rity fupplyeth but one of the two conditions wanting in light 
to make its perctiffions fenfible, namely denficy. Now becaufe 
the lame velocity in a body f a lefler bulk, doth not make fb 
great a pcrcufs-ion as it doth inabigger body;and that the little- 
nefle ofthe leaft parts of bodies followeth the proportion oftheir 
rarity; this vaft proportion of celerity muft again be drawn in- 
to it fclf, to fupply for the excefle in bignefle that a corn of gun- 
powder hath over an atome of light: and the product of this 
multiplication will be the celerity required to fupply for both 
defects. Which evidently fheweth, it is impofsible that a ray of 
light fhould make any fenfiblc percufsion, though it be a body. 
Especially confidering that fenfe never takech notice of what is 
perpetually done in a moderate degree. And therefore after this 
minute looking into all eircirnHances, we need not have diffi- 
culty in allowing unto light the greateft celerity imaginab'c.and 
a pcreufsion proportionate to fuch a celerity in fo rare a body; 


7 $ <4 Trettife of B O D I E S. Chap. 8. 

and yet not fear any violent effc& from its blows : unlefle it be 
condenfcd, and many parts of it be brought together to work 
as U they were but one. 

As concerning the laft objection; that if light were a body,it 
Thcrcaionwhy would be fanned by the wind:we fnuft confider what is the caufe 
i-'ohiSever ^ a things appearing to be moved: & then examine what force 
perceived tob t hat caufe hath in light. As for the firft part; we fee that whtn 
" cdb) C a k ot ty * s difccrned now in one place, now in another , then it 
appcarcth to be moved.And this we fee happeneth alfo in light; 
as when the funne or a candle is carried or moveth, the light 
thereof in the body of the candle or funne feemeth to be moved 
along with it. And the like is in a fhining cloud or comet. 

But to apply this to our purpofe : We muft note that the in- 
tention of the obi'e&ion is, that the light which goeth from the 
fire to an opacous body farrc diftant without interruption of its 
continuuy,fhould teem to be jogged or put out of its way by the 
wind that crofleth it. Wherein the firtt failing is, that the ob- 
je&our conceiveth light to (end fpecies unto our eye from the 
midft of its linerwhercas with a little confideration he may per- 
ceive, that no light is feen by us but that which is reflected from 
an opacous body to our eye: to that the light he meaneth in his 
objection is never feen at all. Secondly, it is manifeft that the 
light which ft riketh our eye, doth ftrike it in a ftraight line; and 
feemeth to be at the end of that ftraight line, whercfoever that 
is; and fb can never appear to be in another place: but the light 
which we fee in another place, we conceive to be another light. 
Which maketh it again evident, that the light can never appear 
to fhake, though we fhould fuppofe that light may be (cen from 
the middle of its line; for no part of wind or airc can come IA- 
to any fenfiblc place in that middle of the line, with fuch fpecd 
that new light frem the fburcc doth not illuminate itfooner then 
it can be Cccn by us:whcrefore it will appear to us illuminated, 
as being in that place: and therefore the light can never appear 
fhaken. And laftly, it is caficr for the aire or wind to deftroy 
the light, then it is to remove it out of its place , wherefore 
it can never fo remove it out of its place , as that we fhould 
fee it iu another place. But if it (hould remove it, it would 
wrap it up within it felf and hide it. 

S. In conclusion; after this long difpute concerning the nature 


Chap. 8. *4 Trfa'/fe of BO VIES. 77 

of light: if we confidcr well what hath been faid on both Tides * h * "*??.* f* 
(to tvhich much more might be added,but that we have already being aVdy, ' 
trcfpaflcd in length, and I conceive enough it faid to decide the gJJJJJ ed w " 
matter) an cquall judge will find the ballanceof thequcftion 
to hang upon thcfe rf rmes: that, to prove the nature of light to 
be materiall and corporcall,arc brought a company of accidents 
\vell known to be the proprieties of quantitie or bodies; and as 
well known to be in light. Even fofarrcas that it is manifeft 
that light in its beginning before it be difperfcd is fire; and if 
again it be gathered together, k fhcweth it fclf again to be fire. 
And the receptacles of it arc the receptacles of a body: being a 
multitude of pores, as the hardnefle and coldnefle of tranlpa- 
rent things do give us to underftand; of which we (hall hereaf- 
ter have occafion to difcourfe. 

On the contrary fide, whatfbevcr arguments arc brought a - 
gainft lights being a bodyi are onely negatives. As that we fee 
not any morion of light; that we do not dilcern where the con- 
fires arc between light and aire; that we fee not room for both 
of them, or for more lights to be together; and thelike: which 
is to oppofc negative proofs againtt affirmative ones ; and to 
build a do^rine upon the defedt of our fenfes; or upon the like- 
neflc of bodies which are extremely unlike., expe^ing the fame 
effects from the moft fubtilc as from the moft groiTe ones. All 
which together with the authority of Arillotle and his follow- 
ers, have turned light into darknefle, and have made us almoft 
deny the light of oor own eyes. 

Now then, to take our leave of thii important queftion: let p. 
us return to the principles from whence we began, and confider ; A fummarvre- 
that feeing fire is the moft rare of all the Elements^n j very dry : ^font" which' 
and that out of the former it hath, that it may be cu: into very f r 
fmall pieces; and out of the latter, that itconfei vcih its own fi- 
gure, and fo is apt to divide whatfoever fluide body rand joyning 
to thefc two principles , that it multiplyeth extremely in ics 
fource. It muft of neccfTity follow, that k fhootcth out in great 
multitudes little fmall parts into the aire and into other bo- 
dies circumfufed with great dilatation in a fphericalJ manner. 
And likewife that thefe little' parts are eailly broken ; and new 
ones (till following the former, arc ftill multiplyed in flra : ght 
lines from the place where they break. Out of which it is evi- 

7 $ A 'f rutty ^/BODIES. Chap. ?. tint of neceflity it miift-in a manner fill all places,3nd that 
no feniib'e place is fo littkjbut that fire will be found in it,ifthe 
medium be capacious. As aifo, that its extreme Icaft parts will 
be very eafily fwallowed up in the parts of the aire, which'ftre 
humide ; and by their enfolding, be as ic were quite loft; fo as 
to lofe the appearance of fire. Aglin; tliat in ins refleftiont, it 
Will follow the nature of grotfer bodies, and have glidings like 
them; which is that, we call refractions. That litrle ftreamings 
from it will crofle one another in exceflire great numbers, in an 
unfcnfible part of fpace, without hindring one another. That 
its rnotion will be quicker then fenfe can judge of; and there- 
fore will fccm to move in an inftant, or to frand ifill as in a 
ttrrgtration. That if there be any bodies fo porous witk lictle 
and thick pores ; as that the pores arrive near unto equalling 
the fubftance of the body ; then, fuch a body will be fo filled 
with thefe little particles of fire , that ic will appear as if there 
were no ftop in its paftage, but were all filled with fire; and 
yet, many of thefe little parts will be refleded. And whatfo- 
ever qualities elfe we find in light, \ve flvall be able to derive 
them out of thefe principles, and flicw that fire muft of neceffi- 
tie do \vhat experience teacheth us that light doth. That 
is to fay in one word,it will fhew us that fire is light. But if fire 
be lighten light muft needs be fire. And fo we leave this matter 

Of Locall motion in common. 

i ryf Hough in the fifth chapter, we made onely earth the pre- 

tionean bepw- A tender in the controverfie againft fire for fuperiority in 

formed without a6livity; ( and in very truth, the greateft force of grarity doth 

ucccffion. appear in thofe bodies which are eminently earthy: _) neverthe* 

lefle , both water and aire (as appeareth out of the 4. chapter 

of the Elements ) do agree with earth in having gravity. And 

gravity, is the chief virtue to make them efficients. So that up* 

on the matter, this plea is common to all the three Elements. 

Wherefore , to explicate this virtue , whereby thefe three 

weighty Elements do work; let us call to mind what we faid in 

the beginning of the laft chapter concerning locall motion : to 

wit, that according as the body moved, orthc divider did more 

and more enter into the divided body ; fb, it did ;oyn it felf to 

Chap. 8. ' 

fome new parts of the medium or divided body, and did in like 
manner forfake others. Whence it happcneth that in every part 
of motion, it poflefleth a greater part of the medium then it felf 
can fill at once. And becaufe by the limitation and confinedneflc 
of every magnitude unto juft what it is, and no more; it is im- 
poitible that a leffer body fhould at once equalife a greater : it 
followeth that this divifion or motion whereby a body atta-in- 
cth to fill a place bigger then ic felf, muft be done fucceffively : 
that is, it muft firft fill one part of the place it tnoveth in, then 
another ; and fo proceed on, till it have meafured it felf with 
every part of the place from the firft beginning of the line of 
motion to the laft period of it where : the body rettcth. 

By which difcourfe it is evident, that there cannot in nature 
be a ftrength fo great as to make the leaft or quickeft moveable 
that is, to paflfc in an inftant , or all together, over the leaft 
place that can be imagined : for that would make the moved 
body ( remaining what it is, in regard of its bignefle ) to equa- 
life and fit a thing bigger then it is. Therefore it is manireft, 
that motion muft confift of fuch parts as have this nature, that 
whiles one of them is in being, the others are not yet : and as 
by degrees every new one cometh to be ; all the others that 
were before, do vanifh and ceafe to be. Which circumftancc ac- 
companying motion, we call Sticceffion. 

And whatfoever is fo done, is faid to be done in time- which 
is the common meafure of all fucceffion, for the change of fitua- 
tion of the ftarres, but efpeciaily of the funne and moon, is ob- 
ferved more or lefle by all mankind: and appeareth alike to 
every man : and ( being the moft known, co'nftant , and uni- 
form fiicceflion that men are ufed unto ) is as it were by nature 
it ielf fee in their way and offered unto them as fitteft to cftimate 
n nd judge all other particular fuccsfiions, by comparing 'diem 
both to it, and among themielves by it. And accordingly we 
fee all men naturally meafure all other fucceiTlons, and expreffe 
their quantities, by comparing them to the revolutions of the 
heavens ; for dayes , houres, and years, arc nothing clfe but 
they,or foinc determinate parts o'f them : unto ibme of which, 
all other motions and fucceflions m'-uft of nrce/Tity be referred, rf 
we will meafjrc them. And thus we fee how all the myftcry of 
applying time unto particular motions, is nothing elfc bxit the 


go ^n^^ tf /BODIES. Chap. 9. 

ro'.ilic'ei ing how farrc die Agent chat moveth the funne, cauletf* 
it to ,0 on in its journey, whiles the Agent that moveth a par- 
ticular body, caufcih it to perform its motion. 

So that it is evident, that velocity is the effect of the fuper- 
wiv.t vc'oci-.r proportion of the one Agent over a certain medium; in refpcft 
:$. andtfm it o f t } ie proportion which another Agent hath to the lame medi- 

<annotbc urn- J i r i i- i L i f r 

nite. urn. And therefore, velocity is a quality by which one fucccf- 

fion is intrinfically dittingmflied from another : though our ex- 
plication, ufeth to include time in the notions of velocity and 
tardity. Velocity then , is the effect ( as we laid ) of more 
ttrength in the Agent. And having before exprcfled, that ve- 
locity is a kind of denficy; we find that this kind of dcnfity is 
an excellency in fucceffion ; as permanent denfity, is an excel- 
lency in the nature offubfiancej though an imperfection in the 
nature of quantity ( by which we fee, that quantity is a kind 
of bafe alloy added to fubftance. ) And out of this it is evi- 
dent, that by how much the quicker the motion is in equall me- 
diums, by fo much the agent is the perfe&er which caufeth it to 
be (b quick. Wherefore, if the velocity ftiould afcend fb much as 
to admit no proportion betweene the quickncfle of the one 
and the tardity of the other, all other circumftances being even, 
excepting the difference of the agents ; then there muft be no 
proportion between the agents. Nor indeed can there be any 
proportion between them though there were never fb great dif- 
ferences in other circumftances, as long as thole differences be 
within any proportion. And confequendy, you {ee that if one 
agent be fuppofed to move in an infant, and another in tima ; 
whatlbever other differences be in the bodies moved and in the 
mediums ; neverthelcflc the agent which caufeth motion in an 
inftanc will be infinite in refpeft of the agent which moveth in 
time. Which is impoflfible : it being the nature of a body, thac 
greater quantity of the fame thing haih greater virtue, then 
lefle quantity hath j and therefore, for a body to have infinite 
virtue, it mull have infinite magnitude. 

If any fliould fay the contra ry ; affirming thac infinite virtue 
may be in a finite body;I ask,wnether in half that body(vverc in 
divided)thc virtue would be infinite or no ? If he acknowledge 
that it would not; I inferrc thence, that neither in the two parts 
together there can be infinite virtue: for two cannot com- 

Chap. 9> ^ Trevifeof BODIES. 81 

pofe and mike up one infinite. But if he will have the virtue be 
infinite in each half, he therein allo'vcth that there is no more 
virtue, in the whole body then in one halfofit:which is agiinft 
the nature of bodies. Now that a body cannot be infinite in 
greatncfle, is proved in the (econd knot of Mafter Whites firft 
Dialogue of the world. And thus it is evident,thatby che virtue 
of pure bodies there can be no motion in an inft-mt. 4' 

On the other fide it followeth that there cannot be fo little a t i;, that is not 
force in nature, but that giving it time enough, it will move a 

n -ii i i r i i th 

the greatett weight that can be imagined : for tnetmngi we w 
treat of, being all of them quantities ; they may by divifion and 
multiplication, be brought unto equality. As for example ; fup- 
pofing thc weight of a moveablc,to be a million of pounds; and 
that thc mover is able to move the millioneth part of one of 
thofe pounds,in a million of years,the rnillioncth part ofa pace, 
through a medium of a certain rarity. Now, feeing that years 
may be multiplied fb,as to equalize the force of this mover, unto 
the weight of thc moveable : it followeth clearly that in fo ma- 
ny millions of years.this force may move thc whole weight ofa, 
million of pounds, through the determined medium in a deter- 
minate number of millions of years, a million ofpaces : for fuch 
a force is equall to the required effect ; and by confequencc, if 
thc eftc&fhould not follow, there would be a complcat caufc 
put, and no erTecl: refult from it. 

But pcradvcnture it is necdfull to illuftratethis point yet fur- 
ther:fuppo(e then a weight never fo great to be A, and a force 
never fo little to be B. Now if you conceive that fomc other 
force movcth A, you muft withall conceive that it movcth A fome 
fpace, fince all motion implicth neceflarily that it be through 
fbme(pace:let that fpace be CD. And brcaufe a body cannot be 
moved in a /pace in an inflant,but requircth fame time to have 
its motion performed in; it followeth, that muft be a deter- 
mined time, in which the conceived force muft move thc weight 
A through thc fpace CD : let that rime be EF. Now then, 
this is evident that it is all one to fay that B moreth A> and 
to fay that B moveth A through a fpace in a time ; fo that if 
any part of this be left out, it cannot be undcrftood that B mo- 
vcth A. Therefore to exprcfle particularly thc effect which 
B is to do upon A, we mult fay that B muft move A a certain 

F fpace 

Chap. 9 

a certain time. Which being To, we may in the next place 
c -nfidcr thtc this d&& of moving A may bediminifced 2 waie*, 
cLherbccauft the fjMce it is to be moved in, is leflened ; or the 
tiinetaktft up in its motion, iscncreafcd : for, as it is a greater 
dfeft, to movfc A through thcfpace CD, in a Icflc time then 
EF, fo it ii a Idle cffeft to move the fame A, through the 
fpacc CD, in a greater time then EF ; or through a lefle fpacC 
then Ctt in the time EF. Now then, this being fuppofed, 
that it is a lefle cffed to uioVe A through CD, in a greater 
time then EF, it followeth alfo, that a lefirr virtue is abk to 
x iriovc it through CD in a. greater time then EF, then the virtue 

which is required to move it, through the fame fpacein the 
time EF. Which if it be oftce granted (as it cannot be denied) 
then multiply ing the time, as much as the virtue or force re- 
cy.nrcd to move A through CD in tht time EF is greater 
then the force B j in fo much time, the force B will be able to 
move A through CD. .Which diicourfe is evident, if we take 
it in the common terms but ifit be applied to action, wherein 
phyfkall accidents intervene, the artificer muft have the judge- 
ment to provide for them^according to the nature of his matter. 
5- . Upon 'this laft difcourfe doth hang the principle which go* 
of P M"- verhtth Mechanics, to wit, that the force and the diltance of 
icks dcdu- weights cbuhterpoyfino; one another, oup'ht to be rtdprocall. 

ccd out of the _,->. i ii t t -i - i 

former dif- That is, that by how much the one Weight rs freavfer then tnt 
eau:fc * other, by fo mucli mu'ft the difhncc of the lighter 'from the fixed 

point upon which they are moved, be greater then the diftanct 
of the greater weight from the fame point: for it is plain that 
the weight which is more diftant, muft be moved a greater 
'fbacethcn the nearer weight in the proportion of the two di- 
ftances. Wherefore the force moving it muft carry it in a velo- 
city of the fai-.l proportion to the velocity of the" other. And con- 
icqucntly, the Agent, or mover, mnft be in that proportion 
more powerful) then the contrary mover. And out of this pra- 
cTife of Geometricians in M'echa nicks (which is confirmed by 
experienccjit is made evident that if other conditions be eqtiall, 
theexccfleof fo much gravity will make fo much Velocity. And 
. fb much v-elocity in proper tion,Wil recompence fb much gravity 

, , Out of the precedent conclnfionsjanottier followeth rwhich is> 

No mo-cablc . i , r ,1 A i 

can partc iiom thac nothing reccdcth from quiet or r'elt, and attamcth ^ great 

Chap; 9- */*7>rt//7?*/BODIES. 

degree of celerity, but it muft palfc through all the degree* of reft to any de- 

celerity that ire below the obtained degree. And the like is, in 

pafling from any lefler degree of velocky unco a greater : beeaufe IT, 

it muft paflc through all the intermediate degrees of velocity. i e j 

For by the declaration of velocity, which we have even now , ut 

made, we ice that there is as much refinance in the medium to intermediate 1 '" 

be overcome with fneed, ts there is for it to be overcome in re- Degrees, which 

j f L r f i r , arc bclow thc 

gard of the quantity ; or line ot extent of it : becaufe fas we obcaincd degree 

have fa id,) the force of the Agent in coumerpoifcs, oifght to be 
encreafed as much as the line of extent of the medium, which 
is to be overcome by the Agent in equall time, doth exceed the 
line of extent of the medium, along which the rcfiftant body i$ 
to be moved. being proved that no line of extent 
can be overcome in an inftant, it followeth, that no defect of 
velocity which requireth as great a fuperproportion in the caufe, 
ran be overcome likcwife in an inftant. 

And by the fame rcafon by which we prove that a moveabl* 
cannot be drawn in an inflant from a lower degree of velocity 
to a higher, it is with no lefle evidence concluded th*t no de- 
gree of velocity can be attained in an inftant : for divide that 
degree of velocity mto two. halrV, and if the Agdnt had over- 
come the one halfe, be could not overcome the other half m an 
inftant : much leffe therefore is he able to overcome the whole 
(that is, to reduce the moveable from quiet to the faid degree f 
velocity) in an inftant. 

Another reafon may be, becaufe (he movers tkemiclves (fuch 
movers as we treat of here) arc bodies likewife moved, and do 
confift of parts : whereof not every one part, but a competent 
number of them* doth make the moving body to be a fit 
Agent able to move the pre>pofcd body in a propofed de- 
gree of celerity. Now this Agent meeting wich refinance 
in the moveable, and not being in the utmoft extremity of 
denlity , but condenfablc yet further, ( bccaufe it is a bo- 
dy;) and that'cvery refinance ( be it never fo imall ) doth 
work fomething upon the mover (though never to hard) 
to condcnfe it ; the parti of the mover that *re torivefcomc 
this reliance in the moveable , mutt ; ( to work tlsat ef- 
fcc\ ) be condcnfed and brought together ts dole as 
is needfull, by this refinance of the movcablt to the mo- 

F i vcr : 

of BODIES. Chap. 9, 

Chap. 9. A TrtAlifc of BODIES. S 

powerfully overcome the refiftance ; and confcquently , en- 
crcafe the velocity of che motion , in the fame propor- 
tion as they flock thither ; until 1 it attain that degree of 
velocity, which is the utmoft period that the power, which the 
Agent hath to overcome the refiftance of the medium can bring 
h ielfun to. Between which and reft, or any other inferiour de- 
gree of vclocitie, there may be defigned infinite intermediate de- 
grees, proportionable to the infinite divisibility of time, and 
fpacc,in which the mover doth move. Which degrees doarifc 
out of the reciprocal! yielding of the medium. And that is hke- 
Wiiedivifiblein the lame infinite proportion. 

Since then, the power of all naturall Agents is limited j the 
mover (be it never fo powerfull) mud be confined to obfervc 
thcfe proportions ; and cannot pafle over all thefe infinite de- 
fignablc degrees in an inftant; but rnuft allot fcxnc time (which 
hath a like infinity of dcfignable parts) to ballance this infinity 
of degrees of velocity: audio confequently, it requircth time, to 
attain unto any determinate degree. And therefore cannot re- 
cede immediately from reft unto any degree of celerityjbut muft 
necefTarily paflc through all the intermediate ones. 

Thus it is evident that all motion which hath a beginning 
muft of neccflity incrcafe for fomc time. And fince the works of 
nature are in proportion to their causes, it followeth that this 
cnci'calc is in a dererminate proportion. Which Galilcus (unto 
whom we owe the greateft part of what is known concerning 
motion)teacheth us how to find out ; and to discover whit de- 
gree of celerity any moveable that is moved by nature, hath in 
any determinate part ofthefpace it moveth in. 

Having fettled thefe conditions of motion; we (hall do well in 
the next place to enquire after the caufes ofit:as well in the body -rj,t coLitiow 
moved, as alfb in the mover thatoccafioncth the motion. And whi = h h dp ( t( * 
bccaufe we have already fhewed, that locall motion is nothing moveahic'ar^ 
in fubft-aice but divifionrwc may determine that thofcciufcs w ch thr jin tlii; 
contribute to divifion^or rcfift it are the caufcswhich make or re- 
fill locall motion.Ithath alfo been faid, that Denfity hath in it a 
power of dividing-and thatRarity is the caufc of being divided; 
lik wife we have faid that fire by reafonofks fmal partSjiaro w ck 
it may be cutfwhich maketh them fharp) hath alfo an eminrnce 
in dividing: fo that we have two qualities, denfity and tenuity 

F or 

85 4 7'wtiji ^/BODIES. Chap. 9, 

Dialog- 1. of or fliarpnetfc which concurre aSivcly to diyifion. We have told 
you alfo how Galileus hath demon ft rated that a greater quan- 
tity of the figure and denfity, hath a priviledge ofdefccnd- 
ing fa^ei then aleffcr. And that priviledge confifteth in this, 
that the proportion of the fuperficies to the body it limiteth 
( which proportion the greater it is, the more it rctardcth ) is 
Icfie in a greater bulk then in a fmaller. 

We have therefore three conditions concurring to make the 
motion more efHcaciousmamely, the dcnlity,the fharpnefle, and 
the b'-ilk of the moveablc. And more then thefe three, we can- 
not expcft to find in a moved body:for quantity hath but three 
determinations :-one,by denary and rarity ; of which^denfity is 
one of the three conditions: another, by its parts; as by a foot, a 
fpan,&c. and in this way we have found that the greater exccl- 
leth theleffer : the third and laft,is by its figure- and in this we 
find that fubtile or edged quantities do prevail over blunt ones. 
Seeing therefore, that thefe three determinations be all that are 
in quantity;there can be no jinore conditions in the body mo- 
yedf which of neceffity is a finis^quantity) but the three named. 
And as for the medium which is to be divided, there is onely 
rarity and denfity (the one, to help;the other,to hinder,) that 
require confederation on its fide. For neither figure, nor little- 
nefle and greatneflc, do make any variation in it. And a* for 
the Agent, it is not as yet time, before we have looked further 
into the nature of motion, to determine his qualities, 
g. Now then let us reftafl how thefe three conditions do all a- 

NO body hath grce in this circumflance,thatthey help no:hing todivifion.un* 
StrtSl lelfe the body in which they are, 'be moved and pretTed againft 
it fcif cowards the body that is to be divided, fo that we fee no principle to 
e paof the pcrfwadc us, that any body can move it felf towards any dctcr- 
univcrfe. minatc part or place of the univcrfe, of its owne intrinfccall in- 

clination. For betides that the learned Author of the Dialogues 
de Mundo (in his third Dialoguc^and the fecond knot) hath de- 
monft rated that a body cannot move unlcfle it be moved by 
fome cxtrinfccall Agent ; we may eafily frame unto our fclvcs a 
conceit, of how abfurd it is to think that a body by a quality in 
iccan work upon itfelfras if we fhould fay, that rarity(which is 
but more quantity) could work upon quantity; or that figure 
( which is but that the body rcachcth no further ) could work 


Chapi p. t^ry<M///?0/BODIES. $7 

upon the body : and in gencnll, that the manner of any thing 
ean'work upon that thing whofe manner it is. For Ariftotlc 
and Saint Thomas, and their intelligent commentatours, decla- 
ring the notion of jQ*4//>j, tell us, that to be a Quality is no- 
thing elfe but to be the determination or modification of the 
tiling whofe quality it is. 

Befidesjthat the naturall manner of operation is, to work ac- 
cording to the capacity of the, : but when a body is in the 
midft ofan uniform medium or fpace, the fubje& is equally pro- 
pared on all fides to receive the action of that body. Where- 
fore (though we ihould allow it a force to move) if it be a na- 
tural! Agent, and have no understanding, ic mutt work indiffe- 
rently on all fides, and by confequence, cannot move on any 
fide. For if you fay that the Agent in this cafe (where the me- 
dium \s uniform ) worketh rather upon on fide then upon ano- 
ther; it mult be becaufe this determination is within the Agent 
it felf, and not out ofthecircumftantdjfpofidons : which is the 
manncf of working of thole f ibftances that work for an end of 
their own that is, of underftanding creaturcs,and not of natu- 
rall bodies. 

Now he that would exactly determine what motion a body 9* 
hath, or is apt to have; determining by fuppofition the force of ^odonTaU 
the Agent, muft calculate the proportions of all thefc three con- wayes made in 
ditions of the moveable, and the quality of the medium: which 
is a proceeding too particular for the intention of our difcourfe. numbers. 
Buttofpeak in common, it will not be amiflfe to examine in 
what proportion, motion doth increafe ; fince we have con- 
cluded that all motion proccedeth from quiet by a continuall 
encrea/e. Galilcus (that miracle of our age, and whole wit 
was able to dilcover whatfbeverhe had a mind to employ it 
about ) hath told us that naturall motion encreifeth in the pro- 
portion of the odde numbers. Which to cxprefle by example, i 
thusrfuppofe that in the going of the firrt yard it hath one degree 
of velocity,then in the going ofthefecondyard it will have three 
degrees, and in going of the third ic will have five : and fb 
onwaids, ftill adding two to the degrees of the velocity for eve- 
ry one, to the fpace. Or to cxprelVe it more plainly; if in the 
firft minute of time it goeth one yard of fpace, then in the next 
minute it will go three yards, jn the third it will go the 
fourth feaven, and fo forth. F 4 But 

eX TrtAtife (/BODIES. 

But we mutt enlarge this proportion unto all motions, as we- 1 
have done the former, of the encreafe it felf in velocity: becaufe 
the reafbn of it is common to all motions. Which is, that all 
motion ( as may appear out of what \ve have formerly faid ) 
procecdeth from two caufes ; namely, the Agent or the force 
that moveth, and the difpofition of the body moved, as it is 
compofed of the three qualities we lately explicated. In which 
is to be noted, that the Agent doth not move {imply by its 
c\vn virtue, but it applyeth allb the virtue of the body moved> 
which it hath to divide the medium when it is put on. As when 
\ve cut with a knife, the effeft proceedeth from the knife prefled 
on by the hand; or from the hand as applying and putting in 
action the edge and cutting power of the knife. Now this in 
Phyficks and Nature is clearly parallel to what in Geometry 
and Arithmctick the Mathematicians call, drawing one num- 
ber or one fide into another ; for as in Mathematicks, to draw 
one number into another is to apply the number drawn unto 
every part of the number into which it is drawn; as if we draw 
three into feven we make twenty one, by making every unity 
or part of the number feven to be three: and the like is of lines 
in Geometry. So in the prefcnt cafe, to every part of the hands 
motion, we addc the whole virtue of the cutting faculty which 
is in the knife; and to every part of the motion of the knife, we - 
ade!e the whole prcfiing virtue of the hand. Therefore the en- 
creafe of the efTe proceeding from two caufes fo working, mull 
allb be parallel to the encreafe of the quantities anting out of 
the like drawing in Mathematicks. But inthofe, it is evident 
that the encreafe is according to the order of the odde numbers, 
and therefore it mull in our cafe be the like: that is, the encrcafe 
muft be in the faid proportion of oddc numbers/ Now that in 
thofe the CHcreafe proceedeth fo will be evident, if you confider 
the encrcafe of an Equicrure triangle; w-hich becaufe it goeth up- 
on a certain proportion of length and breadth, if you compare 
the encreafes of the whole triangle (that gaincth on each fide) 
with the encreafcs of the perpendicular (which gaineth onely in- 
length) you will fee that they ftili proceed in the forefaid pro- 
portion of odde numbers. 

Which will be better underftood, if we fet down the demon- 
flrauon cfit: Ice the Equicrure triangle be A B G: and from the 


Chap. 6. 

point A, draw the line A D 
perpendicular to the line B C, 
& let it be divided into three 
equall parts by the lines E F 
and G H, in the points I and 
K. And I fay that becaufe the 
line A K is twice as long as 
the line AT, therefore the tra- 
pezium E F H G, is thrice as 
big as the triangle A E F: for 
as A K is to A J,fo is G H to 
E F. But the triangle A G H 
is to the triangle A E F, in a double proportion of the lineG H 
to the line E F: which being double the proportion of one tri- 
an^leto rhe other muft befourefold: fo that fubtrafting the tri- 
angle AEF, the trapezium E F HG remaineth thrice as big as ic. 
And thus the whole triangle getteth an encreafe of three, whiles 
the perpendicular is encreafed but one, te make his length two. 
Which when it cometh to thrce,the trapezium GHCBthat con- 
taineth the third divifion of the perpendicular, becometh five 
times as big as the triangle AEF ; for fince the line A D is three 
times as -long as the line A I; and thelineB C is three times as 
ion< as E F; it followerh that the triangle ABC is nine times as 
big as the triangle AEF;but AGH is foure times as big as AEF; 
therefore fubtraiting it from the whole triangle ABC.u Icaveth 
the trapezium GHCB five times as big as thefirft triangle AEF 
Which proposition is very ingenioufly fet down by the learned 
Monficur GafTcndi in his firft Epiftle de motu imprejfo a moto- 
retraflatff, to the fame purpofe for which we bring it. Thorg!t 
we do not here make ufeofhis fcheme and way of demonftrac;- 
on; becaufe we had fallen upon this before his book came a- 
broad: and therefore we onely note his to dire the Reader un- 
to it } who pcradventtire may like his better then ours. Hcnvbcit 
we do not conceive that he hath in his di(cour(e thcre,arrived to 
the true reafon of the effect we fcarch inco; as may appear by 
what we have already delivered. 

But we muft not imagine, that the velocity of motion willi 
alwayes cncreafcthus for as long as we can fancy any motion:^ 1 
btu when it is arrived unto theutmoft period that fuch a move- ^ 
able with fuch caules is capable of, then it keepcch 


> < 

the fame pace,an.d goeth equally and uniformly at the; fa me rate. 
For fince the denfity of the moveablc,and the force of the Agent 
moving it, (which two do caufe the niQti,pn)have a limited pro-r 
portion to the refinance of the medium, ho\v yielding foever it 
be; it imft needs follow, that when, the motion is arrived unto 
that height which arjfeth out of this proportion , it cannot ex- 
ceed it,but rnuft continre at that yatc, unlcflc fome other caufe 
give XMw^MiiiJPW^ c ' ie movrabk. For velocity confift- 
ing in thtathax ijhe moyeable ciittcth thiougb moreof the medi- 
um in a,fc equall time; it is evident that in the encreafc of veloci- 
ty, the refinance of the medium which is overcome by ic;^roW- 
eth greater and greater, and by Jicrle and little gabuth upon the 
feres of the Ag?t ; fa that the ftperproportjon of the Agent, 
growth fi,ill lefler and le(T?r a,$ the velocity cncreaiech : and 
tbererore at the length they mull come to be baUanccd. And 
tlien the velocity canencrcaf? Uto more. 

And ^hc reafoji of the encreafe of it for a while at the bfgin- 
nig,vs hecaufe that coining from reft, it muft paflc thtough all 
th iJKCKmedi-ate degrees of velocity before ic can attain to tlic 
heigSn ofiwAvhich rcquireth time to perform, o,nd therefore fal- 
leth undietfrhe power of our fenfe toobfervc. But becaufe we fee 
it do fofgr(ome t-irrie,, \ve muft not therefore conclude that the 
nature of fuch motion is (UU to cncvcafe without any period or 
limit; like thoie lines that perpetually grow nearer, and yet can 
never meet: for we fee that our reafon examining the causes of 
this velocity, affureth us that in continuance of time and ipace, 
it may come to its height which it cannot exceed. 

And there, would be the pitch at which diftancc weights be- 
ing let fall, would give the grcateft ftrokes and makegreateft 
imprefsions. It is true that Galileus and Merfenius ( two exacl: 
expcrimtnters) do think they find this verity by their experien. 
ces. But farely that is impofsible to be done: for the encreafc of 
velocity being in a proportion ever diminiOiing, it muft of ne- 
ceflity come to an inlenfible encreafe in proportion before it end- 
cthrfor the fpace which the moveable gocth through is ft ill en- 
creafed; and the time wherein it paflcth through that fpace re- 
maineth ftilltlie fame little o'ie as was taken up in parting aleflc 
fpace immediately beforejand liich little differences of great fpa- 
ces paffed over in a little time, come Coon to be undifeernablc by 
fcnfc. But rea{bn(which (heweth us, that if velocity never ceafcd 


Chap. 9. 4 Trutife ef B O D I E S. 9\ 

from encreafing, it would in time arrive to exceed any particular 
velocity ; and by confcqucnce, the proportion which the mover 
hath to the medium: bccaufe of the adding {till a determinate 
parrtoics velocity) concluding plainly that ic is impoffible, 
motion fliould increale for ever, without coming to a period. 

Now the impreflion which falling weights do make, is of 
two kinds ; for the body into which impretfion is made, either certain pr- 
can yieM backward, or it cannot. If ic can yield backward, b!cm;refoJved 

ff. j . . /- /i i i concerning the 

tnen the tmprenion made is a motion: as we tec a Itroke with a prcportionof 
racket upon a ball, or with a pail-mail beetle upon a bowl < n e moving 

* _ t /* i r\ 1 it A2"ntS COITi'dl* 

maketh it flic from K. But it the Itrucken body cannot yield red to their 
backwards, then it maketh it yield on the fides. And this, in di- 
vers manners : for if the fmittcn body be drieand brittle, it is 
fubjc-iVto break it, and make the peices flie round about: buc 
if it be a tough body, it fqueefeth it into a larger form. 

But bccaufe the effe<5t in any of thefe wayes is emim ntly 
greater then the force of the Agent fccmeth to be ; it is worth 
our labour to look into thccaufes of it. To which end we may 
remember how we have already declared that the force of the 
velocity is eqiull to a reciprocal! force of weight in the virtue 
movent : wherefore the effect of a blow that a man giveth with 
a hammer, dependcth upon the weight of the hammer, upon the 
velocity of the motion, iind upon the hand, in cafe the hand ao 
companiech the blow. But if the motion of the hand ceaieth 
before ( 33 when we throw a thing,) thenoncly the velocity and 
the weight of the hammer remain to be confidcrcd. Howfoever, 
let us put the hand and weight in oje fum me which we may 
equalize by feme other virtue or weight. Then let us confidcr 
thie way or ipace, which a weight lying npon the thing is to go 
forwards to do the fam? efFc& in the fame time as the percufifk>;i 
doth. And whatcxccrTe the line or the blow ; hath over the line 
of that way or ipace ; fuch an exccflfe we muft adde of equal I 
weight or 'force, to the weight \ve had already taken* And the 
weight com pofed of both; will be a fit Agent to make the like 
imprcffion. This Problcme was propofed unto me by that wor- 
thy religious man, Father Merfenius : who is not content with 
advancing learning by his own induflry and labours; but be- 
fidcs, is alwayes (out of his generous affection to vericy ) inci- 
ting others to contribute to the publick fto:k of it. 

He propolcd to me likewile this following queftion, to wic, 


A Trestle cf B O D I S. Chap. 9- 

why there is required a weight of water in double Geometri- 
call proportion, to make a pipe run twice as fart as it did, or to 
have twice as much water run out in the fame time?Unto which 
I anfwer out of the fame ground as before : That bccaufc in 
running twice as faft,there goeth out double water in every part 
of time; and again, every part of water gocth a double fpacc in 
the fame part of time; that is to fay, becaufc double the celerity 
is drawn into double the water, and double the water into dou- 
ble the celerity ; therefore. the prefent effe is to the former ef- 
fcft, as the effect or quadrate of a double line drawn into it Celt, 
is to the effect or quadrate of half the faid line dravrn into ic 
fclr". And confequently the caufe of the latter effect ( which is 
the w eight then _) muft be to the caulc of the former effect ( that 
is, to the former weight) in the fame proportion; namely, as the 
quadrate of a double line, is to the quadrate of half that line. 
And fo you fee the reafon of what he by experience findeth to 
be true. Though I doubt not but when he ftiall fet out the Trea- 
dle which he hath made of this fubjcft, the Reader will have 
better fatisfaction. 

In the mean while, an experience which Galileo delivereth: 
\\ill confirm this dodtrine. He faith,that to make the fimc pen- 
dant go twice as faft as icdid, or to make every undulation of ic 
in half the time icdid; you mud make the line at which ic hang- 
eth, double in Geometricall proportion to the line at which ic 
hanged before. Whence it followeth, that the circle by which ic 
goech is likewifc m double Geometricall proportion. And this 
being certain , that celerity to celerity hath the proportion of 
force, which weight hath f to weight; it is evident, that as in one 
cafe there muft be weight in Geometricall proportion; fo in the 
other cafe, where onely celerity rnaketh the variance, thccele- 
riry muft be in double Gemetricall proportion, according as 
Galileo findeth it by experience. 

But to return to our, main intent,there is to be further noted, 
that if the fubjcct ftrucken be of a proportionate ceffibility, ic 
feemeth to dull and deaden the ftroke : whereas, if the thing 
ftrucken be hard, the ftroke lecmeth to lofe no force, but to 
work a greater effe5r. Though indeed the truth be, that in both 
cafes the effects are equall ; but divcrfc according to the natures 
of the things that arc ftruckcn;for no force that once is in nature 
can be loft, but muft have its adequate effect one way or other. 


Chap. 9. ^ TrMifg of B O D I E S. 93 

Let us then fir ft fuppofe the body ftruckcn to be a hard body 
of no exceeding bigncfle: in which cafe, if the ftrokc light per- 
pendicularly upon it, it will carry fuch a body before it. But if 
the body be too great, and have its parts fo conjoyned, as that 
they cue 'vcakcr then the ftrokc; in this cafe the ftroke drivcth 
one pare before it, and fo breaketh it from the reft. But laftly, if 
the parrs of the ftruckcn body be fo cafily cefliblc, as without 
difficulty the ftroke can divide them, then itentereth into fuch a 
body untill it hach fpent its force. So that now making up our 
accountj we fee that an eqtiall crTe proceedeth from an equall 
force in all the three cafes; though in themfelves they be far dif- 
ferent. But we arc apt to account that cfTeft greater, which is 
more considerable unto us by the profit or damage it bringeth 
us. And therefore we ufually fay, that the blow which fhaketh 
a wall, or beateth it down, and killeth men with the ftones it 
fcattereth abroad; hath a greater effecl then that which penetra- 
teth far into a mud wall, and doth little harm: for that innocu- 
oufncfle of the effecl, maketh that although in itfelf itbeas 
great as the other, yet it is little observed orconfidered. 

Thi$ difcourfc drawcth on another: which is to declare how 
motion ceafeth. And to fumme that up in fhort , we fay that WJ , * 2 ' 

rf i v *" Cn * nioYe?. 

when motion comcth unto reft, it decreafeth & pafleth through biccomcchto~ 
all the degrees of celerity and tardity that are between reft and Jn^Jrtde* 1 " 
the height of rhat motion which fo declineth : and that in the crcafcaccor- 
proportion of the odde numbers, as we declared above, ttm it ruiofVn. 
did encrcafe. The reafbn is clear: becaufe that which miketh a 
motion ceale, is the refiftance it findcth : which refiftance is an 
aclion of a mover that rnovcth (bnieciiing againft the body 
which is moved, or fomcthing equivalent to frcli an action: 
wherefore it muft follow the laws that arc common to all moti- 
ons: of which kind thofc two are.that we have cxprcflcd in this 
conclusion. Now that refiftancc is a countermotion., or cqoiva,- 
lentto one, is plain by this; that any body which is prcflcd muft 
needs prefTc again upon the body thatprcfleth itj wherefore the 
caufe that hindercth fuch a body from yielding , is a force mo- 
ving that body agamft the body which preffeth ir. The particu- 
lars of all which we fliall more at large declare, where \vefpeak 
of the a&ion and reaftion of particular bodies. 


A Trtatip of B O D I E S. Chap, i o . 

Of (jravitj und, Levitj; and of Loeull Alotiw, commonly 
termed, "tytturalf. 

I. IT is now time to confidcr that cfiftiaclion of motions which 

: motio 
arc called na. 


e motioni f ' K f o famous in Ariftotle; to wifj chat fbme motions arc natu- 
turaii which rail, others violent: and to determine what may be Signified by 
r k efe terms- F r fc ein g w * have faid that no body hath a nitu- 
rail imrinfecall inclination unto any place , to which it is able 
to mo ^ c i ^5 wc mu ^ Dce ^ s conclude that the motion of every 
body followeth the percuiHon of extrinfecall Agents. It feem- 
eth therefore impoffible that anybody fhouldhave any motion 
naturall to it fclf. And if there be none natural!, there can be 
none violent. And fothis diftinionwiil vanifh co nothing. 


But on the other fide, living creatures do manifeftly fhew na- 
turall motions, having naturall inftruments to perform certain 
motions: wherefore fuch motions muft of necciTity be naturall 
to them. But thcfc are not the motions which we are to fpeak 
of; for Ariftotles divifion is common to all bodies, or at the 
Icaft to all thofc we converfe withall : and particularly to thoic 
which are called heavy and lightjwhich two terms paffe through 
aH the bodies we have notice of. 

Therefore proceeding upon our grounds before layed; to 
\vit, that no body can be moved of it felf; we may determine 
thofe motions to be naturall unto bodies which have conftant 
caufes, or percutients to make them altvayes in fuch bodies : 
and thofe violent which arc contrary to fuch naturall moti- 
ons. Which being fuppofcd , we muft fearch out the caufes 
that fbconftantly make fbmc bod ies defccnd towards the cen- 
ter or middle of the earth ; and others to rife and go from 
the center: by which the world is fubjeft to thofe reftlefTe mo- 
tions, that keep all things in perpctuall flux, in this changing 
fphere of aftion and paffion. 

2. Let us then begin with confidering what cffe&s the funne 

oi (which i$ a conftant and perpctuall caufe ) workcth upon 
Tpcraonofthe iafcriour bodies, by his being regularly fbmetimes prefent 
funne, is the ar)( j fometimes abfent. Obfcrve in a pot of water hanffin* 

making and rai- r , . 

fingofatomes. over a nre, how the heat maketh fome parts of the water 
to afcend, and others to fupply the room by defending, fo 


Chip. 1 o. 'j* Trutift df B O D I E S. 57 j 

that as tongas itboylcth, ic is in a perpetual! confufed mo- 
tion up and down. Now having formerly concluded that/rr 
light, find tight is fire ic cannot be doubted but that the 
funne doth ferve in ftead of fire to our globe of earth and wa- 
ter, (which may be fitly compared to the boylingpoc ) and 
all the day Jongdraweth vapours from thofe bodies that his 
beams ft rikt upon. For he ftiooting his little darts of fire in 
multitudes, and in continued ftrcams from his own center a- 
gainrtthe Python the earth we live on; they do there overtake 
one another, and caufe fome degree of heat as far re as they 
fink in. But not being able f by reafon of their great expanfi- 
on in rhtir long journey) to convert it into their oA-n nature 
and fee it on fire > (which requircth* high degree of condenfati- 
on of the bearns)they do but pierce & divide it very fbtilly 3 and 
cot fome of the outward parts of it into extreme little atomes. 
Unto which they flicking very clofe, ^nd being in a manner 
incorporated with them ( by realbn of tire ntoyftare that is in 
them ) they do in their rebound back from the earfh carry 
them along vfhh them; like a ball that /truck againft. a moift 
wall, doth in its return from it , bring back fome of the mor- 
tar iticking upon it. For the difhnce of tire earth from the 
fun is nbt theutmoft period ofthtfc nimble bodies -flight; fo that 
when by this folid body they are flopped in their courfe forwards 
on,they leap bade from it, and carry fomc little parts of it with 
them: fome of them 'a farther, fbmc of them a '(hotter journey; 
according as their littlcncfle and rarity make them fitto aiccnd. 
As is manifeft by the conrfcnt of all Authours that write 'of the 
regions of the aire ; who determine the lower region to reach 
fane 'as the reflexion -of the fimne; -and concladethis re- 
gion to be very hot. 

For if we mark how the "heat -of fire is-grcareft, when it is 
incorporated rn ibme denfe body ; '(as in iron or in fea-coal ) 
\ve fhall ealily ccnrceivc that the heat of this regron proceedcth 
mainly out of the incorporation of ligiit with tbofc Irttlc bo- 
dies which ftrcTc ro it in its reiRexion. And experience tefrifieth 
the htne, both in our foultrychyes,' which wefware of a groife 
temper, "and ordmaTilygo : before rain : as arfo-in the h-otfprings 

:emc cold countreys, 'where thefirft heats arc rmfifrferable; 

i proceed out -ofriit refolution-of humidity congeailcd;^ in 


'A Trutift of B O D I E S. Chap. io. 

in hot winds ( which the Spaniards call Eochornos from Boca 
de homo by allufion to the breathing fleam of an oven -when 
h is opened ) which do manifeftly fhew that the heat of the 
funnels incorporated in the little bodies, which compote the 
fteam of that wind. And by the principles we have already 
layed, the fume would be evident ; though we had no experi- 
ence to inftrudt usj for feeing that the body of fire is dry, the 
wet parts (which are eafieft refolved by fire) muft needs 
ftick unto them, and accompany them in their return from the 

Now whiles thefe afcend, the aire muft needs caufe others, 
that are of a groffer complexion to dcfcend as faft, to make 
the earth with room for the former, and to fill the places they left j that there 
twTft!c?m S re ia niay be no vacuity in nature. And to find what parts they are 
the afrej the anc j from whence they come, that fucceed in the room of light 

one afcendin." , , t - . , . 

rhe other de- and atornes glewed together that thus alcend ; we may take a 
ijotifol^m'in ^ mt fr m tnc n wxime of the Opcicks, that light reflecting ma- 
a perpendicular keth cquall angles; whence, fuppofing the fuperficies of the 
line. earth to be circular, it w ? ill follow that a perpendicular to the 

center paiTeth juft in the middle between the tworayes; tn'e in- 
cident and the refleSed. Wherefore the aire between thefe two 
rayes, and fixh bodies as are in it being equally prcflcd on boch 
fides; thofe bodies which are j'uft in the middle, are ncareft and 
likelieft to fucceed immediately in the room of the light and 
atomes which afcend from the fuperficies of the earth : and 
their motion to that point is upon the perpendicular. Hence 
it is evident > that the aire and all fuch. bodies as defcend 
to fupply the place of light and atomes, which afcend from 
the earth, do defcend perpendicularly towards the center of 
the earth. 

And again, fuch bodies as by the force of light being cut 
from the earth or water , do not afcend in form of light , 
but do incorporate a hidden light and heat within them; 
(and thereby are rarer then thefe defending bodies) muft 
of neceffity be lifted up by the defcent of thofe denfer bodies that 
go downwards, becaufe they ( by reafbn of their dcnfity ) are 
moved with a 'greater force. And this lifting up muft be in a 
perpendicular line; becaufe the others defcending on all fides 
perpendicularly, mult needs raife thofe that are between them 


Chap. io, 

equally from all fides : that is, perpendicularly from the center 
or the earth. And thus we Ice a motion fee on foot, of fome bo- 
dies continually defending, and others continually alcending : 
all in perpendicular lines, excepting thofe which follow the 
courfe of lights reflexion. 

Again as foon as the declining fun groweth weaker or leaveth 
our horizon , and that his beams vanishing do leave the 
little horfemen which rode upon them, to their ownc temper 
and nature (from whence they forced them) they finding them- 
felves furroundedby a (mart dcfcending ftream,do tumble down, 
again in the night, as faft as in the day. they were carried up - y 
and crowding into their former habitations, they exclude thole 
that they find had ufurped them in their abfence. And thus, all 
bodies within reach of the funnes power,but efpecially our aire, 
are in perpetuall motion ; the more rarified ones afcending,and 
the dcnfe ones defcending. 

Now then ; becauie no bodies wherefoever they be (as we A dejl bo , 
have already (hewed) have any inclination to move towards a placed in the 
particular place, other wife then as they are directed and impel- ^,7 afcwdm^ 
led by excrinfecall Agents : let us fiippofe that a body were pla- an -* defending 

j I-L L 1 U L L tlrcam, muftj- 

ced at liberty in the open^aire. And then calling whether it Hce j s ' 

would be moved from the place we fuppofe it in : and which 
Way it would be moved ; we fhall find that it muft of necefluy 
happen that it fhall defcend and fall down till it meet with 
fome other grofle body to flay and fupport it. For although of 
it felf it would move no way : yet if we fin d that any other body 
ftriketh efficacioufly enough upon ic j we cannot doubt but thac 
it will move that way which the ftriking body impelleth it. 
Now,itis rtrucken upon on both fides(above and below)by the 
afcending, and the defcending aromes.the rare ones, (hiking up- 
on the bottome ofic, and driving it upwards, and the denier 
onesj prcffing upon the top of it and bearing ic downwards. BJC 
if you compare the imprcflions that the denfer atomes make, 
with thofe that proceed from the rare ones ; ic is evident that 
thcdenfe ones mull be the more powerfuil ; and therefore will 
afluredly determine the motion of the body in the aire, that way 
they go, which is downwards. 

Nor need we fear, left the littlcncfle'of the agents, or the fce- 
blenefle of their ihokes, (hoald no: be fufficicnc to work this 

G effect; 

V fwtijl of B O D I E S* Cliap. i o. 

; fince there no refinance in the body it felf, and the aire 
is continually cut m pieces, by the funne beams, and by che mo- 
tions of little bodiesjtothat the adhefion unto aire of the body to 
be moved* will be no hindetrance to this motion: eipeciallyjcon- 
fjdcting the perpctuall new percuflions, and the multitude of 
ehe<n* and how no force is fo little, but that with time and mul- 
tiplication it will overcome any refinance. 

But if any man defireth to look upon, as it were at one view; 
part- thewhole chain of this doftrine of gravity : let him turn the 
Hcatt- firft caft of his eyes upon what we have faid of fire when wecx- 
?,^*doarioe plfcattd the nature of it. To wic, that it beginnqch from a little 
touching gravi- fource ; and by extreme multiplication, and rarefaction, it ex- 
tendcth it felf into a great fphere. And then he will perceive the 
rcalon why light is darted from the body of the funne with that 
iflci-edibie celerity, wherewith its. beams fly to vifitc the remo- 
teft parts of the world ; and how of neceffity, it givcth- motion 
to- all circumftant bodies ; fince it is violently thrutt forward by 
{fe extreme a- rarefaction ; and the further it gocth, is ftill the 
more ratified and dilated. 

Next, let him refleA how infinitely the quickneffe of lights 
motion* doth prevent the motion of a moift body, fuch an one 
as aire is: and then he will plainly fee, that the fir ft motion 
v^hich- light is able to give unco the aii c, mutt needs be a fwel- 
ling of that moift element, perpendicularly round about the 
earth; for, the ray dependent, arKhhcray rcfleSenc.flying with 
fb sreat ft ^)tcd, ti^at the- aire betweenchem cannot take a fbiv 
mall ply any way before the beams of light be on both fides of 
k:it followeth,that according to the nature of humide things, it 
muftfirft onely fweli : for that is die beginning of motion in 
them, when heat entered! into them, and worketh upon them. 
And thus he may confidently reiolre him/elf, that the firft moti- 
on which light canfeth in the aire, will be a fwelling of it be- 
tween the two rayes towards the middle of them. That is; per- 
pendicularly from thefurface of the earth. 

And out of this, he will likcwifc plainly fee, that if there be 
any other Hcde dcnfc bodies floating in the aire, they muft- hke- 
wiie mount a little, through this fwelling and riling of the aire.^ 
But that mounting will be no more then the immediate parts of 
the aire themfehes do move. Bccaufc this motion is not by way 


Chap". TO. 

of impulfc or ftroke that the airc givcch thole dcnfer bodicsjbui 
by way of containing them in it, and carrying them with it, fo 
tiiat it givcth them no more celerity, then to make them go with 
it fclf, and as parts of it felf. 

Then, Jet him confidcr, that light or fire, by much beating 
upon the earth, dividcth fbme lude parts of it from others: 
whereof if any do become fo finall and tractable, as not to ex- 
ceed the ftrength which the rayes have to manage them; the re- 
turning rayes, will at their going back, carry away with them 
or drive before them, fuch little atomes as they have made or 
nacet with :& fb fill the aire with little bodies cut out of the earth. 
After this, let him confider that when light carrieth up an 
atome with it, the light and the atotne do ftick together, and do 
make one amending body; in fijch fort as when an empty difh 
lyeth upon the water, the aire in the difli maketh one dependent 
fcxxiy together with the difh it felf: fo that the denfity of the 
whole body of airc and dilli ( which in this cafe, are but as one 
body)is to be efteemed according to the denfity of the two parts; 
one of them being allayed by the other, as if the whole were 
throughout of fuch a proportion of denfity, as would arife out of 
the compofition and kneading together the feveraH denfities of 
thole two parts. Now then, when thcfe little compounded bodies 
of light and earth, are carried up to a determinate height ; the 
parts of fire or light, do by little and little break away from 
them: and thereby, the bulk of the part which is left, becometh 
of a different degree of denfity (quantity for quantity ) from 
the bulk of the entire atome, when light was part of it : and 
confequently it is denfer then it was. 

Befides, let him confider that when thefe bodies afcend; they 
do go from a narrow room to a large one > that is , from the 
centerwards to the circumference: but when they come down 
again, they go from a larger part to a narrower. Whence it fol- 
loweth, that as they dcfcend, they draw clofer and clofer toge- 
ther, and by confequence, are fubjeS to meet and to fall in one 
with another; and thereby to increafe their bulk, and to become 
more powerfull indenfity; notonely, by the loflc of their fire; 
but alfo by the encreafe of their quantity. And fo it is evkkat* 
that they arc denfer coming down, then going up. 
Lafily,let him confidcr 3 tjhat thole atomes which went up firft, 

C 2 and 

icy A TrCAiife of BODIES. Chap, io. 

and are parted from their volatile companions of fire or lighc, 
inuft begin to come down apace., when other new atomes 
( winch ftill have their light incorporated with them) doafcend 
to where they are, and do go beyond them by reafou of their 
greater levity. And as the latter atomes come up with a violence 
and a great celerity, fo muft the firft go down with a finarc 
impulie : and by confequence, being more denfe then the airein 
which they arecarryed, mi: ft of necffliry cut their way through 
that liquid and rare medium and go the next way to fupply the 
defect and room of the atomes which afcend; ("that is, perpen- 
dicularly to the earth ) and give the like motion to any body 
they find in their way, if it be fulceptible of fjch a motion: 
whichit is evident that all bodies are ; unlcfle they be ftruckcn by 
fomc contrary impulfe. For fince trine a bodies being in a place, 
is nothing elfe but the continuity of its outfide to theinfidc of 
the body that containeth it and is its place, it can have no other 
repugnance to locall motion (w hich is nothing elfe but a x fuccefl 
five changing of place ) befides this continuity. Now the na- 
ture of denfity, being the power of dividing ; and every leaft 
power having fome force and efficacy, ( as \ve have fhewed 
above) it followeth that the ftroke of every atome ( either de- 
fcending, or afccnding) will work fomething upon any body 
(though never fe bigjit chanceth to mcoumer with, -and ftrike 
upon in its way, unleffe there be as ftrong an impulfe the con- 
trary way, to oppofe it. But it being determined, that the de- 
fcending atomes aredenfer then thole that afcend; it followeth 
that the dcfcending ones will prevail. And confequently,alldenlc 
bodies muft neceflarily tend downwardsto the center (which is, 
to be//rrfz/7)if Ibme other more denfe body do not hinder them. 
.. Out of this difcourfe, \ve may conclude that there is no fucli 

G-avity and le- thing among bodies^as pofitive gravity or levity: but that their 
mfie'an'StriJ."" coHrlc upwards or down wards happencth unto them by the or- 
iccaii incimati- ^ cr o f nature, which by outward caufesgireth them an impulie 
mikiathe one of thefe wayes : without which, they would reft quietly 
bodies ihem- wherefocver they arc, as being of themfelvcs indifferent to any 

{elves which . J r . r . . . J 

atotcnTcH motion. But becauie our words exprelle our notions, and they 

L*hl yand flfe ^ ra " 1 d according-to what appeareth unto us; when we ob- 

ferveany body to defcend conftantly towards our earth, we 

call it heavy j and if it move eomrarywilc, we call it light. 


Chap. TO. esfTrettife of BODIES. 101 

But we rauft take heed of considering fuch gravity and levity 
as ifthcy were Entities that work fuch effects : fiuce upon exa- 
mination, it appcareth that thefe words are butfhort exprefTi- 
ons of the efftds thcmfclves : the caufes whereof, the vulgar of 
mankind ( u ho impefc names to things ) do not confider ; but 
leave that work unto Philofophcrs to examine ; whiles they 
onely obferve, what they fee done ; and agree upon words to 
cxpreflc thac. Which words neither will in all circumstances 
alwaycs agree to the fame thing ; for as cork doth defcend in 
aire and afcend in water; fo alfo will any other body defcend if 
it lightcth among others more rare then it fclf, and will afcend 
ifit lightcth among bodies that arc more denfe then it. And we 
term bodies light and heavy, onely according to the courfe, 
which we ufually fee them take. 

Now proceeding further on ; and confidering how there are 
various degrees of denfity or gravity: it were irrationall to the mor'e denfe 
conceive, that all bodies fhould defcend at the fame rate, and * bod V\^ e - 

. , , .... more fwihly it 

keep equall pace with one another, in their journey down- defccnJcth. 
wards. For as two knifes whereof one hath a keener edge then 
the other, being prefled with equall ftrength into like yielding 
matter, the {harper will cut deeper then the other : fo, if of 
two bodies one be more denfe then the other ; that which is Co, 
will cut the aire more powerfully, and will defcend fafter thea 
the otherrfor in this caie denfity may be compared to the knifes 
edge, fince in it confifteth the power of dividing ; as we have 
heretofore determined. And therefore, the prcffing them down- 
wards by the defcending atomes, being equall in both (or per- 
adventure greater in the more denfe body; as anon we (hall 
have occafion to touch ) and there being no other caufe to de- 
termine them that way ; the eflfcft of divifion muft be the grea- 
ter, where the divider is the more powerful!. Which, the more 
denfe body is ; and therefore cutteth more ftrongly through the 
refinance of the aire ; and confequemly, pafleth more Iwiftly g. 
that way it is determined to move. The velocity of 

I do not mean, that the velocities of their defcent (hall be in !T d ' C j de . fcen 

t /- L L j r r dln & doth not 

the fame proportion to one another, as their denn ties are : for encreafc in pro. 
befides their dcnfiry, thofe other confiderations which we have 5?ftn [hsu 
difcourfcd of above when we examined the caules of velo- maybe between 
city in motion, muft likewife be ballanced. And out of the 

G 5 com- 

IO2 tATrcatifecf BODIES. 

comparifon of all them; not out of the confederation of any 
one alone, rcfulteth the differences of their velocities : ( and that 
neither, but in as much as concerneth the confidenuion of the 
moveablcs: for ro make the calculation exaft, the medium muft 
likewife be confidered ; as by and by wefhnll declare ) for fince 
the motion dependeth of all them together ; although there 
fhould be difference between the moveables in regard of one 
oncly, and that the reft we're cquall ; yet the proportion of the 
difference of their motions, murt not follow the proportion of 
their difference in that one regard : becaufe their difference con- 
fidered fingle in that regard will have one proportion; and with 
the addition of the other confederations ( though alike in both ) 
to their difference in this, they will have another. 

As for example, reckon the denfity of one moveable to be 
jble the denfity of another moveable; Co that in that regard 
/ath two degrees of power to defcend , whereas the other 
hath but one : fuppofe then the other caufes of their defcent to 
be alike jn both, and reckon them all three : and then joyn 
theic three to the one which is caufed by the deniity in one of 
the moveablcsjas likewife to the two, which is cat i fed by the 
denhty in the other moveable : and you will find that thus al- 
together, their difference of power to dclcend k no longer in a 
double proportion ("as it would bc 3 if nothing but their denfity 
were confidered ) but is in the proportion of five to fbure. 
But after we have confidered all that concerneth the move- 
ables, we are then to caft an eye upon the medium they are to 
move in; and we fhall find the addition of that, to dccreafe 
the prbportion of their difference, exceedingly more; according 
to the ceflibility of the medium. Which if it be airc; the great 
difproportion of its weight , to the weight of thofe bodies 
Which rricn ufe to take in making experiences of their deicent 
in that yielding medium; will caufe their difference of velo- 
city in dcfcending, to be hardly perceptible. Even as the diffe- 
rence of a fiiarp or dull knife, which is eafily perceived in 
cutting of flefh or bread , is not to be diftinguifhed in divi- 
ding of water or oyl. And likenife in weights, a pound and 
a fcruple will bear down a dramme in no fcnfiblc propor- 
tion of velocity more then a pound alone would do : and yft 
put a pound in that fcale in ftcad of the dramme, and then 


Chap. 10. 4 Trtanfe of BO DI E S. 10 

the difference of the fcruple will be very notable. So then, 
thole bodies, whofe difference of defending in water is very 
fenfible ( bccaufeof the greater proportion of weight in water, 
to the bodies thatdefcend in it ) will yield no fenfiblc difference 
of velocity when they dcfcend in airc, by reafon of the great dil- 
proportion of weight between aire & the bodies that defcend in it 

The rcafon of this will clearly (hew it fcif in abftra&ed pro- 
portions. Thus; fuppofe airc to hare one degree of denfity, and 
water to have 400 ; then let the moveable A have 410 degrees 
of denfity ; and the moveable B have 500. Now compare 
their motion to one another in the Icverall mediums of airc and 
water. The exuperance of the denfity of A to water is 10 de- 
grees, but the exuperance of B unto the fame water, is 100 de- 
grees; {b that B muft move in water fwifter then A, in the pro- 
portion of 100 totcnne; that is, of 10 to one. Then Ictus 
compare the exuperance of the two moveablej over aire. A is 
409 times more denie then aire ; but B is 499 times more denfe 
then it. By which account, the motion of B, muft be in that 
mcdiam fwifter then the motion of A, in the proportion of 499 
to 409 : that is, about 50, to 41 : which ( to avoid fractions ) 
we may account as 10 to 8. But in water they exceed one an- 
other as 10 to one: io that their difference of velocity, muft 
be fcarce perceptible in aire in refpccl: of what it is in water. 

Out of all which di/courfe, I onely inftrre in common, that 
a greater velocity in motion, will follow the greater denfity of 
the moveable; wuhout determining here their proportions: 
which I leave unto them, who make that examination their 
task : for thus much fcrveth my prefent turn : wherein I take 
ft fiirvey of nature, but in groflc. And my chief drift in this par- 
ticular is onely to open the way for the difcovering how bo- 
dies lhat of thcrnlelves have no propenfion unto any determi- 
nate place; do ncverthclefle move conftantly and perpetually 
one way; the denfe ones defcending, and the rare ones afcend^ 
ing : not by any intrinfccall quality that worketh upon them; 
but by the oeconomy of nature, that hath let on foot due and 
plain caufcs to produce known effeffo. 

Here we muft crave patience of the great foul of Galileus 9' 
(whole admirable learning all pofterity muft reverence) whiles gr^jt^doth 
we reprehend in him , that which we cannot term leflethen produce a fwif 

^ . cr or a flower 


ing of 
a heavy bw'y. 
Arifloctej argu- 
ment to dif- 
prove motion 
in ui cut , is 

A TreAtiJc of B O D I E S. Chap, i o. 

jibfurd : and yet, he not onely maintaineth it in Icverall places, 
but alfo profefleth, Dial. P. de motu pag. 81- to make it more 
clear then day. His pofition is, that more or JeSTe gravity con- 
criburcth nothing at all to the fafter or flower defcending of a 
naturall body : but that all the effect it giveth unto a body, is 
to make it defcend or not defcend in fiich a medium. Which is 
agninft the firft and moft known principle that is in bodies: to 
wit, that more doth more, and lefle doth letfe; for he allowcth, 
that gravity caufcth a body to defcend; and yet will not allow* 
that more gravity cauSeth it to defcend more. 

I wonder that he never marked how in a pair of fcalcs, a 
faperproportion of overweight in one ballance, lifted up the 
other fafter then a leife proportion of overweight would do. 
Or that more weight hanged to a jack, made the Spit turn faft- 
er ; or to the lines of a clock, made it go fafter, and the like. 

But his argument whereby he endcavoureth to prove his po- 
fition, is yet more wonderfull : for finding in pendants une- 
quall in gravity, that the lighter went in the fame time almoft 
as fa ft as the heavier ; he gathereth from thence, that the diffe- 
rent weights have each of them the fame celerity : and that it 
is the opposition of the aire, which maketh the lighter body not 
reach fo farre at each undulation, as the heavier doth. For re- 
ply whereuwto ; firft, we muft ask him whether experience or 
reafon taught him, that the flower going of the lighter pendant, 
proceeded onely from the medium, and not from want of gra- 
vity? And when he {hall hareanfwered (as he needs muft)that 
experience doth not (hew this; then we muft importune him for 
a good reafon : but I do not find that he bringeth any at all. 

Again; if he admitteth ( which he doth in exprefie terms ) 
that a lighter body cannot rcfift the medium fb much as a hea- 
vier body can, we muft ask him, whether it be not the weight 
that maketh the heavier body refift more: which when he hath 
acknowledged that it is ; he hath therein likewife acknow- 
ledged, that whcnfoevcr this happeneth in the defcending of a 
body,the more weight muft make the hearier body defcend fafter 
But we cannot parTe this matter without noting how himlelf 
maketh good thofe arguments of Ariftotle, which he Sccmeth by 
no means to cftccm of : for tinoc the gravity doth overcome the 
rcfiftance of the medium in fbme proportion; i: fblloweth, that 


Chap. io. ^TrtAtifeof BODIES. 105 

the proportions 'between the gravity and the medium, may be 
multiplied without end ; fo as, if he fuppofc that the gravity of 
a body do make it go at a certain rate in imaginary fpace, 
( which is his manner of putting the force of gravity, ) then 
there may be given ftich a proportion of a heavy body to the 
medium, as itfliallgoin fuch a medium at the lame rate; and 
ncvcrthclcfle, there will be an infinite difference, betwixt the 
rcfiftance of the medium compared to that body, and the re- 
fiftancc of the imaginary fpacc compared to that other body 
which he fuppofeth to be moved in at the fame rate : which no 
man will ftick at confeffing to be very abfurd. 

Then turning thcfcales, becaufe the refinance of the me*iiurn 
doth fomcwhat hinder gravity, and that with leflfc refinance, 
the heavy body moveth fafter ; it muft follow, that fince there 
is no proportion, betwixt the medium and imaginary fpace; 
there muft neither be any proportion betwixt the time in which 
a heavy body fhall paffe through a certain quantity of the me- 
dium, & the time in which it fhall paflc through as much imagi- 
nary fpace:whercfbre,it muft pafle over fo much imaginary fpace 
in an inftant. Which is the argument that Ariftotle is fo much 
laughed at for prefling. And in a word^nothing is more evident, 
then that ; for this effect which Galileo actributeth to gravity , it is 
unreasonable to put adivifible quality, fince the effect is indivi- 
fible. And therefore as evident it is that in his doArinc fuch equa- 
lity ,as intrinfecal gravity is conceived to be.ought not to be put: 
fince every power fhould befitted to the effect, or end for which 
it is put. 

Another argument of Galileo is as bad as this; when he en- 
deavoureth to prove that all bodies go of a like velocity, becaufe 
ithappcncth that a lighter body in (omc ca{c,goeth fafier then a 
Kenvier body in another cafe: as for example, in two pendants, 
whereof the lighter is in the beginning of its motion, and the 
heavier towards the end of it; or if the lighter hangcth at a lon- 
ger firing, and the heavier at a fhorter; we fee that the lighter 
will go fafter then the heavier. But this concludeth no more, 
then if a man fliould prove that a lighter goeth fafter then a hea- 
vier, becaufe a greater force qnn make it go faficr; for it is mani- 
fcft that in a violent motion, the force which moveth a body in 
the cn.l of its cour'ej is weaker then that which moveth it in the 
: and the like is- ofthe two firings. But 

I0 6* ATrettifaf BO DIES. Chap. u. 

10. But here it is not amilfe to folve a Probleme he putteth 

The ****** . \vhichbelongethto our prefent fubjeft. Hefindethby experi- 
fcrour quarter ence, that iftwo bodies dclccnd at the fame time from the fame 
T f ? j' r l lf l ? point, and do go to the fame point, the one by the inferiour 

body doth dcf- r D ill i 

cerd faftcr by quarter or the circle ; the other by the chord to that arch, or 
oulter ^tien by any other lines which arc chords to pirts of that arch : he 
by the chord of fmdeth (I fay) that the moveable goeth faftcr by the arch, then 
by any of the chords. And the reafon is evident, if we consider 
that the nearer any motion dotb come unto a perpendicular one 
downwards, the greater velocity it muft hare : and that in the 
arch of fuch a quadrant, every particular part of it inclineth to 
the perpendicular of the place where it is, more then the part of 
the chord anfwerableunto it doth. 


tAn anfaer to objettions Againft the canfet of n*tara!l mo- 

tion, Avowed in the former chapter ; And a refutation 

of tht co*tr*ry opinion. 

The fjft obje. "D ^ c to return to the thrjd of our doctrine ; there may perad- 
aionanfwere.'.-, JD venture be objected againft it, that if the violence of a bo- 
bod^neSd- dies defcent towards the center, did proceed onely from the den- 
eth flower then fity of it (which giveth it an aptitude, the better to cut the me- 
dium) and from the multitude of little atomes descending that 
(hike upon it, and prefle it the way they go; which is down- 
wards: then it would not import whether the inner part of that 
body were as folid as the outward parts ; for it cutteth with 
oncly the outward, and is fmittcn onely upon the outward. 
And yet experience (heweth us the contrary : for a great bullet 
of lead, that is folid and lead throughout ; defcendcth fafter 
then if three quarters of the diameter were hollow within ; and 
fuch a one falling upon any refitting fubftance, worketh a grea- 
ter eflfeft then a hollow one. And a ball of brafle that hath but 
a tli in outfide of metall will fwim upon the water, when a maf- 
fic one finketh prefently. Whereby it appeareth, that it is rather 
fome other quality belonging to the very bulk of the metall in it 
fcJf ; and not thcfc outward cau(es that occafion gravity. 

But this diflficultic is eafily overcome, if you confider how 
fubtilc thofc atomes arc which defcending downwards and ftrik- 

Cfaap. ir. Treatlfe o/BODIES. 107 

ing upon a body in their way, do caufc its morion Jikewifc 
downwards .-for you may ren:emberhow \vc have /hewed them 
to be the fubtilefl and the minuted dwfions that light y the fub- 
tileft and fharpeft divider in" nature, can make. It is then cafie 
to conceive that thefe extreme fcbtile bodies do penetrate all 
others, as light doth glafle ; and do run through them, as fand 
doth through a frnalJ fkve. or as water through a fpunge; To that 
they ftrike, not onely upon the fiiperficies, but as well in every 
moft interiour part of the whole body ; running quite through 
it all, by the pores of it. And then, it muft needs follow that the 
fbiider it is; and chemore parts it hath within (as well 3$ with- 
out) to be ftrucken upon the fatter it muft go, and the greater 
effec} it muftwork in what it falleth upon .-whereas if three quar- 
ters oftbc diameter of it within, fhould be filled with nothing but 
with aire; the atomes would fly without any confiderable etfeft 
through all that fpace,by reafon ofthe rarity and ceflibility ofir. 

And that thefe atomes are thus fubtilc ; is manifeft by fcverall 
eftedls which we fee in nature. Divers Autliours that write of 
Egypt do ailureus, that though their houfes be built of ftrong 
ftone; neverthelefle, a clod of earth laid in the inmoft rooms, 
aftdfhfit up from all appearing communication with aire, will 
encrtafe its weight fo notably, as thereby they can judge the 
change of weather, which will fliortly cnfue. Which can pro- 
ceed fiom no other oau(e,but from a multitude of little atomes of 
faltpeter ; which floating in the aire, do penetrate through the 
ftrongeft walls, and all the maflie defences in their way, and do 
fettle in the clod f earth as fbon as they meet with it ; becaufe 
it is of a temper fit to entertain, and to conferve, and to enbody 
them. Delights have fhewed us the way, how to make the fpi- 
rits or atomes of fnow & faltpcter pafie through a glafTe veflellj 
. Alchhtiifts hold to be the moft impenetrable of all they 
can find to work with. In our own bodies; the aches which 
feeble parts do feel before change of weather, and the hearincfie 
of our heads and fhoulders, if we remain in the open airepre- 
fcnrly after funfec ; do abundantly tcttifie, that even thegrof- 
fer of thefe atonies (which are the firft that fidljcio vehemently 
penetrate our bodies : fo as, fcnfc will make us believe, what 
reafon peradventure could not. 

But betides all this,there is yet a more convincing rcafon,why 


Io g A Trutifetf BODIES. Chap, IT. 

the defcending atomes fliould more the whole denlity ofa bo- 
dy ; even though it were fo den(c that they could not penetrate 
it, and get into the bowels of it ; but mutt be content to ftrike 
barely upon the outfide of it. For nature hath io ordered the 
matter, that when dcnie parts ftick cloie together^ and make the 
length compoied of them to be very ftiff; one cannot be moved 
but that all the reft ( which arc in that line ) muft likewife be 
t'.ereby moved: fo that if all the world were compofod of atoms 
clole fticking together> the leaft motion imaginable muft drive 
on all that were in a ftraight line, to the very end of the world. 
This you fee is evident in rcafon, and experience confirmeth ic, 
when by a little knock given at the end ofa long beam, the flia- 
king (which maketh found) reacheth fenfibly to the other end. 
The blind man that governeth hisfteps by feeling in defect of 
eyes, receiveth ad vertiiements of remote things through a ft aft' 
which he holdeth in his hands, peradventure more particularly 
then his eyes could have directed him. And the like is of a deaf 
mnn that heareth the found of an inftrument, by holding one 
end of a ftick in his mouth, whiles the other end refteth upon 
the inftrument. And fomc are of opinion (and they not of the 
rank of vulgar Philofophers ) that if a ftaff were as Jong as to 
reach from the funne to us, it would have the fame enSeft in a 
moment of time. Although for my part I am hard to believe 
that we could receive an advertifcment fo farre, unlefle the ftaff 
were of fuch a thicknefieas being proportinable to the length 
might keep ic from facile bending : for if it fliould be very ply- 
ant it would do us no lervicc: as we experience in a thrid,which 
reaching from our hand to the ground, if it knock againft any 
thing, maketh no fenfible impreflion in our hand. 

So tbat in fine, reafon fenfe and authority do all of them 
fhew us, that the lefle the atomes fliould penetrate into amoving 
body, by reafon of the extreme dcnhty of it, the more eflRca- 
ctoiifly they would work, and the greater celerity they would 
caufc in its motion. And hence we may give the fulleft fblution 
Co the objection above,which was to this erTedrthat feeing divifi - 
on is made onely by the fupcrfTcies or exteriour part of the dcn*e 
body ; and that the virtue whereby a denfc body doth work, is 
onely its refinance to divifion; which maketh it apt to dividerit 
would follow that a hollow bowl of brafifc or iron fliould be as 


Chap. IT. A Trextifcof BODIES. lop 

hcavic as a folidcone. For we may anfwcr, that feeing the a- 
tomcs muft ftrikc through the body; and that a eefliblc body 
doth not receive their ftrckes fb firmly as a ftiffe one; nor can 
convey them fo far re : if unto a ftiffe fuperficies there fuccecd a 
yielding infide- the ftrokcs muft of necefTity lo.'e much of their 
force; and confcquently.cannot move a body full ofairc with fb 
much celerity, or with fb much efficacy as they may a fblid one. 

But then you may peradventure fay, that ifthcfe flrokcs of 2 . 
the defending atomes upon a denfc body, were the caufe of its The fcconJob- 
motion downwards, we muft allow the atomes to move farter j a 
then the denfr body; that fb they may flill overtake it and drive ^ 
it along, and enter into it: whereas if they fhould move flower ' 
then itjiione of them could come in their turn to give it a ftroke, " e k n e .^ * c 
but it would be paft them, and out of their reach before they body.'" 8 
:ould ftrikc ir. But it is evident (fay you)out of the.'c pretended 
:aufcs of this motiou, that fuch atonies cannot move fb fwiftly 
lownwarc's, as a great denfc bodie; fined their littlenefTe and 
jieir rarity , are both of them hindering to their motion : and 
jiercfore this cannot be the caufe of that cfFefr, which we call 
To this I reply ; That to have the atomes give thefe blows 

a defcending denfe body, doth not require that their naturajl 
ind ordinary motion fhould be fwiftcr then thede/cent of fucli 

1 denfc body: but the very deferent of it occafionerh their ftriking 
L; for as it falleth and maketh it felf a way through them, they 
lividethemfelvcs before it, an3 fwell on the fides and a lirde 
ibove it, and prefently clo'e agiin behind it and over it affoon 
is it is paft. Now that clofing to hinder vacuity of fpace is a 
udden one, and thereby attaineth great velocity; *,vhieh would 
:arry the atomes in that degree of velocity further then the de- 
cending body, if they did not encounter with it in their way to 
etard them : whichencounter and retarding irnplycth fjcii 
irokcs upon the denfe body as we fuppofc to caufe this motion. 
\ndthe like we fee in water, into which letting a ftone fall, 
>refently the water that was divided by the ftone, and fwejieth 
>n the fides higher then i: was before, clolcth upon the back of 
he defending ftone, and followeth it fo violently, that for a 
vhi!e after it leaveth a purling hole in thephce where the fton^ 
vent down, till by the repo r eof the ftone, the water rctatnei'i 
ikcwifc to its quiet; and lo its fuperficies becometh even. la. 

tio 'A rruufe of B O D I E S. Chap, i r . 

5. In the third place , an enquiry occurreth emergent out of th< 

A enrols qae- <J-oftrmc, of the tawfc of bodies moving upwards and dowfl- 
cidcd.' U ' wards. Which is, Whether there would be any naturall mo- 
tion deep in the earth, beyond the activity of the funnes beams? 
for ontof the.'e principles it followcth that there would not; 
and consequently there mutt be a vaft orb in -which there \vojld 
be no -morion of gravity or of levity: for fuppofe that the funne 
beams might pierce a choufand miles deep into the body of the 
earth ; yet there would ftill remain a malTe, whole diameter 
xvould be near 5000 miles, in which there would be no ravi- 
tatron nor the contrary motion. 

For my part 3 I fliall make no difficulty to grant the inference 
as faiTG as concerneth motion caufed by our funnc: for 
inconvenience would follow out of it ? Btit I will not offer 
at determining whether there may not be eoclofed within that 
great fphcre of earth, fome other fTrc, ( fudi as the ChymHIt 
talk of) an Archeus, aDemogorgon Seated in the center, like 
the heart in animals , which may raileup vapours and boyl an 
aire out of them, and divide groffe bodies into ato*s; and ac- 
cordingly give them motions anfwerable to ours, but in di(Fe 
rent lines from ours, according as that fire or fiinne is fituated; 
fince the farre-iearching Authour of the Dialogues de Mundo, 
hath left that fpeculation undecided, after he had touched upoa 
it in the twelfth knot of his firft Dialogue. 

Fourthly, it may be obje&cd, that if fudi defending atoma 
cjT a$ wc navc dcfcribw! were the'caufe of a bodies gravity, and 
why th c defcendiiig towards the center; the fame body would at direr* 
bo- ri mes dcfccnd more and lefTe fwiftly ; for example, after mM- 
dic$iscqua]iin night when the atomes begin to defcend more flovvly; then 
htyof thc C ^. ua " likevvife the fame body would defccnd more flow ly in a like 
tomes which proportion, and not weigh fo much as it did in the heat of thc 
day. Thc fame may be faid of fummer'and winter : for in 
winter time the atomes feem to be more gtofle ; and confc- 
quently to ftrike more ftrongly upon thc bodies they meet 
with in their way as they defcend : yet on thc other fide, 
they feem in the funimer to be more numerous , as allb to 
defcend from a greater height ; both which cireumftances will 
be caufeof a ftronger ftroke and more vigorous impulfe up- 
on the body they hit. And thc like may be objected of divers 


Chap. IT: '^THrffe if BODIES. irr 

parts of the world, for in the torrid zone it will alwtyet 
happen as in fu owner in places of the temperate zone ; and 
in the polar climes as i deepcft winter: fb that no where 
there would be any ftandard or certainty in the weight of 
bodies, if it depended upon fo mutable a can/e. And it ma- 
kcch to the fame effect, that a body which Jieth under a 
th'ck rock, or any other very dcnfe body, that cannot be 
penetrated by any great ftorc of atomes ; fliould not be fo 
heavy as it would be in the open and free aire , where the 
atomts in their complete numbers have ttair full ttrokes. 

For anfwer to thefe and fiich like inftances ; we arc to 
note firft , chat it is not fb much the number or the vio- 
lence of the percuflion of the ftriking atomes, as the dcn- 
fity of the thing ftruckcn which givcth the meafure to the 
descending of a weighty body : and the chief thing which 
the ttroke of the atonies gtveth unto a denfe body , is a 
determination of the way which a denfe body is to cut un 
to it felf : therefore multiplication or leflening of the a- 
tomes , will not make any lenfiblc difference betwixt the 
weight of one desfc body where many atomes do ftrike, 
and an other body of the fame denfitie where but a few do 
ftrike ; fo that the ftroke downwards of the dcfcending a- 
tomes , be greater then the ftroke upwards of the afccnd- 
ing atomes; and thereby decermineth it to weigh to the 
ecrterwards, and not rife floating upwards , which is all tta 
fenfiblc effcft we eaitperccive. 

Next we may obfesvc, that the firft particulars of the ob- 
je<ftion, do not reach home to enfeeble our doftrinc in this 
particular , although we admit them to be in fuch ibct as 
they are propofed : for they do withall imply fuch a pcrpcc'.i- 
all variatioii of caulcs > ever Bvoiirable to our po/kion , thac 
nothing can be inferred out of them to repugne againrt IP. 
AS thus : When there are many aeofnesdefcendingki the airc, 
the fame generall caufe which maketh them be many, mak.rlj 
them alfo be light in proportion to their multitude. Ami fe* 
when chey are few thty arehearie ; likcwife when the atomes. 
arc light, the air* is ratified andthirmc; and when they we 
heavie the airc is thick; and fo upon tta whole matter it 
is evident, tUat we caimot make fuch a predtc asd exa& jtufge-r 


,n 'A Trf4tife of BODIES. Chnp. n. 

rr.cnt of the variety of circmnftances, as to be able to determine 
when there is abfolutely more caufc of weight, and when kiTe. 
And as we find not weight enough in cither fide of thefe oppo- 
fne circumftances to turn the fcales in our difcourfc, fo likcwifc 
we find the fame indifference in experience it felfrfor the weights 
\vc ufe do weigh equally in mifty weather and in clear: and yet 
in rigour of dilcourfe, we cannot doubt but that in truth they . 
t!o not gravitate or weigh fo much ( though the difference be 
imperceptible tofcnfe} when the aire is thick and foggy > as 
when it is pure and rarified: which thicknefTeof the medium, 
when icarriyeth to a very notable dcgree,as for example to wa- 
ter, maketh then a great difference of a heavic bodies gravita- 
tion in it; and accordingly we fee a great difference between 
heavie bodies descending in water and in aire; though between 
two kinds of aire none is to be oblerved, their difference is fo 
fmall in refpcl of the dcnfity of the body that defcendeth in 
them. And therefore, feeing that an afftired and certain diffe- 
rence in circumffances maketh no fenfible inequality in the cf- 
fe&j we cannot expect any from fuch circumitanccs as we may 
reafonably doubt whether there be any inequality among them 
or no. 

Befides that; if in any of the propofed cafes a heavy body 

fhould gravitate more, and be heavier onetime then another; 

ycc by weighing it, we could'not difcern it; fince that the coun- 

terpoife ( which is to determine its weight ) muft likcwife be in 

the fame proportion heavier then it was, And bcfulcs weighing, 

no other means remaineth todifcover its greater gravitation,but 

to compare it to time in itsdefccntrand I believe that in all fuch 

diftances as we can try it in, its inequalities \villbenowhic 

Icfle difficult to be obfervcd that way, then any other. 

5. Laflly, to bend our dilcourfe particularly to that inftancc of 

The rc-ion why tne obje-tion ; where it is conceived that if gravity or de- 

Ifeickbody * fcending downwards of bodies proceeded from atomes ftriking 

doth no^hm- ^ V p On t hem as they move downwards ; it would follow, that a 

of that which /rone or other denfe body lying under fheltcr of a thick, hard, 

K under it. an( j ^penetrable adamantine rock, would have no impulft 

downwards, and confequently would not weigh there. We 

may note, that no body whatfbevcr compacted by phyficall 

caufcs and agents , can be Ib denfe and i/r.poroux, but 


Chip. ii. 4 Trcttifttf BODIES. 

fuch atomes, thefe \vc fpeak of, muft be in them, an.! in 
pn-rt of them, and every where paffe through and through 
them as water doth throifgh a feive or through a fpungc : and 
tins univerlall maxime muft extend as hrre as the funnc, or as 
any other heat communicating with thcfunnc > <ioch reach and 
is Found. 

The rcafon -whereof is, becaufc thefc atomes arc no other 
thing, but fuch extreme little bodies as are refolvcd by heat; 
out of the main ftock of tlx>fc ma flic bodies upon which t'he fun 
and heat <3o "work. Now then bffing certain, out o r whst we 
hare heretofore faid, that all mirt bodies have their temper and 
cofifarence, and generation from the mingling of fire with the 
irft -of the Elements that compote them ; and from the cor- 
co&ion or digeftion winch fire matath in thole bodies : it is e- 
vident, that no mixt body whatfocveT J nor any fenfible part of 
a mm body, can be yoid of pores capable of fuch atotnes, nor 
can be without fuch atomes, paiTing th rough thofe pores; whidh 
atomes by mediation of thcake (that likewise hath its ifoarc ht 
fuch pores) muffi have comrmffrication with the reft of t'he great 
fea of aire, and with the motions that pafTe in it. A/nd -con'fe- 
quently, in all and crery fcnfibk pact, of any ftjch extreme 
drn(e, and prctertded knpenetra'blc body, (to the notice whereof 
we can arrive)this percuffion of atornes muft be found; and <4iey 
will have no difficulty in running throogh ; nor by means of it, 
in (triking any other body lying under the fhelter of it;and thus 
both in&fromjthathard body,thcremuft be (till an uninterrupt- 
ed continuation of gravity or of defending towards the center. 

Unto which we may adde, that the ftone or denfe body can- 
not lie fo clofe to the reck that covereth it, but that fome aire 
maft be between, (for if nothing were between, they would be 
united,and become one continued body ;)and in that airef which 
is a creek of the great ocean of aire fpred over tltc world, that is 
every where beftrcwed with moving atomes; and which is con- 
tinually fed, like a rtirmtngftrcam, with new aire that drivetk 
on the aire it orertaketh)there is Hodoubtbnt there arc dcfcend- 
jngatomes, as well as in all the red ofits main body : and thefe 
descending atomes meeting with the ftone, muft tjeecls^ive fbme 
ftroke upon itjand that ftroke(be it never lo little) cannot chufc 
but work fome effcft, in niaiving the ftone remove a little that 

H way 

^/BODIES. Chap. ir. 

way they go ; and that motion, whereby the fpace is enlarged , 
between the (lone and the flickering rock, muft draw in a grea- 
ter quantity of airc and atomes to ftrikeupon it. Andthus by 
Hctle and little, the (tone paffeth through all the degrees oftar- 
dity by which a defending body parteth from reft : which is by 
fo much the more fpcedily done, by how much the body is more 
eminent in denfity. But this difference of time, in regard of the 
atomes ftrokes onely ; and abftraiting from the bodies denfity; 
will be infenfible to us; feeing (as we have faid) no more is re- 
quired of them, but to give a determination downwards. 
& And out of this, we, clearly fee the rcafon why the fame a- 

Ihy <Wbe- tonics, ftriking upon one body lying upon the water, do make ic 
iici fink-.oihcrs fink;and upon another they do not. As for example, if you lay 
upon the ftiperficies of fome water, a piece of iron, and a piece 
of cork, of equall bigneffe and of the fame figure; the iron will 
be beaten down to the bottome, and the cork will float at the 
top. The reafon whereof is, the different proportions of the 
comparifon of their denfities with the denfitie of water : for fas 
we have faid) the efficacy and force of defending, is to be mca- 
fured by that. So then the ftrokes of the atomes, being more ef- 
ficacious upon water then upon corkj becaufethe denfity of wa- 
ter is greater then the denfity of cork confidering the abun- 
dance of aire that is harboured in the large pores ofit ; it fol- 
lo'.vech, that the atomes will make the water go down more for- 
cibly then they will cork. But the denfity of iron exceeding the 
denfity of water ; the fame ftrokes will make the iron defccnd 
fafter then the water ; and confequently, the iron muft fink in 
die watej, and the cork will fvvimme upon it. 

And this fame is the caufc, why if a piece of cork be held by 
force at the bottome of the watcr;i* will rife up to the top of the 
water, as foon as the violence is taken away that kept it down: 
for the atomes ftrokes having more force upon the water then 
upon the cork ; they make the water fink and flide under it ; 
firft, a little thinne plate of water ; and then another, a little 
thicker; and fo by degrees more and more, till it hath lifted the 
cork quite up to the top. 
7. Fifthly, it may be objected, that thefe atomes do not defcend 

The fifth obj;- alvvayes perpendicularly, but fornctiniesflopinc-ly and in that 
ftion wifwered r T i a 1 LI r rj r u j i 

concerning the cafe, if their ItroKcs be the caufe of denlc bodies movjng) they 


Chap. ir. JT5 

fheuld move doping, and not downward. Now that thefc <J cr <^'n; of 
atomes dcfcend fomctimes evident, as when ( for in'ftrca. " 
example) they meet with a dream of water, or with a (hong 
wind, or even with any other little motion of the aire, fuch as 
carryeth feathers up and down hither and thither j which muft 
needs waft the atomes in fome meafurc along with them their 
way ; feeing then that fueh a gentle motion of the aire is able 
to put a feather out of its way, notwithstanding the pcrcuflions 
of the atomes upon it ; why (hall it not Jikcwile put apiece of 
iron out of its way downwards, fincc the iron hath nothing 
from the atomes but a determination to its way ? But much 
more, why fliould not a ftrong wind, or a current of water, do 
it ; fincc the atomes them/elves that give the iron its determi- 
nation muft needs be hurried along with them ? 

To this we anfvver, that we muft confider, how any wind 
or water which runneth in that fort, is it (elf originally full of 
fuch atomes ; which continually, and every where, prefie intoj 
it and cut through it, in purfuing their conftant pcrpetuall 
courfe of descending ; in fuch fort, as we (hewed in their run- 
ning through any hard rock, or other denfcft body. And thcfc 
atomes do make the wind or the water primarily tend down- 
wards; though, other accidental! caufes impell them fecondari- 
ly to a doping motion. And ftill, their primary naturall moti- 
on will be in truth ftrongeft ; though their not having (cope 
to obey that, but their having enough to obey the violent mo- 
tion, makcth this become the more obfervable. Which appear- 
eth evidently out of this ; that if there be a hole in the bottomc 
of the pipe that conveyeth water flopingly, be the pipe never 
fo long, and consequently the (loping motion never fb forcible ; 
yet the water will run out at that hole to obey its more power- 
full impulfe to the ccnterwards, rather then continue the vio- 
lent motion, in which it had arrived to a great degree of celerity 
Which being fo, it is eafie to conceive that the atomes in the 
wind or water which move perpendicularly downwards, will 
ftill continue the irons motion downwards, notwithstanding 
the mediums Hoping motion rfincethe prevailing force tlcter- 
mineth both the iron, and the medium downwards ; and the 
iron hath a fuperproportion of denfity to cut its way, accor- 
ding as the prevalent motion dccermincth it. 

H ^ But 

iX Trcatfcif BODIES. Chap.rr 

But if che descending atomes, be in part carried along down 
die lueain by the current of wind or water; yet fiill the current 
bvrrrgeth with it new atomes into the place of thofe that are car- 
ried away;and thcle atomes } in every point of place wherefocver 
they are, do of thcmiclves tend per ptndicularly downwards ; 
iTowbcTtihty are forced from the complete cftet of their ten- 
cbmce,by the violence of the current :fo that in this cafe they are 
moved by a declining morion, compounded of their own natu- 
ndlrnocion v and of the forced motion 1 , wich which the (iream. 
caniierB them. Now then if a. dcnfe body do fall into fuch a cur- 
rent, where thefe difTerent nrotionsgrve their (ererall. impulfes, ic 
will be carried (in fach fort as we fay of the ato*c$;lj>ut in ano- 
ther proportion); mat ire a pcrpcndiailar bvit in amixt deciifluig 
line : compoi:n Jed of tPre feveral innpuKcsvW 011 the atomcs and the 
cacrcntcta give ir (in whicli alfo icis to be ed, hovrthe 
current givedr aji impnlfc downwards, as well as floping ; and 
pernd venture the- fhrongeft down-waida :} and the dcchn-ation 
\till be marc or kflfe , according aj> the violent imf*ulfe prfiva-il- 
eth more or liefle againft the nnturall motion. 

Batcdiisis not all thacis to be confickred in eflkiaaiirigthe de- 
cHnatioiiofa ciemic- bodies motiorLwiiciai$rii> acurrenc 
of wirwi OT water ;you; mtuft remember; chat the deiife body k fclf 
harhia pattictdar virtue of its own^naimely it*derWity)by which 
it received* and proieeuteth more firiJy its detErminatien dowa- 
wards; and therefore the force ofrhat body in cutting its. way 
t-hjoxigb rhe medium, i; aJfo to be in this- catenas well 
as abo^c, in calculating irs deciria ing from the perpendicular;. & 
out of adl thcfe caafes w ii refulr a middle declination compound- 
ell of trie rwotwi* of the water or wind both wayes, and of its 
own morion by the perpendicular line. And finee of thcfe thiee 
cauics of a dcnie bodies motiori,its own virtue in profecwting by 
its dtnfity the dccctminarion ir requireth, is the moil effi- 
cacious by much after it hath once received a determina- 
tion from without; its declination will be but little if it 
fate very denle and hcavie-. Bur rf it recede truck from dcn- 
fnte > fb as to hare fome near proportion to the den- 
fttie of the medium, the declination will be great. And in 
a word, accord ing as the body is heavier or lighter, thedfcli- 
nacion. will, be mo-ie.or JeiTeviai the firmc cutreot through not 


Chap. u. ^r^j///f0/BODIES. 117 

exa&ly according to the proportion of the diminifhing of its 
denfity, as long as there is a fiiperproportipn of its dcnfity to 
the medium : fince that fuch a fuperproportion (as we have de- 
clared heretofore) maketh the mediums operation upon the 
denfe body fcarce considerable. 

And hence you lee why a ftone or piece ofiron, is not carri- 
ed out of its way as well as a feather; becauie the (tones motion 
downwards is greater and ftronger then the motion of a fea- 
ther downwards. And by confequence, the force that can deturn, 
a feather from its courlc downwards, is not able to deturn a 
ftone. And if it be replied, that it may be fo ordered that the 
ftone fliall have no motion, before it be in the ftream of a river, 
and notwithstanding ic will ftillmove downwards: we may an- 
fwer, that confidcring the little declivity of the bed of fuch a 
ftream, the ftrongeft motion of the parts of the ftream, muft nc- 
ccflarily be downwards ; and consequently, they will beat the 
ftone downwards. And if they do not the like to a feather or 
other light body ; it is becaufe other parts of the ftream, do gee 
under the light body* and beat it upwards, which they have noc 
power enough to do to the ftone. 

Sixrhly, it may be objected, that if Elements do not weigh in g. 

their own fphercs j then their gravity and defending rnuft pro- Thefixthobje- 
ceed from fbme other caufe and not from this percuflion of the anTthaiTaii * ' 
atomes we attribute to it ; which percuflion we have determined heavy elements 
goeth through all bodies whatfbever, and beateth upon every t 'heir V owa '" 
fenfible part of them. But that Elements weigh not in their own f P heres ' 
fpheres, appeareth out of the experience of a fyphon; for though 
one leg of a fyphon, be funk never fb much deeper into the bo- 
dy of the water,then the other leg rcacheth below the fuperficies 
ot the water : ncverthelefle 5 if once the outward leg become full 
of water, it will draw it out of the other longer leg : which ic 
fhould not do, if the parts of water that arc comprised within 
their whole bulke, did weigh feeing that the bulke of 
water is much greater in the funk legge then in the other ; 
and therefore thcfe (hould rather draw back the other water 
into the ciftcrn, then be themfelves drawn out of it in:o the 
a ire. 

To this we anfwcr,that it is evident theElements do weigh in 
their own fphercsjat leaft,as far as we can reach to their fphercs: 

H for 

tsfTreMifccf BODIES. Chap.n 

for we fee tint a ballone fluffed hard with aire is heavier then 
an empty one. Again move water would not be heavier then 
Idle if the inward parts of it did not weigh : and if a hole were 
digged in the botrome of the fca, the water would not run into 
it and fill it, if it did not gravitate over ir. Laftly>thcre are thofc 
vvho undertake to diftinguifl) in a deep water., the divers weights 
which fcverall parts of it have , as they grow ftill heavier 
and heavier towards the bottome : and they arc fo cunning in 
tkis art, that they profeffc to make mftrumcnts which by their 
equality of their weight to a determinate part of the water, fhall 
ftand juft in that parts and neither rife nor fall higher or lower: 
but if it be put lower, it fhall afcend to its cxacl equally weigh- 
ing orbc of the water ; and if it be put higher, it fhall defend 
untill it cometh to reft precifcly in that place. Whence it is evi- 
dent, that parts of water do weigh within the bulk of their 
main body ; and of the like we have no reafon to doubt, in the 
other two weighty Elements. 

As for the oppofition of the fyphon, we referrc that point to 
where we fhall have occafion to declare the nature of that 
engine, of fet purpofc. And there we fhall fhew, that it could 
not fucceed in its operation ,unleflc the parts of water did gravi- 
tate in their main bulk>into which one kg of the fyphon is funk. 
* LafUy> it may be objected, that if there were ftich a courfe of 
atomes as we fay;and that their ftrokcs were the caisfc offo no- 
fwcrcd: and taD i e an erTeft, as the gravity of heavy bodies: we fhould feel ic 

the reafon why i t t j- L-L* A i 

we do not ftci palpably in our own bodies, which experience Ihewetn us we 

that To this we anfwer firft , that their is no neeefTity xve fhould 
&^ tnis courfe of atomes, fmcc by their fubtiky they penetrate 
all bodiesjand confcquemly>do not give fuch ftrokes as are fen- 
fible. Secondly, if we confidcr that dufts, and ftrawes, and fea- 
thers do light upon us without caufing any fenfc in us* much 
more we may conceive that atomes (which are infinitely more 
fubtile and Irght jcannot caufe in us any feeling of them. Third- 
ly, we fee that what is continuall with us, and mingled in all 
things doth not make us take any efpcciall notice of it and this 
is the cafe of the fmiting of atomes. Nevcrtheleffe, peradventurc 
we feel them in truth, as often as we feel hot and cold weather, 
and in all eatarrcs or other fuch changes, which do as k were 


Chip. n. * TifAtificf BODIES. 

fink into our body without our perceiving any fenfiblc caufc of 
them:for no quettion but thefe atomes are the immediate caufes 
ofall good and bad qualities in cheairc. Laflly, when we confi- 
der that we cannot long together hold out our arm atlength,or 
our foot from the ground, and reflect upon fuch like impoten- 
cies of our rcfifting the gravity of our own body : we cannot 
doubt buc that in thcfe cafes we feel the effect of thefe atomes, 
working upon thofe parts ; although vve cannot by our fcnie 
difcern immediately that thefe are the caufes ofit. 

But now it is time to draw our Reader out of a difficulty, j . 
vvhich may peradventurc have perplexed him in the gieateft part HOW in the 
of what he hath hitherto gone over. In our inveftigation of the 2ty C miy 7 '! 
Elements, we took for a principle thereunto : that gravity is g-ter then 
fometimes more, fbmetimes lefle, then the denficy of the body in denfity' then 
\vhichit is. But in our explication of rarity and denfity : and ffnmthe 

. . .. f r rl *cv b the 

again in our explication of gravity; we !ecm to put, that gravity fame thing, 
and denfity is all one. This thorn I apprehend , may in all this 
diftance, have put fome to pain : but it was impoflible for me to 
remedy it; bccaufel had not yet delivered the manner of gravi- 
tation. Here then I will do my bcft, to aflwage their grief, by 
reconciling thefe appearing repugnancies. 

We are therefore to confider,that denfity (in it felf)doth figniffe 
a difficulty to have the parts of its fubjecSt, in w ch it is, fepa rated 
one from another; and that gravity (likcwife in it felf) doth fig- 
nific a quality, by which a heavy body doth defcend towards the 
center; or fwhich is confequent thereunto,) a force to make an- 
other body dc/ccnd.Now this power,we have (hewed, doth be- 
long unto denfity/o far forth as a denfe body being ftrucken by 
another, doth not yield by fuffering its parts to be divided; but, 
with its whole bulk ftriketh the next before it,and divideth it, if 
it be more divifiblethcn it felf is.So that you fee,dcnfity hath the 
name o&Jenfity> in consideration of a paflive cuality or rather 
of an impaffibility which it hath; and the fame denfity is called 
gravity, in refpecl of an active quality it hath which followcth 
this impaffibility. And both of them are eftimated by the diffe- 
rent refpec^s which the fame body or fubjecl:, in which they are, 
have unto different bodies that arc the terms whereunto it is 
compared; for the active quality or gravity ofa denfe body, is e- 
ftecmed by its refpe6l to the body it ftriketh upon ; \\hercas its 

H 4 den- 

120 ATrtAtift of BODIES. Chap.ii. 

dcnfity includcth a lefpeft fingly to the body that ftriketh it. 

NOW it is no wonder that this change of comparifon work- 
cth adifparity in the denominations: and that thereby the fame 
body may be conceived to be more or lefTe impartible,then it is 
aflive or heavy. As for example, let us of a denfe Element take 
any one leaft part, which muft of neceffity be in its own nature 
and kind absolutely impartible: and yet it is evident that the 
gravity of this part muft be exceeding little by reafbn of the 
I ittlencffe of its quantity; fo that thus you fee an extremity of 
the efteS of denfity , joyncd together in one body ( by the acci- 
dent of the littlenefTc of it ) with a contrary extremity of the ef- 
fect ofgravity,(or rather witli the want ofit)each ofthem with- 
in the limits of the fame fpecies. In like manner it happeneth, 
that the fame body in one circumitance is more weighty, in an- 
other(or rather in the contrary / is more partible : fo water 
xvhen it is in a pail , becaufe it is thereby hindered from 
fpreading abroad hath the effect ofgravity predominating in it; 
but ifit be poured out, it hath theerfeft ofpartibilhy more.And 
thus it happeneth that merely by the gradation of rarity & den- denfe body may be apt.out of the gcnerall courfe of na- 
turall caufes, to be more divifible then to be a divider; though, 
according to the nature of the degrees confidered abfolutely in 
themfelves, what is more powertiill to divide, is alfb more re/i- 
ftent and harder to be divided. And :his arriveth in that decree 
f which niaketh water; for the falling and beating of the atomes 
upon water.hath the power both to divide it and to make it de- 
fcend;but fb,that by making it de/cend it dividcth it. And there- 
fore we fay that it hath more gravity then denfity, though it be 
the very denfity of it,which is the caufc that maketh it partible, 
by the working of one part upon another: for if the atomes did 
not find the body fb denfe as it is, they could not by their beat- 
ing upon one part make another be divided. 

So that a denfe body to be more heavy then denfe, /ignifieth 
nothing elle, but that it is in fuch a degree of denfity, that fbmc 
of its own parts by their being afTifted & fct on work by a ge- 
nerall canfe ( which is the fall of the atomcs) are powerfull e- 
nough to divide other adjoyning parts of the fame dcnfity with 
them one from another ; in fuch fbrr as we fee that water pou- 
red out of an ewer into a bnfin where there is already other wa- 
ter, hath the powfcr to divide the water in the bafin by the afl?- 

Chap. ii. 4 Trutifc ^/BODIES. 121 

flance of the celerity which itgetteth in descending. And now I 
hope the reader is fully fatisfied that there is no contradiction in 
putting T^cnfitj and <jr*vity. to be the fame thing materially; 
andtlut neverthelcfle the fame thing may be more heavie then 
denfe, or more denfe then heavy , as we took it to our fever all 
puipofesin theinvoftigation of the Elements. 

Having thus laid an intelligible ground to difcover how thefe u.' 
motions that are gencrall to all bodies and are naturall in chief, The opinion of 
are contrived by nature; we will now endeavour to (hew that fnlnSec'a?! 8 
the contrary pofition is not oncly voluntary,but alfo impoffiblc. inclination of a 

T i r r r L IJLI i botj y tc tlic 

Lc; us therefore iuppoie that a body hath a quality to move it center refuted 

downwards. And firft we (hall ask what downwards fignifi- b y rca ' on 

eth: for either it fignifieth towards a fixed point of imaginary 

fpace; or towards a fixed point of the univerfe;or towards (bmc 

moveable point. As for the firft, who would maintain it rrruft 

have more imagination then judgement,to think that a naturall 

quality could have n efience determined by a nothing : becaufe 

we can frame a conceit of that nothing. As for the fecond, it is 

very uncertain whether any fuch point I>e in nature : for as for 

the cemer of the earth, it is clear that if the earth be carried a- 

bout, the center of it cannot be a fixed point. Again,ifthe center 

fignifieth a determinate point in the earth that is the medium of 

gravity or of quantity , it is changed as often as any duft lighteth 

unequally upon any one fide of the earth , which wonld make 

tha't fide bigger then it was: and I doubt a quality cannot have 

morall coniiderations to think that fb little doth no harm. As 

for the third pontion, likewife it is not intelligible how a quality 

(hould change its inclination or eflcnce, according to the change 

:hat (hould light to make now one point, now another > be the 

renter unto which it (hould tend. 

Again.let us confider that a quality hath a determinate cflence. 
Then feeing its power is to move, and to move fignifieth to cut 
:hemediumitis moved in;itbelongcth unto it of its nature to cut 
fo much of (uch a medium in fuch a time. So that if no other caufe 
be added but that you take precifelyand in abftraftojilw quali- 
:y,that mcdium,& that time;this effetfl: will follow, that fo much 
Tiotion is made. And if this effect fliould not follow it is clear, 
:hat the being able to cut fb much ofiucli a medium in fuch a 
:ime,is not the efiencc ofthis quality, as it was fuppojed to be. 
dividing then the time & the medium, half the motion (houKt 

A Treat >fe of B O D I E S. Chap. 1 1. 

be made in half the time, a quarter of the motion in a quarter 
of the time, and fo without end, as farre as you can divide. But 
this is demonftrativcly imnoflfible, fnh hence it is demonstrated 
that a moveable coming from reft , muft of necefficy pafle 
through all degrees of tardity; and therefore by thedemonftra- 
tion cued out of GalUeus, we may take a 'part in which this 
gravity cannot move its "body in a proportionate part of time, ' 
through a proportionate part of the medium. 
1 2. Butbccaufe in natural! Theorems, experiences are naturally 

required ; let us fee whether nature giveth us any teftimony o 
this verity. To that purpofe we may confider a plummet hang, 
ed in a final! ftringfroma beam, which being lifted up gently 
on the one fide at the extent of the firing, and permitted to 
fall merely by the power of gravity, it will afcend very near as 
high on the contrary fide, as the place it was held in from 
whence it fell. In this experiment we may note two thingsrthe 
firft, that if gravity be a quality, it worketh againft its own 
nature in lifting up the plummet, feeing its nature is oncly to 
carry it down. For though it may be anfwered, that it is no 
the gravity but another quality called vis imprejfa which car- 
rieth it up: ncvertheleiTe it cannot be denied, but that gravity is 
either the immediate or at leaft the mediate caufe which maketi 
this vis impreffa :' the effect whereof being contrary to th 
nature of gravity, it is abfurd to make gravity the caufe of. it 
that is, the caufe of an eflence, whofe nature is contrary to it 
own. And the fame argument will proceed though you pu 
not vis imfrejfa, but fuppofe fome other thing to be the caufe 
of the plummets remounting, as long as gravity is faid to be a 
quality : for ftill gravity muft be the caufe of an efFe& con 
trary to its own inclination, by fetting on foot the immediat 
caufe to produce it. 

The lecond thing we are to note in this experiment of th 
plummets afcent is, that if gravity be a quality, there muft bx 
as much refiftancc to its going up, as there was force to its co 
mingdown. Therefore there muft be twice as much force tc 
make it afcend, as there was to make it dcfcend : that is to fay 
there muft be twice as much force as the naturall force of th 
gravity is: for there muft be once as much to equalize the refi 
ftance of the gravity; and then another time as much, to carr 

Chap. IN Treailfe of BODIES. 123 

it as farre through the Tame medium in the fame time. But it is 
impofliblc that any caufc fliould produce an efTcft greater then 

Again, the gravity muft needs be in a determinate degreerand 
the virtue that maketh the plummet remount (whatfoever it be) 
may be put as little as we pleafe: and consequently not able to 
ovcrfvvay the gravity alone if it be an intrinfecall quality, and 
yet the plummet will remount : in which cafe you put ah cffofl 
without a caufe. 

Another experience we may take from the force of fucking; 
for take the barrcll of a long gun perfectly bored, and fct it 
upright, with the breech upon the ground, and take a bullet 
that is exaclly fit for it, but fb as it (rick not any where ( both 
the barrell and it being perfeSly poliflied ; _) and then if you 
fuck at the mouth of the barrell ( though never fb gently ) the 
bullet will come up fo forcibly, that it will hazard the ftriking 
out of your teeth. Now let us confider what force were neccf- 
fary to fuck the bullet up,and how very flowly it would afeend, 
if in the barrell it had as much refiftance to afcend , as in the 
free aire it hath inclination to go down. But if it had a quality 
of gravity naturall to it , it muft of neceflity have fuch refi- 
ftance: whereas in our experiment we fee it cometh as cafily as 
the very aire. So that In this example as well as in the.othcr, 
nature teacheth us that gravity is no quality. 

And all or moft of the arguments which we have urged a- 
gainft the quality of gravity in that explication we have confi- 
dercditin, have force likewife againft it, although t be faid 
to be an inclination of its fubjeft to move it felf unto unity with 
the main ftock of its own nature, as divers witty men do put it: 
for this fuppofition doth but change the intention or end ofgra* 
vity: and is but to make it another kind of imelle<5tuall or 
knowing Entity, that determincth it felf to another end: which 
is as impoffible for a rtaturall quality to do, as to determine it 
felf to the former ends. And thus much the arguments we have 
propofeddo convince evidently, if they be applyed againft this 


I34 A Twit fe of BODIES. Chap. n. 


Of Violent Motion 

Jt A Ncl thus we have given a fhort fcamling, whereby to iin- 

Thc ftatc of Z~\derttand in feme meafure the caufcs of that motion which 
thcqucfiicn ueca ll natural!, by rcafbn it hath its birth from the univerfall 

touching the r i i r \ 

caufe of violent oeconomy or nature here among us; that is, from the general! 
n.oc.on. working of the funne, whereby all naturall things have their 

courfc: and by reafon that the caufe of it is at all times and in 
all places conftantly the fame. Next unto which the order of 
difcourfe leadeth us to take a furvey of thofe forced motions, 
whofe firft caufes the more apparent they are,thc more obfcurity 
they leave us determine by what means they are continued 
When a tennis-ball is ftrucken by a racket: or an arrow is 
{hot from a bow, we plainly fee the caufcs of their motion : 
namely the firings, which firft yielding, and then returning 
^ with a greater celerity, do caufc the miiTives to fpecd fo faft to- 

wards their appointed homes. Experience informeth us what 
qualities the milfires mutt be endued withall to move faft and 
fteadily. They muft be fo heavy that the. aire may not break 
their courfe; and yet fb light, that they may be within the com- 
mand of the ftroke which giveth them motion ; the ftriker muft 
bedenfe, and in its beft velocity: the angle which the miflfivc is 
to mount by ( if we will have it go to its furthcft randome ) 
muft be the half of a right one : and laftly> the figure of the 
miflive mutt be fuch, as may give fcope unto the airc to bear it 
up, and yet not hinder its courfe by taking too much hold of it. 
All this we fee; but wheq withall we fee that the mover dcfcrt- 
eth the moveable afloon as he hath given the blow; we are at a 
fland, and know not where to fcek for that which afterwards 
maketh it flic: for motion being atranfient, not a permanent 
thing,aflbon as the caufe ceafeth that begot it, in that very point 
it muft be at an end; and as long as the motion continueth, 
there muft be fbmc permanent caufe to make it do fo: fb that as 
fobn as the racket or bowftring go back & leave the ball or ar- 
row , why fhould not they prefently fall ftraightdown to the 
ground ? 

i. Arittotle and his followers have attributed the caufe hereof 

7h. ihcmedi- to the aire: but Galileo rclifheth not this conception. His argu- 

um:s*eo a c T ^ 

Chap. 12. ** ?re*tifi*f BODIES. 1*5 

nrrems againft it,are(as I rcmcmber)fb'this tenour: fir(t, afre by 

reafon of its rariry and divifibility, icemeth not apt to confcrve lent motion. 

motion: next, \vefce tl*ac light things arc bcft carried by the 

aire; nnd it hath no power over weighty ones : LilUy, it is evi- 

cfent that aire takcth moft hold of the broadefr fupcrficies; and 

therefore an arrow would flic fitter broad- wayes then long- 

\vaycs, if this were true. NeverthelefTe, fince every effecl: muft 

have a proportionable caufc from whence it immediately ftovr- 

eth; and' tint a: body muft have another body to thrtift icon as- 

long as it moreth; let us examine what bodies do couch a move- 

able whileft it is- in motion: as the onely means to find an irfuc 

out of this 7 difficulty; for to- have recewrfc unto a quality or im- 

prefled force for dHrverafhre 1 out of this ftraight, is a fliifcthat 

will not ferve the njrn in this way of difcourfe we u{e. In this 

Phifofophyno knot admhteth fuch a foliition. 

If then- we enquire what body it is that immediately touch- 
cth the ball or arrmv 'whiles'it flieth ; we fha-lffind that none 
other doth fo but the rre^ and 1 the atomes in ir, after the firing?- 
have-given their ftrofce, arwfare parted from the miflive. And 
althon^h \ve have GaMeos authority, an*f arw'.jmtfnts to dikrou- 
rage usrrom believing chat the aire ea-rtwork tfifiserfef^; yet 
ffnce thert fs no other body bcftdes ic left for us ro consider in 
this cafe, Icciif at the leaft examine how the afre beliareth- if 
felf after theftroke is given by the firings. Firft then it is evi- 
dVnt that aflbotras the racket or bow-ftring fhrinketh back 
frem tlwmifllve, and: leaverh a fpjtcr betvwen- the miffiveafid H 
(as it is clear it doth, aflbon as it hath ftrucken the'pefifting bo- 
dy)the aire rnvrft needs cla'p In with as much velocity as they re- 
tire, and with feme what more; because the miffive g-oeth- for- 
ward at the fame titwc 3 arrcf therefore the aire muft haften co o- 
venike ft,Ietrft any vacuity fhotiM be left between- ch^'flring and' 
the arrow. It i* certain- Kkewife, that tlie -irre on the fides d'oth 
alib uporrthed^vifion ofitjfFrcfe back 1 and Wpto-fill that fpacc 
which the departed arrow learcth void. New t^w ferei-We cte- 
/ing of the aire at the nock of rhe arrow, mtift needfc give a-w im- 
pt'lic or blow upon it: ifitfcerrrto'be'buta lictfe one, yoa may 
ctymlcicr how it is- ytt much' greater, then wfrar the aire arnhheX 
Bodies fWimmtng in it, do oft the firff gfve unto a- (lne fjlling 1 ' 
from high: and 1 hcrvr the raflfthrofc little atomes that dVire av 


n $ 3rrttiift<f'&QT)lES. Chap. 12. 

{lone in its luuirall motion; do with their little -blows force ic 
pcradventu re more violently & iwifcly then any impelling agent 
we are acquainted with. can do. So that the impulfe which they 
make upon the arrowy re fling violently upon it after fucha ve- 
hement concuflion, and with a great velocity, muft needs caufe a 
powerfull effe in that'which of "it felf is indifferent to any 
motion any way. 

3. But unlefTe this motion of the aire do continue to beat Mill 

A further ex. upon the arrow, it will foon fall to the ground, for want of a 
fcnncrdoarine caufe to drive it fprward;and becaufe the nacurall motion of the 
aire ( being then the ouely one ) will determine it downwards. 
Let us confider then how this violent rending of the aire by the 
blow ' that the bow-ftringgiveth unto the arrow, muft needs 
diibrdef the little atomes that fwim to and fro in it^and thatfbe- 
inp heavier then the airejare continually defcendingdownwards 
This di (order maketh fome of the heavier parts of them, get a- 
bove others that a re lighter then they; which they not abiding, 
do preiTe upon thofe that arc next them, and they up*on their 
fellows: fo that there is a great commotion and undulation cau- 
fed in the whole marie of aire round about the arrow : which 
muft continue fomc time before it can be fatled;and it being de- 
termined by the motion of the arrow that vray that it flideth, 
it followeth that all this commotion and undulation of the aire, 
ferveth to continue the arrow in its flight. And thus fafter then 
any part behind can be icttled, new ones before are ftirred, till 
the reiiftance of the medium do grow ftronger then the impulfe 
of the movers. 

. Befides this.the arrow prc/Ting upon the aire before it, with a 
greater velocity then the aire (which is a liquid rare body ) can 
admit, to move all of a piece without breaking: it muft of ncccA 
fity happen that the parts of the aire immediately before the ar- 
row be driven upon others further off, before thcfe can be mo- 
ved to gire place unto them ; fo that in fomc places the aire be- 
cometh condemned, and confequently in others rarificd. Which 
alib the wind that we make in walking (which will jfhake a 
paper pinned loofely at the wall of a chamber towards which 
we walk) and the cooling airecaufcd by fanning when we are 
hot do evidently confirm. So that it cannot be doubted, but that 
condensation and rarefaction of the aire muft aecefTarily follow 


Chap. 12. \ATraiifcof BODIES. 127 

the motion of any foJid body.-which being admitted it is evident 
that a great difordcr,and for fomc remarkable time, muft nece- 
farily be in the aire ; fince it cannot brook to continue in more 
rarity or dcnfhy then is natural] unto it. Nor can weighty and 
light parts agree to reft in an equall height or lowneflc; which 
the violence of the arrows motion forceth them unto for thepre- 
feru. Therefore it cannot be denied", btit that though the arrow 
flide away, neverthelefle there (till remaineth behind it (by this 
condenfation and confufion ofparts in the aire) motion enough 
to give imptilfe unto the arrow, fo as to make it continue its 
motion after the bowftring hath left it. 

But here will arife a difficulty: which is, how this clapping in 4 

and undulation of the aire fhould have ftrength and efficacy e- JJt" ftren-'th 
nough tocaufe the continuance of fb fmart a motion,as is an ar- encugh to n con- 
rows (Lot from a bow. To this I need no other argument for an molfoU??" 
anfwer then to produce Galileos teftimony, how great a body moveabic. 

/-, i_ L t J n Diali. otmoti- 

one fingle mans breath alone can in due circumltances give a ona.?. 
rapid motion unto: and withal!., let us confider how the arrow 
and the aire about it are already in a certain degree of velocity ; 
that is to fay, the obftacle that would hinder it from moving 
that way ('namely, the refinance of the aire) is taken away;aml 
.the caufes that are to produce it(namely the determining of the 
aires,and of the atomes motion that way ) are lightened. And 
then we may fafely conclude that the arrow which of it (elf is in- 
different to be moved upwards or downwards,or forwards,mufl: 
needs obey that motion which is caufcd in it by the atomes, arul 
the aires prefling upon it;either according to the impulfe of the 
firing; or (when the firing beginncth to flagj according to the 
beatings that follow the generallconltitution ofna-ture; or in a 
mixt manner according to the proportions that thefe two hold to 
one another. Which proportions Galileus in his 4. Dialogue of 
motion hath attempted to explicate very ingeniotiflyzbut having 
miffed in one of his fuppofitions; to \vit,that forced motion up- 
on an horizontal! line, b throughput uniform; his great labours 
therein have taken little effect towards the advancing the 
knowledge of nature, as he pretended: for hisconclufions fuc- 
cccd not in experience, as Meriemii3-*fllirech us after very cxaft 
triails; nor can they in their rcafbns be fitted to nature. 
So that to conclude this point;! find no difficulty in allowing 


ATrtMifeof BODIES. Chap, 

motion of the aircftrcngtH enough to force the 
on wards, for ibine time afeer she fiift mover is fevered from it ; 
(and long after, \oc let no rnotioas of this -nature do endure :) 
ifo thai we need fcek no further can e for the continuance of ic : 
but way reft fatisficd upon tSic whole matter, that finccd-iectu- 
fniind ciTOMttftances ouvrcifon fuggtfterh unto us, are after 
trcatme andparticuiar extrnrnatbn proportionable to the erTci&s 
we ire, che doSh-inc we deliver waft fee found and trwe. 
5. For theeftabitfhing whereof, \ve n^d not (considering what 

5Te firft v obj". wc ^ ave fci'c^y tftW) fpcnd much time io -folYing Galileos aiv 
aion;:hac aire gumertts againtt it : feeing that,out of what we have letdown, 
ewSPnSd. *^* a ^re to them appear plain enough^ for firft, vi^havt af- 
o. And "how ^rrfrcd caofcs how the a ire may <x>ndnue its notion lcai enough 

violent morion . , . fc \s\\ \ 

to give asrtvuch impreflion as is weedrull unto the arrow, to 
flvai^ it go on as it doth. Which motion is not reqtiifiteto be 
neafr fe gfcat in the airc "behind the arrow ( ihatdriyech k on ) 
31 s wkattlve arrow caufeth in the aifC before it : for by reafon of 
thedcn^ty of it, it malt needs make \ greater impreffimi in 
the a*e it cwttcih, then the aire that cauferfa its motion , 
would do f it Keif without the mediation of die arrow. 
As, when the force of a hand givcth motion unto a knife to 
ut a loafe of bread, the knife, by reafon cxfthc dcnfity and 
of the figure it hath, maketh a greater impteflion in rle ioaf, 
then tl^c hand alone would do. And this is the (ante that we de- 
clared in the natural motion of a hcavie thing downwards,cnto 
which we affigned two caufes;nanicly,the beating of the atxwiaes 
in the aire, falling do\tn in their naturall courfc, to dctcntiine 
kthe way it is to go ; and the denfiry of the body, that cutting 
more powerfully then thofe atomes can do ; gireth (^together 
with their help) a greater velocity unto tbe moveable, then the 
atomes of tlwm (elves can give. 

Nor doth it import that our refolution is agaiaft the geoe- 
rall nature of rare and denfe bodies, in regard of conferring 
motion; as Galileo objecleth : for the reafon why denfe bodies 
do conferve motion longer then rare bodie$,is,becauie in regard 
of their dividing virtue, they get in equal! times a greater velo- 
city. Wherefore feeing that velociry is equal! unto gravity ; k 
followeth,that refinance worked) not fo much upon them as up- 
on rare bdies; and therefore cannot make them ccaic from noo- 


Chap, 12. A Trtatifeof BODIES. n 

tion fo cafily as it doth rare bodies. This is the general! rcafon 
for the conservation of motion in denfe bodies. But becaufc in 
our cafe, there is a continuall caufc which conferveth motion in 
the airc, the aire may continue its motion longer then'ofit felf it 
would do : not in the fame part of airc which Gali!etis (as it 
fcemcth) did aim at : but in divers parts, in which the moveablc 
fucceffivcly is. 

Which being concluded, let us fee how the forced motion 
comcth to decreafe and to be ended. To which purpofe we may 
obfervc that the impreffion which the arrow receiveth fro:n the 
aire that d i ivcch it forwards, being weaker then that which it 
received ut the tirft from the ftring, f by reaibn, that the aire is not 
fbdenfe.and therefore cannot ftrike fo great a blow)the arrow 
doth not in this fecond meafure of time, (wherein we confider 
the impulfe given by the aire onely) cut fo ftrongly the airc be- 
fore it, nor prcflefb violently upon it, as in the firft meafure 
when the ftring parting from it did beat it forwards:for till then 
the velocity encreafeth in the arrow, as it doth in the firing that 
carrieth it along, which procecdeth from reft at the fingers loofe 
from it,to its higheft degree or velocity ; which is, when it arri- 
veth totheutmoft extent of its jcrk,whereit quitteth the arrow. 
And therefore the aire now doth Hot fo fwiftly, nor fomuch of 
it, rebound back from before, and clap it felf behind the arrow, 
to fill the fp:cc that elfe would be left void by the arrowes mo- 
ving forward, and conicqucntly the blow it giveth in the third 
mcature, to drive the arrow on, cannot be fo great as the blow 
was immediately after the firings parting from it; which was in 
the fecond meafure of time : and therefore the arrow muft needs 
move flower in the thud meafure then it did in the fecond ; as 
formerly it moved flower in the fecond (which was the aires 
firft ftroke) then it did in the firft, when the ftring drove it for- 
ward*. And thus fncceflivcly in every moment of time, as the 
caufes grow weaker & weaker by theencreafeofrefiftance in the 
aire before, and by the decreafe offeree in the fublequent airejfb 
the morion muft be flower 5dflower,till it come to pure cefTation. 6 

As forGalileus fecond argumentjthat the aire hath little power t * n f an o fw d cr f 
over heavy things ; and therefore he will not allow it to be the jeftion rhat the 

caufc of continuing forced motions in dcnle bodies : I wifh he aire hath no 

o i r P ewcr ovcr 

could as well have made experience what velocity or morion hea 

I a mans 

, A TreMifeofVODlES. Chap. 12. 

a mans breath might produce in an heavie bullet ly ing upon an 
even 3 inrcl,& flipery plain, (for a table would be too (hortjas he 
did,how admirable great a one it produced in pendants hanging 
in the aire : and, I doubt not but he \vould have granted it as 
powcrfirll in ca tiling horizontall motions, as he found it in the 
undulations of his pendants. Which nevertheleflc, do fiifficiently 
convince how great a power airc hath over heavie bodies. As 
likewise the experience of wind-guns aflurtth us that aire duly 
applied is able to give greater motion unto heavy bodies then 
unto light ones. For how can a ftraw or feather be imagined 
poffibly to fly with half the violence as a bullet of lead doth out 
of one of diofe engines ? And when a man fucketh a bullet up- 
wards in a perfectly bored barrell of a gun, which the ballet 
fitccth exactly fas we have mentioned before) with what a vio- 
lence doth it follow the breach and afcend to the mouth of the 
barrell ? I remember to have feen a man that was uncautious 
ond fucked ftrongly that had his foreteeth beaten out by the 
blow ofthebullcc afcending. 

This cxperimeat(if well looked intojmay perad venture make 
gocd a great part of this doctrine we now deliver. For,the aire 
prefling in behind the bullet at the touch-hole, giveth it its im- 
pulfc upwards; unto which the denfity of the bullet being added, 
you have the caufe of its fwiftncs and violence; (for a bullet of 
wood or cork,would not afcend fb faft and fo ftrongly) and the 
fucking away of the aire before it, taketh away that refiftancc 
which otherwife it would encounter with by the aire lying in the 
way of ic: & its following the breath with fogreat eafe,mcwetfe 
(as we touched bcfore)that of it felfitis indifferent to any moti- 
on,when nothing prefleth upon it to determine it a certain way. 
_ Now to Galileos laft argument j that an arrow fliould fly 

An anfwer to fader broadvvaycs, then longwayes, if the airc were caufe of its 
ftion hir ?-t J 9 C n motionrthcreneedcth no mote to be faid, but that the rcfiftance 
arrow fliould of the airc before, hindreth has much as the impulfe of the airc 
behind helpeth it on ; fo tlia: nothing is gained in that regard ; 
but much is lofr, in refpe^l ofthe figure which makcth the ar- 
row unapt to cut the airc fo well when it flyeth broad waycs, as 
when it is fhot longwayes : and therefore the aire being weakly 
cut, fo much of it cannot clap in behind the arrow and drive it 
on, againft the refinance beforc.which is much greater. 

Tims far with due rcipc&,and with acknowledging remcm- 

Chap. 13. /* rre.iftfe of BODIES. 131 

brance of the many admirable myfterks of nature which that 
great man hat! tai-ght the world, we have taken liberty to di 
pute againrt him : bccaufe this difficulty feemeth to hove driven 
himagainll his Genius, to believe that in fuch motions there 
muft be allowed a quality imprinted into the moved body to 
cawfe themrw'k our wholcjcope both in this,and in all other oc- 
cafions where like qualities are urgedjs to prove them fijperflu- 
ous and ill grounded in naturejand to be but mere terms to con- 
found & leave in the dark whofoever is forced to fly unto them. 


Of three forts of violent wot ion, Reflettion>Vndu- 
lation, and Refraftion. 

THe motion we have hft fpoken o becaufe it is ordinarily I( 
either in part or wholy contrary to gravity (which is ac- That reflexion 
counted the naturall motion ofmoft bodicsjuieth to be called vi- 
olcnt or forred. And have delivered unto you the na- 
tures and cauies both of naturall and of forced motioiijyet it re- 
maineth that we advcrtifeyou of fbmc particular kinds of this 
forced motion,whieh fcem to be different from it, but indeed art 
not. As firft, the motion cf reflection: which if we do but confi- 
tier how farced motion is made; we (hall find that it is nothing 
elfe but a forced motion,whofe line whereupon it is madejs asic 
were fhapped in two by the encounter of a hard body. For even 
as we fee in a fpout of water that is ftrongly (hot againft a wall, 
the water following driveth the precedent parts firft to the wal, 
and afterwards coming themfelves to the wall, fbrccth them a- 
gain another way from the wall : right fd, the latter parts of the 
torrent ofaire.whieh is caufed by the force that occafioned the 
forced motion , driveth the former parts, firft upon the refiftant 
body, and after w.ird> t^ain from it. But this is more eminent in 
light then in any oH rr S)dy,becaufe light doth lefle riflent gra- 
vity ; and fo cbferveth the pure courfc of the ftroke, better then 
any other b< x A 4 } ; frr-m which others do for the moft part decline 
ibme w ?. y i rsafo n of the: r we |o 1 -. -. . 
Now tl lar bw of reflexion is, that the line incidcrk^Si: 

the line f ixrl-^^^n rntsd malr equal angles with that line of the Re ^ exion 1S 

r /i i l r r C -ii r t madc at C( l ua11 

rchltcnt li rr i .-cics w ch is m the 'amc fuperncies with themfelrcs. angi. 
The cciiuonftration vvhercor^that gvcat wit Renatus Des Cartes 

I 2 hath 

Tredife ^/BODIES. 

hath excellently fet down in his book of Dioptrikes by the ex- 
ample of a ball ftrucken by a racket ag.iinft the earth, or any 
refifting body : the fubftance whereof is as followeth. 

In the Rectangle Paral- 
lelogramme A E, let C E 
be the fuperficies of the 
earth : A, the point from 
which the racket HG, 
ftriketh the ball by the 
line A B, to the point B in the fuperficies of the earth : and let 
us conCder C, to be on the left hand, and E on the right. Now 
we arc to fhew that the ball will rebound by the line B F, to 
the point F, in the fame time in which it went from A to B; and 
fo make the angle ABC equall to the angle FEE. For the 
eftc6Ung whereofj we muft abftradt, according to the manner 
of mathematicians, from all Phyficall inequalities, and fuppofe 
the fuperficies C E, to be mathematically plain, and the force 
of che racket to continue equally ftrong in B as it is in A- for 
although in truth, neither of thefe be rigoroufly fb;nererthclefTe, 
becaufe there is no fenfible defect in any operation that depend- 
oh on them, it is the fame to our purpofe as if they were ma- 
thematically fo. We fee then that the racket H G, doth in a 
certain time drive the ball from A to B that is to fay , from 
the left hand to the right, as farre as from C to B ; and from 
above to downwards as ferre as from A to C. We fee again, 
thas: the fuperficies CE, is not contrary unto this motion of 
the ball, as ir goeth from the left hand to the right ; for the line 
C E Jyeth likcwife that way : but is contrary unto it, as it 

goeth from above down- 
wards; for in that courfc 
the fuperficies C E cncoun- 
tercth and puttcth a period 
to the line A C. And there- 
fore the motion of the ball 
Vvhen it meeteth with the fuperficies C E, muft be changed from 
the line A C, fo much as the fuperficies C E is contrary unco it; 
that is quite backwards as farre as it depcndeth of that oppofi- 
tion. Therefore, when the ball is come to B, it muft go from 
thence in the fame proportion of left hand to right hand, and 
from below upwards, as it came before from left han J to right 

Chap. I?. 4 Trtatifeof BODIES. 

hand, and from above downwards, when itc.imc fro;n A to B. 
And consequently , ic muft in cquall time have palled another 
line from left hand to righc hand, as long as the line C U; and 
likcwifc, it muft at the ! a me time have paHed another line from 
below upwards as long as A C : \vnich vvill of nccefficy make 
it hit in the point F, at the end of fo much more time as ic .'pent 
in going from A to B; and To, make the two angles ABC and 
FB E equall ; as every one knowcch that hath biufilu:cd Eu- 

The motion which we call undulation ncedeth no further ei- 
plication: for it is manifeft, that fince a pendant, when it is re- Tilc 
moved from its perpendicular, will reftore it felf thereunto by 
the naturall force of gravity, and that in fo doing ic giineth a 
velocity, ( and therefore cannot ceafc on a fuddain, _) it muft 
needs be carried, out of the force of that morion, dircdlly the 
contrary way: untill the force of gravity, overcoming the ve- 
locity it muft be brought back again to the perpendicular: which 
being done likewife with velocity, it muft fend it again towards 
the place from which it fell at the firft. And in this courfe of 
motion it muft continue for a while, every undulation being 
weaker then other untill at laft it quite ceafeth, by the courfe of 
nature fettling the aire in its due fituation according to the na- 
turall caufes that work upon it. And in this very manner alfo 
is performed that undulation which tvc fee in water, when it is 
ftirred from the naturall fituation of its fphericall fuperficics. 

Galileo hath noted that the time in which the undulations 
are made which follow one another of their own accord, is the 
fame in every one of them ; and that as much time precifely is 
taken up in a pendants going a very fhort arch towards the end 
of its vibration, ss was in its going of the greareft arch at the 
beginning of its motion. The rcafon whereof feern:t!i ftrange to 
him, and he thinketh it to be an accident naturall to the body 
'out of its gravity; and that this effcft convinccth, it is not the 
aire which moveth fuch bodies. Whereas in truth, it is clearly 
the aire which caufeth this effect. Becatife the aire ftriving at 
each end ( where it is furthcft from the force of the motion ) to 
quiet it felfjgetteth at every bout fomewbat upon the fpacej and 
fo contra&eth that into a fhorter arch. 

But it is a great wonder to me, that Galileo fliould make a 

I 3 wonder 

wonder of this effrft to the rtafbn which he hath laid fb fair a 
foundation upon another occasion, had he bur reflected upon 
it. For in his fourth dialogue of motion he hath demonftratcd 
that a natural! moveabie defcending in the quarter of a circle, 
from what part focver it begin neth,fpcndeth equall time to come 
to the lo A eft point, as if it came from any other part : fb that a, 
pendant being brorght tip to any height by the force of a for- 
mer motion downwards, it will be fure to ipcnd as much time 
in going down from thence to the perpendicular, as it did at the 
hrft when it was let fall from the grcateft height. Now I fub- 
fume , that the pendants afcending, being the effect of the 
velocity of its motion gained in defcending immediately before* 
the faid velocity muft be able to carry it in the fame time to a 
height, that is proportionate to that height unto which the velo- 
city gained in the firft fall did caufe the pendant to mount. As 

_/\j , __, for example : if the pendants firft 

; deicent were from A to E, the fe- 
^ cond from C to E; bccaufe the time 
of thofe two is the fame, ( as Gali- 
leus hath demonstrated ) it follow- 
eth that their velocities gained in 
defcending mnft of neeeflity be in the proportion of the line A E 
to the line C E : therefore, their effects alfo muft be proportio- 
nable. Let us then put the line E D in that proportion to the 
line C E, which C E hath to A E, and then the velocity gained 
in C E will carry the pendant up from E to D, in the fame 
time in which the defcent AE did carry it up the other way 
from E to C: wherefore, feeing that the times of its defccnt from 
A to E, and from C to E arc equall; likewife, the two vibra- 
tions from A to C and from C to D will be done in equal! 
times. But that which made Galileo not ice the force of the 
confequence, was that he did not acknowledge violent motion 
to be made in the fame proportions., and for the fame rcafons 
which are found in natural! motion : which we have above 
fliewed to be Co, where we difcourfed of that matter. 
> That motion alib which we call T^cfraftion, and is manifefl 

Reflation at to fenfc, oneiy in light; (though peradventurc hereafter more 
irnVthTre* diligent fcarchcrs of nature , may likc'.vifc find it in fuch other 
bodies as a re called qualities; as in cold or heat,c. ) is but a 


A Trttlifecf BODI 


rom it ; 
when the fc- 

Chap, t j. 

kind of Reflexion : for there being certain bodies, in which thd toward . 
paffages are fo well ordered with their re/iftances, that all the 
prtrtsofthem feemtfrpe'rmrt light ropafle through thcm.arrdyet 
al! part* of them feem to reflet it ; when light paffeth throtrgh c Jn d r u perfic : et 
fuch bodies, it findeth at the* very entrance of them, fuch reh- is P ara ' Icl " 
frances where it pattern, as fcrfe it for a reffe$ent body; nnd yet 
fuch a rcfle<5rerrt body^s hirrderetn not the pifldge through; but 
onelyhindereth the 1 paffage from being in* frtaight line with the 
lint incident. Wherefore trie light mutt needs take a ply ai beaten 
from thofe parts towards a line drawn from the ifluminant, fal- 
ling perpendicularly rrpo-rf the refitting fuperficies; and therefore 
is termed by mathematierarrs,to be- reflated of broken toi^ards 
thcperpendicular.Now at the very going out again of the fight, 
the fecond ftiperffciejC if it be parallel to the former ) muf! rteeds 
upon a c6ntrJty caule, ftfike if the contrary waV: U-hich is 
termed from tfcc ptrpendicular. 

As for example: 
rf the ray A B, 
lighteth upon the 
fuperfTcres ^ B F, 
and findeth en- 
trarrcc * it h not 
riOAv the fuperfi- 
cits E F, that re- 
fifteth or reflecl- 
eth rt:bnt it is that 
part of the hifide 

("as we may fay)of cfrc pore B,wh?ch Is towards Fjaitd is a Phy- 
ficnll body, not a Matnematrcall pornt. The refletiort therefore 
mnft be made, as if the refleftent body were I B K! but it is evi- 
dent that if A B, did ftrike upo:r JK,it would reflect rowdrrfs 
A G. But becaufe we know not the inclination of the fuperficies 
I K, whether it be truly a perpendicular or no , therefore we 
cannor tell the quantity of the inclination which this reflefcfon 
muft make; but onely we know that it rmift be towards- A G. 

But before we wade any deeper irrro this din5curty,we cannot f 5\ 
omit a word of the manner of explicating refraction which Mon^ei' r 
Monfieur Des Cartes ufcth,fo witty a one as I am forry it wanr- Cartesh 
eth fuccefle. He therefore following the deffidnftraticm above " 

Id. ' 


A TreAtffc ofKODlES. Chap. 13. 

given of reflection; fuppofeth the fuperficies which a ball light- 
eth upon, to be a thin linen cloth, or fome other fuch matter as 
will break cleanly by the force of the ball linking nnartly upon 
it. And bccaufe that luperficies refifteth onely one way,therefore 
he inferred that the velocity of the ball is leflened onely oneway 
& not the other:fo that the velocity of its motion that way in 
which it findcth no refinance, mull be (after the balls paflagc 
throrgh the lincn^in a greater proportion to the velocity w ch it 
hath the other way where it findeth refiftance,then it was before. 
And therefore the b;ill will in lefle time arrive to its period on 
the one fide then on the other : and confequently, it will lean 
towards that fide, unto which the courfe wherein itfindeth no 
oppofition doth carry ir. 

But how much he is miftaken upon the whole matter a little 

figure willfhew: Ictus therefore put a Rectangle Parallelo- 

A J) gram as before 




A E, which I 
double &mal-:c 
the whole Pa- 
rallelogram A 
L, draw out 
the line A B, 
till it cometh 
to L. Now we 

muft imagine that C E, is the cloth or paflablc fuperficies which 
Monficur Des Cartes putteth ; and B L the line it would go in, 
if there v^cre no refiftance. Next we muft (cek the pcrpendicr- 
lar,nhich according to our explication, J s A C : for that falleth 
from A the illuminant, perpendicularly upon C E ; although, 
fome who defend Monfieiir Des Cartes, /cein to make another 
line the perpendicular ; againfl the conception of all thofc that 
write of Opticks. But, not to trouble our felvcs with terms ; the 
queftion is, whether the ball that paflcth the cloth, rnuft (" alter 
us psiTagc throrgh} deflect from the line B L, (which it woukl 
have kept, had there been no refinance ) towards E ; or el:e 
deflect fiom that line towards C. And both experience and rci- 
fbn do affiire us, that it mufl turn towards C : but Monfieur 
DCS Cartes faith towards E. 

Which to fhcw how itu contrary unto his ovvn ptincip!e;Jct 


Chap. 1 3. ATreuife of BODIES. i- 

us conceive the cloth C E to be of fome thickncfle, and fb draw 
the line O P to determine that thickneffe. And let us make from 
B upon A L, another Parallelogram like the Parallelogram 
A L, whofe diameter fhall be B Q^ And it muft neceflarily fol- 
low that the motion from B to Q^, if there were no refiftance, 
were in the fame proportion as from A to B.But the proportion 
ofthc motion from A to B, is the proportion ofCB to CA;thac 
is, it goeth in the fame time fafler towards D, then it doth to- 
wards M, in the proportion which CB hath to CA. By which 
account, the refiftance it hath in the way towards D, muft alfo 
be greater then the refiftance it hath in the way towards M, in 
the proportion which CB hath to CA; and therefore tlfc more 
tardity muft be in the way to D, and not in the way to M;and 
confequently, the declination muft be from E wards, and to M 
wards. For where there is moft refiftance, that way likcwifc 
muft the tardity be greateft,& the declination muft be from that 
way:but which way be parted in the fame time, 
is moft, that way the refiftance is greateft : and the thicknefle is 
clearly greater towards E, then towards M; therefore, the refi - 
ftance muft be greateft towards E; confequently the declinati- 
on from the line BL muft be towards M, and not towards E. 

But the truth is, that in his do$rine the ball would go in a 
ftraighc line as if there were noref.ftanc?; unlefTe peradvemure 
towards the contrary fide of the cloth, at which it goeth oJt in- 
to the free aire : for as the rcfiftauce ofthc cloth is greater in 
the way towards D> then in the way towards M, (becaufc ic 
pafleth a longer line in the fame tin.e, as al/b it did formerly in 
the aire} fo likewife is the force that movech it that way great- 
er then the force which movcth it the other. And therefore the 
fame proportions that were in the motion, before it came to the 
refifting pafTage, will remain alfo in it : at the leaftumill co- 
ming near the fide at which it goeth out, the refittancebc 
vcakned by the thinneflc of the rcfiftcnt theie: which bccaufa 
it muft needs happen on the fide that hath leaft thick nefle, 
the ball muft comequently.turn the other way, where it finde-.h 
greateft yielding : and fb at its getting out into the free aire, ic. 
will bend from the greater refiftance, in fuch manner as we 
have faid above. 

Neither do the examples brought by Monficur EXesCarccs * 
and others in maintenance of 'this do^rinc any c!iins 


3 'jfTrtttifi */ BO DIES. Chap. 13* 

Antnfwer -o them : for when a canon bullet iliot into a rirer, hurtwh the 

llroi'v TrTfi" people on ^ C ot ' icr ^ e ; " is not cau ^ ty refraction, but by 
,ourofMonfi- rcflc&ion, as Monficur DCS Cartes himfelf acknowledgech:and 
fcs r U$ C opinion. therefore, hath no force to prove any thing in refraftion; whole 
laws are divers from thofe of pure reflexion. 

And the fame anlwcr fcrveth againft the inftance of a musket 
b"l!et foot at a mark under water ; which perpetually lighteth 
higher then the mavk,thoi!gh it be exaflly juft aimed at.For we 
knowing that it is the nature of water ,by fiftking in one place to 
rift round aboivt,k muft of necefficy follow that the bullet which 
Jr> entring hath preffed down the firft parts of the water* hath 
wkhaH thereby put others further off in a motion of rifing: and 
therefore the bullet in its gorng on rmifii meet with fbme water 
fweHing tjpwak,4c mwft from it receive a ply that way,which 
canoot fail ofearrying k above the mafk it was levelled at. And 
fo we fee this cffeft proceedeth from reflexion or the botmding 
of the warcr, and not from refraction. Befidejtha-c, it may juft- 
ly be fufpefted the fhoorer took his aim too high, by rcafbn of 
the marks appearing in the water higher then in truth it isrun- 
leife iWh falle aitriing were duly prevented. 

Nekner is Monfieur Des Cartes his ex<rufe to be admitted, 
when he fakh that light goech otherwffe then a ball would do, 
becaufe chat in a glaiTe or in water,the etheriall fuWTance which 
he fuppofcth to run through all bodies,is more efficacioufry mo- 
ved then in aire: and that therefore light mutt go fairer in the 
glafle then in the aire, and fo turn on that fide of the ffraighc 
line which is contrary ro the fide that the ball takethj becaufe 
rfve ball gocth not fo fwifrly. For ( not to difpute of the verhy 
of this propofition) the efFecl: he pretendeth is impo/Tible : for rf 
the etheriall lubftance in the aire before the glaflcbc ffowly mo- 
red, (the motion of which he calleth light } it is impofTiblc that 
the ttheriall lljbltance in theglafle or in the water fhouW &c 
more fmartly moved then it. Well it may be Jefle; but without 
all doubt the impulfc ofthc etheriall fubttance in thtgfaflc can- 
not be greater then its adequate caufc, which is the motion ofthe 
other parts that are in the aire precedent toglafic. 

Again, after it is paflkd theglafle, ir ftioidd return to be a 
ftraightlinc with the line that it made in the aire precedent to 
the glaffe: leeing that the fubfeauent aire rmift take off juft as 
much (and no more)as theglafle did adder the contrary wrrere-- 

Chap, r 3. eXTfiM^/ttf/'BODIES. 159 

Thirdly,in this explication it would alwaycs go one way iti 
theaire,and another way in the glafTe: whereas nil experience te- 
ftificth, that in a glaffe convex on both fides, it ftill goeth in the 
aire after its going out to the fame fide as it did in the glaflejbuc 
more. And the like happencth in glafles on both fides concave. 
Wherefore it is evidcnt>that it is the fuperficies oftheglafle that 
is the worker on both ficfes; and not the fubftance of the aire on 
the one fide, and of the glafle on the other. 

And laftly, his anfvver doth no way folve our objection, 
Which proveth that the refiftance both wayci is proportionate 
to the force that moveth,and by confequence that the thing mo- 
ved muft go ftraight.As we may imagine would happen if a bul- 
let were (hot Hoping through a green mud wall, in which there 
were many round Hicks fo thin fet that the bullet might pafTe 
with eafe through them;for as long as the bullet touched none of 
them ("which cxprefleth his cafe) it would go ftraight; but if it 
touched any of them ( which refcmblctli ours, as by and by 
will appear) it would glance according to the quality of 1 the 
touch, and move from the ftick in another line. 

Some peradventure may anfvver fop MonnVur DCS Cartes that 
this fubtile body which hefuppofcth to tun through all things is 
ftiffe and no wayes pliable. But that it fo repugnant to the na- 
ture of rarity & fo many infuperable inconvtniencies do follo\v 
out of it; as I cannot imagine he will own te ; and therefore I 
will not fpend any time in replying thereunto. 

We muft therefore feck fome other taiife bf the refraction of 7. 
light, which is made at the entrance of k mtr* diaphanous bo- ^ truecaufe^ 
dy. Which is plainly ("as we fa-rd before) b<Scaufc the *ay (hi- light both a" 
&in aeainft tlic infidc ofa body it carmot penetrate, turnttlvby _entrance, & 

rt f i ii J L. c ' c *S OIn 8 out 

reflexion towards thatfide on which the ilhimuia-Ht [tandctn: fi-omtheicHc- 
and ific findeth clear paflage through the Whole refirtent,k fbl- ft 
loweth the coitrfc it firft taketh; if not, ihcil it is loft by many 
reflexions to and fro. 

And- that this do6r,n4i is true, the accidcrtts or Phenometm 
evidently declare unto us; for experience teathcth us, that upon 
a plain fuperficies the refraction is made towards the penpendi- 
cular drawn from the illuminant to the fuperficies ; as we have 
fnkt. Now at the going out ( if the furfaces be parallels ) we fee 
that the ray turnetli from that perpendicular; which aifo is ne- 


140 A Trettife of BODIES. Chap, 13. 

ceflary; for going through a pore bigger then it felf > or at the 
leaft as big; and finding it full of a ire, ic muft needs be crowded 


thcre.Biit in a crowd, he prefleth you moft who you preflc moft 
upon:fo then that fide of the pore which is next to^the light as ic 

palfeth, muft preflc moft 
upon itrbut the angle w clv 
is towards the perpendi- 
cular, to wit, the angle 
B C L is the letter; & by 
confequencc , the ray is 
nearer that fide of the 
pore which is towards I, 
then the other fide of it 
w ch is towards H; where-, 
fore it muft take its ply 

from that fide. But that fide ftrikerh it from the perpendicular: 
and therefore it muft there refraft from the perpendicular. 

This very fame doclrine for the reafon of refraction is con- 
firmed by what happeneth in crooked fupcrficiefes. As if E F 

be a Lens or a glafle on 
both fides convex; and 
C B the axis of it; A D 
the ray falling from the 
illuminant A ; A B the 
perpendicular falling fro 
the fame illuminant A:it 
will be plain by the for- 
mer difcourfe, that the 
ray A D, muft at the en- 
try be refradted towards 
A B , as being repulfed 
from that part of the in- 
fide of the pore D, which 
is towards Fjbecaufe that 
fide is moft oppofed unto 
thcray.Now the ray be- 
ing once turned that 
\vay; when at the end of 
its journey through the 

Chap. 13. *sf Treaty efBODIE S. 

iSn | SCOme ^ ^ e0thcr fu P crficiw EGF.itmaketh the 
'towards F- and therefore muft ft by the rule given 
abov e be refraa d ^ k$ ^ rtjng ^ ^ jp 

perpendicular j and it will meet fomcwherc with the 
.1 which experience flicweth us to be true. 

And taking a body of 
concave furfaces we fhall 
(according to this do- 
ctrine of ours ) find the 
caufes of refraction jtift 
contrary; & accordingly 
experience likewife flicw- 
eth us the effects to be fb 
too. And therefore fince 
experience agreeth exa^K. 

1 O 

ly with our rules, we can- 
not doubt but that the 
principles upon which we 
go arc well laid. 

But becaufe crooked g e 
furfaces may have many A general! rule 

1 * ' * *1f *** I'r r\ ., .L^. 

irregularities; it will not 
be amiflfc to give a rule 
by which allofthemmay 
be brought unto a cer- 
tainty. And this it is,that 
reflexions from crooked 

fuperficicfes are equall to the reflexions that arc made from 
fuch plain fuperficicfes, as arctangents to the crooked ones in 
that point from whence the reflexions are made. Which princi- 
ple the matters ofOpticks do take out of a Mathematicall fup- 
pofition of the unity of the reflecting point, in both thefurfaces; 
the crooked and the plain: but we take it out of the infallibility 
of the difference of fo lircle a part in the two different furfaces, 
as ferveth to reflect a ray of light: for where the difference is fn- 
fenfibJe in theciufcs, there likewise the difference is fb little 
in the effe$s,is fenfe cannot judge of them: which is as much as 
is requifae to our purpolc. Now feeing that in the Marhema- 
ticall fuppofition, the point where the reflexion is made is in- 

BO DIES. Chap, ,13. 


different to both the fur faces :k followeth>tliat ic iraporteth not 
whether fuperficics you take to know the quality of reflexion 
by. This principle then being fettled, that the reflexion muft fol- 
low the nature cf the tangen: Uivfaces, and it being prov2d, that 
in plain furfoccs it will happen ia fuch fort as we have explica- 
te*.!, it follovseth that in any crooked fuperficies of what figure 
foever the fame alio will happen. 

Now feeing we have formerly declared, that refractions are 
but a certain kind of reflexions- what we have faid here of re- 
flexions may be applyed to refractions. 

o. But there remaineth yet untouched one affection more of re- 

AWy ofuvca- fractions; which is that Come diaphanous bodies do in their in- 
Ireater'por'es ward parts reflect more then others,(which is that which wecall 
makethagiea refraction )as experience fhcweth us:concernine which effect, we 

terrefrattion rjtj-L LJ- i / 

then one oficf are to coniider that diaphanous bodies may in their composition 
fer parts and j^yg two differences :for fbrne arecompofed of greater parts and 

leffer pores. . r i /r j i rr T 

greater pores others, or lefler parts and lefler pores. It is true 
there may be other combinations of pores and parts, yet by thcfe 
two the reft may beefleerned. As for the firft combination, we 
fee that becaufe the pores are greater , a greater multitude of 
parts of light may pa fie together through one pore; and becaufe 
the parrs are greater, likewife a greater multitude of rayes may 
reflect from the fame part, and may find the fame paffage quite 
throughout the diaphanous body. On the contrary fide in the 
fecond combination where both the pores and the parts of the 
diaphanous body are little, the light rauft be but little that find- 
eth the fame p adage. 

Now that refradion is greater or leffcr happeneth two wayes: 
for it is either when one diaphanous body reflectech light at 
more angles then another, and by conleqncnce in a greater ex- 
tent of the fuperficies; or elfe when one body rcfledteth light 
from the fame point of incidence in a /horter line & in a greater 
angle then another doth. In both thefe wayjr? it is apparent 
that a body coitipofed of greater partJ and greater pores,cxcecd- 
rih bodies of the oppofite kind: for by renfon that in the firft 
kind more light may beat againflone air;i bc*V in \\hich that 
happened!, will make an appearance ft^-n a further parr of its 
fuperficies: whereas in a body of tlic other &rt , the light that 
beateth againft one of the little parts of ic will be fo liule as it 


Chap. 13. A Trcxtifi of BODIES. 

will prefently vanifh. Again, becaufe in the firft, the part at the 
incidence is greater ; the flirface from which the reflexion is 
made inwards, hath more of a plain and ftraight fuperficie? : 
and confequently doth reflcA at a greater angle.then that,whofc 
Hjperfictcs hath more of inclining. 

But wemuft not pafTe from thisqueftion, without looking a 10> 
little into the nature of thofe bodies in which refraction is made: A confirmation 
for if thcy,as well as the immediate caufes of refraction, do like- f ' h . e formcr , 

. r r MI i- t r d'.ftnnc, out of 

wile favour us; it will not a little advance the certainty tour de- the nature 
termination. To this purpofe we may call to mind, how experi- 
encefheweth us that great refractions are made in fmoke,and in 
mifts, and in olifles, and in thick-bodied waters ; and Monfieur 
Des Cartes addeth certain oyles, and fpirits or ftrong waters. 

Now moft of thefe we fee are compofed of little confiftent 
bodies, fwirnming in another liquid body. As is plain in fiuoke 
and miftsrfor the little bubbles which rife in the water before 
they get out of it;and that are fmoke when they get into the aire; 
do aflure us that fmoke is nothing elfe, but a company of little 
round bodiesjfwimming in the aire : and the round confidence 
of water upon herbs, leafs, and twigs in a rind or dew, gtveth 
us allb to underftand that a mift is likewife a company ot little 
round bodies that fometimes ftand, fometimes float in the aire, 
as the wind driveth them. Our very eyes bear witnefTe to us, 
that the thicker fort of waters are full of little bodies, which is 
the caufe of their not being clear. 

As for glafle, the blowing of it convinceth, that the litrie 
darts of fire which pierce it every way, do naturally in the melt- 
ing of it convert it into little round hollow bodies, which in 
their cooling muft fettle into parts of the like figure. Then for 
cryftall and other tranfparent flones which are found in cold 
places; it cannot be other wife, but that .the nature of cold pierc- 
ing into the main body, and con-racling every little part in it 
felf, this contraction muft needs leave vacant pores between 
part and part. And that fuch tran'parcn: ftones as are made by 
heat, have the like effeft and property^ rmy be judged out of 
what we fee in bricks and tiles, which nrc lefc full ofholes by 
the operation of the fire. And I have fccn in bones that have 
lain a longtime in the fun, a multitude of fcnfible little pores 
chofeto one another, as if they had been formerly ftuck all over 


J44 ATreAtifcof BO DIES. Chap. 14. 

\vich fubtile (harp needles as clofe as they could be thruft in by 
one another. The Chymicall oylcs and fpirirs which Monfieur 
DCS Cartes lpeakethof,are likely to be of the famecompofition; 
fince that fuch ulc to be extracted by violent fires : for a violent 
fire is made by che conjunction of many rayes togecher;andchat 
muft needs caufe great pores in the body ic worketh upon ; and 
the flicking nature ofchefe fpirics,is capable ofcpnferving them 
Oi;t of all chcle obfei vations, it followeth, that the bodies in 
which greatcft refractions do happen, are compounded (as we 
have faidj of great parts, and great pores. And therefore,by one- 
ly taking light to be fucli a body a* we have defcribed it to be, 
where we treated of the nature of it; ic is evident, that the efFedt 
'A^vvehaveexprettjmuflnecefTarily follow by way of reflexion, 
and that refraction is nothing elfe but a certain kind of reflexion 
Which laft aflmion, is likewife convinced outofthis ; that 
the fame effects proceed from reflexion as from refraction : for 
by reflection a thing may be feen greater then it is; in a different 
place fio;n the true one where it isrcolours may be made by re- 
flexion. as alfb gloating light; and fire likewife andperadven- 
ture all other effects which arecaufed by refradtion.may as well 
as thefe^ be performed by reflexion. And therefore it is evident, 
they muft be of the fame nature ; feeing chat children are the re- 
femblances of their parents. 

Of the cotnpofitioH, qua/it its, and general ten of mixed bodies. 

HAving now declared the virtues by which fire and earth 
.vork upon one another : and upon the refl ofthe elements; 
of this cha-cer which is, by light, and by the motions we havcdifcourtedof. 
and the A*-' Our task fliall be in this chapter firfl to obfcrvc what will rcfulc 
rhors mtenc in out o f fuch action of ti eirs : and next, to fearch into the wayes 
and manner of comparing and performing it. Which latter we 
fhall the more eafily attain \into, when we firft know the end 
that their operation levcllcth at. In this purfuit we fhal find that 
the cfifeil of the clement, combinations, by means ofthe moti- 
ons that happen among them ; is a long pedigree ofo:npound- 
cd qualities and bodies: wherein the nrft combinations (like 
marriages) are the breeders of the next more compofed fub- 
ftanccs : and they again are the paren:$ of others in greater 


Chap. 14. vtTreuifeof BODIES. 145 

variety : and To are multiplied without end ; for the further 
this work proceedeth, the more fubjccls it maketh for new bu- 
fineflc ofthe like kind. 

To deicend in particular unto all thcfc, is impoffible. And to 
looke further then the generall heads of them, were fuperfluous 
and troublesome in this diicourfe; wherein I aime onely at 
/hewing what forts f thing* in common, may be dene by bo- 
diestthat if hereafter we meec with things of another nature and 
ftrain, we may be fure they are not the ofspring of bodies and 
of quantity which is the main Icope of what I have defigncd 
here. And to do this with confidence and certainty, requireth of 
ncceflity this leifurely and orderly proceeding that hitherto we 
have ufed,and fliall continue to the end:fbr walking thus foftly," 
we have alwayes one foot upon the ground ; foas the other may 
be fure of firm footing before it fettle. Whereas., they that for 
more haft will leap over rugged paflages and broken ground ; 
vvhen both their feet are in the aire, connot help themfelves, but 
muft light as chance throweth them. 

To this purpofe then we may confider, that thequaliciesof 
bodies in common are of three forts : for they are belonging ei- 
ther to the conftitution of a compounded body, or eJlc to the 
operation of it; and the operation of a body, is of two kinds; the 
one, upon other bodies, the other, upon fenfc. The laft ofthefc 
three forts ofqualities, (hall be handled in a peculiar chapter by 
themfelves. Thofe of the fecond fort, whereby they work upon 
other bodies, have been partly declared in the former chapters, 
and will be further difcourfed of in the reft of this fir ft Treatifc : 
foas that which remaineth for the prefent, is to fall upon the 
ditcourfe offuch qualities as concur to the conftitution ofbadies; 
\vith an aime to difcover, whether(or no) they may be effected 
by the feverall mixtures of rarity and dcnfity, In fuch fort as is 
already declared. To which cnd,wc are to confider in what man- 
ner thefc two primary differences of bodies may be joyned to- 
gcthertand what effects fuch conjunction will produce. 

As for their conjunflion : to deliver the nature of it entirely, 
we muft begin from the very root of it, and confider how the ^* 
Unirerfe being finite fwhich M r . White hath demonftratcd in 103^7^ bo! 
the fecond knot of his firft Dialogue) there cannot be an infinite f^'' ]c ^ d fi j at 
number of bodies in it;for Geometricians fli.w us how the leaft i$ found infirc. 

K quantity 

A Trt&tife *f B O D I S, Chap. 14. 

ejH&ntity that is, may be repeated fo often as would exceed any 
the greatcft determinate quantity \vhatfoever. Ouc of which it 
followcth, that although all the other bodies of the world were 
no bigger then the leaft quantity that can be defigned ; yet they 
being infinite in number, would be greater then the whole uni- 
vcvfc that containeth them. And therefore, of necedity there muft 
l:e k ir;c leaft body, or rather, forne leaft fizcofbodie? : which 
in compounded bodies is not to be expected : for, their leaft 
parts being compounded , muft needs include compounding 
parts Icfie then themfelves. We muft then look for this leaft fizc 
of bodies in the Elements ; which of all bodies are the fimpleft. 
And among them, we muft pitch upon that, wherein is greateft 
divisibility, snd which consequently is divided into leaft parts ; 
that is, fire : fo as we may conclude thac among all the bodies 
in the world, that which of its own nature hath an aptitude to 
be leaft, muft be fire. 

3. Now, the leaft body of fire, be it never fo little, is yet divifi- 

TVe firit con- ^ . j ^ w^ . j ^ ^ Ina K e ; : h it be one? To deter- 

junaion ot n f r s~i r 

pans is m bo- mine this ; we muft retort unto the nature ofi^iumtitj : Whole 
? and left formall notion and cflence is, To be divifiblc j which fignifieth, 
riadc bv the t i )at m anv may be made of it but that of which many may be 

force of Qan- . . J c , . - . 

liiy . made, is not yet many, out of this very realon, that many may 

be made of it. But, what is not many, is one. Therefore what 
hath quantity ; is, by mere having quantity, actually and for- 
mally as well one, as it hath the poflibility of being made ma- 
ny. And confcqucntly, the leaft body of fire, by having quanti- 
ty, hath thofe parts which might be many, actually one. And 
this is the firfl conjunction of parts that is to be confidered in the 
cof ofuion of bodies: w ch though it be not an acftuall joyning of 
acluall paftsjyet it is a formal cojunclion of what maybe many. 
4' In the next pbcc we may confiderjhow feeing the leaft bodies 

o eonjonaion of fire; it muft needs follow, that the leaft parts of 
i corrpsQcd- t ^ e ot j ier EJ cmCncs mlj ft t c bigger then they.And confcqucntly, 

nefic m fimple &C / 

and the poflible parts of thole leaft parts ot the other Elements mult 
have fomething to confcrvc them together, more then is found 
in fire. And this, becnufc Elements are purely diflinguifhcd by 
rarity and denfity is ftm'ght concluded ro be dcnfitj. And thus 
we have found that as quantity is the caufc of the poflible 
parts being one; to dcn(uy is the can ft of the like parts (ticking 


Chap. 14, A'TnA'tfti/ BODIES. 147 

together: which appeared! in the very definition of ic, for, to he 
le$e divisible, (which is the notion of dcnfity) ipeaketh a refi- 
ftance to divifion, or a Ricking together. 

Now let us examine how two parts of different Elements arc 
joyned together, to make a compound. In this conjunction we The third con- 
find both the effects we have already touched :for,t wo fjch parts '^'^ l* f 
mutt make one and moreover, they nmft havefome refinance rent Element*, 
todivifibilhy. The firft of thcfceffeA* we have already afligncd l^K^' 
unto the nature of quantity . And ic being the formall effect of city and deirfty 
quantity; it cannot (whereloever it is found) have any other for- tosct er * 
mall caufe then quantity : and therefore cither the two .little 
parts of different Elements, do not become one body : or if they 
do, we muft agree that it is by the nature of quantity which 
worketh as much in heterogeneall parts, as in doth in homoge- 
neall ones.And it muft needs do fo: becaufe Rarity and Deniity 
(which are the proper differences of Quantity) cannot change 
the common nature of Quantity, that is dicir Genus : which by 
being fo to them, muft be univocaiiy in them both. And chis ef- 
fect cometh precifely from the purs notion of the Genus : and 
confequemly, muft be feen as well in two parts of different na- 
tures, as in two parts of the fame nature : buc in parts of the 
fame nature,which once were two, and afterwards become one ; 
there can be no other reafon why they are one, then the very 
fame for which thoic parts that were never feparated fbut that 
may be feparated) are likcwife one : and this, moft evidently, is 
the nature of quantity. 

Experience feemeth to confirm thus much; when pouring wa- 
ter out of a bafin, feme of it will remain fticking to the fides of 
the metall : for if the quantity of the bafin, and of the water, 
had not been one and the fame by its nature ; the water 
(considering the pliablencfTe of its parts ) would certainly have 
comaien all away, and have glided from the uncvennedc of the 
bairn, by the attractive unity of its whole, and would hive pre- 
ferred the unity of its quantity within it felf, rather then by 
fticking to the bafin, have fuffered divifion in >ts own quancitic; 
which we are fure was one, whiles the water was altogether in 


the bafin :but thatjboth the bafin and the water making but one 
quantity; and a divifion being unavoydable in that one quan- 
tity;ic was indifferent, i regard of the quantity confidercd finely 

K 2 by 


The rca r on 
v. hy liquid bo- 
cite* do eafily 
joyn together J 
and dry ones 

Tim n, i <vn 
bard bodies 
can tonch ore 
'Bother imme- 

^/BODIES. Chap. 14. 

by it felf, where this divifion fhould be made, whether in the 
parts of the bafin, or in the parts of -the water : and then, the 
ether circtimflanccs determined ic in that part of the water 
which was neareft to the joyning of it wich the bafin. 

The fecond eflfeft (which was refiftance to divisibility;) we 
afTigned unto denfity. And of that fame caufe, rnuft allb depend 
the like effect in this cafe of the flicking together of thetvvo 
parts of different Elements, when they are joyncd to oneano- 
thertfor if the two parts, whereof one is denfe, the other is rare, 
do not exceed the quantity of fbme other part of one homoc- 
neall rare Element for the dividing whereof, fuch a determinate 
force, and no leiTe can fuffice: then/eeing that the whole compo- 
ledofthefe two parts is not fo divifible as the whole confiftincr 
of that one part ; the afTigned force will not be able to divide 
them. Wherefore it is plain, that if the rare part had been join- 
ed to another rare part indeed of the denfe one it is joyned 
unto.. it had been moreeafily dividable from that, then now it is 
from the dcnfe part. And by confequence it flicketh moreclofely 
to the denfe part, then it would to another of its own nature. 

Out of what we have faid, a flep is made us to underftand 
why foft and liquid bodies doeafily joyn and incorporate into 
one continued body;but hard and dry bodies fo difficultly, as by 
experience we find to be true. Water with water, or wine cither 
with other wine or with water, fo uniteth, that it is very hard 
to part them : but fand or (tones cannot be made to ftick toge- 
ther without very great force and indurtry. The reafbns where- 
of,rnuft ncccflarily depend of what we have faid above.To wit, 
that two bodies cannot touch one another, without becoming 
one : and, that if two bodies of one degree of denfity do touch, 
they muft flick together according to the force ofthat degree of 
dcnfuy.Out of which two., is manifcftly inferred,that if two hard 
things fliould come to touch, they muft needs be more difficultly 
feparatcd then n v o liquid tilings. And confequcntly, they can- 
not come to touch, without as much difficulty, as that whereby 
they are made one. 

But to deduce this more particularly; let us confidcr, that all 
the little furfaces ,by which one hard body may be conceived to 
touch another(as for example, when a flonc licch upon a ftoncj 
inuit of neccftity be cither plain, or concavc ; or convex. Now 


C hap. 14. A Treat if e of BODIES. 

if a plain fupcrficies fhould befuppofcd to touch another plain 
one coming perpendicularly to it ; it muft of neceflity be grant- 
ed to touch it as fbon in the middle as on the fides. Wherefore, 
if there were any aire (as ofneceffity there mutt be) betwixt the 
two furfaccs before they touched ; it will follow, that the aire 
which was in the middle muft have fled quite out from between 
the two furfaces, as fbon as any part, of the furfaces do touch ; 
that is, as fboii as the aire which was between the utmoft edges 
of the furfaccs did fly out; and by confequence it muft have mo- 
ved in an inftant. 

But if a plain furface be faid to touch a convexc furface ; it 
touchethitonely by aline, (as Mathematicians demonftratc) or 
onely by a point. But, to touch by a line or a point, is in truth, 
not to touch by the form or notion of Quantitie, which requi- 
reth divifibilitie in all that belonged! unto it ; ) and by confe- 
quence among bodies it is not to touch j and fo, one fuch furface 
doth not touch the other. 

Now/or a plain furface to touch a concave, every man feeth 
is impoflible. Likewise for to convexe furfaces to touch oueano- 
ther,they muft be allowed to touch either in a line or in a point* 
which we have fhewed not to be a phyficall touching. And if a 
convexe furface fhould be faid to touch a concave ; they nauft 
touch all at once as we faid of plain furfaces ; and therefore the 
fame impoflfibility will arife therein : fo that it is evidentsthat no 
two furfaces moving perpendicularly towards one another, can 
come to touch one another,if neither of them yieldeth, and 
changeth its hew. 

Now then, if it be fuppofed that they come flidingly one over 
another in the fame line; whereby, firft the very tips of the edges 
come to touch one another; and ftill as you fhoove the upermort 
on forwards, and that it flideth over more of the nether furface, 
itgaineth to touch more of it. I fay that neither in thiscale do 
they touch immediately one anotherrfor as fbon as the two firft 
parts fliould meet, if they did touch, and that there were no air? 
between them; they muft prefcntly become one quantity or body 
as we havedeelared;and muft ftick firmly together, according to 
their degree of denfity;and coniequently could noc be moved on 
without ftill breaking afunder at every impulfe, as much of the 
maflie body.,as were already made one by their touching. 

K 3 And 

tf B O D I E S. Chap.i4. 

And if you {hould fay they did not become on*; and yet al- 
low them to touch immediately one another without having 
any aire or fluide body between them; then if you fuppofc them 
to move onwards upon thefc termcs ; th*y would be changed 
locally, without any inninfecall change:which in the book De 
Mundo ( as we have formerly allcdged ) is demonftrated to 
be impoflible. 

There remaineih onely a third way for two hard furfaces to 
come together which is, thai firft they {hould reft doping one 
upon another, and make an angle where they meet ( as two 
lines, that cut one another, do in their point of their imerieU- 
on ) and fo contain as it were a wedge of aire between them, 
which wedge they fhould leficn by little and litde, through their 
moving towards one another at their moft diftant edges (whiles 
the touching edges are like immoveablc centers that the others 
turn uponjtill at length they flint oat all the airc, and ciofe to- 
gether, like the two legs of a compafle. 

But neither is it polTlble that this way they {hould touch, fov 
after their firft touch by one line C which neither is in efYe& a 
touching , as we have fhewcd ) no other parts of them can 
touch, though ftill they approch nearer ind nearer, untill their 
whole furftces do entirely touch at once: and therefore, the airt 
mu(t in this cafe leap out in an inftant a greater fpace.then ifthe 
furfaces came perpendicularly to one another; for here it muft 
flie from one extremity to the other: whereas, in the former 
ca(> it was to go but from the middle to each fide. 

And thus it is evident that no two bodies can arrive to touch 
one another, unleiVe one of them at the leaft have a fupcrficies 
ply able to the fuperficies of the other ; that is, unlcffe one of 
them be foft, which be liouide in lomc drgrce. Seeing then, 
that by touching, bodies do become one ; and that liquidity is 
thccaufe and means whereby bodies arrive to touch; we may 
boldly conclude that two liqnidc bodies do moft eahly and rea- 
dily become one; and next to two fuch, a liqurde and a hard 
body, are fooneft united : bur two hard ones molt difficultly. 

To proceed then with our reflexions upon thccompofition of 
8. bodies, and upon what rcfulteih out of the joyning and mixture 

r.ixcAK-- o f their firft differences Rarity and Denficy; we fee, how if a 11- 

s f c named .I/.T/I i t i jti-ji-ii ^. 

general. 1 . qiiidc iliOltancc liappcncth to touch a dry body ic fticketh eafily 


Chap. 14. ATreAitfetf BODIES. 151 

thereunto. Then confidef, that there may be fo fmall a quantity 
of fuch a Kqurde body, a* it miy be almoft itnpoflible for any 
naturall agent to divide it further into any leffcparc* ; and fup- 
pofe that ftrch a liquide part is between two dry parts ofa dertfe 
body, and flicking to them both, bccomerh in the nature of a 
glew to hold them together : will it not follow out of what we 
havefaid, that thefe two denfe parts will be as hard to be fe- 
vered from one another, as the fmall liquide part by which they 
flick together is to bedititfed? So that, when the vilcuous liga* 
merits whrch in a body do hold together the dcnfe parts, are fa 
fmall and fubrile, ay no force we can apply unto them can di- 
vide them, the adhefion of the parts muft needs grow then in!e- 
parable- And therefore, we ufc to moiften dry bodies, to make 
them the more eafily be divided ; whereas thole that are over* 
moift are of fhemfclves ready to fall in peices. And thus you 
fee how in f;enerall, bodies are framed. 

Out of which drfcourfc, we may ballance the degrees of foli- 
dity in bodies, for all bodies being composed of htimide and dry The ca jj of 
parts, we may conceive either kind of thofe parts, to be bigger *e rcveraii a e - 
or leflcr, or to be more rare or more denfe. Now if thedry parts 
of any body be extreme little and denfe ; and the moift parts 
that joyn the dry ones together, be very great and rare ; then 
that body wrll be very eafie to be difTolved. But if the rttdift 
parts which glew together fiich extreme little and dehfe dry 
parts, be either Jeffer in bulk or not fo rare; then the body cortt- 
pofed of them will be in a ftronger degree ofconfiftertce. And if 
the moift parts which ferve for this effect, be in an eicefle of 
fittlenefle and withall denfc ; then, the body they compote will 
be in the highefr degree of confidence that nature can frame. 

On the other fide; if you glew together great dry partswhick 
are moderately denfe and great, by the admixtiori of hurrtide 
parts that arc oftheleaft fize in bulk, and denfe withall; then 
the confidence will decreafe from the height of it by how mucK 
the parts are greater, and the denfity IcfTe. But if un~o dry parts 
of the greater! fize, and in the grcateft rernifTenefTe of denfity, 
you adde humide pans that are both very great arid very rare", 
then the compofed body will prove the moft eafily diflblveaMe 
of all that nature aftordeth. 

After this, caft ing our eyes a little further to wardi the com- 

K 4 poficion 


Chap. 14, 

arcrcdu- pofition of particular bodies; we fliall find ftill greater mixtures, 
combi- the further we go; for as the firft and fimpleft compounded bo- 
Eie- dies, are taa<3e of the foure Elements; fo, others arc made of 
of thefej and again a third fort of them: and fo onwards, accord- 
j n g as u,y motion, the parts of every one are broken in funder, 
and mingled with others. Thofc of the fir ft order, muft be of 
various tempers according to the proportions of the Elements, 
whereof they are immediately made. As for example, fuch a 
proportion of fire to the other three Elements, will make one 
kind offimple body.and another proportion will make another 
kind: and lo throughout, by various combinations and propor- 
tions among all the Elements. 

In the effecting of which work, it will not be amiflc to look 
a little upon nature; and obfervc how fhe mingleth and tem- 
pereth different bodies one with another, whereby flic begetceth 
that great variety of creatures which we fee in the world. But 
becaule the degrees of competition arc infinite, according to the 
encreafe of number, we will contain our felvcs within the com- 
mon notions of excefle in the foure primary components; for if 
we fhould defcend once to fpecifie any determinate proportions, 
we fhould endanger lofing our {elves in a wood of particular 
natures, which belong not to us at prefent to examine. Then 
taking the foure Elements as materials to work upon: let us firft 
confidcr how they may be varied , that differing compofitions 
may refulc out of their- mixtures. I conceive that all the wayes 
of varying the elements in this regard, may be reduced to the fe- 
verall fizes of bignefle, of the parts of each Element, that enter 
into the compofition of any body, and to the number of thofe 
parts : for certainly no other can be imagined, unleffe it were 
variety of figure. 

But that cannot be admitted to belong in any conftant man- 
ner to thofe leaft particles whereof bodies arc framed; as though 
determinate figures were in every degree of quantity due to the 
natures of elements, and therefore, the elements would confervc 
themfelves in thofe figures, as well in their leaft atomes ., as in 
maffic bulk : for feeing how thefe little parts are fhuflfled toge- 
ther without any order; and that all liquids eafily joyn,and 
take the figures which the denfc ones give them; and that they 
again, juflling onranother;docru(li tbcmfclves into new fhapes, 


Chap. 14- 'ATfMiftif BO DIES. 

which their mixture with the liquid ones,maketh them yicldthe 
more eafily unto: it is impoffible that the elements fhould have 
any other naturall figure in thefe their leaft parts, then fuch as 
chance giveth them. But that one part muft be bigger then an- 
other is evident; for the nature of rarity and denfity giveth it: 
the firft of them caufing divisibility into little parts, and the lat- 
ter hindering it. 

Having then fettled in what manner the elements may be va- 
ried in the competition of bodies; let us now begin our mixture- 
In which our ground to work upon muit be earth and water; 
for onely thefe two are the bafis of permanent bodics,that fuffer mancnt m : xcd 
our fen fes to take hold of them, and that fubmit themfelvcs to bodici< 
triall: whereas if we fliould make the predominant element to 
be aire or fire, and bring in the other two folid ones under their 
jurifdiition to make up the mixture, the compound refultingout 
of them would be cither in continuallconfumption(as ordinary 
fire is ) or elie imperceptible to our eyes or touch, and therefore 
not a fit fubjcft for us to difcourfe of, fince the other two afford 
us enough to fpeculate upon. Peradvemure our fmell might 
;ake fbmecognifance of a body fo compofed, or theeffedt of it 
:aken in by refpiration, might in time fhcw it fclf upon our 
icalth.- but it concerneth not us now to look fo far; our defigne 
requireth moremaniable fubftances. 

Of which let water be the firfi; and with it we will mingle 12 

:hc other three elements, in exceffe over one another by turns ; ^ at k ' n( |,of 

n-ii 11 r i c i L J f "Q"e* thole are 

jut mil all or them overiwayed by a predominant quantity of where water is 

^ater: and then let us fee what kind of bodies will refult one of canh^hVIc- 

ueh proportions. Firft, ifearth prevail above fire and aire, aild dominant eic- 

irrive next in proportion to the water, a body offuch a compo- other two! thc 

ition muft needs prove hardly liquid, and uot eafie to let ics 

>arts run afunder, by reafon of the great proportion of fo cienfe 

i body as earth that holdeth it together. Yet fome inclination it 

vill have reafon the water is predominant over 

ill; which alfo will make it be eafily divifjb!e>andgivc very lit- 

le reliftance to any hard thing thatfhall be applyed to make 

vay through it. Jn a word, this mixture makcth theconnituti- 

)n of mud, dirt, honey, butcer, and lach like things where thc 

nain parts are great ones. And Rich are thc pares of earth and 

vaterin themfelyes. 



a;rc is the p/c- 
clominar.t H!c- 

'A TreMtfc of B O D I E S. Chap. 14. 

Let the next proportion of cjceefle in a \vatry compound, be 
of aire, whfch v>hcii it prevatleth, it incorporated) it felf chiefly 
with earth, for the other Elements would nocfo well retain k. 
Now, becauft its pans are fubtile(by reafon of the rarity it 
fmh } and flicking, ( becaufeof KS humidity ) it driveth the 
earth and water likewife into leffer parts. The refult of fuch t. 
mixture Is, that the parts of a body compounded by it areclofe, 
catching, flowing (lowly, glibbe, and generally it will burn, 
and be eafily converted into flame. 

Of this kind, are*tho& which we call oyly or unftuous bo- 
dies \\hofe great parts are eafily feparated, ( that is, they arc 
eafity drnfrble in btrJk,) but riw fmall ones very hardly. Next 
the imalnefle-, and well- working of the parts, by means of the 
aires penetrating erery depone, & flicking clofe toerery one 
ofthcm,arrd confecpenrly, joy ning them without any uneven* 
nefle; caufeth that there can fc>e no ruggednefie in it; and there- 
fore, it is glibbe in Irke ma-nner as we fee platter or March be- 
come fmoorh when they are well wrought. Then, the hatnidi- 
ty of it caufeth it to be catching, a-nd rhe fliortneflJe ofevery 
part.maketh that where it ftickech>itis not eafily parted thence* 
Now, the rarity ofaire next unto fire, admitccth it to be ( of 
all the other Elements ) moft eafily brought to die height of 
fire, by the operation of fire- upon it. And therefore, oyla arc 
the proper food of that Element. And accordingly we lee, chat 
if a drop ofoyl be fpilPed upon a fheet of paper, and the papei 
be let on fire at a corner ; as the fire comerh near die oyl, d*e 
oyl will difpcrie and fpread it felf pon rhe paper t a broader 
compaflfe then it had; which is,becaufethe heat rarifyeth it; and 
fojinoyl it felf, the fire rarifymg the aire, makcch ic penrrrare 
the earthy parts adjoyned unto it, more then it did ; and {b 
fubtilizeth them, till they be reduced to fucli a height as they 
are within the power of fire to communicate his own nature 
unto them : ana thus, he tunreth them into fire, and carrieth 
them tip in his flame. 

But if fire be predominant over earth and aire inawatry 
compound ; itrrrakeththebody Co proportioned, to befubtilc, 
rare, penetrative, hot in operation, liglu in weight, and lubjeft 
to burn. Of this kind are all forts- of wines,*nd diftilterf fpirits, 
commonly called ftrong waters or Aquavitet ; in Latine Aqu 


Chap. 14. ^ Tredttfe ^/BODIES. 15$ 

ardentes. Thcfe will lofe their virtues merely by remaining 
uncovered in the aire ; for fire doth not incorporate ftrongly 
with water ; but, if it find means, railech it felf into the airc; as 
we fee in the fmoke of boyling water which is nothing elfc but 
little bodies of fire, that cntring into the water ,do rarifie fbme 
parts of it; but have no inclination to flay there,and therefore as 
faft as they can get out, they fly away ; but the humide ports of 
the water, which they have rarified( being of a ftickingnaturc^ 
do joyn them/elves unto them, and afccnd in the airc as high as 
the fiery atomes have frrength to carry them : which whenic 
faileth them that fmoke rallcth down in a dew, and fo be- 
cometh water again as it was. All which one may canlydi- 
fcern in a glafle-verTell of water fetover die fire ; in which one 
may obfcrve the fire come in at the bottome,and prcfently fwim 
up to the top like a link bubble, and immediately rife from 
thence in fmoke' and that will at laft convert it felf into drops 
and fettle upon fbme folid fubftance thereabouts.. 

Ofthefe fiery fpirits,fome are to fubtile,as of themselves they 
vrill vanifh, ami leave no refidue of a body behind them ; and 
Alchymifts profefle to make them Jo etheriall and volatUe,thac 
being poured out of a glaflfe from fome reafonable height, they 
fhall never reach the ground : but that before they come thtthcr. 
they will be fo rarified by that little motion, as they fiiall grow 
invifible like tl^e aire, and difperting thcmfelves all about in ic> 
they will fill the chamber with the ftnell of that body which 
can no longer be feen. 

The laft exce(Te in watery bodics,mufl: be of water it felf, 15. 
W* is,when fo little a proportion of any of the other is mtnqled ofthofcbed-'es, 

... .. -it c \ f ' i -./ whrre water r$ 

with it, as is hardly perceptible: out or this compohtion do anic ; n excefft, icx- 

all thofe feverall forrs ofruiccs or liquors, which \\c commonly ; C n l:r' n " b 4 0tfl 

- i i -11 t i -r^t tntftwi,*M 

call waters: which by their mixture with the other three Elc- the prr.-tomi- 

ments, have peculiar properties beyond fimple Elementall wa- nailt Elstwiaf ' 
ter. The generall qualitie wlicreof, weflaall not nteci any ftnr- 
ther to exprefle, becaufe by what we hare already laid of water 1 6". 
rn common, they are fufficiencly known. ^?h f c t r h c 0^ ^ a S I " - 

In our next furvey,we wil take earth for our ground to work lone is the ba- 
upon.,as hitherto we have done watcrtw*" if in any body,k be in predominallt^* 
the utmott excelTe of it beyond all the other three;;hen rocks atnl "j ii.- of fr 
ftones will grow due of it ; whofc drincftc and hardnsile may "' ' 

a {Tare 

of 15 u L*itt>. 

sffi-ire us, ihat earth fwayeth in their composition, wirh the leaft 
allay that rmy be. Nor doth their lightnefTe(in refpeft ofibme 
other earthy, compositions ) impeach this resolution; for that 
proccedcth from the grcatneSTeand multiplicity ofpores.where- 
xvith their drineflc cauSeth them to abound; and hindereth not, 
but that their reall foiid parts may be very hcavie. 
j. Now if we mingle a considerable proportion of water with 

ie bodies earth, fo as to exceed the fire and aire, but Still inferiour to the 
thebafis,&' W a- earth; we Shall produce metalh; whofe great weight with their 
ter t fie prcJo. ductility and malleability, plainly telleth us, that the Smaileft 

minant element _ ' r LI LLIJLI 

overtheothcr of waters groilc parts are the glcvv that holdcth the earthy 
two * iien!e ones together: fuch weight belonging to earth, and thac 

C? O ry O 

eafic changing of parts, being moft proper to water. Quick- 
filvcrfthac is thegenerall matter whereofall themetalls arc im- 
mediately compoiedj giveth us evidence hereof; for fire worketh 
upon it with the fame effect as upon water. And the calcinati- 
on of moft of the metalls, provcth that fire can eaf;Iy part and 
confume theglew by which they were clofed and held together: 
which therefore muft be rather of a watry then ofan aiery fub- 
ftancc. Likewife the glibne(Ta of Mercury, and of melted me^ 
tails, without catching or flicking to other fubftances, giveth us 
to underfiand that this great temper of a moift clement with 
earth is water,and not airejandthat the watry parts arecompri- 
fed, and as it were fhut up within the earthy ones:for aire catch- 
eth and fticketh notably to all things it toucheth , and will not 
be imprifoned ; the divisibility of it being exceeding great* 
though in never fo fliort parts. 

18. Now if aire mingleth it (elf with carth,and be predominant 

of thofc bodies over water and fire; it maketh fuch an oily and fat (oil, as hus- 

bcing the bad* bandmcn account their bcft mould ; which receiving a better- 

dominaat prC mcnt ^ rom c ^ c ^" nnne an ^ temperate heat, aflureth us of the con. 

courfe of the aire: for whcrcfocver fuch heat is, aire cannot fail 

of accompanying it, or of being effected by it; and the richcft 

offuch earth (as pot-earth and marl) will with much fire grow 

more compn&ed, and ftick clofer together then it did; as we fee 

in baking them into pots or fine bricks. Whereas if water were 

theglew between the dcnfc parts, fire would confume it and 

crumble them afundcr, as it doth in thole bodies it calcineth. 

And exccfle of fiie will bring them to vitrification; which Hill 


Chap. 14. ^ TreAtife of BODIES. 157 

confirmeth that aire aboundcth in them; for it is the nature of 
aire to flick fb clofe where once it is kneaded in, as it cannot be 
fcparated without extreme difficulty. And to this purpofe the 
vifcuous holding together of the parts of glafle when it is melted, 
flieweth evidently that aire aboundcth in vitrified bodies. 

Thelaft mixture we are to meddle with, is of fire with earth, |p f 
in an overruling proportion over aire and water. And I of t Wc boTes 
conceive produceth thofe fubftances, which we may term coa- 

gulated juyces, and which the Latines do callyWc/ concreti: fire is the prc- 
whofe firff origine feemeth to have been liquours, that have 
been afterwards dried by the force either of heat or of cold. Of 
this nature are all kind offalts, niters, fulfurs,and divers forts of 
bitumens. All which eafily bewray therclicks and effects of fire 
left in them, fome more Ibme lefTc according to their degrees. 

And thus we have in generall deduced from their caufes the 2 o. 
complexions of thofe bodies, whereof the bulk of the world A11 r tfl . c fccond 
fubjedred to our u(e, confiftethj and which fervc for the produ- ^'bodies, a*- 1 
clionand nourishment of living creatures, both animal and ve- "'": from lf evc : 

i i XT r rLi s*r C rr N r -ii t rallcomhinan- 

gctable. Not lo exactly ( I confefk) nor lo particularly, as the O n<ofch c firft 
matter in it felf, or as a Treatiic confined to that fubjeci, would J",^'^ 
require: yet fufficiently for our intent. In the performance foivcd into fevc. 
whereof, if more accurate fearchers of nature (hall find that we "rity C aa"jea- 
have peradvcnture been miftaken in the minute delivwing of Gfy- 
ibme particular bodies complexionjtheir very corre6tion(I dare 
boldly fay) will juilifie our principall Icope: which is, to fhe^v 
that all the great variety we fee among bodies arifeth out of the 
commixtion of the firft qualities and of the Elements : for they 
\vill not be able to corrci^ us upon any other grounds then 
tho(c we have laid. 

As may eafily be perceived, if we caft a fummary view upon 
thequalities of compofed bodies. All which we fhall find to 
fpring out of rarity and denfity, and to favour of their origine: 
for the mofl manifeft qualities ot bodies may be reduced to cer- 
tain pairs oppofitc to one another. As namely fome are liquid 
and flowing, ochers are confident; ibme arc foft, others hard, 
fome are fatty, vifcuous , and finooch, others lean, gruny, and 
rough; forrc grolic, others fubtile ; fotrse toisg'i , other, l/riccle: 
and the like. Of which, the liquid, thefoft, the fat., anJ ihc vi- 
fcuous, arc fo manifeiily derived from rarity, that 


ifc o/EODIES. Chip 14.. 

take any further pains to trace out their origine: and the likeig 
of their contraries from the contrary cau!e; to wit, of thofe bo- 
dies that arc confident, hard, lean, an'" 1 gritty, all which do evi- 
dently fpringfrosn dcnfuy. As for fmoothncire, we have alrea- 
dy fhcvved how that proceeded! from an aiery or oily nature} 
and byconleqiience, from a certain degree ofr?rity. And there- 
fore roughneflc (the contrary of it) mufi proceed from a pro- 
portionable degree of denfity. Tough nefle is allb a kind of du- 
ctiluy, \vhich we have reduced to watrineife, that is, to another 
degree of rarity; and consequently brittlenefle mud arifc from 
the contrary degree of denfuy. Laftly, groffeneiTe and fubtil- 
nefle do confift in a difficulty or facility to be divided into fmali 
parts, which appearech to be nothing elfe but a certain deter mi- 
nation of rarity and denfity. And thus we fee how the fevcrall 
coiyjflexions of bodies arc reduced to the foure elements that 
compound them : and the qualities of thofe bodies, to the two 
primary differences of qualitative things by which the elements 
ate diversified. 

21. And out of this difcourfe it will be evident, that thcfe com- 

and qualities, though in diverfe degree?, muft ofnecef- 
i ,ke^ fuy be found vvherefocvcr there is any variation in bodies : rbr 
^ccing there can be no variation in bodies,but by rarity and den- 
Hey; aitd that the pure degrees of rarity and denfity do make 
uponcaith. ^^ ^^ moifture, and drincffe, and(in a vvordjche fonre ele- 
ments; it is evident, that vvhcrefoever there is varie-.y of bodies, 
there mitft be the foure Elements; though peradventure far un- 
like thefe mixed bodies which we call elements. And again, be- 
caufe tkefc elements cannot confift without motion; and becaufc 
by motion they do ofneceflity produce mixed bodies, and forge 
outthofe qualities which we come from explicating; it rnuftby 
like neceffity follow, that wherefoever there is any variety of 
active and paflive bodies; there mixed bodies likcwife muft re- 
fide of the fame kinds, and be indued with qualities of the like 
natures, as thofe we have treated of;though peradvemure fijch as 
are in other places of the world remote from us, may be in a de- 
gree far different from ours. 

Since then it cannot be denied, but that there muft be notable 
variety of active and pafliye bodies wherefoever there it light: 
neither can it be denied but that in all thofe great bodies from 


p. 14. v Trwifc o/BODIES. 

which light is reflected unto us, there muft be a like variety of 
complexions and of qualities, and of bodies tempered by them, 
as we find here in the orb we live in. Which fyfteme,how diffe- 
rent it is from that which Ariftotle and the moft of the fchool 
have delivered us, as well in the evidencies of the proofs for its 
being To; as in the pofition and modell of it ; I leave unto the 
prudent readers to confider and judge. 

Out of what hath been already fa id, it is not hard todifcover 22 . 
in what manner the composition of bodies is made. In effef^ing 
of whichjthe main hinge whereon that motion dependeth is fire 
or heat: as it likewife is in all other motions whatfbcver. Now 
bcci life the composition of a mixed.body, proceedeth from the competition of 
a&ion of one fimple body or clement upon the others; it wilt ">'d bodies: 
not be amiflc to declare by fome example how this work pa ^' *' 

fethrfor that purpofelct us examine how fire or heatworketh 
upon his fellows. 

By what we have formerly delivered, it is clear that fire ftrea- 
ming out from its center , and diffufing it felf abroad, fb as to 
fill the circumference of a larger muft needs follow, thac 
the beams of it are moft condenfai and compacted together near 
the ccnterjand the further they ftream from the center,the more 
thin and ranfied they muft growryct this is with fuch moderati- 
on, as we cannot any where difcern that one beam doth noc 
touch another; and therefore the diftances muft be very fmall. 
Now let us fuppofe that fire happeneth to be in a vifcuous & te- 
nacious body; and then confider what will happen in this cafe: 
of one fide, the fire fpreadcth it felf abroad; on the other fide,the 
parts of the tenacious body being moifi(as we have formerly de- 
termined ) their edges on all hands will flick fad to the dry 
beams of the fire that paflc between them. Then they ftrccching 
wider and wider from one another, mutt needs draw with them 
the parts of that tenacious body which ftick unto them; and 
ftretch them into a greater widenefTe or largcnes then they en- 
joyed before, from whence it folio ws^that (feeing there is no o- 
ther body near thereabouts but they t\vo)cither there mutt be a 
vacuity ieft,or elfe the tenacious body muft hold and fill a grea- 
ter fpace then it did before, and conicqucndy be more rare. 

Contrariwife,ifany of the other elements beftrongcr then fire, - 
tl.c tienfer dements break off from their continued ftream the 


1 60 

A particular 
touching the 
generation of 


r A rreattfe of B O DI E S. Chap. 14. 

little parts of fire which were gotten into their greater parts:and 
(ticking on all fides about them, they do fo enelofe them that 
they have no more femblancc of fire : and if afterwards by any 
accident there cometh a great compre/Tion,, they force them to 
lofc their naturall rarity, and to become fome other Elemenr. 
Thus it farerh with fire, both in acting and in fuffering. And 
the famecourle, we have in borh thefe regards expreflfed of it, 
pafieth hkewife in the reft of the Elements to the proportion of 
their contrarieties 

Hence it followeth that when fire meetcth with humidity in 
any bo'iy, itdivideth and fubtilifccb it, and difperfech it gently, 
and in a kind of equall manner through the whole body it is 
in, ( if the operation of it be a naturall and a gentle one ) and 
fo driveth it into other parts,whieh at the fame rime it preparcth 
to receive it by fubcilifing likewife thofe parts. And thus mode- 
rate fire, maketh humour in very imall parts to incorporate it 
felf in an even or uniform manner with the dry parts it meet- 
cth withall : which being done whether the heat doth after- 
wards continue, or that cold fucceedeth in lieu of it, the cffeit 
jntift of necefluy b?, that the body thus eompofed, be bound up 
and fattened, more or lefle according to the proportion of the 
matter it is made of, and of the Agents that work upon it, and 
of the time they employ about it. This is everyday feen, in the 
ripening of fruits and in other frequent works, as well of art as 
of nature,and is fo obvious, and fenfible to any reafonableobfer- 
vation that it is needles to enlarge my felf much upon this fubjedt 

Onely, it will not be amifle, for examples fake, to confider 
tine progrefle of it in the composing or augmenting of metalls, 
or of earths of divers forts: firft heat ( as we have laid ) draw- 
eth humour out of all the bodies it worketh upon : then if th 
extracted humour be in quantity and the fleams of it do happen 
to come together in fbme hollow place,fit to affcmble them into 
greater parts ; they arecondenfed and they fall down in a li- 
quid and running body. Thcfe fleams being thus corporified, 
the body refulting out of them, maketh it felf in the earth a 
channel! to runnc in : and if there be any loofe parts in the 
channcll,thcy mingle themfelves with the running liquotir: and 
though there be none fuch.yct in time the liquotir it felf loofen- 
eth thcchannell all aboutj and iiwbibeth into its own fubftancc 


Chap. I jr. A TreAilfc of B O D I E S. i Si 

the parts it raifeth. And thus, all of them compared together, 
do roll along till they tumble into fome low place, out ot which 
they cannot fo cafily get to wander furthcr.When they are thus 
fettled, they do the more eafily receive into them, and retain 
fuch heat as is every where to be met withall , becaufe it is dif- 
fufcd more or lefTe through the earth. This heat if it be fufficient 
digefteth it into a folide body :the temper of cold likcwife concur- 
ring in its meafure to this erFe.ft. And according to the variety of 
thefubftances whereof the firft liquour was made, and which it 
afterwards drew along with it; the body that refultcth out of 
them is diversified. In conconfirmation of all which they that 
deal in mines tell us they ufc to find metalls oftentimes mingled 
with ftoncs; as alfo coagulated Joyces with both; and earths of 
divers natures with all three; and they with it,and one with an- 
other among themfelves. And that fometimes they find the mines 
not yet confblidated and digefted throughly into mctall ; when 
by their experience knowing after how many ycares they will 
be ripe, they (hut them up again till then. 

Now if the hollow place wherein the body flayed (which at 
the firft was liquid and rolling)be not at once filled by it, but it 
taketh up onely part ofit;and the fame liquour continueth after- 
wards to flow thither: then this body is augmented, and grow- 
eth bigger and bigger. And although the liqueurs fliould come 
at fcverall times, yet they become not therefore two fcveraJl bo- 
dies, but both liqueurs do grow into one bodyrfbr the wet parts 
of the adventitious liquour do mollifie the fides of the body al- 
ready baked; and both of them being of a like temper and cog- 
nation, theyeafily ftickand grow together. 

Out of this difcourfe it followeth evidently, that in all forts 
of compounded bodies whatfoever, there muft of neceflity be a- 
6tually comprifed fundry parts of divers natures: for othcrwife, 
they would be but fo many pure degrees of rarity and deniity; 
that is, they would be but fb many pure elements, and each of 
them have but enc determinate virtue or operation. 


Of the diffolMtion of mixed bodies. 

'Hus much for composition of bodies. Their diflblution is 
made three wayes; either by fire, or by water, or by fome 

tifi 0/BODIES. Chap. i?. 

& o-.hcrs tons;h outward violence. We will begin with examining how this laft 
ft r anKtward is done:to which end we may confidcr,that the tiniry of any bo- 
vn!ence,thc "dy confining in the connexion oPits parts; it is evident that the 

fitft ir.ftrnmrnt r j r / U r j i n c rr 

to diffo'.vemi- force of motion if it be cxercifed upon them, mult ofnecelmy 
xcd bodies, fcpa rate them as we fee in breaking, cutting .filing, drawing a- 
fundcr, and the like. 

All thefe motions, bccaufe they arc done by groiTe bodies, do 
require great parts to work upon, and are eafily difcerned how 
they work rib that it is not difficult to find the reaibn why fome 
hard bodies break eafily,and others with much ado. The fir ft of 
which are called brittle, the others tough. For if you mark it>all 
breaking requirerh that bending fliould precede ; which on the 
one fide comprefTeth the parts of the bended body,& condenfeth 
them into a leffer room then they poflefled before ; and on the 
other fide ftrercheth them out, and maketh them take up more 
place. This rcquireth /bme fluid or moveable fubltance to be 
within the body^lfe it could not be done; for without fuch help 
the parts could not remove. Therefore fuch hard bodies as have 
moft fluid parts in them, are moft flexible, that is, are tougheft. 
And thofe which have fewe(t,though they become thereby hard- 
eft to have impreflion made upon tbem,yet if the force be able to 
do it,they rather yield to break then to bendj& thence are called 

Out of this we may infer,that fome bodies may be Ib fudden- 
ly bent as that thereby they break afunder; whereas if they were 
leifurcly and gently dealt withall^they would take what ply one 
defircth. And likewiic that there is no body(be it never (b brit- 
tle and hard)but that it will bend a littlefand indeed more then 
one would expc&)if it be wrought upon with time & dexterity; 
for there is none butcontaineth in it fome liquid parts more or 
leife; even glade and brick. Upon which occafion I remember, 
how once in a great ftorme of wind,! faw the high (lender brkk 
chimneys of the Kings houfe at S. James Tone winter when the 
Court lay there)bend from the wind like boughs, nnd fhake ex- 
ceedingly and totter. And at other times I have ieen fome very 
high and pointy (pire fteeples do the like. And I have been afTii- 
red the like of the whole pile ofa high caftle, ftanding in a gul- 
let in the courfeof the wind (namely theca(rIcofWardour)by 
thofe who have often fcen it fluke notably in a fierce wind. 


Chap, i J. vtrrejtifi of BODIES. 

The reafon of all \vhich may be deduced out of what we have 
faid above: for feeing that the bending of a body makcch thefpi- 
rits or humours that are within it to fally forth; it is clear that 
if the violence which forcetb it be not fo fudden, nor the motion 
it received! be not fb quick, but that the moiflurc may oofe 
gently out; the body will bend Mill more and more, as their ab- 
lence givcth it leave. But if the motion that is wrought in it be 
too quick, then the fpirits not having time allowed them to go 
leifurely and gently out , do force their prifon, and break out 
with a violence, and fo the body is mapped into two. 

Herepcradventure fome remcmbring what we have faid in 2. 
another place; namely, that it is the fliortneflc and lirtlenefle of H - n ou "y ard 
the humid parts in a body which maketh it flick together; and w",'k u P on the 
that this fhortnefte may be in fo high a decree, as nothing can "fj c , om P aa - 

I I I I I- i I D CdOOUlC*. 

come between the parts they glew together to divide them; may 
askjhow a very denfe body of fuch a (train, can be broken or di- 
vided? Butthediflficnlty is not great, for feeing that the humide 
parts in whatfoever degree of fhorcnefle they be, muft necefla- 
rily have ftill fbme latitude; it cannot be doubted but there may 
be fome force afligned greater then their refiftance can be. All 
the queftion is> how to apply it to work its effect upon (b clofe a 
compacted body, in which peradyenture the continuity of the 
humid parts that bind the others together, may be fo no 
other body whatsoever (no, not fire) can go between them, in 
fuch fort as to feparate part from part. Attheworft, it cannot 
be doubted but that the force may be fb applyed at the outfide 
of that body, as to make the parts of it prefle and fight one a- 
gainft another, and at the length by multiplication of the force, 
conftrain it to yield and fuffer divifion. And this I conceive to 
be the condition of gold and of fome precious ftones : in which 
the elements are united by fuch little parts, as nothing but a ci- 
vill warre within themfclves(ftirred up by fome fubnle outward 
enemy, whereby they are made to tear their own bowelsjcould 
bring to paffe their deftru&ion. 

But this way ofdiflblving fijchbodies,more properly belongs 
to the next way of working upon the by fireryet the fame is done 
when fome exteriour violence prefling upon thofe parts jt touch- 
eth, makes them cut a way betwixt their next neighbours; & fo 
continuing the force divide the whole body. As when the chifell 

L 2 or 

A Treatife of BODIES. Chap. 15. 

or even the hammer with beating,breaketh gold afunder: fork 
is nehher the chifcll, nor the hammer that doth that effect im- 
mediately; but they make thofe parts they touch, cut the others 
that they are forced upon. In fuch fort as I remember happened 
to a gentleman that flood by me (in a tea-fight I was in) 
with a coat of mail upon his body, when a bullet coming againft 
a bony part in him, made a great wound, and fluttered all the 
bones near where it (truck: and yet the coat of mail was whole: 
it fccmeth the little links of the mail yielding to the bullets force 
made their way into the flefh and to the bone. 

But now it is time to come to the other two inftruments of 
feparation of bodies, fire and water; and to examine how they 
ch=1icn f an'd dilfolve compounds. Of thefc two; the way of working of fire, 
chiefcft iiiftru- i s tnc cafieft and moft apparant to be difcerned. We may rea- 
su compounded dily obftrve how it proceedeth, if we but fet a piece of wood on 
bodici. fi rc . -, n vvhich it maketh little holes as if with bodkins it pierced 

it. So that the manner of its operation in common being plain, 
we need but reflefl a little upon the fcverall particular degrees 
of it. Some bodies it feemcth not to touch; as clothes made of 
Asbeftus; which are onely purifyed by it. Others, it melicth, 
but confumeth not; as gold. Others it turneth into powder fud- 
dainlydiffolving their body ; as lead, and fuch metalls as are 
calcined by pure fire. Others again, it feparateth into a greater 
number of differing parts ; as into fpirks, waters, oyls, falts, 
earth and glafle: of which rank are all vegetables. And laftly, 
others itconverteth into pure fire, as ftroug waters, or Aqua- 
vites ( called aqua: ardentesj and fomc pure oyls: for the (moke 
that is made by their fetting on fire, and peradventure their falc 
is fo little as is (carce difccrnable. Thefe arc in fumme the divifi- 
ons which fire maketh upon bodies, according to the nature of 
them,and to the due application ofit unto themrfor by the help & 
mediation of other things,it may peradventure work other effects 
4. Now to examine a little in particular, how the fame fire, in 

The rcafon why differing fubjc&s, produceth fuch different effects: Limns ttt 

fomc bodies arc . . . D _ . ' . . r _ . . , 

ner aiffolvcd h*c dttre^cttt & h*c ttt ccra liqttcjctt , Un9 code me/He tgnt - t 

by fiic. -\Y C vv jii con fi t l cr t j ie nature of every one of the fubjecls apart 

by it fclf. Firfr, for the Asbeflus : it is clear, that it is of a very 

dry fubftancc ; fo that to look upon it, when it is broken into 

very little picccsi they feem to be little bundles of (hort hairs, 


Chap. if. esfTrea'tfeofEODIES. 16% 

the liquidity within, being fo little as it afFordcth the parts nei- 
ther length nor breadth : and therefore, fire incetcth with little 
there that it can dilate. But what it cannot dilate, it cannot fe- 
parate- nor carry away any thing of it, but what is accidentally 
adherent unto the outfides of it. And fo it feemeth oncly to 
pafle throHgh the pores, and to cleanfc the little thrids of it: but 
bringeth no detriment at all to the fnbftance of it. In this I 
fpeak onely of an ordinary fire : for I doubt not but li;ch a one 
it might be, as would perfectly calcine ic. 

The next body we fpoke of is gold. This aboundeth fb much 5. 
in liquidity, that itfticketh to the fire, if duely applyed : but its vfi"^ n 'c' 
humidity is fo well united to its earthy parts., and is fo perfe6tly eth gold but 
incorporated with them; as it cannot carry away one, without 
likewiie carrying away both : but borh, are too heavy a weight 
for the little agile parts of fire to remove. Thus, it is able to 
make gold fwell; as we fee in melting it : in which, the gold re- 
ceiveth the fire into its bowels and retaineth it a longtime with 


it : but at its departure, it permitteth the fire to carry nothing 
away upon its wings : as is apparant, by the golds no whit de- 
cay of weight, after never fo long fufion. And therefore, to have 
fire make any feparation in gold, requireth the alftftance of Come 
other moift body, that on the one fide may flick clofely to the 
gold, when the fire driveth it into it, and on the other fide may 
be capable of dilatation, by the action of the fire upon it. As in 
fbrne fort we fee in ftrong waters made of falts, which are a pro- 
per fubjefl for the fire to dilate, w ho, by the affiftance of fire, 
mingling themfclves clofely with little parts of the gold, do pull 
them away from their whole fubftance, and do force them to 
bear them company in their journey upwards, in which,multi- 
tudes of little parts of fire, do concurre to preiTe them on and 
harten them: and fb,the weight of sold being at length overcome 

D ' O O 

by thefe two powerfull Agents(whereofone fupplyeth, what the 
other wanteth ) the whole fubftance of the rnctall. is in little a- 
tomes diflfufed through the whole body of the \vater. But this is 
not truly a diflblution or a feparation of the fub^antlall parts of 
gold. one from anotherrit is onely acorrofion,vvhic!i bringeili it 
iito a fubtile pouder,(when the water & (alts arefcparateafiorn 
it)much like what filing(though far finaller) or grinding ofleaf 
gold upon a porphyre ftone, may reduce it into: for neither the 

^ 5 tiarrs 

1 66 A Tretfife ^/BODIES. Chap, i f. 

parts of the watcr.nor of the fire that make thcmfelves away into 
the body of thegolil,are fmall and jfubtile enough to get between, 
the parts that corrjpofe the eflence of it:and therefore all they can 
attain unto, is to divide it onejy in his quantity or bulk, not 
in the composition of its nature. 

Yet I intend not to deny but that this is poflible to be arri- 
ved unto, either by pure fire duly applyed. or by fome other at- 
finance; as peradventure by fome kind of Mercury; which be- 
irgof a nearer cognation unto mctalh then any other liquour 
js.inay happily have a more powerfull ingreflion into gold .then 
any other body whatsoever; and being withall very fubje<5V to 
rarefaction, it may (after it 1$ entered) fo perfectly penetrate the 
gold, as it may Separate every leaft part of ic, and to reduce it 
into an abfolute calx. But in this place I explicate no more 
then what ordinarily pafTeth, leaving the myfteries of this art 
to thole who profeffe it. 

6. To goon then with what we have in hand: lead hath abua- 

whyieuJisea. dance of water overminelcd with its earth, as appearcch by its 

fi v trcnfumcd r . . .. , . ,, . n J- t_ 

and eafie yifkljiig to be bent any way, and by its quiet Itanding bent 
Ly fitc. i ;1 ^e f atT)C pofition that the force which bowed it Icaveth it in. 

And therefore the liquid parts of lead, areeafily feparatcd from 
its dry and earthy ones: and when it is melted, the very fluking 
of it, catifcth the grctfe parts to descend, and many liquid ones 
to flic away with the fire; fo that fuddenly it is thus converted 
into powder. But this powder is grofle in rcfpe^l of other me- 
talls; unlcfTc this operation be often reiterated , or the fire more 
powerfully applyaithen what is juft enoi'gh to bring the body 
of the lead into powder. 

The next connderation of bodies that fire worketh upon, is 
of U:ch as it dividcth into fpirits,falts,oyles ) wacers j or phlegms, 
by fire andcarth. Now thefe are not pure and fimplc parts of the d'n- 
.fah!; folvcd boi^y, but new expounded bodies made of the firlt by 
an / ea j lh ; AnU ' the operation of heat. As ftnoke is not pure water, but water 
C r. ;^l .fire tcgctlicr : and therefore bccometh not water but by- 
cooling, that is, by the fire flying away from it. So Jikcvviie 
thofc fpirits, f'l'cs, oyls, and the vcf^ ; arc but dorc of cliiwgs 
which fire makc<h of ciivcrie parts of the diiioJved body, by ic- 
pnracingthcm one from another, -and incorporating it Iclfwith 
t!>cm. And fo tlicy arc all of them compounded of the foure ele- 
and arc further reiblvablc in:o them. Yet: 

Chap. 1 5. A Trcai'tjcof BODIES. 157 

Yet I intend not to fay that there are not originally in tbe 
body before its difTolution,fbme loofe parts which have chc pro- 
perties of thefe bodies that arc made by the fire in the difloivin< 
of it: for feeing that nature workech by the like infrrumcnts as 
art ufeth, flic muft needs in her exceffes and defers produce like 
bodies to what art doth in diflolution; which operation of art is 
but a kind of cxceffe in the progrdle of nature: but my mean- 
ing is, that in fuch diffolution there are more of thefe parts made 
by the working of fire then were in the body before. 

Now becautethis is the naturall and moil ordinary diffolu- 
tion of things;let us fee in particular how it is done.-fuppo/e then 
that fire were in a convenient manner applyed to a body that 
hath all forts of parts in it ; and our own difcourfe will tell us, 
that the firft eflfeft it \vorketh will be, that as the fubcile pares 
of fire do divide and pafle through that body, they -will adhere 
to the moft fubdle parti in it; which being moft agile and leaft 
bound and incorporated to theijewels of the body, and lying 
(as it were) loofely fcattered in itjthe fire will carry them a-.vay 
with it. Thefe will be the firft that arefepamed from the main 
body; which being retained in a fit receiver, will by thecold- 
nefle of the circumdant aire grow outwardly cool themselves , 
and become firft a dew upon the fides ofthegIaiTe,and t'icn ftill 
as they grow cooler, condcnfe more and more; till at the length 
they fall down congealed into a palpable liquour; which is com- 
pofed (as you (eejo*-"the hottcft parts ofthe body., mingled with 
the fire that carried them out: and therefore this liquour is very 
inflammable, and eafily turned into aftuall fire; as you fee all 
/pirits and Afjft*. trdeHtcs of vegetables are. 

The hot and loofe parts being extracted, and the fire conti- 
nuing and encreafing, thofe that will follow next are fuch ai 
though they be not of thcmfelycs loofc.yet areeafielt to be made 
fb; and are therefore moft fcparable. Thefe muft bchumid,and 
thofc little dry parts which are incorporated with the overflow- 
ing humide ones in them (Tor no parts that we cm arrive wnto 
are of one pure fimple nature; bnc all are mixed and compo:ed 
ofthe foure elements in fbme proportion) muft be held together 
with fuch grofle glew as the fire may eafily penetrate and iepa- 
rate them. And then the humide parts divided into little atomes 
do Hick to the lefler one? ofthe fire: which by their multitude 

T (. 

'^Trettlfe of BO DIES. Chap. 15. 

of number and velocity of motion, fupplying what they want of 
them in bulk; do carry them away with them. And thus thefe 
phlegmatick parts flic up with the fire ami are afterwards con- 
gealed into an mfipide water: which if it have any favour, is bc- 
caufethe fidr. ardent fpirits are not totally fe para ted from it, but 
fome few of them remain in it, and give fome little life to the 
whole body of that otherwifeflat Iiquour. 

Now thofe parts which the fire feparateth next from the re- 
maining body, after the fiery and watry ones are carried away, 
rnuft be fuch as it can work upon: and therefore murt abound in 
humidity. But fince they flir not till the watry ones 
h evident that they are competed of many dry parts ftrongly in - 
corporated,and very fubtilly mixed with the moiltoncs;& that 
both of them are exceeding fmall, and are fo clofely and finely 
knit together, that the fire hath much ado to get between them, 
and cut the thrids that tie them together: and therefore they re- 
quire a very great force of fire to carry them up. Now the com- 
pofition ofthcfe fheweth them tobeaeriall: and (together with 
the fire that Is mingled with them ) they congeal into that con- 
fidence which we call oyl. 

Lnftly,it cannot be othcrwife but that the firejn all this while 
of continual! application to the body it thus anatomifeth, hath 
hardened,and as it were rotted fome parts into fuch greatnefle 
and drineflc as they will not flic,nor can be carried up with any 
moderate heat. But great quantity^ of fire being mingled with 
theilibtilcr parts of his baked earth maketh them very pungent 
and acrimonious in taftrfo that they are of the nature ofordina- 
.ry filt.and a re fo called; and by the help of water may eafily be 
fcparated from the more grofle parts which then remain a dead 
and uftlefle earth. 

By this difcourle it is apparent, that fire hath been the inftru- 
rr.cnt which hath wrought all thefe parts of an entire body into 
the forms they are in; for whiles it carried away the fiery parts, 
it fv\ ellcd the wacty oncs;and whiles it lifted up them it digcflcd 
the aeriall parts , and whiles it drove up the oyls, it baked the 
catch and fair. Again, all thefe retaining for the moit parr, the 
proper nature of the fubilancc fiom whence they arc extra&cdjit 
is evident that the iubttance is hot diflblved; (for Co the nature of 
the whole would be diflblyed and quite destroyed & extingifhed 


Chap. if. A Treatifc ^/BODIES. 169 

in every part ) but that onely Tome parts containing the whole 
fubftanccjor rather the nature of the whole fubftance in them, arc 
feparatcd from other parts that have likewife the fame nature in 
them. ^ 

The third inftrument Tor the reparation and difTolution of bo- g. 
dies is water, whofe proper matter to work upon is fait. And it HOW water the 
lerveth to fupply what the fire could not perform , which is the mem to d 
Reparation of the fait from the earth in calcined bodies. All the todies, di 
othcr parts fire was able to (ever, but in theie he hath fo baked fair, an 
the little humidity he hath left in them with their much earth; T 
as he cannot divide them any %r-ther. And (b though he incor- 
poratcth himfelf with them.yet he can carry nothing away with 
him. If then pare water be put upon that chalk, the fubtileft dry 
parts of it do eafily joyn to the fupervenient moyfture, & flick- 
ing clofe to it do draw it down to them: but because they are the 
lighter, it happeneth to them as when a man in a boat pulleth 
the land to him; thatcometh no: to him, but he rcinoveth hiin- 
felf and his boat to it: fo thele afcend in the water as they dif- 
fblve. And the water more and more penetrating them, and by 
addition of its parts making the humidity which gleweth their 
earthy parts together greater and greater, doch make a wider 
and wider feparation between thofe little earthy parts; and fb 
imbueth the whole body of the water wich them, into which 
they are difperfed in little atomes.Thofe that are of biggefl bulk 
remain loweft, in the water. And in the fame meafure as their 
quantities diffolve into leffe and lefie, they afcend higher and 
higher in the water; till at tiie length the water is hilly -reple- 
niQicd with them, and they are diffused through the whole bo- 
dy of it: whiles the more grofle and heavic earthy parts ^having 
nothing i%the;ii to make a preicnt combination between them 
and the water) do fall down to the bottom, and (ctcle under the 
water in duft. 

In which becaufe earth alone doth predominate in a very 
great excefiCjWe can expect no oilier virtue to b? in it, but that 
which is proper to mere earth ; to wit, drineiie and we-ii;'-.:. 
Which ordinary Alchymifts look not after: and therefore cull ic 
terra damnata ' but others find a fixing quality in ir> by which 
they perform very admirable operations. Now if you pourc 
the impregnated water from the tcrr* dtimnaia, and then eva- 


170 A Trertife of BODIES. Chap. 1 y. 

porate it, you Will find a pure wince ftibftance remaining: 
Which L>y it* bulk fhcweth itfeif to be very earthy, and by ns 
pricking, and corrofive tafte, will inform you much fire is in ir, 
anci by ks cafie difloludon in a moift place, that water had a 
greit {hare in the production of it. And thus the files of bodies 
are made and extracted. 

Now as water, doth diffolvefaltjfo by the incorporation and 
-h virtue of that corrofive fubftancc it doth more then fair it fclf 

ia!:, hccomtli Gan do:for bavins gotten acrimony, and more weight by the 

a molt power- j -/-r , rr i i i /- i r . 

fiiii figt to mixture and dnloiution or (alt in t, it maketh it felt a way into 
lodic VC thcr flide bodies, even into metall^ as we fee in braffe and iron ; 
which areeafily ruftcd by diflolving upon diem. And ac- 
cording as the falts arc Wronger* fo thij corrofive virtue encreaf- 
cth in diem, even fomuchj as neither fjlvcr nor gold arc free 
from their eating quality. But they, as well as the reft, arc 4- 
vided into inoft imall parts, and are made tofwimmein \vater, 
in K-ch fort as we hare explicated above, and whereof every or- 
dinary Alchyrnift teacheth the pra&ife. 

But this is not all ; falts do help as well to melt hard bodies 

and rnctalls, as to corrode them : for fome fufible fairs flowing 

upon them by the hett of the fire, and others dilTolved by the 

fleam of the metall that incorporated with them; as foon as 

they are influxe, they mingle with the naturall juice of the me- 

tall, and penetrate them deeper, then without them the fire 

couW do, and iwell them and make them fit to run. 

i Thefeare the principal! wayes of the two laft infhuments in 

onilcau r fcd. ai diflblving of bodies ; taking each of them by it fclf. But there 

remaincth one more of very great importance, as well in the 

works of nature as of art 5 in which, both the former arc ;oyn- 

cd and do concurre : and that is putrefaction. Wfcofewayof 

working is by gentle heat and moifture to wet and pierce the 

body it workcth upon ; whereby, it is made to fwcll : and the 

hot parts of it, being loofcned, they arc at length drunk up and 

drowned in the moirr, ones (from whence, by fire they are cafi- 

ly feparated as we have already declared ; ) and thofe moi/l 

parts, afterwards leaving it, the fubftancc remaineth dry, and 

fallcth in pieces, for want of the gicvv that held it together. 


Chap. 1 6. ATrutifeof BODIES. 17*' 


exflicatton of certain Afaxintes touching the tpirations 
and qualities of bodies : and whet her the Elements b e found, 
pure in any part of the world. 

OUt of what we have determined, concerning the naturall 
a&ions of bodies, in their making and destroying one an* whatf* the 
other; it is eafic to underftand the right meaning of fome terms, f P hc . rc of 
and the true reafbnof fomemaximes much ufed in the fchools. 
As fi rft when Philofophers attribute unto all forts of corpo- 
rcall Agents, a Sphere of Atttvttie. The fenfe of that manner 
of cxprem"on, in fire appeareth plainly, by what we have al- 
ready declared of the nature and manner of operation of that 

And in like manner, if we ronfidef how the force of cold con- 
/ifteth in a compreffion of the body that is made cold, we may- 
perceive that if in the cooled body there be any fubtile parts 
which can break forth from the refbfuch comprcflion will make 
them do fo. Efpecially, ifthecompreflion be of little parts of the 
comprefled body within thcmfelves, as well as of the outward 
bulk of the whole body round about : for at firft the compreffi- 
on of fuch cauftth in the body, where they are, little holes or 
pores in the places they arc comprdfcd and driven from which 
pores they filled up when they were dilated at their own natu- 
rall liberty. But being thus forcibly flirunk up into lefle room,, 
afterwards, they ftjueefe again out of their croud all fuch very 
loofcand fubcile parts (refidingtill ttan with them) as c.m find 
their way out from among them. And thde fubtile parts that 
thus arc delivered from the eolde comptclTion, get firft into the 
pores that we have lliewcd were made by thiscornpreflion. But 
they cannot long (Jay there ; for the atomes of advenicivt cold 
that obfcffe the comprefled body, do hkevvife v\idi all their 
force throng into thole pores, and loon drive out the fubtile 
guefts thry find there, becaufe they are more in number, bigger 
in bulk, ml more violent in their coitrfe then they. Who there- 
fore muli yield unco them the little channels, and capacities they 
formerly took up. Out of which they are thruft with fuch an 
impctuofmc, chat they fpinne from them wkh a vehemence, as 



The rcafon 
why no body 
can xvork in 

through leather, when to purrfie it, or to bring 
an Amalgamate a due confidence, it is (trained through the 
fides of it. 

Now thefe fliowrs or ftreams of atomes ilfuing from thecom- 
prcfled body, are on all fides round about it at exceeding little 
dirtances; becaufe the pores out of which they are driven, arc fo 
likewife. And coniequcntly, there they remain round about bc- 
fieging it, as though they would return to their originall homcsi 
as loon as the ufurping Grangers that were too powerfull for 
them, will give them leave. And according to the multitude of 
them,and to the force with which they are driven out; the com- 
paflethey take up round about the comprefled body ,is greater or 
lefTer. Which bciicging atomes are notfo foon carried away by 
cny exterior and accidentall caufes, but they are fupplied by new 
emanations fuccceding them out of the laid comprefTed body. 

Now this which we have declared by the example of- cold, 
comprefling a particular body, hapneth in all bodies wherefo- 
ever they be in the world : for this being the unavoydablc effect 
of heat and ofcold> wherefoever they refide ; fwhich are the 
active qualities, by whofe means not onely fire and water and 
the other two Elements ; but all other mixed bodies competed 
of the Elements, have their activity) and they being in all bo- 
dies whatfoevcr(as we have proved abovc)it followeth evident- 
Jy,that there is not a body in the world,biit hath about it felfan 
orbe of emanations of the fame nature which that body is of. 
Wilhin thccompafle of which orbe,when any other body com- 
eth that receiveth an hnmtitation by the little atomes whereof 
that orbe is compofed, the advenient body feemeth to be a(fedl- 
edand as it were replenished with the qualities .of the body from 
whence they iflue. Which is then faid to work upon the body 
that imbibcth the emanations that flow from it. And becauie 
this orbe(regularly fpeaking) is in the form of a lphere,the paf- 
five body is faid to be within the fphere of the others a&ivity. 

Secondly, when Philofophers pronounce : that tfo corpore- 
<*// nature can opcrari in difttns' that is, that no body can work 
upon another remote from it, without working firft upon the 
body that lieth between them, which muft continue and piece 
up the operation from the agent to the patient. The rea(bn and 
truth of this maxime is in our Philofbphy evidentjrbr we having 



Chap. 1 6. ATrtAttfeof BODIES. 173 

{hewed that action among bodies is performed for the moft part 
by the emiffion ofiittle pares out of one body into another : as 
alfb, that fuch little parts cannot ftream from the body that is 
their fountain, and fettle upon a remote body, without pafling 
through the interjacent bodies ; which muft furnifh them, as it 
were, with channels and pipes to convey them whither thcj^arc 
to go ; It followeth manifeftly, that the a&iveemhTaries ofthc 
Working body, can never reach their diftant mark, unleiTe they 
be fuccefllvely ferried over the medium, that lieth between them; 
in which, they muft needs leave impreflions of their having been 
there, and fo work upon it in their pafTage, and leave in it their 
qualities and complcxions;as a payment for their waftage over. 
But peradventure fome may contend, that thefe invifible fer- 
jeants and workmen are too feeble and impotent to perform j. 
thofc vifible great effects we daily fee. As when fire at the length An objcaio 
burneth a board that hath been a great while oppofed to it, gainTthe ma 
though it touch not the body ofthc fire ; or when a loadftonc n . cr f "plica- 

o L r- L j-n t- ting me former 

draweth unto it a great weight ot iron that is diltant from it. 

Unto whom we (hall reply, that if he will not grant thefe 
fubtilc emanations from the agent body, to be the immediate 
workers of tliefc effects ; he muft allot that efficacy unto the 
whole corpulency of all the Agent working in bulk (for befides 
the whole, and the parts there is no third thing to beconfidered 
in bodies; fince they are confticuted by quantity;^ but the whole 
cannot work otherwife then by locall motionrwhich in this ca/e 
it cannot do, becaufe by the fuppefition, it is determined to keep 
its diftance from the paflive body, and not to move towards rr. 
Therefore, this is impoflible ; whereas the other can appear but 
difficult at the worft, and therefore muft be admitted, when no 
better and more intelligible folution can be found. 

But withall we muftjiore that it is not our intention to fay, 
but that it may in fome circumftaces happen that fome particular 
action or effect may be wrought in a remote part or body, \v ch 
flial not be the fame in the intermediate body that lieth between 
the agent and the patient, & that conveyeth the agents working 
atomes to the others body.As for example when tinder or naph- 
tha is by fire made to burn at a yard diftancc from it . when the 
interjacent aireis but warmed by that fire. Or when the fuit, by 
means of a burning-glade or of fome other reflexion, fetccih 

L S. Chap. 16". 

fo'.r.e bodies on fire, ami yet onely enlighteneth thcglafle and 
the airc that are in the way. The realon of which is manifeft 
to be the divers difpofitions of the different fubjeAs in regard 
of the Agent : and therefore it is no wonder that divers cfte&s 
(hould be produced according to chofe divers dilpofitions. 
4. \ third pofition among Philofophcrs is ; that all bodies which 

ofrcactionand vvork upon others, do like wife as the fame time, wherein they 
'"ron^'ac work; fuflFer from thofc they work uponrand contrariwifethat 
^."l ail bodies which fuflfer from others, do at the fame time work 
back agam upon them. For the better understanding whereof, 
Jet us confider thnt all action among .bodies is either purely lo- 
call motion, or clfe locall motion with certain particularities 
which give ic a particular name. As when we expreflfe the lo- 
call motion of little atomes of fire, or of earth.- or water upon i 
and into other bodies by the words of heating or cooling ; and 
fo of the likjc.Now if the action be pure locall morion.and con- 
fequently rhe crTer produced by that adion be merely change of 
place ; we mutt call to mind how two dcnfe bodies moving one 
sgaintt the other, do each of them bear before them fomelittle 
quantity ofa rarer body immediately joyned unto them : and 
confcquently,thele more rare bodies mutt be the firft to feel the 
power of the dcnfe bodies and to receive impreflions from their 
motions ; each of them, by the oppofite rare body, which like 
an huifTicr gocth before to make way for his following matter 
that obligeth him to this fervice. 

Now when thele rare nfliers have ttruggled a while like the 
firft lightly-armed ranks of two armies in the interjacent field 
between their main batnlies,that follow them clofc at the heels, 
they muft at the length yield, when they are overborn by a 
greater weight then they can Hiftain;and then they rccoile back, 
as it were to fave themfelves by getting in among the files of 
denfc bodies that drove them on ; which not opening to admit 
them,& yet they ftill flying violently from the mattering force 
that pnrfueth thena ; they prcfTe To hard upon what at the firft 
preffcd them on, as notwithstanding their denfity and ftrength 
they force them to retire back : for unlelfe they do fo, they are 
not of the number of thofe that work upon one another. 

And this cithrr on both fides, or but of one fide.lf 
both; then ic is evident how each of them is an A gent, and each 


Chap. 1 6. 4 TrtAtifi of B O D I E S. 

of them a fuflferer ;cach of them overcoming his opposite in ftich 
fort, as himff If likcwifc receiveth blows and lofle. But ifonely 
one of the denfe bodies be fo fhocked as to recoile back, then 
thatonely fuffereth in iis body, and the other lufTercth oncly in 
itsvirtuejthat is ; in theaireor other rare body it fendcth before 
it ; which itdriveth with fuch a violence, that it maftcreth and 
qiiclleth the opposition of the other body, before it can reach to 
(hake the denle body, before which it runrrcrh. Yet that rare 
body muft be prefled and broken inco, in fdme meafnre, by the 
incoumer of the other(which though never fo vveak yet maketh 
fbme refiftance)but much more when it cometh to grapple with 
the denfe body it felf : and fo between them, it is wounded and 
infeeblcdjlifce thofe fbuldiers that firft enter a breach in a town, 
from whence when they have driven the enemy, they purfue 
him to the cittadell,and force him from thence too ; and fb how 
maimed foever they prove,they make a free &cafie way without 
refinance for the whole body of their army to follow them, and 
take quiet poifeflion of that which did eoft them fo much to win. 
And thus we fee how it may happen that one of thefe moving 
bodies doth not fuflfer fo much as to be flayed in its journey ; 
much lelfe, to be driven back. And yet the other body at the 
fame time work in fome meafure upon it, by working upon 
what is next to it; which recoiling againft it muft needs make 
fome impreflion upon it, fincc there can be no opposition but 
muft have fbme effect. Now this imprcflfion or efFe6l, though 
it be not perceptible by caufing a contrary motion, yet it muft 
needs infeeblc the virtue of the conquering Agent, & deaden the 
celerity of its motion. And thus it is evidentj that in all pure lo- 
call motions of corporeall Agents, every one of them muft in 
ibme proportion fuflfer in a6tmg, and in differing muft air. 

And what we have faid of this kind of aftion, may eafily be 
applyed to the other where the effect of locall motion is den> The former do- 
pned by a particular name, as it is in the examples we gave of & applyed; 

P . ,. . , . , j- -ii toother locaJ 

heatrng and cooling. And m that, the proceeding vviU appear to motions defign- 
be the very fame as in this; for if fire doth heat water 5 thc water 
readtcth again .either upon the fire and cooleth it, if it be imme- 
cHatc unto it;or elfe upon the interjaccn: aire,if k be at a dittance 
from the fire. And fo the aire is in fome meafiire cooled, by the this way 
cold atomes that iffbe rrom the water^whofc compaflfe or fphere 


1 76* A Treat! ft of BODIES. Chap. 1 6. 

of aflivitity being leflcr then the fires, they cannot cool fo farre 
ofivas the others can heat : but where they do arrive, they give 
their proportion of cold, in the very midft of the others army of 
fiery ato:ncs, notwithstanding their multitude and violence. 

According to which do&rine, oureountrymin Suiflfeth his 
argument, that in the fchools is held infoluble,hath not fo much 
as any femblance of the lealt difficultyrfor it is evident that fuch 
acomes of fire and of water as we determine heat and cold to be, 
miy paflfc and croud by one another into the fubje^s they arc 
Tent unto by divers little ftreams without hindering one another 
(as we have declared of aire and light) and each of them be re- 
ceived in their own nature and temper by the fame fubjcft ; 
though fenle can judge onely according to which of them is pre- 
dominant, and according to the proportion ofits fuperiority. 

Upon which occafion we cannot chiife but note, how the do- 
<5hine of qualities is not onely unable to gire account of the or- 
dinary and plain effects of nature ; but allb ufeth to end in cleer 
impoflibilities and contradictions if it be driven far:as this argu- 
ment of SuiflTeth fheweth, and many others of the like nature. 
(,. A fourth pofition among Philofophers is, that fdme notions 

Why ibmc no- do admit the denominations of Intension and Remiffion, but that 
on\c(u>najid others do not.The reafon ofwhich we flhall clearly fee, if we but 
rettiffion > and confider how thefe termes tfintenfionAndremiflio*, do but ex- 
prcfTe more r leffe, ofthe thing that is faid to be intended or re- 
mitted :for the nature of more and lefle doth imply a latitude 
and divisibility ; and therefore cannot agree with the nature of 
fuch things as confift in an indivifible being. As for example to 
be a whole or to be an cqutll, cannot be fometrmes more, fome- 
timcs lefTe; for they confift in fuch a rigorous indivifible being, 
that if the leaft part imaginable be wanting it is no longer a 
whole, and if there be the leaft excefle between two things, they 
are no longer equall, but are in fome other proportion then of 
equality in regard of one another. 

And hence it is that Ariftotle teacheth us that fnbft*ncc and 
the fpecies of Quantity, do not admit of intension and remiffi- 
on;but that quality doth. For firft in fttbftaxce, we know that 
the fignification ofthis word is,that w ch maketh a thing be what 
it is, as is evident by our giving it for an anfwerto the quefti- 
on what a thing is. And therefore^ if there were any divifibility 


Chap. 16. *st Treatife of BODIES. , 77 

in fubftancc, it would be in what the thing is;and confcquently, 
every divifion following that divifibility, would make the thing 
another 7v/>.tf,that is another thing. And fo the fubftance that is 
pretended to be changed by intenfion er remiffion, would not be 
divided, as is fuppofed, but would ceafe to be, and another fub- 
ftance would fiicceed in the room of it. Whereby you fee that 
every mutation in fubftancc^maketh anew thing: and that more 
and lefTe in quiddity cannot be pronounced of the fame thing. 

Likewife in quantity, it is clear that its Speciefes do confift in 
an indivifible : for as in numbers, ten lions (for example) or ten 
Elephants are no more in regard of multitude then ten flees or 
ten motes in the funne ; and if you adde or take any thing from 
ten,it is no more ten, but fome other numbenfo likewife in con- 
tinued extenfion, a (pan, an ell, an ounce, or any other meafure 
whatfbever,ceafeth to be a fpan and the reft, if you adde to it or 
diminifli from it the leaft quantity Imaginable. And perad ven- 
ture, the fame is alfo of figures, as of a fphere, a cube, a circle, a 
fquare,&c. though they be in the rankc of qualities. 

But if we coniider fuch qualities as heat, cold, moyfture, dri- 
ncfleJbftnefre 3 hardneflV,weight>lightne(re,andthe likcjwe fhall 
find that they may be in any body fomctimes more, fbmetimes 
lefle, ( according as the excefle of any Element or mixture is 
greater in it, at one time then at another) and yet the body in 
which theft qualities are intended or remitted, remain ftill with 
the fame denomination. As when durt continueth ftill foft, 
though fbmetimes it be leflc fbft,other whiles fofterjand wax re- 
maineth figurable, whether it be melted or congealedjand wood 
is ftill hot though it lofe or gain fomc degree of heat. 

But fuch intenfion in any fubjecl: whatfocver hath its determi- 
nate limits that it cannot paflc ; for when more of that quality 
that we fay is intendcd(that is, more of the atomcs of the active 
bodyjis brought into the body that fuflFereth the intenfion, then 
its complexion can brook; it refigncth its nature to thair violence 
and becometh a new thing ; fuch an one as they arepleafed to 
make it. As when wood,with extremity ofheating(thatis, with 
bringing into it fo many atomcs of fire, that the fire is ftronger 
in it then its own nature) is converted into fire, fmoke, water, 
and afhes; and nothing remaineth of the nature of wood. 
But before we end this chapter, we may remember how in the 

M cloTc 

i 7 8 A TretiifecfftODlES. Chap. 16. 

part of our ha- of the fourth \ve remitted a queftion concerning the exigence of 
ai"ihe*rore E- the Elements; (that is, whether in any places of the world there 
lemcnts, aic wcre an y pure Elements, either in bulk or in little parts; )as be- 

foiindpurc in . ' r . r . . ... . , , . . / '* ~ 

(mail atomes; ing not ready to reiolve it, till we had declared the manner of 
b Jcatbuik. any working of bodies one upon another. Here then will be a fit 
place to determine that, out of what we have difcourfed con. 
cernirg the actions, whereby bodies are made and corrupted : 
for conhVerirg the univcrfal a&ion of fire that runneth through 
all the bodies we have commerce withall, by reaibn of the funs 
influence into them and operation upon them with his light and 
beams which rencheth far andnearjand looking upon the effects 
which we have {hewed do followthencerit is ma nifeft, there can- 
not be any great quantity of any body wrutfbevenin which fire 
is not intrinfecally mixed. And on the other fide, we fee that 
where fire is once mixed ic is very hard to feparate it totally 
from thence. Again , we fee it is impoffible that pure fire fliould 
be conferred , without being adjoyned to fbme other body ; both 
becaufe of its violent nativity, ftill ftreaming forth with a great 
impetuofity; as alto becaufe it is foeafily overcome by any obli- 
dent body when it is dilated. And therefore we may fafcly con- 
clude, that no fimple Element can confift in any great quantity 
in this courfe of nature which we live in and take a furvey of. 
Neither doth it appear to what purpoie nature fliould have 
placed any fuch ftorehoufes offimples, feeing flie can make all 
needful! complexions by the ditfblutions of mixed bodies imoo- 
thcr mixed bodies favouring of the nature ofthe Elements, with- 
out needing their purity to begin upon. 

But on the other fide it is as evident that the Elements muft 
remain pure in every compounded body in fuch extreme fmall 
parts as we ufe to call atomes : for if they did not,thc variety of 
bodies would be nothing elfc, but ib many degrees of rarity and 
den(ity> or fo many pure homogeneall Elements.and not bodies 
eompofed of heterogeneall parts:and confeqaently would not be 
able to /hew that variety of parts which we fee in bodies, nor 
could produce the complicated effe&j which proceed from them. 
And accordingly we are fure that the leaf! pans which our fen- 
fcscan arrive to difcoyer have many varieties in them : cvenfo 
much that a whole living creature (whole organicall parts muft 
needs be of exceeding different natures ) may be Ib lictlc,as unt 


Chap." 17. A Trcatifcof BODIES. \19 

our eyes to fecm indivifiblcjwe not diftinguiftiing any difference 
of parts in it without the help of a multiplying glafle : as in the 
lead kind of mites, and in wormes picked out of ch Wrens hands 
we dayly experience. So as it is evident that no lenfible part can 
be unmingled. But then again, when we call to mind how we 
have (hewed that the qualities which we find in bodies do rcfult 
out of the compoiition, and mirtion of the Elements, we muft 
needs conclude, that they muft of necefficy remain in their own. 
efleiiccs in the mixed body. And fo out of the whole difcour(e, 
determine that they arc not there in any vifible quantity, but in 
thole leaft atomes, that are too fubtilc for our fenfes to difccrn. 
Which pofition we do not undcrftand fb Metaphysically as to 
fay that their fubftantiall forms remain actually in the mixed 
body ; but onely that their accidcntall qualities are found in the 
compound ; remitting that other queftion unto Metaphyficuns 
(thofe fpirituall Anatomifh) to decide. 


OfRarffitttiott *d Condenfation, the two firft motions 
ff particular bodies. 

OUr intention in this difcourfe, concerning the natures and 
motions of bodies, aiming no further then at the difcovery 
of what is or may be done by corporeall Agents; thereby to de- 
termine what is the work of immaterial & fpirituall fubftances ; lowing chap- 
it cannot be expected at our hands that we fhould deliver here 
an intire and complete body of naturall Philofbphy. But onely 
that wefliould take fo much of it in our way, as is needfull to 
carry us with truth and evidence to our journeyes end. It be- 
longeth not then to us to meddle with thofc fublime contem- 
plations which fearch into the nature of the vafi Univerfe, and 
that determine the unity and limitation of it ; and that (hew by 
what firings, and upon pinnes, and wheels, and hinges, the 
whole world moreth : and that from thence do afcend unco 
an awfull acknowledgement and hucnble admiration of the 
primary cauft ; from whence, and ef which, both the being 
of it, and the beginning of the firft motion, and the continuance 
otall others doth proceed and depend. 

Nor indeed would it be to the purpofe for any man to fail ift 

M ** tbic 



That bodies 
rmy be rarifi- 
ed, both by 
omward and 
and how tlii* 
ijKi formed. 

A Treatife of B O D I E S. Chap. 1 7. 

this Ocean, and to begin a new voyage of navigation upon it : 
unleflc he were a(Tured, he bad ballaft enough in his fhipto 
make her fink deep into the Water and to carry her fteddily 
through thofe unruly waves ; and that he were furniflied with 
skill & provlfion fufficicnt to go through , without either lofing 
his courfeby fleering after a wrong compafle> or being forced 
back again with fhort and obfcure relations ofdiicoveries : fince 
others that went out before him, are returned with a large ac- 
count to fuch as are able to understand and fummc it up. Which 
iurely our learned countreyman,and my beft and moft honoured 
friend, and to whom of all men living I am mort obliged ffor to 
him I owe that little which I know; and what I have,and fliall 
Jet down in all this di/courfe, is but a few (parks kindled by me 
at his great fire)hath both profbundly,and acutely, and in every 
regard judicioufly performed in his Dialogues of the world* 

Our task then (in a lower ftrain; and more proportionate to 
fo weak flioulders) is to look no further then among thofe bo- 
dies we converfe withall. Ofwbichi having declared by what 
courfeand engines nature governeth their common motions, 
that are found even in the Elements, and from thence are deri- 
ved to all bodies competed of them ; we intend now to confidcr 
fuch motions as accompany divers particular bodies, and are 
much admired by wholbevcr underftandtth not the caufes of 

To begin from the eafieft and moft connexed with the acti- 
ons of the Elements, the handfell of our labour will light upon 
the motions of Rarcftftion And. Condtfati9 y as they arc the 
paflions of mixed bodies. And firft for Rarefaction ; we may re- 
mercbcr how it proceedeth originally from fire, and dependeth 
ofheat;as is declared in the former chaptcrrand wherefoevcr we 
find Rarefailion,we may be confident the body which fuffereth 
it,is not without fire working upon it. From hence we may ga- 
thcr,that when the aireimprifbned in a baloonor bladder,fwel- 
Jcth againft whatcontaineth it;andftretcheth its cale, and feek- 
eth to break out ; this effcifc muft proceed from fire or heat 
f though we fee not the firc)working either within the very bow- 
els of the airc, or without, by prelTing upon what containeth 
ir, and ib making it fclf a way unto it. 

, And that this latter way is able to yvork this effect , may 


Chap, 17. ^rrrM///^/BODIES. 181 

be convinced by the contrary effect from a contrary caufe : for 
take a bladder itrctched out unto ks greateft extent by aire (hut 
up within it; and hang it in a cold placejand you will fee ic pre- 
fently contract it felr'imo a lefle roome ; and the bladder will 
grow wrinckled and become too big for the aire within it. But 
tor immediate proof of this pofitioi^we fee that the addition of a 
very fmall degree of heat, rarifieth the aire in a weather-glade, 
fthe aire receiving the imprcflion ofheat,fooner then water) ind 
fo makcth it extend it felf into a greater place; and consequently, 
ic preflerh upon tV water; and forceth it down inroalefle 
roomc then formerly it poflcffed. And likewile we fee quickfil- 
ver and other liquors, if they be fhut up in glaOes clofe flopped 
and fet in fufficient heac ( and a little is fuffieient for this effect ) 
they will (well and fill their glaflcs ; and at the laft break them, 
rather then no: find a way to give themfelves more roome ; 
tthich is then grown too ftraight in the glaffe, by reafon of the 
rarefaction of the liquors by the fire working upon them. 

Now again ; that this effect may be wrought by the inward 
heat, that is enclofed in the bowels of the fubftance thus (hut up; 
both reafon and experience do aflure us : for, they teach us that 
if a body which is not extremely compacted, but that by ics 
Joofenefle is eafily divifiblc into little parts (Yiich a oneas wine, 
or other fpirituall liquors) be inclofed in a vcffell ; the little a- 
tomes that perpetually move up and down in every fpace of the 
whole world, making their way through every body, will fet on 
\\ork the little parts,in the wine for cxample,to play their game : 
fo that the hot and light parts^if chey be many)"not enduring to 
be comprefled and kept in by the heavie and cold ones, do (eek 
to break out with force ; and till they can fiee them/elves front 
the denfe ones that would imprifon them they carry them along 
\vi:h them, and make them to fwell o'lt as well as themfelves. 

Now if they be kept in by the yeflell, fo that they hive not 
play enough;they drive the denfe ones (like fo many lirtle ham- 
mers or wedges)igainft the fides ofit,and at the length dob"eak 
it,and fo do make themfelves w ay,to a larger roome. But if they 
have vent, the more fiery hot fpirits fly away, & leaye the other 
grofTer parts quiet and at reft. On the other fide if the hot and 
light parts in a liquor be not miny nor very adivc, and the 
Ycflell be fa full that the parts have not frcefcopc to remove 

M and 

^Trettife cf KO DIES. Chap. 17. 

and make way for one another > there will not follow any 
great cffe& in this kind: as we fte in bottled beer or ale, that 
worketh little, unlcfle there be fome fpace left empty, in the 
bottle. And again; if the veflfell be very much to big for the li- 
quour in it, the fiery parts find room, fiifi to fwell up the hea-. 
vy oiicsjand at the length to get out from them. though the ve- 
fel be clofe topped; for they have fcope enough to float up and 
down between the furface of the liquour, and the roof of the 

And this is the realbn that if a little beer or fmall wine be 
lefc long in a great cask, be it never fo clofe flopped, it will in 
time grow dead. And then, if at the opening of the bung ( a- 
ner the cask hath been long unftirred ) you hold a candle clofc 
to kj you fhall at the inftant fee a fla(h of flame environing the 
vent. Which is no other thing, but the fubtile (piths that part- 
ing from the beer or wine, have left it dead; and flying abroad 
as foo as they are permitted, are let on fire by the flam* thae 
they meet with in their jeurney, a* being morecombuftible(bc- 
caule more fubtile) then that fpirit of wine which is kept in form 
of Hquour : ajid yet that likewife ( though ipuch groffer ) is fee 
on fire by the toeh of flame, And this happeneth not onely to 
wfie, tnd beer, or ale, but even to water. As dayly experience 
fheweth in the eaft Indian fhips, that having b^en 5 or 6 year* 
at fea, when they open feme of thek casks of Thames warer 5n 
their return Viomewardsf for they keep tfiat water till the laft; as 
being their be-ft and mpft durable^and that grweth lighter and 
ptirer , by tl^ often putrifyins through violent motions in 
ftorms every or>e of which maketh new groflc and earthy pares 
fall down to the boetowe, and otter volatile enes alcend to the. 
top;) a flame is feen about their bungs if a candle be we 
faid before of wine. 

And to proceed, with cefiriing this do$nnc by further ex- 
perience; we dayly fee tbat the litde pares of heat being agitated 
and brought into motion in any body;they enter ac<d pierce into 
ther partc,& incorporate themfclvcs with them,nd (k diem on 
fire if they be capable thereof: as we fee in wetli^y or flax laid 
tegcther i great quantky. And if tl>ey be noto^ablc of raking 
fire,*hcn they carry them with them t-o theou*<uie;& wl>en duy 
can traflfporuhem no ftirther.pact flics away,& otlxr part ft ales 


Chap. 17. v* Trit'ifi *f B O D I E S. 

with thermal w* fee in new beer or flle,& in muft of wine ji 

a uibftance uiiully called the mother, is wrought up to the top. 

Which in wine, will at the hft be converted into Tartar; 
when the fpirks that arc very volatile, gre flown away; and do 
leave thoTe parts froua whence they hav.ev*poratcd,morc groifc 
and earthy then tlve attars, where the grader and fubtiler parts 
continue ttill inix^d. Rur, in beer or rather it) ale ; this mother, 
which in them we call barm, will continue longer in the fame 
confidence, and with the fame qualities; for thelphits of it are 
aoc ib fiery that they in lift prcfently leave the body they have in- 
corporated therrfelves withall ; nor arc hot enough tobaJkeit 
into a hard confidence. And therefore bakers make ufe of it to 
xaife their bread; which .neither it will dk>,urtlcflTe it be kept from 
cold; both which, are evident Cgncs that it works in force, of heat; 
andconlequcntly, that it continucth ftill a bo,t& liglu liibftance. 
And again wefee that after wine orbecr hath vviought once, 
a violent motion will make it work anew. As is dayly icen ia 
great lightnings and in thunder, and by much racking /of them; 
ixar fuch motion rarifieth, and confequently hcatech them: partly 
by feparating the little parts of the liqueur, which were before as 
glewcd together, and therefore lay quietly; but now, by their 
pulling afunder,and by the liqueurs growing thereby morclooic 
then it was, -they have frccdomc to play up and downiand partly 
by beating one part againft another; which breaketh and divi- 
deth them into lefTer atomcs,& fb brlngeth fome of them into the 
ftatc of fire; which you may remember ,is nothing elfe but a body 
brought into fuch a degree of UttlencrTe and rarity of its pares. 
And this is the reafon why fuch hard and drie bodies as have 
an unctuous fubftance in them, are by motion cither eafily feton 
re, or at the leaft, fire is eafily gotten out of them. As happen^- 
eth in flints, and in divers other ftones, which yield fire when 
they are rtrucken; and if prefcndy after you fmcll unto them, 
yoiifhall perceive an odour of brimftone and of burning which 
i* a certain figne that the motion did convert into fire the natu- 
irall brimftone that was mingled with the flint, and wbofe den- 
ier parts were grown cold, and fo fkick to the ftoue. And in like 
manner, the ivy wood and divers others>as alfo t!xr Indian canes 
(which from thence are called firccanqs ) being rubbed with 
Ibine other ftick of the fame nature; if they be firft very dry, will 

M 4 of 

i $4 A Treatifi of B O D I E S. Cfap. 1 7. 

of thernfelvcs fet on fire : and the like vv'ill happen to coach- 
wheels in the iiimmer if they be overheated with motion. 
2. To conclude our difcourfe of rarcht&ion,we may look a little 

or therrat into the power and erficacity of ic, which is no where to be teen 
faction? **''*' * c ^ ear ^y as m ^ re - And as fire is the generall caufe of rarefa- 
clion, fo is it of all bodies that which is moft ratified. Ami 
therefore it is no marvail if its effects be the greateft thac are in 
nau:ic, feeing it is the proper operation of the moil ailive Ele- 
ment. The wonderful! force of it we dayly fee in thunder, in 
guns, in granado's, and in mines; of which, continuall experi- 
ence, as.well as feverail hirtorics witnefleth little lefle then mi- 
racles. Leaving them ro the remarks of curious perfons, \ve will 
onely loo'< inco the way by which lo main effects do proceed 
from caufes that appear fo (lender. 

It is evident that fire (as we have faid before ) dilatcth ic 
fclf fphcrically; as nature fhewcth us manifefily in bubbles of 
boyliog water, and of milk, and generally of inch fubttances as 
are of a vifcuous compofition; for thole bubbles being rounci,do 
aflure us that the ciule which made them, did equally dilate 
them from the center unto all parts. Now then rcmembring the 
infinite multiplication which is in fire, we may conceive that 
when a grain of gun-powder is turned thereinto, there Ire fo 
many little bubbles of a vifcuous fubftance one backing ano- 
ther with great celerity , as there arc parts of fire more then 
there uere of gun-powder. And if we make a computation of 
the number and of the celerity of thele bubbles, we fliall find 
that although every one of them (ingle do fccm to be of an in- 
conficierable force, yet the whole number of them together, will 
exceed the refinance of the body moved or broken by them: e* 
fpccially* if vve note, that when hard fubttances have not time 
allowed them to yickhthcy break the fboner. And then we lliall 
not fo much admire the extremities we fccadrcd by thcfc meins. 
Thus hating looked into the nature of rarefaction, and traced 
The firitman. ^ 1C prcgrcffc of it from the motion -of the fun & fiicjin the next 
nerofconien- place we arc to examine t!;c nature of condcnfacion. And we 
' fliall find it likcvvifean effeclofthe iiinccauie other- 
wife working: for there being two different vvaycs to dry any 
\\ctthinp; the one, by taking away that juyce which makcrh a 
body liquid; the ether,. by putting more drought to the wet bo- 

Chap. 17. j* Treatifi of BODIES. 185 

dy, that it may imbibe the moifture; this latter way doth, as 
well as the former, condenic a body: for by the clo/c flicking 
of wet to dry, the moft part ofcondenfation is effected in com- 
pounded bodies. 

The firft of thele wayes.doth properly and immediately pro- 
ceed from heat ; for heat cntring into a body, incorporated! ic 
felf with the moift and vifcuous parts it findeth there: as purging 
medicines do with the humours they work upon ; which when 
the flomack can no longer entertain ( by reafon of their unruly 
motions in \vreftling together ) they are both ejected grappling 
with one another; and the place of their contention is thus, by 
the fupcrvenience of a guefl of a contrary nature ( that will noc 
flay long there ) purged from the fuperabundancc of the for- 
mer ones that annoyed it. Even fo,thc fire that is greedily drunk 
up by the watry and vifcuous parts of a compounded bodyjand 
whole a$ivity and reftlefle nature will not endure to belong 
imprifoned there, quickly pierceth quite through the body it en- 
tereth into, and after a while flreameth out at the oppofite fide, 
as fad as it entered on the fide next to it, and carrieth away 
w ith it thole glewy parts it is incorporated with : and by their 
ablence, leaveth the body they part from, dryer then at the firll 
it was. 

Which courfe we may observe in firrups that are boyled to 
a confiftence ; and in broths that are confumed unto a jelly: over 
which, whiles they are making by the fire under them, you fee 
a great fleam; which is, the watry parts that being incorporated 
with fire, flie away in irnoke. Likewile when the lea-water is 
condenfed into fait, you fee it is an effect of thel'imne or fi:c 
that exhaleth or boylcth away all the palpable moi/rurc. A:d 
fo when wet cloches are handed cither in the funnc cr at the 


fire, we fee a iinoke about the clothes^and heat within them; 
which being all drawn out from them, they become dry. 

And this deferveth a particular note, that although they 
fhould be nor quire dry, when you take them from the fire; ye: 
by then they arc cool. they will bedryrfbr the fire that is in them 
when they are removed from the main fleck of fire.ilyinqaway 
carriech with ic the moiflure that was incorporated with it; and 
thcicfore whiles they were hor,that is, whiles the fire was in them 
they mud alfo b? njoiir; bccau.'c.d.c fire and the mj;(lure were 


Trutlfeof BODIES. Chap.iy. 

grown to be one bodyr&could not become through dry wi 
incafure of fire,ffor more would have drycd thcrn, even whiles 
they were hot ) untill they were alfo grown ch rough cold. And 
in like manner, firupcs, hydrcmels, gcllies, and the like grow 
much thicker a fee* they are taken off from the fire, then they 
v. ere upon tbc fire,ad much of their humidity flieth away whii 
the fire, in their cooling, whereby they leffen much of their quao*- 
city, evert afcer the outward fire hath ceated from working up* 
on them. 

Now if the nioift parts, that remain after the drying, be by 
the heat well incorporated in the dry parts; and fo do occation 
the dry parts to ftick cloic together; then that body is condrn- 
fecLaiad will ( to the proportion of it) be heavier in a ieflc bulk; 
as we Tee that metalls are heavier then ftonec. 

Although this etfc&be in chclc examples wrought by heat, 
Thefccon4 V^ generally fpcaking it is more proper to .cold: which is the 
manner of con- {ecod way of drying a moift body. As when in Greenland, 
c5d" W the extreme cold frcelcth the \vhaJefifhers beer into ice, lo that 

the ftcwards divide it with axes ami wedges^ and deliver thck 
portions of drink to their lliips company, and their fhallopes 
.pjngSjin their bare handsrbut in the innermoft part of the butte, 
they find Ibme quantity of very ftrong liqueur, not inferiour to 
moderate fpirit of wine. At the firft, before currome had made it 
familiar unto them, they wondered that every time they drew 
at the tap, when firrt it came from their fhips to the fhorc ( for 
the heat of the hold would not let it frecfe) no Jiquour would 
come, unleflb they new tapped it with a longer gimlctrbut they 
thought that pains well recompenced,by finding it in the taft to 
grow ftronger and ftrongerjtill at the Jaft,their Jongert gimlets 
would bring nothing out;& yet the veflfellnot a quarter drawn 
off; which obliged them then to flare the cask, that fo tkey 
might make ufe of the fubftance that remained. 

Tkc reafon of this, ic evident : that cold feeking to condenfc 
the lcr by mingling its dry and cold parts with it, thofethat 
would indurc this mixture, were imbibed and fhrunkupby 
them. But the other rare and hot parts that were fqueelcd out 
by the denfc ones which entered to congeal the beer, and were 
forfcd into the middle of the veflfel (which was the ftirtheft part 
for them to retire unto/rom their invironing caernies)did con. 


Chap. 17. A Tnttifitf BODIES. 

6rve themfelvei in theitr liquid fbrru> in defiance of thf a/fault- 
ing cold j whites their fellows, regaining by their departure 
rnoregroflc and earthy then they were before, yielded to the 
conquerour^they could not (Lift away from, and fo were drycd 
nd condensed in ice : which when the mariners thawed, they 
found it like fair? water, without any fpirits in it or comfort- 
ing heat to the ftomack.. 

This manner of condenfation, which we hare defcribed in the 
freeing of beer, is the way nioft pra&ifed by nature ; I mean, 
for immediate condenfation ( for condenfation is fecondarily, 
wherefoever there is rarefaction which we have determine*! tp 
be an eflheCt, of heat. ) And the courfe of it is : that a multitude 
of earthy and dry bodies being driven againft any liquon they 
eafily divide it, by means of their denfity, their dryneffe, and 
their JittkneiTc ( all which in this cafe do accompany one ano- 
ther j and are by us determined to be powerful! dividers- ) and 
wkcn they are gotten into it, they partly fuck into phcir own, 
pores the wet and diffused parts of the liquide body ; and partly 
they make them (wlaeu thsrafelves are full) ftick fa ft to their 
dry fides, and become as a glew to hold themfelves ftrongly to- 
gether. And thus th*y dry up the liquor ; an4 by the naturall 
pwrling of gravity they cotwraS it into a letter room. No o- 
therwife then when we force mucb wind or water into a bottle; 
and by preffing k more and more, make it ly* clofer then of its 
own nature it would do. Or rather, as wKe adis being mjn- 
^Led with water; both tho/c (ubttafiees do ftkk fQelofeEopne 
another, chat tliey take up Icflfc room then they did each apart. 

Tin* is the method of froft, anj f (how, and pf ice, j^cnh 
naturall and artificiall; for in natural! feeling, or^w-arily tlve 
north or nortKea/i vvjad l>y its force foripgeth attd drivccli inco 
ours liquours, fueh earthy bodies s it bath gwbred fr^m ropW 
covered with low; \vhkh facing mixed with the light vapours 
whereof the wind is made, do eanly fiiidwayin^o die liquors, 
and then they dry them into that con fifti#: which vyecjil ice. 
WiwcJ^ in token of the wind k hath in it, fwiminoth p/5n thp 
water, and in the jyeflcll r bere it is i\aade,rifeth bighec fae-n (J?e 
water dsd wheFcof k is tompofcd : and ordioadly U bre^^i 
from the ("ides of the vcflell, fo giving way loinpre vyiwi ti> 
*omcia f auci freefc deeper ajultliicker, 


i88 'Afruttfetf BODIES. Chap. 17. 

j. But bccaufe Galileus/^(// difcorfo intorno tulle cfe che /}*- 

Thatyce inrt r,o in fn I' AcqvA, p*f ,4. was of opinion chat vce was water ra- 

\vnre-rauf^ .r J 1 J I r J l\ O" L- 

tat eondcnfcd. titled, afld-iHtt condenled; we mint not pane over this verity, 
\vi:hoiit maintaining it againft the oppofition of fo powerful! an 
sdverfary. His arguments arc, firft that ycc taketh up more 
place then the wa*er did of which it was made; which is againft 
the nature ofcondenfation. Secondly, that quantity for quanti- 
ty yceis lighter then water; whereas things that are moredenfe 
are proportionally more heavy. And laftly,that ycc fwimmcth 
in water, \v!jcrea5 we taught, that the more denlc 
dcfccndeth in the more rare. 

Now to reply to thefe arguments, we fay firft, that we would 
gladly know how he did to meafurc the quanticy ofthe ycc,wich 
the quantity of the water of which it was made; and then when 
lie hath (hewed it, and fhewcd withall tha: yce holdeth more 
place then water; \ve muft tell him tliathis experiment conclu- 
dcth nothing agiinft our doihine, becaufe there is an addition 
of other bodies mingled with the water to make yce of it as we 
touched above; and therefore that compound may well take up 
a greater place then the water alone did, and yet be denfer then 
ir; and the water alfo be denfer then it was. 

A nd that other bodies do come inro the water and are min- 
gled with it, is evident out ofthe exceeding coldneflc of aire, or 
ibcnc very cold wind; oneof which two never mifleth to rcignc 
\vhenfoeverthcwater freezethrand both of them do argue great 
ftore of little earthy dry bodies abounding in them, whic!i 
fweeping over all thofe that lie in their way and courfe, muft of 
necefficy be mixed with fuch as give them admittance; which wa- 
ter doth very eafily. And accordingly we (ce that when in the 
freezing of water the yce growcth anything deep, it either (hrin- 
keth about the borders, or at the leaft lieth very loofe, fo as we 
cinnot doubt but that there is a free paiTagc for more of fuch 
fubtile bodies to get ftill to the water> and freez it deeper. 

To his fecond argument, we ask how he knowcth that yce 
quantity for quantity, is lighter then water ? For although of a 
fpunge that is full of water, it be cafic to know what the fpunge 
wcigheth, and what the water that was foked into it, becaufe 
we cart pirt the one of them from the other, and keep each a- 
part to examine their weights, yet to the like between yce and 


Chap. 1 7. A Treatife of B O D I E S. 18^ 

water^ifyce be throughout full ofaire(as of neceflity it muft be) 
we believe impoflible. And therefore it may be lighter in the 
bulk then water, by reafbn of the great pores caufcd in it, 
through the fhr inking up of the parts of water together (which 
pores muft then neceflarily be filled with aire) & yet every part 
by it felf (in which no aire is) be heavier then fo much water. 

And by this it appeareth that his laft argument ( grounded 
upon the fwimming of yce in water) hath no more force then if 
he would prove that an yron or an earthen dKh, were lighter, 
& confequently more rare then water, beciiife it fwimmeth upon 
it; which is an effect of the aires being contained in the belly of ic 
(as it is in yce ) not a figneofthe metalls being moie rare then- 

Whereas on the contrary fide, the proof is pofitive and clear 
for us; for it cannot be denied, but that the mingling of the wa- 
ter with other bodies more denfe then it, muft of neceflity make 
the compound and alfo the water it felf become moie denfe then 
it was alone. And accordingly we lee, that yce half thawedf for 
then much of the aire is driven out, and the water beginneth to 
fill the pores wherein the aire rc/ided before) finkcth to the bot- 
tom: as an iron difli with holes in it (whereby the water might 
get into it^would do. And bcfides we fee that water is moie 
diaphanous then yce,and yce more confident then watcr.Therc- 
fore I hope we fliall be excuied, ifin this particular we be of a- 
contrary opinion to this great perfbnage. 

But to return unto the thrid of our difcourfe. The fame that ~ 
paffeth here before us, pafleth alfo in the sky with fnow, hatl, HowwinJ, 
rain, and wind. Which that we may the better undcrftand, let aicm^t *"l 
us confidcr how winds are maderfor they have a main influence win< l ! > ra:n 
into ail the reft. When the funne by fbme particular occurrcnc 3 ' 
raifeth great multitudes ofatomesfrom Ibme one placCjand they 
cither by the attraction of the lun, or by iome other occaiion,do 
take theircourfea certain way; this motion of thole atomes we 
call a wind: which according to the continuance of the matter , 

from whence thele atomes rile, endurech a longer or a fhortcr 
time, and goeth a farther or a fliorter way; like a river, or ra- 
ther like thofe eruptions of waters, which in the Northern parts 
of England they call (jjyfies: the which do break out at uncer- 
tain times, and upon uncertain caufes, and flow likevvife wiih 


A Trtatife of BODIES. Chap, 17. 

an uncertain duration. Sotliefe being compored of bodies 
in a determinate proportion heavier then the aire , do run their 
courie from their height to the ground, where they are fupported 
(as water is by the floore of its channell) whiles they perform 
their carreerjthat is, untillthey be wafted either by the drawing 
of the {im,or by their (ticking &incorporating into groflcr bodies 
Some of thelc winds according to the complexion of the body 
out of which they arc extracted, are dry; as chofc which come 
from barren mountains covered with fnow: others are moift, as 
thofe tlmcome out ofmariftiy or watry places: others have o- 
ther qualities; as of heat, or cold, of wholefbmndlc.or unwhol- 
fomnefle, and the like; partly from the (burce, and partly from 
the bodies they are mingled with in their way. 

Such then being the nature and origine of winds;if a cold one 
do meet in the aire with that moift body whereof otherwile rain 
would have been made, it changeth that moift body into fnow 
or into hail; if a dry wind nueet with a wet body it maketh ic 
more dry, and fo hindreth the rain that was likely to be: but If 
the wet body overcome the dry wind,it bringeth the wind down 
along with it; as we fee when a fhoure of rain allaieth a great 

And that all this is fo, experience will in lome particulars in- 
ftrucl: its as well as reafon,fro whence the reft may be evidently 
inferred. For we c that thole who in imitation of nature would 
convert water into ice,do take fnow or ice & mingle it with fbme 
active dry body, that may force the cold parts of the inow from 
it; & then they fet the water (in fome fit vefTelJ in the way that 
thofc little bodies are to take,which by that meansentring into it, 
do ftrait incorporate themfelves therewith, & of a fudcien do con- 
vert it into ice. W ch procefTe you may eafily try, by mingling fair 
armoniakc with the fnow;butmuch more powerfully by fetting 
the fnow over the fire, whiles the glafle of water to be congea- 
led ftands in it after the manner of an egge in fait. And thus fire 
it (elf, though it be the enemy and deftroyer of all cold, is made 
the inftrument of freezing. And the fame reaibn holdeth in the 
cooling of wine with Ihow or yce, when after it hath been a 
competent time in the fnow, they whofe charge ir is, do ule to 
give the rclTcl that containeth the wine, three or foure turns in 
the fnow; fo to mingle through the whole body ofthc wine,the 


Chap. 1 7. A Tredttfe ^/BODIES. 

cold received firft but in the outward parts of it, and by preC- 
fing> to make that vvichout have a more forcible ingrefllon. 

But the whole doctrine of Meteors is fo amply, fb ingeniouf- 
ly.and Ib exactly performed by that never enough praifed Gen- 
tleman Monfieur DCS Carces in his Meteorologicall difcourfes; 
as I fliould wrong my felfand my Reader,if I dwelled any lon- 
ger upon this fubjcct. And whofe Phyficall difcourfes, had they 
been divulged before I hadenued upon this work, I am pcrfwa- 
ded would have excufcd the greateft part of my pains in delive- 
ring the nature of bodies. 

It were a fault to paflc from treating of condenfation, without g. 
notine-o ordinary an effect of it as is the joyning topether of How parts of 

L- i r L j rj-. L J- T u- L ' r C the fame or di- 

parts of the fame body, or of divers bodies. In which we Ice for y c rsbodicsare 
the moft part that the folide bodies which are to be joy ned to- ]^ nc( } more 
gcther, are firft cither heated or moiftened , that is, they are ra- thereby cof! 
rified: and then they are left to cold airc or to other cold bo- i nftno " > 
dies to thicken andcondenfe (as above we mentioned of fyrupes 
and jellies;) and fo they are brought to ftick firmly together.In 
the like manner we lee that when two metalls are "heated till 
they be almoft brought to running, and then are prefTed toge- 
ther by the hammer, they become one continued body The like 
we fee in glafTe, the like in wax, and in divers other things. On 
the contrary fide; whe.n a broken ftone is to be pieced together, 
the pieces of it muft be wetted, and the ciment muft be likewifc 
moiftcned, and then joyning them aptly, and drying them, they 
flick raft together. Glew is moiftened, that it may by drying 
afterwards hold pieces of wood together. And the fpefracle- 
makers have a competition which muft be both heated and moi- 
ftencd, to joyn trnto handles of wood theglaffes which they are 
to grind. And broken glaflcs are cimenced with cheefc and 
chalk or with garlick. 

All thefe effects our fenfc evidently fhewcth us , arife out of 
eondenfationjbut to our reafbn it belongeth to examine particu- 
larly by whatfteps they arc performed. Firft then we know that 
heat doth fubtilize the Htde bodies which arc in the pores of the 
heated body; and partly a lib it opencth the pores of the body it 
fclf, if it be of a nature that permitteth it; as it fccmcch thole bo- 
dies are, which by heat are mollified or are liquefaible. Again, 
we know that moifture is mote iubulc to enter into fmall creeks 


Treatife of BODIES. Chap.i7. 

then dry bodies are; efpecially when it is prcfled; for then it will 
be divided in:o very little parts, and will fill up every little 
chink; and neveithelefle if it be of a groffe and viicuous nature, 
all the parts of it will flick together. Out of thefe two proper- 
ties we bave,that fince every body hath a kind of orb of its own 
exhalations, or vapours round about it felf ( as is before decla- 
red,) the vapours which are about one of the bodies, will more 
ftrongly and (blidly (that is,in more abundant & greater parts) 
enter into the pores of the other body againft which it is preflcd 
when they are opened and dilated : and thus they becoming 
common to both bodies, by flowing from the one, and ftream- 
ing into the other, and flicking to them both will make them 
flick to one another. And then as they grow cold and dry^thefc 
little parts fhrink on both fides ; and by their flirinking draw 
the bodies together; and vvithall do leave greater pores by their 
being comprefled together, then were there when by heat and 
inoyfliire they were dilated; into which pores the circumftant 
cold parts do cnter> and thereby do as it were wedge in the o- 
thers; and confequently do make them hoJd firmly together the 
bodies which they joyn. 

B^t if art or nature fhould apply to this juncture any liquour 
or vapour, which had the nature and power to infinuate it felf 
more efficacioufly to one of thefe bodies , tlien the glew which 
was between them did; ofneceflity in this cafe thcfc bodies mutt 
fall in pieces. And fo it happeneth in the feparation of metalls 
by corrofive waters; as alfoin the precipitation of metalls or of 
falts when they arediflblved in fuch corrofive waters, by means 
of other metalls or falts of a different nature: in both which ca- 
fes the entrance ofa latter body that penetrateth more ftrongly 
and uniteth it felf to one of tke joyned bodies but not to the o- 
ther, teareth them afunder, and that which the piercing body 
rejcfteth, falleth into little pieces; and if formerly it were joyn- 
ines can- ec ^ w ^ l ^ e ^Sl Uour >i t ls then precipitated down from it in a duft 
noc be the rea- Out of which difcourfe we may refolve the queflion of that 
iTpSa7cd e to learned and ingenious man Petrus Gaifendus; who by experi- 
thcfufiwith ence found, that water impregnated to fulnclTe with ordinary 

one kind of lalt. r i . j . /- i / f j i 

\viiinotwich- lalt, would yet receive a quantity of other laJt; and when it 
* ore of r a C< ? ve wou ^ imbibe no more of that, would ncverthcieflc take into it 
ther. a proportion of a third; and fo of fcvcrall kinds of falts one af- 


C hap. 1 7- 4 Treatift of B O D I E S. 

ter another: which efFc& he attributed to vacuities or porous 
fpaces of divers figures, that he conceived to be in the water; 
whereof fome were fit for the figure of one falt,and fome for the 
figure of another. Very ingenioufly ; yet if I mifle not my mark 
mott aflurcdly he hath mined his. 

For firft, how could he attribute divers forts of vacuities to 
water without giving it divers figures? And this would be a- 
gainft his own difcourfe, by which every body fhould have one 
determinate naturall figure. 

Secondly, I would ask him if he meafurcd his water after c- 
very falting? and if he did,whether he did not find the quantity 
greater, then before that fait was diflblved in it? Which ifhe did 
(as without doubt he muft ) then he might fafcly conclude that 
his falts were not received in vacuities;but that the very fubftancc 
of the water gave them place, and fb encreafcd by the receiving 
of them. 

Thirdly, feeing that in his doctrine every fubftance hath a 
particular figure; we muft allow a ftrange multitude of different 
fhapes of vacuities to be naturally in water; if we will have eve- 
ry different fubftance wherewith it may beimpregna:ed(by ma- 
king decoctions, extractions, folutions, and the like) to find a fit 
vacuity in the water to lodge it felf in. What a difform net with 
a ftrange variety ofmaflies would this be? And indeed how ex- 
tremely uncapable muft it be of the quantity of every various 
kind of vacuity that you will find muft be in it ; ifin every Iblu- 
tion of one particular fubftance, you calculate the proportion 
between it and the water thatdiflblveth it, and then multiply it 
according to the number of feverall kinds offubftances that may 
be diflblved in water? By this proceeding, you will find the va- 
cuities to exceed infinitely the whole body of the water; even fb 
much that it could not afford fubtile thrids enough to hold ic 

Fourthly, if this doctrine were true it would never happen 
that one body or fait fhould precipitate down to the of 
the water, by the fblution ofanother in it, w ck every Alckymift 
knovvcth, never failcth in due circumftances : for leeing that the 
body which precipitateth,and the other which remaineth diffol- 
ved in the watcr,are of different figures, and therefore do require 
different vacuities, tXcy might both of them have kept their ph- 

N CC5 

'j-Trettifc of B O DIES. x Chap. 17. 

ocs in the water, without thruflingone another out of it. 

Laftly, this doctrine giveth no account why one part of fait 
is fcparatcd from another by being put in the water, and why 
the parts are there kept to fcpirated, which is the whole erfec} of 
that motion which we call diflblution. 

10. The true reafon therefore of this effect, is (as I conceive) that 

The tmc rcafon one f a j t maketh the water apt to receive another; for the lighter 

of the , . . . . i i i i i t 

tffi.ft. . fait being incorporated with the water, maketh the water more 
proper to flick unto an heavier, and by dividing the fmall parts 
of it to bear them up,that otherwife would have funk in it. The 
truth and reafon of which will appear more plain, if at every 
joynt we obferve the particular fteps of every fairs folution. As 
loon as you put the firft fait inco the water,it falleth down pre- 
fently to the bottome of it; and as the water doth by its humidi- 
ty pierce by degrees the little joynts of this fak, (b the fmall 
parts of it are by little and little feparatcd from one another,and 
united to parts of water. And io infufing more and more fait, 
this progrefle will continue, untill every part of water is incor- 
porated wirli fome part of fait :and thcn.thc water can no longer 
work of it ftlf but in conjunction to the fait with which it is 
united. After which, if more fait of the fame kind be put into the 
*vater;that water fb impregnated,' will not be able to divide it ; 
becaufe it hath not any ib fubtile parts left, as are aWe to enter 
between the joynts of a faltfo clolcly compacted : but may be 
compared to that fait, as a thing of equall drineflc with it j and 
therefore is. unapt to tr.oiilen and to pierce it. 

But if you put into this compound of fait and water, another 
kind of fait that is of a ftrongerand adder nature then the for- 
mer, & whofe parts are more groflely united; then the firft fait 
dilToivcd in the water, will be able ro get in betwixt the joynts 
of the grofler frlt;& will divide it into little parts; and will in- 
corporate his already compofed parts of fait and water into a 
decompound of two fairs and water;nntill all his parts be nncw 
impregnated with the iccond groflcr falt;as before, the pure 
ter was with the fir ft fubtiler lair. And fo it xvill proceed on, if 
proportionate bodies be joyned, untill the "dhToIving competi- 
tion do grow into a thick body. 

Unto which dilcourfe we ir.ry r.ddctl-at when the water if Co 
fully impregnated with the fliil fait,, as i: y\ ill receive no more, 

Chap. 17. ** Trwife of BODIES, 7p - 

rnaining in the temper it is in ; yet if it be heated, ic will then z- 
frcfh diflolve more of the fame kind. Which fhewet!i, that the 
reafon of its giving over todiflblve, is for want of having the 
water divided into parts little enough to ftick unto more lilt : 
which, as in this cafe the fire doth; fopcrad venture in the oc!icr., 
the acrimonioufneflcofthe fait doth it. 

And this is fufficicnt to give curious wits occafion by making j i. 
farther fearch out the truth of this mnttcr. Onely ^ c rcafon why 
we may note what hapneth in moft of the experiencies we have fa^/nauire'do 
mentioned; to wit, that things of the fame nature do joyn better J ;>'" n orc - 

i rt i 11 n \ f- B'y COJCtFx/a,' 

and more eafily then others that are more eitranged from one thcnothe r5 . 
another. Which is very agreeable to reafbn; feeing that if nature 
do intend to have things confift long together^Oie muft fit them 
for fuch confiftence. 

Which fcemeth to proceed out oftheir agreement in fbure 
qualities ; firft, in weight for bodies ofdivers decrees in weight, 
if :hey be at feek divers places; and confequently fub- 
ftanccs oflike weight, muft of neceffity find one another out, 
and croud together ; as we hare Chewed, it is the nature of he*at 
to make them do : now it is apparent that things of one nature, 
muft in equall parts have the fame or a near proportion of 
Weight, feeing that in their compofition, they muft have the 
fame proportion of Elements. 

Thcfecond reafon of the confiftence of bodies together, that 
are of the fame nature is, the agreement of their liquid parts, in 
the fame degree of rarity and denfity : for as it is the nature of 
quantity in common to make all parts be one quantity; fo it is 
the nature of the degrees of quantity, when two parts do meet 
that are of the fame degree, to make them one in that degree of 
quantity;which is, to make them ftick together in that degree of 
flicking, which the degree of denfity that is common to them 
both, maketh of its own nature.Whereasjparts of different dcn- 
fitks,cannot have this reafon of flicking: though, peradventure 
they may upon feme other ground, have foinc more efficacious 
one. And in this manner, the like humid parts of two bodies,be- 
coming one, the holes or receptacles in which thofe humide 
parts are contained mull alfb needs be united. 

The third rcafon is the agreeable proportion, which their le- 
vcrall figures have in refpcft of one another: for if any humidi- 

N 2 ty 

A TreAtife of B O D I E S. Chap, i 8 . 

ty be extra&ed out of a mixed body, efpecially, by the virtue of 
fire; it muft have Icfc pores of fiich figures, as the humidity that 
is drawn out of them,is apt to be cut into (for every humide bo- 
dy not being abfoluteJy humide, but having certain dry parts 
mixed with it, is more apt for one kind of figure and grcatnefTe, 
thf n for another;)and by con{equencc,whenloever that humidi- 
ty fhall meet again with the body it was fevered from; it will ea- 
fily run through and into it all, and will fill exaclly the cavities 
and pores it poflefled before. 

The laft quality, in which bodies that are to confift long to- 
gether, do agree, is the bignefle of the humide and dry parts of 
the fame body : for if the humide parts be too big for the dry 
ones, it is clear that the dry ones muft needs hangloofcly toge- 
ther by themjbccaufe their glew is in too great a quantity.But if 
the humide parts be too little for the dry ones, then of neccflity 
fome portion of every little dry part muft beunfurnifhtofglew, 
by means whereof to ftick unto his fellow ; and fo the flicking 
parts not being conveniently proportioned to one another, their 
adhefion cannot be fo folid as if each of them were exactly fitted 
to his fellow. 

Of another motion belonging to particular bodies, called Attr*- 

ftion- and of certain operations, termed, JWagicall. 
.TT Aving thus ended the two motions of rarefaction and of 
*! condenfation ; the next that offer themfelves, are the lo- 
whenccit pro. call motions which fbme bodies have unto others. Thefc are 
fotretimes performed by a plain force in the body towards 
which the motion is : and other whiles by a hidden caufe, 
which is not foeafily dilcerned. The firft, is chiefely that which 
is ordinarily faid to be done by the force of nature to hinder va- 
cMum and is much praftifed by naturcjas in drawing our breath, 
in fucking, and in many other naturall operation*, which are 
imitated by art in making of pumpes, fyphons, and fiich other 
jjiftrumcnts ; and in that admirable cxperimeat of taking up a 
heavy marble ftonc merely by another lying flat and fmoothly 
upon itjwithoutany other connexion of the two ftoncs together; 
as alfo by that {port of boycs, when they fpread a thin moiftncd 
leatlicr upon a fmooth broad ftone, and prcffe it all over clolc 
to it,, and then by pulling of a firing faftncd at the middle of the 


Chap. 1 8. A Tr<4t/fe of B O D I E S. 1 57 

ieather,they draw up likcwife the heavy ftone. IH all which, the 
firft caufc of the motion procecdcth from that body towards w ch 
the morion is made. And therefore is properly called Attraction* 
For the better underftanding and declaring of which, let us 
fuppofe two marble ftones, very broad and exceeding fmoothly 
poliflicd to be laid one flat upon the otherrand let there be a ring 
fattncd at the back part of the uppermoft ftone ; and cxa&ly in 
the middle of it. Then by that ring, pull it up perpendicularly 
and fteadily, and the undermoft will follow kicking faft to the 
overmoftjand though they were not very perfectly polifhed,yet 
the ncthermoft would follow for a while, if the ring befuddenly 
plucked up ; but then it will fbon fall down again. Now this 
plainly fheweth that thccaufe of their flicking fo ftrongly tege- 
ther,when both the ftones are very well polifhed,is for that no- 
thing can well enter between them to part them; and fo, it is re- 
duced to the fhortnefle of the aire that is betwixt them : which 
not being capable of fb great an expanfion., nor admitting to be 
divided thickwaycs fb much as is neceflary to fill the firft grow- 
ing diftance,between the two ftones till new air findeth a courfe 
thither (that fb, the (welling of the one, may hinder vacuity, till 
the other come into the refcue;)the two ftones mutt needs flick 
together to certain limits ; which limit* will depend of the pro- 
portion that is between the weighted the continuity of the ne- 
thermoft ftone. 

And when we have examined this, we fhall underftand in 
what fenfe it is meaned that T^attire tibhorreth from VttcHit], The n *" e renfe 
and what means fhe ufeth to avoid it. For,to put it as an enemy of the 
that nature fighteth againft; or to difcourfeofcffe6h that would t^eti 
follow from ir,in cafe it were admitted, is a great miftake, and a fu j- 
loft labour; feeing it is nothingjand thereforejcan donothirtgrbut 
is merely a forme of expreflion to declare in fhort nothing elfc 
but that it is a comradifiion, or implication in termes, and an 
irnpoflibility in nature, for vacuity to have, or to be fuppofcd to 
hive a Being. 

Thus then,fine in our cafe,afrer we havecaft all about,wc can 
pitch upon nothing to be confidered, but that the two ftones do 
touch one anothcr.and that they are weighty;wc muft apply our 
fclves onely to reflect upon the cffc(5ts proceeding from thefe two 
caufcsj their contiguity and their heavineffe ; and we (hall find 

N 3 that 

A TrtJtifi of B O D I E S. Chap. 1 S*. 

rh'at as the one of them, namely the weight, hindereth the un- 
dermoft from following the uppermoft, lo, contiguity obligeth 
it unto that conrfe ; and according as the one overcomcth the 
other, fo will this action be continued or interrupted. 

Now that contiguity of fubftances do make one follow ano- 
ther, is evident by what our Matters in Metaphyfieks teach us ; 
when they fhevv that without this effect no motion at all could 
be made in the world, nor no reafbn could be given, for thofe 
motions we daily fee. For fince the nature of quantity is fueh, 
that whcnfocver there is nothing between two parts of it, they 
muft needs touch and adhere and joyn to one another, (for how 
fhould they be kept afunder when there is nothing between 
them to part them?) if you pull one part away, either fome new 
fubftance mutt come to be clofe unto that which removeth ; or 
elfe the other which was formerly clofe to it, muft ftill be clofe 
to it, and fo follow it: for if nothing do come between, it is ftill 
clofe to it. Thus then, it being ncceflary that fornething muft 
be joyned clofe to every thing; vacuity,(which is nothing^is ex- 
cluded from having any being in nature. 

And when we fay that one body muft follow another to a- 
Toid vacuity; the meaning is, that under the necelfity of a con- 
tradiction they muft follow one another, and that they cannoi 
do otherwife. For it would be acontradi&ion to fay that no- 
thing were between two things and yet that they are not joyn- 
ed clofe to one another. And therefore if you fhould fay it, you 
would in other words fay, they arc clofe together, and they arc 
not clofe together. In like manner, to fay that vacuity is any 
where, is a pure contradiction ; for vacuity being nothing hath 
no Being at all: and yet by thofe words it is faid to be in fuch a 
place; fo that they affirm it to be and not to *,at the lame time. 
j> But now let us examine if there be no means to avoid this 

The true reafon contradiction and vacuity, other then by the adhefion.and fol- 
lowing of one body upon the motion of another, that is clofely 
joyned to it and every where contiguous. For fenfc is not eafily 
quieted with fuch Metaphyficall conc:mplations,that feem to re- 
pugne againft her di&amcnts; and therefore for her fatisfa&ion 
we can do no lefTc then give her leave to range about, and caft 
all waies in hope of finding fomc one that may better cotent her: 
which when (he findcth that ftte canot fhe will the leflc repine 


Chap. 18, <stTrtxif>of BODIES. 

to yield her aflent to the rigorous fequeles and proofs of reafon. 
In this difficulty then, after turning on every fide, I for my 
part can difcern no pretence of probabilitic, in any other means 
then in pulling down the lower ftone by one corner; that fb 
there may be a gaping between the two (tones, to let in aire by 
little and little. And in this cifc you may fay that by the inter- 
vention of airc, vacuity ii hindered, and yet the lower ftone is 
left at liberty to follow its own niturall inclination, and be go- 
verned by its weight. But indeed, if you confider the matter 
well, you willfindthat the doing this, requireth a much greater 
force, then to hare the lower (tone follow the upperrfor it can- 
not gape in a ftraight line, to let in aire ; fince in that pofition, 
it muft open at the bottom where the angle is madcjat the fame 
time that it openeth at the mouth : and then aire requiriug time 
to pafle from the edges to the bottomejt mutt in the mean while 
fall into the contradiction of vacuity. So that if it fliouldopen 
to let in aire ; the ftone, to compafle that effect, muft bend, in 
fuch fort as wood doth when a wedge is put into it to cleave it. 
Judge then what force it muft be thatfliould make hard mar- 
ble of a great thicknefic bend like a wand; & whether it would 
not rather break and flide off,then do fo: you will allow that a 
much leffe, will raife up the lower ftone together with the up- 
f>ermoft.It muft then of neceflity fall out,that it will follow it,if 
it be moved perpendicularly upwards. And the like effefr, will 
bethoughjt fhould be raifed at oblique angles, fo that the low- 
ermoft c^ge do reft all the way upon fomething that may hinder 
the infcnour ftone from fliding afide from the uppermoft. 

And this is the very cafe of all thofe other experiments of art 
and nature, which we have mentioned above : for the reafon 
Jioldeth as well in water and liquide things ; as in folid bodies, 

untill the weight ofthe liquid body overcometh the continuity 5*'? to , what 

r- r i L-JUILJ- -ii r j L i kcight foevcr. 

of it : for then, the thrid breaketh,and it will afcend no higher. 
Which height, Galileo tellcth us from the workmen in the 
Arfenall of Venice, is 40. foot ; ifthc water be drawn up in a 
clofc pipe,in which the advantage ofthe fides helpeth the afccnt. 
But others fay that the invention is inlarged, and that water 
may be drawn to what height one pleafeth. Hovvfoever, the 
force which nature appli'eth to maintain the continuity of quan- 
tity,can havcnoJirnit,fceing it is grounded upon contradiction. 

N 4 


ATnAtifeofVODlES. Chap. 

touching the 

And therefore Galileo was much miftaken, when he thought to 
make an inftrument whereby to difcover the limits of this force. 
We may then conclude, that the breaking of the water mult 
depend from the fhengch of other caufes. As for example,when 
the gravity is fo great by increafing the bulk of the water, that 
it will either overcome the ftrength of the pipe,, or elte make the 
fucker of the pump rather yield way to aire, then draw up fo 
great a weight : for which defects, if remedies be found, the arc 
may furely be inlarged without end. 

This is particular in a fyphon; that when, that arm of it which 
hageth out of the water is lower then the fuperficies of the wa- 
ter; then, it will run of it felf;after it is once fet on running by 
fucking. The reafon whereof is, becaufe the weight which is in 
the water pendant, is greater then the weight of the afcending 
water ; and thereby fupplyeth the want of a continuall fucker. 
But if the nofe of that arm that hangeth out of the water, be buc 
even with the water ; then the water will ftand ftill in both 
pipes, or arms of the fyphon, after they are filled with fucking. 
But if by the running out of the water, the outward pipe do 
grow fhorter then te reach as low as the fuperficies of the water 
in the fountain from whence it runneth ; in this caie, the water 
in each arm of the fyphon, will runne back into the fountain. 

Withall, it is to be noted, that though the arm which is out 
f the water be never Co long, yet if it reach not lower then the 
foperficics of the fountain ; the overquantity and weight of the 
water there, more then in the other arm, hclpethit nothing to 
make it runne out. Which is, becaufe the declivity of the other 
arm ovcrrecompenceth this overweight. Not that the weight in 
the (hortcr pipe hath fb much force as the weight in the longer 
piperbut becaufc it hath more force then the greater weight doth 
exerciie therein its runningjfbr the grcateft part ofit force,tcnd- 
erh another way then to the end of the pipe ; to wit, per- 
pendicularly towards the center. And fo is hindered from effect, 
by the great floping or little declivity of the pipe upon which 

But fbmc confidering how the vvatcr that is in the longer arm 
of the fyphon is more in quantity then the water that is in the 
t>rorc water to ot h- r arm o f j t vvhcreat it runneth our, do admire why the 
greater quantity of water doth notdrarv back the kfle into the 


Tkat the fy- 

Chap. i8. ^TrettifetfftODIES. 

ciflern, but fuffcreth it felfto be lifted up, and drained away as 
ific run deeply downwards.And they imagine, that hence may 
be deduced, that the parts of water in the ciftern do not weigh 
as long as they are within the orb of their own body. 
Unto who we anfwer; that they fhould eonfider how that to 
have the greater quantity of water, which is in the longer arm 
of the fyphon (which arm is irarnerfed in the water ofthc ci- 
ftern)to draw back into the ciftern the water which is in the 
other arm of the fyphon that hangeth out in the airc ; it muft, 
both raife as much of the water of the ciftern as its own bulk is, 
above the levcll which at prcfent the whole bulk of water hath; 
and withall it muft at the fame time pull up the water which is 
in the other arm. Now it is manifeft that theft two quantities 
of water together, arc heavier then the water in the funk arm 
of the fyphon ; fince one of them finglc, is equall unto it. And 
by confequence, the more water in the funk arm cannot weigh 
back the lefle water in the hanging arm j fince that, to do thac, 
it muft at the fame time weigh up over and above, as much 
more in the ciftern as it (elf weigheth. 

But turning the argument ; I fay, that if once the arm of the 
fyphon that is in the aire, be fuppofed to draw any water, be it 
never fb little, out ofthe ciftern ( whether occafioncd by fuck- 
ing or by whatfoever other means ) it followech that as much 
water as is drawn up, above thelevell ofthc whole bulk in the 
ciftern, muft needs prefle into the funcken arm from the next 
adjacent parts, (that is,fromthe bottom)to fupply its emptying; 
and as much muft of it felf preffe down from above (according 
to its naturall courfe, when nothing violemeth it)to reft in tbe 
place,that the afcending water(which is lower then it)leaveth at 
liberty for it to take pofTeffion of.And then it cannot be doubted; 
but that, this defending water shaving all ks weight in prcffing 
down applied to drive up the riling water in the funk arm ofthe 
fyphon;&the water in the other arm ofthe fyphon wichout,ha- 
ving all its weight in tuning out applied at the fame time to draw 
up the fame water in the funk armjthis fingle refiftant muft yield 
to their double&maftering force. And cofequently, the water in 
the arm ofthc fypho that is in the aire/oiuft needs draw the wa- 
ter that is in the other immerfedarm aslon^ i of its pipe 
rcacheth lower then the leycil ofthe w*icr in the ciftern; *br fo 

*DI A TrMlfc ^/BODIES. Chap. \ 3. 

lorg it appeared by what we have faid, i: muft needs be more 
\Ycig!uv;fincc part of the fifing water in the funk arm of che fy- 
phonJscounterpoHed by as much defcending water intheciftern 
And thus it is evident, that ont of this experiment it cannot 
be inferred that parts of water do not weigh within the orb of 
their own v? hoi? : but onely, that two eqaall parts of water in 
rhcir own orb ( namely that which rifeth in the funken arm, 
& that which preifeth down from the whole bulk in theciftern) 
areo r equall weight and do ballance one another. So that never 
To little oddes between the two cotmterpoyfing parcels of water 
which are in the aire muft needs make the water run out at that 
end of the fyphon, where the overweight of water is. 

The attrailion whofe caufc next to this i$ moft manifcft, is 

that which is made by the force of heat or of fire;for we fee that 

Concerning fire ever draweth aire unto itjfb notably.,that if in a clofe room 

actr r jT c there be a good fire, a man that ftandeth at the door or at the 

caul.d bynrO- .> , _ .. \nni /- i ft 

window ( especially without) lhall near men a noile that he 
will think there is a great wind within the chamber. The reafort 
of this attraction is, that fire ratifying the aire which is next 
unto itj and withall fpending it fclfperpetaallyjcaufeth the aire, 
and his own body mingled together,to flic up through the chim- 
ney or by fome other paflage. Whence it folio weth of neeeflity 
that the next body muft fuccced into the pkce of the body that i$ 
flown away. This next body generally is aire, whofe mobility 
and fluidity beyond all other bodies, makerh it of all others the 
fittcft to be drawn; and the more of it that is drawn the more 
muft needs follow. Now if there be floting in this aire any 
other atomes fubje& to the current which the aire taketh; they 
muft alfo come with it to the fire, and by it, muft be ratified, 
and be exported out of that little orb. 

Hence it is, that men ( with very good reafbn ) do hold that 
fire aireth a chamber, as we terme ic, that is, purifieth it, both 
becaufe it purifieth it as wind doih by drawing a current of aire 
into it that fweepeth through it, or by making it purifie it felf 
by motion, as a ftream of water doth by running; as alfo, be- 
caufc thofc vapours which approach the fire,are burned and dif- 
folved.So that the aire being noifome and unwholefome by rea- 
fon of its grofleneflc , proceeding from its landing unmoved 
( like a ftagnation of dead water, in a marifti place) the fire ta- 
keth away that caufe of annoyance. By 

Chap. 1 8. ^ Treati fe of B O D I E S. 

By this very rule we learn that other hoc things, which par- 8. 

ticipate the nature of fire, muft likewife( in other rcfpe6rs)havc Concerning - 
a refemblance in this quality. And accordingly we fee that hoc fovimJTor 
loafs in a bakers (hop newly drawn out of the oven, are ac- hot bodi ^ 
counted to draw unto them any infection which is in the aire. 
The like we fay ofonyons,& other ftrong breathing fubftances; 
which by their fmell (hew much heat in them. In like manner it 
is conceived that pigeons, and rabets,and cats eafily take infecti- 
on, by reaibn of their extraordinary warmth which they have 
in themfelves. 

And this is confirmed by the praelife of Phyfitians,who ufe to 
Jay warm pigeons newly killed to thcfect,wrifts,or heads offick 
pcrfons;& young puppies t their /tomacks,& fometimes certain 
hot gums to their navels; to draw out fuch vapours or humours 
as infeft the body : for the fame reafon they hang amulets of 
arfenick, fublimate, drycd toads or fpiders, about their patients 
necks, to draw unto them venimous qualities from their bodies. 
Hence alfo it is, that if a man be ftrucken by a viper or a fcorpi- 
on, they ufc to break the body of the beart it fclf that ftung him 
( if they can get ic)upon the wound: but if that beaft be crawled 
out of their finding, they do the like by fbme other venimous 
creature; as I have ieen a bruited toad laid to the biting of a vi- 
per. And they manifeftly perceive the applyed body, to fwell 
with the poyfon fucked out from the vr ound, and the patient to 
be relieved and haveleflc poyfon; in the fame manner as by 
cupping. glaffes , the poyfon is likewifc drawn out from the 
wound: fothat you may leejthc reafon of both, is the very lame; 
r at the leaft very like one another. Onely,we are to note, thac 
the proper body of the beaft out of which the venome was driven 
into the wound, is more efficacious then any other to fuck it our. 

And the like is to be obferved in all other kinds^hat fuch va- 
pours as are to be drawn, do come better and incorporate fafler 
in bodies of like nature, then in tho/e which have onely the 
common conditions of heat and drynefTe; the one of which fcr- 
veth to attrad^the other to faften and incorporate into it felf the 
moifture which the firft drawetfc unto it.. So we fee that water 
foketh into a dry body, whence it was extracted, almoft infepa- 
rably,& is hidden in itjas when it raineth firft after hot weather, 
the ground is prefently dried after thcfhowre. Likewifc we fee 


A Tnatift of B D IHS. Chap. 18. 

that In moft cimems^you muft mingle a duft of tns nature of the 
things w *" 1 are to be cimentcd.if you vvil have them bind ftrongly 
<?. Out of this difcourfc, we may yield a reafon for thofe magi- 

naraii ca ll opcttticxns, which fome attribute to the Devils afliftance; 
peradvencurc becaufe mans wickedneffe hath been more ingeni- 
ous then his good will; and fo hath found more means to hurt 
then to help; nay when he hath arrived fonic way to help,thofe 
very helps have undergone the fame calumny; becaufe of the 
likeneflc which their operations have to the others. Without 
doubt very unjuftly, if there be truth in the effedls. For where 
have we any fuch good fuggeftions of the enemy of makind pro- 
pofed unto us, that we may with reafon believe he would duly, 
fettledly, and conftantly concurre to the help and fcrvice of all 
thofe he fo much hatcth, as he needs do if he be the Authour of 
fuch effc^s? Or is not a wrong to Almighty God , and to his 
carefull inftruments; rather to impute unto the Devil the aids 
which to fome may feem fupernaturall>then unto them of whom 
we may juftly believe & expe& fuch good offices and afliftances? 
I mean, thofe operations, both good and bad, which ordinarily 
are called A4agncticill,t\\Q\.\$\ peradventure wrongfully, as not 
having that property which dcnominateth the loadftone. 

One thing I may aflure, that if the reports be true, they have 
the perfefl imitation of nature in them. As for example; that 
the weapons falve, or the fympathetick powder doth require in 
the ufing it, to be conlerved in an equal! and moderate temper: 
and that the weapon which made the wound, or the cloth upon 
which the bloud remaineth that iffued from it, be orderly and 
frequently drefled;or elfe the wounded perfon will not be cured: 
likewife the fteam or fpirits, which at the giving of the wound 
did enter into the pores of the weapon, muft not be driven out 
of it, ( which will be done by fire; and (b when it is heated by 
holding over coals, you may fee a moifture fvveat out of the 
blade at the oppofite fide to the firc,as farre as it entred into the 
wounded perfons body; which being once all fweatcd out, you 
(hall fee no more the like fteam upon the fword ) neither muft 
the bloud be waflied out of the bloudy cloth; for in thefe cafes, 
the powder, or falve, will work nothing. Likewife, if there be 
any excefle cither of heat or of cold in keeping the medicated wea- 
pon or cloth; the patient fecleth that, as he would do, if the like 


Chap. IP. ArrtAttfeof BODIES. 205 

excefTewere in any remedy that were applied to the wound it 
felf : likewifc if the medicated weapon or bloudy cloth, be kept 
too clofe, no cflfe& fblloweth: likewife,the natures of the things 
ufed in thefe cures are of themfelves foveraigne for healing the 
like griefs, though peradventure too violent if they were apply - 
ed in body without much attenuation. 

And truly if we will deny all effects of this kind, we muft in 
a manner renounce all humane faith: men of all forts and qua- 
lities ( and many of .them fuch in my own knowledge, as I can- 
not queftion their prudence in obferving,or their fincerity in re- 
lating ) having very frequently made experience of fuch medi- 
cines, and all affirming after onefafhion to have found the fame 
erfefb. Addetothefc, the multitude of other like cfre6rs,appear- 
ing or conceited to appear in other things.In fbmc countries it is 
a familiar difeafe with kine to have a fuelling in the fbles of their 
feet: and the ordinary cure is,to cut a turf upon which they have 
troden with their forefoot, and to hang it upon a hedge; and as 
that dryeth away, fo will their fore amend. In other parts they 
obferve, that if milk newly come from the cow, do in the boyl- 
ing runne over into the fire; and that this do happen often, and 
near together to the fame cows milk that cow will have her 
udder fore and inflamed : and the prevention is to caft fait im- 
mediately into the fire upon the milk. The herb Perjictrta if ic 
be well rubbed upon warts, and then be laid in fbmc fit place to 
putrifie, cauleth the warts to wear away as it rotteth : fome fay 
the like of frefh beef. Many examples alfo there are of hurting 
living creatures by the like means; which I let not down for 
fear of doing more harm by the evil inclination of- fbmc perfons 
into whofc hands they may fall; then profit by their knowing 
them, unto whom I intend this work. 

But to make thefe operations of nature not incredible ; let us 
remember how we have determined that every body whatfoe- 
ver doth yield fome fleam, or vent a kind of vapour from it 
fclf; and confider, how they muft needs do /b moft of all, that 
are hot and moift,as bloud and milk are, and as all wounds and 
fores generally are.We fee that the foot of a hare or deer leaveth 
fuch an impreflion where the beaft hath P gcan di- 

cern it a long time after : and a fox bi t to f Iron 5 i 

vapour, that the hunters themfelvcs can -ft. 

Trtatifecf BODIES. Chap. 19, 

and a good white after he is parted from the place. Now j'oyn- 
ir.C this, to the experiences we hive already allowed of, con- 
cerning the at'tra&ion of heat; we may conclude that if any of 
thcfc vapours do light upon a fblid warm body, which hath the 
nature of a fource unto them, they will naturally congregate 
and incorporate there; and if thole vapours be joyned with any 
medicative quality or body, they will apply that medicament 
better then any chirurgeon can apply ic. Then, if the fteam of 
bloud and fpirhs, docarry with it from the weapon or cloth, the 
balfamike qualities of the falve or powder, and with them do 
fcttfe upon the wound; what can follow but a bettering in it? 
Likcwifc, if the fteam of the corruption that is upon the clod,do 
carry the drying quality of the wind which 'fweepcth over it 
when it hangeth high in the airc, unto the (ore part of the cows 
foor; why is it not poflible that it fhould dry the corruption 
there, as well as itdryeth it upon the hedge? And if thefteam 
of b.nned milk can hurt by carrying fire tothcdtigge; why 
fhonld not fait oft upon it, be a prefervative againft it? Or ra- 
ther , why fhould not fait hinder the fire from being carried thi- 
ther? Since the nature of fait, alwayes hindereth and fupprefl 
feth the activity of fire: as we fee by experience when we throw 
fait into the fire below, to hinder the flaming of foot in the top 
of a chimney : which prefently ceafeth, when new fire from 
beneath doth not continue it. And thus we might proceed in 
fundry other effects, to declare the reafon and the poflibilicy of 
them; were we certain of the truth of them: therefore we remit 
this whole qucftion, to the autority of the tcftimonies. 


Of three other motions belonging to particular bodies, Filtra- 
tion* T{fftitutioH, find Elettricatt attraction. 

Fter thefe,.let us caft our eye upon another motion, very fa- 
miliar amon^ Alchymifts; which they c*ll Filtration. It is 

- . ' / n 

> effcOcd. errected by putting one end of a tongue, or label! or flannen, 
or of cotton , or of flax , into a veflel of water, and letting 
the other end hang over the brim of it. And it will by little and 
little draw all the water out of that veflel (fb that the end which 
hangeth out be lower then the fuperficies of the water) and will 
make it all come over into any lower veflel you will referre it 




Cbap.ip. <A Treat ije of BODIES. 207 

The end of this operation is, when any water is mingled with 
grofle and muddy parts (not diflolved in the water) to feparate 
the pine and light ones from the impure.By which we are taught 
that the lighter parts ofthe water.arethofe which moft ea-fily do 
catch. And if we will examine in particular,how it is likely this 
bufinefle paifeth ; we may conceive that the body or linguet by 
\vhicb the water afcendeth, being a dry one, fome lightet parts 
of the water, \vhofe chance it is to be near the climbing body of 
flixe, do bfgin to fiick faft unto it: and then, they require no- 
thing near ib great force, nor fo much preffing, to make them 
climbe i;p slorg the flaxe, as they would do to make them 
mount in the pine aire. As you may fee, if you hold a flick in 
running water, fhelving againft the flream : the water will rua 
up along ehe (tick, much higher then it could be forced up in 
the open aite without any fupport,though the agent were much 
flronger then the current ofthe ftream. And a bail will upon a, 
rebound,run much higher upon a fhelving board, then it would 
if nothing touched it. And I have been told that if an egslheil 
filled with dew be fct at the foot ofa hollow flick, the fun wiK 
draw it to the top of the fhelving ftick,whcreas without a prop, 
it; will notflirrc it. 

With much more reafon then, we may conceive that water 
finding as it werelittle fleps in the cotton to facilitate its jour- > 

ney upwards, muft aicend more eafily then thofe other things 
do;/b as it once receive any impu lie to drive it up wards: for the 
gravity both of that water which is upon the cotton, as alfo, of 
fo many ofthe confining parts of water as can reach the cotton; 
is exceedingly allayed, either by flicking unto the cotron,and fo 
weighing in one bulk with that dry body ; or die, by not tend- 
ing clown flraight to the center, but reiring as it u ere upon a 
ftccp plain ('according to what we L\id ofthe arme o~a fyphon 
thaehangeth very Hoping out of the water.and therefore draw- 
eth not after it a Idfc proportion of water in the other arme that 
is more in a direft line to the center :) by which means the wa- 
ter as foon as it brginneth to climbe, comcth to fland in a kind 
' of cone; neither bieaking trom the water below, (its bulk be;. 
big enough to reach unto itjnor yet falling down unto it. M ^" r . 

But our chief labour muft be, to find a caufc that Disy make the -vau-r 
the water begin to nfccnd.To which purpofe,con/]der how water J.^ 11 ca 2 -"' 


A Treat?(e of B O D I E S. Chap. ip. 

of i:s own nature, comprefleth it felf together, to exclude any 
other body lighter then it is. Now in re'peft of the whole mafic 
of the water, thofc parts which ftick to the cotton, are to be ac- 
counted much lighter then water ; not, becaufe in their own na- 
ture they are to; but for the cireumftances which accompany 
them, and do gi've them a greater difpofition to receive a motion 
upwards then much lighter bodies, whiles they aredcftitute of 
fuch helps. Wherefore as the bulk of water weighing and flri- 
ving downwardsjit followeth that iftherc were any air mingled 
with would to poflefle a lefler place, drive out the aire : fb 
here in this cafe^the water that is at the foot of the ladder of cot- 
ton, ready to climbe with a very fmall impulfe, may be after 
fome fort compared (in refpefl of the water) to aire by reafon 
of the lightndTe ofitrand confequcntly is forced up by the com- 
preffing of the reft of the water round about it. Which no fafter 
getteth up, but other pa rts at the foot of the ladder do follow the 
mft, and drive them ftill .upwards along the towjand new ones 
drive the fecond, and others the third, and fo forth. So that with 
eafc they climbe up to the top of the filter, ftill driving one ano- 
ther forwards, as you may do a fine towell through a musket 
barrell : which though it be too limber to be thruft ftraight 
through ; yet cramming ftill new parts into it at the length you 
will drive the firft quite through. 

And thus, when thefe parts of water are got up to the top of 
the veflell on which the filter hangeth, and over it on the other 
fide by flicking ftill to the tow, and by their naturall gravity, 
againft which nothing prefleth on this fide thclabell ; they fall 
down again by little and little, and by drops break again into 
water in the veflell fet to receive them. 

But now if you ask, why it will not drop unlefle the end of 
the labell that hangeth, be lower then the water. I conceive it 
l * becaufe the water which is all along upon the flannen, is one 
the u- continued body hanging togcther,as it were a thrid of wife; and 
" ^jc^ tolike accidents as fuch a continued body is.Nowfup- 
pofe you lay a wire upon the edge of the bafin, which the filter 
reftcth upon; and fo make that edge the center to ballance it up. 
on; if the end that is outermoft be heavieft, it will weigh down 
the other;othervvife,not. So fareth it with this thrid of water : 
if the end of it that hangeth out of the pot, that is to be 


Chap, i p. A Trcttife ^/BODIES. 2 op 

filtred be longer, and confequcntly heavier, then that which ri- 
fcth; it muft needs raife the other upwards,and fall it fclf down- 
wards. Now the raifing of the other, implieth lifting more wa- 
ter from the ciftern,and the flidingofit fclf further downwards, 
is the caufeofits converting into drops. So that the water in the 
ciftern fcrvcth like the flax upon a diftaflfe, and is fpun into a 
thrid of water, flill as it cometh to the flannen by the drawing 
it up,occafioned by the overweight of the thrid on the other fide 
of the center. 

Which toexprefle better by a fimilitudc in a folidebody:! re- 
member I hare oftentimes feen in a Mercers fhop, a great heap 
of mafly gold lace lie upon their ftall;and a little way above it a 
round fmooth pin of wood, over which they ufcto hale their 
lace when they wind it into bottomes.Now over this pin, I have 
put one end of thclace^and as long as it hung no lower then the 
board upon which the reft of the lace did lie,it ftirred not; for as 
the weight of the loofe end carried it one way, fo the weight of 
the other fide where the whole was, drew it the other way, and 
in this manner kept it inequiJibrity. But as foon as I drew on 
the hanging end to be heavier then the climbing fide (for no 
more weigheth then is in the aire, that which lieth upon the 
board, having another center) then it began to roulc to the 
ground: and ftill drew up new parts of that which lay upon the 
board,untillall was tumbled down upon thefloore. In the fame 
mandcr it hapneth to the water ; in which, the thrid of it upon 
the filter is to be compared fitly unto that part of the lace which 
hung upon the pin;and the whole quantity in the ciftern, is like 
the bulk of lace upon the fliopboard ; for as faft as the filcer 
draweth it up, it is converted into a thrid like that which is al- 
ready upon the filter : in like manner as the wheel converteth 
the flax into yarn, as faft as it draweth it out from the diftaffc. 

Our next consideration will very aptly fail upon the motion 4. 
ofthofe things, which beinp bent, do leap with violence to their of thc motio 

.. r i , ' i ! i iii of Rdtitu-ion : 

former ngurerwhereas others return but a little ; and others do an << why feme 
ftand in that ply, wherein the bending of them hath fet them. |>^ ie * 
For finding the reafon of which effcfh, our firft reflexion may 
be to note, that a fuperficies which is more long then broad,con- 
taineth a lefle floore then that whofe fi.^es are equall. or nearer 
being equalrand thac of thoie furfaces whole lines and angles are 

O all 


Chap. TS?. 

illee|Uftll>that which hath moft fides and angles, conttineth ftfll 
the greater floore. Whence it is that Mathematicians conclude a 
circle to be the moft capacious of all figures r and what they fay 
of lines in refpc& of a mperficies; the tame with proportion they 
fay of furfaces in refpeft of the body contained.And accordingly 
we lee by confcquence, that in the making a bag of a long nap- 
kin, if the napkin befcwed together longwife, it holdcth a great 
deal lefle then if it be fewed together broad wife. 

By this we fee plain!y,that if any body which is in a thick and 
fliort figure, be forced into a thinner (which by becoming thin- 
ner, muft likewife become either longer or broader ; for what 
it lofcth one way it muft get another)then that fuperficies muft 
needs be ftretched ; which in our cafe, is a Phyficall outfide, or 
materiall part of a folid body, not a Mathematicall confidera- 
tion of an indivifible Entity. We fee allb that this change of fi- 
gures happeneth in the bend ing of all thofe bodies , whereof we 
are now enquiring the reafon why fbme of them reftore them- 
fclves to their originall figures,and others ftand as they arc bent. 

Then to begin with the latter fort, we find that they are of a 
moift nature; as among metalls, lead, and tinne; and among o- 
ther bodics,thofe which we account foft. And we may determine 
that this effect proceedeth, partly from the humidity of the bo- 
dy that ftandcth bent ; and partly from a drinefle peculiar to it 
that comprchendeth and fixeth the humidity of it. For by the 
firft, they are rendered capable of being driven into any figure, 
which nature or art defireth : and by the fecond, they are prc- 
fcrved from having their gravity put them out of what figure 
they have once received. 

But becaufe thefe two conditions are common to all fblid bo- 
die?,we may conclude, that if no other circumftance concurred 
the cffe arifing out of them would likewife be common to all 
fuchrand therefore, where \ve find it other wife, we muft leek fur- 
ther fora caufe of that tran'greflion.As for example,ifyou bend 
the bodies of young trees, or the branches of others, they will 
return to their due figure. It is true, they will fbmetimes lean to- 
wards that way they have been bent : as may be icen even in 
great trees after violent tcmpefts ; and generally the heads of 
trees, and the ears of corn, and the grown hedgerowes will all 
bend one way in fbme countries, where fbme one wind hath a 


Chap. ip. ATyedifi tf BODIES. 211 

main predominance and reigneth moil continually, as near the 
Jcafliorc upon the weftcrn coaft of England(whcrc the fbuth weft 
wind bkweth conftantly the greatelt part ofchcyeare) may be 
obierred: but this effcil proceeding from a particular and extra- 
ordinary caule, conccrneth not our matter in hand. 

We are to examine the reafon of the morion ofReftitution, 
\vhich we generally iec in young trees, and branches of others., 
as we laid beforeJn fuch,we fee that the earthy part which mak- 
eth them iliffc (or rather (lark) a bound eth more in them then in 
the others that ftand as they are bent: <at dvc leaft in proportion 
to their natures ; but I conceive this is not the caufe of the effect 
We enquire about;but that it is a fubtiic fpirit which hath a great 
proportion of fire in it. For as in rarefaftion, \\efound that fire, 
which was either within or without the body to be ranfyed, did 
caufe the rarefaction, either by entering into it, or by working 
within it:fo feeing here the queftion is, for a body to go out of a 
lefier fuperficies into a greater (which is the progrefle of rarefa- 
dion;and hapneth in the motion of rettitution; ) the work tnuft 
needs be done by the force of heat. And becaufe this effect pro- 
ceedeth evidently, out of the nature of the thing in which it is 
wrought, and not from any outward caule, we may conclude ic 
hath its origine from a heat that is within the thing it felfjor elfe 
that was in it, and may be prcfled to the outward parts of it,and 
Would fink into it again. 

As for example* when a young tree is bended both every 
mans conceit is, and the nature of the thing maketh us believe, 
that the force which bringcth the tree back again to its figure, 
corneth from the inner fide that is bent; which is compreffed to- 
gether,as being fhrunk into a circular figure from a ftraight one: 
for when fblide bodies that were plain on both fides, are bent fo 
as on each fide to make a portion of a circle, the convex fuperfi- 
cies will be longer then it was before, when it was plain, but the 
concave will be fliortcr. And therefore we may conceive that the 
fpirits which are in the contracted part, ( being there Iqueezcd 
into JelTe room, then their nature well brookethjdo work thern- 
felves into a greater fpace; or elfe that the fpirits which arecrufh- 
edout of the convex fide by the extenfion of it, but do remain 
bcfieging it,and do ftrive to get in again,(in fuch manner as we 
ha-ve declared when we fpokc of attraction, wherein we flic wed 

O 2 how 

TreAttfeof BODIES. Chap, i p. 

how the emitted fpiiits of any body will move to their own 
fourcc.and fettle again in it,if they be within a convenientcom- 
paflc; ) and accordingly do bring back the extended parts to 
their former fituation;or rather,that both thefe caufes do in their 
kinds concurre to drive the tree into its naturall figure. 
5. But as we fee when a flick is broken, it is very hard to re- 

why feme bo- place all the fplinterSjCvery one in its proper fituationjfo itmuft 
nttiymptrtro of ncccflity fall out in this bending, that certain infenfible parts 
their nacuraii both jnward and outward are thereby dilplaccd, and can hardly 
entirely. " be perfectly rejoynted. Whence it followeth that as you fee the 
fplintcrs of a half broken flick, meeting with one another do 
hold the ftick fomewhat crooked ; fo thelc invifible parts do the 
like in bodies as after bending fland a little that way. But 
becaufc they are very little ones,the tree or the branch that hath 
been never fo much bended, may (fo nothing be broken in it) be 
fet flraight again by pains, without any notable detriment of its 
fl length. And thus you fee the reafon of fomc bodies returning 
in part to their naturall figure, after the force leaveth them that 
did bend them. 

Out of which you may proceed to tliofe bodies that reflore 
themfelves entirclyrwhereof fleel is the moft eminent. And of it, 
we know that there is a fiery fpirit in it,which may be extract- 
ed out of it, not onely by the long operations of calcining, dige- 
fling and diflilling it;btit even by grofle heating it,and then ex- 
tinguifhing it in wine and other convenient liquors? asPhyfici- 
ans ufe to do. Which is alfo confirmed by the burning of ftcel- 
duft in the flame of a candle, before it hath been thus wrought 
upon, which afterwards it will not do : whereby we are taught 
that originally there are ftore of fpirits in flcel.till they are fuck- 
ed out. Being then aflured, that in fleel there is fuch abundance 
of fpirics ; and knowing that it is the nature of fpirits to give a 
cjuick motionjand feeing that duller fpirits in trees do make this 
motion of Reftitutlon ; we need feek no further, what it is that 
doth it in fleel, or in any other things that have the like nature: 
w ch through the multitude of fpirits thatabound in them(efpeci- 
ally fleel) do return back with fo flrong a jerk,that their whole 
body wil treble a great while after,by the force of its own motio 
ir tbe ^ what is faid.thc nature ofthofe bodies which do fhrink and 
of ' flretchj may eafily be undcrftood ; for they are generally com- 

pofed 1 

Chap. Tp, A Treatifc of B O D I ES. 213 

nofed of ftrinoy parts, unto which, if humidity happen toar- r ' loft 

i it 1-1 J n * r I i whicli do for ink 

rive>they grow thereby thicker and ihorter.As we lee that drops andftrctch. 
of water getting into a new rope of a well, or in:o a new cable, 
will fwell kmuch thicker, and by confequence make it fliorter. 
Galileus noteth fuch wetting tobeof fo great efticacy,thatic will 
fhrink a new cable, and fliorten it notably; notwithfhnding the 
violence of a tempeft, and the weight and jerks of a loden ihip, 
do ftrain it what is poflible for them to ftretch it. Of this na- 
ture leather feemeth to be , and parchment, and divers other 
things, which if they be proportionably moyfrened , ( and no 
exteriour force be applyed to extend them,) will flirink up; but 
if they be overwetted, they will become flaccide. Again, if they 
be fuddenly dried, they will flirivell up;but if they be fairly dri- 
ed after moderate wetting, they will extend themfcivcs again to 
their firft length. 

The way having been opened by what We have difcourfed be- _ 
fore we came to the motion of Reftitution 3 towards the difc-ove- How great and 
ry of the mancr how heavy bodies may be forced upwards con- 
trary to their naturall motion, by very (mall means in outward from 
appearance; let MS now examine (upon the fame grounds J if like 
motions to this of water, may not be done in fbme other bodies 
in a fubtiler manner. In which, more or lefle ncedeth not trou- 
ble us; fince we know, that neither quantity nor the operations 
of it do confift in an indiviiible,or are limited to determined pe- 
riods they may not pafle. It is enough for us to find a ground 
for the poffibility of the operation: and then the perfefting of ic 
and the reducing of ic to fuch a height as at the firft might fee n 
impoffible and incredible , we may leave to the economy of 
wife nature. He that learneth to readc, write, or to play on the 
Jute, is in the beginning ready to lofc heart at every (tcp; when 
he confidereth with what labour , difficulty* and flownefle he 
joyneth the letters, fpclleth fyllables, formeth characters, fit- 
teth and breaketh his fingers ( as though they were upon the 
rack) to flop the right frets, and to touch the right firings. And 
yet you fee how ftrangc a dexterity is gained in all thefe by in- 
duftry and praftife; and a rcadinefle beyond what we could 
imagine poflible, if we faw not daily the effefts. 

If then we can but arrive to decipher the firft characters of 
the hidden alphabet we are now taking in hand,& can but fpel- 

O 3 lingly 

A Treat* ft of B O D I E S. Chap. 1 9. 

read thcfirft. fyllables of it; we need not doubt, bit that 
the wife Authour of .nature in the .mafterpiece of the creature 
( which was BO exppeflc the excellency of the workman J would 
with excellent curming and artdifpoie all circumftanccs ib apt- 
ly, as to fpeak .readily a complete language fifing From thofe 
Elements; and that fhould have as large an extent in praftife 
and cxpreflion, beyond thole ficfr principles; which we like chil- 
dren onely lifp ut; as the vaft difcoKrfes of wrfcft and rnoft 
learned men are beyond tbefpelling^of infants : and yet thofe 
difcouvfes {pring from the fame root, as the others fpeilings do, 
and are but a raifing of them to a greater heightjas the admi- 
red mufkk of the bell player of a lute or harp, that ever was, 
>s derived from >the harfh twangs of courfe bowftrrngs, *vhk<la 
are compofeJ together and refined, till at length they arrive w 
tliat wonderfull perfection. And fo without fcrwpfcj we may in 
the bufmefie we are next falling upon, conclude that the admi- 
rable and a'lmoft miraculous effects we :fee,areihut the elevating 
to a \vcnderfi ii M -height rfwafc very aftirons and morions whicb 
we fhall produce as caufes and pDmcipJes of them. 
g Let us then fuppofe.cliat there Jsaicclrtl hard body/ofan un- 

Conceming (ftuoitf nature^ whofe parts aretfb fiibcilc andt6ery, chat with a 
t/aSfinT little agitation -they are much lacifiod, ami do breath 'out in 
the caufes of it. fl ea nT. (thoughiclvey bettooiubtblefor'owrjeyes to^tifccrn) like 
onto the fteam thatiffTjsethfraraifvwearing rneniorhories,^r like 
the frearn-thwfflyethtionna candle-when it is pit out : bnt'thnt 
jhefcifiearas, as toon as^hey came ;imo <6\e cold nire,-are by 'that 
cold fuddenly -condenfsd again; and by being conArnfed , do 
Iftiorten rlvernie'-l-ves, nnd i>y little andiirtfeiio retire, till they 
fettle themlelves upon tlrc'bra.iy frcrni^vrhenceihcy fprung-: in 
iuch manner a you may obfcrye,tr^litxJe render horns of fnaik 
i;fe ro ilirink back rf any thing louch :tiicm,-till they fettle-in 
little lumps upon their heads. It I fay rirefe -ftiings of fei-iumi- 
Jious vapour 'fliould in their way outwards TneetMTtfh any Jight 
&: fpungiebodyjrhey 'would pierce into ;it^nd fettle in it;ani if ft 
U'cre'ofn competent hioncfTeibr ttrcrnto'-Wield, they would carry 
kwich them W'hitfh w^y foevrr they go^fo that if they r fh rink ba<ric 
again to the fountain fro whcncc*keycaTnc,they mifft needs carry 
fcwck wkh the the light ipung.y body they haC^ii:dtrieirVjart$ in 
Confider then, 'that ITOW mnd* iwit TGrificrl)., ib m^cli cold 


Chap. rp. eX Trerifc of B O IH S. a r J 

condcnfeth: and therefore fuch parts as by agicxtion were fpua 
out into a fubcilc thrid<k of an inch long fof example, as, they 
cool, do groiW bigger anckbigger 3 and-coniequcntly iliortcr and 
fhorteu, till a length, they gather; taerulclves back into their 
inain body; aridi there they letclc again in cold bicurnen as they 
were at the firft ; and the light body that they (tick unjto, is 
drawn back \vkh them* and eonfeqpeaily iturketh to the fwper- 
ficiesof the bicumcn. As if fomtthing were tycd ac one end oil 
a lurettring extended to its utruoft cajpocky, and the orhec cod: 
veece faftened co (bme pinne; as the (h ing flirinkeofk up, fo that 
which is tyed at it, muft neds move aeajcer and nearer the pin: 
which artifice of nature jugglers do imitate, wbfia by jneajas of 
an unfeen hair, they draw light bodies, to tlaetn. No.w if all tbis 
operation be done,without your feeing the little thrkis w clj cauie 
icjthe matter appears wondecfull & ftrange.Buc when you cojifi- 
der this progrefle that we have fet dow,u,you \*iH judge it poiSble 

And this ieemeth to be the cafe of thole bodies which we call 
Eleftricall; as yellow amber, jet> and the like. All which, are of 
a bituminous unctuous nature, as appearerh by their eafic com- 
buftibility & fmcll,when they are burned. And ifibmedo not fa 
apparently fhew this un&uous nature jt is becauie either they ar 
eo. tiard, or elie they have a high degree of aqueous humidity 
joyned with their un&uofity : and in them the operation will 
be duller in that proportion; for a.s we fee that un&uous liibf 
ftances arc more odoriferous then others, & do fend their fteams 
further off, and more efruracioufly; fo we cannot doubt but that 
fiurh bodies as confift in a rnoift nature do accordingly fend forth 
their emanations in a feebler proportion. Yet that proportion 
will not be fo feeble,but that they may have an Elc&ricaJieftec}, 
as well as the more efficacious Ele&ricall bodies, w ch may be per- 
ceptible, if exa& experience be made by an instrument like the 
mariners needle; as our learned countryman D' Gilbert teacheth 

But that in thofe eminent agents, the fpfrits, whereby they at- 
tra6r, are unctuous, is plain, bccaufe the fire conftraeth them; 
and fo if the agents be overheated they cannot work; but mo- 
derate heat even of fire incrcafeth their operation. Again, they 
are clogged by raifty aire, or by wetting: and likewile, are pier- 
ced through and cut afunder by fpirit of wine or aquae ardentcs; 
but oyl doth not hurt them. L&ewife, they yield more ipirits in 

O 4 the 

A TreMife ofKODlES. Chap. 19. 

rhe funne then in the fliade; and they continue longer,when the 
aire is cleared by North or by Eaftern winds. They require to 
be polifhed, either bccaufe the rubbing which polifheth them, 
doth take off from their furfaces the former cmanations,which re- 
turning back do ftick upon them, and fo do hinder the pafTage 
of thofe that are within; or elfc, becaufe their outfides may be 
foul ; or laftly, becaufe the pores may be dilated by that fmoo- 
t'ning. Now that hardnefle and folidity is required, doth argue 
that thefe fpirits muft be quick ones, that they may return fmart- 
ly, and not be loft through their languifhing in the aire. Like- 
wife, that all bodies which are not either exceeding rare, or elfc 
fet on fire, may be drawn by thefe iimftuous thrids; concludeth 
that the quality by which they do it, is a common one that hath 
no particular contrarieties; fueh a one as we fee is in grcafeor in 
pitch to ftick to any thing; from which in like manner nothing 
is exempted but fire and aire. And laftly, that they work moil 
eflficacioufly, when they are heated by rubbing, rather then by 
fire; fheweth that their fpirits are excitated by motion, and are 
thereby made to file abroad; in fuch manner as we fee in po- 
nunders, and in other perfumes , which muft be heated if you 
will have them communicate their fent:& alike effe ft as in them, 
agitation doth in jet,yellow amber,& fuch other Eleclricall bo- 
dies; for if upon rubbing them, you put them prefemly to your will dtfcern a ftrong bituminous fmell in thcm;all w ch 
circumftances do fhewthatthis cle$ricall virtue.confifts in a cer- 
tain degree of rarity or dcnfity of the bodies unftuous emanations 
Now if thefe refined and vifcuous thrids of jet or amber, do 
in their ftrcaming abroad meet with a piece of ftraw, or of hay, 
or of a dried leaf, or fome fi ch light and fpungie body; it is no 
marvail if they glew.themfelvcs unto it like birdlime; and that 
in their fhrinking back (by being condenfed again and rcpul(ed, 
through the coldnefle of the airej they carry it along with them 
to their entire body. Which they that onely fee the effect, and 
cannot penetrate into a pofTibility of a naturall caufe thereof, 

. are much troubled withall. opi- And this fccmtth unto me to bear a fairer femblance of truth, 
erninq the then what Cabeus delivereth for thecaufcof Ele&ricaU atcrafti- 
c of B. ons< whofc (peculation herein, though I cannot allow for folid, 

Jcttncall mo- n r A i . i 

yet I muft ror ingenious. And certainly even errours are to be 


Chap. 19. ^Trftfi/eofftODIES. 217 

commended, when they arc witty ones, and do proceed from a 
cafting further about then the beaten track of verball learnirtg, 
or rather terms which explicate not the nature of the thing in 
qiieftion. He faith that the coming of ftraws and fuch other Jight 
bodies unto amber, jet, and the like, proceedeth from a wind 
raifed by the forcible breaking out of fubtile emanations from 
the Ele&ricall bodies into the aire, which bringeth thofe light 
bodies along with it to the Eleclricall ones. 

But this difcourfe cannot hold : for firft, it is not the nature 
ofun&iious emanations (generally fpeakingj tocaufc fmart 
motions fingly of themfelves. Secondly, although they fliould 
raife a wind, I do not comprehend how this wind fhould drive 
bodies dire&ly back to the fource that raifed it; but rather any 
other way; and fo confequently, fliould drive the light bodies it 
meeteth with in its way 3 rather from,then towards the Electrical! 
body. Thirdly, if there fhould be frch a wind raifed,& it fhould 
bring light bodies to the Ele6l:ricall ones; yet it could not make 
them ftiek thereunto, which we fee they do, turn them which 
way you will, as though they were glewed together. 

Neither do his experiences convince any thing; for what he 
faith that the light bodies are fbmetimes brought to the Ele&ri- 
call body with fuch a violence, that they rebound back from it, 
and then return again to it, makcth rather againft him : for if 
wind were the caufe of their motion, they would not return a- 
gain, after they had leaped back from the Ele&ricall body; no 
more then we can imagine that the wind it (elf doth. 

The like is of his other experience, when he obferved that 
fome little grains of faw-duft hanging at an Elcclricall body, 
the furthermoft of them not onely fell off, but feemed to be dri- 
ven away forcibly: for they did not fall directly down, but fide- 
wayes; and befides did flie away with a violence and finartnefle 
that argued fbme ftrong impulff. The reafon whereof u,ight be, 
that new emanations might finite them, which not flicking and 
fattening upon them, whereby to draw them nearer, muft needs 
pufli them furthcnor it might be that the emanations unto which 
they were glewed, fhrinking back unto their main body, the la- 
ter grains were fliouldercd off by others that already beficgeti the 
fuperficies; and then the emanations retiring fwiftly the grains 
muft break off with a forcc:or els we may conceive it was the force 


Trett iff of B O D I E S . Chap, i o. 

of" the aire, that bore them up a little, which- made- an appear- 
ance of tbcir being driven away ;. as we iite&atltaitS ami o:hcs: 
dckciUaot fttajghfl 


Of the L&td/terrf* gencrtttox ; *rf />J p(trric*l*r motions. 

Here is yet rcrraiaioTg, the great my fiery of the Loadftone 
tQ ^to* 11 ^ f- Which alt Autls;Q*uii,b>th ancient and ir.o- 
iunneurrfcrtiic dctn, ha,ve agreed upon as, an kia^enyabJe example and evi- 
Sa^hctm'or^ ^ ^ tbe thorta{T of uians reach in comprehending, and 
a it- t. m each of the impofltbiatic of his rcaibu in penetrating Ioto,ajid expli- 
^osnA^Mic. eating fuch fecrcts,as natuie Inch a miad; to bide from us, 
Wherefore our reaxlerCl a.m fijrejwill not in, thiss fb><fl expert 
cleat fatisfadlion air plain demon firations^ it our hands: but 
\vill judge we have fairly acquitted our felves, if whac \ve (ay 
be any v.hit plaufible. 

Therefore, to ulc our bcft indeavours to content him ; let us 
rcfleA upon th difpofition of parw of this habitable globe, 
whereof we are tenants for lives. And we fliall find that the fun 
by his ccmftantcaurfe under the zodiaekibcatcth a great part of 
it unmeafurably more then he doth the icfi.Andconfequently, 
that this zodiaok being in the middert jretween tw^a-s it wcrt) 
ends, which we call the Poles , thefe poles rauft nccflfarily be 
extremely cold , in refpeft of the torrid zone ; for fo we call 
that part of the earth which lieth under the zodi'ack. 

Now looking into the confluence of this ; we find thai the 
funne, or the funnes heat which refleeth from the earth in the 
torrid zone, muft rarifie the aire extremely, and according to 
the nature of all heat and fire, mull needs carry away from 
thence, many parts of the aire and of the earth flicking to due 
heat, in fuch fort as we have formerly declared. 

Whence icfolloweth, that other aire muft neceflarily come 
from the regions towards both the polei , to fupply what is car- 
ried away from the middle, as is the courfe in other fires, and 
as we have explicated above : efpccially confidering, that the 
aire which comcth from the polewards, is hearier then the aire 
Chip.i8. 7 O f t hc torride zone ; and therefere, muft naturally prciTe to be 
ftill nearer chc carch ; and fo, as it were fhoulderech up the aire 


Chap. lo. \A Trtatifetf BODIES. 

f the torride zone towards the circumference^ by rolling into 
its place : and this, in great quantities ; and confcquently, the 
polar airc rnuft draw a great train after it. 

Which rTweconfider the great extent of the torrid zone, wt 
fhall eafily pcrfwade our fclvcs, that it muft reach on each fide, 
to the very pole : for taking from Archimedes, that the fpheri- 
-call fupcrficies of a portion of a fpherc, is to trie fuperficies of 
the whole fphere, according as the parts of the axis of that 
iphere comprifed within thefaid portion, is to the whole axis : 
and confidering that (in our cife) the part of the axis compri- 
fed within the torrid zone, is to the whole axis of the earth, in 
about the proportion of 4. to. io;it muft of neceflity follow that 
a fire or great heat refgmng in fo vaft an extent, will draw airc 
very powerfully from the reft ofthe world. 

Neither let any man apprehend that this courfe ofthe funncs 
elevating fb great quantities of acomes in the torrid zone, 
fhould hinderthe courfe of gravity there: for firft the medium 
as much rarer in the torrid zone then in other parts ofthe earth; 
&: therefore the force of the dcicendrng-atomes needeth not to be 
fo great there as in other places, to make -bodies defcend there 
as fa ft as they do cllcwhere. Secondly, there being a perpetu- 
all fupply of frefli aire from the pola-r parts, ftreaming continu- 
ally into. the torrid zone; it muft of ncceffiry happen that in the 
aire there come atomes to the torrid zone, of that groflene'frc 
that .they cannot fuddenly be fo much tariffed astbe fubtiler 
parts of aire that are tlrere : and therefore, the more thofe fub- 
tiler parts are rarified, 2nd thereby happen to be carried up the 
ftrocger and the thicker the heavier atomes muft defcend. And 
hus;this coTJcnrfe of a ire from the polaT pnrts, mainti-ineth 
-gravity wndertl.c ?odiack _, where^etherwilcall would be turn- 
ed into 'fire, and fo hare -no gravity. 

Now, who confidereth the two hemffpherrs which tythe' 
nquator a.ue ciw-ided ; will find that they -are not akcigct'ricr of ^rc 
/quail corrrrirexiom ; but that our rttmiTphere, in \vhidh the ftrea'ms comin 
ISforthpole is-corrrprited^is-mudh dryer thentl-rcotlTrr, 1 by-rca- IJfto^ne" 
Ton cvfthe greater 'CDntirK-nt of land inthrs, amd the vafftcr traft race with on*. 
f'en:mtrieitheT; awd 'therefore ilhc fupply whrch ct>merrrfrtrm 
riswHwere hemifplKM-es, 1 !!!!^ needs be of drffererrtrraturts ; fhat 
wbidhxnnTreda fromo wards fhc^Southpole, -being txrrrparecl to 


ATreAtife ef BODIES. Chap, 20. 

that \vhich cometh from towards the North, as the more wee 
to the more dry. Yec of how different complexions (bcver they 
be, you lee they are the emanations of one and the fame body. 
Noc unlike unto what nature hath inftituted in the rank of ani- 
m.ilsramong whom, the male & the female are fo diftinguifhed 
by fieac and cold,moifhire and drought ; that nevertheleflc all 
belongeth but to one nature ; and that, in degrees though ma- 
nifertly different , yet fo near together that the body of one is in 
a manner the fame tiling, as the body of the other. Even fo,thc 
complexions of the two hemifphercs are in fucli fort different in 
the fame qualities, that neverthelefle they are of the fame na- 
ture, and are unequal! parts of the fame body which we call the 
earth. Now Alchimifts afliire us, that if two extractions of one 
body do meet together they will incorporate one with the 
other ; efpecially, if there be forne little difference in the com- 
plexion of the extractions. 

Whence it followeth that the/e two ftreams of aire, makin^ 


BV the'mcctin up one continuate floud of various currcntSjfrom one end of the 
an Ter R o"" world to the other; eaeh fiream that Cometh to the equator 
thefe ftreams at from its own Pole, by the extraction of the funne, and that is 
crJrivoiecs ftillfupplycd with new matter flowing from its own pole to 
romes of tne equator, before 'the funne can fufificicntly rarifie and lift up 
cd lC the atomes that came firft perpendicularly under its beams (as 
from one Pole j t u f cc |, to happen in the effects of Phyficall caufei, which can- 
not be rigouroufly ajuftcd, but muft have fome latitude in 
which, nature inclineth ever rather to abundance then to de- 
fecl: ) )will pafle.evcn to the other pole,by the conduct of his fel- 
low, in cale he be by fomeoccafion driven back homewards. 

For as we fee in a boule or pail full of water, or rather in a 
pipe, through which the water runneth along ; if there be a lit- 
tle hole at the bottotne or fide of it, the water will wriggle and 
change its courfc to creep out at that pipe ; efpecially if there be 
a little fpiggot, or quill at the outfide of the hole, that by the 
narrow length of it helpeth in fome fort (as it were ) to fuck it. 
So if any of the files of the army or floud ofatomcs lucked from 
one of the Poles to the equator, do there find any gappes, or 
chinks, or lanes of retiring files in the front of the other poles 
battalia of atomes, they will preflc in there : in fuch manner aj 
we have above declared that water doth by the help of a labell 


Chap. 20. ** Treatife of BODIES. 22l 

of cotton; and as is exemplyfied in all the attractions of vcHimc 
by venimous bodies whereof we have given many examples 
above : and they will go along with them the courfe they go. 
For as when a thick fhort guilded ingot of filver is drawn out 
into a long fubtile wyrc ; the wyre continuing ftill perfectly 
guilded all over, doth manifcftly fliew that the outfidc and the 
infide ofthe ingot, do (trangely meet together, and intermix in 
the drawing out : fo this little ftream which ( like an eddy cur- 
rcnt)runneth back from the equator towards its own Pole.will 
continue to the end ftill tin&ed with the mixture of the other 
Poles atomes, it was incorporated with at his coming to the 

Now that fome little ri volets of aire and atomes fhould rtinnc 
back to their own Pole, contrary to the courfe of their main 
ftream will be eafily enough to conceive ; if we but confider 
that at certain times ofthe year winds do blow more violently 
and ftrongly from fome determinate part or Rombe of the 
world, then they do at other times and from other parts. As 
for examplejour Eaft India Mariners tell us ofthe famous Moii- 
foncs they find in thofe parts; which arc ftrong winds that reign 
conftantly fix moneths ofthe year from one polewards, and the 
other fix moneths, from the other pole, & begin precifely about 
the funs entering into fuch a figne or degree ofthe zodiack,and 
continue till about its entrance into the oppofite degree. And in 
our parts ofthe world certain fmart Eafterly or Northeaftcrly 
winds do rcigne about the end of March & beginning of April; 
wheri it feemeth that fome fnows are melted by the fpring heats 
ofthe fun. And other winds have their courfcs 'mother ieafons, 
upon other caufes. All which do evidently convince, that the 
courfe ofthe aire, and of vapours from the poles to the equator, 
cannot be fo regular & uniform, but that many impediments & 
crofTes do light in the way,to make breaches in it;& thereby to 
force in it fome places to an oppo/ite courfe. In fuch fort as we fee 
happcneth in eddy waters,& in thecourleofa tide,wherein the 
ftream run ing fwiftly in the middle, beatcth the edges of the wa- 
trr to the fliore 3 & thereby makech it run back at the fhore.And 
hence we may conclude,that although the main courfe ofaire &: 
atomes(for example from north to fouth,in our hemifphcrc)can 
never fail of going on towards the equator, cbnflantly at the 


V2 x* rrMf/S */B O DIBS. Chap, 20. 

.: v ate in orofTcjiTcvtrthclefTc..!!! feverall particular little parts 
ofjt(& eibccially at the edges of thole ft reams that are driven on 
farter then the re(t> by an extraordinary and accidental! violent 
caufe) it is variofly imerrupted 3 and fometimes entirely flopped, 
and other times even driven back to the northwards. 

And ifpcradventureany man fhould think that this will 
not fall out, becauleench ftrcam feemeth to be alwayes coming 
trom his own Pole to the equator, and therefore will oppole 
and driveback any bodies that with lefTe force fliould ftriveto 
Ivvim againfr. it; or if they flick unto them, will carry them back 
co the equator. We anfwer, that we muft not conceive that the 
whole aire in body doth every where equally incroch from the 
polewards upon the torrid zone;but,as it were, in certain brooks 
or rivolcts, according as the contingency of all caufes put toge- 
ther doth make it fall out. 

Now then out of what we have faid it will folk>w;that fincc 
all the aire in this our hemifphere is as it were ftrewed over and 
fowed with abundance of northern atomcs, & thatfbmc brooks 
of them are in ftation, others in a motion of retrogradation 
back to their own north pole ; the fouthern atomes ( which 
coming upon them at the equator do nor onely prcffe in among 
them, wherefocver they can find admittance, but do alfo go on 
forwards to the north pole in feverall files by trrcmfelves, being 
driven that way by the fame accidcntall cauies, which make 
the others retire back) fcizing in their way upon the northern 
ones in foch manner as we defcribcd in filtration ; and thereby 
creeping along by them wherefocver they find them ftanding 
ftill, and going along with them wherefbever chcy find them 
going bacfk;murt of neceffity find paflage in great quantities to- 
\vards, and even to the north pole ; though fome parts of them 
will ever & anon be checked in this their journey by the main 
current prevailing over ibme accidentall one, and fo be carried 
fcack again to the equator, whofe line they had crofled. 

And this effcft cannot choole but be more or leflc according 
to the fcafons of the year: for when the fun is in the Tropick of 
Capricorn.thefbuthcrn atomes will flow in much more abun- 
dance, and with farre greater fpccd, into the torrid zone, then 
the northern atomes can ; by rcafbn of the funs approximation 
to the fouth, and his diftancc from the north pole j fince he 

work- ^t TreMife of B D I E S, 22; 

Tvorketh faintefi where he is furtheft off.- and therefore from 
the north no more emanations or atomcs will be drawn, but 
fuch as are moft fubtilifed, and duly prepared for that courfe. 
And fince oncly thcfc fele&cd bands do now march towards 
the equator, their files muft needs be thinner, then when the 
funncs being in the equator or Tropick of Cancer wakeneth 
and muftereth up all their forces. And confcquently, the quiec 
parts of aire between their files ( in which like atomes are alfo 
Scattered ) are the greater : whereby the adrenicnt fouthern 
atomes have the larger filter to climbe up by. And tke like hap- 
peneth in the other hemifphere, when the funne is in the Tro- 
pick of Cancer; as who will beftow the pains to compare them, 
will prefently fee. 

Now then let us confider what thefe two ftrcams thus incor- ,, 
porated muft of neceflity do in the furface or upper parts of the of thefe atomw 
earth. Firft, it is evident they muft needs penetrate a pretty STomVet 
depth into the earth; for ib free/ing perfwadeth us, and much matter in the 
more, the fubtile penetration ofdivcrs more fpirituall bodies, of r artn%rnade 
which we have fufficiemly difcour fed above. Now let us con. ftne. 
ceive that thefe fleams do find a body of a convenient denfuy to 
incorporate thcmfelves in, in the way of dcn/iry, as we fee that 
fire doth in iron, and in other denfe bodies: and this not for 
an hourc or two as happencth in fire; but for years : as I have 
been told that in the extreme cold hills in the Peak in Darby- 
fhire happeneth to the dry atomes of cold, which are permanent- 
ly incorporated in water by long continuall freefing and (0 
make a kind of chryftall. 

In this ca{c,certainly it muft come to pafle that this body will 
become in a manner wholly of the nature of thefe fleams: which 
becaufe they arc drawn from the Poles that abound in cold and 
drynefle, (for others thai have not thefe qualities,do not contri- 
bute to the intended effeAJthe body is apteft to become a ftone: 
forfo we fee that cold & drought turneth doe fuperficiall parts of 
the earth into ftoncs & rock$;& accordingly,wlierefoever cold & Thi* none 
dry winds rcienc powerfully, all fuch countries are mainly rocky work e-h by 

J r l.- a r , "anarion<. 

Now then let us fuppofe , this ttone to be taken out of the joyncd w ; t ha- 
carth and hanged in the aire.or fet conveniently upon fome little f^THfeerThSn 
pin, or otherwife put in liberty, fo as a fmall impulfc may cafily |n the airc; ard 
turn it any way: it will m this cafe certainly follow, that the 


4 Tre*t':fe of BO DIES. Chap. 20. 

end of the fbne which ir the earth lay towards the north pole, 
will now in the aire convert it felf in the fame manner towards 
the fame point; and the other end which lay towards the fouth, 
turn by confequence to the fbuth. I fpeak of thefe countries 
which lie between the equator and the north; in which it can- 
not chufe but that the ftream going from the northto the equa- 
tor, muft be ftronger then the oppofitc one. 

Now this is done; fuppofe the ftone hanged 
eaft and weft freely in the aire; the ftream which is drawn from 
the north pole of the earth rangeth along by it in its courfe to 
the equator; and finding in theftone the fouth fteam, (which 
is grown innate to it) very ftrong, it muft needs incorporate it 
{elf with it; and moft, by thofe parts of the ftcam in the ftone 
which are ftrongeft: which are they that come direclly from 
the North of the ftone; by which I mean that part of the ftonc 
that lay northward in the earth, and that ftill looketh to the 
north pole of the earth now it is in the aire. And therefore the 
great floud of atomes coming from the north pole of the earth 
will incorporate it felf moft ftrongly, by the north end of the 
ftonc with the little floud of fouthern atomes it findeth in the 
ftone : for that end ferveth for the coming out of the fouthern 
atomes, and fendeth them abroad; as the fouth end doth the 
northern fleam, fince the fteams do come in at one end., and do 
go out at the oppofite end. 

From hence we may gather, that this ftonc will j'oyn and 
cleave to its attractive, whenfoever it happeneth to be within 
the fphereof its activity. Befides, if by fome accident it fliould 
happen that the atomes or fteams which are drawn by the funne 
from the Polewards to the equator, ftiould come ftronger from 
fome part of the earth, which is on the fide hand of the Pole, 
then from the very Pole it (elf; in this cafe the ftone will turn 
from the Pole towards that fide. Laftly, whatfoever this ftonc 
will do towards the Pole of the earth; the very fame a lefler 
ftone of the fame kind will do towards a greater. And if there 
be any kind of other fubftance that hath participation of the na- 
ture of this ftone, fuch a fubftance will behave it felf towards 
this ftone, in the fame manner, as fuch a ftone behaveth it felf 
towards the earth: all the Phcnomens whereof may be the more 
plainly obferved, if the ftone be cut into the form of the earth. 


Chap, 2o. A T/eaiife of BODIES. 22? 

And thus, we have found a perfect delineation of the load- 
ftonc from its caufes : for there is no man fo ignorant of the 
narurc of a loadftone, but he knoweth that the properties of it 
are to tend towards the North; to vary fbmetimes; to joyn with 
another load-ftonc; to draw iron unto it; and fuch like, whofc 
caufo you fee delivered. 

But to come to experimentall proofs and observations upon . 
the load ftone by which it will appear,that thefe caufes are well A methodc for 
cfreemcd and npplyed, we muft be beholding to that admirable e n( !"f J 
fearcher of the nature of the load-ftone Doitour Gilbert ; by an y fu 
means of whom and of Doflour Harvey, our Nation may claim 
even in this latter age as deferved a crown for foiid Philofbphi- 
call learning, as for many ages together it hath done formerly 
for acute and fubrile fpeculations in Divinity. But before I fall 
to particulars, I think it worth warning my Reader, how this 
great man arrived to dilcovcr fo much of Magneticall Philofo- 
phy; that he likewife , if he be dcfirous tofcarch into nature, 
may by imitation advance his thoughts & knowledge that way. 

In fliort then, all the knowledge he got of this lubject, was 
by forming a little load-ftone into the fhapc of theesnb. By 
which means he compared a wonderfull defignc, which was, to 
make the whole globe of the earth maniable : for he found the 
properties of the whole earth, in that little body; which he 
therefore called a Tcrrella, or little earth; and which he could 
manage and try experiences upon, at his will. And in like man- 
ner, any man that hath an aim to advance much in naturall fci- 
encies, ir.uft endeavour to draw the matter he enquireth of, into 
fbme fmali modell, or into fome kinde of manageable method ; 

O * 

which he may turn and wind as he pleafeth. And then Jet him 
be fur e, if he hath a competent understanding, that he will not 
mifleof his mnrk. 

But ro our intent; the firft thing we arc to prove is, that the 
load-Hone i$ generated in fuch fort as we have dcfcribed : for 
proof whereof, the firft ground we will lay (hall be to confider acomcs flowing 
how in divers other effects it is manifcft, that the, differences of pok, i" l c ^ n . 
being cxpofcd ro the north or to the fouth, do caufe very great fivmed b v e *P e - 

, D , r i . i n ii i r rimeiKbobicr- 

vanety in the fame trung: as herearrer, we ihall have occanon to yea m the ftor 
touch, in the birks and grains of trees, and the like. Next, we llfc - h 
find by experience, tint this virtue of the load-ftcnc is received 

P into 

TreAttfeef BODIES. Chap. 20. 

into other bodies that refcmble its nature, by heatings and cool- 
ings : for fo it pafleth in iron barres, which being throughly 
heated, and then laid to eool north and fouth, are thereby im- 
bued with a Magnctick virtue; heat opening their bodies, and 
dif'pofing them to fuck in, fuch atomes as are convenient to 
their nature, that flow unto them whiles they are cooling. So 
that we cannot doubt, but that convenient matter fermenting in 
its warm bed under the earth, becometh a load-ftone by the like 
fudcing in of affluent ftreams of a like complexion to the former. 

And it fareth in like manner with thofe fiery inftruments(as 
fireforksj tongues, fhovels, and the like) which do Hand con- 
ftantly upwards and downwards ; for they, by being often 
heated and cooled again, do gain a very ftrong verticity,or tur- 
ning to the Pole : and indeed, they cannot ftand upwards and 
downwards Co little a while, but that they will in that fhorc 
fp.?ce gain a manifeft verticity; and change it at every turning. 
Now lince the force and vigour of this verticity, is in the end 
that ftandeth downwards; it is evident that tbis effect proceed- 
eth out of an influence received from the earth. 

And becaufe in a Joad-ftone (made into a globe, or cond- 
dercd fo, to the end you may reckon hernifphcres in it, as in the 
great earth ) cither hemifphere giveth unto a needle touched up- 
on it, not oncly the virtue of that hemifphere where it is touch- 
ed, but likewife the virtue of the contrary hemifphere; we may 
boldly conclude,that the virtue which a load-ftonc is impregna- 
ted with in the wombe or bed of the earth, where it is formed 
amcf groweth, prooccdeth as well from the contrary hcmifphcre 
-of the earth, as from that wherein it lyeth; in fuch fort, as we 
hare abc^e described. And as we feel oftentimes in our own 
bodies, that fome cold we catch remaineth in us a long while af- 
ter the taking it, and that fbmetimes it feemeth even to change 
the nature of fome part of our body into which it is chiefly en- 
tered, and hath taken particular potieffion of; fo that whenfb- 
ever new atomes of the like nature, do again range about in the 
circnrrftant aire, that part fo deeply aflfeed with the former 
ones of kinne to thcfe? doth in a particular manner fcem to rif- 
fent them, and to actra$ them to it,and to have its guefts within 
it ( as it were) wakened and roufed up by the ftrokes of .the :>d- 
yenicnt ones that knock at their dorcs. Even fo fbut much more 


Ciap, 20. A Treatiftof BODIES. 227 

ftronglyj by reafon of the longer time and leflc hinderaftce>)we 
may conceive that the two rirtues or acomes proceeding from 
the two different hemifphcrcSjdo constitute a certain permanent 
and conftant nature in the ftone that imbibeth them : which 
then, we call a load-ftone; and is exceeding fenfible (as we 
fhall hereafter declare) of the adrcnicnce to it of new atomes,a- 
like in nature & complexion tothofcthat it is impregnated with 

And this virtue, confifting in a kind of (bfter and tenderer 
fubftancethen the reft of the ftone, becometh thereby fubjecl to 
be confumed by fire. From whence we may gather the reafon 
xvhy a load-ftone never recovereth it* magnetick virtue, after it 
hath once loft it; though iron doth; for the humidity of iron is 
infeparablc from its fubftance, but the humidity of a load-ftone, 
which makcth it capable of this effe6t,may be quite confumed by 
fire; and fo the ftone may be left too dry, for ercr being capable 
of imbibing any new influence from the earth, unleflc it be by a 
kind of new making ir. 

In the next place we are to prove that the load-ftone doth g. 
work in that manner as we have tliewed: for which end Ice us Experiments 
confider how the atomes that are drawn from each Pole and lie* Jh/taujftonc 
milphcre of the earth to theequatour, making up their courfeby workerh by 
a manuduftion of one another, the hindcrmoft cannot chooie ^cetin"""^^ 
but ftill follow on after the fotemoft. And as it happeneth in fil- agreeing 
tration by a cotton cloth; if fbme ons part of the cotton, have 
its dilpofition to the afccnt of the water, more perfect and ready 
then the other parts have; the water will afluredly afccnd fafter 
in that part, then in any of the reft: fb, if the atomes do find a 
greater difpofition for their paflage, in any one part of the me- 
dium they range through, then in another, they will certaiuly 
not fail of taking that way, in greater abundance, and with 
more vigour nnd ftreng-h, then any other. 

But it is evident,r!m when they meet with fuch a ftone as we 
have defcribed, the helps by which they advance in their jour- 
ney arc notably encu'ifcd by thefloud of atomej which they 
meet coming ot 6f" -that ftone; which being of the nature of 
their oppofitc pole, they fei'e greedily upon them, and thereby 
do pluck thenifelvC* fcfier on: like a ferryman that drawcth on 
his boit the fwiftJicrt!ic more vigouroufly he ti-'ggeth & pulleth 
at the rope that lycth thwart the fiver for him to hale himfelf 

P 2 over 

ai8 **fre*tiJr1f&<$DlE$* Chap. 20. 

over by. And therefore we cannot doubt but that this floud of 
atomes ftreaming from the pole of the earth, muft needs pafle 
through that (tone with more fpeed and vigour then they can do 
any other way. 

And as we fee in the running of water;that if it mccteth with 
any lower cranies then the wide channel it ftreamech in; it will 
turn out of its ftraight way,to glide along there where it findeth 
an eafier and moredeelivc bed to tumble in: fo thefe atomes will 
infallibly deturn themfelvcs from their direct courfe, to pafle 
through fuch a ftone as far re as their greaterconvenicncy leadeth 

And what we have faid ofthcfe atomes,which from the Poles 
do range through the vaft fca of airc to the equator; is likewise 
to be applyed unto thofc atomes which iffue out of the ftone: (o 
that we may conclude, that if they meet with any help which 
may convey them on with more fpeed and vigour, then whiles 
they ftream directly forwards; they will likewife deturn them- 
felvesfrom directly forwards, to take that courfe. And if" the 
ftone it felf be hanged fo nicely that a lefie force is able to turn 
it about then is requifitc to turn awry out of its coin 'c the con- 
tinued ftream of atomes which itfueth from the ftoruerin this cafe, 
the {tone it felf tnu ft needs turn towards thac.ftrearn which 
climbing and filtring it (elf along the ftones ftream, drawcrh it 
out of its courfe; in fuch fort as the nofc of a weathercock but- 
teth it felf into the wind. Now then; it being known, that the 
flrongcft ftream cometh directly from the north in the great 
earth v & that the (buthern ft ream of the Terrclla or load-ftone 
proportioned duely by nature to incorporate with the north 
ftrcam of the earth, hTueth out of the north end of the ftone; it fol- 
lows plainly that whenaloadftoncis fituated at liberty its north 
end muft necefTarily turn towards the north pole of the world. 

And it will likewife follow, that whenfbcver luch a ftone 
mecteth with another of the fame nature and kind, they murt 
comport themfelvcs to one another in like fort: that is, if both of 
them be free and eqtiall, they muft turn themfelves to, or fio=n 
one another;nccording as they are fituated in refpccl of one ano- 
ther. So that if their axes be parallel, and thefouth t;olt of the 
one, and the north of the other do look the fame way,then they 
\vill fend proportionate, and agreeing ftreams to one anocher 


Chap. 2 o. ^ TrtAtifi ^/"BODIES. 

from their whole bodies, chat will readily mingle and incorpo- 
rate with one anocher>wichout turning out oftheir way or feck- 
ing any fhorter courfc or changirfg their refpe&s to one another 

But if the poles of the fame denomination do look the fame 
way, and the loadftoncs do not lie in fuch fort as to hays their 
axes parallel, but that they enclitic to one another: then they 
"Will work themfelves about, untill they grow by their oppofite 
poles into a ftraight line; for the fame reafon as we have fliew- 
cd of a loadftones turning to the pole of the earth. 

But if onely one 1 of the loadftones be free & the other be fixed, 
& that they lie inclined,as in the former cafe; then,the free ftone 
will work himfelf untill his pole be oppofitQjo that part of the 
fixed /tone from whence the ftream w ch agrees with him, iflueth 
ftrongeft.-for that Itream is to the free loadftonejas the northern 
ftrcam ofthe earth, is to a loadftone compared unto the earth.But 
withalKwe muft take notice that in this our difcour{e,we abftra<ffc 
from other accidents;&particularly,fro the influence ofthe earths 
(trcams into the loadftones: w eh will caule great variety in thefe 
cafes, if they lie not due north & fouth,when they begin to work. 

And as loadftones and other magnetick bodies,do thus of ne- 
ceflity turn to one another when they are both free; and if one 
of them be faftened,the other turneth to it; folikewife,ifthey be 
free to progreflive motion, they muft by a like neceflity and for 
the fame realbn, come together and joyn themfelves to one ano- 
ther. And if onely one of them be free, that muft remove it felf 
to the other: for the fame vjrtue that maketh them turn, (which 
is, the ftrength ofthe fteam ) will likewife ( in due circumftan- 
ccs) make them come together; by reafbn that the fteams which 
climbe up one another by the way of filtration, and do thereby 
turn the bodies ofthe ftoncs upon their centers when they are 
onely &ee to turn, muft likewife draw the whole bodies of the 
fiones entirely out oftheir placesj& make them joyn,when fuch 
a totall motion ofthe body is an effe& that rcquireth no more 
force, then the force of conveying vigoroufly the ftreams of both 
the Magnetick bodies into one another; that is, when there is no 
fucb impediment ftanding in the way of the Magnetick bodies 
motion, but that the celerity of the at.omes motion, mingling 
with able to overcome it:for then,it muft needs do 
fo; & the magnetick body by naturall coherence unto the (team 

P of 

230 A Trftiife o/BODIES. Chapi 21. 

of atonies in which it is involved, followeth the courfe of the 
fteam: in fuch fort as the example we have heretofore upon an- 
other occafion given of an eggs-fhcll filled with dew j the fun- 
beams converting the dew inco fmoke,and raifing up that fmokc 
or fteam, the eggs-fheli is likewife raifed up for company with 
the fteam that iflueth from it. 

And for the fame reafon it is,that theloadftone draweth iron: 
for iron being of a nature apt to receive and harbour the Reams 
of a loadftone; it becometh a weak loadftone, and worketh to- 
wards a loadftone,in fuch fort as a weaker loadftone would do: 
and fo moveth towards a loadftone by the means we have now 
defcribed. And that this conformity between iron and the load- 
ftone is the true reafon of the loadftones drawing of iron, is 
clear out of this, that a loadftone will take up a greater weight 
of pure iron, then it will of impure or droffic iron ; or of iron 
and fome other metall j'oyncd together : and that it will draw 
further through a (lender long iron, then in the free open aire: 
all which are manifeft figncs, that iron cooperateth with the 
force which the loadftone grafteth in it. And the reafon why 
iron cometh to a loadftone more efficacioufly then another load- 
ftone doth, is becaufc loadftones generally are more impure then 
iron is (as being a kind of ore or mine of iron) and have other 
extraneous and heterogencall natures mixed with themrwhereas 
iron recciveth the loadftones operation in its whole fubftance. 


Portions drawn out of the ftrnier doftrint, **d confirmed 
by cxperttMCHtall proofs. 

I, *He firft pofition is, that the working of the loadftone, be- 

JL ing throughout according to the tenour of the operation of 
bodies, may be done by bodies^nd eonfeqacmly is not done by 
occu ^ or f ccrcc qualities. Which is evident out of this, that a 
greater loadftone hath more effect then a Jefler: and that if you 
cut away part of a loadftone, part of his vcrtue is likewife ta- 
ken from him: and if the parts be joyned again, the whole bc- 
corneth as ftrong as it was before. 

Again ; if a loadftone touch a longer iron, it giveth it Me 
force then if it touch afliortcr iron: nay, the vcrtne in any part 


Chap. n. A TrtAtiJt tf B O D I E S. 231 

is fenfibly le{Ter,according as it is further from the couched part. 
Again, the longer an iron is in touching, the greater vertueii 
getteth, and the more conftant. And both an iron and a load- 
Hone may lolc their vertue, by long lying out of their due or- ^ 
dcr and fituation, either to the earth or to another loadftone. 

Befides, if a loadftone do touch a long iron in the middle of 
it, he difrufeth his vertue equally towards both ends; and if it be 
a round plate, hcdiffufcth his vertue equally to all fides. 

An$l laftly, the vertue of a loadftone, as alfo of an iron 
touched, is loft by burning it in the fire. All which fymptomcs 
agreeing exactly with the rules of bodies, do make h undenia- 
ble that the vertue of the loadftone is a reall and folid body. 

Aga'mft this pofition, Cabeus bjeiteth that little atoines 2- 
would not be able to penetrate all forts of bodies; as we fee the okjeaiom *. 
vcrtue of the loadftone doth. And urgeth, that although they merpofiao* 
fhould be allowed to do fb, yet they could not be imagined to an 'wed. 
penetrate thick and folid bodies fbfuddenly, as they would do 
thin ones; and would certainly (hew then fome figne of facility 
or difficulty of pafling, in the interpofition and in the taking 
away of bodies put between the loadftone and the body it works 
upon. Secondly, he obje&eth that atomes being little bodies, 
they cannot mqve in an inftant ; as the working of the Joad- 
#one feemeth to do. And laftly.that the loadftone by fuch abun- 
dance of continuall evaporations, would quickly be confumed. 

To thefirftwe anfwer; That atomes whofe nature it is to 
pierce iron, cannot reafbnably be fufpe6ted of inability to pene- 
trate any other bodyrand that atoines can penetrate iron, is evi- 
dent in the melting of it by fire. And indeed this objection co- 
meth now too late, after we have fo largely declared the divifi- 
bility of quantity, and the fubtilty of nature in reducing all 
things into extreme fmall parts: for this difficulty hath no other 
avow, then the tardity of our imaginations in fubsilizing fuffi- 
ciently thequantitatiye parts that iflue out of the loadftone. 

As for any tardity that may be expected by the interpofition 
of a thick or denfe body; there is no appearance of fuch,fince we 
fee light pafle through thick glafles without giving any figne of 
meeting with the leaft opposition in its paflagc , (as we havca- 
bove declared at large:) and magneticall emanations have the 
advantage of light in this, that they arc not obliged to ftiaight 
lincs> as light is. P 4 Laft- 

A Tvuitfe o/B O D I E S. Chap. 21. 

taftly, as for loadftones fpending of themfelves by ftill vent- 
ing their emanations; odoriferous bodies furnifh us with a full 
anfwcr to that obje&iont for they do continue many years pal- 
pably fpending of themfelves, and yet keep their odour in vi- 
gour; whereas a loadftone, if it be laid in a wrong pofition will 
not continue half fo long. The reafon of the duration of both 
which, maketh the matter manifeft and takcth away all diffi- 
culty: which is, that as in a root of a vegetable, there is a power 
to change the advenient juyce into its nature; fo is there in fuch 
like things as thefe a power to change the ambient airc into 
their own fubflance: as evident experience fheweth in the Hec- 
metikc fait;, fas fome modern writers call it ) which is found to 
be repaired, and cncreafcd in its weight by lying in the aire; and 
the like happeneth to faltpetcr. And in our prefcnt fubjeir. ex- 
perience informed) u$, that a loadftone will grow ftronger by 
lying in due pofition either to the earth, or to a ftronger load- 
ftone, whereby it may be better impregnated,and as it were feed 
it felfwith the emanations ifluing out of them into it. 
5. Our next portion is, that this virtue cometh to a magnetick 

The loadftone body, from another body; as the nature of bodies is, to require 

is imbued with ,< .. j i i 

his virtue from a being moved, that they may move. And this is evident in i- 
anoiher body. ron> wn j c h by the touch or by ftanding in due pofition near the 
loadftone, gaincth the power of the loadftone. Again, if a fmith 
in beating his iron into a rodjdo obferve to lay it north & fbuth; 
it gcttcth a direction to the north by the very beating ofit.Like- 
VV'ile if an iron rod be made red hot in the fire,and be kept there 
a good while together, and when it is taken out be laid to cool 
juft north and fouth, it will acquire the fame direction towards 
the north. And this is true not onely of iron, but alfbof all o- 
ther forts of bodies whatfbever that endure fuch ignition: parti- 
cularly of pot-earths, which if they be moulded in a long form, 
and when they are taken out of the kiln belaid ( as we laid of 
the iron) to cool north and fouth, will have the fame effe-fV 
wrought in them. And iron, though it hath not been heated; 
but onely hath continued long unmoved in the famefituation of 
north and fouth in a building-yet it will have the fame effect. So 
as it cannot be denied, but that this virtue cometh unto iron from 
other bodies : whereof one muft be a iecret influence from the 
ftoich, And this is confirmcd,by a loadftoncs lofing its virtue(as 


Chap, a r. exf Tre.itife of BODIES. 

We faid before) by lying a long time unduly difpofcd, either to- 
wards the earth, or towards a ftrongcr load/tone; whereby in 
ftead of the former, it gaineth a new virtue according to thatfi- 

And this happeneth, not onely in the virtue which is refident 
and permanent in a loadftone, or a touched iron;but likewife in 
the a&uall motion or operation of them. As may be experienced, 
firft in this, that the fame loadftone or touched iron in the fouth 
hemifphere ofthe world, hath its operation ftrongeft at that end 
of it which tendeth to the north; and in the north hemifphere at 
the end which tendeth to the fouch: each pole communicating a 
vigour proportionable to its own ftrength in the climate where 
it is received. Secondly in this > that an iron j'oyncd to a load- 
ftone, or within the fphere ofthe loadftones working, will take 
up another piece of iron greater then the loadftone of it felfcan 
hold; and as Coon as the holding iron is removed out of the 
fphere ofthe loadftones activity, it prefently letteth fall the iron 
it formerly held up rand this is fo true,that a JefTcr loadftone may 
be placed in fueh fort within the fphere of a greater loadftones 
operation, as to take away a piece of iron from the greater load- 
ftonc;& this in virtue of the fame greater loadftone from which 
it plucketh it: for,but to remove the lefler out ofthe fphere ofthe 
greater, and then it can no longer do it. So that it is evident that 
in thefe cafes the very aftuall operation ofthe lefler loadftono 
. or ofthe iron; proceedeth from theactuall influence of the grea- 
ter loadftone upon and into them. And hence wcmayunder- 
ftand, that whcnfoever a magnetick body doth work, ic hath an 
excitation from without, which doth make it ifTue out and fend 
its ftrcams abroad; in fuch Ibrt as it is the nature of all bodies 
to do; and as we have given examples ofthe like done by heat, 
\vhen we difcourfed of Rarefaflion. 

But to explicate this point more clearly by cntring more par- 
ticularly into it; if a magnetick body liech north and fouth, it is 
cafie & obvious to conceive that the ftreams coming from north 
and fouth ofthe world,and pafling through the ftone muft needs 
excitate the virtue which is in it, and carry a ftream of it along 
With them that way they go. But if it licth eaft and weft, then 
the fleams of north & fouth of the earth, ftrearning along by the 
two poles ofthe ftone,are fucked in by them much more weakly: 


a ?4 * Treatife if B O D I E S. Chap.i i. 

yec t tverthclefle fufficiemly to give an excitation to the innate 
fleams which are in the body of the ftone, to make them move 
on in their ordinary courfe. 

<j.. The third pofition is,that the virtue of the loadftone is a doti- 

The virtue of ble and not one fimple virtue. Which is manifeft in an iron 

a doub'e^'and touched by a loadftonc, for if you touch it onely with one pole 

rot one fimpic of the ftone, it will not be fo ftrong and full of the magnetike 

virtue, as if you touch one end of it with one pole, and the other 

end of it with the other pole of the ftonr. \gain,if you touch both 

ends of an iron, with the lame pole of the ftone,the iron gainetb 

its virtue at that end which was laft touched ; and changeth its 

virtue from end to end, as often as it is rubbed at contrary ends. 

Again, one end of the loadftone or of iron touched, will have 

more force on the one fide of the equatour, and the other end on 

the other fide of it. Again, the variation on the one fide of the 

equator, and the variation on the other fide of it.havc different 

lawes according to the different ends of the loadftone, or of the 

needle, which looketh to thofe poles. 

Wherefore it is evident, that there is a double virtue in the 
load/tone, the one more powerfull at the one end of it; the other 
more powerfull at the other end. Yet thcfe two virtues are found 
in every fenfible part of the ftone: for cutting it at either end,the 
virtue at the contrary end is alfo diminifhed. And the whole 
loadftone that is left, hath both the fame virtues, in proportion 
to its bignefle. Befides, cut the loadftone how you will, ftill the 
two poles remain in that line, which lay under the meridian 
when it was in the earth. And the like is of the touched iron 
whofe virtue ftill lieth along the line, which goeth ftraight (ac- 
cording to the line of the axis,) from the point where it was 
touched,and at the oppofitc end,conftituteth the contrary pole. 
The virtue of ^ c f urtn pofition is.that though the virtue ofthe loadftone 
theioadftone' be in the whole body;ncvcrthclefle,its virtue is morefecn in the 
ftwngi^inThe P^ cs ^ cn * n any other parts. For by experience it is found that 
poi of ir.chen a loadftone ofequall bulk, workcth better and more efficaciouk 
'part?' tber ty if ic De ' n a l n g form; then if it be in any other. And from the 
middle line betwixt the two poles, there cometh no virtue, if an 
iron be touched thererbut any part towards the pole; the nearer 
it is to the pole,the greater party it impartcth. Laftly.the decli- 
nation teacheth us the fame ; which is fb much the ftronger by 

Chap. ai. ATriAtifeof BODIES. 235 

The fifth po/ition is, that in the loadftone there arc emana- 6. 
tions which do ifliie not onely at the poles and about them, but JJjJjf j^SJ 6 
alfo fpherically, round about the whole body, and in an orbc itiemtnariont 
from all parts of the fuperficies of it; in fuch fort as happcncth in ^""art* O r 
all other bodies whatfoever. And that thefe fpherical emanations * w k ^ ds: ? n * 
arc of two kinds ; proportionable to the two polar emanations, "mngeft 
And that the greateft force of each fort of them is in that hcmi- l1 }" h 

t i i . r-rr P hcre 

fpherc where tqp pole is, at which they make their chief iflue. whofe 

The reafbnofthc firft part of this poficion is, becaufe no par- JJ" sthcy lflUe 
ticular body can be exempt from the lawes of all bodiesrand we 
hare above declared that every phyficall body muft of neceflity 
have an orb of fluours,or a fphere of activity about it. The rea- 
fon of the fccond part is, that feeing thefe fluours do proceed out 
of the very fubftancc and nature of the loadftone, they cannot 
choofe but be found of both lbrts,in every part how little foever 
it be, where the nature of the loadftone refideth. The reafbn of 
the third part is,thac becaufe the polar emanations do tend whol- 
ly towards the poles (each of them to their proper pole} it fol- 
loweth that in every hemifphere both thole which come from the 
contrary hemifphere, and thofe which are bred in the hemi- 
fphere they go out at, are all afiembled in that hemifphere : and 
therefore of necefTity it muft be ftronger in that kind of fluours, 
then the oppofite end is. All which appeareth true in experience: 
for if a long iron toucheth any part of that hemifphere of a load- 
ftone which tendeth to the north it gainech at that end a virtue 
of tending likewife to the north : and the fame will be if an iron 
but hang clofeorer it. And this may be confirmed by a like ex- 
perience, of an iron barre in refpe& of the earth which hanging 
downwards in any part of our hemifphere, is imbued with the 
like inclination of drawing towards the north. 

Thefixth pofidon is, that although every part of one load- - 
flone do in it f elf agree with every part of another loadftone Putting t wo 
(that is, if each of thefe parts were divided from their wholes, l^he"^^ 
and each of them made a whole by it felf,they might be fo joyn- oi ^nc another, 
ed together as they would agree,) nevertheleflc, when the purts onc^ioadftone 
arc in their two wholes;thcy do not all of them agree Together : <i c hn c agree 
but of two loadftonesj, only the poles of the one do agree wish df'iiwotlicr" 
the whole body of the other ; that is.each pole with any part of Io liftone * 
the contrary hemifphere of the other loadftoac. 


O D I E S. Cli ap. 2 1 . 

The reafon ofthis is,becaufe the fluours which ifTue out of the 
ftones, are'in certain different degrees in feverall parts of the 
entire loadftones ; whereby it happeneth that one loadftone can 
work by a determinate part of it felf moft powerfully upon the 
other, if fome determinate part of that other do lie next unto it ; 
and not fb well, if any other part licth towards it. And ac- 
cordinly experience (hewcth that ifyou put the pole of a load- 
ftone towards the middle of a needle that is toucjjpd at the point, 
the middle part of the needle will turn away, and the end of it 
will convert it felf to the pole of the loadftone. 

8. The feventh pofition is, that if a touched needle and a load- 

- Concerning the ft O ne do come together, and touch one another in their agreeing 

o5?fT n !>eft" parts (whatfoevcr parts of them thofe be) the line of the needles 

ofanecdjc, to ] en or.h will bend towards the pole of the ftone(excepting,if they 

wirds the load- ^Y i i C t n f -jji ri & Jt \ 

ftore it touch- touch by the equator of the (tone, and the middle of the needle:) 
eth * yet not fo that if you draw out the line of the needles length, ic 

will go through the pole ofthe ftone ; unlcfle they touch by the 
end ofthe one,and the pole of the other. But if they touch by the 
equator ofthe one and the middle ofthe other, then the needle 
will lie paralleleto the axis of the, ftone. 

And the reafon of this is manifeft, for in that cafe the two 
poles being equidiftant to the needle they draw it equally ; and 
by confequence the needle muft remain parallele to the axis of 
the ftone. Nor doth it import that the inequality ofthe two 
poles oftheftoneis materially or quantitatively greater then the 
inequality ofthe two poles ofthe needle j out of which it may 
at the firft fight fcem to follow, that the ftronger pole ofthe 
ftone fhould draw the weaker pole ofthe needle nearer unto ic 
felfjthcn the weaker pole ofthe ftone can be able to draw the 
ftronger pole ofthe needle : and by con/equence that the needle 
fliould not lie parallele to the axis of the ftone, but fhould in- 
cline fomewhat to the ftronger pole ofit.For after you have we! 
confidered the matter>you will find that the ftrength of the pole 
ofthe ftone, cannot work according to its materiall greatneflc, 
but is confined to work onely according to the fufceptibility of 
the needle:the which, being a (lender and thin body, cannot re- 
ceive fo much as a thicker body may. Wherefore, feeing that the 
ftrongeft pole ofthe ftone gi /eth moft ftrength to that pole of 
the needle, which lieth fartheft from it ; it may Well happen 


Chap. 21. v*TrMife of BODIES. 237 

that this fupcriority of ftrength in the pole of die needle char is 
applied to the weaker pole of the ftonc, may couiucrpoifethe 
excefi'e of the ftrongcr pole of the (tons, over ics oppoficc weak- 
er pole; though not in greatnctte and quamiry, yet in refpe& o r 
:he virtue which is communicable to the poles of the needle ; 
whereby its comportment to the poles of the (tone is determi- 
ned. And indeed the needles lying parallele to the axis ofthc 
/tone when the middle of it (ticketh to the equator or" the (lone, 
convinceth that upon the whole ma:ter> there is nocxceficin 
the efficacious working of either of the (tones poles: but that 
their cxcefie over one another in regard of themfcives is balan- 
ced by the needles receiving it. 

But ifthe needle hapncth to touch cheloadftonein feme part 
nearer one pole then the other; in this cafe it is manifcft that the 
force of the (tone is greater on the one fide ofthc needles touch, 
then on the other fide ; becaufe there is a greater quantity of the 
ftone on the one fide of the needle then on the ocher : and by 
confequence the needle will inrlinethat way which the greater 
force drawcth it ; fofar forth as the other part doth not hinder 
it. Now we know that ifthe greater part were divided from the 
reft, and ib were an entire Joadilone by it fclf ( that is, ifthe 
loaciftone were cut off where the needle touchcth it) then the 
needle would joyn it fclf to the pole, that is to the end, of that 
part : and by confcquence, would be tending to it, in fuch fort 
as a thin; that is (I.cke.i tendeth towards the li:cker againft the 
motion or force which cometh from the Icffer part : and on the 
other fide the leiler part of the ftone which is on the other fide 
of the point which the needle touchethmuft hinder this inclina- 
tion ofthc needle according to the proportion of i:s ftrength ; 
and fb it folleweth> that the needle will hang by its end,. not di- 
re&Iy fee to the end of the greater part,but as much inclining 
towards it as the letter part doth not hinder by ftnving to pull 
it the other way. Out of w hich we gather the true caufe of the 
needles declination, to wit the proportion of working of the two 
uncquall parts of the (tone, between which ic toucheth and is 
joyned to the (lone. 

And we likeuife difcover their en our who judge that the 9. 

part which drawcth iron is the next pole unto the iron. For ic 5.V :i ?i c of 

ihc loaiiftcM 

is rather the contrary pole which attrictecn ; or to (peak more 


A Trettife ef B O D I E S. Chap. 2 r. 

ing in lines 
end, to the 
19 that part 

ofcheftonc which beginncth from the contrary pole and rcach- 
eth to the needle. For befides the light which this difcourle gave 
ussexpcricncc aflurcth us that a loadftone.vvhofe poles lie broad- 
wayes, not longwayes, the ftene is more imperfect, and draw- 
eth irorc weakly then if the poles lay longwayes; which would 
notbeifthefli?ours did ftream from all parts of the ftoncdircft- 
ly to the pole:for then, howfoevcr the (tone were caft the whole 
virtue of it would be in the poles. Moreover, if a needle were 
drawn freely upon the lime meridian from one poleco the other, 
as foon as it were pafled the equator, ic would leap fuddenly at 
the very fuft remove of the equator, where it is parallelc with 
the axis of the loadftone, from bring fb parallele, to make an 
ansle with the axis greater then a half ri^ht one, to the end that 

^ O *J 

itmight look upon the pole which is fuppofcd to be theoncly 
attradtivc that draweth the needle: which great change,wrought 
all at oice, nature never caufeth nor admittcth,but in all actions 
or moiiDns, ufeth to paffc through all the mediums whenfbever 
it goeth from oneextreme to another.Befides, there would be no 
variation of the needles nfpect towards the north end of the 
Rone : for if every part did (end its virtue immediately to the 
poles, it were impoffible that any other pare whatfbever fhould 
be Wronger then the polar part, feeing that the polar part had 
the virtue even of that particular part, and of all the other parts 
of the flonc befides, joyned in it iclf. 

This therefore is evident ; that the virtue of the loadftone go- 
cth from end to end in parallele lines; unleflc it be in fuch ftones 
as have their po-lar parts narrower then the reft of the body of 
theflonccforin them the ftream will tend with ibme little decli- 
nuion towards the pole, as it were by way of refra&ion } be- 
caufe without the ftonc, the fluours from the pole of the earth 
docoarft themfelves, and fo do thicken their ftream, to croud 
into the ftone as (bon as they are fenfible of any emanations 
from it, that being (as we have faid before) their readieft way 
to pafle along : and within the ftone. the ftream doth the like ro 
rrccr the advcnient ftream where it is ftrongcfi and thickefr ; 
which is, at that narrow part of the ftoncs end, which is moft 
prominent out. Ai 

ir . v*TreA'i(eof BODIES. 2$5> 

And by this difcourfc we difcovcr likewifc another errour of 10. 
them th imagine the loadftone hath a fphere of acVrvhy round g^g^a 
about it. equall on all fides ; that is, perfectly (nhericall, ifche -J Pjjfl'y 
flone be fphcricall.Which clearly is a miflaken fpccttfcumu : for .j^ 1 ^ 
nature having fo ordered all her agents that where the flrengrh flone bsfeefc. 
is oreateft,thcrc the adion muft (generally fpwUng) extend it 
felffurtheft off- and it being acknowledged that the loadftone 
hath ereateft ftrength in its poles and leal* in the equator ; it 
muft of neceffity follow, that it worketh further by irs poles, 
then by its equator. And confcqnemly, it is importable chat us 
fpherc ofaftivity ftiouM be perfedly fphcricall. 

Nor doth Gabeos his experience move us to_conceirc the load 
ftone hath a neater ftrength to retain an iron la:d upon it by n 
equator,thcnby its poles : for to juflifie his atfemon, beftottW 
have tried it in an iron wyre that were <o fnort as the poles 
could not have any notable operation upon the ends of it ; fince 
otherwife,the force of retaining it will be attributed to the poies 
(according to what we have above deli vercd)& not to the equator 

Theeiohth pofuion is.that the intention of nature in all t.,e 
operation's of the to make an union betwixt the at- 
traaive and the attraaed bodies. Which is evident out of the 
flicking of them together: as alfo out of the violence wherewith ^E*,";^ 
iron cometh to a loadftonejwhich when it is drawn by a power- bj*j 
full on- is fo^reat, that through the force of the Wow hitting traac d bodies, 
the v&l rebound back again, and then fall again to the 
done: and in like manner a needle upon a pmne, if a loadttone 
be fet near it, turnr.h with fo great a force towards the pole c 
the ftone, that it goeth beyond it, and coming backsgain, the 
celerity wherewith it moveth msketh it retire it felf too far on 
the ether fide; and fo by nrmv undulations, at the bft it cometh 
to reft direaiy oppofiteto tlie pole. Likewife, by the declmati- 
on-by means of which, the iron to the Hone, or the ftone to the 
C3rh%nroacheth in fiich a dr^ofition as is mofr convenient to 
joynthedue ends together. And laflly, oct of the flying away 
ofche contrary ends from one another : which clearly is to no 
other nurpofe,but that the due ends may come together. And m 
orncrall.thcrc is no doubt but ones going ro another, is i nftiti 
ted by the order of nature for their coming together, & ror then 
being together, -whit* is but a F etfe7erance of their earning _to- 

i 1 tie 


The intention 
of the load- 

2 4 A Tre&tije cj 15 O D 1 b 5. <^nap. 21. 

j 2> The ninth pofition is, that the nature of a loadftone doth not 

The main globe fink deeply into the main body of the earth, as to have thefub- 
no-^ioadftonc ftance of its whole body be magneticall , but onely remaineth 
near the furface of it. And this is evident by the inequality in 
virtue of the two cndsjfor if this magnetick virtue were the na- 
ture of the whole body, both ends would be equally ftrong. Nor 
would the difpofition of one of the ends be different from the 
difpofuion of the other. Agam,there could be no variation of the 
tending towards the north: for the bulk of the whgle body 
would have a ttrength fo eminently greater then the prominen- 
ces anddifparities ofhils or fcas, as the varieties ofthefe would 
be abfolutely infenfible. Again, if the morion of the loadftonc 
came from the body of the earth, it would be perpetually from 
the cemer,and not from the poles;and fo,there could be no decli- 
natio more in one part of the earth, then in another.Ner would 
the loadfton tend from north to fouth,but from the center to the 
circumference; or rather from the circumference to the center. 

And io we may learn the difference between tbeJoadftone 
and the earth in their attractive opcrations;to wit, that the earth 
doth not receive its influence from another body, nor doth its 
magnetikc virtue depend of another magnctike agent, that im- 
prellech it into it : which nevcrtheletfe, is the moft remarkable 
condition of a load/tone. Again,the ftrongeft virtue of the load- 
ftone,is from pole to polerbut the flrongeft virtue ofthe earth, is 
from the center upwards, as appeareth by fireforks gaining a 
much greater magnetikc ftrength in a fhort time, then a load- 
ftone in a Jcnger.Neither can it be thence objered,that the load- 
ftone fhould therefore receive the earths influences more ftrong- 
Jy from the centerwards, then from the poles ofthe earth, (which 
by its operation, and what we have difcourfed of it, is certain it 
doth not; }hncc the beds where loadftoncs lie and are formed be 
towards the bottome of that part or bnck ofthe earth which is 
imbued with magnetike virtue. Again, this virtue which we fee 
in a load/tone, is lubftantiall to it; whereas the like virtue is but 
accidental! to the earth, by means ofthe iuns drawing the nor- 
^ l ! them and tbuthern exhalations to the equator. 
\> encr 3 a tcdin The laft portion is, that the loadftone muft be found over all 
ii parlor cii- t hc earth, and in every country. And fo we fee it isrboth becaufe 

matt of the r . /. - /- \ i n. u 

ei:th. iron mines arc found (in fome meafurc^almolt in all countncs:& 


"Chap. 22. A TrtAtifecf BODIES. 241 

caufe, at the leaft other forts of earth ( as we have declared of 
potearths) cannot be wanting in any large extent of country; 
which when they arc baked and cooled in due pofitioiu, have 
this crTeftof the loadftone, and are of the nature of it. And 
Doclour Gilbert fheweth, that the loaciftone is nothing elfe but 
the ore of fteel or of perfe&eft iron, and that it is to be found 
of all colours, and fafhions, and almoft of all confidences. 

So that we may eafily conceive, that the emanations of the r * 
loadftone being every where, as well as the caufes of gravity; 
the two motions of magnetick things and of weighty things, do 
both of them derive their origine from the fame iburce; I mean* f 
from the very fame emanations coming from the earth; which 
by a divers ordination ofnacure,do make this eflfecl: in the load- 
ftonc, and that other in weighty things. And who knoweth but 
that a like fucking to this which we have fhewed in magnetick 
things, pafleth allb in the motion of gravity.? In a word; gra- 
vity bcareth a fair teftimony in the behalf of the magnetick 
force; and the loadftones working returneth no mean verdicl 
for the ciufes of gravity, according to what we have delivered 
of them. 


ji foiHtiox if certain Problcmes concerning the loAdftone, and 
afhort jammc efthe vthole dottrint touching it. 

OUt of what is faid upon this fubje<St,we may proceed to the T< 
folution of certain queftions or problemcs, which are or which is t^e 
may be made in this matter. And-firft, of that which Doftour ^hich'the* 
Gilbert difputeth againft all former writers of the loadftone; to South Pole of 
wit,which is the North, and which the South pole of a ftone? a loadftone * 
Which feemeth unto me, to be onely a queftion of the name: 
for if by the name of north and fouth, we underftand that end 
of the /tone which hath that virtue that the north or fouth pole 
of the earth have, then it is certain, that the end of the ftone 
which looketh to the fouth pole of the earth, is to be called the 
north pole of the loadftone; and contrariwife, that which look- 
eth to the north, is to be called the' fouth pole of it. But if by 
the names of north and fouth pole of the ftone, you mean thofc 
ends of it, that lie and point to the north and to the fouth 

Q^ poles 

bc actraaivc. 

whether an 


the ncmb.or 

JJJJjJ t f a e t 
endthjt Jyeth 

atfcft iron bet- 

ter then one 

A Trettifc of BODIES* Chap. 22. 

poles of the earth; then you muft reckon their poles contrari-* 

wife to the former account. So that the termes being once de- 

fined, there will remain no further controverfie about the point. 

. Doclour Gilbert feemcth alfo to have another controveriic 

\\ich all writers; to wit, whether any bodies befides magncticall 

ones be attractive ? Which he fcemeth to deny; all others to af- 

firm. But this alfo being fairly pur, will perodvcnture prove no 

controveifie : for the queftion is either in common, of attracti- 

on; orclfe in particular, offuch an attraction as is made by the 

Icadftone. Of the firft part, there can be no doubt; as we have 

declared aborc; and as is manifeft betwixt gold and quickfilvcr, 

when a man holding gold in his mouth, it draweth unto it the 

cjuickfilver that is in his body. But for the attractive to draw a 

body unto it felf, not wholly., but one determinate part of the 

body drawn, unto one determinate part of the drawer; is an at- 

traction which for my part I cannot exemplirie in any other 

bodies but magneticall ones, 

A third quefiion is, whether an iron that ftandeth long time 
unmoTcd in a window, or any o:her part of a building, perpcn- 
" dicularly to the earth , doth central a magneticall virtue of 
drawing or pointing towards the north in that end which Jook- 
eth downwards. For Cnbeus ( who wrote fince Gilbert) af- 
fiimeth it out of experience : btit either his experiment or his 
expreflion was defective. For afluredly if the iron ftandeth fo, 
in the northern hemifphere, it will turn to the north ; and if in 
t ] ]C fonthcrn hcmifphere, it will turn to the fouth: for fcemg tHe 
virtre of the loadflone procecdeth from the earth, and that the 
earth hath different tempers towards the north. and towards the 
fouth pole (as hath been already declared ) the virtue which 
cometh out of the earth in the northern hcmifphere, will give 
unto the end of the iron next it an inclination to the north pole; 
nnd the earth of the fouthern hemifphere will yield the contra- 
ry difpofition unto the end which is ncarefl it. 

The next queflion is, why a Joadftcnc feemcth to love iron 
better then it doth another loadftonc?The ankver is,becaufe iron 

..j. n - n -t- ff r i i 

i $ indiftcrent in all its parts to receive the impreflion of a load- 
ftone; \vluereas another loadfrone receiveth it oncly in a deter- 
in iivue part : and therefore a loadftone draweth iron more ea- 
Cly then it can another loadftone; bccaufe it findcth repugnance 


Chap, 22. 4 Trcatife ^/BODIES. 

in the parts of another Joadftone, unleffc it be ciac"tly fituated 
in a right pofition. Befides, iron feemcth to be compared to a 
loadftone,like as a more humid body to a dryer of the fame na- 
ture; and the difference of male and female fexcs in animals do 
manifeftly fhew the great appetence of conjunction betwer i 
moiftureand drynefTe., when they belong to bodies of the fame 

Another queftion is that great one ; why a loadftone capped *. 
with ftcel,takes up more iron the it would do if it were without Gilberts reafbn. 
that capping ? Another conclufion like unto this, is that if by a [^"tapjcd" 
loadftone you take up an iron, and by that iron a fecond iron, ijdftone, th 
and then you pull away the fecond iron; the full iron (in fomc [*<> 'then one" 
position ) will leave the loadftone to ftick unto the fecond iron, l ca pf ej ; 
as long as the fecond iron is within the fphcre of the loadftones impregnated 
activity; but if you remove the fecond out of that fphere, then etfc-'dwJSh 
the firft iron remaining within it, though the other be out of it> more ftrorgiy 
will leave the fecond, and leap back to the loadftone. To the f^ e ft 
fame purpofe, is this other conclufion; that the greater the iron 
is, which is entirely within the compafle of the loadftones vir- 
tue, the moreftrongly the loadftonc will be moved unto it; and 
the more forcibly it will ftick to it. 

The reafbns of all thefe three, we muft give at once; for they 
hang all upon one ftring. And in my conceit neither Gilbert 
nor Galileo hare hit upon the right. As for Gilbert; hethink- 
eth that in iron there is originally the virtue of the loadftone; 
but that it is as it were aflcep untill by the touch of the load- 
ftone it be awaked and fet on work : and therefore the virtue of 
both joyned together, is greater then the virtue of the loadftonc 

* But if this were the reafbn, the virtue of the iron would be 
greater in every regard, and not ouely in fticking or in taking 
up: whereas hirnfelf confrflcth, that a capped ftone draweth no 
farther then a naked ftone. nor hardly fo farre. Be(ides,it would 
continue ics virtue ouc of the fphere of activity of the loadftone, 
which it doth not. Again, feeing that if you compare them fe- 
verally, the virtue of the ioadftone is greater, then the virtue of 
the iron; why fhould not the middle iron ftick clofer to the ftone 
then to the further iron which muft of neceflity havelelfe virtue? 

Galileo yieldeth the caule of this effect , that when an iron 6. 

a touchech 

Treat! fi ^/BODIES. Chap. 2 

W: <v toucheth an iron there arc more parts which touch one another, 
former the ii when a loadftone touchcch the iron: both beeaufe the load- 

cffc&s refuted. ftone hath generally much impurity in it, and therefore divers 
pares of it have no virtue ; whereas iron, by being melted hath 
?H ks parts pure: and fccondly, beeaufe iron canbefmoothed 
and polifhed mote then a loadftone can be : and therefore its fu- 
perficies toucheth in a manner with all its parts ; whereas di- 
vers parts of tbeftones fuperficics cannot touch, by reafon of its 
rugged nefle. 

And he confirrneth his opinion by experience : for if you put 
the head o^~ a needle to a bare ftone, and the point of it to an 
iron; and then pluck away the iron;the needle will leave the iron 
and ftick to the ftonc:but if you turn the needle the other way, it 
will leave the ftone and ftick to the iron. Out of which he infer- 
reth that it is the multitude of parts, which caufcth the clofc and 
ftrong flicking. And it leemeth he found the fame in the capping 
of his loadftcnes:for he uled flat irons for that purpole; which by 
their whole plane did take up other irons: whereas Gilbert cap- 
ped his with convex honsj which not applying themfelves to o- 
ther iron, fb ftrongly or with fb many parts as Galileo's did, 
would not by much take up fb great weights as his. 

Neverthelcfle, it feemeth not to me that his anfwer is fuflfici- 
ent, or that his realbns convince ; for we are to confider that the 
virtue w ch he puttethin the iron muft(according tc his own fup- 
po/ition) proceed from the loadftone: and then, what importcth 
it, whether the fuperficics of the iron which toucheth another 
iron, be fb exaclly plain or no ? Or thatthe parts of it be more 
folid then the parts of the ftone? For all this conduceth nothing 
to make the virtue greater then it was : fincenomore virtue 
can go from onei'ron totheother : then gocth from thcloadftone 
to the firft iron :nnd if this virtue cannot tie the firft iron to the, 
loadftone, it cannot proceed out of this virtue that the fecond 
iron be tied to the firft. Again, if a paper be put betwixt the cap 
and another iron.-it doth not hinder the magneticall -virtue from 
patting through it to the iron ; but the virtue of taking up more 
weight then the naked ftone was able to do, is thereby rendered 
quite ufeleflc. Therefore it is evident, that this virtue muft 
be put in fbmething clfe 3 and not in the application of the mag- 
aeticall virtue.. 

Chap. a i. ** Treat/ft of BODIES. 245 

And to examine his reafons particularly, ic may very well 
fallout that whatsoever thecaufc be, the point of a needle may 
be too little to make an exa& experience inland therefore a new 
doftrine ought not lightly be grounded upon what appeareth in 
the application of that. And likewifr, the greatneSTe of the fur- 
faces of the i\vo irons may be a condition helpfull to the ciufe 
whatsoever it be : for greater and. JdTer are the common condi- 
tions of all bodies, and therefore do avail all kinds of corporc- 
all cauSes ; fo that no one caufc can be affirmed more then an- 
other, merely out of this, that great tloth more, and little doth 

To come then to our own Solution : I have considered how 7. 
fire hath in a manner the fame cfFeft in iron, as t!ie virtue of ^ |" e -o"''^ 
the loadftone hath by means of the cap : for I find that fire co- former quefU- 
ming through iron red glowing hot, will burn more ftrongly, ons> 
then if it Should come immediately through the aire; asalfo we 
fee that in the fire is Stronger then in charcolc. And nc- 
vcrtheleflc.the fire will heat further if it come immediately from 
the fource of it, then if it come through * red iron that burneth 
more violently where ittoucheth ; and likewife charcoal will 
heat further then pitcoal, that near hand burneth more fiercely. 
In the fame manner, the loadftone will draw further without a 
cap then with one ; but with a cap it fticketh rafter then vvich- 
out one. Whence! See that it is not purely the virtue of the 
loadflone; but the virtue of it being in iron, which caufeth this 

Now this ^modification may proceed either from the multi- 
tude of parts which come out of the loadftone.and are as it wrre 
flopped in the iron; and fo the fphere of their aivity becometh 
fliorter, bi^t ftrongerror elfe from fome quality of the iron joyn - 
ed to the influence of theloidrtone. The firft feemeth not to 
give a good account of the efifefl; for why fhotild a little p.ircr 
take it away, feeing we are fure that it Sloppeth not the paSTage 
of the loadftones influence? Again, the influence o r the load- 
flone Seemeth in its motion to be of the nature of light, which 
goeth in an infcnfible time as far as it can reach: and therefore 
were it multiplied in the iron, it would reach further then with- 
out itjand from it the virtue of the loadftone would begin a new 
fphere of activity. Therefore we more willingly cleive to the 
latter part of our determination. Q^ 3 And 

A TrtAtift o/BODIES. Chap. 22. 

And thereupon enquiring what quality there is in iron,whcnce 
this eflfeft may follow; we find that it is diftinguifhed from a 
loadftone, as a metall is from a ftone. Now we know that me- 
talls have generally more humidity then ftones; and we have 
'difcourfed above, that humidity is the caule of (ticking: efpeci- 
ally when it is little anddenfe. Thefe qualities muft needs be in 
the humidity of iron: which of all metalls is the moftter reft ri- 
all: and fuch humidity as is able to ftick to the influence of the 
loadftone, as it paffeth through the body of the iron 5 muft be ex- 
ceeding fubtil and fmall; and it feemcth necefTary that fuch hu- 
midity fhould ftick to the influence of the loadftone., when ic 
meeteth with it, considering that the influence is of it felf dry, 
and that the nature of iron is a kin to the loadftonc: wherefore 
the humidity ofthc one, and the drought of the other will not 
fail of incorporating together. Now then, if two irons well 
polifhed and plain> be united by fuch a glcw as refulteth out of 
this competition, there is a manifcft appearance of much rea- 
fon for them to ftick ftrongly together. This is confirmed by 
the nature of Iron in very cold countrcys & very cold weather: 
for the very humidity of the aire in times of froft, will make 
upon iron, fooner then upon other things, fuch a ftickingglew 
as will pull off the skin of a mans hand that touchcth it hard. 
And by this difcourfe,you will perceive that Galileo's argu- 
ments do confirm our opinion as well as his own; and that ac- 
cording to our doctrine, all circumftances muft fall out juft as 
they do in his experiences. And the reafon is clear why the in- 
terpofition of another body hindereth the ftrong flicking of 
iron to the cap of thcloadftone; for it maketh the mediation be- 
tween them greater, which we have fliewcd to be the gencrall 
rcafbn why things are eafily parted. 

Let us then proceed to the refblution of the other cafes pro> 
pofed. The fecond is already rcfolved: for if this glew be made 
of the influence of the loadftone, it cannot have force further 
then the loadftonc it felf hath : and Co farre ic muft hare more 
force then the bare influence of the loadftonc. Or rather the 
humidity of two irons maketh the glew of a fitter temper to 
hold, then that which is between a dry loadftoneand iron; and 
the glew entcreth better when both fides arc moift > then when 
qncly one is fo. 

Chap. 22. A Treatife ^/BODIES. 247 

But this refolution though it be in part good, yet it doth not 8. 
evacuate the whole difficulty, fince the fame cafe happeneth be- . TIl re * f(>n w!i r 

. jiij/i i it m the f-rmcr 

twecn a ftronger and a weaker load/tone, as between a load- cafe,aicflcr 
ftone and iron : for the weaker loadftone, whilcft it is wichin 

the fphcre of aftivity of the greater loadftonc,draweth away an jacent iron from 

iron fct betwixt them, as well as a fecond iron doth. For the tlt B relter - 

rcafbn therefore of the little loadftones drawing away the iron, 

we may confider that the greater load/tone hath two effects up- 

on the iron, which is betwixt it and a leflcr loadftone, and a 

third effcft upon the little loadftone itfclf. The flrft is that it 

impregnated the iron , and giveth it a permanent vcrtue by 

which it worketh like a Weak loadftone. The fecond is, that as 

it maketh the iron work towards the leffer loadftone by its per- 

manent vertue ; fo alfb it accompanieth the fteam that goeth 

from the iron towards the little loadftone with its own fteam, 

which goeth the fame way: fo that both thefe fteams do in com- 

pany climbe up the fteatn of the little loadftone which meeteth 

them;and that fteam climbeth up the enlarged one of both theirs 

together. The third effect which the greater loadftone worketh, 

is that it maketh the fteam of the little loadftone become ftron- 

gcr by augmenting its innate vertue in fomc degree. 

Now then, the going of the iron to cither of the loadftones 
rouft follow the greater and quicker conjunction of the two 
meeting fteams, and not the greatnefle of one alone. So that if 
the conjunction of the two fteams between the iron and the lit- 
tle loadftone be greater and quicker then the conjunction ofthe 
two fteams which meet between the greater loadftone and the 
iron, the iron muft ftick to the IcfTer loadftone. And this nnift 
happen more often then otherwife : for the fteam which goeth 
from the iron to the greater loadftone, will for the moft part be 
lefTe then the fteam which goeth from the lefTer loadftone to the 
iron. And though the other fteam be never fb great, yet it can- 
not draw more then according to the proportion of its Antago- 
nifts coming from the iron. Wherefore feeing the two fteams 
betwixt the iron and the little loidftonc arc more proportiona- 
ble to one another, and the fteam coming out of the little load- 
ftone is notably greater then the fteam going from the iron to 
the greater loadftone;the conjunction muft be made for the moft 
part to the little loadftone. And if this difcourfe doth not hold 

O * in 

j 4 3 A Tretiifs ^/BODIES. Chap. ir. 

in the former part of the Problcmc, betwixt a fecond iron and 
n loadftone, it is fupplyedby the foriner rcafbn which \ve gave 
for that particular purpose. 

The third cafe depended) al(b of this folution; for the biggtc 
a:i iron is, fo n.any more parts it hath to luck up the influence 
of the loadftone ; and confequently, doth it thereby the more 
greedily : and thcrefarc the loadftone muft be carried to ic more 
violently, and when they are joy ned (tick more ftrongly. 
p. The fixth queftion is, Why the variations of the needle from 

why 'hera^a the true north in the northern hemifpherc, are greater the near- 
cdnee<?!eftom er you go to the pole , and lefTer the nearer you approch to the 
tb i$ equator. The reafon whereof is plain in our doftrine; fur con- 
ou'o fideringthat the rnagnecick virtue of the earth, ttreamcth from 
t h c north towards the equator; it followeth of neceflny, that ir" 
there be two flreams of magnctick fluours ifluing fro the north, 
one of them preciiely from the pole, and the other from a pare 
of the earth near the pole; and that the ftream coming from the 
point by fide the pole, be but a little the Stronger of the two; 
v there will appear very little dirTerencies in their fcverall opera- 
tions, after they have had a long /pace to mingle their emanati- 
ons together; which thereby do joynand grow as ic were into 
ftream. Whereas the nearer you come to the pole, the more you 
will find them fevered, and each of them working by its own 
virtue. And very near the point which caufeth the variation, 
each ftream worketh fingly by it felf ; and therefore here the 
point of variation mutt be matter , and will carry the needle 
ftrongly unto his courfe from the due north, if his itream be 
never ib little more efficacious then the other. 

Again, .a line drawn from a point of the earth wide of the 
pole, to a point of the meridian near the equator, makcth a lefle 
angle, then a line drawn from the fame point of the earth, to a 
point of the fame meridian nearer the pole: wherefore the varU 
ation being eftectned by the quantities of the faid angles, it 
muft needs be greater near the pole, then near the equator, 
though the caufe be the fame. 

Which a lictle figure will prefendy explicate. Let the poinc 
A, be the pole; amfchc line A B, the meridian j and the point 
B the intersection of it, with a parallel near the equator; and 
thc.poimC the iuterfc&ion of the- meridian, vvich the Tro- 


TrcAtife ^/BODIES. 249 

pick; and D, a point in the earth near the pole, unto 
which in the laid interle&ion the needle tendcth, in 
(lead of looking dire&ly to the pole, whereby itma- 
keth variation from due north. I fay then that the 
variation of a needle near the equator in the point B, 
looking upon the point D ; cannot be fo great and 
fenfible, as the variation of a needle in the Tropick 
C, looking upon the fame poinc; fince the angle 
D B A> which is made by the variation of the firli, 
is leflethen the angle D C A, which is made by the 
rariation of the latter needle, nearer the pole. 

But becaufe it may happen > that in the part? near the equa- 
tor, the variation may proceed from fbme piece of land , not 
much more northerly then where the needle is; but that bearcth 
rather eagerly or wefterly from it;and yet Gilbcrs aflertion go- 
eth univerfally, when he faith the variations in fouthern regi- 
ons arc leflethen in northern ones; we muft examine what may 
be the reafon thereof. And prefently the generation of the load- 
tfone fhcweth it plainly : for feeing the nature ot the loadtfone 
proceedeth out of this , that the funnc worketh more upon 
the torrid zone, then upon the poles; and that his too ftrong 
operation is contrary to the loadftone, as being of the nature 
of fire; it followeth evidently, that the lands of the torrid zone 
cannot be fo magneticall (generally fpeaking)as the polar lands 
are; and by conlequence, that a Jeffer land near the pole > will 
have a greater effect, then a larger continent near the equator: 
& likewife a land further off towards the pole, will work more 
ftrengly then a nearer land which lyeth towards the equator. 
The fcventh queftion is , Whether in the fame part of the 
world a touched needle may at one time vary more from the vvhcihcunthe 
true north point, and at another time IclTe ? In which Gilbert '-"ic parr O fn e 
was reiblutefor the negative partrbut our latter Mathematicians 

are of another mind. Three experiences were made near Lon- * v : ^ l j. m va - " 
don in three divers years. The two full 42.yearcs diftanc from the north,"*! : 
one another; and thethird 12 yeares diibnt from the fccond. ^ t fl a c iv> ' hcrcia ' c 
And by th-cm it is found, that in the fpace of 54 years, the load- 
ftone hath at London diminiflied his variation from the north, 
the quantity of 7 degrees and more. But fo that in the latter 
years the diminution hath fcnfibly gone fafter then in the former 

25 A Trtatife f BODIES. Chap, 12. 

Thcfe obfcrvations peradvcnturc are but little credited by 
Grangers ; but we who know the worth of the men that made 
them, cannot mittruft any notable errour in them: for they 
were very able mathematicians, and they made their obferva- 
tions with very great exaftnetTe ; and there were Overall judi- 
cious whnefics at the making of them ; as may be fcen in Ma- 
frer Gillcbrand his print concerning this fubjefh And divers 
other particular perfons do confirm the fame ; whofc credit, 
though each fingle might peradventurc be flighted, yet all in 
body make a great acceffion. 

We muft therefore caft about to find what may be the caufe 
of an cffe& fo paradox to the reft of the doctrine of the load- 
ftone : for feeing that no one place, can ftand otherwise to the 
north of the earth at one time then at another ; how is it poflj- 
ble that the needle ftiould receive any new variation, fi nee all 
variation procecdeth out of the inequality of the earth ? But 
when we confidcr that this cffeil proceedcth not out of the main 
body of the earth, but onely out of the bark of it ; and that its 
bark may have divers tempers not as yet difcorered unto us;and 
that out of the variety ofthcfc tempers, the influence of the ear- 
thy parts may be divers in refpeft of one certain place ; it is not 
impoffible but that fuch variation may be, efpecially in Eng- 
land : which Hand lying open to the north, by a great and vaft 
ocean, may receive more particularly then other places the 
fpeciall influences and variation of the weather, that happen in 
thofe northeaftern countrcyes from whence this influence co- 
ineth unto us. If therefore there fhoald be any courfc of wea- 
ther, whofe period were a hundred years (for example) or more 
or lefle and fb might eafily pafle unmarked; thij variation might 
grow out of fuch a courfe. 

But in fo obfcure a thing, we have already hazarded to guefle 
too much. And upon the whole matter of the loadftonc, it fer- 
veth our turn, if we have proved fas we conceive we have done 
fully) that its motions which appear fo admirable, do not pro- 
teed fiom an occult quality j but that thecaufes of them may be 
reduced unto locall motion ; and that all they may be perform- 
ed by fuch corporeall inftruments and means (though pcrad- 
venture more intricately difpoledjas all other effects arc among 
bodies. Whofc ordering and difpofing and particular progreflc, 


Chap. 21. A TrtAttfe if B O D I E S. *5 1 

there is no reifbn to defpair of finding out; would but men care- 
fully apply themfelves to that work, upon folid principles and 
with diligent experiences. 

Butbccaufcthis matter hath been very long, and fcatteringly u. 
difTufed in many feverall branches ; peradventure it will not be J 
difpleafing to the Reader to fee the whole nature of the load- i oa dftone 
(lone dimmed up in (horr. Let him then caft his eyes upon one 
efre& of it, that is very eafieto be tricd,and is acknowledged by 
all writers ; though we hare not as yet mentioned it. And it is, 
that a knife drawn from the pole of a loadftone towards the e- 
quator,if you hold the point towards the pole, it gaineth a re- 
fpe& to one of the poles : but contrariwife, if :hc point of the 
knife be held towards the equator, and be thruft the fame way 
it was drawn before fthat is,towards the equator) it gaineth a 
refpeft towards the contrary pole. 

It is evidentoutof this cxpcrience,that the virtue of the load- 
ftone is communicated by way of ftreams ; and that in it, there 
are two contrary ftrcams: for otherwife the motion ofthe knife 
this way or that way could not change the efficacity ofthe famo 
parts ofthe loadftone. It is likewise evident, thatthefe contrary 
ftreams do come from the contrary ends ofthe loadftone. As al- 
fo that the virtues ofthe both are in every part ofthe ftone.Lik- 
wife that one loadftone muft of neceflity turn certain parts of 
it {elf, to certain parts of another loadftone ; nay that it muft 
go and j'oyn to it, according to the laws of attraction which we 
have above delivered : and confcquently, that they muft turn 
their difagrceing parts away from one another; and fo one load. 
ftoncfeemto fly from another, if they be fb applied that their 
difagreeing parts be kept ftill next to one another : for in this 
cafe, the difagreeing and the agreeing parts ofthe fame load- 
ftone., being in the fame ftraight line-,one loadftone (eekingto 
draw his agreeing part near to that part of the other loaaftonc 
which agreeth with him, muft of neccflicy turn away his difa> 
greeing parts to give way unto his agreeing part to approach 

And thus you fee that the flying from one another of two 
ends of two loadftones, which arc both of the fame denomina- 
tion ( as for example, the two fouth ends,or the two north 
ends) doth not proceed from a pretended antipathy between 


ajj A Trut/Jc of B O D I E S. Chap. 15. 

tho'e two ends, but from the attraction of th? agreeing ends. 
Furthermore, the earth, having to a loadftonc the nature ofa. 


loadffone; it followeth that a loadrroae muft necefTarily turn it 
felf'to the poles of the earth by the fame laws. And confequently, 
rrr.jft tend to the north, mutt vary from the north, muft incline 
towards the center, and muft be affeiled with all fuch accident* 
as we have deduced ofthe loadflone. 

And lalily, feeing that iron is to a loadftone, a fit matter for 
k to imprefle irs nature in, and eafily retaincth that magnetike 
virtue: the fame effects that follow between two loadftones, 
rmift necefTarily follow between a loadftone, and a piece of iron 
ficly proportionated in their degrees .-excepting forne little parti- 
cuhritie?, which proceed out of thenituralncffe ofthe magne- 
tike virtue to a load/lone, more then to iron. 

Ard thus you fee the nature of the loadftone fummcd up in 
grofie jthe particular joynts and caufes whereof you may find 
treated at lrg2 in the main difco'.irfe.Wherein we have govejy- 
ed our felves chiefly by the experiences that are recorded by il- 
bert and Cabcus ; to whom, we remit our reader for a more 
ample declaration of'particulars. 


ss4 description of tht tn>t forts of living creatures PUnts, 

and Animals : Atd how they Are framed in common 

to perform vittlt motion. 

I. Tjlthertowe have endeavoured to follow by a continuall 
e connexion J [ ^jj 3 jj fa^ c ff ec ^ s as we have met with amono bodies, 

tne ioi ow- 

ng chapter* and to trace them in ajl their windings, and to drive them up to 
l ^ c ' r Vcr y root an ^ originall iburcc.-for the nature of our fubjeft 
having been yet very common, hath not exceeded the compaflc 
and power of our feareh and inquiry to dcfcend unto the chief 
circumflances and particulars belonging unto it. And indeed, 
many of the conveyances whc-eby the operations we have dif- 
courfcd of, are performed, befo fecrct and abftrufe, as they that 
look into them with leiTe heedful nefle and judgement then fuch 
a matter requireth, arc too apt to impute them to myfterious 
caufes above the reach of humane nature to comprehend, and 
to calumniate them of being wrought by occult and fpecifick 


Chap. 23. **Tre4!Jfe*f BODIES. 

qualities; whereof no more reafbn could be given, then if the c- 
fci^s were infufed by ^Angelical! hands without afli(tance of in- 
feriour bodies,which ufeth to be the laft refuge of ignorant men, 
who not knowing what to fay, and yet preluming to fay fbme- 
thing, do fall often upon fuch cxpreflions, as neither themfelvcs 
nor their hearers underftand; and that if they be well /canned, 
do imply contradi-ftions. Therefore we deemed it a kind ofne- 
ceflity to ftrain our felves to profecute moft of fuch effcfls, even 
to their notionall connexions with rarity and denfity. And the 
rather, becaufe it hath not been our luck yet to meet wkli any 
that hath had the like dcfigne, or hath done any confiderable 
matter to cafe our pains. Which cannot but make the readers 
journey fbmewhat tedious unto him to follow all our fteps , by 
reafbn of the ruggednefle, and untrodeneile of the paths we have 
walked in. 

But now the effects we fhall henceforward meddle withall,do 
grow fo particular, and do fwarm into fuch a vaft multitude of 
feverall little joynts, and wreathy labyrinths of nature, as were 
impoflibJc in fo fummary a treatife , as we intend, to deliver the 
eaufes of every one of them exactly; which would require both 
, large difcourfes and abundance of experiences to acquit our 
felves as we ought of fuch a task. Nor is there a like need of 
doing it as formerly, forasmuch as concerneth our defigne; 
fincc the caufes ofthcm are palpably material!, and the admira- 
ble artifice of them confifteth onely in the Dedalean and won- 
derfull ingenious ordering and ranging them one with another. 
We fhaJl therefore intreat our Reader from this time for- 
wards to expect onely the common fcquelc of thofe particular 
effects, out of the principles already l.iid. And when foaie l*hall 
occurrc, that may peradventure feem at the firft fight to be ena- 
cted immediately by a virtue fpirituall., and that proceedeth in- 
divifibly, in a different ftrain from the ordinary proccfles which 
we (ee in bodies and in bodily things ( that is., by the virtues of 
rarity and denfity, working by Iccall motion ) we hope he will 
befatisfied at our hands, if we lay down a mechode, and trace 
out a courfe, whereby fuch events and operations may follow 
out of the principles we have laid. Though peadvencurc we (hall 
not abfolutely convince that every effect is done jurt as we fee it 
clown in every particular,and thatit may noc as well. be done by 


254 ATnAttfe of BODIES. Chap.2}. 

fornc ochcr difpofing of parts under the fame generall (cope: for 
it is enough for our turn, if we fhcw that fuch effc&s may be 
performed by corporcall agents, working as other bodies do, 
without confining our felvcs to an cxadnefle in every link of 
the long chain that rnu.ft be wound up in the performance of 

Zt To come then to the matter; The next thing we are to em- 

'Conccmms fc- ploy our felvcs about, now that we have explicated the natures 
ve : aii compo- o f cno motions by means whereof bodies are made and de- 

lirtons o: mixed J 

bodies. ftroyed ; and in which they arc to be confidercd chiefly as paf- 

five, whiles fomc exteriour agent working upon them caufeth 
. fuch alterations in them , and bringeth them to fuch paflc as we 
fee in the changes that are daily wrought among fubftances; is 
to take a furvcy of thofe motions which fbme bodies have, 
wherein they feem to be not fo much patients as agents ; and do 
contain within themfelves the principle of their own motion ; 
and have no relation to any outward object, more then to ftirrc 
up that principle of motion, and let it on work : which when it 
is once in aft, hath as it were within the limits of its own king- 
dome, and fevered from commerce with all other bodies what- 
focver, many other fubaltern motions over which it prefideth. 

To which purpofe we may confider, that among the com- 
pounded bodies whofe natures we have explicated; there are 
fome in whom the parts of different complexions arc fo fmall 
and fb well mingled together,that they make a compound which 
to our fenfe feemeth to be all of it quite through of one homo- 
geneous nature; and howfoever it be divided,each part retaincth 
the entire and complete nature of the whole. Others again there 
are, in which it is eafie to difcern that the whole is made up of 
feverall great parts of very differing natures and tempers. 

And of thefe there are two kinds: the one,offuch as their dif- 
fering parts leem to have no relation to one another , or corre- 
fpondence together to perform any particular work , in which 
all of them are necefTary; but rather they fecm to be made what 
they are, by chance and by accident; and ifone part be fevered 
from another, each is an entire thing by itfelf, of the fame na- 
ture as it was in the whole; and no harmony is defrroycd by 
iiich divifion. As may be obfervrd in fome bodies digged out 
of mines, in which one may fee lumps of rrtctall, ore, itone, 


vl " crcaturcs * 

Chap. 2 J. ^ Trf Ati fevf BODIES. 

and gla(Tc,and fuch different fubfbnces, in their feverall diftin<5l 
fituations, perfectly compared into onecontinuatebody,which 
if you divide, the glafTe remaincth what it was before, the Eme- 
rald is ftill an Emerald, the filver is good filver, and the like of 
' the other fubftances; thecaufes of which may be ealily deduced 
out of what we have formerly faid. But there are other bodies 
in which this manifeft and notable difference of parts, carrieth 
with it fi:ch a fubordination of one of them unto another , as we 
cannot doubt but that nature made fuch engines (if fo I may call 
them) by defigae; and intended that this variety fliould be in 
one thing; whofe unity and being what it is, fhould depend of 
the harmony of the feverall differing parts, and ihould be de- 
ftroyed by their fcparation. As we lee in living creatures, whofe 
particular parts and members being once fevered, there is no 
longer a living creature to be found among them. 

Now.of this kind of bodies there are two forts. The fir.ft is , 
ofthofethat feem to be one continuate fubftance, wherein we T>O fot 
rnay obierve one and the fame conftanc progrefie throughout, 
from the lo weft unto the highcft part of it; fo that the operation 
gfone part is not at all different from that of another : but the 
whole body feemeth to bethecourfe and tfaroughfare of one 
conftanc action, varying it felf in diverfc occafions and occur- 
rences, according to the di/pofuion of the fubjc<r. 

Tiie bodies of the fecond fbrt> have their parts fo notably ie- 
pa rated one from che other; and each of them have fuch a pecu- 
liar motion proper unto them, that one might conceive they 
were every one of them a complete diftinft towll thing by it 
felf, and that all of them were artificially tied together; were it 
not that the fubordination of thefe parts to one another is fo 
great, and the corrcfpondcnce between them fo ftri&, ( the one 
not being able to fubnft without the other, from whom he deri- 
veth what is ncedfull for him; and again, being ib ufefull unto 
that other , and having its ad^ion and motion fo fitting and ne- 
ceffary for it^as without it that other cannot bc:)as plainly con- 
vinceth that the compound ofall ihefe feverall parts muft needs 
be one individuall thing. 

I remember that when I travelled in Spain, Ifaw there two An e ?' 
engines that in feme fcrt do exprelVe t! e naturc> of tl.cfe two ^^ lh f c .. 
kinds of bodies. The one at Toledo, ihc other at Segovia: both v 'i rg crcawcs. 


eriC to 

A Trtdtife of B O DIES. Ctap. 23. 

of them fct on work by the current of the river, in which the 
foundation oftheir machine was laid. That ac Toledo was to 
force up water a great height from the river Tagus to the Alca- (the Kings pallacc) that ftandech' upon a. high fteep hill 
or rock, almoft perpendicular over the river. In the borrome ' 
there was an indented wheel, which turning round with the 
itream, gave motion at the fame time to the whole cngin; which 
confiftcd of a multitude of little troughs or Iquare ladles fet one 
over another in two parallel rows over againft one another, 
from the bottome to the top, and upon two ieverall divided 
frames of timber. Thcfc troughs were clofed at one end with 
a travcrfe board to retain the water from running out there; 
\\hichend being bigger then the reft of the trough, made it 
fomewhat like a ladle; and the reft of it feemed to be the han- 
, die with a channel in it, the little end of which channel or 
trough was open to let the water paffe freely away. And thefc 
troughs were fattened by an ax!etree in the middle of them, to 
the frame of timber that went from the bottome iir? to the top: 
fo that they could upon that center move at liberty, citherthe 
ill ut end downwards, or the open end; like the beam of a ba- 

Now at a certain pofition of the root-\vheel(iffo I may call 
it) all one fide of the machine funk down a little lower towards 
the water, and the other was railed a little higher. Which mo- 
tion was changed as foon as the ground-wheel had ended the 
remnant of his revolution: for then the fide that was loweft be- 
fore, fprung up, and the other funk down. And thus, the two 
fides of the machine were like two legs that by turns trod the 
water; as in the vintage men prefle grapes in a watte. Now the 
troughs that were fattened to the timber which descended, turn- 
ed that part of them downwards which was like a box fhut to 
hold the water : and confequcntly , the open end was up in the 
aire, like the arm of the balance unto which the lighteft fcale is 
faftened: and in the mean time, the troughs upon the amending 
timber, were moved by a contrary motion keeping their box 
ends aloft, and letting the open ends incline downwardsrfo that 
if any water were in them, it would let it run out; whereas the 
others retained any that came into them. 

When you have made an image of this machine in your 


Chap. 23. 4 Trcatfiof BODIES. 257 

phantafie,confider what will follow out of its motion. You will 
perceive that when ont leg finkech down towards the water, 
that trough which is next to the fiipcrficies of it, putting down 
his boxcndjand dipping it a little in the water;muft needs bring 
up as much as it can retain,when that leg afcendeth:w ch when it 
is at its height>the trough moveth upon his own ccter;&the box 
end,which was loweft, becometh now higheft, and fo the wa- 
ter runneth out of it. Now the other leg descending at the fame 
time; it falleth out that the trough on its fide, which would be a 
ftep above that which hath the water in it, if they ftood in equi- 
librity, becometh now a ftep lower then it: and is (b placed, that 
the water which runneth out of that \vhich is aloft, falleth into 
the head or box of it; which no (boner hath received it, but that 
leg on which it is faftned, fpringcth up, and the other defcepd- 
eth : fb that the water ofthe fecond leg, runneth now into the 
box of the firft leg, that is next above that which firft laded the 
water out ofthe river. And thus,the troughs ofthe two legs de- 
liver their water by turnes from one fide to the other ; and at 
every remove, itgetteth a ftep upwards, till it comethtothc 
toppe; whiles at every afcent and defcent ofthe whole fide, 
the loweft ladle or trough taketh new water from the river : 
which ladle full followeth immediately in its afcent, that which 
Was taken up the time before. And thus, in a little while, all the 
troughs from the bottome to the top arc full ; unleffe there hap- 
pen to be fome failing in fome ladle : and in that cafe the water 
breaketh out there;and all the ladles above that are dry. 

The other engine, or rather multitude of feveral! engines, to ? 
perform fundry different operations, all conducing to one work ty'^hich'"! 
(whereas, that of Toledo, is but one tenour of motion from the be cKprefled 
firft to the laft-) is in the minte at Segovia. Which is fo artifici- of^'vm-^crca 
ally made, thac one part of it, diftendeth an ingot offilveror tuie 
gold into that breadth and thicknefle as is requifite to make 
coyn of. Which being done, it delivereth the plate it hath 
wrought, unto another that printeth the figure ofthe coyn. 
upon it. And from thence it is turned over to another that cut- 
teth it according to the print, into due fhape and weight. And 
laftly, the feverall pieces fall into a refervc, in another roome : 
where the officer, whofe charge it is,findeth treafure ready coin- 
ed ; without any thing there, to informe him of the fercrall 

R diffe- 

. Chap. 25. 

different motions that the filver or the gold paflcd before they 
came to that ftate. But if he go on the other fide of the wall, into 
the room where the other machines ftand and arc at work, he 
Will then difcern that every one of them, which coufidered by it 
ft-] f might fecm a diftinft complete engme> is but a ferving part 
ofthe whole; whofe office is, to make money . and that for thi 
work, any one of them fepa rated from the reft, ceafeth to be the 
part of a mint, and the whole is maimed and deftroyed. 
6- Now let us apply the consideration ofthefe different kinds of 

T ICT en^r/ '" cn g' mc6 ' to tne natl ' rc$ of the bodies we treat of. Which I doubt 
a^d feme other not, would fit much better, were they lively and exactly defcri- 
appS f "o f cx. bed. But it is fo longfmcc I faw them, and I was then fo very 
prerfc the two young,that I retain but aconfufed and clowdy remembrance of 
livipg a crcatur. the/n: efpccially of the mint at Segovia, in the which there are 
many more particulars then I have touched; asconveniency for 
refining the ore or metall and then carting it into ingots; and 
driving them into rods, and fuch like : unto all which, there is 
Jittlc help of hands requifite, more then to apply the matter du- 
ly at the firft . But what I have faid of them? is enough to illu- 
itrate what I aim at: and though I fhould crre in the particulars, 
it is no great matter, for I intend not to deliver the hiftory of 
them : but onely out ofthe remembrance of fuch notcfull and 
artificiall mafterpieccs, to frame a modell in their phancies that 
fhall rcade this,oflomething like them;whcreby they may wkh 
moreeafe,make a right conception of what we are handling. 

Thus then; all forts of plants, both great and fmall, may be 
compared to our firft engine of the waterwork at Toledo, for 
in them all the motion we can difcern, is of one part tranfmit- 
ti ng unto the next to it,the juice which it received from thar im- 
mcdiatly before it r fo that it hath one conftant courlc from the 
root (which fucketh it from the earth} unto the top ofthe high- 
eft iprigge : in which ifit fliould be intercepted and ftopped by 
any maiming of thebarkfthe channell it aicendeth by Jit would 
there break out and turn into drops, or guinme, or fome fuch 
other ftibfiance as the nature ofthe plant requireth ; and ill that 
pnrt of it unto which none of this juice can afcend would dric 
and wither and grow dead. 

But fcnfible Jiving creatures, we may fitly compare to the fe- 
cond machine ofthe mint at Segovia. For in thcnvhough every 


Chap. 2$. 4 Treattfeof BODIES. 

part and member be as it were a complete thing of it felf, ycc 
every one requireth to be directed and put on in its motion by 
another; and they muft all of them(though of very different na- 
tures and kinds of motion) confpire together to cftcft any thing 
that may be for the ufe and fervice of the whole. And thus we 
find in them perfe&Iy the nature of a mover and a moveable ; 
each of them moving differently from one another, and framing 
to themfelves their own motions, in fuch fort as is moft agree- 
able to their nature, when that part which fcttcth them on work 
hath ftirred them up. 

And now becaufc thefe parts (the movers and the moved) 
are parts of one whole j we call the entire thing atttontatum or 
fe ntovens or a living creature. Which alfb may be fitly com- 
pared to a joyner, or a painter, or other craftfman, that had his 
tools fo exactly fitted about him, as when he had occafion to 
do any thing in his trade, his tool for that adion were already 
in the fitteft pofitron for it,tobemade u(c of,fo as without remo- 
ving himfelf from the place where he might fit invironed with 
his tools, he might, by onely pulling of fbmc little chords, either 
apply the matter to any remote tool, or any of his tools to the 
matter he would work upo.according as he findeth the one or the 
other more convenient for perfbrmacc of the action he incedcth. 

Whereas in the other,there is no variety of motions ; but one 
and the fame goeth quite through the body from one end of it 
to the other. And the paflage of the moyfture through it, from 
one part to another next (which is all the motion it hath) is in 
a manner but like the rifing of water in a ftill, which by heat is 
made to creep up by the fides oftheglaflc; and from thence run- 
neth through the nofe of the limbeke., and falleth into the re- 
ceiver. So that, if we will fay that a plant livcth, or that the 
whole moveth it felf, and every part moveth other ; it is to be 
undcrftood in a farre more imperfect manner, then when \vc 
fpeak of an animal!: and the fame words are attributed to both, 
in a kind ofequivocall fcnfe. But by the way I muft note, that 
under the title of plants I include not 'zoophytes or plantani- 
mals : that is fuch creatures as though they go nor froirj phcc 
to place, and focatife a locall motion ofti.cir whole kibfrahce, 
yet in their parts, they have a dittinft and articulate motion. 
But to leave comparifonsjand come to the proper nature of the 

R 2 

5 Co tX Tre*ti fi of B O D I ES. Chap. 2 j. 

7. thingsrlet us frame a conception,that not far under the fuperficies 
How pi ants arc of the earth, there were gathered together clivers parts of litcle 
mixed bodies, which in the whole fumtnc were yet butlittle:and 
that this little mafic had feme exccfie or" fire in it, fuch as we fee 
in wet hay, or in mufteof wine, or in woort of beere : and that 
\vithall the drought of it were in fo high a degree, as this heat 
fhould not find means (being too mucli conipreficd) to play his 
game.-and that,lying there in the bofome of the earth, it mould 
after ibme little time receive its ex peeled and defired drink 
through the benevolence ofthe hcavenjby which it being moift- 
ned,and thereby made more pliable, and tender and eafie to be 
wrought upon. the little parts of fire fhould break loofejand they 
finding this moyfturc a fit fubjecl to work upon, fhould drive it 
into all the parts ofthe little mafic, and digefling it there fhould 
make the mafic fwel. Which action taking up long time for per- 
formance ofit,in refpecl ofthe final increafeof bulk made in the 
mafic by the fwclling of it ; could not be hindred by the prcfiing 
ofthe earth, though lying never fb weightily upon it:according 
to the maxime we have above delivered, that any little force, be 
it never fo little;is able to overcome any great refi(tance,be it ne- 
ver fo powerfull;ifthe force do multiply the time it worketh in, 
fufficiemJy to equalifc the proportions of the agent and the 

This increafe of bulk and fwelling ofthe little ma{Te,will of its 
own nature be towards all fides, by reafonof the fire & heat that 
occaiioneth it-(vvhofc motion is on every fide, from the center to 
the circumference.-)' but it will be moft efficacious upwards, to- 
wards the aire, becaufcthe refinance is leaft that way; both by 
reafon ofthe little thicknes ofthe earth over it; as alfo by reafon 
that the upper part of the earth lieth very loo'e and is exceeding 
porous, through the continuall operation of the funnc and fal- 
ling of rain cpon it. It cannot choofe therefore but mount to 
the aire ; and the fame caufe that maketh it do foj preficth at 
the fame time the lower parts of the' mafie, downwards. But 
what afcendeth to the aire, muftbeofthc hotter and more moid 
parts of the fermenting mafie; and what gocth downwards 
iiiuft bcofhfs harder and drier parts proportionate to the con- 
trary motions of fire and of earth , which predominate in 
theft two kinds of parts. Now this that is pufhcd upwards, 


Chap. 23. ^ Treatife ^BODIES. 25i 

coming above ground, and being there expofed to funne and 
wind, contra&eth thereby a hard and rough skinneon its out- 
fide ; but within is more tender ; in this fort it dcfendeth it 
fclffrom outward injuries of weather whiles it mouHteth : and 
by thrufting other parts down into the earth, it holdeth it felf 
ftedfaft, that although the wind may fliakc it, yet it cannot 
overthrow it. The greater this plant groweth, the more juice 
is dayly accrcwed unto it, and the heat is encrcafed ; and con- 
fequently, the greater abundance of humours is continually 
fent up. Which when it beginneth to cloggc at the top, new 
humour prefling upwards, forceth a breach in the skinnej 
and fb a new piece, like the main ftemme, is thru ft out and 
beginneth on the fides, which we call a branch. Thus is our 
plant amplified, till nature not being able dill to breed fuch 
ftrong iflues, falleth to works of lefle labour, and pufheth forth 
the mott elaborate part of the plants juice into more tender fub- 
ftances:bur efpecially,at the ends of the branches ; where abun- 
dant humour, but at the firft not well concerted, groweth into 
thefhape of a button ; and more and better concerted humour 
fucceeding, it groweth fofter and fbfter ( the funne drawing the 
fubtilleft parts outwards,) excepting what the coldnefle of the 
aire and the roughncfle of the wind do harden into an outward 
skin. So then the next parts to the the skin are tender ; but the 
very middle of this button muft be hard and dry, by rcafbn that 
the fun from without,and the naturaJl heat within,drawing and 
driving out the moyfture and extending it from the center, muft 
needs leave the more earthy parts much ftirunk up and hardned 
by their evaporating out from them: which hardning, being 
an effect of fire withia and without, that baketh this hard fub- 
ftance, incorporated much of it felf with it,as we have formerly 
declared in the making of fait by force offire. This button, thus 
dilated, and brought to this pafle, we call the fruit of the plant : 
whofc harder part enclofeth oftentimes another not fo hard as 
dry. The reafon whereof is becaule the outward hardnefle 
permitteth no moyfture to foake in any abundance through 
it; and then, that which is endofed in it, muft needs be much 
dried ; though not fo much, but that it ftill rctaineth the 
common nature of the plant. This drought maketh thefe 
inner parts to be like a kind of duft ; or at the leaft, fuch as 

R 3 may 

A TreAti/e o/B O DI E S. Chap. 23. 

rmy be eafily dried into duft, when they are brufcd out of the 
husk that inclofech them. And in every parcell of this dull, 
the nature of the whole refideth ; as ic were contracted into a 
finall quantity ; for the juice which was firft in the button, and 
had patted from the root through the manifold varieties of the 
divers parts of the plane, and had fuffered much conco&ion, 
partly from the fun and partly from the inward heat imprifbn- 
ed in that harder part of the fruit ; is by thele pafTages ; ftraining$ 
and eonco&ions, become at the length to be like a tintfture ex- 
tracted out of the whole plant ; and is at the laft dried up into a 
iind of magiftery. This we call the {ecdrwhich is of a fit nature, 
by being buried in the earth and diflblved with humour, to re- 
new and reciprocate the operation we have thus described. And 
thus, you have the formation cfa plant. 

But a fenfitive creaturc.being compared to a plant,as a plant 
" to a m * xe ^ body ; you cannot but conceive that he muft be 
formed, compounded as it were of many plants, in like fort as a plant is 

of many mixed bodies. But fb> that all the plants which concur 
to make oneanimall, are of one kind of nature and cognation : 
and befides, the matter, of which fuch diverfity is to be made, 
muft of necefftty be more humid and figurablc, then tint of an 
ordinary plant : and the artificer which worketh and mouldcth 
it, muft be more active. Wherefore we muft fuppofe that the 
mafic, of which an animall is to be made, muft be actually li- 
quid : and the fire chat worketh upon it, muft be fo powerfull 
that of its own naturejt may be able to convert this liquid mat- 
ter into fuch breaths and fteams, as we fee do ufe to rife from 
water, whea the fun or fire worketh upon it. Yet if the made 
\verealtogether as liquid as water, it would vanifhaway by 
heat boyling it, and be dried up : therefore it muft be of fuch a 
convenient temper, that: although in ibme of its parts it be fluid 
and apt to run; yet by others it muft be held together ; as we fee 
that un&uous things for the moft part are; which will fwell by 
hcat,but not fly away. 

So then if we imagine a great heat to be irnprifoned in fuch 
a liqqor* and that it feeketh by boyling, to break out ; but that 
the folidnefle and vifcuoufnefle of the fubftance will not prmic 
it to evaporate : it cannot chufe but comport it (elfin fome fuch 
ibrt as we fee butter or oyle in a frying pan over the fire, when 


Chap, a 3. ^iTreAttfeof BODIES. 

it rifcth in bubbles : buc much more efficacioufly ; for their body 
is notftrong enough to keep in the heat: and therefore thole 
bubbles fall again j whereas if it were, thofe bubbles would 
rife higher and higher, and ftretch theinfelves longer and long- 
er (as when the feap-boylers do boyl a ftrong unftuous lye 
intofbap;) and every one of them would be as it were a lit- 
tle brook, whereof the channell would be the enclofing fub- 
ftance; and the inward fmoke that extcndeth it, might be com. 
pared to the water of it : as when a glaffe is blown out by. fire 
and aire into a long figure. 

Now we may remember,how we have faid, where we treat- 
ed of the production and refolution of mixed bodies, that there 
are two forts of liquid fubftamiall parts, which by the opera- 
tion of fire arc fent out of the body it worketh upon ; the wa- 
tery, and the oyly parts. For though there appear fbmetimes 
fome very fubtile and ethereall parts of a third kind ( which 
are the aquae ardemcs, or burning fpirits ; ) yet in fuch a clofc 
diftilling of circulation as this is, they are not fevered by them- 
fclves, but do accompany the reft ; and efpecially the wa- 
tery parts : which are of a nature, that the rifing Ethereall 
fpirits eafily mingle with, and extend themfelves in it; whereby 
the water bfcometh more efficacious, and the fpirits lefle fugitive. 

Of thefe liquid parts which the fire fendeth away, the watery 
ones are the firft., as being the eafieft to be raifcd : the oyly 
parts rife more difficultly, and therefore do come laft. And in 
the fame manner it happeneth in this emiflion ofbrcoks, the 
watery and oyly fleams will each of them fly into different re- 
fer res : and if there arrive unto them abundance of their own 
quality, each of them muft make a fubftance of its own nature 
by fettling in a convenient place,and by dueconcoftion. Which 
fubftance after it is made and confirmed, if more humidity and 
heat do prcfle it, will again break forth into other little chan- 
nels. But when the watery and oyly parts are boyledaway, 
there remain yet behindc other more folid and fixed parts, 
and more ftrongly incorporated with fire then either of thefe : 
which yet cannot drie up into a fiery fait, becaufe a conti- 
nuall acceffion of humour fceepeth them alwayes flowing : 
and fo they become like a couldron of boyling fire. Which 
muft propagate k felf as wide as either of the others ; fince the 

R 4 activity 

DIES. Chap. 23^ 

aUvity of it muft needs be greater then theirs ( as being the 
fource of motion unto them ) and that there wanteth not humi- 
dity for it to extend it felf by. 

And thus you fee three roots of three divers plants, all in the 
fame plant, proceeding by naturall resolution from one primi- 
tive fource. Whereof that which is moft watry, is fitteft to fa- 
bricate the body and common outfide of the triformed plant ; 
lance water is the moft figurable principle that is in nature, and 
the moft fufceptiblc ofmultiplication ; and by its cold is cafieft 
to be hardened} and therefore fitteft to refift the injuries of ene- 
my bodies that may mfeft it. The oily parts are fitteft for the 
continuance and fblidity of the plant: for we fee that vilcuofity 
and oylineffe hold together the parts where they abound; and 
they arc flowly wafted by fire, but do conferve and are an ali- 
ment to the fire that confumeth them. The parts of the third 
kind arc fittett for the confcrvadon of heat: which though in 
them it be too violent; yet it is necefTary for working upon o- 
ther parts, and for maintaining a due temper in them. 

And thus we have armed our plant with three forts of ri- 
vers or brooks to run through him, with as many different 
ftreams ; the one of a gentle balfamike oyl ; an other , of 
ftreaming fire ; and the third, of a connaturall and cooler 
water to irrigate and temper him. The ftreams of water , 
(as we have (aid) muft run through the whole fabrick of 
this informed plant : and becaufc it is not a fimplc water, 
but warm in a good degree, and as it were a middle fub- 
ftance betwixt water and aire ( by rcafon of the ardent vo- 
latile fpirit that is with it ) it is of a fit nature to fwell, as 
aire doth ; and yet withall to refift violence in a conveni- 
ent degree, as water doth. Therefore if from its fource na- 
ture fcndeth abundance into any one part; that part muft fwell 
and grow thicker and fhorter; and fo muft be contra&cd that 
way which nature hath ordered it. Whence we perceive a means 
by which nature may draw any part of the outward fabrick, 
which way foever fhe is pleafed by fct inftruments for fuch an 
effect. But when there is no motion, or but little in thefe pipes, 
the ftanding ftream that is in a very little.though long channel, 
mnft needs be troubled in its whole body,if any one part of it be 
preffcd upon, fo as to receive thereby any imprcffion: and there- 

Chap. 24* tsfTwt/feofEODlES. 265 

fore whatfbever is done upon it, though at the very furtheft end 
of it, maketh a commotion and fendech an impreffion up to its 
very fource. Which appearing by our former difcourlc to be the 
origine of particular and occafionall motions; it is obvious to 
conceive how it is apt to be moved and wrought by fuch an im- 
preflion to fct on foot the beginning of any motion ; which by 
natures providence is convenient for the plant, when fuch an im- 
preflion is made upon it. 

And thus you fee this plant hath the virtue both of fenfe or 
feeling; that is, of being moved and affc&ed by extern obje&s 
lightly ftrikiug upon it; as alib of moving ic felf, to or from fach 
an object; according as nature fhall have ordained. Which in 
fumme is; that this plant is a fenfitivc creature,compofed of three 
fburces, the heart, the brain, and the liver : whofe off-fprings 
are the arteries, the nerves, and the veins; which are filled with 
vitall fpiritS) with animal fpirits, and with bloud : and by thefc 
the animal is hcated.,nourifned, and made partaker of fenfe and 

Now referring the particular motions of liying creatures, to 
another time: we may obfcrye,that both kinds of them, as yvell 
vegetables as animals do agree in the nature of fuftaining them- 
felvcs in the three common a^ions, of generation, nutrition>and 
augmentation; which are the beginning, the progrefle, and the 
confervingof life. Unto which three vvc may addc the not fo 
much action as paflton of death,and of ficknes or decay,vvhich 
is the way to death. 


ji more particular fttrvey of the generation of Animal s> in 

which is difcovcred what part of the animal is 

firft generated. 

TO begin then with examining how living creatures are in- Jt 
gendered : our main queftion fliall be,Whether they be fra- The opinion 
med entirely at once; or fucceffiveJy , one part after an other? co^a^Mbr. 
And if this latter way,- which part firft ? Upon the difcuffion of maiiy every 
which, all that concerneth generation will be explicated, as JJu. 
much as concerneth our purpole in hand. To deduce this from 
its origine,we may remember how our Mafters tell us,that when 
any living creature is paflcdthe heat of its augmentation or 


a $$ A Treatifi o/BODIES. Chap. 24. 

growing; thefitpcrfl'ious nourifhmcnt fcttlcth it felf in fomcap* 
pointed pJace of the body to {crve for the produftion of fome 
other. Now it is evident that this fuperfluity comcth from all 
parts of the body, and may be faid to contain in it after fome 
fort the pe'rfe&ioivof the whole living creature. Be it how it 
\villi it is manifeft that the living creature is made of this fupet- 
fluous moytture of the parent : which, according to the opinion 
of fome, being compounded of feverall parts derived from the 
fevcrall limbs of the parent' thofe parts when they come to be 
fermented in convenient heat and moyfture, do take their po- 
Bure and fituation, according to the pofture and difpofition of 
parts that the living creature had from whence they iflucd : and 
then they growing daily greater and folider,(thceffe6ts of moy- 
tfure and of heat; ) do at the length become fuch a creature as 
that was, from whence they had their origine. 

Which an accident that I remember, feemcth much to con- 
firm. It was of a cat that had its tail cut off when it was very 
young: which cat happening afterwards to have young ones 
half the killings proved without tails, and the other half had 
them in an ordinary manner; as if nature could fupply but one 
partners fide, not on both. And another particular that I faw 
when I was at Argiers, maketh to this purpolc, which was of a 
woman that having two thumbs upon the left hand j fourc 
daughters that fhe had did all referable her in the fame accident, 
and fb did a little child, a girl of her eldeft daughters; but none 
of her fonnes. Whiles I was there I had a particular curiofity 
to fee them allttnd though it be not eafjly permitted unto Chri- 
ftians to fpeak familiarly with Mahometan womenjyet the con- 
dition I was in there, and the civility of the BafTha, gave me 
the oportunity of full view and difcourfe with them: and the old 
woman told me, that her mother and grandmother had been in 
the fame manner. But for them it refteth upon her credit: the 
others I faw my felf. 

a. But the opinion which thefe accidents feem to fupport,though 

The former opi- at t j ie fi r fl. v j ew j t f ccmct h fmoothly to fatisfieour inquiry, and 

monrejtftcd. , i r r i 

fairly to compafle the making of a living creature : yet looking 
further into it, we fhall find it fall exceeding fliortof itspromi- 
fing; and meet with fuch difficulties, as it cannot overcome. For 
let us caft about how this compound of fcycrall parts, that 


Chap. 24. tsfTreAtife 0/BODIES. 

ferves for the generation of a new living creature,can begather- 
cd from every part& member of the parent; fo to carry with it in 
little the complete nature of it. The meaning hereof muft be, 
that this fuperfluous aliment, either pafTeth through all and eve- 
ry little part and particle of the parents body, and in irs pafTagc 
receivcch fomething from them : or elfe, that it recciveth onely 
from all fimilar and great parts. 

The former feemeth impoffible, for how can one imagine 
that fiich j'uycc fhould circulate the whole body of an animali, 
and vifit every atome of it, and retire to the refervc where it is 
kept for generation; and no part of ic remain abfolutely behind, 
flicking to the flefh or bones that it bedeweth; bat that ftill 
fbmepart rcturneth back from every part of the animal ? Be- 
/ides, confider how thofe parts that are moft remote from the 
channels which convey this juyce; when they are fuller of noti- 
rifhment then they need , the /uyce which overflowed from 
them, cometh to the next part, and fettling there and ferving it 
for its due nourifliment , driveth back into the channell, that 
which was betwixt the channell and itfelf ; fb that here there is 
no return at all from fbme of the remote partsjand much of that 
juyce which is rejected, never went far from the channell itfelf. 
We may therefore fafely conclude, that it is impoffiblc every 
little part of the whole body fliould remit fomething impregna- 
ted and imbued with the nature of it. 

But then you may peradventure fay, that every fimilar part 
doth. If fo,l would ask, how it is poffible that by fermentation 
onely, every part fhould regularly go to a determinate place r to 
make that kind of animal;5n which every fimilar part isdiffufed 
to fo great an extent ? How fhould the nature of flefh here be- 
come broad, there round,and take juft the figure of the pare it is 
to cover ? How fhould a bone here be hollow, there be blady, 
and in another part take the form of a rib, and thofe many fi- 
gures which we fee of bones ? And the like we might ask of 
every other fimilar part, as of the veins and the reft. Again, fee- 
ing it rnuft of ncceflity happen, that at one time more i* remitted 
from one part then from another;how coraeth it to pa-fTe 3 that in 
the coIleSion the due proportion of nature is fo punctually ob- 
ferved? Shall we fay that this is done by fome cunning artificer, 
vvhofc work it is to fet all thefe parts in their due pofture; which 


a 58 A TriWif of BODIES. Chap. 24. 

Ariftotlc attributeth to the feed of the male ? But this is impofli- 
ble; for all this diversity of work is to be done at one time, and 
in the fame occafions: which can no more be effected by one a- 
gcnc, then multiplicity can immediately proceed from unity. 

But befides that there can be no agent to difpofe of the parts 
when they are gathered;it is evident that a fenfitive creature may 
be made without any fuch gathering of parts beforehand frorn, 
an other of the fame kind: forelfe,how could vcrmine breed out 
of living bodies, or out o/corruption ? How could rats come 
to fill fhips, into which never any were brought ? How could 
frogs be ingendred in the aire ? Eels of dewy turfs, or of mud ? 
Toads of ducks? Fifh of herns ? and the like. To the fame pur- 
pofe; when one fpecies or kind of animal is changed into ano- 
ther; as when a caterpiller or a /ilk-worm becometh a flic; it 
is mamfeft that there can be no fuch precedent collection of 

3. And therefore there is no remedy but we muft (eek out fbme 

The Authoiirs other means and courfe of generation, then this. Unto which we 
queft?en. C may be lead, by confidering how a living creature is nouriQied 
and augmented: for why fhould not the parts be made in gene- 
ration of a matter like to that which naaketh them in nutrition? 
If they be augmented by one kind of juyce that after feverall 
changes turncth at the length into flefli and bone; and into eve- 
ry fort of mixed body or fimilar part, whereof the fenfitivc crer- 
ture is compounded; and that joyneth it (elf to what it findeth al- 
ready made, why fhould not the fame juyce with the fame pro- 
grefleofheat and moifture, and other due temperaments, be 
converted at the firft into flefli and bone , though none be for- 
merly there to joyn it felf unto ? 

Let us then conclude that the juyce which ferveth for nourifh- 
ment of the animaljbeing more then is requifite for that fervice; 
the fuperfluous part of it is drained from the reft, and is referved 
in a place fit for it: where by little and little through digcftion, 
it gaineth ftrength,and rigour, and fpirits to it fclf, and becom- 
eth an homogeneall body, fuch as other fimple compounds are; 
which by other degrees ofheat and moifture, is changed into an 
other kind offubftancc : and that again by other temperaments 
into another. And thus, by the courfe of nature, and by patting 
fueccfTiYcly many degrees of temper, and by receiving a totall 


Chap. 24. *ATn*i{e 0/BODIES. 269 

change in every one of them; at the length an animal is made of 
fuch juyce as afterwards ferveth to nourifli him. 

But to bring chis to paflfc a fhorter way, and with greater fa- 4. 
cilityjfbme have been of opinion, that all fimilar things of what- Their opinion 
fccvcr fubftnnce,are imdifcernably mixed in every thing that is: ^oiTtha^cverj 
and that to the :r.nkihg of any body out of any thin? , there is th [ n contain. 

, / i i erh formally 

no more required but to gather together thole parts which are 
of that kind,and to feparate, and caft away from them, all thofe 
which are of a nature differing from them. 

But this fpeculation will appear a very aiery & needleffe one, 
if we confider into how many fcverall fubftanccj the fame fpe- 
cies of a thing may be immediately changed; or rather how 
many fcverall fubftanccs may be e.ncreafcd immediately from 
feverall equal! individuals of the fame thing; and then take an 
account how much of each individuall is gone into each fub- 
ftancc which it hath fb increafed. For if we fumme up the 
quantities that in the feverall fubftancesare thereby cncreafcd; 
we fhall find that they do very much exceed the whole quanti- 
ty of any one of the individuals : which fliould not be if the 
fuppofition were true; for every individuall fhould be but one 
totall made up of the feverall different fimilar parts , which en- 
creafe the feverall fubftances,that extract out of them what is of 
their own nature. 

This will be better underftood by an example: fuppofethata 
man, a horfe, a cow, a fliecp, and 500. more icverall fpecies of 
Jiving creatures, fhould make a meal of letuce: to avoid all per- 
plexity in conceiving the argument, let us allow that every one 
did eat a pound; and let us conceive another pound of this herb 
to be burned; as much to be putrified under a cabngc root; and 
the like under 500 plants more of diverfe fpecies. Then cnft how 
much of every pound of lecuce is turned into (he fubftances that 
arc made of them, or that areencreafed by them; a&, how much 
afhes one pound hath made;how much water hath been diftilJed 
out of another pound; how much a man hath been exicreafcd by 
a third; how much a horfe by a fourth; how much card) by the 
putrefaction of a fifth pound;how much a cabnge hath been cn- 
creafcd by a fixth: and fo go over all the pounds that have been 
turned into fubftanccs of different fpecicfes ('which may be mul- 
tiplied as much as you pleafe.) And when you have dimmed up 


A Treat! ft f BODIES. Chap.a 4. 

all chefc feverall quantities, you will find them far to exceed the 
quantity of one pound: which it would not do, if every pound of 
letuce were made up of feverall different fimilar parts actually 
in ic, that are cxtra&ed by different fubftances of the natures of 
thole parts; and that no fubftance could be encreafed by it, un- 
leffe parts of its nnture were originally in the letticc. 
5- On the other fide, if we but caft our eye back upon the prin- 

opinion c^cer- ciples we have laid, where we difcourfc of the composition of 
ning the enc- bodies': we fhall difcern how this work of changing one thing 

ration oh am- . , ... ... . " . 

mais Declared into another, either in nutrition, in augmentation, or in genera- 
and confirmed. c j on . w ji[ a pp ear nO t oncly poflible, but eafie to be effected. For 
out of them it is made evident how the feverall varieties of (b-. 
lid and liquid bodies; all differences of naturall qualities, all 
confidences, and whatfbever e!fe bclongeth to fimilar bodies j 
refulteth out of the pure and finglc mixture of rarity and den- 
fity; fo that to make all fuch varieties as are neceffary, there is 
no need of mingling, or of feparating any other kinds of parts: 
but onely an art or power to mingle in due manner, plain, rare 
and dcnfe bodies one with an other. Which very action and 
none other ( but with excellent method and order, fuch as be- 
cometh the great Architect that hatli defigned it ) is performed 
in the generation of a living creature : which is made of a 
fubftance at the firft, farre unlike what it afterwards grovveth 
to be. 

If we look upon this change in groflTe, and confidcr but the 
two extremes (to wit, the firft fubftance, of which a living crea- 
ture is made- and it felf in its full perfection ) I confefle, it may 
well feem incredible how fo excellent a creature can derive its 
origine from fo mean a principle, and fo far remote and differ- 
ing from what it groweth to be. But if we examine it in retail, 
and go along anatomifing it in every ftep and degree that it 
changeth by; we fhall find that every immediate change is fb 
near, and fo palpably to be made by the concurrent caufes of the 
matter prepared; as we muft conclude it cannot polfiby become 
any other thing then juft what it doth become. 

Take a bean, or any other feed, and put it into the earth, and 
let water fall upon it; can it then choofe but that the bean muft 
fwcll? The bean fwelling, can it cfioofe but break the skin? The 
skin broken, can it choofe ( by reafon of the heat that is in it ) 


Chap. 24. -/ 

but pufh out more matter, and do that action which we may 
call germinating? Can thefe germs choofe but pierce the earth 
in fmall firings, as they are able to make their way ? Can tbefe 
ft rings choole but be hardened* by the compreffion of the earth, 
and by their own nature, they being the heavicft parts of the 
fermented bean? And can all this be any thing clfe but a root > 
Afterwards the heat that is in the root, mingling it felf with 
more moifture, and according to its nature, Springing upwards; 
will it not follow neceflarily 3 that a tender green fubftance(which 
we call abudjor lcaf)muft appear a little above the earth; fince 
tendernefle, grcenneflc, and afccnt, arc the effects of thofe two 
principles, heat and moifture ? And muft not this green fub- 
fhncc change from what it was at the firft, by the funnc and 
aire working upon it, as it groweth higher; till at the length it 
hardcneth into a ftalk? All this while, the heat in the root fub- 
limethup more moifture, which maketh the ftalk at the firft 
grow rank and encreafe in length. But when the more volatile 
part of that warm juice , is fuflficiently depured and fublimed, 
will it not attempt to thruft it fclf out beyond the ftalk with 
much vigour and fmartneffe? And as foon as it meeteth with the 
cold aire in its eruption, will it no: be ftopped and thickned? 
And new parts flocking Mill from the root, muft they not clog 
that ifTue, and grow into a button, which will be a bud ? This 
bud being hardened at the fides, by the fame caufes which har- 
dened the ftalk, and all the while the inward heat ftill ftream- 
ing up, and not enduring to be long euclofed, ( efpecially when 
by its being ftopped, it multiplyeth it felf) will it not follow 
neceffarily that the tender bud muft cleave, and give way to 
that fpirituall juice; which being purer then the reft ( throngh 
it* great fublimation ) flieweth it felf in a purer and rrobler fub- 
ftance then any that is yet made ; and fo bccometh a flower? 
From hence, if we proceed as we have begun, and do weigh all 
circumftances; we fhall fee evidently, that another fubftarce 
muft needs fucceed the flower, which muft be hollow and con- 
tain a fruit in it: and that this fruit muft grow bigger and hard- 
er. And fo, to the laft period of the generation of new beans. 

Thus by drawing the thrid carefully a-long through your 
fingers, and ftaying at every knot to examine how it is tye.f; 
you fee that this difficult progrefle of the generation of living 


A Trutifi of B O D I E S. Chap. 2 4. 

creatures, is obvious enough to be comprehended; and that the 
ftcps of ic are poffible to be let down; if one would but take 
the pains and afford the time that is uecefiary ( leiTe then thac 
Phiiofopher, who for fo many years give himfclf wholly up 
to the finqle obferving of the nature of bees ) to note dilioentlv 

cJ C7 S mJ w 

all the cucumftances in every change of ic. In every one of 
which the thing that wasjbecometh ablblutely a new thing; and 
is endewed with new properties and qualities different from 
thof? it had before, as Phyluians from their certain experience 
do allure us. And yet every change is fuch, as in -the ordinary 
and generall courfe of nature ( wherein nothing is to beconfi- 
dered, but the neceflary erfeiis following out of fuch Agents 
working upon fuch patients, in fuch circumftances ) it is impof- 
fible that any other thing fhould be made of the precedent, but 
that which is immediately fubfequent unto it. 

Now if all tins orderly fucceffion of mutations be neeeflarily 
mad; in a bean, by force of fundry circumftancej and externall 
accidents; why may it not be conceived that the like is alfb dpne 
in fenfible creatures* but in a more perreft manner, they befing 
perfe&er fub<iances ? Surely the progreflfe we have fetdown is. 
much more reafonable, then to conceive that in the meal of the 
bean are contained in little, ieverall fimilar fubftances; as^ of a 
a root, of a leaf, a ftalk, a flower, a cod, fruit, and the reft; 
and that every one of thefe, being from the firft ftill the fame 
that they diall be afterwards, do but fuck in more moifhirefrom 
the earth, to fwell and enlarge themfelves in quantity. Or, that 
in the ieed of the male, there is already in a&, the fubftahce of 
. flefli, of bone, offinews, of veins, and the reft of thofc ieverall 
fimilar parts which are found- in the body of an animall; and 
that they are but extended to their due magnitude, by the humi- 
dity drawn from the mother, without receiving any fubftantiall 
mutation from what they were originally in the feed. 

Let us then confidently conclude, that all generation is made 
of a fitting , but remote, homogencall compounded fubftanec: 
upon which, outward Agents,working in the dne courfe of na- 
ture, do change it into another fubftanec, quite diffetcnt from the 
firft, and do make it lefife homogeneall then the firfi was. And 
other circumftances & agents do change this lecond into a third; 
that third, into a fourth; and fo onvvards,by fucceffive mutations 


Chap. 24. ATwtifeof BO DIES. 273 

{ that ftill make every new thing become leffe homogeneall,ther 
the former was, according to the nature of heat, mingling more 
and more different bodks together) untill that fubftancc be 
produced , which we confider in the period of all theft mu- 

And this is evident out of many experiences: as for example 
in trees; the bark which is oppofed to the north wind, is harder 
and thicker then the contrary.fide which is oppofed to the fbuth, 
and a great difference will appear in the grain of the wood;even 
fo much, that skilfull people will by feeling and feeing a round 
piece of the wood after the tree is felled, tell you in what fitua- 
tion it grew, and which way each fide of that piece looked. And 
Jofephus Acofta writeth of a tree in America, that on the oue 
fide being fituated towards great hills, and on the other being 
expofed to the hot funne ; the one half of it flourifheth at one 
time of the ycar> and the other half at the oppofite ieafbn. And 
fbmc fuch like may be the caufc of the ft range effects we fbme- 
times fee of trees, flourifliing or bearing leaf* at an unfeafbnable 
time ofthc year; as in particular,in the famous okc in the New- 
foreft,and in fome others in our Ifland: m which peradventurc 
the foyl they grow in, may do the fame effect, as the winds and 
funne did in the tree that Acofta raaketh mention of. For we 
dayly fee how fbme foils arc fo powerfull over fome kind of 
corn, that they will change the very nature of it ; fo that, you 
(hall reap oats or ric, after you have fown wheat there. 

Which Qiewcth evidently thatfince the outward circumftan- 
ces can make the parts or the whole of any fubftance, become 
different from what they were at the firtt; generation is not 
made by aggregation of like parts to prefuppofed like ones: nor 
by a fpecificall worker within; but by the compounding of a 
feminary matter, with the juice which accructh to ft from with- 
out, and with the fteams of circumftant bodies; which by an or- 
dinary courfe of nature* arc regularly imbibed in it by degrees; 
and which at every degree, do change it into a. different thing> 
fuch an one as is capable to refult out of the prelent compound, 
( as we have faid before ) untill it arrive to its full per- 

Which yet is not the utmoft period of natures changes; for 6. 

S from 

4 ?4 X TrMriji <?/ B O D I ES. Chap. 24. 

That one fub- from thct, for example, from corn or an animal, ic carryeth 
ieTbK> C an- n " " on C Ml changing ic J to be meal or a cadaver: from thence 
thcr. to be bread or durt: after that to be blond or grade. And fb, 

ftill turning about her wheel ( which fufTereth nothing to re- 
main lonp in the ftatc ic is in } flic changeth all fubftances from 

Lr J & 

one into another. And by reiterated revolutions, maketh in 
time every thing of every thing : as when of mud flic maketh 
tadpoles, and frogs of them ; and afterwards, mud again of 
the frogs : or when flie runneth a like progrefle; from earth to 
worms; and from them, to flies; and the like : ib changing one 
animall into fuch another as in the next precedent {rep, the 
matter in tho(e circumflances is capable of being changed into; 
or ratherf to fay better ) muft neceflarily be changed into. 

To confirm this by experience ; I have been allured, by one 
who was very cxa6l in noting fuch things ; that he once ob- 
ferved in Spain, in the fpring feafon, how a flick lying in a 
moifl place, grew in tradi of time to be mcfl of it a rotten dur- 
ty matter; and that at the durty end of the flick, there began a 
rude head to be formed of it by little and little; and after a 
while fome little legs began to difcovcr themfelv<s near this un- 
poliflied head, which dayly grew more and more diftinftly 
leaped. And then, for a pretty while (for it was in a place 
where he had the conreniencie to obfcrve dayly the progrcfle of 
it, and no body came near to ftirrc it in the whole courie of it ) 
he could difcem where it ceafed to be a body of a living crea- 
ture, and where it began to be dead flick or dirt ; ull in one 
continuate quantity or body. But every day the body grew 
longer and longer, and more legs appeared, till at the length, 
when he law the animall almoft finifhed, and near feparating 
it felf from the reft of the flick, he flayed then by it, and faw it 
creep away in a caterpillar, leaving the flick and dirt, as much 
wanting of its fiift length, as the worms body took up. Perad- 
venturc the greatefl part of fuch creatures maketh their way by 
fuch fleps into the world. But to be able to obferve their pro- 
grefle thus diflinclly as this Gentleman did, happeneth not 

Therefore, to fatisfie our felves herein ic were well we made 

t.oncernm . _ . 

*c hashing of our remarks in fonae creatures that might be continually m our 


dap. 24. ^ Tret'.ife of B O D I E 5. 275 

power to obfervc in them the courfo of nature every day and elevens, and 

r" T i TT j LT- r L- */! j- the gcncracioti 

houre. Sir John Heydon,the Lieutenant or his Majcfties ordi- of oeher ami- 
nance ( that generous and knowing Gentleman; and centum- mals * 
mate fouldier both in theory and praftife) was the firft thatin- 
ftrufted me how to do this, by means of a furnace fb made as 
to imitate the warmth of a fitting hcnnc. In which you may 
lay fevcrall cggcs to hatch ; and by breaking them at fevcrall 
ages you may diftin&ly obfcrve every houreJy mutation in 
them, ifyou pleafe. The firft will be, that on one fide you (hall 
find a great rcfplendcnt clearneffe in the white. Afcer a while, 
a little fpot of red matter like bloud, will appear in the midft 
of that clearnefle fattened to the yolk: which will have a moti- 
on of opening and fliuttino; fo as fometimes you will fee i:, and 
ftraight again it will vanifh from your fight; and indeed at the 
firft it is fo little, that you cannot fee it? but by the motion of it; 
for at every pulfe,as it openeth, you may fee it, and immediately 
agiin, it fhuttcth in fuch fort, as it is not to bedifcerned. From 
this red fpeck, after a while there will ftream out, a number of 
little ( almoft imperceptible) red veins. At the end of fome of 
which, in time there will be gathered together, a knot of mat- 
ter which by little and little will take the form of a head; and 
you will ere long begin to difcern eyes and a beak in k. All 
this while the firft red fpot of bloud, groweth bigger and fo- 
lider : till at the length, it becometh a flefhy fubftance; and by 
its figure, may eafily be difcerned to be the heart : which as yet 
hath no other enclofure but the fubftance of the egge. But by 
little and little the reft of the body of an animal is framed out 
of thofe red veins which ftream out all about from the heart. 
And in procefTe of time, that body inclofcth the heart within it 
by the cheft, which groweth over on both fides, and in the end 
meeteth, and clofeth it fclf faft together. After which this little 
creature foon filleth the (hell, by converting into feverall parts 
of it fclf all the fubftance of the egge. And then growing wea- 
ry of Co ftraight an habitation, it breaketh prifbn, and comech 
out, a perfectly formed chicken. 

In like manner: in other creatures; which in latine are cal- 
led Vivipar* (becaufc their young ones are quick in their mo- 
thers wombe) we have, by the relation of that learned and cx- 

S a a& 


Fi-om whence 
it happcncth 
that thcdefi- 

of the parents 
body are often 
leen in their 

A Tretiife of BODIES. Chap, 24. 

a fearchcr into nature, Dolour Harvey : that the feed of the 
male after his accoupling with the female, doth not remain in 
her wombe in any fenfible bulk : but (as it feemeth ) evapo- 
rateth and incorporated! it felf, either into the body of the 
wombe, or rather into fome more interior parts as into the fe- 
minary veflfels. Which being a folid fubftance, much refem- 
bling the nature of -the fernaks feed, is likely to fuck tip, by 
the mediation of the females feed, the males feed incorporated 
with it, and by incorporation, turned as it were into a vapour: 
in fuch fort as we have formerly explicated how the body of 
a fcorpion or viper draweth the poyfbn out of a wound. And 
after a certain time (Do&our Harvey noted the fpace of fix 
weeks or two months in does or hindes) thefe feeds diftill 
again into the wombe; and by little and little do clari- 
fic in the midft, and a little red fpeck appeareth in the cen- 
ter of the bright clearnefle : as we faid before of the egge. 

But we fliould be too blame to leave our Reader with- 
out clearing that difficulty , which cannot choofe but have 
{prung up in his thoughts, by occafion of the relations we 
made at the entrance into this point concerning the cat whofe 
kitlings were half with tails, and half without : and the wo- 
mans daughters at Argiers, that had as well as their mother 
excrefcences upon their left thumbs, imitating another leffcr 
thumb : and the like effects whcnfoever they happen, which 
they do frequently enough. 

Let him therefore remember, how we have determined 
that generation is made of the bloud , which being difperled 
into all the parts of the body to irrigate everyone of them- 
and to convey fitting fpirits into them from their fource or 
fliop where they are forged; fo much of it as is fuperabun- 
dant to the nourifhing of thofe parts is fent back again to 
the heart to recover the warmth and fpirits it hath loft by fo 
Jong a journey. By which perpetuall courfe of a continued 
circulation, it is evident that the bloud in running thus 
through all the partt of the body mutt needs receive fomc 
particular concodlion or impreflion from every one of them. 
And by confequencc , if there be any fpecificall virtue in 
. part which ii not in another, then the bloud retwrnin 


Chap. 14. -* TreAtife of BODIES. 277 

from thence muft be endued with the virtue of that parr. And 
the pureft part of this blond, being extra&cd Jikc a quintcf- 
fence out of the whole mafle, is refervcd in convenient recrpta- 
clcs or vcflels till there be ufe of it : and is the matter or feed, of 
which a new animall is to be made; in whom, will appear the 
eflfeft of all the fpecificall virtues drawn by the bloud in its ite- 
rated courfes, by its circular motion, through all the ieverall 
parts of the parents body. 

Whence it followeth, that if any part be wanting in the body 
whereof this feed is made, or be fuperabundant in it; whole vir- 
tue is not in the reft of the body,or who r c fuperabundance is noc 
allaid by the reft of the body; the virtue of that part, cannot be 
ki the bloud, or will be too ftrong in the bloud, and by confc- 
quence, itrannot beat all, or it will be too much in the feed. 
And the eflfecl proceeding from the feed, that is, the young ani- 
mal/will come into the world favouring of that origine; unlcfTc 
the mothers feed, do fupply or temper, what the fathers was 
defective or fuperabundant in; or contrariwiie the fathers do 
correct the errours of the mothers. 

But peradventurc the Reader will tell us, that fuch a fpecift- p. 

call virtue cannot be gotten by concoftion of the bloud, or by TfieJirference 
any pretended impreflion in it ; unleffe fome little particles of Airhour< opt- 
the nourifhcd part do remain in the blond, and return back ? lon * andthe 

... ,. r . rt^ L n J J. former one. 

\vith it, according to that maxime or Oebcr, ft^uod non tngredt- 
tur, nonimmutat no body can change another unlefle it enter 
into it, and mixing it felf with it do become one wich it. And 
thatfo in effect, by this explication we fall back into the opini- 
on which we rejected . 

To this I anfwer, that the difference is very great between 
that opinion and ours ; as will appear evidently, if you ob'ervc 
the two following aflertions of theirs. Firft, they affirm that a 
living creature is made merely by the aflembling togecher of fi- 
milar parts, which were hidden in thofe bo.iies from whence 
they are extracted in generation : whereas we fay that bloud 
coming to a part to irrigite it> is by its paflagc through it/and 
ibme little ftay in it and by its frequent returns tlvther, at the 
length tranfmuted into the nature of that part: and thereby the 
fpecificall virtues of every part do grow greater> and arc more 
diffufcd and extended. S Se- 

27$ JTrtatife of BODIES. Chap. 14. 

Secondly, they fay that the cinbryon is a&ually formed in 
the feed, though in fuch little parts as it cannot be dilcerned 
untill eaeh part have enlarged and increa'ed it felf, by drawing 
unto it from thecircumttant bodies more fubftance or their own 
nature. But xve fay, that there is one homogeneall fubftancc, 
made of the bloud, which hath been ir> all parts of the body ; 
and this is the feed : which contained! not in it, any figure of 
the animal from which it is refined 5 or of the animal into which. 
it hath a capacity to be turned ( by the addition of other fub- 
flances) though it have in it the vertues of ali the parts h harh 
often run through* 

By which term of /pccifike vertues, I hope we have faid 
enough in fundry places of this difcourfeto keep men from con- 
ceiving that we do mean any fuch unconceiveable quality, as- 
modern Philofbphcrs too frequently talk of, when they know 
not what they fay -or think, nor can give any account o f . But 
that it is fuch degrees and fuch numbers,of rare and denfc parts 
mingled together, as conftitute a mired body of fuch a temper 
and nature : which degrees and proportions ef rare and denfe 
parts and their mixture together, and incorporating into one 
homogeneall fubftance, is the effcdt resulting from the operati- 
ons of the exteriour agent, that euttcth, imbibcth } kneadeth,and 
boyleth it to fuch a temper : which exteriour agent in this cafe, 
is each fcverall part of the animals body chat this juice or 
Woud runneth through ; and that hath a particular temper be- 
longing to it, refulting out of fuch a proportion of rare and 
denfe p.arts, as we have even now fpoken of; and can no more 
bewitheld from communicating its temper to the bioudthat 
firft foaketh into it, and foon after draineth away again from it 
(according as otherfuccecding parts of bloud drive it on;)then 
a. minerall channcll can choofe but communicate its virtue un- 
to a ft ream of water that runneth through it, and is continual- 
ly grating of fbme of the fubiiance of the minerall earth, and 
diflolring it into it fel 

But to go on with our intended difcourfe. The feed, thus im- 
bued with the fpecificall virtues of all the fevcrall parts of the 
parents body, meeting in a fit receptacle the other parents feed; 
u<f. Ac'" and being there duly conco&ed, bccometh fuft a. heart : which 


Chap. 24. v47>M///^/BODIES. 17P 

heart in this tender beginning of a new animal containeth the whole body; 

feverall virtues ofall the parts that afterwards will grow out of Confirmed the 

it, and be in the future animal; in the fame manner as the heart d ^ ftr f j neof the 

of acoplete animal concaineth in it the fpecifikc virtues ofall the 

fevcrall parts of its own body, by reafon of the blouds concinu- 

all relbrtjng to it in a circle fiom all parts of its body, and its 

being nourished by that juice to fupply the continuall confuin- 

ption which the extreme heat of it muft needs continually occa- 

Cioa in its own fubftancc; wtareby the heart becometh 

in a manner the compendium or abridgement of the whole 


Now this heart in the growing Embryon, being of the nature 
of fire, as on the one fide it ftrcameth out its hot parts; fo on the 
other it fucketh oyl or fewel to nourifh it /elf out of the adja- 
cent moift parts; which matter aggregated unto it 5 being fcnt 
abroad together with the other hot parts that fteam from it; 
both of them together do ftay and fettle as fbon as they are out 
of the reach of that violent heat , that would not permit tkern 
to thicken or to red. And there they grow into fuch a fub/rance 
as is capable to be made of fuch a mixture, and are linked to 
the heart by Come of thofe firings that fream out from it ( foe 
thoic fleams do likewife harden, as we flicwcd more parti- 
cularly when we difcourfed of the tender ftalks of plants ) 
and in a werd , this becometh ibme other part of th ani- 
mal. Which thus encreafeth by order, one part being made 
after another, untill the whole living creature be completely 

So that now you fee, how mainly their opinion diffcfeth 
fromoursjfince they fay that there is actually in the feed a com- 
plete living creature;for what elfe is a living creature,but bones 
in fuch parts, nerves in fuch others, bloud and humours con- 
tained in fuch and fuch places, all as in a living creature ? All 
which they fay. But we make the feed to be nothing elfe but 
one mixed body, of one homogeneall nature throughout; con- 
fitting of fuch a multiplicity of rare and denle parts; fo ballan- 
ced and proportioned in number and in magnitude of thofe 
parts; which are evenly fliuffled, and aJike mingled in every 
little parcel of the whole fiibftancean fuch forc,that the operati- 

S 4 on 

A Trutife //BODIES. Chap. 24. 

on of nature upon this feed, may in a long time and with a due 
proccife, bring out ftich figures, fituation.and qualities ( as flui- 
dity, confidence, drinefle, and the like) which by much mixti- 
on and con!equent alteration, may in the end become fuch as 
con(titute a living creature of fuch a kind. And thusjt appcareth 
that although other fubflances, and liquours, and fteams arc 
from time to time mingled with the feed, and then with the 
heart, and afterwards with the other parts, as they grow on 
and encreafe; yet the main virtue of the enfuing animal , is firtt 
in the feed, and afterwards in the heart. 

Whence the reafbn is evident, why both defects and excre- 
fcences do pafle fometimes from the parents to the children; to 
wit, when nothing fupplyeth the defect or correfteth the exor- 
bitancy. Rather after this which we have faid, the difficulty will 
appear greater,m that fuch accidents arc notalwayes hereditary 
from the parencs;but happen only now & then Come rare times. 
But the fame grounds we have laid will likewise folve this ob- 
jection :fbr feein that the heart of the animal, from whence the 

* 7^ 

iced receiveth its proper nature (as we have- declared) is im- 
pregnated with the fpecifick virtue of each feverall part of the 
body; it cannot be doubted but that the heart will fupply for 
any defect happened in any part. after it hath been imbued with 
that virtue, and is grown to a firmnefle, and vigorous confi- 
dence with that virtue moulded, and deeply imbibed into the 
\ cry lubfrancc of it. And although the heart (hould be tin&ed 
from its firft origine with an undue virtue from fome part ( as 
it feemeth to have been in the mother of thofe daughters thac 
had two thumbes upon onehand: ) yet it is not neceflfary thac 
all the offspring of tlvu parent fhould be formed after that mo- 
dell; for the other partners feed may be more efficacious, and 
predominate in the geniture, over the faulty feed of the other 
parent; and then it will fupply foramicorreft the others devia- 
tion from the generall rule of nature. Which feemeth to be the 
cafe of that womans male children; for in them the fathers feed 
beeing ttrongcir 3 all their fingers imitated the regularity of their 
fathers : whereas the daughters (\vhofc fex implieth that the fa- 
thers feed was lefle active) carried upon fome of theirs, the re- 
fcmblancc of their mothers irregularity. 

A J 


Chap. 24. i^Tretiife ^/BODIES. 281 

And in confirmation of this doftrine, we daily fee that the 
children of parents who have any of their noble parts much and 
long diftcmpered, whereby there muft be a great diftemper in 
the bloud ('which is made and concocted by their afltftance) do 
feldome fail of having ftrong inclinations to the diftempers and 
difcafcs that cither of their parents were violently fubjedt unto. 
Scaice any father or mother dieth of the confumption of the 
Jungs, but their children inherit that difeafc in fome meafure: 
the like is of the ftone; the like of the gout; the likeofdjfeafes 
of the brain, and of fundry others; when they infefted the pa- 
rents with any notable eminency. For the bloud coming conti- 
nually to the heart from ill-affe<5ted parts, by its circulation 
through the whole body,muft needs in prccefTeoftimcalter,and 
change the temper o.'the heart : and then both the heart giveth 
a tainted impreflion to the bloud that muft be boyled into feed; 
and the parts thcmfelves do communicate their debilities and di- 
ftempers unto it: fo that it is no wonder, if the feed do partake 
of fuch depraved qualities; fince it is a maxime among Phyfici- 
ans, that fubfequent concoctions can never amend or repair the 
faults of the precedent ones. 

Having waded thus farre into this matter, and all experience 
agreeing that the whole animal is not formed at oncerl conceive Ir * 
there can be no great difficulty in determining what part of it is j s rhe'firft P !rc 
firft generated: which we have already faid to be the heart: but g c n eratedini 

, A } . . Jiving creature. 

peradventuie the Header may expedt lome more particular and 
immediate proof of it. It is evident that all the motions and 
changes which we have obierved in the egge and in the Doe^do 
proceed from heat: and it is as certain that heat is greateft in the 
center of it: from whence it difpcrfeth it lelf to letfe and Icfle. It 
muft then neceffarily follows that the part in which heat docli 
moft abound, and which is the interiour fountain of it, from 
whence ( as from a ftocV of their own ) all the other parts de- 
rive theirs; muft be formed firft and the others fuccelfively after 
it, according as they partake more or leffe of this heat; which is 
the Architect that mouldeth and frameth them all. Undoubt- 
edly this can be none other but the heart: whofe motion and 
manner of working, evidently appears in the twinckling of the 
firft red fpot (which is the firft change ) in the egge, and in rhc 


a 8 1 A Trfjtifi. e/ BODIES. Chap. 27. 

fitft matter of other Jiving creatures. Yet I do notinrend ro fay, 
that the heart is perfectly framed, and completely madeup^with 
all its parts and intlruments, before any ocher part be begun to 
be matte: but onely the molt vertuous part ; and as it were the 
marrow of it; which fcrveth as a fhop or a hot forge to mould 
fpirits in : from whence they are diiperfed abroad to form and 
noiirifh ochcr parts that ftand in need of them to that effect. 

The (Lootings or little red firings that ftream out from if, 
mutt fu rely be arteries 'through which, the bloud ifluing from 
the heart, and there made and imbued with the nature of the 
feed . doth ru.nn* ; till encountering with fie matter, it en- 
grofieth it felf into brain, liver, lights, &c. From the brain 
chiefly groweth the marrow , and by confequent, the bones 
containing ic, ( which ieem to be originally j but the out- 
ward part of the marrow , baked and hardened into a ftrong 
cruft by the great heat that is kept in : ) as alfb the 
fincws ; which are the next principall bodies of drcngth, 
after the bones. The marrow being very hot drieth the 
bones; and yet with its aSuall moyfture it hume^eth and nou- 
rifheth them too, in fome fort. The fpirits that are lent from the 
brain do the like to the finewes. And Iaftly 3 the arteries and 
veins by their bloud do chcrifh and bedew the flefli. Andthu* 
the whole living creature is begun, framed, and made up. 


Hw a Plant or Animall cometb to that 
figure it hath. 

* T) lit before we go any further, and fearch into the operations 
of "J AnS D of this animaLI, a wonderfull cflfeft calleth our confidcrati- 

orlinaf " C f d b d on unto ' E '* w ^ 1 ' c ' 1 ' $1 ' 1OW a P^ ant or animall comcth by the fi- 
caufej, a$wdi gure it hath,both in the whole and in every part of it?Ariftotle, 
corrorcai^ef a ^ ter ^ c ^^ c a ten his thoughts as far as Se could upon this que- 
fca. ftion, pronounced that this effcft could not poMibly be wrought 

by the virtue of the firft qualities j 'but that it (prong from a 
more divine origine. And moft of the contcmplatours of Na- 
ture fincc him do fccm to agree, that no caufe can be rendered 
of it ; but tlaat it is to be referred merely to the (pecificall 


Chap. 2 ?. ^ TrcAtife of B O D I E S. 

nature of the thing. Neither do we intend to derogate from 
either of thefe caufes ; fincc that both divine providence is emi- 
nently fhown in contriving allcircurnftanccs ncceflary for this 
work and likcwife , the firft tcmperamenc that is in the feed 
muft needs be the principal! immediate caulc of this admirable 

This latter then being fuppofed ; our labour and endeavour 
will be, to unfold (asfarre as fo weak and dimme eyes can 
reach ) the excellency and exaftnefle of Gods providence , 
which cannot be enough adored, when it is reflected upon, 
and marked in the apt laying of adequate caufes to produce 
fuch a figure out of fuch a mixture firft layed. From them 
fo artificially ranged, we fliall ice this miracle ofnature to pro- 
ceed; and not from an immediate working of God or nature 
without convenient and ordinary inftruments to mediate and 
effect this configuration, through the force and virtue of their 
own particular natures. Such a ncceflicy to interert the chief 
workman at every turn, in particular effects, would argue 
him of want of skill and providence, in the firft laying of the 
foundations of his defigned machine: he were an improvident 
clockmaker,that fhould have caft his work fb, as when it were 
wound up and going, it would require the matters hand at eve- 
ry hourc to make the hammer ftrike upon the bell. Let us noc 
then too familiarly, and irreverently ingage the Almighty Ar- 
chitect his immediate handy -work in every particular effect of 
of nature ; Talt non eft digntts -v 'indict noAus. 

But let us take principles within our own kenning ; and 
onfider how a body hath of its own nature three dimenfions, ratt 
( as Mathematicians ufe to demonftrate : ) and that the vari- j^ies proceed 
cty which we fee of figures in bodies proceedeth out of the dc- Jnc^of C the ' 
fecit of fome of thefe dimenfions in proportion to the reft. As thrcc di cn ' 
for example, that a thing be in the form of a fquare tablet ; is, the' concur- y 
for that the caufc which gave it length and breadth, could not rancc of a '- 

/L-i/r-Lr /-i_-i dcntall cauics. 

aJfogive it thicknefle in the lame proportion r for had it been 
able to give prdftindity as well as the other two, it had macfe 
a cube inftead of a tablet. In like manner, the forme of a la- 
mine, r very long fquare it occafioned by fbme accident which 
hindereth the caule from giving breadth and tFiidtnefle proper- 



tionable to the length. And Co, other figures are made, by rei- 
ibn that their caules are feme wayes bound to give more of fbmc 
dimenfion to one part then to another. 

As for example, when water falhth out of the skie, it hath 
all the little corners or cxtancies of its body grated off by the 
aiicasit rollcth and tumbleth down in it, fo that it becometh 
round ; and continueth in that form, untill that fettling upon 
fome flat body, as grafle or a leaf, it receiveth a little plain- 
nefle, to the proportion of its weight mattering thecontinuitie 
of it. And therefore, if the drop be great upon that plain bo- 
dy, it (eemeth to he half a fphere, or fome Idle portion of one : 
b'.itifitbe a little drop then the flat part of it (which is that 
next unto the graffe) is very little and undilcernable, becaufe ic 
hath not weight enough to prcfle it much and fpreadit broad 
upon the gralle ; and fo the whole feemeth in a manner co 
be a fphere : but if the extern caufes had preffed upon this 
drop, onely broad wayes and thickwayes (as when a turner 
maketh a round pillar of a fqtiare one ) then it would have 
proved a cylinder, nothing working upon it to grate oflfany 
of its length, but onely the corners of the breadth and thick- 
ncfle of ic. 

And tbus you fee, how the fundamentall figures (upon which 
all the reft are grounded) are contrived by nature ; not by the 
work of any particular Agent that immediately imprinteth a 
determinate figure inco a particular body, as though it wrought 
it there at once, according to a foreconceived defigne or intelli- 
p,enc aime of producing fuch a figure in fuch a body : but by 
the concurrence of feverall accidentall caufes, that do all of 
them j'oyn in bringing the body they file and work upon, into 
fuch a fliape. 

Onely we had like to have forgotten the reafon and catife of 
the concave figure in fome parts of plants : which in the ordi- 
nary courle of nature we fh all find to grow from hence, that a 
round outfide being filled with fome liquor which maketh it 
grow higher and higher, it happcneth that the fucceeding cau- 
fcs do contract this liquor, and do harden the outfide r and then 
of ncccflicy there muft be a hollow cylinder remaining in lieu of 
the juice which before did fill it. As we fee every day in corn, 


Chap. 2 j. 4 Treatifeof BODIES. 

and in reeds, and in canes> and in the ftalks of many herbs : 
which whileft they are tender and in their firft growcth, are full 
of juice, and become afterwards hollow and dry. 

But beeaule this difcourfe, may pcradrcnture feem too much 
in common : it will not be amiflc to apply it to fome partial- T {, e fo r * roer d 
Jars that fcem very ftrange. And firft, let us examine how the ri "e is con- 
rocking of concrete juices ( which feemeth to be fuch an admi- 
rable myftery of nature ) is performed. Allom falleth down in 
lumps, faltpcter iri long icicles, and common fait in iquares ; 
and this, not once, or fbmetimes now and then ; butalwayes 
conftamly in the fame order. 

The reafon ofthefe cfFecls will eafily be deduced out of what 
we have faid, for if all three be diflblved in the fame water, 
allom being the grofleft falleth firft and fafteft : and being of 
an unSious nature, the firft part which falleth doth not harden 
till the fecond cometh to it ; whereby this fecond fticketh to the 
firft and crufheth it down,and this is ferved in the fame manner 
by the third ; and fb goeth on, one part fqueezing another, till 
what is undcrmoft grow hard enoogh to refirt the weight of 
new falling, parts ; or rather till no more do fall, but the liquor 
they were diflblved in, is delivered of them all, and then they 
harden in that figure they were cotnprefled into. 

As for fait, which defcendeth in the feeond place : that fvvim- 
meth firft upon the water ; and there> getteth its figure, which 
muft be equally long and broad, becaufe the water is indiffe- 
rent to thofe two pofitions ; but its thickneflfe is not equall to 
its other two dimenfions, by reafon that before it can attain to 
that thicknefle, it groweth too heavie to fwiinme any longer ; 
and after it is encreafed to a certain bulk, the weight of it car- 
rieth it down to the bottome of the water, and confecucnt- 
ly, it can encreafe no more : for it encreafeth by the joyn- 
ing of little parts unto it as it fwimmeth on the toppe of the 

The faltpeter falleth laft : which being more difficult to be 
figured then the other two, becau/c it is more dry then either of 
them (as confitting chiefly of earthy and of fiery parts,) is not 
equally encreafed, neither in all three, nor in two dimenfions/ 
but hath its length exceeding both its breadth and thidinefle : 


jTredtlfcof BO DIES. Chap. 25. 

and its lightncfic maketh it fall laft, becaufc it requircth leaft 
water co lultain it. 

To give the caufcs of the figures of divers mixts, and parti- 
cularly of ibmc pretious ftones, ( which feem to becaft by na- 
ture in cxacteft moulds ) would oblige us to enter into the 
particular manner of their generation : which were exceeding 
hard, if not impoffible, for us to do, by reafon thac Authours 
have not left us the circumftanccs upon which we m;ght ground 
our judgement concerning them, Co particularly defcribed as 
were necefiary ; nor our felves have met with the commodity 
of making fuch experiences, and of fearching fo into their beds 
as were requifice, to determine folidcly the reafons of them. 
And indeed I conceive that oftentimes the relations which o- 
thers have recorded of their generation, would rather miire- 
Icade then afTift us : fince it is very familiar in many men, to 
msgnifie the exadftncflc of nature in framing cffedts they phanfie 
to themielves, when to make their wonder appear more juft ; 
they will not foil to fet off their ftory, with all advantagious 
circumttancc.sand help out what wanteth a little or cometh but 
near the mark. 

. 4. But to come clofer to our purpofe ; that is, to the figures of 

The fame do- living things . we fee that roots in the earth are all of them fi- 
8 lirccl almoft in the fame faflilon : for the heat refiding in the 
middett of them, puHieth every way, and thereupon, Ibmc of 
them do become round, but others more long then round, ac- 
cording to the temper of the ground, or to the feafon of the 
yeare, or to the weather that happeneth : and this, not onely 
in divers kinds of roots, but even in fevcrall of the fame kind. 
That part of the plant which mounteth upwards is for the moft 
part round and long ; the caufe whereof is evident, for the 
juice which is in the middle of it working upwards ( becaufe 
the hardnefle of the bark will not let it out at the fides) and 
corning in more and more abundance ( for the reafons we have 
above delivered ) encrcafeth that part equally every way but 
upwards ; and therefore, it muft be equally thick and broad, 
and confequently round : but the length will exceed either of 
the other dimenfions ; becaufe the juice is driven up with a 
greater force and in more quantity then it is to the fides. Yet 


Chap. 25. exf Treattfe of B O D I E S. 287 

the broadnefle and thicknefle are not fb exactly uniform, but 
that they exceed a little more at the bottom then at the toppe j 
which is occafioncd partly by the contracting of the juice in- 
to a narrower circuit the further it is from the Iburce ; and 
partly by reafon of the branches ; which (hooting forth, 
do convey away a great part of the juice from the main 

Now if we confider the matter W'ell ; we fhall find, that , ? 
what is done in the whole tree the very fame is likewife done in ftrinc <j!are < d 
every litde leaf of it : for a leaf confifteth of little branches in leafs of trets 
/hooting out from one greater branch, which is in the middle : 
and again, other lefler branches are derived from thofe fecond 
branches : and fo ftill lefler and lefler, till they weave them- 
lelves into a clofe work, as thick as that which we fee women 
ufe to fill up with filkor crewell, when in tentwork they em- 
broader leafs or flowers upon canvas : and this again, is co- 
vered and as it were glcwed over, by the humour which ftick- 
hig to thefe little thriddes, ftoppeth up every little vacuity, and 
by the ayre is hardned into fuch a skinne as we fee a leafcon- 
fiftcth of. 

AndTthns it appearcth how an account may be given of the 
figure of the leafs, as well as of the figure of the main body of 
the whole tree : the little branches of the leaf, being propor- 
tionate in figure to the branches of the tree it felf ( fo that each 
leaf feemeth to be the tree in lirle ; ) and the figure of the leaf 
depending of the courfe of thefe litrle branches, fo that if the 
greateft branch of the tree be much longer then the others, the 
leaf will be a long on : but if the lefler branches fpread broad- 
wayes, the leaf will likewife be a broad one ; fo farre, as even 
to be notched at the outfides, round about it, in great or lictle 
notches, according to the proportion of the trees branches. 
Thefe leafs, when they firft break out are foulded inwards, in 
(uch fort as the fmalnefle and round nefle of the paflage in the 
wood through which they iflue, conftraineth them to be : where 
neverthelefle the drinefle of their parts keep them afunder, fb 
that one leaf doth not incorporate it fclf with another : but as 
foon as they feell the heat of the funne ( after they are broken 
out into liberty ) their tender branches by little and little 


A Tr^/^c/BODIES. Chap. 15. 

grow more ftraight : the concave parts of them drawing more 
towards the funne, becaufe he extra&eth and fucketh their moy- 
ftuve from their hinder parts into their former, that are more 
expofed to his beams; and thereby the hinder parts are con- 
trafted and grow fhorter,and thofe before grow longer. Which 
if it be in excefle, maketh the leaf become crooked the contrary 
way, as we fee in divers flowers, and in fundery leafs during the 
fummers heat : witncfle, the Ivie, Rofes full blown, Tulips, 
and all flowers in form of bells : and indeed all kinds of flow- 
ers whatfocvcr, when the funne hath wrought upon them to 
that degree we fpeak of, and that their joyning to their flalk, 
and the next parts thereunto, allow them (cope to obey the 
impulfe of thole outward caufes. And when any do vary from 
this rule, we (hall as plainly fee other manifert caufes produ- 
cing thole different effects, as now we do thefc working in this 

As for fruits though we fee that when they grow at liberty 
upon the tree, they ieem to have a particular figure allotted 
them by nature : yet in truth, it is the ordered feries of natu- 
rall caufes and not an intrinfecall formative virtue which, brccti- 
eth thisefrec-t, as is evident by the great power, which a;rt hath 
to change their figures at plcafurc : whereof you may fee ex- 
amples enough in Campanella, and every curious gardner can 
furnifli you with ftore. 

. Out of thefe, and fuch like principles a man that would make 

The fame ap- it his ftuddy with lefle trouble or tcdioufncfle, then that patient 
5ie$ofAnim^u contemplator of one of natures little w ork$ ( the Bees } .whom 
we mentioned a while agone, might without all doubt trace the 
caufes in the growing of an Embryoa, till he difcovered the 
reafon of every figure ; of every notable hole or pat- 
fage that is in them : of the ligaments by which they arc 
tied together : of the membranes that cover them, and of all 
the other parts of the body. How, out of a firft mafle , 
that was loft, and had no fuch parts diftinguifhable in it, 
every one of them came to be formed, by contracting that 
marfe in one place, by dilating it in another, by moyft- 
ning it in a third , by drying it here , hardening it 
there ; 


Chap. * y. -A Truuife of B O D I E S. 

Ut bis exordia pr/nt if, 
Omnit, & ipfe tcner hominis coHcrevcrit orbis. 
till in the end this admirable machine and frame of mans body, 
was compofed and fafhioned up by fuch little and almoft infen- 
fible fteps and degrees. Which when it is locked upon in bulk, 
and entirely formed, fecmeth impoflfible to have been made* 
and to have fprung merely out ofthefe principles> without an 
Intelligence immediately working and moulding it at every 
turn, from the beginning to the end. 

But withalhwe cannot chufe but break out into an exftafic of 
admiration and hymnes of praile (as great Galen did upon the 
like occafion ) when we reverently confider the infinite wife- 
dome, and deep farre-looking providence of the all-feeing Crc- 
atour and orderer ofthe world, in fo punctually adapting fuch 
a multitude and fwarm ofcaufes to produce by fo long a pro- 
greflc fb wondcrfull an effect : in the whole courfc of which, if 
any one, the very leaft of them all, went never fo little a wry,the 
whole fabrick would be difcompofcd and changed from the na- 
ture it is dcfigncd unto. 

Out of our fliort furvey of which ( anfwerablc to our weak 
talents, and (lender experience ) I perfwadc my felf it appear- 

IL rrriL- f / < e tor 

cth evident enough, that to eftect this workc of generation* d t hadmitof 
there needeth not be fuppofed a forming virtue or Vis for- v* & 
wttrix of an unknown power and operation, as thofe that 
confider things fuddenly and but in grofle, do ufe to put. Yet 
in dilcourfc, for conveniency and (nortneffe of exprcffion we 
fhall not quite banifh that tcrme from all commcrcewith us; 
fo that what we mean by it be rightly underftood, which is the 
complex affemblement, or chain of all the caufes, that concur 
to produce this effect, as they arc let on foot to this end by the 
great Architeft and Modcratour of thcm,God Almighty, whole 
inftrument Nature is : that is, the fame thing, or rather the 
fame things fo ordered as we have declared, buc cxprefled and 
comprifcd under another name. 


A Trttifi *f BODIES. Chap. 2 6. 

From whence 
doth proceed 
the piimary 
motion and 
growth in 
\ ...-..:>. 


motion bc&nneth in living creatures. And of the 
tnethn of the he Art circulation of the btottd 
Nutrition, <z/fttgmentAtio*) And cor- 
ruption of death. 

BUc we muft not take our leave of this fubjeft, untill we 
have examined, how motion bcginncth in liring things; 
as well plants as fcnfitive creatures. We can readily pitch up- 
on the part we are to make our ebfervations in, for retriving 
the engine of this primary motion : for having concluded that 
the roots of plants, and the hearts of animals are the parts of 
them which are firft made, and from which the forming virtue 
is derived to all the reft, it were unreafonable to feck for their 
firft motion any where elfe. 

But in what manner^ and by what means, doth it beginne 
there? for roots, the difficulty is not great : for the moyfture 
of the earth preffing upon the feed, and foaking intt> it; the 
hot parts of it which were imprifbncd in cold and dry ones, 
are thereby ftirrcd up and fetoiVwork: then they mingling 
thcmfclves with that moyfture, d'o ferment and diftend the 
whole feed ; till making it open, and break the skinne more 
juSte cometh in : which incorporating it felfe with the hear, 
thofe hot and now moyft pares will not be contained in fo nar- 
row a roome as at the firft ; but ftruggling to get otit'on all 
fides, and ftrivifig to enlarge themfclves, they thruft forth lic- 
tle parts : which, if they flay in the earth, do grow white and 
make the root; but thofe which afcend, and make their way 
into the aire, being leflc comprcfTcd, and more fuH of heat 
and. moyftnre, do turn green : and as faft as they grow up, 
new moyfritre coming to the root, is fent up through the pores 
of it : and this faileth not, untill the heat of the root it felf doth 
fail. For it being the nature ofhcat to rarifie and elevate, 
there muft of necefTity be caufed in the earth a kind of fuck- 
ing in of moyflure Into the root from the next parts unto it 
to fill thofe capacities Which the dilating heat hath made that 


Chap. 2^. jTredtifeof BODIES. 

elfc would be empty , and co fupply the roomc* of thofe which 
the heat continually fendech upwards : for the moyfture of 
the root hath a continuity with that in the earth, and there- 
fore, they adhere, together ( as in a pump, or rather as in fil- 
tration ) and do follow one another when any of them are 
in motion, and Ml the next murt needs come in, and fill the 
roomc, where it findeth an empty fpace immediate to it. The 
like of which happencth to the aire when we breathe : for 
our lungs being like a bladder , when we open them, the aire 
muft needs come in> to fill that capacity which elle would be 
emptie : and when we (hut them again ; as in A pair of bellows 
we put it put. 

This may fufficej concern ing the primary motion of roots: 
but in that of the heart; we fhall find the matter not alcogether cess - 
fo plain, Monfieur des Cartes following herein the ftcps of the nion touching 
learned and ingenuous Do&our Harvey, who .hath invented Je heart," "^ 
and teacheth that curious and excellent doctrine of the cir- 
culation of the bloud; (as indeed, what fccret of nature can 
be hidden from fb fharp a wit, when he applyeth himfelf to pe- 
netrate into the bottome of it: ) expjjcateth the matter much 
after this fort. That the heart, within, in the fubftance of it, is 
like a hollow cavern; in whofc bottome, were an hot ftone; on 
which fhould drop as much liquour as the fiery ftone could 
blow into fmoke; and this fmoke or fteam fhould be more then 
the cave could contain; wherefore it muft break out; which to 
do, it preflcth on all fides to get an itfue or doore to let it out : 
it findeth of two forts, but finely one kind of them will ferve it 
for this purpofe ; for the one fort of the(e doores, opcneth in- 
wards, the other outwards : which is the caufe that the more it 
ftriveth to get out, the fafter it fliutteth the doores of the firft 
Jcind ; but by the fame means, it beateth back the other doores, 
and fo getteth out. 

Now when it is gone quite out of this cavern, and confe- 
quently leaverh it to its naturall diipofition ; whereas before it 
violently ftrctehed it out; and by doing fo kept dole the doores 
that open inwards : then all the parts of it begin to flackcn; and 
thofe doores give way unto new liquour to drop in anew ; 
which the heat in the bottome of the heart; rarifiech again 

T 2 into 

A Trutife ^/BODIES. Chap.26. 

into fmoke as before. And thus lie conceiveth the motion of the 
heart to be made, taking the fubftance of it to be ( as I may 
fay _) like unto limber leather , which upon the filling of it 
with bloud and fteam , openeth and dilateth it felf : and 
at the going ef h out , it fhrinketh together like a blad- 

But I doubt, this explication will not go through the diffi- 
cultv; for firft,both Galen andDodour Harvey do (hew, that 
as foon as the bloud is come into the heart, it contra&cth it 
fclf : which agreeth not with Monfieur dcs Cartes his fuppo- 
fnion : for in his doSrine, there appearcth no caufcwkyit 
fhould contract it felf when it is full : but contranwife 5 it fhould 
go on dilating it felf, untill enough of the bloud which drep- 
pcth inco the heart, were converted into (team, to force the 
doorcs open ; that fo, it may gain an iflue thence, and a pafiagc 
into the body. 

Next, Monfieur des Cartes fuppoieth that the fubftance of 
the heart is like a bladder, which hath no motion of it fclfi 
but openeth and fhuttech , according as what is within it 
ftretcheth it out, or permhteth it to fluink and fall together 
again. Whereas Doclour Harrey provcth that when it is full, 
it compreffeth it felf by a quick and ftrong motion, to expell 
that which is in it : and that when it is empty, it returned) to 
its naturall dilatation, figure and fituation, by the ceafing of 
that agents working, which caufed its motion. Whereby it 
appeareth to beef fuch a fibrous fubftance,as hath a 
tion of its own. 

Thirdly, I fee not how this motion can be proportionall : 
for the heart muft needs open and be dilated > much farter 
then,it can be fliut and ftirink together : there being no eaufe 
put to fhut it and to bring it to its utmoft period of fhrinking, 
other then the going out of the vapour, whereby it becometh 
empty : which vapour not being forced by anything but by 
its own inclination, it may peradvcncureatthe firft when there 
is abundance of it, fwell and flretch the heart forcibly out; 
b'-K after the firfr impulle and breach of fome part of it out of 
thecavernc that enclofed it, there is nothing to drive out the 
reft, which muft therefore fteam very leifurery out. 


Chap. 2 6. \A Treatife of BODIES. 2pj 

Fourthly, what fhould liindcr the bloud from coming in, be- 
fore the hearc be quite empty and fhrunk to its loweft pi'tch ? 
For as foon as ihc vapour yieldcth within, new bloud may 
fall in from without ; and fb keep the heart continual, 
ly dilated, without ever fuffering it to be perfe&Jy and com. 
pletely fhut. 

Fifthly, the heart of a viper layed upon a plate in a warm 
place will beat fbure and twenty houres, and much longer, if 
it be carefully taken out of its body, and the weather be warm 
and moyft : and it is clear, that this is without fucceflion of 
bloud to caufe the pulfes of it. Likewifc, the fevered members 
of living creatures will ftirre for (bme time afcer they are part- 
ed from their bodies: and in them, we can fufpcdr, no fuch caufe 
of motion. 

Sixthly , in Monfieur des Cartes his opinion, the heart 
fhould be hardeft when it is fulleft ; and the eruption ofthe 
fteam out of it , fhould be ftrongeft at the beginning , whereas 
experience fhcwcth, that it is fbfteft when it is at the point of 
being full, and hardeft when it is at the point of being empty j 
and the motion ftrongeft, towards the end. 

Seventhly, in Monfieur des Cartes his way, there is no a- 
gent or force ftrong enough to make bloud gufh owe of the 
heart : for if it be the fteam onely that openeth the doores, 
nothing but it will go out ; and the bloud will ftill remain be- 
hind, fince it lieth lower then the fteam, and further from the 
iflfue that letteth it out * but Doctor Harvey findeth by expe- 
rience ( and teacheth how to make this experience ) that when 
a wound is made in the heart, bloud will gufh out by fpurts at 
every fhooting ofthe heart. 

And laftly, if Monfieur des Cartes his fuppofition were true, 
the arteries would receive nothing but fteams ; whereas it is 
evident that the chief filler of them is bloud. 

Therefore we muft enquire after another caufe of this pri- 
mary motion of a fcufitive creature, in the beatings of its heart. The Au thfturf 
Wherein we fhall not be obliged to look farre : for feeing we opinion con- 
find this motion and thefc puliations in the heart when it is ie- 
parated from the body , we may boldly and fafely conclude, 
that it muft of ncceffity be caufed by fomething that is 

T 3 within 

304 A TVM///S0/BODIES. Chap. 2<5, 

within the heart it felf. And what can that be elle, but heat or 
fpirits imprifonect in a tough vifcuous bloud; which it cannot 
fo prefemly break through to get out: and yet can ftirre within 
it, and lift it up ? 

The like of -which motion may be obferved, in the heaving 
up, and finking down again of loofe mould thrown into a pit, 
into which much ordure hath been emptied The fame caufe, of 
heat in the earth, maketh mountains and fands to be caft up 
in the very Tea: fb, in frying, when the pan is full of meat, the 
bubbles rife and fall at the edges: treacle, and fuch ftrong com- 
pounded fubftances; whiles they ferment, do life themfelves up 
and fink down again , after the fame manner as the vipers 
heart doth : as alfb do the bubbles of barm, and muft ofwiner 
and fhort ends of lute firings baked in a juicy pie, will at the 
opening of it move in fuch fort, as they who are ignorant ofthe 
feat will think there arc magots in it : and a hot loaf, in which 
quickfilver is encloied, will not onely move thus, but will alfb 
leap about, and skip from one place to another, like the head 
orlimbeofnn animall fvery full of fpirits) newly cut off 
from its whole body. 

And that this is the true caufe of the hearts motion, appear- 
cth evidently. Firft, becaufe this virtue of moving is in every 
part of the heart, as you will plainly fee if you cut into feve- 
rall pieces a heart, that confervdth its motion long after it is 
out of the animals belly : for every piece will move; as Doctor 
Harvey afTureth us by experience, and I my felf have often fcen, 
upon occafion of making the great antidote, in which vipers 
hearts is a principal! ingredient. Secondly, the fame is feen in 
the auricles and the reft of the heart; whofe motions are feve- 
rall; though fb near together, that they can hardly be diftin- 
guifbed. Thirdly, Doctor Harvey fcemcth to affirm that the 
bloud which is in the ears of the heart, hath fuch a motion 
of it felf, precedent to the motion of the cars it is in : and that 
this virtue remaincth in it fora little fpace after the ears arc 
dead. Fourthly, in touching a heart which had newly left 
moving, with his finger wetted with warm fpittlc, it began to 
xnovc again , as tcftifying that heat and inoifturc made this 
motion. Fifthly, if you touch the vipers heart over with vineger, 


Chap. 26. *4 Treatift of B O D I E S. 

with fpiritof wine,with (harp white vvinc,or with any piercina 
liqiiour; it prefcntly dycth: for the acutencffeof iiich fubftances 
pierceth through the vifcuous bloud, and maketh way for the 
heat to get out. 

But this firft mover of an animall , muft have fomcthing 
from without to ftirre it up; elfc, the heat would lie in it, as if 
h were defcd; and in time would become abfolutely fo. In egges, 
you fee this exteriour mover, is the warmth of the lienne hatch- 
ing them. And in Embryons, it is the warmth of the mothers 
wombe. But when in either of them, the heart is completely 
formed, and isenclofed in the breafi; much heat is likcvvife en- 
clofed there, in all the parts near about the heart; partly made 
by the heart itfclf/and partly caufed by the outward heat,which 
helped alfb to make that in the heart : and then although the 
warmth of the hen or of the mothers womb, do forlake the 
heart; yet this ftirreth up the native heat within the heart and 
keepeth it in motion, and maketh it feed ftill upon new fcwcll, 
as faft as that which it worketh upondecayctb. 

But to exprefle more parriculai ly how this motion is effected; 
we are to note, that the heart hath in the ventricles of it three 
forts of fibers: the firft go long wayes or are ftraight ones, on pcndh 
the fides of the ventricles from the thick bafis of the heart, to- 
wards the little tip or cone of it: the fecond, go croffe or round- 
Wayes about the ventricles within the heart : and the third, are 
tranfverfall or thwart ones. Nexr, we are to remember,that the 
bcart is fixed to the body by its bafe; and hangeth loofe at the 
cone. Now then, the fibers being of the nature of fuch things 
as will fwell and grow thicker by being moiftened, and confe- 
quently fhrink up in length and grow fliorter in proportion to 
their fwelling thicker ( as you may oblerve in a loofe wrought 
hempen rope ) it muft of neceflity follow, that when the bloud 
falleth into the heart ( which is of a kind of fpungie fubftance ) 
the fibers being therewith moiftened, they will prelently fwcll 
in round nefle and flirink in length. 

Nexr, we are to note, that there is a double motion in the 
heart: the one of opening, which is called, Diaftole; the other of 
'(hutting, which is termed Syftole. And although Dotftoiiv Har- 
vey feemeth to allow the opening of the heart to be no motion; 

T 4 buc 


An objcQion 
an r wcrcd a 
gainft the fot- 
cr doftrioe. 

xf TrcAtife of B O D I ES. Chap. i. 

but rather a relenting from motion; neverthelefle (me thinkcth) 
it is manifeft, that it is not onely a eomplcat motion; but in a 
manner the greater motion of the two, though indeed the lefle, 
fenfible; becaufc it is performed by little and little; for in it the 
heart is drawn by violence from its naturall pofition; which 
muft be ( as ic is of all heavy things) chat by which it approach- 
cth moft to the center of gravity; and fuch a pofition we fee ic 
gaineth by the Shutting of it. 

Now to declare how both thcfe motions are effected, we are 
to confider how at the end of the fyftole the heart is voided and 
eleanfed of all the bloud that was in it ; whence it followeth, 
that the weight of the bloud which is in the auricles, prefling 
upon the valvalas or doores that open inwards,waketh its way 
by little and little into the ventricles of the heart, where it muft 
ncceflarily fwell the fibers ; and they being fwelled muft needs 
draw the heart into a roundifh and capacious figure, which the 
more it is donejthe more bloud cometh in>and with greater vio- 
lence.The following effeil of which muft be, that the weight of 
the bloud joyned to the weight of the heart it felf, and particu- 
larly of the conus or tip (which is more (olid and heavic in pro-;- 
portion to its quantity,then the reft of the heart)muft neceilari- 
ly fet the heart into the natural motion of deicending according 
to its gravity : the which confequently, is performed by a lively 
jerck, whereby it cometh to pafle that the tip of our heart doth as 
it were Spring up towards our breaft:& the bloud is fpurted ouc 
by other valvuU ('that open outwards)which are aptly difpofcd 
to be opened upon fuch a motion ; & do convey it to the arteries. 

In. the oxide of which motion,we may note how the figure of 
our heart contributeth to its fpringing up towards our brcaft; 
for the line of diftance which is between the bafis & the tip being 
longer on that fide which is towards the back,then on the other 
which is towards the bieaft, it muft happen chat when the hcarc 
fliuttcth and ftraighteneth it felf, and thereby extendcth it lelf to 
its length, the tip will buttc out forwards towards thebreft. 

Againft this doctrine of the motion, and of the fyftole and 
diaftole of the heart, it may beobje&cd, that beafts hearts do 
not hang like a mans heart, ftraight downwards; but rather 
horizontally; and therefore this motion of gravity cannat have 


Chap. 16. ^4 Treatife of B O D I E S. 

place in them : neverthelefle, \vc are fure they beat, and do 
open and flint regularly. Befides , if there were no other 
caufe but this of gravity for the motion of a mans heart,it would 
follow that one who were fet upon his head or hung by his 
heels, could not have the motion of his heart: which pofturene- 
verthelerte, we lee men remain in for a pretty while, without 
any extreme prejudice. 

But the(e difficulties are cafily anfwcred; for whether beafts 
hearts do lie directly horizontally, or whether the bafis be fa- 
ftencd fbmcwhat higher then the tip reacheth, and fb maketh 
their heart hang inclining downwards; ftill the motion of 
gravity hath its effect in them. As we may perceive in the 
heart of a viper lying upon a plate, and in any other thing that 
of it felf fwelleth up, and ftraight again fiuketh down : in 
"which we cannot doubt, but that the gravity fighting againft 
the heat, maketh the elevated parts to fall, as the heat maketh 
them rife. 

And as for the latter; it is evident that men cannot ftay long 
in that pofture without violent accidents; and in any little while 
we fee that the bloud cometh into their face and other parts 
which naturally are fituated higher; but by this pofition become 
lower then the heart : and much time is not required, to have 
them quite difbrdered and fuffocated; the bloud patting through 
the heart with too much quicknefle, and not receiving due con- 
co&ion there; and falling thence in too great abundance into 
places that cannot with conveniency entertain it. 

But you will infift, and ask, whether in that pofture the 
heart doth move or no, and how? And to fpeak by guefle in a 
thing I have not yet made experiences enough to be throughly 
informed in; I conceive without any great fcruple that it doth 
move. And that it happencth thus; that the heart hanging fbme- 
what Joofe,muft needs tumble over, and the tip of it lean down- 
wards fome way or other; and fo lie in part like the heart of a 
beaft; though not fo conveniently accommodated: and then the 
heat which maketh the vifcuous bloud that is in thefubftanceof 
the heart to ferment will not fail ofraifing it up: whereupon the 
weight of that fide of the heart that is lifted up,wil prelently preflTe 
it down again. And thus, by the alternative operations of thefe 



A Trettifi 0/B O D I E S. Chap, i 6. 

eaufes, the heart wili be made to open and fhut ic (elf, as much 
as is neceflary for admitting and thrufting out, that little and 
difordcrly coming bloud, which maketh its courie through it, 
for that little fpace \vherein the man continueth in thac poli- 

7. Now from thcle effefrs wrought in the heart by the moiften- 

circulation j n g o f the fibers, two other effects do proceed : the one is, that 
& the bloud is pufhed out of every corner of the heart with ao im- 

h at follow th; petijonindle or velocity. The other is, that by this motion the 
" n fpirits which are in the ventricles of the heart, and in the bloud 

tint is even then heated there, are more and deeper prefled into 
the fubftance of the heart/o that you fee the heart imbibeth frefli 
vigour, and is ftrcngthened with new fpirits, whiles it feemeth 
to reject that which fliould ftrengthcn it. 

Again, tvvo other effects follow this violent ejection of the 
bloud out of the heart. The one is,that for the prefent the heart 
is entirely cleaned of all remainders of bloud, none being per- 
mitted to fall back to annoy it. The other is,that the heart find- 
ing it felfdry, the fibers do relent prcfently into their naturall 
portion and exteniion, and the valvula; that open inwards, fall 
flat to the fides of the ventricles, and confequently new bloud 
droppeth in. So that in conclufion, we lee the motion of the 
heart dependeth originally of its fibers irrigated by the bloud, 
and not from the force of the vapour, as Monfieur des Cartes 

This motion of the heart driveth the bloud (which is warm- 
ed and fpiritualized, by being boyled in this furnace ) through 
due paflages into the arteries, which from them runneth into 
the veins, and is a main caufc of making and nourishing other 
parts; as the liver, the lungs,the brains, and whatfocverelfe de- 
pendeth of thofe veins and arteries through which the bloud 
goeth. Which being ever frcfhly heated, and receiving the tin- 
cture of the hearts nature-, by parting through the heart, whcre- 
foevcr it ftaycth and curdleth, it groweth into a fubftaHce of a 
nature conformable to the heart, thongh every one of fuch fub- 
ftances be of exceeding different conditions in thcmfelves , the 
very grolfcrt excrements not being excluded from fome par- 
ticipation of that nature. 


Chap. 26. esfTwttfecf&ODlES. 15*9 

But if you defire to follow the bloud all along every ftep in 
its progreffe from the heart round about the body, till it return 
back again to its center, Do&our Harvey who mod acutely 
teachech this dofhine, muft be your guide. He will {hew you 
how it iflucth from the heart by the arteries, from whence it 
gocth on warming the flcfli, untill it arrive to fome of the extre- 
mities of the body : and by then it is grown fo cool ( by long 
abfcnce from the fountain of its heat; and by evaporating its 
own flock of fpirits, without any new fupply) that it hath need* 
of being warmed anew; it fmdeth it felf returned back again to 

O O 

the heartland is there heated again, which return is made by the 
veins , as its going forwards is performed oneiy by the arteries. 
And were it not for this continuall circulation of the bloud, 
and this new heating it in its proper caldron, the heart; it could 
not be avoided but that the extreme parts of the body would 
foon grow cold and die. For flefh being of .it felf of a cold na- 
ture fas is apparent in dead flefli^) and being kept warm> merely 
by the blond that bedeweth it; and the bloud likewile being of 
a mture that foon groweth cold and congeaieth , unlefic it be 
preferved in due temper by aclaall heat working upon it: how 
can we imagine "that they two fingly, without any other aflj- 
ftance; fhould keep one another warm fefpeci'ally in thofe parts 
that are farre diftant from the heart ) by onely being together ? 
Surely we muft allow the bloud., (which is a fubftance fit for 
motion) to have recourfe back to the heart, ( where onely it 
can befupplyed with new heat and fpirits _) and from thence be 
driven out again by itpulfcs or ft rokes, which a re his fhmtings. 
And as faft as it flicth out, (like a reeking thick fleam, which 
rifeth from perfumed water falling upon a heated pan _) that 
which is next before it muft flic yet further on, to maJvC way for 
it; and new arteriall bloud ftill ifiu ing forth at every pulie, it 
muft ftill drive on ifiued thence the laft precedent pulle, 
and that part muft prtffe x>n what is next before it. And thus it 
fareth with the whole mafic of bloud, which having no other 
courfe but in the body, k muft at length run round, and by new 
veflfcls ( which arc the veins ) return back unto the place from 
whence it iffucd firft: and by that time it cometh thither, it is 
grown cool and thick, andneedech a vigorous reftauration of 


ATrCAtifi of BO DIES. Chap. 16. 

fpirits and a new rarifying- that then it may Warm the flefli it 
pafiech again through: without which it would fnddenly grow 
i.tone cold, as is manifeft if by tying or cutting the arteries, you 
intercept the bloud xvhich is to nourifh any part: for then that 
partjgroweth prefcntly cold and benummed. 

8. But referring the particulars of this doctrine unto Do&our 

ofNumnon. f-j arve y (\ v ho hath both invented afid perfected it) our task in 
hand calleth upon us to declare in common the refiduc of mo~ 
tions that all living creatures agree in. How generation is per- 
formed we have determined in the part diicourfe. Our next con- 
federation then ought to be of Nutrition and Augmentation. 
Between which there is very little difference in the nature of 
their ar,ion;and the difference of their names is grounded more 
upon the different refult in the period of them, then upon the 
thing it (elf; as will by and by appear. Thus then is the pro- 
refle of this matter : as foon as a living creature is formed, it 
cndcavourcth ftraight to augment it felf; and employeth it felf 
onely about that; the parts of it being yet too young and tender 
to perform the other functions which nature hath produ- 
ced them for. That is to fay- the living creature, at its fir ft 
production* is in fuch a ftate and condition as it is able to do 
nothing elfe , but (by means of the great hea* that is in it ) to 
turn into its own fubftance the abundance of moyfture that o- 
verflowcth it. 

They who are curious in this matter, do tell us that the per- 
formance of this work confifteth in five a&ions; which they call 
Attraction, Adhcfion, Conco&ion, Affimilation, and Unition. 
The nature of attraction we have already declared when we 
explicated how the heart and the root fendeth juyce into the o- 
ther parts of the animal or plant: for they abounding in thcm- 
felvcs with inward heat, and befides that, much other circum- 
ftant heat working likewife upon them; it cannot be otherwise, 
but that they muft needs fuck and draw into them, the moy- 
fture that is about them. 

As for adhcfion, the nature of that is Jikcwife explicated, 
when we fhcwed how fuch parts as are moift butefpecially ae- 
reall or oily ones (Tuch as are made by the operation of a fbfc 
tnd continuall heat) are catching and do cafily ftick unto any 

bodj*. t^rretizfeofRODlES. 301 

body they happen to touch : and how a little part of moyfture 
between two dry parts, joyneth them together. Upon which oc- 
cafion, it is to be noted that parts of the fame kind "do joyn beft 
together: and therefore the powder of glafle is u fed tocimenc 
broken glafle withall (as we have touched fomewhere above: J 
and the powder of marble to ciment marble with;andfo of other 
bodies: in like manner, Alchymifts find no better expedient to 
extract a fmall proportion of filver mixed with a great one of 
gold, then to put more filver to it: nor any more cffec"tuall way 
to get out the heart, or tincture, or fpirits of any thing they di- 
itill or make an extra& of, then to infufe its own flegme upon 
it, and to water it with that. Now whether the reafon of this 
be, that continuity, bccau/e it is an unity, inuft be firmeft be- 
tween parts that are moft conformable to one another, and con- 
fequently are moft one among themfelves; or whether it be for 
foine other hidden caufe,belongeth not to this place to difcourfe: 
but in fine fb it is. And the adhefion is ftrongeft of fuch parts as 
are moft conformable to that which needeth enereafe and nou- 
rifhment; and that is made up by the other three actions. 

Of which, concoction is nothing elfe but athickning of that 
juyce which already fticketh to any part of the animals body, 
by the good digeftion.that heat maketh in ir. And aflimilation 
is the effeft of concoction: for this juyce being ufed in the fame 
manner > as the firft juyce was that made the part whercunto 
this is to be joyned; it cannot choofe but become like unto ir in 
fubftance. And then, there being no other fubftance between, ic 
is of it felf united unto it without any further help. 

Hjcherto this action belongcth to nutrition. But if on the one 9. 
fide, the heat and fpirituality ofthe blond; and on the other hde 9 f A 
the due temper and difpofition ofthe part be fuch, as the blond 
is greedily fucked into the part'.which thereby fwclleth to make 
room for it, and will not let itgoaway, butturneth itinto a 
like fubftance as it felf is; and in greater quantity then what is 
eonfumed and decayeth continually by tranfpiration tthen this 
action is called likewife augmemation. Which Galen explica- 
teth by a fport the boyes of Ionia ufed; who were accuftomcd 
to fill a bladder with wind; and when they could force no more 
into it, they^would rub the bladder, ancj after rubbing of it.rhcy 

A Trtatife ^/BODIES. Chap. 2 6. 

found it capable of receiving new breath ; and fo they would 
proceed en, undll their bladder were as full as by ufe they knew 
it could be made. Now ((aith he) nature doth the like, by fil- 
ling our flefh and other parts with bloud; that is to fay , it 
itreccheth the fibers r'but fhe hath over and above a power 
.ichthcboyes had not; namely t make the fibers as ftrong 
ar'rcr they fire ltre:ched to their utmoft extcnfion, as they were 
before they were extended : whence it happenech that {he can 
extend them again as well as at the firft; and this without end, 
as far as concemech that part. 

The reafon whereof is, becaufe flic extendeth them by means 
ofa liqueur which is of the fame nature, as that whereof they 
were macie at the fir ft: and from thence it folioweth, that by 
concoction that liquour (cttlech in the parts of the fibers which 
have moft need;and ib matath thofe parts as great in the length 
they are extended umo, as they were in their ffiorrncffe before 
they were drawn out. Whereby the whole part of the animal, 
wherein this happencth,groweth grearer.-and the like being done 
in every part, as well as in any one fingle one, the whole ani- 
mal becomcth b'gger; and is in fuch fort aU^Tienred. 
10> Out of all which difcourfe, we may collect that in the cfien- 

^ a ^ compolition of living creatures, there may pcradventure be 
a phyficall poffibility for them to continue alwayes without de- 
cay; and (b become immortall, even in their bodies, ifall hurt- 
full accidents coming from without might be prevented. For 
feeing that a man, bcfides the encrcafe which he makcth ofhim- 
felf, can alfb impart unto his children a virtue, by which they 
are able to do the like, and to give again unto theirs as much as 
they received from their fathers: it is clear , that what maketh 
him die, is no more the want of any radicall power in him, to 
encreafe or nourish himlelf; then in fire, it is the want of power 
to burn, which maketh it go out. But it muft be fomc accidcn- 
tall want, which Galen attributed! chiefly to the drincfleofour 
bones, and finews, &c. as you may in him fee more at large; 
for drinefTe with denfity allowcth not eafrc admittance un- 
to moyfture : and therefore it caufeth the heat which is in the 
dry body, either to evaporate, or to be extinguished : and 
Want of heat is that from whence the failing of life procecd- 


27.' 4 Trettife f B O D I E S* 303 

erh: which he thinkcch cannot be prcyentcd by any art or in- 

And herein God hath exprefled his great mercy and good- 
neffe towards us: for feeing that by the corruption of our own 
nature, we are fo immerfcd in flefh and bloud, as we flioukl for 
ever delight to wallow in their mire , without raifing our 
thoughts at any time above that low and brutall condition: he 
hath engaged us by a happy neceffity, to think'of and to pro- 
vide for a nobler and farre more excellent ftatc of living thac 
will never change or end. 

In purfuance of which inevitable ordinance, man ( as if he 
were grown wtary and otit of love with this life > and (corned 
any term in his farm here, fincehe cannot purchafe the fce-fim- 
ple of it) hafteneth on his death by his unwary and rafh ufe of 
meats, which poyfbn his bloud : and then his infected bloud 
pa/Ting through his whole body,muft needs in like manner taint 
it all at once. For the redrefle of which milchicf, the affiftance of 
phyfick is made ufe of: and that pafling likewise the fame way, 
pu nfieth "the bloud , and recovereth the corruption occafioned 
by the peccant humour ; or other whiles gathering it together, 
it thrufteth and carrieth out that evill guefhby the paflages con- 
trived by nature to disburden the body of unprofitable or hurt- 
full fuperfluities. 


Ofthf motions of fenfe', and of the fenfible e/Halttics in 
genertll; Mid in particulars ft ho ft which belong 
to Touch, Taft, and Smelling. 

HAving thus brought on the courfe of nature as high as li- j. 
ving creatures ( whole chief fpeciefes or divifion is thofe Th? connexion 1 
that have (enle) and having declared the operations which are ^'^ "haprcn 
common to the whole tribe of them which includeth both plants wtHche P :cc- 
and animals; it is now time we take a particular view of tliole, 
whofe action and pafiion is the reafbn why that chief portion of 
life is termed fcnfitive; I mean the fenfes , and the qualities, by 
which the outward world corr.eth into the living creature 
through his fenfes. Which when we fhall have gone throrgh, 


304. A Treatife o/B O D I E S. Chap, 27. 

\vc fhall fcarce'ly have left any qualities among bodies, to plead 
for a fpiricuall manner of being or working ; that is? for a felf- 
ehtity, and inftantaneous operation : which kind of things and 
properties, vulgar Philofbphy is very earneft to attribute unto 
our fenfcs: with what reafbn,and upon what ground let us now 

efHefe*fc & Thcfe qualities are reduced to five feverall heads, anfwerable 
feeble qtuii- to fo many different wayes , whereby we receive notice of the 
And'of^hTend bodies that are without us. And accordingly, they conftitute a 
for which they like number of different fenfes: ofevcry one of which , we will 
dilcourfe particularly, when we have examined the natures of 
the qualities that affect them. But now, all the consideration we 
fhall need to have of them, is onely this; That it is manifeft the 
organes in us, by which fenfiblequahties do work upon us, arc 
coporeall, and are made of the like ingredients as the reft of our 
body is: and therefore muftof necefifity be liable to fuffer evil 
and to receive good ( in fitch fort as all other bodies do ) from 
thofc active qualities*which make and marre all things within 
the limits of nature. By which terms of Evill and Good^I mean 
thofe effects that are averfe or conformable to the particular na- 
ture of any thing; and thereby do tend to the prefcrvation or 
deftruclion of that individual!. 

Now we receiving from our (enfes the knowledge that we 
have of things without us, do give names unto them according 
tothepaffions and affections which thofe things caufe incur 
fenfes : which being the fame in all mankind ( as lonr; as they 
are confidercd in common, and that their effe&s are looked up- 
on in groffe ) all the world agreech in one notion, and in one 
name of the lame thing; for every man living is affected by it, 
juft as his neighbour is, and as all men elfe in the world are. As 
for cxamplcjheat or cold worketh the fame feeling in every man 
compofed of flefh and bloud; and therefore whofbever ftiould 
be asked of them would return the fame anfwer, that they caufc 
fuch and fuch effects in his fen fe, pleafing or difpleafing to him, 
according to their degrees, and as they tend to the good or evill 
of his whole body. 

But ifwedefcend to particulars, we fhall find that fercra 11 
men of differing constitutions do frame different notions of the 


Chap.jy 'jtTrevifeof BODIES. 305 

fame things, according as they are conformable or difagreeing 
to their naruresrand accordingly they give them different names. 
As when the fame liquour is fwect to fome mens taft, which to 
anothers appcareth bitter : one man taketh that for a perfume, 
which to another is an offenfive fme/1 : in the Turkifh bathj; 
( where there are many degrees ofheat in divers roomSsthrougU 
all which the fame perfon ufeth to pafle, and to ftay a while in 
every one of them, both at his entrance and going out, to (eafon 
his body by degrees> for the contrary excefle he is going unto ) 
that fcemeth chilly cold at his return; which appeared melting 
hot at his going in; as I my (elf have often made experience in 
thofc countreys. Beauty and lovelinefle will fhineto one man 
in the fame face s that will give averfioii i^4nother. All which 
proclaimed, that the fennble qualities of bodies are not any 
pofitive reall thing,confifting in an indivifible^nd diftincl: from 
the body it feif j but arc merely the very body , as it aflfecleth 
our fcnfes : which to difcover how they do it, rnuft be our la- 
bour here. therefore begin with considering the difference that 
is between fenfible & infcnfible creatures. Thcfe latter do lie ex- 
pofed to the mercy of all outward agents that from time-to time 
(by the continuall motion which all things arc in) do come 
within diftance of working upon them: and they have no power 
to remove themfelves from what is avcrfe to their nature; nor to 
approch nearer unto what comforteth it. But the others having 
within themfclves a principle of motion C asvve have already 
declared ) whenfocver fuch effects are wrought upon them, as 
upon the others; they arc able upon their own account and by 
their own a&ion., to remove themfelves from what beginneth to 
annoy them, and to come nearer unto what they find a begin- 
ning of good by. 

Thefc imprcflions are made upon thole parts of us, which we 
call the organs of our {enfes; and by them do give us fcafonablc 
advertifements and knowledges whereby YVC may govern and 
order to the beft advantage, eur little charge of a body, accor- 
ding to the tune or warnings of change in the great circumftant 
body of the world, as far as it may concern ours. Which how 
it is done, and by what fieps it proceeded^ #>*!! be in die fol- 
io wing difcourfe laid open. V Of 

A Trertife of BODIES. Chap. 27. 

Of this great macliinc that environeth us, we who are but a 
fmall parccll, are not immediately concerned in every part of it. 
It importeth not us for the eonfervationof our body , to have 
knowledge of ochcr parts then liich as are within the diflancc 
of working upon us: tho'eonely within whole fpherc ofa^ivi- 
t-y v\e arc planted, can ofTcndor advantage us: and of them (bine 
are near us, others further from us. Thofethac arc next unto us, 
we dilcern (according as they are qualified) euhcr by our 
touch- or by our taft, or by our imelling; which three fenies do 
manifestly appear to confift in a mere gradation of more or leffc 
groffe ; and their operations are levelled to the three elements 
that prcOe upon us, earth, water, and aire. By our other two 
fenfes ( otir hearin<*HiTiH'Our feeing ) we have notice of things 
further off: and the agents which work upon them, arc of a 
more refined nature. 

But we muft treat of them all in particular : and that which 

wc wil1 bc m with flial] be thc touch > as bein g the groflcft f 
that both it & them, and that which converfeth with none but the molt mate- 
m quaruic, arc rialj znd m ^ o ty c fa t W e fee it dealeth with heavie confident 
bodies, and judgcth of them by conjunction unto them, and by 
immediace reception of fomething from them. And according 
to the divers impreffions they make in it, it diftinguiftieth them 
by divers names; which ( as we faid of the qualities of mixed 
bodies ) are generally reduced to certain pairs, as-hot and cold, 
wet and dry, foft and hard,fmooth and rough,thick and thinne, 
& fome others of the like nature; which we needlcflc to enume- 
rate, fmcc we pretend not to deliver the fcience of them, but 
oncly tofliew that they and their actions arc all corporeall. 

And this is iufficiemly evident, by mere repeating but their 
very names: for it is plain by what we have already faid, that 
they are nothing elfe but certain affections of quantity, arifing 
out of different degrees of rarity and denfity compounded toge- 
ther. And it is manifcft by experience* that our fenfc rcceiveth 
thc very fame impreffions from them which another body doth: 
for our body or our fenfe will be heated by fire; and will alfo be 
burned by it, if the heat be too great as well as wood : it will 
bcconftipatcd by cold water, moyltened by humidc things, and 
<hycd by dry bodies, in thc fame manner as any other body 


Chap. 27. A Trcattfeof BODIES. 307 

whatfoevcr; likewifc, it may in fuch fort as they , be wounded 
and have its continuity broken by hard things; be pleated and 
poliflicd by thofethac are fofc and fmooch; be piefled by thole 
that arc thick and heavie; and be rubbed by chofe that arc rug- 
ged, &c. 

So that thofc maflers who will teach us that the imprefsions , 

upon fenfe are made by Ipirituall or fpirit-like things or quali- 
ties, which they call intentionall fpecicfes, muft labour at two 
works: the oae to make it appear that there are in nature fuch 
things as they would perfwade us; the ocher,to prove that thelc 
iriateriall aclions we Ipeak of are not able to perform thole cf- 
fefts, for which the fenles are given unto living creatures. And 
untill they have done that, I conceive we fliould be much too 
blame to admit fuch things, as we neither have ground for in 
rcafon, nor can underftand what they arc. And therefore we 
muft refblve to reft in this belief, which experience breedcth in 
us; that thefe bodies work upon our {enfes no other waycs then 
by a corporeall operation ; and that fuch a one is fufficient for 
all the effects we fee proceed from them : as in the proccflc of 
this difcomrfe wefhall more amply declare. 

The clement immediately next to earth in grofTenefle, is wa- 4. 
ter. And in it is the exercife of our taft, our mouth being per- 9 fchr , taft and 

ii i r c L- i n its qualities: 

petually wet within; by means of which moyfture, our tongue that they arc 
receiveth into it fome little parts of the fubftance which we 
chew in our teeth, and which pafTeth over it. You may obfervc 
how, if we take any herb or fruit, and having chopped or beat- 
en it fmall, we then put it into a wooden difh of water and do 
fqueeze it a little; the juyce communicating and mingling it (elf 
Virh the water, infe&cth it with the taft of it (elf, and remain- 
ing a while in the bowl, finkcth by little and little into the ve- 
ry pores of the wood- as is nianifcft by its retaining a long time 
after the taft and fmell of that herb. In like manner, nature 
hath taught us by chewing our meat* and by turning it into our 
mouthes and prefsing it a little (that we may the. more eafily 
fvvallow it) to imbue our fpittle wtth fueh little parts as eafily 
diffulethcmfclves in water. And then our fpittle beincontinu- 
ate to the moyfrtire which is within our tongue, (in fuch (brt as 
*ve declared of the moyfture of the earth that foakcthinto the 

V i rooc 

Trctitfe of B O D I ES. Chap. 27. 

root of a plant ) and particularly in the finevvs of it; muft of 
necefsity affe-.fl thofe little fenfiblc firings with the qualities 
which thefe petty bodies, mixed every where with the moifture, 
arc thcmfelvcs imbued withall. 

And ifyou ask what motions or qualities thefe be : Phyfici- 
ans ( unco whom it bclongeth moft particularly to look into 
them ) will tell you, that fome dilate the tongue more,and fomc 
leflc; as if fbrr.c of thefe little bodies had an aercall, and others a 
watry difpofition: and thefe two they exprefle by the names of 
fweet and fatty. That fome do contrail and draw the tongue 
together, as choaky and rough things do moftjand next to them 
crabby and immature fharpncfTe. That fome do corrode and 
pierce the tongue, as fait and fowre things. That bitter things 
do fearch the CHitfide of it, as if they fwept it : and that other 
things do as it were prick it, as fpices and hot drinks. Now all 
thefe are fenfible materiall things, which admit to be explicated 
clearly, by the varieties ofrarity and dcnfity concurring to their 
compofuionsjand arcfo proportionable to fuch materiall inftru- 
mcnts as we cannot doubt but that they may be throughly de- 
clared by our former principles. 

.~ The next element above water ij aire, which our noftrills, 

That thefmei being our inftrurnent to fuck in, we cannot doubt but whaqaf- 
^ c ^ et ^ a man ty nis no ^ e ' mu ^ come unto ^ im in ^ reatn or 

aire. And as humidity receiveth groffer ami weightier parts, fb 
thole which are more fubtile and light, do rife up into the aire: 
and thcfc we know attain unto this lightnefle by the comrnixti- 
on of Fre, which is hot and dry. And therefore we cannot 
doubt, bin that the nature of fmell is more or Icfle tending to 
heat and drought: which is the caufe that their commixtiop 
with the brain, proveth comfortable unto it ; becaufe of its 
own difpofition it is ufually fubjcft to be too moift and too 

Whether there be any immediate inftrumentof this fenfe, to 
receive the paflion or effeft, which by it other bodies make up- 
on us; or whether the fenfe it felf be nothing but a paffage qf 
thcfeexhwlations and little bodies unto the brain , fitly accomr 
modated to difccrn what is good or hurtfoll for it, and accor- 
dingly to move the body to admic or rcj<ft them , ' imparerth 


Chap. 27. e^ Treat Jfe of BODIES* 

not us at prcfent to determine : let Phyficians ami Anatomifts 
relolve thatqueftion,whilcs it fufficeth us to undcrftand that the 
operations of bodies by odours upon our fenfe,are performed by 
rcall & folide parts of the whole fubftance; which are truly ma- 
tcriall,though very little bodies; and not by imaginary qualities. 

And thofe bodies, when they proceed out of the fame things * 
that yield alfb taftive particles, (although without fuch materi- or the 
all violence, & in a more fubtile manner) rnuft of necefsity have tTe^wo 
in them the fame nature, which thofe have that affect the taft; of Tmciiing ani 
and they muft both of them affect a man much alike, by his taft c ' 
and by his fmell: and to are very proportionate to one another; 
excepting in thole properties which require more cold or liqui- 
dity then can well ftand with the nature of a fhiell. And ac- 
cordingly, the very names which men have impo(ed to exprefle 
the affections of both, do many times agree: as favour, which 
is common both to the finell and to the taft; and fvveet like wife: 
the ftrongeft of which we fee oftentimes do make themfelves 
known as well by the one as by the other (enfe ; and cither of 
them inexcefle will turn amins (tomack. And the Phyficians 
that write of thefe fenfcsfind them very confbrmablerand there- 
fore it happeneth that the lofing of one of them, is the lofle alfb 
of the other. 

And experience teacheth us in all beafts, that the fmell is gi- 
ven unto living creatures , to know what meats are good for 
them, and what are not. And accordingly we fee them ftiU 
fmell for the mott part at any unknown meat before they touch 
it ; which feldome failech of informing them rightlyrnature ha- 
ving provided this remedy againft the gluttony, which could 
not choofe but follow th convenient difpofition and tcm{>er of 
their parts and humours j through whiqh they often fwallow 
their meat greedily and fuddeniy, without expecting to try it 
firft by their taft. Befides that, many meats are fo ftrong, that 
their very tafting them after their ufuall mann<?f , would poy fon 
or at the leaft greatly annoy them : and therefore nature hath 
provided this fenfe to prevent their taft; which being far more 
fubtile then their taft; the fmall atonies by which it i* performed 
*re not fo very noxious to the health of the anim*l> as the other 
grofler atomes are. 

V 3 And 


The rr a on 
vbv the fcrf'e 
of fmcliing is 
noc To petfcA 
in man as in 
w'tlt a 

ftory of a man 
tvho could 
wmH a fcnt at 
well as any 

//BODIES. Chap. 1?> 

And (loulxlcfTely, the like ufe men would make of this fenfc, 
had they not on the one fide better means then it to know the 
qualities of meats : and therefore, this is not much rcfle>fUd 
upon. Aud on the other fide, were they not continually (luf- 
fed and clogged with gro(Te vapours of fleamy meats? which 
arc dayly reeking from the cable and their ftomacks ; and per- 
mit not purer atomes of bodies, to be difccrned ; which require 
cleare and nnirvfe&cd organes to. take notice of them. As we 
fee it fare with dogges ; who have not fo true and ;enlible nofes, 
when they arc high fed, and lie in the kitchin amidrt the fleams" 
of meat; as when they are kept in their kenncll, with a more 
fparc die*, fit for hunting. 

One ft 11 example, this age affordeth us in this kind, of a 
man- whole extremity of fear, wrought upon him to give us this 
experiment. He was born in fome village of the countrey of 
Liege: and therefore among ftrangers>he is known by the name 
of John of Liege. I have been informed of this (lory by fcve- 
rall (whom I dare confidently beleeve ) that hare had it from 
his own mouth, and have queftioned him with great curiofity, 
pnrticulaily about it. 

When he was a little boy, there being warres in the countrey 
( as that State is feldome without moleftations from abroad, 
when they have no diftempers at home, which is an unfeparable 
effect of a countries fituation upon the frontiers of powerfull 
neighbouring Princes that arc at variance)the village of whence 
he was, had notice of (bme unruly fcattered troups that were 
coming to pillage them : which made all the people of the vil- 
lage flie haftily with what they could carry with them, to hide v 
themfelves in the woods: which were fpacious enough to afford 
them fhelter,fbr they joyned upon the forrcft of Ardenne. There 
they lay, till (bme of their fcouts brought them word, that the 
fbuldiers of whom they were in (uch apprehenfjon, had fired 
their town and quitted it. Then all of them returned home, ex- 
cepting this boy; who, itfeemeth, being of a very timorous na- 
ture, had images of fear fb ftrong in his phanfic ; that firft, he 
ran further into the wood then any o u " the reft; and afterwards 
apprehended that every body he law through the thickets, and 
every voice he heard was the iouldiers: and fo hid him(cif from 


Chap. 37. A Treatife of B O D I E S. 5 

his parents that were in much diftrefle feeking him all about, 
and calling his name as loud as they could. When they had 
fpent a day or two in vain, they returned home without him, 
and he lived many years in the woods, feeding upon roots, and 
wild fruits, and mafte. 

He faid that afcer he had been fometime in this wild habita- 
tion, he could by the fmell judge of the taft of any thing that 
was to be eaten : and that he could at a great diftance wind by 
his nofe, where wholefome fruits or roots did grow. In this 
ftate he continued ( ftill fliunning men with as great fear as 
when he firft rannc away; fo ftrong the imprelfion was, and fo 
little could his little reafoa mafteritj uncifl in a very fliarp 
winter, that many beafts of the forrcft perifhcd for want of 
food; neceffity brought him to fo much confidence, that leaving 
the wild places of the forreft, remote from all peoples dwelling?, 
he would in the evenings fteal among cattle that wcrefothercd; 
efpecially the fwine, and among them* glean that which ferved 
to fuftain wretchedly his miferable life. He could not do this fo 
cunningly, but that returning often to it, he was upon a time 
cfpied: and they who faw a beaft of fo ftrange a fliapc ( for fuch 
they took him to be, he being naked and all overgrown with 
hair) believing him to be a fatyre,or fbmefuch prodigious crea- 
ture as the rccounters of rare accidents tell us of; laid wait to 
apprehend him. But he that winded them as far re off, as any 
beaft could do, ftill avoided them, till at the length, they laid 
fnares for him, and took the wind fo advantagioufly of him, 
that they caught him : and then, foon perceived he was a man; 
though he had quite forgotten the nfeof all language : but by 
his geftures and cries, he expreHed the greiteft affrtghcedneUe 
that might be. Which afterwards he faid ( when he had learned 
anew to fpeak ) was becaufe he thought, thofe were the fouldi- 
ers he had hidden himfelf to avoid, when he firft betook himfclf 
to the wood ; and were alwayes lively in his phanfie, through 
his fears continually reducing them thither. 

This man within a little while after he came to good keep- 
ing and full feeding, quite loft that acutencfle of fmelling which 
formerly governed him in his tafte; and grew to be in that par- 
ticular as other ordinary men were. But at his firft liying with 


JIE ATrutifetf BO DIES. Chap. 27. 

other people,a woman that had companion ofhina to fee a man 
fo near like a beatt; and that had no language to call for what 
he wjlhed or needed to have; took particular care of him ; and 
was alwayes very follicitous to fee him furnifhed with what he 
wanted : which made him ib apply himfelf unto her in all his 
occurrcnts, that whenfbever he ftood in need of ought, if /he 
were out of the way, and were gone abroad into the fields, or to 
any other village near by, he would hunt her out prefently by 
his fent, in fuch fort as with us thofe dogs ufeto do which are 
taught to drau dry foor. I imagine he is yet alive to tell a bet- 
ter ftory of himlelf then I have done; and to confirm what I 
have here fa id of him : for I have from them who faw him but 
few years agone, that he was an able ftrong man, and likely to 
laft yet a good while longer. 

And of another man, I can fpeak afliiredly my felf, who 
being of a very temperate or rather fpare diet, could likcwifc 
perfe&ly difcern by his fmell the qualities of whatfbever was af- 
terwards to "pafle the examination of his tafte, even to his bread 
and bear. Wherefore to conclude, it is evident both by reafon, 
and by experience, that the objefts of our touch, our tafte, and 
our fmell , are materiall and corporeall things, derived from 
thedivifion of quantity, into more rare and more denfe parts; 
and may with cafe be rcfblved into their heads and fprings fuf- 
ficiently to content any judicious and rationall man. Who if ho 
be curious to have further fatisfaclion in this particular^ as farre 
as concerneth odours and favours ) may look over what Joan- 
nes Bra v us ( that judicious, though unpolifhed Phyfitian of Sa- 
lamanca) hath written thereof. 



Oftktfe*(c efbfari* t **4 9ftlocft*ftble qu 

BUc to proceed with the reft of the fenfes : becaufe nature 
faw that fome things came fuddenlyupon a living crea- Ofth/fcnfeof 
cure ; which might do it hurt , if they were not perceived hearing / and 
afar off: and diat other things were placed at diftance from it, *& found is ' 
which would greatly helpe it, if it could come necre unto them ; 
fhe found a meanes to give us two fenfes more, for the di/covery 
of remote things. The one principally and particularly to defcfry 
their mocion. The other to marke their bulke and Situation. 

And fb to begin with the former of thefe ; we muft needs ac- 
knowledge (after due examination of the matter)that che thing 
which we call found is purely motion. And ific be objected that 
many motions are made without any difcernabte found: We 
ftiall not make difficulty to grant it 5 considering that many 
motions die, before they come to touch the eare , or elfe are fb 
weake, that they are drowned by other ftronger motions,whidr 
round about befiege our eares in fuch manner, that notice is not 
taken of thefe : for fo it fareth in what dependeth nieerelyof 
quantity, e/pecially,concerningci!r lenfes, that not every thing 
of die kind^but a terminate quantity or multitude of parts of it, 
maketh an objccl fenfible. 

But to come clofe to the point ; we fee that found , for the 
moftpart,is made. in the tyre j and that to produce it, there is 
required a quicke and finart motion of that Element, which, of 
all the reil, is the mod moveable. And in motion, velocity or 
quicknefle,is proportionate to denfity in magnitude (as wehavc 
atlart^e declared.) Which maketh quantity become perceptible 
in this doth in motion. And as the one cohf tfteth in a 
greater proportion of Jubilance to the fame quantity 5 fo the 5 
other doth in the paflagc of more parts of the medium in the 
fame time. 

And in the moderating of this , fuch of the liberal! Arts "are 
employed,whieh belong to the cultivating mans vcyce- as Rhe- 
toricke.meeteriijgjand finging. It is admirable how finely Ga- 

Aa lileo 



Of divers arts 

hearine* U 
which confirm 
that found is 
nothing Lj 

motl9% . _~ 

^ \rt I rii "Iv^? 

Jileo hath delivered us the conibnances of Mulicke towards the 
enc j of his firft Dialogue ofmotion ; from the 95 page forward 
oiv . pndhorc hq ha^ ftevve.4 thatintf t<tf cteecely unto the fight 
(& making the eye,as \veJI as the eare judge ofit) in motions of 
the vva^.r, up plants hangingloGJe in the ayre, ami in perma- 
nent notes or races madeupon ietton.To the moderation ofthe 

&&bWK*lim*^apfV}ed.', |s the tr^ 



Neither can I iljp <?ve vvich<)u menfjoning the two curious 
a:rs of Echoing and of VVhii-psring.Tiiefirft of which, teachet-h 
(oitvrac voyccs (e^rail times; aiiiis ^quenrly put inprac^ifit 
by dWe. thgt are de..igfece4 with rtftfbflbW theijr gartlens. Anxi 
ihe o^ier, ihe\veJi !io\v to gather into a narrow roomc the mo- 
tipm of ^ ay re , that are dirtuied in a great extent ; whereby, 
one that inall put-ius care to that place , where all the feverail 
motiorn ^pe n.iect b iJiali beare wfeflf is fppken fo. low, as no body 
fa^cweejnbim^a&te he fj)ea,ker, can dui:srne any found ac all. Of 
which kin^ , ft^rfe-*?e very fiae curiofities in fome Churches of 
England : and my ielfe have feen , in an upper room of a capa- 
qious round Tower vauted overhead., the walls fo contrived (by 
chance I belfeve)thac two men ftandbg at die utmoll oppofite 
points of the Diameter of it , could talke very currently and 
qleerely with one and other; and yet none that itoodin the 
middle could heare a iyJiable. And if he turned his face to the 
wall and /poke againft that (though never fo loftly) the others 
eare, at the pppo/ite point, would dilcerne every word. Which 
putteth mg ip mind of a note made by one that was no rriend to 
auricular confetficn ; upon his occasion of his being with me in 
% Chprch that had been of a Monaltery ; where, in one corner 
of it , one might fit and heare almott all that was whifpered 
through the whole extent ofthe Church : who would not be 
pcrfwa&d but that ic : was on punpofe contrived fb by the fubtil- 
ty ofthe Friars ; to the end that the Prior or forae one of them, 
might fit there and heare what/oever the ieverall Penitents ac- 
cufed them/elves of to their ghoftly fathers ; Co to maJccadvan- 
ug^ by this artifice, ofwhatthcconfeflforsdurft not of them- 
ifelvej iromediat^Iy revealed 

lie ajJovv^J better of the ufe in Rome of makiag voyces re- 



bound from the cop of" the cupuJa of St. Peters in die Vaticaa, 
dovrn to the floore of the Church j when on great daies they 
make a Quire of M ufike goe up to the very higheft part of the 
arch, which is,iuto the Lanthorne: from whence while they fing, 
the people below jtift under it are furpri/cd with the /mart found 
of their voices, as though they flood clofe by them, and yet can 
fee no body from whom thole notes fliould proceed. And in 
the fame cupu Ja,if two men ftand upon the large cornifh or bord, 
which circleth the bottom of it.they may obfer ve the like effect, 
as that which I fpoke of above in the round Tower. 

In the like manner , tliey that are called ventrilocjiii., do per- 
fwade ignorant people, that the divel fpeakcth from within them 
(deep in their belly ) by their fucking their breath inwards in a 
certaine manner whiles they fpeakc : whence it followeth that 
their voice feeuieth tecome.not from them.but from fomewhat 
elfe hidden within them ; if (attheleatt) you perceive it com - 
meth out of them : butifyoudonoc, thenitfeemethtocome 
from a good way off. 

To this art belongeth the making of Sarabatanes ; or Trunks, 
to helpe the hearing ; and of Echo glafles,that multiply founds, 
as burning-glafTes do light. All which arts , and the rules of 
them, do follow the laws of motion; and every effect of them is 
to be demon/bated by the principles and proportions of mo- 
tion : and therefore, we cannot with reafon imagine them to be 
any thing die. 

We fee likcwife^that great noifes,not onJy offend the hearing, ? 
but even (Lake houfes and Towers. I have been told by inhabi- The fame is 
rants of Dover , that when the Arch-Duke Albertus made his confirmed by 
great battery againfl Calaisf which for the time rras a very furi- ff<fts cau " 
ous one/or he endeavored all he coald to take theTown before 
it could be relieved^) the very houfts were fliaker^and the glafle- 
windows were fluvered^with the report of his Artillery. And I 
have been told by one that was in Sevill, when the gunpowder, 
houfeof thattowne (which was fome two miles diftant from 
that jx'ace where he lived j was blown up, that it made the wood- 
den fhntters of the windows in his honfe , beat and clapagainft 
the walls with great violence , and did fpfit the very waJJs of a 
fuire Church , that ftinding next it ( though at a good di- 
ll ance) had no otlio: building bctwecne tofneJter it from the 

A a unpetuo- 



impetuofity of the ay res fiidden violent motion. 

And after a fight I once had with Tome Galleafles and Gal- 
iioncs m the rode of Scanderone (vvhieh was a very hoc one for 
the time , and a icarce credible number of pieces of Ordnance 
were fliot from myfleete) the Englifh Conlull of that place 
comming afterwards abord my fiup , told me that the 1 report 
of our guns had during all the time of the fight fliaken tkc drin- 
king-glafles that ftood upon /helves in his houle; and hadiplit 
the paper-windovYs all about ; and had fpoiled and cracke.l all 
the egges that his Pigeons were then fitting upon : which lofTe, 
he lamented exceedingly ; for they were of that kind , which 
commonly is called Carriers, and ferve them daily in their com- 
merce between that place and Aleppo. 

And I have often obferved at fea, in fmooth water , that the 
ordnance fhot of in a fliip Ibme miles diflant , would violently 
make the glafle windows in another. And I have perceived this 
effect in my owne , more then one , at the report of a fingle 
gun from a (hip Co far ofl^that we could not defcry her.I remem- 
. ber how one time upon fuch an occafion , vye altered our courfe 
andlleared with the found, or rather with the motion at the 
firft, obferving upon which point of the Compafle the fhaking 
appeared(for as we heard nething; though foon after with much 
attention and iilence we could difcerne a dull clumfie noile: and 
fuch a motion groweth at the end of it fb faint., that if any ftrong 
refining body checkeit in its courfe., it is prefently deaded , ana 
will afterwards fhake nothing beyond that body : and therefore 
it is perceptible onely at the outfide of the fhip , if fbme light 
and very moveable body do hang loofely on that fide it eometh, 
to receive the imprefTion-ofit^a.s this did at the gallery windows 
of my cabin upon the pocpe.which were oflightMo/covia glafle 
or talk:) and by then we had run fbmewhat more then a watch, 
with all the fails abroad we could make., in a fair loom gale, we 
found our fal ves neere enough to part the fray of two fhip^thac 
in a little whik longer righting would have funk oue another. 

g^ bcfides themotions in the ayre (whrch received them ea- 
fily by r . e ! fon oft . he fluic ! it y ri O we fee that even folide bodies 
^ participate of it* As if you knock never fb lightly at one end 
of the longe/t beam you can find, it will be diftin&Jy hard at the 
oihec cod.'the trampling of men and horfes in a quiet night will 

That folid bo 

othe ayre or 
found to the 
org^nc of he*- 



be heard fome miles off, if one lay their eare to the ground j 
and more fenfibly if one make a little hole in the earth, and pat 
ones eare into the mouth of it; but moft of all if one fet a Drum 
Jrnooth upon the ground, and lay ones eare to the upper edge of 
it ; for the lower membrane of the Drum isihakedby the mo- 
tion of the earth, and them mult iplyeth that found bythehol- 
lovv figure of the Drum in the conveying it to the upper mem- 
brane, upon which your care leaneth. Not much unlike the 
tympane or drum of the eare ; which being fhaked by outward 
motion, cau/eth a fecond motion on the infide of it correfpon- 
dent to this firfi ; and this having a free paflage to the braine, 
itriketh it immediately and lo informeth it how things move 
without; which is all the myftery of hearing. 

If any thing doe breake or fk>p this motion , before it make 
our eare,it is not heard. And accordingly we fee that the found Where the mo. 
of bells or artillery is heard much further if it have the conduct ' 

of waters, then through the pure ayre : becaufe in fiich bodies 
the great continuity of them maxeth that one pa* cannot 
fhake alone, and upon their fuperficies, there is no notable un- 
evennefTe, nor no denfe thing in the way to checke the motion 
(as in the ayre,hils, buildings, trees, and ftich like;) fbthat the 
fame making goetha great way. Andtoconfirmc that this is 
the truereafon, I have feverall times ob(crvcd,that landing by 
a river fide, I have heard the found of a ring ofbells,,mucn more 
di/tinctJy and lowd,then if I went fbme diftance from the water, 
though neerer to the tteeple from whence the found came. 

And it is not only the motion of the ayre, that maketh found 
in our eares : but any motion that hath accefTe to them in fiich 
a manner as to fliaKe the quivering membranous tympane 
within them, will reprefent unto us thofe motions which are 
without, and fo make fuch a found there as if it were conveyed other motions 
onelybytheayre. Which is plainelyfeen, when a man lying a comminj to 
good way under water, rtiall there heare the fame are 8 

made above in the ayre ; but in a more clumfie manner ; accor- 
ding as the water, by being thicker^and more corpulent is more 
unwieldy in its motions. And this I have tried often ; flaying 
under water as long as the neceflity of breathing would permit 
mc.Which meweth that the ayre being fmartly moved, moveth 
the water gjfo, by mcanes of its ccntinwty with it -, vad that li- 

Aa quid 


quid element, being fluide and getting into the earc, maketh 
vitiations upon the drum of it like unto thofe of ayre. 
7> But all this is nc thing in refpe& of what I miht in fome fort 

Howonefenfc fay, and yet fpeake truth. Which is,that I have feerae one , . who 
may fupply the cou ld difcerne founds with his eyes. It is admirable , bow one 
fenfe will oftentimes fupply the want of an other: whereof I 
have feene an other ftrange example in a different ttraine from 
this $ of a man that by his grofler fenfes had his want of fight 
wonderfully made up. He was fb throughly blind , that his eyes 
could not inform* him when the Sunne. mined ; for ail the 
cryttalline humour was out in both his^yes: yet his other ienfes 
intfrufted him > eflficacioufly in what vyas their office to have 
done 5 as what he wanted in them , feemed to be overpayed in 
jother abilities. To lay that he would piay-at cards and tables as 
well as moft men} is rather a commendation of his memory and 
fanfie, then of any of his outward ienfes. Buttliatbefhould 
play well at boules and flioveibord , and other games of ay me, 
which iijftther men doe require cleare fight, and an exaefc level! 
of the hand according to the qualities of die earth or table, and 
to the fituation anddiftance of the place he was to throw- at, 
feemeth to exceed poffibiiity : and yet he did all this. 

He would vvalke in a chamber or long alley in a garden(after 
he had been a while uled to them; as ftraight , and turne as ^fl- 
at the ends, as any feeing man could doe. . He would goe up and 
downe everywhere fb confidently, and demeane himfelfett 
table fb regularly Grangers have fittcn by him feverall meaies 
and have feen him waike about t he houfe, without everobfer- 
ving any want of feeing in him ' which he endeavoured what 
he could to hide , by wearing his hat low upon his browes. He 
' vvould , at the firft abord of a /traager , as foone as he fpoke to 
him,frame a right apprehenfion of his ttature,bulke and manner 
of making. And which is more, when he taught hi? Thallers to 
decIarneCfbr he was fchoolmafter to my Conne*, and lived iniy 
hou/e) or to Mprefent fbme of Seneca's Tragedies, or the Jike, 
hevirould by their voyce know their gefiure, and the fituation 
they put their bodies in : fo that he would be able, asfbonas 
they fpokejto judge whether they ttood or fate , or ui what po- 
iJurc they were j which made them derneane thcmfelves as cfe- 
ccutly before him whilcs.they ipofce , asif he hod &cn them per- 
fcftly. Though 


Though all this he very ttrange, yet me thinks his difcerning 
of light is beyond it all. He would feele in his body, and chiefly 
in his braine (as he hath often toldme> certain effect by which 
he did know when the Sunnc was up; and would di/cern exactly 
acleare from a cloudy day. This I have known him frequently 
doe without milling, when for triall lake he hath been lodged in 
a cloie chamber, whereunto the deare light or Sunne could not 
arrive to give him any notice by its aduall warmth ; nor any 
body could come to him, to give him private warnings of the 
changes of the weather. 

But this is not the relation I intended , when I mentioned of OJ 
one that could heare by his e\ es; (if that expreflionmay be per- cou \^ dif cernr 
tnitted me) I then reflected upon a Noble man of great quality founds of 
that I knew in Spaine, the younger brother of the Conftableof words with 
Caftile. But the reflexion of his feeing of words , called into *"* e 7 ef 
my remembrance the other that felt light : in whom I have of- 
ten remarked fo many ftrange pafiages , with amazement and 
delight ; that I have adventured upon the Reader^jBtience to 
record Ibme of them , conceiving they may be of fome ufe in 
our courfe of doctrine. But the Spanish Lord was born deafe ; 
fo deafe, that if a Gun were fhot off clofeby his eare , he conld 
not heare it : and confequently.,he was dumbe/or not being able 
to heare the found ofwords, he could never imitate nor under- 
ftand them. The loveliaefTe of his face.,and elpecially the excee- 
ding life and fpiritfulnefie of hi j eyes,and the comelineffe of his 
pcrfon and whole compofureof his body throughout, were preg- 
nant fignes of a well tempered inind within. And therefore aft 
that knew him, lamented much the want of meanes to cultivate 
it, and to imbrue it with the notions which it feemed to be ca- 
pable of in regard of its felfe ; had it aot been fo crofled by this 
unhappy accident. Which to remedy Phyfitians and Chirurgi- 
ans had long imployed their skill ; but all in vaine. At the laft, 
there was a Prieft who undertooke the teaching him to under- 
ftand others when theyfpokc, and to/peakehimfelfethato- 
thers might under/land him. What at the firft he was laught at 
for, made him after fome* yeeres be looked upon as if he had 
wrought a miracle . In a word ; after ttrange patienee,conn\uicy 
andpaines, he brought the young Lord to fpeake as diftiacl^ 
as any man whofoever j and to undetftand Ib pcrfe^Jy what 

A a 4 otberj 


others laid that he would not lofe a word in a whole daies con- 

They who have a curiofity to fee by what Reps the mafter 
proceeded in teaching him , may iatisfie it by a booke which he 
him (elf hath writ in Spanish upon that fubje<ft,to inftrucl others 
how to teach deafe and dumbe perfbns to fpeake. Which when 
he /hall have looked heedfully over ; and fliall have confidered 
what a great diftance there is betweene the Simplicity andna- 
kednetfe of his firft principles ; and the ftrange readinefTe and 
vaft extent of Jpeech refiilting inprocefleof time out of them; 
he will forbeare pronouncing an impoflibility in their pedegree, 
whiles he wondrerhat the numerous effects refulring in bodies 
out of rarity and denfity y ingenioufly mingled together by an 
aJl knowing Architect, for the production of various qualities 
among mixrs, of ftrange motions in particular bodies , and of 
admirable operations of life and fen/e among vegetables and 
animals* All which are ib many feverall words of the myfHcall 
languai^which the great mafter hath taught his otherwifc 
dumbe ichoUers (the creatures) to proc:aime his infinite art 
wifdome,perfec}ions,and excellency in. 

The Prieft who by his booke and art. occafioned this dif- 
courfe,! am told is ft ill alive, and in the ferviceof the Prince of 
Carignan , where he continueth ( with fbme that have need of 
his paines) the iame imploy ment as he did with the Con/tables 
brother : with whem I hav c often difcoiurfed , whiles I waited 
upon the Prince of Wales- (now our gracious Soveraigne) in 
Spaine. And I doubt not but His Majefty remembrcth ail I have 
/aid of him and much more : for His Majefty was very curious 
t^oblerve and enquire into theutmoft is true, one great 
misbecomingneife he was apt to fall into, whiles he /poke: which 
was an uncertainty in the tone of his voyce j for not hearing the 
found he made when he fpoke, he could not fteddily governethe 
pitch of his voyce; but it would be /bmetimes higher, Ibmetimes 
lower ; though for the moft part 1 , what he delivered together, 
he ended in the fame key as he begun it. But when he had once 
fiifferedthe paflage of his voice toclofe, at the opening them 
againe , chance , or the meafure of his earneftne/Te to fpeake or 
to reply, gave him his tone : which he was not capable of mode- 
sating by fach an artifice , as is recorded Cams Oracchosufed, 


when paffion,in his orations to the people, drove out his voyce 
with too great a vehemence or mrilnefle. 

He couJd difcerne in an other, whether he /poke fh rill or low : 
and he would rcpeate after any body, any hard word whatfb- 
cvcr. Which the Prince tryed often ; not onely in Engjim, but 
by making fomeWekhmenthat fervedhis Highneffe, /peake 
words of their language. Which he fb perfectly ecchoed, that I 
confeffe I wondered more at that, then at all the reft. And his 
Matter himfelfe would acknowledge, that the rules of his art 
reached not to produce that effect with any certainty. And 
therefore concluded, this in him muttfpring from ether rules 
he had framed unto himfelfe, out of his cwn attentive obferva- 
tion : which, the advantage that nature had juftly given him in 
the fharpenefle of his other fenfes, to fupply the want of this ; 
endowed him with an ability andfagacity to do, beyond any o^ 
ther man that had his hearing. He expreffed it (furely)in a high 
meafure, by his fb exact imitation of the Welch pronunciation: 
for that tongue ( like the Hebrew ) empJoyethmncfi the gut- 
tural! letters ' and the motions-of that part which frameth 
them, cannot be feenenor judged by the eye , otherwife then 
by the effect they may happily make by confent in the other 
parts of the mouth, expcfed to view : for the knowledge hee 
had of what they faid, fprungfrom his cblerving the motions- 
they made ; fb that hee could converfe currently in the light, 
though they he talked with,whifpered never fo fo/tly . And I fiave 
feene him at the diftance of a large chambers breadth, fay words- 
after one , that I ftanding clofe by the fpeaker could not heare a 
fy liable of. But if he were in the darke, or if one turned his face 
Out of his fight,he was capable of nothing one faid. 

Butitistimethatwereturue to our theame, fromwhence ? 

my blind Schoolemafter, and this deafe Prince ( whole defeds DfVcrs r'cafont 
were overpayed an other way) have carried us with fo long a to prove found 
digrelfion. Which yet will not be altogether ufelelfe (no more r j b , e nothing 
then the former, of the wild man of Liege) ifweemakedue 'on o/f mC " 
refleilions upon them : forwhenwefhallconfider, that odors reallbo<ty. 
may be tafted ; that therelifh of meates may be fmelled ; that 
magnitude and figure may be heard j that light may be felt j and 
that founds may be feen ; ( all which is true in fbme &nfe ) we 
may hy this changing the offices of the fenfes , and by looking 



into the caufes thereof; come to difcerne that thefe effects are 
not wrought by the intervention of ayery qualities;but by reall 
and material! applications of bodies to bodies ; which indif- 
ferent manners do make the fame results within us. 

But when I fuftefed my pen to bee Peered by my fanfie.that 
pleafed it felfe, and noted in the remembrance of thefe two no- 
table perfbns : I was fpeafong, how the ftrong continuity of the 
parts of a thing that is moved,draweth on the motion, and con- 
fequendy the fbund.much further then where that which is mo- 
ved fuflfereth breaches , or the rarity of it occafloneth that one 
part may be moved without an other 5 for to the proportion of 
the fliakingjthenoife continueth. As we fee in trembling bells, 
that hum a great while longer then others , a frer the Clapper 
hath ftrucken them : and the very found feemeth to quiver and 
fliake in oureares, proportionable to the making of the beJJ, 
And in a Lute as long as a firing that hath been flrucken , fha- 
keth fenfibly to our eye 5 fb long, and to the fame meafure , the 
f(j>und mat eth in our eare. Which is nothing elfe hut an undu- 
lation ofthe Ayre', caufed by the fhia'rt and thick vibrations of 
the corde^and mukipiyed in the belly ofthe inftrument (which 
is the reafbn that the concave figure is affected in moi\ ) andfo 
when it breaketh out of the instrument in greater quantity, 
then the firing immediately did make - y it caufeth the fame un- 
dulations in the whole body of Ayre round about. And that, 
ftriking the Drum of the eare, giveth notice therein what te- 
nour the firing moveth : vvhofe vibrations if one flop by laying 
his finger upon it^the found is inttamly at an end, for then there 
isnocaufeonfoot, that continueth the motion of the Ayre : 
which,without a continjation of theimpulfc, returneth fpeedi- 
dily to quiet; through the refinance made unto it, by other parts 
of it that are further off. 

Out of all which itisplaine, that motion alone is able to 
efteit and to give account of all things whatfbever that are at- 
tributed to found ; and that found and motion , do goe hand in 
hand together ; and that whatfbever is faid of the one , is like- 
svile true ofthe other. Wherefore it cannot bedenyed but that 
hearing is nothing elfe but the due perception of IBM*'** : and that 
motion aud fo**d are in themfelves one and the fame thing, 
r hcu t',h expreftcd by different name*, and comprifed in our un- 



demanding under different notions. Which proportion feem- 
erh to be yet farther convinced, by the ordinary experience of 
perceiving mufike by mediation of a flick ; for how /Ttould a 
deafe man be capable of mufick by holding a ftick in his teeth, 
whofe other end lyeth upon the Vial! or Virginalls, were it not 
that the proportional! fhaking of the ftick ( working a like 
dauncing in the mans head) did make.a like motion in his braine, 
without parting through hiseare ? and conieqiiently^vithont be- 
ing otherwise /wiw^then as bare motion is found. 

Or if any man will MI periirt in having found be fbme other 
tiling then as wee fay ; and that it atfecleth the fenfe otherwife 
then purely by motion :heemuft neverthelefleacknowkdge, 
that whatibever i^be, it hath neither caufe nor crfect^nor breed- 
ing, nor dying, that we eitiier know or can imagaine : and then, 
if- he will let rea'bn fway, hee will conclude it unreafonable to 
favorlu pe:tfb ill grounded a furmiie, againft fb cleareand 
folid proofcs.'which our cares them/elves do nota little conffrm; 
their whole figure and nature tending to the perfect receiving, 
coniervijtig , and mn'.tip ; ring the motions of ayre which happen 
without a man : as who is<:ur ious, may plainly iee in the Anato- 
books and difcourfes. 


THere is yet left, the object of our fighr, vbtch : cd/n- i 
lonrt, to takeafurvey ofiforasfbr/^Af, wee have at Thai colour* 
large diiplayed the nature and properties of it : from e nothing but 
which w! tether colour be different or no.will be the quettioa we JjftjJaStnfff.. 
fhali next dilcufle : for thofe who are cunning in Optikes , will or the difpofi- 
by refractions and by reflexions make all forts of colours out of tionofabodies 
pure light : as we fee in Rainebowes, in thofe triangular glaflfes fu per ficie$ a P l 
or prifmes which fome do call foolts <P*r*tifcs, and in other in- f rc . flc f ^ ghe 
ventions for this purpofe. Wherefore, inbriefe.tofliewwhat lominge * 
colour is, let us lay for a ground, that light is of all other things 
in the world, the greateft and the rooft powerfull agent upon 
our eye ; either by it leife, or by whatcommcth in with it : and 



that, where light is not^darkenefle is ; then confider, that light 
being diverfly to bcecaft, but efpecially , through or from a 
tranlparent body , into which it finketh in part. and in part it doth 
not : and you will conclude, that it cannot chooie but come out 
from liich a body , in divers forts mingled with darkenefle : 
which if it bee in a lenfible quantity, doth accordingly make 
divers appearances : and thole appearances mull of neceflity 
have divers hues ., reprefenting the colours which are middle 
colours betweene white and black ; fince whire is the colour of 
light, and darkeneffe ieemeth black. Thus , thole colours are 
ingendred, which are callecfapparent ones. And they appeare 
ibmetimes but in fome one pofition ; as in the rainebow ; which 
chan^eth place as the looker en doth : but at other times., they 
may DCC leen from any part ; as thofe which light maketh by a 
double refraction through a triangular glafle 

And that this is rightly delivered , may be gathered out of 
the conditions requifite to their production : for that cryftall, or 
water , or any refracting body , doth not admit light in all its 
parts, is evident, by reafbnof the reflection that itmaketh, 
which is exceeding great : and not onely from the fuperficies, 
but even from the middle of the body within : as you may fee 
plainly, if you put it in a darke p!ace,and enlighten but one part 
of it : for then, you may perceive, as it were, a current of light 
pafle quite through the body , although your eye be not op- 
pofite to the paflage: fb that,manifeftly it reflefteth to your eye 3 
from all the inward parts which it Jighteth upon. 

Now a more oblique reflection or refraction dcth more dip 
psrfe the light, and admitteth more privations of light in its 
parts,then a lefle oblique one : as Galileo hath demonrtrated in 
the firft Dialogue ofhis lyfteme. Wherefore, a lefle oMique re- 
flection or refratfion 3 may receive that in quality of light,which 
a more oblique one maketh appeare mingled with darkeneffe ; 
andconfequently, the fame thing will appeare colour in one, 
which flieweth it felfe plaine light in the other ; for the greater 
the inclination of an angle is , the greater alfb is the di/perfion 
of the light. 

And as colours arc made in this fort,by the medium through 
nhich light pafleth, fo ifwe conceive the fuperficiei from which 
the light refkaeth, to bedivecfly ordered in refpeft of reflexi- 





on ; it muft of neceifity follow that it will have * divers JuftrC 
and fight . as we fee by experience in the necks of Pigeons , and 
incertainepofitions of our eye, in which the Jight pafling 
through oureye browes , maketh an appearance as though wee 
(aw divers colours dreaming from a candle we looke upon. And 
accordingly we may obferve how fome things , or rather moft, 
doappeareof a colour more inclining towhite,whentheyare 
irradiated with a great light, then when they (land in a lefTer. 
And wee fee painters heighten their colours, and make them 
appeare lighter by placing deepe fhadowes by them : even fo 
much , that they will make objects appeare neerer and fur- 
ther off, meerly by their mixtion of their colours. Bccaufe, 
objects, the neerer they are, the, more ftrongly and lively 
they reflect ligh^and therefore.appeare the others 
do more dusky. 

Therefore , if wee put the fuperficies of one body to have a 
-better difpofition for the, reflection of li^ht, then an other f .. 5 n r cer 1 . n 8 

, /- & i J-/T L thc aiipofition 

hath ; wee cannot but conceive, that fuch difference in the of thofc bodies 

Superficies , mutt needs beget variety of permanent colours in which produce 

the bodies. And according as the iuperficies of the fame bo- white or black 

dy, is better, or worfe difpofed to reflection: of light, bypo- colour$ - 

liining, or by comprefTure together, or the like : fb, the fame 

body, remaining the fame in iubftance, will mew it felfe of 2 

different colour. And it being evident that white ( which is 

the chiefeft colour ) doth reflect moft light : and as evident, 

that blacke reflected! leaft light , fothat it reflected! fhadowes 

in lieu of colours ( as the Obfidian ftone among the Romans 

doth witnefle. ) And it being Jikewife evident, that to be 

dcnfe and hard, and of fmall parts , is the difpofition of the 

object which is moft apt to reflect light : wee cannot doubt, 

but that white is that difcofitionoFthefuperficies. That is to 

fay, it is thcfuperficiesorabodyconfiftingofdenfe, of hard, 

and of fmall parts ; and on the contrary fide , that black is the 

difpofition of the iuperficies , which is moft fbfc and full of 

greateft pores ; for when light meeteth with fuch a /uper ficies, 

It getceth eafily into it; and is there^as it were abforpt and hidden 

in caves , and commeth not out againe to reflect towards our 


This doctrine of ours of the generation of colours, agreeth 



1 i. ........ >. .. 

3. exactly vvith*^r*/?rr/f.f principles, and fbJlovveth evidently out 

The former o f j lls definitions of light, and of colours. And for lumming 

doarinc con- ^^ ,r e nerallfentiments of mankind in making his Logical! 
firmed by An- , r ,, . P _ . . . L j -n j 

ftotles autho- definitions, I thmke no body will deny his being the greateft 
rity,reafcn,in<i Mailer that ever was. Hee defineth light to be *tlw Dtapftam : 
experience. which we may thus explicate. It is that thing, which maketh a 
body that hath an aptitude or capacity of being feene quite 
through it in every interior part of it, to be actually feene quite 
through, according to that capacity of it. And hee defineth 
colour to be, Tke terme or tnding #/ 4 diapkMtsfK My : the mea- 
ning whereof is : that colour is a thing which maketh a diapha- 
nous body to reach no further j or that colour is the caufe why 
a body is no further diaphanous, then untill where it beginnethf 
or that colour is thereafon, why we can fee no further then to 
fuch a degree, through or into fuel a body. 

Which definition fitteth moft exactly with the thing it i- 
veih us the nature of. For it is evident, that when we fee a body, 
the body we fee^hindereth us from feeing any other, that is in a 
ftraigbt line beyond it; And therefore it cannot be denyed, but 
that colour terminateth,andendeth the diaphaneity of a body, 
by making it felfebe feene. And all men do agree in conceiving 
this , to be the natnre of colour ; and that it is a certaine dii- 
pofition of a body , whereby that body commeth to be feene. 
On the other fide^nothing is more evident, then that to have u$ 
fee a body , Jight mult reach from that body to our eye. Then 
adding unto this what Ariftot Je teacheth concerning the pro- 
duction of feeing : which he fayth is made by the action of the 
fecne body upon oar fcnfe : itfolloweth that'thc object muft 
vyorkeupon oar ienfe, either by %ht, or at the Jea/t with 
li^ht ; for light rebounding from the object round about by 
ttraight lines,iome part of it mufr needs come from the ob/ec> 
to our eye. Therefbre,by how much an object fendeth more 
light unto onr tye^by fb much,, L that object worketh more upon 

Now leebig that divers objects do fend light in divers man- 
ner* to our eyCjaecordij^ to the divers nature* of thofe objects 
in regard of hardnefle, den/5ty , and littleneffc of parts: we 
muft agree that fuch bodies do worke diverfly , and do make 
different motions or imprefftoni upon onr eyerand confequent- 



Jy, the patfion of our eye born fuc'i objects mutt be divers. But 
I ;iere is no other y of paifion in the eye from the o'jject 
wi regard of feeing , but that the object appcare di vers to us in 
peint of colour. Therefore we mutt conclude, that divers bo- 
dies ( I meane divers or different , in that kind wee here talke 
of) uuifl necefliin.'y fceme to be of diver.? colours, mcerly b/ 
the ten Jing of light mno our eye in divers feiniom. Nay /the 
very lame object mult appears of different colours, when foever 
it happeneth that it reflected! light differently to us. As we fee 
in c'otu, if it be gathered together in fouldes, the bottomes of 
thole fouldes fhew to be of one kind of colour, and the tops of 
them, or where the cloth is Wretched out td the lull percutfion 
of light, it appeareth to be of an other much brighter colour. 
And accordingly painters are fainc co ule almott opposite co- 
lours to expreiTe them . In like manner if you looke upon two 
pieces of the fame cloth, or plulh, whofe graines lye contrawife 
to one an other, they will likevife app^are to be of different 
colours. Both which accidents, and many others like unto- 
them in begetting various reprctentations of colours ; do all of 
them ariie out of lights being more or lefle reflected from one 
par^ th$n ftpm an other. 

TiWlh^i you fee, how colour is nothing elfe, but the difpo- T .. ' 
fition pfa bodies fupperficks, as it is more or Jefle apt to reflect " t y W f ^100"$ 
ligh.t;fithcnce the reflection of light is made from thefijper- do follow out 
ficies of the feen body.,and the varictyjof its reflexion begetteth of various de- 
variety of colours. But a fuperficies is more or Jefle apt to re- rec 
flc<ft light, according to the degrees of its bein^ more or lefle 
penetrable by the force of light ftriking upon it } for tho/e rayes 
of light that gain* no oatranee into a body they are darted up* 
on, murtofneceffityflybackagaine from it. Butif light doth 
get eac.ra.nce and penetrate into the body , it either pafl^tft 
quite through it ;or elle it is fwallowed up and loft in that bocfy. 
The former,conttituteth a diaphanous body ; as we have already 
determined. And the femblance which the latter will have in re- 
gajrd of colour.wc have alu> mewed mult be black. 

ut let us proceede, a little further. Wee know that two 
things render a body penetrable, or ea/ie to admit an other bo- 
cJyiatoit.Holes,(fach as we cailpore$)and/ftneflfe or humidity j 
fothat drynefTc, hacdnefle, aBdcompattedneOe^multbethe 



properties which render a body impenetrable. A net according- 
ly we fee, that if a diaphanous body ( which fuftereth light to 
run through it) be much comprefled bevond what it was ; as 
when water is ccmprefled intoyce;it becometh more vifible, 
that is, reflecieth more light : and confequendy , it becometh 
more white; for white is that, which refle&eth moft Jight. 

On the contrary fide, foftnefle, unduoufneflc, and vifcouf- 
nefle , encreafeth blacknefle : as you may experience in oyiing 
or in greafing of wood ; which before was but brown, for there- 
by it commeth more black ; by reafon that the unctuous parts 
added unto the other, do more eafily then they fingle, admit in- 
to them the light that ftriketh upcn them ; and when it is got- 
ten in, it is fo entangled there (as though the wings of it were 
birdlimed over) that it cannot fly out againe. And thus it is 
evident,how the origine of all colours in bodies, is plainly dedu- 
eed out of the ?arious degrees of rarity and density , varioufly 
mixed and compounded. 

$. . likewise, out of thisdiicourfe, the reafon is obvious why 
VVhy forac bo- fome bodies are diaphanous and others are opacous : for fith- 
ence lt feM ct h out m the constitution of bodies, that one ij com 1 - 1 
P^ ec ^ ^S KSLtcr P arts f ^ en an oc ^ er : * c mu ^ nee< ^ $ haflpeiri that 
light be more hindered in paffing through a body Corcfjlofed of 
bigger parts.then an other who/? pirrs are ic/fe. Neither doth 
it import that the pores be iuppoiecf as great as the parts, for be 
they never fo large , the corners of the thiclcc parts they belong 
unto, muft needs break the cour/c of what will not bow, but 
goeth all in ttralght lines ; more then if the parts and pores 
were both JefTer ; fince, for fo fubtile a piercer as light,no pores 
can be too little to give it entrance. It K true (ucn great ones 
would better admit a Jiqaid body into them, fach a one as wa- 
ter or ayre j but the reafon of that is, bffcaufc they will bow and 
take any ply, to creep into thofe cavities,ifthey be large eneugh, 
which light will not do. 

There/ore it is cleare, thatfrecdomcofpaflagecan happen 
unto light, only there, where there is an extreme great multi- 
tude of pores and parties in a very little quantity or bulke of 
body (which pores and parts muft confeouently bccxtreme lit- 
tle ones) for,by reafon of their multitude, there muft be great 
variety in their (ituation : from whence it will happen that 



many lines mult be all of" pores quite through ; and many o- 
thers all of parts ; although the moft, will be mixed of both 
pores and parts. And Co we ice that although the light do paffc 
quite through in many place* , yet it refledeth from mere, 
not onely in the fuperficies , but in the very body it felfe of the 
Diaphanous fub/Uncc. But in an other fubfhnce of great 
parts, and pores there can be but few whole lines of pores , by 
which the light may pafTe from the objeci to make it be /eene j 
and confequently it mutt be opacons ; which is the contrary 
of Diaphanous thaLadmitteth many rayes of light, to pafle 
through it from the objecl to the eye , whereby it is feene, 
though me Diaphanous hard body, do inter vene-betweenc 

Now if wee confider the generation of thefe cnro colours 6. 

(white and black ) in bodies ; we fhall find that likevvife to ;u- J*"? for ? cr ' 
ftifyand iecond our doctrine: for white things are generally j^^n&m- 
cold and dry ; and therefore , are by nature ordained to be re- c a by the gene- 
ceptacles, and confer vers of heat, andofmoyftu-re ; as Phyfi- ration of white 
tiansdo^note. Contrariwife, black, as alib greene, (which is. and black in 
neere of kinne to blackjare growing colours, andarethedieof 
heate incorporated in aboundance ofwet.-as we fee in ffnoake^in 
pitcoale.,in garden ground , and in chymicali putrefactions . all 
which are buck ; as aifb in yongherbes; which are generally' 
greene as, long as they are yong and growing. The other co- 
lours, Beeping their Handing betwixt thde, are generated by the 
mixture of taem ; and according as they partake me re or lefie 
of either oft lem a v neerer or further off from it. 

So that after all this diicourle.wemay conclude in fhort ^that 
the colour of a body , is nothing eife,but the po^ve which that 
bo i , hatn of refining lig'it unto the eye , in a cert aine order 
andpoiition : and conlecjuently , is nothing elf e bur the very 
iuperficies ofit^vit'i its afperity,or imoothneffe ; with irs pores, 
or inequalities; with its hardnefle, or fbfinefle; and "fucn like. 
The rules and limits whereof , if they were duly obfer ved and 
ordered.the whole nature and fcienee of colours would eafily 
be knowjie and be delcribed. But out of to is little which we > 
havedelivered of tVs (ubjecl it may be rightly inferred that re- 
all colours do proceed from rarity and den^ity,(as even-now we 
touched;andhve their head & fprjng thererand are not 

B b qualities 

3 i8 A TrVhATISE 

qualities in the Ayre : but are erasable bodies on the earth, 
as all others, are, .which as yet wee have fbimdand havemed- 
died withall : and are indeed, die, very bodies themfeives.eau- 
f;ng fucheffecls upon our eye by reflecting f light, which wee 
exprefleby the names of colours. 


Of luminous or afferent Ctlow*, 

t> A S for the luminous colours , whole natures art hath 

Apparitions /-\ made more maniabie by us, then thofe which are called 
of colours JL Areall colours, and are permanent in bodies : their ge- 
throBgh apnO ^ration is'cleercly to bee feene in rheprifme or triangular 
SfSafie wof 8 jaf]fe wee formerl v mentioned. The confidering of which, 
wvoforw, will confinnc our (Io6irine, that even the colours of bodies, 
are but various mixtures of light and madorves , diverfly re- 
flected to our eyes. For the right uaderftanding of them, 
wee are to note, that this glafle makcth apparitions of colours 
in two forts : the one, when looking through it there appeare 
various colours in the objects you looke upon ( different from 
their rcall ones ) according to thepofitionyou hold the glafle 
in when you looke upon them. The other fort is, whea the 
beames of light that pafle through the g'afle, areas it were 
tinned in their paflage , and are caftby theglaffe upon fbme 
fblid objecl: , and doe appeare there in fuch and fsch colours, 
which doe continue liill the fame, in what pofitionfbever you 
ftand to look upon themjeither before, or behmd^r on any fide 
ofthe glafle. 

The fcverall Secondly,we are to note that thefe colours are generally made 

parts of the ob- by refraction (though fometimes it may happen orherwife, as 

jcamakefcve- above we have meunoned. ) To difcpverthereafonofthefir/f 

rail angles at lert of colours , that appeare by refaction when one looketh 

eir en " a c through the glaile : let us fuppofe two feverall bodies the one 

c black, the other white, lying clofe by one an other andinrhe 

fame horizoDtall parallcle : but fb, that the black be further 

from us then th white ; then, if we hold theprifme through 

which we are to fee thefe twooppefitely coloured bodies fome- 



what above them ; and chat fide df'it at which the colowreci bo- 
dies mufl enter into the glalTe to come to our eye, paralteic un- 
to thofe bodies .; it is evident, iliac the Uack will come into the 
pri/me by iefler angles dien tli white : I meanest ;n the 
jine ofdiftance ironi face of the gJajffe at which the 
colours do come in, a longer line or pa;t of black \viJi iuhtend 
an angle, no bigger then a ieiicr Jine or part of white doth 

Thirdly, we are to note, that from the fame point of the ob- - 

ject, there come various beames of light to that whole fuper.- The rcafon 
ficies of the giafle ; fo that it may, and fometimes doth happen, why Comet imcs 
that from the lame part of the object, beames may be reflected thc fame b- 
to theeye/rom feverail parts of that fuperhc;es of the glaflfe at ^ appearcth 
which they enter. And whenlbever this happeneth, theobjed priS^ in t wp 
mult neceifarily be feenein divers parts : thttis, thepiducec/ places .-and in 
it will at the fame time appeare to the eye in divers places. And e plac mocc 
particularly, we may p^inely obfervetvvopictures,onealivdy h'vely, iathe 

and li:ron one j the otaer a fame and dim one.Of which the dim ! ?!/ J 
ii i- i j / j i n^oredinU:..- 

one will appearc neerer us.,then the lively one : ana is cauied by 

a iecondary ray :or rather .1 iliouid fay, byaloogecray, that 
f trilt ing neererjto the hither edge oftheglaffes fuperficies (which 
is the furtheft from the obj'edjmaketh a more acute angle then 
a (hotter ray doth, that, ftnketh upoiija part ofthe giaflfe farther 
from our eye, but neerer the obje A. And therefore the image 
which is madeby this Iecondary or longer ray, muft appcareboth 
neerer ind more dusky , then the image made by die primary 
and ihorrer ray. And the further from the object tjiat the glafle 
through which it reflecteth is fituated (ke*pmg itiii in che lame 
parallel to the horizon ) the further the place-where the fecond 
ausky picture appearcth, is from the place where the primary 
iirong picture appeareth. 

Ifaaymanbavtamindtofatisryhhnfelfeby erpericace, oj 
the truth of this note,let him place a flieet of white paper upon 
a black carpet cohering a table/o as the papei may reach within 
two or three fingers of theedge of the -cacpet, ( under- which,, 
kt there be nothing to fuceeed the biack of the carpet, but the 
empty dusky Ayre ) and then let hiaa-fethiraieUc at a con- 
venient diitance, ( the mcafure of whih is, that tsbc-papar 
appearc at his fecte^when hee ioketh through the gtefle ) and 

Bb a looke 


looke at die paper through 'his priffne fituatcd in fuch fcrc as we 
haveabovedetermined,andhe will perceive a whitim or light- 
fome {hadovv proceed from the lively picture that he feeth of 
white, and moote out neerer towards him then that lively 
picture is, and he will difcerne that it commeth into the glaflc 
through a part of it neerer to his eye or face, and further from 
the object then the ttrong image of the white doth. And fur. 
ther^if he cauCeth the neerer part of the paper to be covered with 
ibine thin body of a ladder colour , this dim white vamfheth : 
which it doth not if the further part of the paper be covered. 
Whereby it is evident, that it is a fecondary image. proceeding 
from the hit her part of t/ie paper. 
4* > nriakculeofwhat we havcfaidro the finding out 

J of the reafon why the red and blew and other colours app^are 
ot the various , , , J t . , , 

colours that when one lookerh tf rom, < a orilme : let us proceed upon our 

appeare in former example, in w ! ic. j a w ire paper lyeth upon a black car- 
looking pet(ibr,the diamerrall oppotition o 'tuoiL co.ours maJceth them 
through a mo ^ remarkable) ii. fuch iort tt at there be a rarcell of black rn 
jprifmc. , the hither fide of the paper : and rhtreln, let us examine accord* 
ing to our grounds , what colours muit appcare at both tnds 
of the paper looking upon them through the triangular 

To begin with the furthelt end , where the black lyeth be- 
yond the white : we may confider , how there mutt come from 
the black, a fecondary darke miflyfhadow (be/ides the tfrong 
black that appeareth beyond the paper ) wliich muft /hoore to- 
wards you(in fuch (brt as we (aid of the whinth light fome ilia- 
dovy) andconfequently, rnu(Uyover the hrong picture of the 
white paper : now in this cafe, a third middling colour mutt re- 
fult out of the mixture of thefe two extremes of black and white; 
fince they come to the eye, almoft in the fame line, at the leaft 
in lines that make fo little a difference in their anglesas it is net 

The like whereof happeneth in Clothes, or Stuft,or Stock- 
ings, that arc woven of divers coloured but very fmall thredsi 
for you ftand fo far olffrom /uch a piece of S ruffe, that the little 
threds of different colours which lye immediate to one ano* 
ther may ccme together as in one line to your eye ; it will 
appearcofa middling colour, duferent from both thole that it 


OF BODIES. Cbap.XXX. 331 

refulteth from : but if you ft and foneere that each thredfend- 
cth rayes enough to your eye , and that the bafts of the triangle 
which commcth from each thred to ycur eye,be long enough to 
make at the vertex of it ( which is in your eye ) an angfc big c- 
nough to be feene fingly by it fclfe ; then each colour will ap- 
pcare a part as it truly is. 

Now the various natures of middling colours we may learne 
of painters ; who compoie them upon their palettes by a like 
mixture of the extremes. And they tell us.that ifa white colour 
prevailc ftrongly over a darke colour , reds and yeJlowes refalt 
cut of that mixture : but if black prevaile ftrongly over white, 
then blewes, violets, and feagreenes are made. And accordingly, 
in our cafe, we cannct doubt but t! ;at the primary lively picture 
of the white, mutt prevaile over the faint dusky fable mantle 
with which it commeth mingled to the eye : and doing jb, it 
muft needs make a like appearance as the Sunnes beames do, 
when reflecting from a black cloud , they fringe the edges of it 
with red and with yellow ; and the like he doth, when he look- 
eth through a rainyorawindycloiade : and much like hereun- 
to, we fhall fee this mixture of ftrong white with a faint /had- 
dow of black, make at this brim of the paper., a faire ledge of 
red ; which will end and vanifh, in a merelightfomconeof 

But at the hither edge of the paper, wfaere the fecondary 
weake picture of white is mingled with the ftrong black picture, 
in this mixture , t he blackc is prevalent, and accordingly (as 
we faid of the mixture of the paintsrs colours ) there muft ap- 
pcarcatthebottomeof die paper, a Lembe of deepeblew : 
which will grow more and mre lightfomej, the higher it go- 
eth : and fo, pafTmg through violet and leagreene it will vanish 
in light, when itreacheth to the maftering field of primary 
whitencfle,that iendeth his ftronger raves by direcl lines : and 
this tranfpofaion of the colours at the icverall ends of the paper 
fheweth the reaibn why they appeare quite contrary, if you put 
a black paper upon a whitecarpet. And therefore , we need not 
add any thino particularly concerning that. 

And likewiie, out of this we may underftand, why the eo- 
lours appeare quite contrary (that i, red where before btev? 
appeared; and blew, where red) if wee lookc upon the fame 

Bb 3 object 


r object through the glafle in an other pofition or fituation ofit r 

The rcafon namely, if we rayfe it fo high , that we muftlooke upwards to 
whythcprifme fee the object ; which thereby appeareth above us .-whereas in 
pofcuon, tne former fitnation, it came in through the lower fuperficies, 
rea pcare ^ we ^^ cc ^ downe to it, and it appeared under us:fbr in this 
'contrary fecond cafe, the objects comming into the glaiTe by a fuperficies. 
to whar they not parallel as before, but (leaping, from the objectwards : it 
did , when it g)jioweth,that the neerer the object is, the lefler mud the angle 
was in an other be^^h j t maketli with the iitperficies ; contrary to what hap- 
pened in the tormer cafe : and likewise, that if from one point 
of the neerer .object, there fall two rayes upon the glaffe, the 
ray that falleth uppermoft, will make a lefler angle, then the 
other that falleth lower : and to, by our former difcourfe, that 
point may come to appeare in the fame place with a point of the 
iiirther objed;and thereby make a middling colour. 

So that in this cafe, the white which is neerer, will mingle his 
feeble pidture with the black that is further off : whereas before 
the black that was further off , mingled his feeble fhadow with 
the ftrong picture of the neerer white. Wherefore by our rule 
we borrowed of the painters, there will now appeare a blew on 
the further end of the paper, where before appeared a red ; and 
by coufequence on the neerer end a red will now appeare, where 
in the former cafe a blew appeared. Thiscafewehavecho/en., 
as the plainefl to fhcw the nature offuch colours : out of which 
he that is curious , may derive his knowledge to other cafes, 
which wee omit ; bccaufe our intent is onely to give a gene- 
rail doctrine , and not the particulars of th Science : and ra- 
ther to take away admiratioa.then to inftruct the Reader in this 

6. As for the various colours,which are made by ftrayning lioht 

The reafon through a glafle, or through ibme other Diaphanous body ; to 

olours V ?"e- ^ ovcr [ ' ie ca "f es an< ^ variety of them, we muft examine what 

neraUby "pure things they are that do concurre to the making of them : and 

light paffing frhat accidents may arrive unto thofe things, to vary their pro- 

through a duct. It is cleare,that nothing interveneth or concurreth to the 

prifmc. producing of any of thelecolours,bcfides the light it felfe which 

is dyed into colour, and the glafle or Diaphanous body through 

which it paflcth.In them therefore,and in nothing elfc,wc are to 

make our enquiry. 


OF BODIES.Chap.XXX. 323 

To begin then., wee may obferve,that light patting through 
2 pjifme, and being caft upon a reflecting objects not alwayes 
colour ; but in fbme circumtfances it Itill continued! light, 
and in others it becommetk colour. Withall wee may ob/crvc 
that thofe beames which continue light, and endure very little 
mutation by their paflage , making as many refractions, do 
make much greater deflexions from the ftraight lines by which 
they came into the glafle, then thofe rayes doe which turne to 
colour ; as you may experience, it you oppofe one fiurface of 
thegJaffe perpendicularly to a Candle, and let a paper (not ir- 
radiated by the candle; cppofite to one of the other fides of the 
glafle : for upon the paper , you fliall fee faire light fnine with- 
out any colour : and you may perceive., that the line by which 
the light commeth to the paper, is almoft perpendicular to that 
line by which the light commeth to the Prifme.^But when li^ht 
becommetli colour , it ftriketh very obliquely upon one fide 
of the glafle ; and commeth likewife, very obliquely out of the 
other, that fendeth it in colour upoh a refle&ent body > fb that 
in conclusion, there is nothing left us whereupon to ground the 
generation of fuch colours , befides the litdenefle of the angle 
and thefloapingnefleof the line, by which theilluminant Itriketh 
one fide of the glafle and commeth out at the other, when co- 
lours proceed from fuch a percullion. 

To this then we muil wholly apply our felves : and knowing 
that generally , when light falleth upon a body with fo great a 
floaping or inclination, fo much of it as getteth through , muf i: 
needs be wcake and much diffufed ; it folio weth that the reafbn 
of fuch colours , muft neceflarily confift inthisdflFufion and 
weakene/Te of light ; whichthemoreitisdiffuied, the weaker 
itroweth;and the more lines of darkncffe are between thelines 
onight^and do mingle themlelves with them. 

To confirme this, you may obierve, how juft at the egrefle 
from the prifme of that light which going on a little further be- 
commeth colours, no colour at all appeareth upon a paper op- 
pofed clole to the fide of the glaflejuntill removing it further off, 
the colours begin to fliew themfelves upon the edges : thereby 
convincing manifeftly, that it was the excefTe of light which 
hindered them from appearing at the firft . And in like manner, 
if you put a burning glafle betwcene the light and thcprifme, 

B b fo 


fo as to multiply the light which goetfcthrowgh the prifme 
to the paper , you deftroy much of the colour by converting it 
into light. But on the other fide, if you thicken the ayre, and 
make it dusky with fmoake, or wich duft ; you will plainely fee, 
that where the light commeth through a convexeelaflc ( per- 
pendicularly oppoied to the illummant) there wiliappeare co- 
lours on the edges of the cones that the light maketh : and per- 
adventure the whole cones would appeare coloured if the dark- 
ning were conveniently made : for if anopacous body be let 
within either of the cones , its h'des \viir~appeare coloured, 
though the ay re be but moderately thickned : which Ihevveth 
that the addition of a little darknefle , would make that which 
otherwiie appeareth pure light, be throughly dyed into colours. 
And thus you have the true and adequate cau/eof the appea- 
rance of fach colours. 

^ Now.,to understand what colours, and upon which fides, will 

Upon what appeare ; we may coniider , that when light pafleth through a 
fide etery co glafle,or other diaphanous body, fo much of it as fhineth in the 
lout appetreth a y re)Or U p On feme reflecting body bigger then it fclfej, after its 
pureTght paflagethrou^h the glaflfe , muft of necerHty have darknefle on 
ng through both lidcs of it ; and fo be comprised and limited by two dark- 
c. neflfes : butiflbmeopacousbody,that isJeflcthen'theligh^ be 
put in the way of the light a then it may happen contrariwi/e, that 
there be darknefle ( or the madow of that opacous body ) be- 
- tween two lights. 

Againe , we muft con(ider 3 that when light falleth fb upon a 
prifme as to make colours, the two outward rayes which pro- 
ceed from the light to the two fides of the faperficies at which 
the light entcreth , are fo refracted that at their commiflg out 
againe through the other fuperficies , that ray which made the 
lefle angle with the outward fuperficiesof the glaflfe, going in, 
maketh the greater angle with the outfide of the other fuperfi- 
cies,commingout : and contrariwife , that ray which made the 
greater angle, going in, maketh the lefler,at its comming out : 
and the two internall angles, made by thofe two rayes , and the 
outfide of the fuperficies they ifiue at,arc greater then two right 
ingles : and fo we fee that the light dilatcth it felfe at its com- 

Now, bcciuic rayes chat i^fuc through a fpcrficics,ihc neerer 
\ they 

OF BODIES, Chap-XXXi. 325 

they arc to be perpendiculars unto that fupcrficie:, fo much the 
thicker they are : it fblloweth, that this dilatation of light at its 
comming out of the glaffe, imirt be made and muft encreafc 
from that fide where the angle was leaf i at the going in, and 
jreatcftat the comming out : fothat,theneerer to the contrary 
fide you take a part of light, the thinner the light muft be there: 
and contrari\vile,the thicker it irmffbe, the ncercr it is unto the 
fide where the angle at the rayes comming out is the greater. 
WhercfbrCjthc ftroageft light, (that is,the place where the light 
is leaf I mixed with darknefTe)mufi: be neercr that fide then the o- 
ther. Confequently hereunto,if by an opacous body you make a 
iliadow comprehended within this light, that fliadow muft alib 
have its ftrongefl part , neerer unto one of the lights betwixt 
which it is comprifed, then unto the other : for , fliadow being 
nothing elfe , but the want of light , hindred by fbme opacous 
body; it muft of nccefTity lie averfed from the illuminant , jutt 
as the light would have laine if it had not been hindred. Where- 
fore, feeing that the Stronger fideof light , doth more impeach 
the darknefle,thca the feebler fide dotfi ; the deepeft darke muft 
incline to that fide, where the light is weake/t j that is,towards 
that fide on which the fhadow appeareth , in refpe& of the opa- 
cous body or of the illuminant , and fo be a caufe of deepnefTe 
of colour on that fideof it happen to be fringed with colour . 


T'kt C4nftJ if cert Mine nfpetntncti in lttm*9Vtt ctUurs ; with 4 
concltt^ntflkt Mfcsttrfe touching the fertfes tndtht 


Ut of thele grounds we are to fecke the reiblution of ail The rcafon of 
luchfymptoms as appear unto us in this kind ofcoloun. cach feverall 
Firrt therefore calling to mind, how VYC have already SSSJfol 
declared, that the red colour is made by a greater proportion of ^ y \ { ^ pa ffi n g 
light mingtedv^ithdarkneffe, and the blew with a leflc proper- through a 
tion : it mult follow, that when light pafleth through a glaic in prifmc. 
fuchfbrtas to make colours 5 the mixture of tiac light and -dark- 
cflc on that fide where the light is ftrongeft will cnciinc to a 



red: and their mixture on the other fide,where the light is wea- 
kelr, will make a violet or blew : and this we fee to tall cut ac- 
cordingly , in the light which is dueled by going through a 
prifme ; for a red colour appeareth on that fide from which the 
light doth diiarc or encreafe , and a blew is on that fide towards 
which it decreafeth. 

Now if a darke body be p'aced within this light/o as to have 
the light come on both tides of it : we fhall fee ihc contrary 
happen ahout the borders of the picture or iliadow of ue darkc 
body : that is to lay, the red colour will be on that fide of the 
pidure which is towards or over againfl the blew colour ti,at is 
made by the glafle : and the blew of the picture will beontkat 
fide which is towards the red that is made by rhc gJafte , as you 
may experience if youp'acca fknderopacour body a'ongthc 
prifrne in t!je way of n,c .'igijt either before or behind the 
prilme. The rcaion whereof is t; .at the opacous body /landing 
in the middle. environed by ii^tn ,.!:ud:-ii. ti,e 'i^nt.andmaketh 
two lights of that which was bur M--C : each of which lights 3 is 
comprifed between twodarkneflcs, fo wit, between each border 
of fliadow that joyneth to each exiream of the light that comcth 
from the glaffe, and each fide of theopacous bodies /hadovy. 
Wherefore, in each of theie lighcsjor rather in each of their com^. 
mixtions with darkncfle, there mutt be red on the one fide, and 
blew on the other; according to the courfe of light which we 
"have explicated. 

And thus it frlleth out, agreeable to the rule we have given, 
that blew commeth to be on that fide of the opacous bodies fha- 
dow on which the glaffe cafteth red, and red on that fide of it-on 
which theglaflecafleth blew: likewise when light going through 
a convexeglafle maketh two cones , the edges of the cone be- 
twixt theglaffe and the point of concur fe will appeare red, ii t':e 
roome be darke enough : and the edges of the further core, will 
appcarcblew, both for the reafon given 4 : for in this^cafc the 
point of concoarfc is the firong light betwixt the two cones : 
f which , that betwixt theglafTc and the point, is the flrorger., 
that bcynd the point the weaker : and for this very reafbn , f 
a* opacous body be put in the axis of theie two cones . both rhc 
fides of its picture will be red, if it beheld in the firft ccne which 
is next to the glafle^and both will be blcrv ifthe body be Ctuated 



in the further cone 5 for both fides being equally fituated to 
the courfe of the light , within its ovvne cone , there is nothing 
to vary the colours, but onely the f Jrength and the vveakneflc of 
the two lights of the cones , on this fide , and on that fide the 
point of concurle : which point , being in this cafe the ftrong 
and cleare light whereof we made general! mention in our 
precedent note, the cone towards the glafle and the illuminanr, 
is the Wronger fide^and the cone from the the weaker. 
In thofecafes,where this reafbn is not concerned, we fhall fee 
the viciory carried in the queftion of colours , by the ihady fide 
of the opacous body: that is, the blew colour will ftill appeare on 
that fide of the opacous bodies Shadow that is furthest from the 
illuminant. But where both caufes doe concurre and contra/I 
for precedence , there the courle of the light carrieth it : that is 
to fay_,the red will be on that fide of the spacous bodies fliadow 
where it is thicker and darker, and blew on the other fide where 
thefliadow is wot fo ttrong; although theftiadow becaft that way 
that the red appeareth : as is to be feen, when a (lender body is 
placed betwixt the priimeand the refle&ent body, upon which 
the light and colours are call; through the prilme : and it is evi- 
dent, that this caufe of the c*urfe of the fliadow,, is in it felfa 
weaker caufe,, then the other of the courfe of light , and muft 
give way unto it whenfoever they encounter (as it can not be 
expedlccf,but that in all circumtfanees.fiiadows fhould be light^) 
becaufe the colours which the glafle cafkth in this cafe, are much 
more faint and dusky then in the other. 

For effects of this latter caufe , we fee that when an opacous 
body lyeth crofle the prilme^ whiles it ftandeth end-waies, the 
red or blew colour will appeare on the upper or lower fide of its 
picture,, according as the illuminant is higher or lower then the 
tranfverfe opacous body : the blew ever keeping to that fide of 
the picture, that is furtheft from the body , and the illuminanc 
that make it: and the red the contrary ; likevvile if an opacous 
body be placed out of the axis,in either of the cones wehave ex- 
plicated before, the blew will appeare on that lide of the picture 
which is furtheft advanced in the way that the fliadow is 
caft: and the red,on the contrary : and fb, if the opacous body 
be placed in the firft cone ( befide the axis) the red will appeare 
on that fide of thepi&nre in the bafis of the fecond cone, which 



is next to the circumference j and the blew, on that fide, which 
is next the a\ii : but if it be placed on one fide of the axis it\ the 
fccond cone, then the blew will appears on that fide thepJciure 
which is next the circumference; and thered,on that fide,which 
is next the center of the bafis of the COJKT. 

* There remaincth yet one difficulty of moment to be detcrtni- 

b! diffiCU fol P ed liet * : vvfl ' c k ** w hy* wnn through a glafle,tvYO colours (namely, 

touching! he 6 ^lew am ^ reci ) are ca(t from a canclle "P n a P a Pr or wall , "if 

prifmc, you put your eye in the place of one of the colours that fhineth 

upon the wall., and fo that colour commeth to fliine upon your 

eye, in fuch fort that another man who looketh upon it, will fee 

that coJour plainly upon your eye , nevertheJeffe, you fhali fee 

the ether colour in the glaflfe ? As for example, if on your eye 

there fhmeth a (hall fee a blew in the glafleiand ifa blew 

ftiineth upon your eye,you mall fee a red. 

The rcafon hereof is , that the colours which appeare in the 
glafle.,are of the raturc of thofe luminous colours which we firrt 
explicated,that arife from looking upon white and blacke bor- 
dering together : for a candle ftanding in the ayre, is as it were 
a white fituated betweene two blackes : the circumftant dusky 
ayre , having the nature of a blacke : fo then , that fide of the 
candle which is feen through the thicker part of the glafle , ap- 
peared red ; and that which is feen through the thinner,appea- 
rethblew: in the fame manner as when we lonke through the 
* glaiTe ; whereas^the colours fhine contrarywile upou a paper or 

reflefting objed 5 as we have already declared, together wuh the 
rcafom of both thefe appearances ; each fitted to its proper cafe, 
of looking through the glafTe upon the luminous object fur- 
rounded with darknefle, in the one ; and of ebierving theeffecl 
wrought by the fame luminous object in fome medium or upon 
fome refle&ent fuperficies,in the other. 

And to coafirme this, if a white paper be let ftanding hollow 
before the glafTe ( like halfe a hollow pillar, whoie flat ftandcth 
edgcwaies towards the glafle, fo as both the cd^es may be feen 
through it) the further edge will feem bJew, and thencerer will 
be red; and the like will happen , if the paper be held in the free 
ayreparallell to the lower fuperficics of the glafle, without any 
bdackecarpet to limit both ends of it (which ferveth to make the 
colour* the fmartcr) 16 that in boch cafc5,thc ayrc ferveth manj- 



feftly for a blacke ; in the firft, betwecne the two white edges ; 
and in the fecond , limiting the two white ends : and by coufc- 
quence } the ayre about the candle muft iikewiie fervc for two 
blackes, including the light candle berwecne them. 

Sevcrall other delighfiill experiments of luminous co/ours I 
might produce, to confirme the grounds I havelayd,for the na- 
curc and making of them. But I conceived that thefe I have 
mentioned,are aboundantly enough for the end I propofe unto 
my fclfe : therefore I will take my leave of this fuppleand nice 
fiibjedt ; referring my Reader ( if he be curious to entertaine 
himlelfe with a full variety offuch fhining wonders)toour inge- 
nious Countrcyman, and my worthy friend, Mr. Hall : who at 
my laft being ar Liege,mewed me there mort of the experiences 
I jiairement oned ; togetherwith feverall other very fincand 
remarkable curiohties concerning light^which he promifcd me 
he would ihortly pubji h in a worke,that he had already caft and 
aimoit hr.iOied upon that iubje& : and in it, I doubt not but he 
will give entire iatisfadliou to all the doubts and Problems that 
may concur in this iubje : whereas my little exercife formerly. 
in making experiments of this kind , and my lefle conveniency 
or attempting any now, makcth me content my lelfc with thus 
ipinning ot a courie thred from wooll carded me by others, that 
may rurne through the whole doctrine of colours, whofe caufcs 
ha e hitnerto been fb much admired : and that it will do fb,! am 
ttrongly periwaded botiibecaufe if I look upon the caufes which 
I have aliened * yw> i, me tlnnkes they appeare very agrecab'e 
to nature and to reafon ; asd if I apply them to the feverall 
Phxnomens which Mr. Hall shewed me. and to as many others, 
aslhaveotherwife met with, I findethey agree exactly with 
them and render a full account of them. 

And thus, you hare the whole nature ofluminous coi'ours,re- 
iblved into the mixtion of light and darknefle : by the due orde- 
ring of which ,who have skill therein , may produce any middle 
colour he pleafeth : as I my ielte have feen the experience of in- 
finite changes in fiich (brt made ; fb that.itleemeth unteme, 
nothing can be more manife/t, then that luminous colours are 
generated in the way thacis here delivered. Of which how that 
gentlc,and obedient Pniloibphy of Jt*litus (readily obedient 
to what hard taskc ioever y OH aifigne it) will render a rational 1 



account ; and what difcreet yertue , it will give the fame things 
to produce different colours , and to make ditferent appearan- 
ces , meerely byfuch nice changes of fituation, I do not well 
underftand : but peradventure the Patrones of it, may fay that 
every fuch circumtfance-rs a fondiiiofint qtm nan: and therewith 
(noioubt) their Auditors will be much the wifer in compre- 
hending the particular nature or" light , and of the colours that 
have their origine from it. 

3- . The Rainebow, for whofe fake moft men handle this matter 

'anyhow ^ ummous colours , is generated in the firft of the two wates 
byThecolour we have delivered for the production of fuch colours : and hath 
of any body its origine from refraction, when the eye being at a convenient 
we may know diftance from the refracting body , looketh upon it to di.-cerne 
thcconopofiti- ^^ appear^ ' m ' ltt The ipeculation of which may be found 
Ufdfe. C ^ in that exceilenc diicourfe of Mounfeurdes Cartes which is the 
/txt of IHS Meteors ; where he hath with great accuratenefie de- 
livered a mofl ingenious doctrine of this myftery : had not his 
bad chance of milling in a former principle(as I conceive) fbme- 
what obfcured it. For he there gi veth the caufe fo neat , and ib 
juftly calculated to the appearances, as no man can doubt but 
that he hath found out the true reafon of this wonder of nature, 
whiQh hath perplexed Ib many great wks : asmayalmoft be 
feen with our very eyes ; when looking npon the frefli deaw in 
a Sunfliiny morning,we. may in due portions perceive the rain- 
bow colours, not three yards diftant from us : in which we may 
diftingwifli even iingle drops with their effects. Jut he having 
determined the nature of light to confift in motion , and pro- 
ceeding consequently, he concludeth colours to be but cerraine 
kinds of motion; by which I fearc it is impo/Tible that any good 
icceunt mould be given of the experiences we fee. 

But what we have already iaid in that point,! conceive is (uf- 
ficicnt to give the Reader fatisfe&ion therein : and to iecure 
him, that the generation of the colours in the rain-bow, as well 
as all other colours, is likewife reduced to the mingling of light 
and darknefle : which is our princijwll intent to prove : adding 
thereunto byway of advertisement, for others whofe lei/ure 
ipay permit them to make uCe thereof, that who mail Hal lance 
i^e proportions of luminous colours, may peradventure make 
afteptp iu<%c of the natures ofthoitbocfics, which 



really and conftantly doc vvcarc like dyes; for,thc figures ofthe 
Icaft parts of fuch bodies, jovntly with the connexion or ming^ 
ling of them with pores.mufi of nece/Iity be cbat which maketh 
chem reflet light unto our eye* 3 in fuch proportions, as the kj- 
minoiis colours of their tincture and femblance do. 

For two things are to be confidered in bodies, in order td TCA 
fleiiting of light : either the extancies and cavities of them ,- or 
iheir hardnefle and fbftneffe. As for the firft ; the proportions 
of light mingled with darknefTe will be varied, according as the 
extancies or the cavities do exceed, and as each of them is great 
or fmall : fince cavities have the nature of darknefle, in reipect 
efextancies, as ourmoderne Af ironomers do fhew, when they 
give account of the face (as feme call it) in the orbe of the 
Moone. Likewise in regard of toft or of refillent parts, light 
will be reflected by them, more or lefle ftrongly, that is , more 
or lefle mingled with darkneffe j for whereas it reboundeth 
fmartly backe,if it ftriketh upon a hard and a refiltent body, and 
accordingly will (hew it felfe in a bright colour : it muft of ne- 
ceiTity not reflect at all, or but very feebly if it penetrateth into 
a body of much humidity, or if it loofeth it felfc in the pores df 
it 5 and that little which commeth fo weakely from it , muft 
confequently appeare of a dusky die rand thefe two, being all the 
taufes ofthe great variety of colours we fee in bodies according 
to the quality of the body, in which the reall colour appeareth,,it 
may eafily be determined from which of them it proceedeth : 
and then by the colour, you may judge of the compo/idon and 
mixture of the rare and denfe parts , which by reflecting light 

In fine , out of all we have hitherto faid in this Chapter , we 4 ; 
may conclude the primary intent of our fb long difcouriejvvhich Thar all the 
ij.that as well the fenies of living creatures, as the fenfible qua tofibJe quali- 
lities in bodies, are made by the mixtion of rarity and dertlity, [^ "j C r eful. 
as well as the naturall qualities we fpoke of in their place : for it nngout of fc- 
cannot be denied but-that heate and cold, and the other couples veral mixture* 
or paires.whichbeate upon our touch , are the very fame as vve of rarity and 
fee in other-bodies : the qualities which move our taHe and 
fmell,aremanifcftly a kin and joyned with them: light we have 
concluded to be fire: and of motion (which afFecleth our care) 
it is not difputable : fo that it is evident, how til fenfibie qua- 



qualities, arc as truely bodies, as thole other qualities which we 
call natural!. 

To this we mayaddc, that the properties of thefe fenfible 
qualities are fuch as proceed evidently from rarity and denfity ; 
for (to omit thofe which our touch taketh notice of^as too plain 
tobccjuefHoned) Phyfitianf judge and determine t ie natura/I 
qualities of meats, and of medicines , andofhmp'es by their 
talks and fmels : by thoie ijua iti they fin Je out powers in 
them to do material! opera t ions , and iucn as our mftruments 
for cuttingjfiling.brufhiiig.and the like do unto ruder and grof- 
fer bodies. All which vertues.being in thcie instruments by the 
different tempers of rarity and denlity , is a convincing argu- 
nient,that it mufl be the fame caules,whic'i muft produce ef&c'rs 
of the fame kind in their fmels and tattcs : andasfbrlight^itis 
known hew corporeally it worketh upon our eyes. 

Againe if we look particu'arly into thecompofitionof the or- 
ganes ofourfenfes,wenial mtet with nothing but iiich cjualitics 
as we finde in thecompofition ofall other naturall bodies. If we 
fearch into our eye , we fliali di'cover in it nothing but diapha- 
neity, foftnefle , divers colours , and confiftencies ; which all 
Anatomies, to explicate, do paralleiJ in other bodies: the like is 
of cur tongue our noiethrils,and our eares. As for our touch ; 
that is ib materall a fenfc, and fo diifufed over t^e w'iole body, 
we can have no difFculty about it.Seemg then that ail the qua;i- 
ties we can discover in riie organes of our fenles^are made by the 
various minglings of rarity with deBfity,how can we doubt,buc 
that the aili ve powers over thefe patients , muft be of the fame 
nature and kind? 

Againe, /edng that examples ahove brought, doe convince, 
that the objects ofone fenie , may be known by another $ who 
can doubt of a community among them,if not ofdegrec,at the 
leaft of the whole kind? As we fee that the touch, is the ground-; and confequently , that being evidently 
cprporeall and confifting in a rtmper of rarity and denfity, why 
fliould wema.kedillncuit} ma< lowing the like of the reft ? 

Befides.letuscompoieot rarity and denfky, fuch tempers as, 
we finde in our fenft's j and let us againe compofe of rarity and 
denfity , fuch adors ,as we have determined the qualities , which 
Wccaiilenfiblc, to be; andwilliinotnianifeftly foJloyy, that 




thcfe two applied to one another, : muft produce fuch effeds , is 
we aflRrme our fenfes have ? that is,to pafTe the outward object, 
by different degrees, unto an inward receiver. 

Againc, let us cart our eyes upon the naturall rcfblution of j 
bodies , and how they move us, and we mall thereby difcover, Why the fenfcs 
both what the fenlcs are , and why they arc juft fb many , and " "^TJ fire 

that they cannot be more. For an out ward body may move us, in . J umber / 

i i_,i t L witnacnclU' 

either in its ownebuJkc or quantity | or as it worketh upon an- fionof sllchc 

other. The firft is dene by the touch , the fecond by the care, former dodria 
when a body moving the ayrc, makcth us take notice of his mo- concemijg 
tion. Now in refblution.there are three adive parts proceeding t ^ lcm? 
from a body,which have power to move us.The fiery par,which 
you lee worketh upon our eyes,by the vertue of light. The ayric 
paT which we know moveth our nofcthrils, by being fucked in 
with the ayre. And Jaftly.the fait, which difTolveth in watcr^and 
(b moveth our watry fenfe; which is our tafte. 

And thefe being all the adive parts , that mew themfelves in 
therefblutionofabody; how can we imagine there mould be 
any more fenies to be wrought upon ? for what the flablc body 
iheweth of it felfe,vvill be reduced to the touch : what as it mo- 
? eth,to hearing : what the refolntions of it^according to the na- 
tures of the refolved atomes that fly abroad j will concerne the 
other three fenfes,as wehave declared. And more waies ofvyor- 
king 3 or of adive parts, we cannot conceive to fpring out of the 
nature of a body. 

Finally, if we caft our eyes upon the intention of nature : to 
what purpofc are our fenfes , but to bring us into knowledge of 
the natures of the fiibftances we converge withall ? furely , to 
cffcd this , there cannot be invented a betrer,or more reafbna- 
ble expedient, then to bring unto our judgement (eate the like- 
neffes or extracts ofthofefubftances, in Co delicate a model/, 
that they may not be often/we or cumbcrfbme ; like fb many 
patternes prefented unto us , to know by them. what the whole 
piece is: fbrallfimilitude is a communication betweene pro 
things in that quality , wherein their likenefle confifteth : and 
therefore we cannot doubt , but that nature hath given us by 
the meanes we have explicated , an eflay to all the thingt in the 
world, that fall under our commerce, whereby of judge whether 
they be profitable or nocivc unto us j and yet in To delicate and 

Cc fubuli 


fubtile a quantity's may in no waies be oftcnlive to us , whiles 
we take our meafures to attract what is good,and avoyd what is 

Mounficttr da 
Cartss his opi- 
nion touching 


Of fnf*tle t cr the motint rtkerebj fe*fi it property txcrciftd, 

OUt of the considerations which weha-ve delivered in 
thefe lafi Chapters,the Reader may gather the unreaib- 
nableneffe of vulgar Philofophers _, whoro explicate 
life and fenfe.,are not content to give us termes without explica- 
ting them ; but will force us to believe contradictions : telling 
us,that life confined in this, that the fame thing hath a power to 
wcirke upon it felfe : and that fenfation , is a working of die 
active part of the fame feufe,upon its paflive part ; and yet will 
admit no parts in it : but will have the lame indivifible power 
workeupon it lelfe. And this ., with liich violence and downe- 
bearing ofall oppofition, that they deeme him not con/iderabie 
ia the lchooles,who ihall offer only to doubt of what they teach 
him hereabout; but brand him with the cenfure of one who 
knoweth not, and contradi&eth the very firft principle* of 
Philofophy. And therefore, it is requifite we fliould looke 
fomewhat more particularly into the manner how fenlation is 

Mounfieut des Cartes ( who by his great and heroike au 
temprs > and by /liewing mankind how to iieere and husband 
their realbn to bcft advantage , hath left us no excufe for be- 
ing ignorant of any thing worth the knowing) explicating the 
nature of ienfe, is of opinion, that the bodies without us^ in cer- 
taine circumftances.doe give a blow upon our exterior organes: 
from whence, by the continuity of the parts, that blow or mo- 
tion-is continued , till it come to our brainc and feitc of know- 
ledge ; upon which it giveth a (boke anfvverable to that j which 
iJ^c outward feniefirft received: and there this knockecaufing 
'g^rtkulareffc<St j aecordiiig to the particular nature of the mo- 
r/ which depwieth ef the nature of the ob;# that produ- 
om foule aodl mind hath notice by this mcanes, of every 


thing that knocketh at our gates : and by the great variety of 
knocks or motions that our braine feeleth (which rifeth from as 
great a variety of natures in the objects that gaufe them) we are 
enabled to judge cf the nature and conditions of every thing we 

As for example : he conceiveth light to be nothing elfe but a 
pcrcuflion made by the illuminant upon the ayre , or upon the 
ethercall fubftajnce , which he putteth to be mixed with , and to 
runne through all bodies : which being a continuate medium 
between the illuminant and our-ienfe ; thepercuiTion upon that, 
ftriketh alfo our fenfe which he calleth the nerve that reacheth 
from the place ftrucken (to wit , from the bottome of our eye) 
unto the braine. Novv,by reafbn of the continuity of this firing 
or nerve, he conceiveth that the blow which is made upon the 
outward endof it by the ether, is conveyed by the other end of it 
to the braine ; that end, firiking the braine in the fame meafiire 
as the ether f Irucke the other end of it : like the j'acke of a Vir- 
ginall, which rtriketh the (bunding cord, according as the Mu- 
iitians hand prefleth upon the <iop. The part of the braine 
which is thus tf rueken , he fuppofeth to be the fantafie , where 
he deemeth the fbule doth refide ; and thereby taketh notice 
of the motion and ob/c& that are without. And what is (aid 
thusof/ight, to be applied proportionally to the relt of the 

This then is the fumme of Monfieur des Cartes his opinion, 
which he hath very finely exprefled , with all the advantages 
that oppofiteexamples , fignificant words , and cleare method 
can give anto a witty dilcourle. Which yet is but a part of the 
commendations he deferveth , for what he hath done on this 
particular. He is over and above all this, the firft that I have ever 
-met with, who hath publifhed any conceptions of this nature,, 
whereby to make the operations of fenfe intelligible. Cer- 
tainely , this praife will ever belong unto him , that he hath 
given the firft hint offpeaking groundedly , and to the pur- 
pofe upon this fubjeft , and whofbever fliall carry it any rur- 
ther ( as what important myftery was ever borne and perfe&ed 
at once?) muft acknowledge to have derived his light ftora 

For mypart, I fhill fo Arre agree with him as to allow mo- 

Cc a tion 


* cion alone to be f ufficient to w or ke feniation in us : and not one- 
Th A ut kjl ty to allow it fufficient, but alfo to profeflc, that not onely this, 
' but that no other effec* whatfoevcr can be wrought in us, but 
motion, and by meanes of motion. Which is evident oat of 
what we have already delivered, (peaking of bodies in gencrall 5 
that all tftion among them , either is locall motion,or elfe fol- 
Icwcth it : and no IdTe evident , out of what we have declared 
in particular , concerning the operations of the outward fenies, 
and the objects that worke upon them : and therefore , whoib- 
ever fhall in this matter , require any thing further then a dif- 
ference of motion , he muft firtt feeke other inf truments in ob- 
jc&stocaufeit. For, examining from their very origine, the 
natures of all the bodies we converfe withall ; we cannot finde 
any ground to believe they have power or meanes to worke any 
thing beyond motion. 

But Ifliall crave leave to differ from him, in determining 
what is the fubje& of this motion , whereby the braine judgeth 
of the nature of the thing that caufeth it . He will allow no locall 
change of any tiling in a man , further then certaine vibrations 
of firings , which he giveth the objects to play upon from the 
very fenfe up to the braine : and by their different manners of 
Shaking the Draine,he will have it know, what kind o ' "thing it 1$ 
that ftriketh the outward fenfe, without removing any thing 
within our body from one p!ace to another. But I fhall goe the 
more common way 5 and make the fpirits to be the porters of 
all newcs to the braine : onely adding thereunto that thele 
newes which they carry thither, are materiall participations of 
the bodies, that worke upon the outward organes of the (enfes ; 
and patting through them,do mingle themfelvcs with the fpirits, 
and fo doe goe whither they carry them , that is, to the braine ; 
unto which, r rom all parts of the body, they have immediate re- 
frt,and a perpetuallcommuncation with it. 

So that, toexercifefenfe (which the Latincs doe ezllftMtir*, 
but in English we have no one word common to our fevcrail 
particular notions of divers perceptions by fenfe) is, Our brd*e 
t* rtttntc ** tmfr*J[i* fitm tkcexttrne tfy& fytluff<r*tic*er 
mtfatun of *n orgAniceiifvt mttdt fur that fttrf(e t **d frm* 
** of tkoftyphicb wt term* an txtcr** fenft j fern wkUJt rwfref- 
, *f**Bj fawttk fim motim frtfnr r tht tivhf 


. And thus you fee that the outward icnfei , arc not truly 
i'cs as if the power oftenlation were in them : but in another 
meaning, to wit, fo far re as they are inftruments of qualifying 
or conveying the obiecl to the braine. 

New, that the fpirits are the inrtruments of this convey- 
ance, is evident, by what we daily fee, that if a man be very at-" 
tentive to fomc one extcrne object ( as to the hearing or (eeing 
offbmething that much deli^hteth or dilpleafeph him ) henci- 
ther heareth or feethany thing but what his mind is bent upon; 
though all that while, his eyes and eares be open, and fevcrali of 
their objects be prefent,which at other times would afte>ft him. 
For what can be the reafon of this, bat that the braine emp.'oy- 
ingthe greateft par t of his ttore of Ipirits about that one object, 
which fo powerfully entertaineth him the others find very fevy 
free for them to imbue with their tin&ure ? And therefore, 
they have not ftrength -enough to give the braine a fuflkient 
tafte of thcmfelves^to make it be obferved; nor to bring them- 
ielves into a place where they may be diftin&Iy difcerncd :but 
ftrivingtogetuntoit, they lofe themfelves in the throng of 
the others, who for that time doe be/lege the braine clolely. 
Whereas, in Monfieurdes Cartes his way ( in which no ipirits 
are required ) the apprehenfion muft of necetfity be carried pre- 
cilely according to the force of the motion of the externe 

This argument I confeffe, is not fo convincing a oneagainft 
his opinion, but that the neceffity of the confequence may be a- 
voidedj and another realbn be given for this efFec^inMounfieur 
des Cartes his doftrine : for he may fay, that the affection be- 
ing vehemently bent upon fome one objeft, may can fe the mo- 
tion to be fo violent by the addition of'inward percuflions , that 
thcother comming from the outward fenfe,being weaker, may 
be drowned by it;as lefler founds arc by greater, which doe for- 
cibly carry our eares their way,and doe fill them fo entirely^that 
the others cannot get in to be heard : or as the drawing of" one 
man that pulleth backevvards , is not felt when a hundred draw 
fbrvr ards. Yet this is hard to conceive , confidering the great 
eminency which the prefcat obje& hath over an abfent one , to 
make it ielfbe felt : yvhenee it followeth , that the mnltiplica- 

creafcdwilhin^to overtop 
3 ana 


and beare downe the motion^cauled by apreient objeft Actually 
working without. 

But that which indeed convinceth me to beleeve I goe not 
wrong in this courfe, which I have fet downe for externe bodies 
working upon our fenfe and knowledge : is firft , the conveni- 
ence, and agreeableneifc to nature , both in the objects and in 
us, that it fhould be done in that manner : and next, a difficulty 
in Mounfieur des Cartes his way, which methinketh maketh 
itimpotfible that his mould be true. And then, his being abfb- 
lutely the befl of any I have hitherto met witha 11, and mine fup- 
plying what his falleth fliort in, and being fufticient to perform 
the effects we fee : I ftiall not thinke I doe amifle in beleeving 
my owne to be true, till fome body elfe fLew a better. 

Let us examine thcfe considerations one after another. It is 
That wtaU manifest by what we have already eflab'ifhed , that there is a 
fpirits are the perpetuall fluxe of little parts cr atomes out of all fcnfible bo- 
immediate dies , that are compofed of the foure Elements, and are here in 
iaftrumentsof the fphere ofcontinuall motion by adion and paifion : and fiich 
fcnfationby it is, that in all probability thele little parts cannot chu(e but 
get in at thedoores of our bodies, and mingle themfelves 
with the fpirits that are in our nerves. Winch if they doe, 
it is unavoydable , but that of necelfity they mutt make 
fome motion in the braine ; as by the explication we have made 
of our outward fenfes, is manifett : and the braine being the 
fource and origine ofall fuch motion in the animal, as is termed 
voluntary; this ftroke of the object , will have the power to 
caufe fome variation in its motions that are of that nature : and 
by confequence, mud be a fenfation, for, that change which be- 
ing made in the braine by the object, is caufe of voluntary mo- 
tion in the animall, is that, which we call fenfation. 

But we /hall have beft fatisfaction, by confidering how it fa- 
geth with every fenie in particular. It is plain, that our toucji or 
feeling is affected by the little bodies of heate, or cold, or the 
like, which are fcjueefed or evaporated from the object; and 
doe get into our flefh , and confequently , doe mingle them- 
ielves with our ipirits ; and accordingly,our hand is htatedwith 
tfae flond of fubtile fire, which from a great onervirhout, ftrea- 
meth into it ; and is benamncxlwichjanulcituiies of little bodies 
ofooid, that ftitk ink. All which little bodies, oi heatc, or of 


fcnfible qua- 


cold,or of what kind foever they be, vrhen they are once got in, 
mult needs mingle chemfelvei with the fpirits they meet with in 
the nerve:and confequont ly, mult go along wirh them up ro the 
brainerfbr the channeil of the nerve being fb littlc,that the molt 
accurate infpe&ours ofnature cannot diltinguiili any Jitlc cavity 
or hole running along the fiibftance of it : and the /pints which 
ebbe and flow in thole channells, being fo infinitely fubtill, and 
in fb (mall a quantity,as luch channells can containe : it is evi- 
dent,that an atotne of infenfible bignefTe, is fufficicnt to imbue 
the who!e length and quantity of /pint that is in one nerve : and 
that atome,by reafon ofthe fubtilty of the liquor it is immerled 
injsprefcntlyandas it were inftantly, dirf'uied through the 
wholelubitanceofit : the Iburce therefore of that liquor being 
in the braine, it cannot be doubted, but that the force of the ex- 
terne ob/eft muft needes affeft the braine according to the 
quality ofthe faiciatome : tht is, give amotion^or knock, con- 
formable to its owne nature. 

As for our tafte, it is asplaine,that the little parts exprefled 
out ofthe body which affe&eth it , doe mingle themlelves with 
the liquor,thac being in the tongue, is continuate to the Ipirits : 
and then^by our former argument it is cvident.,they mult reach 
uuto the braine. And for our fmelling, there is nothing can 
hinder odour.? Irom having immediate palTage up to our brain, 
when by our nofe, they are once gotten into our head. 

In our hearing, there is a little more difficulty : for (bund be- 5. 

ing nothing but a motion ofthe Ayre, which ftriketh our eare ; How found 
it may leem more then needeth, to fend any corporea'l iub- isconreycd 
ft ance into the braine : and that^it is fufficient, that the vibrati- 
ons ofthe outward aire, making" the drumme of the eare, doe 
give a like motion to the ayre within the eare , that on the in- 
side toucheth die tympane.'dnd fo this ayre thus moved,maketh 
and beateth upon the braine. But this, I conceive, will not 
ierve the turne; for if there were no more, but an aSual motion, 
in the making of hearing ; I doe net fee, how founds could be 
conferved in the memory ; fince of neceliity, motion muft al- 
wayesrefide in fbmc body; which argument, wee /hall prefle 
aoone^againft Mounfieur des Cartes his opinion for the reft of 

Qut of this difficulty^ the very infpe&ion of che pares vrithin 

C c -f the 


the eare, feemeth to lead us : for had there been nothing .necef- 
farybefides motion, die very ftriking of the outward ayre a- 
gainft the tympanum, would have been fufficient without any 
other particular and extraordinary organization, to have pro- 
duced Ibundes , and to have carried their motions up to the 
braine : as wee fee the head of a drumme bringeth the motions 
of the earth unto our eare, when we lay it thereunto, as we have 
formerly delivered. But Anatomies find other tooles-and in* 
flruments;, that feetn fit to worke and forge bodies withall ; 
which we cannot imagine nature made in vaine. There is a 
hammer and an an viJe whereof the hammer, ftriking upon 
theanvi-Ie, muftofnecelTity beateoff fiich little parts of the 
brainy frames, as flying about, doe lightand flick upon the top 
oftheanvile:thefebythe trembling of the ayre following its 
courfe, cannot mifle of being carried up to that part of the 
braine, whereunto the ayre within the eare is driven by the im- 
pulie ofthe found : and as foonas they have given their knocke, 
they rebound back againe into thecells cf the braine, fitted for 
harbours to fuch winged meffengers : where they remaine 
lodged with quietneffe, till they be called for againe , to renew 
the effect which the found did make at the fir/I : and the various 
blovves which thehammer ttrikcth, according to the various vi- 
brations of the tympanum (unto which the hammer is fatte- 
ned ; and therefore is governed by its motions ) mult needs 
make great difference of bigneffes, and caufe great variety of 
fmartflefles of motion, in the little bodies which they forge. 

The laft fcnfe is of feeing ; whofe action wee cannot doubt^ 
How colours is performed by the reflection of Jight unto our eye , from the 
are conveyed bodies which we fee : and this light commeth impregnated with 
a tincture drawne from the fuperficies ofthe obj'eit it is refleit- 
ec ^ ^ rom > that is-,- it bringeth along with it, feverall ofthe little 
afomes, which of themielves doe ftreame, and it -cutteth from 
rhebody it flruck upon, and-reboundeth from; and they, ming- 
ling themfelves with the light, doe in company of it get into 
the eye; whofe fabrick, is fit to gather and unite thofe fpecies, 
as you may fee by the anatomy of it : and from the eye , their 
journey is but a iliort one to. the braine : in which , wee cannot 
fdpect that they fhould lofe their force 5 confidering, how 
other* thu cpme from organei further pflF^oeconferve ihcirs: 



and likevyife confidering the nature of* the optick /pints , which 
preconceived to be the moft refined of al that are in mans body, 

Now,that light is mingled with fuch little atomes ifluing out 
of the bodies from which it is reflected ; appearcth evidently 
enough, out of what we have Saved , of the nature and operatr- 
ons of fire and light : and it feemeth to be confirmed , by what 
I have often obferved in fbme chambers where peop'e feldomc 
come : which having their windows to the fbuth , Co a* the iunne 
lyeth upon them a great part of the day in his greareft ftrengtbj 
and their curtaines being continually drawne over them, the 
gJaffe becomes dyed very deepe of the fame colour the curtaine 
is of: which can proceed from no other caule, but that the beams 
which moot through the glafle, being reflected back from the 
curtaine,doe take Ibmething alon^ with them from the fupcrfi- 
cies ofitj which being ofamore foiide corpulence then they, i* 
left behind (as it were in the {trainer ) when they come ro preffo 
themfelves through paflages and pores, too little fork to ac- 
company them in.: and Co thole atomes of colour, doe flicke up* 
on the glafTe, which they cannot penetrate. 

Another confirmation of it is, that in certaine portions, the 
funne reflecting from flrong colours, will cart thac.vcty colour 
upon fome other place ; as I have often experienced in lively 
fcariet, and cloth of other linart colours : and this 3 not -in that 
gloating wife, as it maketh colours ofpure light, but like a trus 
reall dye; and Co, as the colour will appeare the lame to a man y 
whejefbever he (taodedi. 

Having thus mewed in all our fenfes, theconveniency and a- ~ 
greeablenefTe of our opinion with nature; (which hath been de- Reafons a- 
duced,put of the nature of the .objects, the-nature of our /piritsj gainft Mon. 
tfic.nature and fituation of our nerves, and Ja(i!y from the pro- fi Ur d . 
perty ofour braine : ) our next con/ideration fhall be , of : the Ca . rt . cs hj * ' 
dilHculfy that, occurreth inMr..des Cartes his opinion. Firft we ?ln 
know not how to reconcile the repugnancy s appearing in- his po- 
fition of themodon of the ether ;. eipecially in iight,fbr that E- 
thereal fubftance,being extreme rare,mull perforce be eitherex- 
treme liquid,or extreme brittle; if the fir/t^it cannot choofe but 
bow andoeprefTed into fbulds^and bodies of unequal! motions, 
fwimming every where in itjand fo it is impoflible that it fliouki 
briijg unio the yc auy conUant apparition of the fjr/t mover, 



?T ... .. . -. .. - _... i 

But -let us fuppofe there were no fuch genera/1 interruptions, 
every where encountring, and diiiurbingthe conveyance of the 
firft fimple motion : yet. how can we conceive that a pufl^givcn 
fo forre offy'nfo liquid an element., can Continue its force fo 
farre ? We fee that the-greateft thunders and conculfions, which 
at any time happen among us , cannot drive and impart their 
rnpulfe the ten thoulandtn part of the vaft diftance, which the 
Sunne is removed from our eye; and can we imagine., that a lit- 
tle touch of that luminous body, fliould make an imprdfion 
upon us , by moving another ib extremely liquid and fubtile, 
as the Ether is luppoied; which like an immenfe Ocean , tofTed 
with all varieties of motion , lyeth between it and us ? 

But admit there were no diiHculty nor repugnance ia the 
medium,to convey unto us a ftroke, made upon it by the fannes 
motion : let us at the le'aft examine, what kinde ofmotions wee 
murt allow in t he funne, to caufe this effect. Certainely^it muft 
needs be a motion towards u?, or elle it cannot (trike and drive 
the medium forward, to make it ftrike upon us. And if it be fb, 
either the fiinne mutt perpetually be comming neerer and neer- 
er to us ; or elle it mult ever and anone be receding backwards, 
as well as moving forwards. Both which, are too chymericall 
for Ib great a wit to conceit. 

Now, if the Ether be brittle, it muft needs reflecT: upon every 
rubbe it meeteth with in its way, and muft be broken and flii- 
vered by every body that moveth acrofle it: and therefore,muft 
aJvvayes make an uncertaine and moft diforderly pereuflfion up- 
on the eye. 

Then againej after it is arrived co the ienfe, it is no waycs 
likely it fliould he conveyed from thence to thebraine , or that 
nature ir tended fuch a kind of inrtrument as a nerve, to con- 
tinue a precife determinate motion : for if you confider hovy a 
lute ftring, or any other fuch medium conveveth a motion 
made in it; you will finde,that to doe it well and clearly,it muft 
be ftretchcd throughout to its full extent, with a kinde of ftiff- 
ncfle : whereas our nerves are not ftraight , but lie crooked^ in 
ur body ,-and are very lfther,till upon occafion fpirits comming 
into them a doe fvvell them out. Eefides,they are bound to fle/h, 
and to other parts ofthe body; which being cefliblc, muft needs 
dullthitroakc ; andnotpCttnit ii to (ft ' -carried ftnc, And 

OF BODIES. Chap.XXXIl. 343 

Ja/tJy 3 the reives arefubjecl: to be at every turne contracted $nd 
d'i'ated, upon their cwne account, without any relation to the 
flroakes beating upon them frcni an externe agent : which is by 
no meanes, a convenient difpofition /or a body,that is to be the 
porter of any fimple motion^which /Lould alwayes Jie watching 
in great quietncfie^ to obfcrve fcrupulcufly, and exactly the err 
randhee is to carry : fb that for my part, I cannot conceive., na- 
ture intended any fuch eflfe6t,by mediation of the finews. 

But Mounfieur des Cartes endeavourcth to confirme his 8. 
opinion, by what ufeth to fall cut in palfies, when a man Jofeth That the f^m- 
the ftrength ofmoving his hands,or other members^and never- ptomes of the 
thelefle retaineth his feeling : which he imputeth to the remain- P a ^ ie(i oeno 
ing intire of the firings of the nerves, whiles the fpirits are fome MounficurdS 
way defective. To this we may anfwer,by producing examples cartes his 
of the contrary in fbme men, who have had the motion of their opinion, 
limbesinrireandnowayesprejudicedjbuthavehad no feeling 
at all, quite over their \vholecafeofskinneandfleili : as parti- 
cularly a fervant in the Colledge of Phyfuians in London, 
whom the learned Harvey ( one of his Matters ) hath told me, 
was exceeding ftrong to labour, and very able to carry any ne- 
Ceflary burthen , and to remove things dexteroufly , according 
to theoccafion : and yet he was fo voyde of feeling, that he ufed 
to grind his hands againft the walls, and againiicourfe lumber, 
when he was employed to rummage any; in fo much, that they 
would runne with blood ^ through grating of the skirme, with- 
out his feeling of what occafioned it. 

In our way_,the reafon ^ fboth thefe conditions ofpeop'e/the 
paralytike^ndtheinfenfible) is eafy to be rendred : for they 
proceed out of the divers diipofition of the animal fpinrs in 
thefe parts : which if they thicken too much , and become very 
grofle, they are not capable of tranfmitting the fcibtile meflen- 
gers of the outwarfl world , unto the tribunall of the braine, to 
judge of them . Qn the other fide, if they be too fubtile t the^ 
neither have, nor give power to fwell the skin , and fb to draw 
the muskks to their heads. And furely Motmfienr dcs Chartes 
taketh the wrong way , in the reafon hegiveth of the Palfierfbr 
icproceedeth out of abundance of humours j which clogging the 
nervesj^endreth them wamy, and maketh them lofe their dry- 
, and become iither,and conJeqaent ly, unfit and unable, in 

his . 



Thar Monn- 
his opinion, 
cannot give a 
how things arc 
conferred in 
the memory. 

his- Opittion. for lenfation(which requireth /tiffenefle) as well as 
tor morion. 

Yet befides all-, thefe , one diflicu !ty more rema ; neth againft 
-thU doctrine, moreinfiiperable ( if I mi/lake not ) then any 
-thingjOr all together wee have yet faid .* winch is, how the me- 
-mory (houldcohfcrve anything in it , and reprefent bodies to 
us; when bur fartfie calleth for them , if nothing bat motions 
do come into the brame. For it is impolfible,that in fo divifible 
afubjectas the fpints, motion mould be- conferved any long 
time :-as we lee evidently in the ayre ; through Jwhich move a 
flaming taper never fo twiftiy, and as fbone as you let it down, 
almoft in the very inftant, the flame of it leaveth being driven 
or fhaken on one fide, and goeth quietly and evenly up its or- 
dinary courfe ' thereby (hewing, that the motion of the ayre, 
which for the time was violent., is all of a foddaine quieted and reft : for otherwile, the fiame of the taper would biaze that 
way the Ayre were moved. Afluredly , the bodies that have 
power to conferve motion long, mult be dry and hard ones. 
Nor yet can fuch confer ve it very long , after the caufe which 
made it,cealeth from its operation. How then can we imagine, 
that luch a multitude of puremot ions, as the memory mult be 
itored withall for the ule and fervice of a man, can be kept on 
foote in his braine, without confufion 5 and for ib long a time 
as his memory is able to extend unto ? Confidera lefibnpJaid 
upon the Lute or Virginalis ; and thhik with your felfe, what 
power there is, or can be in nature, to conferve this leflbn ever 
continually playing : and reflect, that if the impretfions upon 
tlie common fenfe are nothing elfe but fuch things, then they 
muft be actually conferved.alwaiej actually moving in our head 
to the end they be irnmediatly produced, whenloever it pleafeth 
our will to call them. 

AMdifperadventureitniouIdbereplyed, that it is norne- 
ceflarvtheTTioticnsthemfelves iliould ahvaies beconfervedin 
actiiall feeing-; bur that it is finficlent there be certainecanfes 
kept on foot in our heads, which are apt to reduce thefe motions 
into acl, whensoever there is occafion of them : alllfliallfay 
hereunto is, thatthisismeerclyavoltuitarypoljtion, and that 
there . appeareth -no ground for thefe motions to make 
eon/Ututefuchcaitfes ; fificcwenehherroetvt^hnjy 


ments,nor di cover any fignes, whereby we may be induced to 
believe or underftand any fuch operation. 

It may be urged, that divers founds a re by dileafes often- 
times made in our eares, and appearances of colours in our fan- 
tafie. Butfirft, thefe colours and founds, arenotartificiall 
ones,and difpofed and ordered by choice and judgement; for no 
flory hath mentioned, that by a difeafe any man ever heard 
twenty verfes of Virgill,or an ode of Horace in his cares : or 
that ever any man faw faire pictures in his fanfy, by meanes of a 
blow given him upon his eye. And fecondly, fuch colours and 
founds as are objected, are nothing elfe, but (in the fir ft cafe) 
the motion of humours in a mans eye by a blow upon it , which 
humours hive the vcrtuc of making Jight, in fuch fort as we fee 
Sea-water hath, when it is dafhed together : and ( in the fe- 
cond cafe) a cold vapour in certaine parts of the braine, which 
caufeth beatings or motion there ; whence proceedeth the imi- 
tation of founds :fb that thefe examples do nothing advantage 
that party thence to .infer that the fimilkudes of obje&j may 
be made in the common fenfc, without any real! bodies referred 
for that end. 

Yet I intend not to exclude motion from any commerce 
with, die memory no more then I have done from fenfation. 
For I will not only grant, that all our remembring it perform- 
ed by the meanes of motion ; but I will alfb acknowledge, that 
(in men) icis, for the moftpart.of nothing elfe but of mori- 
on.Fcr what are words, but motion? And words arc the chicfeft 
objects of our remembrance. It is true, we can, if we will, re 
member things m their owne fhapes , as well as by the words 
that exprcfTe them ; but experience telleth us, that in our fami- 
liar converfation, and in the ordinary exercifeof our memory, 
we remember and make ufe of the words, rather then of the 
things themfelves. 

Befides , the impreflions which are made upon all our other 
ienfes, as well as upon our hearing, are likewiie for the mofi 
part of things in motion ; as if we have occafion to make a con- 
ception of a man, or of a horfe., we ordinarily conceive him 
Walking, or Speaking,or Eating^or ufing fbmemotion in time; 
and as thefe impreflions are fucceffively made upon the outward 
Organesj fo are they fuccefllyely carried into the fantafze., aad 


by like fuccetflon, are delivered over into the memory : from 
whence, when they are called back againe into the fantafie,they 
move likewiie fucceiftvely ; ib that in truth, all our memory 
will be of motion ; or at the leaft, of bodies in motion : yet it is 
not chiefly of motion, but of the things that are moved ; urr 
lefle it be, when we remember words : and how thofe motions, 
do frame bodies which move in the braine, we have already 


i: TT\Uthow arethefe things conferred in the braine ? And 

How things fr-C how do they revive in the fantafie, the fame motions 4>y 

r V m rv *^vhich they came in thither at the firft ? Monfieur des 

10 y Cartes hath put us in hope of an explication : and were I Ib hap- 

y,as to have feen that worke of his, which the World of learned 

men Co much longeth for 5 I aflure my felfe , I fhould herein 

"receive great helpe and furtherance by it. Although withall, I 

muft profefle, I cannot understand how it is poflfole.,tfiat any 

determinate motion fhould long be preferved untainted in the 

brainc j where there muft be fuch a. multitude of other morions 

in the way mingle with it^and bring all into confafion. One 

Hay I hope this Jewell will be expofed to publik view, bcrh to do 

the Author right.and to inftruft the World. 

In the meane time , let us fee what otft- own principles afford 
us. We have refblved , that fenfation is not a pure driving of 
the anifnall fpifits , or of fome penertrable body in which they 
fwim, againflthatpart of thetraine, vyhcre knovvledge re- 
fideth : but that it is indeed the driving thithet of folid materi- 
all bod : es ( exceeding little ones) that come from the ob- 
je<fh themfelves. Which pofition, if it be true, itfbUoweth 
that rhde 'bodies muft rebound from thence upon other part j 
oftbebraine j where at the length they find ibme vacant ceW, 
in which they keepe their ranks and files, in "great quiet and 
; all fuch flicking together, and keeping company with 
thacejitcream together ' and the they JyetfWH 



and are at reft, until 1 they be itirredup, either by the narurGll 
appetite, (which is the ordinary courfe of beafies) or by chance, 
r by the will of the man in vyhom tJiey are, upon the occasions 
fce jneetethwith of fearching into them. Any of theie three cauies 
rayfeth them op, and giveth them the motion that is proper to 
them ; which is the fame with that , whereby they came in .at 
the firli : for ( as Galilaus tcachcth us) every body hath a par- 
ticular motion peculiarly proper to it, when nothing diverteth 
it : and then they flide iucceillvcly, through the fantafiein the 
lame manner, as when they prefented themfelves to it the firfjt 
time. After which, if it require them no more ; they returne 
gently to their quiet habitation in fome other part of the braine, 
from whence they were called and fummoned by the fantafies 
meflengers, the ipirits : but if it have longer ufe of them, and 
would view them better then once paffin* through permitted] ; 
then they are turned back againe , and lead anew over their 
courfe, as often as is requifite : like a Hor/e, that a Rider 
paceth fundry times along by him that hee fheweth him to -, 
whiles he is attentive to marke every pare and motion in 
him. z ; 

But let us examine a little more particularly, how the cautes How things 
we have aligned, doraife thefe bodies that re/Hn the memory, conferved in 
and do bring them to the fantafie. The middlemoft of them {^ c h m 
( namely chance ) needeth no looking into , becaufetheprin- io 8 thc 
ciples that governeit, are uncertainc ones. But the firft, and tafic, 
the laft , ( which are , the appetite , and the will) have a power 
(which we will explicate hereafter) of moving, the braine and 
the nerves depending of inconveniently and agreeably to their 
difpofition. Out of which it followcth, that the little fimili- 
tndes, which. are in the caves of the braine wheeling and /wim- 
ming about ( almoft in fuch fort , as you fee in the wafhing of 
Currants r of Rice /by the winding about and circular tur- 
ning of the Cooker hand ) divers forts of bodies do go their 
courfes for a pretty while ; fo that the moft ordinary objects 
cannot choofe but prefent themielves quickly, becau/e there ace 
many of them, and are every where fcattered about : but otlaers 
that are fewer , are longer ere they come in view : mucji like as 

a paire of ,bcades> that containing more little ones then 
'o yo, the tfring .they all hang 


upon, you (hall meete with many more of one forr, then of the 

Now, as fbone as the braine hath lighted on any of tho/e it 
feeketh puttcth as it were a flop upon the motion of that ; 
or at the leaft, it moveth it fo, that it goeth not far away, and 
is revocable at will : and feenrieth like a baite to draw into the 
fantafie others belonging unto the fame thing , either through 
fimilitude of nature , or by their connexion in the impre/Hon : 
and by this rrt-anes hindereth other objects,, not pertinent to 
the wo k the fanfie hath in hand, from offering t hemfel ves un- 
feafbnably in the mu.ii udes that othcrw *x r ,r vvould do. But 
ifthe fanfie mould have miftaken one object for an other , by 
reafbn of fome relemblance they have between themlelves ; 
then it fhaketh againe the liquid medium they all floate in, and 
roofeth every fpccics lurking in remote/1 Corners., and runneth 
over the whole beadroulc of them : and continueth thisin- 
quifition and motion, till either it be fatisfyed with retrivin<* 
at length what it required , or that it be grownc weary with 
tofling about the multitude of little inhabitants in its numerous 
empire, and fo giveth over the learch , unwillingly and di 

3 ; Now, that thefe things be as we have declared, willappeare 

A Confirma- out of the following confiderac ions , firft, we fee that things of 

ttoaofthefor- quite different natures, if they come in together, areremem- 

met doftrine. jj^j together : upon which principle the whole art of memory 

dependcth :/iich things cannot any way be compriled under 

certainc heads , nor be linked together by order andcon/e- 

qucnce, or by any refemblance to one an other : and therefore 

all their connexion mutt be, that as they came in together into 

the fantafic, fo they remaine together in the fame place in the 

memory : and their iirft coupling muft proceed from the action 

that bound them together,in driving them in together. 

Next, we may obler ve , that when a man feeketh and turn- 
bleth in his memory for any thing he would retrive, he hath 
firftfbme common and confiifcd notion of it : and fbmetimes 
behathakihdofflaskiflgorfadinglikenefle of it : much what, 
as when in ftriving to remember a Name, men ufe to lay, it is 
at their tongues end : and this meweth,that he attracteth rho/e 
things he defirctb, and hath uleo bythclikeDefleoflbme- 

OF BODjES > Clpp.XXXIU. 349 

thing belonging to t^cm. In like manner, when, Jiuugrr ipa- 
keth one think of meat, or thirft maketh on* dreame of drink, 
orinotherfiich occafions, wherein the natural! appetite ftir- 
reth objecb in the memory and bringeth them to the fanta/ie } 
it is maniteft, that die fpiri^s informing the brajne of die defeat 
and paine, vyhich ieyeraJi part* of the body do endure,for yvant 
of their due nourillimentjit giveth a motion to dap heart., which 
iendeth other 1 pirif s up to fupply the braine, for what iervice ic 
will order them : by which , the braine being fbrtifyed, itfbl^ 
loweth the purfuite of what the Jiving creature is in want of j 
untill the be reduced into thci^jiue ^ate^by 4 
more folid enjoyim; ofiti 

No\v,why ob/eds'that are drawn ont of the memory, do u/e ^ 

to appeare in the fanrafie-, with all the fame circumftacces - How things 
which accompanied them at the time when the fenfe did fend renewed in the 

them thither, fas when in the remembrance of a friend we con- fama{ ! c r " ar "' 
rj L I , - ,. * nc with the 

fiaer him in fomeplace, and at a certame time, and doing iome f aln< . fl - rrtlft 

i t ,-, \ i '/'? i / I i i . " iaH c ciicuni- 

determinate action) the reafon is.that the fame body, being in ftmces thu 
fhe fame medium, muft aeceffarrfy have the fame kind of mo- they hadat firf 
tion^ andibconfequently, muft make the fame imprciTionn p- 
n the fame fubjed. The medium which thefe bodies move in 
(that ij,the memory ) ^s aliq*idvaporou5iubfiai]ce_, in which 
they floate and fwim at liberty. 

Novv,in fuch a kind of medium., all the bodies that are of one 
nature,, will eafily gather together , if nothing ditf urbe them : 
foras vyhen a tuned lute firing is flruckqn, that firing by com- 
municating a determinate fpecies of vibratiow to the Ayre 
round about itjfhaketh other firings, within thecompafle of die 
moved ayre ; not all, of what extent fbever , but oncly fuch, 
as by their naturall motion, would caufe like curlings, and 
fpuldes in the Ayre, as the other doth ; according to what 
Ga iileus hath at large declared: even fo,when fbme atomein the 
braine is mpved,all the reft there abont,which are apt to be waf- 
ted with a like uncfulation,muft needs be moved in chiefe : aod 
fo they m ovingjwbiles the others of ditferent motions, that lia-. 
vingnotningtorayfc them, do either ly quiet or move very 
little in reipecl: of the ; former ;. it if no wonder if they aflemble 
togetherjand(by the proper courle of the braiae) do meet at the 
common rendezvous of chcfaataiic* 

Dd And 


, | ' n 

5. And therefore the more imprefltons, that are made from the 

How Ac me- feme obje& upon the fenfe, the more participations of it will 
Bicry of things be gathered together in the memory : andtheftrongerimpref- 
?&* acd / ^? n$ ^ t w *^ upon occafion make in the fantafie : and themfelvc* 
and how it i ^ ^ t ^ 7C ft ron Ser to rcfift any caufe that fnall ftriye to de- 
repaircd fecethem. For we fee that multitude of objects overwhel- 
med! the memory j and putteth out, or at the leaft,maketh un- 
profitable, thofe that are feldcmeft thought on. The reafbn of 
which' is^that they being little in quantity, becaufe there are but 
few fpecies of them; they can never ftrike the feate of knowledge, 
fcitt in company f others; which being more and greater, doc 
make the impreilicn follow their nature againft the leflcr : and 
In trad of time,things ieldome thought of, doe grow to have 
but a .maimed aadconfuicd Inape in the memory; and at length 
tre quite forgotten. Which happencth , beeaufe in the liquid 
medium, they are apt to moulder away, if they be hot often re- 
paired : which mouldrihg arid defacing, is helped on by the 
(hockes they receive from other bodies : like as in amagazin, a 
thing that were not regarded, bit were carelefly tumbled up 
thddowne, tomakefoome for others, and all things were 
promifcuoufly throwne upoft it ; it would fbone be bruifed and 
cruflied into a miHiapen forme, and in the end be broken all in 

No\v,the repairing of any thing in the memory , is done , by 
receiving new imprelfions from the obje<ft; or in its abfence, by 
thinking ftrongly of it : which is an aflembling.and due peecing 
together ofthe feverallparticles of bodies , appertaining to the 
fifcne matter. But fometimes it happeneth.that when the right 
one cannot be found intire^nor all the rderly pieces of it,be re 
trived with their juft correipondence to one another the fan- 
fie maketh up a new one ia the place of it : which [afterwards,, 
upon piefence of the object , appeareth to have beenc mi- 
ftaken : and yet the memory, till then, keepeth quietly and 
unqueftionedly for the true obje , what either, the thought, 
or chance, mingling feverall parts, had patched up toge- 

And from herice,Vf emay'difcern,how,the loofing or confoun- 
ding of ones memory, may happen either by fickneffes, that di- 
fiemper the fpirits in the btaine,& diiorder their motions,or by 



loraeblowesonthehead, whereby a man is aftosied, and all 
things fecme to turnc round with him. Of all which eflfe&s, 
the caufes are eafy to be found ifl thele fuppcfitiom wee have 


motin } 

Hitherto vye hare laboured to con very the ob/c into the t ; 
brainc : but when it is there , Jet us fee what further cf- Of what 
feels it caufcth : and how that action, which we call w- nutter the 
l**t*rj # *wr,doth proceed from the braine. For the difcorery bra "" 
irhereofj we arc to note, chat the braine is a fubftance com- 
pofed of watry parts mingled with earthy ones : which kind 
of fubftanceswefee are uliiaUy full of ftriBgs : and fo in 
ftronghardbeere,, andin vinegar, and in other liquors of the 
ike nature, we fee ( if they be expofed to the Sunne ) littte 
long flakes, which maucan appearance of Wormes or Mag* 
gats floating about. The reafon whereof is, that fomc dry pant 
otTuch liquors, are ofthemfclves as ic were hairy or Heafy, that 
is,! ja ve little doway parts,fuch as you fee spon the legs of Flies, 
or upon Caterpillars, or in littlelocks ofwooll ; by which the/ 
cafily catch and Itick to the other little part; of the like nature, 
that come neer unto them : and if the liquor be moved, (as it is 
intheboylingofbeere, or making of vinegar bytheheateof 
the Sun) they become Jong ftrings ;becau(e the liquor breaketh 
the ties which are croiTe to ksmotion.'butiuch as lie along the 
ftreamc,or rather the bubling up,do maiutaine themfelves in u- 
nity,and peradvcmure grovy lironger, by the winding or ibnld- 
ingof the end of one part with an other : and in their tumb, ing 
and rouling ftill in the fame courfe, the downy haires are trufh^ 
ed in, and the body groweth long and round, as happeneth to a 
lump of dough, or wax, 01 wool!, rouled a while in one uniform 
.-ccurie. And fo , eomming to our parpofe, weieethatt{ie 
braineiand all that isma^e ofit,is ibtingyjwitneife, themena. 
branes,the flem,the bones,&CtBut of a|l the reft,thoie which be 
called n1bers i aie moft Hringy :and the nerves fecm to be but an 

Dd a aftcsobly 


: for although the nerves be but a great mul- 
titude offerings lying in a clutter; neverthelefle, by the confent 
of Phyfitians and Anatomiftefr, they are held to be of the very 
fubttance of the braine , dryed to a firmer confi (knee then it is 


This heape of ftrinet ( as.vyee may call ^t ) Is encloied in at 
oatfidcfmade of membranes; whofe frame , wee need not here 
difplay : only we may note,that it is very apt and fit te ftretchj 
and after ftretching, to returne againe to its owne juft length . 
Next, we are to conhder , how the braine is of a nature apt to 
, t fwefland'to fin-ke 'againe : even io much, that Fallepifas 

reporteth ', it doth ; .i\vell according to the encreafe of the 
moone : which vthether it be true or no ; there can be no 
.deubt , but-' that it being of ; a fubftance which is foil of skinnes 
and Brings, is capable'of beff%; ftretched, and of dwelling upon 
light occasions 2nd. of /ailing or fin'kihg againe upon as ligh'ti 
as being ca/iiy penetrable by vapoiifs and by liquors 3 whole 
nature it is, to fivell and to extend .that which they enter into. 
Out of which it fofloweth, thatitmnftbe the nature of the 
'nerves todoethe like': and indeed, 'fotrtdSA the mote, by ; hdw 
i#iii^h;rh6re dry tHcy ! are rtheti t?ie braTric : for wee iee that ( to a 
certain ineafure) drier things arembre capable of extenticn by 
the ingreflfion of wet.thenmpift things are ; becaufe thefe are 
not capable of receiving much more vyet into them. 
3 Thefe-things being premifed 5 'fct'tis inSaginc that the braine 

Wbatis volun- being firit fvvelledj it doth aftervvards cbntraift it felf- v and it 
tary motion, rnuft ofneceflfity follow., that feeing tfic nerves are all open to- 
wards the braine (t-hough their -concavities cannot be difcer- 
ned) thefpiritsandmoyfture which, are in the braine, muft 
needs be preffed into the nerves : wfeich being; already ^ored 
with Jpirity/ufficiently to the proportion of their hard skicnes ; 

ntly to the Proportion 
nakc them ivveirand gr 
eh being competently full of ayfe, hath 1 nererthelefie 

this addition will make' them ^vell 'and grow hari as aballbdne 
dotff,\\hich being competently full of ayfe', hatF " 
mote ay re prefled ihro it. 

Since therefore, the matters of Anatomy doe teach us , that 
in every mufcle there is a nerve, whigh is /preadujto a number 
of little branches along that mu/clefjit frfuft rpllovy, that if thcfc 
Uttle branches be fwollen, the flefli likewise o'fthat mufcle mutt 
alfi? needs be iwolkn-. Now the mufcte /raving bQth its^endes 


fattened , the one in a greater bone , the other in a leffer ; and 
there being leaft refinance on that part, where the boneKlc.'l 
ier, and rnorcmoveable; the flvelling of the mufcle cannot 
chnofe, but draw the little bone towards the great one;and by 
confequence, move that little bone : and this is that, which 
Philosophers ufiially call Voluntary motion for fince our know- 
ledge remained! in the braine, whatfbever is done by know- 
Jedge.muft be done by the braine ; and moft of what the brainc 
workth for the common fervice of the living creature, proceed- 
eth alfo from know ledge; that is/rom the motion of the fanfy, 
VThich we have exprefled. 

This matter being thus far declared, wee may now enter w $ 
upon the explication ofcertaine efteds ; which peradventure WH^M 
might have challenged roome, in the precedent Chapter , but Jyhlch'are 1- 
indeed, could not well be handled without fir/tfuppofing this "led natural! 
lad diicourfe : and it is, what is meaned by thofe powers , that faculties., 
are called naturall faculties : the which howfoever in their par- 
ticulars they be manifold in a living creature , yet whenfbever 
any of them is reiblved, it appeareth to be compounded of fbme 
ofthefefive; to wit^the attractive, theretentive,thefecretive 
the conco6tive,and the expulfive faculty. 

Of which, the attractive, the fecretive, andtheconcoftive 
do not feeme to lielong unto the nerves , for although we may 
conceive that the part of the animall doth turne it felfe towards 
the thing which it attrafteth ; neverthelefle , that very turning 
feemeth not to be done by vertue of the mufcles , and of the 
nerves, but rather in a naturall way, as the motion ofthe heart 
is performed, in fuch fort as we have formerly declared : as for 
example, if the ttomack when it is greedy of meate , draweth 
it felfe up towards the throate, it feemeth ratherto be a kind of 
drynefTe and f warping, fuch as we fee in bladders or in leather 
either by fire or by cold, which make them flirivell up and grow 
hard 5 then that it is a true faculty ofthe living creature to leeke 
after meate. 

-Nor need we extend our difcourfe any further about thefe 
three faculties ; feeing that we ha,ve already declared in com- J\ie >; 
rnon,hovv attraction, drying,and mixture ofactive bodies with tra aive and fc- 
pafTiye one$,is per formed} which needethbut applying unto thefe cretive facul- 
to explicate faUy their natures.'ts for exampte ; tio worke. 

if the Kidneyes draw the matter of* Vrine unto them out of the 
Veines, it may be by any of the following three manners , to 
wit, either by draught, wet,crby fteame. For if the ferous 
parts that are in the bloud which runneth in theVeines,do toucti 
fbme dry parts conformable to their nature, tending towards 
the Kidneyes ; they will infallibly adhere more to thofe dry 
parts, then to the reft of the bloud. Which if they do info 
great a quantity, that they reach to other further parts more 
dry then thefe,they will leave the firft parts to go to the fecond : 
and thus by lit tie, and little, will draw a line of Vrine from 
the bloud, if the bloud do abound with it : and the neerer it 
qommeth to the Kidneyes, theftronger ftill die attraction 
will be. 

The like will happen, if the fcrofity which is in the bloud, do 
touch fome part wetted with a like ferofity , or where fuch hath 
lately parted $ for as we fee that water will run more eafily upon 
a wet part of aboard or a ft one then upon a dry one ,- foyou 
cannot doubt, but that if the ferous part , which is mixed with 
the bloud, do light upon a current of its own nature,it will ft ick 
more to that, then to the-current of the bloud^and fo part from 
the bloud, to goe that way which the current of its own nature 

Befides, it cannot be doubted, but that from the Kidneyes, 
and from the pafTages between the Kidneys and the Veines , in 
which the bloud is conveyed, there arifeth a fteame whofe na- 
ture is, to incorporate it felfc with ferous matter, out of whofe 
body it hath been extracted. This fteame therefbre,flying ftilj 
to the ferous bloud which pafTeth by , muft of necedky precipi- 
tate ( as I may fay ) the ferous parts of that bloud ; or rather 
muft filter them out of their maine f tcck ; and fo will make 
them run in that current, from which it felfe doth flow. And 
thus, you fee how Attrtftieu and Secretttn are made : for th 
drawing of the ferofity without drawing the bloud, is the part- 
ing of the Urine from the bloud. And this example,ofthe Kid- 
neys operation , may be applyed to the attractions of all the o- 
- t her parts. 

Concerning Now the concocli vc faculty ( which is the laft of the three we 
conwiUye took together) confifteth of two parts : the one if, as it were a 
** drying of the hmnour, whieh is co be conceded ; the other is, 


i mingling the fubHance of the vefleli in which the humour is 
conceded, with the humour it felfe : for as if you boyk divers 
kinds of liquors in brafle pannes, the pannes will tay at the ia- 
quor with the quaky of the brafle ; and therefore Phyfi dans 
forbid the ufe of fuch, intheboylingof feveraJl medicines ; fo 
much more in a living creatures body, there can be no doubt, 
but that the vefleli in which any humour is concoded, doth give 
t tin6ture thereunto. Now concoction confining in thefe two, 
it is evident, what the concodive vertue is; to wit, heate,and the 
ipecificall property of theveffcll which by heate is mingled with 
the humour. 

There remainc yet, the retentive and the expul five faculties ^ 

to be difcourfed of 5 whereof one kind, is mani tcilly belonging Concerning 
to the voluntary motion whish we have declared : namely that the retentive 
retention, and that expulfion, which we ordinarily make of the and 
grofle excrements either ofmeate, or of drinke, or of other 
humcurs , either from our head , or from our ttomacke, or 
from our Lungs ; for it is manifestly done, partly by taking 
in of wmde , and partly by comprefling of fbme parts and 
opening of others : as Galen fheweth in his curious book dtttfk 

An other kind of retention and expulfion : in which we have 
no fenle when it is made (or if we have,it is ofa thing done in us 
without our will, though perad venture we may voluntarily ad- 
vance it ) is made by the fwelling of fibers in certaine parts, 
through the confluence of humours to them, (as in our ttomack' 
it happeneth,by the drink and the juice of themeate that is in ir} 
which fwelling , clofeth up the paffages by which the contained 
iubftance mould go out (as the moy ftening of the (trings, and 
mouth of a purfe, almoftfhuttethit) until! in fome C for ex- 
ample,the rtomack,after a mealej the humour being attenuated 
bylittleand little, oetteth out fnbtilely ;andibleavinglefTe 
weight in the ftomack ^the bag which weighcth down lower,then 
thencather Orifice at which thedigefted meate iflueth , rifeth 
a little : and thh rifing of it is alfb furthered i>y the wrinkling 
up and mortiring of the upper part of the ftomack ; which ttij 
returneth into its naturall corrugation, as the mafle of liquid 
meate leaveth foaking it(whi<*li it doth by degrees, ftill as mr re 
and more ?;octh out : and fo what remaineth fillcth leffe pi =ce, 

j * _-, . * 

Dd 4 and 


andreacheth not fb high of the ftomacke : and thus at length^ 
the refidue and thicker fiibftanee of the meat , after the thinneft 
is. got out infteame, and the middling part is boyled over IJQ 
liquor , commeth to prefl'e and gravitate wholly upon the ori- 
fice of the ftomackci which being then helped by the figure 
and lying of the reft of the ftomacke , and its firings and 
mouth relaxing, by having the juice which fwelled them,iquee- 
zed out of them; k openeth it felfe, and giveth way unto 
that which lay fo heavy upon it , to tumble out. In others (for 
example, in a woman with child ) the enclofed fubftance, (re- 
tained firft by iuch a courfe of nature as we have let downjbrea.- 
keth it felfe a pafTage by force , and openeth the orifice at which 
it is to goe out by violence , when all circumftances are ripe ac- 
cording to natures inftitution. 

7^ But yet there is the expulfton which i made by phyficke. 

Concerning that requiretha.little declaration. It is of five kinds: vomit- 
cxpvlfion made t j n g purging by ftoole, by urine, {"wearing, and fa'ivation. E- 
Vy Pajrfckc. very one Q f ^[^ ^ f e emeth to confift of two parts , namely., 
the diipofition of the thing to be purged, and the motion of the 
nerves or fibers for the expulfion : as for example , when the 
Phyfitian giveth a purge , it worketh two things : the one is, to 
make fome certaine humour more liquid and purgeable then 
the reft ; the other is> to make the ft omacke or belly, fucke or 
vent this humour. For the firft, the property of the purge muft 
be to precipitate that humour out of the reft of the blood; or if 
' it be thicke, to diflblve it that it may runne eafily. For the fe- 
cond, it ordinarily heateth the ftomacke ; and by that meanes 
it cauieth the ftomacke to fucke out of the veines , and fo to 
draw from all parts of the body. Be/ides this j, it ordinarily 
filleth the belly with winde , which occafioneth thote ^jripings 
men feele when they takcphyfickj and is caufeoftheguts 
difcharging thofe humours, which otherwise, they would 

The like of this happened in {alivation; forthenumoursare 
by thefamemeans brought to the ftomack,and thence /iiblimed 
up to be fpitten out : as- we {ee in thofe , who faking Mercury 
iflto their body , either in fubftance or ih-fmoke, or by applica- 
tions doe vent cold humours from any pact; the Mercury rifing 
/com all the body up to the mouth of the patient, a$ to the kelm 



of a fablimatory : and the like fome /ay of Tobacco. 

As for vomiting,it is in a manner wholly the operation ofthe 
fibers , provoked by the feeling of fome inconvenient body, 
which maketh the ftomacke wrinkle it ielfe^and work andftrive 
to caft out what oftendeth it. 

Sweating feemeth to be canted , by the heating of fome in- 
trous body oy the ftcmacke; which being of fubtiie parts , is by 
heat dilper/ed from the middle to the circumference - y and earri- 
erh with it light humours, which turne into water as they come 
out into the ayre. And thus you fee in generall, and as much as 
concerneth us to declare,what rhenaturail faculties are .-and this, 
according to Galen his owne mind : who affirmeth , that the/e 
faculties do follow the complexion,or the temper ofthe parts of 
a mans body. 

Having explicated how voluntary motion proceedeth from 8 
the braine : our next consideration ought to examine what Hw the brain 
it is., that fuch an object, as we brought,by meanes ofthe ferries, 1S m vcd to 
into the braine from without . doth contribute to make the 
braine apply it felfe to worke fuch voluntary motion. To which 
purpofe,we will goe a f tep or two backe, to meet the object at its 
entrance into the fenfe 5 and from thence accompany it in all its 
journey and motions otiwards. The object which flriketh at 
theienfesdore, and getting in , minglethit felfe with the fpi- 
ritsit findeth there; is either conforme and agreeable to the 
nature and temper of thofe fpirits , or it is net : that is to fay, 
in fhort.,it is either plea/ing or di/pieafing to the living creature: 
or it may be of a third kind, which being neither of thefe , we 
may terme indifferent. In which fort foever the object affect 
the fenfe,the fpirits carry it immediately to the braine t unlefle 
fome diftemper or ftrong thought , or other accident hinder 

Now , if the objeft be of the third kind ; that is , be indif- 
ferent; as foone as it hath ftrucken the braine, it reboundeth 
to the circle of the memory : and there , being fpecdily joy- 
ned to others of its owne nature , it findeth them annexed to 
feme pleafingor dHpleafing thing, or it doth not : if not., in 
beafts it ferveth to littleufe : ana in men , it remaineth these 
' untill it be called for : but if, either in its owne nature, it 
be pleating or difpleafing; (pr afterwacds iuth memory ir- 



became joyned to fome pleafing or annoying fel 
prefently, the heart is fenhbleofit i for the heart oeing joyned 
to the braine by Straight and large nerves, full of ftrong fpirits 
which afcend From the heart; it is impofT*bIe, but that it mufl 
have fome communication with thole motions, vyhich paffe in 
the braine : upon which the heart, or rather the fpirits about it, 
is either dilated or comprefled. 

And thefe motions, may be either totally of one kind, or 
moderated, and allayed by the mixture of its contrary : if 
of the former fort; one of them wee call ;; , the other 
griefe ; which doe continue about the heart (and peradven- 
ture doe opprefTe it , if they bee in the utmoit extre- 
mity ) without fending any due proportion of fpirits to 
the braine 3 until! they lettlc a little, and grow more mode- 

Now, when thefe motions are moderate , they immediately 
x fend up fome aboundance of fpirits to the braine : vyhich if they 
be in a convenient proportion, they are by the braine thruft in- 
to fuch nerves as are fit to receive thenrand fwelling them,they 
give motion to the mufcles and tendons that are faftned to 
them : and they doe move the whole body , or what part of it is 
under command of thole nerves, that are thu filled and /welled 
with fpirits by the braine. 

If the object was conformable to the living creature, then the 
braine fendeth fpirits into fuch nerves , as carry the body to it : 
but if otherwife, it caufeth amotionofaverfion or flight from 
it. To the caufe of this latter, we give the name of Few : and 
the other, that carrieth one to the purfuit of the object, we call 
Hope* Anier 3 or AudMttj, is mixed of both thefe ; for it feek- 
eth to avoide an evifl by embracing and overcomming ic : and 
proceedeth out of abundance of fpirits. 

Now, if the proportion of fpirits fent frcm the heart, be too 
great for the braine, it hindereth or perverteth the due opcrati- 
9 . on both in man and beaft. 

Why pleafiflg All which it will not be amiffe to open,a little more parxicw- 
s do <Ji- larjy : an( l faft^ V vhy painfull or difplea^qg .ob/efts , da&con- 
' fraft the fpirits, and gratefull ones, doe contrary wife dilate 
t[ }em < It is, becaufe the good of the heart confiitethi* life, tliat 
^n h car & moy flurerand it is the nature ofheat, to dilate it felf 



i n moyiture; whereas co-Id and.dry things, doe contraft the bo- 
dies they vvorke upon : and fuch are enemies to the nature of 
men and beafts: and accordingly experience, aswelJ as reafbn, 
t eachethus,that all obje&s, which be naturally good, are fuch 
as be hot and moyft in the due proportion to the cieaturc that 
is affected and pleafed with them. 

Now,the living creature being compofed of the fame prin- 
ciples as the world round about him is j and the heart being an 
abridgement of the whole fcnfible creature; and being more- 
over full of blood, and that very hot; it commeth topafle,thatif 
any of thefe lit tie extra&s of the outward world, doe arrive to 
the hot blood about the heart, it workcth in thi* blood fuch like 
an efFeft, as we fee a drop of water falling into a glaffe of wine, 
which is prefently difperfed into a competent compafle of the 
wine : id that any little object mail needs make a notable mo- 
tion in the blood about the heart. 

This motion, according to the nature of the obj'eft , will be 
either conformable or contraryjunlefTe it be fo little a one , >as 
noeffect will follow of it ; and then, it is of that kinde , which 
above we called indifferent. If the enfuing eftecl: be conna- 
turall to the heart, there rifeth a motion ofa certaine fume a- 
bout the heart j which motion we call flc*frc* t and it never fay- 
leth of accompanying all thofe motions which are good , as //, 
L*ve 9 Hffft and the like : but if the motion be di/pleafing 5 there 
is Ukewiiea common ienfe ofa heavinefle about the heart^ which 
weeall^rt//*:anditisccmmonto/frrjr,/r^/, katt, and the 
like. ^* 

Now it is manifeft by experience , that thefe motions are all 
of them diiferent ones , an i doe ftrike againft divers of thofe 
parts of our body which encompafTe the heart : out of which 
Jftriking fblloweth that the ipirits fent from the heart , doe a- 
fe& the iMraiae diverfly ; and are by it it, conveyed into di- 
vers nerves : and fb doe fet divers members in action. Whence 
fblloweth , that certaine members are generally moved up- 
on the motion of fiich a paifion in the heart, especially 
in beajftes , who have a more determinate courfe of wor- 
king , then man hath : and if fometimes wee (ee variety, 
even in beartes , upon knowledge of the circumftances , wee 
nuycafily gueffcat the aufes of thai variety ; che particula- 



the five fenfes 

rides ofali which motions, we remit to Phyfitians and to Ana- 
tomilts : adverdilng onely 3 that the fume of pleasure , and' 
theheavinefleofgriete, doe plainly mew , that the firft mo- 
tions dee participate of dictation, and the latter of com- 

Thus you fee, how by the fenfes , a. living creature becommeth 
judge of what is good, and of what is baa for him : which ope- 
pation, is performed more>perfe6tly in beafts ; and e/pecially in 

tn k> vv h ^ ve m c ^ e f ree a y re > remoc e from humane conver- 
fation (for their fenfes are Freili and untaynted, as nature made 
them) then in men. Yet without doubt nature hath heen as fa- 
vourable in this particular to men , as unto them : were it not, 
that with difbrderand excefle, we corrupt and opprefle our 
fenfes : as appeareth evidently by the ftory we have recorded of 
John of Leige:as alfb by the ordinary practice of feme Hermites 
in the deferts,who by their tafte or frnell, would presently be in- 
formed whether the herbes, and roots,and fruits they met with- 
all.were good or hurtful for them^though they never before had 
had triall of them. 

Of which excellency of the fenfes, there remaineth in us one- 
ly fome dimme fparkes , in thofe qualities which we call fym- 
pathies and antipathic J : whereof the reafcns are plaine, out of 
our late difccur/e: and are nothingelfe, but a conformity or 
oppofitioriof a living ireature, by fome individual! property 
of it, unto fbme body without it : in fuchfort,as its conformity 
or oppo/ition unto things by its fpecifiall qualities^is termed na 
turall or] againfi uature. But of t