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« • 



C^/l/:f^i tL-i-cJ^^-f-^t^^ o--^2ic-z-(^^ 



* ^ 







Ctjmnlngiral %mm^H, 







nxuafmATiD wi nuonois noic fBi unaasED PAPm of 


(L4ti TUBoan or fn AOAnnir cv wisuaAL waaanm if wnaumunajk^ 






»^ Wordf an thingi; and a amall drop of Ink, 

Falling, like dew upon a tbooghty prodnoei 

That which makea thonaanda, perhapa ■»"'*"■»■, tUnk.'^-BlBQBi 

&nni)f tfititioo. 




'■ •/ 


■AU9 IT 



Entered, acoording to Act of Congress, in the year 1854, by 


in tiie Clerk's Offioe of the Uitriot Court of the United States for the Eastern 

of Pennsylvania. 


M E M O It T 





The interest now directed tovrards Anthropological Beseardies 
indaoes us to issue another edition of the present work^ in 
fcnn and style less costly than the one already furnished to 
die SuBSCBiBEBS whoso names are printed in Appendix II. 

Bound copies of the First (or SubscribeiB') Edition will con- 
tmoe to be supplied, to order, at seven dollars and a half each. 


PHn^PicT.PHiA, April Ip 1854« 



" The sabject of Sihnoloffy I deem it expedient to postpone. On tU0 I 
hare coUeeted a mass of new materials, which I hope in time to produce ; 
bat nntil they ha^e been submitted to the masterly analysis of my honored 
friend, Samusl GaoBOi Mobtov, If. D., Philadelphia, a synopeis from my 
hands would be prematore." * 

LiTTLB did I expect, while penning the above note, that, ere four 

years had ran their coarse, it would fall to the lot of Dr. If ott and 

myself to ^^ close ranks" and partially fill the gap left in American 

Ethnology when the death-shot struck down our friend and leader. 

To him the "new materials" were submitted: by him they were 

analyzed with his customary acuteness ; and firom him would the world 

have received a series of works superseding the necessity for the 

present volume, together with any public action of my colleague and 

myself in that science so indelibly marked by Morton as his own. 

The 15th of May, 1851, arrested his hand, and left us, with all who 

knew him, to sorrow at his loss : nor, for eleven months, did the 

endeavor to raise a literaiy monument to his memoiy suggest 

itself either to Dr. Nott or to myself. 

"Types of Mankind" owes its origin to the following incidents: — 
After a gratifying winter at New Orleans, I visited Mobile in April, 
1852 ; partiy to deliver a course of Lectures upon " Babylon, Nine- 
veh, and Persepolis," but mainly to renew with Dr. Nott those 
interchanges of thought which amity had commenced during my 
preceding sojourn, in 1848, at one of the most agreeable of cities. 
Morton and Ethnology^ it may well be supposed, were exhaustiess 
topics of conversation. Deploring that no one had stepped forward 
to make known the matured views of the father of our cis- Atlantic 
school of Anthropology, it occurred to us that we would write one 
or more articles, in some Review, based upon the correspondence and 

* Band-^ook to the Nile; London, Madden, 1849; p. 18, note. 



printed papers of Morton in our several possession. Before doing so, 
however, we conceived it to be due to Mrs. Morton and her home-circle, 
to inquire by letter, if such proceeding would obtain their sanction; 
and also whether, in Mrs. Morton's opinion, there were among the 
Doctor's manuscripts any that might be eli^bly embodied ia our pro- 
posed articles. The graceful readiness with which our proffer was met 
is best exemplified by the fact that Dr. ISoVt and myself received im- 
mediately, by express from Philadelphia, a mass of Dr. Morton's auto- 
graphs on scientific themes, together with such books and papers as 
were deemed suitable for our purposes. On a subsequent visit to 
Philadelphia, I was permitted to select from the Doctor's shelves 
whatever was held to be appropriate to our studies; and, while 
this book has been passing through the press, the whole of Dr. Mor- 
ton's correspondence with the scientific world was entrusted to Dr. 
Pattsbson and myself for mutual reference. But, the imbounded 
confidence with which we have been honored, whilst most precious 
to our feelings, enhances greatly our responsibility. Actuated, indi- 
vidually, by the sole desire to render justice to our beloved friend, 
each of us has executed his part of the task to the best of his ability : 
at the same time we can emphatically declare that, until the pages of 
our work were stereotyped, no member of Dr. Morton's frunily was 
cognizant of their verbal contente. Thus much it is my privilege to 
testify, in order that, if any of the writers have erred in their concep- 
tions of Morton's scientific opinions, the onus of such inadvertence 
may &11 upon themselves exclusively. Nevertheless, the singleness 
of purpose and harmony of method with which Dr. lSo% Dr. Patter- 
son, and myself have striven to fulfil our pledges, are guarantees 
that no erroneous interpretations, if any such exist, can have arisen 
intentionally. Throughout this volume, Morton speaks for Kimfl^lf, 

The receipt at Mobile of such welcome accretions to our ethno* 
graphical stock prompted a change of plan. In lieu of ephemeral 
notices in a Be^ew, Dr. Nott united with me in the projection of 
'^ Types of Mankind " ; the scope of which has daily grown larger, in 
the ratio of the facilities with which we have been signally &vored« 

On the first printed announcement of our intention [New Orleans, 
December, 1852], the interest manifested among the friends of science 
was such, that, by March, I counted nearly 500 subscriptions in 
furtherance of tiie work. 

Prof. AoASSiz's very opportune visit to Mobile during April, 
1853, led to a contribution from his own pen that bases the Natural 
History of mankind upon a principle heretofore unanticipated. 
Dr. Usher kindly volunteered a synopsis of the geological and /Milap- 
ontological features of human history ; and Dr. Pattsbson, fellow- 


promoted the scienlific interests of our work, will find in it due 
acknowledgment of their courtesies. For the free use of the col- 
lection of Egyptological works — the best accessible to the public in 
this country — belonging to the Philadelphia Library Company, Dr. 
Morton's brother-in-law, Mr. John Jat Smith, will accept my sincere 

The Publishers state, on another page, the endeavor made to 
furnish our Subscribers with counter-value for their subscriptions tu 
in excess of my original promises ; and with these brief ezpoflitorjr 
remarks my pen would stop, did not personal gratitude claim 

Those acquainted with my earlier life (spent in the Levant until 
the age of thirty-two) may, perhaps, read some portions of this 
volume with feelings of surprise at the range of studies once so alien 
to my vocations, prospects, and ambition. By way of explanation 
let me state, that, whatever may have been the ground-work previa 
ously laid for the prosecution of self-culture, there was one obstacle 
to progress wluch would have been insurmountable, when (one among 
the million seeking freedom) I re-landed in the United States (1842), 
but for the friendship of a gentieman who — unlike Pharaoh's chidf 
butler that did not ^^ remember Joseph, but forgat him" — had known 
me in iUo tempore at Memphis. The munificence of Mr. B. E. 
TTatqht of New York obviated all difficulty by placing the necessaiy 
materials for study at my disposal ; and not content with fitcilitating 
the attainment of my desires by his encouraging acts at home, Mr. 
Haight, on two occasions, enabled me to seek instruction abroad, at 
the fountain-sources of Paris, London, and Berlin. The pulsations 
of a gratefrd heart, and the hope that some readers may deem fisivoiB 
BO magnanimous not uselessly bestowed, are the only reciprodtiea 
that can at present be tendered to him by 


PBZLADiLrBZA, Ist Jan., 1864. 


BT J. 0. NOTT. 

I have just received from Philadelphia proof-eheete of the above 
Frefitce, and hasten to add a few words. 

Above three hundred and sixty wood-cuts, besides many litho- 
graphic plates, adorn this volume, and upon them, to some extent, 
depend its value and success. The reader can well imagine the 

immenae labor and heavy expense reqmrotl to prepare a seriea of 
illustrations of this kind, wherein minute accnracy is so indiaponsable, 
and where such accuracy can be attained only through long-con- 
tinaed and patient induatiy combined with high artistic skill. Bo 
great, indeed, were the difficulties to be overcome, that the authors 
could never for a moment have entertained the idea of publishing a 
work like " Types of Mankind," had it not been for the aid gener- 
oosly proffered by Mrs. Glisdon, the accomplished lady of my col- 
hagae. To her amateur pencil are we indebted for the drawings of 
Store than three hundred of our wood-cuts, together with those for 
ibe lithographed Berlin-effigies. 

To say nothing of the outlay which these illustrations must other- 
wwe have involved, it would have been impossible for us to obtain, 
here, an equal conformity to originals through hired artists. Mra. 
Gliddon'e hand waa stimulated by no mercenary conaiderationa ; and 
W8 have enjoyed the incalculable advantage of having her near us at 
Uobile, for more than twelve months; laboring with us and for us: 
war ready to alter or amend aa our caprice, or necessity, might dic- 
tate. Although itrs. Qhddon waa unaccustomed to drawing on 
wood, and notwithstanding that the wood-engravers at Philadelphia 
(ocHDpelled, owing to the nature of the ease, to carve from her 
diawinga alone without recurrence to the originals), may here and 
there have slightly erred, I venture to aaaert that no scientific work 
b our language preaents as long a series of illustrations more reliable 
for bithfulneas to originals. 

Hatiy of the heads, however, are given in simple outline, and the 
m^ority have required reduction ; but persons who are familiar with 
die great works of Eosellini, ChampoUion, Prisae, Lcpeiue, Botta, 
Flandin, Layard, Dumoutier, &c., from which these figures have 
been copied, will at once recognize a truthfulness in Mrs. Gliddon's 
demgna (viewed ethnologically) which speaks more than the enco- 
minms of an admiring friend. 

Nor is it proper that I should close this Poitacript withoat some 
acknowledgment to her husband. In the firat place, it is mere justice 
testate, that Parts IL and HI. are almost exclusively his own work: 
becanse, although not uninformed on the points therein treated, and 
agreeing in their scientific results, I wiah to mention that the materials, 
concepdon, and execution of these portions of our volume are due to 
turn. Of Part I., ou the other hand, a fuller share of reapouBibility 
moBt fell npon myself. The special province, which I have attempted 
to explore, is the Natural History proper of mankind ; and I have 
(ought to illustrate it through the physical and linguistic history of 
laimeTol races, aa deduced from the time-worn monuments of nations 


by the leading archaeologists of our nineteenth centniy. This effort 
has also been much feu^ilitated through the zeal and experience of 
my collaborator, Mr. Gliddon. 

It is with no small gratification I now feel assured that, through 
Dr. Pattbeson's effective " Memoir," Morton's cherished fisime will 
evermore preserve its rightful place among men of science; and, 
again, that thDse grand Truths, for which I have long ^' fought and 
bled," are at last established by the unanswerable '^ Sketph " of our 
chief naturalist. Prof. Agassiz; as well aB triumphantly confirmed 
through the teachings of scholars who have investigated the records 
of antiquity in Egypt, China, Assyria, India, Palestine, and other 
Oriental countries. 

J. 0. N. 

MoBiLi, A&A., Jinnaiy 12t]i» 1864. 



nOMTISPIEOE — PoBTBAiT Of Saxuxl Gioboi Mobtoh. [Sted JBnffrawtff.] 

SEDIGATION — "To ths Mbmobt or Mobtoh" ▼ 

FBEFACE— BT Gio. R. Gliddon iz 

FatUer^tum — bt J. C. Nott...... • zii 

XEMOIB — "NonoB or thb Lifb akd SciBiiTinc Labobb or thb latb Samuxl 

Gbo. Mobton, yLJ).**—cotUrilmtedlnfProf, Hbnbt S. Pattbbsob, IL D. xtu 

SKETCH — " or thb Natubal Pboyibcbs or thb Anixal Wobld and thbib Bbijl- 
TioB TO thb DirrsBBNT Ttpks OF BIan " — eontribuUd by Prcf. L. 
AoASSiz, LL. D. [ With colored Uihographic Tableau and Map,"] lyiii 

ISTBODUCTION to "Tttbs o? Mabkihd " — bt J. C. Nott 49 


Chif. L — Gbooraprical Distbibution or Animals and thb Raobs o? Mbn 62 

n. — Gbnbbal Rbhabks on Ttpbs or BIankind 80 

in. — Spboitic Ttpbs — Caucasian 88 

lY. — Phtsical Histobt or thb Jbws Ill 

v. — Thb Caucasian Ttpbs qabbied thbouqh Egyptian Monumbnts 141 

VL — Atbioan Ttpbs 180 

YIL — Egtpt and Egyptians. [Four Uihograpliic PlaUa,"] 210 

Tin — Nbobo Typbs 246 

Q. — Ambbioan and othbb Typbs — Abobioinal Baobs or Axbbioa 272 

X. — ExcBBPTA FBOM Mobton's inbditbd Manuscbipts 298 

XL — Gbolooy and Paubontology, in Connbction with Human Obiqins — 

eontribuUd by YJuaIAIlml Ushbb, M. D 827 

Xn. — Hybbidity or Animals, ytbwbd in Connbction with thb Natubal 

Histobt or Mankind — by J. C. Nott 872 





Ceaf. XIV.— Thi Xth Chaptib o? Omsis — PKiuMiirABT Rimabks 4G6 

8eeL A. — Analysis o? Tsn Hsbriw Nominolatubi 469 

B, — OBSiBTAnovs oir thi anvixbd Gbnialooioal Tablbau 

Of THB '<80NS OF NOAH" ^ 6^1 

Oenealoffieal lUUau 652 

(7. — Obsbbvations oh thb aooompantino "Map op thb 

Wobld" ^....^^ 652 

LUhographie iinUd Map, exhibiting the Countries more or 

less known to the ancient Writer of Xth Genesis 662 

D, — Thb Xth Chaptbb op Gbnbsis MODBBmcBD, xv its Nombb- 
olatubb, to display popclably, abd ib modbbb 

Ehqlish, thb Mbanino op its aboibbt Wbitbb 668 

xv. — BxBLioAL Ethnoqbapht: — 


F. — Stbuotubb op Gbnbsis L, II., abd III 661 

0» — Cosmas-Indiooplkustes 666 

GosMAs's Map [wood-cut] 669 

iT. — Abtiquity op thb Namb <*ADaM" 672 

PABT III. — Supplement — by Geo. R. Ouddoic. 

Essay L — Aboh^soloqioal Ibtboduotion to thb Xth Chaptbb op Gbbbsis 676 

n. — Paljbogbaphio Ezoubsus OB THB Abt op Wbitibo 628 

Table — ** Theory of the Order of Deyelopment in Human Writings" ... 680 

m. — Mabkibd's Chbobolooy : — 

XBTBODUCTOBY ••••••.•«•••••«•••• •«•••••••••••••«•« ••••«•••• •••••t«** •••«*« ••••.• OOo 

Chbobolooy — Eoyptiab ^ 667 

Chibbsb 689 

assybiab 697 

Hbbbbw....- ^•...•. 702 

Hibdoo 716 

APPENDIX L— Notbs abd Bbpbbbbobs to Pabts L abd IL.^ - 717 

IL — Aiphabbtioal List op Subsobibbbs to "Typbs opMabkibd"... 781 


OF i 




■nirvs FmoFBMOB of matibia vbdica and therapeutics dt the mtDxcAL DEPABTMBRT or 


When the authors of the present work, pressed with the labor of 
preparing for the printer their abundant materials, first suggested 
that I should assist them by furnishing a notice of the scientific life 
of our deceased friend and leader in Ethnology, I hesitated somewhat 
to nndertake the task, feeling that the selection, dictated by their 
partial fiiendship, might by others be deemed inappropriate, and 
myself considered deficient in those relations which would warrant 
fhe assumption of the office. Subsequent reflection, however, con- 
Tinced me that an acquaintance of fifteen years, approaching to inti- 
macy, — frequent professional and social intercourse, — my position in 
the Medical Faculty, that was founded mainly by his labors, — devo- 
lion in a great degree to the same studies, — community of sentiment 
in r^ard to the topics of most interest to both, — that all these com- 
bined to constitute a sufficient reason why I should freely accept the 
doty assigned me. I do it cheerfully, for to me it is a grateful duty 
and a source of pleasure, thus to be allowed to bear testimony to the 
worth and services of the great and good man whom we all had so 
much cause ta love and honor. His life I do not propose to, write. 
There is but little in the quiet daily walk of any civilian, to frimish a 
theme for biographical narrative. That of Morton was eminently 
placid and regular ; and all that can be said upon it has already been 
well and eloquently expressed in the able addresses of Prbfessors 



Meigs, "Wood, and Grant.* To Dr. "Wood also we are indebted for 
his exposition of Morton's eminent services to medical science, both 
as a teacher and writer ; a point too frequently overlooked in regard- 
ing him in the more prominent light of a Naturalist. Passing over 
these topics, my object will be to consider mainly his contributions 
to Natural Science, and especially to Ethnology. Ab introductory to 
a work upon anthropological subjects, we desire to present Morton 
as the Anthropologist, and as virtually the founder of that school of 
Ethnology, of whose views this book may be regarded as an authentic 
exponent. ^ 

Let me be permitted, however, a few words in relation to the per- 
sonal character and private worth of Morton. At the mention of his 
name there arise emotions which press for utterance, and which it 
would do violence to my feelings to leave unexpressed. If I have 
felt this affection for him, it is only what was shared by all who knew 
him well. "What was most peculiar in him was that magnetic power 
bj which he attracted and bound men to him, and made them glad 
to serve him. This influence was especially manifested, as I shall 
have occasion to observe again, in the collection of his Cabinet of 
Crania. In looking over his correspondence now, it is surprising to 
see the number of men, so different one from another in every re- 
spect, who in all quarters of the globe were laboring without expec- 
tation of reward to secure a cranium for Morton, and to read the 
reports of their varied successes and disappointments. In his whole 
deportment, there was an evident singleness of purpose and a candor, 
open as the day, which at once placed one at his ease. Combined 
with this was a most winning gentleness of manner, which drew one 
to him as with the cords of brotherly affection. He possessed, more- 
over, in a remarkable degree, the faculty of imparting to others his 
own enthusiasm, and filling them, for the time at least, with ardor 
for his own pursuit. Hence, in a measure, his success in enlisting 
the numerous collaborators, so necessary to him in his peculiar 
studies. It may be affirmed that no man ever came within the 
sphere of his influence without forming for him some degree of 

* A memoir of Samuel George MortoD, M. D., late President of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, by Charles D. Meigs, M. D. Read Not. 6th, 1861, and published 
by direction of the Academy : Philada. 1851. 

A Biographical Memoir of Samuel George Morton, M. D., prepared by appointment of 
the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, and read before that body Not. 8d, 1852, by 
George B. Wood, M. D., President of the College : Philada. 1858. 

Slietch of the Life and Character of Samuel George Morton, M. D. Lecture, introduo' 
tory to a course of Anatomy and Physiology in the Medical Department of PennsyWanii 
College. J)eliTered Oct. 18thy 1851, by William B. Grant, M. B. Published by request of 
the Class: Philada. 1852 


personal nttachment. His circle of attached friends waa therefore 
Urge, and tho expression of regret for his untimely lose general and 

It wae in London, and while seated at the hospitable board of Dr. 
Thomas Ilodgkin, (to whom I had been introduced by a letter from 
Morton,*) that I first hoard the news of his decease. He was the suljiect 
of im animated and interesting conversation at the moment, (for Dr. 11. 
and he had been claasmates at Edinburgh,) when a gentleman entered 
with an American newspaper received by the morning's mail, and 
containing the ead intelligence. A cloud came over every eotinte- 
DU)ce, and every voice was raised in an exclamation of sudden grief 
ud regret ; for he was more or less known to all present. My next 
gppyiutment for that day was with Mr. 8. Birch, of the Archteological 
department of the British Museum, who had been a correspondent 
of Morton, and could appreciate his great worth. During the .lay, 
Mr. Birch or myself mentioned tlie melancholy tidings to numerous 
gentlemen, in various departments of that great institution, and 
ilways with the same reply. All knew his name, and felt that in 
his ilecenae the cause of science had suffered a serious deprivation. 

And this seemed to me his true fame. Outside the walls of this 
BoUo Temple of Science rolled on the turmoil of the modem 
BabvloD, with its world of business, of pleasure, and of care, to 
lU which the name of Morton was unknown, and from which its 
mention could call up no response. Witliin these walls, however, 
and among a body of men whom a more than princely munificence 
eubles to devote themselves to labor like his own, he was uni- 
rersaliy recognized and appreciated, and mourned as a leading 
[pdrit in their cosmopolite fintcrnity. But always there was this 
peculiarity to be noticed, that wherever a man had Icnown Morton 
personally at all, he mourned not so much for the untimely extinction 
of an intellectual light, as for tho loss of a beloved peraonal friend. 
Certainly the man who inspired others with this feeling, could him- 
self have no cold or empty heart. On the eouti-aiy, he overflowed 

• imoiig Ihp lettera with whioh Dr. Morton faTored me, on mj Tisit to Europe, wns one 
uDt, ^emnder Hsiuisf of Olasgov. Tbia he particolarl; wishcil me to detirer, luid to 
king him a report of his old friend ; for Dr. H. had been an intimale of his student ilnja, 
ilthosgh Ihair correapoD denes bad long been interrupted. The letter waa writipti in a 
fliffol mood, and contained sportiTe allusiona to their student life at Edinburgh, and n wi?h 
iM ihej might meet again. On reaching Olaagow late in May, I sought Dr. 11.. nnit t'ound 
ftatbebad recentl; deceaaed. Morton himaelf, aa I afterwarda learned, had then alao ceased 
tDbnaihe. That letter, so full of genieJ Tiiacitj' and present life, was from the hand of one 
iai man addressed to annther I And should they not meet again T Rather had the; not 
iheadj met where the darlinesa had becomo day 1 It is a beantiful and ooosolatory belief! 
SOS [hkt the Bul)jeat of this notice conld nndoubtingl; hold and rejoice in. 



With an kindlj and gentle affections. Qoiet and nnobtroflore in man- 
nein, and fond of the retirement of stady, it was onljr in Hie privacy 
of the domestic circle that he could be rightly known ; and those that 
were privileged to f^roach nearest the Sandum Sametorum of his 
happy home, could best see the ftill beanty of his character. That 
sacr€4 vdl cannot be raised to the public eye, but beneath its folds 
is preserved the pure memory of one who illustrated every relation 
of life with a new grace that was all his own, and who, in departing, 
has left behind him an impression on all hearts, which not the most 
exacting affection could wish in any respect other than it is. 

The early training of Morton was in strict accordance with the 
principles of the Society of Friends, of which his mother was a mem- 
ber« Uis school education — ^whose deficiencies he always m^itioned 
with regret, and remedied by sedulous labor in after years — was 
throughout of that character, and had all the consequent merits and 
demerits. It is a system which represses the imagination and senti* 
merits, while it cultivates careftilly the logical powers ; and which 
strives to turn all the ener^es of the pupil's mind toward the usefbl 
arts, rather than what may be deemed merely ornamental accom- 
pUsliments. When it carries him beyond the rudiments, it is usually 
into the higher mathematics and mechanical philosophy. Its aim 
is utility, even if necessary at the expense of beauty. It 1ii^!^ore 
docs not generally encourage the study o^ the dead languages, with 
its incidental belUi-leUres advantages, and free access to poets and 
rhetoricians. This plan of education I believe to be an unsuitable, 
and even an injurious one for a youth of cold temperament and 
dull sensibilities. When, however, the subject of its operation 
is one of opposite tendendes, so decided as to be the better for 
repression, it may become not only useftil, but the best training for 
that particular case. Such I conceive to have been the fact in regard 
to Morton. Endowed by nature with a delicate and sensitive tem- 
perament, with warm affections, a keen sense of natural beauties, a 
fertile imagination, and that nice musical appreciation which made 
hiiu delight in the accord of measured sounds, he had an early passion 
for i)Ootical reading and composition. Even in boyhood he wrote 
very creditable verses; and his later productions, — for he continued 
to indulge the muse occasionally to the end of his life, although he 
would not publish, — oft:en rose considerably above mediocrity. 

The following lines may answer as an average specimen of his easy 
flow of voraiflcation, as well as of his youthful style of thought and 
(Viiiling. They were written on the occasion* of a visit to BSlcoleman 
( ^Hutlu, county Cork, Ireland, where Spenser lived, and is believed to 
k^HVM written bis immortal poem. 





Tkrongh manj a winding maze in ** Faery Lande" 

Spenser ! I have followed thee along ; 

Aje, I haye langhed and sigb'd at thy command, 
And joy'd me in the magio of thy song : 
Wild are thy nombers, but to them belong 
The fire of Genins, and poetic skill ; 
'Tis thine to paint with inspiration strong, 
The fate of knight, or dame more knightly still, 
To sway the fueling heart, and ronse it at thy wilL 


And mnsing still npon the fairy dream, 

1 sought the ban oft trod by thee before ; 
I bent me down by Mnlla's gentle stream, 
And, looking far beyond, gaaed fondly o'er 
Old Ballyhoora, where in days of yore 

Then watch'd thy flocks with all a shepherd's pride; 
And fimcy listened as to catch once more 
Thy Harp's loT'd echo from the mountain side,— 
But ah ! no harp is heard in all that region wide I 


The floeka are fled, and in the enchanted haU 
No Toice replies to Toice ; bat there ye see 
The iTy clasp the sad and monld'ring wall. 
As if to twine a votive wreath for thee : 
All — all is desolate, — and if there be 
A lonely sound, it is the raven's cry 1 
Let years roll on, let wasting ages flee, 
Let earthly things delight, and hasten by. 
But thy immortal name and song shall never die I 

Had this inherent tendency been fostered, he would doubtless have 
taken a high rank among our American poets. Certainly he would 
have been another man than we have known him. Perhaps his 
nervous temperament, delicate fibre, acute feelings and ardent sym- 
pathies, might have been developed into the same super-sensitiveness 
we have seen in John Keats and other gifted minds of a constitution 
amilar to his own. But the tendency was checked and repressed 
from the outset by his domestic influences, by his teachers, and sub- 
sequently by himself. When he devoted himself to a life of science, 
he was earnest to cultivate that style of thought and composition 
which accorded with his pursuits ; for only by severe mental disci- 
pline, and long-continued effort, could he have acquired that cau- 


tion and rigid accuracy of diction, which characterize his produc 
tions. His school appears to have been nnsatis&ctory to him, 
for he never had a fondness for the mathematics, the main topic of 
study. He was nevertheless of a studious turn, reading industriously, 
and with special interest, all the works on History to which he had 
access. It is probable that in these readings was laid the foundation 
of a taste for those anthropological studies which have since rendered 
him famous, and in the prosecution of which his extensive historical 
knowledge gave him eminent facilities. 

At the same time probably he imbibed his first fondness for Natural 
Science. From his stepfather, (for his mother married again when he 
was thirteen years old,) he derived a taste for and knowledge of 
mineralogy and geology, the first branches to which he turned his 

Destined originally for mercantile pursuits, young Morton soon 
found the atmosphere of the counting-house uncongenial to him. 
He resolved to adopt the medical profession, which was indeed the 
only course open, to one of his tastes, and in his circumstances. The 
Society of Friends, by closing the Pulpit and the Bar against the able 
and aspiring among its youth, has given to Medicine many of its 
brightest ornaments, both in Great Britain and in this country. This 
fact will serve to explain the great success of so many physicians of 
that persuasion, as well as the preponderating influence of the medical 
profession in all Quaker neighborhoods. May not the eminence of 
Philadelphia in medicine be accounted for, in part at least, in the 
same way ? Carlyle has said that to the ambitious fancy of the Scot- 
tish schoolboy " the highest style of man is the Christian, and the 
highest Christian the teacher of such." Hence his ultimate aspira- 
tion is for the clerical position. But to the aspiring youth among 
Friends there is but the one road to intellectual distinction, — 
that is through medicine and its cognate sciences. The medical 
preceptor of Morton was the late Dr. Joseph Parrish, then in the 
height of his popularity. Elevated to his prominent position against 
early obstacles, and solely by force of character, industry, and pro- 
bity, he was extensively engaged in practice ; and, although uncon- 
nected with any institution, his oflice overflowed with pupils. His 
mind was practical and thoroughly medical, and so entirely did his pro- 
fession occupy it, that he seemed to me never to allow himself to think 
upon other topics, except religious ones, in which also he was deeply 
interested. A strict and conscientious Friend, he illustrated all the 
best points in that character. As the remarkable graces of his person 
proverbially gave a beauty to the otherwise ungainly garb of his sect, 
and rendered it attractive upon him, so the graces of his spirit, obli- 
terating all that might otherwise have been harsh or angular, contri- 


buU'd t^) form a character gentle, kindly, lovely, that made him the 
lijrlit of the sick chamber, and a comforting presence at many a dying 
bed. To no member of our profession could the proud title of Opifer 
lie more truly applied, for his very emile brought aid to the BiitTering, 
■nd courage to the despondent. The reader will pardou me this 
dipresaiou ; but as the Highland clansman could not pass by without 
idding auother atone to the monumental cairn where reposed his 
departed chief, eo can I never pass by the mention of his name with- 
out offering some tribute, however humble, of reverence and respect, 
to the memory of my excellent old master. Such was the teacher 
fiom whom mainly Morton also received the knowledge of his pro- 
fesfiion; tliongh, had the influence of Dr. Parrish alone controlled 
big mind, it would have been confined rigorously to the ehaunels of 
purely medical study and investigation. But, in order to provide 
(deqaate tuition for his numerous pupils, Dr. Parrish had associhted 
with himself several young physicians as instructors in the various 
bmnches. Among them was Dr. Richard Uarlan, then enthusiasti- 
cally devoted to the study of Natural History, bet^veen whom and 
tlie young stuilent there was soon established a bond of sympathy in 
congeniality of pursuits. That the friendship tlms originated was 
sobsequently interrupted, was in no manner the fault of Morton, to 
whom it was always & subject of regret. Harlan haa now been dead 
Kime years, and although by no means forgotten in the world of 
science, be has not been accorded the full measure of his merited 
Unction among American naturalists. An unfortunate infirmity 
of temper, which was not at all calculated to conciliate attach- 
mrats, but rather the reverse, deprived him of the band of friends 
who should have watched over his fame, and so his memory has suf- 
fered by default. Yet at one period he was the leading authority on 
this fiide the Atlantic in certain departments of Zoology. By him 
Morton appear^ to have been introduced to the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, in whose proceedings ha was afterwards to take such an 
important part. He attained his majority in January 1820, received 
ti* Diploma of Doctor of Medicine in March, and was elected a 
member of the Academy in April of the same year. He had pro- 
httbly taken an active interest in its afiairs before this time, altliough 
uot eligible to membership by reason of age ; for in one of his later 
iettere now before me, he speaks of it as an institution for which he 
had labored, "boy and man," now some thirty years. 

Soon after this last event he sailed for Europe, on a visit to Ids 
uncle, James Morton, Esq., of Clonmel, Ireland, a gentleman for 
whom ho always preserved a high regard and grateful affection. His 
tmnsatlantic friends seem to have attached but little value to an 


American diploma, and desired him to possess the honors of the 
University of Edinburgh, then but little passed beyond the zenith 
of its glory. After spending the summer at his uncle's house, he 
went to Edinburgh, where he heard the last course of lectures, deli- 
vered by the chaste and classical Gregory. The American schools 
not being recognized by the University as ad eundem^ he found him- 
self obliged to attend the ftill term of an under-graduate. This would 
have left him ample leisure as far as his mere college studies were 
concerned ; for the youth who had graduated with approbation under 
the tuition of Wistar, Physick, and James, and their compeers, could 
not have fallen far short of the requisitions of any other Medical 
Faculty in Christendom. But his time was not spent in idleness. 
He sedulously cultivated his knowledge of the classical tongues, 
hitherto imperfect, and he devoted himself to the study of French 
and Italian, both of which languages he learned to read with fiwjility. 
He also attended with great interest the lectures of Professor Jameson 
on Gteology, thus confirming and reviving his early fondness for that 
branch of science. After his return to America, he presented to the 
Academy a series of the green-stone rocks of Scotland, and a section 
of Salisbury Craig near Edinburgh, collected by himself at this time. 
In October 1821, he visited Paris, and spent the winter there mainly 
in clinical study. The next summer was devoted to a tour in Italy 
and other portions of the continent, and in the &11 he returned again 
to Edinburgh, where, after attendance upon another session, he re- 
ceived the honors of the doctorate. His printed thesis* may be taken 
as a fair exponent of his mental condition and calibre at this period. 
It is very like himself, and yet with a difference firom him as we knew 
him later in life. It is quiet and indeed even simple in tone, without 
affectation and without any of the declamation in which young writers 
are so apt to indulge. Its style is clear and sufficiently concise, and 
as a piece of Latiaity it is correct and graceftil. It takes up the 
subject of bodily pain, and considers it in regard to its causes, its 
diagnostic value, and its effects, both physical and psychical, leaving 
very little more to be said with regard to it. But it is evident through- 
out that the essay is the production of one who is more ambitious of 
the reputation of the litterateur thBLU of the savant; who writes, — ^and 
that probably marks the distinction, — with his face turned to his 
auditory rather than to his subject. The sentence marches some- 
times with a didactic solemnity almost Johnsonian, while the fre- 
quency of the poetical references and quotations, — ^Latin and Italian 
as well as English, — and the facile fitness with which they glide into 

^ TenUmen Inaugorale de CorporiB Dolore, etc. — Edinburgi, x.d.ooozzhl 


the text, show how familiar they must have been to the mind of the 
aathor. Indeed Edinburgh was, at the period in question, the prin- 
cipal centre of taste and philosophy, as well as of science, in Great 
Britinn ; and it is not likely that one of Morton's literary turn and 
stadious habits would miss the opportunity to pasture in either of 
diese rich fields. The ethical tone of this production is also worthy 
of note. It is characteristic of the writer, and grew in a great mea- 
0ore out of his mental constitution, which, free from all violence of 
ymoUf was habitually cheerful, hopeful, and kindly. Hence comes 
Aat beautiful spirit of philosophical •ptimism, which, perceiving in 
all seeming evil only the means to a greater ultimate good, attains all 
that stoicism proposed to itself, by the shorter way of a cheerful and 
unquestioning resignation to the Divine Will, not because it is omni- 
potent and irresistible, but solely because ^it' is the wisest and best. 
Hie following extracts will sufficiently explain my meaning : — 

" Almaramn Parens ml fhistra fecit ; ne dolor quidem absque snis usibos est; et semper 
eopnrar enm agnoscere Telnti fidelem quamTis ingratom monitorem, et quoqae inter pne- 
lidia Tit« nannaaqiiam nwnermndum.'' — (p. 9.) 

"JkHar entm not nasoenies aggre^tnr, per totam Titam insidiosas oomitator, et quasi 
BSBqnani satiandns; adest etiam morientibns, horamqne supremam angoribus infestat. 
At ego tamen Dolorem, quanqoam inTisom, et ab omnibus, quantum fieri potest, ab ipsis 
lemotum, non omnino inutilem depinxi, sed potius eum protuli, ad Titam oonserrandam 
BNMBariuai, a Deo-Optisio Maximo eonstiitutum." — (p 87.) 

This conviction animated Morton throughout his life, consoled him 
in suffering, cheered him in sickness, and gave to his deportment much 
of its calm and beautiful equanimity.* 

* The rabjotned graceful lines breathe the same epirit. They oeeur among his MSS. with 
thi date of May 182S. I quote them as illustrative of the thought abore indicated. 


spirit of Light 1 Thou glance divine 

Of Heayen's immortal fire, 
I kneel before thy hallowed shrine 

To worship and admire. 
I cannot trace thy glorious flight 

Nor dream where ithou dost dwell, 
Tet canst thou guard my steps aright 

By thine unearthly BpelL 

I listen for thy voice in vain, 

E*en when I deem thee nigh ; 
Tet ere I venture to complain. 

Thou know'st the reason why ; 
And oft when, worldly cares forgot^ 

I watch the vacant air, 
I see thee not, — I hear thee not," 

Tet know that thou art there. 


In 1824, he returned to Philadelphia, and commenced his career as 
a practitioner of medicine. He seems immediately to have resumed 
his place and labors in the Academy of Natural Sciences, which, in 
the next year, was deprived of the active services of some of its most 
efficient members, by the removal of Messrs. Maclure, Say, Troost, 
Lesueur, and others, to New Harmony, whither they went to parti- 
cipate in the benevolent but ill-starred social experiment of Robert 
Owen. It was a pleasant dream of a good heart and a visionary 
brain, and has now faded away from every one but the originator, 
who holds it still in his extreme old age with the same fervor as in 
his ardent youth ; but then it had many firm believers. So enthusiastic 
was Maclure especially in its advocacy, that he declined about this 
period to assist the Academy in tlie erection of a new Hall, from a 
conviction that, in the reorganization of society, living in cities would 
be abandoned, and their edifices thus left untenanted and useless. One 
cannot imagine a body of more simple-hearted, less worldly, and less 
practical men, than the Philadelphia naturalists who went to recon- 
stitute the framework of society on the prairies of Indiana ; and it is 
impossible to repress a smile at their Quixotism, even while one heaves 
'a sigh for the bitterness of their disappointment. 

They left in 1825, and the first papers of Morton were read in 1827. 
His main interest still seems to have been in Geology. In the year 
mentioned he published an Analt/sis of Tabular Spar from Bucks 
Countf/y and the next year some Q-eological Observations, based upon 
the notes of his friend, Mr. Yanuxem. About this time his attention 
was turned to the special department of Palaeontology, by an exami- 
nation of the organic remains of the cretaceous formation of New 
Jersey and Delaware ; and with this his active scientific life may be 
regarded as commencing. 

Some few of the fossils of the New Jersey marl had been noticed 
by Mr. T. Say, and by Drs. Harlan and Dekay ; but no thorough in- 
vestigation of this interesting topic was attempted until Morton as- 
sumed the task. He labored in it industriously, being assisted in the 
collection of materials by his scientific friends. Three papers on the 
subject were published in 1828, a^ fix)m this time the series was 
continued, either in Silliman's Journal or the Journal of the Aca- 

And when with heedless step, too near 

I tempt destmction's brink, 
Deep, deep, within my sonl I hear 

Thj Toice, and backward shrink. 
The poisoned shaft, by thee controlled. 

Speeds swift and harmless by ; 
But, when the days of life are told, 

Thou smitest — and we die t 


demy, autil it closed with the fourteenth paper in 1846. In 1834, 
the results then obtained were collected and published in a volume 
iUuEtratod with nineteen admirable platea.* 

This book at once gave its author a reputation and status in the 
Bciontific world, and called forth the warm commendations of Mr, 
Hantell and other eminent Palieontologists. It traces the formation 
iu qnestioD along the borders of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico 
from Sevf Jersey to Louisiana, following it by the identification of 
its organic remains. The great body of the work ia original, scarcely 
any of the species enumerated having ever been noticed before. Sub- 
sequent researches enabled him to add considerably to this collection, 
and, among others, to describe a species of fossil crocodile (C clavi- 
rottris) entirely new and diftering considerably in structure from its 
congeners hitherto known. In regard to the fossils of the cretaceous 
series, he is still the principal authority. 

Nor was he neglectful of the other branches of Natural Science, 
ftllbongh too well aware of the value of concentrated efibrt to peril 
bis own BuecesH, by a too wide difiusion of his labors. Still he main- 
tained a constant interest in the operation of eveiy department of 
the Academy, and watched its onward progress with sohcitude and 
satisfaction. To the Geological and Mineralogical, and especially to 
the PalfBontologicat collection, he was a liberal contributor. Among 
the papers read by him before the Academy was one in 1831 on 
"some Parasitic Worms," another in 1841, on "an Albino Racoon," 
tad a, third in 1844, on " a supposed new species of Hippopotanms." 
This animal, which has been called H. minor vel Liberienaia, was en- 
tirely unknown to Zoology until described by Morton, who received 
its skull from Dr. Goheen, of Liberia, and at once recognized its 
diversity from the known apecies.t Notwithstanding the pubhshed 
opinion of Curier, that the field of research was exhausted in regard 
to the Mammalia, our gifted townsman was enabled to add an im- 
portant pachyderm to the catalogue of Mammalogy, and that too 
from the other hemisphere. 

lAJt it not be supposed that, amid these absorbing topics of research, 
be relaxed for a moment his attention to his professional pursuits. 
On the contrary, lie was constantly and largely engaged in practice, 
and, at his decease, was one of the leading practitioners of our city. 
Keither did he allowhimaelf to fall behind his professional colleagues 
in the literature of medicine. lie was among the first to intro- 
duce on this side the Atlantic the physical means of diagnosis in 

■ Zoopsia of the Otgania ReniBins of the Crelaoeoiu Qroup of Uio Uaitocl Sut^B. Hy 
Bwaiwl Oeorge Morton. Pbiludvlpbia ^ Kcj and Biddle. IS34. 
t The Academ; hue recently (Juuuikr; 1852) roceiveil a Bpeciniea of it. 


thoracic affections. He was also one of the earliest investigators of 
the morbid anatomy of Phthisis Pulmonalis ; and his volume on that 
subject, although superseded by the later and more extensive re- 
searches of the French pathologists, is a monument of his industry 
and accuracy, and a credit to American medicine.* He also edited 
Mackintosh's Practice of Physic, witii notes, which add materially to 
its value to the American physician, f In 1849, he published a text^ 
book of anatomy, remarkable for its clearness and succinctness, and 
the beauty of its illustrations.^ He was early selected by Dr. Parrish 
as one of his associates in teaching, and lectured upon anatomy in 
that connexion fDr a number of years. He subsequently filled the 
chair of anatomy in the Medical Department of Pennsylvania College 
fix>m 1839 to 1848. As a lecturer he was clear, calm, and self- 
possessed, moving through his topic with the easy regularity of one 
to whom it was entirely familiar. He served for several years as one 
of the physicians and clinical teachers of the Alms-house Hospital, 
and it was there that most of his researches on consumption were 
made. He was a Fellow of the College of Physicians, but did not 
take an active part in their proceedings, from the fact that their stated 
meetings occurred on the same evenings as those of the Academy, 
where he felt it his first duty to be. His only contribution to their 
printed Transactions is a biographical notice of his valued friend. 
Dr. George McClellan, prepared by request of the College. 

We now come to a portion of his scientific labors, upon which I 
must be allowed to dwell at greater length. I refer of course to his 
researches in Anthropology, commencing with what may be desig- 
nated Comparative Cranioscopy, and running on into general Ethno- 
logy. The object proposed primarily being the determination of 
ethnic resemblances and discrepancies by a comparison of crania, 
(thus perfecting what Blumenbach had left lamentably incomplete,) 
the work could not be commenced until the objects for comparison 
were brought together. The results of Blumenbach were invalidated 
by the small number of specimens generally relied upon by him ; for 
in a case where allowance is to be made for individual peculiarities 
of form and stature, the conclusions gain infinitely in value by exten- 
sion of the comparison over a sufficient series to neutralize this 
disturbing element. There was therefore necessary, first of all, a 

* niustratioiw of Pulmooary Consomptioiiy its Anatomical Characters, Causes, Symptoms 
and Treatment ^ith twelve colored plates. Philadelphia: 1S84. 

f Principles of Pathology and Practice of Physio. By John Mackintosh, M. D., &c. First 
American flrom the fourth London edition. With notes and additions. In 2 toIs. Phila- 
delphia: 1835. 

X An niustrated System of Human Anatomy, Special, Qeneral, and Microsoopio. Phi- 
ladelphia: 1849. 


toUection of crania, and that not of a few BpecimenB, but widely 
enougt extended to give reliable reeults. The cootemplatiou of 
theee facta shows the magnitude and boldness of the plan, which 
(Foulii have su&ced to deter most men from the attempt. But Mor- 
Iuh was not easily discouraged, and although he doubtle»s occupied 
I wider field in the end than he proposed to himseif in the outset, 
it id evident that from the beginuiiig he contemplated a full cabinet 
of Doiveraal Craniology, Human and Comparative. His own account 
of the oommencemeut of the collection is as Ibllowa : " Having bad 
(Kca^OD, in the summer of 1830, to deliver an introductory lecture 
to A course of Anatomy, I chose for my subject Tlie different forma 
^tkt tkaU 09 exhibited ia the five races of men. Strange to eay, I 
conld neither buy nor borrow a crauium of each of these races ; and 
I fimebed my discourse without showing either the Mongolian or the 
Malay- Forcibly impressed with this great deficiency in a most im- 
portaDt branch of science, I at ouce resolved to make a collection for 
mjBelf."* Hr. Wood {Memoir, p. 13,) states that he engaged in 
thid study Boon atler he commenced practice ; and adds, " among the 
earliest recollections of my visits to his office is that of the skulls 
lie liftd collected." The selection of the topic above-mentioned ehows 
th»t he waa already interested in it. 

The iucreaee waa at first slow, but the work was persevered m with 
a constancy and energy that could know no failure. Every legitimate 
iDCsas was adopted, and eveiy attainable iuilucuce brought to bear 
npon the one object Time, labor, and money, were expended with- 
out stint. The entbuaiasm he felt himself he imparted to others, and 
I he thus enlisted a body of zealous collaboratora who sought contii- 
batioaa for him in every part of the world. Many of them sympa^ 
thized with him in bis scientific ardor, and quite as many were 
ictaated solely by a desire to serve and oblige the individual. A friend 
of the writer (without any particular scientific interest) exposed his 
life in robbing an Indian buriaJ-place in Oregon, and carried hia 
spoils for two weeks in his pack, in a highly unsavory condition, and 
when discovery would have involved danger, and probably death. 
Before hia departure he had promised Morton to bring him some 
Bkalle, and be was resolved to do it at all hazards. This eifort also 
involved, of course, a very extensive and laborious correspondence. 
He was in daily receipt of letters from all countries and from every 
vanety of pereona. It was mainly by the fi-ee contributions of these 
Bceistants that the collection eventually grew so rapidly. Amoiig the 

1 EtbDologiial fiucietj, 


contributors I may mention "William A. Poster, Esq., as presenting 
135 specimens, Dr. J. C. Cisneros 53, and Dr. Buschenberger 89. 
George R. Gliddon, Esq. presented 30, beside the 187 originally pro- 
cured by his agency ; William A. Gliddon, Esq., 19 ; M. Clot-Bey 15 ; 
and Professor Retzius 17, with 24 more received since the death of 
Dr. M. Over one hundred gentlemen are named in the catalogue as 
contributing more or less, sixtynseven of them having present^ one 
skull each. It is not to be supposed, hovp^ever, that even the portion 
thus given led to no outlay of means. The mere charges for freight 
from distant portions of the globe amounted to a considerable sum. 
Dr. Wood (loc. cit) estimates the total cost of the collection to its 
proprietor from ten to fifteen thousand dollars. At this moment it 
is undoubtedly by far the most complete collection of crania extant. 
There is nothing in Europe comparable to it. I have recentiy seen a 
letter from an eminent British ethnologist, containing warm thanks 
for the privilege even of reading the catalogue of such a collection, 
and adding that he would visit it anywhere in Europe, although he 
cannot dare the ocean for it. At the time of Dr. Morton's death it 
consisted of 918 human crania, to which are to be added 51 received 
since, and which were then on their way. The collection also con- 
tains 278 crania of mammals, 271 of birds, and 88 of reptiles and 
fishes : — ^in all, 1656 skulls ! I rejoice to state that this magnificent 
cabinet has been secured to our city by the contribution of liberal 
citizens, who have purchased it for $4,000, and presented it to the 

Simultaneously with his accumulation of crania, and based upon 
them, he carried on his study of Ethnology, if I may use that term 
in reference to a period when* the science, so called at present, could 
scarcely be said to exist. Indeed it is almost entirely a new science 
within a few years. While medical men occupied themselves exclu- 
sively with the intimate structure and function of the human fi^me, 
no investigator of nature seemed to turn his attention to the curious 
diversities of form, feature, complexion, &c., which characterize the 
different varieties of men. With a very thorough anatomy and phy- 
siology, our descriptive history of the human species was less accurate 
and extensive than that of most of the well-known animals. So true 
was this that Buffon pithily observed that " quelque inter^t que nous 
ayons a nous connaitre nous mSmes, je ne sais si nous ne connaissons 
pas mieux tout ce qui n*est pas nous." But every branch of this 
interesting investigation has recently received a sudden and vigorous 
impulse, and there has grown up within a few years an Ethnology 
with numerous and devoted cultivators. That it still has much to 
accomplish will appear from the number of questions which the pages 


of this book show to be still 9tib judiee. Indeed it is the widest and 
moet attractive field open to the naturalist of to-day. To quote the 
admirable language of Jomard : 

•< Car il ne faat pas perdre de Tiie, maintenant que la connaissance ezt^rieure du globe 
et de see productions a fait d'immenses progr^s, que la connaissance de Thomme est le 
btt final des sciences g^ographiques. Une carri^re non moins Taste que la premiere est 
oorerte au g4nie des Toyages ; il importe, 11 est urgent mdme, pour TaTenir de Tespbce 
Immune et pour le besoin de TEurope surtout, de connaitre & fond le degrd de dvilisation 
de tontes les races; de savoir exaotement en quoi elles di£f%rent ou se rapprochent ; 
qaeOe est Tanalogie ou la dissemblance entre leurs regimes, leurs moeurs, leurs religions, 
lean langages, leurs arts, leurs industries, leurs constitutions physiques, afin de lier entre 
eOts et nous des rapports plus siirs et plus ayantageux. Tel est Tobjet de I'ethnologie, ce 
qoi est la science mdme de la g^ographie Tue dans son ensemble et dans touts sa haute 
gfn^ralit^. Bien que cette mati^re idnsi enyisag^e soit presque toute nouyelle, nous ;ie 
poofons trop, n^anmoins, recommander les obsenrations de cette esp^ce au z^le des 
Toyifeurs."* i 

The attempt to establish a rule of diversity among the races of 
men, according to cranial conformation, conmienced in the last cen- 
tury with Camper, the originator of the facial angle. The subject 
was next taken up by Blumenbach, who has been until recently the 
controlling authority upon it. His Decades Craniorum^ whose publi- 
cation was begun in 1790, and continued until 1828, covers the period 
when Morton began this study. His method of comparing crania, (by 
the norma verticaliSy) and his distribution of races, were then both un- 
disputed. The mind of the medical profession in Great Britain and 
in this country had then, moreover, been recently attracted to the 
subject by the publication (in 1819) of the very able book of Mr. Law- 
rence,! avowedly based upon the researches of the great Professor 
of Gottingen. Dr. Prichard had published his Inaugural Dissertation, 
De Hominum VarietatibuSj in 1808, and a translation of the same in 
1812, under the title of JResearchea on the Physical History of Man^ 
constituting the first of a series of publications, afterwards of great 
influence and value. Several treatises had also been published with 
the intention of proving that the color of the negro might arise from 
climatic influences, the principal work being that of President Smith, 
of Princeton College, New Jersey. Beyond this, nothing had been 
(lone for the science of Man up to Morton's return to this country in 
1824. A new impetus had been given, however, to the speciality of 
Craniology by the promulgation of the views of Gall and Spurzheini, 
then creating their greatest excitement. These distinguished persons 
completed the publication of their great work at Paris in 1819, both 

* Etades G^ogrsphiqaes et Historiqaes snr 1' Arable, p. 403. 

t Lectures on Physiology, Zoology, and the Natural History of Man, dellTered at th« 
Boyil CoUege of Surgeons, by W. Lawrence, F. R. S., &o. 



before and after which time Spurzheim lectured in Great Britain, 
making many proselytes. The phrenologists of Edinburgh must 
have been in the very fervor of their first love during Morton's resi- 
dence there, and they included in their number some mfen of eminent 
ability and eloquence. Collections of prepared crania, of casts and 
masks, became common ; but they were brought together in the hope 
of illustrating character, not race, and were prized accordii^ as fan- 
ciful hypothesis could make their protuberances correspond with the 
distribution of intellectual faculties in a most crude and barren 
psychology. Morton's collection was ethnographic in its aim firom 
the outset ; nor can I find that he ever committed himself fully to the 
miscalled Phrenology — a system based upon principles indisputably 
true, but which it holds in common with the world of science at 
large, while all that is peculiar to itself is already fading into obli- 
vion.* Attractive by its easy comprehensibility and facility of appli- 
cation, it acquired a sudden and wide-spread popularity, and so passed 
out of the hands of men of science, step by step, till it has now become , 
the property of itinerant charlatans, describing characters for twenty- 
five cents a head. The very name is so degraded by these associa- 
tions, that we are apt to forget that, thirty years ago, it was a scientific 
doctrine accepted by learned and thoughtful men. There can be no 
doubt that it had its effect (important though indirect) upon the 
mind of Morton, in arousing him to the importance of the Craniology 
about which everybody was talking, and leading him to make that 
application of it, which, although neglected by his professional 
brethren, was still the only one of any real and permanent value. 

It is evident that the published matter for Morton's studies was 
very limited. A pioneer himself^ he had to resort to the raw mate- 
rial, and obtain his data at the hand of nature. Fortunately for him 
he resided in a country where, if literary advantages are otherwise 
deficient, the inducement and opportunities for anthropological re- 
search are particularly abundant. There are reasons why Ethnology 
should be eminently a science for American culture. Here, three of 
the five races, into which Blumenbach divided mankind, are brought 
together to determine the problem of their destiny as they best may, 

* The ensuing paragraph will show more olearlj Morton's matured opinion on this subject 
It is from an Introductory Lecture on ** The Diversities of the Human Species," delivered 
before the Medical Class of PennsjWania College in November 1842. 

** It (Phrenology) further teaches us that the brain is the seat of the min4, and that it 
is s congeries of organs, each of which performs its own separate and peculiar function. 
These propositions appear to me to be physiological truths ; but I allude to them on this 
occasion merely to put you on your guard against adopting too hastily those minute details 
of the localities and functions of supposed organs, which have of late found to many and 
inicb tealoue advocates." 


while Chinese immigration to California and the proposed importa- 
tion of Coolie laborers threaten to bring us into equally intimate 
contact with a fourth. It is manifest that our relation to and ma- 
nagement of these people must depend, in a great measure, upon their 
intrinsic race-character. While the contact of the white man seems 
fistal to the Red American, whose tribes fide away before the onward 
march of the frontier-man like the snow in spring (threatening ulti- 
mate extinction), the Negro thrives under the shadow of his white 
master, fidls readily into the position assigned him, and exists and 
multiplies in increased physical well-being. To the American states- 
man and the philanthropist, as well as to the naturalist, the study 
thus becomes one of exceeding interest. Extraordinary facilities for 
observing minor sub-divisions among the families of the white race 
are also presented by the resort hither of immigrants from every part 
of Europe. Of all these advantages Morton availed himself freely, 
and soon became the acknowledged master of the topic. Extending 
his studies beyond what one may call the zoological, into the 
archaeological, and, to some extent, into the philological department 
of Ethnography, his pre-eminence was speedily acknowledged at 
home, while the publication of his books elevated him to an equal 
distinction abroad. Professor Ketzius of Stockholm, writing to him 
April 3d, 1847, says emphatically : " Tou have done more for Ethno- 
graphy than any living physiologist ; and I hope you will continue to 
cultivate this science, which is of so great interest." 

The first task proposed to himself by Morton, was the examination 
and comparison of the crania of the Indian tribes of North and South 
America. His special object was to ascertain the average capacity 
and form of these skulls, as compared among themselves and with 
those of the other races of men, and to determine what ethnic dis- 
tinctions, if any, might be inferred from them. The result of this 
labor was the Crania Americana^ published in 1839. This work con- 
tains admirably executed lithographic plates of numerous crania, of 
natural size, and presenting a highly creditable specimen of American 
art The letter-press includes accurate admeasurements of the crania, 
especially of their interior capacity ; the latter being made by a plan 
peculiar to the author, and enabling him to estimate with precision 
the relative amount of brain in various races. The introduction is 
particularly interesting, as containing the author's general ethnologi- 
cal views so far as matured up to that time. He adopts the quintuple 
division of Blumenbach, not as the best possible, but as sufficient for 
his purpose, and each of the five races he again divides into a certain 
nnmber of characteristic families. His main conclusions concernmg 
the American race are these : 


<< Ist That the American race diflfers easentially from all others, not excepting the Mongo- 
lian ; nor do the feeble analogies of language, and the more obrious ones in dvil and 
religions institutions and the arts, denote anything beyond casual or colonial commu- 
nication with the Asiatic nations ; and even those analogies may perhaps be accounted 
for, as Humboldt has suggested, in the mere coincidence arising from similar wants 
and impulses in nations inhabiting similar latitudes. 

** 2d. That the American nations, excepting the polar tribes, are of one race and one spe- 
cies, but of two great families, which resemble each other in physical, but differ in 
intellectual character. 

** 8d. That the cranial remuns discoyered in the mounds fh)m Pern to Wisconsin, belong 
to the same race, and probably to the Toltecan family." 

The publication of a work of such costly character, and necessarily 
addressed to a very limited number of readers, was a bold under- 
taking for a man of restricted means. It was published by himself 
at the risk of considerable pecuniary loss. The original subscription 
list fell short of paying the expense, but I am happy to say that the 
subsequent sale of copies liquidated the deficit. The reception of 
the book by the learned was all he could have desired. Everywhere 
it received the warmest commendations. The following extract firom 
a notice in the London Medico-Chirurgical Review for October 1840, 
vnll show the tone of the British scientific press : 

**I>r. Morton's method and illustrations in eliciting the elements of his magniiicent 
Craniography, are admirably concise, without being the less instructively comprehensiTe. 
His work constitutes, and will ever be highly appreciated as constituting an exquisite 
treasury of facts, weU adapted, in all respects, to establish permanent organic principles 
in the natural history of man." 

** Here we finish our account of Dr. Morton's American Cranioscopy ; and by its extent 
and copiousness, our article will show how highly we haye appreciated his classical pro- 
duction. We have studied his views with attention, and examined his doctrines with fair- 
ness ; and with perfect sincerity in rising ttom a task which has afforded unusual gratifi- 
cation, we rejoice in ranking his * Crania Americana' in the highest class of transatlantio 
literature, foreseeing distinctly that the book will ensure for its author the well-«amed 
meed of a Caucasian reputation." 

From among the warmly eulo^tic letters received from distin- 
guished savansy I select but one, that of Baron Humboldt, who is 
himself a high authority on American subjects, 

** Monsieur, — Les liens intimes d'interet et d'affection qui m'attachent. Monsieur, depuis 
un d^mi-si^cle & I'hemisph^re que tous habitex et dont j'ai la vanity de me croire citoyen, 
ont ajout^ & I'impression que m'ont fait presque k la fois votre grand ouvrage de physio- 
logie philosophique et I'admirable histoire de la conquSte du Mexique par M. William 
Prescott Voil& de ces travaux qui ^tendent, par des moyens trbs diflferens, la sphere de 
nos connaissances et de nos Tues, et igoutent k la gloire nationale. Je ne puis tous exprimer 
assei vivement. Monsieur, la profonde reconnaissance que je tous dois. Am€ricain bien 
plus que Sib^rien d'apr^s la couleur de mes opinions, je suis, & men grand age, singuli^re- 
ment fiatt^ de I'inter^t qu'on me conserve encore de I'autre cot6 de la grand valine atlantique 
Bur laquelle la vapeur a presque jet^ un pont. Les richesses craniologiques que tous aves 
M asses heureux de r^unir, ont trouv6 en vous un digne interpr^te. Votre ouvrage. Mon- 
sieur, est ^galement remarquable par la profondeur des vnes anatomiqnes, par le detail 


• Ata rnpporls cle confonnatioD orjiBaiqur, par I'abseDiie dea reTeries po^tiquei 
qiu toot Im mjthes da k Phjfljologia moderna, par lea grfntfrsliWa dont voire " Introdnotory 
Ejhj" abonde. Bidigeunt dans ce moment le plus important de mea ouvrages qui »er» 
^i\t Mas 1« titre imprudt^nt de Koimot, ja saurai profiler de tanta d'eicellents apper^os 
m U dcstxibuUoD des races humainca qui ae trouTant ipais daaa rotre beau voiuma. Que 
ii woiIGgM picuniares n'sre: Tons paa d& faire, poor alteindre una ai grande perflation 
irtistiqae et prodoire un ouvrage qui rivalisa KTea tout ce que 1'on a fait de plus beau eo 
Ist/feierre et en Franca. 

" Agn!ei, jo Tons supplie, Uontienr, rhommnge renouvellf de la haute coDsidera^on 
■IK Uqnoile j'ai I'houneur d'Gtre, 

*' Monsieur, Tolre tr&s-humble et tria-obeisaant sarriteur, 

"Albxandbs Humboldt. 
'•i Berlin, ce IT JaoTier, 18J4." 

The eminent success of tlus work determined definitely its author's 
ulterior scientific career. From this time forward he devoted his 
powers almost exclusively to Ethnology. He sought in every direc- 
tion for the materials for his investigation, when circumstances led 
to Ma acquaintance with Mr. George E. Gliddon, whose contributions 
opened to him a new field of research, and gave him an unexpected 
triamph. Mr. G. first visited this countrj- in 1837, being sent out by 
Uehemet Ali to obtain information, purchase maehineiy, kc, in re- 
ference to the promotion of the cotton-culture in Egj-pt. Morton, 
who never lost the oppoi-timity of seeuringan useful correspondent, 
MDght liis acquaintance, but failing to meet him personally, wrote 
Mm at New York under date of Nov. 2d, 1837, inquiring his predse 
address, and soliciting permissiou to visit him in reference to busi- 
ms. Illness preventing this visit, he wrote again, Nov. 7th. The 
following extract is interesting, as displaying bis mode of procedure 
in such cases, as well as the state of bis opinions, at the date in 
(IDCstion : — 

•■rira will obsarre by the anacied Prospectus that I am engaged in a work of considera- 
UtBOTclIj, and which, as regards the typography and illustiatious at least, is dealgned to 
be njuil to aay publication hilherlo issued iu this country. You may be surprised that I 
■hnid addrwe yon on the subject, but a moment's eiplanation may suffice to convey my 
'itinud wishes. The prefatory chapter will ambraca a tie* of the i-arirlifs of the Human 
taa. BBibfaeing, among other topics, some remarks on the ancient Egyptians. The poai- 
tita I luTe always assnaied is, that the present Copts are not the remaiua of the anciejit 
E{ypliaas, and in order more fully to make my comparisona, it is Tcry important that I 
■hrniM get a few \tadi of Egyptian mummies from Thebes, &c. I da not care to have them 
nlirdy p«rfMt specimens of embalming, but perfect in the booy structure, and with the 
luir pKserred. if possible. It has occurred to me that, as you will reside at (}airo, and 
titfc jew perfect knowledge of aSaira in Egypt, you would bare it io your power to em- 
plej' a confideDtuI and well-qualified person for this trust, wiio would save you all personal 
malile; and if twenty-five or thirty skulls, or even half that nnnilier can be 
;urf 1 am uBored by pertong wbo have bean there that no obstacles need be feared, but 
Df lU»you know best,) I am ready to defray every eipenso, and to aiinoncs the 
uj pari of it noic, or to arrange for payment, both as to cipcases and comm 
ioj tine or in »ny way yea may designate. With the Egyptian beads, I should !« Tcry 



glad to have a skull of a Copt and a Fellah, and indeed of any other of the present tribes 
in or bordering on Egypt, and which could be probably obtained through any one of your 
medical friends in Cairo or Alexandria. I hope before you leaTe to be able to send you one 
of the lithographs for my work, to proTe to you that it will be no discredit to the arts of 
this country. Sensible how infinitely you may serre me in a favorite though novel inquiry, 
I cannot but hope to interest your feelings and exertions on this occasion, and therefore 
beg an early answer." 

To this letter Mr. G. responded freely and cordially, readily under- 
taking the commission, which resulted in supplying Morton with 
crania, which form the basis of his renowned Crania JEgyptiaea. 
Without the aid thus afforded, any attempt to elucidate Egyptian 
ethnology from this side the Atlantic would have been absurdly hope- 
less ; with it, a difficult problem was solved, and the opinion of the 
scientific world rectified in an important particular. The correspond- 
ence thus originated led to a close intimacy between the partieB, 
which essentially modified the history of both, and ended only with 
life ; and which resulted in a warmth of attachment, on the part of the 
survivor, that even death cannot chill, as the dedication of this volume 
attests. With the prospect of obtaining these Egyptian crania, 
Morton was delighted. How much he anticipated appears from the 
following passage in the preface to his Crania Americana: — 

** Nor can I close this preface without recording my sincere thanks to George R. Gliddon, 
£sq.. United States Consul at Cairo, in Egypt, for the singular seal with which he has pro- 
moted my wishes in this respect ; the series of crania he has already obtained for my use, 
of many nations, both ancient and modem, is perhaps without a rival in any existing 
collection ; and will enable me, when it reaches this country, to pursue my comparisons on 
an extended scale." (p. 5.) 

The skulls came to hand in the fall of 1840, and Morton entered 
eagerly upon their examination, and upon the study of Nilotic 
Archaeology in connection therewith. Mr. Gliddon arrived in Janu- 
ary 1842, with the intention of delivering a course of lectures in this 
country upon hieroglyphical subjects ; and the two friends could now 
prosecute their studies together. They had already been engaged in 
active correspondence, Morton detailing the considerations which 
were impelling him to adopt views diverse, in several points, from what 
were generally considered established opinions. I regret that I have 
not access to the letters of Morton of this period, but the following 
extract from a reply of Gliddon, dated London, Oct. 21st, 1841, 
will show the state of their minds in regard to Egyptian questions at 
that time : — 

"With regard to your projected work, {Crania ^gypUaca^) I will, with erery deference, 
frankly state a few eyanescent impressions, which, were I with you, could be more fully 
developed. I am hostile to the opinion of the African origin of the Egyptians. I mean 
of the high eofte— kings, priests, and military. The Idea that the monuments support suob 


ttmji W tbe conclusion Ibsl they tame doiea Ihe Nile, or thut • Merswe' is Uie Fillitr of 
£gjpt. ■■■ I tbink, iinlciuihlc, uid might be reruted. Htrodotua'a authorit}', unless modi- 
ltd in the «>; ;oa nienlJOD, dark ikinned and tutly hnireil, is in this, as in fifty other !□- 
ABCO. quite inaigniGc&nl. We, ■» hieroglypbisls, knov Egjpt better nnu', tlinii ail the 
Oiwli ■ulbors or the Roman. On this ground, unless you nre cooTinced from Comparaliee 
.lutooy, with vbiuh scienoe I am totally umcquaiuled, uid be bncked by such eTidence 
■I i> infoiitratettible, I urge your pftnaing, and conaiilcring why the ancient Egyptians 
Bif DOl be of Asin^o, and perhaps of Arnbic descent ; &□ idea which, t fancy, from Ihe 
nmr of yoor letten, is your present coBcluBJon. At any rate, ihrj nre not, and never 
m*, Africans, stiU less Negroes. Monomenlal evidenee nppeara to overthrow (he African 

tteory. Look at the porCraila of the kings of Egypt, in (he plntes of 

hof, RDsellini'i Monunenli Storici. and tliea rend hiB 2d Vol. Iei(, ut (he end. They are fac- 
vwlce, aad is there anything African in them, (excepting in the Amunoph family, where 
[InieraM ia shoKO and explained,) until you come down to the Ethiopian dynuHty T For 
<)lmiwc' read Hoskina's Ethiopia — it is a valuable vork, but I dJITer in lolo from hia 
dimotcig7, or his eonnection between Egypt and ■ Mvroa' i/ffun the Nile. 

"The Copts nay be descendants of the anoient race, but so crossed and recrosged. as to 
tin lost almost every vestige of (heir nobte ancestry. I should think it would be ilifiicult, 
ihi 100 skulls of Copts, to ge' ^^ "n eiact criterion, they are so varied. Do not forget 
■tn the effect of vrearing the turban on the Eastern races, eicept the Fellahs, who scMom 
eu afford it, alul wear a cap. 

" It baa been the fashion to quote the Sphinx, as an evidence of the Negro tendedeies 
tfandeiit Egyptians. They take his leig for woolly hair — and as the nose ia off, of course 
it is jfdt. Bat even if the face (which I fully admit) has a strong African cast, it is au 
•ImocI tolilarj eiomple, against 10,000 that ore aol Afriean. We may presume from the 
/M that tb* Ublet found on it bears the name of the 5th Tbotmcs— e. o. 1702— Kn^ellioi, 
lb. IOC — that i( teprcflects some king, (and moat probably Thotmes fith himself,) who, by 
UMatrU intermarriage, was of African blood. In fact, we find that AmuQoph Isl — b. c. 
if£2 — nod only five removes from thia same Thotmes hia successor, had nn Elhiopiau 
<Mi — a black queen — ' Aahmes Nofrearl' If the Sphiui were a female, I should at once 
nj it st«oil for ' Nofreari,' who, aa the wife of (he eipeller of the Ilykshoa, was much 
nrfred. The whole ot the Thotmes and Amunoph branches had en African cast — vide 
Amunoph 3d — alraOBt a Nubian: hut this cast is eipreasly giveu in their portraits, in 
raatradlstinction to the aqniline-noaed i^d red Egyptians. Look at the Ramsea family — 
Iklir men are qnite Caucasian — their women arc white, or only yellowish, but I can aee 
iMhing Arrican, I wish I were by your aide with my notes and rambling ideoa — they 
in crude, but under your direction could be ticked into shape. The maflseB of facta are 
ettroordiiiary, and known but lo very, very few. Dnleaa a man now-a-daya is a hierogly- 
[ihiit, and bus studied the monumonta, believe mc, hia authority ia dangerous ; and but few 
iaatsoceit arc there in which amongst the thousand- and-one volumes on Egypt, the work is not 
a mere repedtico or eopy of the errors of a preceding work — and thia is but repeating whul 
thtKomans never comprehended, but copied from the Greeks, who made up for their igno- 
iiDce then, oa they do now, by Ua. Ail were deplorably iguoraat on Egyptian matters. 
Aajtliing of the ChampoUioD, Bosellini, and Wilkinson school fur ancient Bubjeeia, in 
itfi — for the modem, there ia only Lone. I mention these subjects just to arrest your 
Mltnlien, before you take a leap: though I have no donbt you leave no atone iiotunied. 
Finlon my apparent oQcionsness, but I do this at the hazard of intruding, 'e^t in yuui: 
nnuHt eompariaona of ■ Crania,' yon may not lay sufficient atreaa on the vaat monumentiil 
eridences of days of yore, and mean this only aa a • oaveaL' " 

Bat they boou found tliemselves in want of books, eepeciaHy of 
costly illustrated works. Not ooly was it essential to veiiiy quotations 
by reference to the text, bat tbe plates were absolutely indispensabla. 


Tho desired books did not exist in any library in the United States,, 
and Morton had akeady gone as far as pmdence permitted. In a 
letter now before me, Gliddon writes him from New York in despair, 
stating that, for his part, he could not move a step further without 
access to Rosellini, {Monumentty &c.,) of which there was not a copy 
in the country. This serious difficulty was finally removed by the 
munificent liberality of Richard K. Haight, Esq., of New York, who, 
actuated solely by a generous desire to promote the interests of 
science, imported and placed at the disposal of our students the 
superb volumes in question. 

Morton's study now was more than ever " a place of skulls." His 
correspondence, having been widely extended, was at last bearing its 
fruit. Contributions came dropping in from various quarters, not 
always accompanied with reliable information, and requiring careful 
deliberation before being assigned a place in his cabinet. Nothing short 
of positive certainty, however, would induce him to place a name upon 
a cranium. The ordeal of examination each had to undergo was rigid 
in tho extreme. Accurate and repeated measurements of every part 
were carefully made. Where a case admitted of doubt, I have known 
him to keep tho skull in his office for weeks, and, taking it dow:n at 
every leisure moment, sit before it, and contemplate it fixedly in 
every position, noting every prominence and depression, estimating 
tho extent and depth of every muscular or ligamentous attachment, 
until ho could, as it were, build up the soft parts upon their bony 
substratum, and see the individual as in life. His quick artistic per- 
ception of minute resemblances or discrepancies of form and color, 
gave him great facilities in these pursuits. A single glance of his rapid 
eye was often enough to determine what, with others, would have 
been tlio subject of tedious examination. The drawings for the Crania 
^gyptiaca were made by Messrs. Richard H. and Edward M. Kern,* 

* £?«n wKil« I writ« (I>e«. Ist, 1S5S) th« news has reaeked us of the braUl miirder bj 
Utah Indians of Richard H. Kern, with Lieut Qnnnison, and others of the party engaged 
In the surrej of the proposed middle route for a Pacific Railroad. So yonng. and so full 
of hope and promise I to be cut off thus, too. Just as his matured intdlect began to com- 
mand him position, and to realise the bright anticipations of his many friends ! The rela- 
tions of Mr Qliddon and myself to this new Victim of saTage ferocity were so intimate, 
that we may be excused if we pause here to gire to his memory a sigh — <Hie in which the 
subject of our memoir, wt^re he still with us, would join in deepest sympathy. But the 
s^vrrow we f^el is one that cannot be fWe fW»m bitterness, while the bones of Dick Kern 
bleach uaaTcnge^l u|Hm the arid plains of Peeeret. We hare had too much of sentimen- 
tali«m about the Ked-man. It is time that cant was stopped now. Xot all the dnnamon- 
c^ored Tcrmin we*t of the Mi»is:Mppi are worth one drv>p of that noble heart Vblood. The 
b»y brain, the artist *s eye, the fine taste, the hand so rea^ with either pen or pencil, — 
c««ld these be resl«f^ to us again, they wxHild be cheaply purchased back if it cost the 
tUenuMtioa of et^y miserable rah-Vtah under he^^xea: He ia ^e second member of 


who were then also engaged in preparing the magnificent illustrations 
of Mr. Gliddon's hierological lectures ; and these gentlemen have 
informed me that not the slightest departure fix)m^ literal accuracy 
could escape the eye of Morton. This was true, not only of human 
figures, but equally of the minutest hieroglyphic details. Dr. Meigs, in 
his Memoir, relates an instance of his acumen, in which, while inspect- 
ingthe segis in the hand of a female divinity, he noticed the resemblance 
to the face of a certain queen, and at once referred it to that reign ; 
which, on examining the text, proved correct The two following 
anecdotes, for which I am indebted to Mr. Gliddon, resemble the well- 
known instances of scientific acuteness and perspicacity that are related 
of Cuvier. 

In the summer of 1842, Mr. G. met in New York with Mr. John 
L. Stephens, then recently returned fixjm his second visit to Yucatan. 
The conversation turning upon crania, Mr. S. regretted the destruc- 
tion of all he had collected, in consequence of their extreme brittle- 
ness. One skeleton he had hoped to save, but on unpacking it, that 
morning, it was found so dilapidated that he had ordered it thrown 
away. Mr. G. begged to see it, and secured it, comminuted as it 
was. Its condition may be inferred from the fact that the entire 
skeleton was tied up in a small India handkerchief, and carried to 
Philadelphia in a hat-box. It was given to Morton, who at first de- 
plored it as a hopeless wreck. The next day, however, Mr. G. found 
him, with a glue-pot beside him, engaged in an effort to reconstruct 
the skull. A small piece of the occiput served as a basis, upon which 
he put together all the posterior portion of the cranium, showing it by 
characteristic marks to be that of an adult Indian female. From the 
condition of another portion of the skeleton, he derived evidence of 
a pathological fact of considerable moment, in view of the antiquity 
of these remains. How much interest he was able to extract from 
this handful of apparent rubbish will appear from the following 

"The parport of his opinion is as follows : — In the first place, the needle did not deceiTe 
fte la^an who picked it up in the graTe. The bones are those of a female. Her height 
(fid not exceed five feet, three or four inches. The teeth are perfect and not appreciably 
vorn, while the epiphytetf those infallible indications of the growing state, haye just become 
consolidated, and mark the completion of adult age. The bones of the hands and feet are 
mtrkably small and delicately proportioned, which obserration applies also to the entire 

his ftmily that has met this melancholy fate. His brother, Dr. Bei^amin J. Kern— a pupil 
of Morton, and surgeon to the ill-fated expedition of Colonel Fremont in the winter of 
l«S-49— was cruelly massacred by Utahs in the spring of 1849, in the mountains near 
Tios. So long as our govemment allows oases of this kind to remain without severe retri- 
tetion, so long, in savage logic, will impunity iu crime be considered a free license to 
fflvderat wilL 



skeleton. The skull was crushed into many pieces, but, by a cautious manipulation. Dr. 
Morton succeeded in reconstructiDg the posterior and lateral portions. The occiput is 
remarkably flat and vertical, while the lateral or parietal diameter measures no less than 
five inches and eight-tenths. 

** A chemical examination of some fragments of the bones proves them to be almost 
destitute of animal matter, which, in the perfect osseous structure, constitutes about tldrty- 
three parts in the hundred. On the upper part of the left tibia there is a swelling of the 
bone, called in surgical language a node, an inch and a half in length, and more than half 
an inch above the natural surface. This morbid condition may have resulted firom a variety 
of causes, but possesses greater interest on account of its extreme infirequency among the 
primitive Indian population of the country."* 

Mr. Gliddon, while in Paris in 1845-6, presented a copy of the 
Crania j^gyptiaca ^ the celebrated orientalist, M. Fulgence Fresnel, 
(well known as the decipherer of the Himyaritic inscriptions, and 
now engaged in Ninevite explorations,) and endeavored to interest 
him in Morton's labors. More than a year afterwards, having returned 
to Philadelphia, he received there a box from R. K. Haight, Esq., 
then at ITaples. The box contained a skull, but not a word of infor- 
mation concerning it. It was handed over to Morton, who at once 
perceived its dissimilarity to any in his possession. It was evidently 
very old, the animal matter having almost entirely disappeared. Day 
after day would Morton be found absorbed in its contemplation. At 
last he announced his conclusion. He had never seen a PhcBnician 
ekuU, and he had no idea where this one came from ; but it was what 
he conceived that a PhoBuician skull should be, and it could be no 
other. Things remained thus until some six months afterwards, when 
Mr. Haight returned to America, and delivered to Mr. G. the letters 
and papers sent him by various persons. Among them was a slip in 
the hand-writing of Fresnel, containing the history of the skull in 
question.f He discovered it during his exploration of a Phcenician 
tomb at Malta, and had consigned it to Morton by Mr. H., whom he 
met at Naples. These anecdotes not only show the extraordinary 
acuteness of Morton, but they also prove the certainty of the anato- 
mical marks upon which Craniologists rely. 

The Crania jEgt/ptiaca was published in 1844, in the shape of a 
contribution to the Transactions of the American Philosophical So- 
ciety. This apparent delay in its appearance arose from the author's 
extreme caution in forming his conclusions, especially in view of the 
fact that he found himself compelled to differ in opinion from the 
majority of scholars, in regard to certain points of primary import- 
ance. Most ethnologists, with the high authority of Prichard at their 

• Stephens* Tucatan, vol. L pp. 281-2. ^ Morton's Catalogue of Crania, 1849, No. 
t Catalogue, No. 1852. 


head, ascribed the Nilotic femily to the African race ; while the great 
body of Archffiologists were disposed to consider the aborigines of 
Egypt as (probably black) Troglodytes, from the Upper Nile, whose 
first halting-place and seat of civilization was at Meroe. Bat Morton 
took counsel with none of those authorities of the day. Optimi corir 
nHore$ martui; and these dead, but still eloquent witnesses of the 
[tast, taught him q}early the identity of cranial conformation in the 
incient Egyptian and the modem white man. He established, beyond 
question, that the prevailing type of skull must'-come into the Cauca- 
nsD category of Blumenbach. He pointed out the distinctions be- 
tween this and the neighboring Semitic and Pelasgic types. The 
population of Egypt being always a very mixed oiie, he was able also 
to identify among his crania those displaying the Semitic, Pelasgic, 
Xegro and Negroid forms. Turning next to the monuments, he ad- 
doced a multitude of facts to prove the same position. His historical 
dedactions were advanced modestly and cautiously, but most of them 
hive been triumphantly verified. While he, in his quiet study at 
Philadelphia, was inferentially denying the comparative antiquity of 
Meroe, Lepsius was upon the spot, doing the same thing beyond the 
poasibility of further cavil. The book was written when it was still 
customary to seek a foreign origin for the inhabitants of every spot 
on earth except Mesopotamia ; and the author, therefore, indicates, 
nther than asserts, an Asiatic origin for the Egyptians. But his 
rtiume contains propositions so important, that I must claim space 
for them entire, taking the liberty of calling the attention of the 
reader, by Italics, particularly to the last. 

1. Tht Talley of the Nile, both in Egypt and in Nubia, was originally peopled by a branch 

of the CaucasiAn race. 
t These primeTal people, since called Egyptians, were the Mizraimites of Scripture, the 

posterity of Ham, and directly associated with the Libyan family of nations. 
I. In their physical character, the Egyptians were intermediate between the modern Euro- 
pean and Semitic races. 
i The Aastral-Egyptian or Meroite communities were an Indo- Arabian stock, engrafted 

CD the primitiye Libyan inhabitants. 
i Besides these exotic sources of population, the Egyptian race was at different periods 

modified by the influx of the Caucasian nations of Asia and Europe — Pelasgi or Uel- 

Ines, Scythians and Phoenicians. 
€■ Kings of Egypt appear to have been incidentally deriyed from each of the above 

T. The Copts, in part at least, are a mixture of the Caucasian and Negro, in extremely 

▼ariable proportions. 
£. 5ecroe8 were numerous in Egypt Their social position, in ancient times, was the same 

that it is now ; that of servants or slaves. 
A. The natural characteristics of all these families of man were distinctly figured on the 

monuments, and all of them, excepting the Scythians and Phoenicians, have beeu ideu 

tified in the catacombs. 


10. The present Fellahs are the lineal and least mixed descendants of the ancient Egyp- 
tians ; and the latter are coUaterallj represented by the Tnaricks, Kabyles, Siwahs, 
and other remains of the Libyan family of nations. 

11. The modem Nubians, with few exceptions, are not the descendants of the monumental 
Ethiopians ; but a variously mixed race of Arabians and Negroes. 

12. Whatever may have been the size of the cartilaginous portion of the ear, the osseous 
structure conforms, in every instance, to the usual relative position. 

13. The teeth diff^ in nothing fh>m those of other Caucasian nations. 

14. The hair of the Egyptians resembles in texture that of the fieurest Europeans of the 
present day. 

15. The phytical or organic ffharaeUn which dittinguUh the teoenU raeet of men are at old a» 
the oldest records of our epeeiet. 

The eentiments here enunciated he subsequently modified in one 
essential particular. In his letter to Mr. Bartlett of Dec. Ist, 1846, 
(published in vol. 2d of the Transactions of the American Ethnolo- 
gical Society, p. 215,) after reiterating his conviction that the pure 
Egyptian of the remotest monumental period differed as much fix>m 
the negro as does the white man of to-day, he continues : — 

** My later inyestigations have confirmed me in the opinion, that the Talley of the NUe 
was inhabited by an indigenous race, before the inyasion of the Hamitic and other Anatio 
nations ; and that this primeval people, who occupied the whole of Northern AfHca, bore 
much the same relation to the Berber or Berabra tribes of Nubia, that the Saracens of the 
middle ages bore to their wandering and untutored, yet cognate brethren, the Bedouins of 
the desert." 

Further details on this point will be found on pp. 231 and 232 of 
the present work. 

The reception of this book was even more flattering than had been 
that of its predecessor. To admiration was added a natuml feeling 
of surprise, that light upon this interesting subject should have come 
from this remote quarter. Lepsius received it on the eve of departure 
on his expedition to Djebel-Barkal, and his letter acknowledging it 
was dated from the island of Philse. One can imagine with what in- 
tense interest such a man, so situated, must have followed the lucid 
deductions of the clear-headed American, writing at the other side of 
the world. But probably the most gratifying notice of the book is 
that by Prichard, in the Appendix to his Natural History of Man, of 
which I eiitract a portion. He quotes Morton largely, and always 
with commendation, even where the conclusions of the latter are in 
conflict w^lth his own previously published opinions. 

'< A most interesting and really important addition has lately been made to our know- 
ledge of the physical character of the ancient Egyptians. This has been deriyed fVom a 
quarter where local probabilities would least of all have induced us to ha^ve looked for it. 
In France, where so many scientific men have been doToted, ever since the conquest of 
Egypt by Napoleon, for a long time under the patronage of goyemment, to researches into 
this subject ; in England, possessed of the immense advantage of wealth and commercial 
resources ; in the academies of Italy and Qermanyi where the arts of Egypt have been 
studiea in bational museums, scarcely anything has been done since the time of Blumen- 


oieh to eladdate the physical history of the ancient Egyptian race. In none of these 
coaDtries haTe any extenslTO collections been forAed of the materials and resources which 
ilooe can afford a secure foundation for such attempts. It is in the United States of Ame- 
liet that a remarkable adrancement of this part of physical science has been at length 
lehiercd. ' The Transactions of the American Philosophical Society' contain a memoir by 
Dr. Morton of Philadelphia, in which that able and zealous writer, already distinguished 
by his admirable researches into the physical characters of the native American races, has 
brought forward a great mass of new information on the ancient Egyptians.'* (p. 57.) 

This brings us at once to the consideration of Morton's opinion 
upon the much-vexed question of the unity or diversity of the various 
races of men, or rather of their origin from a single pair; for that alone 
practically has been the topic of discussion. It is a subject of too 
much importance, both to the cause of science and the memory of 
Horton, to be passed over slightly. Above all, there is necessary a 
dm and fair statement of his opinions, in order that there may be 
DO mistake. His mind was progressive on this subject, as upon many 
others. He had to disabuse himself of erroneous notions, early ac- 
quired, as well as to discover the truth. It is therefore possible so to 
quote him as to misrepresent his real sentiments, or to make his 
agsertions appear contradictory and confused. I propose to show the 
gradual growth of his convictions by the quotation, in their legitimate 
series, of his published expressions on the subject. 

The unity and common origin of mankind have, until recently, been 
considered undisputed points of doctrine. They seem to have been re- 
garded as propositions not scientifically established, so much as taken 
for granted, and let alone. AH men were held to be descended from 
the single pair mentioned in Genesis ; every tribe was thought to be 
higtorically traceable to the regions about Mesopotamia ; and ordinary 
physical influences were beUeved suflicient to explain the remarkable 
diversities of A)lor, &c. These opinions were thought to be the teach- 
ings of Scripture not impugned by science, and were therefore almost 
universally acquiesced in. By Blumenbach, Prichard, and others, 
the unity is assumed as an axiom not disputed. It is curious that 
the only attack made upon this dogma, until of late, was made from a 
theological, and not from a scientific stand-point. The celebrated book 
of Peyrerius on the pre-Adamites was written to solve certain difli- 
culties in biblical exegesis, (such as Cain's wife, the city he Dnilded, 
to.,) for the writer was a mere scholastic theologian.* He met the 
&te of all who ventured to defy the hierarchy, at a day when they 
had the civil power at their back. Now they are confined to the 
calling of names, as infidel and the like, although mischief enough 

* PnB-AckmitSB, sire exercitatio super Tersibos daodecimo, decimotertio et decimo quarto 
capitis qninti Epistoln B. Pauli ad Romanos. Quibus indacnntor primi Hominep antt 
Adimimi conditL Anno Salatis vdcly. 


can they thus do, inflicting a poisoned wound. Then they had their 
fagots in the Place de Grfeve, adbd as they could not catch Peyrerius, 
the Sorbonne ordered his book publicly burned by the common hang- 
man. There is something ludicrously pathetic in the manner in which 
he addresses his essay to the then-persecuted Jews, with an lUinam ex 
vobis unus! and adds, ''Hoc mihi certe cum vobis commune est; 
quod vitam duco erraticam, queeque parum convenit cum otio medi- 
tantis et scribentis." The press fairly rained replies to this daring 
work, from both Catholic and Protestant writers, but not one of them 
based on scientific grounds, nor, indeed, in the defence of Genesis. 
Peyrerius would appear to have confessedly the advantage there. But it 
was asserted that the denial of mankind's universal descent frx)m the 
loins of Adam, militated with the position of the latter as " federal 
head" of the race in the " scheme of redemption." The writer's offence 
was purely theological, and hence the charge of Socinianism and the 
vehemence with which even a phlegmatic Dutchman could be roused 
to hurl at his devoted head the anathema : Perturhet te DominuSy quia 
perturbasti Israelem ! * This ex<itement over, the subject was heard of 
no more until the French writers of the last century again agitated it 
Voltaire repeatedly and mercilessly ridicules the idea of a common 
origin. He says — ''II n'est permis qu*4 un aveugle de douter que 
les blancs, les Nfegres, les Albinos, les Hottentots, les Lappons, les 
Chinois, les Americains, soient des races enti^rement diff6rentes."t 
But Voltaire was not scientific, and his opinion upon such questions 
would go for nothing with men of science. Prichard therefore sums 
up his Natural History of Man, {London^ 1845,) with the final em- 
phatic declaration " that all human races are of one species and one 
fitmily." The doctrine of the unity was indeed almost universally 
held even by those commonly rated as "Deistical" writers. D'Han- 
carville, and his fellow dilettanti, wiU certainly not be suspected of 
any proclivity to orthodoxy ; yet, in his remarks upon the wide dis- 
semination of Phallic and other religious emblems, he gives the 
ensuing forcible and eloquent statement of his conviction of thie ftiD 
historical evidence of unity : — 

** Comme les ooqnillmgea et les d^ris des productions de la mor, qui sent d^pos^s sani 
nombre et sans mesure sur toute la surface du globe, attestent qu'ik des terns inoonnus i 
tontes les histoires, il fdt ocoup^ et recouyert par les eanz ; ainsi ces embldmes singuliers, 
admis dans toutes les parties de rancien continent, attestent qu jL des terns ant^rieurs I 
tous ceux dont parlent les historiens, toutes les nations chei laquelle exist^rent ces em* 
blemes eurent un meme culte, une m^me religion, une m£me th^ologie, ^et rraisemblable- 
ment une mdme langage."| 

* Non>ens Pr»-Adamiticum. SiTe confutatio Tani et Socinisantis etgusdam Somnii, &a 
Antore Antonio Hulsio. Lugil. Batay. mdclti. f Essai sur les Moeors, Introd. 

X Recherches sur Torigine, Tesprit et les progr^s des arts de la Gr^ce, London, 17S6, 
L. 1. xiv. 


Jiorton was educated in youth to regard this doctrine as a scriptural 
verity, and he found it accepted as the first proposition in the existing 
Kthnology. As such he received it implicitly, and only abandoned it 
when compelled by the force of an irresistible conviction. "What he 
received in sincerity, he taught in good faith. There can be no doubt 
that in that early course of 1830, he inculcated the unity doctrine as 
rtrongly as ever did Prichard. 

But this state of opinion could not continue undisturbed. The 
wide ethnic diversities which so forcibly impressed one who contem- 
plated them merely as an historian and critic (as Voltaire), could not 
fiul to engage the attention of naturalists. The difiiculties of the 
popular doctrine became daily more numerous and apparent, and it 
owed its continued existence, less to any inherent strength, than to the 
forbearance of those who disliked to awaken controversy by assailing 
it The ordinary exposition of Genesis it was impossible for natu- 
ralists longer to accept, but they postponed to the utmost the inevita- 
ble contest The battle had been fought upon astronomy and gained; 
80 that Ma pur si muove'had become the watchword of the scientific 
world in its conflict with the parti pretre. The Geologists were even 
then coming victorious out of the combat concerning the six days of 
Creation, and the universality of the Deluge. The Archseologists 
were at the moment beating down the old-fashioned short chronology. 
Xow another exciting struggle was at hand. Unfortunately it seems 
out of the question to discuss topics which touch upon theology with- 
out rousing bad blood. "Keligious subjects,'* says Payne Knight, 
"being beyond the reach of sense or reason, are always embraced or 
rejected with violence or heat. Men think they know because they are 
sure they feelj and are firmly convinced because strongly agitated.'** 
But disagreeable as was the prospect of controversy, it could not be 
avoided. It is curious to read Lawrence now, and see how he piles 
up the objections to his own doctrine, until you doubt whether he 
believes it himself! The main diflSlculty concerns a single centre of 
creation. The dispersion of mankind from such a centre, somewhere 
on the alluvium of the Euphrates, might be admitted as possible ; 
but the gathering of all animated nature at Ilden to be named by 
Adam, the distribution thence to their respective remote and diver- 
sified habitats, their reassembling by pairs and sevens in the Ark, and 
their second distribution from the same centre — these conceptions 
are what Lawrence long ago pronounced them, simply " zoologically 
impossible." The error arises from mistaking the local traditions of 
a circumscribed community for universal history. As Peyrerius re- 
marked two centuries ago, " peccatur non raro in lectione saeroruiu 

• R. Pajne Knight Letter to ^ir Jos-Bankesand Sir Wm. Hamilton, p. 23 


codicum, quoties generalius accipitur, quod specialitis debnit intel- 
ligi."* The most rigid criticism has demonstrated, beyond the possi- 
bility of disputation, that all the nations and tribes mentioned in the 
Pentateuch, are included strictly within the so-called Caucasian race, 
and that the writer probably never heard of (as he certainly never 
mentions) any other than white men. This discussion, even to the 
limited extent to which it has gone, has called forth much bitterness; 
not on the part of sincere students of the sacred text, but of that 
pretraille which, arrogant in the direct ratio of its ignorance, substi- 
tutes clamor and denunciation for reason, and casts the dirt of oppro- 
brious epithets when it has no arguments to offer. But already this 
advantage has arisen from the agitation: — that some prelindnaiy 
points at least may be considered settled, and a certain amount of 
scholarship may be demanded of those who desire to enter the dis- 
cussion ; thus eliminating from it the majority of persons most ready 
to present themselves with noisy common-place, already ten times 
reftited. The men who, in the middle of the nineteenth centuiy, can 
still find the ancestors of Mongolians and Americans among the sons 
of Japhet, or who talk about the curse of Canaan in connexion with 
NegroeSjt are plainly without the pale of controversy, as they are 
beyond the reach of criticism. There is, even in some who have re- 
cently published books on the subject, such a helpless profundity 
of ignomnce of the very first facts of the case, that one finds no 
fitting answer to them but — expressive silence ! To endeavor to raise 
such to the dignity of Ethnologists, even by debate with them, is 
to pay them a compliment beyond their deserts. They have no right 
whatever to thrust themselves into the field, — the lists are opened for 
another class of combatants. Therefore they cannot be recognised. 
With Dante, 

" Non ragionam di lor ; ma guarda, e passa I " 

It was impossible for Morton, in the prosecution of his labors, to 
avoid these exciting questions. We have his own assurance that he 
early felt the insuperable difficulties attending the hypothesis of a 
common origin of all races. He seems soon to have abandoned, if 
he ever entertained, the notion that ordinary physical influences will 
account for existing diversities, at least within the limits of the popu- 
lar short chronology. There are two ways of escaping this difficulty — 
one by denying entirely the competency of physical causes to produce 
the effects alleged ; and the other to grant them an indefinite period 
tor their operation, as Prichard did in the end, with his " chiliads 

♦ Op. cit., p. 168. 

f The Doctrine of the Unity of the Human Race, examined on the Principles of Science^ 
PT John Bachman, D. D. Charleston: 1860. pp. 291-^92. 


of years," for man's existence upon earth. Morton inclined to the 
other view, mainly in consequence of the historical evidence he had 
accumulated, showing the unalterable permanency of the charac- 
teristics of race, within the limits of human records. But he was 
slow to hazard the publication of an opinion upon a question of so 
great moment. He preferred to wait, not only until his own convic- 
tion became certainty, but until he could adduce the mass of testi- 
mony necessary to convince others. This extreme caution charac- 
terized all his literary labors, and made his conclusions always 
reliable.'*' A true disciple of the inductive philosophy, he labored 
long and hard in the verification of his premises. With an inex- 
haustible patience he accumulated &ct upon fact, and published 
observation upon observation, often apparently dislocated and object- 
less, but all intended for future use. Many of his minor papers \re 
mere stores of disjointed data. More than once, when observing his 
untiring labor and its long postponed result, he has brought into my 
mind those magnificent lines of Shelley : 

Hark I the rushing snow! 
The Bun-awftkened ayalanohe ! whose mass, 
Thrice sifted by the stomii had gathered there 
FUke after flake, in heaven-defying minds 
As thought by thought is piled, till some great truth 
Is loosened, and the nations echo round. 
Shaken to their roots, as do the mountains now.f 

Id &ct, he had an eye, in all his investigations, to the publication at 
some future period of a work on the JSlements of Ethnology^ which 
should contain the fully ripened fruits of so many years of toiL Of 
this project he speaks in some of his letters as ^^ perhaps an idle 
dream," but one for whose realization he would make many sacri- 
fices. For it he reserved the complete expression of his ethnological 
doctrines. This consideration, and his extreme dislike of controvCTsy, 
made him particularly guarded in his statements. Constitutionally 
averse to all noisy debate and contention, he was well aware also that 
they are incompatible with the calmness essential to successful scien- 
tific inquiry. Nothing but an aggravated assault could have drawn 
from him a reply. That assault was made, and, as I conceive, most 

* In 1 letter of Prof. 0. W. Holmes to Dr. Morton, (dated Boston, Not. 27th, 1849,) I 
find the following passage, so just in its appreciation of his scientific character, that I take 
the liberty of quoting it : — 

**The more I re^d on these subjects, the more I am delighted with the seyere and cau- 
tions character of your own most extended researches, which, from their very nature, are 
pennanent data for all future students of Ethnology, whose leader on this side the Atlantic, 
to 117 the least, you have so happily constituted yourself by well-directed and long-con* 
taotd efforts.*' 

t Prometheus Unbound, Act 11., Scene 8d. 



fortunately for his reputation. Without it, he would probably have 
ceased from his labors without having published any such explicit 
and unmistakeable expression of opinion, on this important question, 
as his scientific friends would have desired. As it is, he has left no 
room for doubt or cavil as to his position in the very front of our 
onward progress in Anthropology. 

The first published opinion of Morton in reference to this question 
is found in the Crania Americana. It will be perceived, that, recog- 
nizing the entire incompetency of ordinary climatic and similar in- 
fluences to produce the alleged effects, he suggests, as an escape fit)m 
the difficulty, that the marks of Race were impressed at once by 
Divine Power upon the immediate family of Adam. 

** The recent discoveries in Egypt give additional force to the preceding statement, inas- 
much as they show, beyond all question, that the Caucasian and Negro races were as per- 
fectly distinct in that country, upwards of three thousand years ago, as they are now; 
whence it is evident, that if the Caucasian was derived from the Negro, or the Negro tnm 
the Caucasian, by the action of external catuetf the change must have been effected in, at 
most, one thousand years ; a theory which the subsequent evidence of thirty eentoriei 
proves to be a physical impossibility ; and we have already ventured to indst that such a 
commutation could be effected by nothing short of a miracle." (p. 88.) 

In his printed Introductory Lecture of 1842, the same views are 
repeated, and the insufficiency of external causes again insisted upon. 
In April of the same year, he read, before the Boston Society of Na- 
tural History, a paper which was republished in 1844, under the title 
of An Inquiry into the Distinctive Characteristics of the Aboriginal Race 
of America. From this paper I extract the following striking passage : 

In fine, our own conclusion, long ago deduced from a patient examination of the &ett 
thus briefly and inadequately stated, is, that the American race is essentially separate and 
peculiar, whether we regard it in its physical, moral, or its intellectual relations. To vt 
there are no direct or obvious links between the people of the old world and the new ; for 
even admitting the seeming analogies to which we have alluded, these are so few in niii»- 
ber, and evidently so casual, as not to invalidate the main position ; and even should it be 
hereafter shown that the arts, sciences, and religion of America con be traced to an ezotie 
source, I maintain that the organic characters of the people themselves, through aU their 
endless ramifications of tribes and nations, prove them to belong to one and the same race, 
and that this race is distinct from all others." (p. 85.) 

His unequivocal assertion of the permanency of the distinctive 
marks of Race in the final proposition of his resiumle of the Cranui 
JEgyptiaca has ab^ady been given, {supray p.xlii.)Two years afterwards 
be published this emphatic declaration : 

•* I can aver tiiat sixteen years of almost daily comparisons have only confirmed me in 
tlie conclusions announced in my '* Crania Americana," that all the American nations, ez- 
oepdng the Eskimaux, are of one race, and that this race is peculiar and distinct ftx>m aU 

* Ethnography and Archseology of the American Aborigines. New Haven : ISiG. (p. 9.) 


The next dtstion is from the letter to Mr. Bartlett before men- 

" But it it DeoesRsr? to eiplKin what is bere nKant by the word race. I do not use it la 
ispljr that ftti its diviiiotis are denied from t, single pair ; on the contrary, 1 believe they 
ti'B criginated from seTeral. perliaps even rrom man; pura, whioh vece adapted, from the 
tt^DBing, to the r»ried localitiea they were designed to occupy j and the Fuegituu. less 
oigntory than the coBnate tribes, will aerre to illuBtntte tliis idea. In othor words, I ra- 
pfi Iha American nationa as the true auloclhoDei, the primerol inbabitnnts of this vast 
noliaEDt: and wben I speak of tbeir being of one race or of oce origio, I allude ODly to 
lieir indigeDOUB relation (o each olher, as shown in all those attribales of mind and body 
itickbaTe been so amply illustrated by modern ethnography."* 

Id a note to a paper in Sill'mian's Journal for 1847, he says : — 

"Ima; here obierre, that wbenCTer I have ventured an opinion on tbia question, it has 
ten in favor of the doctrine of primecal divcrtiliti among meo — an original adaptalioii of 
ilH tcveral racM to those varied circumstances of climate and looBlity, which, while con- 
|(usl to the one, are destniotive to the other ; and subsequent investigatioiia have con- 
fnedBB in these views. "f 

One would suppose that whoever had read the above publications 
wold have no doubt as to Morton's sentiments ; yet Dr. Bachman 
and others have affected to be suddenly surprised by tlie utterance 
of opinions which had been distinctly implied, and even openly pub- 
lished yeare before. To leave no further doubt upon the subject, he 
ibDB expresses himself in his letter to Dr. Bachman of March 30th, 

"leraunenced the eludy of Ethnology about twenty years since ; and among the first 
Ifboiima taught me by all the books to which I then had access, was this — that all man- 
Uld w«n derived from a Bingte pair ; And that the divereities now so remarkable, origin- 
Md Mlaly from the operations of climate, locality, food, and other phyaicil ngeots. In 
gltnvorda, that man was created a perfect and beautiful being in the first iDstance, and 
lill olianoe, thanct alone bos caused all the physical disparity among men, from the noblest 
I'lUidaa form to the mast degraded Australian and Hottentot. I approached the subject 
l> Dai of great difficulty anil delicacy ; and my first convictions were, that these diversities 
■n M aoquired, but have existed oi orisiae. Such is the opinion expressed in my Crniua 
Janaoa; but at that period, (twelve years ago,) I bad not investigated Scriptural Eth- 
MlOff, and ms content to snppose that the distinctive characteristics of the several races 
lad been marked upon the immediate family of Adkm. Farther investigadon, however, 
uHontetion with loologica) saience, bus led me to take % wider view of this question, of 
tbd an oQtline is given above. "{ 

hi order to present Btill more fully and clearly the final conclusions 
of our revered fiiend on this topic, I append two of his letters. The 
finl is addressed to Dr. Kott, under date of Januaiy 29tb, 1850. 

'Tnnsactiong of American Ethnological Society, vol. ii. Now Tork: 1Bi9. (p. 219.) 
I Bybridiij in animals aud plants, considered in referenoe to tha question of the Dnity 

rf Iba Unman Speaies. New Haven: 1847. (p. 4.) 
lUtlar to the Rev. John Bachman, D. D,, on the questioti of flybridity in animals. 

Oultrtoa: 1860. (p. 16.) 

I nmoim of saxcel gbobgs kobtok. 

Am Ltttmm witk gnnt pj cm ire and instraetion. I tn 

iphuit Buumer ia wU^ joa have treated the abeiird poft 

be traBiBnted into anotbcr. Tlie only illoBtrations that can b< 

as jon jvsUj obeerre, are certain Aaeased and abnormal organ! 

law of natare, wear oat in a few gcneraliona. Some of yoor apho 

a. • liaa can owflif nothing in sdenee or reli^on but falsehood 

ba dbepverr are bot fketa or laws idiich haTe emanated from th< 

fys Is a »oble sentiment admirably expressed. I am slowly preparing m; 

.^ ite SasoT the Brain in Tuions Baces and Families of Man; with Ethnolo^oa 

daase win pre me snffictent scope for the expression of my Tiew 

ttiva points of Ethnology in which I entirdy agree witii yon in opinion 

>iav^ cd aB tbcol<^c^ disenssion, which I haye careftdly aTmded. Ton will obserre \ 

aa aj Baoaj on HybiicUty, in which I avow my belief in a plurality of origins for th 

and I have now extended those obserrations, and briefly illustrated them 

^«i in j«» dMi^ I ftnd no difficulty with the text of Genesis, which is just as manageable ii 

f^f^>:.w^ as it ku proTcd in Astronomy, Geology, and Chronology. When I took thi 

^^^m,^ j^^r T«an ago, (and in the Orama Ameriama my position is the same, ti&OQgh mon 

^^MbMO^y w^i^ed,) it was with some misgirings, not becanse I donbted the truth of i^j 

^inijuijtti;^ >«t txcaanr I feared they would lead to some controrersy with the clergy. N» 

^^imc ^ ^^ v^«>.i has happened ; for I have aToided ooming into collision with men wh( 

tM <iAiia Ttg^jiM n garbled text of Scripture, to defeat the progress of truth and sdenee 

t lA^^ )dti Moae letters from the clergy and from other piously-disposed persons, but th( 

MfeNi Mi^ iltet had any spice of yehemence was from a friend. Dr. Bachman, of Charleston 

\ ytflnNr ^ der^nicn have called upon me for information on this subject, and I confca 

ai> «y^ ii;v Mr|«iM at the liberal tone of feeling they have expressed on this sensitiTe ques 

%<^; «ai I Molly bdiere that if they are not pressed too hard, they will finally oonoeA 

aB Mkal s*«a W asked of the mere question of diyersity ; for it ean be far more readily 

•^qi^ikhI^ t^ the Mv>«aio annals than some other points, Astronomy, &c., for example. A 

t^ s%'>Mi^<^^* ^^ ^ ^^^ it to be a broken reed. Look at the last page of Dr. Prichard*i 

^ ^^^ ^ lli^ U»l page of his fifth and last Tolume — and he thefe gires it as his ma 

U44va ^HH2*H^a that the human race has been ' chiliads of centuries' upon the earth I H* 

!VM. >%M0«^ ^^^««4 it necessary to prove the Deluge a partial phenomenon, and he also admit 

\i^\ t*v^ y\\«MMJt «^nts could ever have produced the existing cUversities among men ; an 

^^^t^^ ^^m V <Mc«^^di voiiflMt which have been careful to intemdx only among them 

«l,\<^ ?^ ^i^ev^O^ V^P^tuated their race I Compared with this last inadequate hypothesb 

V^ XNAMtiWk W« e^i^lent\y and inherently truthlU is the proposition — that our spede 

VfbA ^«^ >t%^ ^^ ^ ^^""^ ^^ ^ seTcral or in many creations; and that these diw^ 

<K^ v^v^ )MaiiiV>^ i^Nitree, met and amalgamated in the progress of time, and baye thn 

> \iMk ^oi^ ^ tJl^** iaienaediate links of organisation which now connect the extremes tc 

^>d^^« Hv4^ ^ ^ ^'^^ ^ttTseted of mystery ; a system that explains the otherwise unin 

^ mNv LLiL4Ujnw'*ft «>^ HMMorkably stamped on the races of men.'' 

t*>o *vui^uiu^ Mtt^r 18 niWrossed to Mr. Qliddon, under date o: 

\K;5^:ca*l^iiH Al'^^l ^'f^'^* ^^^^y ^^^^'^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ weeks before it 

\ ^ N\k>\\l lo b«v»tho, I publish it verbatim^ so that the reade 

4\ vsv ^* ^^ vvttdvidiujr emphatic declaration stands unqualifies 

^ tiavv >^ 3^«ier^» pamphlets on California and New Mexico ? Is it no 

^ ^ v\«tt**iUo»A a teAilatiwi of the old fkble of white Indiant on or near the Ei 

"^ "^ ^'^g^ MMkJ nb^ the ab^T^ P*P*' ^y ™<^ ^ "^^ ^ 70^ c<^* I niust hsT 

"^^ ^ ^ >^ V «uik i» a» emergtaoy for them, and they cannot be found. I ai 

^^^'^ ^ ^ .^fiArVtf "^ WiWlwmft*e book, and am desirous to get it off my haadi 


I Nod jou a paragraph from the Ledger which will gratify yoo. There is no higher praise 
tbn this. It is all the better for being so aphorismallj expressed. Tks doctrine of the 
grigvud divtrnty of mankind unfoldt iUelf to me more and more with the dietineineei of reve- 

•*With kindest remembrances to Mrs. G. and jonr fine boy, I am, 

** Etct faithfully yours, 

" S. O. MOBTOH," 

These citations are sufficient for our purpose, J apprehend, especially 
the laconic emphasis of the last, which may be regarded as the ethnoUh 
fical testament of our lamented friend. I have been thus full upon this 
point, because I believe it but justice to his memoiy to show that he 
was among the veiy earliest to accept and ^ve shape to the doctrine 
stated. As the mountain summits are gilded with the early dawn, 
while the plain below still sleeps in darkness, so it is the loftiest spirit 
among men that first receives and reflects the radiance of the coming 
troth. Morton has occupied that position among us, in relation to this 
important advance in scientific opinion. I have deaired to put the 
evidence of it fairly upon record, and thus to claim and secure the 
&tmction that is justly due him. 

Many well-meaning, but uninformed persons have, however, raised 
an eatery of horror agsunst the assertion of original human diversities, 
in which they have been joined by others who ought to know better. 
The attack is not made upon the doctrine itself, nor upon any direct 
logical consequence of it. The alleged grievance consists entirely in 
fte loss of certain corollaries deducible from the opposite proposition. 
Thus it is asserted that our religious system and our doctrine of social 
and political rights, alike result from the hypothesis of human consan- 
gainity and common origin, and stand or fall with it To this effect 
we have constantly quoted to us the high authority of Humboldt, who 
Bays, ^*En maintenant Tunit^ de Tesp^ce humaine, nous rejetons par 
oons^uence n^cessaire, la distinction d^solante de races sup6rieures 
et de races inf&rieures."* 

In a note he again applies the term desolante to this doctrine. I 
have used the French translation, because it is the more forcible, and 
because it was that read by Morton, whose felicitous commentary 
upon it I am fortunately able to adduce, from a letter to Mr. Gliddon, 
of May 30th, 1846. 

"Humboldt's word dieolante is troe in sentiment and in morals — ^bnt, as yon obsenre, it is 
vhoHj inapplicable to the physical reality. Nothing so humbles, so crashes my spirit, as 
to look into a. mad-house, and behold the driTelling, brutal idiocy so conspicuous in such 
plaeei; it oouTeys a terrific idea of the disparity of human intelligences. But there is the 

* Cosmos: tradnit par H. Faye. Paris: 1846. I. p. 480. Also, note 42, p. 679. Ottj 
tnuUtes by depreesing in one place, and eheerUee in another. Cosmos : New Tork, 1860. 


unyielding, instipersble reality. It is ditolante indeed to think, to know, that many of these 
poor mortals were bom, were created so I But it appears to me to make little differenoe 
in the tmtimmt of the question whether they came into the world without their wits, or 
whether they lost them afterwards. And so, I would add, it makes little differenoe whe- 
ther the mental inferiority of the Negro, the Samoiyede, or the Indian, is natural or 
acquired ; for, if they oyer possessed equal intelligence with the Caucasian, they hare lost 
it ; and if they neyer had it, they had nothing to lose. One party would arraign ProTi- 
dence for creating them originally different,^another for placing them in circumstances by 
which they incTitably became so. Let us search out the truth, and reconcile it after- 

Here are sound philosophy and plain common sense. As the fisu^ts 
are open to investigation, let us first examine them, and leave the in- 
ferences for future consideration. If the proposition prove true, we 
may safely trust all its legitimate deductions. There is no danger 
from the truth, neither will it conflict with any other truth. Our 
greater danger is fit)m the cowardice that is afraid to look feet in the 
fece, and, not daring to come in contact with reality, for fear of con- 
sequences, must rest content with error and half-belief. The question 
here is one of fact simply, and not of speculation nor of feeling. 
Humboldt may deny the existence of unalterable diversities, but that 
is another question, also to be settled only by a wider observation and 
longer experience. The ethical consequences he so eloquently depre- 
cates, moreover, appear to me not to be fairly involved, unless he 
assumes that the solidarity and mutual moral relations of mankind 
originate solely in their relationship as descendants of a single pair. 
K so, he has built upon a sandy foundation, and one which every 
moralist of note will tell him is inadequate to the support of his 
superstructure. The inalienable right of man to equal liberty with 
his fellows depends, if it has any sanction, upon higher considerations 
than any mere physical fact of consanguinity, and remains the same 
whether the latter be proved or disproved. Ethical principles require 
a different order of evidence from material phenomena, and arg^to be 
regarded from another point of view. The scientific question should, 
therefore, be discussed on its own merits, and without reference to 
felse issues of an exciting character, if we hope to reach the truth. I 
cannot forbear the conclusion that, in this matter, the Nestor of 
science has been betrayed into a little piece of popular declamation, 
unworthy of his pen, otherwise so consistently logical. But the acme 
of absurdity is reached by those clerical gentlemen at the south, who 
have been so eager to avail themselves of Humboldt's great authority 
in opposition to the doctrine of diversity, while they deny all his pre- 
mises. Do they consider all doctrine necessarily desolante^ because 
an argument in favor of slavery, true or false, may be based upon it ? 
Humboldt does. And again, if the denial of a common paternity 
involves all the deplorable consequences indicated by the latter, does 


ili aasertion carry with it the contrary inferences ? They say not. If; 
ihfln, the doctrine of unity gives do essential guarantee of universal 
liberty and equality, why reproach the opposite doctrine with destroy- 
iogwhat never existed? Thus, theae gentlemen must Htultify either 
iheniaelvee or their champion, white that which with him was merely a 
[]K>(orical flourish becomes, in tlieir hands, a ridiculous non uquitur. 

In the course of these discussions it became necessary to define, 
ffith greater precision, certain t^rma in constant use. This was cspe- 
oally the case with the word epeeies, the loose employment of which 
dCCAsioned much confusion. According to the prevalent zoological 
doctrine, the production of a prolific ofispring ia the highest evidence 
of specific identity, aud vict vend. The important results of the 
g[^lication of this law to the races of men are apparent. But other 
aulhorities deny the viUidity of the alleged law and its application. 
"VHr diirflen," says Rudolphi, "also wohl deswegen auf Keine Einheil 
des Monfichengesehlechts schlicssen, weil die verschiedenen lleuschon- 
itiinime sich truchtbar mit oinander begattcn." The qtiestion of 
Hrbridity, therefore, presented itself to Morton in a form that de- 
minded attention and settlement before going farther. Ue seized the 
■object, not to speculate, and still less to declaim about it, hot cau- 
lionsty to gather and sift its facts. His first papers were read before 
the Academy of Natural Sciences in November, 1846, and published 
ia Silliman's Journal the next year. They contain a large number of 
&rta, from various authoritiea, together with the author's inferences. 
For these, and tbe entire discussion of the topic, I refer the reader 
to Ciiapter XTT. {on Hybridity) in this work. But the controversy 
into which it led Morton forma too prominent a part of his scientific 
iiiatoiy to bo passed over in silence. It was not of hia seeking, but 
wu forced upon him. A Uterary club at Charleston, 8. C, being 
engaged in the discussion of the Origin of Man, the Hev. Dr. Each- 
man aasomed the cliampionship of the unitary hypothesis, taking 
gtoand upon the evidence afforded by an invariably prolific offspring. 
Hi« opponents met him with Morton's papers on Hybridity. These 
h* tuoet, of course, examine ; but he first addressed Morton a letter, 
of which the following ia an extract: — 

CAarlatm, Oct. 15(*. 1849. 

" V« tre both ia the sMrch of tntth. I do not think that these ocientifie inceetigntiouB 
iIkI lh< scripture qucBtion either n&f , The Author of BevelKtioD is also the Author at 
SUart, tail I btoe no feu' thnt when irs are iiblo to read iulelligibly, we will diicoTer that 
both haraoniie. We cm thea inrcBtijralc these matters vithoul the fear of id aulo-da-fe 
tim Dten of •euse. In the metrntime all must go nith reBpect and good feeting lowird* 
nch other. Although hard at work ia finistiiDg the lust volume of Audubon's vork. I will 
H> ted ttaeu linTe time lo look at this matter ; and here let me in anticipalion etnte Bome 

rf V] objtctiaiu But I am oTemin with oaUa of duty, aud hsTB 

ninn this aader all lunda of interruptioua. I shall be most lorr; if m; opposition tu 
Jtn Iheor; woatd produce the slightest iDleiruption to our good feelJBg, as 1 regard jou, 
la jon maiij works, u a beoefaator to jaat countrj, and an hooer to adeuce. I feel ovu- 


fideot that I can scatter some of yonr facts to the winds — yet in others yon will be verj 
apt to trip ap my own heels ; so let us work harmonionsiy together. At the igngH^ Ugi. 
yersities they haye wranglers, bat no qnarrellers." 

This seems manly and fnendly, and Morton, feeling it to be such, 
was very much gratified. He certainly never could have regarded it 
as a prelude to an attack upon himself; yet such it was. The next 
spring (1860) witnessed the publication of Dr. B.'s book on Unity, as 
well as his Monograph on Hybridity, in the Charleston Medical Journal, 
in both of which Morton is made the object of assault and attempted 
ridicule. The former work I have already referred to, (p. xlvi.) The 
author starts with what amounts, under the circumstances, to a broad 
and Unequivocal confession of ignorance of his topic — a confession 
which, however praiseworthy on the score of frankness, may be re- 
garded as wholly supererogatory ; for no reader of ordinary intelligence 
can open the book without perceiving the fact for himself. His reading 
seems to have been singularly limited,* while the topic, involving, as 
it does, the characteristics of remote races, &c., demands a wide and 
careful consultation of authorities. For one who is confessedly 
neither an archseologist, an anatomist, nor a philologist, to attempt 
to teach Ethnology on the strength of having, many years ago, read 
on the subject a single work — and he scarcely recollects what — is a 
conception as bold as it is original. His production required no 
notice, of course, at the hand of Morton. On the special subject of 
Hybridity, however, he was entitled to an attentive hearing as a gen- 
tleman of established authority, particularly in the mammalian de- 
partment of Zoology. Had he discussed it in the spirit foreshadowed 
by his letter, and which Morton anticipated, there would have been 
no controversy, but an amicable comparison of views, advancing the 
cause of science. But his tone was arrogant and offensive. Not only 
to the general reader in his book, but also to Morton in his letters, 

* ** In preparing these notes we haye eyen resolyed not to refer to Prichard — who, we 
helieye, is justly regarded as one of onr best authorities — who$e work ve read with great m- 
tereat $ome yean ago^ (and which is allowed eyen by his opponents to haye been written in a 
spirit of great fairness,) and many of whose arguments we at the time eonsidered nnaii* 
swerable." (p. 16.) 

** After this work was nearly printed, we procured Prichard's Natural History of Man — 
hit other works we have not seen. We were aware of the conclusions at which his mind had 
arriyed, but not of the process by which his inyestigations had been pursued." (p. 804.) 

Now, as the Natural History was not published until 1S48, it could hardly be the book 
read **some years ago" (prior to 1849); especially as Dr. B. confesses ignorance "of the 
process, &c." [eupra.] That must haye been one of the earlier yolumes of the Phgneal 
JReeearehetf commenced in 1812, probably the yery first, which leayes the subject short of 
the point to which Blumenbach subsequently brought it But Dr. B. assures us ogain, that 
other work of Prichard than the Natural History he " has neyer seen." Then he neyer saw 
any before writing his own book ! His memory is certainly extremely yagne. It is safe 
to conclude, howeyer, that he undertook to write upon this difficult subject without the 
direct consultation of a single authority : — ^the result is what might be readily anticipated. 


does he speak de haut en bas^ as if^ fix>m the height of the pulpit, he 
was looking down upon men immeasurably removed from him by 
his sacred ofSce. This faulty manner perhaps results from his pro- 
fession, as does his verbose and declamatory style. But this consi- 
deration will not excuse the patronizing way in which he addresses 
one of higher scientific rank than himself. He reminds Morton of 
the countenance he has heretofore given him, — ^that he even subscribed 
for his book! The authorities relied upon by the latter he treats with 
gopreme contempt, individually and collectively, characterizing them 
as pedantic, antiquated, and ^'musty.""** All tiiis is carried through 
in a bold, dashing, off-hand way, calculated to impress forcibly any 
reader ignorant of the matter under discussion. It argues the most 
confident self-complacency and conviction of superiority on the part 
of the writer, and doubtiess his admiring readers shared the feeling. 
For a short season there was quite a jubilation over the assumed 
defeat of the physicists. 

Bat there is an Italian proverb which says, Nan sempre chicantando 
nene, eantando va! and which Dr. B. was destined to illustrate. To 
his first paper Morton replied in a letter dated March 30th, 1850, the 
tone of which is calm, dignified, and friendly. He defends his autho- 
rities, accumulate? new evidence, and strengthens and defines his 
porition. This called forth Dr. B.'s most objectionable letter of June 
12th, 1850, also published in the Charleston Journal, and in which 
he entirely passes the bounds of propriety. No longer satisfied with 
his poor attempts at wit, which consist almost exclusively in the use 
of the word "old" and its synonymes, he becomes denunciatory, and 
even abusive. He charges Morton with taking part in a deliberate 
conspiracy, having its ramifications in four cities, for the overthrow 
of a doctrine " nearly connected with the faith and hope of the Chris- 
tian, for this world and for eternity." In another paragraph, (p. 507,) 
he says, that infidelity must inevitably spring up as the consequence 
of adopting Morton's views. Now, we all know that when gentle- 
men of Dr. B.'s cloth use that word, they mean war ueque ad necem. 
Its object is simply to do mischief and give pain. It cannot injure 

* Dr. BAchman's contempt tot eTerything " old'' is certainly yery curioos in one so likely, 
from calling and position, to be particularly oonsenratiye. Nor is this his only singularity. 
His pertinadoas ascription of a remote date to erery one whose name has a Latinized 
tennination, reminds one of the story told of the backwoods lawyer, who persisted in 
Bimbering *' old Cantharides" among the sages of antiquity. He is particularly hard upon 
*' old HeOenios," nerer failing to giye him a passing flout, and talking about raising his 
gkoft The writing^ of Dr. B. do not indicate a Tery sensitive person, yet even he must 
hiTO felt a considerable degree of the sensation known as cuiit anserina, when he received 
Ue isfonnation, conveyed in Morton's quietest manner, that ** old Hellenius," with others 
of hii io-caUed ** musty" authorities, were his own contemporaries I The work of Chevreul, 
vUeh he disposes of in the same supercilious way, bean the extreme date of 1846 ' 


the person attacked, so far as the scientific world is concerned — for 
there the phrase can now only excite a smile — but it may impair his 
business or his public standing, or, still worse, it may enter his do- 
mestic circle, and wound him through his tenderest sympathies. 
Was such the intention in the present case 7 Charity bids us think 
otherwise ; and yet the attack has a very malignant appearance. To 
Morton it occasioned great surprise and pain. He answered it calmly 
in a paper in the same Journal, entitled Additional ObBervatianSj &c. 
He is unwavering in the assertion of his opinion ; and, inasmuch as 
its triumphant establishment would be his own best justification, he 
piles up still more and more evidence, often from the highest autho- 
rities in Natural History. The personalities of Dr. B. he meets and 
refutes briefly, but with firmness and dignity, declining entirely to 
allow himself to be provoked into a bandying of epithets. His con- 
duct was in striking contrast with that of his reverend opponent ; 
and, while it exalted him in the estimation of the learned everywhere, 
showed the latter to be a stranger to the courtesies that should 
characterize scientific discussion. More of a theolo^cal polemic than 
a naturalist, he uses the tone and style proverbially displayed by the 
former, and is offensive accordingly. He has his punishment in 
general condemnation and impaired scientific standing. In the 
mean time, Morton was stimulated to a determination to exhaust 
whatever material there was accessible in regard to Hybridity. Dr. 
Bachman he dropped entirely after the second letter; but he an- 
nounced to his friends his intention of sending an article regularly 
for each successive number of the Charleston Journal, so long as new 
matter presented. Two only of these supplementary communications 
appeared, the last being dated January 81st, 1851. 

But the solemn termination of all these labors was near at hand. 
Never had Morton been so busy as in that spring of 1851. His pro- 
fessional engagements had largely increased, and occupied most of 
Ids time. His craniological investigations were prosecuted with un- 
abated zeal, and he had recentiy made important accessions to his 
collection. He was actively engaged in the study of Archaeology, 
Egyptian, Assyrian, and American, as collateral to his favorite sub- 
ject. His researches upon Hybridity cost him much labor, in his 
extended comparison of authorities, and his industrious search for 
facts bearingHDu the question. In addition to all this, he was occu- 
pied with the preparation of his contribution to the work of Mr. 
Schoolcraft, and of several minor papers. Most of these labors were 
left incomplete. The fragments published in this volume will show 
how his mind was engaged, and to what conclusions it tended at the 
close. For it was now, in the midst of toil and useftilness, that he 
was called away fiK)m us. Five days of illness — not considered 


alarming at first — ^had scarcely prepared his friends for the sad event, 
when it was announced, on the 16th of May, that Morton was no more ! 
It was too true — he had left vacant among us a place that cannot 
soon be filled. Peaceftilly and calmly he had gone to his eternal rest, 
having accomplished so much in his short space of life, and yet 
leaving so much undone, that none but he could do as well ! 

So lived and so died our lamented friend. While we deplore his 
loss, however, we cannot but perceive that few men have been more 
blessed in life than he. His career was an eminently prosperous and 
successful one. Very few have ever been so uniformly successful in 
their enterprises. He established, with unusual rapidity, a wide- 
gpread scientific fame, upon the white radiance of which he has, 
dying, left not a single blot His life was also a fortunate and happy 
one in its more private relations. His first great grief came upon 
him, precisely a year before his own decease, in the loss of a beloved 
gon, to whom he was tenderly attached. No other cloud than this 
obecured his clear horizon to the last. That he felt it deeply there 
can be no doubt ; but he had, at his heart's core, the sentiment that 
can rob sorrow of its bitterness, and death of its sting. To that sen- 
timent he has given utterance in these lines ; and, with their quotation, 
I conclude this notice, the preparation of which has been to mo a 
labor of love, and the solace, for a season, of a bed of sufiering. 

Jan. 1854. consolation. ■^- ^- ■^• 

What art thou, world t with thy beguiling dreams, 

Thy banquets and carousals, pomp and pride ! 
What is thy gayest moment, when it teems 

With pleasures won, or prospects yet untried T 

What are thy honors, titles and renown, 

Thy brightest pageant, and thy noblest sway T 
Alas! like flowers beneath the tempest's ftrown, 

They bloom at mom, — at eTC they fade away I 

A few short years rcToWe, and then no more 
Can Memory rouse them from their resting-place ; 

The joys we courted, and the hopes we bore, 
HaTe passed like shadows from our fond embrace. 

But is there nought, amid the fearful doom, 

That can outlast the wreck of mortal things ? 
There is a spirit that does not consume, 

But mounts o'er ruin with triumphant wings. 

And thou. Religion I like a guardian star 

Dost glitter in the firmament on high. 
And lead'st us still, tho* we haye wander'd far, 

To hopes that cheer, and joys that neyer die ! 

And if an erring pilgrim on his way 

Casts but a pure, a suppliant glance to HeaTen, 
« Fear not — ^benighted child" — he hears thee say — 

" For they are doubly blest that are forgiren 1 " 


or VBi 





Messrs. Nott and Gliddon. 

Dtar Sirs: — In compliance with your request that I should fVimish 70a with eertain 
scientific facts respecting the Natural History of Man, to which you are now doToUng par- 
ticularly your attention, I transmit to you some general remarks upon the natural relations 
of the human family and the organic world surrounding it ; in the hope that it may call 
the attention of naturalists to the dote connection there it between the geographical ditirihution 
0/ animaU and the nhtural boundariee of the different racee of man ^ a fact which must be 
explained by any theory of the origin of life which claims to coTcr the whole of this diffi- 
cult problem. I do not pretend to present such a theory now, but would simply illustrate 
the facts as they are, to lay the foundation of a more extensiTC work to be published at 
some future time. Nor is it my intention to characterize here all the zoological prorinees 
recognized by naturalists, but only those the animals of which are known with sufficient 
accuracy to throw light upon the subject under consideration. Of the marine animals, I 
■boll therefore take no notice, except so far as they bear a special relation to the habits 
of uncivilized races or to the commercial enterprise of the world. The Tiews illustrated 
in the following pages hsTS been expressed for the first time by me in a paper, published 
in French, in the Revue Suitte for 1845. 

Very tml^, yours, 

'^ Ls. Agassis. 

Cambridge, Mass., Dec. 19th, 1858. 

There is one feature in the physical history of mankind which has 
heen entirely neglected by those who have studied this subject, viz., 
the natural relations between the different types of man and the 
animals and plants inhabiting the same re^ons. The sketch here 
presented is intended to supply this deficiency, as far as it is possible 
m a mere outline delineation, and to show that the houndarieSj within 
which the different natural combinatione of animals are known to be 
circumscribed upon the surface of our earthy coincide with the natural 
range of distinct types of man. Such natural combinations of animals 
circumscribed within definite boundaries are called faunee, whatever 



be their home — land, eeii, or river. Among the animalB which com 

poee the fuuoa of a country, we find typea belonging exclusively 

tJiere, and not occurring elsewhere ; such are, for example, the orui- 

tliorhynchua of New Holland, the elothB of Anierica, the hippopota- 

moa of Africa, and the walruses of the arctica: others, which have 

only a small number of representatives beyond the fauna which they 

•pccially characterize, as, for instance, the marsupials of New IIol- 

Und, of which America has a few species, such as the opossum ; and 

again others which have a wider range, such as the bears, of which 

there are distinct species in Europe, Asia, or America, or the mice 

and bats, which ore to be found all over the world, ejccept in the 

luetics. That faana will, therefore, be most easily characterized 

irbich possesses the largest number of distinct types, proper to itself, 

ind of which the other animals have little analogy with those of 

neighboring regions, as, for example, the fauna of New Holland. 

The inhabitants of fresh waters furnish also excellent characters 
for the circumscription of fauuie. The fishes, and other fluviatile 
aniraflls from the larger hydrograpbic basins,differ no less from each 
other than the mammaha, the birds, the reptiles, and the insects of 
ihe countries which these rivers water. Nevertheless, some authora 
hsve attempted to separate the fresh water animals from those of tho 
lind and sea, and to establish distinct divisions for them, under the 
iiame of fluviatile fauuEe. But the inhabitants of the rivers and 
lakes are too intimately connected with those of their shores to allow 
of » rigorous distinction of this kind, Kivers never establish a sepa- 
fidon between terrestrial fauno?. For the same reason, the faunne of 
the inland seas cannot be completely isolated from the terrtatiial 
onee, and wo shall sec hereafter that the animals of southern Europe 
ate not bound by tlie Mediterranean, but are found on the southern 
iliore of that sea, as far as the Atlaa. "We shall, therefore, distin- 
piish our zoological regions according to the combination of species 
which they enclose, rather than according to the element in which 
we find them. 

ll' the grand divisions of the animal kingdom are primordial and 
independent of climate, this is not the case with regard to the ulti- 
EMe local circumscription of species: these are, on the contraiy, 
iatimately connected with the conditions of temperature, soil, and 
Tegetation. A remarkable instance of this distribution of animals 
with reference to climate may be observed in the arctic fauna, which 
coDtiuns a great number of species common to the three continents 
CMverging towards the North Pole, and which presents a striking 
uniformity, when compared with the diversity of the temperate and 
tropical faunse of those same continents. 



The arctic fanna extends to the utmost limits of the cold and baiv 
ren redone of the North. But from the moment that forests appear, 
and a more propitious soil permits a larger development of animal 
life and of vegetation, we see the fauna and flora, not only diverrafied 
according to the continents on which they exist, but we observe also 
striking distinctions between different parte of the same continent; 
thus, in the old world, the animals vary, not only from the polar 
circle to the equator, but also in the opposite direction — those of the 
western coast of Europe are not the same as those of the basin of the 
Caspian Sea, or of the eastern coast of Asia, nor are those of the 
eastern coast of America the same as those of the western. 

The first fauna, the limits of which we would determine with pre- 
cision, is the arctic. It offers, as we have just seen, the same aspects 
in three parts of the world, which converge towards the North Pole. 
The uniform distribution of the animals by which it is inhabited 
forms its most striking character, and gives rise to a sameness of 
general features which is not found in any other region. Though the 
air-breathing species are not numerous here, the large number of 
individuals compensates for this deficiency, and among the marine 
animals we find an astonishing proftision and variety of forms. 

In this respect the vegetable and animal kingdoms differ entirely 
from each other, and the measure by which we estimate the former 
\b quite false as applied to the latter. Plants become stunted in their 
growth or disappear before the rigors of the climate, while, on the 
contrary, all classes of the animal kingdom have representatives, 
more or less numerous, in the arctic fauna. 

Neither can they be said to diminish in size under these influences ; 
for, if the arctic representatives of certain classes, particularly the 
insects, are smaller than the analogous types in the tropics, we must 
not forget, on the other hand, that the whales and larger cetacea 
have here their most genial home, and make amends, by their more 
powerful structure, for the inferiority of other classes. Also, if the 
animals of the North are less striking in external ornament — if their 
colors are less brilliant — yet we cannot say that they are more 
uniform, for though their tints are not so bright, they are none the 
less varied in their distribution and arrangement 

The limits of the arctic fauna are very easily traced. We must 
mclude therein all animals living beyond the line where forests cease, 
and inhabiting countries entirely barren. Those which feed upon 
flesh seek fishes, hares, or lemmings, a rodent of the size of our rat. 
Those which live on vegetable substances are not numerous. Some 
gramineous plants, mosses, and lichens, serve as pasture to the rumi- 
nants and rodents, while the seeds of a few flowering plants, and 


of the dwarf birches, afford nourishment to the little granivorous 
birds, such as linnets and buntings. The species belonging to the 
sea-shore feed upon marine animals, which live, themselves, upon 
each other, or upon marine plants. 

The larger mammalia which inhabit this zone are — the white 

bear, the walrus, numerous species of seal, the reindeer, the musk 

ox, the narwal, the cachalot, and whales in abundance. Among the 

smaller species we may mention the white fox, the polar hare, and 

the lemming. The birds are not less characteristic. Some marine 

eftgles, and wading birds in smaller number, are found; but the 

aquatic birds of the family of palmipedes are those which especially 

prevail. The coasts of the continents and of the numerous islands 

in the arctic seas are^ peopled by clouds of gannets, of cormorants, 

of penguins, of petrels, of ducks, of geese, of mergansers, and of 

galls, some of which are as large as eagles, and, like them, live on 

prey. No reptile is known in this zone. Fishes are, however, very 

numerous, and the rivers especially swarm with a variety of species 

of the salmon fistmily. A number of representatives of the inferior 

classes of worms, of Crustacea, of moUusks, of echinoderms, and of 

medusffi, are also found here. 

Within the limits of this fauna we meet a peculiar race of men, 
known in America under the name of Esquimaux, and under the 
names of Laplanders, Samojcdes, and Tchuktshes in the north of 
Asia. This race, so well known since the voyage of Capt. Cook and 
the arctic expeditions of England and Eussia, differs alike from the 
Indians of North America, from the whites of Europe, and the Mon- 
gols of Asia, to whom they are adjacent. The uniformity of their 
characters along the whole range of the arctic seas forms one of the 
most striking resemblances which these people exhibit to the fauna 
with which they are so closely connected. 

The semi-annual alternation of day and night in the arctic regions 
has a great influence upon their modes of living. They are entirely 
dependent upon animal food for their sustenance, no farinaceous 
gnuns, no nutritious tubercles, no juicy fruits, growing under those 
inhospitable latitudes. Their domesticated animals are the reindeer 
m Asia, and a peculiar variety of dog, the Esquimaux dog, in North 
America, where even the reindeer is not domesticated. 

Though the arctic fauna is essentially comprised in the arctic circle, 
its organic limit does not correspond rigorously to this line, but 
rather to the isotherme of 32° Fahr., the outline of which presents 
numerous undulations. This limit is still more natural when it is 
made to correspond with that of the disappearance of forests. It 
then circumscribes those immense plains of the North, which the 
Samoyedes call tundraSy and the Anglo-Americans, 6arren lands. 


The naturalists, who have overlooked this fauna, and connected it 
with those of the temperate zone, have introduced much confusion in 
the geographical distribution of animals, and have failed to recognize 
the remarkable coincidence existing between the extensive range of 
the arctic race of men, and the uniformity of the animal world around 
the Northern Pole. 

The first column of the accompanying tableau represents the types 
which characterize best this fauna ; viz., the white or polar bear, the 
walrus, the seal of Greenland, the reindeer, the right whale, and the 
eider duck. The vegetation is represented by the so-called reindeer- 
moss, a lichen which constitutes the chief food of the herbivorous 
animals of the arctics and the high Alps, during winter. 

To the glacial zone, which incloses a single fauna, succeeds the 
temperate zone, included between the isothermes of 82®, and 74** 
Fahr., characterised by its pine forests, its amentacea, its maples, its 
walnuts, and its fruit trees, and from the midst of which arise like 
islands, lofty mountain chains or high table-lands, clothed with a 
vegetation which, in many respects, recalls that of the glacial regions. 
The geographical distribution of animals in this zone, forms several 
closely connected, but distinct combinations. It is the country of the 
terrestrial bear, of the wolf, the fox, the weasel, the marten, the otter, 
the lynx, the horse and the ass, the boar, and a great number of 
stags, deer, elk, goats, sheep, bulls, hares, squirrels, rats, &c; to 
which are added southward, a few representatives of the tropical 

Wherever this zone is not modified by extensive and high table- 
lands and mountain chains, we may distinguish in it four necondary 
zones, approximating gradually to the character of the tropics, and 
presenting therefore a greater diversity in the types of its southern 
representation than we find among those of its northern boundaries. 
We have first, adjoining the arctics, a stilharcttc zone, with an almost 
uniform appearance in the old as well as the new world, in which 
pine forests prevail, the home of the moose ; next, a cold temperate 
zanCj in which amentaceous trees are combined with pines, the home 
of the fur animals ; next, a toarm temperate zone^ in which the pines 
recede, whilst to the prevailing amentaceous trees a variety of ever- 
greens are added, the chief seat of the culture of our fruit trees, ^nd 
of the wheat ; and a subtropical zone^ in which a number of tropical 
forms are combined with those characteristic of the warm temperate 
zone. Yet there is throughout the whole of the temperate zone one 
feature prevailing ; the repetition, under corresponding latitudes, but 
under different longitudes, of the same genera and fitmilies, repre- 
sented m each botanical or zoological province by distinct so-called 


mbgou$ or repre$entative ipeeieSy with a very few snbordinate typee, 
peculiar to each province ; for it is not until we reach the tropical 
2one that we find distinct types prevailing in each fauna and flora. 
Again, owing to the inequalities of the surfitce, the secondary zones 
ue more or less blended into one another, as for instance, in the 
table-lands of Central Asia, and Western North America, where the 
whole temperate zone preserves the features of a cold temperate re- 
gion; or the colder zones may appear like islands rising in the midst 
of the warmer ones, as the Pyrenees, the Alps, &c., the summits of 
which partake of the peculiarities of the arctic and sub-arctic zones, 
whilst the valleys at their base are characterised by the flora and 
£inna of the cold or warm temperate zones. It may be proper to 
remark, in this connection, that the study of the laws regulating the 
geographical distribution of natural families of animals and plants 
upon the whole surface of our globe diflfers, entirely, from that of the 
mociations and combinations of a variety of animals and plants 
within definite regions, forming peculiar faunae and flora. 

Considering the whole range of the temperate zone from east to 
west, we may divide it in accordance with the prevailing physical 
features into — Ist, an Asiatic realm, embracing Mantchuria, Japan, 
Chioa, Mongolia, and passing through Turkestan into 2d, the JEuro- 
fean realm, which includes Iran as well as Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, 
northern Arabia and Barbary, as well as Europe, properly so called ; 
the western parts of Asia, and the northern parts of Africa being 
intimately connected by their geolo^cal structure with the southern 
parts of Europe ; * and, 8d, the North American realm, which extends 
as &r south as the table-land of Mexico. 

With these qualifications, we may proceed to consider the faunae 
which characterize these three realms. But, before studying the or- 
ganic characters of this zone, let us glance at its physical constitution. 
The most marked character of the temperate zone is found in the 
inequality of the four seasons, which give to the earth a peculiar 
aspect in different epochs of the year, and in the gradual, though 
nM>re or less rapid passage of these seasons into each other. The 
y^tation particularly undergoes marked modifications ; completely 
arrested, or merely suspended, for a longer or shorter time, according 
to the proximity of the arctic or the tropical zone, we find it by 
torus in a prolonged lethargy, or in a state of energetic and sustained 
ieyelopment. But in this respect there is a decided contrast between 
the cold and warm portions of the temperate zone. Though they 

* For fartlier eridence that Iran, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Northern Arabia and 
Vortkem Africa, belong naturalljr to the European realm, see OuyoC9 Earth and Man. 



are both characterized by the predominance of the same families of 
plants, and .in particular by the presence of numerous species of the 
coniferous and amentaceous plants, yet the periodical sleep which 
deprives the middle latitudes of their verdure, is more complete in the 
colder region than in the warmer, which is already enriched by some 
southern forms of vegetation, and where a part*of the trees remain 
green all the year. The succession of the seasons produces, more- 
over, such considerable changes in the climatic conditions in this 
zone, that all the animals belonging to it cannot sustain them equally 
well. Hence a large number of them migrate at different seasons 
from one extremity of the zone to the other, especially certsun fami- 
lies of birds. It is known to all the world that tiie birds of ^l^orthem 
Europe and America leave their ungenial climate in the winter, seek- 
ing warmer regions as far as the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterra- 
nean, the shores of which, even those of the African coasts, make a 
part of the temperate zone. Analogous migrations take place also 
in the north of Asia. Such migrations are not, however, limited to 
the temperate zone ; a number of species from the arctic regions go 
for the winter into the temperate zone, and the limits of these migra- 
tions may aid us in tracing the natural limits of the faunae, which thus 
link themselves to each other, as the human races are connected by 

The temperate zone is not characterized, like the arctic, by one and 
the same fauna ; it does not form, as the arctic does, one continuous 
zoological zone around the globe. Kot only do the animals change 
from one hemisphere to another, but these differences exist even be- 
tween various regions of the same hemisphere. The species belonging 
to the western countries of the old world are not identical with those 
of the eastern countries. It is true that they often resemble each 
other so closely, that until very recently they have been confounded. 
It has been reserve^, however, for modem zoology and botany to 
detect these nice distinctions. For instance, the coniferse of the old 
world, even within the sub-arctic zone, are not identical with those 
of America. Instead of the Norway and black pine, we have here 
the balsam and the white spruce ; instead of the common fir, the 
PintM rigida; instead ot the European larch, the hacmatac, &c. ; and 
farther south the differences are still more striking. In the temperate 
zone proper, the oaks, the beeches, the birches, the hornbeams, the 
hophornbeams, the chestnuts, the buttonwoods, the elms, the linden, 
the maples, and the walnuts, are represented in each continent by 
peculiar species differing more or less. Peculiar forms make, here 
and there, their appearance, such as the gum-trees, the tulip-trees, the 
magnolias. The evergreens are still more diversified, — ^we need only 


ucntioti the cameliaa of Japan, an J thu kalniias of America aa cxam- 
plee. Among the tropical forms extending into the warm temperate 
zoue, we notice particularly the palmetto in the Bouthern United 
States, and the dwarf chama^rops of eonthem Europe. The animal 
kingdom presents the same features. In Europe we have, for in- 
Ktunco, tlie brown bear ; in Kortli America, the black bear ; in Asia, 
the bear of Tubet: the European stag, and the European door, are 
represented in North America by the Canadian stag, or wapiti, and 
the American deer; and in eastern Asia, by tlie muak-deer. Instead 
of the mouflon, North America has the big-horn or mountain sbecp, 
uid A'-ia the argali. The North American buffalo is represented in 
Bnrop© by the wild auerochs of Lithuania, and in Mongolia by the 
the wild-cats, the martens and weasels, the wolves and foxes, 
■els and mice (excepting the imported house-mouse), the 
the reptiles, the fishes, the insects, the mollusks, &c., though 
mm or less closely allied, are equally distinct specifically. The types 
pwnliar to the old or the new world are few; among them may be 
mentioned the horse and ass and the dromedary of Asia, and the 
CfioeEam of North America ; but upon this subject more details may 
be found in every text-book of zoology and botany. We would only 
idd that in the present state of our knowledge we recognise the fol- 
Itiiring combinations of animals within the limits of the temperate 
lone, which may be considered as so many distinct zoological pro- 
vinces or faunte. 

In the Atiatic realm, — Ist, a north-eastern fauna, the Japanete 
/aww; 2d, a south-eastern fauna, tho Chinese fauna, and a central 
iaaaA, the Mongolian fauna, followed westwards by tbo Caspian 
fama, which partakes partly of the Asiatic and partly of the Euro- 
pean zoolo^cal character; its most remarkable animal, antelope 
EugK, ranging west as far as southern Hussia. The Japanese and 
ibo Chinese fauna; stand to each other in the same relation as southern 
Eorope and north Africa, and it remains to be ascertained by farther 
inveMigations whether the Japanese fauna ought not to be subdivided 
into a more eastern insular fauna, the Japanese fauna proper, and a 
more western continental fauna, which might be called the Mandshn- 
nan or Tongouaian fauna. But since it is not my object to describe 
separately all fauuie, but chiefly to call attention to the coincidence 
existing between tho natural limitation of the races of man,aud the 
geographical range of the zoological provinces, I shall limit myself 
here to some general remarks respecting the Mongolian fauna, in 
order i£> show that the Asiatic zoological realm differs essentially 
&om the European and the American. In onr Tableau, the second 
colomn represents the most remarkable animals of this fauna ; the 



bear of Tubct (ursus thibetanus), the musk-deer (moschns moschifems), 
the Tzeiran (antilope gattarosa), the Mongolian goat (capra sibirica), 
the argali (ovis argali), and the yak (bos grunniens). This is also the 
home of the Bactrian or double-hunched camel, and of the wild 
horse (eqnus caballus), the wild ass (equus onager), and another eqaino 
species, the Dtschigetai (equus hemionus). The wide distribution 
of the musk-deer in the Altai, and the Himmalayan and Chinese 
Alps, shows the whole Asiatic range of the temperate zone to 
be a most natural zoological realm, subdivided into distinct pro- 
vinces by the greater localization of the largest number of its repre- 

If we now ask what are the nations of men inhabiting those re- 
gions, we find that they all belong to the so-called Mongolian race, 
the natural limits of which correspond exactly to the range of the 
Japanese, Chinese, Mongolian and Caspian faunse taken together, 
and that peculiar types, distinct nations of this race, cover respec- 
tively the different faunse of this realm. The Japanese inhabiting 
the Japanese zoological province; the Chinese, the Chinese pro- 
vince; the Mongols, the Mongolian province; and the Turks, the 
Caspian province ; eliminating, of course, the modem establishment 
of Turks in Asia Minor and Europe. 

The unity of Europe, (exclusive of its arctic regions,) in connection 
with south-western Asia and northern Africa, as a distinct zoological 
realm, is established by the range of its mammalia and by the limits 
of the migrations of its birds, as well as by the physical featores of 
its whole extent. Thus we find its deer and stag, its bear, its hare, 
its squirrel, its wolf and wild-cat, its fox and jackal, its otter, its 
weasel and marten, its badger, its bear, its mole, its hedgehogs, and 
a number of bats, either extending over tbe whole realm in Europe, 
western Asia, and north Africa,'or so linked together as to show that 
in their combination with the birds, reptiles, fishes, Jtc., of the same 
countries, they constitute a natural zoological association analogons 
to that of Asia, but essentially different in reference to species. Like 
the eastern realm, this European world may be sub-divided into a 
number of distinct faunce, characterized each by a variety of pecnliar 
animaU. In western Asia we find, for instance, the common camel, 
instead of the Bactrian, whilst Mount Sinai, Mounts Taurus and 
Caucasus have goats and wild sheep which differ as much fix)m those 
of Asia, ns they difier from those of Qro<H>e, of Italy, of the Alps, 
of the ryroncos, of the Atlas, and of Egypt Wild horses are 
known to have inhabited Spain and Qomiany ; and a wild bull ex- 
tended over the whole range of central Europe, which no longer 
cxistA there* The Asiatic origin of our domesticated animak may, 


therefore, well be cinestioned, even if we were still to refer western 
Asia to the Asiatic realm ; eincc the asa, and eomo of the breeds of 
our horeCjOnly belong to the table-Ianda of Iran and Mongolia, wbilst 
the other speoies, including the cat, may all be traced to speciea of 
the European realm. The domesticated cat is referred by Eiippell to 
fclij maniculata of Egj-pt; by others, to felia catus ferus of central 
Enropo; thus, in both cases, to an aniitial of the European realm. 
Whether the dog be a apcciea by itself, or its varietiea derived fi"om 
several species which have completely amalgamated, or be it descended 
from the wolf, the fox, or the jackal, every theory mnst limit its nataral 
range to the European world. The merino sheep is still represented 
In the wild state by the mouflon of Sardinia, and was formerly wild in 
ill the moantains of Spain ; whether the sheep of tlie patriai-chs were 
derived from those of Mt Taurus, or from Armenia, still they differed 
from those of western Europe ; since, a thousand j^ears before our 
er», the rhoenicians preferred the wool from the Iberian peninsula to 
tiai of their Syrian neighbours. The goats differ so much in different 
prtB of the world, that it is still less poaaible to refer them to one 
tommon stock ; and while Kepaul and Cashmere have their own 
hfeeds, we may well conaider those of Egypt and Sinai as distinct, 
(epecially as they differ equally from those of Caucasus and of 
Europe. The common bull is derived from the wild species which 
has become extinct in Europe, and is not identical with any of the 
mid Bpeciea of Asia, notwithstanding some assertiona to the contrary. 
The hog descends from the common boar, now found wild over the 
whole temperate zone in the Old World. Both ducks and gecee 
have their wild representatives in Europe; so also the pigeon. As 
for the common fowls, they are decidedly of east Asiatic origin ; but 
the period of their importation is not well known, nor even the wild 
^ledcB from which they are derived. The wild turkey is well known 
u an inhabitant of the American continent. 

Sow, taking further into account the special distiibution of all the 
inimals, wild aa well as domesticated, of the European temperate 
wne, we may sub-divide it into the following eight fauna;: — Ist, 
Scandiftaei an fauna ; 2d, Jtvssian Jauna ; 3d, The fauna of Central 
Europe; 4th, The fauna of Southern JEurope; 5th, The fauna of 
Jrtn; tith. The Syrian fauna; 7th, Tlie Egyptian fauna; and 8th, 
The fauna of the Atlas. Tko special works upon the zoology of 
Europe, the great works illustrative of the French expeditions in 
Egypt, Morocco, and Alters, the travcla of Riippeil and Eussegor in 
Egypt and Syria, of M. Wagner in Algiers, of Demidoff in southern 
Bowia, &c. &,c., and the special trcatisea on the geographical distribu- 
tion of mammalia by A. Wagner, and of animala in general by 



Schmarda, may famish more details upon the zoology of these 

Here, again, it cannot escape the attention of the ciffeful observer, 
that the European zoological realm is circumscribed within exactly 
the same limits as the so-called white race of man, including, as it 
does, the inhabitants of south-western Asia, and of north Africa, 
with the lower parts of the valley of the Nile. "We exclude, of 
course, modem migrations and historical changes of habitation from 
this assertion. Our statements are to be understood as referring only 
to the aboriginal or ante-historical distribution of man, or rather to 
the distribution as history finds it. And in this respect there is a 
singular fauctj which historians seem not to have sufficientiy appre- 
ciated, that the earliest migrations recorded, in any form, show us 
man meeting man, wherever he moves upon the inhabitable surfiice 
of the globe, small islands excepted. 

It is, fetrther, very s^pking, that the different sub-divisions of this 
race, even to the limits of distinct nationalities, cover precisely the 
same ground as the special faunae or zoological provinces of this most 
important part of the world, which in all ages has been the seat of 
the most advanced civilization. In the south-west of Asia we find 
(along the table-land of Iran) Persia and Asia Minor ; in the pluns 
southward, Mesopotamia and Syria ; along the sea-shores, Palestine 
and Phoenicia; in the valley of the Nile, Egypt; and along the 
southern shores of Africa, Barbary. Thus we have Semitic nations 
covering the north African and south-west Asiatic fitunse, while the 
south European peninsulas, including Asia Minor, are inhabited by 
Grseco-Roman nations, and the cold, temperate zone, by Celto-G^er- 
manic nations ; the eastern range of Europe being peopled by Sclaves. 
This coincidence may justify the inference of an independent origin 
for these different tribes, as soon as it can be admitted that the races 
of men Tvere primitively created in nations ; the more so, since all 
of them claim to have been autochthones of the countries they inhabit 
This claim is so universal that it well deserves more attention. It 
may be more deeply founded than historians, generally, seem inclined 
to grant. 

The third column of our Tableau exhibits the animals characteristic 
of the temperate part of the European zoological realm, and shows 
their close resemblance to those of the corresponding Asiatic fauna; 
the species being representative species of the same genera, with the 
exception of the musk-deer, which has no analogues in Europe. 

Though temperate America resembles closely, in its animal crea- 
tion, the countries of Europe and Asia belonging to the same zone, 
vk e meet with physical and oi^anic features in this continent which 

And their belation to types of man. bdx 

Uiffer entirely from those of tha Old World. The tropical realms, 
connected there with those of the temperate zone, though bound 
together by some analogies, differ esHeutially from one another. 
Tropical Africa has hardly any species in common with Europe, 
though we may remember that the lion once extended to Greece, and 
that the jackal is to this day found upon some islands in the Adriatic, 
and in Morea. Tropical Asia differs equally from its temperate 
t^ons, and Australia forms a world by itself. Not bo in southern 
America, The range of mountains wluch extends, in almost un- 
broken continuity, from the Arctic to Cape Horn, establishea n 
tiiuilarity bctiveen North and South America, which may be traced 
tleo, to a great degree, in its plants and animals. Entire families 
ffhieh are peculiar to this continent have their representatives in 
Korth, as well as South America, the cactus and didelphis, for 
inBtance ; some species, as the puma, or American Hon, may even be 
traced from Canada to Patagonia. In connection with these facts, 
ife find that tropical America, though it Ws its peculiar types, as 
ciiaracteristic as those of tropical Africa, Asia, and Australia, does 
not furnish analogues of the giants of Africa and Asia; its largest 
pachyderms being tapirs and pecans, not elephnnts, rhinoceroses, and 
Uppopotnini ; and its largest ruminants, the llamas and alpacas, 
and not caraela and girafl'es ; whilst it reminds us, in many respect?, 
of Australia, with which it has the type of marsupials in common, 
though ruminants and pachyderms, and even monkeys, are entirely 
wanting there. Thus, with due quaUfication, it may be said, that the 
whole continent of America, when compared with the corresponding 
twin-continents of Europe —Africa or Asia— Australia is characterized 
by a much greater uniformity of its natural productions, combined 
wifli a special localization of many of its subordinate types, which 
will justify the establishment of many special faunte within its 

With ttese facta before ns, we may expect that there should be no 
peat diversity among the tribes of man inhabiting this continent; 
and, indeed, the moat extensive investigation of their peculiarities 
hat led Dr. Morton to consider them as constituting but a single race, 
from the confines of the Esquimaux down to the southonimost ex- 
tremity of the continent. But, at tlie same time, it should be 
remembered that, in accordance willi the zoological character of tlie 
whole realm, this race is divided into an infinite number of small 
tribes, presenting more or less diSerenee one from another. 

As to the special faunie of the American continent, we may distin- 
gniah, within the temperate zone, a Canadian fauna, extending from 
Newfoundland across the great lakes to the base of the Rocky moun- 


tains, a fauna of the North American table-landj a £eiima of the Nortk- 
west coast, a fauna of the middle United States, a fituna of the southern 
United States, and a Oalifomian fauna, the characteristic features of 
which I shall describe on another occasion. 

When we consider, however, the isolation of the American conti- 
nent from those of the Old World, nothing is more striking in the 
geographical distribution of animals, than the exact correspondence 
of all the animals of the northern temperate zone of America with 
those of Europe : all the characteristic forms of which, as may be seen 
by the fourth column of our Tableau, belong to the same genera, 
with the exception only of a few subordinate types, not represented 
among our figures — such as the opossum and the skunk. 

In tropical America we may distinguish a Central American fauna^ 
a Brazilian fauna, a fauna of the Pampas, 9^ fauna of the Cordilleras^ a 
Peruvian fauna, and a Patagonian fauna ; but it is imnecessaiy for 
our purpose to mention here their characteristic features, which may 
be gathered from the works of Prince New Wied, of Spix and Martios, 
of Tschudi, of Poppig, of Kamon de la Sagra, of Darwin, &c 

The slight differences existing between the faunae of the temperate 
zone have required a fuller illustration than maybe necessary to char- 
acterize the zoological realms of the tropical regions and the eonthem 
hemisphere generally. It is sufficient for our purpose to say here, that 
these realms are at once distinguished by the prevalence of peculiar 
types, circumscribed within the natural limits of the three continents, 
extending in complete isolation towards the southern pole. In this 
re^^ect there is already a striking contrast between the northern and 
the southern hemisphere. But the more closely we compare them 
with one another, the greater appear their differences. We have 
already seen how South America differs from Africa, the East Indies, 
and Australia, by its closer connection with North America. Not- 
withstanding, however, the absence in South America of thoee 
sightly animals so prominent in Africa and tropical Asia, its gen- 
eral character is, like that of all the tropical continents, to nonriah 
a variety of types which have no close relations to those of other 
continents. Its monkeys and edentata belong to genera which 
have no representatives in the Old World ; among pachyderms it has 
pecaris, which are entirely wanting elsewhere ; and though the tapirs 
occur also in the Sunda Islands, that type is wanting in Africa, where 
in compensation we find the hippopotamus, not found in either Asia or 
America. We have already seen tiiat the marsupials of South Ame- 
rica differ entirelv from those of Australia. Its ostriches differ also 
generically from those of Africa, tropical Asia, New Holland, &c. 

if we compare further the southern continents of tlie Old World 


widi one another^ we find a certain nniformity between the animalB 
of Afiica and tropical Asia. They have both elephants and rhinoce- 
nsesj thoogh each has its peculiar species of these genera, which 
oceuT neither in America nor in Australia ; whilst cercopitheci and 
mdlopcs prevail in Africa, and long-armed monkeys and stags in 
tropical Asia. Moreover, the black orangs are peculiar to Africa, and 
tiie red orangs to Asia. As to Australia, it has neither monkeys nor 
ptchydenns, nor edentata, but only marsupials and monotremes. We 
need therefore not carry these comparisons further, to be satisfied that 
Afiica, tropical Asia, and Australia constitute independent zoological 

The continent of Afiica south of the Atlas has a very uniform 
soological character. This realm may however be subdivided, accord- 
ing to its local peculiarities, into a number of distinct fitunse. In its 
more northern parts we distinguish the fauna of the Sahara, and those 
iii Nubia and Abyssinia ; the latter of which extends over the Red 
Sea into the tropical parts of Arabia. These faunse have been par- 
ticularly studied by Riippell and Ehrenberg, in whose works 
more may be found respecting the zoology of these regions. They 
ire inhabited by two distinct races of men, the Nubians and Abys- 
anians, receding greatly in their features from the woolly-haired 
Kegroes with flat broad noses, which cover the more central parts of 
the continent. But even here we may distinguish the fauna of 
Senegal fix)m that of Guinea and that of the African Table-land. In 
the first, we notice particularly the chimpanzee ; in the second, the 
gorilla. There is no anthropoid monkey in the third. The fifth 
column in our Tableau gives figures of the most prominent animals 
of the genuine West African type. A fuller illustration of this subject 
might show, how peculiar tribes of Negroes cover the limits of the 
different fiiunffi of tropical Africa, and establish in this respect a paral- 
lelLgm between the nations of this continent and those of Europe. 
We are chiefly indebted to French naturalists for a better knowledge 
of the Natural History of this part of the world. In the sixth column 
of our Tableau we have represented the animals of the Cape-lands, 
in order to show how the African fauna is modified upon the southern 
extremity of this continent, which is inhabited by a distinct race of 
men, the Hottentots. The zoology of South Africa may be studied 
ia the works of Lichtenstein and Andrew Smith. 

The East Indian realm is now very well known zoologically, thanks 
to the efforts of English and Dutch naturalists, and may be subdivided 
into three faunse, that of Dukhun, that of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, 
and that of the Sunda Islands, Borneo, and the Philippines. Its 
cfaaiacteristic animals, represented in the seventh column of our 

bcdi PRoyiNCES of the animal world 

Tableau, may be readily contracted with Hiose of AMca. There ib, 
however, one feature in this reahn, which requires particular atten* 
tion, and has a high importance with reference to the study of the 
races of men. We find here upon Borneo (an island not so extensive 
as Spain) one of the best known of those anthropoid monkeys, the 
orang-outan, and with him as well as upon the adjacent islands of 
Java and Sumatra, and along the coasts of the two East Indian penin- 
suUe, not less than ten other different species of Hylobates, the long- 
armed monkeys; a genus which, next to the orang and chimpanzee, 
ranks nearest to man. One of these species is circumscribed mthin 
the Island of Java, two along the coast of Coromandel, three upon 
that of Malacca, and four upon Borneo. Also, eleven of the highest 
organized beings which have performed their part in the plan of the 
Creation within tracts of land inferior in extent to the range of any 
of the historical nations of men ! In accordance with this fBLtit, we 
find three distinct races within the boundaries of the East Indian 
realm : the Telingan race in anterior India, the Malays in i>08terior 
India and upon the islands, upon which the Negrillos occur with them. 
Such combinations justify fully a comparison of the geographical 
range covered by distinct European nations with the narrow limits 
occupied upon earth by the orangs, the chimpanzees, and the gorillas ; 
and though I still hesitate to assign to each an independent origin 
(perhaps rather from the difficulty of divesting myself of the opinions 
universally received, than fix)m any intrinsic evidence), I must, in 
presence of these £etcts, insist at least upon the probability of such an 
independence of origin of all nations ; or, at least, of the independent 
origin of a primitive stock for each, with which at some future period 
migrating or conquering tribes have more or less completely amal- 
gamated, as in the case of mixed nationalities. The evidence adduced 
from the affinities of the languages of different nations in favor of a 
community of origin is of no value, when we know, that, among 
vociferous animals, every species has its peculiar intonations, and that 
the different species of the same fiunily produce sound as closely 
allied, and forming as natural combinations, as the so-called Indo- 
Qermanic languages compared with one another. Nobody, for 
instance, would suppose that because the notes of the different species 
of thrushes, inhabiting different parts of the world, bear the closest 
affinity to one another, these birds must all have a common origin ; 
and yet, with reference to man, philologists still look upon the affini- 
ties of languages as affording direct evidence of such a community 
of origin, among the races, even though they have already discovered 
the most essential differences in the veiy structure of these languages. 
Ever smce New Holland was discovered, it has been known 


6 land of zoological marvels. All ila animals differ so completely 
from those of other parts of our globe, that it may bo eaid to conati- 
mte a world in itself, as isolated in that reepect from the other conti- 
neuts, as it truly is in its physical relations. As a zoological realm, 
it extends to New Guinea and some adjacent islands. New IloUand, 
however, constitutes a distinct fauna, which at some fiiture time may 
be atill further subdivided, differing from that of the islands north 
of it. The characteristic animals of this insular continent are repre- 
fgnted in the eighth column of our Tableau. They all belong to two 
ftmilies only, considering the class of mammalia alone, the marsu- 
piaU, and the monotremes. Besides those are found bats, and mice, 
ind a wild dog ; bat there are neither true edentata, nor mminante, 
nor pftcbyderms. nor monkeys, in this realm, which is inhabited by 
two races of men, the Australian in Now Holland, and the Papuans 
upon the Islands. The isolation of the zoological types of Australia, 
Inliabiting as they do a continent partaking of nearly all the physical 
frstares of the other parts of the world, is one of tho most sticking 
<<ridencc3 that the presence of animals upon earth is not determined 
Irf physicaJ conditions, but established by the direct agency of a 

Of Polynesia, its races and animals, it would be difficult to give an 
idoa in such a condensed picture aa this. I pasa them, therefore, 
entirely unnoticed. The mountain fauuse have also been omitted in 
our Map from want of space. 

Before closing these remarks I sliould add, that one of the greatest 
difficnldea naturalists have met with, in the study of the human races, 
haa been the want of a standard of comparison by which to estimate 
the ralue and importance of the diversities observed between the 
Merent nations of the world. But (since it is idle to make assertions 
npon the character of these differences without a distinct understand- 
ing teepectiug the meaning of the words constantly used in reference 
to tLe gubjeet), it may be proper to ask here, What is a species, what 
Bvariety, and what is meant by the unity or the diversity of the races ? 

hi order not to enter upon debateabte ground in answering the 
first of these q[uestiona, let ua begin by considering it with reference 
to the animal kingdom; and, without alluding to any controverted point, 
limit ourselves to animals well known among us. "We would thus 
remember that, with universal consent, the horse and ass are con- 
ndered as two distinct species of the same genus, to which belong 
BCTeml other distinct species known to naturalists under the names 
of zebra, quagga, dauw, &c. The buffalo and the bull are also distinct 
epecies of another genus, embracing several other foreign species, 
The black bear, the white bear, the grizzly bear,give another example 


of three different species of the same genus, kc. &c. We might 
select many other examples among onr common qnadrnpeds, or 
among hirds, reptiles, fishes, &c., but these will be sufficient for our 
purpose. In the genus horse we have two domesticated species, the 
common horse and the donkey ; in the genus bull, one domesticated 
species and the wild buffalo ; the three species of bear mentioned aro 
only found in the wild state. The ground upon which these animak 
are considered as distinct species is simply the fact, that, since they 
have been known to man, they have always preserved the same cha- 
racteristics. To make specific difference or identity depend upon 
genetic succession, is begging the principle and taking for granted 
what in reality is under discussion. It is true that animals of the 
same species are fertile among themselves, and that their fecundity 
is an easy test of this natural relation ; but this character is not ex- 
clusive, since we know that the horse and the ass, the buffiil^ and 
our cattle, like many other animals, may be crossed ; we are, there- 
fore, not justified, in doubtful cases, in considering the fertility of 
two animals as decisive of their specific identity. Moreover, gene- 
ration is not the only way in which certain animals may multiply, 
as there are entire classes in which the larger number of indivi- 
duals do not originate from eggs. Any definition of species in- 
which the question of generation is introduced is, therefore, objec- 
tionable. The assumption, that the fertility of cross-breeds is neces- 
sarily limited to one or two generations, does not alter the case; 
since, in many instances, it is not proved beyond dispute. It is, 
however, leyond all question that individuals of distinct species may, 
in certain cases, be productive with one another, as well as with 
their own kind. It is equally certain that their offspring is a 
half-breed ; tliat is to say, a being partaking of the peculiarities of 
the two parents, and not identical with either. The only definition 
of species meeting all these difficulties is that of Dr. Morton, who 
characterizes them as primordial organic forms. Species are thus 
distinct forms of organic life, the origin of which is lost in the 
primitive establishment of the state of things now existing, and 
varieties are such modifications of the species as may return to the 
typical form, under temporary influences. Accepting this definition 
with the qualifications just mentioned respecting hybridity, I am 
prepared to show that the differences existing between the races of 
men are of the same kind as the differences observed between the 
different families, genera, and species of monkeys or other animals; 
Hnd that these different species of animals differ in the same degree 
one from the other as the races of men — nay, the differences between 
distinct races are often greater than those distinguishing species of 


one from the other. The chimpanzee and gorilla do not 
differ more one from the other than the Mandingo and the Guinea 
Ncfro: they together do not differ more from the orang than the 
lUay or white man differs fix)m the Negro. In proof of this assertion, 
I need only refer the reader to the description of the anthropoid 
monkeys pablished by Prof. Owen and by Dr. J. Wyman, and to 
nch descriptions of the races of men as notice more important 
peculiarities than the mere differences in the color of the skin. It 
k^Iiowever, but fair to exonerate these authors from the responsibility 
of iny deduction I would draw fi^m a renewed examination of the 
ame &ct8, differing fr^m theirs ; for I maintain distinctly that the 
(fifferences observed among the races* of men are of the same kind 
and even greater than those upon which the anthropoid monkeys 
fle considered as distinct species. 

Agun, nobody can deny that the o&pring of different races 

k always a half-breed, as between animals of different species, and 

not a child like either its mother or its father. These conclusions 

in no way conflict with the idea of the unity of mankind, which 

is as close as that of the members of any well-marked type of 

animals; and whosoever will consult history must remain satisfied, 

that the moral question of brotherhood among men is not any more 

affixrted by these views than the direct obligations between immediate 

blood relations. Unity is determinal by a typical structure, and by 

the similarity of natural abilities and propensities ; and, unless we deny 

the typical relations of the cat tribe, for instance, we must admit that 

unity is not only compatible with diversity of origin, but that it is 

the universal law of nature. 

This coincidence, between the circumscription of the races of man 
and the natural limits of different zoological provinces characterized 
by peculiar distinct species of animals, is one of the most important 
and unexpected features in the Natural History of Mankind, which 
the study of the geographical distribution of all the organized beings, 
now existing upon earth, has disclosed to us. It is a fact which can- 
not fail to throw light, at some future time, upon the very origin 
of the differences existing among men, since it shows that man's 
physical nature is modified by the same laws as that of animals, 
and that any general results obtained from the animal kingdom 
regarding the organic differences of its various types must also apply 
to man. 
Jfow, there are only two alternatives before us at present : — 
Ist Either mankind originated from a common stock, and all 
the different races with their peculiarities, in their present 
distribution, are to be ascribed to subsequent changes — 


an assumption for which there is no evidence whatever, 
and which leads at once to the admission that the diver- 
sity among animals is not an original one, nor their dis- 
tribution determined by a general plan, established in the 
beginning of the Creation; — or, 
2d. We must acknowledge that the diversity among animab 
is a fact determined by the will of the Creator, and their 
geograpHcal distribution part of the general plan which 
unites all organized beings into one great organic con- 
ception : whence it follows that what are called human 
races, down to their specialization as nations, are distinct 
primordial forms of the type of man. 
The consequences of the first alternative, which is contrary to all 
the modern results of science, run inevitably into the Lamarkian 
development theory, so well known in this country through the 
work entitled "Vestiges of Creation;" though its premises are gen- 
erally adopted by those who would shrink &om the conclusions to 
which they necessarily lead. 

Whatever be the nieaniDg of the coincidence alluded to above, 
it must in future remain an important element in ethnographical 
studies ; and no theoiy of the distribution of the races of man, and 
of their migrations, can be satisfactory hereafter, which does not 
account for that fact. 

We may, however, draw already an important inference from this 
investigation, which cannot fail to have its influence upon the 
ferther study of the human races: namely, that the laws which 
regulate the diversity of animals, and their distribution upon earth, 
apply equally to man, within the same limits and in the same degree; 
and that all our liberty and moral responsibility, however spon- 
taneous, are yet instinctively directed by the All-wise and Omni- 
potent, to fulfil the great harmonies established in Nature. 

L. A. 


ov tarn 

1. n-^J — EMktmauM. [Fluvxiili: 

•Jii /J>r- /^- Sea ; 1S»; LpLUL] 
;L S4 ali — Likimamx. | MoBitov : 

Ct. AmfT. : p. 70. !fo. 1.] 
X White Bnr iO$UM wutriUmmt). 

[Kvmem: Bigm€ Aidm.; AtUl^ 

Mamm. pi. 30, flg. &] 
4. WiJnu iTridttau MtMmanu), 

ICrrto : <p. oC. ; pL 46k flg. 1-] 
Sl Bti»lcer ( Omti ItarandM). 

;CmD: opL di.; pL 87, flg. SL] 
C Harp Seftl (Pkoca fnniamiiea). 

[Saa* : Ad.; Muun^ L pL71.] 
7. KUht Whah {Baiama M^Modmij. 

;;Crviia: op. oL ; pL 100^ !!«• !•] 
f. fidn- Duck (iliMt ■mffftrtwif). 

[ ACBCSuai : AMt; 1848; ^ pL 

4CA. «i<. 1.] 

/arma). [LocBOv: 

pu 9eB, Xo. u»a8&] 


U. II«m1— OkMcac [Ham. Bicm: 
A*.^ ifiA ihaMm 2^«Mt; 18i8; 
pLlO, *< Mongol.*^ 

11. fkuD — CMJMK. [CUTm: op. 

e^. ; pL 9, flf. UL] 
UL Bear f rmcf iMMoiWf). [Bcn» 

KA : £ii«CAacr« : UL pi. 141 dd]. 
U. aiitok-deer(JlhK*«ita<MdU/biM). 
Ct'tint: op.cU.; pi. 86.] 

14 Ancilcr* {AntH^t putfitrofa). 

^< HKELOt : up.eiL; pi. 275.] 

15 Gj»1 .Cjpra tiUrica). [8CBM- 

iixs : ep. cit. ; pL 281.] 
1^ Slve^p (Orii ArgaK). [Cctib: 

!rr^r,^jjAit ; {. p]. 44 bii, 11^ 1.] 

IT T&k /{• j; jrnnRMftnu). [Vubt: 
OxJnV; ISil; p.45.] 


I". B«*i— Crrus'fl portniL [Jt^iw 
.-Inim. ; Atlaa, Mamm ; **Me- 

1>. &kui] — Eitrapfan. [CCTnE:qp. 

ea.'. ; f\. ?, ««. 1.] 
X. Bear { rrsia Ardai). [ScnmiB: 

'ft cU. : pL 133t.] 
2. 5t«2 fOrr^ O^jpAiu). [ScBU- 

%ix : cp.aL; pL U7 ▲.] 
22. ADtilcpc (JaMfaiM JhqMfanpni). 

^^rifKon: «p. eil. ; pi. 279.] 

n.Go«t (Cbpiti iber). [Schubb: 

op. eft. ; pi. 281 c] 
34. BlMep (One JAwimon). Sou- 

an: <9). cOL ; pL 288 a.] 
8S.Aaeroclis (Bw ITntt). [Yabet: 

€p.ciL; p. 40.] 


MLHaad — iiKfHmCUcA [Max. Pa. 

mWikd: IVarflIf; pi. 3.] 
27. Skull — Jftwnd in Tennesiee. — 

[MOETOJi : Or. Amor. ; pL 66.] 
88. Btax(Urtiattmeneanus). [Scbbb- 

bb: cp.ciL; pL 141 B.] 
S9l8teg((%rv.r<vyte^iiiM}. [Scaub- 

WMa,'.op,ciL: pL «6 b.] 
ao. AntUope ( JN<./Wo/mi). [ZT.iSL 

Al. Of. £9. 1862; pt iL pL 1.] 

n. OoBfc (Qy» cwMrtowa). [<r.& 

8S.8I1MP (Ovif Btontaiia). [<r. 5. 

AL Qf.;'pL 6.] 
83. Blaon (Am OMenomaM). 'JT. 8. 

I\U,qf.: pL7.] 

^LBmd^Mommffique Ntgro.— 

OOUBTR BB LlBLB : TabUau Eth- 

nog. du Genre Humam ; 1849 ; 

36. VknW-'Cnde Negro. [Latham : 

TariMaqfUan; p. 8.] 

36. ChfanpuuM {TrogUtdj/iea tUger). 

[CunxR : R^ne An.; pi. iL fig. 1.] 

37. Elephant {EUfhoM afrioanm). 

CuviXB : JUgne anim. ; L p.] 

38. BhinooerM {R. bkomu). [Smith : 

Simih Africa: pi. 2.] 
38. HippopoUmos (77. amphUntu). 

[Smith: aotOh Africa; pL 6.] 
40.Wart-IIog {Phacoehamu JEli- 

am). [ScuBXBKB: op. dL; pL 

326 a.] 
41. Giraffe (Oameieopardalit Gi- 

ratffai). [Cuyixb: lamagraphie : 


42.EmA^BuMhwtan. [Ham. Smith: 

jya<.2Ki<.;pl. 13.] 
43. Skull— AuAman. [IIam« Smith: 

op. cii. ; pL 2.] 
44. UjeiuQtinetiProUUs Lalandii). 
[Mim. du Mtu^um; zL p. 364.] 
46. Quagga ( JSyvM <?ua<2!7a) [Schkb- 
: op. cit. ; pi. 317.] 

48 RUnoonroa (B. Simui). fSMRB 
South Africa; pi. 19.] 

47. (3ap« Hyraz {Hyrax oopefuu). 

[Schbxboi: op. dL; pL 240.] 

48. Ant-e^tm ((hycUrtipus oapentit.) 

[Nouv. Diet. (THitL NatUreOe; 
zzir. p. 182.J 

49. (Tape Ox (Am eq^). [YAgR 

Ox Tribe; p. 86.] 


60. Head— JTa 2 ay. [Ward: JVo/ 

Hid. qf Mankind; 1849; p. 64.] 
6L Skull — if a lay. [Dumodtibb: 
AOat AnthropoL ; pL 37, fig. 6.) 

62. Orang-utan (Pitheau Satfnu). 

[TcMMcroK: JfoiMyropAMi; U. 

63. Elephant (Xlq^hoi indieui).^ 

[Schbbbbb :op.dt.; pi. 317 oa] 

61. Khinooeroa (R. aondaiciu). [Hus* 

racLD: Zool. Raeareha; 1834.J 
66. Tapir (Ihpinu moIayaniM).— 
[HoBsnzLD: op.ctf.] 

66. Stag (Cemu Mtm(jac). Hou- 
racLD: op.dL] 

67. Ox (Am Amee). [Yabbt: Oa 

Tribe: p. 111.] 


68. Uead—Alfouroux. [CuTiEB:c!p. 
di. ; pL 8, fl^. 1.] 

69. SkuU— ^(/burof. [IIam. Smith: 

Nat.niit.; pi. 2.] 

60. Spotted Oposi(um {DafyuruiTivX 

[Schrebbb : <>p. dt. ; pi. 152 a.] 

61. Ant-eater (Mymueof/ius fa$. 

datus). [Tram. Zoolijffical Soc. ; 
iL p. 154.] 

62. Babbit (IWajnelei Lagotit).'- 

[Watebuouse : MamtpiaU; i. 
pi. 13.] 

63. Phalan^r(/%a2an/^'xfaru7ptna). 

[Waterhousk : op. dt. ; 1. pi. 8. ] 

64. Wombat (Pfca»cotarrfai dnertu$). 

[Schkedcr: rqi, dL; pi. 155 a.] 
66. S<iiiirrel {rutannu snuretu).— 
[Wateuiouse: op. dL; I. p. 33. J 

66. Kangaroo ( Macropus gigantf 

tu). [Watkbbocbb: op. cit; L 
p. 62.] 

67. Duck-bill {Omithorhynchutparar 

dorm). [Waterhodsx : op.dt : 
L p. 26.] 

.V<^. — Adhering aa cloady aa poariUe to the written instructions of Prof. AnASSiz, the annexed Tableau 
vw ^irawQ and tinted, under my own eje, In the Library of the Academy of the Natural Sciences at Philadel 
\. 'n-ju Evifrr effort at eorrectneas haa been made ; although, owing to unavoidable reduction to so small a Male, 
tL* cJ"r\ng cvpedally can ha but aoggeatiTe. 

To ProC Joacra Lkibt, Dr. Wm. & Zabtxhigb, and Major Jonsf Le Contx, who mort obligingly garo me tr» 
MtTftstas" of their aid BDd eoanael in aelectlng the originals of thoM figures, must be aseribed the merit ol 
Mrrjlns PraC Igawira wm c BpU oB iolo detailed efCsct (January, 1854.) 

O. R. a., Orr. Mem. Acad. Nat. ScUnca 



Off THE 


I.— ARCTIC REALM — lnlwUtodl7 HTPSBBOBJSANS;«MleimtalBliiff:— 

A A A — an Hjfperbonan fknnm. 

ir.-ASIATiC REALM-inbaUtedbj MONGOLS; uidraMiylded into:-. 

B — a Momdehurian fiuina I . ^^ ^ 
0-.Ji.p<»a,fc»B. jl»th.tamr«t.niH.ortI.., 

D — a CMfiett &im«, In th« waoBor part 
S — a €fai<raI>iftivQiMm teuuL 
V-^ a Qi^ p iam (waatexn) fbona. 

III. -EUROPEAN REALM-inbaUtodl^ WHITE-MXN; aaddiTiiMiBlo:^ 

G — a Soandijunian fiiiina. 
H — a Aunum &ana. 

I — a OmtrdUBuroptau ikima. 

J — a SotUh-Eurqpean iknna. 
K — a ybrlh-A/riam Uuol. 

L — an I^ffjfpdan fiinna. 

M — a iS^rrum and an /ronicm fknaa. 


NoBTH AvBUGA — diTided into : — 

N — a OamuUan &ana. 

— an AUeghtmSan fiinna, or firana of tha Middle Statoa. 

P — a Louiiiankm &nna, or &ana of the Southern States 

Q — a TahMand &ana, or fiuina of the Booky Mountain 

B — a NortktffBtt-Cbttd flinna. 

S — a Oalifornian Ikona. 

GnmuL Ajobxga — subdirided Into : — 

T — a ifoiti4afid firana. 
U — an AntUUi iknna. 

South Ajobxca— dhrided into: — 

Y — a BranUan &nna. 
W — a i\iiiifxu Iknna. 
X — a OordOleraM iknna. 
T — a rtnnrian iknna. 
Z — a I\Uaff(mtaH &nna. 


and divided Into:— ^ 

aa — a Saharan &nna. 

bb — a Nubian fknna. 

oe — an Abj/trinian &nna (oxtandbig to Arabia). 

dd — a Smeffoiian fknna. 

ee — a Ouintan iknna. 

ff — an Afrio-TcdiMand iknna. 

i^f — ft Oape-<if-Good-nape Ikuna. 

hh — a HadaffOMoar (direrglng) fli^nna. 


NEGRILLOS; and dlrided Into:— 
ii — a DuJchttn Iknna. 
jj — an Indo-Chmae iknna. 
kk — m Sundorldandie &una (indoding Borneo and the PhUippiaMX 


Into: — 
B — a Paipuan &nna. 
Mm — a HeuhHoOand iknna. 

VIM. -POLYNESIAN REALM-inbaUtedty SOUTH-SEA ISLANDERS; and oontainliiK: — 

nn, HH — Aljmeiuin fiiunie. 

N B It baa not been in mj power to ibllow Proil Agaaiii*i instraotiona In regard to the colorAvof tlito 
■ip. tho acale adopted being too nnalL— G. B. G. 




Mr. Luke Burke, the bold and able Editor of the London Mhno- 

logieeU Joumalj defines Ethnology to be ^^ a science which investigates 

the mental and physical differences of Mankind, and the organic laws 

upon which they depend; and which seeks to deduce from these 

investigations, principles of human guidance, in all the important 

relations of social existence." ^ To the same author are we indebted 

not only for the most extensive and lucid definition of this term, 

but for the first truly philosophic view of a new and important science 

ttat we have met with in the English language. 

The term "Ethnology" has generally been used as synonymous 

with "Ethnography," understood as the Natural Histoiy of Man ; but 

ir Burke it is made to take a far more comprehensive grasp — to 

-/u elude the whole mental and physical liistory of the various Types 

of ^Mankind, as well as their social relations and adaptations ; and, 

iinder this comprehensive aspect, it therefore interests equally the 

pliilanthropist, the naturalist, and the statesman. Ethnology demands 

to know what was the primitive organic structure of each race ? — 

'^v^lxa.t such race's moral and psychical character? — ^how far a race may 

Ixave been, or may become, modified by the combined action of time 

«tii<i moral and physical causes ? — and what position in the social 

scale Providence has assigned to each type of man ? 

** Ethnology divides itself into two principal departments, the Scientific and the Hiatorte 

\jnder the former is comprised eyery thing connected with the Natural History of Man 

and the fundamental laws of liying organisms ; under the latter, every fact in civil history 

which has any important bearing, directly or indirectly, upon the question of races — every 

fact calculated to throw light upon the number, the moral and physical peculiarities, the 

early seats, migrations, conquests or interblendings, of the primary divisions of the humav 

family, or of the leading mixed races which have sprung Arom their intermarriages. "^ 

7 (49^ 


Such is the scope of this science — bom, we may say, within our 
own generation — and we propose to examine mankind under the 
above two-fold aspect, while we point out some of the more salient 
results towards which modem investigation is tending. The press 
everywhere teems with new books on the various partitions of the 
wide field of Ethnology; yet there does not exist, in any language, an 
attempt, based on the highest scientific lights of the day, at a 
systematLj treatise on Ethnology in its extended sense. Mortos 
was the fiiBt to conceive the proper plan ; but^ unfortunately, lived 
not to carry it out ; and although the present volume falls very &i 
below the just requirements of science, we feel assured that it will 
at least aid materially in suggesting the right direction to futoK 

The grand problem, more particularly interesting to all readers, i 
that which involves the common origin of races ; for upon the lattei 
deduction hang not only certain religious dogmas, but the mon 
practical question of the equality and perfectibility of races — wesa] 
"more practical question,*' because, while Almighty Power, on ih< 
one hand, is not responsible to Man for the distinct origin of hmnai 
races, these, on the other, are accountable to Him for the manner i 
which their delegated power is used towards each other. 

Whether an original diversity of races be admitted or not, th 
permanence of existing physical typos will not be questioned by an 
Archaeologist or Katuralist of the present day. Nor, by such con 
petcnt arbitrators, can the consequent permanence of moral an 
intellectual peculiarities of types be denied. The intellectual man 
inseparable from the physical man; and the nature of the one canni 
be altered without a corresponding change in the other. 

The tmth of these propositions had long been familiar to il 
master-mind of John C. Calhoun ; who regarded them to be of 8U< 
paramount importance as to demand the fullest consideration fi^ 
those who, like our lamented statesman in his day, wield the destini 
of nations and of races. An anecdote will illustrate the pains-takii 
laboriousnefis of Mr. Calhoun to let no occasion slip whence inform 
tion was attainable. Our colleague, G. R. Qliddon, happened to be 
Washington City, early in May, 1844, on business of his father (Unit 
States* Consul for Egypt) at the State Department; at which tii 
Mr. Calhoun, Secretary of State, was conducting diplomatic negot 
tions with France and England, connected with the annexation 
Texas. Mr. Calhoun, suffering from indisposition, sent a message 
Mr. Gliddon, requesting a visit at his lodgings. In a long intervi^ 
which ensued, Mr. Calhoun stated, that England pertinaciously cc 
tinned to interfere with our inherited Institution of Negro Slavei 



ii a mauner to render it imperative that he should indite very 

utrvag instructiooB on the eubject to the late Mr. Wm. R, Kino, of 

_,^labaraa, then our AmbasBador to France. He read to Mr. Gliddon 

iiortions of the manuscript of his celebrated letter to Mr. King, which, 

i^stied on the I2th of the following August, ranks among our ablest 

jitioual documents. Mr. Calhoun declared that he could not foresee 

vhhat course the negotiarion might take, but wished to be forearmed 

for sny emergency. He was convinced that the true difficulties of 

^l,e subject could not be fully comprehended without first considering 

^he radical ditfereiico of hiunanity's races, which he intended to dis- 

)-agBj should he be driven to the necessity. Knowing that Mr. Gliddon 

liftd paid attention to the subject of African ethnology; and that, 

from his long residence in Egypt, he had eiyoyed unusual advantages 

for its investigation, Mr. Calhoun had summoned him for the purpose 

of ascertaining what were the beat sources of information in this 

coantt^'- Mr. Gliddon, after laying before the Secretaty what he 

conwived to be the true state of the case, referred him for further 

information to several scientific gentlemen, and more particularly to 

Db. Morton, of Philadelphia. A coiTeepondenco ensued betweeu 

Mr- Calhoun and Dr. Morton on tJio subject, and the Doctor presented 

to liira copies of the Crania Americana and j^gt/ptiaca, together with 

niinor works, aU of which Mr. CaUioiin studied with no less pleasure 

lluui profit He soon perceived that the conclusions which ho bad 

}ong before drawn from history, and from his personal observationa 

in Ammca, on the Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, Teutonic, French, Spanish, 

^egro, and Indian races, were entirely con-oborated by the plain 

teHi'hinga of modern science. He beheld demonsti-ated in Morton's 

works the important fiict, tliat the Egyptian, Negro, several White, and 

*andiy Tellow races, had existed, in their present forms, for at least 

4O00 years ; and that it behoved the statesman to lay aside all ciUTent 

H*«ciiiatiouB about the origin and perfectibility of races, and to deal, 

■*» political argument, with the simpto facta as they stand. 

^\Tiat, on the \ital question of African Slavery in our Southern 

■Stftt*?s, was the utilitarian consequence of Calhoun's memorable 

aispalch to King ? Strange, yet true, to say, although the EngUslj 

>re8e anxiously complained that Mr. Calhoun had intruded Ethnology 

tito diplomatic correspondence, a communication from the Foreign 

I Ciffice promptly assured our Government that Great Britain had no 

P&ntcntion of intermeddling with the domestic institutions of other 

luitionB. Nor, from that day to this, has she violated her formal 

■pledge in our regard. During a sojourn of Mr. Calhoun, on hia retire- 

xnent from office, with us at Mobile, we enjoyed personal opportunities 

of Imowing the accuracy of the above facts, no less than of receiving 


ample corFoborations illostratiye of the ineonvenienee which trae 
ethnological science might have created in philanthropical diplomaqr, 
had it been frankly introduced by a Calhoun. 

No class of men, perhaps, understand better the practical import* 
ance of Ethnology than the statesmen of England ; yet from motives 
of policy, they keep its agitation studiously out of sight. De. Pbichasd, 
when speaking of a belief in the diversity of races, justly remark}— 

** If these opinions are not erery day expressed in this ooontrj [England], it it beeuM 
the avowal of them is restrained by a degree of odium that would be ezoited by it"' 

Although the press in that country has been, to a great extent, 
muzzled by government influence, we are happy to see that her peri- 
odicals are beginning to assume a bolder and more rational tone; and 
we may now hope that the stereotyped errors of Prichard, and i^ 
might add, those of Latham,* will soon pass at their true value. The 
immense evils of false philanthropy are becoming too glaring to be 
longer overlooked. While, on the one hand, every true phUanthropurt 
must admit that no race has a right to enslave or oppress the weaker, 
it must be conceded, on the other, that all changes in existing insti 
tutions should be guided, not by fanaticism and groundless hypo 
theses, but by experience, sound judgment, and real charity. 

** No one that has not worked much in the element of History can be aware of tk 
immense importance of clearly keeping in view the differences of race that are discenib' 
among the nations that inhabit different parts of the world. In practical politics it is M 
tainly possible to push such ethnographical considerations too far ; as, for example, in « 
own cant about Celt and Saxon, when Ireland is under discussion; but in speculati 
history, in questions relating to the past career and the fliture destinies of nations, it 
only by a firm and efficient handling of this conception of our species >as broken up into 
many groups or masses, physiologically different to a certain extent, that any progreM c 
be made, or any ayailable conclusions accurately arriyed at 

** The Negbo, or African, with his black skin, woolly hair, and compressed elongd 
skull ; the Monqoliam of Eastern Asia and America, with his oliye complexion, broad s 
all but beardless face, oblique eyes, and square skull ; and the Cauoasiah of West«m A 
and Europe, with his fair skin, oyal face, ftill brow, and rounded skull: sneh, as ttv 
school-boy knows, are the three great types or yarieties into which naturalists have diyU 
the inhabitants of our planet. Accepting this rough initial conception of a world ptop3 
eyerywhere, more or less completely, with these three yarieties of human beings or tb 
combinations, the historian is able, in yirtue of it, to announce one important fact al 1 
yery outset, to wit : that, up to the present moment, the destinies of the species appear 
have been carried forward almost exclusively by its Caucasian yariety." ^ 

In the broad field and long duration of Negro life, not a sing 
civilization, spontaneous or borrowed, has existed, to adorn its gloon 
past. The ancient kingdom of MeroS has been often pointed out 
an exception, but this is now proven to be the work of Pharaoi 
Egypnans, and not of Negro races. Of Mongolian races, we have t 
pmlonged semi-civilizations of China, Japan, and (if they be cla88> 


n er the same head) the still feebler attempts of Pera and Mexico. 
What i contrast, if we compare with these, 

''CuMBan progresf, m exhibited in the splendid sno^ession of distinct ciyilizations, 
frm At taeiciit Egyptian to the recent Anglo-American, to which the Caucasian part of 
ikiipMMt hat giren Inrtb." 

Xor when we examine their past history, their anatomical and phy- 
siological characters, and philological differences, are we justified in 
throwing all the Indo-European and Semitic races into one indivisible 

"Ov ipeeice is not a hnge collection of perfectly similar human beings, but an aggre- 
|ilka of a Bimiber of separate groups or masses, having such subordinate differences of 
im'iatieB thai, neeessarilj, they must understand nature differently, and employ in life 
nrj fiferent modes of procedure. Assemble together a Negro, a Mongol, a Shemite, an 
JnMiiiB, a Sqrthian, a Pelasgian, a Celt, and a German, and you will have before you 
MlMre ilhistrmfcions of an arbitrary classification, but positively distinct human beings — 
urn viMM idatioiis to the outer world are by no means the same." 

"h in, ind aa d , there will be found the same fundamental instincts and powers, the 
■M okBgatien to recognized truth, the same feeling for the beautiful, the same abstract 
MM of juitiee, the same necessity of reverence ; in all, the same liability to do wrong, 
kmriig it to be wrong. These things excepted, however, what contrast, what variety ! 
TW rcffesentativs of one race is haughty and eager to strike, that of another is meek and 
pttiat if tDJjnrj ; one has the gift of slow and continued perseverance, another can labour 
«l7 it failerTals and violently ; one is full of mirth and humour, another walks as if life 
wt a pain; one is so faithM and dear in perception, that what he sees to-day he will 
n^mi icecrately * year hence ; through the head of another there perpetually sings such 
tkoi of fiction that» even as he looks, realities grow dim, and rocks, trees, and hills, reel 
Wvt Us poetic gase. Whether, with phrenologists, we call these differences craniological ; 
vikllMr, in the qiirit of a deeper physiology, we aoljoum the question by refusing to 
MBOct thsa with sn^t less than the whole corporeal organism — bone, chest, limbs, skin, 
umdtt and nerve; they are, at aU events, real and substantial; and Englishmen will 
imr eonecive the world as it is, will never be intellectually its masters, until, realizing 
t^ M a tut, they shall remember that it is perfectly respectable to be an Assyrian, and 
tkit u Italian is not necessarily a rogue because he wears a moustache." ^ 

Looking hack over the world's histoiy, it will be seen that human 
progress has arisen mainly from the war of races. All the great 
impulses which have been given to it from time to time have been 
the results of conquests and colonizations. Certain races would be 
s^onaiy and barbaroos for ever, were it not for the introduction of 
new blood and novel influences ; and some of the lowest types are 
'^lopeleasly beyond the reach even of these salutary stimulants to 

It has been naively remarked that — 

"CIiBAte has no influence in permanently altering the Tarieties or races of men ; destroy 
^ H Bay, and does, but it cannot convert them into any other race ; nor can this be 
^ V7 an act of parliament ; which, to a thoroughgoing Englishman, with all his amusing 
iti fl B illtiea, wiU appear as something amazing. It has been tried in Wales, Ireland, and 
CtledoBia, and (ailed." 7 

Xot enough is it for us to know who and what are the men who 


play a prominent part in these changes, nor what is the genend 
character of the masses whom they influence. Kone can predict how 
long the power or existence of these men will last, nor foretell what 
-will be the character of those who succeed them. If we wish to pre- 
dict the fiiture, we must ascertain those great Amdamental laws of 
humanity to which all human passions and human thoughts must 
ultimately be subject We must know universal, as well as individual 
man. These are questions upon which science alone has the ri^tto 

" Where, we ask, are the historic evidences of universal human equality, or unitj! Thi 
farther we trace back the records of the past, the more broadly marked do we And iH 
human diyersities. In no part of Europe, at the present day, can we diBCover the itriUii 
national contrasts which Tacitus describes, still less those represented in the mofe mekil 
pages of Herodotus." ^ 

And nowhere on the face of the globe do we find a greater cfiver 
sity, or more strongly-marked types, than on the monuments of Ilgypt 
antedating the Christian era more than 8000 years. 

Dr. James Cowles Prichard, for the last half century, has been Am 
grand orthodox authority with the advocates of a common origin i> 
tiie races of men. His ponderous work on the " Physical Histoiy oi 
Mankind" is one of the noblest monuments of learning and kboa 
to be found in any language. It has been the never-exhausted reaei 
voir of knowledge from which most subsequent writers on Ethnolog; 
have drawn ; but, nevertheless, as Mr. Burke has sagely remaikec 
Prichard has been the ^^ victim of a false theoiy." Ho commeooec 
when adolescent, by writing a graduating thesis, at Edinburgh, i 
support of the unity of raceSj and the remainder of his long life wf 
devoted to the maintenance of this first impression. We behold hii 
year after year, Uke a bound giant, struggling witii increadng strengi 
against the cords which cramp him, and we are involxintarily looldi 
with anxiety to see him burst them asunder. But how few posBe 
the moral power to break through a deep-rooted prejudice ! 

Prichard published no less than three editions of his " Phyric 
History of Mankind," viz. : in 1813, 1826, and 1847. To one^ her 
ever, who, like ourselves, has followed him line by line, throughout 1 
whole literary life, the constant changes of his opinions, his " sped 
pleading," and his cool suppression of adverse facts, leave little eon 
dence in his judgment or his cause. He set out, in youth, by disto 
ing history and science to suit the theological notions of the day; as 
m his mature age, concludes the final chapter of his last volume * 
abandoning the authenticity of the Pentateuch, which for fixity yei 
had been the stumbling-block of his life. 

Dr. Prichard's defence of the Book of Genesis, in the AppmuHx 



fjie fifth volume of his "Researches," is certainly a very extraordinary 
performance. He denies its genealogies ; denies its chronology; de- 
nies all its historical and scientific details ; denies that it was written 
Ky Moses; admits that nobody knows who did write it; and yet, 
^tlial, actually endeavours " to show that the sacred and canonical 
0UtH^^^ of the Book of Genesis is not injured." 

We confess that we cannot understand why one half of the historical 
T^rtaon of a book should be condemned as false and the other received 
jyg true, when both stand upon equal authority. Nor do we think that 
jii» dissection of other parts of the Old Testament leaves them in 
iQU^ch better condition, as regards their account of human origins. 
^l3old a sample : 

«« Th« time of Ezra, after the Captiyity, was the era of historical compilation, soon after 
^^ the Hebrew langaage gave way to a more modem dialect There are indications 
l]^^C the whole of the Sacred Books passed under seyeral recensions during these successire 
tfr^riv, when they were, doubtless, copied, and recopied, and illustrated by additiondl paetagee^ 
or ^<y glotteSf that might be requisite, in order to preserve their meaning to later times. 
S«B.oli passages and glosses occur frequently in the different Books of Moses, and in the 
0\4j.0r historical books, and we may thus, in a probable way, account for the presence of* 
jx%mmxj explanatory notices and comments, of comparatiyely later date, which, unless th«a 
^c«o<>Bted for, would add weight to the hypotheses (?) of some German writers, wbe> dtn^ 
th^e Itigh antiquUy of the Pentateuch" ^ 

On the degree of orthodoxy claimed by the erudite Doctor in respect 
to chronology, the following extract will speak for itself: 

''Beyond that eront [arrival of Abraham in Palestine,] we can nerer kaow how many 
centuries, nor eren how many thousands of years, may have elapsed since the first man of 
day received the image of Qod, and the breath of life. Still, as the thread of genealogy 
has been traced, though probably with many great interrals, the whole duration of tim« 
froDi the beginning must apparently have been within moderate boundt, and by no means 
90 wide and yast a space as the great periods of the Indian and Egyptian fabulists,'* 

Instead of thus nervously shifting his scientific and theological 
groimds firom year to year, how much more dignified, and becoming 
to both science and religion, would it have been, had Prichard simply 
fallowed facts, wherever they might lead in science; and had he 
finnkly acknowledged that the Bible really gives no history of all the 
raees of Men, and but a meagre account of one ? He was indeed tho 
vietim of a false theoiy ; and we could not but be struck by the 
applicability of the following pencil-note to his first volume (1813), 
"^vintten on the margin, just forty years ago, by the late distinguished 
33 r. Thomas Cooper, President of South Carolina College : 

*' This is a book by an industrious compiler, but an inconclusive reasoner ; he wears the 
oi-thodox costume of his nation and his day. No man can be a good reasoner who is marked 
^y clerical prejudices." 

Alas ! for his fame. Dr. Prichard continued to change his costume 
^th the fashion ; and some truths of the Universe, most essential t«i 


Man, have thereby been kept in darkness, that is, out of tibe popola 
sight, by erroneous interpretations of God's works. 

Albeit, in his last edition, Priehard evidently perceived, in A* 
distance, a glimmer of light dawning from the time-worn monument 
of " Old Egypt," destined eventually to dispel the obfoscationB witi 
which he had enshrouded the history of Man ; and to destroy thi 
darling unitary fabric on which all his energies had been expendec 
Had he lived but two years longer, until the mighty disooveriee o 
Lbpsius were unfolded to the world, he would have realized that tl 
honorable occupation of his long life had been only to accmnnlal 
facts, which, properly interpreted, shatter everything he had bm 
upon them. In the preface to vol. iii., he says : 

** If it should be found that, within the period of time to which hietorical testiAQ! 
extends, the distinguishing characters of human races ha^e been constant and underiatii 
it would become a matter of great difficulty to reconcile this conclusion [t. e. the unitj 
all mankind,] with the inferences already obtained from other considerations." 

In other words, if hypotheses, and deductions drawn from ana 
gies among the lower animals, should be refiited by well-ascertain 
facts, demonstrative of the absolute independence of the primiti 
types of mankind of all existing moral and physical causes, duri 
several thousand years, Priehard himself concedes, that every aij 
ment heretofore adduced in support of a common ori^n for hum 
families must be abandoned. 

One of the main objects of this volume is to show, that the criteri( 
point, indicated by Priehard, is now actually arrived at ; and that 
diversity of races must be accepted by Science as a/flk?*, independen 
of theology, and of aU analogies or reasonmgs drawn from 
animal kingdom. 

It will be observed that, with the exception of Morton's, 
seldom quote works on the Natural Histoiy of Man; and sim; 
for the reason, that their arguments are all based, more or less, 
fabled analogies, which are at last proved by the monuments of Eg; 
and Assyria to be worthless. The whole method of treating 
subject is herein changed. To our point of view, most that has Ix 
written on human Natural History becomes obsolete; and.theref 
wo have not burthened our pages with citations from authors, e^ 
the most erudite and respected, whose views we consider the pres* 
work to have, in the main, superseded. 

Such is not our course, however, where others have anticipated e 
conclusion we may have attained ; and we are happy to find ti 
tfacquinot had previously recognized the principle which has o^ 
thrown Prichard's unitary scheme : 

** If the great branches of the human family have remained distinct in the lapse of a 
with their characteristics fixed and unalterable, we are Justified in re^^ardisg mankiiu 
divisible into dittmd tpeeiet.** ^^ 


Four years ago, in onr "Biblical and Physical History of Man,"" 
e published the following remarks : — 

** ir Ibe t'lBly of the Races or Species of Mod be aisumed, tliere ftro but Ibree euppotij- 
a» aa irhicb Ihe divirtily dow Beea in tbe wMw, black, and iotennediaM colors, ciui be 
iountod for, tu. : 

" III. A vura^t, or direct act of Ihe Almighty, in choDgiog one type into another, 
" 2d. Tbe grsdtul action of Phjaical CHOaee, Kuch as climate, focul, mode of life, &c. 
" 3<L Congenital, or accidental varieties. 
' * TheT« being no eridence irhatever in fsTor of the first bypotboBts, ire pMU it b;. Tbn 
and third hara been lastained vilJi ugnal ability by Dr. Prichard, in Mb Physical 
***»tory of Mankind." 

Although, even then, thorouglily convinced ourselvee that the secontl 
*-»ad third hypotheses were already reflated by facts, and that they 
"^Vould soon be generally abandoned by men of science, we confess 
tliat Tve had little hope of seeing tliis triumph achieved so speedily ; 
ertill less did wo expect, in this matter-of-fact age, to behold a miracle, 
■^vliich exists too, not in the Bible, but only in feverisli imaginations, 
assumed ae a scientific solution. Certain seetarianB'^ of the evange- 
lical Bchool are now gravely attempting, from lack of aigiiment, to 
f*!vive the old hypothesis of a miracolous change of one race into 
jnauy at the Tower of Babel ! Such notions, however, do not deserve 
e«rioua consideration, as neither religion nor science haa anything to do 
•«^th unsustainable hypotheses. 

The views, moreover, that we expressed in 1849, touching Phy- 
eical Causes, Congenital Varieties, &e., need no modification at the 
present day ; but, on the eoutrary, will be found amply sustained by 
die progress of science, as set forth in the eucceeiling chapters, We 
mA.1ce bold to add an extract from our opinions published at that 
tiine: — 

*■ U it not Btrange that all Uio remarkable ehangei of type spoken of by Priehard aod 
ottaen should Jiate occurred in remote anteMstorio times, and amongst ignorant erratio 
Iribctt Why is it that do instance of these remarkable changes can bo pointed out which 
tdmita of conclasiTO endence ! The ciiiliied natioDa of Europe liaie been for many cen- 
tories BEDding colonies to Aua, AfVica, and America; amongst NEoDgota, Malays, Africans, 
and liidiaiu; and irby has no example occurred in any of these colonies lu HubstiDtiate 
ili« argumeDl! The doubtful eiamples of Priehard are refuted by others, which he cites 
"D the vlierse side, of a positive natore. He giies examples uf Jews, Persians, Riodoos, 
\rBbs, Jtc., who hare emigrated to foreign climates, and, at tbe end of one Ihousaad or 
"^een hundred years, haie preserved their original types in the midst of widely different 
races. Does natore anywhere operate by such opposite and contradictory laws T 

" A. few geafratioQs in animals are soffioient to produca all tho changes they usually 
ondcrga from climate, and yet the races of men retain their leadiug chsracterigtics for 
ages, without approximating to aboriginal types. 

"In fact, so DDsatisractory is the argument based on the influence of climate to Priehard 
hiniBelf, that he virtually abandons it in the following paragraph : ' U must be obBerrcd,' 
laju be, ■ that tbe changes alluded to do not so often take place by alteration in the phy- 
lical character of a whole tribe Bimollsneonsly, as by tbe '^rtnjjt'n^ ujiof some atweongaiilal 
IKcaliuity, which is afterwards propngiled, and becomes a character to 


... .-^oareJ. and U j'trh^ft pni'luar.y ( 
. - T. .e. This!, it is obvious, can only ii'i; 

• - • .. T-.'int. It is a commr-nlv rec*»ivcl i 

• -.-.rti'-.l on successive gcncrati-.n?. unti 

.-. :iier; a ilark shade is in•.f•^e-^cl •« 

. .-.• :.-■ added to the third, vhivh i-^ hi 

.. ... peneratious, until the fair (iera: 

.- '. r.ed hv the "vvell-i n forme 1 vr.:»rr> 
▼- ! • succeeding peneratiun?. The i\ 
■ •• 1 the chihlren of the white-f-kinntl 
: . ;■-. are f/orn as fair as their anoC't- r 
- :.:i!iate. The same may be "f 
• •. i •iisease.) They die with the :ii'i:\ 
. : i ::uttened head, mutihited lini>». or tn 
. ..: : ohallenpe a denial. 
: ." cates of the uui!;/ of the human spec 
; ••? .r i»eculiarities. which arc said to -i»r: 
. ;.? to form new races. 
. -^ _ * fanciful idea. The Negroes of Afii 
• « - :; * 'me otlier race, which have been jrr.i 
.. .. •*.: •* by the action of climate : but it i-» a 
z r.-iine little Nepro, or rather manv vucl 
^- *\ r.nod parents, and then have turned 
1 iih'.»le continent. »So in America : tlse 
« .we have reason to believe (s-ee i*?ijuier's 
. -*"..:ini, arc tlie ollspring of a race chan 

• s» • . "M China, India, Australia, ()»-canic. 

:* '': n^/f hifiil or accidt/if til I'ari'f 10,1, and 

•• ;n creilulity jro farther, or human in* 

•: vhole groundwork of a common orij 

. '. \2 beings, embracing numerous dis'tinct 

records or chronology, sacred or j»rol 

^' - 'i of the l*orcui)ine family of P'n^land, 

• :-.! iitiou of the skin, characterizcl by thi 

. .^ ' ; trA!i^mission from parent to chiM of clii 

.^-v i".l many other familiar examjdes of con 

^ . . *c"vo to disj»rove the argument they are in 

.rtVot, cross-eyed, or six-fingered ni-:r, all 

. . : • \re they not, on the contrary, alwav.«« .-jwa 

-. ;^ .Hny truth in thi?« argument, that no ra 

. . ^ tveties which we I./ioir to occur frcijucntl 

k. varieties which cann(»t be j»rove«l. antl a 

• ..•; ?\:sted!f No one ever saw a Negro. Mon 
, . , o. :* Ha-* any one heard of an In«iian rhil 

«. Uring more than two centuries that tli«'-i 

^ •- .*:" *v.d simple statement of the ca>e sutliri 

* cv..*'t now seen on the earth, cann<it be aooi 

^ .. ,.v.i«'Sdl origin? If a doubt remains, would 

.,. ^c: that the Negro, Tartar, ami white man, e 

,;.» •.•:u54ud years before Abraham journeyed to 

• \ 




>i TLe nni^ of tha human speciM hsi >1bo been stontly muntained on pejchologicsl 

lOiida. Numeroiu attemplB bftTC been made to establiah the intelleolual cqilnlit; of the 

j>rk i^ceB villi the irbile ; atid the hielorf of the pnat has been ninBaokcd for eiampleB, 

. „g tbe? are nowhere to be foiiod. Can any one call the name of a ftill-blooded Negro ' 

-^ e'er written a p(^ wot^by of being remembered 1 " 

^he avowal of the above \-icwB drew down upon us, aa might have 
tj^eo expected, criticiBma more remarkable for virulence of hostility, 
vjj^^n for the Bt-icutific education of the critics. Our present volume 
^ ^n evidence that we have survived these traneient cavils ; and while 
v& have much satisfaction in submitting herein a mass oi facta that, 
t/j the generality of readers in this country, will be surprising, we 
;s-o'il<i remind the theologist, in the language of the very orthodox 
Itu^h ililler {Footprints of the Creator)^ that 

" The olergj, as a otaai, mffer themselies to linger far in the rear of nn intelligent and 
^^QOtnpllihed liuty. Let them not abut tbeir ejea to (be danger which is obTJously comu^g. 
Tbe b&ltle of ibe etidencee of CbriBtuDity will bare, as oertainly to be foagbt on the Beld 
of pbync*! fcieuce, u it woa oontosted in the last age on that of the metapbjBiDB." 

The Physical history of Man has been likewise trammelled for ages 
liy arbitrary systems of Chronology; more especially by that of ihe 
Hebrews, which is now considered, by all competent authorities, as 
altogether worthless beyond the time of Abraham, and of little value 
pie^-ioualy to tliat of Solomon ; for it is in his reign that we reach 
Iheir last positive date. The abandonment of this restricted system 
is a peat point gained ; because, instead of being obliged to crowd 
an immense antiquity, embracing endless details, into a few centuries, 
we ore now free to claaaity and arrange facta as the requirements of 
histoty and science demand. 

It is now generally conceded that there exist no data by which we 

can approximate flie date of man's first appearance upon eartli ; and, 

for anght we yet know, it may be thousands or millions of years 

beyond our reach. The spurious systems, of Archbishop Usher on the 

Hebrew Text, and of Dr. Hales on the Septuagint, being entirely 

broken down, we turn, unshackled by prejudice, to the monumental 

fcconls of Egypt as our best guide. Even these soon lose themselves, 

not in tho primitive state of man, but in his middle or perhaps modem 

•?s« ; for the Egyptian Empire first presents itself to view, about 

40OO yeare before Christ, as that of a mighty nation, in full tide of 

cn-ilization, and surrounded by other realms and races already 

^"i^srging from the barbarous stage. 

ixi order that a clear understanding with the reader may be estab 
™i».ed in tlie following pages, it becomes necessary to adopt some 
**"**3moti standard of chronology for facility of reference. 

-An esteemed correspondent, Mr. Birch, of the British Museum, 
'•^•^ily observes to us in a private letter — "Although I can see what lis 




moi the bet in drnmologr, I hmve not come to tbe conclusion of what 
tf the tmth." 6nch is preciBelj our own condition of mind ; nor do 
we snppoee that a consdentions student of the subject^ as developed* 
under its own head at the close of this volome^ can at the present 
hoar obtain, for epochas anterior to Abraham, a solution that most not 
itself be vague for a century or more. Kevertheless, in Egyptian 
chronology, we follow the system of Lepsius by assumiug the age of 
Mexes at B. C. 3893 ; in Chinese, we accept Panthier's date for the 
1st hiMtorieal dyiuuty at B. C. 2637 ; in Assyrian, the results of 
Layard's last Journey indicate B. C. 1250 as the probable extreme of 
that country's monumental chronicles ; and finally, in Hebrew com- 
putation, we agree with Lepsius in deeming Abraham's era to approxi- 
mate to B. C. 1500. Our Supplement offers to the critical reader eveiy 
facility of verification, with comparative Tables, the repetition of 
which is here superfluous. 

To Egyptology, beyond all question, belongs the honor of ^- 
pating those chronological fables of past generations, continued belief 
in which, since the recent publication of Chev'r Lepsius's researches 
implies simply the credulity of ignorance. One of his letters fron 
the PjTamids of Memphis, in 1848, contained the following almoe 
prophetic passage : ^ 

«« W« art still busy with straotnres, sculptures, and inscriptions, which are to be classfr 
by means of the now more accurately-determined groups of kings, in an epoch of highl; 
li<>urt«hing ciriliiation, as far back as the fourth MUUnnium before ChruU We cannot suf 
ci^ntly impress upon ourseWes and others these hitherto incredible dates. The mo 
erilioUm is provoked by them, and forced to serious examination, the better for the eaui 
i\«\ictiKUi wUl soon follow angry criticism ; and, finally, those results will be attainc 
«hich are so intimately connected with eyery branch of antiquarian research.*' 

Wo 8ubdoribe without reservation to the above sentiment; ar 
W^K^ wo Almll not be disappointed in the amount of "angry criticism 
which wo thiuk the truths embodied in this volume are calculated i 
^^rv^w^kw Sk*ioutific trutii, exemplified in the annals of Astronom, 
V\\^v^\\ Chronology, Geographical distribution of animals, &c., hi 
!iwiu!l\ t^u^ht its way inch by inch through false theology. The la 
;^i k4as( N*wU> botwoon science and dogmatism, on the primitive origin < 
• «K\*ts *>iw uow commenced. It requires no prophetic eye to forest 
.^u . xvicasv uxu*t «^n, and finally, triumph. 

V- ****\> bs' ^»rv>|»or to state, in conclusion, that the subject shall 1 
vv\*;\\l vu»vN ai* ono of science, and that our colleague and ourse 
v^ii <sivA live;* ^ horovor they may lead, without regard to imaginai 
.w-aH*^**^^'*' Isvull^w the "Friend of Moses,'* no less than oth. 
^ i^.ss*>jK xss; ^hs'^ tviWo" oveiy where, have been compelled to mal 
Nivs^ xV^^N^***^**^ ^^* ¥v*iouco. We shall, in the present investigatioi 
^^ Ai^ ^^^^^"^ «xu^K^ tu their historical and scientific bearing 


Qn fonner occasions, and in the most respectful manner, we had 

attempted to conciliate sectarians, and to reconcile the plain teachings 

Qf science with theological prejudices ; but to no useful purpose. In 

^tum, our opinions and motives have been misrepresented and vilified 

uy self-constituted teachers of the Christian religion ! We have, in 

^^^nsequence, now done with all this ; and no longer have any apologies 

^^ offer, nor favors of lenient criticism to ask. The broad banner 

f science is herein nailed to the mast. Even in our own brief day, 

^e tave beheld one flimsy reUgious dogma after another consigned to 

Ijlivion, while science, on the other hand, has been gaining strength 

_,j<i majesty with time. "Nature," says Luke Burke, "has nothing 

^^ t^veal, that is not noble, and beautiful, and good." 

Xji our former language, 

«« Man cui mvmt nothing in science or religion but falsehood ; and all the tmths which 

, ditnven are bat facts or laws which have emanated ftrom the Creator. AU science, 

^^f^oie, may be regarded as a rerelation f^om Him ; and although newly-discovered laws, 

^ fftcts, in nature, may conflict with religions errort, which have been written and preached 

{(^ centimes, they never can conflict with religions truth. There most be harmony between 

^e works and the words of the Almighty, and whereyer they seem to conflict, the discord 

)iiiben prodoced by the ignorance or wickedness of man." 

J. C. N". 





Have all the living creatures of our globe been created at one 
common point in Asia, and thence been disseminated over its wide 
surfiice by degrees, and adapted to the varied conditions in whidi 
they have been found in historical times ? or, oi^ the other hand, have 
different genera and species been created at points fiu* distant from 
«?ach other, with organizations suited to the circumstances in which 
they were originally placed ? 

Two schools have long existed, diametrically opposed to each other, 
on this question. The first may be termed that of the Theological 
Naturalists, who still look to the Book of Genesis, or what they conceive 
to bo the inspired word of God, as a text-book of Natural History, as 
thoy formerly reputed it to be a manual of Astronomy and G^eology. 
The second embraces the Naturalists proper, whose conclusions are 
derived from facts, and from the laws of Otod as revealed in his works, 
which are immutable. 

Not only the authority of Genesis in matters of science, but the 
Mosaic authenticity of this book, is now questioned by a veiy large 
projiortion of the most authoritative theologians of the present day ; 
and, inasmuch as its language is clearly opposed to many of the well- 
CHtablished facts of modem science, we shall unhesitatingly take tlie 
benefit of this liberal construction. The language of Scripture touching 
tlio point now before us is so unequivocal, and so often repeated, as 
to leave no doubt as to the author's meaning. It teaches clearly tiiat 
the Deluge was universaly that eveiy living creature on the face of the 
earth at the time was destroyed, and that seeds of all the oi^anized 
beings of after times were saved in Noah's Ark. The following is but 
a small portion of its oft-repeated words on this head : — 



■ Ani the nlcn prcTniled eMGedingly ujidd the earth, uul oil th« high hilla that were 
er the wholo beuTen, were coTored. * * « Fifteen aobita upward did the waters previul 
m ^—tf the mouniaina wore covered. • ■• • And all fleeh died that moTed upon the earth, both 
h _j. (V»'"l. anil of cattle, and of beaal, and every creeping thing that creepetb upon the earth, 
' - *Tnj man. All in whose noatrila was the breath of life ; of all that was in the dry 
t. * * * And Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the Ark." '* 

;j4ow we reiterate that speech cannot bo more explicit than this ; and 
^ i* be true, it must apply with equal force to all living creatures — 
arti inula as well as mankind. It is really trifling with language to 
BiW'i that the Text does not distinctly convoy the idea that all the 
cr«iiturcB of our day have descended trom the seed saved in the Ark ; 
or that they were all created within a certain area around the point 
at which Adam and Eve are supposed first to have had their being. 

.Although the same general laws prevail tliroughoat the entire Fauna 
and Flora of the globe, jet in the illustration of our subject, we 
restrict our remarks mainly to the class of Mammiferi, because a wider 
range would lead beyond our prescribed limits. 

It has been a popularly-received error, from time immemorial, that 
degrees of latitude, or in other wonls, temperature of countries, were 
to be regarded as a sure index of the color and of certain other phj*sical 
chamcters in races of men. This opinion has been supported by many 
able writers of the present century, and even in the last few yeare by 
no less authority than that of the distinguished Pr. Prichard, in tho 
^■Rh^tieal HUtory of Mankind." A rapid change, however, is now 
going on in the public mind in this respect, and so conclusive is the 
reoent evidence drawn from the monuments of Egj^pt and other 
(ourros, in support of the permanence of distinctly marked types 
of mankind, such as the Egyptians, Jews, Negroes, Mongols, American 
Indians, etc., that we presume no really well-informed naturalist will 
ag^in he found advocating such philosophic heresies. Indeed, it 
is difficultto conceive howanyone, with the facts before him, (recoi-ded 
hy Tnchard himself,) in connection with an Ethnographical Map, should 
believe that climate could account for the endless diversi^ of races 
aeon scattered over the earth from the earliest dawn of history. 

Il is true that most of the black races are found in Africa ; but, on 
the other hand, many equally black are met with in the temperate cli- 
mates of India, Australia, and Oce^nica, though differing in eveiy 
attribute except color. A black skin would seem to be the best suited 
to hot chmates, and for this reason we may suppose that a special 
creation of black races took place in Africa. The strictly white races 
lie mostly in the Temperate Zone, where they flourish best; and they 
certainly deteriorate physically, if not intellectually, when removed 
*o hot climates. Their type is not in reahty changed or obhterated. 
but they undergo a degradation from their primitive state, analogi^.m 


to the operation of diecaae. Tho dark-skinned Hyperboreans 
found in the Frigid Zone ; regions most congenial to their nature, an^ 
from which they cannot bo enticed by more temperate climes. 
Mongols of Asia, and the abori^nes of America, with their peculi 
typos, are spread over almost all degrees of latitude. 

So is it with the whole range of Mammifers, as well as birds, 
other genera. The lightest and the darkest colors — the most go: 
ous and most sombre plumage, are everywhere found beside e 
other; though brilliant feathers and colors are commoner in 
tropics, where men are generally more or less dark. 

Every spot on the earth's surface, from pole to pole — the 
tains and valleys, the dry land and the water — has its OTga,ni^( 
beings, which find around a given centre all the conditions necessar^^ 
for their preservation. Tlieso living beings are as innumerable 
the conditions of the places tiiey inhabit ; and their different station 
are as varied as their instincts and habits. To consider these statiom 
under the simple point of view of tho distribution of heat on thei 
surface, is absolutely to see but one of tiie many secondary natural 
causes that influence organized beings. 

Amidst the infinitude of beings spread over the globe, the Class o: 
Mammifers stands first in organization, and at its head Zoologistfitf 
have placed the Bimanes (Mankind). It is the least numerous, an 
its genera and species are almost entirely known. 

This class is composed of about 200 genera, which may be divid 
into two parts. 1st. Those whose habitations are limited to a singl 
Zone. 2d. Those, on tiie contrary, which are scattered through al"— 
the Zones; There would at first seem to be a striking contras-^ 
between these two divisions ; on the one side, complete immobility^ 
and on the other, great mobility/; but this irregularity is only apparent^, 
for when we examine attentively the different genera, we find the 
governed by tiie same laws. Those of tiie first division, whose 
is limited, are in general confined to a few species; while those 
the second, on the contrary, contain mani/ species^ but which 
themselves confined to certain localities, in the same manner as tZT 
fewer genera of the first division. Thus we find the same 1 
governing species in both instances. We will cite a single exam 
out of many. The "White Bear is confined to the Polar region- 
wliiie other ursine species inhabit the temperate climates of "tlT- 
mountain chains of Europe and America; and finally, the Mais. 
Bear, and the Bear of Borneo, are restricted to torrid climates. 

We may then consider the different species of Mammifers as rang-^ ^ 
under an identical law of geographical distribution, and tiiat ea^ 
gpecies on the globe has its limited space, beyond which it does n 


gj^tend ; and that eveiy countiy on the globe, whatever may be its 

/^rup^i^ture, its analogies, or differences of climate, possesses its 

(p-^^Ti Mammifers, different from those of other countries, belonging 

f^> its region alone. There are apparent exceptions to this law, but 

lYx^y ^^ ^^ susceptible of explanation.^ 

^ few species are really common to the two continents, but only in 

^^e Arctic region. America and Asia are there united by icy plains, 

^^liich may be easily traversed by certain animals ; and, while the 

-^STbite Bear, the Wolf, the Red Fox, the Glutton, are common to 

-^^^otb) the continents and climates may there be really considered as 

on^- ^® BhBXi show, as we proceed, that with a few exceptions in the 

^^jretic region, the Faunee and Florae of the two continents are entirely 

^grdnct, and that even the Temperate Zones of Korth and South 

Ajnerica do not present the same types, although they are separated 

by mere table-lands, presenting none of the extremes of climate 

encountered in the Tropic of Africa. 

Bat this immobility, imposed by nature on its creatures, is illustrated 

in a still more striking manner if we turn to those Mammifers that 

inhabit the oceatij where there are no appreciable impediments, none 

of those infinitely varied conditions which are seen upon land, even 

in the same parallels of latitude. The temperature of the ocean 

varies all but insensibly with degrees of latitude ; and among the 

immense crowd of animals that inhabit it, we find numerous families 

of Mammifers. Although endowed with great powers of locomotion, 

and notwithstanding the trifling obstacles opposed to them, they are, 

like animals of the land, limited to certain localities. The genera 

CizltictphaluSy Stemmatopes and Morscy are peculiar to the Northern 

Sests. In the Southern, on the contrary, we find the genera Otarie, 

sSk^^u>rynchus, Plaiyrynchus^ &c. Other species inhabit only hot or 

texriperate regions. 

The various species of Whales and Dolphins, despite their prodi- 
gious powers of locomotion, are confined each to regions ori^nally 
assigned them ; and, while there is so little difference of temperature 
in the ocean, that a human being might, in the mild season, swim 
vrith delight from the North Temperate Zone to Cape Ilom, along 
either coast of America, there is no degree of latitude in which we 
do not discover species peculiar to itself. 

After a resume of these and many kindred facts, M. Jacquinot 
uses this emphatic language : 

** To recapitulate, it seems to ns, after all we hare siud, that we may draw the following 
conclusions, Tii., that all Mammifers on the globe haye a habitation, limited and circum- 
*oil>ed, which they ne^er oyerleap ; their assemblage contributes to giye to each country its 
P^x^cnlar stamp of creation. What a contrast between the Mammifers of the Old and 
^•^w World, and the creations, to special and to singular, of New Holland and Madaga^ar I" 



Facts, therefore, point to numerous centres of creation, wherein we 
find creatures fixed, with peculiar temperaments and organizations, 
which are in unison with surrounding circumstances, and where all 
their natural wants are supplied. But the strongest barrier to volim- 
tary displacements would seem to be that of instinct — that force, 
unknown and incomprehensible, which binds them to the soil that 
has witnessed their birth. 

While passing these sheets through the press, we have enjoyed the 
privilege of perusing The Geographical DistrHnUion of Animak and 
PlantSj^^ by our valued friend, Charles Pickering, M. D., NatnraliiJt 
to the United States' Exploring Expedition under Captain "Wilkes. 
This is to be " regarded as an introduction to the volume on Geogra- 
phical Distribution, prepared during the voyage of the Expedition," 
and published in Volume IX. of the same compendium. 

In connection with our own work, the utterance of Dr. Pickering's 
views is most opportune ; because, with thorough knowledge of 
Egypt^ derived from personal travels, and acquaintance with hieio- 
glyphical researches, he has traced the Natural History of that countiy 
from the remotest monumental times to the present day. The varions 
pictorial representations of Faun© and Florse are thereby assigned to 
their respective chronological cpochaa; and, inasmuch as they arc 
identified \vith living species, they substantiate our assertions regu^g 
the unexceptional permanence of types during a period of more than 
5000 years. Dr. Pickering's era for "the commencement of the 
Egyptian Chronological Reckoning" being B. C. 4493," we find our* 
selves again in imison with him upon general principles of chronolo- 
gical extension. 

The gradual introduction of foreign animals, plants, and exotic 
substances, into the Lower Valley of the Nile — the extinction of 
sundry sj>eeios once indigenous to that soil, during the hundred and 
fifty human generations for which we possess contemporaneous re^stiy 

— and the infinitude of proofs that such changes could not have 
been effected without the intervention of these long historical ages 

— are themes which Dr. Pickering has concisely and ingeniously 
elaborated : and although our space does not permit the citation of 
the numerous examples duly catalogued by him, it afifords us pleasure 
to concur in the follo%ving results, viz. : 

** Tliat the namea of animals and plants used in Egypt are Scriptural [». e, old Semitish] 
iiumc9. Further, in some instances, these current Egyptian names go behind the Greek 
language, supply the meaning of obsolete Greek words, and show international rclaUonahif , 
the more intimate the further we recede into antiquity." is 

It will become apparent, in its place, that the philological views 
now held by Birch, De Roug6, and Lepsius, upon the primeval intro- 
duction of Semitic elements in Egypt, are confirmed by these indepen- 



J^nt pesearcliea of Pickering into tbe Natural History of Egyptian 
^[liinals and plants, as we trust will be now demonstrated Uirough 
tli« raomimental evideticee of brnnan physiology. 

Let U8 next turn to the races of Mankind in their geographical dis- 
^i^biition, and see whether they form an exception to the laws which 
hnre been established for tbe other orders of Mammifers. Docs not 
•jj(j ftame phj'sical adaptation, the same instinct, which binds animals 
jf> tteir primitive localities, bind tlie races of Men also ? Those races 
iiihebiting the Temperate Zones, as, for example, the white races of 
jiirope, have a certain degree of pliability, that enables them to bear 
(limatee to a great extent hotter or colder than tbeir native one ; 
l>at tliere is a limit beyond which tbey cannot go with impunity 

they cannot bve in the Arctic with the Esquimaux, nor in tbe 

Tropic of Africa with the Negro. The Negro, too, (like the 
Elephant, the Lion, the Camel, &c.,) possesses a certain phability of 
eoD^titution, which enables bim to ent^r the Temperate Zone ; but 
his Northern limit stops ftir short of that of natives of this Zone. 
The higher castes of what are tenhed Caucasian races, are influenced 
hyeeveral causes in a greater degree than other races. To them have 
been assigneil, in all ages, the largest brains and the most powerful 
inlellect ; thtsirs is the mission of extending and perfecting civiliza- 
tion — they are by nature ambitious, daring, domineering, and reckless 
of danger — impelled by an irresistible instinctT they visit all climes, 
i^rdless of difficulties; but bow many thousands are sacrificed 
aoQually to climates foreign to their nature! 

It should also be borne in mind, that what we term Caucasian 
mme are not of one origin : they are, on tbe contrary, an amalgama- 
tion of an infinite number of primitive stocks, of different instincts, 
ffnaperaraentfl, and mental and physical characters. Egyptians, Jews, 
Arabs, Teutons, Celts, Sclavonians, Pelasgians, Eomane, Iberians, etc.. 
etc , are all mingled in blood ; and it is impossible now to go back and 
Uii-BTel this heterogeneous mi.'cture, and say precisely what each tyx>e 
originally was. Such commingling of blood, through migrations, 
w»rs, captivitiea, and amalgamations, is doubtless one means by which 
I* rovidence carries out great ends. This mixed stock of many primi- 
ft-v-e races is the only one which can really be considered cosmopolite. 
Ttieir infinite diversity of characteristics contrasts strongly with tlie 
iconutable instincts of other human types. 

How stands the case with those r^te wbich have been less subjected 
to disturbing causes, and whose flfP^ and intellectual structure is 
leas complex ? Tbe GreenUmdSr, in his icy region, amidst poverty', 
hardship, and want, clings with instinctive pertinacity to his birth- 
place, in spite of all apparent temptations — the Temperate Zone, 




with its luxuries, has no charm for him. The Africans of the Trop^ 
the Aborigines of America, the Mongols of Asia, the inhabitants 
Polynesia, have remained for thousands of years where history fi^ 
found them ; and nothing but absolute want, or self-preservation, cs 
drive tliem from the countries where the Creator placed them. TK.i 
races have been least adulterated, and consequently preserve tki, 
original instincts and love of home. This truth is illustrated ii) 
most remarkable degree by the Indians of America. We still beboj 
the small remnants of scattered tribes fighting and dying to preserv 
the lands and graves of their ancestors. 

We shall have more to say, in another chapter, on the amalgama 
tion of races, but may here remark, that the infusion of even a minnt 
proportion of the blood of one race into another, produces a moi 
decided modification of moral and physical character. A small tra( 
of white blood in the negro improves him in intelligence and morality 
and an equally small trace of negro blood, as in the quadroon, wi 
protect such individual against the deadly infiuence of climates whii 
the pure white-man cannot endure. For example, if the popula1i< 
of New England, Germany, France, England, or other northern c 
mates, come to Mobile, or to New Orleans, a large proportion di 
of yellow fever : and of one hundred such individuals landed in ti 
latter city at the commencement of an epidemic of yellow fever, pi 
bably half would fall victims to it. On the contrary, negroes, nnd 
all circumstances, enjoy an almost perfect exemption from this di 
ease, even though brought in from our Northern States ; and, what 
still more remarkable, the mulattoes (under which term we inclQ< 
all mixed grades) are almost equally exempt. The writer (J. C. Noi 
lias witnessed many hundred deaths from yellow fever, but never mo 
than three or four cases of mulattoes, although hundreds are expo« 
to this epidemic in Mobile. The fact is certain, and shows how dii 
cult is the problem of these amalgamations. 

That negroes die out and would become extinct in New England, 
cut off from immigration, is clearly shown by published statistics. 

It may even be a question whether the strictly-white races of Euro] 
are perfectly adapted to any one climate in America. We do not gen 
rally find in the United States a population constitutionally equal to th 
of Great Britain or Germany ; and we recollect once hearing this rcma: 
strongly endorsed by Henry Clay, although dwelling in Xentuck 
f^mid the best agricultural population in the country. Knox^ holds th 
the Anglo-Saxon race would become extinct in America, if cut c 
from immigration. Now, we are not prepared to endorse this ass€ 
tion ; but inasmuch as nature works not through a few generations, b 
through thousands of years, it is impossible to ooijecture what tin 


jnay eflect. It would be a curious inquiry to investigate the ptysio- 
lp^ca\ causes wliieh have led to the defltruction of ancient empires, 
^iitl the disappearance of populations, like Egypt, Assyria, Greece, and 
j^onie. Many aueient nations were coloniea from distant climos, and 
gtay have wasted away uuder tUe operation of laws that have acted 
alo^'ly but BOroly. The commingling of diflerent bloods, too, under 
^e l*w of hybridity, may also have played au important part. Mr. 
j^tARD tells U8 that a few wandering tribes only now stalk around 
^e Bitea of the once-mighty Kineveh and Babylon, and that, hut for 
(l,e sculptures of Sabgan and Sennacherib, no one could now say 
^yiat race constructed those stupendous cities. But let ua return 
^(u this digression. 

to this inherent love of primitive locality, and instinctive dislike 
\Q foreign lands, and repugnance towards other people, must we 
^(ivnlj attribute the fixedness of tlie unhiatoric typea of men. The 
greater portion of the globe is still under the influence of this law. 
In America, the aboriginal barbarous tribes cannot be forced to 
ch*ngo their habits, or even persuaded to succaesful emigration : they 
are melting away fi-om year to year ; and of the millions which once 
inhabited that portion of the United States east of the Mississippi 
liver, all have vanished, hut a few scattered families ; and their repre- 
Bentatives, removed by our Govenmaeut to the Western frontier, are 
reduced to less than one hundred thousand. It is as clear as the sun 
at noon-day, that in a few generations more the last of these Red men 
will bo numbered with the dead. We constantly read glowing ac- 
counts, from interested missionaries, of the civilization of these tribes ; 
but a civilized full-blooded Indian does not exist among them. We 
iee every day, in the suburbs of Mobile, and wandering through our 
stiwts, die remnant of the Choctaw race, covered with nothing but 
bUnlcets, and living in bark tents, scarcely a degree advanced above 
hrolea of the field, quietly abiding their time. No human ingenuity 
can induce them to become educated, or to do au honest day's work : 
tbev are supported entirely by begging, besides a little traffic of the 
t([u*WB in wood. To one who has lived among American Indians, it 
i» in vain to talk of civilizing them. You might as well attempt to 
cluinge the nature of the bufialo. 

Tbe whoje continent of America, with its mountain-ranges and 
tab!<ylandB — its valleys and low plains — its woods and prairies — ex- 
liibiting every variety of climate which could influence the nature of 
man, is inhabited by one great family, that presents a prevailing tj-pe. 
^naU and peculiarly shaped crania, a cinnamon complexion, small 
ftrt and bands, black straight hair, wild, savage natures, characterize 


the Indian everywhere. There are a few trivial ezceptionB, easily 
accounted for^ particularly on the Pacific coast. 

The eastern part of Asia presents a parallel case. From 65^ north ^ 
latitude to the Equator, it presents the greatest inequalities of smftoe p 
and climate, and is peopled throughout by the yellow, lank-haired ^ 
Mongols ; the darkest families lying at the Korth, and the fiurest at } 
the South. Their crania, their instincts, their whole moral and phj- |' 
sical characteristics, distinguish them from the American race, which Y 
otherwise they most resemble. 

The other half of this northern continent, that is to say Europe and 
the rest of Asia, may be divided into a northern and a sonthem pro* 
vince. The first extends from the Polar region to 46** or 50** north 
latitude — from Scandinavia to tlie Caspian Sea ; and contains a group 
of men with light hair, complexion fiiir and rosy, and bine eyes. 
The second or southern division, ninning north-west and south-east, 
stretches from the British Isles to Bengal and the extremity of Hin- 
dostan — from 50° to 8° or 10° north. This vast area is covered by 
people with complexions more or less dark, oval faces, black smoodi 
hair, and black eyes. 

Now, it is worthy of remark, that since the discoveiy of America, 
and during several centuries, the fair races have inhabited North 
America extensively, while the dark races, as the Spaniards, havo 
occupied South and Central America, and Mexico ; both have Re- 
placed the Aboriginal races, and yet neither has made approximatioi^ 
in type to the latter, nor does any person suppose they conld in B^ 
hundred generations. And so with the Negroes, who have lived her^ 
through eight or ten generations. We have no more reason to enp^ 
pose that an Anglo-Saxon will turn into an Indian, than imported. 
cattle into buffaloes. We shall show, in another chapter, that th& 
oldest Indian crania from tlie Mounds, some of which are probably 
several thousand years old, bear no resemblance to those of any race 
of the old continent. 

When we come to Africa, we shall perceive various groups of peculiar 
types occupying their appropriate zoological provinces, which they 
have inhabited for at least 5000 years. But, having to develop some 
new views respecting Egj^pt in another place, we shall take up the 
races of the African continent in eoctenfo. 

Taking leave, for the present, of continents, let us glance for a 
moment at New Holland. This immense country, extending from 
latitude 10° to 40° south, attests a special creation — its population, its 
animals, birds, insects, plants, etc., are entirely unlike those found in 
any other part of the world. The men present altogether a very 
peculiar type : they are black, but without the features, woolly heads, 


qP other physical characters of !N«groe8. Beyond, we have Van Die- 
jjjeo's Land, extending to 4-t° south latitude, which preeents a tem- 
pf,r»'« climate, not unlike that of France ; and what ie remarkahle, 
itn inhabitants, unlike those of New IlollantI, are black, with ftizzled 
Ij^jidfl, and very eimilar to the African races, 

T4ot far from New Holland, under the same parallels, and extend- 
ing even fiirther south, we find Now Zealand; where commeneee the 
l^^i^utiful Polynesian race, of light-brown color, smooth black hair, 
^,j*i almost oval face. This race ext*nda from 50° south, descends to 
tli^ equator, then remounts to the Sandwich Islands, 20° north — 
^cttttered over islands without number — encircling about half the 
globe — without presenting any material diflercncea in their color or 
foritiB — in a word, in their zoological characters. 

India affords a striltiag illustration of the fallacy of arguments 
dnrnii from climate. AVo there meet with people of all shades, from 
ftir to black, who have been living together from time immemorial. 
We have the well-known testimony of Bishop Ueber, and others, on 
' tbie point ; and Desmoulins adds, " The Kohillas, who are blonds, and 
fituatod south of the Ganges, are surrounded by the Nepauloans with 
black skins, the Mabrattas with yellow skins, and the Bengalees of a 
Jeep brown ; and yet the Rohillas inhabit the plain, and the Nepau- 
IdAiu tlie mountains."* Here we have either different races inhabit- 
ing the same climate for several thousand years without change ; or 
the same race assuming eveiy shade of color. Of this dilemma, the 
advocates of unity may choose either horn. 

'We might thus recite innumerable fects to the same effect, but the 
labor would be superfluous. 

The different shades of color in races have been regarded, by many 
Dat^unlists, as one of their most distinctive characters, and still serve 
as the hatiis of numerous classifications ; but M. Jacquinot thinks too 
much importance has been attached to colors, and that they cannot 
be relied upon. For example, all the intermediato shades from white 
to black are found in those races of oval face, lai^e facial angle, 
nuootli haur, etc., which Blumenbach has classed under the head 
CWunutan. Commence, for example, with the fair FinsandSclavo- 
nioufi with blond hair, and pass successively through the Celts, Iheri- 
ani*, Italians, Greeks, Arabs, Egyptians, and lliudoos, till you reach 
tlie inhabitants of Malabar, and you find these last to bo aa black Jia 

Among the Mongols, likewise, we encounter various shades. Amid 
the Africans there exist all tints, fi\>m the pale-yellow Hottentot--", 
Bushmen, and dusky Caffres, to the coal-btack Negro of the Tropic and 
ooofines of Egypt. In short, the black color is beheld in Caucasians. 


Negroes, MongolSy AuBtralians, etc, while yellowB or biownB an 
visible throughout all the above types, as well as among Americ&Di, 
Malays, and Polynesians. 

In the present mixed state of the population of the earth, it is pe^ 
haps impossible to determine how fiu* this opinion of Jacquinotnuty 
be correct. We possess certainly many examples to prove that odor 
has been permanent for ages ; while, on the contraiy, it is impofioUe 
to show that the complexion of a pure primitive stock has been 
altered by climate. As before stated, we conceive that too much 
importance has been given to arbitrary classifications, and that Ihe 
Caucasian division may include innumerable primitive stocks. TUi 
fact is illustrated further on, particularly in the history of the JeffB, 
whose type has been permanent for at least 3000 years. We have 
no reason to believe that the Hebrew race sprang fix)m, or ever oiigi* 
nated, any other type of man. 

We therefore not merely regard the great divisions of Caucasian, 
Mongol, Malay, Negro and Indian, as primitive stocks, but shall estab- 
lish that History, Anatomy, Physiology, Psychology, Analogy, all prove 
that each of these stocks comprehends many original subdivisions. 

Let us acknowledge our large indebtedness to Profl Agassiz, vho 
has ^ven the most masterly view of the geographical distribution of 
animals written in our language, or perhaps in any other. Kot < 
line can be retrenched from his already condensed articles withou 
inflicting a wound, and we take much pleasure in referring the readc 
to them.^^ He shows, conclusively, that not only are there numerot 
centres of creation, or zoological provinces, for our pending ge( 
logical epoch, but that these provinces correspond, in a suiprisin 
manner, to those of former epochas ; thus proving that the CreaU 
has-been working after one grand and uniform plan through mynaf 
of years, and through consecutive creations. 

** It is satisfactorily ascertained at present, that there ha^e been manj distinet sococtsa 
periods, daring each of which large numbers of animals and plants ha^e been introdoc 
npon the surface of oar globe, to live and multiply for a time, then to disappear and 
replaced by other kinds. Of such distinct periods — such successiTO creations — we km 
now at leatt about a dozen, and there are ample indications that the inhabitants of our gle 
have been successiToly changed at more epochs than are yet fully ascertained." 

In the earliest formations, but few and distant patches of land havii 
emerged from the mighty deep, the created beings were comp>arative 
few, simple, and more widely disseminated ; but yet many distin 
species, adapted to localities whore they were brought into existenc 
are discovered. In the more recent fossil beds, we find a distrib 
lion of fossil remains which agrees most remarkably with the pr 
sent geographical arrangement of animals and plants. The fosei 
of modem geological periods in Kew Holland are types identical wil 


j^o0^ of the animals now living thore. Brazilian fossils belbng to 

tb^ same families as those alive there at the present day ; though in 

^th cases the fossil species are distinct from the surviving ones. K, 

^Y^eTefore, the organized beings of ancient geolo^cal periods had 

arisen fix)m one central point of distribution, to be dispersed, and 

^jially to become confined to those countries where their remains now 

e^st iQ a fossil condition ; and if the animals now living had also 

spread from a common origin, over the same districts, and had these 

been circumscribed within equally distinct limits; we should be led to 

the unnatural supposition, argues Agassiz, that animals of two distinct 

creations, differing specifically throughout, had taken the same lines 

of migration, had assumed finally the same distribution, and had 

become permanent in the same regions without any other inducement 

for removal and final settlement, than the mere necessity of covering 

more extensive ground, after they had become too numerous to 

remain any longer together in one and the same district. 

Now it would certamly be very irrational to attribute such instincts 
to animals, were such a line of march possible ; but the very possi- 
bility vanishes, however, when we reflect upon the wide-spread phy- 
sical impediments opposing such migrations, and tiiat neither the 
animals nor plants of one province can flourish in an adverse one. 
Ko Arctic animals or plants can be propagated in the Tropics, nor 
vice versa. The whole of the Monkey tribe belong to a hot climate, 
are retained there by their temperaments and instincts, and cannot 
by any ingenuity of man be made to exist in Greenland. The same 
rule applies to the aboriginal men of the Tropical and the Arctic 

That the animals and plants' now existing on the earth must be 
referred to many widely-distant centres of creation, is a fact which 
might, if necessary, be confirmed by an mfinite number of circum- 
stances; but these things are nowadays conceded by every well- 
informed naturalist ; and if we have deemed it necessary to illustrate 
tbem at all, it is because this volume may fall into the hands of some 
possibly not versed in such matters. 

Another question of much interest to our present investigation is 

Have all the individuals of each species of animals, plants, &c., 

descended fi'om a single pair ? Were it not for the supposed scientific 
authority of Genesis to this effect, the idea of community of ori^n 
would hardly have occurred to any reflecting mind, because it in- 
volves insuperable difficulties ; and science can perceive no reason why 
the Creator should have adopted any such plan. Is it reasonable ta 
suppose that the Almighty would have created one seed of grass, one 


acorn, one pair of locustSy of bees, of wild pigeons, of heningB, of 
buiFaloos, as the only starting-point of these almost nlnquitons spedest 

The instincts and habits of animals differ widely. Some are soli* 
tary, except at certain seasons ; some go in pfdrs ; others in herds or 
shoals. The idea of a pair of bees, locusts, herrings, bnffiiloee, k 
as contrary to the nature and habits of these creatures, as it is repugn 
nant to the nature of oaks, pines, birches, &c., to grow singly, and to 
form forests in their isolation. In some species males— in othen, 
females predominate ; and in many it would be easy to show, that, if 
the present order of things were reversed, the species could not be 
preserved — locusts and bees, for example : the former appear in my- 
nads, and by far the greater number of those produced are destroyed; 
and thougli they have existed for ages, a naturalist cannot see thit 
they have increased, nor can he conceive how one pair could continne 
the species, considering the number of adverse chances. As regards 
bees, it is natural to have but one female for a whole hive, to whom 
many males are devoted, besides a large number of drones^ 

Again, Agassiz gives this striking illustration : — 

** There are animals which are impelled bj nature to feed on other animals. Was (ki 
first pair of lions to abstain from food until the gazelles and other antelopes had multipGti 
sufficiently to preserre their races from the persecution of these ferocioiis beasts T " 

So with other carnivorous animals, birds, fishes, and reptiles. Ve 
now behold all their various species scattered through land and water 
in harmonious proportions. Thus they may continue for ages to 

Hybridity has been considered a test for species ; but, when we 
come to this theme, it shall be proven that, in many instances, what 
have been called varieties are really distinct species: hence, that hybri- 
dity is no test. All varieties of dogs and wolves, for example, are pro- 
lific inter se; yet we shall prove that many of them are specifically 
distinct, that is, descended from different primitive stocks at distant 
points of the globe. Agassiz has beautifully illustrated the feust by the 
natural history of lions. These animals present very marked varieties, 
extending over immense re^ons of country. They occupy neaiiy 
the whole continent of Africa, a great part of Southern Asia, as, 
formerly, Asia Minor and Greece. Over this vast tract of countiy 
several varieties of lions are found, differing materially in their phy- 
sical characters : these varieties also are placed remotely from each 
otlier, and each one is surrounded by entirely distinct Faunas and 
Florae : natural facts confirming the idea of totally distinct zoolo^cal 
provinces. It will readily be conceded by naturalists, that all the 
animals found in such a province, and nowhere else, must have been 
therein created; and although lions may possess in common that 


assemblage of charactere which has been construed into evidence of 
eomniiiniry of specieg, yet it by no means necessitates community of 
or^in. The same question here arises as in considering the varietieB 
o{ inankind, with regaM to the definition of the t«rm apeeiet. We 
liold that a variety which is permanent, and which resists, without 
(djiTigc, all known external causes, must bo regarded as a primitive 
mc*^e3 — else no criteria exist by which science can bo governed in 
j^'-^.tural History. 

3lonke_vB aftbrd another admirable illastratioa, and are doubly 
jrj-tcTCsting from the fact of their near approach to the human family. 
"jTs-e follo»ving paragraph is one of peculiar interest : — 

• • li alraady mentioiisd, the nonkeja arc eotirel; Cropkal. But here agsjn ne natice a 

,e<7 '■■''<■>*'' **'*P'*^''° °f Ihfir types to the pu-ticuUr coDtinenls: as the monkeys of 

(^.opioi' Amerioi eouatilulo a family sllogelher distinct from tbe monkeys of the olJ world, 

^Mf bsing not one Epcciee of any of llie genera of Qundrumiuia, eo oomerous on this ood- 

tinnt, fiiand either in Asia or AfricL The monkeys of the Old World, agaJD, oonslitute a 

nstorsl bmll; by ihemKlves, extendiog equntly orer Africa and Asia ; aod there is gtcd » 

dDM npreseotatiTe analog; between those of different parta of these two conliDents^the 

arvxgi of Africa, the Chimpaniee and Orilla, oorrcsponding to the red orang of Sumulra 

uxt Borneo, and the smaller long-armed species of continental Asia. And what is not a 

liUle remarkable, ia the fact that the black orang occurs upon thai continent which is 

iiiatited by the black human race, nhilo the browa orang inhabits those parts of Asia 

oter which Ibe eboaolale-oolored Malays hare been developed. There is again a peculiar 

&au]j of QaadmmaDa confined to the Island of Madagascar, the Makis, which aro entirely 

jxenliar to that island and the eastern coast of AA^ca opposite to it, and to one spot on tbs 

>Mtara shore of Africa. Bat in New Holland and the adjacent islands there are no mon- 

ifM at all, though the climatic conditions seem not to exclude their existence any more 

thma OiMt of the large Awatic Islsada, upon which such high types of this order are tOrmd. 

-lad these facts, more than any other, would indicate that the special adaptation of onitnala 

U particular districM of the surface of the globe is neither accidenlal nor dependent apoD 

phjpsical conditiooe, but ie implied in tlie primitiie plan of creation itaelf Whatever 

daaMMwe may take into consideration, we shall find similar adaptations, and though per- 

h^fks the greater oniformity of some families renders tbe difference of types in Tariotis parts 

•T CBw world less striking, they are none the less real. The carniTora of tropical Asia are 

those of tropical A^'ics. or those of tropical America. Their birds and 

present mmilar differences. The want of an ostrich in Asia, when we hare one, 

ef tli« family, in Africa, and two distinct species in Southern America, and two 

in New Holland and another to the Sonda Islands, shows this constant 

of analogous or reprosentstiTC species, repented over different parts of the world, 

!« tbe principle regulating the distrihntion of animals; and the fact that these analo- 

31 ipecies are different, again, cannot bo reconciled to the idea of common origin, as 

^ type ia peenliar to the country where it is now found. These differences are more 

in tropical regions than anywhere else. The rhinoceros of the SnnUa Islands 

_ tiom those of Africa, and there are none in America. The elephant of Asia differs 

~ -".^ni that of .Vfrica, and there are none in America. One tapir is found in the Sunda Islands; 

■*~^*e are none in Africa, bnt we find one in South America. . . . Everywhere special adap- 

*U>ti, parlicutsr forma in Mch continent, an omission of some allied type hero, when in 

"* next groBp it occurs ail oier the lone." 

The same authority has so well expressed \m opinion on another 
^*>iBt, that we cannot resist the temptation of making an additional 

:her ■ 

mal ^H 


<< We are thus led to distingaish special proTincea in the natural diatiibndon of uiaili^ 
and we may adopt the following dlTision as the most natural Fintf the Aretie praiiie^ 
with preyailing uniformity. Second, the Temperate Zone, with at iMst three diftisM 
zoological provinces — the European Temperate Zone, west of the Ural Mountuni; dft 
Asiatic Temperate Zone, east of the Ural Mountains ; and the American Temperate Im, 
which may be subdivided into two, the Eastern and Western, for the animals esst aadiMfc 
of the Rooky Mountains differ sufficiently to constitute two distinct soologieal proriBMi. 
Next, the Tropical Zone, containing the African Zoological proTince, which extendi «iv 
the main part of the African continent, including all the country south of the Atlai ol 
north of the Cape colonies ; the Tropical Asiatic province, south of the great ffiniliin 
chain, and including the Sunda Islands, whose Fauna has quite a continental charaetar,al 
differs entirely from that of the Islands of the Pacific, as well as tram that of NewHoiM; 
the American Tropical province, including Central America, the West Indies, and Tropol 
South America. New Holland constitutes in itself a special province, notirithstandingthi 
great differences of its northern and southern climate, the animals of the wh(de coBtiiMt 
preserving throughout their peculiar typical character. But it were a mistake to cobmii 
that the Faune, or natural groups of animals, are to be limited according to the bomidiiki 
of the mainlands. On the contrary, we may trace their natural limits into the ocesa, ui 
refer to the Temperate European Fauna the eastern shores of the Atlantic, as we refer iti 
western shores to the American Temperate Fauna. Again, the eastern shores of thePidie 
belong to the Western American Fauna, as the western Pacific shores belong to the Attiiio 
Fauna. In the Atlantic Ocean there is no peculiar Oceanic Fauna to be distinguished; M 
in the Pacific we have such a Fauna, entirely marine in its main character, though inttt^ 
spread with innumerable islands, extending east of the Sunda Islands and New HoUand ts 
the western shores of Tropical America. The islands west of this continent seem, indeed, tt 
have very slight relations, in their zoological character, with the western parts of the nsia* 
land. South of the Tropical Zone we have the South American Temperate Fauna tad that 
of the Cape of Good Hope, as other distinct zoological provinces. Van IHemen's Lind, 
however, does not constitute a zoological province in itself, but belongs to the provinet rf 
New Holland by its zoological character. Finally, the Antarctic Circle encloses a spedil- 
zoological province, including the Antarctic Fauna, which, in a great measure, correspoadi 
to the Arctic Fauna in its uniformity, though it differs fh>m it in having chiefly a maritiBi 
character, while the Arctic Fauna has an almost entirely continental aspect. 

** The fact that the principal races of men, in their natural distribution, cover the BUM 
extent of ground as the same zoological provinces, would go far to show that the differeneci 
which we notice between them are also primitive." 

These facts prove conclusively that the Creator has marked out 
both the Old and New Worlds into distinct zoological provinces, and 
that Faunce and Florre are independent of climate or other known 
physical causes; wliile it is equally clear that in tliis geographical dis- 
tribution there is evidence of a Plan — of a design ruling the climatic 
conditions themselves. 

It is very remarkable, too, that while the races of men, and the 
Fauna and Flora of the Arctic region, present great uniformity, they 
follow in the different continents the same general law of increating 
dUdmilarity as we recede from the Arctic and go South, irrespectively 
of climate. We have already shown tliat, as we pass down through 
America, Asia, and Africa, the farther we travel the greater i% the dt»- 
similarity of their Fauniie and Flone, to their very tenninations, even 
when compared togetlier in tlie same latitudes or zones; and an 


examination will show, that differences of types in the human family 

become more strongly marked as we recede from the Polar re^ons, 

and reach their greatest extremes at those terminating points of con- 

tfnents where they are most widely separated by distance, although 

occopying nearly the same parallels of latitude, and nearly the same 

climates. For instance, the Fuegians of Cape Horn, the Hottentots 

and Bushmen of the Cape of Good Hope, and the inhabitants of Van 

]>iemen*s Land, are the tribes which, under similar parallels, differ 

laost. Such differences of races are scarcely less marked in the Tro- 

pios of the earth ; as testified by the Negro in Africa, the Indian in 

j^rnerica, and the Papuan in Polynesia. In the Temperate zone, we 

}^»^e in the Old World the Mongolians and the Caucasians, no less 

tlx^i^ the Indians in America, living in similar climates, yet wholly 

d,i98imilar themselves. 

Bistory, traditions, monuments, osteological remains, every literary 

record and scientific induction, all show that races have occupied sub- 

stantiaUy the same zones or provinces from time immemorial. Since 

tbe discovery of the mariner's compass, mankind have been more dis- 

txurbed in their primitive seats ; and, with the increasing facilities of 

communication by land and sea, it is impossible to predict what 

changes commg ages may bring forth. The Caucasian races, which 

have always been the representatives of civilization, are those alone 

that have extended over and colonized all parts of the globe ; and 

much of this is the work of the last three hundred years. The Creator 

has implantiid in this group of races an instinct that, in spite of 

themselves, drives them through all difficulties, to carry out their 

gf^at mission of civilizing the earth. It is not reason, or philanthropy, 

w^Mch urges them on ; but it is destiny. When we see great divisions 

^f the human family increasing in numbers, spreading in all direc- 

^ons, encroaching by degrees upon all other races wherever they can 

''^^ and prosper, and gradually supplanting inferior types, is it not 

^'^^^^onable to conclude that they are ftilfiUing a law of nature ? 

"VTe have always maintained diversity of origin for the whole range 
organized beings. If it be granted, as it is on all hands, that 
^re have been many centres of creation, instead of one, what reason 
there to suppose that any one race of animals has sprung from a 
gle pair, instead of being the natural production of many pairs ? 
d, as was written by us many years ago, " if it be conceded that 
ire were two primitive pairs of human beings, no reason can be 
igned why there may not have been hundreds." ® 
Aqassiz thus expresses himself: — 

*( Under rach circumstances, we should ask if we are not entitled to conclnde that thes* 
must hare originated where thej oeenr, as well as the anHials and plants InhaMting 


the same oonntriflB, and haTe originated there in the fame nnmerioai pirop o r ti wii a&d 9fm 
the same area in which they now oocor ; for these conditions are the conditions neeesssrj 
to their maintenance, and what among organized beings is essential to their temporal eadsl- 
enoe must be at least one of the conditions nnder which they were created. 

<* We maintain that, like all organized beings, mankind cannot hare originated in sin^ 
indiYidoals, bat must haye been created in that nomerical harmony which is oharacteristie 
of each species. Men must have originated in fiatioru, as the bees hare originated in 
swarms, and, as the different social plants, haye coTcred the eztensiTe tracts orer which 
they haTC naturally spread." 

We remarked, in the commencement of this chapter, that M. 
siz had presented his views in such a condensed and irrefragable 
manner, that it would be impossible to attempt a reiumcj or to d 
him justice without repeating the whole of his article ; but althoug'^ ^ 
we have already borrowed freely, we cannot refrain from a concludiii^ 
paragraph, our object being rather to give a synopsis, or "posting up> 
to date, of facts illustrative of our subject, than to claim any gre^ 
originality : if we can bring the truth out, our goal is attained. 

'* The circumstance that wherever we find a human race naturally circumscribed, it l^ 
connected in its limitation with what we call, in natural history, a zoological and botanicif 
prorince — that is to say, with the natural limitations of a particular association of animlf 
and plants — shows most imequiyocally the intimate relation existing between mankla^ 
and the animal kingdom in their adaptation to the physical world. The Arctic race of m«B, 
coTeriog a treeless region near the Arctics in Europe, Asia, and America, is circumscribed, 
in the three continents, within limits Tory similar to those occupied by that particular com- 
bination of animals which are peculiar to the same tracts of land and sea. 

«<The region inhabited by the Mongolian race is also a natural zoological pnyriDce, 
covered by a combination of animals naturally circumscribed witbin the same regions. The 
Malay race coyers also a natural zoological province. New Holland again constitntes a 
very peculiar zoological province, in which we have another particular race of men. And 
it is further remarkable, in this connection, that the plants and animals now living on the 
continent of Africa south of Atlas, within the same range within which the Negroes are 
naturally circumscribed, have a character differing widely from that of the plants and 
animals of the northern shores of Africa and the valley of Egypt ; while the Cape of Good 
Hope, within the limits inhabited by Hottentots, is cliaracterized by a vegetation and 
Fauna equally peculiar, and differing in its features from that over which the African 
is spread. 

" Such identical circumscriptions between the limits of two series of organized beings s^ 
widely differing in men and animals and plants, and so entirely unconnected in point c^ 
descent, would, to the mind of the naturalist, amount to a demonstration that they ori; 
nated together within the districts which they now inhabit We say that such an accnm 
lation of evidence would amount to demonstration ; for how could it, on the contrary, 
supposed that man alone would assume new peculiarities and features so different Arom 
primitive characteristics, whilst the animals and plants circumscribed within the same 
would continue to preserve their natural relations to the Fauna and Flora of other parts 
the world ? If the Creator of one set of these living beings had not also been the 
of the othe. , and if we did not trace the same general laws throughout nature, there 
be room left for the supposition that, while men inhabiting different parts of the wi 
originated from a common centre, the plants and animals associated with them in the 
countries originated on the spot. But such inconsistencies do not occur in the lawi 

" The coincidence of the geographical distribution of the human raoes with tha 



iuuiii>Is> tLe diaeonnection of tli« climttio eaaditioiis where «e hfive eimilar riiceB, and 
lie coanectioD of cUmattc oonditions where we hste JiSerent hamaii raccu, bIiuws furtlier, 
(JibI tbc adaplBtJon of different nices of men to different parts of the world must be icIeD- 
tj0a«1. M well u lli&t of other beings ; ibsc men were primitiTelj loeated in the Tsrions 
-^ta of the world the; inhkbit, uid that they aroso overwhere in those hamouioas nainerie 
p^^|)orlioDa with other tiving beinga which would >t once aecare their preservntion and 
^a^ribute to their welfare. To auppose that all men originated from Adam and Eve, ig to 
^gstuDe thai the order of crestioo has been changed in the courae of hiatorical times, and 
tQ gm lt> the Mooio record ■ meaning tbat it was nerer intended to hsTe. On that ground, 
y« would parlieularlj inuat npon the proprietj of oonaidering Qenesis ax chieSf relating 
to the histai7 of the while race, with special reference to the hii^tory of the Jews." 

Zoologically, the races or species of mankind obey tiie same organic 

IftWB which govern other animals : they have their geographical points 

of origin, and are adapted to certain extemal conditions that cannot 

be changed with impunity. The natives of one zone cannot always 

be transferred to another ■witJiout deteriorating physically and men- 

tiUy. Races, too, are governed by certain peychological infliiencee, 

wiiicli differ among the species of mankind as instincts vary among 

the species of lower animals. Tfieae psychological characteristics form 

part of the great mysteries of human nature. They seem often to 

TTorlc in opposition to the physical uecesaities of races, and to drive 

iniii%-iduala and nations beyond the confines of human reason. We 

see around ue, daily, individuals obeying blindly their psychological 

instducts ; and one nation reads of the causes which have led to the 

decline and fall of other empires without profiting by the lesson. 

The laws of God operate not through a few thousand years, but 
fliroughout eternity, and we cannot always perceive the why or whore- 
fore of what passes in our brief day. Nations and races, like indivi- 
duAls, have each an especial destiny: some are born to rule, and 
others to be ruled. And such has ever been the history of mankind. 
^o two distinctly-marked races can dwell together on equal terms. 
ftome races, moreover, appear destined to live and prosper for a time, 
ttiitil the destroying race comes, which is to exterminate and supplant 
t*idn. Observe how the aborigines of America are fading away 
"^ibre the exotic races of Europe. 

Those groups of races heretofore comprehended under the generic 
b^*ni Caucasian, have in all ages been the rulers ; and it requires 
(*<:> prophet's eye to see that they are destined eventually to conquer 
*-M3d hold every foot of the globe whore climate docs not interpose an 
ix-Kipcnetrable barrier. No philanthropy, no legislation, no missionary 
l«».liorB, can change this law : it ia written in man's nature by the 
IzLSLnd of his Creator. 

While the mind thus speculates on the physical history of races and 
tlMe more or lees speedy extermination of some of them, other prob- 
Btart Dp in the distance, of which the solution is far beyond the 


reach of human foresight. We have already hinted at the mjBterioiu 
disappearance of many great races and nations of antiquity. 

AVhen the inferior types of mankind shall have fulfilled thdr dei^ 
tinies and passed away, and the superior, becoming intenningled m 
blood, have wandered from their primitive zoolo^cal provinces, and 
overspread the world, what will be the ultimate result T May not 
that Law of nature, which so often forbids the commingling of epedei^ 
complete its work of destruction, and at some future day leave the 
fossil i*emains alone of man to tell the tale of his past existence upon 

%^i^^^^^^t^^i^i^^^^^i^^t^i ^ %^^t^^^0 



We propose to treat of Afankind, both zoolo^cally and historical]^; 
and, in onlor that we may be clearly understood, it is expedient that 
we should define certain terms which will enter into frequent uae as 
we proceed. 

TYPK. — The definition of H. Cassini, given in Jonrdan's DJefiM- 
naire des TenncSy is adopted by us, as sufficiently precise : — ' 

** Ti/pical chnrnctcrs arc those which belong only to the majority of natanl bodiM eM- 
priHcd in any group, or to those which occupy the centre of this group, and in aoM Mft 
servo as tlic ti/pe of it, but presenting exceptions when it approaches its eztremitieii <* 
Account of the relations and natural affinities which do not admit weU-defined fis^ 
between species." 

In spoaking of Mankind, we regard as 2h/pe8 those primitive W 
original forms which are independent of Climatic or other Phyricil 
infiuciuvs. All Tiion are more or less influenced by external caiueSt 
but these can never act with sufficient force to transform one type 
into another. 

SrKClKS. — Tlie following definition, by Prichard, maybe received 
as on«^ of the most lucid and complete : — 

** Tiic inclining attached to the term species, in natural history, is rerj definite and intd- 
ligiblo. It includes only the following conditions : namely, separate origin amd dittmeimm 
of race^ evinrtd by a constant transmission of some eharacttristie peculiarity of organiiation^ A 
race of nnimnls or of plants marked by any peculiar character which it haa constantly dia- 
play cd, is termed a * species ' ; and two races are considered specificaUj different, if they 
are distinguished flrom each other by some characteristic which the one cannot be sappoaed 
to haTc aciiuiretl, or the other to have lost, through any known operation of physical eauaa; 
for we are hence led to conclude, that tribes thus diatingniahed ha^e not desoendod fnm 
the same original stock. 


■ "Tbia is the import of the wncd ipteitt, as it hag long been aoderstood b; writers on 

(fjlTerCBl departmVDlS of natoral histoi;. Thej agree eaBCntiall; us to the sense which the; 

fnpropriatc to Ibis tarm. though the; bsre expressed themselves diSerenllj, according as 

fj^^ bare bleodeil more or less of hypalhaii with their conceptions of ita meaning," 

■ ■ VARIETIES." continues Priohard, "in natural hiatory, are such (Jiyeraities in indiyi- 

jD^la ftnd their progeo; aa are obterved la takt place within the llmita of species. 

<• FERMAHENT VARIETIES are those which, having once taken place, continaa to b« 
f.0pae*led in the breed in perpetuity. The fact at their origiaaCion mail be knoan iy 
^^<^t>ari«a er aifirmft, since, the proof of tbis fact being defective, it is more philosopbioftl 
10 e^iuider characters which are perpetually Inherited as tptcifie or originaL The term^xr- 
^a»*^ "^tiy would otherwise eipress the mraning vkick properly btlonji to ipteitt. The 
_,~apertie« of species are two: viz., ori^al diSereDce of characters, and ike perpiluity ef 
fjffxr tranimiiiion, of which only the latter can belong to permanent varieties. 

• ' The ituttanccB are so utaoj in which it ia doubtful whether a particular tribe la to be 
^fjosiderej as a distinct species, or onl; as a variety of Eonie other tribe, that it has been 
f^tasil, by BBtaraliats, canveiiient to have a deaignatioa applicable in either caae."^ 

Dr. Morton defines gpeciea simply to be " a primordial organic 
farm."** He classes species, "according to their disparity or affi- 
nitj-," in the following provisional manner : — 

•'REMOTE SPECIES, of the same genus, are those among which hybrids are never 

•'ALLIED SPECIES produce, inter te, an infertile offsprtng. 
"PKOXIMATE SPECIES produce, with each other, a fertile offspring." 
GROUP. — Under this tenu we include all those proximate races, 
or species, which resemble each other most closely in ty^, and whose 
geographical distribution belongs to certain zoological provinces ; for 
cKBDipIe, the aboriginal American, tlie Mongol, the Malay, the Negro, 
tiie Polynnian groupt, and so forth. 

It will bo seen, by comparison of our definitions, that we recognize 
DO Hubstantial difference between the terms tgpes and tpeciea — perma- 
nence of characteristics belonging equally to both. Tbe horse, the ass, 
the zebra, and the quagga, are distinct species and distinct typei: and 
so ■with the Jew, the Teuton, the Sclavonian, the Mongol, the Austra- 
lian, the coast Negro, the Hottentot, &c. ; and no physical causes known 
to lave existed during our geological epoch could have transformed 
one of these ty\tes or species into another. A type, then, being a pristine 
or primordial form, all idea of common origin for any two is excluded, 
»tlierwiBe every landmark of natural history would be broken down. 
3t haa been eagacionaly remarked by Bodichon : — 

■ *Tfaat when a people writes its history, time, anil often space, have placed them very 
^x- (tern their origin. It is then composed of diverse eiements, and ita national traditions 
>.«-« sllored: there happens to it that which occurs to the man who baa arrived al adult 
^B«— the remembranco of his eariy years haa seiied upon his imagination more than upon 
laas Bind, and incites him to cost over his cradle a coloring, briUisnt, but deceptive. Thus 
Koni pretend they are descended from Abrabam, others from ^neas, some from Japhet, 
Bon> tiaa stones thrown by Dencalion and Payche : the greatest number from some gixl 
or denig^d — Pinto, Hercolu, Odin."^ 


It may then be truly said, that we possess no data by which science 
can at all approximate to the epoch of man's first appearance upon 
earth ; for, as shown in our chronological essay^ even the Jewish 
history, whose fabulous chronology is so perseveringly relied on by 
many, does not reach back to the early history of fuOians. It cannot 
now reasonably be doubted, that Egypt and China, at least, e3dflted 
as nations 8000 years before Christ; and there is monumental evidence 
of the simultaneous existence of various Types of Mankind quite aa 
far back. Inasmuch as these types are more or less fertile inlet le, 
and as they have, for the last 5000 years, been subjected to succeseions 
of wars, migrations, captivities, intermixtures, &c., it would be a vwn 
task at the present day to attempt the unravelling of this tangled 
thread, and to make anything like a just classification of types; or 
to determine how many were primitive, or which one of them has 
arisen from intermixture of types. This diJficulty holds not alone 
\vith regard to mankind, but also with respect to dogs, horses, cattle, 
sheep, and other domestic animals, as we shall take occasion to show. 
All that ethnography can now hope to accomplish is, to select Bome 
of the more prominent types, or rather groups of proximate types, 
compare them with each other, and demonstrate that they are, and 
have always been, distinct. 

A vulgar error has been sedulously impressed upon the public mind, 
of which it is very hard to divest it, viz., that all the races of the globe 
set out originally from a single point in Asia. Science now knows that 
no foundation in fact exists for such a conclusion. The embarrassment 
in treating of types or races is constantly increased by false classifi- 
cations imposed upon us by prejudiced naturalists. It is argued, 
for example, that all the Mongols, all the African Negroes, all the 
American Indians, have been derived from one common Asiatic pair 
or unique source ; whereas, on the other hand, there is no evidence 
that human beings were not sown broadcast over the whole face of 
the earth, like animals and plants : and we incline to the opinion o^ 
M. Agassiz, that men were created in nations^ and not in a single po*'^^* 

Since the time of Linnseus, who first placed man at the head of t3^^ 
Animal kingdom and in the same scries \vith monkeys, numerO^' 
classifications of human races have been proposed ; and it may "* 
well to give a rapid sketch of a few of them, in order to show *^^ 
difliculties which encompass the subject, and how hopelessly vag^^ 
every definitive attempt of this kind must be, in the present state ^^ 
our knowledge. 

BuFFON divides the human race into six varieties — viz.. Polar, 
Tartar, Austral-Asiatic, European, Negro, and American. 

Kant divides man into four varieties — White, Black, Copper, and 



HtntTEB, into teven varieties; Metzas, into two — White and Black; 
T/BET, into three; Blcmenbach, into /we — viz., Caucasian, Mongoi, 
3/aiay, Negro, and American ; Desmoclins. into tixleen species; Bory 
jiE St, Yincest makes fifteen species, subdivided into races. 

^^^ORTON classifies man into twentif-two families; Pickerisq, into 

figr'Ven races ; Lukk Bcrke, into girti/-three, whereof twenty-eiglit are 

ijj^^*iQctvarietiesof thei>ife??e(?(Mai, and thirty-five of the p^^aiVai races. 

Jacqcisot" divides mankind into three species of a genu» homo — 

YB^ac-> Caueaitan, Mongol, and Negro. 

The Catteaaian, says Jaequinot, is the only species in which white 
K^xr^es with rosy cheeks arc found; but it embraces besides sundry 
^^-wnette, brown, and black races — not regarding color as a satiefac- 
^^jxy test of race. The principal races which he includes under the 
(^^iicasian head are, the Germanic, Celtic, Semitic, and Hindoo. The 
letter differ much in color, some being black, and others fair, com- 
j, rising all intermediate shades, and are probably a mixture of differ- 
t-nt primitive stocks. 

The Mongol species embraces the Mongol, Sinie, Malay, Polynesian, 
and American. 

The N^ro species comprehends the Ethiopian, Hottentot, Oceanic- 
Xegro, and Australian. The Ethiopian race comprises those Negroes 
inhabiting the greater part, of Africa, having black skins, woolly 
heads, 4c, ; Uottentots and Bushmen exhibiting lightr-brown com- 

This classification of M. Jacquinot is supported by much ingenuity. 
In many respects it is superior to others ; and inasmuch as some 
claBufioation, however defective, seems to be indispensable, his may 
be received, as simple and tlie least objectionable. Like all his pre- 
decessors, however, who have written on anthropologj', he seems not 
to be versed in the monumental literature of Egypt; and, therefore. 
he clae^es together races which (although somewhat similar in lype), 
Ka.%-ing presented distinct physical characteristics for several thousand 
years, csmiot be regarded as of one and tiie same species, any more 
than bis Cancasians and Negroes. 

Though many other classifications might be added, the above 

stxffice to testify how arbitrary all classifications inevitably must be ; 

HecBuse no reason has yet been assigned why, if two original pairs 

ot* hnman beings be admitted, we should not accept an indefinite 

number ; and, if we are to view mankind as governed by the same 

\ l^'^B that regulate the rest of the animal kingdom, this conclusion 

k Vs llie nioBt natural, no less than apparently most in accordance wit}i 

1 lb* general plan of the Creator. We have shown that sundry groupH 

;■ o^ haman beings, presenting general resemblances in physical char 



acters, are found in certain zoological provinces where evoyihing 
conveys the idea of distinct centres of creation ; and hence, we ma; 
conclude that mankind only constitutes a link in Nature'i jiat 

But many of our readers will doubtless be starded atbMfftU 
that Ethnology was no new science even before the time flf HiM^ 
It is clear, and positive, that at that early day (foiuteeii or iftNi 
centuries b. c.\ the Egyptians not only recognized, and ftUMj 
represented on their monuments, many distinct races, but that ABf 
possessed their own ethnographic systems, and already had cbMBied 
humanity, as known to them, accordingly. They divided manlmd 
into /our species: viz., the Bed, Black, White, and Yellow; andyUbt 
is note-worthy, the same perplexing diversity existed in eadi of An 
quadripartite divisions which still pervades our modem i iMwfift' 
tions. Our divisions, such as the CatAeanany Mongol, Negro, k^fnA 
include many sub-types ; and if different painters of the present dij 
were called upon to select a pictorial type to represent a man of theie 
arbitrary divisions, they would doubtless select di£ferent human 
heads. Thus with the Egyptians : although the Red, or Egyptian, type 
was represented with considerable uniformity, the White, YeHow, 
and Black, are often depicted, in their hieroglyphed drawings, widi 
different physiognomies ; thus proving, that the same endless vamty 
of races existed at that ancient day that we observe in the samt 
localities at the present hour. So far from there being a stronger 
similarity among the most ancient races, the dissimilarily actually 
augments as we ascend the stream of time ; and this is natoiaUy 
explained by the obvious fact that existing remains of primitive types 
are becoming more and more amalgamated every day. 

There are several similar tableaux on the monuments; bat we shall 
select the celebrated scene from the tomb of Seti-Mbnxphtha L 
[generally called "Belzoni's Tomb,'' at Thebes], of the XTXth 
dynasty, about the year 1500 b. c, wherein the god HoBUS condncti 
sixteen personages, each /our of whom represent a distinct type of th< 
human race as known to the Eg}3)tian8 ; and it will be seen tfaa 
Egjptian ethnographers, like the writers of the Old and New Testa 
nients, have described and classified solely those races dwelling withi 
the geographical limits known to them. We cannot now say exact! 
how far the maximum geographical boundaries of the ancient Egyj 
tiaiis extended ; for their language, the names of places and name 
of races in Asia and Africa, have so changed with time that a margi 
must be left to conjecture ; although much of our knowledge i 
positive, because the minimum extent of antique Egyptian 
IS determined. 


Tb* UK*nit BcTptiu dlrMoi 

The above figures, which may be seen, in plates on a folio scale, 
in ihe great works of Belzoni, Chatiipollion, liosellini, Lepsius, and 
others, are copied, witli corrections, from the smaller work of Cham- 
polIion-Figeac," They display tlie Jlot, the Nitmu, the Naksu, and 
tlic Tamhu, as the hierogiyphieal inacription terms them; and al- 
iboQ^h the effigies we present are small, they portray a ejiecimen of 
OAob tj"po with BuMcieut accuracy to show that Jour races were very 
Ji^iinet 3300 years ago. We have here, positively, a scientific quad- 
rmf^artite division of mankind into Red, Yellow, Black, and WJiite, 
anttMiating Moses; whereas, in the Xth chapter of Oenetis, the sym- 
)>olical division of "Shem, Ham, and Japhet," is only tripartite — the 
Bl ack being entirely omitted, as proved in Part IT. of this volume. 

The appellative "-BoC applies exclusively to one race, i-iz., the 

^^gyptian; but the other designations maybe somewhat generic, each 

covering certain groups of races, ae do our terms Caucasian, Mongol, 

&c. ; also including a considerable variety of types bearing general 

re^mblance to one another in each group, through shades of color, 

featares, and other peculiarities, to be discussed hereafter.® 


\ — This Ggore, Mgetbcr with his three fue-simile isaoeiates, exiuit on th« originnl 

PftlatH) relieTo, U, th«n, tjpicnl ar the Egijpliam : vho are callod in the hieroglyphics 

*' Jtot," or R&0« : meatiiiiif llie Homsn race, par aeciUntt. Like all other Eestem nstiani 

3t anti<|uil; — like the Jevg. HindooB, Chineie, sbJ others — Uie Egyptiana regarded 

tti<lDHl>e< (loDC as (he chosen people of God, and contomptaquBly looked down upon other 

T«eM> njmtiiig >iwh to beGealiles or outride-liarbarians. The above repreeeatation of the 

Sgypftui tjrpe is intereBliDg, inaimach u it ie the work of an Egypli(at artist, and must 

iibMtltin be regarded u the EgTptiiui ideal repreeeatatioa at their own type. Oar con* 



clasion is mach strengthened by the fact, that the same head is often repeated oa dii 
monuments. This and the other portraits of the Egyptian type to which we tUnde, 
figured during the XVIIIth dynasty of Rosellini ; and possess, to Ethnologist!, pec 
interest, from the fact of their vivid similitude to the oltf Egyptian type, (snbsequentljr 
oitated by Lspsius), on the earlier monuments of the IVth, Yth, and Vlth dynastisi; i 
same time that these particular effipes offer a marked dissimilarity to the Asiatioo-Bgf 
type, which becomes common on the later monuments of the XVIIth and wtim 
dynasties ; that is, from 1500 b. o. downwards. 

6 — This portrait is the representatife of that Asiatic gronp of races, by ethnogrv 
termed the Semitic The hieroglyphio legend over his head reads **Namu;*' whloh, 
ther with **Aamu," was the generic term for yeUotp-skinned races, lying, In tbtt 
between the Isthmus of Sues and Taurio Assyria, Arabia and Chaldfea InolusiTe, 

C — Neffro races are typified in this class, and they are designated, in the hierogly 
**Nahsu.** The portrait, in colour and outiine, displays, like hundreds of other Eg; 
drawings, how well marked was the Negro type several generations anterior to Mosei 
possess no actual portraits of Negroes, pictorially extant, earlier than the seventeent 
tury before Christ ; but there is abundant proof of the existence of Negro races ; 
Xllth dynasty, 2800 years prior to our era. Lepsius tells us that African lanpuaget 
date even the epoch of Menss, b. c, 8893; and we may hence conclude that they wei 
spoken by Negproes, whose organic idioms bear no a£5nity to Asiatic tongues. 

r> — The fourth division of the human family is designated, in the hieroglyphics, 
name ^*Tamhu;" which is likewise a generic term for those races of men by us now 
Japethie, including all the irAt^e-skinned families of Asia Minor, the Caucasian mou 
and <* Scythia" generally. 

But we shall return to this Egyptian classification in an< 
chapter. Our object, here, is simply to establish that the an 
Egyptians had attempted a systematic anthropology ,at least 
years ago, and that their ethnographers were puzzled with 
same diversity of types then, that, after this lapse of time, we encc 
in the same localities now. They of course classified solely the 
of men within the circumference of their own knowledge, y 
comprehended necessarily but a small portion of the earth's su] 
Of their contemporaries in China, Australia, Northern and We 
Asia, Europe, and America, the Pharaonic Egyptians knew notl 
because all of the latter types of men became known even to Ei 
only since the Christian era, most of them since 1400 a. d. 

We have asserted, that all classifications of the races of men 
tofore proposed are entirely arbitrary; and that, unfortunatel 
data yet exist by which these arrangements can be materiall; 
proved. It is proper that we should submit our reasons foi 
assertion. The field we here enter upon is so wide as to em 
the whole physical history of mankind ; but, neither our limit 
plan permitting such a comprehensive range, we shall illustrat 
views by an examination of one or two groups of races ; prem 
the remark that, whatever may be true of one human division — c 
Caucasian, Mongol, Negro, Indian, or other name — applies with < 
force to all divisions. If we endeavor to treat of mankind zoologi< 


fre can but follow M. Agassiz, and map them off into those great 

o^roups of proximate races appertaining to the zoological provinces 

into which the earth is naturally divided. We might thus make 

soni^ approach towards a classification upon scientific principles; 

lyut all attempts beyond this must be wholly arbitrary. 

** Vnittf ofracei'* seems to be an idea introduced in comparatively 

modem times, and never to have been conceived by any primitive 

nation, such as Egypt or China. Neither does the idea appear to have 

occurred to the author of Genesis, Indeed, no importance could, in 

Hodaic days, attach to it, inasmuch as the early Hebrews have left no 

evidences of their belief in a future state, which is never declared iu 

the Pentateuch.* This dogma of " unity," if not borrowed from the 

Ba.t)ylonians during the captivity of the Israelites, or from vague 

mxnors of Budhistic suavity in the sixth century b. c, may be an 

outgrowth of the charitable doctrine of the "Essenes;"* just as the 

present Socialist idea of the ^^soUdarite of humanity" is a conception 

borrowed fit)m St. Paul. 

nhe authors have now candidly stated their joint views, and will 
pr^oceed to substantiate the £acts, upon which these deductions are 
bs3tJ3Gd, in subsequent chapters; unbiassed, they trust, by precon- 
coived hypotheses, as well as indifferent to other than scientific 

"With such slight modifications as the progress of knowledge — 
especially in hieroglyphical, cuneiform, and Hebraical discovery — 
may have superinduced since the publication of his Crania ^gyptiaea^ 
in 1844, they adopt the matured opinions of their lamented friend, 
I>R. Samuel Georoe Morton, as, above all others, the most authorita- 
tive. In the course of this work, abundant extracts from Morton's 
writings render unmistakeable the anthropological results to which 
he had himself attained ; but the authors refer the reader particu- 
larly to Chapter XL of the present volume, containing " Morton's 
inedited manuscripts,"" for the philosophical and testamentary deci- 
fcions of the Founder of the American School of Ethnology. 





What is meant by the word " Caueadan f " Almost eveiy Ethno- 
lo^st would give a different reply. Commonly, it has been received, 
since its adoption by Blumenbach, as a sort of generic term which 
includes many varieties of races. By some writers, all these varictiei 
are reputed to be the descendants of (me species ; and the maniftst 
diversity of types is explained by them through the operation of 
physical causes. By others, the designations Cauea%ianj MongA, 
NegrOy Ac, are employed simply for the convenience of grouping 
certain human varieties which more or less resemble each other, 
without paying due, if any regard, to specific characters. Under the 
head Caucasian are generally associated the Egyptians, the BerbeiB, 
the Arabs, the Jews, the Pelasgians, the Hindoos, the Iberiaus, the 
Teutons, the Celts, the Sclavonians: in short, all the so-calleil 
Semitic and Indo-Germanic races are thrown together into the same 
group, and hence become arbitrarily referred to a common origm. 

Now, such a sweeping classification as this might have been main- 
tained, with some degree of plausibility, a few years ago ; when it was 
gravely asseverated that climate could transform one type into an- 
other : but inasmuch as this argument, apart from new rebutting data^ 
revealed through the decyphering of the monuments of Egypt and 
of Assyria, is now abandoned by every well-educated naturalist, (and, 
we may add, enlightened theologian,) it is difficult to conceive how it 
can any longer be accepted with favor. TVe know of no archseologiat 
of respectable authority, at the present day, who will aver that the 
races now found throughout the valley of the Nile, and scattered over 
a considerable portion of Asia, were not as distinctly and broadly 
eontrnstcd at least 3500 years ago as at this moment. The Egyptians, 
Canaanites, Nubians, Tartars, Negroes, Arabs, and other types, are 
as faithfully delineated on tlie monuments of the AViith and XVmth 
Dynasties, as if the paintings had been executed by an artist of our 
present age. 

Some of these races, owing to the recent researches of Lepsius, 
have even been carried back\\'ard8 to the R'th DjTiasty ; which he 
places about 8400 years before Christ. It becomes obvious, conse- 
quently, that all the countries known to Egyptians in those remote 



Bges presented types which were as essentially different then as they now 

ejcbibit. It is equally certain, that the Pharaonic Egyptians repudiated 

ojl idea of afS.nity to these coetaneous r^ices ; and it would seem to 

fallow, as a corollary, that the other parts of the world were contem- 

pora-^^^^^y occupied by many aboriginal species. Ancient history 

2^0^^!^^^^ acquaints us with habitable countries known to be uninha- 

bited, and the earliest discoverers always found new types in distant 

lauds. Hence, nothing short of a miracle could have evolved^ all the 

xnulti&rious Caucasian forms out of one primitive stock; because the 

Cant^fti^ites, the Arabs, the Tartars and Egyptians, were absolutely as 

diBtinct from each other in primeval times as they are now ; just as they 

all ^were then firom co-existent Negroes. Such a miracle, indeed, has 

le^n invented and dogmatically defended ; but it is a bare postulate, 

uEESupported by the Hebrew Bible, and positively refuted by scientific 

£ix2t8. The Jewish chronology, (fabricated, as we shall render appa- 

f&MX% after the Christian era,) for the human family, since the Deluge, 

caj-ries us back, according to Usher's computation, only to the year 

2348 B. c. ; or, at fitrthest, according to the Septuagint version (whose 

h^tory we shall' see is somewhat apocryphal), to 3246 b. o. ; but the 

iixonuments of Egypt remove every shadow of doubt, by establishing 

axBi not merely races but nations existed prior to either of those 

ircuiginary dates. If then the teachings of science be true, there must 

have been many centres of creation, even for Caucasian races, instead 

of one centre for all the types of humanity. 

The multiform races of Europe, with trifling exceptions, have been 

classed under the Caucasian head ; and it has been assumed for ages, 

that each of these races must have been derived from Asia. It is 

strange, moreover, that naturalists should have spent their time in 

studying remote, barbarous and obscure tribes, while they have passed 

in silence over the historical races, lying close at hand : nevertheless, 

^^ve think this branch of our subject may be readily elucidated by 

a.iia.lyzing those types of mankind which surroimd us. 

Xt is to M. Thiebby and M. Edwards, the one honorably known as 

an liistoiian and the other as a naturalist, that we are indebted for the 

first philosophical attempt to break in upon this settled routine. They 

liave penetrated directly into the heart of Europe, and by a masterly 

examination of the history and physical characteristics of long-known 

ntees, have endeavored to trace them back to their several primitive 


Ancient Gaul is the chosen field of their investigations; and, 
although we admit that, from the very nature of the case, it is impos- 
sible at this late day to arrive at definite results, yet their facts are so 
fairly posited, and their deductions so interesting, as to command 


attention ; no less than to induce the belief that their plan, if peneveied 
in, may lend most efficient aid in classifying the races of men. Thej 
have at least shown, conclusively, that very opposite types have dwelt 
together in Europe for more than two thousand years ; that time and 
identical physical causes have not yet obliterated or blended them; 
and that, while nations may become expimged, there is every reuxm 
to believe that primitive diversities are rarely, if ever, wholly eflSwei 

Inasmuch as the labors of these gentlemen stand unparalleled, and 
possess very important bearings upon certain opinions long held by 
ourselves, and which we are about to develop, no apology need be 
offered for the following extended resume of their combined laboB. 

CiESAR begins his commentaries with — 

'* All Gaul is divided into three parts, of which one is inhabited bj the Bdgwu^ aante 
bj the Aqnitamaru, and the third bj those who, in their own langoage, call themidtii 
Cdttf and who in our tongue are called Qalls (Oalli), These people differ among ttoi- 
BcWcs by their language, their manners and their laws." 3^ 

To these throe divisions, taken in mass, he applies the collective 
denomination of Gallic corresponding to the French term Qauloit, 

Sir A BO confirms this account, and adds that the Aquitaniatii iiSa 
from the Celts, or G^alliy and from the Belgians, not only in language 
and institutions, but also in conformation of body ; and that th^ 
resemble much more the Iberians; while he regards the Celts andlbe 
Belgians as of the same national type, although speaking different 
dialects. There are, however, valid reasons for doubting the latter 

From their physical character and language, Strabo considers the 
Aquitanians, as well as the Ligurians, who occupied a part of the 
coast of France, to be a branch of the Iberians,^ the ancient people 
of Spain. These Iberes, or "people beyond,** seem to have been trans* 
l)lanted, from time immemorial, on the soil of France, and are stil! 
l)ehcld, distinct from all other men, in the modem Basques. 

Ill consequence of their position on the coast of the Mediterranean 
the Ligurians became known to ancient navigators before the othe 
l)opulations of Gaul. Greek historians and geographers speak o: 
them in very early times. They figure among the barbarous allie 
of the Carthaginians, as far back as 480 b. c. Thieny adopts 
enforcing by many proofe, the opinion that the Aquitanians an< 
Ligurians were both of the Iberian stock, and also that they wer 
alien to the Gallic family, properly speaking.® 

These races disposed of, Thierry says that the Celts, or Galli, and th 
Belgians remain to be examined ; and he views them as two branchc 
of the same ethnic trunk : — 

**Two fractions of the same family, isolated daring many ages, developed separatdj 
and become, by means of their long separation, distinct races. The QaUt^ or CeltSi wa 


adtot inhfchitonti of the ooontry, and it is Arom them that it deriTes its name : 
a of their antiqnitj may be obtained from the statement that ' the Cdtt subju- 
I in the tixteenth oentury b. o. The Qalls made a descent on Italy, nnder the 
lUrcr, about two eentnriea after ; and the Boman antiqnaries designate these 
f the Ombrians by the name of Old Oallt,* ... In short, we should consume 

were we to cite all the authorities at command, to prove that the Qalls were 
icient population. On the contrary, the word Belgiam is comparatively modem : 

for the first time, in C^sab ; and they are recognized under the name of CYm- 
18 B. c." 

08 tolerably well established, that the Belgians invaded Gaul 
first advent from the North, and that the Celts were driven 
em. The Belgians settled in the north of Gaul and in Italy, 
ley were not only located by ancient historians, but where, 
I to Thieny and Edwards, they are still resident The Celts, 
ad impelled to the South and East, took refuge in mountains, 
IS, and islands — historical facts also elucidated by Ds 

ieny has shown that the Armoricans and the Belgians are 
cal people, and that the "Welsh of Great Britain are also 
Tom the same stock. Prichard, it is true, does not concur 
)inion ; but Thierry, so far as we can perceive, is thoroughly 
[ in his views by French, German, and other continental 
He places the entrance into Gaul of the conquering Bel- 
tween the years 349 and 290 b. c. The Armoricans apper- 
> the same stock, but their establishment in Gaul was still 

?lts, or Galh proper, according to M. Thierry as well as to 
listorians, were already inhabitants of Gaul about 1600 b. c, 
►usly to the time of Moses. They then existed as a nation, 
vith other races around them ; nor can a conjecture be formed 
numljer of centuries, anterior to this date, during which they 
pied that territoiy. 

're-Celtic researches of "Wilson,^ among the peat-hogs of 
sh Isles, have carried the existence of man in England and 
back to ages immensely remote ; at the same time that those 
[ER DE Perthes, amid the alluvial stratifications of the river 
indicate a still mord ancient epoch for the cinerary urns, 
id instruments, of a primordial people in France ; who, if 
1 obser\'ations be correct, are yet posterior to the silex- 
I of human entity on the same spots before the " dihivial 
rhese facts correspond with the exhumations of Retzius, in 
via,^ and the human vestiges discovered in European caves.^ 
aving such points to another section (ably handled by onr 
, Dr. Usher,) it remains now for us to ask, who were the 
? M. Thierry shows, from an elaborate historical investiga- 


tion, that the Oimbriy who played so important a part in the histoiy 
of early Europe, were of the same race as the Belgians ; and that old 
writers, coeval with the time of Alkxandkb, or fourth centoiy B. c^ 
place this race on the Northern Ocean, in Jutland. Between Ik 
years 118 and 101 b. c, the Cimbri were set in motion, and eventaally 
devastated Gaul, Spain, and Italy. It is a striking fitct, that, in tlus 
invasion, when they reached Northern Gaul, where the Belgians were 
already seated, the latter immediately joined them, as allies, against 
the Celts ; and it seems to be clearly proven that the Cimbri and 
the Belgians spoke dialects of the same language. 

This Cimmerian race was diffiisely scattered through the north of 
Europe, and even into Asia Minor, at an early period. 

*< Down to the seyenth century before our era, the history of the Cimbri near the EiiiiM 
remains enveloped in the fabulous obscurity of Ionian traditions ; it does not eoflOMMe 
If ith any certainty before the year 631 b. o. This epoch was fhiitftil in disturbances in thi 
west of Asia and east of Europe." 

About this time, it is to be inferred from Herodotus, the Qenesiacal 
GoMEi, GomerianSy or Kymri, abandoned the Tauric Chersonesns, and 
marched westward.^ 

We pretend not to afford a complete analysis of M. Thieny's able 
work. He has tracked out, with vast research, the settlements and 
subsequent history of the various Caucasian races of ancient Ganl; 
and to him we refer the reader for corroboration of the fiujts we are 
succinctly sketching. The re9ume at the end of his Introduction 
explains his general conclusions. lie considers the following points 
to be unanimously demonstrated by authorities : — 

<* Two great human families furnished to Gaul its ancient inhabitants : tis., the i&erift 
and the Gallic {OatdoUet) families. The Aquitanians and Ligurians appert^ned to the 
Iberian family. The Gallic family occupied, out of Gaul, the British Isles. It was divided 
into two branches or races, presenting, under a common type, essential diiferencet of lair 
guage, manners, and institutions, and forming two indiridualities widely separated.'* 

M. Thierry, notwithstanding, asserts that the Cimbri and Celts 
were branches of the same family ; but this we doubt. They were 
both fair, and strikingly contrasted with the dark-skinned, black- 
haired, and black-eyed Iberians : M. Edwards, however, proves that 
their physical characters were exceedingly different. Xo proof can 
be adduced of their common origin, beyond some affinity between 
their languages : arguments that we shall show to be no longer satis- 
factory evidence of aboriginal consanguinity. 

** The first branch had preceded, in Gaul and the neighboring Archipelago, the dawn 
of history. The ancients considered them as autochthones. From Gaul they extended to 
Spain, Italy, and Illyria. Their generic name was (7ae/, or rather a word which the Romans 
rendered by Gallut^ and the Greeks by Galat and Galatis, The latter had improperly attri- 
buted to the whole stem the denomination of Celt, which properly belonged only to its 
southern tribes. The second branch, colonised in the west of Europe since historic timei^ 

^»M reprciented in Qaol b; the Annoricaiia ui<I BetgiBot, and bf their dcscenilimta i 


liih IsUb. 


a locnl deaignation ; Belgian, the name of a belligerent c< 
^3tritioD; Cimbri, the name of a race. The relative poiiitian oC Iho two Gullic branahca 
^-«-> u fallows: the Cimbriu branch occnpied the north and treat of Guut — the east and 
■y-uth of Britun ; the Coltie branch, an the ooatrar;, the east and suuth of Onul, and the 
^f c^ wd Durlh of the BritUh lales." 

It boeomea apparent, then, from the facta detailed, and which no 
Vxistorian ■m.W question, that tlic territory of ancient Gaul was occupied, 
some 1500 yeare b. c, by at least two distinctly-marked Caiicasiaii 
races — the Celts and the Iberiana: the one faii'-skinncd and light- 
haired ; the other a dark race ; and each speaking a language bearing 
00 affinity to that of the other — precisely, for instance, as the Euakal- 
dane of tJie present Basques is unintelligible to Gaelic tribes of Lower 
Crittany. But history justifies us in going beyond thia dual division. 
Bach li/pe was doubtless a generic one, including many subordinat* 
ti-j>e9. There are no data to warrant the conclusion that either of these 
stocks was an ethnic unit. It will be made to appear, when we come 
tt> the monuments of Egypt, that various Caucasian types existed in 
K&JT^ and Asia 2000 years before the most ancient Celtic history 
l^egins ; and the same diversity of races, without question, prevailed 
sildihaiieoualy in Europe. 

lei us inquire whether some positive information cannot be obtained 
^ith regard to the tj'pes of primitive European races. The work of 
gltivfarda, to which we have already alluded,"* stands in many respects 
uoriralled. The high reputation of its author as a naturalist guaran- 
tees hia scientific competency ; and he has directed his attention into 
ou unexplored channel, After perusing Tliierry's ffistoire de» Gaulois, 
of which we have just spoken, M. Edwards made a tour of France, 
Beldam and Switzerland {i. e. ancient Gaul), and Italy, engaged in care- 
ful study of the present diversified races, in connection with their 
Hneient settlements ; and he asserts that now, at the end of 2000 years, 
the ^-pea of the Belgians (Cimbri), the Galla or Celts, the Iberians or 
-A^uit^nians, and the Ligurians, are still <^tinctly traceable among 
their living descendants, in the very localities where history at its 
Earliest dawn descries these familiea. 

Gaul has been the receptacle of other races thau those named, but 
*l>e6e were comparatively small in popular multitude ; and although 
great variety of types is now \'isible, yet M, Edwards contends 
f*4iat such exotic constituents of later times form but trivial ejtceptions, 
*.nd that three major types stand out in bold relief. 

Edwards upholds sundry physiological laws to account for this pre- 
Kcrvation of types ; and a few shall be noticed incidentally, as we go 
on. He lays down afundaraental proposition, the importance of which 
villbe at once recognized ; — 


" Where there is no natural repugnance to each other, and races meet and mix on eqid 
terms, the relative number of the two races influences greatly the result: the tjpa of te 
lesser number may disappear entirely. Take, for example, a thousand white (kmfliM tad 
one hundred black ones, and place them together on an island. The result would be, that 
the black type would after a while disappear, although there is reason to beliere that tneci 
of it would * crop out' occasionally during a yery long time. Where two &ir-8kinned nen 
are brought into contact, the extermination of one would probably sooner be cffeeted; 
nevertheless, even here, it is impossible to destroy the germ entirely. The Jem fom » 
convincing illustration of the influence of the larger over the smaller number. This, txm 
the time of Abraham to the present, has been a more or less adulterated race ; yet its tjpe 
has been predominant, is preserved, and is likely to be for ages to eome. Such i Isv ii 
well illustrated in the lower animals. Cross two domestic animals of different raca; tib 
the offspring, and cross it with one of the parent stocks ; continue this process for a Onr 
generations, and the one becomes swallowed up in the other. 

** Even where two races meet in equal numbers, which is an extreme supporiUon, inoida 
to make a uniform type they would have to pair off uniformly, one raee nith aaothtr, nd 
not each race to intermarry among themselves. This equilibrium oould not be naiatiiiied; 
and without it, each race would preserve its own type. 

** There is another tendency in nature, that interests us here particularly, and which bti 
been curiously and ingeniously illustrated by M. Coladon, of Geneva. He bred i gmi 
many whUe and ffroy mice, on which he made experiments by crosung constantly a vMti 
with a gray one. The product invaxiably was a white or a ffray mouae, with the chanetot 
of the pure race : * point de mistis, point de begarrure, rien d*interm4di^re, enfln le tjpe 
parfoit de Tune ou de I'autre varidt^. Ce cas est extreme, a la verity ; mais le prtc^dent 
ne Vest point moins ; ainsi les deux procddds sont dans la nature : aucun ne r^gne exdi- 
sivement' " *i 

The habit of reflecting on the relations in which primitive races 
are found, induces us to consider tlie following as the conditions 
which may make one or the other of these effects preponderate. 
Where races differ considerably, which animals do whenever they 
are of different species, (like, for example, the horse and the ass, 
the dog and the wolf or fox,) their product is constantly hybrid. 
If, on the other hand, they are very proximate, {tr^ voisinesy says M. 
Edwards,) they may not give birth to mixtures {melanges), but repro- 
duce pure or primitive types. 

• On examining facts closely, the greatest conformity is encountered 
precisely where we perceive, at first glance, the strongest contrast 
In the crossing of widely different races, the hybrid presents a typ< 
diverse from that of the mother; notwithstanding certiun confonnities 
So also when two proximate races reproduce the one and the other primi 
tive type, the mother gives birth to a being which differs jfrom herself 
Behold here an uniformity of facts ; but remark likewise, that in thii 
last crossing, the mother produces a being more like herself than ii 
the former case. She departs then less from the general tendency 
of nature, which is the propagation of the same types. 

** In the higher order of animals, the two sexes concur in the formation of two indiv! 
duals which represent them ; thus the mother gives birth sometimes to one made in her ow: 
image— at others to one after the image of the father. Here she prodnoet two mj distiac 


tjfO, Dotwithstntiiliag th«ir reUtiont. asd to mob • point that the mule uiid Ccmale of llie 
faiei »pecie3 often differ mote between thflmaelvea, than one or the other differs from indi- 
liJails or (he sime Bex, in proiimnte Hpecies. This ia so (rue. Umt the mule nnd il? 
trat\t. among animals nhoae hahits there bm been no opportunitj of eiunining, hnra 
fKi|n«atly been cluHstfied u distinct species j inseets and birds eBpeciull]' hate fumishcd 
numerous eismples. 

•' ll ia miuiireat that the obscrviilioDS of M. Coladon belong to (his order of facLi. consi- 
drrrd in Iheir gooerul bearing; as the mother produces two tjpes, of vthich one ropre- 
■eat* that of her own race, and the other the physical chnrnctera of the rsce of the futiier. 
Olhrr eisiDpies of the same Idnd might be presented, but this is suffioienlly striliing. 

'* Tbe nuMl important eonsideralion is, that the same phenomena are seen in tlie humnn 
nces. and, further, in the same conditions indicated. Those human races wliich differ moat 
jmxlaM coDstantly hjbiida (n/l»). It is Uius that a mulatto alwaj^s results f^om (he 
iiiIx»uro of white and blaak races. The other fact, of the reproduction of two primitive 
Ij1>e«. when the parents are of two proiliuale (cBirinM) Tarieties, ia leia notorioua, hot is 
tat, on that aeeoiuit, the less true. The fuct is common among European nations. Vie 
bikv« had frequent occasions to notice it. The phenomenon is not constant — but nliat of 
tha,c7 Crossing sometimes produces fusion, sometimes the separadoa of tjpes; wlicni'e 
arriie at this fundamental conclusion : (hat people appertaining to Tarieties of differcnl, 
laK pruximate races, in Tain unite, in the hypothetical manner we hsTe described aboie ; 
4 p«irtiiMi of ilie new generatioDs will preserre the primitiTs types." 

These facte are no less true tliaii ciirioUB; and every American, 
^rpeciall;, Lae the means at hand for verifying them. When a white 
Tftm and a Degress marrj-, the produet is a mulatto or intermediate 
^y^e. "WTien a white man and white woman marry, the one ha\-ing 
^^rrk hair, eyes and complexion, with one cast of features, and the 
^tler tight hair nnd eyes, and fair complexion, with different features, 
^t>me of the children will generally resemble one parent, some the 
otter; while others may present a mixed type, being a reproduction 
of the likeness of an ancestor (generally forgotten) of either parent. 

Every race, at the present time, is more or less mixed. A nation, 
that is, a nnmerous population, may be dispossessed of, and displaced 
from, a large extent of its territory; but this is extremely rare — 
ravages alone tumishing almost all such examples. In America. 
witness the Indians driven before the wliites, without leaving a trace 
beliind them. There is a fixed incompatibility between civilized and 
lavage man : they cannot dwell together. On the Old Continent, it 
ij not now a question of savages ; science has there to deal at most with 
lurionans ; that is, people possessing the commencements of civili- 
zation. Otherwise, it would be neither the interest of conquerors to 
drive them ail oftj nor is it iheir inclination to abandon their native 
soiJ; of which history affords abundant proof. Mjihology, fable, and 
\Jtopian philanthropy, have traced itnaginaiy pictures ; but history 
nowhere shows us a people who, first discovered in the savage state. 
afterwards invented a civilization, or learned the arts of their tUs- 
covcrets. The monuments of Egyfit prove, that Negro races havi- 
oat, during 4000 years at least, been able to make one solitary' step, m 


Negro-land, from their savage state ; the modem experience 
United States and the West Indies confirms the teachings of i 
ments and of history; and our remarks on CfraniOj hereii 
seem to render fugacious aU probabiUty of a brighter futoie foi 
organically-inferior types, however sad the thought may be. 

There is abundant evidence to show that the prindpal pi 
characters of a people may be preserved throughout a long sei 
ages, in a great part of the population, despite of climate, mixt 
races, invasion of foreigners, progress of civilization, or other 1 
influences ; and that a tt/pe can long outlive its language^ Atttor; 
gionj eustomSy and recollections. The accession of new people 
plies races, but it does not confound them : their numbers i 
creased by those which the intruders introduce, and also by 
which they create by commingling ; but all these incidents, ne^ 
less, still leave the old type in existence. 

In tracing, at this late day, ancient types of men, we shall, 
cessity, meet chiefly with those of great and powerful nations, thfi 
been able to maintain themselves more or less inviolate, ttux 
thousand difELculties, by their force or knowledge. Small and 
fractions of humanity have generally been swallowed up and 
rated, like the Guanches of the Canary Isles. The world now ad 
in civilization more rapidly than in former times, and mainly \ 
substantial reason that the higher types of mankind have so inc 
in power that they can no longer be molested by the inferior 
arguing from the past and present, can we doubt that a time 
come, when the very memory of the latter will survive solely 
page of history. The days of the aborigines of America arc 
bered ; no victorious Tartar-hordes will ever set foot again on 
pean soil; and the white races, or Japetidse, have commenc* 
career of Oriental conquest, and already " dwell in the tents of 6 

Examinations of Roman history throw important light o 
subject. The Empire was crushed by successive hordes of barbi 
but still their numbers, compared to the population of Italy, ha^ 
much overrated. The human waves of Visigoths, Vandals, 
Herulcs, Ostrogoths, Lombards, and Kormans, rolled successive 
Italy ; and yet, it may be asked, what vestiges remain, in Italj 
of these barbarian surges? The first three passed over i 
tornados. The two next, within a short time, had to contend w: 
Qoths, and were expelled fix)m the country ; and of the who! 
glomerate mass but small fragments were left, too insignificant 
rially to influence the native Italic types. The Lombards, < 
contrary, remained, and have implanted their name on a port 
Italy. The Kormans were numerically but a handful. Qaol cb 


its government and name under the Franks ; however, the army of 
Clovis was small ; while William the Conqueror subjugated England 
leith 60,000 men: but, as if to illustrate our axioms of the indelibility 
of type and the vigor of the white race, not a head in. Christendom 
that, legitimately, wears a crown — not an individual breathes in whose 
^eins flows blood acknowledged to be " royal," but traces his or her 
genealogy to this Norman colossus, William the Conqueror ! ^ 

Such are some of the great conquests of European antiquity that 
have considerably affected the condition of men and things, but 
which, notwithstanding, have not produced much alteration in the 
type of the conquered people. Some mixture of types is still seen — 
here and there the alien races "crop out," but the indigenous thou- 
sands have swallowed up the exotic hundreds. 

Conquests are often merely political, resulting in territorial annexa- 
tion or in tributary accessions, where little or no mingling of races 
takes place. Other examples there are, where the conquerors continue 
to pour into a country from time to time, and thereby greatiy influence 
native types. It is thus that the Saxons, taking possession of Eng- 
land, have perpetuated their race : but it is ever the higher type that 
in. "the end predominates. 

«* The ignorant Turk, yon say, rabjected irithout difficulty the intellectual and lettered 
Oi.oolrii: the ferocious Tartar handcuffed the polished and learned Chinese; the yioleBt 
SC<»Big(d bent under his scimetar the head of the studious Brahman ; the Vandal^ finaUy^ 
im.^wmged Rome and Italy, then the centre of European ciyilization. Take care not to aeeuse 
tti.^ idences of a humiliation entirely due to despotism, which alone degrades and debases 
hvxKBin hearts. Certainly, no one exposes his life to defend a goyemment he abhors and 
d^sflinaM. * * * Perha^ a new Tanquisher may be more generous; he cannot, at any rate, 
(Lx^XtUj himself more atrocious and more cruel than those monsters, in their infamies. ^^ 

Creative laws, as we have said, work by myriads of ages. Six cen- 
tuTies have not elapsed since TurkSy TartarSj and Mongohy appeared 
ixa. Europe. The Vandal had already disappeared. At every point 
the European continent, the remnants of these Central- Asiatic 
are melting away before the higher Caucasian types, wher- 
^"^"er complete subserviency to the latter does not suspend the extermina- 
^ou of the former. Were it not that politics are eschewed in the present 
'^'oliaine, events of the past five years might supply signal examples. 

Xn characterizing types, M. Edwards justly regards form and size 
^^4" the head, and the traits of the face, as most important : all otiier 
^^xlteria are delusive and changeable; such as hair, complexion, 
^'tii'ture, &c., though not to be neglected. Even these are less mutable, 
think, than M. Edwards supposes. There are many examples of 
Lplexion and hair resisting climates for centuries, without the 
slightest alteration ; and, in fact, we know of no authentic instance 
leie a radical change of complexion or hair has been produced. ^ 


' "We have mentioned that, in order to pat the qaestion to a practicti 
test, M. Edwards made a journey through France, Italy, Belgium, 
and Switzerland. In passing through Florence, he took occanoD to 
visit the Ducal gallery, to study the aneienl Roman type. He selected, 
in preference, the busts of the early Koman emperors, because tbej 
were descendants of ancient families. They, too, are so alike, and 
withal 80 remarkable, that they cannot be mistaken. Angruto^ 
Tiberius, Oermanicns, Claudius, Nero, Titus, &c., exempUfy liiii 
^e in Florentine collections. The following is his deacription : — 

" Tb« rertie&l diamstar of the bead is thort, uid, cooHqucntl;, A* IhM broad, ii ih 
■nmmit of the oraiiiiira is flattaoed, and the inferior mar^n of tha Jaw-bone alnuft W- 
lontal, the conlonr of the head, Tieired in front, approachei a iguart. The latenl fdti, 
aboTe the ears, are protaberant ; the forehead low ; the noM truly aqnOine, that i* t> Mf, 
the enrre oommencea near the top and ends before it reaches the point, so that the Iwtil 
hoilioDtal ; the ddn is reimd, and the stature short" [A nSor same to vij (Aos, • hi 
montlis ago, to hare a dieloeated am set. When stripped and standing befbra ue^ bt ]t^ 
sented this tjpe so perfectly, and combined irith inch eztraordinaiy dMslopment at bM 
and muscle, that there oocurrod to my mind at once the beaa-ideal of a Bomaa soUitr. 
Though the oian bad been an American sailor for twenty yean, and spoke Bd|^ *i^ 
out foreign accent, I conld not help taking where be was bom. He replied in a deep iirai 
Mice, "laBomt, sirl"— J. C. N.] 

This is the characteristic ^e of a Itoman ; but we cannot expect 
now to meet with absolute uniformi^ in any race, however seemisjclj 
pure. Buch a type M. Edwards found to predominate in Home u^ 
certiun parts of Italy at the present day. It is the ori^nal type ol 
the country, which has swallowed up all intruders, has remunei 
unchanged for 2000 years, and probably existed there from di 
epoch of creation. 

The Etniscans present an extraordinary historical enigma. Saenc 

knows not whence they came, nor whence their institutions, arts, i 

language — whether, indeed, they were indigenons to the Italian so: 

or strangers. We can trace their civilization fiir beyond that < 

Rome — more than 1000 years B. c. CSi 

tions irom Etruscan archEeologiatB, to it 

effect, are ^ven torther on. Some of tiu 

descendants now resemble Bomana, b 

tiiey present a mixed type. TheweU-kno>\ 

head of Dante affords an illustration, pet 

har, and strikingly typical ; for it is lo: 

and narrow, with a high and developed fo 

head, nose long and curved, with aharp pen 

and elevated wings. [Here is the poitr 

in question, to afford an idea of its styl 

which, however, requires to be studied op 

Dun.«> designs of a larger scale.] U. Edwarda « 


gtrnck by the great frequency of this type in Tuscany (ancient Etru- 
rift), among the peasantry ; in the statues and busts of the Medici 
femily ; and also amid the illustrious men of the Republic of Flor- 
ence, in their effigies and bas-reliefs. This type is well marked since 
the time of Dante, as doubtless long before. It extends to Venice, 
and is visible over a large extent of country. In the Ducal palace, 
](. £dwards had occasion to observe that it is common among the 
Doges. The type became more predominant as he approached Milan ; 
hence he traced it through a great part of France, and through the 
settlements of the ancient Cymbri or Belgse, who, Thierry has shown, 
occupied Cis- Alpine and Trans- Alpine Gaul. The physical charac- 
teristics of the present population, therefore, correspond exactly with 
the historical colonies ; showing'that the ancient type of this wide- 
gpread people, the Cymbri, has been preserved for more than 2000 

JLfter visiting and analyzing thoroughly the population and history 
of Italy, M. Edwards next investigated Gaul, passing by the southern 
and western part, where Thierry places the Basques or ancient Ligu- 
nans. In the other parts of France, as we have seen, there existed, 
at a remote epoch, two great femilies, differing in language, habits 
and social state; and these two formed the bulk of the ancient popula- 
tion. Examination ascertains that two dominant types even yet prevail 
throughout the kingdom, too saliently marked and distinct from each 
other to be confounded. There have been many conquests and com- 
ininglings of races ; but inasmuch as the greater number has swal- 
lowed up the lesser, no very obvious impression has been produced 
by these causes. Of the two families, the Q^alhy or Celts, and the 
Cjnnabri, or Belgse, the former should be the most numerous, becaase 
they are the most ancient, and had covered the whole country before 
the entrance of the latter: in consequence, we find that the type with 
round heads and straight noses, that of tibe Galhy has prevailed over 
that of the Cymbri. 

Oriental Gaul was occupied by the Galli proper of Caesar, whom 
TTiierry denominates "ffaZfo." Northern Gaul, including the Belgica 
and Armorica of Caesar, on the other hand, was occupied by the 
Cymbri. The population of Eastern Gaul — the Q-auh proper — 
according to the historical facts, ought to be the least mixed, because 
the Belg89 never penetrated among them by force of arms, but took 
q^niet possession of their outskirts, along the northern parts of the 

''In trmTeraing the part of France irliich correeponds to Oriental Gaol, f^om north to 
Boizth, Tix. : Burgundy, Lyona, Dauphiny, and Savoy, I have distingaished (says M. £d- 
ywMTda^) that type, so wen marked, to which we hare given the name of OaUa," 


lie thus describes the type of the Gall : 

'* The head is so round as to approach the spherical form ; the forehead is modera^ 
slightly protuberant, and receding towards the temples ; eyes large and open ; the n 
from the depression ift its commencement to its termination, almost straight — that is 
say, without any marked curve ; its extremity is rounded, as well as the chin ; the stat^ .^^ 
mediuHL It will be seen that the features are perfectly in harmony with the form of ^/ 
head." . ^ 

In the northern part of Gaul, the principal seat of the Belgse, ^^^^ 
again encounter the same striking coincidence. 

« In a previous journey I traversed a great part of the coast of OaUia Belgiea of Cw^^^ 
ftrom the mouth of the Somme to that of the Seine. It was here that I distingiiiahe<( fyf 
the first time, the assemblage of traits which constitutes the other type, and often to mkk 
an eraggerated degree that I was very forcibly struck ; the long head, the broad, hi^ fore- 
head ; the curved nose, with the point below and wings tucked up ; the chin boldly de- 
veloped ; and the stature tall." 

M. Edwards has pursued this type in. its various settlements, witt»- 
numerous and valuable scientific results. lie concludes a division o: 
his subject with the following strong language : 

"Without the preceding discussions, and the facts we have just unravelled, how eoQl( 
we recognize the Oaulait in the north of Italy, among the Sieulet, the Ligwru^ the Etrur 
cans, the Venetes, the Romans, the Goths, the Lombards f But we possess the thread 
guide us. First, whatever may have been the anterior state, it is certain, fh>m your 
searches (M. Thierry's), and the unanimous accord of all historians, that the Petq>Ua 
have predominated in the north of Italy, between the Alps and Apennines. We find thi 

established there in a permanent manner, according to the first lights of histoiy. Tl^fe^e 
most authentic testimony represents them with all the characters of a great nation, ftrom tl^^ ^ 
remote poriod down to a very advanced point of Roman history. Here is all I domain ^ 
I have no need to occupy myself with other people who have mingled with them since ; ^ 
discuss their relative numbers — the nature of their language^the duration of their 
lishment It is sufficient for me to know that the Oaulois have existed in great niimb^< 
I know the features of their compatriots in Trans- Alpine Oaul. I find them again in 
Alpine Gaul." 

It has often struck us, that, even in the heterogeneous populati^:^^ 
of our United States, we could trace these European ancient rao^^^ 
The tall figure and aquiline nose of the Cymbrian are generally se^^hQ 
together; while the traits of the Gaul are more frequently acconxtiba- 
nied by short stature. 

The Celts and Cymbri have spread th*emselves extensively throix j^h 
Eastern Europe, beyond tlic limits of Gaul and Italy : but, for .c> ur 
objects their pursuit being irrelevant, we resume the explorations of 
M. Edwards ; who, after his survey of AVestem, takes a glance at 
several other races of Eastern Europe, although he does not clain^ to 
have analyzed these with the same rigorous detail as those of Qaim^T, 

The Sclavonic type, another of the thousand-and-one Caucaai ^nna 
whose typos stretch beyond the reach of history, is thus described by 
our observant ethnologist ; and it seems to be just aa distinct ^Hmd 
sharply marked ovei* half of Europe, as that of the Jews everywli^i^i^: 



itoar of the head, riewed in front, approaches nearly to a square ; the height 
little the breadth ; the summit is sensibly flattened ; and the direction of the 
iiontaL The length of the nose is less than the distance from its base to the 
almoet straight from the depression at its root, that is to say, without decided 
but, if appreciable, it is slightly concaye, so that the end has a tendency to turn 
fbrior part is rather large, and the extremity rounded. The eyes, rather deep- 
fectly on the same line ; and when they haye any particular character, they are 
A the proportion of the head would seem to indicate. The eyebrows are thin, 
ear the eyes, particularly at the internal angle ; and fh>m this point, are often 
iliqoely outwards. The mouth, which is not salient, has thin lips, and is much 
he nose than to the top of the chin. Another singular characteristic may be 
which is yery general : yii., their small beard, except on the upper lip. Such 
BMMi type among the Polee, Silesians, Morayians, Bohemians, Sclayonio Hunga- 
m Tery common among the Russians." 

ype is also frequent through eastern Gennany, and although 
come much mixed wiik the German, their separate historical 
atB may yet be followed, and the two races traced out and 
i, like those of the Celts and Cymbri in Gaul, 
y, from its commencement, has mentioned immense Cauca- 
olations, ranging throughout northern and eastern Europe and 
Asia, to the confines of Tartar and Mongol races. ^From their 
B88, and the absence of communication, little was known an- 
bout them ; and even at the present day, they are looked upon 
ide barbarians," exciting tai^ial interest among general readers, 
mp, however, at all limes, has comprised the most numerous 
le fair-skinned races upon earth : intellectually equal to any 
To give the reader an idea of the actual extent of Sclavonic 
3 subjoin statistics, as quoted by Count Krasinski, from the 
an Ethnography of Schafterick : — 

», or 

ns ^ 


18 .. 



18 and 


I, or 


• «•••• •«•••• 





























Saxony.' Total. 














the same North British Review we extract sufficient to illus- 


irate our own views; but nothing adequate to evince the ability 
of the best article we have met with on these SMava. 

'* Much confusion has been produced by the constant use in books of words denotiDg thi 
supposed state of flux and restlessness in which the earlj nations of Europe liyed. Th 
natural impression, after reading such books, is, that masses of people were contini 
coming out of Asia into Europe, and driTing others before them. . . . Bat eare mast 
taken to confine these stories of wholesale colonization to their proper place in the ani 
historic age. For all intents and purposes, it is best to conceiye that at the dawn of 
historic period the leading European races were arranged on the map pretty much as tl:^ 
are now. Regarding the Slavonians, at least, this has been established ; they are not^ 
has generally been supposed, a recent accession out of the depths of Am^ bnt tat 
an aboriginal race of Eastern, as the Germans are of Central Europe. In short, haqf ^a 
Roman geographer of the days of the Empire adyanced in a straight line from the Atlanti -^ -^ 
to the Pacific, he would have traversed the exact succession of races that is to be met 
the same route now. First, he would have found the Celts occupying as far as the Rhine ^- 
thence, eastward to the Vistula and the Carpathians, he would have foand C^ennansr^ 
beyond them, and stretching away into Central Asia, he would have found the 
Scythians — a race which, if he had possessed our information, he would have diyided ints' 
the two great branches of the Slavonians or European Scythians, and the Tatars, Turks, 
or Asiatic Scythians ; and, finally, beyond these, he would have found Mongolian hord< 
overspreading Eastern Asia to the Pacific. These successive races or populations he 
haTe found shading off iuto each other at their points of junction ; he would haye remark< 
also a general westward pressure of the whole mass, tending toward mutual rapture 
invasion, the Mongolian pressing against the Tatars, the Tatars against the SclaTonians.. 
the Slavonians against the Germans, and the Germans against the Celts. 

'*The Slavonians, we have said, are an aboriginal European branch of the 
Scythian race."-*^ 

One of the most striking examples in history of preservation o 
type, after tlie Jews, is that of the Magyar race in Hungary. Coarr^^ 
pletely encircled by Sclavonians, they have been living there for IOC^q 
years, speaking a distinct language, and still presenting phyeii 
charactei's eo peculiar as to leave no doubt of their foreign origin. 

**Head nearly round, forehead little developed, low, and bending; the eyes pla- 
obliquely, so that the external angle is elevated ; the nose short and flat ; mouth promin^^^^J 
and lips thick ; neck very strong, so that the back of the head appears flat, forming ^l**r^^^ j 
a straight line with the nape ; beard weak and scattering ; stature small.*' ^"^ 

This picture, which is a faithful description of a modem Hungary ^^ 
of the Magyar race, corresponds with the accounts given of this peo;j>7g 
by older writers, and of the ancient Huns. 

History teaches that the Huns settled in Hungary in the fifth c^ n. 
tury after Christ, and to these succeeded a body of the Magyars, uticX er 
AiiPAD, in the ninth. The type of the two races was identical. Tfciis 
type, so peculiarly exotic, is totally unlike any other in Europe. It 
belongs to the great Uralian-Tatar stem of Asia. The derivation is 
conceded by every naturalist, from Pallas to the present day: but \ i — i^ 

a curious fact that, although differing in type, the Magyars apAflL ^ 

dialect of the language of the Fins; and the two races must have be^ ^\i 
a/^sociated in some way at a remote epoch, previously to the 8ettC>-l>^ 


meot of the Magyars in Hungaiy. De Guignes had traced other 
connections, making also the grand error of confounding the Hum 
with the Chinese Ebung-nou : but that identity of language is no 
irrefragable argument in fevor of identity of race, will be a positive 
lesnlt of the researches in this Tolume. 

Grecian annals afford an instructive lesson in the histoiy of types 
of mankind. We trace her circumstantial history, with sufficient 
tnithfiilness, some centuries beyond the foundation of Rome, and her 
traditions back to about the epoch of Moses. This we can do with 
enough certainty to know, that Ilellenic Europe was then populated, and 
marching toward that mighty destiny which has been the wonder and 
object of imitation of all subsequent ages. Who were the people that 
achieved so much more than all others of antiquity ? And what was 
there in climate and other local circumstances that could produce 
such intelligence, coupled with the noblest physical type ? Or, we 
may ask, did Greece owe her marvellous superiority to an indigenous 
lace? The HeUene9 and Pelasgi are the two races identified with her 
earliest traditions ; but when we appeal to history for their origin, or 
seek for the part that each has played in the majestic drama of anti- 
qui^, there is little more than conjecture to guide us. Greece did 
not come fidrly within the scope of M. Edwards's researches, yet he 
has yentored a few note-worthy observations, in connection with the 
point before us. He thinks the same principles that governed his exami- 
nation of Gaul may be applied to Greece ; and that the Hellenes and 
Pehugi might be followed, ethnologically, like the Celts and Cymbri. 
Everybody speaks of the Oreek type^ regarded as the special charac- 
teristic of that country, referring it to a beau-ideal conformation. 
Nevertheless, all ancient monuments of art in Greece exliibit a wide 
diversity of types, and this at every period of their sculpture. M. Ed- 
wards draws a happy distinction between the heroic and the historic 
age of Greece: the first, if chiefly fabulous, has doubtless a semi- 
lii?torieal foundation ; the latter is the true historic age — althougli 
no people of antiquity appears to have conceived the "historical idea" 
correctly ; nor is it popularly understood, even at the present day, 
among ourselves. 

" Most of the diTinities and personages of the heroie times/* says M. Edwards, *' are 

formed on the same model that constitutes what we term the heau-idedL The forms and 

^•portions of the head and features are so regular that we may describe them with mathe- 

Bitiesl precinon. A perfectly oval contour, forehead and nose straight, without depres- 

noB between them, would suffice to distinguish this type. The harmony is such that the 

presence of these traits Implies the others. But such is not the character of the person- 

tfes of truly kittoric times. The philotop hers ^ oratora^ tcarriorsj taidpoeUf almost all differ 

from it, and form a group apart It cannot be confounded with the first — I will not 

ttteapt to deserilM it here. It is sufficient to point it out, for one to recognize at once 

^v &r it is MpftTftled. It greatly resembles, on the contrary, the type which ia sedQ in 

other countries of Europe, while the former is scarcely met with there." 



To fiicilitate the reader's appredation of the difieiencee betirixt 
the heroie and the hittorie t^pee, the following heads are Beleeted: 

Via. S — Stroic t7p« ; mpMsf allj No. i." 

Pmup AxuDxos.n 


B lineaments of Lycorgas and Eratosthenes, excepting the 
, are such aa those one meets with daily in our streets ; and the 
applies to the other familiar personages whose portraits we 

rt wt to Jiidg« solely by the moniiments of Greece, on account of the contrast I 
iated oat, we should be tempted to regard the type of the fabulous or heroic per- 
BS kieaL Bat imagination more readily creates monsters than models of beauty ; 
I prineiple alone will suffice to conyince ns that it has existed in Greece, and the 
« where its popolataon has spread, if it does not still exist there." 

I learned travellers, MM. de Staceelberg and be BrDnsteb, 
oumeyed through the Morea, and closely investigated the popu- 
They assert that the herate type is still extant in certain 
ies.^ Here, then, there has been a notable preservation of a 
wtype — within a small geographical space — through time, 
Eeimines, plagues, immigrations, multi&rious foreign conquests; 
gh the Greeks of the historic type are, out of all proportion, 
ost abundant at the present day; which is precisely what, 
the circumstances, an ethnographer would have expected. 

people n*a eonserr^ aTOc plus de fid^it^ la langue de ses ueux. Nnl peuple n*a 
plus d'usages, plos de coutumes, plus de souyenirs des temps antiques ; an milieu 
I mors d'Argos, de Mycine et de Tyrinthe, qui dej& du temps d'Hom^re 4taient 
late antiquity, sont encore dobout : des Rapsodes parcourent encore le pays, et 
i aree le mime accent et les mdmes paroles, les ^T^nements memorables : eux- 
oat I'image de eeux que ces souyenirs rappelent ayec tant de force ; et la ressem- 
es traits est rehauss^e par la similitude des ^y^nements. 8*ils ne repr^sentent pas 
ipport de la ciyilisation leurs ancStres des beaux si^cles de la Grece, ils repri^sen- 
i qui les ont am^n^s." 

the two types indicated, it is positive, M. Edwards thinks, 
le first (heroic) is pure: but not certain that the second (historic) 
may be, that the latter is the result of a mixture of the first 
lome othep, the elements of which are now unknown to us ; 
\e it does not seem to be suftieiently uniform to be original. 
, if we set forth with M. Edwards to hunt for the required 
Qts of modification through Greece, (giving to this name its 
jxtensive sense) — 

discoyer a people that has not been sufiBciently studied. They speak a language 
to themselyes. It is not known whence they come, nor when they established 
res there. The Albanians seem to be in some respects in Greece, what the Basques 
be two sides of the Pyrenees, the Bretons in France, the Gaels in England, and 
10 speak the Erse in Scotland and Ireland — a remnant of ancient inhabitants, 
regard them as such, if it be true that we can find no trace of their foreign origin 
traditions, history, nor in the comparison of language T Why may they not be 
mta of the PdatgiV^ [They call themseWes <' Skippetar '" but their Turkish name 

\ ethnological question of heroic and historic types, mooted by 

ds, is worthy of careftil study ; but we must pass on. 



_.rg-nrg of sootlieni And -western EEPOfw. 

1. feloii^i to i^o «^ dierinct 

; btit ll 

^ _._ , ^. nme. recici^«»i xnAny accretions finHn odur tnb 
*"^ . "^ ^,,jj^ ^ pLoeniciAn^^ Pelasgiana, Cretans^ Bkod 

/^jr^cL^tiAOTii^ Fhocians, Saracens, Huns, ic. 

^ HI: reneric iiAracteis of the two primitive races may 1m 

^d -'^^ comE«»tive columns we subjoin ; and, akhong^ i 

Iiv itl^ impoeable to separate completely elements so inU 

'" -'r-^rk there is much truth in his observations, and rE 

^ ■ ^"^ -_ ^ ♦r. a hook that teems with solid material for refl< 

•sajr e time to a uw^ »^*- 


<*Head gcnermlly anil, d 
nrely square, fom; •;«■ bb 
or bordering on tlMMCokm; k 
black, Bometimes red; bvt tfia 
binism, which is a patholopea] 

" Short stature, and brown i 
•ensoalitj more derdoped timi 

.*BI.05D RACE. 

new B-- y^^ ^^ bordering 

bttt widwitt Albiniwa- 

^.H, and skin ftir. InloTe,na- 

_r.i. inclination to sentiment 
turn! ehastirr^ witn u»— 

>, • . -,^«. to dwoee a «y«teni of poli- 
m..k^ .oa^^e^ ^ ^ monarchical 

. bV.Kl or n4'i«*rion, long Toyages, ad- 
ikoca by the pastoral or nomadic 



■ v'wututo 

quit. lifcHO i»ocu a*v«loved in pWns, on the 
I \ . I ij. » oa*t vi^ vr«» on the coasts of large 
ii, .1 ,.i %» .kt«^^« '*"''* ^** countries which pos- 
■ . . t ^ L iuuilM s^i communication. 

ATerrion to all nnitarj 
great assemblies or leagues, 
position to life in a social t 

** Tenacious of their locality 
distant expeditions. 

** Haye commenced by the 
state, and fixed habitations. I 
telopcd in mountains, island 
tries, lacking natural channela 
cation. Haye at all timet b« 
the exploration of minei. 




"In var, pr«fer oKnhj to infantrj, the 

jttsok to defence^ open moTements to am- 

£>ase*<le8, pitched battlee to small combats. 

*t tiuah, impetaoQslj into danger. 

** Unreseired, gaj, fond of noise, orations, 

itrong drinks, and good eating. Frank and 

<» Minds natnrallj open to doubt, to ex- 
gii0»tion, to discussion. Tolerant, and hold 
^0 the religious idea rather than to forms. 

** Seek strangers, noveltiee, and ameliora- 
lioiftS. Inconstant, Tiolent, and impetuous, 
liat casilj forgiTO injuries. 

«« Jkre eminently sympaUietic, initiatory, 

kx-ching incessantly towards new ends. 

•« From its origin, has been under the in- 
te^s^M ^ odd dimates. 

« ^ Its faculties derelop in the North. 

« •^ It produces, in preference, savans, re- 
{^s-vners, creators of systems — philosophers : 
n^^n whose genius is manifested by profound 
j^^rditations, by elevated reason, by sang 
f^'^ii, by coldness and investigation. Thus, 
^«^c<a, Luther, Descartes, Liebnitz, New- 
l^t^ CaTier, Washington, and Franklin. 

^ Predonunance of the aristocratic ele- 
j^ent, and political influence accorded to 

*'It8 Tarieties are, the Cdtie, which is di- 
^ded into the Gaelic, Belgio, and Cymbric ; 
tiieo the Oermanie, divided into Germans, 
Franks, Yandals, Goths, Angles, Saxons, 
Scandinavians, and other blue-eyed nations, 
which have played so important a part in 
the formation of the modem nations of 

** Of Asiatic origin, it penetrated Europe 
from ike East and N5rth ; thus, the Volga 
aiMl the Baltic 

** Considered in relation to the countries 
wbere we first see them, they are Stnm' 


'* In war, prefer infantry to cavalry, de- 
fence to attack, ambuscades to open move- 
ments, and guerillas to pitched battles. 

** Await danger with firmness. 

'< Uncommunicative, sober. Perfidious and 

'* Credulous, intolerant, fanatical ; attach- 
ed to religious forms rather than the idea ; 
and reject discussion, doubt, and inquiry. 

« Hold strongly to andent usages ; feel a 
repugnance wiUi regard to strangers. 

« Unsjrmpathetic ; possess, to an extreme 
point, the genius of resistance ; tend pecu> 
liarly to-immobility and isolation. 

« From its origin, has been under the in- 
fluence of hot climates. 

" Its faculties develop in the South. 

'* It produces, in preference, orators, war- 
riors, artists, poets : men whose genius ma- 
nifests itself by the exaltation of sentiments 
and ideas, by enthusiasm, a rapid concep- 
tion. Thus, Hannibal, Cicero, Cesar, Mi- 
chelangelo, Tasso, Napoleon. 

"Predominance of the democratic ele- 
ment, and little political influence granted 
to women. 

'*Its varieties are, the AtlanteSy divided 
into Libyans and Berbers ; next, the Iberi- 
ant, dirided into the Sicanians, Ligurians, 
Cantabrians, Asturians, Aqnitanians, and 
other people of brown skins, who have 
played an important part in the formation 
of Uie ancient nations of Europe. 

" Aborigines of Atlantis [ ? ] ; penetrated 
Europe from the South and West; thus, 
Spain and the Ocean. 

'* Conddered in relation to the countries 
where we first see them, they are Autoc- 

!M. Bodichon, with most writers, thinks that the blond race entered 
Evirope originally from Asia, and many strong reasons support this 
position, in respect to those races found in Gaul and in countries 
rxorth of it, during the recent times of the Greeks and Romans. Older 
ra,ce8, notwithstanding — fated like our American aborigines — may 
have been exterminated by them, or have become amalgamated 
vrith them. He supposes these blond immigrants from Asia to have 
been of the same race as the BjfkioSy who conquered and took posses- 




QCm of ^ypt 8ome 2000 jeais s. c ; bat our jnodificatioitB 
yiew. fironL the study of her mODoineiitB, will appear in tfieirp 
>- Od wrinns in O^ol, the Gmdi linad ika bank* of th* Bhooe, tha OanMM ail I 
IB powMBMk ot A p«apU «bo ^okc a ifiTcRBt laDgnage and bad fCcrcBt onga 
ma dMB iMiw«»«Mial. bad enawd ihc FTraaca, and ^M tbe aoa a* tnt « 

About the time alladed to, there seems to have been a gre 
motion tanoag the white races of Asia; and the Gaals or Ce 
peihape the Hyksos, (whose name means " royal ^epherd, 
have been diverging streams of the same stock. Dr. Morton 
cat a head, often repeated on the monmnents of Egypt; w1 
regards as of Celtic stock. These 
called '"Tokkari" in hieroglyphics, 
sonera in a sesr-fight of RutSES HL 
XXth dynas^, aboat the tiiirteenth 
B. c. They are, without qaestif 
Toehari of Stkabo. In lus mai 
r,g, y "Letter to Mr. GUddon," Dr. Mof 

^fcX .'/\/ pntea these people to 

' '' ' "Hare atroag CtUic featnna; a* Men In 

Emc, th« Urge and imgnlarij-fomed bow, wi 
and a ocrtaia hanbncaa of aiprcMon, whicb if 
iatio of tha same people io all their Taried 
TboM wbo are familiar with tbe Sontlieni H 
(of fcotlMid) maj neeg^ie a ipeaklng TeHmblanM."^ 

But the interest in them is gre 
hanced by cnneiform discovery. 

Here are the same "Tokkari. 
Assyrian monnments of the age of 
CHERIB, abont B. c. 700." 

It is, to say the least, a veiy rem 
fiict, that we find npon Egyptian 
ments, bepnning from the XVJ 
nasty, B. c. 1600, portraits in pr 
corresponding in all partdculare \ 
blond races of Europe, whose 
histoiy opens as far west as Gi 
Germany: and now Assyrian bc 
present us with the same blond 
the VHth and Vlllth contuiy bel 

When the two races first met in 
the blond fivm the Bouth-cast and 1 
from the west, they encountered eai 
as natural enemies, and a severe 

Fia. 10. 


foeaed. The Giaels finally forced their way into Spain, and eata- 
fi/ished themselves there ; became more or lets amalgamated with 
(jje darker occiipants, and were called the Celt-lberiant. Theeo two 
(«-pes have ever since been commingling ; hut a complete fuaion has 
gxot taken place, and the tj-pea of each are etill clearly traceable. 
f^txe pristine population of the British Isles was probably Iberian; 
i^rid their type is still beheld in many of the dark-haired, dark-eyed 
aiifl dark-skinned Irish, aa well as occasionally in Great Britain itself. 
The enormous antiquity of the Iberians in Europe is admitted on 
0II hands; but their origin has been a subject of infinite disputes. 
Til*!'' tj-pe, both moral and physical, is so entirely distinct from that 
o£ the ancient fair-skinned immigrants from Asia, that it would be 
lixiphilosopliical to claim for both a common source, in the present 
gti&te of knowledge. 

3)uP0NCEAn long ago wTOte of the Basque, living representative 
ff£ the Iberian tongue — 

• *Tlui langnKge, preserved in ■ comer of EuTope. bj a fev thoTuand mountaineera, la 
j^»^ sole rfmaining frftgmcat of, perhaps, a hondred diaUcta, conBlructed on Ihe name plui, 
^ylkich probabi; existed, and vere univereullf spoken at n remote period, io that quarter 
pf tht world. Uke the boiiea of the muaiiaoth, and the relics of unknomi races whicli 
^^«( perished, it rerauoa a monnment of the destruction produced bj a miccession of ages. 
1%. miAi nngle and atone of its kind, surrounded by idiom* vhose nodeni coostruotion 
fy^^n 00 analog; to it." 

We borrow the quotation from Prichaed,*^ who has profoundly in- 
■^estigated the theme ; aud this idea of the antiquity of the Ba»que or 
•- Jberic " tongue, tenued " Euskaldune " by its speakers, is eloquently 
exemplified by Latham. 

" Jmt tx, in geology, the great primary strata underlie the more recent Buperimpoeed 
foTOmlioni, so does an older und more primitive population represent the original occu- 
pcata of Europe and Asia, previous to the eiteoBion of the never, and (bo to say) aecood- 
mrj — the Indo-Germane. 

" And jast as, in geology, the seoondsry and tertiary strata are not so contiouous hut 
tiMt tiio primar; formations may, at intervals, shovr themselves through them, so bIbo do 
the fngmeots of the primary papulation still exist — disco atinuous, indeed, but still Gnpable 
of being reeogniied. 

•* With Buoh a view, the earliest European population was onto homogcneooe, from Lap- 
laad to Orenada, from Tomea to Gibraltar. But it has been overlaid and diflplnced : the 
only remnants extant being (lie Finns and Lnplnoders, protected by their Arctic clinmte, 
tlie Basques by their Pyreaean ftLstoetaeB, and, perhaps, the next nation in order of notice. 
Tli« Euskaldune is only one of the isolated languages of Europe. There is another — the 

There was, truly then, an Iberian world before the Celtic world.^^ 
■*Personi," continues Bodichon, ■■ who have inhabited Brittany, and then go to Algeria, 
Kr« itnek with the resemblance which they discover between the ancient Armorioans {the 
Br4l^) ud the CabyEes {0/ Algeria). In fact the moral and physical character is identical 
Tb* Mian of pure blood has a bony head, light yellow complexion, of bistre linge, eyes 
M«ck or brown, statore short, and the black hair of the Cabyle. Like him, he instinol- 
ively hates strangers. In both the same perversenees and ohstinaoy, same endurance of 


fktigae, same love of independence, same inflexion of Toioe, same ezpretsion of feeling 
Listen to a Cabyle speakinphis natiTe tongue, and you will think yoa hear a Breton talkin* 

The Bretons to this day form a striking contrast with the people 
around them, who are — 

'* Celts, of tall statnre, with blue eyes, white skins and blond h^ — thej are eoi 
manieatiTe, impetaous, yersatile ; they pass rapidly firom conrage to timidity, and fr» 
andaoity to despair. This is the distinctive character of the Celtic race, now, as in 
ancient Gauls. 

" The Bretons are entirely different: they are taciturn ; hold strongly to their ideas 
usages ; are perscTering and melancholic ; in a word, both in morale and phytiqiu, thi 
present the typt of a southern race — of the Atlanteant [AtalantideB, Btrberif^** 

The early history of the world is so enshrouded in darkness, th^sa^t 
science leaves us to probabilities in all attempts to explain the mann^^^f 
of the wandering of nations from primitive seats. 

** Formerly,*' says Bodichon, " northern Africa was joined to Europe by a tongue ^^^ 
land, afterwards diyided by the Straits of Qibraltar. The eruembU of the Atlantic goil^ -^ 
tries formed the [imaginary] island of Atlantis. Is it not probable that the Atlanteant, f*«^^;. 
lowing the coast, penetrated Spain, Gaul, and reached Armoricaf In contact with ^^^ 
Celts, may they not haye adopted some of their usages ? These AfHoan tribea, too, mi^^^ 
hare reached Europe by sea. The Atlanteans, among the ancients, passed for the fkTo>*j^ 
children of Neptune ; they made known the worship of this god to other nations — to ^ 
Egyptians, for example. In other words, the Atlanteans were the first known naTigatoni 
Like all nangators, they must have planted colonies at a distance — the Bretons (race ^^ 
ioHm) in our opinion sprang f^om one of them." ® 

Our historical proofs of the early diversity of Caucasian ^^pes in 
Europe might be greatly enlarged ; but the fact will be admitted by 
every candid student of ancient history, who, to the propositions that 
we have already supported by cumulative testimony, will add iho&^ 
more recently established in Scotland, through the inestimable 
searches of Dr. Daniel Wilson and his erudite fellow-laborers : 

" The Oeltss, we hare seen reason to believe, are by no means to be regarded es 
primal heirs of the land, but are, on the contrary, comparatiTely recent intrnders. Ap > 
before their migration into Europe, an unknown Allophylian raoe had wandered to 
remote island of the sea, and in its turn gaye place to later Allophylian nomadea, also di 
tined to occupy it only for a time. Of these antehistorical nations, Archeology 
rereals any traces." ® 

For our immediate objects, however, the acknowledgment ih .^at 
Europe and Asia Minor were covered, at epochas antecedent to @^&11 
record, by dark as well as by fair-skinned races, sufiGLces. The &rtlk^ er 
back we journey chronologically, the more conflicting become tTZSie 
tribes, and the more salient their organic diversities; and no reflecti":«ag 
man can, at the present day, cast his eye upon the infinitude of (m "»e8 
now extant over this vast area, and disbelieve that their origiik^ ^Is 
were already located in Europe in ages parallel with the earliest pv"^ ra- 
mids of Egj'pt, nor that some of them were indigenous to the Europ^san 
soil. The reader will hardly controvert this conclusion, after he "iiaa 
followed us through the types of mankind depicted upon anca^^ixt 




Tub historical people famishes so striking an example of the perma- 
nenoe of a Gauea$ian type, throughout ages of time, and in spite of 
d the climates of the globe, that we assign it a chapter apart ; and 
if indelibility of type be a test of specific character, the Jews must be 
r^arded as a primitive stock. 

If the opinion of M. Agassiz, which coincides with what we have 
long maintained, viz., that mankind were created in nationsy be cor- 
net, it follows that, in reality, there is no such thing as a pure Abra- 
Imk race ; but that this so-called ^^ race" is made up of the descend- 
ttti of many proximate races, which had their origin around ^^ IJr of 
tte Chaldees." 

We have already set forth that the various zoological provinces 
ponees their groups of proximate species of animals, plants, and 
noes of men ; which differ entirely from those of other provinces, 
h fike manner, around the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates, for 
n indefinite distance, and extending westward to the land of Canaan 
on the Mediterranean, were grouped certain races bearing a general 
lesmiblance to each other, although of distinct origins. This is not 
simply a conjecture ; because we see these races painted and sculp- 
turoi on the monuments of Assyria and Egypt. The striking 
lesemblance of physical characters among the whole of them is unmis- 
tdreable, and wherever the portrait of another foreigner to their stock 
is introduced, the contrast is at once evident. 

Let us, in the first place, take a glance at the history of the JewB, 
18 given by their own chroniclers. In GenesiSy chap, xi., we are told 
that Abraham, their great progenitor, is descended in a direct line 
from Shem, the son of Noah. Only ten generations intervene between 
Shem and Abraham ; and the names, ages, and time of birth of each, 
being given by the Hebrew writers themselves, we are enabled to 
ascertain, with much precision, the length of time they estimated 
between the Jewish date of the flood and the birth of Abraham. 
According to the Hebrew text, which must be regarded as the most 
tnthentic, it was 292 years. 

It is certainly reasonable to infer that Abraham inherited, through 
ttese few generations, the type of Shem and Noah (supposing the 


latter to be historical personages) ; for there are many examples whei 
races have preserved their types for a much longer time; andtl 
Jews themselves, as we shall show, have maintained their own typ 
from the epoch assigned to Abraham, down to the present day. TI 
era of Abraham has been variously estimated, fix>m 1500 even 
2200 years B. c. ; which would give to his descendants at least oi 
hundred generations, according to the common rules of vital stati8ti< 

It should be kept in view that we*are here treating the Book( 
Genesis according to the vulgar understanding of its language. ! 
Pabt n., and in the Supplement, it is shown that a &r different eo 
struction has been adopted by the best scholars of the day; w 
regard the so-called ancestori of Abraham as geographicid names 
nationsy and not as individuals. 

The inadequacy of King James's Version to express literally 1 
meaning of Hebrew writers, compels us to follow the Bible of Cah 
Du-ector of the Israelite School of Paris, and one of the ablest tn 
lators of the day. This work, printed under the patronage of Loi 
Philippe, commenced in 1831, and completed its twenty-i 
volumes in 1848: "ia BiblCy Traduction NouvelUy avee TBSi 
en regard; accompagrii des poinU-voyellee et des aceen8-4anique$j t 
des notes philologiqueSy geographique% et litteraires; et les varm 
des Septante et du texte Samaritain.*' There is nothing lik< 
in the English language ; nor shall we discuss Old Testament qi 
tions with those who are unacquainted with Cahen and the Hd 
Text Neither must the reader infer, from our general conformity t 
the ordinaiy mode of expression, that we regard the document 
Genesis otherwise than from the scientific point of view. 

The country of Abraham's birth was Upper Mesopotamia, betw 
the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates, not veiy fer from the mU 
Nineveh ; and, after his marriage with Sarai, his history thus c 
tinues : — 

<* And Terah took Abram, hU son, and Lot the son of Haran his son's son, and San 
daughter-in-law, his son Abram's wife ; and thej went forth together firom Ur of the ( 
dees [AUR-EaSDIM], to go into the land of Canaan; and thej came unto Hanoi 
dwelt there, and the days of Terah were 205 years, and Terah died in Haran. 

" Now leHOoaH said nnto Abram, Get thee out of thy eoufUry and/rom thy bHk-piaei 
from thy father's house, unto a land which I will show thee. And I will make of'tb 

great nation, and I will bless thee, and I will aggrandize thy name, and thou thalt 

blessing." 64 

Accordingly, Abraham and Lot, with their families and their £lo< 
journeyed on, "and in the land of Canaan they arrived." "i 
leHOuaH appeared unto Abram and said. Unto thy seed will 1 1 
this land." 

They were soon driven to Egypt, by a grievous fiimine, to beg c 



of tlie Pharaoh who then ruled over that country ; but, after a jliort 
gojo^Tu there, they returned to the Promised Land, and pitched their 
fen*s again on the very spot from which they had been taken. "And 
ti^t Canaunite and the Perizzite then dwelled in the land," 

_Abram and Lot soon separated ; and " Abram stmek his tents, and 
ca.x«ie, and cHfabliahed himself in the grove of Mamre, which is near 
£71:»ebrou, and there he built an altar to loHOuall." In bis eighty- 
gjac:*h year of age,Abram'B Egyptian concubine Haqar (whose name 
jjK^^ans detert, atone) gave buih to Isiimael; who, launched into Ara- 
j)i c«Ji deserts, became the legendary parent of Bedouin tribes ; while, 
(o us, he is the earliest Bibhcal instance of the mixture of two types 

- Semitic and Egyptian. 

Then the patriarch's name was changed : " Thou sbalt no longer 
l,_^!! called ABRaM {father of At> Wand) ; thy name shall be ABRaHaM 
(^^^fltA*r of a multitude), because I have rendered thee parent of many 

Sarah, at ninety years of age, gave birth to Isaac, IT«KAaK, 
t. *- Isughter." Her own name, also, had previously been changed : 
*.* Thou shait no longer call her SaRal Qatlyship], her name is now 
^aiiall [a woman of great /ecunditj/y' "^ She died at the age of one 
"tafindred and twenty-seven years, and was buried in the family cave, 
i^liich Abram had purchased in Canaan. Wishing then to dispose 
of hie eon Isaac in niarriage, Abraham said to his most aged slave, "I 
will make thee awear by lellOuaH, God of the skieB and God of the 
earth, that thou ehalt not take_/br mp son of the daughters of the Ca- 
naanite [nothcr-landera] amongst whom I dwell, but thou sbalt go 
into mj/ country, and to my birth-place, to take a woman for my soa 
Isaac."*' And, accordingly, the slave went back into Mesopotamia, 
utitro the city of Nahor, and brought Rebecca, the cousin of Isa;^, 
wliom the latter married. 

The next Unk in the genealogy is Jacob ; who, after defi-auding hio 
brother Esau of liis birthright, retired, from prudential motives, into 
tlie land of his forefathers, and there married Leah and Rachel, tho 
twc daughters of Laban. Isaac lived to he one hundred and eighty, 
&nd Jacob one hundred and forty-seven years old ; and they were 

■ l>oth deposited in the family cave, or mausoleum. So tenacious w^ro 
tbey of their customs, that Jacob, after being embalmed with gr^-at 
ceremony, was carried all the way back from Egypt, as was aftenvards 
his BOB Joseph, to repose in the same family burial-place ; which, 

k »t«.r Supplement shows, is not a cave called "Machpelah," but "the 

L cavern of the field contracted for, facing Mamre." 

■ Here closes tlie history of those generations which preceded tl.e 
H departure of the Israelites for Eg;v'pt ; and the evidence is clear, up to 

Ll__ ^ 


this epoch, as to the extreme particnlarity (Ishhael being outlawed) 
with which they preserved the purity of their blood, as well as tli« 
custom of " sleeping with their fathers." 

Who the Canaanites were has been amply treated in Part XL It 
suffices here to note that Knd, means ^^ low ;" and that Canaanitos, 
as lowlanderSj were naturally repugnant, at first, to the ABBaMiifae, 
or " highlanders" of Chaldsean hills. 

Let us follow this peculiar people through the next remaikablepage 
of their history. The whole sept amounted to seventy peisons in 
number, viz. : Jacob and his eleven sons, who, with their fiunOieB^ 
by the invitation of Joseph, the twelfth, migrated to Egypt; and were 
thereupon settled in the land of Goshen, apart from the Egyptiana. 
Thus secluded, they must have preserved their national type tolerably 
unchanged down to the time of the Exodus, when they carried it back 
with them to the land of Canaan. Exceptional instances fortify the 
rule : else why should the genesiacal writer particularize the maniage 
of Joseph with ASNeiTA (the devoted to the goddess Ninth), daughter 
of PoTiPHAR (PET-HEE-PHRE, the belonging to the gods Banu and 
Ba — " priest of On," Heliopoli9\ an Egyptian woman ? * Judah had 
begotten illegitimate children by the Canaanite Shtjah ;• Mosbs, boni 
and educated in Egypt so thoroughly as to be called a ^^Mmit$ 
man,**'^ had wedded an Arabian Zipporah, T«i-PARaH (literally 
daughter of the god i2a), the daughter of Jethro, a pagan ^^ piiei 
of Midian :" "^ and, besides the GouM AdEaB, Arab-horde (fialsd 
rendered "mixed multitude"*^), that journeyed with the Sinaic Israe 
ites, and with whom there must have been illicit connexions, there wi 
at least one son of an Egyptian man, by an Israelitish woman, in tfa 
camp.'^ Other examples of early Hebrew proclivity can be found 
but these suffice to indicate exceptions to the law afterwards promu 
gated. Under the command of Joshua, the land of Canaan was coi 
quered, and divided amongst the twelve tribes ; and from that tun 
down to the final destruction of the Temple by Titus (70 a. d.), 
period of about 1500 years, this country was more or less occupied b 
them. They were, however, almost incessantly harassed by civil an 
foreign wars, captivities, and calamities of various kinds ; and the 
blood became more or less adulterated with that of Syro- Arabian rao< 
around them ; the type of whom, however, did not differ material] 
from their own. 

We shall not impose on the patience of the reader, by recapitola 
mg the long list of evidences which are found in history, both sacrc 
and profane, to prove the comparative purity of the blood of tl 
Israelites down to the time of their dispersion (70 a. n.). The avoi< 
a nee of marriages with other races was enjoined by their religioi 


mid this custom has been perpetuated, in an extraordinaiy degree, 
^j^rough all their wanderings, and under aU their oppressions, down 
^ -tlie present day. 

I?ut, while all must agree that the Jews have, for ages, clung 
-j^g^ether with an adhesiveness and perseverance unknown, perhaps, to 
^tky other people, and that their lineaments, in consequence, have 
\y^^n preserved with extraordinary fidelity; it must, on the other 
li^bXid, be admitted that the race has not entirely escaped adultera- 
tion^ ; and it is for this reason that we not unfrequently see, amongst 
ttxose professing the Jewish reli^on, faces which do not bear the 
gf;^irmp of the pure Abrahamic stock. We have only to turn to 
tti.^ records of the Old Testament, to find proofe, on almost eveiy 
r»J*ir^j ^^^ ^^ ancient Hebrews, like the modem, were but human 
^^M^ings, and subject to all the infirmities of our nature. Even those 
rnerable heads of the Hebrew monarchy, whose names stand out 
the land-marks of sacred history, were not untarnished by the 
.oral darkness which covered the early inhabitants of the earth. 
The histoiy of the connubial life of the patriarchs, Abraham and 
Jacob, presents a picture quite revolting to the standard of our day. 
^^iier the promulgation of the Mosaic laws, the Israelites were 
expressly forbidden to intermarry with aliens; and yet the injunction 
was often disregarded. Abraham, besides his Arab wife Ketourah, 
and Joseph, as just shown, had both taken women from among the 
%yp1ian8 ; and Moses had espoused an Arab (Cushite ?). David, the 
msax after God's own heart, long after the promulgation of the law, 
flot; only had his concubines, but so far forgot himself as to commit 
AdcLlteiy with Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, the Hittite ; and, after 
^xajxdering the husband, married her, and she became the mother of 
^^ celebrated Solomon. Next, on the throne, came Solomon him- 
^l-£^ whose career, opening with murder, closed in Paganism. He also 
'i^-^^^iried an Egyptian (a princess) ; enjoying, besides, seven hundred 
<>tX:mer wives and three hundred concubines : for " King Solomon loved 
^^^ny strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh — wo- 
^'^^^n of the MoabiteBy Ammonites j UdomiteSj SidonianSy HittiteSy and of 
^'^i-Tlaer nations:"'* and so promiscuous was his philogamy, that some 
^^^^^^^Qttmentators have imputed scandal even to the " Queen of Sheba," 
sombre belle of Southern Arabia. Even the noble-hearted Judah, 
^ "iton'« Whelp," the last column of the twelve that stood erect 
the sight of Jehovah, and whose especial mission it was to rege- 
srate and raise up the fellen race in purity and power, even he, not 
ly wedded an impure Canaanite, but was tempted to crime by hip 
daughter-in-law, disguised as a harlot, on the road-side ; and, so 
from repenting the sin, he had two children by her. Nor need 



we remind tlie reader of the unfortunate affair of Sarah ^^'ith Phoraok 
and again witli AbimeUch. 

We might tbus go on, and ninltiply examjiles of eimilar impfj^f 
from Jewish annala; but to us it is much more pleasing to dr&ip 
the veil of oblivion over the depravity of those primitive days, and to 
remember only the noble moral precepta bequeathed na by tlie kings 
and prophets of Judea. These, liowever, are historieal facta, having 
important bearings on the subject before us, and must not, therefor^, 
be passed over in silence. TIjey show clearly that the ancient larm^ ^- 
ites were restrained by no moral force which could keep their gen^»- 
alogies pure ; but, in comparison with every other people, there ^a 
enough to justify us in believing that their pedigrees are to be relie-^d 
on for a long series of generations. Those among Jews of the prese^^nt 
day who preserve what is regarded as the national tj'pe, must nec»r-^g. 

narily be of pure blood, 
to foreign alliances. 

while tlioso who do not, must bo traced v 


It will illustrate the indelibility .^f 
the Al>rahamic tj-po to proscnt h^ j^j 
a mummied Shemitish head, fro^, 
MoitToN'a collection." Being bit],, j 
minized, tlie skull cannot he mvxc^ I 
older than the time of Mosks — say I 
fifteenth ecntuiy b. c. Nor, inos— I 
much aa general m u mm ificatifi-w-« 
ceased about 300 years after Christz-, 
can it be less than 1500 years ol<^Hk. 
From its style and Theban extrac^^^i- 
tion, it may be referred to Solomon! -»c 
days'* — yet, how perfectly the He^^^* 
brew t^\'pe is preserved ! 

Freeh from exhumations in th"' -*^^ 
father-land of Asraham, we add t- 

higher varie^ of the same ^e 

Part of a Colosaal Head from Koi»-^f~-' 
yunjik.^ Its age is ^ed betwee ^^^ 
the reign of Bbsnacuehib and thr Jl 
fall of Nineveh, about the Bevonl^^-»i 
century b. c. And still, after 25C^*-< 
years, so indelible is the type, evecr ••a 
resident of Mobile will reeogiu^^B^ 
in this Chaldfean e^gy, the fi ■ f^ 
simile portrait of one of their ci t ' - ^m P 
moat prominent citizens, who 


bonored alike by the affection of hie co-religionists, and the confi- 
Jenoe of the community wliieh haa just elevated him to a seat in the 
.Vationai Councils. 

All written deacriptions of early timee, relative to the Jewish 

nftoe, concur in establishing the permanence of their tj'pe. We are 

informed, by modem travellers, that the some features are common 

t«» IVttisopotamia, their original seat, and also scattered through Persia, 

.Al'glianistan, &c. ; the direction in which, we are taught by the annals 

c*!' modem timep, some descendants of the ten tribes were dispersed, 

long after the Assyrian captivity in the eighth century b. c. In short, 

-tlie Jewish features meet one in almost every country under the mm ; 

%»«t it is worthy of special remark, that Hebrew lineaments are found 

i-ii no repon whither history cannot track them, and rarely where their 

^>08se88ora do not acknowledge Jewish origin. Nor will the fact he 

^^uestioned, we presume, that well-marked Israelitiah features are 

^ever beheld out of that race; altliough it haa, as we shall show, 

1>e«ii contended that Jews in certain climates liave not only lost their 

£)wa type, but have become transformed into other races ! 

The namber of Jews now existing in the worid, (of those that are 
regarded as descendants in a direct line fivm, and maintaining the 
game laws with, their forefathers, who, above 3000 years ago, retreated 
from Egypt under the guidance of the lawgiver, ifoses,) is estimated 
hv "Weiiner, Wolff, Milman,™ and others, variously, from three to 
Sve millions. In all climates and countries, they are recognized as 
tie same race. Weimer, whose statistics are lowest, gives the fol- 
io vwing: — 

•• AnicA- — Tbty are icatlerEiI tlong the whole eoast, trora Morocoo to Zgypt, beaidea 
t»>x»t Unmd ia man; other porta. Morocco and Fei, 300,000 ; Tunis, 130,000 ; AlgierB, 
ik.OOU; flabeaor Habeah, 20,000; Tripoli, 12,000; &c. Total, &04,000. 

" - Aau. — Id MeBopot»mi» and Asajria. The ancient aeata of the BabjIoniaD Jews are 
RsU onopied b; 5,270 families, eiclUHive of those of Bagduil and Baaaora. Asiatic Turkey, 
|SO,<)U0; Arabia, 200,000; Hlndoaton, 100,000; China, 60,000; Turkiatan, 40,(KI0 ; Pro- 
ttn-ccsf lr«n, 85,000; te. TotuI, 738,000. 

**Enu>pi. — Russia and Poland. 008,000; Enropaan Tarkoy, 821,000; German;, 
IS^.OHO; Prasaia, 1S4,000; Netherlandg, 80,000; France, 60,000; IU1;, 88,000; Great 
»«-i tain, 12,000; &c. Told in Europe, 1,918,063." 

In America, Milman averages them at 6000 only; but this wop 
©«>itainlT very far below the mark, even when his book was published, 
■^tid they have since been increasing, with inmiense rapidity. We 
»lionld think that an estimate of 100,000, for North and South 

Kiorica, would not be an exaggeration. 
« This sketch suffices to show how the Judaic race has become scat- 
'fc^retl throughout the regions of the earth ; many faniihes being domi- 
ciliated, ever since the Christian era, in climates the most opposite : 
&xid, yet, in obedience to an organic law of animal life, they have pre 




served, unchanged, the same features which the Almighty stamped on 
the first Hebrew pairs created. It may be well to denounce, as vulgar 
and unscriptural, the notion that the features of the Jews are attri- 
butable to a subsequent miracle, or that Gk>d has put a mark upon 
them, by which tliey may be always known, and for the mere purpose 
of distinguishing them from other races. K we are correct in carry- 
ing their type back to times preceding the Exodus, this superstition 
must fall to the ground. The Almighty, no doubt, individualized 
all human races, from the beginning. 

It is admitted, by ethnographers of every party, that mankind are 
materially influenced by climate. The Jewish skin, for example, ma^ 
become more fair at the north, and more dark at the tropics, than ic^ ;f 
the Land of Promise ; but, even here, the limit of change stops fiar sho 
of approximation to other types. The complexion may be bleached, C:::::^ 
tanned, in exposed parts of the body, but the Jewish featureM stai^^^ 
unalterably through all climates, and are superior to such influenc^^ 

Nevertheless, it is stoutly contended, even at the present day, Hk^at 
Jews, in various parts of the world, have been transmuted into other 
types. Several examples (80 siipposed) have been heralded forth to 
sustain the doctrine of the Unity of the human species. We have 
examined, with care, all these vaunted examples, and feel no hesitation 
in asserting that not one of them possesses any evidence to sustain it, 
while the proof is conclusive on the opposite side. 

The most prominent of these mendacious instances is that of the 
black Jews in Malabar ; and this has been confidently cited by all -t^^ 
advocates of the doctrine of Unity, down to the Edinburgh Review, 
1849. Prichard, in his great work, has dodged this awkward 
point, in a manner that we are really at a loss to understand. In xxJL 
the second edition (1826) of his " Physical History of Mankind," he ^xA( 
stated the fiicts with suflicient fairness ; whereas, in the last, he sup — <3f op- 
presses them entii'ely, and passes over tlicm without uttering one woT&E^rx:*rd 
in support of his previous assertions — merely saying that there ir 
" no evidence*' to show that the black Jews are not Jews, We shal",^^^ 
here introduce testimony to prove our position, that the subjoine^^ ^ 
fiicts, though familiar to our author, are eluded by him with mot 
ominous silence. 

Under the protection and patronage of the British government. 
Rev. Claudius Buchanan, D.D., late Vice Provost of the College 
Fort William, in Bengal ; well known for his learning, fidelity, a 
piety ; visited and spent some time amongst tlie white and the black Ji 
of Malabar, near Cochin, in 1806-7-8 ; and the testimony given 
his "Asiatic Researches** is so remarkable, and the subject so 
portant, that we venture a long extract. The " Jerusalem, or w! 



Jewa," he tells ns, live in Jtw%' ttmm, about a mile from Cochin, and 
the ^aneientj or block JetaSy" with small exceptions, inhabit towns in 
the interior of the province. 

**Oamj inqiiby (oontfaiiiM Dr. Bachanan) into the antiquity of the white Jews, thej 
fnt ddiftred me a narratiTe, in the Hebrew language, of their amval in India, which has 
bcci biaded down to them f^m their fathers ; and then exhibited their ancient brass plate, 
MStaiung th«r charter and freedom of residence, giyen by a king of Malabar. The fol- 
Itffbg is the naxratiTe of the erents relating to their first arrival : — 

'''After the second Temple was destroyed, (which may God speedily rebuild!) our 
fktkn, dreading the conqueror's wrath, departed fh>m Jerusalem — a numerous body of 
mm, women, priests and Lerites — and came into this land. There were among them men 
of Rpate for learning and wisdom ; and Ood gave the people fayor in the sight of the king 
who at tkat time reigned here, and he granted them a place to dwell in, called Cranganor. 
Hi allowed them a patriarchal jurisdiction in the district, with certain priTileges of nobility ; 
nd tks royal grant was engrared, according to the custom of those days, on a plate of 
krua This was done in the year from the creation of the world 4250 (A. D. 490) ; and 
tids piste of brass we still have in possession. Our forefathers continued at Cranganor for 
ibott one thousand years, and the number of heads who governed were seventy-two. Soon 
ifttf eer settlement, other Jews followed us from Judea ; and among them came that man 
flf griit rodom. Rabbi Samuel, a Levite, of Jerusalem, with his son, Babbi Jehuda Levita. 
Tkj brought with them the tiher trumpet* made use of at the time of the Jubtiee, which 
wire ttved when the second Temple was destroyed ; and we have heard, fhmi our fathers, 
Ibt tkcre were engraven open those trumpets the letters of the Ineffable Name. There 
jamd as, also, firom Spain and other places, Arom time to time, certain tribes of Jews, who 
kd keird of our prosperity. But, at last, discord arising among ourselves, one of our 
cUeft etHed to his assistance an Indian king, who came upon us with a great army, de- 
itrojod our houses, palaces and strongholds, dispossessed us of Cranganor, killed part of 
■> and carried part into captivity. By these massacres we were reduced to a small number. 
Bone of the exiles came and dwelt at Cochin, vrhere we have remained ever since, suffering 
graat changes, from time to time. There are amongst us some of the children of Israel 
(Bou-Iflrael), who came from the country of Ashkenai, from Egypt, from Tsoha, and other 
fiMM, besides those who formerly inhabited this country.' 

*'Tk« native annals of Malabar confirm the foregoing account, in the principal circum- 
Rtteei, as do the Mahommedan histories of the later ages ; for the Mahommedans have 
been settled here, in great numbers, since the eighth century. 

" The desolation of Cranganor the Jews describe as being like the desolation of Jeru- 

kn in miniature. They were first received into the country with some favor and confidence, 

HrtmUy to the tenor of the general prophecy concerning the Jews — for no country was 

to reject them ; and, after they had obtained some wealth, and attracted the notice of men, 

^ are precipitated to the lowest abyss of human suffering and reproach. The recital of 

the nfferings of the Jews at Cranganor resembles much that of the Jews at Jerusalem, as 

given by Josephus. [Exactiy 1 Notice also the ** 72" governors, and the ** 1" kings.— G. R. G.] 

"I now requested they would show me their brass plate. Having been given by a native 

Kiif, it is written, of course, in the Malabarie language and character, and is now so old 

(hit it cannot well be understood. The Jews preserve a Hebrew translation of it, which 

(hey presented to me ; but the Hebrew itself is very difficult, and they do not agree among 

ftcBielves as to the meaning of some words. I have employed, by their permission, an 

Cifnver, at Cochin, to execute a fac-simile of the original plate on copper. This ancient 

^oeoment begins in the following manner, according to the Hebrew translation : — 

" * In the peace of God, the King, which hath made the earth according to his pleasure — 
fo this God, I, AIRYI BRAHMIN, have lifted up my hand and have granted, by this deed, 
many hundred thousand years shall run — I, dwelling in Cranganor, have granted, in 


the thirty-sixth year of my reign, in the strength of power I have given in inherittneey %r 
JoBSPH Rarban — **' 

(Here follow several privileges, &c.) 

'< What proves the importance of the Jews, at the period when this grant wbb made, li^ 
that it is signed by seven kings as witnesses. (The names are here given.) 

** There is no date to the docnment, further than what may be collected fh)m the reign 
of the prince, and the names of the royal witnesses. Dates are not osnal in old Malabaric 
writings. One fact is evident, that the Jews must have existed a considerable time in the 
country before they could have obtained such a grant The tradition, before-mentioned, 
assigns for the date of the transaction the year of the creation 4260, which is, in Jewish 
computation, A. D. 490. It is well known that the famous Malabaric king, Cosam Psmu- 
MAL, made grants to the Jews, Christians, and Mahommedons, during his reign ; but that 
prince flourished in the eighth or ninth century.'* 

Archseologically, the date assigned to this document is a manifest 
imposture, for any epoch anterior to 900 years after Christ. Tha 
change of religion from Brahminism to Judaism cannot metamor*^ 
phose Hindoo renegades into JewB^ is evident from what follows. 

Speaking of the black Jewa^ Dr. Buchanan thus continues : — 

<* Their Hindoo complexion, and their very imperfect resemblance to the European Jew^ 
indicate that they have been detached from the parent stock, in Judea, many ages befo^^ 
the Jews in the west, and that there have been intermarriages with families not /araelititJk. 
I had heard that those tribes, which had passed the Indus, had assimilated so much to the 
customs and habits of the countries in which they live, that they sometimes may be Men 
by a traveller without being recognized as Jews. In the interior towns of Malabar, I wai 
not always able to distinguish the Jew from the Hindoo. I hence perceived how ea^ it 
may be to mistake the tribes of Jewish descent among the Affghans and other nations, in 
the northern parts of Hindostan. The white Jews look upon the black Jews as an in/emr 
race, and as not of pure caste, which plainly demonstrates that they do not spring Arom a 
common stock in India.*' "^ 

The evidence of Dr. Buchanan can scarcely leave room for a doubt 
that the white Jews had been living at least a thousand years in 
Malabar, and were still white Jeu% without even an approximation, 
in type, to the Hindoos ; and that the black Jews were an " inferior 
race" — "not of pure caste" — or, in other words, adulterated by 
dark Hindoos — Jews in doctrine, but not in stock. 

But we have another eye-witness, of no less note, to the same effect, 
namely, Joseph "Wolff, a Christianized Jew, whose authority is quoted 
in places where modem Jews are spoken of. He assures us,** that 
the black Malabar Jews are converted Hindoos, and at most a mix — ., 
ture only of the two races. Similar opinions have been expresseii^ 
by every competent authority we have seen or can find quoted ; an^^ 
even Prichard, in his laborious work, while he slurs over all thes^ 
facts with the simple remark that there is " no evidence" in favor o 
Buchanan's opinion, ventures to give not a single authority to rebiCLe- 
him, and offers not a solitary reason for doubting his testimony. Anc^ 
we say it with regret, that this is but one of Dr. Prichard's ma 
unfEur modes of sustaining the doctrine of the unity of mankind. 



mkj add, also, that the opinions of Buchanan and Wolff are those of 
all Jadffians of our day, as &r as we have been able to ascertain 
them* Mr. Isaac Leeser, the learned and estimable editor of the 
^Occident" at Philadelphia, in answer to our inquiries, thus writes : — 

^'Too naj freely assart that, in all essentials, the Jews are the same they are repre- 
natfd 00 the Egyptian monnments ; and a comparison of 8500 years ought to be sufficient 
to prove that the intermediate links have not degenerated. . . . The black Jews of Malabar 
are not A Jewish race, according to the accounts which have appeared from time to time in 
the popart. They are most likely eonvfrit to Judaism, who, neyer having intermarried with 
th» white Jews, hare retained their original Hindoo complexion, and, I believe, language." 

Although this letter of Mr. Leeser was written in haste, and not 
for publication, his well-known respectability and talent lend so much 
'Weight to any thing he would utter about his co-religionists, that we 
cannot forego the pleasure of giving another and longer extract 
fiom it He says : — 

''In respect, howerer, to the true Jewish complexion, it is /a»r; which is proTcd by the 

wirietj of the people I haye seen, from Persia, Russia, Palestine, and Africa, not to men- 

tioi those of Europe and America, the latter of whom are identical with the EuropeanSt 

Skc aU other white inhabitants of this continent All Jews that oyer I haye beheld are 

•imtied mftatwrta; though the color of their skin and eyes differs materially, inasmuch as 

tke Southern are nearly all black-eyed, and somewhat sallow, while the Northern are blue- 

«7«d, in a great measure, and of a fair and clear complexion. In this they assimilate to 

•n riursmsns, when transported for a number of generations into yarious climates. [?] 

Hosgh I am free to admit that the dark and hazel eye and tawny skin are oftener met 

with iBong the Germanic Jews than among the German natiyes proper. There are also 

itd>ksired and white-haired Jews, as well as other people, and perhaps of as great a pro- 

ftrtioB. I ^>eak now of the Jews north — I am myself a natiye of Germany, and among 

Bj vwa ikmfly I know of none without blue eyes, brown hair (though mine is black), and 

^ fair skin — still I recollect, when a boy, seeing many who had not these characteristics, 

ttd had, on the contrary, eyes, hair, and skin of a more southern complexion. In America, 

joa will see all yarieties of complexion, from the yery fair Canadian down to the almost 

J«flow of the West Indian — the latter, however, is solely the effect of exposure to a delete- 

^ climate for seyeral generations, which changes, I should judge, the texture of the hair 

ttd skin, and thus leayes its mark on the constitution — otherwise the Caucasian type is 

■^gly deyeloped ; but this is the case more emphatically among those sprung from a 

ficnun than a Portuguese stock. The latter was an original inhabitant of the Iberian 

PniBsnla, and whether it was preseryed pure, or became mixed with Moorish blood in the 

ptoeesB of centuries, or whether the Germans contracted an intimacy with Teutonic nations, 

•Mi tkos acquired a part of their national characteristics, it is impossible to be told now. 

Bat ooe thing is certain, that, both in Spain and Germany, conversions to Judaism during 

tbe etrij ages, say from the eighth to the thirteenth century, were by no means rare, or 

die the goyemments would not have so energetically prohibited Jews from making prose- 

Ijtes of their seryants and others. I know not, indeed, whether there is any greater phy- 

Bcal discrepancy between northern and southern Jews than between English families who 

eoDtinne in England or emigrate to Alabama — I rather judge there is not" 

Mr. Leeser professes not to have paid any special attention to the 
physical history of the Jews ; but, nevertheless, his remarks corro- 
borate very strongly two important points : 1st, That the Jews merely 
nndergo those temporary changes from climate which are admitted by 


all ethnographers ; and 2d, that they have occasionally mingled in 
blood with Gentile races ; amalgamations that acconnt for any 
visible diversity of lype amongst them. 

And that we have sought for information among the best infonned 
of the Hebrew community in the United States, may be inferred from 
the subjoined letter of an authority universally known, and by all 
respected. Ilis testimony confirms Mr. Leeser's, no- less than that of 
every Hebrew we have been able to consult. 

** The black Jews of MaUbar are not descendaDts of Abraham, laaae, and Jacob, but are 
of Hindoo origin. At Cochin, there are two distinct commonities of Jewi: one, white, wm ^ 
originally settled at Cranganor, but when the Portuguese became too powerftd on that 
(a. d. 1500 to 1500) remored to Cochin. These Jews have been residents in India 
ably aboTe 1000 years, bat still retain their Jewish cast of features, and, though of JstlH 
complexion, are not black. They never intermarry with the second communitj, also Jewi 
but black, of Hindoo origin, and, according to tradition, originally bondmen, bat oonT 
and manumitted some 800 years ago. Though of the same religion, the two races are, 
keep distinct In the interior of Africa, many Negroes are found who profess to be J 
practise circumcision, and keep the Sabbath. These are held to be the descendants 
slaTes who were conTerted by their Jewish masters, and then manumitted. All the 
in the interior of Africa who are of really Jewish descent, as, for instance, in Timbaet 
the Desert of Sahara, &c., though of dark complexion, are not black, and retain the 
teristic cast of features of their race — so they do likewise in China. 

" J. C. NoTT, M. D., Mobile." " Y^«"» ^' ^' ^' JUfhal^^ 

We think it is now shown satisfactorily tliat the "Black Jews'* of 
India are not Jews .by race, any more than the Negro converts to Ju^ 
daism known to exist at Timbuctoo, or the many Moorish adheren^^ 
to the llebrew faith scattered throughout the States of Barbarj5?p». 
There are authors living who insiHt that the aborigines of our 
can continent are lineal descendants of the lost ten tribes j which ha 
run so wild in our woods as to be no longer recognizable ! Oih^ 
examples of Jewish physical transformation have been alleged, b 

they are even less worthy of credit than the preceding. The Jei 
of Abyssinia, or FalashaSy as they are called, may be noticed. Th< 
do not present the Jewish physiognomy, but are, doubtless, composed 
of mixed bloods, Arabian with African, and converts. Before m 
lies a pamphlet by Dr. Charles Beke, the very erudite Abyssinii 
traveller.^ This essay was read on the 8th of February, 1848, befoi 
the Syro-Egyptian Society of London, and Dr. Beke's standing as 
orientalist requires no comment Ilis information was obtain< 
from the Falashas themselves; his opinion formed in presence 
the speakers. 

*' There is, howeTcr, no reason for imagining that these Israelitei of Abyssinia, who 
known in that country by the name of FalashMf are, as a people, the lineal descendantab- 
any of the tribes of Israel. Their peculiar language, which they still retain, differs enl 
from the Syro- Arabian class to which the Ethiopio and Amharic, as well as the Hebrew 
Arabic, belong, and is cognate with, and closely allied to, the existing dialects spoken Itj' 


k'guu of Luta mJ tha A'gsomiJn-: a oircumBlanoe nffordiag a strong irgiitnent in eup- 
port af Ihe DpiDion tb]tt all these p^opto nre degceodeil frum sa abnrigiiisl race, nliicb hns 
b«cn foreed to gire way before tlie Bdvftntea of a younger people from the opposite sliores 
at lb* Red 8ea — first in Tigri, &nd BubiequenlJ; in tbe countries »djaoeat to BAb-el 

" It U not till about the t«nth ceatnr; of Ihe Chrietian era that ire possess any hia- 
lotj of the Israelites of Ahysuaia, aa a separute people ; and eieti then the particulara 
mpecling them, which arc to be gathered from the anuals of the couDtrj as giren bj 
Bruce, must, in the earlier portions at least, be rsceired with great caution." 

Bkucb, in the eeconil volume of his Travels, gives an interesting 
Account of this people. He regards theru really as Jews, but expresses 
sundry doubta, and thinks the question must be determined by future 
philological rcsearchea. Such researches have been made eince his 
<i«v, and the decision of Eeke is recorded above. Even Prichard did 
not credit Bnice's narrative. 

The history of the ten tribea affords also conclusive e^-idenee of the 

ijoflucnccof Jewii>h intermixtures with alien races. In the eighth cen- 

■tary b. c, they were conquered, and carried captive, by Tiglatlipilesar 

^od Shajmanasar, into the north-western parts of the Assyrian empire ; 

•tlioir places being euppliod by foreign colonists from that country. 

These, with a few rcmwning Israelites, formed the Samaritans of after 

times ; but the ten tribes have been scattered, and most of them lost 

1)y Assyrian amalgamations, or absorption into cognate Chaldeean 


"The Affghans, u before romarked, bear atroog maris of Uie Jewiah type, and ore 

rfnatitless descended from the ten tribes. . . . The Affghans have no resemblance to Ihe 

I1i«.tai9 who aurround them, in person, habits, or laoguage. Sir William Jones (and this 

(pfnioa ia now prevalent) is incllDed to believe that their descent may be traced to the 

Fill ■ilicni, and adds, that tbe best-informed Persian hiatoriana hare adopted the same 

ipLsiian. The Affghans have Iradiliona among Ihemseltes which render it very probable 

biM.t thij is the just aecouat of their origin. Many of their families are distioguiehed by 

I^B^asea of Jewish tribes, though, alnco their converBlon to tilam, thej oonceiil their iloaoent 

vs. d the most scrupulous care; and the whole ia eonfirmed by the circnmataoce that the 

f^mif '''" ba( M near an affinity with the Chaldua that it may justly be regarded aa a dialect 

«^' iLit tongue. Thej are dov confounded with the Arabs. "^ 

This quotation is a fair specimen of the fabulous ethnography cur- 

f^nt among orthodox litterateurs of our day. There is no Biblical 

o r historical basis for the first aaaumption : the second is a miaappre- 

l:i«asion, attributing to Judaism that which is due to Islamiam in the 

l^ut 1000 years ; and the third ia explained by linguistic importations, 

l^ersic and Arabian ; because the Pughto is a Medo-Persian branch of 

Indo-European languages. Prichard himself treats Affghan derivatioQ 

tioni the Israehtes with a sneer*^ — but the reader ia referred to oui 

Supplement for further citations on the subject, from the worlfs of 

thorough orientalists, who unite in testifying that the Semitic element 

in Afighuuistan, out of the synagogues, is exclusively Araiian. 



The portrait of Dost-MohaiuriPi 
blends Semitic features wiQi tluM 
of the true Affghan ; and sofficea 1o 
illuHtrate the Bimilitudea perceived • 
by toniiBts who, partial to a theoij '- 
of the "ten tribes'" jonmey into 
Tartaty, have been hlinded to Hie ' 
palpable diversities of osteological ' 
structure, which even Arab blood 
haa not obliterated. 

"We have thus gone over theph;- 
ucal history of the Jewish race ; and, 
although the argument is vet; bi 
from being exhausted, we dunk 
enough has been sfud to satisfy any 
unprejudiced mind that this species 
has preserved its peculiar ^pe frMi 
the lime of Abraham to the present day, or through more than on* 
hundred generations ; and has therefore transmitted directly to US 
the features of Noah's family, which preceded that of Abraham, ac- 
cording to the Bo-termed Mosaic account, by only ten generations. 

If, then, the Jewish race has preserved the type of its fore&thers fo** 
8500 years, in all climates of the earth, and under all forms of govern- 
ment — through extremes of prosperity and adversity — if, too, we addfa^ 
all this the recently developed iiicts (which cannot be negatived), that? 
the Tartars, the Negroes, the Assyrians, the Hindoos, the Egyptians, 
and others, existed, 2000 years before the Christian era, at dutivct at 
now; where, we may ask, is to be found the semblance of a scientific 
argument to sustain the assun\ption of a common Jewish orig^ 
for eveiy species of mankind ? 

Accounts of the Gipsiei offer such curious analo^es with those 
of tlie Israelites, that it may not be out of place to add a word respect- 
ing them. 

" Bath htTC had «o Exodus ; both ue exiles, uid diapened ftmang the gentEn, by whon 
the]' »ie bated and despiied, tnd vbom the; h&te sod deepUe, under the ounem of BiUDeM 
and Gof im ; both, though speaking the language of tiie gentiles. posMsa • peculiar tongoe, 
Khieh the latter do not understand ; and bath poBsess t ptculiar eatt ef eotmlmaiue, bj which 
the; mnj be vithout difficult; ditlinguahtd from ail other naliom; but with theee points tba 
similnrity terminntes. The Ismelitea have a peculiar religion, to which the; are fauatl- 
call; attached ; the Romas (Gipsies) have none. The tsraeliles have an authentic histoT; ; 
the Gipsies ha*e na history — the; do not CTsn know the name of their original aountxy." 

This isolated race is involved in mystery, owing to absence of tisdi- 
hons ; though, from their physical type, language, &c., it is conjectured 
that the Gipsies came from some part of India, but at what time, and 


B-liJt cannot now be determined. It has been eiwd that they fled 
Hx.f'*^ 'ii* extenninating sword of the great Tartar conqueror, Timtir 
£i£^ »ig (Tamerlane), who ravaged India in 1408-'9 a. d. ; but there will 
ff^, found, in BoRBOw's work, very good reaaon for believing that they 
ju^i^ght have migrated, at a much earlier period, north, amongst the 
a^j^Xiivonians, before they entered Germany and other countries where 
—-^^ first trace them. Ilowever, we know with certainQ" that, in the 
^^^— ginning of the fifteenth centuiy (about the time of Timur'e con- 
n-^^.«8t), they appeared in Germany, and were soon scattered over 
■g^iirope, as far as Spain. They arrived in France on the 17th of 
^^■ugiist, 1427 4. D. Their number now, in all, has been estimated at 
aV>ort 700,000, and they are Bcattered over most countries of the 
\:»»bitaiile globe — Europe, Asia, Africa, South America, and some 
tV'it in North America, " Their teuta are pitched on the heaths of 
Umzii and the ridges of the Himalaya hills ; and their language ia 
lic«nl in Moscow and Madrid, in London and Stamhoul." "Their 
jwjwcr of resisting cold is truly wonderful, as it is not uncommon to 
find them encamped in the midst of tlie snow, in slight canvass tents, 
where the temperature is 25° to 30° below the freezing point accord- 
ing to Keaumnr; " wliile, on the other hand, they withstand the sultry 
climes of Africa and India." 

The Gipsies are the most prominent of numerous and diverse tribes 
diffused in little groups over the four contineute, to whom Prichard's 
term *'AllophyUan races" would properly apply. A list might 
be made of them ; their oecuiTence iii islands, remote valleys and 
Dioiui win -fastnesses, or even amid dense populations, being far more 
fre<jTient than is generally supposed. In the absence of all record beyond 
that of modem days, (their existence known only by their discovery,) 
w-e refrain from the labor of enumeration, with the sole remark, that 
to lis they all are mementos of the jiermanence of type, athwart vicis- 
sitxides certainly endured, but unrecorded by themselves : each being 
a relic of some primitive type of man, generally displaced from its 
gieographical centre of creation, that, having ser\'ed in days of yore 
the purposes of the Creator, is now abandoned {with so many others, 
now lost like the Quanchei) to its fate, scarcely aflbrding histoiy suffi- 
cient for an epitaph." 

But it is time to illustrate the subject monumentally; and the words 
f»^ an illustrious countryman will usher in the fact* with which none 
*«~w better conversant than himself. After alluding to cliang<.-8 
^^"loaght by climate on domestic animals and plants, Dr. Pickebino 
t^Kx^utains : — 

■■ Hot 10 hoircrer with the htimui tuaiij. NotwithsUnding Uie niitureg of race <laring 
one bM remarked ■ tendeoc; to ■ deTelopmeiit of a new race in tba 



rated Suam. !■ Antm, «fc«c Ac ■ 

• rf IW hum* h^. 

5citfa«r 4m* vTiUea Uitarj iffiwd cndoM of the lAtiaebo* if •■• pkydMl net of mm, 
t^vllii* ii t tlay mt al at tattk ir p ww —ri y Mta«w«."g 

Prr>cec-<)ing Tetrogreseivelv, and closelr as the theme can be dad- 
dated, we present the odIv bas-relief which, duonghoat the entire 
range of hien^lvphical or cnneilbrm discorciy hitherto published, in 
all probability represents Jevt. 

(2 Kinf xTiii. 14; Aojol ixxtL 2. Abont 700 a. 0.) 

" Jewish Captives from Lachish" (Fig, 14), disinterred from Beni* 
cherib'H palace at Kou>-unjik, ia the title ^ven to die ori^nal ^ 
its dipcovcror," who says — 

■> Hare, thsrefare, was the actual picture of tha takiog of Tj^MfV the dtj, m «• ka* 
from the llihle, bnleged b; Semiaebeiib, when he aent hia gananU to demand tziboW ' 
Ileieltiah, and which he had eaptored before thnr retarn. . . . The oaptiTea ware SDdao^ 
eilly Jews — their phjtiiogiiom; was itrikiDglj iodiMled in the aonlptnrM; bat Ihej ^ 
been Rtri|iped of their omamenta and their fine raiment, ud were left buefoolad end b*)^ 

Allowance made for reduction to bo small a scale, the ethnologic*' 
p__ ,^ character of this bas-relief is not BO 

strikingly effective in respect to tn» 
Hebrew physiognomy, ae it is (when 
compared with other Chaldsean effi- 
gies) to show the perrading cha- 
racter of many Syrian and Meso- 
potamian races 2500 yean ago. 

These Elamites (Fig. 15) pro- 
bably, if not Arabs, "toaditig a 
camely"^ belong to the same age, 
and supply one variety ; while hat 


'^(yafitives employed 6y Asti/rians"'^ 
(pig. 16), furnish another. 

^Divested of beard, other " cap- 
fitf£i in a caH"^^ (Fig. 17) portray 
(*i«irftctcriatic3 vei^ng toward an 
•injAnd, or Armenian, expression; 
-|. tbe same time that these upon 


an nndated "Babylonian cy- 
Under"" (Fig. 18), too minute 
in Bize for ethnographical pre- 
cision, indicate more of wild 

Arab lineaments : an infer- 

eac« which the low-land site 

of Babylon, where Mr. Layard 

fxotid it, may justify. If we 

contrast these last with (Fig. 

X^').,^^ Egyptian artistic idea of a "Canaanlte" 

(Kasasa — fiarJanati)," the prevalence of this so- 

pallM Semitic type from the Euphrates, through 

Palestine, to tbe eastern confines of the Nile, be- 

comea exemplified, back to the twelfth and fif- 
teenth centuries b. c, as thoroughly as ocular ob- 
•eri-atJon can realize similar features in the same 
'^^gioDs at the present day. 

Each "canon of art,"** in Egypt and in AsHyria, 

raB dogmatically enforced (let it be remembered) 

-I>on principlea entirely diflerent : the former, or 

■nterior, being primitive, and dependent rather 

'{)on its relations to graphical expression, more . 

i-gidly approximates to the ante-monumental age of " picture-writing." 
Xn the latter, wo behold a developed, and consequently more florid, 
»^1« of art; which, if nothing else existed to demonstrate tlie truth 





of this inherent law of artistic progrestdon, would of itself cUmfy 
monumental Assyria as, cliroDologLcally, a »uceedanewm of Egypt; 
and vindicate De LongpMer's conclneionfl of Assyrian modemnessi 
no less than Rawlinaon's acknowledgmenta of Egyptian antiqni^.'* 

The comhined action of art and of the prevalence, in and aiouid 
Mesopotamia, of a preponderating type which approaches the kao- 
ideal of Semitic humanity, may be seep hy comparing the eopfiMi of 
Assyrian triumphs with the common soldieiy of Ninevite amiee- 
Thus, thiB Sifrian (Fig. 20), with his leathern scull-cap, whom a pass- 
Fia. 21. 


age in Herodotus identifies with the people >**MilytB,"" or else of id. — 
jacent Cilicia, could not otherwise be diBtinguished &om commoctv- 
Ass)Tian spearmen (Tig. 21) attacking a stronghold which, if not ic^ 
Samaria, belongs to the same mountainous region. Both drawing^^ 
are from Khorsabad, and the expeditions of Bargan, late in the eighths 
century b, c. 

But it is in the likenesses of the patrimns and of royalty wheron^^ 
partly owing to more pains-taking treatment by artists, and partly to i^* 
higher caste of race, that the pure Assyrian type becomes vigorously^ 
" acolpito." 

Saroan's minister, (Fig. 22) probably his Vixeer, ^splays Ihe eamev 
noble blood as the King (Fig. 23) himself." 

Above all the portraits of Ninevite sovereigns discovered, that oT 
Saroan is the most interesting; 1st, because it was the first royal 
likeness unearthed from Khorsabad byBoTTA;*"* 2ndly, because it 
was the first whose cuneatic legends were ascribed to ihe beeneger of 
Athdod by a most felicitous guess of Lowenbtbbn ;"• and 8dly, be- 
i^ose it was the first identified of those sublime sculptures tfaa^ 
rescued fit)m perdition by French monificence, anived in Europe^ 

Fio. 28. 


Fio. 24. 

lad once again tower majestically in the Louvre Mnaeam,'" after 
wme 2515 Teare of oblivion. 

We present a rough tracing (Fig. 24) of Botta'b earliest littographfl, 
<lierein the head-drese Ib tinted red, like 
ttie original baa-relief. 

It waa established, twenty years ago, 
braogKLLiNi, that, in Egyptian art, the 
utdio-ephinxee (human head on lion's 
fcody, symbolical of royalty,) always bear 
the lUeneue* of the kings or queens in 
*ho8e reign they were chiselled. Tlius, 
»we the features of £he Great Sphinx at 
the pyramids of Memphis adequately 
preserved, we should probably behold 
the lost portrait of AAHMES, founder 
of the XVnth dynasfy, in the seven- 
teeodi centuiy b. c. ; to whom, under 
the Greek form otAmatu, a tradition in 
Pliht's time stili attributed this colossus."" 
The Bymbol "ephiox," by the Greeks 

SiKOAa, {T$aiak, xx. 1), 
B. C. TIO to 6S6. 


repDted to be femdU, and by Wilkccsox to be ahrays aofa in Egypt, 
has the body of a lion when (e. g. in the splendid gnnite Sptuu ri 
Baxsbs »t the LoDvre,) it trpifiea the king ; or of a IIodmb, (u in 
Mact-hev-wa'b at Turin,) when the qaeen. Another rule of Y^ 
tian art is, Hiat the hoinaD feces of I>iTinitie8 wear the portrut of the 
reigning monarch. Xow, in Assyrian Bcnlptore — an offihoot of 
Kliotic art — ^the same mles hold good. Those gigantic hnman-heacled 
holla, and those superb winged-gods, of scenes in which haman-fiKed 
fj^ 26. deides are introduced, assume the portrmtt of 

the sovereigns in whose age they were caired: 
truths easily verified \fy comparison of & 
folio plates of Flahdot or of Lataxd. In 
couBequence, regretting the neceedty fat ledius 
lion of size, we submit, fiom one of the winged- 
bulls at Faris"^ the likeness (Fig. 25) of lum 
whose cuneatic legend reads: — "BABGOS, 
great king, pnissant king, king of the kinp of 
the land of Attov/r" — Aihury or Assyria— of 
whom Isaiah relates — "In the year tint 
Tartan came unto Ashdod (when 8ABSos,ti>t 
Saboon. king of Assyria, sent him,) and fought agwirt 


t and took it;" events of the seventh centniy before 

implete the series, we add a royal head, (Fig. 26) of the same 

nt name unknown to na, enrmoimting a winged-lion; its only 

ity being the ponderoQB nose. 

less corionaly valuable, whether in its historical, biblical, or 

aphic assodationB, ia the portrut (Fig. 27,) of Sargan's son — 

.OHBKIB, on his tlirone before Lachish."*" 

lave already beheld (Fig. 14) his Jewish captives. Mr. La 

ifolds, tliroagh translation of this king's coneiform inserip- 

cnnta of the grandest ecriptoral interest *" — " Eezeldah, king 

lb," Bays the Assyrian king, " who 

t submitted to my anthoritf, forty- *"■ **" 

his prindpal cities, and fortresses 

Bges depending upon them, of which 

Qo accoont, I captored, and carried 

leir spoil. I thvt up (?) himself 

remsalem, his capital aty." 

ommenced at the seventh, and now 

> into the eighth centoiy, B. o. 

Bas-relief (Pig. 28) representing 

TiQLATH-Pileeer," from Nimroud,** 

IB ahoat the year b. c. 750. 

the same high type is preserved in 

itnrea of the king, his bearded 

driver, and his depilated eunuch: 

ascriptions that contain the name 

inahem, king of Israel," tributoiy 

ria,** evince the intimate relations 

existing between that emigrant 
of the Abrahamidse domiciliated in 
and the indigenous stem still flou- 
in Cbaldfea, whence they had issued 
000 years before. The same f^pe 
jd back to the tenth century b. c, 

copy (Fig. 29) of the statue of 
APALUS L""; whose era &11b about 
m before ours. 

the breast is an inscription nearly 
! words : — after the names and titles 

king, 'The conqueror from the 
)aBsage of the Tigris to Lebanon 

Great Sea, who fJl countries, from 


the rising of the sun to the going down thereof has reduced under 
his authority.' The statue was, therefore, probably raised after his 
return from the campaign in Syria" — where, the Tjfrianij Sidanmij 
Arvadite9j and others, acknowledged his suzerainty. 

An epoch has now been reached that is more ancient than Ae 
registry of Hebrew annals,"^ by a century, perhaps ; and hence lliej 
cease to throw light, for times anterior to Solomon, upon nationiilitki 
outside the topographical boundaries of Palestine. But^ where Jn- 
dsean chronicles are silent, when cuneiform records falter, the hiero- 
glyphics of Egypt supply abundance of ethnological information, and 
enable us to demonstrate the perpetual indelibility of this (let ub ol 
it, for mere convenience sake,) Chaldaie type. Already, ^'hal£l)reed%* 
between Nilotic and Euphratic populations, must have been nmnerooi. 
Palestine was the neutral-ground of contact; and Solomon's wedding 
with the ^^ daughter of Pharaoh" shows that Abrahamic royalty only 
followed a matrimonial practice familiar to the Israelites since that 
patriarch's first visit to Egypt ; which duly received Mosaic sanction 
in the law — " Abhor not the MiT«EI {Egyptian) : " ^"^ benignantly pro- 
viding for its prolific consequences by adding the clause — "The 
children that are bom of them, at the third generation, shall enter into 
the assembly of leHOuaH." 

Mr. Birch was the first to estabUsh, five years ago,"^ the intimate 
connexions between Egypt and Assyria, in the tenth century B. c; 
the very age of Solomon's marriage with an Egyptian princess, and 
of the punishment infiicted, about 971-'3, by Sheshonk upon Jem- 
salem, " in the fifth year of Rehoboam." The kings of Egypt during 
the XXnd or Bubastite dynasty, were proved, by this erudite palaeo- 
grapher, to bear not Egyptian, but Asst/rian names : thus, Shbshonk, 
Shishaky was assimilated to the "Sesacea" of Babylon; Osorkon to Se- 
rakj Saracu% ; the son of Osorkon IL was shown to be a NIM-ROT, 
Nirnrod ; and the appellative Takblloth, TEXT, of the hieroglyphics, 
to contain DiGLaTA, which is the same river Tigris that is embodied 
in the royal Assyrian name of TiaLATH-P«/««er. 

Here is a mute witness of those events and those times — QOT- 
TU0THI-u4wn* (Fig. 30), " Chief of the Artificers," at Thebes,"* who 
died, according to inscriptions on his cerements, in the " Year X" of 
the reign of King Osorkon m. ; that is, he was alive in the year 900 
B. c. ! His complete mummy lies in the Anatomical Museum of the 
University of Louisiana, New Orleans ; and we shall describe it in 
the proper place: our object at present being merely to indicate 
an atom of the ethnological abundance that Egypt and Aasytia 
supply. And the reader will realize the harmony of these archfleolo- 
gical researches, when he beholds Hdlq portrait of the king (Fig. 81) m 



toga this mammy was made. Lexhans published a date of 
h, and Bdhskf one of this Pharaoh's SIth regnal year. The 
m the mnmmy has added another of his Xtb. 
al coincidences have been iugeniously put together by Mr. 
;"■ bat, while we refer to Layard's Second Expedition,"^ for 
ions <^ the almost-piophetic science of Birch, the latter's 
oe tUscoreiy of the relationship of RamseB XIV., by marriage, 
laoghter of the Semitic "£ing of ftuAan,""* is merely noted 
waose it will be elncidated tinder the chapter on lEgypt In 
nring Asiatic prisoners, recorded among tiie foreign conquests 
luoph in., at Soleb,'" there is no difficult of recognizing — 

fl-no, Padan-Atam; 2. A-tu-ru, Athur, Aflsyria; 3. K(hni' 
i, Carchemiah. The names of Saenkar, Shinar, and JVoAo- 
n Hebrew Nahabaw, the " two rivers," or Mesopotamia. 


hieroglyphed in the same Pharaoh's reigo, have long been &iniliii 
to EgyptologiBtfi ; and thus Aeeyrian data and connezioDS vith the 
Nile are poBitively carried back to the XVTEth ^nast^, and the ni- 
teenth century B. c. 

But although, amid the ruins of Babylon itself nothing has been 
yet disclosed of an earher date than Nbbuchaditezzab, b. a 604 ; ud 
no genealogical list, not to say contempOTaneooa monnment, older 
than B. c. 1250,"° at Nineveb; hieroglyphics of an ancestor of Ain- 
iroPH HL, viz., Thothss IH., prove the existence otho&.Bab^bmani 
Nineveh, as tribntaries to the Pharaohs, at least one generation eaiGa, 
or aboat 1600 years b. c.'*' This king, in an inscription more recen^ 
translated by Birch, ia said to have " erected his tablet in NdhmuH 
(Mesopotamia), for the extension of the frontiers of jSTamt (Egypt)."" 
The sixtfienth century b, c, according to Lepsius's system of chro- 
nology, touches the advent of Abraham and later eojoum of his gnnd- 
son Jacob's children in the land of Qoshen. Relations of war, com- 
merce, and intenaairiage, between the people of the Nile and &oee 
from the Tigris and Euphrates, in these times, were incessant Senutie 
elements (as we shall see in the gallery of royal Egyptian portiuts 
farther on) flowed from Asia into Africa in unceasing streams. The 
^_ ^^ Queena of Egypt, especially, betrsy 

the commingling of the C^tUdak 
ty^e with that indigenous to the 
lower valley of the Nile; and, al- 
though we shall resome these eri- 
dences, the reader will recognize tint 
blending of both types in the linea- 
ments of Queen Aahmeb-NbfeeaU 
(Fig. 33), wife of Amunoph L, bod 
of the founder of the XViltii dynasty, 

I _,--i-r-*, I 1 about 1671 B. c. Hers is the most 

- — '^\\ \ \ I l_J /T~Ty^ ancient of regal feminine likenesses 
identified ; ^ and of it Morton wrote, 
"Perhaps the most Sebrew portrait on the monoments ia that (tf 
Aahraes-Nofre-Ari." "^ 

IlaviDg thus traced back the Ohaldaie type into Egypt before the 
arrival of Abraham, first historical ancestor of t^e Jews, we have 
proved the perpetuity of its existence, through Egyptian uid Assyrian 
records, during 3S00 years of time, down to our day. But the 
Jewish type of man must have existed in Chaldeea for an indefinite 
time before Abraham. AAer aJl, be was merely etu emigrant; and 
his ancestral stock, at 1500 B. c, must have amounted to an immense 
population. We hold, without hesitation, that 2000 yean befi»a 



Abnbam, tiiere had dieady beea intermarriages between the Chaldaie 
and the Egyptian Bpecdea. No ethnographer bnt will perceive, with 
Ds, the Jewish crosa upon Egyptians of the IVth Memphite dynasty, 
SoOO years b. o., say aboat 5400 years ago : and such amalgamations 
tniut then have been &r more ancient Examine the following — 
(I^p- 84, 85) : we ahall revert to them by-and-by. 

We shall yet be able to sketch oat the dorability of t^e cogoate 
Arabian race 2000 years earlier than Ishhasl, bod of Abraham, when 
Ti deal with Egyptian primltiTe relations with Asia ; and aa, for 
tlurty-five centories (not to say fiAy-five, when the Chaldaic blood first 
ajipeare), Jews and Arabs have been monumentally coexistent and 
distinct in type, therefore the demonstration of the existence of the 
litter people 5500 years ago will naturally imply the simultaneous 
presence of the former in their Mesopotamian birth-place ; although 
aeither from Assyrian nor Hebrew records can we produce annals to 
that effect — simply because such chronicles, if any were kept, have 
not reached our modem day. 

Before quitting, for the present, Semitish immigrations into Africa, 
ice may allude to early Fhoinician colonization of Barbaiy, as another 
prolific source of comminglings between Chaldaic and Berber, or Ata- 
lantic, ^pes. These must have preceded, by centuries, the foundation 
of Carthage, estimated at B. c. 878 ; and, in those days (the camel not 
having been introduced into Africa before the first or second century 
B. c), the Sahara desert being absolutely impassable, the Atalan- 
tidte of the Barbary coast held no communication widi Negro races 
of inland Africa. The subject is discussed in Part 11. of this volume. 
The illiterate advocates of a pseudo-negrophilism, more ruinous to 
tiie Africans of the United States than the condition of servitude in 

1S6 phtsicjll histobt of the jsirs. 

which th^ thrive, multiply, and are happj, have actnallj dainud 
Bt AngOBtine, Eratoetheaes, Jaba, Hannibal, and other great men, 
as historical voncherB for tlie perfectdbility of the Seyn race, bectnn 
bom in A£rica ! It might hence he at^ed that ** hitth in g gtaUe 
makes a man a hone." We eabmit the following portruts. 

_ „ EsATosTHBires'" (Pig, 86), bom at the GfbA 

colony of Cyrene, on the coast of Barbaiy, sbont 
276 B. 0. What more perfect sample of die 
Greek hitterieal ^pe coold be desired T 

Hankibal'" (Fig. 87), son ot SarniUar Bonn, 
bom at Carthage, about b. c 247. The higb«(t 
"Caocafflan" ^e ia so strongly marked in hi) 
&ce, that, if his father was a Phoemco-Caiditgi- 
, one would suspect that his mother, u 
among the Ottomans and Persians of the premt 
ly, was an imported tnhiu slave, or other fe- 
male of the purest Japhetic race. 
Pio. 87. 

JnBA"* (Fig. S8), son of BiempMl, 
king of Numidia, ascended ^ 
throne about b. c. 50. If not Berber 
(and we have no means of compa- 
lisou), the Arab type predominate* 
in his countenance; and that this 
closely approximated to the tzue 
I^rton, or Phoenician, is evident 
by comparing it with the features 
of an ancient citizen of Tyre (Fig. 
89), figured at Thebes, in the reign 



of Bamsee IIL, of tiie XXth dynasty, during the thirteeoth centiuy 

Abundant illoatrationB of the permanence of type, la other varietieB 
of Semitifih races, will be ^ven ii^due course ; hut, on our road to 
Persia, let ub indicate a Sgrian form, in this mountaineer of Lebanon"* 
(Fig. 40), from the conquests of the same RamBes ; and contrast it 
■with a gennine Oiuhite Arab, or Simyariie'^^ C^g- 41), who appears 
in the tomb of Seti-Meneptha L, about 1400 years b. c. 

Fio. 40. 

Ja we eroBa through Chaldsea, we agMu encounter (Tig. 42) the 
tr-ue Jewish ty^ in the land of its origin. A full-length figure of 
tlxia individoal will be ^ven in a 
Biacceeding Chapter; and it is the 
en ore cmious, inasmuch as we be- 
Ixold in ita deugu an Egyptian art- 
ist's conception of a Chaldee during 

the fifteenth centuiy s. c; that is, 

about 600 years before any cunei- 

zorm monuments yet found, and 600 

years before any Jewish records, now 

^ijown, were inscribed or written. 
£*eraian monumental ethnogra- 

T>hy, (like the native, the Hebrew, 

a.ud the Greek chronicles of that ^nian laud,) can but commence 
■^rttb CiBDS ; — ^that mighty name, which, until recent hieroglyphical 
and cuneatic discoveries threw open the portals of ages anterior, 
xxiEtrlced the grand terminus of historical knowledge concerning 
Oriental events and nations. We accompany the following series 
■with Bawlinbon's translation of the Fereepolitan arrow-headed 



Such is the sample epitaplw^ 
of sterling greatnees, o^^,^ 
the ruined pilastere of Mn*^ 
ghib, or Partagadm, adj ^^'" 
cent to the tomb of Cteu ^c*" 
built about B. c. 528. ^*- 

The abraded coudit^ 
of the fiice (Fig. 43) ^° 
ablcB ue mereljr to ^^tjn 
guish that high-^lase t^^^ | 
which the grandson o/ g' / 
Mede (AetyagCB) and a Ig. | 
dian (Mandane, sister of I 
Cr<E81ib), and the eon of ^ \ 
Pertian, would natapall_3# 

Singularly enough, tli -^ 
effigy wears an £gj/ptia:^^ 
(Kneph-Osirie) head-dres^^-; 
which confirms Lbtbokhi^~ I 
argument of the veiy int3. 
mate relations between P^tt. 
sia and Egypt, before (t^u 
conquest by CambyBea.'*^ 

" I un DuinB, (Fig. 44) the Br<^M*t 
King, tht King of Klnp, tha g*^j 
of Ferrift, tht Eiag of (tha dvp'^nt- 
dent) proTiDoea, tb« wn of S j'^. 

We see Dabius in the 
attitude of uttering tliat 
noble address, which8taQ<3( 
inscribed on the vast on- 
neiform Tablet of BehiatX^iL 
cut about 482 b. o. 

"Xenei, the gmt Sng, «|t 
King or Kiogf, th« aon 0^ K% 
UkriM, tht ADh«mMiluL"i3T 

We are uncertain whether the effigy (Fig. 45) bo not that of Iji 
sor., Aktaxbbxks: but, e^hnolopcally, the point is immaterial; &f 
the I'eraic typo of the line of Achsemenos is rigorously preserved, in 
these sculptures of Persepolis. 


"lUi ii tfc« fco« (n^ M) of tli« (Hudnu) Btrrtnt ot Onnnid, of tbe god 8apo>, 
t^«r Ibckiati b' ^ Iraniuu tod of th« noo-Irkmuu, of the race of the god<; uni 
it IIm (Miiiltn) Mrraat of Ormnid Ardahir, king of the kings of Irui, of the net of 
ti|l4llpMdMBflf ttegodAiict, kiDg."i» 


Thia Greek version of the trilmguar inacription carved npon 8ha- 
noK's horse at NakBhi-Bedjeb, near Peraepolis, is the more precious, 
becMiBe it served to Geotefbnd, 1802, the same purpose that the tri- 
gJjjAiic Botetta &ciu answered to Yodnq, Id 1816. The latter 
beouna the finger-post to Chahpollion le Jkuks'a detsphering of 
ill Egyptian hieroglyphics ; juat as the former to RAWimsoit'B of alt 
nueiform writings. 

Onr heads, however, are taken from the bas-relief of the same 
king SoAPOOB, Sapor, at Nakshi-Bonfftain : where a Roman suppliant, 
DO less a personage than the captive emperor Valerian, kneels in vtun 
Impe of exciting Persian hnmani^. The scene refers to events of 
about A. D. 260 ; when, under the Sassanian dynasty, art had wofully 
declined. The contrast, notwithstanding, between the Persian and 
the Boman, is here preserved ; and still more effectively in another 
tableau '" at Chapour. 

Among the prisoneis of Darius at Behistiin, the nations carved on 
bia rock-hewn sepulchre at Persepolis, and the troops supporting the 
throne of Xbexes, may be seen many varieties of the Median, Fer- 
aaa, and Chaldeean races ; although, in the latter instances, the ab- 
seace of names prevents identification : but this son of the desert, 
(Fig. 47) of the age of Sapor,'" affords a variant, with some Arabian 
lineaments, that we are inclined to refer to Beloochist^, or the 
Lidian aide of the Persian Gnl£ 

Still nearer to the Indus do we assign the first of two effi^es (Figs. 
48, 49) piunted in Egypt about 1800 years previously. The second 





Fio. 50. 

may even, perhaps, approach fhe ESmalayan range. They are ftm 
the ^^ Grand Procession" of Thotmes HL, in the sixteenth centiny 
B. c, to be elucidated hereinafter. 

He (Fig. 48) leads an elephant, which, like that on the Obelkh tf 
Nimroudj^^ points towards Hindostanic intercourse ; and his featores, 
surmounted by the straw hat, are peculiarly Hindoo. 

The other (Fig. 49) carries an elephant's tooth, at the same time 
that he* leads a bear — by Morton denominated an Urtui Ldbiatui— 
and a certain Arian cast of countenance favors the vague geogia- 
phical attribution we adopt for him. 

Finally, to establish the divenity of 
Asiatic types, in eveiy age parallel with 
the Jewish, here is a Tartar (Fig. 50) from 
the conquests of Ramses H.,^^ painted at 
Aboosimbel in the fourteenth centaiy B. a 
His face is unmistakeable ; as are those of 
his associates, some of whom wear their 
hair long, in the same tableau. 

The question of the " Chinese " (tm- 
known to any nation west of the EuphrateB 
prior to the Cliristian era,) has been set- 
tled in our Supplement; and it suffices here to note that, the oostom 








of ghftven heads, with scalp-lock, is essentially Tartar. The Chinese 
liwijB wore their hair long until compelled to shave their heads by 
lie preaent dynasty of Mantchou-Tartars ; ^** and the Turkish branch 
tf those hordes introduced this usage in the modem Levant 

Reader ! we have followed the Chaldaie type from Mesopotamia to 
Cemphis; and thence, via Carthage, through Palestine, Syria, Arabia, 
iBBjnA, and Persia, until it disappeared ; when, looking towards the 
/ispian and the Indus, we descried the cradle-lands of Arian, Tartar, 
ni Sndoo races. May we not now consider permanence of type 
mong JEWS, for more than 8000 years, to be a matter proved ? and 
itb it, the simultaneous existence in the same Countries of every 
uietj of type and race visible there now, ever distinct during the 
une period 7 

The monuments of Egypt and Assyria, history and the Bible, have 
tabled us to ascend to the age of Abraham, first historical progenitor 
' the Israelitish line, and demonstrate the indelibiUty of the Jewish 
pe from his era downwards. The sculptures of the IVth dynasty 
kte also exhibited the admixture, or engraftment of the same 
uddaic type upon native families of Egypt at a date which is some 
00 years beyond Abraham's era upwards. 

Other analogical proofs will appear in the sequel ; but, in the in- 
nm, the Jews themselves are living testimonies that their type has 
rfived every vicissitude ; and that it has come down, century by 
ntaiy, from Mesopotamia to Mobile, for at least 5500 years, unaltered 
d, save through blood-alliance with Gentiles, unalterable. 




h a preceding chapter, portions of the European group, generi- 
By styled the " Caucasian," were traced backwards through historieat 
aes. This sketch was followed by a resume of the Physical History 
the Jews, whose annals constitute the boundary of written history^ 
supplying the most ancient literary link that connects us with 
Doter monumental periods. We now propose to track this Cau- 
lian type onwards, through the stone records of Egypt, up to the 
liest of such documents extant. 

rhe incipient history of the Israelites is indissolubly woven with 

t of Egypt ; nor could we separate the two if we would. Although 

earliest positive synchronism, or ascertained era of contact, be- 

^en these people, is the year 971 b. c. ; viz. : the conquest of Judsea 


under Rohoboam by Shishak or Sheshonk — neveitheleMy there are 
other periods of intercourse much earlier in date, which may be 
reached approximately : and while, on the one hand, Egyptian mono, 
ments, so far as known synchronisms extend, bear testimony to the 
historical truth of Jewish records posterior to Solomon, these, on tbe 
otiier, furnish evidence in favor of the reliability of the hieroglyphics 
The histories of Abraham, of Joseph, of Jacob and his descendantB, 
and of Moses, all bear witness to the antiquity, grandeur, and high 
civilization attained by Egypt's Old Empire before the birth of the firet 
Hebrew patriarch : but when we compare the genealo^cal and chro- 
nological systems of the two people, as well as their respective phy. 
sical types, there is really nothing in common between them. Abra- 
ham, according to the Habbinical account, is but the tenth in descent 
from Noah ; his birth occurring 292 years after the Deluge : but, 
substituting tlie more critical computation of Lepsius, Abraham miut 
have lived in the time of Amunoph III., MemnaUy of the XVIIIth 
dynasty, about 1500 years b. c. Now, the epoch of Mekes, the firet 
Pharaoh of Egj'pt, fs placed by tlie same savant at 3893 B. c, or some 
2400 years before Abraham. 

The epoch of Abraham has ordinarily, indeed, been computed bj 
Biblical commentators, a few centuries farther back than the date 
assigned to him by Lepsius ; but we are inclined to adopt the esti- 
mate of this superior authority, for the following simple reasons:— 
There are but five generations — viz. : Isaac, Jacob, Levi, Eohath, 
Amram — between Abraham and Moses; and the era of the latter 
is now approximately fixed in the fourteenth century b. c. By adding 
to the latter age — assuming the Exodus, when Moses was 80 years 
old, at B. c. 1322 **^ — ^the average duration of life for five generations, 
tlie time of Abraham falls about 1500 b. c. It may be objected that 
people in olden times were ^fted with a longevity immeasurably 
greater than our modem generations ; but this presumption is contra- 
dicted by a thoroughly-established fact, that the Egyptians, whose 
ages are recorded on the liieroglyphical tombstones for twenty centu- 
ries before Abraham's nativity, and whoso mummied craniaj of gene- 
rations long anterior to this patriarch, abound, Uved no longer than 
people do now. Another proof, likewise, that numerical errors have 
always existed in the Book of Genesis, is the fact, that the manusciipt 
Texts diftcr irreconcilably in respect to the ages of the Patriaicha; 
while these extraordinary ages are rendered nugatory by the physio- 
logical laws governing human life. If farther proof be wanted, it 
may oe gathered from the story of Abraham and Sarah. Though 
contemporary with every one of her ancestors hack to Noah Auiiie{f, (all 
Di whom, according to Genesis,"^ lived from 205 to 600 yean), y«t 


mh, when told, in her ninetieth year, that she should hear a child, 
Bg^ied twice, having never heard of such an occurrence ! But, even 
nutting such superhuman longevities for the Patriarchs, that does 
t mend the difficulty ; for, after all, there are hut ten generatiam 
tween Abraham and Noah, to set off against no less than seventeen 
wutieM of Egypt, each of which included many kings, whose united 
Bs exceed 2000 years. 

Fhe following is the popular view of the genealogy of Abraham : 
\ scientific results of Hebraical inquiry into which are discussed in 
wi 111. of our work. 

A* aMCOT* 

2. Arphaxad. 

8. Salah. 

4. Eber. 


6. Biu. 

7. Seruff, 


9. Terah. 

10. Aln'oham. 

SToWy as we have stated, Abraham was not only contemporary with 
I anoestiy, but, according to the Jewish system, 58 years old when 
•h himself died ; and yet, when he visits Egypt, he meets with no 
[uaintances nor kindred there ; but, on the contrary, he finds a 
sat empire, composed of millions of strange people ; and beholds 
nding around him pyramids and temples, erected by this more au- 
nt and distinct race — with records, hieroglyphical and hieratic, 
itten in a language to him foreign, stretching back more than 2000 
UB before his birth. The reasons, then, are obvious, for passing 
er that part of Egyptian history subsequent to b. c. 1500, and for 
mmencing our analysis of the monuments with those of the AVilth 
nasty, (of Lepsius — XVlilth, of Rosellini,) which was contempo- 
ty with Abraham. Although Jewish chronicles, as they have 
iched us, beyond this Abrahamic point are all confusion, it will be 
en that Egyptian monuments afford vast materials, bearing upon 
me Types of Mankind, in Asia and Africa, whose epoch antedates, 
' twenty centuries, that of the Father of the Abrahamidaj. 
It is now known to every educated reader that the Egyptians from 
e very earliest times of which vestiges remain, viz., the IHd and 
^th dynasties, were in the habit of decorating their temples, royal 
d private tombs, &c., with paintings and sculptures of an historical 
aracter ; and that a voluminous, though interrupted, series of sucli 
at)glyphed monuments and papyri is preserved to the present day. 
ese sculptures and paintings not only yield us innumerable por- 
Hb of the Egyptians themselves, but also of an infinitude of foreign 
^le, with whom they held intercourse through wars or commerce. 
ey have portrayed their allies, their enemies, their captives, servants, 
1 slaves ; and we possess, therefore, thus faithfully delineated, most 
lot all the Asiatic and African races known to the Egyptians 3500 
n ago — races which are recognized as identical with those that 
apj the same countries at the present day. 


We shall commence our iHustrations by a series of royal portraits 
of the XVnth and succeeding dynasties. They are fiuthfiilly copied^^ 
on a reduced scale, from the magnificent MbnumetUi of Boeellin^i^^ 
Although reasons will be produced hereinafter for regarding this lii^^^ 
of Pharaohs as of mixed Asiatic origin (t. e. not of the pure Egypti^^^ ® 
type proper), yet they will serve admirably as a basis whence to cc^ ^^ 
tinue tracing, upwards, our Caucasian types. Not only are all thi 
heads of high Asiatic or Caucasian outline, but several of tl:::^T 
features strongly betray the Abrahamic cross. "" 

When the celebrated Visconti printed, in Italy, his " Cheek ^^ 
Roman Iconography^* containing the portraits of the most fieuiioQg 
personages of classical antiquity, he lamented the absence ot Egyptian 
portraits; little expecting that, a few years later, Rosellini'^ should 
publish a complete gallery of likenesses of Pharaohs and Ptolemies 
from the monuments of the Nile ; still less could either of those great 
scholars foresee tliat^ ere one generation elapsed, we should posseflB 
the portraits of Sennacherib and other Assyrian mouarchs from the 
palaces of Nineveh ! 

Mankind have always, and in every country (China, from most 
ancient times, particularly), taken extreme interest in knowing the 
features of those who have been renowned in story. Pliny pnusee 
the 700 portraits collected by Varro. Solomon, or the writer of 
TTiadow,^** says, " Wliom men could not honor in presence, becauee 
they dwelled afar off, they took the counterfeit of his visage, and made 
an express image of a king whom they honored ; '* and while to Gre^ 
cian art we owe the perpetuation of the sublime busts of their worthies 
back to the fourth century b. c, we can no longer tolerate the illurioo-, 
now that we possess the likeness of Prince Merhet (to be exhibited, 
in due course) who lived about 5300 years ago, that LT8iBTRATUS,wh<3 
flourished in the 114th Olympiad, was either the first portrait-sculptoT 
or moulder. Such sparse remains of Hellenic art as appertain to 
sixth century b. c. differ altogether ft^m the perfection of later ag^ 
and betray the stifl&iess of antiquity. They correspond in style to 
old Lydan sculptures, which are known derivatives of Assyrian ai 
and it is sufficient to glance at the effigies of Ninevite kings ai 
nobles, so splendidly illustrated in the folio plates of Botta and 
Layard, to be convinced that the art o{ portrait-taking ascends, in 
Syria at least, to the tenth century b. c. ; while, in Egypt, its orij 
precedes the oldest pyramids — because, at the IVth dynasty, 
likenesses of individuals are repeated times out of number in 
t(»ml>8, as any one can verify by opening Lcpsius's Denkmdler. 

The general exactitude of Egyptian iconography being now a mat 
beyond dispute, we have only to remind the readeri while Bubmil 




&t Mowing selectiooB, that, if he makes allowauce for want of per- 
ipective in wtiqae Eg^tian art, wherein the eye is always presented 
io foil, he will find the profiles admirably trathiul. Moreover, he 
vill be Btrack with the likeneeses from father to son in each family 
gnap — which is another gnarautee of artistic fidelity ; at the same 
time that the infiudon of new blood in each dynasty, and the conee- 
qiHDt alteration of lineuuents, are apparent to every eye. 


AMvsorarrsB and Thotubsiixs. — yete Empire — XVHth Theban 
djiUHty — commencing atB. c. 1671 (Lepsius), with AahueSjAbkhii; 
Kltose portrut being unknown, we begin with his son's. Our ethno- 
logical conceptions are veiy briefly given under each head, leaving the 
Rider to emend where we may not have seized the exact definitions. 


Fta. 16. 


(Strong Stmilk fMUm.) 


FiO. 4T. 


His Wife. 



AmtifoPH U. 
(Unlt«( .^Tjgifun frith SMemc) 

Thotmh r7. 
(Eatoini to the oU ^/spUm fan.) 

AMuiroFB UL 
(A Ay Md^ but not of N^n Ik 

mfcof An- 


AxmoFM IT. £^m-^ta*.ui 

At the close of the JLVlUth dynasty, and jost before the inaagara- 
lioD of the XlXth, interrenes a period of diarchy, technically known 
to Egyptolo^flts as the " Disk Here^ ;" wherein the ahove eztrsor- 
inBj penonage (Fig. 55) plays a not leea extraordinary part He 
toned the orthodox priests ont of the eanctnaries — abolished the 
iN^rthostic orieons to Egypt's andent gods — and introduced daring 
Iv tagn (followed for a ^ort time by sacceeeore), the worship of the 
m'l dui. These events took place in Upper Egypt, daring the 
fifteenth century B. c. ; or some time before the hirtli of Moses, ac- 
cciding to the emended Biblical chronology of Lepsios. 

Fid. fie. 
Aft«r tiwicMe*! timM. 

Ami the XVmth Dymu^ etub ui uturpatioRt. 


XlXtb Dynas^ — JVeur Family — Bakxbidss — about B. o. 1525. 
Fto. £7. Tin. SB. 

(Entlnlj JewiiL) 

Sakiu IL, th* 0>_ — 

BI* hatnna an m cnporblj Mm^m^^ 
•a^ooum'*, «bam lit -—-MmJ 


|U|ri^» Pknaoh of the BzoAa.^ } 

( SEFMfiea-EgTptUn. ) 

And Uw XlXth dynasty ends al>oat 1300 b. o. 

We paM over the Tarions portraits of the XXth and XXbt d;- 
BHdea ; becaase, where identified, the t^e is the eame, except that 
it is in tiie ftnaU* that we perceive the Asiatic cast« of race most 
pDt^neotlj ; a fact of singalar ethnographical import. We renew 
At Qhutrationa at shout 971-3 b. c, with the portrut of Shiahak, 
conqoflnv of " Jentsalein," as recorded at Eamac ; and " in the fifth 
jmt at Behoboam," as chronicled by the Hebrew writers. 



XX lid Dynasty — Maketho's ^' Bubastites ;'* 

Proved by Mr. Birch to have Assyrian names ; but the Pharaonia 
stock has now become so mixed, that it is difficult to determiiii 
whether the Hellenic, the Semitic, or the Egyptian preponderates. 

Fio. 67. 

Fio. SB. 

Shbshohk I. 

OsoBKOir in. 

There are little or no remains of the XXIIId or x x i vfh dynastiee* 
but, in order to show that the so-called " Ethiopian" dynasty had no 
Negro blood in their veins, we subjoin their three portraits. Dr. 
Morton calls them "Austro-Egyptians ; '' and we opine that they ma^ 
be derived from an Egyptian colony, crossed with Old Bega (Begaweeys^ 
or perhaps with CushUe-Aid^ABXL blood. 

Fio. 69. 

XXYth Dynasty— b. c. 719 to 695. 

Fio. 70. 




(Pharaoh /Slia. 2 £ipv«b 



Fio. 71. 

Tajulak A'Tirhaka, 
(<« Melek-KuSA." 2 Km^s, zix. 9.) 

It 18 annecessary, for ethnological purposes, to contintie the series 
of Egyptian portraitB down to the Ptolemies, and ending with Gleo- 
PiTXA (already given, Fig. 8, page 104,) and her son by Julius Cssab, 
Cjsakion. The reader can behold the whole of them in Bosellini's 
magnificent folios. Having presented the royal likenesses, to serve 
u evidence of Egyptian artistic accuracy, we shall now investigate 
the fweign nattom with whom the men, whose portraits we have just 
leeo, were acquainted ; together with such others as their ancestors 
bid known during twenty centuries previously. 

It will become apparent, in a succeeding chapter, that even as far 
bick as the IVth dynasty, b. c. 3500, the population of Egypt already 
exbibited abundant instances of mixed types of African and Asiatic 
origins; at the same time that the language then spoken on the Lower 
Nile, and recorded in the earliest hieroglyphics, also presents evi- 
dence of these amalgamations. The series of Royal portraits just 
submitted not only demonstrates this commingling of races, but 
shows that Asiatic intruders had, at the foundation of the New Empire, 
to a great extent, supplanted, in the royal family at least, the indige- 
nous Egyptians. Their foreign type is vividly impressed upon the 
iconographic monuments. So much do the Pharaonic portraits of 
the XVnth, XVmth, and TOXth dynasties resemble those of the 
later Greek and Roman sovereigns, that the eye passes through the 
long series giveij by Rosellini without being arrested by any striking 
contrast between the former and the latter. Although the common 
people were also greatly mixed, the Egyptian type proper, neverthe- 
leas, among them, predominated over the Asiatic. Even admitting 
flat the autocthonous Egyptian race was always, down to the Persian 
oonquest, b. c. 525, the ruling one, yet the royal families of the !Nile, 
as in other coontries, become modified by marriages with alien races. 


We know, througli classical histoiy, of numerous aUiances between 
the EtMopians and Egyptians. Solomon too, an Asiatic, married cm 
Egyptian princess; and we have mentioned other instances of Jewxsh 
predilection for the women, no less than for the "flesh-pots, of Egyp^" 
Mr. Birch^^ has recently famished some quite novel particuLcirs 
concerning the matrimonial alliance of a Pharaoh of the XSlth 
dynasty (probably Bamses XIV.) with an Asiatic princess of ^t^ib- 
hitana; to whom was given the title of ^^Ba^rferUj the king's chiief 
wife." With regard to the exact locality in Asia of this countay, 
although it might be Echatana in Media, Birch takes it to be the 
celebrated Bashan mentioned in Deuteronomy (iii. 1, &c.) This tablet, 
brought from the temple of Chons at Eamac, in 1844, by M. Prisse, 
is so intensely curious that we extract two of Birch's translations, 
adding interuLary explanations : - 

**Line 6. 'Then the chief of Bnkhitana IBathanf] oaiund his tribate to be bronchi ; 
he gaTe his eldest daaghter [to the Eiog of Egypt] .... in adoring his migestj, tnd 10 
jNramising her to him : she being a Tery beaatifol person, his majesty prised her shore aH 

** Line 6. < Then was giTen her the title [ ? ] of Ra-nefem, the king's chief inft, is^ 
when his migestj arriTod in Egypt, she was made king's wife in all respects.' " 

Here, then, is a positive example of the marriage of an Egyptian 
king with an Aiiatie female, that entirely corroborates the intermix^ 
ture of races we derived from the physical aspects of the royal portraits. 
Whether the hieroglyphic BtUkten^ or Bahhtan^ be the Bashan of 
Palestine or Median Ecbatana, to ethnology the &ct is the same ; and 
IMX>babilities favor, in either case, the lady's Semitish extraction. It 
is with regret that we cannot digress about the cure wrought upon 
this lady's sister, "Benteresh" [Hebraic^, Daughter of the jRetA, chie^ 
or king], who was " possessed by devils ; " but her name, being Aia* 
bic no less than Hebrew, settles, philolo^cally, her Semitic lineage. 

It may be worthy of passing notice to the reader, that the conven- 
tional color by which the Egyptians always represented their own 
males was r«<2, and their own females, yellow ; and that, with few 
exceptions, other races were painted in such different colors m the 
artist deemed most conformable to their cuticular hues. Why were 
exceptions made ? Was it because the Egyptians, in such instances, 
had formed marriage connections with some of these races, and 
ennobled them, therefore, with the red color? Our Figs. 41, 82, and 
88, belonging to the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries b. c, aie, in 
BosBLLiNi, thus represented in red; showing, perhaps, that they 
were esteemed as equals,^ or that they belonged to cognate Hamitic 

Let us now select for examination a few monumental heads of the 
various /oret^rn races so faithfully portrayed. It will then be appaient 


dot ^ nme db tt n itji has ever ezisted among the eo-called Caucanan 

^et, iq> to tbe veiy earlieat monmnents of above £fly centorieB ago. 

By in;r of general mtrodnction to this vast subject, we present one 

pcnpiriterein tin* distinct typa of mankind are grasped bj a/ourtA. 

Simses IL, in tlie fonrteenth centnry b. c. (or during the early part 

of the Ufetime of Moses), at the temple of Aboosimbel in IRubia, ?ym- 

Ix^zes his Asiatic and African conquests in a gorgeouelj-colored 

abiesn. He, an Egyptian, brandishes a pole-ase over the the heads 

(XSigroet, Nvhiatu (Baribera), and Anatict, each painted in their 

tnie colors: viz., black, brick-dust, and yellow flesh-color; while, 

»bove his head, mna the hieroglyphic scroll, " The beneficent living 

^od, goardian of gloiy, smites the South ; puts to flight the Bast ; 

roles by victoiy; and drags to his country all the earA, and all 

foreign lands." Kamses inclusive, here, to be^n with, are /our t^pes 

of men — one mixed, two purely Aftican, and one true Asiatic, co- 

emtent at 1400 years b. c, or some 3350 years ago. Their geography 

extends from the confluence of the Blue and Wbite Kiles, beyond 

the northern limit of the tropical rains, in !Negro-land ; down the 

imr to Egypt, and thence to the banks of the Euphrates. Precisely 

the same four types occupy the same countries at the present day. 



We next proceed to examine the Anatic daas ; Init it should be 
remembered that we are about to trace re trogreaeiFdy, into the veiy 
night of antiquity, yarions races — say, an indefinite pdnt of time, 
more than 5000 years anterior to onr age ; and that languages, toge- 
ther with the names of people and of places, have so changed, that it 
is in these days impossible to identify, in several instances, eitiier the 
nations or their habitats, except en moMie, Qfien^ the tgpi akme, 
which has never altered, remains to goide ns. It were inational to 
be Burprised at these difficulties. We mnst ever bear in mind Ae 
confusion of races and countries seen among the Hebrew, Grsek^and 
Boman historians, and even in our geographies of much later agee. 
If cla$sical topography be so often vague, that of ^e primeval hicEO- 
glyphics may well be still more so. 

Mo8t of our illustrations are taken from the great works of Boeel- 
lini and Lcpsius; but we subjoin references to other hierological 

This head (Fig. 72), one of several sinultf , 
'^' is taken from the Nubian temple of Aloomr 

bely by Lepsius placed in the fourteentii cen- 
tury B. c. They appear on a tableau wheran 
Ramses IL, during the fifth year of his re^ 
attacks a fortress in AiiOy which, it is be- 
lieved, belonged to a tribe of people called 
the Bamenen, BeMeNeN, near the ^^ land of 
Omar;""® probably mountaineers of the 
Tauric range, and, in any case, not^mote 
from Mesopotamia. 
The Romenen are a branch of the Lodan-nou, or "Ludhn," Lydians; 
by which general designation are known, on the monuments, divers 
Asiatics inhabiting Asia-Minor, Syria, Assyria, and a^acent countries; 
probably, liosellini thinks, this side of the Euphrates : but we incline; 
with Morton, to consider that Fig. 72 " represents ancient Scjfthian^ 
the eastommost Caucasian races; who, as history informs us, pos 
scsscd fair complexions, blue eyes, and reddish hair." Gontrastec 
with the other Asiatics, grouped in Fig. 71, it affords a very distine 
t>l)c. The lower and most salient of the latter profiles presents, ai 
Morton has duly noted, " a finely-marked Semitic head, in which thi 
forehead, though receding, is remarkably voluminous and expres 
sive/''** An additional reason for supposing that Fig. 72 does no 
belong to Semitic races on the Euphrates, is the fact that it offers m 
resemblance to the true Cfhald»any or indigenous type, beheld on th< 
royal monuments of Nineveh or Babylon; but may possibly Im 
recognized among their prisoners of war or foreign nations. 


fca- 7*. Allowance made for diflferMioe be- 

tween Egyptian and Aseyrian art, con- 
pled with the proviso that the Ninerite 
BCoIptOFB were by no means so precise 
in ethnic iconography as those of Egypt, 
we reproduce here a head (Fig. 78), 
from the Bcolptares of Ehoreabid, by 
way of comparison : noting the iden- 
tity of the head-dresa, which is a Uathem 
cap. ( Vide mfroy page 128). 

"West of the Euphrates, more or less 
of the Jewish type prevailed. The 
heads, of which Fig. 72 is a Bpecimen, 
Rfweeent a race which, some 1400 years b. c, was distinct &om con- 
tenqwnuieoas Mesopotomiaa ^milies. People with yellowish sldns, 
Uae ej^ and reddish hair, are certainly not of Semitic extraction ; 
nd, jadj^g from the physiognomy of this man and his aeeociates, 
these were probably cognate Scythian tribes, inasmach as they do not 
£Ser among themBelves more than individaala of any Caucasian 
Dition of onr day. It is known that Bcythic tribes settled in Syria, 
ud even at Seythopotia, in Jndtea; nor do we employ the term 
"Scythian" here in a sense more specific than as distinct from 
"Bemitic" and from "Hamitio" populations. 

OsBiTRir fignres this head, classing it as one of the Canaanitish 
"Zazim;" bntwe certainly should not regard bine eyes, red hair, 
eye-browB, and beard, as characteristic of Canaanitcs, nor of any 
other HamiHc &milies situate in this re^on of coimtty, west of the 
Enphrates. The same author calls onr A^atic, Fig. 71 bit, a " Koabite 
of Babbah," and describes him among (he SittUe»; but he likewise 
be classed oar Fig. 93 as a Hittite ; and we cannot imagine how 
keids so entirely different could be deemed identical by an ethnologist. 


Tbis head (F^. 74) is taken from the celebrated tomb of Ssn-KE- 



SXPTHA L, of V I X th dynasty, about Hm fifleenft 
century b. 0. We have already alluded, vliai 
Bpeaking of classificationB of racee, to tliii 
scene, and illnatrated it in Fig. 1. The god 
HoroB ia represented, condncting dzteen pe^ 
sonages, in groups of four ; each of vhidi 
groups represents a distinct division of tin 
homan iamily; uid these diviuonB indndB ill 
the races known to the Egyptiaoa. Our M 
length (Fig. 75) is a reduced coi^ of the mm 
personage ; but taken from the Prasman,** where- 
as the head (Fig. 74) is from the Tascan wo^ 
A Bimilar scene occurs in the tomb of Banun 
ILL of the XXth dynasty, in which the am 
dividonB are kept up ; but the in^viduals selectsd 
differ in race from the preceding, though bening 
a certain generic resemblance. As before stated, each I^;fptiin 
division, like our generic designations — Caucauan, Kongol, ^tgat, 
kc, contfuned many proximate types. 

Although previously published in Ms colored folio plates hj fiie 
inde&tigable Belzoni, the ethnolo^cal importance of this tableau, in- 
the sepulchre of Seti 1,' was not perceived until ChampoUion-le- 
Jeune virited Thebes in 1829 ; nor, indeed, to this day, has its quad- 
ripartite classification of mankind been adequately appredated. 
Some vniters have mistaken its import altogether; while none, that 
we know o^ have deduced fivm it the natural consequence, that^ 
Egyptian ethnographers already knew of /our types of mankind — 
red, hlaek, wMte, and jfelioa — several centuries before the writer of 
2th Q-enena; who, omitting the blacTt or Negro races altogether, was 
acquainted with no more than three — " Shem, Ham, and Japheth." 
Champollion, with his consmumate acnteness, at once pronounced 
this scene to represent 

" The inlubitBiita of ths fbar qoirten of tbe world, ftcoording to th« anduit EifptUs 
■Tttem: -rii., lat, the inhkbiUnta of Egypt; 2d, the Aaimtiae; Sd, the inhaJntants t€ 
AMoA, or the bluka ; mnd 4th, the Enropeuia." 

We merely object to the term "Europeans," instead of "vAAn 
races ;" because, in the fifteenth centuiy b. o. there was no necesuty 
for travelling out of Asia Minor in quest of whUe men; nor could the 
jilgyptians, at that time, have possessed much knowledge of Europe. 

To our eye, Fig. 74 marks a type of the white races in the fifteenth 
centuiy B. o. The particular nation to which he belongs is the IUA9 
of hieroglyphicc , probably the Rhibii of the classics. 

Figure 76*^ is from anotiier put of the tomb of Ssd L» also dating 


) yean b. c This head, in Bosellini'B colored plates, pre- 
he lineaments of a Himjarita Arab, except the bine eje ; 
ahly, may be a ouHtake of the artist "ffimyir" means 
be Pisan copy is colored red. Upon reference, notnith- 
K) the great Prossian work,*" wherein, it is to be aasomed, 
of the original p^ntings are 

I wi^ greater accuracy, this 
s U^t brovm complexion, 

c eyes and beard. While, 
; ia not possible (consideriDg 
■ooB transfers of copies be- 
tentori^nalfl in Egypt and 
iplied reprodactions in mo- 
I,) always to avoid dtscrepan- 

II be remembered that the 
aearUt tints, adopted by the 
for their own ma]e«, is purely conventional — ^that is, being 
in real natnre — so that, whether the skin be colored ted 

the oeteolo^cal stmctareof the features remains the same; 

are genuine Arab. 

remarks, in his MS. letter : — 

M T«i7 inikge of ft Soothen Arab, wifli hit ghaip ftetom, iak lUn, mi 
al e a pwi i on, kdmliabl; giTen ia the dmring." 

, his effigy famishes another antique ^e of man. 
id (Fig. 77) {vide supra page 108, 
B been already compared with 
i of Strabo and of the Ninevite 
There ia nothing to favor Os- 
ory, that this man and his ma- 
jciatea were PhUUtinet; nor to 
arton'e, that they exhibit CeUie 
We present it, without comment, 
endence of the ancient diversity 
gan ^rpes :" and with an indica- 
e incompatibility of this man's 
th any tongue not a congener of 
bearing the name of " Indo-Earopean." He cannot, 
be a Philutine. 

a prisoners of RAHSE9 m., of the XXth dynasty, thirteenth 
0., we take Fig. 78 : sculptured on the base of his pavilion 
let-Haboo.'" A fracture in the wall has obliterated the 
lies, so that there ia no name for him ; but adjacent to him ^ 
eiB of the Tokhari or Toehari. He may be a mountaineer 


Amcowt Aauno. 

of the Taorns chain ; becaoBe he heam 8 Btroag reeemblanee to 
modem Enrdieh iflmilieB ; seen b; comparing this profile vHh tlM 
head of a Kurd (Fig. 79), from the work of Hahiltoh Buth. To 
om* minds, here is a strong example .of permatuneg of typ» Haao^ 
SOOO years; whilst tlie name "Earda^" Kwdt, is read in uaent 
cuneiform, by Db Saulcy, upon Assyrian inscriptions. 

Asiatic conquests of Rahbbs II. yield us Fig. 80 ; within tihe ixt- 
teenth century b. c, preserved at B^yt-el-W&lee."* Mr. Birch's detailed 
account of tiiis important historical document is accompanied t^ 
colored drawing in which tbe victorieg of that monarch over -nnaa 
Asiatic and African races are represented witli amazdng tmtbfblnai 
and spirit. The head itself possesses a Semitic «Bste, blende^ 
perhaps, with Arian elements. 

Anotber (^ptiye (Fig. 81) from the Asiatic conqaeets of 


[edeenet-Haboo. ^ "Wilkinson reads the name ^^Lemanon/' 
ical with Lebanon ; which is probable, inasmuch as Birch agrees ; 
t Osbom, by reading ffemuh 
fixes their locality at Monnt Fic^- 82. 

urn, aati-Libanus, in the north- 
)f Palestine. ^CThis character- 
pedmen is essentially Semitic, 
e Syrian form. 

^. 82 belongs to the ^^ Grand 
fldon" of the age of Thotmes 
>f flie XV^th dynasty, 1600 
' Ko head in oar whole cata- 
has, perhaps, caused as much 
iological debate; nor is our 
ledge of his race and country as yet satisfactory. 
lellini figures this head without comment ChampoUion Figeao 
i it, but his explanatiomi lead to no tangible result. Hoskins 
leautifully colored the wnole file (sixteen persons in number) of 
tiibutaiy people, regarding them as natives otMeroi, in Ethi- 
bat subsequent researches, by Lepsius and others, render such 
ate of Meroite antiquity radically wrong. We now know that, 
) time of Thotmes HL, the only civilized points in Nubia were 
occupied by Egyptian garrisons. The Meroe of Greek annalists 
ot then exist. 

ilkinson accurately designs the whole scene, but without colors ; 
by rendering it less clear, in an anthropological point of view ; 
is hieroglyphics are more exact, and he observes : — "The people, 
I (which is their name), appear to have inhabited a part of ^m, 
f considerably to the north of the latitude of Palestine ; and theii 
hair, rich dresses, and sandals of the most varied form and color, 
er them remarkable among the nations represented in Egyptian 
)ture." Birch calls them " the people of Kaf or KfoUy an Asiatic 
;" placing them near Mesopotamia. Prisse denominates them, 
peuple de Koufa (race Asiatique, peinte en rouge)." 
■om the foregoing we may conclude — Ist, that these Koufa were 
iiee; 2d, that they resided near Mesopotamia; 3d, that, as they 
painted red on the monuments, they presented certain affinities 
the Egyptians, confirmed by the physiological characteristics of 
atter race observed by Morton — " shortness of the lower jaw and 
;" and 4th, that, if they be OtLshiteSj they are of the Hamitic stem, 
r are probably of the KUSA-ite families of Arabia, cognate to the 
itians (perhaps allied by royal marriages), who in consequence 
red them wilb the red color. Inasmuch as they bring a tribute 



ofgoldm vesselB, ihej may have had accen to Uw Axstnan OpUr; ud 
as ihey cany elepAonli' teeth, they had commiiBicatiixi iridi flie India, 
or with A&ica- Judgmg from their portraitB, th^ oertualy belongod 
Dot to any oftheAbrahamic orChaldsan tribes. Th^ bur , fintbn> 
more, conmdeiable resemblance to those primeval heads ve dull 
exhibit in a sacceeding chapter as illnstntiTO of itta type of tk 
fomiders of the Egyptian empire ; and slightly also to tike later Iff^ 
tian type {Set), as represented by Theban artists in thor qnadnple 
classification of races. These Kottfa may poenbly have been the 
deBcendants of an Egyptian colony, near the Peiraan Qolf ; like ^ 
of Colchis, if we can trust Herodotos, in Ama Minor. 

This figure is from tlie conqneste of 
'"■ *"■ Seti-Meneptha L, fifteenth oentory >. o, 

at the temple of Kamac."" Thepo^l* 
come nnder the generic class of WUti 
races ; and their tribe is called 3J)kii, bf 
RosellinL The same head, in one i^ 
the tombs, appeara as the type of White 
races in the qnadmpartite diviBisn of 
which we have already spoken, ffirch 
calls them Token, Tahyio, or Tem-hu— 
"evidentlybelon^ng to the white blood, 
or Japhetic &mLly of mankind." Utff- 
ton, in hiB MS. letter, writes, "th^ 
present Felaagic featarcB ; bnt the blue eye, reddish hair, and hanh 
expression, are not unhke the Scythian race." The Egyptians wem 
to have entertained towards them an excess of hatred, and to have 
slaughtered them with more fury than any other people. But «• 
leave their exact race and country an open question, althoo^ tb^ 
Gavcatian featores cannot be mistaken. 

We have compared this (Rg. 9^ 
and the next (Fig. 85) with tK= 
Jewish type {vide npra, p. 14(^ 
Bosellini g^ves no explanation:' 
Supposed, by Champt^on, to 1^ 
Lydiafu — their name reading X«tf 
dannu, or £ot-n-no. This head b^ 
longs to the same Qrand Proce^* 
sion of Thotmes HE., so effectively 
colored in HoBkins; bat we have 
copied Kosellini's outline, as more 
correct."* HoekinB again perceives "white slaves" of the king of hii 
Ethiopia I Osburu terms them Arvaditet ; but Birch, refating botJi 




opinions, puts these people down as Cappadocians, or Leuco-SyriaBB ; 
which aeems more rational, did not an elephant's tooth suggest some 
geographical obstacle. The man leads an animal — disputed, whether 
it is a bear or lion, the drawing being so very defective. He also 
carries an elephant's tuak. Morton figures this head as Indo-Semitic, 
or Indo-Peraan ; and all attending circumstances assign him a habi- 
tation between Persia and the Upper Indus. 

Another from the same scene as the pre- 
ceding figure."" He wears a light dress and 
straw hat, and leads an elephant: conditions 
indicative of a southern climate. Morton 
observes — " This is a jet more striking 
Hindoo, in whom the dark akin, black eye, 
delicate features, and fine facial angle, are 
all admirably marked. The presence of 
the elephant aasists us in designating the 
national stock, while the straw hat sends 
ua to the Ganges" — or, much nearer, to tlie 
Peculiar interest attaches to both of the above effigies ; the latter 
t^f which enables us to carry the existence of a Sindoo national type 
I'^mck to the sixteenth century B. c. Although no written Hindostanic 
^onamcnts are extant of an age coetaneoua with even the sixth een- 
■Irary prior to our era, native traditions, zoological analogies, and 
admissions of the more sceptical Indologists, justify our considering 
file Hindoo* to have inhabited their vast peninsula as early as the 
Egyptians did the shores of their Nile, or any other type of men its 
original centre of creation, whether in Asia, Africa, Europe, America, 
or Oceanica, 
II We now come to that Egyptian tableau the moat frequently alluded 
to, «id which has prompted much nonsensical, if pious, diacussion. 
The head (Fig. 86} is one of the '' Brickmakeri," 
I Fio. 88. ^Qj^ (jjg j^jjjjjj pf ^Q architect — " Prefect of the 

country, Intendant of the great habitations, 
Eokshbbb" — of the time of Thotmes III., 
XVUth dynasty, sixteenth century b. c."" We 
copy from Rosclhni, who thought them Israelitet ; 
but, according to the chronology of Lepsius, 
they antedate Jacob ; though they may be a 
cognate race — perhaps some of his ancetitiy. 
Wilkinson honestly observes : — 

■■ T« IB««1 wilh Ribrtiti in the wulptarea cannot reuBontbl]' b« cxp«oted, s 
■uuii in llitt port of Bgjpt irbere tbcf lireil hare not beeo preMrrBd ; but it ii 



to diflooTer othtrforei^ captioa ooonpied In the buim mumer, OTdvlooked lijiftnflir • W- 
mastera,' and performing the very same labon as the brae&tes deseiibed In tte Bajk.** 

The same author again insists — 

" They are not, howeyer, Jews, as some haye erroneonsly snppoMd^ and as I ksi»«iii> 
where shown." 

Notwithstanding the palpable anachronism and contradicting figon- 
tive circnmstances, certain evangelical theologers have wasted much 
crocodilean grief over these unfortunate and oppressed, however apo- 
chryphal, Israelites ; forgetting, in their exceeding-great-thankfalnesB 
over a wondrous " confirmation," to weep for the Hgjfpiian briA- 
makers, who toil in the same scene. 

The following items may assist the reader in forming an indepen- 
dent opinion : — 

1st. The hieroglyphics do not mention the name or countiyof 
these brickmakers. 

2d. The scene is not an historical record; but a pictorial illostralion 
of brick-making, among other constructive arts that embellished the 
tomb of an architect, at Thebes — that is, 500 miles from "Goshen." 

3d. The people wear no beards — their littie chin-sprouts are but 
the usual unshaven state of Egyptian laborers, no less than of peir 
santry everywhere. 

4th. They are a Semitic people — possibly, with their beards cut 
off in Egyptian slavery ; but whether Canaanites, Hebrews, Arataj 
Chaldseans, or others, cannot be determined. 

5th. There is not the slightest monumental evidence that the Jm 
(in the manner described by the writers of Genesis and Exodus) were 
ever in Egypt at all ! Their type^ however, had existed there, 2000 
years before Abraham's birth. 

6th. These brickmakers are not more Jewish, in their lineaments, 
than Egyptian FelUhs of Lower Egypt at the present day, where 
the Arab cross is strong. Indeed, they greatiy resemble tiie living 
mixed race, who now make Nilotic bricks, every day, at Cairo, exactly 
as these brickmakers did 3500 years ago, and think nothing of it 

Finally — if these brickmakers are claimed to be IsraeliteSy we can 
have no objection, because their efligies will corroborate the perma- 
nence of the Jewish type for 3500 years : if they be not, to us they 
answer just as well — ^being tacit witnesses of the durability of Semitic 
features in particular, no less than proofs of one more form of ancient 
Caucasian types in general. 

The next head (Pig. 87), we now submit, is really out of place among 
our Caucasian group ; but, from the man's associations, he may have 
a position here. "We are induced to portray his singular tj'pe fop 
another reason : viz., that, being represented in the same picture with 
foreign allies, as well as \vith native Egyptian soldiers, it serves to 


Kite the coirectnefls of Egyptian out- ^<»- 87. 

rawing, and also the minute knowledge 
aitistB had of various types of man- 
at that early day. The people of 
i this is a sample have been reputed 
my to be ancient OhineMe. There are 
better reasons for believing them to 
ftar Iribes; which form the geogra- 

[ link between Mongols and Cauca- ^ Im^^^^H 
—aboriginal consanguinity with either * ' '^*TT* 


rton took this head for Mongolian; and too hastily adopted 
it Egypto-Chinese connexions, on the fisiith of certain pseudo- 
le CMnese "vases;" which, not manufjEWstured prior to a. n. 
could not have been found in Theban tombs shut up 2000 

ier the heading of "Alphabetical Ori^ns," our Supplement 
ishes that the Chinese, before the Christian era, possessed no 
ledge whatever of nations whose habitats lay north and west of 
L The splendid tableau from which the above ethnographic re- 
B taken, contains many heads of the same type — some of which 
laven, except the tealp-loch on the crown ; while others, though 
ed with the thin moustache, wear the hair long and untouched 
ssors. Now, it can be seen, by reference to Pauthier, that the 
•hou^TartarSj in a. d. 1621-27, forced the Chinese to shave their 
, and wear the pig-tail. Previously, the Chinamen had worn 
hair long. This scalp-lock (called Shooshehj by the Arabs), 
[ore, is a Tartar custom; and inasmuch as in the reign of 
les n., fourteenth century b. c, China and Chinese were equally 
own to the Egyptians, Jews, or Assyrians, we must suppose 
hese fiair, oblique-eyed, and scalp-locked enemies of Ramses, were 
tr», or a branch of the great easterly Scythian hordes.^'^ 
bum repeats this scene, calling the people Shettf whilst striving 
strict their habitat to Canaan, in which he signally fails. Birch's 
consistent geography carries them to the Caspian, where Tartars 
i naturally be found ; to which critical itidtLction we may add 
recent opinions of Bawlinson, De Sauley, fflncks, and Lowen- 
, that the Tartar, or " Scythic/' element in coneatic inscriptions, 
ially of the Achsemeno-ilferfwn style, establishes the proximity 
urkish (call them Tartar or Bcythic, for the tefikul are still vague; 
I to Persia at a much earlier period than ethnologists had bere- 
ft suspected, 
such, this effigy (Fig. 87) exemplifies the remotest Asiatic people 



depicted on Pharaonie monmnente, in days parallel with Moses, 

during the fourtoenth centmy b. c, 

Ramses IT., at Bevt*l-WAlee — fourteenth century b. c. — ^grasps the 

suhjoined foreigner (Fig. 88) by the hair of his head, ConBidered, by 

Koeelliui, to be tj'pical of the " Tohen," a people of Syria : whereas 
Morton deemed him a " Himyar- 
Fia- 86. ite-Arab." ''^ We have naught 

to oppose; and may add, that 
his red (Himj/dr) color affiUal 
him with the Arabian KUSA-ites 

Fio. 00. 

Ab the type of Yellow races, (Fig. 89) stands in the tomb of RamsoK 
in., XXth dynasty, about thirteen centuries b, c."* Nothing is certton 
respecting the history of the people he ropreeentB; but Osbum perhape 
is right in calling him an ancient T^rian: everything — features, 
purple dress, &c. — harmonizes with this view, adopted by us in a pp^ 
ceding chapter. (It^ra, p. 136.) 

An identical typo, possibly fri»Ta 
another Phoenician colony, 
with about 150 years earlier. Frc:»m 
the Theban tomb at Qoomet Mun— «i, 
of the time of Amuntuonch ( Am-^sn- 
anchut of Birch), we eelect (^ig. ^O) 
one instance of the many, to iHiiB- 
trate physiological 8imilitud&^^ "^ 
that time has not extinguisti^d, 
aloug the present coasts of Pal^ig- 
tine, in the fishermen of Sour axid 
Sfeyda (TjTC and Sidon), even 
this day. 


This great Agiatic chief (Fig. 91) is killed, in single combat, by 
Samses IL; the colored original being drawn on a magnificent tableau, 
«t AboosimbeL^^ Bosellini makes him one of the Scythian " Tohen," 
beyond the Euphrates; and Morton deems him "Pelasgic." BSs 
features depart essentially from the Semitic cast; and the fiEtce ofiers 
the earliest instance wherein Egyptian art has figured the eye closed. 

In this instance, as in many others, 
our copy is reversed; but such inad- 
vertencies do not affect ethnogra- 
phic precision. 

Fio. 92. 

Fio. 91. 

Fio. 98. 

We detach Fig. 92 froxa the bas-reliefe of Ramses HE., XXth dynasty, 

iit Medeenet ELaboo ; where he is called " Captive prince of the per- 

-veree race of the inimical country of ShetOy living in captivity." ^^ 

Iforton, very naturally, holds him to be a " variety of the Semitic 

stock;" and ShetOyHresAKheto^ signifies afiittite; using the Biblical 

term EAeTt in its widest acceptation. 

As the type of While races, Pig. 
93 appears in one of the Theban 
tombs ; and, name unknown, is con- 
jectured, by Bosellini, to be " an an- 
cient example of the Greeks of Asia 
Minor, and especially of lonians. To 
strengthen this conjecture, I recall 
how among the monuments of Thot- 
mes V. [TV.], and of Meneptha I., 
mention is made of this people." ^'^ 
The iemtant, Javan, &c., are sufficiently discussed in our Part IT., 
'Where the lUN of Xth Genesis is analyzed ; but " Yavan," and the 
** people of Yavan," as Grecian tribes of the seventh century b. c, 
Occur repeatedly upon the monuments of Nineveh. Morton take* 
Mm to be " Pelasgic." In his MS. letter, he adds: — 


mal mm aai.btAmiibt.ttl^^ 

« B tkc Gnak kMdi, It fimi H Ml»- 

L n* KaA k^BiBaBkBw!ththiatkwMta;Mfei 

For the sake of compuison, we fint pn 
Lepass's copy of tiie enlsiged lieid (Fig. M] 
of tbe ftandud type of YtUom rtcM, fiom 
tbe qnadripartite divieion in Seti'a tomb, de- 
ecrib«d in a fbnner place. BeoMth i^ [!^ 
95) is B redactioQ of one of the Bute fini 
pereom at full length. Of^Kjote, we put 
Bosellinia copy (Fig. 96), 
for the express pmpOBe of 
indicating an error in the 
Toucan n-ork which the 
Pmssian has removed : re- 
ferring to our note*** for 

Xnmerons are the com- 
rades of Fig. 97 in the 
conquests of Ramses IL, 
at Bfeyt-el-WAlee, XTXth 
dynasty, foorteenth cen- 
tniy B. c. Birch considers 
them tribes of Catuum; 
becaose, at Eamac, tiia 
Btnne people are called, in 
the text, " The Mien of the Shanou, in th^ elevation on the feitiM 
of Pelou, which is in the land of Kanana."^ And the next fRg. 98)» 
an individual appertaining to another eet of prisoners, from soiM 
adjacent district. Osbum figures them as Jebuaitet ; to which n 


Ihr no objection ; aod iliiiB we should behold one of the inhabitants 
r aote-Jaduc Jerosalem, leBUS or Jtltut : before its capture by 
OBiu, and lon|^ prior to the e^uMon of the Jtlnu/ian fraux Hoont 
ion by the prowflsa of Datid. 

Both the head and the fhll-length fignre, 

here presented, iUnrtrate four personageB 

identical in all respects.'*' 
They are the type of the TenoK racee, in 

one of the tombs coeval with Mosfuc times. 

Rosellini, who wrote before the Persian and 
& Klnevite arrow-heads were deciphered, saggeeted their resem* 
t)luiee to the sculptores of Assyria and Fersepolis. They portray, 
scitiinly, strong Chaldsean affinities, cognate with the Hebrew race ; 
bid their elegant green dreeges, embroidered with skilfiil taste, show 
I ray polished people. Osbom figures them as Samathitet — citizenB 
tf Banah, between Damascus and Aleppo, ever renowned for their 
Hntifal manoiactares, brocades, shawls ; together with those richly- 
alOKd edlk-and-cotton goods, now dear to Levantine merchants as 
"ADAgias;" nor does his view militate against ours. Champollion- 
Rgeac ^ves this effigy, with the conjecture of his brother that they 
ire Medet, corresponding to Persepolitan rehevos. Cbaldsea seems 
to be the centre-point of all these anthorities ; and we have classified, 
ibewhere, this head among Jewish tribes. 

Belonging to the same sculptures of the thirteentii to fifteenth 
KDtnries b. c, and located geographically in the same Syrian pro- 
vinces, we group together m more specimens of varieties of this 
>!I-pervading Semitic type. Representatives of ancient Sidonians, 
Indians, and so forth, along the coast of Syria, and on the spars of 
^banon, each one still lives in thousands of descendants, who now 
Imwg the Baziars of S^yda, Beyroot, Tripoli, Xatachia, Antdoch 
ad Aleppo. Substitute the turban for the military casque and civic 
qt; and, in the same locahties, still speaking dialects of the same 



SemitiBh tongaes, you will recognize in the ^' Shawdm^" peo^ 
Shumj or Syria (SAeMites), — as the Arabs still designate the An 
eenes technically, and the Syriani generally — the veiy men wl 
ancestral images were chiselled by Diospolitan artists not lees f 
8200 years agone. 

Fig. lOl.wa 


Fio. 108.184 

Fio. 104.1V 

Fio. 106.1W 

Fia. 106.1V 


Here let ns patiBe. Thirty varieties, more or less, of the Cauetuian type, 
10% among ancient foreigners to Egypt, have now been submitted 
to the reader. They have been taken, almost at random, from the 
MmtLmenii of Boeellini, with occasional reference to the Denkmdler 
of Lepsios : and their epochas range between the thirteenth and the 
Mventeentfa centories b. c. ; a period of about 400 years, including, 
moreover, whatever era is assignable to Moses. There is diversity 
enough among them to satisfy the most exacting, that men, in the 
asme times and countries, were just as distinctly marked as they are 
now in the Levant, after some 8800 years ; and hence, again, it follows 
tint, in the same lands, time has produced no change, save through 
amalgamation ; because, in the streets of Cairo, Jerusalem, Damascus, 
Xeyroot, Aleppo, Antioch, Mosul, and Bagdad, eveiy one of these 
'Varieties strikes your vision daily. 

Mark, too, that the whole of these diversified Oriental families occu- 
pied a very limited geographical area ; viz. : fix)m the river Nile east- 
^irard to the Tauric range of mountains ; at most, to the western 
lordeiB of the Euxine and Caspian Seas, and across from the Medi- 
terranean to the Persian Gulf — the Indus, perhaps, inclusive. This 
cnperficies constitutes but a petty segment of the earth. Neither have 
▼e yet looked beyond such narrow horizon, whether for Mongols, Ma- 
lays, Polynesians, Australians, Americans, Esquimaux ; nor for Finnish, 
Scandinavian, endless European, Uralian, and other races, with the 
above types necessarily coexistent, although to old Pharaonic ethno- 
iraphy utterly unknown ! Observe likewise, that, Egypt deducted, 
Africa and her multifarious types are yet untouched. 

How, we feel now emboldened to ask, have the defenders of the 
Faify-doctrine met the above facts ? The answer is simple. By sup- 
pressing every one of them. 

Dr. Prichard published the third edition of the lid volume of his 
ie$earehe$ into the Phyeical History of Mankind^ in 1837, at the vast me- 
tropolis of London, surrounded with facilities unparalleled. He de- 
votes fifty-nine pages to the "Egyptians;"^ yet, beyond a passing 
sneer at ChampoUion-le-Jeune,^ whose stupendous labors were then 
endorsed by the highest continental scholars — De Sacy, Humboldt, 
Arago, Bunsen, &c. — he never quotes a single hierologist! Now-a- 
days, every archaeolo^t knows that three-fourths of those very writers 
whom Prichard does cite on Egypt have been consigned to the "tomb 
of the Capulets." Now, in 1887, Rosellini's Plates and Text^ compre- 
hending almost every pictorial fact by us brought forward, had been 
published — ^in great part, for above four years, commencing in 1832-3. 
Common enough was the Tuscan work in London, to say naught of 
Paris, close at hand. How could Prichard ignore the existence alst^ 


of these identical aubjecte in Cqampollion's folio MamummU iXgspttt 
But^ worse than that^ viewing the question merely as one of sdeudfic 
knowledge and good faith, Prichard continued to publish, volume IDL 
in 1841 ; volume IV. in 1844 ; and volume Y. in 1847. The woild 
seems exhausted to prove his unitary-hypothesis. He never reverti 
to Egyptian archaeology, nor reveals one iota of all these spkoffid 
discoveries. Why? Because they flatly contradict him, and the 
antiquated school of which he was the steel-clad war-horse. 

Who forced Prichard, at last, either to accept hieroglyphical ^bco* 
veries in some of their bearings upon the Natural History of Man, «to 
become placed, so to say, without the pale of scientific anthn>pol(^t 

Our coimtryman, Morton, — a student who, deprived of eveiy &ci% 
in Egyptian matters until 1842, printed, in 1844, his ^^ Crania JEgj/ft- 
iaeaj or Observations on Egyptian Ethnography, derived from Aoft- 
tomy, History, and the Monuments ; " and thereby founded the trae 
principle of philosophical inquiry into human origins. 

Prichard (in justice to his memory let us speak,) acknowledged 
Morton's work in the handsomest manner,^^ although not in the 
^^ Researches." But, how came it that Prichard should have allowed 
an American savan (cut off by the Atlantic from all his own un- 
bounded facilities,) to anticipate him 7 In truth, only because Egyp- 
tian archseology had shattered Prichard's tmtty-doctrine from the 
weather-vane to its foundations. 

Having disposed thus of their champion, weaker sustainers d 
^' unity" who have pinned their creed on his obstinacy, adding ih^ 
own blindness to his cecity, may be passed over, without distressing 
the reader by recapitulation of shallow arguments and unphiloeo- 
phical crudities. Numbers of their books lie on our shelves imdusted, 
because there is not a monumental fact to be culled from the whde 
of them. Nor shall we do more than allude to the opinions of the 
learned Mure,^*^ or of the erudite, though mystical, Henbt,"* who 
endeavored to confine all these Asiatic wars of the Pharaohs to the 
valley of the Nile ; because, as neither scholar could read a hieroglg' 
phicj they debated upon that which they did not understand ; and, in 
consequence, uttered views that are now entirely superseded by later 
Egyptologists, to whose pages we make a point of referring those who 
may choose to criticise the bibliographical ground-work of " l^rpes 
of Mankind." 

But we have not finished with the monuments. 

M. Prisse's copy of the heterodox king, Atenra-Bakhan {Bex-et^ 
Aten), now proved to be Amunoph IV., need not here be repeated. 
Its reduced &c-simile may be consulted («upra, page 147); while eveiy 
reference required is thrown into a note : ^ and, inasmuch aa one d 


titen (Q. B. G.) was present at the temple of EamaOy 1889-40, 
the ori j^nal stone was found, and the design made, we can 
for the accuracy of Prisse's copy of this unique bas-relie£ 
lention this, because it differs, though not materially, from the 
productions of the same portrait in Lepsius's DetdcmUUr : ^ a 
lence accounted for by the &ct that the French original lay at 
«, whereas the Prussians copied others at Tel^AmamOj 200 
off: nor is it to be expected that ancient Egyptian portrait- 
OFB could multiply likenesses of a man more uniformly similar 
g themselves, than can our own artists, or even daguerreo- 
I, at the present day. In proof of how artists differ, we here 



Skai, or AL 


it Other less faithful copies, followed by Morton.^ The cut 
ins, moreover, an attempted portrait of asKlihiMr ku^ Iwnerly 
d SKAT, whose place, though proved to be neai^ eoeral with 
>f Bakhan, was enigmatical until Lepsius discovef^ that he 
Q immediate successor of the arch-heretic, and, like him^ became 
d fix)m the monuments when Amun's priests regained tlMiU|^r 

if king, AI, was formerij a priyate indiTidual, and took Ma aaoerdotal title into his 

he at a later period. He appears with his wife in the tombs of Amama, not onfire- 

as a noble and peeoliarlj-honored officer of king Amonopk IV. ; thai puritanical 

nhipper, who changed his name into that of *Bech-en-Aten '"—•'. e. Adorer of the 

Etosellini's copy,^ the features of this king AI aie atrocious. 
Mius has since pronounced Bex-en^ten to be Amunoph IV^^ aoa 


of Amiuiopli-^Mtnfm. Ethoologically, his Btrange countenance 
attests very mixed blood ; but nothing of the Negro in either pwent. 
Hie &ce is Asiatic, ^ifyiog no especial race ; bnt it ia one of thoti 
accidental deviations from regularity that anatomiHts are fiuuiliarwith, 
espedally among mongrel breeds. We have seen in our Fluraonie 
galleiy that Amunopb HL (Fig. 63) himself was not of pare Em. 
tian stock. 

We now take a long and portentous stride in Egj'ptiaD hieton; 
viz. : fix>m the JtViith back to the Allth dynasty, a period obeciue 
for about four centuries. The country during this hiatns Beeni to 
have been greatly disturbed by wars, conquests, by Sj/itoi-mgt^ 
tions of population, and other agitating causes ; and hence arises Qa 
lack of monuments to guide our investigations. In etimographiol 
materials, especially, there is almost an entire blank. Bnt vrith Q» 
XTT t.b dynasty, one of the most effiilgent periods of Egyptian histoty 
bursta upon us ; and we can again, with ample documents, take np 
oar Caucasian type, and purane it upwards along the stream of tim& 

According to Lepsius, the Xllth dynasty closed aboat the year 
2124 B. c. If we add to this the summation for the eighi kings, givea 
in the Turin Papyrus, of " 218 years, 1 month, and 15 days,""" Qiii 
dynasty commenced about the year 2887 b. c. ; which is only some 
eleven years after Usher's date for the Deluge, when most good Chrit- 
tJans imagine that but eight adults, four men and four women (withn 
few children), were in existence ! The monuments of this dynas^ 
afford abundant evidence not only of the existence of Egypto-Cauc^. 
sian races, but of Asiatic nations, as well as of Negroet and otl&d 
African groups, at the sud diluvian era. 

" i1Hr^>-M>>«n PrixHttn" of BeDi-HBaMn. Qmenl Nitotph : now, JVm^^Au 

Let ns dispose first of Fig. 110. It is one of three recently- /j^ai, 
iiebed by Lepmus ; characterized by red hair, and distinct from ff^. 

Atiatic, tram B«iii-HMwa. 


rboM hair u black. We refer to ^o ^1" 

mkmaier^ for their colored poi^ 
ad^ng Lepdus's comments 

i head (Fig. lOS)"* on the preced- 
ige, from the celebrated tombs of 
Sassan, so often alluded to bj 
xtlogists, repreaentB one of a groap 
monagea, generally known as the 
y-Mveii priaonen of Beni-Siu$an." 
cene has been repeatedly and va- 
f expluned, by Champollion, Ro- 
, Wilkinson, Champollion-Figeac, Birch, and Oebom — leaving 
the traBhy speculations of mere toorista ; for, as usual, there 
been printed many extravagant theories as to the country and 
don of these " thirty-aeven prisoners." They were, indeed, sup- 
, by orthodox ereduUty, to represent the visit of Abraham t» 
;, or else the arrival of Jacob and his family. More critical aathori- 
we beheld in them Israelitish wanderers, Ionian Greeks, Hyksoa, 
rhat not. But, alas \ all Jewish partialitieB received a death- 
irhen it was proved, through the discovery of the Xnth dynasty, 
his tableau had been painted at Beni-Hassan several generations 
a Abraham's birth ! The first rational account, in EngUsh, of 
cene was put forth by Mr. Birch, in 1847. He says ; — 
officH of UtB-T-sKN I., u recorded in his tomb >1 Benihuaui, received in tha sixth 
jtai of that nonareh, by roj&l commaDd, t, cohto; of Uur^-nine (37) Ma-ugan, 
en, headed by their k^k, or leader, Ab-shi. Th«M wer« of the greal SeuiUo 
called, hj the EgTptiass, " Aamu." »" 

is lection he confirms in 1852 — 

It Mt»-tlem foreignera, irho approach the Domaroh Neferhetp, come throogb the An- 

prins had described the impressions made upon him, at first 

of this unique series : — 

tbcM remarks, 1 am thioking especially of that rerj remarkable Boeoe, on the 
«f Xiktra-tt-Ufsttarnr, which bringi before our ejes, in anch liTSly colors, the 
ea of Jacob with his family, and would tempt ns to ideDtifj it with that sTent, if 
'agy itonid alloie lu, (for Jacob eam« under the Hykros [i. >., ceDtnries later]), and 
trtnet cempdUd to btliat tlial luchfavuly inmiffratioru tctri iy no nuont of rare oeeur- 

Thcae were, ho««T«r, the foremnaera of the Hykaoi [and of the laraelitea], and 
Mi, is maay ways, paied the way for them." ^^^ 

om the excellent translation of Lepeius's Bri^e by Mr. Kenneth 
. Mackensie,*^ we extract the following particulars, reterring at 
nme time to the Prussian Denkmaler^ for exquisite plates of 
i qilendid sepnlchres : — 


*- JL WOK, ^acK 'sar^ 'vms. \ Tmnf iiBi4 iir IcV* — ^^'^ ^ ftw rf I7 thM Bi|^ 

«f a« pts: if aac i<ecii^L . ijn 'as 5ircb«£^ «f Ait p«l BirfMne itti 
srviflBts Icj?*^ ^ imn: :«scneE. mas a* ru tf hi wlhii immiw In Ae n|» 
MBttZuas fT ac veiitt poML visa 2«m ft ckHaOBBriMei^ 
v^ vV^ »4tt JB Ks* ^lOL'tiL viiiza. Jikii t* • CMcfaMB «f tkdr fOMmlvtatlhil 

iht red «dsA-brawnaei,effti 
peofk, who bftve, for the WMt pa^i 
CB the bead and betfd, 111 Un 
¥mIim. n^aboq^hfti 
tniu 4^ tke w>Sja, %a\ are eriier'^T cf Bonkna. prdtebty «f Scmitifl^ origin Willi 
TietoriM crrer t&t EtiLi-.piA&i %xA Xe^T^MS c« ikc rnm— TTf of thoM timMy uid thmlM 
BMd Bocbenrpriicd tt tbe rcnrrcsee of b^aek iUvm and ■errantB. OfwanagiiHktli 
Bfiftthtm wr-^^jn. ve lean nctiiag: l>et it firrmi that the iauiugntion froB theiQrt^ 
tact vaa a!readj bcpimxii^. aad that maaj forcipicn loa^t an aqrlma !b fcrtfle Egypili 
rttVB f'>r MrTiM and other useful em^IoTmcntf. ... I haie tneed the whole nptMili- 
tioD, which ii above ci^t feet loc^ and Giie-aiid-a-half hi^ and ia Ttiy weD prwral 
tfaroogfa, as it li olIj painte*!. The Rojal Scribe, Nefrahotep, who oondoeta the eoapiif 
iBt4 the presence of the high officer to vhom the grave belongi, ia pfeeenting Urn aibif rf 
pap^nu. Upon this the tixth year of King O e eiutea c u IL ia mentioiiedy in lAiek All 
fanilj of thirty-^seren persons came to EgypL Their chief and lord waa named ibiK 
they themselves Aama, a national designation, recnrring with the light-oonpleiioMd ne% 
often represented in the rojal tombs of the XIXth;djnastj, together with three other nn^ 
and forming the four principal divisions of mankind, with wliieh the EgyptiaBi vwf 
acquainted. ChampoUion took them for Greeks when he was in Benihasianj bvt hi VM 
not then aware of the extreme antiqnitj of the monuments before him. miUaiaiM^ 
eiders them prisoners, but this is confuted by their appearance with arma and \pn^ vift 
wives, children, donkeys, and luggage ; I hold them to be an immigrating Hykaoe-ftBi^i 
which begs for a reception into the favored land, and whose posterity perhaps q»CB0d til 
gates of Egypt to the conquering tribes of their Semitic relations." 

The writer (G. R. G.), who had explored all these localities in 
1839, with :Mr. A. C. Harris, would mention, that immediately above 
Beni-IIassan (at the Speos-ArtemidoSy overiooked by Wilkinson from 
1823 to '34), a defile through the precipitous hills leads from the Nile 
into the Eastern Desert, and thence trends through the Widee^- 
Arabah to the Isthmus of Suez : as, indeed, may be perceived in 
Russkgger's map,'^ before us. At the Egyptian month of this nvine 
are remains of walls, &c., that once blocked the passage ; and, in 
ancient times, here doubtless was a military post, to prevent nomadic 
ingress into the cultivated lands without the turveUlance of the police. 
Owing to the intricacies of the limestone ravines in this part of the 
Eastern Desert, any strangers, becoming entangled in these inte^se^ 
tions, would, in the end, debouche at this pass, and be at once arrested 
by tho guard. It is thus that, without speculative notions, we amve 
at tho conclusion that these "thirty-seven foreigners" (althoogh the 
artist has drawn but fifteen — men, women, and children) were merely 
Artibiitn wanderers; who, motives unknown, entered Egypt during 
tho twouty-third century b. c. Natural histoiy, heretofore too fr^ 


eoily left aside hj ardiseologistB, not only confirms onr view, but 
fetteB the Peninsula of Mount Sinai, if not as their homestead, at 
It as the road by which they came. The reason we are about to 
e establiBhes two Ihings : Ist, the minute accuracy of Egyptian 
nghtsmen in the Xllth dynasty, 4200 years ago ; 2dly, the prompt 
itj of Prof. Agassiz, in April, 1858. 

Lt the house of their friend, Mr. A. Stein, of Mobile, the authors 
« looking over his copy of the noble Prussian DenhmdUr^ when 
£ Agaasiz, the moment we reached this plate {uU iupra)^ pointed 

the *^09pra Siniaea — the goat with semicircular horns, laterally 
pressed," as the first animal ; and the ^^Antilope Saigaj or gazelle 
temperate Western Asia," as the second : animals offered in pro- 
itory tribute to General Kum-hotep, by Absha, the fft/ky chief, of 
le Mu-9egtfny foreigners. 

inr Fig. 109 presents the likeness of the excellent governor of the 
rince; and the contrast, between their yellow Semitic counte- 
068 and his rubescent Egyptian face, spares us from fears that 
ymgoinity will be claimed for them. 
X least two types, then, of Caucasian families — the one Semitish, 

the other Egyptian — were distinct from each other, and co- 
tent, 4200 years ago. If two^ why not more? Why not each 

of aU the primitive types of humanity now distinguishable in 
i, Africa, Europe, America, or Oceanica ? Science and logic can 
gn no negative reason: dogmatism, which excludes both, will 
ibtless continue to wony the hapless " general reader" with many. 
Ife must span, for want of intervening ethnographic monuments, 

gulf that separates the XMth from the Vlth dynasty, assuming 
\ latter at about 2800 years b. c. Here again, however, our Cau- 
BEQ type reappears not only perfectly marked, but identical with 
my of the heads we have already beheld among the royal portraits 

the AYlith and succeeding dynaties. Lepsius's precious Denk* 
ikr yields us the following : — 

Fio.^ Fio. 112.208 


t^ — ■-? Jb F^ ~~'-£- •"■* 


= i--.ZIir -.Z ■X.-i ? 

The preceding four heads arc all from painted sculptures in tombs of 
the IVth dynasty ; wliich commenced at Memphis, according to Lep- 
sias, about 3400 years b. c. The second and third of these heads 
assimilate closely to many of those already given of XVIIth and 
X\"lllth dynaetiee; demonstrating that mixed Caucasian types in- 
habited Egypt from the first to tlie last of her surviving monuments. 
We have stated our reasons, in another place, for regarding this spe- 
cial phj'siognomy to be commingled with foreign and Asiatic elements ; 
and not representative, consequently, of the aboriginal Egyptian stem. 
The third of these heads is strongly Chaldaic in its outlines ; and we 
think there is little reason to doubt that the ancestral Mesopotamian 
stock of Abraham had long been mingling its blood with the royal 
ami aristocratic families of Egypt; because, in the IVth, Vth, and 
Vlth dynasties, we find two distinct types sculptured on the mono- 
ments — the one African or Negroid, and the other Asiatic or Semitic. 
Of course, when speaking of Abraham's ancestral stock, the reader 
will understand that we make no reference to this patriarch's indivi- 
duality. To us, his name serves merely to classi^' some proximate 
or identical Chaldaic family of man, originally connected wth a com- 
hjod Euphratic centre of creation, of which the existence verj- likely 
preceded Abraham's birth by myriads of ages. 

Our fourth portrait (Fig. 118) is the only one we can identify, and 
"* associations are most interesting. Prince and Priest Meriiet — 
probably a relative, if not son, of King Shoopuo, Cfieopg, huildor of 
'oe <jreat Pyramid — is the man whose tomb, transferred from Mem- 
pliia to Berlin, and now built into the Royal Museum, has escaped 
"le -vicissitudes of time for above fifly-two centuries. Bis bas-reliefed 
''^ has endured almost intact ; whilst, of the " chosen people," 
^'^ry Hebrew portrait, from Abraham to Paul, has been expunged 
frc>-»3i human iconography. In his lineaments, we behold the pure 



Egyptian type, which wo ehall endeavor to render more obrioiu 
through lithograpbe that are genuine fac-Bimiles of stamps made, on 
Uio moQumenta themselves, hy the hand of Lepsius, at Berlin, 

Meanwhile, it is worthy of notice, that, in the ratio of oar descent 
from the sculptures of the IVth dynaaty, through the Old Snfirt, 
our conventionally-termed " Oiiiidaic " type supplants the miotic to 
such an extent, that, under the New Empire, and among the aristocracy 
of the land, it almost entirely auporaedes the Aiiican type of incipient 
times. The admixtare, in thcno later ages, of such Asiatic blood, 
may bo duo to tho so-called Jft/ktos ; who commenced, even befwe 
the time of Mehgs, intruding upon, and settling in I^gypt AUianoei 
and intermixtures of races, similar to those seen at tiie present day, 
have operated among nations in all ages, and eveiywhere that men 
and women have encountered each other on our planet. 

Four instances may bo consulted in LcpHius's DenkmUlerf of Egyp- 
tian monarchs who have left at the copper-mines of ML Sinu, on ij^di^ 
inscribed with hicroglyphicnl legends, thoii' bas-relief effi^es; repi» 
scTiting each king iu the act of braining certain foreignen : wlioig 
pointed beanie, aquiline noBcs, and other Bomitish characteristics, coq. 
bine with tho Arabian locality to identify them as Arabt. We ^ 
entire (Fig. 119, A) a specimen of tho earliest Tablets — "^UM-Sion 


tnoning an Arab-iorianan ; " and the head of another smitten by 
SisuFRU;" both kings of the IVth dynasty, during the thirty-fourth 
entniy B. c. 

The other two examples (by us not copied) are identical in style, 
at a little posterior in age ; one being of the reign of king Shore, 
)r Riiho) in the Vth, and the other of Merira-Pbpi, in the Vlth 
pisty. A fifth example might be cited of the IVth, but it is of the 
ime Senufru mentioned above.^^^ 

Here then are represented Egyptian Pharaohs striking Asiatics ; 
id here, we are informed epistolarily by Chev. Lepsius, is the re- 
lOtast monumental evidence of two distinct types of man ; although, 
I analytical comparison of such antipodean languages as the ancient 
Umm with the old Egyptian, of the Atlantic Berber with the Medic 
' Barius's inscriptions, of the Hindoo Pali with the Hebrew of 
iBBAKUK, and a dozen others we might name, would result in estab- 
ihing for each of these distinct tongues such an enormous and inde- 
ndent antiquity, as to leave not a shadow of doubt that all primitive 
fiican and Asiatic races existed, from the Cape of Good Hope to 
hina, as £Eir back as the foundation of the Egyptian Empire, and 
Dg before. It is in the IVth Memphite dynasty, however, that we 
id the oldest sculptural representations of man now extant in the 

Li the above figures two primordial types, one Asiatic and the 
(her Egyptian, stand conspicuous. If then, as before asserted, two 
ices of man existed simultaneously during the IVth dynasty, in 
afficient numbers to be at war with each other, their prototypes 
anfit have lived before the foundation of the Empire, or far earlier 
ban 4000 years b. c. If two types of mankind were coetaneous, it 
bUows that all other Asiatic and African races found in the subse- 
laent Xllth dynasty must have been also in existence contempora- 
Mously with those of the IVth, as well as with all the aboriginal 
ncea of America, Europe, Oceanica, Mongolia — in short, with every 
^edes of mankind throughout the entire globe. 




Our preceding chapters have established that the so-called (Jmeo- 
$ian types may be traced upwards from the present day, in an infinite 
variety of primitive forms, through every historical record, and yet 
farther back through the petroglyphs of Egypt (where we lose them, 
in the mediaeval darkness of the earliest recorded people, some 8500 
years before Christ), not as a few stray individuals, but as popnloiu 
nations, possessing distinct physical features and separate national 
characteristics. We now turn to the African types, not simply be- 
cause they present an opposite extreme from the Caucasian, but 
mainly because, from their early communication with Egypt, mnd 
detail, in respect to their physical characters, has been preserved in 
Uie catacombs and on the monuments. 

In our general remarks on spedet^ we have shown that no classifica- 
tion of races yet put forth has any foundation whatever in natnre; 
and that, after several thousands of years of migrations of races and 
comminglings of types, all attempts at following them up to their 
original birth-places must, from the absence of historic annals of 
those primordial times, and in the present state of knowledge, be 
utterly hopeless. This remark applies with quite as much force to 
Negroes as to Caucasians : for Africa first exhibits herself, from on& 
extreme to the other, covered with dark-skinned races of variotia 
shades, and possessing endless physical characters, which, being 
tinct, we must regard as primitive, until it can be shown that 
exist capable of transforming one type into another. The 
may be traced on the monuments of Egypt, with certainty, as nation- 
back to the Xllth dynasty, about 2300 years b. c. : and it cannot 
assumed that they were not then as old as any other race of our 
logical epoch. 

In order to develop our ideas more clearly, we propose to take a rap^ 
glance at the population of Africa. . We shall show, that not only 
that vast continent inhabited by types quite as varied as those of Euro^ 
or Asia, but that there exists a regular ^ra(2a^ton, from the Cape of Goc::: 
Hope to the Isthmus of Suez, of which the Hottentot and BushmsM 
form the lowest, and the Egyptian and Berber types the highest link^ 


liese gradatioiiB of African man are indigenous to the soil ; 
no historical times have existed when the same gradations 

we compare the continent of Africa with the other great 
of the world, it is apparent that it forms a striking contrast 
particular. Its whole physical geography, its climates, its 
ns, its fiiunse, its florae, &c., &re all peculiar. Upon exami- 
maps of Europe, Asia, and America, we see indeed, in each 
;, great diversities of climate, soil, elevations of surface, and 
momena; still no natural barriere exist so insurmountable 
ivent the migrations and comminglings of nu^es, and con- 
confusion of tongues and types : but in Africa the case is 
srent. Here stand obstructions, fixed by nature, which man 
imes had no means of overcoming. Not only from the time 
I, the first of the Pharaohs, to that of Moses, but from the 
>ch to that of Christ, Africa, south of the Equator, was as 
^rra incognita to the inhabitants of Europe, Asia, Egypt, and 
B17 States, as certain interior parts of that continent are to 
J present day. We know that, long after the Christian era, 
cal skill necessary for exploring expeditions, no less than for 
portation of emigrants to those distant latitudes, was want- 
l we have only to turn to any standard work (Rittwr's, for 
on Ancient Geography, to be satisfied of these facts. It is 
ertain that what is now termed " Central Africa" could not 
n reached by caravan from the Mediterranean coast, before 
duction of camels from Asia, through Egypt, into Barbaiy. 
sh of this animal's introduction is now known to antedate 
tian era but a century or two. It is contended, by the advo- 
a common origin for mankind, that this African continent 
populated by Asiatic emigrants into Egypt ; that these im- 
passed on, step by step, gradually changing their physical 
dons, under climatic influences, until the whole continent, 
Mediterranean to the Cape of Good Hope, was peopled by 
as tribes we now behold scattered over that enormous space. 
I an hypothesis can hardly be maintained, in the face of the 
•ted by Lepsius, and familiar to all Egyptologists, that Negro 
r races already existed in Northern Africa, on the Upper Nile, 
\xs B. c. — existed, we repeat, in despite of natural barriers 
mid not have been passed by any means previously i^nown ; 
•cover, that all truly African races have, from the earliest 
spoken languages radically distinct from every Asiatic tongue. 
ic researches have established that, prior to the introduction 
c elements into the Lower Valley of the Nile, the speech of 


the ante-monnmental Egyptians oonid have borne no affinity towaids 
the latter. Lepsios, Bircb. and I>e Ronge — onr higfaeat philologial 
authorities in this question — coincide in the main principle, tbatflia 
lexicology deduced from the earliest bieroglvphics exhibits two ele- 
inentd : y\z.. a priniaiy, or African ; and a secondaiy, or Anatic, 
&ui>erinAposed ap»on the former. It is also certain that, Syro-Anbun 
eni?raftments being deducted from the present iTii&tafi and theferkr 
vernaculars spoken above and westward of Egypt, these laDgoages 
are as purely African now as must have been the idiom uttered by 
tiie E^r^'ptian ancestry of those who raised the pyramids of the IVdi 
dynasty, 5300 years ago. 

Such are the results of archseology, applied by that school of Egyp- 
tian jfhilologists which alone is competent to decide upon the language 
of the hieroglyfihics. They harmonize with the physiological con- 
clusions we have reached through monumental iconography. But, 
requesting the critical reader to accompany us upon a map of the 
African continent, such as those contained in the Physical Atlam of 
Bcrghaus, or Johnston, we propose commencing at the Cape of Good 
Hope, and following the African races from Table Rock to the Meffi- 
terranean. Our limits do not i>ermit a detailed analysis, nor is saA 
nc*cessary, as the few prominent facts we shall present are quite suffi- 
cient for the purpose in hand, and will at once be admitted by eveiy 
reader who is at all competent to pursue this discussion. 

VTimt is now called Cape Colony lies bet^veen 30® and 35° of eouth 
latitude. It rises, as you recede from the coast, into high table- 
lands and mountains, and possesses a comparatively temperate and 
agi-ceable climate ; nevertheless, it is here that we find the lowest and 
most beastly specimens of mankind : viz., the Rottentot and thejBidl- 
fwan. The latter, in particular, are but little removed, both in moral 
and physical characters, from the orang-outan. They are not black 
but of a yellowish-brown {tallow-colored^ as the French term them] 
with woolly heads, diminutive statures, small ill-shapen crania, ver 
projecting mouths, prognathous faces, and badly formed bodies; i 
short, they are described by travellers as bearing a strong resemblam 
to tlie monkey tribe. They possess many anatomical peculiaritie 
known to j>hy8ioIogists if not recapitulated here. Lichtbnstein, oi 
of our best authorities, in describing this race, says : — 

<' Their common objects of pursuit are serpents, lizards, ants, and grasshoppera. Tb 
Fill remain f^hole days without drinking; as a substitute, they chew Buoenlent plant 
they do not eat salt. They have no fixed habitation, but sleep in holes in the ground 
under the branches of trees. They are short, lean, and, in appearance, weak in th< 
limbs ; yet arc capable of bearing much fatigue. Their sight is acute, but their taa 
smell, and feeling, are feeble. They do not form large societieSy bat wander nboot 


tenMt have been sapposed by many to belong to the same 
Bosjesman or Bnshmen ; and although we do not partake 
lion, the point is too unimportant to our purpose to justify 
mssion here. In most particulars, the physical characters of 
and Hottentots do not differ greatly — the Hottentots ex- 
i of the orang character of the Bushmen, and their females 
mt two very remarkable peculiarities or deformities : viz., 
lind their buttocks, like those on the backs of dromedaries, 
tisting development of the labia pudendu (See an example 
^entU VenuSy figured in our Chapter XHI.) 
iplexion of the Hottentots is compared by travellers to that 
n " affected with jaundice " — "a yellowish-brown, or the 
faded leaf" — "a tawny buffi ^r fawn-color.'* Barrow 

is of a Tery siDgular nature — it does not cover the whole surface of the 
ows in smaU tufts, at certain distances from each other, and when clipped 

appearance and feel of a hard shoe-bmsh, except that it is curled and 
small round lumps, about the size of a marrowfat pea. When suffered to 
■ on the neck in hard-twisted tassels, like fringe." 

ttentots are also very strongly distinguished firom all other 
their singular language. Their utterance, according to 
in, is remarkable for numerous rapid, harsh, shrill sounds, 
om the bottom of the chest, with strong aspirations, and 
n the mouth by a singular motion of the tongue. The 
t is commonly " gluckings." The peculiar construction of 
organs of this race greatly facilitates the formation and 
)f these sounds, which to other species of men would be 
lit. [We had the pleasure, t\^^o years ago, at a meeting of the 
jal Society in New York, to hear some specimens of this 
rom Prof. Haldemann, of Pennsylvania, who possesses an 
ary talent for imitating sounds, and we can readily believe 
lottentot vocalization has no affinity with any other in 

—J. ex.] 

rt race we encounter, after leaving the Cape, is the Kafirs, 
They are not only found along the coast to the north- 
fifraria, but extend far beyond, into the interior of Africa. 
lay certain affinities with the Fulahs, FoolahSj or Fellatahs, 
prolonged even into Northern Afi'ica — whence an opinion 
wo races are identical ; but the fact, to say the least, is a 
great doubt. The Caftres are traced northward, under 
ames; and their language and customs are very widely 
rhough they are now encountered in considerable numbers 
lape, their original seat is doubtful. In geography, Centxul 


Africa is yot a terra incognita, and we cannot, tbereforo, fix fheir 
birth-place with precision, however manifest may be the Caffitman 
link in the chain of gradation we have assumed. Albeit, they resem. 
ble the true Negro much more than the Hottentot; whilst, both intel- 
lectually and physically, they are greatly superior not only to Hot. 
tentots, but to many Negro tribes on the Slave-Coast. They poseeag 
some knowledge of agriculture and the use of metals ; they dress in 
skins, and live in towns. Descriptions of the Caffi*es, by different 
writers, vary considerably; and it is probable that several clogely 
allied though diverse typos have been included under this general 
appellation. No one has had better opportunities for studying this 
race, or can be more competent, than Lichtenstein, and we shall 
therefore adopt his description. 

'* The nniyersal characteristics of all the tribes of this great nation consist in an extcnnl 
form and figure, Taryiug exceedingly from the other nations of Africa: thej an nmeii 
taller, stronger, and their limbs better proportioned. Their color is brown; thdr bir 
block and woolly. Their countenances have a character peculiar to themsolTes, and vlueh 
does not permit their being included in any of the races of mankind above ennmerated. 
They have the high forehead and prominent nose of the Europeans, the thick lips of tke 
Negroes, and the high cheek-bones of the Hottentots. Their beards are black, and aneh 
fuller than those of the Hottentots." 

This race, it will thus be seen, is a very peculiar one, combining 
both moral and physical traits of the higher and the lower Afiican 
races. Widely disseminated, they exhibit such singular aflBnities 
with opposing, such strange diftercnces from proximate, Africans, 
that it is impossible to iix them to one locality : at the same time, 
being, like all savage mccs, without a history^, we are unable to say, 
with any probability, to what latitude or to which coast they belong. 

When, however, taking our departure from the Cape (the centwl 
regions of the continent being unknown), we continue our examina* 
tion along the eastern and western coasts, as far as the transverse 
belt, just beyond the Equator, which separates the two great deserts, 
Noitheni and Southern, we find a succession of well-marked ^pea, 
seemingly indigenous to their respective localities. Along the Eaart> 
tern coast we encounter the various tribes inhabiting InhambaA^ 
Sabia, Sofala, Botonga, Mozambique, Zanguebar, &c., each presetzM.! 
ing physical characters more or less hideous ; and, almost witho 
exception, not merely in a barbarous, but superlatively savage 8ta 
All attempts towards humanizing them have failed. Hopes of evt? 
tual improvement in the condition of these bnitish families are 
tained by none but missionaries of sanguine temperament and li 
instruction. Even the Slaver rejects them. 

If we now go back to Cape Colony, and thence pass upwards alo: 
the Western coast, we meet with another, equally diversified^ se: 


of Negro races, totally distinct from those of the eastern side, inha- 
biting Cimbebas, Benguela, Angola, Congo, Loango, Materabas, and 
Guinea; where we again reach the Equator. These arc all savage 
tribea, but little removed, in physical nature and moral propensiticp, 
from tbe Hottentots. Anything like a detailed analysis of them would 
Tie but an unprofitable repetition of deacriptiona, to be found in all 
travellers' accounts, exhibiting pictures of the most degraded races 
of mankind. In a word, the whole of Africa, south of 10° N. lat., 
shows a succession of human beinga with intellects as dark as their 
skins, and with a cephalic conformation that rendere all expectance 
of their future melioration an Utopian dream, philanthropical, but 
somewhat senile. 

North of the Equator, and di\-iding the two great Northern and 

Southern deserts, we fall in with a belt of country traversing the 

whole continent of Africa, terminating on the east vrith the highlands 

I of Abyssinia — on the west ^vith tlio uplands of Senegambia; and, 

I between these two points, including part of the SoodUn, Negro-land 

proper, oi Nigritia. About 10° N. lat. stretches an immense range 

■ of mountains, which are supposed to run entirely across the couti- 

I neiit, and to fonn an insurmountable barrier between the Southern 

Deserts and the Northern Sahara. Throughout this region, we behold 

an infinitude of Negro races, differing considerably in their esternal 

I chai-aetcrs. The annexed extracts from Prichard, bearing upon this 

I Bubjoct, contain some important facts requiring comment. 

' "The wliole of the oountriea now described are sometimflB oalled Nigriti*, or the L»ad 
\ of Negroes — Ibej hsve likewisB been termed Elhiupia. TLo former of those namea is more 
' frtiiuenlly giveo to the Waalcrn, and the latter to the Euatem ports ; but there is no eiact 
limiution between the cuuntrieH ao termed. The nameg are taken from tho races of men 
}5ihabiting different eouutries, and these aro intorsperaed. and not eepanited hj a particular 
linf. Black and wootlj-haired races, to which the term Negro is applied, are more predo- 
fliiiitnt in Weetem Africa; but tbere sro alao wooUy-hured tribes in the Eoist: imd races 
«hi> naemblo lite Elhiopiuis, in Iheir physical ohoraolers, are found likewise in the Weil. 
Vlt caneot mark oot geographical limits to these diflerent claeaee of nations ; but it will 
be utefui to remember the difference in phjaical characters which sepnrntes them. The 
<4rgToes are distinguiahed b; their well-known traits, of which the most atrongly marked 
m ihat woollj hair; but it ti difficult to point out on; common property eharacteriilio of 
the nat termed Elliiopians, unless it is the negaliTe one of wanting the aboTe-menlioned 
l««ulliril; of the Negro : an; other definition will apply only in general, and will be liable 
la eic*|iliaiiB. Tlie Ethiopian races have generally something in their physical character 
Mhich is prtulvtrlg African, though not reaching the degree in which it is displayed by the 
U»cli people of Soudan. Their hair, though not woolly, ie commonl; friiiled, or strongly 
cnrleil or crisp. Their complexion is sometimes black, at others, of (he color of bronie, or 
Dliit, or more frequently of a dark.copper or red-brown ; eacb as tlie Egyptian paintings 
jiepliy in human figures, though generalty of a deeper shade. In aome i 
bair. w well sa their completion, is somewhat brown or red. Their fealun 
aid rounded — not eo acute sDd salient as those of the Arabs ; their nosee a- 
9r depnued, but scarcely so promiucnt as those of L:uropeauH ; their lip) 


often fut 
: flattest 


thick or full, but seldom turned out like the thick lips of Negroes ; their figure Is ileoder 
and woU shaped, and often resembling that form of which the Egyptian palatingt tod 
stfttues afford the most generally known exemplifications. These characters, thovgii i^ 
some respects approaching towards those of the Negro, are perfectly distinct from th« 
peculiarities of the mulatto or mixed breed. Most of these nations, both oUsses beioe 
equally included, are originally African, By this I do not mean to imply that their lnt 
parents were created on the soil of Africa, but merely that they cannot be traeed, by his- 
torical proofs, from any other part of the world, and that they appear to haTe grown into 
clans or tribes of peculiar physical and social character, or that their national existenoe 
had its commencement in that continent." ^^^ 

The above paragraph establirfhes that Prichard, in accordance here 
with our own views, cuts loose tlie population of the basin of iheSile 
from all tlie Negro races scattered between Mount Atlas and the Cape 
of Good Hope. In fact, one of IVichard's great objects, throughout 
his "Researches," is to show that there exists a regular ^oela^um of 
races, from the highest to the lowest types, not only in Africa, but 
throughout the world. The learned Doctor spared no labor, for forty 
years, to prove tliat this gradation is the result oi physical causss^ act- 
ing, as he says, "during chiliads of years," upon one primitive 
Adamic stock. We, on the contrary, contend, that many primitive 
types of mankind were created in distant zoological provinces; and, 
that the numerous facts, ignored by Dr. Prichard, which have lately 
come to light from Egyptian monuments and other new sources, 
confirm this view. In fact, Prichard himself, in the fifth or final 
volume of his last edition, virtually abandons the position he had so 
long and so ably maintiiincd. 

The range of mountains which bounds Guinea on the north is ap- 
posed, by liiTTER and other distinguished geographers, to be the 
commencement of a huge chain which trends across the continent 
about the tenth degree, connecting itself with the so-called "Moun- 
tains of the Moon," on the East;^'^ and thus constituting an impass- 
able wall, athwart the continent, between the North and the South. 
Certain it is that the whole of Africa south of this parallel was utterly 
unknown 600 years ago to any writers, sacred or profane — the coast^ 
on either side, until reached by navigators, in quite modem times — 
the interior, or central portion of this mountain-land, continues to 
less known than even the moon's. 

One interesting fact, however, is clear: viz., that when, passi 
onwards from the South, we overleap this stupendous natural wall,- 
we are at once thrown among tribes of higher grade ; although coi 
tinning still within the region of jet-black skins and woolly headest - 
The excessively prognathous type of the Hottentots, Congos, Guine^^ 
Negroes, and so forth, is no longer, we now perceive, the prevailing tj'p ^■ 
nortli of this mountiiin-range. We here meet with features approacli:'^ 
ing the Cauca^sian coupled with well-foniied bodies and neatly-tume»^ 


limbe; improved cranial developments, and altogether a mnch higher 
ifiteDectual character. Here, likewise, the rudiments of civilization are 
net with for the first time in our progress from the South. Here 
and there, though surrounded by pastoral nomadism, many of the 
tribes are rude agriculturists ; manufacturing coarse cloth, leather, 
4c. ; knowing somewhat of tlie use of metals, and living in towns of 
from ten to thirty thousand inhabitants. It must be conceded, how- 
ever, that most of this progress is attributable io foreign immigration 
mdexotie infiueneet. In the fertile low-countries, beyond the Sahara 
deserts, watered by rivers which descend northwards from water- 
sheds upon the central highlands, Africa has contained, for centuries, 
eereral Nigritian kingdoms, founded by Mohammedans ; while many 
Anbs, and many more Atlantic Berbers, have settled among the 
Mtive tribes. To these influences we should doubtless ascribe th<> 
nudntenance of their Muslim religion and infant civilization : for it 
b indisputable that the rulers (petty kings and aristocracy) are not of 
pure If egro lineage.'* 

This superiority of races north of the mountain-range does not 
extend io all indigenous tribes ; for Denham and Clapperton describe 
»me of the tribes around Bomou and Lake Tchad as eictremely 
Qglr, savage, and brutal. It would seem that nature preserves such 
iboriginal specimens in every region of the globe : as if to demonstrate 
that (ypet are independent of physical causes, and that species of men, 
Gke those of animals, are primitive. 

We have also numerous accounts, from Bruce, Riippel, Cailliaud, 
Linant, Beke, Weme, Combes et Tamisier, Rochet d'Hericourt, Rus- 
3egger, Mohammed-el-Tounsy, Lepsius, and other explorers, of Sen- 
naar, Dar-Four, Kordof:^,n, Fazoql, of the ^vild Shillooks, &c., bordering 
on the White Nile and its tributaries, and of the western elopes of 
Abvssinia ; and they concur in representing most of these superla- 
tively barbarous tribes as characterized by Negi*o lineaments, more 
or less well marked. Of such unaltered tj-pes we see many authentic 
ttiDples depicted on the Egyptian monuments of the XVIIth djmasty ; 
tnd we find that some are referred to in the hieroglyphical inscrip- 
tions as early as the XTTth. Indeed, the first authentic evidences 
extant of Expeditions, made to penetrate towards the Nile's unknown 
lources, date with the Xllth dynasty, about 2300 b. c. ; when Sesour- 
tesen HL had extended his conquests up the river at least as high as 
Samiuhj in Upper Nubia, where a harbor, or arsenal, and a temple 
ithe former repaired by the Amenemhas, and the latter rebuilt by 
Thotmes in.), with other remains, prove that the Pharaohs of the 
Xnth dynasty had established frontier garrisons. But, as the Tablet 
of Witdee Haifa cont^ns the names of nations undoubtedly Nigritian, 


and inasmuch as there are abundant arguments to fwoTe tlut the 
habitat of Kegro races anciently^ as at this day, never approximated 
to Egypt closer than, if as near as, the northern limit of die Trtpkoi 
RainSy we can ascend without hesitation to the age of SesourtesenL; 
and confidently assert that, in the twenty-third centnij b. c^ the know- 
ledge possessed by the Pharaonic Egytians oonoeming the upper 
regions of the Nile extended to points as austral as that derived be- 
tween A. D. 1820 and 1835, by civilized Europe, fixntn the Ghtawatj or 
slave-hunts, of Mohammed-Ali.^ Time has transplanted some of these 
upper Nilotic fiimilies, over a few miles, from one district to another; 
but that such movements have entailed no physical mutations of 
race, we shall perceive hereinafter. 

AVe have already stated, that Senegambia, on the west of (kntni 
^rieay like the eastern extremity at Abyssinia,*® rises into mountuoa 
and elevated table-lands — physical characters which usually accom- 
pany higher grades of humanity than those of the burning plaiw 
below. It is hero that we find sundry of the superior (so-called) Kegro 
races of Africa : \4z., the Mandingos, the Fulahs, and the I0I0& 
The MandingoSy a very numerous and powerful nation, are remariable 
among tlie African races for their industry and energy ; and, of the 
goiuiiuo Negro tribes, have perhaps manifested the greatest aptitude 
for mental improvement. They are the most zealous and rigid Ho- 
luunmodaus on the continent. Agriculturists, cattle-breeders, cloth- 
innnutaoturers, living in towns, they possess schools, engage in exteor 
j»ivo commerce, and use Arabic writing. Goldberry, Park, Laing, 
Ounind, mid other travellers, coincide in the statement that these 
Mandingi>8 arc less black, and have better features, than Negroes; 
uuKhh1« Goldberry, who is good authority, says they resemble dark 
Hindoos more tlian Negroes. 

Th^^ Fulahs^ are a still more peculiar people, whose history is 
uiYv^lvo\i in much obscurity. They are supposed, by many authorities, 
i\» Iv a mixed race. Their type and language are totally distinct 
u\^m aU iturrv^unding Africans. According to Park and others, they 
trtitk th\»ui#olvos among white people, and look down upon their 
lu'ii^hK^i's as iufrriors; at the same time, they are always the domi- 
'uiUM;; taitiiliciis wherever found. The contradictory descriptions of 
i»ii\\i[ci'H UW us to suspect some diversity of physical characters 
.4:iusi;< ihc.'<\* Fulahs^ or Fellatahs. They are not black, but of a 
vw.i^>»i'Vi v\»'or, with good features, and hair more or less straight, 
k\u\ v'itvn Nc»v nno. They are commercial, intelligent, and, for Afri- 
<:,.». xv^ji.vuivirtblv Hvlvauoed in the civilization they owe to Islamism 

t \o .'«'^V*i tvt^wu the Senegal and Gambia, the most northerly 


ions on the West coast, are represented to be the comeliest 
^ tribes. 

» alwajra well made [says Goldbeiry] ; their features are regular, and like 
ipeana, except that their nose is rather round, and their lips thick. Thej are 
narkablj handsome — their women beautiful. The complexion of the race is 
irent deep Hack ; their hair crisp and woolly." 

jain, is a combination of physical characters which contra- 
alleged influence of climate ; because the I0I0&, and some 
iS north, are jet-black, while the Fulahs, and others, under 
of the Equator, are comparatively fair. 
11 show, in another place, that histoiy affords no evidence 
,tion, or any influence of civilization that may be brought 
. races of inferior organization, can radically change their 
lor, consequently, their moral, characters. That the brain, 
le, which is the organ of intellect, cannot be expanded or 
form, is now admitted by every anatomist ; and Prichard, 
ilating his results as to the races of Central Africa, makes 
Ing important admission : — 

ring the descripUons of all the races enumerated, we may obsenre a relatioB 
' physical character and moral condition. Trihet having what it eaUed the Negro 
e most striking degree are the katt civilized. The Papels, Bisagos, Ibos, who are 
•t degree remarkable for deformed countenances, prelecting jaws, flat fore- 
or other Negro peculiarities, are the moet savage and moralig degraded of the 
rto described. The converse of this remark is appUeable to aU the moei dviHted 
iUahs, MandingoB, and some of the Dahomeh and Inta nations haTC, as far as 
med, nearly European countenances, and a corresponding configuration of the 
general, the tribes inhabiting eleyated countries, in the interior, are Tory 
lose who dwell on low tracts on the the seacoast, and this superiority is mani- 
lental and bodily qualities." ^^ 

ith of these observations is sustained by all past history, 

Y every monument. Much as the success of the infant 

Liberia is to be desired by every true philanthropist, it 

tgret that, whilst wishing well to the Negroes, we cannot 

minds of melancholy forebodings. Dr. Morton, quoted in 

lapter, has proven, that the Negro races possess about nine 

les less of brain than the Teuton ; and, unless there were 

le facts in history, something beyond bare hypotheses, to 

how these deficient inches could be artificially added, it 

m that the Negroes in Africa must remain substantially in 

benighted state wherein Nature has placed them, and in 

jy have stood, according to Egj^tian monuments, for at 


d's herculean work is so replete with intereetang fr' 
ieductions, that we are tempted, almost at en 


make extracts. The following resume is certainly decisive in estab- 
lishing the entire want of connexion between Types and CUmaU» 

** The distingaiBhing peooliarities of the AfHcan races may be Bomined up Into four 
heads ; viz. : the characters of complexion, hair, features and figure. We hare to raiittt-> 

*' 1. That some races, with woolly hair and complexions of a deep black color, have fiu 
forms, regular and beautiful features, and are, in their figure and eountenancei, Kiroelj 
different from Europeans. Such are the lolofs, near the Senegal, and the race of Ovber, 
or of Hausa, in the interior of Sudan. Some tribes of the South AfHcan nee, u Um 
darkest of the Kafirs, are nearly of this description, as well as some families or tribn in 
the empire of Kongo, while others haTC more of the Negro character in their conntoiueei 
and form. 

'*2. Other tribes have the form and features similar to those abore deseribed: ttrir 
complexion is black or a deep oUto, or a copper color approaching to black, while ttor 
hair, though often crisp and frizzled, is not the least woolly. Such are the BiAiri tat 
Danakil and Hazorta, and the darkest of the Abyssinians. 

" 8. Other instances have been mentioned in which the complexion is black and tlMfti- 
tnres have the Negro type, while the nature of the hair deviates considerably, and is eicn 
said to be rather long and in flowing ringlets. Some of the tribes near the Zaaban m 
of this class. 

« 4. Among nations whose color deviates towards a lighter hue, we find some with wodly 
hair, with a figure and features approaching the European. Such are the Bechuaaa KiSn, 
of a light brown complexion. The tawny Hottentots, though not approaching the Euro- 
pean, differ Arom the Negro. Again, some of the tribes on the Gold Coast and the SQsvc 
Coast, and the Ibos, in the Bight of Benin, are of a lighter complexion than many other 
Negroes, while their features are strongly marked with the peculiarities of that race.** 

These observations, Priehard thinks, cannot be reconciled with ike 
idea that the Negroes are of one distinct species ; and that the opinion 
sustaining the existence, among them, of a number of separate flpe> 
cies, each distinguished by some peculiarity which anotiier wants, 
might be more reasonably maintained. The latter supposition he 
conjectures, however, to be refuted by the fact that species in no case 
pass so insensibly into each other. It will appear, notwithstanding, 
when we come to the questions of hyhridity and of speeifie characters, 
that Prichard's doctrine, besides being in itself a non sequitur^ is over- 
thrown by positive facts. 

Priehard himself tells us, " there are no authentic instances, dther 
in Africa or elsewhere, of the transmutation of other varieties of 
mankind into Negroes.'* ^ We have, however, he continues, examples 
of very considerable deviation in the opposite direction. The de- 
scendants of the genuine Negroes are no longer such : they have lost 
in several instances many of the peculiarities of the stock from which 
they spring. To which fallacies we reply, that vague reports of mis- 
informed travellers alone support such assertion. Our remarks on 
the Permanence of Types establish, that what physiological changes 
Priehard and his school refer to climatic influences, are indisputably 
to be ascribed to amalgamation of races. 

Let us now travel through Nigritia, and ascend the table-lands of 


lia; where another climate, another Fanna^ another Flora, 
lUier Type of Man, arise to view. Here, for the first time 
T departure from the Cape of Good Hope, we stand among 
f men who are actually capacitated to enjoy a higher stage 
ization; and, although we have not yet reached Gk)d's 
t work," we have happily waded through the " slough of 
" in human gradations of Africa. 

t! let us imagine ourselves standing upon the highest peak in 
ia ; and that our vision could extend over the whole continent, 
Dg south, east, north and west : what tableaux-vivante would he 
d to the eye, no less than to the mind ! To the south of the 
we should descry at least 50,000,000 of Nigritians, steeped in 
lahle ignorance and savagism ; inhabiting the very countries 
istoiy first finds them — vast territorial expanses, which the 
)f the north, in ancient times, hM no possible means of visit- 
Ionizing. Do we not behold, on eveiy side, human character- 
completely segregated from ours, that they can be expired 
•tfaer way than by supposing a direct act of creation ? 
e moral and intellectual traits of such abject types no impres- 
been made within 5000 years : none can be made,' (so far as 
mows,) until their organization becomes changed by — silliest 
rate suppositions — ^a "miracle." Turn we now towards the 
rhere we behold the tombs, the ruined temples, the gigantic 
J of Pharaonic Egypt, which, braving the hand of time for 
rs past, seem to defy its action for as many to come. These 
nts, moreover, were not only built by a people diftering from 
\ of Asia and Europe, in characters, language, civilization, and 
ibutes ; but diverging still more widely from every other human 
dsitive evidence, furthermore, exists, that Negroes, at least as 
as the Xnth dynasty, in the twenty-fourth century b. c, dwelt 
oraneously in Africa : which is parallel with (b. c. 2348) the 
Gained, to a fraction by Rabbinical arithmetic, for Noab's 
frhen all creatures outside of the Ark, except some fishes, 
d a watery grave ! But we pursue our journey. 
inia, according to Tellez, is called by its inhabitants Albere* 
he "lofty plain ; " by which epithet they contrast it with the 
itries surrounding it on almost every side. It is compared 
hyssinians to the flower of the Denguelety which displays a 
ent corolla surrounded by thorns — in allusion to the many 
s tribes who inhabit the numerous circumjacent valleys and 

ighlands of Abyssinia, properly so called, stretch from the 
provinces of Shoa and Efat, which are not far distant from 





Enarea under 9^, to Tscherkiii and Waldnbba under 15^ N. Itt; f^ 
where they make a sudden and often precipitous descent into tbe 
stunted forests occupied by the Shangalla Kegroes. From east to 
west they extend over 9° of longitude. Rising at the steep Ixoder 
or terrace of Taranta from the depressed tract along the Arabian 
Gulf, they reach the mountains of Fazolco, Dyre and Touggonla; 
which overhang the flat, sandy districts of SenniLar and the valkjB 
of Kordofan. (Ritter.) 

The researches of Bruce, Salt, Ritter, and Beke, have shown ttit 
the high countiy of Habesh, Abyssinia, consists of three terraoea m 
distinct table-lands, rising one above another ; and of which tbe 
several grades or ascents present themselves in succession, to the tra- 
veller who advances from the shore of the Red Sea."^ 

The plain of Bahamegash is first met after traversing the low and 
«rid steppe of Samhard, inhabited by the black DanhhU and J>iMii0<(a, 
where the traveller ascends the heights of Taranta. 

The next level is the kingdom of Tigr6, which formerly oontuned 
the kingdom of Axum. Within this region lie the plains of Enderta 
and Giralta ; containing Chelicut and Antalow, principal dtiea of 
Abyssinia. The kingdom of Tigre comprehends the provincea of 
Abyssinia westward of the Tacazze, of which the laiger are ^Hgri 
and Shire towards the north, Woggerat and Enderta and the moon- 
tfl^iious regions of Lasta and Samen towards the south. 

High Abyssinia — kingdom of Amhara — ^is a name now given to tbe 
realm of which Gondar is the capital, and where the Amharic lanr 
guage is spoken, eastward of the Tacazze. Amhara proper Ib a 
mountain province of that name to the southeast, in the centre of 
which was Tegulat, the ancient capital of the empire ; and, at one 
period, the centre of civilization of Abyssinia. This province is no^ 
in the possession of the Galla ; a barbarous people who have oveicome 
the southern parts of Habesh. The present kingdom of Amhara is 
the heart of Abyssinia, the abode of the Emperor or If egush. It con* 
tains the upper course of the Blue Nile. The climate is delightful — 
perpetual spring ; and the mean elevation about 8000 feet. The upland 
region of Amhara, or rather the province of Dembea, breaks off 
towards the northeast, by a mountainous descent into the plains of 
Seunaar and lower Ethiopia. On the outskirts of the highlands, and 
at their feet^ are the vast forests of Waldnbba and Walkayat, abound 
ing with troops of monkeys, elephants, bu&loes and wild boars. 
The human inhabitants of these tracts and the adjoining forests, and 
likewise of the valleys of the Tacazze and tlie Angrab, are Shang- 
alla Negroes, who in several parts environ the hill-countiy of 


Baee$ mhabiting Ab^irinia. — Several different races inhabit the old 
empire of the Negosh or Abyssinian sovereign, who are commonly 
ioduded under the name of ffabesh or Abyssinians. They differ in< 
hngaage, bat possess a general resemblance in their physical charac- 
ten and customs. Whether they really are of unique origin is a 
question which science has no data for settling. Those who believe 
that the Hebrew and the Hottentot (as well as camels and cameleo- 
puds) are of one and the same stock, will unhesitatingly answer in 
the afiSrmative. 

L The Tigrani, or Aby$9ins of Tigre. — These are the inhabitants of 
the kingdom of Tigr6, on the east of Tacazze — speaking the lingua 

i The AmharoB. — They have for ages been the dominant people 
of Abyssinia, and speak the widely-spread Amharic language. 

S. The Agaw9. — There are two tribes bearing this appellation, who 
tfok distinct tongues, and inhabit different parts of the country. 

4. The Falashae. — This race has much puzzled ethnographers, and 
fteir histoiy is involved in obscurity. They possess strong affinities 
vhfa the Fulahs on the western coast, and have not only been sup- 
posed by many to be of the same stock, but both have been regarded 
as identical with the Kafirs (Caffres) of Southern Africa. The Fala- 
im are Jews in religion, though their language has no affinity with 
the Hebrew ; and they use the Gheez version of the Old Testameit 

5. The Q-afaJtM are another tribe, possessing a language of their 


6. The Q-ongcL» and JEnareans have also a language distinct from all 
the above. 

There are other tribes which might be enumerated, speaking lan- 
guages hitherto irreconcilable.^ Whether these really present affi- 
nitiea, or whether some of them be not radically distinct, are questions 
jet undetermined. 

Phgiieal Characters. — Human races of the plateaux of Abyssinia 
ire said to resemble each other, although it is admitted on all hands 
that they vary considerably in complexion and features. 

Prichard, who has brought all his immense erudition to bear on 
these fiunilies, cuts them loose entirely from Negro races ; and classes 
them under the head of Ethiopians ; who, we shall see, have been 
rery improperly confounded with Negroes, After treating on the 
reneral resemblance, in physical characters, of these nations, he 
oncludes— ^ 

** Bj tbii natioiud ehanoter of conformation, the Abyssinians are associated with that 
bat of African nations which I have proposed to denominate* by the term Ethiopian^ aa 
mmguifhmg them from Ntgrou, The distinction has indeed been already established by 



BuoQ Lurey, Br. BtLppeU, M. de Chabrol, and others. Some of thete vxitcn melidiii 
the eame department the Abjssixis, the native Egyptians and the Barmbra, separatiiig thai 
by a broad line firom the Negroes, and almost as widely firom the Arabs and Europciifc 
The Egyptians or Copts, who form one branch of this stock, haTe, according to Lsmj, i 
« yellow, dusky complexion, like that of the Abyssins. Their ooimtenaaoo is Adlwitkort 
being puffed; their eyes are beautiful, clear, almond-shaped, and langoishing; thmrekik- 
bones are projecting; their noses nearly straight, rounded at the point; their aoitrib 
dilated ; mouth of moderate size ; their lips thick ; their teeth white, regular, hut a littli 
projecting ; their beard and hair black and crisp.' 330 in all these characters, the Egfptitti, 
according to Larrey, agree with the Abyssins, and are distingniahed fhnn the Negroei." 

Tlie Baron enters into a minute comparison of the AbysunianB, 
Copts, and Negroes ; concluding that the two former are of the same 
race ; and supporting this idea with Egyptian sculptures and paint- 
ings, and the crania of mummies. 

M. DE Chabrol, describing the Copts, says that they evince deddedly 
an African character of physiognomy ; which, he thinks, establishes 
that they are indigenous inhabitants of Egypt, identifying them with 
the ancient inhabitants : — 

« On peat admettre que leur race a su se conserver pure de toute melange avee IsGnoi^ 
puisqa'ils n'ont entre eux aucon tndt de ressemblance."^^ 

[This must be taken with many grains of allowance ; for the present 
Copts are hybrids of every race that has visited Egypt: at the same 
time that his '^ African physiognomy" evidently means no more than 
that the character of countenance termed Ethiopian is not that of the 
Negro.— G. R. G.] 

Dr. Ruppell has also portrayed the Ethiopian style of counte- 
nance and bodily conformation as peculiarly distinct from the type 
both of the Arabian and the Negro. He describes its character as 
more especially belonging to the Bar^bra, or Berberins, among whom 
he long resided ; but he says that it is common to them, together 
with the Ababdeh and the Bishari, and in part with the Abyssiniane. 
This type, according to Ruppell, bears a striking resemblance to the 
characteristics of the ancient Eg53)tians and Nubians, as displayed in 
the statues and sculptures in the temples and sepulchral excavations 
along the course of the Nile. 

The complexion and hair of the Abyssinians vary veiy much : their 
complexion ranging from almost white to dark brown or black ; and 
their hair, from straight to crisp, frizzled, and almost woolly. Hence 
the deduction, if these are facts, that they must be an exceedinj^y 
mixed race. Dr. Prichard, in defining the Abyssinians, has taken much 
pains, as we have said, to prove that they, together with fiunili* 
generally of the eastern basin of the Nile, down to Egj'pt inclusivei 
not only are not Negro, but were not originally Asiatic races , display- 
ing somewhat of an intermediate type, which is nevertheless essenf 


illy African in character. To us, it is very gratifying to see this 
iew 00 ably sustained ; becaase, regarding it as an incontrovertible 
ict, we have made it the stand-point of our argument respecting the 
rigin of the ancient Egyptians, whose effigies present this African 
fpe on the earliest monuments of the Old Empire more vividly than 
pon those of the New. This autochthonous type, as we shall prove, 
aceDdfl so far back in time, is so peculiar, and withal so connected 
ith a primordial tongue — presenting but small incipient affinity 
dth Asiatic languages about 3500 years b. c. — as to preclude eveiy 
lea of an Asiatic origin for its aboriginally-miotic speakers and 
kfoglyphical scribes. 

Language9 of Ahytrinia. — In tracing the history of this country, 
% find the Gheez, or Ethiopic, the Amharic, and other Abyssinian 
lognages. It is no longer questionable, that the Gheez or Ethiopic 
-idiom of the Ethiopic version of the Scriptures, and other modern 
ooks which constitute the literature of Abyssinia — is a Semitic dia* 
»t, aUn to the Arabic and Hebrew. 

**ncre 18 no reuon to doabt [says Prichard], that the people for whose nee these 
Nb vcre writteo, and whose Temacolar tongue was the Gheez, were a Semitio race. 
[ti; lad at what time, the highlands of Abyssinia came to be inhabited bj a Semitic 
Mfle, ind what relations the modem Abjssinians bear to the family of nations, of which 
iit people were a branch, are questions of too much importance, in African ethnography, 
»lt passed without examination." 

The Gheez is now extant merely as a dead language. 
The Amharic, or modem Abyssinian, has been the vernacular of 
» country ever since the extinction of the Gheez, and is spoken over 
peat part of Abyssinia. It is not a dialect of the Gheez or Ethiopic, 
eome have supposed, but is now recognized to be, as Prichard 
inns, "a language fundamentally distinct.*' It has incorporated 
bo itself many words of Semitic origin ; but accidents of recent date 
not alter the case, as concerns the former existence of local Abys- 
tiian idioms, non-Asiatic in structure. So with the Atlantic Berber 
iguage, which has likewise become much adulterated by foreign 
afta : yet Venture, Newman, Castiglione, and Graberg de Hemso, 
ve fully proved that it is essentially, and in the primary or most 
iginal parts of its vocabulary, a speech entirely apart, and devoid 
any relation whether to Semitic or to any other known language. 
le same remark applies with equal truth to the Amharic, which was 
obably an ancient African tongue, and one of the aboriginal idioms 
the inhabitants of the south-eastern provinces of Abyssinia. Prich- 
d winds up his investigation with the following emphatic avowal, 
I that we may consider the question settled : — " The languages of 
I these nations are essentially distinct from the Gheez and eveiy 
ha* Semitic dialect" Our own general conclusion fix>m the pre 


nuses iBy that, while the Abyssinians are absolutely distinct, on the 
one hand, from every Negro race, they are, on the other, equally dig. 
tinct, in type and languages, from all Asiatic races ; and they most 
therefore be regarded as autocthones of the country where they are 
now found. 

On the south and south-east of Abyssinia there exist other races 
which might be enumerated ; the Gallas, for example, with brown 
complexion, long crisp hair, and features not unlike the Abyssiniaiu. 
Also, the Danakil, the Somauli, &c. ^ — none of whom are Negroes: 
their types being intermediate — long hair, skins more or less dark, 
good features, &c. ; all partaking far more of the Ethiopian than of 
the Negro. [No Abyssinian natives having fallen under the writer's 
personal eye, he cannot pronounce upon them with the same con- 
fidence that he speaks of Negroes ; but his colleague, Mr. Gliddon, 
whose twenty-odd years* residence in Egypt, individual aptitude of 
observation, and extensive Oriental knowledge, render his opinions 
of some weight in these Nilotic questions, refers to the exquisite plates 
of Prisse d* Avenues^ for what may be considered the most perfect 
expression of this Abyssinian type. We accept M. Prisse's life-like 
sketches the more readily, inasmuch as they harmonize^ with the best 
accounts we have read, and with our own ethnolo^cal deductions, 
through analogy, of the characteristics that Abyssinians must pr&. 
sent. — J. C. N.] 

On resuming our line of march, then, north towards Egypt, we 
turn our backs upon the Soodan^ " black countries," ever the true 
land of Negroes ; and descend from the Abyssinian highlands on the 
north-west and north, along the borders of Qondar and Dembea. 
Hero, again, we meet divers scattered tribes, with black skins and 
woolly heads — varieties of the intrusive Shangdllay who now are 
found not only on the west, but on the northern borders of Ilabesh; 
while on the south-east we descry the Dobos. In Senn^Lar we again 
encounter Negro tribes — the Shilooks and the Tungi; inhabiting 
the islands of the Bahr-el-Abiad, above W4dee Shallice. Fully de- 
scribed by Seetzen, Linant^ Lord Prudhoe, Eussegger, and others; 
they present Negro types more or less marked. This fact might seem 
to contradict our statement with regard to the primitive localities of 
Nigritian races. "We look upon such minutiae^ however, as unimport- 
ant ; because, contending simply for a gradation of African races, a 
few hundred miles, within the same upper Nilotic basin, do not affect 
the main principle. Dr. Eiippell, tlian whom there is certainly no 
better authority on tliis question, corroborates our assumption, by 
asserting that the present stations of those Negro races are not thdr 
ancient abodes. He assures us that — 


'*1W Skilvkh NcgroM vn a nnmeroas and widely spread people, in the country of 
BMd, bordering oa Fertit» and to the eonthirard of Kordofan, beyond the tenth degree of 
tilitdt, vAmcv tkeif have dUp€n«d themtelvet, towards the East and North, alon^^ the coarse 
rftk White NQe.** 

Prichard furthermore admits, that " the people of Sennkar are no 
loDger N^roeg," quoting M. Cailliand to sustain himself; and adding 
tLe latter's description of the physical character of the races of Sen- 
Qiar in general: — 

*'Lm infig^es da Sennaar ont le teint d'on bnm cniir^ ; lenrs chereux, qnoique cr^pns, 
iftmt de eenz dea tnus N^gres : ils n'ont point, oomme ceozci, le nez, les l^yres, et les 
jneiy liinaBtea — Fensemble de lenr physioguomie est agr^able et regolier." 

Cailfiaud further remarks, that — 

"Asoag the inhaUtants of the Idngdom of Sennaar, and the adjoining conntries to 
Ifci loith, the reanlts of mixture of race, in the intermarriage of Soudanians, Ethiopians, 
■i Aiabe, wen frequently to be traced." 

He holds, as does also Cherubini,^ that six distinct castes are well 
known in that countiy, the names and descriptions of which they 

After a careful review of most leading authorities on the races of 
Afiica, we have arrived at the conclusion that, upon ascending the 
tAle-lands of Abyssinia, at the south and west, we bid adieu to the 
tme Negro-land (believing that every dispassionate inquirer must come 
to results identical). Which departure taken, we find, along the 
descending waters of the Nile, only some few scattered Negro types, 
tko have wandered from their indigenous and more austral soil. 
Dr. Prichard, we have stated, fully recognizes ihe gradation of Afiican 
ices for which we have been contending, but he attributes it entirely 
to the operation of physical causes — assigning imaginary reasons, 
QBSQbstantiated by even the slenderest proof, and in negation of which 
»e hope to adduce overwhelming testimony. 

Kuhiann. — Next in order, we must glance at the races inhabiting 
Jabia and other countries between Abyssinia and Egypt, about whom 
noch unnecessary confusion has existed, simply because few European 
nvellers among them have been competent physiologists. One 
eople who inhabit the valley of the Nile above Egypt, and from that 
Mintry to Sennltar, give themselves the appellation of Berherri (in the 
Dgular). By the Arabs, they are termed Nuha and Barcihera. The 
me people in Egypt, whither they immigrate in large numbers, are 
r Europeans called Berlerins. These races, through similarity of 
ane, have been erroneously confounded with the Berbers of the 
irbary States; but they differ in language, features, and every 
sential particular.^ The Nubians constitute altogether a group of 
caliar races, differing from Arabs, Negroes, or Egyptians — pos- 
asing a physiognomy and color of their own. They speak languages 


peculiar to themselves ; in which, from the time of Moses, fhey were 
hieroglyphed as BaRaSeRa, no less than as ITuba. They are in 1]ie 
habit of coming down to Egypt, where their offices are wholly menial; 
and among other articles of traffic, some clans bring Kegroes pro- 
cured from the caravans of Senndar, and are commonly known at 
Cairo under the name of Qellahsj "fetchers," or slave-dealeis. 

The discrepancy in the descriptions given of this IN'ubian race by 
travellers, demonstrates that there exists among them oonttderabie 
variety of colors ; and hence, at once, we feel persuaded of no litde 
mixture of races. Denon describes them as of a ^^ shining jetrblack," 
but adds, ^^ they have not the smallest resemblance to the Kegroea of 
Western Africa." Other travellers speak of them as coppeivcoloied, 
or black, with a tinge of red, &c. The frtct is, the mothers are olten 
pure negresses, and their children mulattoes of all shades. Thdr 
proper physical character is, we think, well described by K. CkMSiAi:— 

<* La conleur des Bar&bras tient en qnelque sorte le miliea entr« le noir d'Atot des bU- 
tans de Sennaar et le teint basan^ des Egyptiens du Sayd. Elle est exaoteme&t seaUilili 
ft celle de Taoijoa poll fioiio^. Les Bar&bras se pr^TBleni de oette miaiioe, poor le mgv 
parmi les blancs. . . Les traits des Bar&bras se rapprochent effeetiTemeiit phis de onzte 
Europ^ens que de ceux des N^gres : leur pean est d'an tissn eztrlmeBient fln— ss eoilflir 
ne prodoit point on effect d^sagr^able ; la nuance rouge, qui 7 est mll^ leur dosM n 
air de sant^ et de Tie. Ua diff^nt des N^gres par leur chereuz, qui aont loogs et kgh«- 
ment cr^pus sans dtre laineuz. 

Dr. Riippell's very scientific account of the races inhabiting the 
province of Dongola contains the following: — 

«The inhabitants of Dar Dongola are diyided into two principal olasses : nanfllyithe 
Barabra, or the descendants of the old Ethiopian natives of the eountry, and the itcci oC 
Arabs who haye emigrated from He<]|ja8. The ancestors of the Barabra, who, is the eoori* 
of centuries, haye been repeatedly conquered by hoetile tribes, must hsre undvrgoiie §01** 
intermixture with people of foreign blood ; yet an attentiTe inquiry will ttiU enable is ^ 
distinguish among them the old national physiognomy, which their fozefathera hayeBsilc^^ 
upon colossal statues and the bas-relief^ of temples and sepulchres. A long ofil coun^ 
nance ; a beautifully curved nose, somewhat rounded towards the top ; pr o portionany tiu^ 
lips, but not protruding excessiyely; a remarkably beautiftil figure^ generallly of ndd^ 
size, and a brown color, are the characteristics of the genuine Dongtlawi. Theee m^ 
traits of physiognomy are generally found among the Ababdi, Bishari, a part of the inh^ 
bitants of the province of Bchendi, and partly also among the Abyssiniana." 

Many of the Bar&bra speak Arabic, and with an accent ever '^ tttf 
generis;'* but very few free Arabs consider it respectable to learn Ber 
berree, which they affect to despise as MtUHna, a "jargon." Both race* 
keep themselves separate ; and marriage connexions between them 
entailing disgrace upon the Arab, are, at the present day, of so ran 
occurrence, that Berberri husbands at Cairo are only adopted tor on< 
day, in cases of " triple divorce." ^ There are many eitations of Aral 
historians to support the conclusion that some septs of these so-tennec 


derived their origin from a countay westward of the Nile, 
Eur from Kordofin. A doubt thus arises not only, as above 
d, with regard to Negroes, but whether some Nubians them- 
l not come originally from the west of the White Nile. This 
confirmed to some extent by afiinily of language and by 
raditions, is contradicted, apparently, by the monuments : — 
»tian monarchs of the XVHIth dynasty conquer the JVintJa, 
tfui the Bardberaj in their expeditions of the fourteenth and 
centuries b. c. 2d, The portraits of these Ancient Nubians 
recisely the same traits, whilst occupying, 8500 years ago, 
topographical habitats, as their descendants at the present 
the nostalgic tendencies of the modem Berherri are so noto- 
A voluntary diBplacements on his part seem improbable, 
t n. of this volume, under the head of KUSA, the reader will 
I ample investigations : although, beyond general accuracy, a 
•exact geographical settlement of these Nubian groups is not 
to anthropology ; because, whether in the Lower or Upper 
•r in Kordofin, they lie now, where their progenitors ever 
I the Nile ; that is, between the Egyptians at the north and 
308 at the south. And, after all, their mightiest dislocations 
led within an area of 500 miles, up or down a single river. 
y are, consequently, merely Nubian aborigines. 
>pulation of KordofiLn now consists of three races at least, 
physically distinct, each speaking diflferent languages: — 
in Arabs from the HedjAz. 2. Colonists from Dongola. 
a1 natives of the country, who call themselves Nouha^ 
in race, they are genuine Negroes. We dwell not, however, 
races ; but upon the Nubians proper : whose type is inde- 
3f this chaos of national names, often erroneously given to 
well as misappropriated by them. Dr. Prichard says : — 

cent of the modem Nubians or Barabra, from the Nouha of the hill coontrj of 
eems to be as well established as very many facts which are regarded as certain 
n ethnography.*' 

e BarHbra are not Negroes ; their hair, though slightly friz- 
crisp, is long and not woolly : and Prichard's surmise of any 
bian displacements since Pharaonic times, was doubted by 
* and is overthrown by facts we owe to Birch,^ Burckhardt, 
, and other travellers who have visited this part of Africa, 
it the Nouboiy who are Negroes, do not here resemble in form, 
hair, complexion, &c., other Negroes of the west coast, but 
late more closely to the type of Bar^bra or true Nubians, 
r that there exists some stroogly-marked difference between 


the JTjwoa «?£ KopIocul ukd the Bardbra of Nubia; which Dr. 
Pricbkni is u & ktse wsicdi^r to attribute to climate or to coimnin- 
xun^ ':*£ T%ifi^ Or dbe tvo <^«imons the latter is llie ouly leasonable 
one : cecasse die X:ibcA&5 or modern Bar&bra are the representi^ves 
oc in. c-rigfnaJ izi£^£OGS atock; whose normal position stands noith- 
waxd ot pare Xegro rftee& 

The inh^Moknts of Dar-Four and Fezz^u exhibit some stiiking 
pecclL;irid«$^ but we shall pass them by, as non-essential to our pre- 
sent obj^cts^ with the obserration that, while the former approziiDate 
the Xubian. the latter verge towards the Atlantic Berber type. 

Tit I^ijutem XwhianMj or Bisharine or Bejawy Bace. — To the eastr 
wani of Xubia, throughout the deserts and denuded hill-country cut 
of Egypt, we encounter different tribes and nations, all supposed to 
belong to the same race, which is one of the most widely-^read in 
Ethiopia, stretching from the Eastern desert at Thebes, to the So- 
mauli-country below Shoa. The Bishari are the most poweiiol of 
the;$e elans. The ffadharebe, to the southward of the Bishari, and 
the Ababdeh, to the northward, belong, it is believed, to the same 
stock. Under the appellation Sadharehe are included numerous 
triln^ which it would be tedious and useless to enumerate.* * iSMtwh 
or SuAkin, is their principal settiement ; and of this place and itft 
inhabitants Burckhardt supplies an ample account. 

*^ Th« Suakinj hare, in genenl, handsome and expresnTe features, with thin and fer^ 
5h\)*r« b««rd» : their color is of the darkest brown, approaching Uack, but thej have no^n^^^ 
v*f the Ne$n> character of countenance." ^39 

To tho same excellent observer we are indebted for a feet Ihat,.^ 
>i\u;£0\l u(Kn\ to sustain the exploded idea of physical changes through 
ol»tuate* iu reality affords the happiest illustration of the mode through 
H lik'h tvjvs of man become naturally effaced; viz. : by foreign amalga- 
'luitivnis* Tho town of SuAkim; in Ptolemaic times Berenice; and 
.vJicuiuing ^i>70 B. c.) the ancestors of the same Sukhiim^ that now 
vtcvic i« ics neighborhood ; exhibited in Burckhardt's day a triple 
■»v»fM!ii:iv*«* viz. : native Hadhareley Arabs from the opposite coast, 
i;»xi '.■>c vk^^vvudants of some Turkish soldiery left there by Sooltan 
V»cv'in. "The pwsent race," says Burckhardt, "have the African 
t\4 » ! \^ .uKi :uauuers^ and are in no way to be distinguished from the 

I"**; ;< ,vi xv\uicry cohabit with the females of every land in which 
»K ^ k \' t\\xi\.>.i ; uuvU while they rarely carry tiieir own women with 
.u „;, ,-. 4 iNNi'^v^tv'^toman conquests, ASwaHm, on the African desert- 
vsih.v .'. 'u* Av\5 5s*<k would be the least likely to have been occupied 
kK t^j ^'.v^ uKii t ts\l svuplo*. In consequence, Seleem's garrison there. 


tie rabjugatioii of Egypt in a. d. 1517, adopted as wives and 
(ines the females of the Hadharebe ; and in less than ten gene- 
, down to the period of Borckhardt's travels, their descendants 
ien already absorbed into the aboriginal masses whence the 
rs had been drawn.^ Sustainers of "nnity," who once 
3d franticly at Turks metamorphosed, by climate, into Afri- 
re welcome henceforward to what capital they can evolve fix)m 
liardt's narrative. 

country of the Bishari reaches from the northern frontier of 
nia, along the course of the river Mareb, which flows through 
rthem forests of the Shangallah to the Bel&d-el-Taka and At- 
sehere dwell tlie Hadendoa and Hammadab, smd to be the 
est tribe of the Bishari race. Tribes of the Bishari reach north- 
» £Eur as Gtebel-el-Ottaby in the latitude of Derr, where the Nile, 
ts great western bend, turns back towards the Red Sea ; they 
r all the hiDy country upon the Nile from Senn4ar to Dar Berber 
the Red Sea. (Prichard.) Travellers do not give a flattering 
it of their social condition. Burckhardt states : " The inhos- 
) character of the Bisharein would alone prove them to be a 
frican race, were this not put beyond all doubt by their lan- 
*' Riippell declares that the physical character of the Bishari is 
ke that of the Baribra. Burckhardt again observes, " The Bi- 
>f Atbara, like their brethren, are a handsome and bold race of \ 
. I thought the women remarkably handsome ; they were of 
brown complexion, with beautitiil eyes and fine teeth ; their 
s slender and elegant.'' Hamilton, who saw a few of them 
; his short stay about Assouan and Philse, yields very much the 
aujcount, with the commentary, that many of them are beheld 
a cast of the Negro, others with very fine profile." Prichard 
the following just and significant remark on this description : 
sort of variety in physiognomy is observed by almost every 
er in the eastern parts of the continent, from Kaffirland to 
and Egypt." Now, on the westj the population has been cut 
deserts and other natural impediments, from all foreign ad- 
res, in consequence of their isolated position ; while, on the 
ley have been subjected from time immemorial to adulteration 
Semitic immigrants. Both the Bishari and Ababdeh have been 
rhat adulterated with Arab blood ; and, doubtless, far more so 
i:h Negresses, their slaves. They may, however, be considered 
:^bly pure African race, inasmuch as the marks of adulteration 
>t by any means universal ; at the same time they have preserved 
lative tongue, while the Arabic idioms have supplanted other 
ages around them* 


nothing presents itself to the most scntpnloos inTestigAtioiis that eoold letd «s to nipeet 
that a single one of the monuments [of MeroS] mi^t ascend hi|^ier than the ftnt ecBtey 
after j. c. The greater part belong, without doubt, eren to mnoh later times ; end m muk 
place the most flourishing epoch of MeroS nearly at the seeond or third ef onr enL Aad, 
not only upon the Isle of MeroS, but in all Ethiopia, fh>m one end to the other, tfacif b not 
the slightest trace, I will not saj of a primitiTe ciTilixatlon anterior to the Egjptba drifi- 
sation, as has been dreamed, but not eren whatsoerer of an Ethippiam diilisatioii, fnptAj 
so called.'' M ;| 

These most scientific views of Chev. Lepsins were oommumcated J 
to us long ago ; and they have materially aided onr endeavors to di^ j 
criminate between the true and the false, the certtdn and the impio- i 
bable, in JEthtapie problems ; about which, we grieve to say, collfflde^ i 
able mvstification is still kept up between the Northern and the > 
Southern States of our Federal Union, which a little reading might 

On the northern coast of Afiica, between the Mediterranean and 
the Great Desert, including Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, and Ben- 
gazi, there is a continuous system of highlands, which have been 
included under the general term Atlas^ anciently Atalantiij now the 
Barbary States. This immense tract, in very recent geological times, 
was once an Island^ with the ocean flowing over the whole of tb« 
Sahara; thus cutting oif all land-communication between Barbary, o^ 
the Mediterranean, and the remote plateaux of Nigritia. Througbot>^ 
Barbary we encounter another peculiar group of races, subdivid^^ 
into many tribes of various shades, now spread over a vast area, bu^ 
which formerly had its principal, and probably aboriginal, abod^^ 
along the mountain-slopes of Atlas. The tribes have different appel^ 
latives in different districts : e. g.y the ShillouhSj now a separate 
people,^' have been included under the general name of Berbers o 
Berebbers : but from the primitive Berbers the north of Africa seems 
to have derived the designation of Barbary or Berberia, " Land of the 
Berbers.'* To speak correctly, the real name of the Berbers proper 
is Mazirgh ; with the article prefixed or sufiixed, T-anuizirghj or Ama* 
zirgh'T : meaning, free^ dominant, or " noble race." Their name, in 
Latin mouths, was softened into Masyea, MasigeSy Maziei, &c. ; and in 
Grecian, into MaJJusg, as far back as Herodotus (/«5. iv. 191). These 
people have spoken a language unlike any other from time immemo- 
rial ; and, although it has been a fruitful theme of discussion, yet no 
aflinity can be established between its ancient words, stripped of 
Phoenician and Arabic, and any Asiatic tongue. We have every 
reason to feel persuaded that the Berbers existed in the remotest 
times, with all their essential moral and physical peculiarities. In a 
word, the reader of Part II. of this work will see, that there exists 
no ground for regarding them in any other light than as the antoo- 


* Mount Atlas and its prolongations. The Berber was, pro- 
I Mr. W. B. Hodgson (of Savannah — one of the highest 
98 in Berber lore,) remarks, the language which " Tyria Bi- 
^as obliged to learn in addition to a Carthaginian mother- 
he Punic or Phoenician speech. We know that this people, 
r language stamped upon the native names of rivers, moun- 
1 localities, have existed apart for the last 2500 years ; and 
i as Egypt, back to the time of Menes, barred their inter- 
y land with races on the eastern side of the Suez isthmus, 
veiy reason to believe that the Berbers existed, at that re- 
^ in the same state in which they were discovered by Phoenician 
rs, previonsly to the foundation of Carthage. At the time 
Lfncanus, the Berber was the language of all Atlas. It has 
I so since, except where crowded out by Arabic. They are 
litable nomadic people, who, since the introduction of camels^ 
letrated, in considerable numbers, into the Desert, and even 
I Nigritia. These Berbers are the Kumidians and Maurita- 
classical writers, by the Eomans termed ^^gentts insuperabUe 
nd French Algeria can testify to the indelible bellicosities 
ing race, 
tther from Chaw, that — 

bM who 8pe*k this language have different names: those of the monntuns 
I Morocco are termed SkUloukht ; those who inhabit the plains of that empire, 
ider tents, after the manner of Arabs, are named Berber; and those of the 
t>elonging to Algiers and Tunis call themselves CabayUs, or Oebalie'* [a designa- 
\a merely Qabdil, Arabic for a "tribe," when not Oebdylee, "mountaineer."] 

rth and prominent branch must be added to this division : 
Tuaryhj who are now widely spread over the Sahara and its 
d on both banks of the Niger. 

ODGSON, long resident officially in the Barbaiy States, who 
)ted much time, talent, and learning, to this subject, seems 
settled the question, that all these Berber races (except such 
ive adopted the Arabic) speak dialects of the same language, 
quence, it has been assumed, by Prichard and others of the 
hool, that they must all be Of a common origin. But, while 
here is no evidence beyond a community of languages, the 
; diversity of physical characters would prove the contrary. 
' these clans are white ; others black, with woolly hair ; and 
no fact better established in ethnography, than that physical 
rs are far more persistent than unwritten tongues. The great 
the Berber tribes have, in all likelihood, substantially pre- 
lieir physical as well as moral characters since their creation ; 
1 they have been to some extent subjected to adulteiauons 


of blood. The Phoenicians, Greeks, Bomans, and Yandals, sncoes- 
sivel J, founded colonies in the Barbaiy States : but they built and ^ 
inhabited towns for commercial purposes — mixed little socially with t 
the people — never resided in the interior, and have disappeared from F 
the scene, leaving nearly imperceptible traces behind them. Anbs 'f- 
have since overrun the country, but their numbers have been small, ^ 
compared with the natives ; and, except during and since Saraoenic ^ 
culture in the towns, they have generally preserved their nomadic 
habits — keeping much aloof from the indigenous Barbaresquea ; and 
there is not merely no reason for thinking that Arabia has exerased ^ 
great influence on the Berber type, but circumstances rather indicate I 
Barbary's action over the Arab colonists. The ruling tuition of the =^ 
Arabs, the genial vitality of laUtm^ and the constant reading of the . 
EodLn, have had the effect of spreading the Arable language mndi 
faster and farther than Arabian blood. In some of the more ciyilized 
cities — Morocco, Fez, &c. — Arabic is the only tongue spoken among 
the patrician Berbers ; thus affording another evidence of the utter 
£Edlacy of arguments in favor of the identity of origin or eonwngwn^ 
of races based solely upon community of language. 

The Mohammedan in Africa, like the Christian religion elsewhere^ 
is spreading its own languages over races of alt colors : just as di^ 
Shamanism, Budhism, or Judaism, in many parts of Asia, during age^ 
past. Many Jews are scattered throughout Barbary, but especiaU^^ 
in the empire of Morocco, where their number is estimated at 600,0(K^*^ 
Some black blood too has infiltrated from the South. 

No little difference exists in descriptions of the physical characters ^ 
of Barbary Moors (corruption of the Latin Mauri)^ no less than 
concerning the native tribes of Atlas now difiused over the Sahara. 
Prichard says — 

" Their figure and stature are nearly the same as those of the Southern EnropeanB ; and 
their complexion, if darker, is onlj so in proportion to the higher temperature of the oomH 
tries which they inhabit. It displays, as we shall see, great yarieties." 

The influence of climate is here again boldly assumed by Piichar^ 
witliout one particle of evidence. What reason is there to suppose 
that climate influences Berbers, any more than it does Mongols, 
American Indians, or other races, who, each with their typical com- 
plexions, are spread over most latitudes ? Moreover, the complexion 
of the Berbers does not, in very many cases at leasts correspond with 
climate. The same action, we presume, operates in Barbaresque locali- 
ties that seems to prevail in various parts of the earth; and which we 
have insisted upon in our general Remarks on Types. The Berber 
family, at present, appears to be made up of many tribes, presenting 
a sort of generic resemblance, but differing specifically, and possess 


ing phyoical duuracteristics that are original, and not amenable to 
dimatic influences any more than those which denote the Jew, the 
Iberian, or the Celt 

We Babmit a few examples of Atalantic physical characters, as 
described by various travellers. Jackson informs us, that — 

** TIm aca of Tobmb* tad Sbowiah are of a strong, robust make, and of a copper-color — 
tte wo«f b— oti ftiL . . . Tb« women of Fes are fair as the European, but hair and eyes 
alm$j9 dariL . . . The women of Mequinas are very beautiful, and haye the red and white 
tomfUxkm of Bngluk tponen." 

BozBT gives the annexed description of the Moors : — 

** n exisie cependant encore nn certain nombre de families, qui n*ont point contracts 
d*aQianeee ayeo des strangers, et ches lesquelles on retrouye les caraot^res de la race pri- 
sitiTe. Lee liommee sont d'une taiUe au dessus de la moyenne ; leur d-marche est noble 
•t grate ; fls oot lee chereux noirs ; la peau un peu b€uan4e, mais plutdt blanche que brune ; 
te vimge plein, mais les traits en sont moins bien prononc^s que ceuz des Arabes et des 
Babirss. Vm ont g^n^ralement le nes arrondi, la bouche moyenne, }es yeux tree ouyerts, 
wmm pen yi£i ; leurs muscles sont bien prononc^s, et lis ont le corps plutdt gros que maigre." 

Sfdc and Mabtius, the well-known German travellers, depict 
them as follows: — 

"A bi^ forehead, an oyal countenance, large, speaking black eyes, shaded by arched 
■trong eyebrows ; a thin, rather long, but not too pointed, nose ; rather broad lips, 
dog in an acute angle ; thick, smooth, and black hair on the head and in the b^ard ; 
complexion; a strong neck, joined to a stature greater than the middle 
ckaneterise the natiyes of Northern Africa, as they are frequently seen in the streets 

¥. RozET recounts, that — 

"The Berbers or Kabyles of the Algerine territory are of middle stature; their C6m 
is brown^ and sometimes almost black {novr&tre) ; hair brown and smooth, rarely 
%*ioed ; they are lean, but extremely robust and nervous, very well-formed, and with tho 
^cg&nee of antique statues ; their heads more round than the Arabs'.'* 

Lieutenant Washinqton declares — 

The Moors are generally a fine-looking race of men, of middle stature, disposed to 
^toome corpulent ; they haye good teeth ; complexions of all ehadet, owing, as some have 
tippoeed, to intermixture with Negroes, though the latter are not sufficiently numerous to 
teeimat for the fact." 

He describes the Shillouhs or Shilhas as having light complexions. 
Pbichard thus sums up his inquiries : — 

*It seems, from these accounts, that the nations whose history we haye traced in this 
chtpCer, preaaU all wirietiee of compleuon ; and these yariations appear, in tome inetanea 
et kaei, to be tuarfy in rdation to the temperature." 

With all his inclination that way, however, it is evident that ne 
himself cannot make his own climatic theory fit. 

Our reasonings are based upon comparison of Barbaresque fami- 
lies diflused over a vast superficies — comprising tribes now more or 
less commingled, and in all social conditions, civic, agricultural, and 
Bomadic. We may mention, although we exclude, as too local and 


modern to be important ont of towns on the seaboaid, the oomUned 
iiifliiences of European captiveM^ at Salee, TangierB, Algiers^ Tumi, 
Tri]>oIi, Bengazi, and other privateering principalities ; which circam- 
stauees, in the maritime cities, have blended every type of man thit 
could be kidnapped around the Black 8ea, Mediterranean, and East- 
em Atlantic, by Barbaiy pirates. [As an illustration — Mr. Gliddon 
tells UH, that, in 1830, just after the French conquest of Algiers, the 
hold of a Syrian brig, in which he sailed fix)m Alexandria to Sidon, 
waH occupied by one wealthy Algerine fiunily, fleeing fix)m Galfie 
hercHicB to Arabian Islim, anywhere. Exclusive of servants and 
slaves, there were at least fifty adults and minors, under the control 
of a patriarclial grand or great-grandfather. Of course, our infin^ 
mant «aw none of the grown-up females unveiled ; but, while tlw 
patriarch and some of the sons were of the purest white complexion, 
th(jir various children presented every hue, and every physical diver 
sity, from the highest Circassian to a Guinea-Negro. In this cue, 
no Arabic interpreter being needed, it was found that each individnal 
of the worthy corsair's family, unprejudiced in all things, save hatred 
towards Christendom in general and Frenchmen in particular, bad 
merely chosen females irrespectively of color, race, or creed. — J.Clf.] 
]Ioi)GSON states — 

** Tlio Tuarj'cks are t^ white people, of the Berber race. . . . The Mozabicks are a 
ably whi/r people, and are mixed with Bedouin Arabs. . . . The Wadreagans and WufgJf 
are of a dark bronze, with woolly hair . . . are certainly not pure Caucasian, like the Bote 
race in general. . . . There is every probability that the Eushites, Amalckites, aiidXik- 
tanites, or Bcni-Yokt&n Arabs, had, in obscure ages, sent forward tribes into Aftick M 
the firnt historic proof of emigration of the Aramean or Shemitic race into thisregifliii 
that of the Canaanitcs of Tyro and of Palestine. This great commercial people MttM 
Curtlmge, nnd pushed their traders to the Pillars of Hercules.'' ^^^ 

Upon these various branches of a supposed common stock, there 
have been engrafted some shoots of foreign origin ; for, amidst a uni- 
forinity of language, tliere exist extraordinary differences of color and 
of physical traits — at the same time, are we sure of this allied 
uniformity of speech itself? Now, we repeat^ history affords no ^fdt 
attested example of a language outliving a clearly-defined phyacil 
type ; and, in a preceding chapter, we fully instanced how the Jews, 
soatteivd for 2000 years over all climates of the earth, have adopted 
the laiiiruagc of every nation among whom they sojourn — thus 
aUbnling one undeniable proof of our assertion, not to mention many 
othors one might draw from less historical races. 

]Mr. lloilgson is a strenuous advocate of an extreme antiquity fi)i 
the J'ierbors, or Libvans : — 

** Their hi:»torT is yet to be inrestigated and uritten. I yet maintain the of^on ad* 
fanccd some years ago, that these people were the itrree geniti — the aborigiiial inhahitwli 


prior to the hiitoria or monumental era, and before the Muraimilcs and their 
ila, the Copts." >«* 

In oar Part n,, these skilful iDfereiices are eingularly reconcileJ 

-^th the moQuments and historj', and from an altogether different 

-jioiQt of view, "WTien we remember how, in Hebrew personifications, 

3illRAlu waa the grandson of Noah, and how Lepsiua traces the 

Xgj'ptian Kmpire back nearly 4000 years before Christ, a claim of 

such antiquity for the Berbers b certainly a high one, although, 

according to our belief, not extravagant ; for we regard the Berbera 

as a primitive tj-pe, and therefore aa old as any men of our geological 

period. Hodgson confirms hia statement, by abundant proofe, that 

'■ the grammatical structure of the Berber dialects is everywhere the 

same;" and, in allusion to the affinities among these languages, 

arera : — 

" Tet. with nil this identit; of a pecnliar cUsb of words and Bimil&riCy of some inflecttooB, 
■4jtu>Ct pBTticles, and formiitionii — M< lArei moil ancient and hulorieai lanffwiffa, Arabic, 
I fis^tf, and Coflic, art eaenlially diiliact." 

With perfect propriety, our friend might have added the Chinese 
speecK, which is equally peculiar, and can be traced monumentally 
brther back than either the Arabic or the Berber — if not, certainly, 
60 iar aa that ante-monumental tongue which is prototype of the 
Coptic. It seems to us, that no one can read Pauthier's several 
works on Chinese history, language, and hterature, without coincid- 
ing in this opinion ; and every one can verify that tlie languages of 
Aiaerica, according to Gallatin, Ddponceau, and other qualified 
io^ges, are radically distinct from every tongue, ancient or modem, 
of tihc Old Continent. 

Oar ethnological sweep over the African Continent, from the Cape 
of Good Hope northwards to the Nubias on the right hand, and to 
Buboty on the left, incomplete as it is — wearisome, to many read- 
en, as it may be — has brought ua to the confinea of Egypt. In that 
most ancient of historical lands we propose to halt, for a season ; 
devoting the next chapter to its study. But, by way of succinct 
recapitulation of some results we think the present chapter has 
elicited, we would inquire of the candid reader, whether, at the 
pr^eut moment, the human racea indigenous to Africa do not pre- 
eeot iheuiselvea, on a map, so to say, in lai/era f "Wtether the moat 
southern of its inhabitants, the Hottentots and Bushmen, are not the 
loweat types of humanity therein found ? And lastly, whether, in the 
ratio of our progress towards the Mediterranean, passing aucceaaively 
tbrODgh the Cafirc, the Negro, and the Foolah populationa, to 'he 
Abyssinian and Nubian races on the east, and to the Atalantic Berbei 



races on the west, we have not beheld the Types of Mankind risiiig, 
abnost continnoiiBlj, higher and higher in the scale of physical and 
intellectual gradations ? 

Such are the phenomena. Climate^ most certainly, does not eipUn 
them ; nor will any student of Natural Histoiy sustain tiiat each tjpe 
of man in Africa is not essentially homogeneous with the fiuma and 
the flora of the special province wherein his species now dwells. 

Two questions arise : — 1st, Within human record, has it notibf)! 
been thus ? and 2dy Do the UgyptianSj northernmost inhafaitaiiti rf 
Africa, obey the same geographical law of physical, and conseqoeDtlf 
of mental and moral, progression ? 

Our succeeding diapters may suggest, to the reflective mind, mm 
data through which both interrogatories can be answered. 





Our survey of African races, so &r, has been rapid and imperfect > 
but still we hope it is sufficiently frill to develop our idea of gnMm 
in the inhabitants of that great continent A more copious aaaljai 
would have surpassed our limits, while becoming unnecessarily tefioai 1 
to the reader. Prichard has devoted a goodly octavo of his "PlfPflil 
Hi%t&ry" to these races alone ; whereas we can afford but a tsm^mp^ 

We now approach Egypt, the last geographical link in Aflien 
Ethnology. She has ever been regarded as the mother of arts and I 
sciences ; and, strange as it may seem. Science now appeals to her to 
settle questions in the Natural History of Man, mooted since tbe dqi 
of Herodotus, the fiEither of our historians. 

When we cast a retrospect through the long and dreary villi of 
years, which leads to the unknown epoch of Man's creation, in qoot 
of a point of departure where we can obtain the first histoiMil 
glimpse of a human being on our globe, the Archsologist iseott- 
l^eiled to turn to the monuments of the Nile. The records of Ib& 
cannot any longer be traced even to the time of Moses. Hclirtt 
chionicles, beyond Abraham, present no stand-point on wludivi 
can rely ; whilst their highest pretension to antiquity ftib dbflrt 
^y 2000 years of the foundation of the Egyptian l^pira. H* 


M^ Aoooiding to their own hiBtorians, do not carry their tme 
ie ptfiod beyond 2687 years before Christ Nineveh and Ba- 
, monumentally speaking, are still more modem. Bat| Egypt's 
1 pyramids, if we are to believe the ChampoUion-school, elevate 
Inst 1000 years above every other nationality. And, what is 
remarkable, when Egypt first presents herself to our view, she 

■ forth not in childhood, but with tiie maturity of manhood's 
amyed in the time-worn habiliments of civilization. Her tombs, 
iii^>le8y her pyramids, her manners, customs, and arts, all betoken 
-grown nation. The sculptures of the IVth dynasty, the earliest 
it, show that the arts at that day, some 8500 b. c, had already 
)d at a perfection littie inferior to that of the AVlLith dynasty, 
1, until the last five years, was regarded as her Augustan age. 
yptian monuments, considered ethnolo^cally, are not only in- 
able as presenting us two types of mankind at this early period, 
hey display other contemporary races equally marked — thus 
ling proof that humanity, in its infinite varieties, has e^ted 
I long^ upon earth than we have been taught; and that physical 

■ have not, and cannot transform races fi*om one type into 

long former objections against the antiquity of Egyptian monu- 
^ it has been urged, that such numerous centuries could not 
elapied with so littie change in people, arts, customs, language, 
itber conditions. This adverse charge, however, does not in 
hold good, because the fixedness of civilization, or veneration 
le customs of ancestors, seems to be an inherent characteristic 
stem nations. Through tiie extensive portion of Egyptian his- 
rhich is now known witii sufficient certainty, we may admit a 
arative adhesion to fixed formulae, and an indisposition to 
ge: but no Egyptologist will deny that, during nearly 6000 
, for which monuments are extant, tiie developing mutations in 
tian economy obeyed the same laws as in that of other races — 
liuB signal advantage in the former's fitvor, that we possess an 
It unbroken chain of coetaneous records for each progressive 
Oriental history anteceding Christian ages (when viewed 
gh the eye-glasses of pedagogues who rank among Carlylb's 
Ad creatures,") looms monstrously, like a chaotic blur, precisely 
9 archttology, using mere naked eyes, has long espied most lumi- 
stratifications : and human developments, requiring ^^ chiliads 
MBS," even yet are popularly restricted to the action of one 
mrehal lifetime. For ourselves, referring to the works of the 
logistB for explanation, we would readily join issue with objectors 
the following heads : — 


IViH DYNASTY— B. 0.8400. ^^ifpHan devikpmmit iowm t9 0$ 


1st Lamouaoi — Only 16 artioulations, dereloped, in the Coptio, to 81 lettwi. 

2cL Wbitxno — EUeroglyphioB then Hieratio, next Demotie» andUtdj^^ 

8cL Abohitiotubb ~ Pyramids, then temples with Darkf and lastly vUh troy 

kind of oolnmn. 

4th. GiooBAPHT — Egypt proper, then, gradoally, knowledgt tt tsteiinii 

that of the Efasgelists. 
6th. ZooLooT-No honai. ouid*, or oom- 1 ^^ ^^^^^ ^„^ ^ ^,„^ 

mon fowls, j 

6th. Abts — No chariots then, all Tehicles generally used by the iiwiiiti, 

7th. Soibxcis — No bitnmenised mummies, . then, every form, with mmy Idads of M|i 

drugs, &o. 
8th. Ethvologt, Native — Ist. Egyptian type, then 

2d. Egypto-Asiatic, 
8d. Egypto-Negroid. 
Foreinin — IVth dynasty — Arabt, 

Xllth dynasty — Arabiantf Liby<m$t Ifubiaiu, Ktfnm, 
XYIIIth dynasty — CanaaniUt, Jews, PhmtiamUf tlwiiiwi^ 

Tartan, ffmdooi, ThradmUf Jmmu, 
Lydiant, Libyam — NMrnu, ilftyiisiii, 
And, thence to Oriental mankind, as known to the Omb h 
Alixakdib's day. 

We might extend this mnemonical list through many other depart- 
ments of knowledge ; bat, until these positive instances of develop- 
ment be overthrown, let us hear no more fables about ^^ itatmarf 

It was, however, only through alien rule, introduced in later times 
by Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, and Turks, that all old habhi 
were uprooted. Look at India and China ; which countries, acoori- 
ing to popular superstitions, seem to have been stereotyped some 
three or four thousand years ago : yet, what enormous changes does 
not the historian behold in them ! Kevertheless, every type is mm 
or less tenacious of its habits ; and wo might cite how the Arabs, the 
Turks, and, still more, the Jews, now scattered throughout all nations 
of the earth, cling to the customs of their several ancestries : but, u 
we are merely suggesting a few topics for the reader's meditation, let 
us inquire, what was the type of that Ancient Egyptian race winch 
linked Africa with Asia ? This interrogatory has given rise to endless 
discussions, nor can it, even now, be regarded as absolutely answerei 
For many centuries prior to the present, as readers of BoLLnr and of 
VoLNEY may remember, the Egyptians were reputed to be Negrtm, 
and Egyptian civilization was believed to have descended the Ilile 
from Ethiopia ! Champollion, Rosellini, and others, while unanimoni 
in overthrowing the former, to a great extent consecrated the httec 
of these errors, which could hardly be considered as fully refiited 


atfl the q[>pearance of Gliddon's Chapters on Ancient Egypt^ in 1843, 
id of Morton's Cfrania JEgyptiaea^ in 1844. The following extract 
lesentB the first-named author's deductions : — 

'■TW taiportaiioe of eoni&iiiiig hifltory to its legitimato pUee — to Lower Egypt — is 

"•lit BicaiiM H WIS in Lower Egypt tlutt the CaacasiaD diildren of Ham must have 
il Mttled, OB tiieir anriyal flrom Aaia. 

**2d. Beca m e the adTooatee of the theory which would assert the African origin of the 
yptiaaj aaj that they rely chiefly on history for their Afiriean, or Ethiopie, predilections. 
**ld. Because the same theorists assume, that we must begin with Afrieanty at the top 
tks !l9e, and come downward with oirilixation ; instead of commencing with Atiaikt and 
lili— , at the bottom, and carrying it up. 

■* I have not as yet tonciPied on ethnography, the effects of oHmate, and the antiquity of 
i tfcmt races of the hnman Cunily ; but I shall come to those sntjects, after estabUsh- 
; a chrosoloipcal standard, by defining the history of Egypt according to the hierogly- 
ioL At pr es en t, I intend merely to sketch the eyents connected with the Caucasian 
Urai of Haai, the Asiatic, on the first establishment of their EgypUan monarchy, and 
i fcaadation of their first and greatest metropolis in Lower Egypt 
"The African theories are based upon no critical examination of early history— are 
OB no Scriptural authority for early migrations — are supported by no monumental 
or hicrog^yphical data, and cannot be borne out or admitted by practical common 
ML For ciTifiiataon, that ncTer came northward out of beni^ted Africa, (but from the 
hifs to the pr es en t moment has been only partially carried into it — to sink into utter 
ifioB asMBg the barbarous races whom Proridence created to inhabit the Ethiopian and 
pritiaa territories of that vast continent,) could not spring fr^m Negroes, or fr^m Berbers, 

*8e tutt then, as the record. Scriptural, historical, and monumental, will afford us an 
i||t into the early progress of the human race in Egypt, the most ancient of all dTilised 
we may safely assert, that history, when analysed by common sense — when 
by the application of the experience bequeathed to us by our forefathers — when 
jeeled to a strictly impartial examination into, and comparison of, the physical and 
M. capabilities of nations — when distUled in the alembic of chronology, and submitted 
the toochstone of hieroglyphical tests, will not support that superannuated, but unten* 
t, doctrine, that cirilixation originated in Ethiopia, and consequently among an African 
pie, by whom it was brought down the Nile, to enlighten the less polished, therefore 
rier, Caucasian children of Noah, the Asiatics ; or, that we, who trace back to Egypt 
erigiB of every art and science known io antiquity, have to thank the sable Negro, or 
dvky Beri>er, for the first gleams of knowledge and inyention. 

Te suy therefore conclude with the obeenration that, if cirilixation, instead of going 
I JToftA to SdWA, came (contrary, as shown before, to the annals of the earliest histo- 
s and all monumental Ikcts) down the '* Sacred Nile,'* to illumine our darkness ; and, 
itt Bthiopic origin of arts and sciences, with social, moral, and religious institutions, 
t in other respects posnbU, these African theoretic conclusions would form a most 
BadiBg exception to the ordinations of Proridence and the organic laws of nature, 
swise so underiating throughout all the generations of man's history. 
I haye already stated that Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson's critical obseryations, during his 
in Egypt, and his comparisons between the present Egyptians and the ancient 
in the monuments, had led him to assert the Anatie origin of the early 
of the Nilotic yalley. The learned hierologist, Samuel Birch, Esq., of the 
ish Museum, informed me, in London, that he had arrived at the same conclusion — 
s to his suggestion I am indebted for the first idea *that the most ancient Egyp 
lit North.' The great naturalists, Blumenbach and Curier, declared. 


that an the mummies they htd opportanities of ezftminiDg preeenlad tk« CawwriiB t^ 
M. Jomard, the eminent hydrognpher and profoond Orientaliit^ in a p^pv on Bgjpiim 
ethnology, Bostaine the Arabiant and oonaeqnently the AtiaHe and CoMeaaum, origig ^ 
the early Egyptians ; and his opinions are more Talnable, as he draws hiM oondurfoniiadi. 
pendently of hieroglyphioal discoTeries. On the other hand, Ptof. RoseUinl, tfaronghoat Ui 
' Monuments* accepts and continnos the doctrine of the d§acmt of dTilisation fron BtUopb, 
and the African origin of the Egyptians. Champollion-Figeao eupporti the sum thion, 
which his illustrious brother set forth in the sketch of Egyptian hiitofy preaented hj Un 
to Mohammed-Ali, in 1829 (published in his ^LetUnfnm Bgjupt and IfMtf)^ whotb ke • 
deriTes the Ancient Egyptians, according to the Grecian authorities, from EtUopis, ni 
considers them to belong to ' la race Barabra,' the Berhert or NMam, Betming the origbal 
Bardbra to haTe been an African race, engrafted at the present day with Ganoariaa u vA 
as Negro blood, I r^ect their similitude to the monumental Egyptians m lofo, and ta £ub 
to believe that Champollion-le-Jeune himself had either modified his prefions hastUy-fmed 
opinion, or, at any rate, had not taken a decided stand on this important pdnt, tnm ^ 
following extract of his eloquent address from the academic chair, dellTered May 10^ 1881 : 
-«-C'e8t par Panalyse raisonn^e de la languedes Pharaons, que Tethnographie dieidtr§ dU 
Tieille population tfgyptienne fut d*origine Atiatique, ou bien n dU dtHmdiU afee le Unn 
divinis^, des plateaux de TAfrique centnde. On d^cidera en mftme tempa si les Egyptmi 
n'appartenaient point H une race distincte ; car, il faut le declarer id [in which I entinly 
agree with him], oontre I'opinion commune, les CopUa de TEgypte modems, rsgmUi 
oomme les domiers rejetons des anciens Egyptiens, n'ont offert i mes yeuz ni la eoslnr 
ni aucun des traits caract4ristiques, dans les lintements du visage ou dans les temida 
corps, qui pOt constater une aussi noble descendance.' " ^co 

[These views received considerable extension in Mr. Gliddon'i Ms 
^gyptiaca ;'^^ and our colleague's enthusiastic concurrence in the 
work now put forth, in our joint names, sufficiently attests his adop- 
tion of our personal modifications, derived especially from Anatomy, 
compared with the more recent hieroglyphical discoveries. — J. C. If.] 

Others, however, though not so decidedly out-spoken in tone, had 
rejected African delusions. Thus, Pottigrew,^ following Blnmenbadi 
and Lawrence, had previously alluded to the probability of the ascent 
of civilization, introduced by an Asiatic people, along the mie, ftom 
north to south. De Brotonne,*' succeeded by Jardot,** ably sustained 
the Asiatic colonization of Egypt against the ^igritian hypothesis ol 
Volney f^ and, a hundred years ago, the academician De Fourmonl** 
declared, '^The Egyptians, for the three-fourths, issued either out cf 
Arabia or Phoenicia ; . . . Egypt being composed of Chaldsean, YYxiS^ 
nician, Arab people, &c., but especially of these last" 

Morton, drawing from his vast resources in craniology, skilfuUj 
combined with histoiy and such monuments as were deciphered ix 
1842, terminated his OraniaJEgyptiaca with the subjoined conclusioz^ 
— the utterance of which commenced a new era in anthropologi' 
researches : — 

" The Valley of the Nile, both in Egypt and Nubia, was originally peopled by a 
of the Caucasian race. 

" These primeTsl people, since called the Egyptians, were the Misraimitea of Seripi 
the posterity of Ham, and directly affiliated with the Libyan fttmily of nstieUi 


«*nt AMtnl-EgTptiui or Her(4to eonunimitiee wer« an Indo-Anbiim tfeook, engnftod 
IK tiM priaiftm UhjMA InhaWtonta. 

**BtM9B thcM exotic wmrees of popnlatioii, the EgyptUn race wu et different periods 
■ofiitd hj the influx of the CaoceBian nations of Asia and Europe : Pelasgi, or Hellenes, 
ScTtUasi, and PhoBoioiaDS. 

** The CoplBi ia part at leasts are a mixture of the Caoeasiaa and the Negro, in extremely 
wiiUe proportions. 

** Negroes were munerons in Egypt, but their social position in ancient times was the 
MBS as it now is : that of senrants and slsTes. 

''Ihe present Fellahs are the lineal and least mixed descendants of the Ancient Egyp- 
and the latter are collaterally represented by the Toariks, Eabyles, Siwahs, and 
[nmsiiiB of the lil^yan fkmily of nations. 
The medern Nubians, with a few exceptions, are not the descendants of the mona- 
Bthiopians, but a Tarionsly mixed race of Arabs and Negroes. 
** The physical or organic characters which distinguish the sereral races of men are as 
eU ss the oldest reootds of our spedes.*' 

Such were the best and most natural results of ethnography prior 

to LepsiuB's unanticipated exhumations at Memphis, in 1842-'3 ; but 

the latter's discoveries did not become accessible to the authors' joint 

stores until 1850. We can now assert, with the plates of his splendid 

IkkkmUler before us, that, notwithstanding the labors of our prede- 

eenoTB, they have left many doubts and difficulties still han^g around 

tiie primitive inhabitants of Egypt Not only her written traditions, 

tat her monumental history, as &r back as it has been traced, prove 

Alt, from the Menaie foundation of the Empire, she had been 

engaged in constant strifes with foreign nations of types very different 

Ann that of her own aboriginal population, and that she has been 

often conquered and temporarily ruled by foreigners. Hence the 

consequence, prima facie, that the blood of her primitive inhabitants 

mnst have become greatly adulterated. 

Morton's Crania Egyptiaea issued in 1844 ; at which day the dis- 
co?eries of Lepsius were in progress, but not published ; at the same 
time that the works of Rosellini, Champollion, Wilkinson, &c. — then 
fte best sources of information respecting the monuments — did not 
extend, with the exception of some meagre materials of the Xllth 
dynasty (by all three scholars then supposed to be the XVnth), be- 
yond tiie XVnith, or about 1600 b, c. All these complicated data 
were, nevertheless, most admirably worked up by our revered friend ; 
ind he showed conclusively that, while there existed a pervading 
^Caucasian" Type, which he regarded as the Egyptian proper, the 
population already, at the Xvillth dynasty, was a veiy mixed one, 
comprising many diverse Asiatic and African elements. 

Did archseological science now solely rely, as before Champollion's 
day, upon the concurrent testimony of early Greek writers, we should 
be compelled to conclude that the Egyptians, previously to the Chris- 
tian era, were literally Negroen ; so widely do such Grseco-Bomau de- 



scriptiona vaiji and so strangely in their writings do Egyptian attri- 
butes diverge, from the Caucasian type. A passage in Hebodotvs has 
been often cited ; and it possessed the more weight, inasmuch as he 
travelled in Egypt ; and because his authority is generally reliable in 
such matters as fell beneath his personal observation. Of the people 
of Oolchii he says, that they were a colony of Egyptians ; supporting 
his assertion, unique among ancient authorities, by the argument that 
they were "black in complexion and woolly-haired."*' 

Pindar also, copying the Kalicamassian, in his fourth Pytbia%^ 
Ode, speaks of the Colchians as black. In another passage, wh^^^,^^ 
retailing the fable of the Dodonian Oracle, Herodotus again allud^^^^ 
to the swarthy complexion of the Egyptians, as if it were exceediu ^^^ 
dark, or even black, ^scuylus, in tiic Supplices, mentions the ci^^^^ 

of an Egyptian bark seen from the shore. The peiBon who «r^^^ 
them concludes they must be Egyptians from their black complexx^^. 

"Tho Bailors too I marked, 
Conspicuous in white robes their sable limbt.'* 

Prichard has collected ample Greek and Latin testimony, of similtt 
import, to show that the Egyptians were dark. His erudition rendetB 
any further ransacking of the Classics here supererogatory : but we may 
remark that the Greek terms might often apply with equal propriety to 
a jet-black l^egro, or to a brown or dusky Kubian. The variooa 
names given to Egypt and her i>eople, together with the mistakes o€ 
translators, are, however, analyzed in our Part II., where we trea^ 
upon '^ Mizraim ; *' and therefore a pause to discuss them now wou^^ 
be superfluous. 

Prichard sums up in the following strong language : — 

** From comparing these accounts, some of which wore written by persons who bad 
felled in Egypt, and whoso testimony is not likely to haTS been biassed in any respeet^ 
must conclude that the subjects of the Pharaohs had something m their phyncal 
approximating to that of the Negro" 

In opposition to which classical opinions, Beke, in a paper ^^0% 
Complexion of the Ancient Egyptian9y'^ had set forth : — 

1st. The negative testimony of thei^ Hebrew Scriptures — b 
Jo6EPn*s brethren, when they first saw him in Egypt, supposed 
to be an Egyptian : ^ how alliances with the Egyptians were permi 
by the Israelitish lawgiver:^ how an Egyptian woman was 
mother of the heads of two of the tribes of Israel : "* another 
wife of Solomon, &c. : 

2d. That " a deHcription given by Lucian, in one of his 
^'Navigium, seu Votu,*) of a young sailor on board an Egypti j^n 
vessel, who, besides being blacky is represented as having pouting l£ff 







ami 9pindle-shank» " — ratlier proves an exception to the usual tint of 
tte Egyptian people : 
3d. The incontrovertible evidence of the paintings, and mummy- 

We place these discussionBof the learned in juxta-position ; although 
new facts supercede the neceaaity for recurring to past disputations. 

That the skins of Egyptians, in Grecian times, were much darker 

-CJian those of Greeks and other white races around the Archipelago, 

-♦liere can be no question ; nor that this complexion was accompanied 

sometimes with cnrly or frizzled hair, tumid lips, slender limbs, small 

lietuls, with receding foreheads and chins, which, by contrast, excited 

<lie wonder or derision of tlie fair-skinned Hellenes, But, while it 

XQUSt be conceded tliat Negroes, at no time within the reach even 

of monumental history, have inhabited any part of Egj-pt, save as 

captives ; it may, on the other hand, be equally true, that thg ancient 

Egyptians did present a type intermediate between other African and 

Asiatic races ; and, should such be proved to have been the case, the 

autocthones of Egypt must cease to be designated by the misnomer 

of "Caucasian." 

Whatever the complexion of the real Egyptians may have been, 
ftU authorities agree that the races south of Egypt were and are 
darker ; and it is equally clear that the local habitats of Negroes in 
eirly times, having ever been the same as they are now, render it 
geographically impossible that Egyptians could be confounded with 
distinct types of men, never voluntarily resident within 1200 miles of 
ttie Mediterranean. 

The Egyptians, on their oldest monuments, always painted their 
txiales in red and their females in yellote; thus adopting in their painted 
jctilptures, (in order to demarcate themselves from foreign nations 
around them,) colors which, of course, were conventional. That there 
v^as considerable diversity of color among the denizens of Egypt 
need not be doubted, inasmuch as we now find parallel diversity of 
haea among Berbers, Abyasiniaus, Nubians, &c. The " Ethiopians " 
■were always darker than the Egyptians proper, as their Greek name 
(««4u, Sum, and u^,faee) oi "■ &VL-a-buTned facet" implies. In the Ptole- 
maic papyrus published by Young,^ and cited by Morton, one of the 
parties to a sale of laud, Psammouthes, is described as being of a 
AarJc, wliile the four others are stated to possess sallow, complexions. 
"Roeellini supposes the Egyptians to have been of a broten or reddish 
hrotm color {rosio-foaco) like the present inhabitants of Nubia ; but 
TWnrton thinks this remark applicable only to Austral Egyjitiaus, and 
not to the inhabitants of Egypt proper, except wheu arising from 
intermixture of races. 



In the Orama Mgyfdaea^ Dr. Morton had laid muoh stresB tqignaa %^ 
observation of Ammianus Marcellinus, quoting but a line. Among <^ 

his inedited MSS. for an improved edition of that work, we find the 
whole citation as he intended that it should appear : — 

'* The following pftngraph embnoet aU of this anthor'a remarki, wUeh obIj miki « 
lament that he had not been more ftdl and explicit: ' Hominea autem JEgjptii/lflHfwflik- 
/ttfctt/i Bonty et aUrati^ magisqae moeetioreB, gradlenti et aridi* ad siiigiiloa motni, mtf^ 
deseentes, controTeni et reposoones acerrimL Embeaoit apnd eoa ai quia non ialdaidtt 
tributa, plurimaa in corpora Tibioea ostendat' (Aenifli gntantm^ Ub. zzxiL) ^ 

But, as the Doctor critically notices, it is difficult to aasodate tt'^ 
idea of a black skin with the £Etct related by the same writer, fh^^ 
the Egyptians " blush and grow red." 

Investigation of this point, in 1844, impressed upon our judidot^* 
ethnographer's mind, results which he defines as follows: — 

'< From the preceding facta, and many othera which might be addneed, I thinik m 
aafely concTude that the complexion of the Egyptiana did not differ flrom that of tfca 
Caucasian races, in the same latitodea. That, while the higher daaaea, who ware 
from the action of the sun, were fair, in a comparatiTe aenae, the middle and lower 
like the modem Berbers, Araba, and Moora, preaented Tariona ahadea of aoMplaxlon, 
to a dark and swarthy tint, which the Greeks regarded aa black, in compariaon wiA 

So much contradiction is patent in the opinions of the early 
writers, with regard to the complexion and physical characteis of 
Egyptians, and the dubiousness has been increased to sucli an inex- 
tricable extent by the opposing scholasticisms of modem historiaofl^ 
yoked with the ^' first impressions ' ' of unscientific tourists, that the only" 
inference we can attain is, that the Egyptians of the New Empire—-— 
that is, from the XVUth dynasty downwards — were a mixed popula — 
tion ; presenting considerable varieties of color and conformation* 
Morton took the whole question out of the hands of the Greeks and. 
their subsequent copyists, when he appealed directly to the iconography^ 
of the sculptures, and to the mummied remains of the old population 
found in the catacombs. Before pursuing, therefore, the monumental 
history of the Egyptian type into the earliest times, let us endeavor 
to see what were its physical characters subsequently to the Metiant' 
tion in the seventeenth century b. c; and afterwards we can better com- 
pare them with the pictorial and embalmed vestiges of earlier date. 

Although it will be shown that Dr. Morton, since the publication 
of his Crania JEgyptiaeOj had made important modifications in some 
of his opinions, there are others which have withstood triumphantiy 
the test of time. When he published in 1844, his object was to de- 
scribe and figure the people of Egypt as they appear on the monu- 
ments and exist in the sepulchres. Whatever the physical type of the 
antenor population may have been, previously to the date of 


iteriiby had nothing to do with the task proposed. He was dealing 
clasiyelj with known facts, and we cannot but admire the sagacity 
th which, for the first time in Egyptian ethnology, Morton brought 
der out of a chaos ^^nniversally seen among authors prior to 1844. 
)n8idering that he had before him but a few monuments of the 
nth dynasty (in his day called the XVnth of Manetho)^ and no- 
ing of earlier date, his analysis of these, and of the XVTHth and 
icceeding dynasties, must remain an imperishable attestation to 
]B genius. 

Li order to institute comparisons between the population of these 
iter dynasties with that upon the sculptures of the Old Empire, since 
iflcovered, extracts at length from the Cfrania JEgyptiaca will place 
efore the reader the ideas of our great craniologist, together with 
bondant exemplifications of the type of man prevalent in Egypt 
oring the New *Empire. 

**TlM]iiooiim«Dt8 flrom Mero5 to Mempliis, present a peryading type of physiognomy, 
U It everyirbere distingniiihed at a glance ftx>m the Taried forms which not nnfrequently 
Mid % and whieh possess so much nationality, both in outline and expression, as to £^Te 
AiU(^est importance in Nilotic ethnography. Wir may repeat that it consists in an 
pfvd dongation of the head, with a receding forehead, delicate featores, bat rather sharp 
id prominent liMe, in which a long and straight or gently aquiline nose forms a principal 
itea The eye is sometimes oblique, the chin short and retracted, the Mps rather tumid, 
litti hair, whenerer it is represented, long and flowing. 

'*IUs style of features pertains to erery class, kings, priests and people, and can be 
m£^ traced through erery period of monumental decoration, from the early Pharaohs 
vn to the Greek and Roman dynasties. Among the most ancient, and at the same time 
sit characteristic examples, are the heads of Amunoph the Second and his mother, as 
fraented in a tomb at Thebe8,363 which dates, in Rosellini's chronology, 1727 years 
rfwe our era. In these effigies all the features are strictly Egyptian, and how strikingly 
I tk^ correspond with those of many of the embalmed heads from the Theban catacombs t 

Fio. 121. Fro. 122. 


« A liinlkT phjriogiKimr prapoodantea amoDg the njil Egjptlu perMnmgei ot mtf 
spool), u will be nuiirrat to uij one vba will torn UTer th« pagM of ChunpolUon and 
BoHllinl. The hud of Honis [lee our Fig. 66] li m admlnblt lUuvintlon, whil« In til 
portrdta of RMneati IT., [III., of Lcpsiiu] and RanoMi IX., tha Hua llnea an ■ppurat, 
though mneh leaa itronglj narked. How admlraUj sIm an tbay aaan In tha nlymiied ^_ 
JnTanila head, (Fig. 12S) whioh ii that of a nj»l prinoe, oopbd ftom the ittj aiwifBt»!^S 
palnticge in tha tomb of Pehrai, at £letheiBa.>M Bo alio la the IkM of reiman TIL (Fie 
124}, who llTod parhape one tlioiiaand yean later in time. 

Fra. 128. Pin. 124. 

"lobeerre that the pTiHt>alm{i(inTariabl7preient Uiii pliTriogiioiigr, and, la m 
■sea with the luage of their coete, Ime the head oloeelj ihaTOn. When colored Uttj a-^^** 
rad, like the «ther Egj^tiana. The But^oined drawing (Fig. 126), whieh U iomewbtt hu^^*^ 
in outline, li trota the portico of one of the pTrabuds of MeroS,'** and is probablj om ^^^ 
the oldeit human eSgiea in Nubia. The; aboand in all the temple* of that eoimtij, ii ^"^ 
etpedally at Semneb, Dakkeh, Soleb Qebel-Berkel, and Meiaonra.w 

" From the Domberlew example* of ^milar eonformation, I aaleot another of a print fra=r' "■ 
the bas-relief at Thebes, which is remarkable for delicae; of outline and pleaiiiig m 
of ezpresaion.seT (Pig. 120). 

" So inTariablj are these characters allotted to the saoerdot»l oaate, that we raadilj date •• 
them in the two priest* who, b; some unexplained oontingencj, become kingi in the XZ~ 
dynasty. Their names read Amensi-Hral-Pehor and Phiiiham on the monumoiti ; and *^" 
aeoompanjdng ontlino is a fac-eimile of Boaellini's portrait of the latter peraonag^ w' 
lived abont 1100 years before the Christian er«.» In this head tha Egyptian and F 
oharaoters appear to be blended, but the former preponderate. (Fig. 127). 

"The last outline (Fig. 128) represents a modiScation of the eama type, that of 
ffoTper in Bruee's tomb at Thebes. The beautifbl form of the head and the iqtelleeV 
ebaraoler of the face, nay be compared with similar efforts of Qreoian arL It dataa ^ 


lta.Jtr. Fni.l2S. 


"Aa I bdbn tUi hi be « moat important athnogrmide IndiMdon, and ooa wUah pdnb 
to ^ TB«t bo^r tf tka SgTptlaii people, I nl^oiii four wlditioiul b««di of prleato (Figa. 
12>, in, Itlf lH) fMm A tomb ftl Thebag of tlio STinth djiiMtj. W« h* fbroib^ In- 
F'UMiJ Tith tkt ddkfcU tmtanm uid oblique oje of tho lefl-ba&d penontge, ud wltb tb« 
ivdv bat iiliMiiilwlhii oo^no Of the eCher flgaree, in irhidi tb« prominont ftoe, tbonglt 

Fio. 180. 




"Tb« tiuMaed ontlinea (Fig. 1S3), whicb present 
>tn ph—ing oxunplM of thg ume etlmogrephlo ehft- 
ittv, iLre copied from the tomb of Tlti, U Thebee, »nd 
kit «iib the i«fflote en of Thotmee IV J"^ Thej repre- 
■nt Ito fomUrt in the Mt of dr&wing their net oier • 
U of bird*. The long, floiring luir ia ia keeping with 
Ac inaiX tnita, vhioh latter are alao well eharaeteriied 
B (ba nbjoined a«winga (f1g». 184, 185, 1S6, 137), 
s of different epooha and lo- 

fio. lU Pio. 1S6. 


«F!g. 184 is the httA of 4 tpeaver, from the paintJBgi in iht Titj ■adwi tonb of 
Mid Menoph At Beni-Hassan, wherein the eame caet of coonteBAnee it reiterated wi 

« Fig. 186, a wtne-pntteTf is also frtmi Beni-Hassan, and datos wUliOsorlBseB, SMie 
2000 yesn before the Christian era.^ 

« Fig. 186 is a cook^ who, in the tomb of Bameses IV, at TMms^ it l if tt ee m ted 
many others in the actiTe dnties of his Tocation.374 ^ 

« Fig. 187. I haTO selected this head as an exaggerated or carioatnred Qhutrsti 
the same ^jpe of physiognomy. It is one of the go<u-herdi painted In the toHb of B< 

« The most reeent of these last four yenerable monuments of art dates ift ksst 
years before onr era: the oldest belongs to unohronioled times; and the same ph 
eharaoters are oommon on the Nubian and Egyptian monuments down to the PtotesBsi 
Boman epoehs. 

« The peenBar head-dress of the Egyptians often greatly modifies, and in some degre 
eeslsy their efasraeterlstio featores ; and may, at first sight, lead to tiM i mp res ri o n th 
prieMs possessed a physiognomy of a distinct or peculiar kind, j^ndi, howerer, vi 
tiie ease^ as a little obserratiion win proTS. Take, for exampli^ Ihf ibor following 

• • • • 

Fio. 188. Fra. 189. 

ings, from a Theban tomb, in which two mourners (Fig. 188) hsTS > head*dr esses, ai 
priests (Fig. 189) are without tliem. Are not the national eharacteristies wsequh 
manifest in them aU?"276 

Such, textaally, are Morton's words, with the sole exception 
while preserving his references, we have substituted our own numi 
but, for the express object of removing, once for all, current impree 
of Egyptian aflinity with Negro races, we intercalate a relevant i 
of illustrations, and group into one page various heads fiom Oe 
nia ^gyptiaea — five of which (Figs. 140 — 144) appertria to fti 
of different classes, and two (Figs. 145 and 146) to mi 
underneath each the vocations in which they are severally 
on the monuments. Apart from their facial angles and hi^ 
configuration, it is their long hair to which the attention of IS 
philism is more particalarly invited. 


A Femile Atbleta. 



A Boitle-irTWller. 


<' It is thus that we trace this peculiar style of countenance, in its tertral ""iwy^timi, 
through epochs and in localities the most remote f^m each other, and in every dsa of tki 
Egyptian people. How different ftx>m the Pelasgic type, yet how oMonsIyCiiKMial 
How Taried in ontUne, yet how readily identified ! And, if we eompaM these featoni vitk 
those of the Egyptian series of embalmed heads, are we not fbreibly Snpresied iritk i 
striking analogy not only in osteological conformation, but also in tfais Ttsy flipTM s wi i tf 
the face? ... No one, I conceiTe, will question the analogy I haTe pointed ont lUs tj^ 
is certainly national, and presents to our view the genmne EffypHan pkjfikgmmg, lAidi, ii 
the ethnographio scale, is intermediate between the Pelasgic and Semitie fonu. Weaiy 
add, that this eonformation is the same which Prof Blomenbaoh reftrs to theiMi 
rarielgr, in his triple dasrification of the Egyptian people.^'? And this leads vs britflj to 
inquire, who were the Egyptians? " 

That this ^^ genuine Egyptian phgaiognamg" was the preponderant 
type, seen throughout the whole monumental period known to Mo^ 
ton, cannot be questioned ; but we do not think it is so univenal in 
the royal fistmilies as in the other classes. There is such a want of 
portraits and other information of the dynastieB between the XIBh 
and XVnth, that we know little or nothing of ibe predominant type 
of those intermediate times. But it is highly probable, owing to 
Ilyksos traditions, that the royal families of tliat period, called the 
^^ Middle Empire," were in great part Asiatics ; and we are certain 
that, after the Restoration, marriages with foreigners were not uncoio- 
mon. Alliances of this kind occurred in the XXth and preceding 
dynasties ; and it is but reasonable to conclude that such had been 
the custom of the country in earlier times ; inasmuch as the Bible 
has helped us to prove the same habits respecting Jetoith amalgamar 
tions with denizens of the Nile. 

In onlor that the reader may be enabled to judge for himself of the 
oharaotoristics of tlie royal families, we have already exhibited some 
of thoir portraits, back to the XVIIth dynasty. It is evident to ns, 
that those portraits do not fiilly correspond to Dr. Morton's Egyptian 
Typt\ but that, on the contrary, they are eminently Asiatic, and not 
Afrioan. However, it cannot be denied that the pervading type, 
throughout Kgj'pt projwr, was the one described by him ; though we are 
not pivpariHl to admit this as the then-common type in the Nubias, 
or so hisjch up as Meroe. The monuments of Meroe, on which his 
opinions wore based, have since been discovered to be mere bastard 
and uuulorn copies of tliose of Egypt. This country, until the eighth 
century «. i\, formed part of the Egyptian Empire ; and its later 
edilioos wore built by consecutively ruling races — Egypto-Meroite, 
then Nubian, and lastly Negro-Nubian. But we have abundant 
reason for opining that the populations of the Nubias, in ancient 
times, were what (Arab elements deducted) they are now 2 viz., types 
intermediate between Negroes and Egyptians ; viewing the latter such 
as we behold them at the AVlLlth dynasty, or about 1600 b. c. 


We read the Orama JEgyptiaca^ with intense interest, so soon as it 
IS publiflhed ; and, down to the time when Lepsius's plates of the 
iTth, Yth, and Ylth dynasties appeared, we had not ceased to regard 
[oiton'B Egyptian type as the true representative of that of the Old 
Impire ; but the first hoar's glance over those magnificent delinea- 
onsof the primeval inhabitants produced an entire revolution in the 
ntbors' opinions, and enforced the conviction that the Egyptians 
f the earliest times did not correspond with our honored friend's 
.eaeription, but with a type which, although not Negro^ nor akin to 
ny Negroes, was strictly African — a type, in fact, that supplied the 
3Dg-60ught-for link between African and Asiatic races. 

There are no portraits, yet discovered, older than the IVth dynasty, 
IT the thirty-fifth century b. c. ; and although what may be called a 
Kymj type preponderates at that period, yet the race, even there, is 
kiready a mixed one; and we distinguish many heads which are 
rkiriy Asiatic — possessing, as we have shovm {antej Figs. 34, 35), 
Scmitiflh features. The histoiy of Egypt from the Xllth to the 
SLYiith dynasty is so mutilated, that, for this interregnum, there is 
dot little material for definite opinions. Lepsius, upon Manethonian 
tndition, states, that during this time the bulk of native Egyptians 
irere driven up the Nile by Asiatic races, and retired into Nubia ; 
lad that when the Hyksos were expelled, their Pharaonic conquerors 
e«ne down the river. It is not probable that cveiy individual of the 
HjkBos race, however, could have been driven out ; and when we 
compare the monumental portraits of the IVth, Vth, and Vlth dynas- 
ties with those of the XVIIth and XVTEIth, we cannot doubt that an 
immense amount of Asiatic blood remained in the country, notwith- 
standing these expulsions. Lepsius considers that those Asiatic Shep- 
lerds impressed their type and language upon the native race, although 
he Egyptian people and their tongue still remained essentially Afri- 
tn. It should be observed that, if Hyksos invasions be accepted as 
istorical, so must the many centuries of the intruders' sojourn ; and 
nring Manetho's five hundred and eleven years, or sixteen genera- 
ons, these warriors must have found abundant leisure to stamp their 
■temity upon the oflfepring of Egyptian women, whose sentiments 
f chastity have never been other than somewhat lax. 
But the Negroid type of the earlier dynasties seems never to have 
ecome extinguished, notwithstanding the immense influx of Asiatics 
ito Eg3T)t; which has been going on, literally for thousands of years, 
> the present hour. It may be received, in science, as a settled fact, 
lat where two races are thrown together and blended, the type of 
te major number must prevail over that of the lesser ; and, in time, 
le latter will become effiiced. This law, too, acts with greater force 



where a foreign is attempted to be engrafted upon a native t^ 
aboriginally suited to the local climate. The Fellahs of Uppe? and 
Middle Egypt, at the present day, contiuae to be an anmiatakeabie 
race, and are regarded by most travelled anthorities se the beat living 
representatives of the ancient population of Egypt [Ur. Gliddon, ngj. 
dent in Egypt for more than twenty years, may cerbunly be accqited 
as competent authority respecting the physical characteristics of tbe 
present inhabitants, whose idioms and customs in all theii runifict- 
tions have been ^miliar to him from boyhood. He assuree lu, thit 
tlie predominant type of the modern Fellah, i. 0., peasant (dedoctiog 
Arab blood), is just as identical with the majori^ of portraits on dw 
earliest monuments, as Morton concluded by comparing the cnniairf 
ancient mummies with Fellali-skulls from the present cemeterio. 
To render the latter point obvious, we subjoin, &om the Onuat 
^gyptiaca, an authentic series of both. The practised eye of the 
anatomist will at once recognize the similitudes between the andent 
and the modem heads, and detect in these last the ost«ological 
divergencos prodiieed by Aral infiltration a : — 

anoan Crajia, from Thebes; b; Morton termed " Negroid Hwdt," vhenM to ' 
jield nther tbe Old "EgjifiMa t^pt. 

MoDKRN SBtTLLB — " tho FcllaliB," of Lower Egypt 

HoDKRa Sedlls — " tho Arabs ; " Sidaatu at the lathmui of Sum. 

HoDEBJt SscLLs — "UieCopts;" from their Cluiatian cetnctoriei. 

"With these positive data before him, the reader will ho the better 

fade to follow our general argument. — J. C. N.] 

' 3ut we have not yet done with the Egyptian Type as understood 

^- U(irton ; which, although without question popularly prevalent 

n=»der the New Empire, was not, we think, the predominant type of 


the royal femilies. This last, to our eyes, as portrayed in Bosellim's 
Iconography^ is clearly Asiatic : and not only Asiatic, but Semitic; and 
not merely Semitic, but strongly Abrahamic, or, to repeat our adopted 
term, Chaldaie. From the xllth to the AVllth dynasty (a period of 
some 511 years, according to Manetho, in Josephos), Egypt must 
have been subjected to extraordinaiy disturbing causes, which, how- 
ever terrible to her denizens, to us, at the present day, are shrouded 
by darkness, and as if circumscribed within a moment of time. 
Ample evidence is now exhumed of the minuteness and fidelity 
\rith which the Egyptians, before and after the Hyksos-period, 
nvonled events and delineated the physical characters of their own 
people, as well as of the foreigners with whom they held inteiconne; 
but during this hiatus our monuments are comparatively few, and 
^nilptunxl portraits, to guide the ethnographer, are wanting. The 
XVllth dynastj' ^about 1761 b. c, according to Lepsius) opens to 
view with a completeness and splendor truly astounding ; and from 
fh:5 jv^iut downward, for more than 1000 years, (we cannot too often 
insist uiK^n with general readers,) there are ample materials for study- 
ir^r the natural historv as well of Asiatic as of African humanity. 
In tlio magnificent plates of Rosellini, faithful representations of 
those i^intoil sculptures are preserved ; and in order that the reader 
iiught judge of the quantity of materials and the correctness of onr 
dvHluotions, we selected {ante^ pp. 145 — 150) a copious series of the 
Koyal Portraits of the XVIIth and XVIIIth dynasties. We have 
also illustrated how the same physical characteristics prevail, in pro- 
fusion, down to the XX\"th dynasty, when the so-called JEthiopian 
sovoivigus come in for a brief season, to change a dynastic family, 
Init not the national type.^ 

In the absence of parallel history (the " Middle Empire," or JB^itoff- 
iwiod, separating us from the TTTTth dynasty), nothing remains 
boYoud genealogical tablets and papyri to guide us, as to the ancestral 
oriiriu of Pharaonic families of the New Empire, except their phy- 
sical tyi>e, depicted or carved upon coeval monuments. There is a 
funiilv-oontour about them all, which at once indicates to the observer 
that thov wore of high "Caucasian" caste, with but littie African of 
anv i;r»uK\ except what was derived from Old Egj-ptian lineage. 

Ma\ing enlarged sufficiently upon the Egyptian race, as portrayed 
\ip\Mi ilio sculptures of the New Empire, coetaneously with the times of 
Al»iahaiu, Mosos, Solomon, and Josiah; (or, from about sixteen cen- 
\ ut uvM l»\»tiuv OUT era down to the apogee of Assyria's glory) ; none can 
i»oN\ \{\n\U{ that Pharaonic Egypt, at least among royalty, nobility, 
aiul jL;i»utrv, exhibited in those generations a very mixed type, wherein 
Aauuic olonu'iits predominated over the Nilotic. Let us next take a 


retrogresMve leap, over the ffyijoa-period, from the XVIIth to the 
Xnth dynasty, and inquire, What was the type of Egyptians under the 
Old Empire — that is, backwardis, from about the twentieth ceuturj- 
before Christ? But before doing ao, tairness renders it incumbent 
on the part of one of the authors [G. R. Q.], whose province it is to 
snperinteud "Types of Mankind" as it passes through the press, to 
^ve place to some general observations of his absent colleague. The 
former, immediately in contact with their lamented friend, Dr. Mor- 
ton, at Philadelphia, until within a few weeks of bis demise in 1851, 
fiatnrally became more conversant with the great ethnographer's 
matured views ; whereas Dr. Nott's residence at Mobile restricted his 
etadles within his own resources : so that what of merit and origi- 
nality may attach to the following analysis of the Old Egyptian type, 
belongs to his individual ratiocinations. 

[On the publication of Dr. Morton's Crania ^gyptiaea, we studied 
it carefully, and compared it, step by step, with the works of Cham- 
pollion and Rosellini. No other conclusion than the one adopted by 
him, viz., that the pliysical traits which he had assumed as character- 
istic of the Egyptians were really and truly typical of the first settlers 
of Egypt, resulted finm our researches ; but, after several years, the 
Dtnkmaler of Lepsius, (the first livrai»on» of which reached us about 
two years ago,) essentially modified our former conclusions. Exarai- 
nalion of these plates, and a more thorough investigation of the sub- 
ject, have satisfied us, that the Egyptian type as known in 1844 to 
Morton, existed no longer in its pristine purity, but, after the Xllth 
dynasty, was absolutely an amalgam of foreign (chiefly Asiatic) stocks, 
engrafted on an antecedent and aboriginal African type ; tiiat the 
latter, although not Negro, was Nilotic ; and that it constituted the 
true connecting grade between African and Asiatic races. Wlien Mr. 
Gliddon and the writer again met, at Mobile, above eighteen months 
ago, after five years' separation, we mentioned this conclusion to him; 
and he placed in our hands various letters, received by him between 
flie years 1846 and 1851, from Morton ; through which it became evi- 
dent tbat the Doctor himself had also so far changed his opinions as 
to feel assured that the primordial Eg^-ptians were not an Asiatic, but 
bh aboriginal population, indigenous to the Nile-land, although he 
■ays nothing of their primitive Negroid type : the ultimatum which 
our personal researches had then attained. We afterwards wrote to 
Chevalier Lepdus, informing liim of the impression his Old Egyptian 
portraits had left on our mind, and were much gratified to learn, from 
lua reply, that our new convictions accorded with his own. A very 
obliging letter also, itOTH Mr. Birch, enables U8 to add his valid 




auOiorily to ar/^jm^sntii h';mriafier prcfsented, without^ in either caie, 
infriri^n/^ ui>oti Ujc* KHnctity of private correspondence. — J. C. X] 

Althon/[(h Dr. Mort/^n ha/J iriHiHted strongly upon his conventioDa] 
Egyptian type^ n^n'f;rt}i';Ur-<u, a critic'al perusal of his work will shoir 
that, even in 1844, he Mi by tio Djeans certain as to its Asiatic origin 
— glirnrneringH of the light that was ere long to break through 
*^ £g\7>tian darkness" alrea/ly da^iiing upon the mind of onr acute 
anthropologist. In the Crania^ he says : — 

" W« luTe mlreadj aHoded to the o^ini'm fA Prcf. Bitter and others, tliftt the old Bqu 
and modem BiBbsreeiis were deriTed from the Berber or LibjAn stock of nstioiii. I a^ 
resdj to go farther, sad adopt the sen ti meat of the learned Dr. Morraj, that the EgTptaii 
and mooamental Ethiopians were of the same lineage, and probaU/ desonded ttm, i 
Libyan tribe. 

" This Tiew of the ease [be eontinaes] at once reconciles the statement of ChampolBoo, 
Bosellini, Heeren, and Buppell, that they conld detect the Nubian physiognomy ererjwhm 
on the monamenta ; bat, at the same time, it gapersedes the necessity of their infemei 
that Nubia was the cradle of cJTiliiarion, and that the arts, descending the liTsr, wen pc^ 
fected in EgypL" 

In further support of the common origin of the Egyptians, Berben, 
and other tribes of Xorthem Africa, Morton refers to evidenoes for- 
nu^hed by Ritter, Heeren, Shaler, Hodgson, kc. — showing how "the 
Libyan or Berber speech wan once the language of all Nortbern 
Africa,'' and infinitely more ancient tlian the Coptic — probably m 
old as the monumental language of Egyjit's p\Tamidal period. 

[For the sake of pen?[ticuity, and to convey to the reader some idea 
of the chronological order of linguistic developments in Egypt, it may 
be well to mention, that the name Coptic iu e. Chriistian Jacobite) repre- 
sents the vernacular Egjfitian from the seventh century after Cluirt 
back to about the Chrii-tian era ; that Lemoticj or Enchorial, refers to 
the colloquial idiom thence used backwards to the seventh centoiy^ 
B. c. ; that Hieratic, or .SacenlotaL means only the cursive chancte :3 
in which the *' lingua iancta' of the old hieroglyphics was written, i: 
everj' asre, back to at least the Vlth dynasty, or 2800 years B. c. ; an 
finally, that the hieroglyphics, " sacred sculptured characters," repre- 
sent that antique tongue which was the speech of Egypt when, long 
prior to the pyrami«ls of the R'th d\Tiasty »ihat is, centuries anterior 
to S-SOO years e. c. j phonetic hierogiyj-'hi? succeeded an earlier pietKre- 
tcriting. With the reservation that where our Anglo-Saxon tongue 
CO UE.:.^ centuries, the ianguasre of Egjf-t reckons ap its thousands of 
year?, it we were to cali the EngiLih of Thackeray, Bulwer, and Irving, 
" Copt:?' — that of the forty-^even translators of King James's Vcr- 
eion. "Demotic"' — that of Chaucer. "Hieratic," and that of the old 
D»>jr-i'=-'lay Rx'k* "H:eM»vrIyj»hic/" we sLouid perceive, in modem 
English. «ome of the linguLrtic gradations and some phaees in the writ- 


igB of ^gypt daring 4000 monnmental years, down to the introdnc- 
oo of Christianity into the Valley of the Nile.^ Consequently, all 
luloiogeiB who, when comparing Captie with Atalantic Berber dia- 
fC^ imagined they were dealing with ancient Egyptian lexicography, 
ftTe committed, ip$o faeto^ a wondrous anachronism ; and science 
lost set their futile labors respectfully aside — Latham's inclusive. 

We must remark, in passing, that Dr. Morton's mind had not yet 
reed itself finom the old, arbitrary, divisions of races, and that he here 
itempted to force into one common stock mauy African races which 
m themselves merely constitute a group of proximate, but quite dis- 
Ibct, types. But, it is interesting to observe the change gradually 
voiking in a brain so eminently reflective, as new archssological facts 
ofered themselves to its well-disciplined scrutiny ; nor can we ade- 
fBitely express our admiration at the simple-hearted honesty with 
vbieh Morton sacrificed many hard-earned opinions, in the ratio that 
4m field of Egyptian science widened before his contemplation. We 
derive extreme pleasure in ofiTering some instances. 

On the 26tli of February, 1846, but two years after his Crania 
JS/jfptiaea had appeared, in a letter to Gliddon at Paris, he thus 
ttten thoughts which it seems had been half-formed for years pre- 
lioQsIy, though proofe were yet wanting to mould them into definitive 
Aipe: — 

**! tm more than eyer confirmed in my old sentiment, that I^orthem Africa was peopled 
kj IB indigenous and aboriginal people, who were dispossessed by Asiatic tribes. These 
ikorigmes could not have been Negroes, because the latter were nerer adapted to the climate, 
ai tre nowhere now, nor erer haye been, inhabitants of these latitudes. Were they Bera- 
kn ? — or some better race, tnore nearly allied to the Arabian race t " 

This gleam of light received expression long previously to the pub 
Eeation of any of the pictorial results of Lepsius's Expedition. To 
wr view, Morton here struck the true key to the type of the Egyptian 
population of the New Empire. They were then already a mixed 
rice, derived from Asiatic superpositions upon the aboriginal people 
rf the lower Nile. From the dawn of monumental history, which 
intedates all chronicles, sacred or profane, we see the whole basin of 
the Nile, together with that part of Africa lying north of the Sahara, 
inhabited by races unlike Asiatics, and equally unlike Negroes : but 
Emning in anthropology a connecting link, and, geographically, 
mother gradation. To say nothing of Egyptians proper, such were 
ind are the Nubians, the Abyssinians, the Gallas, the Bardbra, no 
bn than the whole native population of the Barbary States ; which 
ast, in those uicient days, were absolutely cut off, iJirough want of 
Nmelf, from communication with Nigritia athwart the Saharan wastes. 


About the time the preceding letter was penned, Dr, Morton w^ 
in correspondence with a very distinguished savan in Paris — a^^ 
mutual friend, M. le Dr. Boudin, latterly M^decin en chef de Tani)^ 
des Alpes — who proposed to translate and republish the Oronig 
^gypiiaca. The work was to be rewritten ; and we have before q^ 
its MS. emendations for a second edition. Writing to Gliddon, then 
in London, in May, 1846, Morton holds the following language:-^ 

« In this work I maintain, without resenration, the following among other opIniooMliit 
the human race has not sprung from one pair, but from a plurality of oentree ; thit tkcii 
were created ab initio in those parts of the world best adapted to their phjtioal sttsn; 
that the epoch of creation was that undefined period of time spoken of in the irst ckiptv 
of Genesis, wherein it is related that God formed man, * male and female created h« thmf 
that the deluge was a mere local phenomenon ; that it affected but a small part of tht dm- 
existing inhabitants of the earth ; that these views are consistent with the foots of thtone^ 
as well as with analogical evidence." 

In another letter to Gliddon, at New York, December 14, 1849, we 
read: — 

<< By the hands of the person to whom you confided them, I last night rec^ved Lepdoi^i 
« Chronologic, " and the tin case of fac-simile drawings-^^o These, when studied in mobm. 
tion with the Egyptian heads [«Art</^], and especially with the small series sent me [froB 
Memphis] by your brother William [seyenteen in number, and Tory andont,], oompd m 
to recant so much of my published opinions as respects the origin of the Egjrptitns. Diej 
never came from Aaia^ but are the indigenous or aboriginal inhabitants of the Talley of Um 
Nile. I have taken this position in my letter to Mr. J. R. Bartlett (New York Bth»l$fktl 
8oe. Journal, I.) : every day has yerified it, and your drawings settle it forerer is mj 
mind. It has cost me a mental struggle to acknowledge this conyiction, but I can withhold 
it no longer." [See confirmations in the MSS. of Dr. Morton; infra, Cliap. XL]. 

Again, to the same, January 30, 1850 : — 

<* You allude to my altered yiews in Ethnology ; but it all oondsts in regarding th^ 
£g3rptian race as the indigenous people of the yalley of the Nile. Not Asiatics in 
sense of the word, but autocthones of the country, and the authors of their own oiyiliatio: 
This yiew, which you will recollect is that of Champollion, Ileeren, and others [ezcsptb 
only that they do not apply the word indigenoui to the Egyptians], in nowise eonfiieti 
their Caucasian position ; for the Caueatian group had many primordial centres, of v! 
the Egyptians represent one." 

Ilore, then, we behold the matured and deliberatelj-expreaaed 
opinion of Dr. Morton, that the earliest monumental type of Egyp. 
tians was not Asiatic, but that of an aboriginal African race. 

A few months ago the writer (J. C. N.) addressed the Chevalier 
Lepsius, stating the impressions relative to what we shall call a 
Negroid type, left on our mind by an examination of his plates of the 
rVth dynasty. We received from liim a most obliging and compre- 
hensive letter : an extract below indicates its nature. 

We onght to premise that the Chevalier, like Baron von Humboldtj*" 
18 a sastainer of the unity of races, for linguistical and other reasona 
TO be detailed by his own pen some day. We wish here simply to 



the results of some of his ^^ linguistique" researches — a de- 
pTtmrnt of science in which he is so justly renowned. His reply to 
our interrogatory begins — " Je laisse de cot6 le point de vue th6olo- 
^qae qui n'a rien k faire avec la science." Our clerical adversaries 
Sfteed not lean, therefore, upon savans whose sole object is scientific 
trtUh ; nor, for ourselves, can we refrain from admiring the philoso- 
pliic tone with which such intelligences as Agassiz, Lepsius, and 
Iforton, have pursued it. 

** Yoot paries d'mie gradation des peoples dn continent d*AfHqne depnis le Capjii8qn'& 
la Bord. n j'a nn fait bien cnrienz, qne lea langaes des Hottentots et des Bushmans 
rt «MntieUement diffdrentes des langaes de tout le reste dn continent josqn'ft T^qnatenr. 
et q|ai eet, peat-^tre, encore pins cnrienz, lent langne porte quelqnes traits charact4ri8i> 

qui ne se retrooTent qne dans les langnes dn nord-est de PAfriqne Tont le 

It Afrieain aTait, selon mon id^e, dans nn certain temps, nne popnlation parente, et 

liipg"— par cons^nent analognes anssi. Pins tard les penples Asiatiqnes immigraient 

■ord-est Le melange des races prodnisait ce large bandean de penples et de langnes 

et apparemment incoh^rens qni se tronyent maintenant entre la ligne et le 16"b* 

lat Bord. Ces langnes ont perdn lenr caract^re AfHcain sans acqn^rir le caractire 

mait U fond det languet et du tang eat Africtdn, 

** Je eomprends ce que Tons appeles nn type negroide dans les figures Egyptiennes, et je 
■"•i ricB contre cette obserr ation ; mais cela n*empSche pas qne lenr caract^re principal 
as soit Asiatiqne. Pendant le temps des Hyksds, la race ancienne se changeait conside- 


We repeat that Prof. Lepsius declares, in the same letter, his con- 
finned belief in the unity of races ; but the occurrences he speaks of 
most antedate the era by him defined for the foundation of the Egyp- 
tiin Empire, 3893 years b. c, as Frenchmen express it, by " des 
millions et des milliards d*ann6es." 

Not less do we esteem, on these archaic subjects, the high authority 
of Mr. Birch, of the British Museum ; who, in a private letter (to J. 
C. X.), dated October, 1852, writes : — 

** Ton are, I agree, quite right as to the intermediate relation of Egypt to the Asiatic and 
Sigritian races. Benfey and others haye already, I think, pointed ont that the so-called 
8«itie languages are prip«ipaUy spoken in Africa, and the hieroglyphs are of Semitic con- 
%ietioii — resembling the S^^mitic languages in the construction and eopia verborum ; at the 
MBS time they differ in nany essential points, and hare a fair claim to be considered a 
Kpsrate species of language. The astounding fact is, that Eg3rptian cirilization was the 
lUsBt — and that the Assyrian and other nations hare left no remains to compare irith them 
is rtspect of time." 

It cannot fail to be remarked, that certain of the portraits on the 
etrliest pyramidal monuments already represent a very mixed people ; 
lod, consequently, it is clear that Egypt, for anterior centuries unnum- 
bered, must have been, so to say, the battle-ground of Asiatic impinging 
agiunst African races. Some of the heads we have selected as illus- 
tmtive of the antiquity of a high " Caucasian" type, might readily 
(Mas unnoticed at the present day in the streets of London, Paris, oi 
New York ; while others, again, are so strictly African, that the 


typical difference cannot be mistaken. It is note-worthy, beridc^ 
that many of these Eg^'pto-Caucasian heads are not only strong 
Semitic, but even Abrahamic in type: thus affording support ^ 
legends running through the fragments of Manetho, and his m\}(j. 
lator, JosEPHUs, as to connections between the Hyksos and the e^ 
population of Canaan. The same Chaldaie features beheld in Hm» 
of the royal likenesses of the XVIIth, XVIIIth and XlXth dynaatwa, 
are seen upon the sculptures of the IVth, Vth and Vlth. 

Philological science generally admits that the roots of the modern 
Coptic language are, in the main, (alien engraftments deducted) the 
same as those of the ^^ lingua sancta/' or Old Egyptian tongue, spoken 
by the priesthood and educated classes, from Eoman times, through 
all dynasties, back to the earliest Pharaohs, when the latter was ^ 
colloquial idiom of every native. As a medium of oral communica- 
tion, the Coptic language ceased to be used in the twelfth centuiy, 
and the last person who could speak it is said to have died mi.]). 
1663 : '^ but an old Egyptian (G. R. G.) avers that he met with good 
authority for its decease about ninety years ago, with a priest, in the 

The ifpd AaXfxror,^ sacerdotal dialect, or antique language, afibids 
one of the strongest evidences of the high antiquity of the early 
population of Egypt, and ako of their Nilotic or aboriginal emana- 
tion. Eg3^t has been, literally, for many thousands of years, the 
football of foreign conquerors ; and her primordial language became 
infiltrated, from age to age, with Arabic, Persian, Greek, Libyan, 
Latin, and words of other tongues, known to us only at a later stage 
of development ; but, when these exotic injecta are abstracted, there 
remains, nevertheless, a stone-recorded vernacular, possessing all the 
marks of originality, and in itself totally distinct from the utmoet 
circumference of Asiatic languages. The proper names of very few 
Nilotic objects, natural or artificial, in primitive hieroglyphics, are 
really identical with the vocalization of Sjto- Arabian languages; and 
their Egyptian structure is characteristically different ; being mono- 
syllabic, in lieu of tlie posterior trUiteral shape in which Semitic 
tongues have come down to us. " K all these languages be kindred, 
Benfey, who ha8 compared them most elaborately, holds, they must 
have split off from a parent stock, not only at a period too remote for 
all historical or monumental evidence, but even for plausible con- 
jecture.'*^ Such, in brief, are the current opinions of Lepsius, Birch, 
of Bunscn, Ilincks, De Sauley, Lanci, and other eminent authoritieB 
of the day, as regards Egypt : 8upi)orted, moreover, by the philological 
discoveries of Itawlinson, Ilincks, and De Longp6rier, in cuneifoim 
Assyria ; and by the studies of Gesenius, Ewald, Munk, and Fresoe!, 


ash paleography. It is the dedaction of Lepsins, that 
. possessed an African population, and a Nilotic language, 
foundation of the Old Empire ; and that various disturbing 
erimposed, gradually, an Asiatic type and Semitic dialects 
mterior people of the Lower Nile, without obliterating the 
fipame-work which, as well in type of man as in speech, 
dvely African. 

«, tending to establish a remote contemporaneousness, have 
ed among various languages of Northern Africa: and 
quoted in the last chapter, long ago put forth the doctrine 
ierber speech, as now extant, had preceded the Coptic of 
Bed Egypt He insisted that many old names of places, 
4c., along the Nile, were Berber, and neither Coptic nor 
AUowance made for some slight anachronisms, in terms 
a in facts, we think our learned countryman's arrow has 
wide of the target. 

h antiquity formerly claimed for civilization in India, and 
cidences of doctrine and usages that, imagined by Indolo- 
entirely vanished from Egypt since her hieroglyphi(» have 
adable, had led Prichard, and other scholars less eminent, 
the Ganges with the Nile : but, so far from, any evidence 
nmunication, we have nothing to show that the nations on 
rivers, in the time of Solomon, much less of Moses or 
were even acquainted with each others* existence. The 
grptians never surmised a Hindostanic origin for their own 
ley believed themselves to be, in the strictest sense, autoc- 
dves of the soil. Nor do East-Indians (since Wilford*s 
tions became exposed) possess any tradition of having re- 
Egyptian or sent forth a Hindoo colony.^ Moreover, the 
^semblances between the languages of India and Egypt — 
id Coptic — compared in their modern phases, are few and 
ire not altogether factitious. The whole genius of both, 
jt their entire stock of words, are entirely different. The 
ic system of Egypt is clearly indigenous to the valley of 
rhilst not even a legendary tale remains to show that such 
rriting ever prevailed in India. 

re reflect that this hieroglyphic writing is found in high 
on the earliest monuments extant, viz. : those of the IVth 
400 years b. c, and, therefore, must have existed many cen- 
riously ; that the figure of every animal, plant, or thing, 
in these hieroglyphics, is Nilotic to the exclusion of every 
a ; and that Egyptian economy in manners, customs, arts, 
lave been radically diverse from those of all other T 


at the time such writing received its incipient projection; — Vfboi 
too, we remember the fact that, the physical characters of each typ 
of man in India and Egypt were different, and that no physical causa 
but amalgamation have ever transformed one race into another, itii 
impossible to resist the conviction that these Gangeatic and ITilotic 
races have always been, that which, modem fosions dedacted| ibey 
are now, distinct. 

The Egyptians, for instance, had practised circumcision fix)m time 
immemorial, long before Abraham adopted this mark after his visit to 
Egypt, in common with the later Ethiopic tribes ; but this I^otie nto 
was not practised in India, until introduced by Mohammedan conqneitL 
So, again, with regard to "castes," heretofore almost insolently ob- 
truded, in order to identify Egyptian with Hindostanic customfll B 
will be news to some coryphsei of the unity-doctrine, when they M 
taught, in our Part m., that the " caste-system" has never exuted 
along the Nile, and that, on the Ganges, it is a very modem inv^tko. 

To the extreme climatic dryness of Egypt are we mainly indebted 
for the preservation of her monxmiental history. While the remains of 
Greece, Rome, and other nations, none of them 3000 years old, cnunUe 
at first touch, Egypt's granitic obelisks, at the end of 4000 years, luwe 
not yet lost their polish ; and had all the early monuments of that 
country been spared by barbarian hands, we should not now, afttf 
fiilty-three centuries, have to accuse Time as the cause of dispntatiooB 
over the history of the old Empire. 

That Menes of This was the first mortal king of Egypt, is one rf 
the points in which classical authorities, Herodotus, Manetho, Eratos- 
thenes, and Diodorus, agree with the genealogical lists upon tableb 
and papyri; and we must regard him as the first historical foundwrd 
an empire, which, for untold ages previously, had been approadiiii( 
its consolidation. His reign is placed by Lepsius at 3893 years B.C. 
and although criticism grants that this date may be a few centorie 
below or above the true era, yet there is so much irrefit^gable ev 
dence of the long duration of the empire prior to the fixed epoch c 
the Xlith dynasty, 2300 years b. c, that any error, if there be sue 
in his chronological computations, cannot be very great, while almo 
immaterial to our present purposes. The august name of Menib 
gloriously associated with the building of Memphis, the oldest meb 
polls, with foreign conquests, with public monuments, with the pi 
giess of the arts and of internal improvements. To admit the p 
sibility of such legislative actions, a numerous population and a lo 
preparatory civilization must have preceded him : to say nothing 
the contemporary nations with which this military Pharaoh h^ 
intercourse, that must have been at least as old as the 


[v68. To one who knows anything of the topography of the 
id, it need not he told that the science of hydraulic engineer- 
particular, must have existed in high perfection before the 
7aUey of the Nile could have been studded to any extent with 
on the alluvium : because this stream had to be controlled by 
canals, sluices, and similar works, long before the soil on its 
x>uld be uniformly cultivated ; and, what an antiquity do not 
ictB necessitate ! 

whatever uncertainty may hang over the first three dynasties 
ii coetaneouB records are now lost), when we come to the IVth — 

1^ [in the Umgnage of the Rer. John Eenrick] congratulate oonelTes that we 
■igth reached the period of nndonbted cotemporaneons monuments in Egyptian 
The pyramids, and the sepolchres near them, still remain to assore ns that we 
ralking in a land of shadows, bat among a powerAil and popnlons nation, ftur 
in the arts of life ; and, as a people can only progressiyely attain such a station, 
of historic certainty is reflected back from this era upon the ages which precede 
t ^impse which we thus obtain of Egypt, in the fifth centory after Menes, accord- 
t lowest computation, reveals to us some general facts, which lead to important 
L In all its great characteristics, Egypt was the same as we see it 1000 years 
well-organized monarchy and religion elaborated thronghont the country. The 
' hieroglyphic writing the same, in all its leading peculiarities, as it continued to 
f the monarchy of the Pharaohs." ^^ 

relie& beautifully cut, sepulchral architecture, and pyramidal 
mng — reed-penSy inks (red and black), papyrus-paper, and 
ally-prepared colors! — these are proud evidences of the Mem- 
civilization of fifty-three centuries ago, that every man with 
\ see can now behold in noble folios, published by France, 
y, and Pruspia ; and concerning which any one, not an igno- 
through education, or a blockhead by nature, can acquire ade- 
mowledge by merely reading those English, French, German, 
an works, printed within the last fifteen years, and abundantly 
t the end of this volume, which are at the present hour very 
ale to all intelligent readers, everj'where but on the bookshelves 
nary seminaries. This reservation made, we appeal, through 
x)pular works, to the most ancient sculptures, in hopes of 
ining — What was the Type of the primitive Egyptians ? 
our departure be taken, in this inquiry, from one of those 
Egies extant in the sepulchral habitation of Seti I., before 
I to [vide antcj p. 85, Fig. 1), which establishes what Egyptian 
isidered, in the fifteenth century b. c, the beau-ideal of the 
ans themselves. Beneath the head (Fig. 152) we place a re 
I of one of the same full-length figures (Fig. 153), which, on 
ginal, is colored in deep red. The reader has now before his 
standard effigy ^ tj-pical of the Egyptian race, such as the "hun. 
ited" Thebes exhibited in her streets about 3400 years ago. 

the "land of puri^ and joatit 
Now, although this effigy wi 
at Thebes', ast^ical of the E 
tion during the XVHIth dyi 
it seems rather to be the ] 
tgpe of that race, handed dowi 
timeB ; for, assuredly. It does 
pond with the royal portraita 
Empire, which, we have i 
strongly Semitic in their hnes 
therefore chiefly Asiatic in df 
This RoT, if placed alougs 
nographic monuments of the 
and TIth dynasties, is closelj 
to the predominant ^e of 
which feet serves to strength* 
that the Egyptians of the ear] 
were rather of an Afiican 
type — resembling ihe BitAa 
respects, in others, the model 
peasantry, of Upper Egypt ' 
analogy to the primitive stod 
duce a better copy of the cc 
of Prince Mbbhkt (Fig. 154), 
Shnfu" bnilder of the grea 
"^ and probably his son {tupra, | 


bably CalitiriaTu: a word which meaDB "young 
guard," and aluo pereons wearing the calasirii, 
"fringed tunic."'* 

[The pictorial illuetrations deeigncd in 1842 
for Qliddon'B Lectures having required a cri- ' 
tioal study of everj- head then known ujiou 
the monuments, we will here introduce an 
extract from his Ethnographic Nolet, written 
eleven jears ago — when, without theory to 
sustain, he could hare no idea that liis private 
memoranda would become available to ana- 
tomists in the year 1853. — J. C. N.] 
jgftimi (oldiers, of tho ro^al bodj-giurd — prob&bl^ nintafj/biaiu, ta Cm- 
■ the iMter namt sevmi deniable fi-om the Coptic 9HEL0SH1RI, yotms, 
kod tinct tliMe toldien >ra joang men, it is likely tb&t the; repreBent Calaiiriana of th« 
ToytX goanl — like the jonog gimrd of Napoleon, or the Yente-theri (comipted by Euro- 
p«MU into Jatutariit), 'sew guenl' of the Ottocune. The Urrmolybiatu were the vtU- 
ran* — the oIJ BWtrd, in whose ehirge were the fortresws. 

*• Now, oa tbete loldiera were qanHered in, end chiefly drafted from, hovtr Egypt, tUi 
•oldic-r i> * good (peeimen of the ' thews and einews' of Egypt See hie athletic boild, his 
Miucular frame, and look of buUnlog detemunatioQ — the lery htav-idial of a loldierl 
Thie man ia precieely aimilar to the dmm of the FiUiht of Lower Egypt at this day, espe* 
a»llj OD the Damiata branch, and I eonld pick thoosanda in these proTinces to match him; 
vhercsa, aboTc Middlt Egypt, u yon approach Nabia, this type disappeara, to be replaced 
br Unk, tall, dark, tpare men, nntil the Fell&h merges in the Nubian racee, aboTe Esnb. 
I tkercfor* contend that thte soldier is a perfect ipecimeD of the piclied men of Lower Egypt, 
M. c 13G0. He shows the saperiortty of the people of Lower Egypt in lAul day ; while, as 
ke U iJtaticai with the picked men of the Fellahs of Loiter Egypt at the^«ail day. it fol- 
lows that (ery great changes haro not taken place, in SGOO years, between the ancitnt and 
rtadtn Lower Egyptians ; and sopports my aesertioD that, apart IVom a certain nmoact of 
Anb-CTOn (Mlily explained, and easily detected), it is in Loafr Egypt, among the FtlUlht, 
ym will find the descendnots of the ancient race — more than among tho Copti (whose 
f«ualei are, and haye been, (he •GvaarieyeK of Xations') ; and infinitely more than among 
the ha^f-witted, dissolute, corrupt, and mongrel Afriean race of Baribtria." 

Morton's comparison of ancient and modern skulls confirms this 
^-it-w ; and it will remove eonie erroneous notions trora the reader of 
Oebum,^' to mention an indisputable proof of the Egyptian origin of 
tlio<« guards — tliat is, the fact tliat they are painted red in the tableau 
at Alxjosimbel. 

Xow, a remark made by us when speaking of the last race (RoT), 
applies equally to tliis figure : viz., that although both are reprcsent- 
ation:4 of EgA-ptiana, drawn and colored by an Egyptian artist, during 
the XA'HIth dj-nasty, yet this soldier does not display the same type 
art tJit: legitimate line of royal portraits, from Amenoph I. downwards. 
There is nothing Asiatic about liis physiognomy — on the contrary, 
it jtc-ipetuatea the African or Negroid type of tho first d^'nasties. 



Nevertheleea, already the JXuStt 
caste of Egypt was s mixed one ; : 
here are two soldierB (Fig. 156), fit 
another brigade, who, as Morton < 
served, present rather the Hellei 
style of feature."* 

So too, allowance made ibr tc 
possible inattentione on the part 
European copyiBta, where the snbji 
was not royal iconogiaphy, do soi 
of the following heads of Ion 
classes of people (FigB. 157-16 
also selected by Morton: — 



Tlio modem FeU&ht, constituting the mass of the common peo^ 
of the countiy, have not even yet become Biifficiently adulterated 
their ancestral tj-pc to be extinguished, inasmuch as the same p 
ponderating (■haractoristics can be traced, backwards, from the liri 
race, through five millennia of stoue-chroniclinga, to the eorlieBt tim 


It is fkir to conclude that these Fellahs really preserve much of the 
mbori^nal Egyptian type. Such type bears not the slightest resem- 
blance (except in casual instances, themselves doubtful, when we first 
Bee it in the IVth dynasty, about 3400 b. c.) to any Asiatic race, and 
must therefore have been inherent in that indigenous race which was 
created to people the Valley of the Kile. 

The authors esteem it a very high privilege that " Types of Man- 
Idnd*' should be the first work to remove all doubts upon the type 
of the earliest monumental Egyptians. Further discussion becomes 
superseded by the publication of the annexed lithographic Plates L, 
IL, HLj and IV. Being fac-similes of the most ancient human heads 
now extant in the world, and transfer-copies of impressions stamped, 
by the hand of Chevalier Lepsius himself, upon the original bas-reliefe 
preserved in the Royal Museum of Berlin, their btrinsic value in eth- 
nography cannot be overrated ; at the same time that, like an axe, 
these effigies cleave asunder /ac^« and suppoeUtane as to what primor- 
dial art at Memphis, above 5000 years ago, considered to be the 
^ canonical proportions" ascribable to the facial and cephalic struc- 
ture of the heads of the Egyptian people themselves. 

Pre&cing our exposition of the guarantees the lithographs possess 
for exactitude and authenticity with the remark, that these portraits 
"belong to the tombs of princely, aristocratic, and sacerdotal person- 
ages, who lived during the IVth, Vth, and Vlth Memphite dynasties, 
'we proceed to state how such illustrations (alike precious from their 
enormous antiquity and for their unique excellence) have been 

Attendants on Mr. Gliddon's Archaeological Lectures in the United 
Btates have been informed, yearly, fix)m 1842 to 1852,*^ of the 
discoveries of the Prussian Scientific Mission to Egypt: in every case, 
before the winter of 1849, &r in advance of detailed publication, 
whether in America or in Europe. In that year, the first volume of 
Lepsius's quarto Chronologie derJEgypter was quickly followed by the 
first livraisans of the folio Denkmaler au9 JEgypten und JEthiopien — 
the former judiciously constructing the chronological and historical 
framework within which the stupendous facts unfolded by the latter 
are enclosed. To facilitate popular appreciation of the magnitude of 
these Prussian labors and discoveries, Lepsius put forth, at Berlin, in 
1852, his octavo Brief e au% JEgypten, JEthiopien^ &c. ; which, trans- 
lated and ably annotated by Mr. Kenneth Mackenzie, being now 
equally accessible to every reader of our tongue, renders any account 


here of these Nilotic explorations superfluous, beyond 
that four of the most ancient tombs discovered at Meiiq 
sius, independently of his vast collection of other nuri 
taken to pieces on the spot, with the utmost care, and be 
into the Royal Museum at Berlin. 

Invited by Chevalier Lepsius to visit,^ and inspect pen 
quarian treasures endeared by a lifetime's Egyptian assoi 
Gliddon was at once so struck with the ethnographic in 
these sepulchral bas-reliefi, that he solicited paper-imprem 
heads for the joint and future studies of Dr. Morton and l 
on the 10th of May, 1849, he had the gratification of aad 
lier Lepsius to make numerous estampages; while, to insa 
and authenticity, the paper was stamped upon the scnlf 
Chevalier's own hands. 

One singular fieu^t, illustrative of the superior antiqv 
tombs of pyramidal magnates to any heretofore describe 
ologists, may here be mentioned. Laid bare, through e: 
a depth of many feet below the rocky surface, and em 
sand with which they had become refilled since their d( 
unknown hands (probably Saracenic) centuries ago, the 
sented themselves in colors so vivid as to appear ^^ fresh 
as if painted only yesterday;" but, despite every pr 
removing each slab into the open air, the painted stuc< 
fell off — leaving, however, the uninjured low-relief {sibc 
of an inch) sculpture to endure long as time shall 
Berlin Museum. Now, in the dry climate of Memph 
colors known to range from 2500 to 4000 years old, where 
to the dew, or to the Etesian winds, still adhere on the v 
in their pristine freshness and brilliancy. Well, therefor 
quity of at least 6300 years for these now colorless reh 
ouflly demanded also by their hieroglj^hical and othei 
corroborated by their exceptional friability. With his 
sight, Lepsius had caused the colored sculptures to be C( 
draughtsmen, in sitUy before removal ; and in the Denh 
gorgeous paintings may still be admired. 

On the writer's (G. R. G.'s) return to London, thesi 
after being outiined, were transferred upon tracing-j 
wife's accurate pencil, in duplicate, for Dr. Morton i 
The originals, as acknowledged by the Doctor in a for 
ip. 232, ante)y were duly passed on to his cabinet, where 
tion completed that revulsion of earlier views toward w 
gressive studies had long been leading. The second c 
and colored in imitation of the limestone originals, has 

■■' was 

in the 
ieal or 




here of ^ 

that /<m*^ 

sius, incL« 

taken to 

into the - 


quarian 1 


these Bep 

heads fo3 

on the 1" 


and autJ 



tombs oi 


a depth. 

sand wil 


sented t 

as if p^ 


fell off- 

of an i 

Berlin 3 

colors k 

to the d 

in their 

qiiity oi 

oiisly d' 


sight, I 



after l 
The o 
,p. 23f 
tion c 
ai^d e< 


id Mr. 61iddon*8 lecture-rooms when "Egyptian Ethnology" was 
kopio of his address. 

^hen the authors projected the present work, at Mobile, in the 
ig of 1852, they acquainted Chevalier Lepsius, among other Eu- 
ma colleagues, with their respective desiderata, archaeological or 
og^mphicaL Answering one of Gliddon's letters, the Chevalier 
remarks : — 

«« Bbrlix, 1 Novmhre^ 1S52. 

. ** Poor 1m indiTidiis toos ne ponTei toos fier qne but les en^emiet que toob ETes ; 
vovs en denret je tous en eoTemi encore d'ayanUge. . . . Lea empreintee dee bae- 
I «* les pl&tree dee aneiennee atatuea sont, k ce qn'il me parait, lee eenla mat^rianx 
povr ^todier I'anden caract^re dee Egyptiene ; et mdme poor ceox-U il faat admeitre 
foarrait ee tromper aor plosienr traite qui paraieeent 6tre aors, paroeqae le eemon 
im, the eatum of proportion accorded by Old Egyptian art to the human figure. — G. R. 
ifs pouTmit 8*^carter en qnelqoee points de la T^rit^ comme dans la position haate de 


Te have to record our joint obligations for the receipt, in August 
Eke present year, of the second collection of stamps promised in 
! above letter ; and it is from carefiil comparison of the duplicate 
faals with their tracings, that the models for our lithographic 
ks were designed. We feel confident, therefo/e, that our litho- 
Ihs are fae-nmUes — submitting them to Chevalier Lepsius for com- 
iBon with the original bas-reliefi, while taking the liberty to urge 
IB his scientific attention, no less than upon that of possessors of 
k remains generally, the benefit they would confer upon ethno- 
ical studies, were they to publish similar fac-similes, where the 
ographer, copying the original monument under their own critical 
a, would attain precision from which the Atlantic debars art in 
I country. 

Lbetraction made of the divergence from nature in the "high posi- 
I of the ear," to which the above epistolary favor alludes, as a 
ject set at rest by Morton ;*" and repeating our previous notice of 
e delineation of the eye in Egyptian profiles : there remains no 
ibt that the/acta{ otUlineSy and, where naked, the cranial confwma- 
I, in these most antique of all known sculptures, are rigorously 
hful. Without hesitation, these heads may be accepted by eth- 
japhy as perfect representations of the ty^e of Egyptians under 
Old Empire. 

Lasuming such to be &ct8 — and, beyond accidents of some trivial 
of a pencil, none can dispute them but the unlettered in these 
nces — we may now claim as positive that the originals of our 
simile heads date back, as a minimum, frt)m 8000 to 8500 years 
>re Christ, or to generations deceased above 5000 years ago : at 


which time Egypt had abeady existed for many centuries as a powerful 
empire, borne along on fiill tide of civilization : and, let us ask, what 
trace of an Asiatic type does the reader perceive in these hoaiy like- 
nesses ? How distinct, physiologically, are these heads from the royal 
portraits of the New Empire ! Does not the low, elongated head ; the 
imperfectly-developed forehead ; the short, thick nose ; the large, foil 
lip ; the short and receding chin ; with their taut-enMemhUj all point to 
Africa as the primeval birth-place of these people ? When, too, we 
look around and along this ancient valley of the Nile at the present 
day, and compare the mingled types of races, still dwelling where 
their fathers did — the FellJLhs, the Bishariba, the Abjssinians, the 
Nubians, the Libyans, the Berbers (though they are by no means iden- 
tical among each other), do we not behold a group of men apart from 
the rest of human creation ? and all, singularly and collectively, in- 
heriting something in their lineaments which clusters around the type 
of ancient Egypt ? A powerfiil and civilized race may be conquered, 
may become adulterated in blood; yet the typcy when so widely 
spread, as in and around Egypt-, has never been obliterated, can 
never be washed out. History abundantly proves that human lan- 
guage may become greatly corrupted by exotic admixture — ^nay, even 
extinguished ; but physiology demonstrates that a type will survive 
tongues, writings, religions, customs, manners, monuments, tradi- 
tions, and history itself. 

Dr. Morton's voluminous correspondAice with scientific men 
throughout both hemispheres is replete with interest, exhibiting as it 
does so many charming instances of that philosophical cAandony or 
freedom from social rigidities, which characterizes true devotees to 
science in their interchanges of thought. There is one epistle among 
these, that almost electrified him^^ on its reception, bearing date 
"Alexandria, Dec. 17, 1843." It is invested with the signature of a 
voyager long "blanched under the harness" of scientific pursuits; 
who, as Naturalist to the United States' Exploring Expedition, had 
sailed round the world,, and beheld ten types of mankind, before he 
wrote, after exploring the petroglyphs of the Nile : — 

'* I have seen in all eleren races of men ; and, thongh I am hardlj prepared to fix a 
posit'iTe limit to their number, I confess, after baring Tisited so manj different parts of the 
globe, that I am at a loss where to look for others." 30s 

Qualitiod to judge, through especial training, varied attainments, 
and habits of keen obser\'ation tliat, in Natural History, are pre- 
omluent for aoeunicy, the first impressions of the gentleman from 
whose lettor to his attached friend we make bold to extract a few 
ffentouees,(i>roserving their original form,) are strikingly to the point: 

' vy.. 


'*DBAm MoBTOv: 

"This !b the fourth daj I hftTO been in the Imnd of the PharaohB. Well, now for 

the Egyptian problem. 

<* Yoar October letter is now before me, and the left-hand drawing bears a meet aston- 
ishing resemblanee to mj long-legged yalet, Ali ! (whom I intend to get dagnerreotyped, if 
such a thing can be found at Cairo). The Bobber Baoe hae swept away eyerything at 
Alexandria; — nerertheless, by means of a tpeeimm here and there, I had not been three 
hours in the oonntry before I arriTod at the oonclnsion, that the ancient Egyptians were 
neither Malays nor Hindoos, bat .^— — ^-^— ^-.-i.-.^-^^^—^—. 

-i.^.^ Egyptians. Yonrs, tmly, 

"Chaxus PiOKsuxa." 

So inferred Champolliok-le-Jeuns ; ^ bo pronounced Morton, 
after a formal recantation of his published views ; so, finally and 
deliberately, think the authors of this volume ; viz. : that the primi- 
tive Egyptians were nothing more nor less than — EGYPTIANS. 

Objectors must restrict themselves henceforward merely to cavils as 
to the antiquity of these Egyptian records. In Part IIL their claims 
to reverence are superabundantly set forth. For ourselves we are 
content to rest the chronological case upon the authority of Baron 
Alexander von Humboldt: — 

** The Tslley of the Nile, whioh has ooeupied so distingoished a place in the history of 
HaD, yet preserres aathentic portraits of kings as far back as the commencement of the 
IVth dynasty of Manetho. This dynasty, which embraces the constmotors of the great 
pyramids of Ghiza, Chefren or Schafra, Cheops, Choufoo, and Menkara or Menker^ 
eommences more than 8400 years b. o., and twenty-foor centuries before the inTSsion of 
Peloponnesns by the Heraclides."3M 




"When the prophet JeremUh3i»«eUi]iia, *C$n, th» Ftkkfim ehaaff kh 
•kin, or the leopard his spots ? ' he certainlj meaiif u to laftr that IIm cm 
was as impossible as the other." — Mobtov's MSB. 

" Niger in die (qaodam) eznit reetes soas, ineepitqiM eapere niftm et tAan 
earn ea corpus snum. Dictum aatem ei fait : qnare fricae eotpos tmni lint 
Et dixit (ille) : /artattt aiheicam. Venitqae Tir (qoidam) sapfsBi, (qoi) fiai 
ei: to, ne afflige te ipsum ; fieri enim potest, at corpas titam nigrsB hoA 
niTsm, ipsam aatem non amittet nigredinem." — LooxAin Fabvla XXni: 
iramUUed from Uu Arabic by BotenmuUer.^^ 

\Iad every nation of antiquity emulated Egypt, and peipetuatod 
the portraitA of itB own people with a chisel, it would now be evident 
to the readier that each type of mankind^ in all zoological centres of 
man'B creation, is by nature as indelibly permanent as the stone- 
pages uj^on which Egyptians, Chinese, Assyrians, Lycians, Oreeki, 
Romans, Carthaginians, Mero'ites, Hindoos, Peruvians, Mexicans, (to 
jiay naught of other races,) have cut their several iconographies. How 
instantaneously would vanish pending disputes about the UnUj/ oi 
the Liveniti/ of human origins ! 

Contenting ourselves at present with the now-acquired £act, that 
the Egyptians, according to monumental and craniological evidences, 
no less than to all history, written or traditionary, were really avioe- 
thones of the Lower Nile, we think the question as to their "type" 
has been satisfactorily answered. In reply, furthermore, to our pre- 
vious interrogatory, whether this ancient family obeyed the same law 
of "gradation** established for other African aborigines; we may now 
observe, tliat the Kgyi)tians, astride as it were upon the narrow isthmim 
which unites the on(;e-separate continents of Africa and Asia, figure, 
when the Aurora of human tradition first breaks, as at one andtb.^ 
same timo, the highett among African, and (physiologically, if not 
perhaps in tolloctually) as the Zot^^e^ type in W est- Asmtic gradatiom^M, 

Were we to prosecute our imaginary journey northwards, the daaHi 
Oushite- Arahn would naturally constitute the next grade, and tl 
an(^ient Canaanites probably the one immediately succeeding. 
l)rimitive group of Semitic nations would be found to have aborij 
nally occupied geographical levels commencing with Mount Lebanc 
and rising gradually in physical characters as we ascend the Tai 


gsing, almost insensibly, into the Japethic or whitest races 
snng their own ffradations), until the highest types of pre- 
nanity would reveal their birth-places around the OaiM!a$u$. 
ling mainly with the Natural History of Man, elucidated 
)w archseological data, the scope of our work permits no 
al digressions beyond the Caucasian mountains. We have 
sted that the term ^^ Caucasian** is a misnomer, productive 
^'mbarrassments in anthropology ; because a name In itself 
restricted, since the times of Herodotus, to one localit}' 
people, has become misapplied generically to types of 
hose origins have no more to do with the mountains of 
lian with those of the moon. Would it not be ridiculous 
r example, the name "Englander" (a compound of ^yi^Z 
-"man of the land of the Angli"), and to classify under 
pellative, Hebrews, Egyptians, Hindoos, &<K ? That " Cau- 
iqually fallacious, will be made clear to the reader, in Part 
he article on MaGUG ; but we anticipate a portion of the 
I argument by mentioning, that the Hellenized name 
OS means simply the " Mountain of the An; '* being the 
anic word Khogh, signifying " mountain,*' prefixed to the 
le of a nation and a race : viz., the AaSj Atij Jaseiy Osseihj 
ho, dwelling even yet at the foot of that Cauc-Asos where, 
imorial time, their ancestors lived before them, would be 
to learn that European geographers had bestowed their 
ime upon the whole continent of Asia, and that modem 
B actually derive a dozen groups of distinct human animals 
from the mountain ("Klogh**) of which such A$i 
*^ are aborigines ! ^ 

Turning our backs upon the Caucasus, and 
retracing our steps toward Africa, let us inciden- 
tally notice the recognition by ante-Mosaic Egyp- 
tian, and by post-ilosaic Hebrew, ethnographers, 
of the general principle o{ gradation among such 
types of mankind as lay within the horizons of 
their respective geographical knowledge. The 
Egyptians, for instance, in their quadripartite 
division of races, already explained (ante, p. 85, 
Fig. 1), assigned the most northerly habitat to 
the " white race," of which we here reproduce the 
standard type (Fig. 162) — one of tiie four de- 
signed in the tomb of Seti I., about 1500 b. c. 
Precisely does the writer of Xth Gene$iSj as 
Japutb. set forth elaborately in Part H., follow the same 


gvetem, in his tripartite drriraon ; inaamach as he gtoaps ihe "AM- 
UatitmM of Japhbth," that U, his "»A»(« races," between the Tanrie 
chuD of moQDtaiiLB and the Canca^an, along and within the noitlien 
Goaet of Asia Minor to the Black Sea. 

So, again, Egyptian ethnography chose, for 
fto. 16». tl»e standard-type of "yeUow races," fonr effipw 

which entirely correspond, in every deaideratnm 
of localiQ', color, and physical eonfonnsiion, 
with those families classified, in Xth QmtM, u 
the 'Mj^iaWoM of Shxm;" and like ths He- 
brew geographer, the Theban artiat mutt htvs 
known, that the t/ettow, or Semitic, gioopt ot 
men occupied couutriea immediately amrth rf 
the " white races," and stretching ftxm th« Tin- 
ras to (he IsthmaB of Suex, indnding tiie Hto^ 
landa of the Tigris and Euphrates, together with 
the Arabian Peninsula. 

The specimen illustrative of these groups of 
yellow-skinned races here presented in Rg. 163, 
is also, like the following (Eigs. 164, 165), a re- 
production from the four figures before ahon 
on page 85. 

Equally parallel is the Jewish claswfication, in respect to flie "Afii- 
ationi of Ham" (Fig. 164), with those "red races" among which ths 
Egj-ptians placed the RoT, or themselves. To the 
Fio. IM. latter, KSaM was nothing hut the hieroglyphicil 

name of Egypt proper ; KAeMe, or KAiMe, " the 
dark land" of the Nile ; corrupted by the Greeb 
into "Chemmis" and "Cbemia," aud by na 
preserved in such words as "cA«B-istiy" and 
"al-cAem-y," both Egj-ptian sciences; while, in 
Hebrew geography, KAaM, signi^ng dark,ot 
tvjarthy, merely meant all those non-Shemitisb_ 
fiimilies which, under the especial cognomini of 
Ouahitea, Oanaanitea, Mizraimitet, L&jfant, Str- 
beri, and eo forth, formed that groap of proii- 
mate types situate, aboriginally, east aDdiceo* 
of the Nile, and along its banks north of tho 
first cataract at Syene. Our wood-cut illuatrite* 
the Egyptian standard-tj-pe of these populatJoni^ 
But here the analogy between the eariie' 
Eg}i»tian and the posterior Hebrew eysteiB* 
opiicrn. Nigritian races, never domiciled nearer to Palestine th»» 
IWIO niiK'9 to tlio soHth-westward, did not enter into the social 



touanty of the Bolomonic Jews, an; more than into that of the 
lomeric Greeks ; and, if not perhaps abBolntely unknown, Kegroes 
rere then as foreign to, and remote from, either nation's geography, 
I the BamoidanB or the TnngooHianB are to our popular notions of 
Ik earth's inhabitants at the present day. In consequence, (as it is 
MODghly demonstrated in Part n.), the writer of Xth G-enesis omits 
Negro races altogether, from his tripartite clasaifi- 
'"■ ^**' cation of hamanity under the symbolical appel- 

latives of " Shem, Ham, and Japheth ; " whereas 
the Egyptians of the XTXth dynasty, about 1500 
yean b. c, having become acquainted with Ihe 
existence ofNegroa some eight centuries previ- 
ously (when Besonrtaeeu L, of the Alith dynasty, 
about B. 0. 2300, pushed his conquests into Up- 
per Nubia), could not fiul to include thia fourth 
type of man in their ethnologiciJ system ; be- 
cause the river Nile was the most direct viadvct 
through wMch the Sood&n, Negro-land, could 
be reached, or Negro captives procured. 

With this preliminaiy basis, calling attention 
to the e£Bgy (Fig. 165) by which they personified 
Negroes generally, we proceed to dww from the 
ancient etone-books of Egypt such testimonies 
Enceniing the permanence of type among Nigritian races as they 
ujbe found to contain. 

Our Negro (Fig. 166) is from 
the bas-reliets of Ramses m. 
(XXth dynasty, thirteen centu- 
ries B. c), at Medeenet-Haboo, 
where he is tied by the neck to 
an Asiatic prisoner. The head, 
in the original, is now unco- 
lored; and it serves to show 
how perfectiy Egyptian artists 
represented these races.** We 
quote from Gliddon's Hthnogra- 
pkie Notet, before referred to : 
" This head is remarkable, fur- 
thermore, ae the luual type of 
»Mhirds of the Negroes in Egypt at the present day." And any 
oe Uving in our Slave-Statea will see in this &ce a type which is 
ktqnently met with here. We thus obtain proof that the Negro has 
1 unchanged in Africa, above Egypt, for 8000 years ; coupled 

Fra. 160. 


With the fact that the same type, daring some eight or ten geners- 
tioDs of Bojourn ia the United States, is still preserved, deejiitc of 

Th(i foUowing representation (Fig. 167) is traced upon a spiriteJ 
reduction by Chenibini.*" It is a double file of Negroea tmdJiarika 
(Kubians), bonnd, and driven before his chariot by Ramsea tt,at 
AbooBimbel. This picture answers well as a complement to tlie two 


preceding; for we here have the brown Jfuhian — a dark one, i 
lightrcolored family — admirably contrasted with the jet-black JTq 
thus proving that the same divisions of African race 
now, above the first cataract of the Nile at Syene. 

One of the eanie series {Fig. 168), on 8 
Fro. 108. g^,^ip^ ^gj^gj, j^^ Eoeellini.*'" It should b 

served that he ia shaded browner than t 
head (Fig. 169) ; thereby showing the two 4 
moncst colors and physiognomical lincaiil 
prevalent among Nuliian BarHhra of the pn 
day ; who, whether owing to amalgnmstiM 
from orifpnal type, approach closer to the I 
than do tlie adjacent tribes — Ahabdehf / 
riba, &e. 

The same group supplies a lighter (cinnamon) shaded samplq 
Nubian Berherri (Fig. 169); whose name in the Arabic plantl is. 
Abra. The identical designation, BaRaBnKa, is applied to the 4 
people in the sculptures of several Pharaohs of the ' 
XVHIth dynasties, 1500 years B. c.*" 



To render tixe contraat more atriking, we place in jaxta-poHitioQ an 
enlarged head (Fig. 170) of the last Negro from the above prieonerB. 
The fice is iogeniooBly distorted by the Egyptian artist, who repre- 
(ents this ca^ve bellowing with rage and pain. 

Ooe of Mr. Qliddon'a personal verifications on the Nile is here 
«arthf of note. He observed that the fdeion between Nnbian and 
modem Arab races is first clearly apparent, exactly where nature had 
pliwd the boondaiy-Iine between Egypt and Nnbia : viz., at the fiist 
Waract. Here dwell the SheUaUet, or " cataract-men" — descended, 
it ig ttidf from intermixtore between the Saracenic garrisons at As- 
•onin and Hie women of Lower Nnbia. Persian, Greek, and Boman 
tnwps had been consecutively stationed there, centuries before the 
Anbs; while European and American tourists at the preseat day 
to^rate vigorously to stem the blackening element as it flows in 
from the Sonth. The SheU&leet count perhaps 500 adults and children ; 
mi they are molattoes of various hues, compounded of Nubian, Arab, 
Egrptian, Turkish, and European blood ; whilst, incidentally, Negresses 
«Dter as slaves among the less impoverished families — their cost there 
Kl<]om exceeding fiAy dollars. But, the predominating color, especially 
among the female SkdtJtaeyek, is a light 
dnoamon ; and in both sexes are seen 
>ome of the most beaatiful forms of hu- 
nuuuty; as may be judged from the 
" Xabian Girl," bo tastefully portrayed 
by Priese d'Avesnee."^ 

Thia (Fig. 171) is the type of the 
XaHSU {Negna), on a lat^r scale, 
among the four races in the tomb of 
Seti-Keiibptha I. ; before spoken o^ 
and delineated at foil length on pages 
85 and 249, Mpm. 

Beantifdlly drawn and strikingly contrasted, see two of die uin» 
Aaatic and African heads (Fig. 172) smitten by king, 8m L, at 

Pio. 171." 


Kannac. The Negro's featares are true to the life, if wd dednct tU 
ancient defective drawing of the eye ; aa most be done in all copin 
of Egyptian art. 

We next present (Fig. 178) one of the many prooft tiiat K^jto 
atavery existed in Egypt 1500 years B. c. An Egyptiaa scribe, colored 

red, ref^Htere the black slaves; of which males, females, aod tbes-i 
children are represented ; the latter even with the little tufts of wocral 
erect upon their heads : while the leopard-skin around tihe first ^egto ^ s 
loins is groteBqnely twisted eo as to make the animal's tail belong C^^o 
its human wearer. 

In connection with tliis scene, which is taken from a monoment ^Mt 
ThebcH, Wilkinson remarks ; — 

" It U evident tiutt both white and black ilavM vere emplo;ed u ttmaU ; thej muto ^ 
on the gueata when InTlted to the honsc of their muter ; and from their being in the lk^^>^ 
Ue* of [>rle>ti a* well ai of the military cbiefa, we may infer that the; were pnrchii^^*' 
with money, and that the right of poMeiiing ilaTea was not confined to tboee who k^H*' 
Uken them in war. The traffic in elaTca wai tolerated by the Egyptian! ; and It it new*^^ 
•Ue to (uppoee^ that many penoni were engaged, ae at preMnt, in bringing th^ le Igp P* 



•alt^ iadqp«iid«it of tlieM who ware sent m p«rt of the tribute^ and who wirt 
ftl ftnUthe proper^ of the moneroh ; nor did any diffionlty oocnr to the Tehmiel* 
pureheie of Joseph from his brethren, nor in his subsequent sale to Potiphar on 

s oommentB on the antiquity of '^ eunuchs," Oliddon has ex- 
these analo^es of slaveiy among the Hebrews, and other 

lig^t thus go on, and add numberless portraits of Kegro races, 
ds of them are represented as slaves, as prisoners of war, as 
B, or slain in large battie-scenes, &;c. ; all proving that, as &r 
I the XVnth dynasty, B. o. 1600, they existed as distant na- 
bove Egypt. 

n at random from the plates of Rosellini, the three subjoiiied 
B (Figs. 174, 175, 176) are submitted, to fortify our words. 

Pio. 174. Fia. 176. 

It-bud at the end of their halters means the word " south," in 
'phical geography : while 

Pio. 176. 

rieties of physical conforma- 
Bce to show that anciently, 
s day, the basin of the upper 
iluded many distinct Negro 

i been for several years as- 
' by the authors of the pre- 
[xmie, and it is now finally 
trated in Part 11., that Negro 
e never alluded to in ancient 
literatare ; the Greek word 

pia" being a fidse interpretation of the Hebrew KXTSA, which al- 
eant SotUhem Arabics, and nothing but the CWAt^Arabian race. 
Greeks, of course, were unacquainted with the existence of 
r until about the seventh century b. c. ; when Psametik L 
the ports of Lower Egypt to Grecian traffickers. Their 
plans," Brm-bumedifaeeSy before that age, were merely any 

254 KE6R0 TTPBS. 

people darker than a Hellene— Arabs, Egyptians, and libyaiu, fion 
Jcfpa {JsfEs) westward to Cartilage : nor, camels bdng nnknown to 
the Cartha^nians, as well as to the early Cyreneans, oonld Nt/rm 
have been brought across the Sahara deserts into the Baibaiy Statn, 
until about the first century before the Christian era. Hie 0% 
channel to the natural habitat of Negro races, (which never has Un 
geographically to the northward of the limit of the TropiM rmi^ or 
about 16^ N. lat.,) until camels were introduced into Baibaiy, ifter 
the fall of Carthage, was along the Nile, and througli Egypt ezdo- 
sively. The Cartha^nians never possessed Negro slaves, exoeptiog 
what they may have bought in Egyptian bazaars ; of which inddenti 
we have no record. It is worthy of critical attention, that in tbe 
Periplu9 of Hanko, and other traditionaiy voyages outside the KDin 
of Hercules, while we may infer that these Carthaginian navigalon 
(inasmuch as they reached the country of the ChriUm^ now known 
to be the largest species of the chimpanzee,) must have bebdd 
Negroes also; yet, after passing the lAxitsej and other '^ men of 
various appearances," they merely report the whole coast to be inhi- 
bited by " Ethiopians." ^ Now, the Punic text of this voyage bring 
lost, we cannot say what was the original Carthaginian word wUdi 
the Greek translator has rendered by " Ethiopians ; " so tiiat, even if 
Negroes be a veiy probable meaning, these Atiantico-Afiican voyagn 
prove nothing beyond the feet that, in Hanno's time, B. c. five or dz 
centuries, there was already great diversity of races along the nortb- 
westem coast of Aj&ica, and that all of them were strange to the 

It is now established, moreover, that the account given by Eno 
DOTUS of the Nasamonian expedition to the country of the Gkuamantei 
never referred to the river Niger, but to some western journey int 
Mauritania ; as we have explained in Part H. 

Apart, then, from a few specimens of the Negro type that^ as cm 
OBitics, may have been occasionaUy carried from Egypt into Aa 
there was but one other route through which Negroes, until the tim 
of Solomon, could have been transported from Africa into AAm 
countries ; viz. : by the Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, and Bed 8< 
We have diligently hunted for archaeological proofs of the existeii 
of a Negro out of Egypt in such ancient times, and have fi^ond I 
two instances; dependent entirely upon the fidelity of the Bup< 
copies of Texier, and of Flandin. 

In Texier*s work^^® we think a Negro^ (in hair, lipe, and fee 
angle,) may be detected as the last figure, on the third line, amo 
the foreign supporters of the throne of one of the Achsemenian kii 
at Persepolis. There is nothing improbable in the circumstanoe ; : 



t Satrapies of Penda^ in the fifth century b. o., extended into 
The more certain example we allude to is found in the sculp- 
f Ehorsabad, or Nineveh ; ™ and probably appertains to the 
r Sasoan, b. c. 710-668. It is a solitary figure of a beardless 
viih wooUy hair, wounded, and in the act of imploring mercy 
e Assyrians, 
we now to Roman authority. 

rytibfi of a Nborkbb, wriiUn §arfy in the 
mUmy q/Ur o, 

M ekauit Qjbalen ; erst miica eii8to« ; 
■n, toU pfttriftm testante figim ; 
>m*m, Ubroqae tmnens, et fuBca oolorem ; 
lata, jaoens mjunmis, eompressior alTO, 
• «zflia, spatiosa prodiga planta ; 
jf rimis ealeanea sdasa rigebant" 

I meanwhile he calls Cybale. She was 
[house-] keeper. Aftrican by race, her 
I atlestiiig her father-land : with crisped 
ting lip, and blackish complexion ; broad 
rhh pendant dngs, [and] yery contracted 
Mr sjnndle-shanks [contrasted with her] 
bet ; and her cracked heels were stiffened 
nl clefts." 

I^fSfptian ddmsaUoH of a Nnouss, 
cut and pamUd 9ome 1600 yean 
befon the Latm dme r iptM n, 

Pio. 177. 

r. Gustavus A. Myers, (an eminent lawyer of Richmond, Va.,; 
ndebted for indicating to us this unparalleled description of a 
; no less than for the loan of the volume in which an un- 

passage of Virgil *^^ is contained. Through it we perceive 

the second century after c, the physical characteristics of a 
' or agricultural, "Nigger" were understood at Rome 1800 
go, as thoroughly as by cotton-planters in the State of Ala- 
till flourishing in a. d. 1853. 

, as every one now can see, has effected no alteration, even by 
to the iNew World, upon African types (save through amalga- 

for 3400 years downwards. Let us inquire of the Old conti- 
tiat metamorphoses time may have caused, as regards such 
transmutation^ upwards, 
t the sixteenth century b. c, Pharaoh Horus of the XVmth 

records, at Hagar Silsilis, his return from victories over Ni- 
families of the upper Nile.^ The hieroglyphical legendb 
is prisoners convey lie sense of — " KeSA, barbarian countiy, 
\ race ;" expressive of the Egyptian sentimentalities of that 
ards Nubians, Negroes, and "foreigners" generally. 


Among liis captives is the Kegress already i)ortra7ed (Fig. 177); tc 
whose bas-reliefed effigy we have merely restored one of the colon now 
effisu^ed by time. We present (Fig. 178) a head indicative of her mib 

companions, traced upon Bosellini's sice; om 
Pio. 178. reduction of her full-length figure bring tikBB 

from the Prussian Denhmdler.^ 

Here, then, is a degrees, sculptured and 

painted in Egypt about b. c. 1550, whose effigy 

corresponds with Yirgil's description at Borne i 

littie after a. d. 100 ; which female is identicd 

with living Negresses, of whom American Statei^ 

south of ^^ Mason and Dixon's line," could produce many hundradi 

in the present year, 1858. 

Have 8400 years, or any transplantations, altered the NEGRO noet 

When treating of the " Caucasian" type, we were obliged to jump 
from the XVHth back to the Xllth dynasty, owing to the lack of iii> 
tervenlng monuments, since destroyed by foreign invaders. The Bams 
difficulty recurs with regard to Negro races. In fact^ our matoiali 
here become still more defective ; for, although in the XHth dynntf 
abundant hieroglyphical inscriptions attest the existence of Ntgn 
nations, no portraits seem to be extant, of this epoch, upon whota 
coetaneous date of sculpture we can rely. That Negroes did, how- 
ever, exist in the twenty-fourth century B. c, or contemporaneoiuly 
with Usher's date of the Flood, we shall next proceed to show. 

Aside from the Tablet of Wady Hal£Ei, cut by Sesourtasen L, d 
the A nth dynasty, {supraj p. 188,) we quoted from Lepsius (n^ 
p. 174), a paragraph illustrative of the diversity of types at this eail] 
period, of which the following is a portion rendered from his Brieft 

** Mention is often made on the monuments of this period of the Tiotories giSBed \fj A 
kings oTer the Ethiopians and Negroes, wherefore we most not be surprised to see Use 

slaves and serrants." 

Mr. Birch kindly sent us, last year, an invaluable paper, whera 
the political relations of Egypt with Ethiopia are traced by his mat 
terly hand, from the earliest times down to the XlXth dynasty. Tl 
" Historical Tablet of Bamses H.,*' from which the most recent Ac 
are drawn, dates frt)m the sixteenth year of a reign, that la8t< 
upwards of sixty years.^ The subjoined extract is especially impoi 
ant, not only because demonstrative of the existence oiNegrof as I 
liack as the XTTth dynasty, but also because it establishes the extendi 
intercourse which Egypt held at that remote day (b. o. 2400^210 
with numerous Asiatic and African races. 

** The principal inducements which led the Pharaohs to the south were the TahuUe p 
dncts, especially the minerals, with which that region abounded. At the mAj period 


te ITtk wmd Ylth BgjptUa dynaf ties, no timeas ooonr of Ethiopian relations, and the 
fmtAa waa probablj at that time Eileithjia (El Hegs). So far indeed firom the Egyptian 
cUbatioa haTing descended the eataraets of the Nile, there are no monoments to show 
thl the Egyptians were then eren acquainted with the black races, the Nahsi as they 
wm caUed-Si^ Some information is found at the time of the Xlth dynasty. The base of 
a hmII ttatae inscribed with the name of the king Ba nub Cheptr^ apparently one of the 
of the Xlth dynasty, whose prenomen was discoyered by Mr. Harris on a stone 
into the bridge at Coptoe, intermingled with the Enoentefs, has at the sides of the 
on which it ia seated Asiatio and Negro prisoners. Under the monarchs of the 
XDlk dynasty, the Test fortifications of Samneh show the growing importance of ^Ethiopia, 
vttt the conquest of the principal tribes is recorded by Sesertesen L at the advanced 
fMl cf the Wady Haifa. The most remarkable feature of this period are the hydranUo 
o>MHitfyus oarefiolly recorded under the last monarchs of the line, and their snccessors 
IhiMakhetpB of the Xlllth dynasty. A Ublet in the British Mnsenm, dated in the reign 
ef iMBCBKha L has an accoont of the mining senrices of an officer in JEthiopia at that 
faifld. * I worked,' he says, ' the mines in my youth ; I haye regulated all the ohielh of 
Ihi gald washings ; I brought the metal penetrating to the land of Phut to the NahsL' It 
iipnbaUy for these gold mines that we find in the second year of Amenemha IV. an officer 
limeg the same name as the king, stating that he ' was invincible in his mi^esty's heart 
■ MitiAg the NahsL* In the nineteenth year of the same reign were victories over the 
lUo. At the earliest age ^Ethiopia was densely colonised, and the gold of the region 
j—nlid the Nile in the way of commerce ; but there are no slight difficulties in knowing 
Ibtiast rdalJoms of the two countries. 

**Ike age of the XVlIIth dynasty is separated firom the Xllth by an intenral during 
lUih the remains of certain monarchs named Sebakhetp, found in the ruins of Nubia, 
ihtw that th^ were at least ^Ethiopian rulers. The most important of the monuments of 
ttiege is the ptopylon of Mount Barkal, the ancient Napata, built by the so-called S-men- 
bi, who is represented in an allegorical picture vanquishing the iBthiopians and Asiatics. 
1W XVnith dynasty opened with foreign wars. The tablet of Aahmes-Pensuben in the 
liiRf reeords that he had taken * two hands,' that is, had killed two Negroes personally 
h Cih or Ethiopia. More information, and particularly bearing upon the Tablet of 
lasses, is afforded by the inscription of Eilethyia, now publishing in an excellent memoir 
)y )L de Roug6, in the line, * Moreover,' says the officer, ' when his majesty attacked the 
Has en-shaa,' or Nomads, * and when he stopped at Pmti-han'nefer to cut up the Phut, 
Ml whoi he made a great rout of them, I led captives from thence two living men and 
m dead (hand). I was rewarded with gold for victory again ; I received the captives for 
During the reign of Amenophis L, the successor of Amosis, the Louvre tablet 
that he had taken one prisoner in Kash oriEthiopia. At £1 Hegs, the fimctionary 
1 waa in the fleet of the king — the sun, disposer of eziBtence (Amenophis I.), jus- 
tiled; he anchored at Kush in order to enlarge the frontiers of Kami, he was smiting the 
fhst with Ids troops.' Mention is subsequently made of a victory, and the capture of 
piinMrs. It is interesting to find here the same place, Penti-han-nefer, which occurs in 
> helreisir inscription on the west wall of the pronaos of the Temple of PhilsD, where Isis 
iiiiprescntad as * the mistress of Senem and the regent of Pent-han-nefer.' From this it 
ii ffident that these two places were close to each other, and that this locality was near 
the site more recently called Ailak or PhilsD. The specs of this monarch at Tbrim, the 
liepeis at Tcnnu, or the Oebel Selseleb, show that the permanent occupation of Nubia at 
the sge of the XVIIIth dynasty extended beyond Phils. Several small tesserse of this 
nip re pr es ent the monarch actually vanquishing the ^Ethiopians. 

** The immediate successors of Amenophis occupied themselves with the conquest of Ethi- 
opia. There is a statue of Thothmes I. in the island of Argo, and a tablet dated on the 
15 ^bi of his second year at Tombos. The old temple at Sanmeh was repaired and dedi- 
esied to S cs srt ese n IIL, supposed by some to be the Seeostris who is wenliipped l^ Thoth* 



mes IIL 18 the god Tat-un, or 'Tonng Tst' It is at the temple of SeiaiMli thtttttfiil 
iDdication ooonrs of that line of princes who roled oyer iEthiopia, t^ an offieer wko M 
seired under Amosis and Thothmes I., in which last r^gn he had been appointed PriiN 
of iEthiopia. The reign of Thothmes IIL shows that Kuah figured on the regular rea^nl 
of Egypt The remains of the mutilated account of the fortieth regnal jear of the Uagii 
mentioned as ' 240 ounces' or * measures of out precious st<mes and 100 Ingots of gdi' 
Subsequently ' two canes' of some Taluable kind of wood, and at least * 800 ingots of grid,' 
are mentioned as coming from the same people. It spears fktun the tomb of Bedi-Aa«i| 
who was usher of the Egyptian court at the time, and who had duly introdueed the tribile- 
bearers, that the quota paid from this country was bags of gold and genu, monkegfi, p» 
ther-skins, logs of ebony, tusks of iTory, ostrich-eggs, ostrich-feathers, oamelopaidii lofi^ 
oxen, slayes. The permanent occupation of the country is at the same time attssM )j 
the constructions which the monarch made, at Samneh, and the Wady HaUik At Mi, 
Nehi, prince and goTcmor of the South, a monarch, seal-bearer, and counsellor or essadli, 
leads the usual tribute mentioned as 'of gold, iTory, and ebony' to the king. Art; «r1^ 
phon, called *Ifvb* or * Nub-Nub,* Nubia, instructs him in the art of drawing one of ikn 
long bows which these people, according to the legend, contemptuoudy pre se n te d to Ihi 
enToys of Cambyses. The successor of this monarch seems to ha^e held the ssme Bittt M 
territory, since, in the fourth year of his reign, these limits are mentioned, and soaohkNta 
with the remains of a dedication to the local deities. One of the rock temples at IWa 
was excavated in the reign of Amenophis U. by the Prince Naser^set, who was * nusunV 
{rq>a ha), < chief counsellor' {tabu thaa), and * goTcmor of the lands of the soutik.' Tki 
wall-paintings represent the usual procession of tribute-bearers to the kiag^ with goli 
silTer, and animals, some of whom, as the jackals, were enumerated. The nme moaiRh 
continued the temple at Amada, and a colossal figure of him, dedicated to Chnoui ^ 
Athor, and sculptured in the form of Phtha or Vulcan, has been found at Begg^e, lad ■ 
the fourth year of his reign the limits of the empire are still placed aa Mesopotamia oa Ihi 
north, and the Kalu or OalliB on the south. 

« In tiie reign of his successor Thothmes IV. a senrant of the king, apparently Us ohni 
oteer, states he had attended the king flrom Naharaina on the north, to Kalu, or the Gtlii 
in the south. 

** The constructions of this monarch at Amada and at Samneh, show that tribute OMM 
at the same time from the chiefs of the Naharaina on the north, and also fh>m ^Udofb 
This is shown by the tombs of the military chiefiB lying near the hiU which is sitnsto bt 
tween Medinat Haboo and the house of Jani, one of whom had exercised the office of rofi 
scribe or secretary of state, from the reign of Thothmes III. to that of AmenopldB ID 
The reign of his successor, the last mentioned monarch, is the most remarkable ii Ik 
monumental history of Egypt for the JSthiopian conquests. The marriage searabci of tl 
king place the limits of the empire as the Naharaina (Mesopotamia) on the north, and ti 
Karu or Kalu (the OallsB) on the south. Although these limits are found, yet it is eridi 
from the number of prisoners recorded that the Egyptian rule was by no means a setti 
one. They are Kish, Pet or Phut, Pamaui, Patamakai Uaruki, Taru-at, Baru, . . . kal 
Aruka, Makaiusah, Matakarbu, Sahabu, Sahbaru, Ru-nemka, Abhetu, Turusn, Shaaraski 
Akenes, Serunik Karuses, Shaui, Buka, Shau, Taru Tarn, Turusu, Tumbenka, Akea 
Ark, Ur, Mar. 

Amongst these names wiU be seen in the list of the Pedestal of Paris that of the Aki 
or Aka-ta, a name much resembling that of the Ath-agau, which is still preserred in 
Agow or Agows, a tribe near the sources of the Blue Nile. Amenophis appears \ty 
means to have neglected the conquests of his predecessors, and his advance to Soleb, in 
prorince of El Sokhot, and Elmahas, proves that the influenoe of Egypt was still n 
extended than in the previous reigns. 

** In the reign of Amenophis, JSthiopia appears to have been governed by a viceroy, ' 
waf* ar Egyptian officer of state, generally a royal scribe or military ohle( sent down 


rpitt rfw h ilBl rtitt rinf thft rnaiiti j : th« onaiii thli raignbon the name of M oimM, 
tfmn to hars Mdcd Ui daji at Tbebw, u bi» ispulebra remuiis in the WMUm 

H* «M M]]«d tb« M mfm M £iif A, or price* ot Kiuh, whlcb cotnprued the tract . 
■07 Ijiof Mnth of El^faMtinK. In all the Ethnic lists this Kuh or Ethiopia la 

Mxt to tlM bMd of the Uit, 'all landi of the Mntb,' and ita identltr with the BlbH- 
Jt ia nniTentlly adnitted. It is genenklly mentiaued with tk« hao^tieit ooDtenp^ 

tOi Koah {JTaiA Ut'tat,) or iBthio[da, and the prinoea wen of red or EgTptiaa 
Tkij dtttifttll; mdeml their proacTneinata to the klDga of Eg7pt"33S 

abituitial reafiODS may be foniid in our Part n. for qtiesboniDg 
oewhat uDlimited ezteosion of the Biblical KUSA, which certain 
oents might draw &om Mr. Birch's language. The hierogly- 
il nuue for Negroes ib Nahau, or Nairn; and, od the other hand, 
Egyptian (not the Hehrew) word KiSA, KeSA, KaSAI,"' was ap- 
to the ancient Barohra of Nabia, between the first and second 
acts, specifically ; and Bometimea to all Nubian &miliee, gene- . 
ly. The vowels a,e,i,o, in antiqne Egyptian no less than in 
Semitic writings, when not actually inserted, are entirely vague : 
■ the hieroglyphical word ever spelt kVah, like the Hebrew deeig- 

"Cneh;" which is maltranslated by "Ethiopia," because it de- 

1 Boi^liem Arabia. — Q. B. O.] 

e adEhors regret that their space compels them to abstain from 
■dudag tiie archeeological references with which Mr, Birch sap- 

his erudite concluMone. 

Imolo^cal science, then, possesses not only the authoritative tee- 
lies of Lepsius and Birch, in proof of the existence of Negro 
dniing the twenty-fourth century b, c. ; but, the same fact being 
ided by all living EgyptologiBts, we may hence infer that these 
tian types were contemporary with the earliest Egyptians. Such 
tive view is much strengthened by a comparison of languages ; 
sming the antiquity of which we shall speak in another chapter. 

one living in, or conversant with, the Slave-States of North 
rica, it need not be told, that the Negroes, in ten generations, 

not made the slightest physical approach either towards our 
iginal population, or to any other race. As a mnemonic, we 
subjoin, sketched by a friend, the likenesses of two Negroes (Figs. 
Fio. 179. FiQ. ISO. 


179, 180), who ply their avocatioiiB eveiyday in the streetB of MoUk; 
where anybody conld in a single morning collect a hundred otihen 
quite as strongly marked. Fig. 179 (whose portndt was caoght when 
chackling with delight, he was ^^ shelling out com" to a fiftvoiite hog] 
may be considered caricatured, although one need not travel &r tc 
procnre, in daguerreotype, features fully as animal ; but Vig. 180 is a 
£Edr average sample of ordinary field-Negroes in the United States. 

Mr. Lyell, in common with tourists less eminent, but in this ques- 
tion not less misinformed, has somewhere stated, that the K'egroes in 
America are undergoing a manifest improvement in their physical 
type. He has no doubt that they will, in time, show a development 
in skull and intellect quite equal to the whites. This unscientific 
assertion is disproved by the cranial measurements of Dr. Morton. 

That Negroes imported into, or bom in, the United States become 
more intelligent and better developed in tiieir physique generally than 
their native compatriots of Afnca, every one will admit ; but such intel- 
ligence is easily explained by their ceaseless contact with the whites, 
from whom they derive much instruction ; and such physical i^lprov^ 
ment may also be readily accounted for by the increase^pomforts 
with which they are supplied. In Afiica, owing to their naoiral im- 
providence, the Negroes are, more frequently than not^ a haJitstanred, 
and therefore half-developed race ; but when they are regnlarly and 
adequately fed, they become healthier, better developed, and more 
humanized. "Wild horses, cattle, asses, and other brutes, are greatly 
improved in like manner by domestication : but neither climate nor 
food can transmute an ass into a horse, or a buffalo into an ox. 

One or two generations of domestic culture effect all the improte- 
ment of which Negro-organism is susceptible. We possess thousands 
of the second, and many more of Negro families of the eighth or tenth 
generation, in the United States ; and (where unadulterated by white 
blood) they are identical in physical and in intellectual characters. 
No one in this country pretends to distinguish the native son of » 
Negro from his great-grandchild (except through occasional and evc^ 
apparent admixture of white or Indian blood) ; while it requires A« 
keen and experienced eye of such a comparative anatomist as Agaesix 
to detect structural peculiarities in our few Afiican-bom slaves. 
The "improvements" among Americanized Negroes noticed by Mr. 
Lycll, in his progress from South to North, are solely due to those 
ultra-ecclesiastical amalgamations which, in their ille^timate conse- 
quences, have deteriorated the white element in direct proportion that 
tlioy are said to have improved the black. 

But, leaving aside modern quibbles upon simple facts in natore, (^ 
often distorted through philauthropical panderings to poUtical amW" 





select, firom Abrabamlc antiquity, two other heads (Figs, 
which, idthongh not Kegroes, constitute an interesting link 
ddation of raoes; being placed, geographically and physically, 
the two extremes. 

This specimen (Fig. 181) is from 
the " Grand Procession " of Thot- 
mee ILL — XVllth dynasty, about 
the 8ix1;eenth centuiy b. c. The 
original leads a leopard and cap- 
lies ebony-wood : and his skin is 
ashrcolared in Rosellini.^ The 
same scene is given in Hoskins's 
Ethiopia^ where this man's person 
is improperly painted red.^ He is 
again figured without colors by 
no less than by Champollion-Figeac®* He is another 
r those ^^gente$ subfusei eolaris '* — abounding around Ethiopia, 
rypt — neither Negro, Berberri, nor Abyssinian ; but of a 
kted probably to the lat^r ; judging, that is, by characteristics 
he absence of hieroglyphical explanations now e&ced by time. 

Here we behold (Fig. 182), un- 
doubtedly, a true Ab}fmnianj who 
should be represented, as he is at 
Thebes, arange-^solar.^ We have 
the valid authority of Pickering^ 
on this point ; who concludes his 
chapter on Abyssinians as fol- 
lows : — 

** It seems, however, that the true Abys- 
sinian (as first pointed out to me by Mr. 
Gliddon) has been separately and distinctly 
figured on the ^Igyptian monuments : in the 
two men leading the camelopard in the tri- 
bute procession of Thoutmosis III.; andthii 
confirmed by an examination of the original painting at Thebes." 

ng's Eaces of Men contains a beautiful cinnrnnon-coloTed 
)f an Abyssinian warrior, taken by Prisse ; and, as before 
, offers to the reader a good idea of the living type of this 

iVz. 182. 

)rthy, too, of special note, that the above Fig. 182 is repre- 
i the Theban procession, leading a giraffe ; which animal is 
prith nearer to Egypt than Dongola; a ftict that fixes his 
f latitude along the Abyssinian regions of the Nile. Such 
m to confirm the fidelity of Egyptian draughtsmen, together 
correctness of their ethnographical conceptions and varied 



materials. Our Abyssinian head exhibits the sams fcrm and color 
M the present race of that country, even after the lapse of 3300 yeaw; 
and it stands aa another proof of the permanence of human typei. 

Conceding the extreme probability of Birch's conjectnre, tbattlis 
Negro captives discovered by Mr. Ilairis belong to tlie Xlth d^iiastr, 
(which thus would place the earliest known effigies of N^roes in tJie 
twenty-fourth or twenty-fifth centuiy b. c.,) we cannot lay hold of tlm 
indication as a etand-point ; because the sculpture may (through cir. 
cuuistances of recent masonry) be assigned to a later age. But, of 
one fact we are made certain by Birch'e former studies :"• viz., that 
the officers or superintendents appointed by the Pharaohs to regulate 
their Nubian provinces, were invaiiably Egyptiant, painted red, aud 
never Nigritians of any race whatever. The title "Prince of KcSV 
was that of Egyptian viceroys, or lord-lieutenants, nominated by the 
Diospolitan government to rule over distant territories occupied bj 
Nubians and Negroes of the austral Nile. 

In the Theban tomb, opened previously to 1830 by Mr. WUIdnBon, 
(about the epoch of which the theory of an Argive, "DattMU,""Ied 
him into some odd hallucinations), and critically examineAi 183d- 
'40 by Harris and Gliddon, there was an amazing collectionW Negn 
scenes, A Negress, apparently a princess, amves at Thebv, drawn 
in a planstnim by a pair of humped oxen — the<im«Mid groom 
being red-colored Egj^itiane, and, one might almost infer, ennuchu," 
Following her, are multitudes of Negroes and Nubians, bringing 
tribute from the Upper country, as well as black slaves of both seies 
and all ages, among wliich are some red children, whoso /ot^i wen 
Egj'ptians. The cause of her advent seems to have been to make 
offerings in this torab of a "royal son of EeSA — Amunoph,"who 
may have been her husband. The Pharaoh whose prenomen rtsniij 
recorded in this sepulchral habitation is an Amenophia ;"" but, beyond 
the tact that his reign must fall towaixis the close of the Xvilltli 

Fio. 183. Fio. 164.» 



r, and about the timeB of the " disk-heresy," we were not aware 
8 place could be determined, antil we opened the DenkTniiUr ; 
the major portioD of these varied Airican Bubjects, unique for 
Dgulant^ and preservation, are reproduced in brilliant colors, 
ve already chosen a Semitic head, deemed by us to present 
iian affinities {tupra, p. 164, Fig. 90), &om sculptures of the 
mes. "We here repeat it (Fig. 183), for the sake of contrasting 
I with a Negro, and a Nubian 
itly (Fig. 184), taken from the 
He of Afiican cariosities above 
aed. We say apparenUy, be- 
he slighter shade, given by 
10 artists to figures grouped 
together, sometimes arises 
le necessity of distinguishiug 
blocked limbs, &c., of men of 
DC color. Instances may be 
of this attempt at perspective, 
B colored scenes indicated in 
I,*" so that the unblackened 
Par Fig. 184 may be tiiat of 

the saxe of illustrating that, 
1 Ancient Egypt, African ala- 
iS not altogether unmitigated 
lentd of congenial enjoyment; 
ays inseparable from the tash 
1 hand-cuff*; we submit a copy 
e Negroes " dancing in the 
)f Thebea " (Fig. 185), by way 
Eologieal evidence that, 3400 
go, (or before the Exodus of 
1. c. 1322), "de same ole Nig- 
f our Southern plantations 
aend his Nilotic sabbaths in 
y recreations, and 

v closing our comments upon 
plans," it is due to the me- 
r the author of Orania ^gyp- 
•i to omit some notice of two 



problems that attracted his penetrating researches. The first coh- 
cems the ancient Mero'ites ; the second, that mixed family in which, 
under the name of ^^Austral-Egyptians," Morton perceived some 
possibly-lTtncioo affinities. Commencing with the former question, 
we recall to mind how the discoveries of the Prussian Scientific Mis- 
sion {aupraj p. 204), in and around the &r-famed Isle of Meroe, have 
relieved archseologists from further discussions as to the illusoiy anti- 
quity of a realm that, previously to the eighth century B. c, was merely 
a Pharaonic province and an Egyptian colony ; and which, moreover, 
did not become important, as an independent kingdom, until Ptole- 
maic times. It was not, however, until after the publication of Us 
JEgyptiaca (of which Chevalier Lepsius received a first copy, together 
^vitll Qliddon's OhapterSj under the pyramid of Qebel Birkel, in Ethi- 
opia itself^*), that Dr. Morton was informed, by the Chevalier directly, 
of results so demolishing to the learned theories of Heeren, Prichard, 
and other scholars. Unhappily for science, death arrested the hand 
of our illustrious friend before it could register the emendations con- 
sequent upon such immense changes in former historica^pinions. 
Although one of the authors (G. R. G.) has, in the interi^Mnjcyed 
the advantage of beholding, at Berlin, the sculptures broSit fiom 
Ethiopia, and of hearing Chevalier Lepsius's criticisms, niva ^Im, upon 
Moro'ite subjects, we deem ourselves peculiarly uirfMlMll^that the 
Denkmdlerj so far as its livraisons have reached us, has not yet com- 
prised copies of these newly-discovered bas-reliefii. We are unable, 
at present, therefore, to demonstrate to the reader, by the reproduction 
of portraits of Queen Candace and her mulatto court, the true causes 
why the civilization of Meroe declined, and finally became extin- 
guished : viz., owing to Negro amalgamationSy during the first centa- 
ries of our era. This fact may sen'e as a topic for some future 
Appendix to our volume. 

To obviate, however, any argu- 
ment respecting Mero'itc affinities 
with regard to Negro races in ant». 
rior times, we reproduce the portrait - 
of Manetho*8 "Ethiopian" sovereign,^ 
Tirhaka (supra, p. 151, Fig. 71) ; theE 
"Melck-KUSA, or CushiU king (S 
Kings, xix. 9) ; contemporary with th*-L. 
Assyrian Sennacherib, whose lik^ 
ncss has also been submitted und^ 
our Fig. 27 {supra, p. 180.) 

Nor did the high-caste lineamecr^/ 
of these "Ethiopian" princes, 9^MDd 

Fio. 1S6. 



4ie totftl abflenoe of Nigritian elements in the physiognomiee of all 
KaolteSy as known in 1844, escape Morton's attention.^ His com- 
MntB on the accompanying effigies from Meroe suffice. 

FiS. lS7.3i3 

Fio. 188.3M 

^ ''At oo^k the left hand [Fig 87] (that of an 

P *ibem 1^K» has mixed lineaments, neither 

i^iH^ Piiyii nor Egyptian; while the right- 

k^ ^^''^'^^flriHiMfli^]* ^^^ sppears to be a 
^^jphitdcJBf homage, presents a conntenanoe which 
iHTiipoadSy in essentials, to the Egyptian type, 
ikhtigh Hm proile approaches closely to the Gre- 
•«. The annexed head [Fig. 189—18] also a king, 
WiriBf some resemblance to the one aboTo figured. " 

Fio. 189.3«5 


With regard to the "Hindoo" re- 
Kmblances perceived by Morton in cer- 

t«n Egyptian crania of his vast collection, while we will neither 
iffinn nor deny them, the authors cannot but think that their lamented 
colleague was herein biassed, rather by traditionary data (even yet 
si^)osed to be historical), than by anatomical evidences which, at 
•ny rate, do not strike our eyes as salient Indeed, we know per- 
•oniDy that, had Morton lived, Prichard's scholastic learning, but 
pwtinacious ignorance of hieroglyphical Egypt, would have been dealt 
^ as by ourselves, under full recognition of the one, and through 
ittpectful exposure of the other. Part lH. of our volume renders it 
'njnecessary to dwell, in this place, upon Sir W. Jones's Oriental eru- 
fitbn, or upon Col. Wilford's self-delusions, in respect to now-exploded 
connections between ancient India and primordial Egypt. 

The Qreek tradition (Latinic^) runs as follows : ^^^thiopes, ab Indo 
favio profecti, supra -^gyptum sedem sibi eligerunt."^ But, who 
ire these Ethiopians t At most, Asiatic " sun-^m^ &ces ** — some 


people, darker in hae than Greeks, who emigrated from the Indu. 
The era, assigned for their migration to conntries south of Eg^p^i i> 
attributed to that of one among many Pharaohs, called by tiredio 
narrators " Amenophis; " and the legend reaches as through aByzu- 
tine monk, the SynceUua (writing 2000 years after the events), at onn 
the most diligent, and the least critical, compiler the aeventh centntf 
of our era produced. To say the least, the historical suriace we Intd 
on trembles, as though it floated over a quagmire. These doolM 
suggested, we submit extracts from the Crania ^ffjfptiaeo : — 

" I obMrre, among tlie Enrptian cnnl*, soma wbleh (USar In nothing fron Ih* Bbte 
t7p«, either in retpeot to liie or coDfignratian. I hare alreadf, in my noMiki spot t» 
ear, mentiiwed a downward eloagation of tli« nppar jaw, whldi I hsTS aim frtqMrff 
net witli in Egyptian and Hindoo heada than in anj other, althongh I hare aNo it mb- 
moDall; in all the races. This featnre is remarkable in two of the hUowing In BiA 
(A, B), aod ma; be compared with a mmilar form from Abydoa."**^ 

" It is in that mixed fkmlly of natiOH wW I 
htTe called Austral-Egjptlan that we ihonld ufA 
to meet with the Blrongest endenae of Hindoo liaMp; 
and here, again, we eao odI; Institnte adeqoaltew- 
parleone hj referenee to the works of ChampoIBeBH' 
Roeellini. I abaerre the Hindoo a^e of ttttam k 
seretalof the royal effi^ea; and In none nan M- 
dcdly than In tlie head of AshaiTaaion (Fig. IVIV ■ 
BculptDred in the temple of DehSd, in KnUa. Hi 
date of this king has not yat been ueart^ntd; M 
as he ruled over HeroC, and not in Egypt, (|mUlr 
In Ptolemaio times [n. a. 200-300],) he may U if 
garded as an illustration of at leaat one tao dillfiHM 
of the Austral-Egyptian type. 

■'Another set of (batores, bnt little diVbwt, kt- 
eTcr, Item the preeedlnE, ii seen anong the mlddEsi 
class of Egyptians as piotnrad on the miMiuavK 
and these I also reftor to the Hindoo ^pa. Ts^ 

rZT^ for example, the four annexed ontlinea (Fig. IW> 

copied from a sculptured fragment piueiied ii ItA 

'T museum of Tarin. These efEglaa nay be aM to ba 

f — eeMntially Egyptian ; bnt do they sot fivaUr n^' 
na of the Hindoo I" 


rest is our respect for Morton's judgment ; such manifold ex- 
es have we acquired of his perceptive acateneas in craniologicial 
7, that we shoold prefer the afSrmatory decisiona of others 
I to this Hindoo-MeroiCe problem, to any negation on oar own 

precepting hrief digresuons enable ub to leave Meroe, and re- 
rith a more poutive, because osteological, proof of the perdu- 
ontinuance of the Negro type, 
semi-embalmed craniam of a 
. (Pig. 193), fiom Morton's ''"• ^«*" 

, is preserved at the Acade- 
Natoral Sciences in Fhila- 
. Bejond the £act that mum- 
ion ceased towards the fifth 
' of oar era ; and that, being 
1 ancient tamulus at the sa- 
ale of Beghe, the female 
of,Jhe annexed skall may 
I domestic sUve of some 
worshipper at the 

I, on the adjacent Isle of Philse ; all that can he siud 
^f our specimen confines it to a period between 
rth centaiy b. c. (when Pharaoh Nectakbbo founded the temple 
je), and the extinction of embalming, coupled with the substi- 
of Christianity (as understood by "Ethiopians,") for the reli- 
F Osiris, about the fifth century after c.**" Fifteen hundred 
lay, therefore, be assumed as the reasonable lapse of time since 
ed Negress was consigned to the mound where hundreds of 
teirian pilgrims lie, coarsely swathed in bitumenized wrappers, 
jcimen is unique in the annals of Egyptian embalmment ; inas- 
18 no other purely-Negro vestiges have as yet tamed ap in 
or catacombs. 

ial to many aa the incident may seem, Science, nevertheless, 
ike "these dry bonea speak" to the following points. First, 
tabliah Nigritian indelibility of type, even to the woolly hair ; 
B, our American cemeteries could yield up thousands of heads 
al with this woman's. Secondly, they attest the comparative 
■ of Negro individuals in Egypt during all ancient timee ; he- 
althongh the priesta embalmed every native pauper, such Ni- 
mummies have never, that we can learn, been discovered by 
cere of that country's sepulchres. And, thirdly, as this skull 
litaiy exception, among millions of mummies disinterred, it 
itratea that the Egyptians possessed no craoiological proximity 



Fio. 194. 

to those Negro types with whom their ezistenoe wn ever coeval 
Iiideedy this head was not found in Egypt proper, but immwliatriy 
above the first cataract in Lower Nubia. 

As Mr. Birch has mentioned, 
in the extract prenously g^fen, 
histoiy reposes upon Ae TtUd 
of Wikdee Skffa for Ae cxmqnot 
of Upper Nabia ; and also ftr 
the earliest monumental ren- 
contre with KegToes, by 81- 
8OUBTBSEH L, second kingrfAe 
xiit h d3rnas1y, near about 2S(8 
years b. a ; which is the audio- 
rized date of the Deluge m 
Elng James's yersion. Hie 
tablet is small, and veiy modi 
abraded; but, Morton having 
enlarged the royaLportnut,* 
we repeat it here, mr whit it 
may be worth ethjologicallj. 


\may be worth ethdblogicaUj. 
It proves, at least, imt Ssfioui- 
TE8EN*8 li ii i amoii ^were anv- 

TE8EN*8 lidjtanentPwere any- 
thing but African. 

The heads of austral captivei^ 
surmounting shields in wluck 
their national names are written, exist in this tablet, too mutilitrf 
for UB to distiiignish anything beyond the Jfriean contour of thai 
features. Birch ^* reads their cognomina — 

" 1. KaSf or Oas, 
2. Shemki, or TemkL 
8. Chataa, 

4. Shaat, 

6. Kkifukm; or, periiapt the SkOawgih vfco 
now are caUed ' ShiUooks' 7 " 

It therefore becomes settled by the hieroglyphics, that the Egvptitttt 
had ascended the Nile, and had encountered iVi^ro-races, at least tf 
fer back as the twenty-fourth century b. c. 

We can now add a most extraordinary fact, since discovered hf 
Viscount De Eouge, to the extracts we have culled from BircVB 
memoir. An inscription on the rocks near Samneh, in Nubia,*" en* 
by Scsourtesen m. (of the same Xllth dynasty — about 2200 B.C.), 
in the " Vlllth year" of his reign, establishes that he had then ex- 
tended the southern frontier of Egypt to that point, viz., the tlurf 
cataract ; whereas his predecessor, Sesourtesen L, had only guarded 
the passes at WAdee Haifa, the second cataract, some 180 mite* 
below. M. De Boug6,^ with that felicitous acumen for which heiB 
renowned, reads a passage in this inscription as follows : — 


** Frontier of the Soath. I>oiie in the year VIII., nnder King Sesoorteeen [HI.], erer 
fieg; in order that it may not be permitted to any Ntgro to pass by it in naTigating" 
kn\ the river]. 

The repugnance of the Egyptians towards Nigritian races, exhibited 
A their epithet of "NaHSI — harbarian country, jo^rverw race," be- 
Bomes now a solid fSeu^t in primeval history ; at the same time that 
die above inscription proves conclusively how, just about 4000 years 
igo, the geographical habitat of Negroes commenced exactly where 
it does at this day : viz., above the third cataract of the Nile. 

We have shown, by their portraits, that the three "Ethiopian" 
kings (Sabaco, Sevechus, and Tarhaka) of the XXVth dynasty, b. c. 
719-695), possess nothing Negroid in their visages. Meroe, as Lep- 
liiu has determined irrevocably, became an independent principality 
at a fitr later day ; and, so soon as she was cut off from Egyptian 
Uood and civilization, the influx of Negro concubines deteriorated 
kr people, until, by the fifth century after Christ, she sank amid the 
UWb of eurrounding African barbarism, mentaUy and pbysically 
bbfiterated for ever. 

To ourAimented countryman, Morton, belongs the honor of first 
venderiiigWiese data true as axioms in the science of anthropology. 
Oar part ^as been to demonstrate that the principles of his method 
vere corre^ as h^aU as to support them with fresher evidences than 
lie was spared to investigate. At the time of the publication of the 
Cknia J^yftiaca^ the '^ Gallery of Antiquities in the British Mu- 
lemn"*' had not reached him; consequently he was not then 
itare that the vast tableau from Beyt-el-WMee, out of which he 
fcid selected the following heads (Fig. 151) stands, moulded in fac- 
fimile and beautifully colored, on the walls of an Egyptian hall in 
tbit great Institution. The copy lies before us, elucidated by Mr. 
Birch's critical description. Here NegroeB and Ntibians are painted 
n all shades — blacks and browns ; while the red (or color of honor) 
3 given to the Egyptians alone. 

With these emendations, which unfortunately the nature of our 
^ork does not permit us to portray in colors, Morton's own words 
ind wood -cuts may appropriately close this chapter on the Negro 
Tjfpe: — 

** For the purpose of illustration, we select a single picture Arom the temple (hemispeos) 
i Beyt-el-Wilee, in Nubia, in which Rameses II. is represented in the act of making war 
^m the Negroes — who, OTcreome with defeat, are flying in consternation before him. 
hfB the multitude of AxgitiTes in this scene (which has been TiTidly copied by Champol- 
imi» and Rosellini, and which I have compared in both), I annex a fac-simile group of 
iM heads, which, while they preeerre the national fbatures in a remarkable degree, pr*- 
M also considerable diTcrsity of expression. 

**Ike hair on some other figures of this group is dressed In short and separate tufls^ sr 



IbTCrted aoD«8, preoiMl; like thoM now worn b; the Negroei of Ifadaguaar, h 
BotUller*! Vbj/age. 

"In the uidat of the Ytaqoished AMouu, stioding in Ui oar and urging en th 
ii BamcMS bimulf ; whoie ta*xiij and beantifl)! conDtenanM will not ndTer bj 
with the finest Csaauiaa models. The annexed outline (for all the SgntM an 
ID ODtlioe only), will enable the reader U> form hia own oonolnmona reapcetiag t 
ordinal; gronp," wUeh dates in the fourteenth centni; befora the Chriatian tra.' 

Fio. ie«. 


he ftathon confidently trast, that the antiquity of "Negro races, 
leas than ihepemumenee of Negro typeSy during the (1853+2348) 
I yean that have just elapsed since Usher's Flood, are questions 
' aadflfiMStoiily set at rest in the minds of lettered and scientific 
len. A parable, thrown back among our notes,^ suffices to illus*^ 
e popular impressions in regard to the cuticular and osteological 
ages produced by climate^ and in respect to the philological meta- 
phoses caused by transplantatianj upon human races aboriginally 
inct It is not incumbent upon us to inquire, whether the delu- 
1, generally current upon such very simple matters of fiu^t, are 
6 ascribed to intellectual apathy among the taught, or to ignorance 
mystifications among their teachers. 

t the close of Chapter VI. {suproj p. 210), in reference to the per- 
lency of Asiatic and African types in their respective geographical 
kUanMy we asked, ^^ Within human record, has it not edways been 
iT" Every national tradition, all primitive monuments, and the 
do context of ancient and modem history, answer affirmatively 
each of those parts of the Old continents hitherto examined, 
iations from the historical point of view requiring no notice, at 
present day, by any man of science, it would be sheer waste of 
s to discuss them. We lose none, therefore, in passing over at 
d to that continent which no students of Natural History now 
aU "theiVw." 




"hb Continent of America is often designated by the appellation 
the New World; but the researches of modem geologists and 
geologists have shown that the evidences in favour of a high anti- 
y, during our geological epoch, as well as for our Fauna and Flora, 
to say the least, quite as great on this as on the eastern hemi- 
jpe. Prof. Agassiz, whose authority will hardly be questioned in 
ters of this kind, tells us that geology finds the oldest landmarks 
I ; and Sir Charles Lyell, from a mass of well-digested facts, and 
I the corroborating testimony of other good authorities, concludes 
the Mississippi river has been running in its present bed for more 
I one hundred thousand years.^ The channel cut by the Niagaim 
r, below the Falls, for twelve miles through oolid rock^ in tk 


estimation of the same distingaished author, as well as of othen, pm 
no less satisfeu^ry proof of the antiqaity of the present rdsdva 
position of continents and oceans. 

Dr. Bennet Dowler, of New Orleans, in an interesting essay," 
recentiy published, supplies some extraordinary &ctB in confinnstkm 
of the great age of the delta of the Mississippi, assumed by Lydl, 
Biddell, Carpenter, Forshej, and others. From an investigation of 
the successive growths of cypress forests around that city, the stamps 
of which are still found at different deptJiM^ direcHy overlying each otkr; 
from the great size and age of these trees, and fiom the renudnsof 
Indian bones and pottery found below the roots of some of theee 
stumps, he arrives at tiie following conclusion: — 

" From these data it appears that the human race existed in the delta more tfaia 67,001 
years ago ; and that ten subterranean forests, and the one now growings wiU show thtftn 
exuberant flora existed in Louisiana more than 100,000 yean anterior to these eridiMn 
of man*s existence/' 

The delta of the Alabama river bears ample testimony to the stme 
effect. Along the Mobile river and bay we find certain shell-fisih, 
whose relative positions are determined at present, as they alwsji 
have been, by certain physical conditions, viz. : the unio sndpaludiM^ 
the gnathodon, and the oyster. The first are always found above 
tide-water, where the water is perfectiy fi:^h; the second flourifiheBiB 
brackish water alone ; and the oyster never but in water that is 
almost salt. As the delta of the river has extended, they have eadi 
greatly changed their habitats. The most northern habitat^ at the pie- 
sent day, for example, of the gnathodon, stands about Choctaw Point, 
one mile below Mobile; whereas we have abundant evidence that it 
formerly existed fifty miles above. The unio, paludina, and oyster 
have changed positions in like manner. 

Immense beds of gnathodon shells are found, and in the greatert 
profusion, all along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, where they 
have doubtless been deposited by Indians in former times. Great 
numbers of those beds exist on the Mobile bay, and along the liveT, 
for fift:y miles above the city, where only a scattering remnant of the 
living species is still found. The Indians had no means for, and no 
object in, transporting such an immense number fifty miles up the 
river ; and we must, therefore, conclude that the Mobile bay once ex- 
tended to the locality of these upper " shell banks ;" and that the 
Indians had collected them for food, near where these banks are now 
beheld. One strong evidence of this conclusion is gathered from the 
fia^t, that the difierent artificial beds of the unio, the gnathodon, and 
the oyster, are never here formed of a mixture of two or more shells; 
which would be the case if their locations had been near each other. 


That these beds are of Indian origin is clear, from the fact that the 
ibelb have all been opened, and that we find in them the marks of 
fire, extending over considerable spaces — the shells converted into 
(|iuck-lime, and mingled with charcoal, so that the successive accu- 
molations of shells may be plainly traced.^ Fish-bones and other 
lemaius of Indian feasts are common : t. e. fragments of Indian pot- 
toy; and of human bones, which can be identified by their crania. 

Some of these beds are covered over by vegetable mould, from one 
to two feet thick, which must have been a very long time forming ; 
ind apon this are growing the largest forest trees, beneath whose 
lOotB these Indian remains are often discovered. It is more than 
probable, too, that these huge trees are the successors of former 
growths quite as large. 

We cannot, by any conjecture, approximate, within many centu- 
ries, perhaps thousands of years, the time consumed in thus extending 
the delta of the Alabama river, and in producing the changes we 
\as% hinted at; nor dare we attempt to fix the time at which the Red 
men fed upon the gnathodons that compose the first beds to which we 
hi?e alluded. 

It IB worthy also of special remark that the gnathodon, of which 
ifew surviving specimens still endure along the Gulf coast of Florida, 
Alabama, and Mississippi, was once a living species in the Chesapeake 
bay; but has been so long extinct that it now exists there only in a 
fianl state. This would extend the living fauna very much farther 
lick than the Chesapeake deposits : all our recent shells, or nearly 
•II, being found in the pliocene, and many shells in still earlier forma- 
tioDa. Such facts, with many others of similar import, which might 
be adduced, point to a chronology very fer beyond any heretofore 
received : and who will doubt that, when the Mississippi, Alabama, 
and Niagara rivers first poured their waters into the ocean, a fauna 
and a flora already existed? and, if so, why did not man exist? 
rhey all belong to one geological period, and to one creation. 

These authorities, in support of the extreme age of the geological 
ffa to which man belongs, though startling to the unscientific, are 
lot simply the opinions of a few ; but such conclusions are substan- 
itlly adopted by the leading geologists everywhere. And, although 
ntiquity so extreme for man's existence on earth may shock some 
reconceived opinions, it is none the less certain that the rapid accu- 
lulation of new facts is fast familiarizing the minds of the scientific 
'orld to this conviction. The monuments of Egypt have already 
us tBT beyond all chronologies heretofore adopted ; and when 
barriers are once overleaped, it is in vain for us to attempt to 
p|»oximate, even, the epoch of man's creation. This conclusion is 


not based merely on the researches of such archseologists as Lepsins, 
Bunsen, Birch, De Longperier, Humboldt, &c., but on those, also, of 
strictly-orthodox writers, Kenrick, Ilincks, Osbum; and, we may add, 
of all theolo^ans who have really mastered the monumeutB of 
Egypt. Nor do these monuments reveal to us only a 9ingk race, at 
this early epoch in full tide of civilization, but they exhibit fidthfiil 
portraits of the same African and Asiatic races, in all their diversity, 
which hold intercourse with Egypt at the present day. 

Now, the question naturally springs up, whether the abori^nes of 
America were not contemporary with the earliest races, known to us, 
of the eastern continent? If, as is conceded, '^Caucasian," Negro, 
Mongol, and otlier races, existed in the Old World, already distinct, 
what reason can be assigned to show that the aborigines of America 
did not also exist, witli their present types, 6000 years ago ? The 
naturalist must infer that tlie fauna and flora of the two contbeDts 
were contemporary. All facts, and all analogy, war against the sup- 
position that America should have been left by the Creator a dreary 
waste for thousands of years, while the other half of the world was 
teeming with organized beings. This view is also greatly strength, 
ened l)y the acknowledged fact, that not a single animal, bird, rep. 
tile, fish, or plant, was common to the Old and New Worlds. Xo 
naturalist of our day doubts that the animal and vegetable kingdomft 
of America were created where they are found, and not in Asia. 

The races of men alone, of America, have been made an exception 
to this general law ; but this exception cannot be maintained by any 
course of scientific reasoning. America, it will be remembered, was 
not only unknown to the early Romans and Greeks, but to the Egyp- 
tians ; and when discovered, less than four centuries ago, it was fo«ud 
to be inhabited, from the Arctic to Cape Horn, and from ocean to 
ocean, by a population displaying peculiar physical traits, unlike any 
races in the Old World ; speaking languages bearing no resemblance 
in stnicture to other languages; and living, everywhere, among- 
animals and plants specifically distinct from those of Europe, Ajsk, 
Africa, and Oceanica. 

But, natural as this reasoning is, in favor of American origin for oar 
Indians, we shall not leave the question on such debatable ground. 
There is abundant positive evidence of high antiquity for this popu- 
lation, which we proceed to develop. 

In reflecting on the aboriginal races of America, we are at once 
met by the striking fact, that their physical characters are wholly in- 
dependent of all climatic or known physical influences. Notwith- 
standing their immense geographical distribution, embracing every 
variety of climate, it is acknowledged by all travellers, that there u 


among this people a pervaJing iy^e, around which all the triljes (north, 
south, east, and west) cluster, though varying within prescribed limits. 
With trifling exceptione, all onr American Indiana bear to each other 
some degree of family reacTiiblance, quite aa strong, for example, as 
that seen at the present day among full-blooded Jews ; and yet they 
»re distinct from every race of the Old World, in features, langnages, 
costoins, arts, religions, and propensities. In the language of Morton, 
who studied this people more thoroughly than any other writer : — 
"All possess, though in various degrees, the long, lank, black liair; 
the heavy brow ; the dull, sleepy eye ; the full, compreaaed lips ; and 
the ealient, hut dilated nose." These characters, too, are heheld in the 
dvilizcd and the most savage tribes, along the rivers and sea-eouats, in 
the valleys and on the mountains; in the prairies and in the forests; 
in the torrid and in the ice-hound regions; amongst those that live 
on fish, on flesh, or on vegetables. 

The only race of the Old World with which any connection has 
been reasonably conjectured, is the Mongol ; but, to say nothing of 
the marked difference in physical characters, their languages alone 
ehould decide against any such alliance. 

"Ths Americui race differs esseDUally rrom all others, uot exoepting tlie Uongoliim; 
ant do tlie feeble anKlDgies of language, und the more obvious oucs of oiTil and reUgioui 
butitntions and Mts, denote anj^'mg bejocd easusl or colonial commnnication with tho 
Ammtie nationa : uid eren theee analogiiiH maj, perhnps. be aucouuted for, as Humboldt 
lu BnggeBted, id the mere coinoidence arising from similar nnnla and impulses in nations 
iaiabiliiig similnr latitudes." ^ei 

iNo philologist can he found to deny the fact that the Chinese are 
DOW speaking and writing a language substantially the same as the 
oae they used 5000 years ago; and that, too, a language distinct from 
every tongue spoken by the Caucasian races. On the other hand, 
we have the American races, all speaking dialects indisputably 
peculiar to this continent, and possessing no marked affinity with any 
other. Now, if the Mongols have preserved a language entire, in 
Asia, for 5000 years, they should have likewise preserved it here, or 
to say the least, some trace of it. But, uot only are the two Unguistic 
groups radical lydisrinct, but no trace of a Mongol tongue, dubious 
words excepted, can be found in the American idioms. If such imagi- 
nary Mongolians ever brought their Asiatic speech into this countri-, 
it is clear that their fictitious descendants, the Indians, have lost it ; 
and the latter must have acquired, instead, that of some extinct race 
which preceded a Mongol colonization. It will be conceded that a 
TOlony, or a nation, could never lose its vocabulary so completely, 
oolees through conquest and amalgamation ; in which case they would 
Klopt ajwtker language. But, even when a tongue ceases to be 

275 ■ 

orth. • 



spoken, some trace of it will continue to survive in the names of 
individuals, of rivers, places, countries, &c. The names of Moses, 
Solomon, David, Lazarus, Isaac and Jacob, are still found among the 
Jews everywhere, although the Hebrew language has ceased to be 
spoken for more than 2000 years. And the appellatives Mississippi, 
Missouri, Orinoko, Ontario, Oneida, Alabama, and a thousand other 
Indian names, will live for ages after the last Red man is mingled 
with the dust. They have no likeness to any nomenclature in the 
Old Worid. 

In treating of American races, our prescribed limits do not permit 
us to go into details respecting the infinitude of types which compose 
them. Our purpose at present is simply to bring forward such &ct8 
as may be sufficient to establish their origin and antiquity. The 
broad division of Dr. Morton, into two great families, which contrast 
in many j>oints strongly with each other, is sufficiently minute, viz. : 
"The Toltecan nations and the Barbarous tribes.'* This classification 
is somewhat arbitrary ; but it is impossible, in our day, to establish 
any but very wide boundary-lines. Here, as in the Old World, wars, 
migrations, amalgamations, and endless causes, have, during several 
thousand years, disturbed and confused Nature's original work ; and 
we must now deal with masses as we find them. In fiatct^ our main 
object in alluding at all to the diversity of types among the abori^es 
of America, is to give another illustration of a position advanced else- 
where in this volume. We have shown that the major divisions of 
the eartli, or its different zoological provinces, were populated by 
groups of races, bearing to each other certain family resemblances; 
notwithstanding that, in reality, these races originated in nations, and 
not in a single pair ; thus forming proximate, but not identical spe- 
cies. The Mongols, the Caucasians, the Negroes, the Americana, 
each constitute a group of this kind. In our chapters on the Oams-^ 
sian races, for example, we have shown how the Jews, Egyptians^ 
Hindoos, Pelasgians, Romans, Teutons, Celts, Iberians, &c., which, 
had all been classed under this common head, can be traced, as dis^ 
tinct forms, beyond all human chronology. The same law applies to 
the American races. Although every tribe has some cbaracters tha."t 
mark it as American, yet there are certain sharply- drawn distinctions^ 
among some of these races, which cannot be explained by climati.c 
influences. The Toltecan, and Barbarous tribes, taken separately, c^» 
masse, aftbrd a good illustration, for they diflfer essentially in th^i? 
moral and physical characteristics. The most prominent distinctioii 
between these two families results from comparison of their cranL 
logical developments. Dr. Morton, whose collection of human craa. 
is the most complete in the world, bestowed unrivalled attention 


American races, and has given actual measurements of 888 Indian 
ikalls, in which the two great divisions are aknost equally lepresented. 
lat The Tolteean Family — comprising all the semi-civilized nations 
of Mexico, Peru, and Bogota, who, there is every reason to believe, 
Fere the builders of the great system of mounds found throughout 
North America. Of 213 skulls, Mexican and Peruvian, 201 belong 
to the latter — each having been obtained from the oldest burial- 
grounds and through the most reliable sources. On these heads, 
Morton makes the following striking comment : — 

*'WbcB we eonsider the institations of the old Pemnans, their compftratiTelj adranced 
drOintioD, their tombs and temples, monntain-roads and monolithic gateways, together 
viti tkeir knowledge of certain ornamental arts, it is surprising to find that they possessed 
t bnin %o larger than the Hottentot or New Hollander^ and far below the barbaroos hordes 
if their own raee." [We haye shown, in our remarks on anatomical characters of races, 
that tht Hottentot has a brain on the aTcrage 17 cubic inches less than the Teutonic race 
~the latter being 92, and the . brmer 75 cubic inches.] ** For, on measuring 155 crania, 
Mtflj iU deriTod from the sepulchres just mentioned, they giTC but 75 cubic inches for 
the iTcrage balk of brain, while the Teutonic, or highest dcTeloped white race, giyes 92 
Cihie inches. Of the whole number, one only attains the capacity of 101 cubic inches — 
[tht highest Teutonic in Dr. Morton's coUection is 114 cubic inches] — and the minimum 
idi to 5S ; the smaUest in the whole series of 641 measured crania of all natiotu. It is 
iaporttat to remark, also, that the sexes are nearly equally represented : Tiz., 80 men and 
7S women. 

The mean of twenty-one Mexican skulls is seventy-nine, or five 
cubic inches above the Peruvian average ; but the authenticity of this 
•erics is not so well made out as the other, and it may be too small 
for the establishment of a very correct mean. 

2d. The Barbarous Tribes, — The semi -civilized communities of 
America seem at all times to have been hemmed in and pressed upon 
by the more restless and warlike barbarous tribes, as they are at the 
present day. AVe now see the unwarlike Mexican constantly pillaged 
by daring Camanches and relentless Apaches ; who, since the intro- 
daction of horses, have become most fearful marauders, scarcely 
inferior to the Tartars or Bedouins of Asia. 

On this series, collected both from modem tribes and ancient tumuli 
the most widely separated by time and space, Morton remarks : — 

**0f 211 crania derired from the Tarious sources enumerated in this section, 161 hsTe 
been measured, with the following results: the largest cranium gives 104 cubic inches — 
tke smallest, 70 ; and the mean of all is S4. There is a disparity, howeyer, in the male 
aad female heads, for the former are 96 in number, and the latter only 65. 

** We have here the surprising fact, that the brain of the Indian, in his sayage state, is 
fkr larger than that of the old demi-ciyilized Peruyian or ancient Mexican. How nre we 
to explain this remarkable disparity between ciyilization and barbarism 7 The largest Pe- 
ruyian brain measures 101 cubic inches; and the untamed Shawnee rises to 104; and the 
•▼crmge difference between the Peruyian and the sayage is nine cubic inches in fayor of the 
latter. Something may be attributed to a primitiye difference of stock ; but more, perhaps, 
to the eontrasted activity of the two races." [Here Dr. Morton might appear to endorse tkt 


theory that oultlTation of the mind, or of one set of facoltiei, eaa gite expanilon or inereiNd 
size of brain. There is no proof of the truth of such a hjpothesia. The Teaionie races, ia 
their barbarous state, 2000 years ago, possessed brains as large as now ; and io with other 
races. — J. C. N.] 

Taken collectively, the American races yield an average mean, for 
the whole 338 crania, of only seventy-nine cubic inches, or thirteen 
below that of the Teutonic race. 

The general law laid down by craniologists, that size of brain is a 
measure of intellect, would seem to meet with an exception here; 
but it is only apparent. A very satisfactory solution of the fiict ^vill 
be found in Mr. J. 8. Phillips's Appendix to Morton's memoir on the 
Physical Type of the American Indiana;^ also, in Mr. George Combe's 
Phrenological liemarkSy in the Appendix to Morton's Crania Americana. 
The appendix of Mr. Phillips, published after Morton's death, adds 
some new materials, which the Doctor had not time to work up 
before his demise. The additional crania make a little variation 
from the means or averages obtained by Morton, but too slight to 
influence the general conchisions. Mr. Phillips's closing observations 
are so well expressed that we are sure the reader will prefer them 
entire, to wit : — 

** The average volnme of the brain in the Barbarous tribes is shown to be from 88} to SI 
cubic inches, while that of the Mexicant is but 79, and in the PeruTians only 76; thus exhi- 
biting the apparent anomaly of barbarous and uncivilized tribes possessing larger bruu 
than races capable of consiUerable progress in civilization. This discrepancy desemi 
more investigation than time permits at present; but the following Tiews of the subject 
may make it appear less anomalous : — 

** The prevailing features in the character of the North American savage are, stoiciim, i 
severe cruelty, excessive watchfulness, and that coarse brutality which results from the 
entire preponderance of the animal propensities. These so outweigh the intellectuil po^ 
tion of the character, that it is completely subordinate, making the Indian what we mi 
him — a most unintellectual and uncivilizable man. 

** The intellectual lobe of the brain of these people, if not borne down by sack o?w- 
powering animal propensities and passions, would doubtless have been capable of miub 
greater efforts than any we are acquainted with, and have enabled these barbarous tribci 
to make some progress in civilization. This appears to be the cerebral difference betweee 
the Mexicans and Peruvians on the one hand, and the Barbarous tribes of North Aaerict 
on the other. The intellectual lobe of the brain in the two former is at least as large u in 
the latter — the (lifferencc of volume being chiefly confined to the occipital and basal po^ 
tions of the oiicephalon : so that the intellectual and moral qualities of the Mezieani Htd 
Peruvians (at least as large, if not larger than those of the other group) are left monfirM 
to act, being not so subordinate to the propensities and violent passions. This view of the 
sultjoct is in accordance with the history of these two divisions: barbarout tJid ekUisaiU, 
When the former were assailed by the European settlers, they fought desperately, bat 
rather with the cunning and ferocity of the lower animals, than with the system and ooanfe 
of men. They could not be subjugated, and were either exterminated, or contisaed to 
retire into the forests, when they could no longer maintain their ground. Had their intel- 
lect been in proportion to their other qualities, they would have been most formidable ene- 
mies. With the Mexicans and Peruvians the case has been the reverse. Theoriginil 
inhabitants of Mexico were entirely subjugated by the Aztecs, who appear to have bees i 


■un tribe in MoipftTiaoii with the Mezieftiis ; and then they were all oonqaered and enslaved 
\j I Bfre haadf^ of Spaniards — although the Mexicans had the advantage over the bar- 
biroQs tribes of concerted action, some discipline, and preparation, in which the latter were 
pni\j deficient. The Mexicans, with small brains, were eridently inferior in resolution, 
in attack and defence, and the more manly traits of character, to the Barbarous races, who 
eietcsted every inch of ground until they were entirely outnumbered. And at the present 
IJBe, the Camanches and Apaches, thou^ a part of the great Shoshonee division (one of 
tkelovest of the races of North America), are continually plundering and destroying the 
bdiana of Northern Mexico, who scarcely attempt resistance. 

"Viewed in this light, the apparent contradiction of a race with a smaller brain being 
npcrior to tribes with larger brains, is so far explained, that the volume and distribution 
9l thmr respective brains appear to be in accordance with such facts in their history as 
htTf eome to our knowledge." 

Again, Mr. Phillips remarks, of the Indians of the United States, 
that he has "grouped them, on a large scale, into families, according 
to language ; and the result of measurement of the volume of brain 
ia strikingly in accordance with the ascertained character of the differ- 
ent groups thus constituted. His arrangement is — 1st, Iroquois ; 
2d, Algonquin and Apalachian ; 3?, Dacota ; 4th, Shoshonees ; 5th, 
Oregonians. Of the first division (the Iroquois), he observes : — 

"Tke aTerage internal capacity of the cranium in this group is about S} inches higher 
^ the lowest types, and 4 J inches higher than the aTcrage — being S8 J cubic inches. 
Tkif result is strikingly in keeping with the fact that they were so completely the master- 
■pirito of the land ; that, at the time of the first settlement of this country by the wliite 
nee, they were so rapidly subduing the other tribes and nations around them ; and that, if 
Mr career of conquest had not been cut short by the Anglo-Saxon predominance, thej 
Me Cur to haTe conquered all within their reach." 

He then states the measurements and characters of other families, 
IH all of which the morale and physique most strikingly correspond. 

These facts afford very instructive material for reflection. We 
here behold one race, with the larger, though less intellectual brain, 
subjugating the unwarlike and half-civilized races; and it seems 
clear, that the latter were destined to be either swallowed up or exter- 
minated by the former. Who can doubt that similar occurrences 
had been going on over this continent for many centuries or even 
thousands of years ? There are scattered over North America count- 
less tumuli, which it is believed were built by races different from the 
savage tribes found around them on the advent of the whites, and 
to impenetrable oblivion rests upon these earth-works. There are 
niany reasons for supposing that these mound-builders were either 
identical with, or closely allied to, the Toltecs ; and, that they were 
driven south or exterminated by more savage and bellicose races, 
8uch as the Iroquois : for the traditions of the Mexicans point to tha 
Xorth as their original country. 

At the present day, we see in America large settlements of Span- 
ttrds, French, Germans, &c., as well as Indians — all speaking theil 


own languages ; yet who doubts that in a century or two the Indians 
will be extinct^ and the others swallowed up in the Anglo-Saxon 
tongue and type ? Then, when the ethnographer shall undertake to 
analyze the population, what can he learn of the histoiy of races 
that first overspread this continent, or what light upon the origins of 
lost or absorbed autocthones can he draw from the European dialects 
spoken by their destroyers ? What will be the condition of tlus 
country two or three thousand years hence, we may ask, when m 
see Europe pouring its population into it irom the East and Asia from 
the West ? We can reason on the tilings of this world merely from 
what we see and know ; and we must infer that a succession of events 
has been going on for ages, during ante-historic times, similar to those 
we encounter in the pages of written history. Human nature never 
changes, else it would cease to be human nature. 

Now, how are we to explain these opposite intellectual and physical 
characters in the two great famijies of America, except by primitive 
cranial conformations, each aboriginally distinct? Certainly, no 
known facts exist leading to the conclusion that any particular mode 
of life can change the size or form of brain in man ; while, on the 
contrary, we have abundant reason to be convinced that the size and 
form of brain play a conspicuous part in the advancement and destiny 
of races. The large heads, in many instances, having emerged from 
barbarism (Teutons, Celts, for example), within historical times, have 
reached the higher pinnacles of civilization, and everywhere outstrip* 
ped and dominated over the small-headed races of mankind. 

It is interesting here to note that the ancient Egyptians and En- 
doos, who in very early times reached a considerable degree of civiU- 
zation, had, like the Mexicans and Peruvians, much smaller heads 
than the savage tribes around them.^ Each of these people give an 
internal mean-capacity of eighty cubic inches, which is but one inch 
above the average of American races. The Negro races, excluave 
of Ilottentots, yield an average of eighty-three inches. 

If the Jews have lived during 1500 years in Malabar, the Magyars 
1000 in Hungary, the Parsees as many ages in India, the Basques or 
Iberians in France and Spain for more than 3000, without material 
change — and, if the Anglo-Saxons and Spaniards have lived tlirough 
ten generations in America without approximating the aboriginal 
tj'pe of the country, it is a reasonable inference that the intellectual 
and physical diiFerences of the Toltecan and Barbarous tribes are not 
attributable to secondary causes, cither moral or physical. 

Mr. Squier makes the following philosophical remarks : — 

« The casual resemblance of certain words in the langaages of Americ* and those of th« 
Old World cannot be taken as evidence of a common origin. Such ooincidencea may bt 


lidlj ioeoimtod finr ti the resnlt of accident, or, at most, of local inftisioDS, which were 
lilkwt any extended eiFeet. The entire number of common words is said to be one ban- 
M tid Mghty-eeren ; of these, one handred and four coincide with words foand in the 
Inguges of Asia and Aostralia, forty-three with those of Europe, and forty with those of 
Afries. It can hardly be supposed that these facts are sufficient to prove a connec- 
lioB between the four hundred dialects of America and the Tarious languages of the 
ite eontinent. It is not in accidental coincidences of sound or meaning, but in a 
MSpwiton of the general structure and character of the American languages with those 
if clkar eountriee, that we can expect to find similitudes at all conclusiTC, or worthy of 
iMirk, in determining the question of a common origin. And it is precisely in these 
Nipteta that we diseoTer the strongest CTidences of the essential peculiarities of the Ame- 
nou liaguages : here they coincide with each other, and here exhibit the most striking 
Mitnsts with all the others of the globe. The diversities which have sprung up, and 
tUcb hsve resulted in so many dialectical modifications, as shown in the numberless voca- 
Wiries, furnish a wide field for investigation. Mr. Gallatin draws a conclusion from the 
flRmitaace, which is quite as fatal to the popular hypothesis, respecting the origin of the 
bfiiDS, as the more sweeping conclusion of Dr. Morton. It is the length of time which 
tUi prodigious subdivision of languages in America must have required, making every 
•Btfvtnce for the greater changes to which unwritten languages are liable, and for the 
MCMuy breaking up of nations in a hunter-state into separate communities. For these 
chiBges, Mr. Oallatin claims, we must have the very longest time which we are permitted 
tiMrame; and, if it is considered necessary to derive the American races from the other 
MBthieDt, that the migration must have taken place at the earliest assignable period. 

*'Tlie following conclusions were advanced by Mr. Duponceau, as early as 1819, in sub- 
Mttially the following language : — 

'*L That the American languages, in general, are rich in words and grammatical 
^Km ; and, that in their complicated construction the greatest order, method, and regu- 

**2. That these complicated forms, which he calls polysynthetic, appear to exist in all 
tkiie languages, from Greenland to Cape Horn. 

** 8. That these forms differ essentially from those of the ancient and modem languages 
•f tbe Old Hemisphere." 364 

The type of a race would never change, if kept from adulterations, 
•8 we have shown in the case of the Jews and other peoples. So 
^th languages : we have no reason to believe that a race would 
€ver lose its language, if kept aloof from foreign influences. It is 
* feet that, in the little island of Great Britain, the Welch and the 
Erse are still spoken, although for 2000 years pressed upon by the 
strongest influences tending to exterminate a tongue. So with the 
Basque in France, which can be traced back at least 3000 years, and 
18 Still spoken. Coptic was the speech of Egypt for at least 5000 
years, and still leaves its trace in the languages around. The Chinese 
has existed equally as long, and is still undisturbed. 

^'An effort has been made by Mr. Blackie, Professor of Greek in the University of 
E&bargh, to reform the pronunciation of Greek in that University. He is teaching his 
■tadeats to pronounce Greek as they do in Greece, insisting that it is not a dead, but a 
Eving language — as any one may see by looking at a Greek newspaper. Prof. Blackie 
gJTM an extract from a newspaper printed last year, at Athens, giving an account of Kos- 
Wk't visit to America, from which it is evident that the language of Homer lives in a state 
ft purity to which, considering the extraordinary duration of its literttry existence (2(»00 



ycftm at leaflt), there is no parallel, perhaps, on the face of the globe. After notidBg a few 
trilling modifications, which distinguish modem fW)m ancient Greek, be etatee, ae a fact, 
that in three columns of a Greek newspaper of the year 1862, there do not eertaialj occur 
three wordM that are not pare native Greek — so yery slightly bee it been oormpted hvm 
foreign sources."*'* 

Altliough tho nations of Europe and Western Afiia have been in 
constant turmoil for thousands of years, and their languages torn to 
pieces, yet they have been moulded into the great heterogeneous 
Indo-European mass, everywhere showing affinities among its own 
fragments, but no resemblance to American languages. The subjoined 
extract from a paper of Prof. Agassiz admirably expresses new and 
motst interesting views upon the natural ori^n of speech: — 

*' As for languages, their common structure, and eTon the analogy in the sounds of diffe^ 
ent languagCR, far from indicating a derivation of one from another, seem to us rather thi 
necesHary result of that similarity in the organs of speech which causes them natorallj to 
pro<luco the same sound. Who would now deny that it is as natural for men to speak ii 
it is for a dog to bark, for an ass to bray, for a lion to roar, for a wolf to howl, when n 
sec that no nations are so barbarous, so depriyed of all human character, as to he obaUi 
to express in language their desires, their fears, their hopes ? And if a unity of Itngotgi^ 
any analogy in sound and structure between tho languages of the white races, indicite i 
closer connection between the different nations of that race, would not the difference whick 
has been observed in the structure of the languages of tho wild races — would not tbi 
power tlio American Indians have naturally to utter gutturals which the white can hirdlj 
imitate, afford additional evidence that these races did not originate fh>m a eommon itoc^ 
but are only closely allied as men, endowed equally with tho same intellectual powers, tht 
same organs of speech, the same sympathies, only developed in slightly different waji la 
the different races, precisely as we observe the fact between closely allied species of tb 
same genus among birds ? 

** There is no ornithologist who ever watched the natural habits of birds and their Mte% 
who has not been surprised at the similarity of intonation of the notes of closely iDiel 
species, and the greater difference between the notes of birds belonging to different geura 
and families. The cry of tho birds of prey, are alike unpleasant and rough insll; tte 
song of all the thrushes is equally sweet and harmonious, and modulated upon rinkr 
rhythms, and combined in similar melodies ; the chit of all titmice is loquacious and hud; 
the (|uack of tho duck is alike nasal in all. But who ever thought that the robb Icmid 
his melody from the mocking-bird, or tho mocking-bird from any other species of thnuh f 
Who ever fancied that tho field-crow learned his cawing from the raven or Jackdaw? Ce^ 
tainly, no one at all acquainted with the natural history of birds. And why shooU it be 
different with men ? Why should not tho different races of men haye originally ipoken 
distinct languages, as they do at present, differing in the same proportions at their orginf 
of speech are variously modified ? And why should not these modifications in their tan 
be indicative of primitive differences among them ? It were giving up all inductioa, sQ 
power of arguing from sound premises, if the force of such Qvidenoe were to be denied."3V 

To which may be added the familiar instance, tliat, although the 
Kegro has been domiciliated in the United States for many genera- 
tions among white people, he neveitheless, whether speaking English, 
French, or Si)ani8h, jjreHcrves that peculiar, unmistakeably-iVvyrv, in- 
tonation, whicli no culture can eradicate. 80, again, who ever heard the 


Toice of an Indian uttering English, and could not instantly de^t 
the articulations of the Bed man ? 

A review of the preceding facts shows conclusively, we think, that 
the Natural Histoiy of the American aborigines runs a close parallel 
with that of races in other countries. We have made but two divisions ; 
but it is more than probable that each of these families, instead of 
springing from a single pair, have originated in many. But we have 
diBCQSded this point elsewhere, and need not reopen it here. 

Let OS now glance at the history of those aboriginal races which 
iDide the only approach towards civilization. It is true that our ma- 
terials are very defective in many particulars, yet enough remain to 
leid ethnologists to some important results. 

Xo trace of an alphabet existed at the time of the conquest of the 
continent of America; but some tribes possessed an imperfect sort of 
pictore-writing, from which a little archseological aid can be derived ; 
thongh we are compelled to look chiefly to traditions, which are 
cAen vague, and to the light which emanates from the physical char 
ncters, antiquities, religions, arts, sciences, languages, or agriculture. 

The decided structural connection which exists among the various 
Indian languages has been regarded as sufficient evidence, not only 
of the common origin of these languages, but of the races speaking 
^m. The venerable Albert Gallatin, who devoted much time and 
tilent to American ethnography, says : — 

•*An thote who hare inyestigated the subject appear to hare agreed in the opinion that, 
Itverer differing in their vocabularies, there is an evident similarity in the structure of all 
^American lang^uages, bespeaking a common origin. "3^ 

Xow, we are not disposed to deny the close affinity of these lan- 
gniges, but we cannot agree that this aflfords any satisfactory proof 
of unify of their linguistic derivation. The conclusion, to our minds, 
it anon tequitur. 

Let us assume, with Agassiz and Morton, that all mankind do not 
Spring firora one pair, nor even each race from distinct pairs ; but that 
^en were created in nationSj in the diflferent zoological provinces where 
kistory first finds them. The Caucasians, Mongols, Indians, Negroes, 
•^^ere, for example, created in large numbers, or in scattered tribes. 
'i^Tiat, let us ask, would necessarily be the result as regards types and 
l^guages ? Various individuals of these tribes, having no language, 
^ould soon come in contact, either through proximity, or early wan- 
ieriugs. Unions would soon take place, and there would be a fusion 
of types, so as perhaps to change, more or less, each original ; just as 
amalgamations have taken place among all historical nations,. and are 
low going on in every country of the globe. 

So with languages. As soon as individuals came in contact, they 


would necessarily commence the first steps towards forming a speecb, 
as birds instinctively sing and dogs bark. The wants, and range of 
ideas of these tribes, would, for a long time, be very limited, and 
their vocabulary, thus formed, very meagre. The abori^nal races of 
America, thougli not identical, display a certain similarity in theirphj- 
sical and intellectual characters, as species of a genus in the animal 
kingdom possess certain physical characters and instincts in common; 
and it is probable that their primitive languages would, in conse- 
quencc, more or less, resemble each other. This view is strengthened 
by the fact of general resemblance amongst American crania. But 
nothing in human anatomy can be more striking, than the wide dif- 
ference in the conformation of the skulls of American and African 

If two distinct races, created on incommunicable continents, had 
been left alone, originally, each to form its own languages indepen- 
dently of the other, is it not presumable, H priori^ that there would 
accrue a much gi'oater similarity among the tongues of the one nice, 
on the same continent, than between these tongues and those spoken 
on the other continent by the other race ? Especially, when the phy- 
sical and moral characteristics of the fonner differ radically from 
those of the latter ? 

As, then, the crania of American races resemble each other, while 
diflbring entirely from those of African races, so do American and 
African languages diifor from each other in structure and vocabulary; 
although both arc in hannony with the various dialects spoken on 
their respective continents by races osteologically similar. 

^Vlictlior the a])()ve proposition be tnie or false, all languages which^ 
in their infant state, came together, would necessarily become fused into 
one heterogeneous mass. Let us illustrate this point a little &rther. 
Suppose that, five thousand years ago, a country had existed large as 
Europe, covered by a virgin forest, and that the Creator had scattered 
over it tribes, bearing the tj'pe of the old Teutonic stock — each of 
whom commenced at once in forming a language — what would be 
the result in our day, after 5000 years of migrations, wars, amalga- 
mations ? Can any one doubt that these languages would be fiwed 
into one whole, quite as homogeneous as those of the aborigines of 
America? When we reflect that there is every reason to believe that 
this continent hjis been inhabited for more than 5000 years, such case 
becotnos a much stronger one. Niebuhr, in one of his letlere, ex- 
presses views very similar.^ 

** Thcso p;rcat national races haye nerer sprung from the growth of a tingle Ikn^ 

Into a nation, but always from the association of several families of human beings, niied 
above their fellow animals by the nature of their wants, and the gradual in? entioD if i 


; €Mk of which fkmiliefl probably had originally formed a langaage peculiar to 
Thia last idea belonga to Reinhold. By this I explain the immense yariety of Ian* 
(Mgct among the North American Indians, which it is absolutely impossible to refer to any 
won tonree, bat which, in some cases, have resolved themselyes into one language, as 
li Mtxieo and Pern, for instance ; and also the number of synonyms in the earliest periods 
tf iMgoagta. On this account, I maintain that we must make a very cautious use of dif- 
of language as applied to the theory of races, and have more regard to physical 
tion; which latter is exactly the same, for instance, in most of the Indian tribes 
«f Horth America. I belieye, farther, that the origin of the human race is not connected 
imk any given place, but is to be sought ererywhere over the face of the earth ; and that 
iliiia idcft more worthy of the power and wisdom of the Creator, to assume that he gaye 
tiMck tone and each climate its proper inhabitants, to whom that zone and climate would 
liMst imtable, than to assume that the human species has degenerated in such innumer- 

Wiseman approaches the subject from a diflferent point of view, 
irfkring another explanation for the dissimilarity of languages. He 
Baintains that there are affinities among all languages, which can only 
ke explained by original uniti/, but acknowledges, on the other side, 
certain radical differences, which are only to be explained by a mi- 
nde. He says, in Lecture second : — 

"is the radical difference among the languages forbids their being considered dialects, 
V Aboots of one another, we are driven to the conclusion that, on the one hand, these 
h^Bigts must haye been originally united in one, whence they drew their common ele- 
Mtts, essential to them all ; and, on the other, that the separation between them, which 
iliujii other and no less important elements of resemblance, could not have been caused 
^ say gradual departure, orindiridual derelopment — for these we have long since ex- 
didcd — but by some riolent, unusual, and actiTC force, sufficient alone to reconcile these 
mlieting appearances, and to account at once for the resemblances and the differences." 360 

This ^^iew of the enigma would be much the most agreeable to 
BUmy readers, inasmuch as, by the obtrusion of an unwarranted phy- 
Qcal impossibility, it gets clear of that radical diversity of languages 
^hich philology has not yet been able to overcome. Such reasoning, 
bowever plausible at the time when it was written, will not stand 
the test of criticism in the year 1853. The facts revealed to us by 
'he subsequent discoveries of Lepsius and others, require a much 
^her antiquity for nations and languages than the Cardinal had any 
dea of; and which is entirely irreconcilable with the Jewish date for 
khe "confusion of tongues" at Babel, to which he plainly points. K 
liat confusion of tongues in Genesis were even taken as literally true, 
it could neither have applied to all the nations of the earth, nor, 
particularly, to those inhabiting parts of the world unknown to 
Oriental geography in the time of Moses or Abraham; and this 
owmg to exegetical reasons hereinafter set forth. 

Clavigero, whose ability and opportunities confer upon his autho- 
lity especial weight, ^ves the following chronology, derived from 
itlok obtained through Mexicans : — 


The TolteoB arriyed in Anahuao, or the country now called Mexico, 

migratiDg from the North •....«« 648 

They abandoned the country -.. 1051 

The GhichemeoB arriyed 1170 

The Acholchuane arriyed about •- 1200 

The Mexioane reached Tula 1296 

They founded Mexico ...» 1825 

Hero, then, we have the dates of successive migrations of these 
Toltecan races, from the seventh to the fourteenth century; and, 
although much doul)t exists with regard to the accuracy of some of 
these dates, no one who investigates the subject will deny that they are 
sufficiently close for all practical purposes, and maybe taken as the baas 
of chronological calculation. Clavigero, Gallatin, Humboldt, Pres- 
cott, Bquier, Morton — in short, all authorities, are substantially agreed 
on this point. These Toltecan i;^es, who it seems inhabited, though 
perhaps at different epochs, almoS; every portion of the present terri- 
tory of the United States, must have been pressed upon by caofes 
now unknown to us, and forced to migrate from their original abodes. 
They sought an asylum in the southern countries — Mexico, Centml 
America, Peru ; and here gave birth to the semi-civilization found at 
the time of the Spanish conquest. Gallatin, however, thinks it most 
probable that the Toltecan races and tlieir civilization conuneneed m 
the tropic, and spread towards the north. Over an immense territoiy, 
bounded by the Atlantic and Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico and the 
Great Lakes, arc scattered those countless mounds, on the origia 
of which the savage tribes surrounding them for the last three oi» 
four centuries have not even preserved a tradition. 

** Not far fVom one hundred enolosures, of yarious sixes, and fiye hundred momdi, 
found in Ross county, Ohio. The number of tumuli in the State may be safely ettimitftd 
at ten thousand, and tlie number of enclosures at one thousand or fifteen hundred."^ 

From this single State, constituting but a small fraction of the 
surface over which they are scattered, may be formed some idea of 
the enormous number of these remains and of the ante-historical popu- 
lation which constructed them. These tumuli were of several distinct 
kindn, viz., sepulchral and sacrificial ; dikes, fortifications, &c. Squier'e 
investiccations lead him to aver: — 

*' Tlio features common to all are elementary, and identify them as appertainiog to om 
grand system, owing its origin to a family of men moying in the same general dinetioi^ 
cictiiig uudcr common impulses, and influenced by similar causes." 

These mounds, from their number and magnitude, present indis- 
putable evidence of the existence of very large agricultural popula- 
tions. How many centuries were these people increasing, migrating, 
and concentrating, around so many thousand widely-scattered nuclei f 


3ng was it before they possessed a density and command of 
requisite for such structures ? How long, after building such 
al monuments, did they Uve around, before abandoning them ? 
they not the same people who migrated into Mexico and Cen- 
aerica from the seventh to the thirteenth century a. c. ? Surely, 
ply to this view of the subject alone, in connection with the 
Gil type of the race, must carry them back to times contempo- 
ith the Pharaohs of Egypt. 

valuable to be mutilated, a long extract from the standard 
)efore quoted is here introduced. 

•ntiqiiity of the ancient monmnente of the Mississippi Vallej has been made the 
if incideDtal remark in the foregoing chapters. It will not be out of place here to 
lee more to some of the facts bearing upon this point Of course, no attempt to 

data accurately, from the circumstances of the case, can now be successful. The 
it can be done is, to arrive at approximate results. The fact that none of the 
tonuments occur upon the latest formed terraces of the riyer-Talleys of Ohio, is one 

Importance in its bearing upon this question. If, as we are amply warranted in 
;, these terraces mark the degrees of the subsidence of the streams, one of the four 
nay be traced) has been formed since those streams haye followed their present 
There is no good reason for supposing that the mound-builders would hare 
building upon that terrace, while they erected their works promiscuously upon all 
rs. And if they had built upon it, some slight traces of their works would yet be 
lowerer much influence one may assign to disturbing causes — oyerflows, and shift- 
mels. Assuming, then, that the lowest terrace, on the Scioto river, for example, 
I formed since the era of the mounds, we must next consider that the excavafiiig 
' the Western riTcrs diminishes yearly, in proportion at they approximate towards 
1 level. On the Lower Mississippi, where alone the ancient monuments are some- 
raded by the water, the bed of the stream is rising, ftrom the deposition of the ma- 
rought down from the upper tributaries, where the excavating process is going on. 
avating power, it is calculated, is in an inverse ratio to the square of the depth — 
to say, diminishes as the square of the depth increases. Taken to be approxi- 
orrect, this rule establishes, that the formation of the latest terrace, by the opera- 
be same causes, must have occupied much more time than the formation of any of 
eding three. Upon these premises, the time since the streams have flowed in their 
courses may be divided into four periods of different lengths — of tphiek the latett^ 

to hare elapted tince the race of the mounds Jiouruhed, it much the Umgett. 

fact that the rivers in shifting their channels have in some instances encroached 
B superior terraces, so as in part to destroy works situated upon them, and after- 
iceded to long distances of a fourth or half a mile or upwards, is one which should 
rerlooked in this connection. In the case of the * high bankworks,' the recession 
1 nearly three-fourths of a mile, and the intervening terrace or * bottom* was, at 
>d of the early settlement, covered with a dense forest This recession and subse- 
rest growth must of necessity have taken place since the river encroached upon the 
irorks here alluded to. 

lout doing more than to allude to the circumstance of the exceedingly decayed state 
leletons found in the mounds, and to the amount of vegetable accumulations in the 
ixcavations and around tho ancient Works, we pass to another fact, perhaps more 
it in its bearing upon the question of the antiquity of these works, than any of 
vsented above. It is, that they are covered with primitiye forests, in no way dis 
ibU from those which surround them, in places where it is probable no clearing* 


were ever made. Some of the trees of these forests haye a positiTe aatiiqiiity of tnm riz 
to eight hundred years. They are found surrounded with the mouldering rraiainB of 
others, undoubtedly of equal original dimensions, but now fallen and almost incorponted 
with the soil. Allow a reasonable time for the encroachment of the forest^ after all the worfa 
were abandoned by their builders, and for the period interrening between that erent and 
the date of their construction, and we are compelled to assign them no inoonaiderablt anti- 
quity. But, as already obsenred, the forests coTering these works correspond in til 
respects with the surrounding forests ; the same varieties of trees are found, in the mmt 
proportions, and they have a like primitive aspect This flAct was remarked bj the late 
President IIabbibon, and was put forward by him as one of the strongest evidences of tbi 
high antiquity of these works. In an address before the Historical Society of Ohio, be 
said : — 

<* 'The process by which nature restores the forest to its original state, after being once 
cleared, is extremely slow. The rich lands of the West are indeed soon covered again,.lmt 
the character of the growth is entirely different, and conUnues so for a long period. In 
several places upon the Ohio, and upon the farm which I occupy, clearings were made ii 
the first settlement of the country, and subsequently abandoned and suffered to grow vp. 
Some of these new forests are now, sure, of fifty years* growth ; but they have made so 
little progress towards attaining the appearance of the immediately eontigaons foreit, h 
to induce any man of reflection to determine that at least ten times fifty yean most dapN 
before their complete assimilation can be effected. We find, in the andent works, all thit 
variety of trees which give such unrivalled beauty to our forests, in natural proportioai. 
The first growth, on the same kind of land, once cleared and then abandoned to nature, on 
the contrary, is nearly homogeneous, often stinted to one or two, at most three, kindi of 
timber. If the ground has been cultivated, the yellow locust will thickly spring up; if 
not cultivated, the black and white walnut will be the prevailing growth. ... Of whit 
immense age, then, must bo the works so often referred to, covered, as th^ are, bj it 
least the second growth after the primitive-forest state was regained ? ' 

** It is not undertaken to assign a period for the assimilation here indicated to takepliee. 
It mustf however^ be measured by centuries, 

** In respect to the extent of territory occupied at one time, or at successive periods, bj 
the race of the mounds, so far as indicated by the occurrence of their monuments, Httk 
need be said, in addition to the observations presented in the first chapter. It cannot, bov* 
ever, have escaped notice, that the relics found in the mounds— composed of matcritls pe* 
culiar to places separated as widely as the ranges of the Alleghanies on the east, and the 
Sierras of Mexico on the west, the waters of the great lakes on the north, and those of tbi 
Gulf of Mexico on the south — denote the contemporaneous existence of commnniestict 
between these extremes. For we find, side by side, in the same mounds, native copper 
from Luke Superior, mica Arom the Alleghanies, shells from the Gulf, and obsidian (pcrbtpt 
porphyry) from Mexico. This fact seems to conflict seriously with the hypothesii of a 
migration, either northward or southward. Further and more extended investigatione and 
observations may, nevertheless, serve satisfactorily to setUe, not only this, but other eqnallj 
interesting questions, connected with the extinct race, whose name is lost to tradition itself 
and whoi'C very existence is left to the sole and silent attestations of the rude, but oft im- 
posing monuments, which throng the valleys of the West." 

A dispa«fiionato review of the evidences thus cursorily presented, 
in 8upi)ort of the contemporaneousness of American races with those 
lirst recorded on the monuments of the eastern worid, when taken 
logetlier, ought, we think, to satisfy any unprejudiced mind. "Nor 
can anything be twisted out of the Jewish records to show that, at 
the time when many races were abeady formed in the old Levant 


ft least one distinct type of man did not exist on the Western Conti- 
lint. Bat, to onr minds, stronger than all other reasonings, not ex- 
isting the antithesis of languages, is that drawn from the antiquity 
i ikulls. 

The vertical occiput, the prominent vertex, the great interparietal 
fiiineter, the low defective forehead, the small internal capacity of 
the skull, the square or rounded form, the quadrangular orbits, the 
MBsive maxillffi, are peculiarities which stamp the American groups, 
Bore especially the Toltecan family, and distinguish them widely 
from anv other races of the earth, ancient or modem. 

As before remarked, these characters are seen to some extent in all 
IiicBans: although the savage tribes exhibit a greater development 
cf the posterior portion of the brain than the Toltecs — thus supply- 
i^, in Natural History, the link of organism which assimilates the 
Birbarous septs of America to the savage races of the Old World. 

An interesting fact was mentioned to us by an American officer, 
€f high standing, who accompanied our army in its march through 
Mesdco during the late war. Although his head, which we mea- 
nied, is below the average size of the Anglo-Saxon race, he told us 
Alt it was with difficulty he could find, in a large hat-store at Mata- 
Bons, a single hat which would go on his head. Hats suited to 
Mexicans are too small for Anglo-Saxons: a fact corroborated by 
•mple testimony. Throughout tlie winter season, in Mobile, at least 
one hundred Indians of the Choctaw tribe wander about the streets, 
endeavoring to dispose of their little packs of wood ; and a glance 
•t their heads will show that they correspond, in every particular, with 
the anatomical description just given. They present heads precisely 
inalogous to those ancient crania taken from the mounds over the 
whole territory of the United States; while they most strikingly 
contrast with the Anglo-Saxons, French, Spaniards and Negroes, 
ttnong whom they are moving. 

It is impossible to say how long human bones may be preserved in 
» dry soil. There are some curious statements of Squier, and many 
more of Wilson,^^ respecting the barrows of the ancient Britons, where 
ikeletons have been preserved at least 2000 years : — 

**CoDfi(lering that the earth around these skeletons is wonderfully compact and dry, and 
tiat the conditions for their preservation are exceedingly faTorable, while they are in fact 
•I Bach decayed, we may form some approximate estimate of their remote antiquity. In 
tki htrrows of the ancient Britons, entire, well-presenred skeletons are found, although 
pOMessing an undoubted antiquity of at least eighteen hundred years. Local causes may 
ffodoee singular results in particular instances, bat we speak now of these remains in the 
•ttWfUe." ^ 

From the ruins of Nineveh and Babylon we have bones of at least 
2500 years old ;^ from the pyramids^* and the catacombs of Egypt, 


both mummied and immummied crania have been taken, of itiB 
higher antiqaity, in perfect preservatioa ; and nnmeronfl other proofr 
might he broaght forward to the Bame effect : nevertheleae, the ike- 
letons deposited in our Indian mounds, from the Lakes to the Galf^ 
are crumbling into duet through age alone ! 
Speaking of the mound-builders, it is said : — 

■■ The only akiiU iaoontastably belonpng to ui indiTidiud of thkt nM, vUd hu Im 
ncoTGred eotirfl, or anfficienUf wsU pTMerrsd lo ba of Tklaa for pni^OMi of MBjariit^ 
wii tokoD from tha hitl-moaiid, nambared 8 Id the map of a Motion of tvelTO milM gf lb 
Bcioto V&llej." 

Squier's account continues ; — 

" Tba circnmituioeB under which thii iVnll wu foand kre, altogetbor, w axtoMfiSui] 
u to marit a dettilad ■coonnt It will be obaeirEd, from tha map, th«( tha noaad ibm 
indicated is litnated npon the nimmit of 4 high hill, ararlooking the Tallaj of the S6M, 
about fanr miles belo* the city of Chilicothe. It is one of the moet pTomi>Ht and (<■■ 
mandiog positioiis in that eeotion of conntTy. UpoD tha sammit of thia hill liMi a Mvial 
kDoll, of BO great regaUrity ae almoBt to iodace the belief that it ii itaalf aitifldal. Tpoa 
the Tei7 apei of this knoll, and cotered b; the trees of the primidra for«sta, i* tha ■md. 
It ia about eight feet high, bj fortj or fifty feet base. The auparstractiiTe ia a toa^ jtitt 
elay, which, at the depth of three feet, ia mixed with larEe, rongh ■tonai ; aa ihowa ia At 
Booompaiiyuig aeolion, (Fig. 107). 

" These atones rest npon a dry, calcareous deposit of buried earth and small stoBM, ef a 
dark black colonr, and tnitch compacted. This deposit is abont two feat in tUekwai, ii 
tha eantra, and rests npon the original soil. In outTatiBg the mand, a laifi pUi if 
mica WM diacoTered, placed npon the stanea. .... Immediatdy nndeneatli lUs plilstf 
mica, and in the centre of the buried deposit, was found the sknll flgnrad in the fliM 
(Figs. 19S, 190). It was discorered resting upon ita face. The lower jaw, aa, indeed, tkl 
entire skeleton, excepting the clavicle, a few oerricsl Tertebne, and some of tha bOBN rf 
the feet, all of which were huddled around the skull, were wanting. 

" From the entire singularity of this buri&l, it might ba inferred that the depoaitMi ■ 
companitiTely recent one; but the fact that the various layers of carbonaceoDs earth, ttoM 
and clay were entirely uniiisturbed, and in no degree intermixed, settles tbt qoeedsi^ 
yond doobt, that the skull was placed where it was found, at tha time of the conHndiM 
of the mound. . . . 

" This skull is wonderfully preserved ; unaccountably so, unless the drcamttaaoM mdH 
which it was found may be regarded aa most faTcrable to such a reeulL The imjMniM 
neas of the mouni! to Writer, from the nature of the material oomposing it, and ita pcBtiol 
on the summit of an eminence, eubsidiug in every direction &om its base, are eircoDuUsM 
which, joined Co (he antiseptic qualities of the carbonaceous depout eoTolopiDg the ikill, 
may satiafaotorily account for its excellent preservation." 

A twofold interest attaches to the mound (Fig. 197), of which w 
offer a sectional tracing. On the one hand it indicates the pai"* 



>ved by aDci«Dt American m&n npon the dead; tbos evincmg 
idwable civilizatioD : on the other, the central tumTilar position 
rhicb this nnique craniam was discovered, establishes an ante- 
imbian age for its builders, and segregates it entirely from the 
T sepulchres of our modern Indians. 

e preseot a vertical and a profile engraving of this ancient skull, 
exceedingly characteristic of our American races, ^though more 

icntarly of the Toltecan ; having already stated that the Barho' 
tribes possessed more development of the posterior part of the 
1 than the Toltecs. An examination of this skull will elicit the 
ffing characteristic peculiarities — forehead low, narrow, and re- 
ig; flattened occiput; a perpendicular line drawn through the 
■nal meatus of the ear, divides the brain into two unequal parts, 
hich the posterior is much the smaller; forming, in this respect, 
ildng contrast with other, and more particularly the Negro, races, 
red from above, the anterior part of the brain ia narrow, and the 
nior and middle portion, over the organs of caution, secretive- 
, defitmctiveness, &c., veiy brood, thus lending much support to 
nology: vertex prominent. [These peculiaritdes are confirmed by 
(inmerous measurements of Br. Morton, and by the observations 
uny other anatomists, as well as our own. Identical characters, 
pervade all the American races, ancient and modem, over the 
whole continent. We have compared 
Jio. 200.^ many heads of living tribes, Cherokees, 

Choctaws, Mexicans, &c., as well as era- 
nia from mounds of all ages, and the 
same general organism characterizes 
each one. — J. C. N.] 

Any Bouth-Afiican race, compared 
with an American Indian, would ex- 
hibit a contrast almost as salient ; but 
a Botjetman (Fig. 200) from the Cape 


of Good Hope answers our purpose. OsteologicaUy, they are aa dis- 
tinct from each other as the skull of a fossil hyena is from that of i 
prairie wolf; at the same time that each human cranium is emphati- 
cally typical of the race to which it appertains. 

But, if comparison of an antique American cranium (Fig. 198) 
with the skull of a modem Bushman (Fig. 200), evolves instantane- 
ously such palpable contrasts, still more extraordinaiy and starding 
are those which resile when we compare either or both with one of 
the primeval '^kumhe-kephalicy' or boat-ahaped skulls (Figs. 201, 202), 


Fio. 201. 

exhumed from the prc-Celtic cairns of Scotland.^ Can anything 
human be more diverse than the osteological conformation of the mort 
ancient type of man known in America from that of the primordial 
Briton ? Be it duly noted, too, that while, on the American conti- 
nent, the earliest cranium resulting from Squier's researches is every 
way identical (as wo shall demonstrate hereinafter) with crania of the 
Creeks, and other Indian nations of our own generation, men of thii 
kumhe-kephalic type occupied the British Isles long prior to the ad- 
vent of those hrachy-kephalic races, who were precursors of the old 
Celts ; themselves, in Britain, antedating all history ! Of this feet 
Wilson's Archceology of Scotland furnishes exuberant evidences; to 
be enlarged upon by us in dealing with " Comparative Anatomy." 

Hamilton Smith and Morton have contended that no test is 
known by which fossil human are distinguishable from other fossil 
bones of extinct species.^ The question, to say the least, is an open 
one ; although none can aver that there are not human fossils as old 
as those of the mastodon and other extinct animals. Tlie following 
extract from ilorton's memoir is interesting, taken in connection 
with the American type : — 


II ii seoMMTj to adT«rt to the dlseoyeries of Dr. Lund, among the bone-cayes of Minas 
Im» in BraiiL This distingaiahed trayeller has found the remains of man in these 
■M aasoeiated with those of extinct genera and species of animals ; and the attendant 
■Bstanees lead to the reasonable conclosion that they were contemporaneous inhabit- 
I of the region in which they were found. Yet, even here, the form of the skull differs 
letking from the acknowledged type, unless it be in the still greater depression of the 
and a peculiarity of form in the teeth. With respect to the latter, Dr. Lund 
the incisors as baring an OTal surface, of which the axis is antero-posterior, in 
ee of the sharp and chisel-like edge of ordinary teeth of the same class. He assures us, 
I ke found it equally in the young and the aged, and is confident it is not the result of 
riiioB, as is manifestly the case in those Egyptian heads in which Professor Blumenbach 
iced an analogous peculiarity. I am not prepared to question an opinion which I have 
t been able to test by personal observation ; but it is obyious that, if such differences 
ill independently of art or accident, they are at least specific, and consequently of the 
;keit interest in ethnology. 

*'The head of the celebrated Ouadaloupe skeleton forms no exception to the type of the 
sa The skeleton itself, which is in a semi-fossil state, is preserved in the British Mu- 
ni — but wants the cranium, which, however, is supposed to be recovered in the one 
nd by M. L'H^minier, in Gnadaloupe, and brought by him to Charleston, South Carolina. 
. Mooltrie, who has described this very interesting relic, makes the following obser- 
tioBs: * Compared with the cranium of a Peruvian presented to Professor Holbrook, 
Dr. Morton, in the Museum of the State of South Carolina, the craniological similarity 
■ifested between them is too striking to permit us to question their national identity, 
ere is in both the same coronal elevation, occipital compression, and lateral protu- 
fiiee, accompanied with frontal depression, which mark the American variety in 

It seems clear, that the Indians of America are indigenous to the 
il; but it does not follow, that in ancient times there might not 
TO been some occasional or accidental immigrations from the Old 
orid, though too small to affect materially the language or the type 
the aborigines. There are several quite recent examples recorded, 
!iere boats with persons in them have been blown, from the Pacific 
ands and other distant parts, to the shores of America ; and in this 
ly may be explained certain facts, connected with language, which 
«re been adduced as evidence of Asiatic origin for our Indians, 
it we protest, in the name of science, against the notion that any 
these ancient possibilities have yet entered into the category of 
eertwied facts. On the contrary, all known anatomical, archseo- 
gical, and monumental proofs oppose such hypothesis. 
Possible, also, is it that the Northmen discovered this country 
vera] hundred years before Columbus, and held intercourse with it 
fcr as Labrador ; yet they have left no trace of tongue nor vestige 

Agriculture is acknowledged on all hands to have incited the first 
?p8 toward civilization, and, for some most curious facts on this head, 
e reader is referred to Mr. Gallatin's paper.^ Was the agriculture 
md in America by the Whites, introduced at an early epoch from 
road, or was it of domestic origin? This question has excited 


mach conjecture, and is an important one, as it neceasarily involret 
the origin of American civilization. The following £urtB are ceitaiolj 
very significant : — 

1. All those nutritions plants cultivated and used for food in tlie 
other hemisphere, such as millet, rice, wheat, rve, barley, and oits, 
as well as our domestic animals — horses, cattle, sheep, cameh, goite, 
&c., were entirely unknown to the Americans. 

2. Maize, the great and almost sole foundation of American civili- 
zation, is exclusively indigenous, and was not known to the other 
hemisphere until after the discovery of America.'™ 

The kind of beans by the Spaniards called frijoletj still coltiTated 
by the Indians in Mexico and Central America, is indigenous to our 
continent, and even now unused in the other. 

K these facts be conceded, as they have heretofore been by iD 
naturalists and archseologists, it will not be questioned that the agii* 
culture of America was of domestic origin, as well as the semi-ciTilizft- 
tion of any Indian cultivators. These premises alone establish i 
primitive origin and high antiquity for the American races. 

Inquirj' into their astronomical knowledge, their arithmetic, din- 
sion of time, names of days, &c., will show that their whole system wu 
peculiar ; and, if not absolutely original, must antedate all historical 
times of the Old World, since it has no parallel on record. The 
Chaldeans, the Chinese, the Egyptians, and other nations of the Eart- 
era hemisphere, had divisions of time and astronomical knowledge 
more than 2000 years b. c. ; nevertheless, among ancient or modern 
Indians, there remains no trace of these trans- Atlantic systems. 

" Almost all the nations of the world appear, in their first attempts to compate time, to 
have resorted to lunar months, which they afterwards adjusted in Tariovs ways, in order to 
make them correspond with the solar year. In America, the PemTiaiis, the Chifianik mt 
the May seas, proceeded in the same way ; but not so with the MezicanB. And it ii ■ 
remarkable fact, that the short period of seven days (our week), so nniTersal in Europe lai 
in Asia, was unknown to all the Indians, either of North or South America." 3B0 [HadtUi 
learned and unbiassed philologist lived to read Lepsin8,3Bi he would hare excepted tbf 
Egyptians ; who divided their months into three deeadei^ and knew nothing of wccb of 
scnen days. Neither did the Chinese, ancient or modem^^n ejer obaenre % ** MtwaUk dsj of 
rcbt." — 0. R. G.] 

*'' All the nations of Mexico, Yucatan, and probably of Central America, which vffc 
within the pale of civilization, had two distinct modes of computing time. The first isd 
vulgar mode, was a period of twenty days ; which has certainly no conneotion witk •>! 
celestial phenomenon, and which was clearly derived from their system of numeration, or 
arithmetic, whioh was peculiar to them. 

'' The other computation of time was a period of thirteen days, which was dengiiatede> 
being the count of the moon, and which is said to have been derived fh)m the nunberof 
days when, in each of its evolutions, the moon appears above the horison daring the greite' 
part of the night . . . 

*' We distinguish the days of our months by their numerical order — first, seeond, tUii 
kCj day of the month ; and the days of our week by specific names — Sunday, Mondi/i 


Tbe MeiicsDs dietJDguisb«d ever; one of their tlnja of the period of tweoly dajiB, I17 
■ specific nun* — Cipaelli, E/ucatl, &c. ; and eivtj d»y of the pcdod of ILirleen dnyn, bj a 
nnmericBl order, from ono to ttiiiteea." ^^ 

These can be neither called weeks nor months — they were arbi- 
trarj- divisiona, used long before the Christian era, and no doubt long 
before the Ainoricans had any idea of the true length of the solar 
year. This they arrived at with considerable accuracy, but, as wc 
have reason to believe, not many centnrieB before the Spaniah con- 
quest. "With regard to the origin of the astronomical knowledge of 
American racc5, there has been mnch discussion. Iluniboldt has 
pointed ont some striking coincidences in the Mexican modes of com- 
pnting time, names of their months, and similar accidents, with those 
of Thibet, China, and other Asiatic nations ; which (were philologj- 
certainty, and old Jesuit interpretation safe,) would look very much 
as if they had been borrowed, and engrafted on American aysteras 
at a comparatively recent period. On the other hand, he has Uiid 
stress upon some of the peculiarities especially distinguishing the 
Mesdcan calendar, and which cannot be ascribed to foreign origin — 
SQch as the fact already mentioned, that the Mexicans never counted 
by montlis or weeks, 

" Wlut U remarkablB (00 [Bays HnmboldtJ, is, tb»t the c«lend« of Pern rfords Indnbit- 
«b1* proof* not only of nBtronomioil obiierTBUona and of > oertain decree of BBtroLoinioB) 
kBonledge, bat >lao that their origin was indepcudcDt of thst of the Mexicans, If both 
lh« HexicMi and PeruTian calendars were not the result of their ovo iodepeudeat obsw- 
vatloiu, we mnat soppose a double importation of BBtroDomical knowledge — ooe to Para, 
knd another to Meiii'o — coming from ililTerent quarters, sod by people possesacd of differ- 
ent degrees of linowledge. There is not in Peru any trace of identity of (he names of lb* 
days, or of a resort to the combinalJon of two series. Their months were alternately of 
tweDiy-nine and thirty days, to which eletea days were added, to complete the year." 

Now, if the Mexican calendar dift'ered, "totoccelo," from that of the 
Peruvian, it follows that their respective origins were distinct; and 
if neither, as Humboldt indicates, was constructed upon a foreign or 
Asiatic basis, how are any suppositions of antique intercourse between 
the two hemispheres justified by astronomy? Why, if the Peruvians 
did not borrow from the Mexicans, (their contemporaries on the same 
continent,) should they not have taught themselves, just as the Mexi- 
cans did their owneelves, systems as unlike each other as they are 
wparated by nature, times, and spaces, from every one adopted by 
those tyi^es of mankind, whose physical structure is from these Ame- 
ricaoB utterly diverse ? 

Some of the astronomical observations of the Mexicans were aUo 
clearly local : the two transits of the sun, for instance, by the zenith 
of Mexico, besides others. 

As&uredly the major portion, then, of the astronomical knowledge 
of the aboriginal Americans was of domestic origin ; and any of the 


few poiniB of contact with the calendars of the Old World, if not 
accidental, must have taken place at an exceedingly remote period 
of time. In fact, whatever may have come fix)m the Old "Worid was 
engrafted upon a system itself still older than the ezotic shootB. 

But^ if it still be contended that astronomy was imported, why did 
not the immigrants bring an alphabet or Asiatic system of writing, 
the art of working iron, mills, wheel-barrows (all, with remembrance 
even of Oriental navigation, unknown in America)? Or at least the 
seeds of millet, rice, wheat, oats, barley, &c., of their respective bota- 
nical provinces or countries ? Alas ! sustainers of the i7nt7y-doctrine 
will be puzzled to find one fact among American abori^nes to sup- 
port it 

In conclusion, we have but to sum up the facts briefly detailed, 
and these results will be clearly deducible, namely : — 

1. That the continent of America was imknown not only to the 
ancient Egj^ptians and Chinese, but to the more modem Hebrews, 
Greeks, and Romans. 

2. That at the time of its discovery, this continent was populated 
by millions of people, resembling each other, possessing peculiar 
moral and physical characteristics, and in utter contrast with any 
people of the Old World. 

3. That these races were found surrounded everywhere by animals 
and plants specifically different from those of the Old "World, and 
created, as it is conceded, in America. 

4. That these races were found speaking several hundred languageSf 
which, although often resembling each other in grammatical structupe, 
differed in general entirely in their vocabularies, and were all rafi- 
eally distinct from the languages of the Old World. 

5. That their monuments, as seen in their architecture, sculpture, 
earth-works, shell-banks, &c., from their extent^ dissemination, and 
incalculable numbers, furnish evidence of very high antiquity. 

6. That the state of decomposition in which the skeletons of flie 
mounds are found, and, above all, the peculiar anatomical stractare 
of the few remaining crania, prove these mound-builders to have been 
both ancient and indigenous to the soil ; because American crania, 
antique as well as modem, are unlike those of any other race of an- 
oient or recent times. 

7. That the aborigines of America possessed no alphabet or truly- 
phonetic system of writing — that they possessed none of the domestic 
animals, nor many of the oldest arts of the Eastern hemisphere ; whilst 
their agricultural plants were indigenous. 

8. That their system of arithmetic was unique — that their astro- 
nomical knowledge, in the main, was indubitably of cis-Atlantic 


while their calendar was unlike that of any people, ancient or 
I, of the other hemisphere. 

tever exception may be taken to any of these propositions 
ely, it must be conceded that, when viewed together, they fomi 
of cumulative testimony, carrying the aborigines of America 
> the remotest period of man's existence upon earth, 
entire scope of argument on these subjects may be presented 
igorous language of LordKAiMES; expressing ideas entertained 
self and the authors in common, although more than seventy - 
ars interlapse between their respective writings : — 

Vigiditj of the North Americftns, men and women, differing in that particular from 
MTages, is to me evidence of a separate race. And I am the more confirmed in 
ion, when I find a celebrated writer, whose abilities no person calls in question, 
ng in Tain to ascribe that circamstance to moral and physical causes. Si Pergavia 

ododing from the foregoing facts that there are different races of men, I reckon 
noons opposition ; not only from men biassed against what is new or uncommon, 
numberless sedate writers, who hold every distinguishing mark, internal as well 
il, to be the effect of soil and climate. Against the former, patience is my only 
at I cannot hope for any converts to a new opinion, without removing the argu- 
;ed by the latter. 

ig the endless number of writers who ascribe supreme efficacy to the cUmate, 
shall take the lead.3^ . . . 

summing up the whole particulars mentioned above, would one hesitate a mo- 
dopt the following opinion, were there no counterbalancing evidence : viz., ' That 
ed many pairs of the human race, differing f^om each other both externally and 
; that he fitted these pairs for different climates, and placed each pair in its 
Imate ; that the peculiarities of the original pairs were preserved entire in their 
its — who, having no assistance but their natural talents, were left to gather 
I from experience, and in particular were left (each tribe) to form a language for 
it signs were sufficient for the original pairs, without any language but what 
^gests ; and that a language was formed gradually, as a tribe increased in num- 
n different occupations, to make speech necessary ? ' But this opinion, however 
we are not permitted to adopt, being taught a different lesson by revelation : viz., 
created but a single pair of the human species. Though we cannot doubt of the 
of Moses, yet his account of the creation of man is not a little puiiling, as it 
contradict every one of the facts mentioned above. According to that account, 
races of men were not formed, nor were men framed originally for different cli- 
ill men must have spoken the same language, viz., that of our first parents. And 
U seems the most contradictory to that account, is the savage state : Adam, as 
>rms us, was endued by his Maker with an eminent degree of knowledge ; and ho 
nust have been an excellent preceptor to his children and their progeny, among 
lived many generations. Whence then the degeneracy of all men unto the savage 
account for that dismal catastrophe, mankind must have suffered some terrible 
terrible convulsion is revealed to us in the history of the Tower of Babel." ^^ . . . 

lon*8 Tower (it is known to cuneiform students of the present 
I not exist before the reign of Nebuchadnezar ; who built it 
the seventh century b. c.^ As the edifice does not concern 
»gy, we pass onward. 

298 Morton's inedited xss. 




[Although not in the mature shape in which Dr. Morton habito* 
ally submitted his reflections to the scientific world, and destitute, alas! 
of his own improvements, a contribution, so valuable to that study 
of Man which owes its present momentum to his genius, must not be 
overlooked in " Types of Mankind." With their joint acknowledg- 
ments to Mrs. S. Geo. Morton, for the unreserved use of whatever 
autographs their much-honored friend intended for eventual publici- 
tion, the authors annex two fragmentary essays. Overcome by ill- 
ness, the Doctor withdrew from his library on the 6th of May, 1851; 
leaving these, among other evidences of an enthusiasm for science 
which death alone could stifle. The authors take the more pleasore 
and pride in embodying such first rough-draughts, fresh as they flowed 
from his mind — not unstudied, but unadorned. Dr. Morton is here 
beheld in his oflicc, writing down with characteristic simplicity, while 
disturbed by profllssional interruptions, the results of his incessant 
labor and meditation, couched in the language of truth.] 


^^ On the Size of the Brain in Various Races and FamiUes ((f Mcoi; 
with Uthnological Remarks. By Samuel Oeoroe Morton, M.D.: 
Philadelphia and Edinburgh.** 

The importance of the brain as the seat of the fbculties of the 
mind, is preeminent in the animal economy. Hence the avidity with 
which its structure and functions have been studied in our time; for, 
although much remains to be explained, much has certainly been ac- 
complished. We have reason to believe, not only that the bram is 
the centre of the whole series of mental manifestations, but that its 
tieveral parts are so many organs ; each one of which perfenns its 
peculiar and distinctive oflice. But the number, locality, and fimc* 
tions of these several organs are far from being detenninea: nor 


should this nncertaiiity surprise us, when we reflect on the slow and 
devious process by which mankind have arrived at some of the sim- 
plest physiological truths, and the difficulties that environ all inquiries 
into the nature of the organic functions. 

In studying ethnology, and especially in comparing the crania of 
the several races, I was struck with the inadequacy of the methods in 
use for determining the size and weight of the brain. On these 
methods, which are four in number, I submit the following remarks : 

1. The plan most frequently resorted to is that which measures the 
exterior of the head or skull within various corresponding points. 
We are thus enabled to compare the relative conformation in diflferent 
individuals, and in this manner obtain some idea of the relative size 
of the brain itsel£ Such measurements possess a great value in cra- 
nk)k>g}% and, we need hardly add, are the only ones that are available 
in the living man. 

2. The plan of weighing the brain has been extensively practised 
m modem times, and with very instructive results. Haller found the 
encepbalon to vary, in adult men, from a pound and a half to more 
dum five pounds ; and the Wenzels state the average of their experi- 
ments to range from about three pounds five ounces to three pounds 
ten ounces.* 

The experiments of the late Dr. John Sims, of London, which, from 
their number and accuracy, deserve great attention, place the average 
weight of the recfent brain between three pounds eight and three 
poands ten ounces, or nearly the same weight as that obtained by the 
Wenzels. Of 253 brains weighed by Dr. Sims, 191 were adults from 
twenty years old to seventy, and upwards ; and of the whole series, 
the lowest weighed two pounds, and the highest an ounce less than 
four pounds.f 

Prof. Tiedemann, of Heidelberg, a learned and accomplished ana- 
tomist, has pursued the same mode of investigation. After giving 
the weight of fifty-two European brains, he adds that 

*'The weight of the brain in an adult European yaries between three pounda two ounces 
ttd four pounds six ounces Troj. The brain of men who have iistinguished themselres 
^ tkeir great talents are often very large. The brain of the celebrated Cuyier weighed 
kn pounds, eleven ounces, four drachms, thirty grains, Troy ; and that of the distin- 
liUMd surgeon, Dupuytren, weighed four pounds ten ounces Troy. The brain of men en- 
^ei with but feeble intellectual powers, is, on the contrary, often very small, particularly 
b eongenital idiotismus. The female brain is lighter than that of the male. It Taries b»- 
ticta two pounds eight ounces and three pounds eleven ounces. I never found a female 
Wiia that weighed four pounds. The female brain weighs, on an average, from four to 
ii|kt ounces less than that of the male ; and this difference is already perceptible in » 

* Medico-Chirurg. Trans., xix. p. 861. f Idem, p. 269. 

X Trans, of the Royal See. of LondoiL 

800 Morton's inedited mss. 

Sir W. Hamilton adds, that in the male about one brain in Beven 
is found above four pounds Troy ; in the female hardly one in an 

These results are highly instructive, and furnish the average weight 
of the cerebral organs at the time of death ; but whoever will examine 
the valuable tables of Dr. Sims, will observe that various circnm- 
stances may affect the weight of the brain, without, at the same time, 
modifying its size; viz.: extreme sanguineous congestion; fluidg 
contained in the ventricles ; interstitial effusion ; extravasation of 
blood, and softening and condensation of structure. These morbid 
changes sometimes take place rapidly, while the absolute bulk of the 
brain remains unaltered. Again, the plan of weighing the encephal(m 
must always be a very restricted one ; and is not likely ever to he 
practised on an extensive scale, except in the Caucasian and Negro. 

3. Another, but indirect, mode of ascertaining the weight of the 
brain, has been practised by Sir William Hamilton, who ** examined 
about 300 human skulls, of determined sex, the capacity of wlddi, 
by a method he devised, was taken in sand, and the original weight 
thus recovered.'** 

Respecting the process employed in these experiments I am not 
informed ; and I agree with Dr. Sims, that the weight of the brain 
cannot be determined by ascertaining the capacity of the cranium, by 
any method, however accurate in itself. 

More recently. Prof. Tiedemann has performed an elaborate series 
of experiments to determine the comparative weight of the brain in 
the different human races. 

** For this purpose," he obseryes, ** I fiUed the skull through the foramen magnum irith 
xnillet-seed, taking care to close the foramina and fissures, so as to preTent the escape of 
the seed, and at the same time striking the cranium with the palm of the hand, in order to 
pack its contents more closely. I then weighed the skull thus filled, and snbtraeted from 
it the weight of the empty one, and I thus determined the capacity of the cranium from 
the weight of the seed it was capable of containing." f 

The results obtained by Prof. Tiedemann, Uke those of Sir William 
Hamilton, possess a great value in researches of this kind ; yet, un- 
fortunately, they are not absolute either as respects the size or weight 
of the brain ; for it is evident that the second of these objects could 
only be obtained by employing a medium of the same density as the 
brain ; and as to capacity ^ no method had, at that time (1837), been 
de\ised for obtaining it in cubic inches. 

4. Seeing, therefore, that the several processes just described an». 
not absolute, but only comparative in their results, without affording 

* Essays and Heads of Lectures : by Dr. A. Monro, zixix. 
f Das Hein des Negers, &o. p. 21. 


cither the true weight or trae bulk of the brain, I solicited my friend, 
ilr. John S. Phillips, to deviee some more satisfactory method of ob- 
luiuing the desired object ; and this haa been entirely successful in 
the following manner. 

I A tin cyhndcr was made, about two inches and three-fourths in 
diameter, and two feet two inches in height, standing on a foot, and 
banded with swelled hoops about two inches apart, and firmly sol- 
dered to prevent accidental flattening. A glass tube, hermetically 
sealed at one end, was eut oft' so as to hold exactly five cubic inches 
of water by weight, at 60° Fahrenheit. A float of light wood, well 
varnished, two and one-fourth inches in diameter, with a slender rod 
of the same material fixed in its centre, was next dropped into the 
tin cj-linder. Then five cubic inches of water, measured in the glass 
tube, were poured into the cylinder, and the point at which the rod 
on the float stood above the top of the cylinder, was marked by tho 
edge of a file laid aci-oss its top. And, in hke manner, tho successive 
gradations on the float-rod, indicating five cubic inches each, were 
obtained by pouring five cubic inches from the glass tube gradatim, 
and marking each rise ou tlie floal^rod, Tlie gradations thus ascer- 
tained were transferred to a mahogany rod, fitted with a flat loot, and 
ihese were again subdivided by means of compasses to mark the cubic 
inches and parts.* 

In order to measure the internal capacity of a cranium, the larger 
foramina must be first stopped with cotton, and the cavity then filled 
with leaden shot one-eighth of an inch in diameter, poured into the 
foramen magnum. This process should be eflected to repletion ; and 
for this purpose it is necessary to shake the skull repeatedly, and, at 
the fiame time to press down tho shot with the finger, or with the end 
of the funnel, until the cavity can receive no more. The shot are 
neact to be transferred to the tin cylinder, which should also be well 
ebaken. The mahogany rod being then dropped into the tin cylinder, 
witli its foot resting on tlio shot, the capacity of the cranium will be 
indicated by the number observed on the same plane with tlie top of 
the tube. 

I thus obtain the abioluU eapacity of the cranium, or hulk of ike hrain 
in cubic inchei; nor can I avoid expressing my satisfaction at the 
Mngular accuracy of this method; inasmuch as a skull of 100 cubic 
inclics capacity, if measured any number of times with reasonabU' 
care, will not vary a single cubic inch- 
On first using this apparatus, I employed, in place of shot, white 
pepper seed, which possessed the advantage of a spheroidical form 

■ Cmua Amerisuw, 1639, p. 258. 


302 mohton's inedited iiss. 

and general uniformity in the size of the gnuns. But it was soon 
manifest that the utmost care could not prevent considerable variation 
in several successive measurements, sometimes amounting to three 
or four cubic inches. Under these circumstances, but not until all 
the internal capacity measurements of the Orania Americana had been 
made in this way, I saw the necessity of devising some other medium 
with which to fill the cranium ; and after a ftiU trial of the shot, have 
permanently adopted it, with the satisfietctory results above stated.* 
These remarks will explain the difference between the measurements 
published in the Crania Americana and those obtained from the same 
skulls by the revised method.f 

In an investigation of this nature, the question arises — At what 
age does the brain attain full development? On this point, there is 
great diversity of opinion. Professor Summering supposes this period 
to be as early as the third year. Sir William Hamilton expresses 
himself in the following terms : " In man, the encephalon reaches its 
full size about seven years of age. This," he adds, " was never before 
proved." The latter remark leads us to infer that this able and labo- 
rious investigator regarded his proposition as an incontestable fact 
Professor Tiedemann assumes the eighth year as the period of the 
brain's maximum growth. 

Dr. Sims, on the other hand, inferred from an extended series of 
experiments on the brain from a year old to upwards of seventy, 
that " the average weight goes on increasing from one year to twenty; 
between twenty and thirty there is a slight increase in the average; 
afi^nvards it increases, and arrives at the maximum between fortjr 
and fifty. After fifty, to old age, the brain gradually decreases \xx 
weight." These observations nearly correspond with those of Dr— 
Gall, but are liable to various objections. 

Dr. John Reid has also investigated this question on a large seal 
and with great care. After weighing 253 brains o£ both sexes am 
of various ages, he arrives at the conclusion that the encephalo: 
arrives at its maximum size sooner than the other organs of the body 
that its relative size, when compared with tlie other organs, and 
the entire body, is much greater in the child than in the adult; an 
that although the average weight of the male brain is absoluteL;^ 
heavier than that of the female, yet the average female brain, relativ" < 
to the whole body, is somcAvhat heavier than the average male brai^Kn 
Finally, he observes that his experiments do not aftbrd any suppo -yi 
to the proposition that the encephalon attains its maximum weight 
at or near the age of seven years. On this latter point, which is of 

♦ Proceedings of the Academy of Nat. Sciences of Philad. for April, 1841. 
7 See my Catalogue of Skulls, 8d ed. 1S49. 


;Rit importance in the present inquiry, I shall offer a few remarks 
-The most obvious use of the sutures of the cranium is to subserve 
be process of growth, which they do by osseous depositions at their 
iiiigins. Hence one of these sutures is equivalent to the interrupted 
tnctare that exists between the shaft and epiphysis of a long bone 
D the growing state. The shaft grows in length chiefly by accretions 
i its extremities ; and the epiphysis, like the cranial suture, disap- 
can when the perfect development is accomplished. Hence we may 
ifer that the skull ceases to expand whenever the sutures become 
onsolidated with the proximate bones. In other words, the growth 
f the brain, whether in viviparous or in oviparous animals, is con- 
entineous with that of the skull, and neither can be developed with- 
Btthe presence of free sutures.* 

From these considerations, and from many comparisons, I cannot 
dmit that the brain has attained its physical maturity at the age of 
mm or eight years ; neither is there satisfactory evidence to prove 
Ittt it continues to grow after adult age. It may possibly increase 
nd decrease in size and weight aft;er that period, without altering 
ke internal capacity of the cranium, which last measurement will 
hrays indicate the maximum size the encephalon had attained at 
ie) period of its greatest development ; for in those instances in 
rhich this organ has been observed in a contracted or shrunken 
bite, in very old persons, the cranial cavity has remained to all ap- 
€mnce unaltered.! 

We know that at, and often before, the age of sixteen years the 
Dtures are already so firmly anchylosed as not to be separated with- 
out great difficulty, or even without fracture ; whence we may reason- 
ibly infer that the encephalon has nearly, if not entirely, attiiined its 

' I hATe in my possession the skall of a malatto boy "who died at the age of eighteen 
ttn. In this instance, the sagittal sntore is entirely wanting ; in consequence, the lateral 
ipHinon of the crantnm has ceased in infancy, or at whatever period the suture became 
otnBdated. Hence also the diameter between the parietal protuberances is less than 4.5 
Kkci, instead of 5, which last is the Negro average. The squamous sutures, however, 
It folly open, whence the skull has continued to expand in the upward direction, until 
t Itts reached the average vertical diameter of the Negro, or 6.6 inches. The coronal 
lim is also wanting, excepting some traces at its lateral termini ; and the result of this 

Mt deAeieney is seen in the very inadequate of the forehead, which is low and narrow, 

■t tloiigated below through the agenoy of the various cranio-facial sutures. The lamdoidal 
■tire is perfect, thus permitting posterior elongation ; and the growth in this direction, 

tgether with the full vertical diameter, has enabled the brain to attain the bulk of 

■^ inehet, or about less than the Negro average. I believe that the absence or 

tttitl development of the sutures may be a cause of idiocy by checking the growth of the 
nia, ind thereby impairing or destroying its functions. See Proceedingt of the Academy, 
^August, 1841. 

t Mr. George Combe, Syttem of Phrenology ^ p. 83, is of the opinion that when the bmla 
•itnets, the inner table of the skull follows it, while the outer remains stationirj. 

304 Morton's inedited mss 

growth ; and I have thcrcforo commonced my expc&iraents with this 
period of life. I am aware that it cannot bo as safely assumed for 
the nations who inhabit the frigid and temperate zones, as for some 
inter-tropical races — the Hindoos, Arab-Egyptians, and Negroes, for 
example ; for these people are proverbially known to reach the adult 
age, both physically and morally, long before the inhabitants of more 
northern climates. But, if the average period of the full development 
of the brain could be ascertained in all the races, it would, perhape, 
not greatly vary from the age of sixteen years. 

It is evident that this age cannot be always positively determined 
in the dried skull ; yet by a careful comparison of the teeth and 
sutures, in connection with the general development of the cranial 
structure, I have had little difficulty in keeping within the prescribed 

In classing these skulls into the two sexes, I have been in part 
governed by positive data; but in the greater number this question 
has been proximately determined by merely comparing the develop- 
ment and conformation of the cranial structure. 

I have excluded from the Table the crania of idiots, dwarfs, and 
those of persons whose heads have been enlarged or otherwise modi- 
lied by any obvious morbid condition. So, also, no note has been 
taken of individuals who blend dissimilar races, as the mulatto, for 
example — the ollripring of the Cauca8ian and the Negro. Tho« 
instances, however, which present a mixture of two divisions of the 
same great race, are admitted into the Table. Such is the modem 
Fellah of the Valley of the Nile, in whom the intrusive Arab is 
engrafted on the Old Egy[)tian. 

The measurements comprised in this Memoir have been derived, 
without exception, from skulls in my own collection, in order that 
their accuracy may at any time be tested by myself or by othen. I 
have also great satisfaction in stating, that all these measurements 
have been made with my own hands. I at one time employed a 
l»erson to assist me ; but having detected some errors in his nnmhen, 
I have been at the pains to revise them all, and can now therefore 
vouch for the accuracy of these multitudinous data. 

My collection at this time embraces [*] human crania, among which, 
however, the diftcrent races are verj' unequally represented. Nor baa 
it been possible, for reasons already mentioned, to subject the entire 
series to the adopted measurement. Again, some of these are too 
much broken for this purpose; while many others are embalmed 
heads, which cannot be measured, on account of the presence of 
bitumen or of desiccated tissues. * * * ♦ ♦ 

[• In May, 1851, about 837 Hkulls {MS, addenda to Catalogae of 1840). Sinoe aagnioted 
hy OLO or two dozen. — 0. R. 0.] 



{Origin of the Human Species.) 

Before proceeding to an analysis of these materials, I purpose to 
Hike a very few remarks on the ori^n of the Human Species as a 
loological question, and one inseparably associated with classification 
n Ethnology. 

After twenty years of observation and reflection, during which 
mod I have always approached this subject with diffidence and 
Mtion ; after investigating for myself the remarkable diversities of 
ipmon to which it has given rise, and after weighing the difficulties 
hit beset it on every side, I can find no satisfactory explanation of 
he diverse phenomena that characterize physical Man, excepting in 
he doctrine of an original plurality of races. 

The commonly received opinion teaches, that all mankind 4iave 
leen derived from a primeval pair; and that the dififerences now 
teervable among the several races, result from the operation of two 
nindpal causes : 

L The influence of climate, locality, civilization, and other physical 
tnd moral agents, acting through long periods of time. The mani- 
ifitt inadequacy of this hypothesis, led the late learned and lamented 
Dr. Prichard to ofier the following ingenious explanation. 

2. The diversities among mankind are mainly attributable to the 
m of accidental varieties, which, from their isolated position and 
sdusive intermarriage, have rendered their peculiar traits permanent 
BDong themselves, or, in other words, indelible among succeeding 
jenerarions of the same stock. 

The preceding propositions, more or less modified and blended 
ogether, are by many ethnologists regarded as adequate to the expla- 
uition of all the phenomena of diversity observable in Man. 

I^ however, we were to be guided in this inquiry solely by the 
vidence derived from Nature, whether directly, in the study of man 
timself, or collaterally by comparison with the other divisions of the 
oological series, our conclusions might be altogether diffisrent : we 
rould be led to infer that our species had its origin not in one, but 
a many creations; that these were widely distributed into those 
3calitie8 upon the earth's surf^ice as were best adapted to their pecu- 
iar wants and physical constitutions ; and that, in the lapse of time, 
hese races, diverging from their primitive centres, met and amalga- 
Qited, and have thus given rise to those intermediate links of oigan* 
isdon which now connect the extremes together."^ 

* TIm doctrine of a plonlitj of original creatioiiB for the human fiunilj, k by at i 


306 mohton's inedited iiss. 

In accordance with this view, what are at present termed thejhr 
races would be more appropriately called groups. Each of thfiee 
groups is again divisible into a smaller or greater number of prinuuy 
races, each of which has itself expanded from a primordial nucleiu or 
centre. To illustrate this proposition, we may suppose that there 
were several centres for the American groups of races, of which the 
highest in the scale are the Toltecan nations — the lowest, theFue- 
gians. Nor does this view conflict with the general principle, thit 
all these nations and tribes have had, as I have elsewhere ejqiressed 
it, a common origin ; for by this term is only meant an indigenous 
relation to the country they inhabit, and that collective identity of 
physical traits, mental and moral endowments, language, &c., wUdi 
characterise all the American races.* 

The same remarks are applicable to all the other human races; but 
in the present in&nt state of ethnological science, the designation rf 
these primitive centres would be a task of equal delicacy and difficoMy. 

It would not be admissible in this place, to inquire into the respeo* 
tive merits of these propositions ; and we shall dismiss them for the 
present with a few brief remarks. 

If all the varieties of mankind were derived from a single aboriginal 
t^-pe, we ought to find the approximation to this type more and more 
apparent as we retrace the labyrinth of time, and approach the primeval 
epochs of history. But what is the result ? We examine the vener- 
able monuments of Egypt, and we see the Caucasian and the "SeffO 

new ; for it was believed and expounded by a learned Rabbi of the Apostolio age, in t eom- 
mentary (the Tarffum) on the Pentateuch. Rev. J. Pyt Smith, Relatian bdwem tkt S^if 
Scriptures and Oeology, p. 893. 

I have inyariabi J, when treating of this subject, avowed m j belief in the obcriffiMt diMr- 
tity of mankind, independently of the progressiye action of any physical or accidental esuMi 
The words of the Hebrew Targum are precisely to the point : " God created Han M 
white, and black.'* 

I now Yenture to give a fuller and somewhat modified explanation of their^or^ut' ^ 
Crania Americana^ p. 3; Crania ^yyptiaea, p. 87; Dittinctivt Charaeteriatia of tk% Ahm^ 
Race of Americaf p. 36 ; and Hybridity of Animalt considered in reference to the quettion tf ^ 
Unity of the Human Species, in Amer. Journal of Science and Arts, 1847. 

* Niebuhr expresses this idea admirably when he remarks, that it is « fUse reasonioS 
to say, *< that nations of a common stock must have had a common origin, from which tkcj 
were genealogically deduced." History of Rome, I., p. 87. In other words, people of * 
common etock may have had several or many origins. Such appears to be the fact not ow/ 
with man, but with all the inferior animals. We are nowhere told the latter were etH^ 
in pairs. "Male and female created He them" — and the same words are used ia reft^ 
ence to the whole zoological series. 

Prof. Bailey of West Point, one of the most successful microscopists of the present (!>/• 
has shown, that the mud taken from some of the deep-sea soundings on the coast of tkt 
United States contains, in every cubic inch, hundreds of millions of living caleareoas/^T 
thalmia. Will any one pretend that these animals were created in pain, or had their 
origin in Mesopotamia ? 


kpcted, side by side, master and slave^ twenty-two centuries before 
Ohrist ; while imeriptitmB establish the same ethnological distinctions 
eight hundred years earlier in time. [^] Abundant confirmation 
of the same general principle is also found on the numberless vases 
Gmn the tombs of Etruria : the antique sculptures of India ; the pic- 
torial delineations of the earliest Chinese annals ; the time-honored 
raiiis of Nineveh, and from the undated tablets of Peru, Yucatan; and 
Ifadoo. In all these locaUties, so fiir removed by space from each 
^. ^ by toe from „,, fte aWnc«,e chUrMc of 4e 
kumaa races are so accurately depicted as to enable us, for the most 
put, to distinguish them at a glance. 

We earnestly maintain that the preceding views are not irrecon- 
dleable with the Sacred Text, nor inconsistent with Creative Wisdom 
H duplayed in the other kingdoms of Nature. On the contrary, they 
ue calculated to extend our knowledge and exalt our conceptions of 
Omnipotence. By the simultaneous creation of a plurality of original 
iloeks, the population of the Earth became not an accidental result, 
bat a matter of certainty. Many and distant regions which, in accord- 
ince with the doctrine of a single origin, would have remained for 
thonsands of years unpeopled and unknown, received at once their 
iDotted inhabitants ; and these, instead of being left to struggle with 
Ae vicissitudes of chance, were from the beginning adapted to those 
nried circumstances of climate and locality which yet mark their 
wpective positions upon the earth.* 


The Teutonic Race. — I use this appellation in the comprehensive 
enee in which it has been employed by Professor Adelung ; for the 
[Teat divisions established by this distinguished scholar, though based 
xclusively on philological data, are fully sustained by comparisons 
tt physical ethnology. Of the three great divisions, the Scandinavian 
ies chiefly to the north of the Baltic sea ; the Suevic and Cimbric 
•Q the south. 

1. The SuEVic nations embrace the Prussians on one hand, the 
'yrolese on the other ; while between these lie the Austrians, Swiss, 
bivarians, Alsatians, and the inhabitants of the Upper and Middle 

* See Rer. J. Pye Smith : Relation between the Holj Seriptares and Geology, 8d. ed. 
^ 198-400. Also, Hon. and Rev. William Herbert : AmyriUidace<By p. 888. 
" Lee lirres Juifs n*entendent pas ^tablir que lenr premier homme ait ^t^ le p^re du 
Kre bnmun, mais seolement celui de lear esp^ce priyil^gi^. D ne pent cons^qnemment y 
lir SQcone impiety 4 reeonnaitre parmi none plnsienrs esp^ces qui, chaqnne, anront en 
■r Adam et lenr bercean particnlier." Beiy de St Yinoent : VHommt^ I., p. 66. 


Rhine. These nations once extended into the north-eastern section 
of Europe, whence they were driven by the Sclavonic tribes. 

2. The CiMBRic nations occupy western Gormanyy and among 
many subordinate families, embrace the Saxons, FrisianSi Holland- 
ers, &c. ^ 

8. The Scandinavian race is regarded by Adelang as a mixture of 
Suevic and Cimbric tribes. It includes the Danes, Swedes, QoQoj 
and Icelanders ; for although it is a disputed question, whether tbe 
Goths came from Scandinavia, or from the northern shores of the 
Baltic sea, the evidence preponderates in favor of the fonner opinion. 
The Vandals, however, appear to have been strictly a Suevic people 

Of these great divisions I possess but twenty-three skulls, of which 
twenty-one are used in the Table, Of this number, all bnt one have 
been obtained from hospitals and institutions for paupers, whence we 
may infer that they pertain to the least cultivated portion of their 
race. The proportion of males to females is twelve to nine. 

The exception alluded to above is the skull of a Dutch gentlemsn 
of noble family, who was bom in Utrecht, received a good education, 
was of convivial habits, and died at an early age, in the island of 
Java. I particularize this cranium, because it is by far the laigest in 
my whole scries ; for it measures 114 cubic inches of internal cqm- 
city. Contrasted with this is a female Swedish head, kindly sent 
me, with several others, by Professor Rctzius of Stockholm, which 
sinks to sixty-five cubic inches. Between these extremes the mean 
or average is ninety. 

The Anglo-Saxons. — The next division of the Teutonic race is 
the Anglo-Saxon ; that remarkable people who have made their way 
with the sword, but marked their track with civilization. At an 
early period of the Christian era, Angli and SazoneSy two powerfo] 
tribes, occupied the country between the Cimbrian peninsula, (now 
called Jutland,) and along the western shore of the Elbe to the termi- 
nation of this river in the Baltic sea. These people commenced thdr 
]>ii*atical incursions to the coast of Britain in the fourth centuiy, and 
were masters of the island as early as a. d. 449. They found it chiefly 
inhabited by the native Britons, who were Celts ; but these latter 
people had been for nearly 400 years under the dominion of the Bo- 
nians, who had largely colonized the country ; and so complete was 
this subjugation, that the Latin language was the colloquial speech 
of all Britain at the fall of the Roman empire, excepting among the 
ricts of the coast of Scotland.* From the period of the Anglo-Saxon 
invasion, the population became a blended mixture of the Celtic, Pe- 

• I^bAin : Etroria Celtioa, L 4. 


i^^ and Teutonic races, among which the latter soon took the 
piqiODderance, and gave its language to the liritish Islands. The 
JTorman conquest added another physical element of the Teutonic 

This fusion of three families into one, varying in degree in different 
nctioDS of these islands, has given rise to a physiognomy varying in 
nferal respects from the Teutonic caste ; while the cranium itself is 
Im spheroidal, and more decidedly oval, than is characteristic of that 

I have not hitherto exerted myself to obtain crania of the Anglo- 
Bnon race, except in the instance of individuals who have been sig- 
Hfiied by their crimes ; and this number is too small to be of much 
impcHiance in a generalization like the present. Yet, since these 
falls have been procured without any reference to their size, it is 
(onaikable that five give an average of 96 cubic inches for the bulk 
tf the brain ; the smallest head measuring 91, and the largest 105 
sibic inches. It is necessary, however, to observe, that these are all 
Bale crania ; but, on the other hand, they pertained to the lowest 
iuB of society, and three of them died on the gallows for the crime 
tf murder. 

The Anglo-Americans conform, in all their characteristics, to the 
pnent stock. They possess, in common with their English ancestors, 
iBiore elongated head than the unmixed Oermans. The few crania 
b my possession have, without exception, been derived from the 
iovest and least cultivated portion of the community — malefactors, 
piopers, and lunatics. The largest brain has been ninety-seven cubic 
iadies ; the smallest, eighty-two ; and the mean of ninety accords 
with that of the collective Teutonic race. The sexes of these seven 
ikoUs are, four male and three female. 

Two or three circumstances connected with the ethnology of the 
Anglo- American race, seem to call for a passing notice on this 

Mr. Ilaldemann has observed that when, in the last century, the 
color of the American Indian was supposed to be owing to climate, 
H was boldly insisted that the descendants of Europeans in thiR 
coantry had already made some progress in a change of color. Since 
ttat time an hundred years have elapsed ; yet, I presume that no sen- 
>ible person will maintain that they have brought with them any con- 
finnation of the postulate in question. 

Dr. Prichard has been informed that the heads of Europeans in the 
West Indies approach those of the aboriginal Indian in form, inde- 
pendently of intermixture. On this point I feel qualified to expresi 
tn opinion. I passed three months in the West Indies, and 

310 Morton's inedited mss. 

eight of the islands, when slavery was everywhere in vogue (1884) ; 
and I can unhesitatingly declare that I saw nothing to confirm this 
assertion, which I regard as wholly idle and gratuitous. The only 
diftcrence that occurred to me was, that the better class of English 
women had become paler, or whiter, and thinner, on account of the 
great and constant heat of the climate, and consequent neglect of 

The observations of Dr. Pinkard, an intelligent English author,* 
correspond entirely with my own. He relates tliat he saw in the Island 
of Barbadocs (where I myself passed six weeks), an English feniilj 
that had lived there through at least six generations ; " and yet," he 
adds, " one would suppose them to have been bom in Europe, so fine 
was the skin, so clear the complexion, and so well formed the fea* 
tures." Similar remarks have been made respecting tho Mexican 
Spaniards, and the colonists of South America generally. 

Although but skulls are included in the preceding Teutonic 

series, yet, when we take into consideration their variety and authen- 
ticity, and the fact that they have been collected without regard to 
size, I have no hesitation in assuming ninety cubic inches for the 
average of the brain in the Germanic family of nations ; and I am 
further convinced that this standard is the highest among the races 
of men. 

We should reasonably look for a preponderating brain in a race 
that is not more remarkable for its conquests and its colonies, thau 
for the extent of its civilization ; a race that has peopled North Ame- 
rica, reduced all India to vassalage, and is fast spreading itself over 
Polynesia, Southern Africa and Australia ; a race that is destined to 
plough the field of Palestine, and reap the harvests of the Nile. 

The Sclavonic Race. — ^It is remarked by Dr. Prichard, that our 
acquaintance with the Germanic nations dates back three centuries 
before Christ ; but the history of the Slavonic tribes begins nine cen- 
turies later. They are obviously the descendants of the ancient Bar- 
matians, and, among many smaller nations, at present embrace the 
Russians, Poles, Lithuanians, Bohemians, and Moravians. 

I much regret that my cranial series possesses but a single example 
derived from this race, — the skull of a woman of Olmutz sent me by 

Prof. Rotzius, and which measures only cubic inches. I record 

this deficiency in my collection, in the hope that some person into* 
rested in pui'suits of this nature may be induced to provide me wiOi 
luatcrialrt for making the requisite comparisons. My impression ^u, 
that the Sclavonic brain will prove much less voluminous than tlmt 
of the Teutonic race. 

* Quoted by Rudolphi : Antbropologie, p. 158. 


Thk FtNNisfl Rack. — Among these people I consider tbo true ^pc 
to be preserveil in tlie Western Finns — the aboriginal inhabitanta of 
BcandiDavia, the predecesaors of the Teutouic nations; tor the Estho- 
cians, llie Tchndic tribes of Middle Russia and Permia, and, above 
all, the tJgriana of Siberia, have lived so long in contact with the 
Mongolian i-aces, that they often present a very mixed physical cha- 
r.» "We should, therefore, be cautious in grouping these com- 
itiee into a supposetl cognate race, merely from analogies of 
lage, which, however important as aide in ethnology, are often 
DO better than blind guides, f 

I am the more particular in making these remarks, because the 
Uadjare of Hungary have been classed, not only with the Finns, but 
even with the Bashkirs and Votiaks of Siberia, upon no other grounds 
than those just mentioned.| But mark a single admitted fact: the 
TcLudish tribe of Metzegers speaks the Turkith language, and, for 
this reason, has been by some writers actually claasetf with the Tartar 
races, with whom they wore supposed to be affiliated ! And, since 
the stronger often gives its language to the weaker race, is it not 
most probable that the Bashkirs, Votiaks, and other tribes have de- 
rived their language, by adoption, from the contiguous Tchudie 
population ? 

Again, the present lladjara of Huugarj' entered that country in the 
middle of the ninth centui^', not to take posaossiou of au uninhabited 
re^on, but to mingle with a numerous existing population ; whence 
their characteristics, both of mind and body, must have undergone a 
remarkable change, and become highly improved. 

Historj" indicates the cause of these changes when it tells us, that 
when the Madjars arrived in Hungary they at once formed political 
■lUanccs with the German princes, in order to check or expel " the 
common enemies of both nations, the Sclavonian races." It is to be 
inferred, as a matter of course, under those circumstances, that the 
iutrueive Madjars formed social connexions, not only with the Sclavo- 
nians, whom they reduced to subjection, ia the heart of Pannouia, 
but also with the surrounding German communities ; and, in this 

* For evidence of this kind in relation to the inhatiLtnnts ot north-Kostern Asia, even Id 
Tef7>iicient times, see Herodotus, JUilponene, up. ctiii., and Dr. Wiaemui'a Ltctura, pp. 
]03. 105. Pailiui rurtber ioTorma ub Uiat the Nogaii, nbo are decided Mongoliana. are fast 
tosiag Uieir natural traits hy inlirfiarHage uilh Ike Raaiani. — Trav. in Hutiia, p. J25. 

f A eint;1e eiaiapte, now bcrore our eyee, wiit itlustralo this propoaition. " Tno tiundred 
j«*rs WDie, the Irish language prerailed oier llie whole proTlnce of Lcinster. EngtiBh wv 
^okeo ddI; in the oiUee and grnat toirQa. At the present moment not one pcr»aa in 
thiHiBand, eren of the lowcat ranb of the natives oC that district, imderstaDd Irish.' 
Bttltan; Elmria Cilliea, i. 31. Here, then, are 2,000,000 of Cells, who, if judged sai 
t>7 their spoken language, would be classed with the Anglo-Saioa race. 

* Friuhard: Besearehes, &o. iii 32G, 330. 



312 icorton's ikedited xss. 

manner, the blending of dissimilar stocks lias produced the modified 
race so favorably known in the modem Madjar. 

For the only skull I possess of this race I am indebted to Prof. 
Retzius, of Stockholm. It is that of a woman from the parish of 
Kerni, in Finland. It has all the characteristics of an unmixed Euro- 
pean head, and measures eighty-six cubic inches of internal capacity. 

The Pblasoic Kacb. — Every one knows that the Pelasgic tribee 
were the aboriginal inhabitants of Greece ; that they, in the progress 
of time, and for unknown reasons, changed their name to Hellenei^ 
and were thus the ancestors of the Greeks. 

The Pelasgic occupation of Greece ascends into ** the night of 
time.*' They may be regarded as the indigenous possessors, the 
autocthonea of the soil. Indeed there is reason to believe that then 
was a civilization in Pelasgia long before that which history attributes 
to the Ilellenic race, though generally attributed to the progeniton 
of that people ; for a priest of Sais assured Bolon (b. c. 400) that the 
Saitic writings accounted for an antecedent Grecian epoch of 8000 
years ; and that Greece had moreover possessed a great and beantiAil 
city yet 1000 years earlier in time.* 

Statements of this kind, which were once rejected on acoonnt of 
their seeming extravagance, now claim a respectfiil notice when 
viewed in connexion with the new lights of chronology. We are, 
indeed, compelled to acknowledge a groat antiquity for a race that 
could produce the divine morality of Ilesiod 900 years before Christ 

I do not use tlie tenn Pelasgic with ethnological precision, but in 
this designation place tlie Greeks and Romans, and their desceudanti 
in various parts of Europe — Greece and Italy, and, in more isolated 
examples, in Spahi, France, and Britain. In the same categoiyl 
place the Persians, Armenians, Circassians, Georgians, and many 
other kindred tribes, together with the Grfcco-Egyptians. 

Of four adult CircaB%ian crania brought me by Mr. Gliddon, two 
arc male and two female. The former we may suppose, from appcM^ 
ances, to have been associated with a full share of manly beauty, and 
measure ninety and ninety-four cubic inches of internal capacity; the 
female heads measure seventy-nine and eighty ; whence we obtain 
eighty-six cubic inches as the mean of all. One of these skulls, that 
of a woman who had passed the prime of life, is remarkable for the 
jiannony of its proportions, and especially for the admirable couforma 
tion of the nasal bones. 

I possess, through the kindness of Mr. Gliddon, two female Partem 
skulls, which, though small, present a beautiful form. One mcasnroi 
eighty-nine cubic inches, the other only seventy-five. 

* See the Timffius of Plato. Taylor's Trans, ii. p. 4G6. The accurate Kiebohr nmmi-if 
that, <'in very remote times the relopoimceua kos uot Grecian." 


It IB a highly interesting fact, that whenever the ruling caste is re- 
nted in the statues and bas-reliefs of ancient Persia, the physiog- 
ly always conforms to the Pela^gic type. A remarkable example 
iMon in the head of the first Darius (b. c. 500), sculptured on the 
iiUfit of Behistun, and copied by Major Rawlinson. \_Supray Fig. 
f^ Of the same character are the antique heads of Persepolis, 
and Chapoor. But we no sooner enter Assyria than the 
wholly changed for those in which the Semitic features are 
ilBiiniint, as seen at Nineveh, Khorsabad, and other places. 
The arts have become the handmaid of ethnology ; and it may be 
Kgaided as an axiom in this science, that the older the sculptures and 
IliBtingB, the more perfect and distinctive are the cranial tj-pes they 
Unsent. Again, there is no evidence to prove that any one of the 
Munt races, simply as such, is older than another. 
l>Of four adult Armenian skulls, three pertain to men ; and the ave- 
Uga size of the brain is but eighty-three cubic inches. I have felt 
hesitancy in admitting these skulls in this place, for two rea- 
1st, because their characteristics incline almost as much to the 
Aab type as to the Pelasgic ; and, 2dly, because the term Armenian 
iiBOt always used in a strictly national sense in the East<, but is ap- 
|fad to a class of merchants, whose ethnological affinities must be 
IAbq veiy mixed and uncertain. But, inasmucli as these crania are 
httrted in my original Tabhy I will not now displace them. 

Oreek and Q-rseco-Egyptian Headt. — Mr. Combe describes several 
andent Greek skulls he had seen, as of large size, with a full deve- 
lopment of the coronal and frontal regions. The head, in classic 
teolpture, is often small in comparison with the whole figure ; whence 
Aa remark that a woman proportioned like the Venus do Medicis 
noakl necessarily be a fool. The same disparity has been noticed by 
Ifinkelmann in the Farncse Hercules ; but in the Apollo Belvidere, 
[w/ra. Fig. 339] the perfect tj-pe of manly beauty, the head is faultless. 
Whether this smallness of head was a reality among the Greeks, or 
only a conventional rule of art, has been a disputed question ; but we 
miy safely adopt the latter proposition. There can be no doubt, how- 
ever, that the ancient Pelasgic was smaller than the modem Teutonic 
kndn ; and the proofs, which are derived, not from Greece itself, but 
from Egypt, are contained in the following section : 

Of 129 embalmed heads in my collection, 22 present Pelasgic cha- 
WKitors, and of these 18 are capable of measurement. Some of them 
present tlie most beautiful Caucasian proportions, while others merge 
ky degrees into the Egj'ptian type ; and I am free to admit that, in 
^ous instances, I have been at a loss in my attempts to classify 
these two great divisions of the Nilotic series. Hence it is that i 

314 Morton's inedited mss. 

skulls, which in my original analysis were placed with the Pelugic 
group, I have, on a further and more elaborate comparison, transfened 
to the Egj^tian series. 

The Greeks were numerous in Egypt even before the Perdan in- 
vasion, 6. c. 525, and their number greatly increased after the con- 
quest by Alexander the Great, nearly 200 years later (b. c. 332). 
AVlien the Romans, in turn, took possession of the conntiy thirty 
years before our era, the Greeks had already enjoyec[ nnintermpted 
communication with it for five centuries. Their colonies were 300 
years old ; and it is, therefore, by no means surprising that the Egyp- 
tian-Greek population, which chiefly inhabited Lower Egypt, shooid 
be largely represented in the catacombs of Memphis. They are fewer 
in proportion in Theban sepulchres ; and yet fewer as we asceDd the 
Nile ; and are hardly seen in the cemeteries of the rural districtBi 
The peaceful occupation of the Delta by the Greeks, for a long period 
of time, must necessarily have caused an interminable mixture of the 
two races, and fully accounts for that blended type of cranial ooo- 
formation so common in the catacombs. 

It is further remarkable that these Grseco-Egyptian heads, which! 
have separated from the other Nilotic crania by their conformatioB 
only, and consequently without any regard to size, present an aven^ 
of eighty-seven cubic inches for the size of the brain ; or, no less thin 
seven cubic inches above that of the pure Egyptian race, and but 
three inches less than the average I have assumed for the Teutonic 
nations. Yet, no one of this series is of preponderating size; fw 
the largest measures but ninety-seven cubic inches, while the snuJIert 
descends to seventy-four.* 

Again, if we take the mean of the whole twenty-eight crania em- 
braced in the present division, we find it to be eighty-six cuMc 

The Celtic Kace. — The Celts who, with the cognate Gauls, atone 

* Dr. J. C. Warren, of Boston, possesses two finely preserred Soman cnnii^ froB ^ 
ashes of Pompeii. It is many years since I saw them, but they appeared to be higUj ^ 
racteristio of this division of the Pelasgic race. The difference between the BaatM vA 
Greek heads is familiar to all obserrers, but it has not been satiafactorily expUinti H 
may have arisen Arom alliances between the intrusiye Pelasgic and some neigfaboriBfr ^ 
dissimilar tribe, in Italy. One of the first acts of the Romans was to seije the Stbia* 
women, in order to people their infant colony. These Sabines, howerer, are sai3 ^ ^ 
have been of Pelasgic origin ; but that the rural population of Italy, at that period (■' 
braced a large proportion of Celts, may be inferred from history and confirmed by tbe Btntt* 
can vases ; for wherever these relics, now so numerous, picture the sylvan deities, vkt^ 
AS fauns or satyrs, they are represented with marked Celtic features ; while the hifhff ^ 
ruling caste, represented on the same vessels, has a perfect Grecian phydogDoiny* ^ 
Sir William Hamilton's Etrutcan Vastt^ paitim. The true Roman profile, howerer, b ^ 
onf^uent on the antique bas-reliefs of Persia. Flandin : Voya^ m Fmm, pL td 4& 


period, extended their tribes from Asia Minor to the British Islands, 
are now chiefly confined, as an unmixed people, to the west and south- 
west of Ireland, whence have been derived the six crania embraced 
in the Table. These range between nine^-seven as a maximum and 
Beven^--eight as a minimum of the size of the brain ; and the mean, 
which is elghty-eeven cubic inches, will probably prove to be above 
that of the entire race, and not exceed eighty-five. 

Fi-ance, Spain, and parts of Britain, partake largely of Celtic blood, 
but 8o variously blended with the Teutonic and Pelasgic branches of 
the Caucasian group as to form a singularly mixed population. If u 
Beries of crania could be obtained fi'om the old Provincial divisions 
of France, they would eonstitote a study of extreme interest ; for 
those of the northern section ought to conform in a marked degree 
to the German tj-pe, from their long intercourse (since a. d. 420) with 
the Pranks, Burgundians, Visigoths, and other Teutonic tribes. Those 
in the sontli would present a greater infusion of the Soman physiog- 
nomy, with some Greek traits; while the intermediate communities 
would retain a marked preponderance of their primitive Celtic char- 
acteristics, For Cai.sar restricts the true Continental Celts between 
the Garonne on the south and the Seine on the north: for alUiough 
the genuine Gauls were a Celtic people, many German tribes bore 
the same collective name among the Eomans, in the same way that 
all the nations of the far North were designated Scj-thians. 

Korope was successively invaded by the Celtic, Teutonic, and Scla* 
vonic races. The Celtic migration is of extreme antiquity, yet there 
can be no question that they displaced preexisting tribes. Among 
the hitter may be mentioned the Iberians of Spain, who are yet repre- 
nnted by a fragment of their race — the Basques or Euskaldunes of 

The Indobtanic Family. — No part of the world presents a greater 
^veraty of human races than the country which bears the collective 
name of India. Exotic nations have repeatedly conquered that un- 
fortunate re^on, and to a certain degree amalgamated with its primi- 
tive inhabitants. In other instances, the original Hindoos remain 
nomixed; and beside these, again, the mountainous districts still 
contain what may be called fragments of tribes which have taken 
refuge there, in remote times, in order to escape the sword or the 
yoke of strangers. 

That peninsular India was originally peopled, at least in part, by 
taces of very dark and even black complexion, is beyond a question. 
,!nie^ people are stigmatised as Barbarians by their conquerors, the 
^yrM — a fair race, with Sanscrit speech, whose primal seats were in 
Persia. They now occupy the country between the Himalaya 



316 Morton's ikedited xss. 

moimtainB on the north, the Yindya on the south, and between tiM 
Indian ocean and the Bay of Bengal."^ In this region, called iyri- 
Vartaj or India Proper, live those once-powerfhl tribes which it bai 
taken the English more than half a century to subdne. The occu- 
pancy of India by these Persian tribes dates, according to M. Ouigmsnt 
from the year 8101 before Christ, when also it is supposed the difi- 
sion of castes was instituted. [*®] 

Of thirty-two adult Indostanic skulls in my collection, eight only 
can be identified with tribes of the Ayra or conquering race; nor 
even in this small number is there unequivocal proof of the affinity m 
question. The largest head in the series, that of a Brahmin who wm 
executed, in Calcutta, for murder, measures ninely-one cubic iadbei 
for the size of the brain — the smallest head, seventy-nine. Two 
others pertain to ThuggSy remarkable for an elongated fonn tnd 
lateral flatness. The mean of these Ayra heads is eighty-six coUe 

Contrasted with this people, and occupying the countiy adjacent to 
the Bay of Bengal, are the Bengalees — small of stature, feeble in 
constitution, and timid in disposition. They are obviously an aboii* 
ginal race, upon whom a foreign language has been imposed; and 
are far inferior, both mentally and physically, to the true AyiM* 
Weak and servile themselves, they are surrounded by warrior casteB*, 
and perhaps the most remarkable feature of their character is Am 
absence of will, and implicit obedience to those who govern them. 

Of these child-like people, my collection embraces twenty-four adol 
crania, of which the largest measures ninety cubic inches ; the small 
est, sixty-seven ; and the mean of all is but seventy-eight. 

All the Caucasian families of which we have spoken, belong to thi 
vast chain of nations called Indo-European^ in consequence of thei 
having one common tongue, the Sanscrit, as the basis of their vane 
languages. This is also the Japetic race^ and it extends from Indi 
proper in one direction to Iceland in the other. 

The Semitic Family. — This group includes the Chaldeans, Ase; 
rians, Syrians, and Lydians of antiquity, together with the Arabiai 
and Hebrews. 

The immense number of Jews in Egypt, even after the Exode (b. < 
1528), and especially during the Greek dominion of the Lagids, 
w^ould lead us to search for the embalmed bodies of this people in tl 
catacombs ; and hence it was no surprise to me to identify, with coi 
siderable certainty, seven Semitico-Egyptian heads, in all of whic 

* See President Salisbury's Discourse on Sanscrit and Arabic Literature : New Have 
1S4S. The Ayra race deriye their name fh>m Iran, Persia, 
t Joflophna, B. XIL Chap. 2. 



fte Hebrew phyriognomy k more or less apparent^ and in some of 
them imquestionable. This identity is fbrther confirmed by the fact, 
thit the Jews in Egypt adopted the custom of embalming at a very 
eiriy period of time (Genesis 1. 26). And again, the two nations appear 
to have fraternized in a remarkable manner ; for Adad married the 
Buter of Pharaoh's wife, and one of Solomon's wives was the daughter 
of an Egyptian king, who is supposed to have been Osorkon. [^] To 
these £Eu;ts we may add the marriage of Joseph, at a far earlier period 
of history, with a daughter of the priest of Heliopolis. Eor these rea^ 
SODS, I repeat, the Hebijew nation should be largely represented in 
Ae catacombs. * 

Kve of my embalmed^ Semitic heads are susceptible of measure- 
ment, and ^ve the low average of eighty-two cubic inches — the 
Ingest measuring eighty-eight; the smallest, sixty-nine."^ In these 
cnuua, and also in others of existing Semitic tribes, I have looked in 
Tiin for the pit described by Mulder as situated on the outer wall of 
die orbit at the attachment of the temporal muscles ; and conse- 
qoently there is no trace of the corresponding elevation, also described 
bf him, within the orbitar cavity. 

I have had but little success in procuring the crania of the modem 
Semitic tribes ; and for the three that I possess I am indebted to Mr. 
Oliddon. Of these, two are Baramka or Barmecide Arabs ; the third, 
iBedouin. The largest measures ninety-eight cubic inches ; the small- 
[ est, eighty-four ; and the mean is eighty-nine ; but if we take the 
\ nenge of these eight Semitic heads, ancient and modem, it will be 
dghty-five inches. 

I also received from Mr. Gliddon three additional skulls, from 
Cairo, which he was assured were those of Jews ;[***] but their form 
his induced me to class them, perhaps erroneously, with the Fellahs 

The Nilotic Race. — In this designation I include the ancient 

Egyptians of the pure stock, and the modem Eellahs. 

For the extensive series of Egyptian skulls in my possession, I am 
indebted to the kindness of Mr. Gliddon, Mr. A. C. Harris of Alex- 
Midria, in Egypt, Dr. Charles Pickering, and Mr. William A. Glid- 
don. Of these 129 embalmed heads, 83 present the Egyptian confor- 
mation ; and of the latter number, 55 are capable of being measured. 

I may here repeat a previous remark, that some of these crania 
present both Pelasgic and Egyptian lineaments, and thus form a 
transition between the two races ; but I have classed them in one 
group or the other, according to the preponderance of national char- 

* Cmiift JEgyptiaca, pp. 41 and 46, and the accompaajing platei. 
t Catologiie of akvlls, Nos. 771, 772, 778. 

318 icorton's inedited mss. 

acters. In the great majority of instances, however, the Egyptitt 
conformation is detected at a glance. 

The Egyptian skull is unlike that of any other with which I m 
acquainted. This opinion, which I long since announced,* hss been 
fully confirmed by subsequent comparisons, and especiiEdly by tiie 
receipt of seventeen very ancient and most characteristic crania from 
tombs opened in 1842, at the base of the Great Pyramid, by Dr. 

It may be observed of these crania (for the rest of the series his 
been elaborately described in the Crania JSgyptiaea\ eleven at least 
are of the unmixed type, and present the long, oval form, with i 
slightly receding forehead, straight or gently aquiline nose, and a 8ome> 
what retracted chin. The whole cranial structure is thin, delicate, 
and symmetrical, and remarkable for its small size. The face is nir* 
row, and projects more than in the European, whence the fiMSil 
angle is two degrees less, or 78°. Neither in these skulls, nor in anj 
others of the Egyptian series, can I detect those peculiarities of gtro- 
ture pointed out by the venerable Blumenbach, in his Deeadet Chniw- 
rum; and the external meatus of the ear, whatever may have been 
the form or size of the cartilaginous portion, is precisely where we 
find it in all the other races of men. The hair, whenever any rfit 
remains, is long, curling, and of the finest texture. 

On comparing these crania with manj faC'Similes of monomentil 
effigies most kindly sent me by Prof. Lepsius and M. Prisse d'Avesoei, 
I am compelled, by a mass of irresistible evidence, to modify the 
opinion expressed in the Crania ^gyptiaca — viz. : that the I^yp- 
tians were an Asiatic people. Seven years of additional investigation, 
together with greatly increased materials, have convinced me th* 
they were neither Asiatics nor Europeans, but aboriginal and ini 
genous inhabitants of the Valley of the Nile or some contiguo** 
region : J peculiar in their physiognomy, isolated in their institution 
and forming one of the primordial centres of the human &milj. 

Egypt was the parent of art, science, and civilization. Of thfig 
she gave much to Asia, and received some modi^dng influences ii 
return ; but nothing more. Her population, pure and peculiar in th 
early epochs of time, derived by degrees an element from Europe an 
Asia, and this was increased in the lapse of years, until the Delt 
became a Greek colony, with an interspersed multitude of Jews. 

Effigies and portraits of Egyptian sovereigns and citizens are y< 

♦ Craoifll ^gyptiaca, 1844. 

f Proceedings of the Academy [of Nat Sciences,] for October, 1844. 
} This opinion, with some modifications, has been entertained bj aererml lc«ni«d Egy] 
ologists — ChamDollion, Heeren, Lenormant, &o. 


preserved in monuments that date back 5000 years,* and they 
form, in all their characteristic lineameuts, with the heada from the 
tombs of Gizeh and other Nilotic sepulchres. 

Of the fifty-five Egyptian heads raeaaured in the Table, it will be seen 
that the largest measures but ninety-six cubic inclies of internal capa- 
eitj-, the smallest sixty-eight; and the mean of them all \s but eighty. 
This result waa announced in the Crania Mgyptiaca, nud has been 
confirmed by the numeroua additional meaeuremouts made siuce that 
work waa published. Yet, on computing, by themselves, the fifteen 
crania from the ancient torabs of Gizeh, I find them to present an 
average of eighty-four cubic inches. The persona whose bodies had 
reposed in these splendid mauaolea, were no doubt of the highest 
and most cultivated class of Egyptian citizens ;t and this fact de- 
serves to be considered in connexion with the present inquiry. To 
this wo may add, that the most deficient part of the Egj^ptian 
skull is tlio coronal region, which is extremely low, while the poste- 
rior chamber is remarkably full and prominent. 

The Ftllakt. — The Arab-Egyptians of the present day constitute a 
population of more than 2,500,000 ; and that they are the lineal de- 
scendants of the ancient rural Egyptians, ia proved by the form of 
the skull, the mental and moral character of the people, and their 
existing institutions, among which phallic worship ia, even yet, con- 
q>icuous. ClotBey has drawn a graphic moral parallel between these 
two extremes of a single race, by showing that both were sober, ava- 
riraoas, insolent, self-opinioned, satirical, and licentious. Contrasted 
with these defects in the old Egyptians^ were the many household 
virtaos, and that genius for the arts which has been a proverb in all 

When the Saracenic Arabs conquered Egypt in the seventh conturj- 
of our era, an unlimited fusion of races was a direct and obi-ious con- 

■ Lepnns: C/tronolosit der yEggpltr, p. 196. Dr. Lepsius dates Ihe ngo of Mea?9, )ho 
Snt EgypUau king, U8U3 before Christ, or £743 yenra from the preBont lime; and yet, Id 
iJut remote lime, £gfpt was alreadj pogBeeeed of ber arts, inBtitulioD^, and hieroglyplijc 
lugiuge. The reseurcIieB of iho learned CbeTnlier BunneD famisb eoncluaiouB nearij tlie 
lime as ttioBe o! LepsiuH. Of the great itBlJi|aitj of the Human Species there can bo no 
qoMUnii. Id the norile of Dr. PHclikrd, it may have been chiliadi of ycari. 

Ttit uicient Egyplinns appear to have had do double on this subject ; for a priest of Sale, 
addnasing SoIod, spoke of " (be mullitudB and variety of the destnictioua of the Humaa 
r*M vhioh fonncrlj hate been, and again nill be ; tlie grenleet of tLese, indeed, ariaing 
fl-on fire and valcr ; bat the leaser from ten (bonaand other conti agencies." — Timtna nf 
J'tata : Tayler'i Vrani. ii. ifiVi. 

■f Dr. Lcpaiua did not desire to retaio tbe^e crania, bccaase they bore no collateral evi - 
feaoe of their epoch or nalioDal liaeage. The bones «ere in groat measure already dft 
aiid«<l by time; and the appliances of mammificalion (which, in Ihe primitive ages, c 
iflittle mora than desiccatiog the body,) had long since disappeared. As heretofM 
I judge these relics solely by their intrinsic characters. 

319 ■ 

con- 1 

820 icorton's inedited xss. 

sequence ; but M. Clot-Bey has judiciously remarked, that the Arab^ 
nevertlieloss, proRcnt but a feeble element in the physical character of 
the great mass of people : — 

" D'ou il rdsulte que TEgyptien actttel tient beattconp plus, par tes formci, par md cum* 
t^, et par ses mccurs, des anciens Egyptiens que des Teritablea Araba, dont on m trotn 
le tjpe pur qu'en Arable."* 

The skull of tlie Fellah is strikingly like that of the ancient Egyp. 
tian. It is long, narrow, somewhat flattened on the sides, and Teiy 
prominent in the occiput The coronal region is low, the forehead 
moderately receding, the nasal bones long and nearly straight, the 
cheek-bones small, the maxillary region slightly prognathous, and the 
whole cranial structure thin and delicate. But, notwithstanding 
these resemblances between the Fellah and Egyptian skulls, the latter 
possess what may be called an osteological expressionj peculiar to thei&> 
selves, and not seen in the Fellah. 

The Fellahs, however, do not appear to be the only descendants of 
the monumental Egyptians ; for tlicy exist also in Nubia, and west- 
ward, in isolated communities, in the heart of Africa. Of such origin 
I regard the Red Bakkari, so well described by Pallme. [**] So, alBo^ 
the proper Libyans, the Tuaricks, Kabyles, and Siwahs, who, on the 
testimony of Dr. Oudney, and the more recent observations of Dr. 
Fumari, possess at least tlie physical traits of the Egyptian race:— 

" Obex quclques unes des nombreuses [peuplades] qui babitent rimmenae plaine dt 8^ 
bara, cbez les Touaricks, et cbez quelqucs tribus limitrophes de TEgypte, lea yeox ecart^I'a 
de I'autre, Bont long, coupiSs en amaQdes, k moitid fermds, et relev^s auz angles ezt^rienn." 

There are other reasons for supposing that the Libyan and Nilotic 
nations had a cognate source, though their social and political sepa- 
ration may date with the earliest epochs of time. 

A few words respecting the Copts. Almost every investigation into 
the lineage of these people results in considering them a mixed pro- 
geny of ancient Egyptians, Berabera, Negroes, Arabs, and Europeans; 
and these characteristics are so variously blended, as to make the 
Copts one of the most motley and paradoxical communities in the 
world. The Negro traits are visible, in greater or less degree, in a 
large proportion of this people, and are distinctly seen in the three 
skulls in my possession. The two adult heads, which, on acconntof 
their hybrid character, are excluded from tlie Tabhy measure respect- 
ively eighty-five and seventy-seven cubic inches for the size of the 
brain, and consequently give the low average of eighty-one. 

From the preceding observations it will appear that the Fellahs are 
the rural or agricultural Egyptians, blended with the intrufiive Ara- 
bian stock ; but the Copts, on the other hand, represent the deecend- 

* Aper^u Q^n^rale sur rSgypte, L p. 160. 


iDti of the old urban population, whose blood, in the lapse of ages, 
htB become mixed with that of all the exotic races which have domi- 
ciliated themselves in the cities of Egypt The mercenary licentious- 
Btts of the Copts is proverbial even at the present day. 

I Bhall conclude these remarks on this part of the inquiry by 
observing, that no mean has been taken of the Caucasian races 
collectively, because of the very great preponderance of Hindoo, 
Egyptian, and Fellah skulls over those of the Germanic, Pclasgic and 
Celtic fiumilies. Nor could any just colUetive comparison be instituted 
between the Caucasian and Negro groups in such a Tabh as we have 
preeented, unless the small-brained people of the latter division 
(Hottentots, Bushmen and Australians) were proportionate in number 
to the Kndoos, Egyptians, and Fellahs of the other group. Such a 
comparison, were it practicable, would probably reduce the Caucasian 
ivmge to about eighty-seven cubic inches, and the Negro to seventy^ 
eight at most, perhaps even to seventy-five ; and thus confirmatively 
establish the difference of at least nine cubic inches between the 
mean of the two races. 


The learned Klaproth, in his Tableau de VAne^ has shown that 
«fi)re the year 1000 of our era, the Mongols were inconsiderable 
ribes in the northwest of Asia, and hence have erroneously had their 
ame given to the most multitudinous of the five great divisions of 
be human fiimily ; but from an unwillingness to interfere with the 
«nerally adopted nomenclature of ethnology, I have used the word 
longolian in the comprehensive sense of Buffon and Blumenbach. 
t embraces nations of dissimilar features, among whom, however, 
here is a common link of resemblance that justifies the classification 
Dr generic purposes. Hence we group together the Chinese, the 
lamtschatkans, and the Kalmucks. 

I possess but eight Mongolian crania, and of these seven are Chi- 
lese — too small a number from which to deduce a satisfactory result. 
rhe largest of them measures ninety-one cubic inches, the smallest 
eventy ; and they give an average of eighty-two. They are all de- 
ived from the lowest class of people ; and it is not improbable that 
ia average drawn, at least in part, from the higher castes, would 
ipproximate much more nearly to the Caucasian mean, perhaps to 
sighty-five cubic inches. 

By the Idndness of Prof. Retzius of Stockholm, I possess a single 
akaU of a Laplander — a man of about forty years of age — whose 
btain measures no less than ninety-four cubic inches. The character* 

322 Morton's inedited xss. 

iBtics are obyioualy Mongolian, to which race the Lappee unquestion- 
ably belong. Dr. Prichard has produced philological evidenoe in 
proof of an opinion maintained by himself and some other learned 
men, that these people are FinnSy who have acquired Mongolian fea- 
tures from a long residence in the extreme north of Europe. Yet, it 
must be remembered that, in former ages they lived much fiutiier 
south, in Sweden, and side by side with the proper JS^inns; whence 
has, no doubt, been derived any visible blending of the characten of 
the two races, and some affinities of language which are known and 
admitted by all. 

This is a vital question in ethnology ; and, although we hare 
abeady made some remarks upon it, it may be allowable in this 
place to inquire how it happens that the people of Iceland, who are 
of the unmixed Teutonic race, have for 600 years inhabited their 
Polar region, as far north, indeed, as Lapland itself without approxi- 
mating in the smallest degree to the Mongolian type, or losing an iota 
of their primitive Caucasian features.* 

A recent traveller,! equally remarkable for talent and enterprise^ 
has briefly embodied the facts of this question in a manner sufficiei^'^ 
to decide it in any unprejudiced mind. He declares that the Finn* 
and Laplanders "have scarcely a single trait in common. Th^ 
general physiognomy of the one is totally unlike that of the other ; 
and no one who has ever seen the two could mistake a Finlander for 
a Laplander." The very diseases to which they are subject are di£fe- 
rent ; and he quotes the learned Prof. Retzius of Stockholm for th€ 
fact, that the intestinal parasitic worms of the one race are differeni 
from those of the other. Finally, they differ almost as widely in theL 
mental and moral attributes. 

But, to show how little mere philology can be depended on in thi 
and other instances, in deciding the affiliation of races, we may adduo 
the researches of the learned Counsellor Haartman. This eminen 
philologist has shown that the Carelians, who, from analogy of Ian 
guage, have hitherto been grouped with the proper Finnish race 
belong to a totally different family, which invaded the region of th< 
Lake Ladoga, and gave their name to the conquered country. Thi 
race, he adds, had a language of its own, which was lost in the couiie< 

* Desmoulins : ffiat. Not. det Raeet ffumaines, p. 165. Were it not for the eridence ot 
positive history, some future ethnologist might gravely insist that, because the Negroes oi 
St Domingo speak the French language, they are Frenchmen, to whom a trt^ical rai 
altered alimenta, and change of habits, have imparted the black skin, proJeetiDg face, as\ 
woolly hair of the African. 

f A Winter in Lapland and Sweden : by Arthur de CapeU Brooks, M. A., F. B. 8. P. 
London, 1827, p. 686-87. 


rfthne, ^and has been superseded by the Finnic, fix)m the over- 
powering influence of the neighboring tribes."* Such evidence 
needs no commentary. 


Besides the tme Malays, the Malay race is composed of people of 
dissimilar stock ; whence the opinion of M. Lesson, that those of the 
In£an Archipelago are a mixture of Indo-Caucasians and Mongols. 
That this amalgamation exists to a certain extent, there is no question ; 
and in other instances they are variously blended with the indigenous 
or Oceanic Kegro. Hence the origin of the Papuas of New Zealand, 
who are the littoral inhabitants of that continent. 

hidependently, however, of these mixed breeds, two great families 
are conspicuous — the Malays proper and the Polynesians — and to 
these pertain the twenty-three heads embraced in the TahU. 

The tme Malays have a rounded cranium, with a remarkable ver- 
tical diameter and ponderous structure. The face is flat, the cheek- 
bones square and prominent, the ossa nasi long and mpre or less flat- 
tened, and the whole maxillary structure strong and salient. The 
twenty skulls in my possession have been collected with ethnological 
precision, and so much resemble each other, as to remind us of the 
remark of M. Crawford — ^that the true Malays are alike among them- 
8<el?es, but unlike among all other nations. 

The largest of this series of skulls measures ninety-seven cubic 
inches, the smallest sixty-eight ; and they give a mean of eightj^-six : 
a large brain for a roving and uncultivated people, who possess, liow- 
ever, the elements of civilization and refinement. 

Of the Polynesian Family I possess but three crania that can be 
nieasured, and ihey give a mean of eighty-three cubic inches. An 
extended series would probably show a larger average ; but the brain 
of the Polynesian, if measured from skulls obtained to the eastward 
of New Zealand and the Marquesas islands, will prove smaller than 
that of the true Malay. 

* TVou. of the Royal Sodety of Stockholm, for 1847. Egypt affords a remarkable example 
of the mutability of UDgoage ; and Niebohr (ffiat, of Borne, i. p. 87) considers it proved 
tbt the PelaagiY all the earliest inhabitants of the Peloponnesus, and many Arcadian and 
Atde nationa, poaaessed originally a different language from the Greeks, and obtained the 
Hdlenio tongae by adoption. He adds, that those Epirotes whom Thucydides calls Bar- 
Wiana, ** changed their language, tcUhout congest or colonization, into Greek" Diodorus 
ndCioero mantion the same fact with respect to the Siculi, ** although the Greek colonien 
iaffidly bad only extended to a Tery few towns in the interior."— A7c6«Ar, loco citat. 

324 Morton's inedited mss. 


T liavo hitliorto arrungcd tlio nnmborlcss indigenous tribes of North 
and South America into two great familioH: one of which, the Totte- 
cariy enibraccH the denii-civilized communities of ^Mexico, Bogota, and 
Peru; while the other division includes all the Barbarous tribes. 
This classification is manifestly arbitrary, but every attempt at sub- 
division has proved yet inore so. Much time and care will be reqm- 
site for tliis end, which must be based on the observations of D'Or- 
bigny for Soutli America, an<l those of Mr. Gallatin for the Northern 
[division of the] continent. 

These subdivisions, after all, must be for tlie most part geograpbi* 
<!al ; for the physical character of the American races, from Cape Iloni 
to Canada, is essentially the same. There is no small variety of com* 
]iloxion and stature ; but the general form of the skull, the contour 
and expriission of the face, and the color and texture of the hair, 
together with the mental and moral characteristics, all point to a 
common standard, which isolates these people from the rest of man> 
kind. The same remark is applicable to their social institutions and 
their archicological remains ; for Humboldt has shown that the latter 
are marked by the same i)rinci])Ies of art, from Mexico to Peru;* 
and Mr. (iallatin has decided, beyond controversy, that while their 
multitudinous tongues arc connoctod by obvious links, they arc at 
the Huiiio time radically diilcrcnt from the Asiatic or any other 

Mr. Gallatin finds this analogy among the American languages to 
extend to the Kskimaux — and he accordingly separates them from 
tli(^ Mongolian race, and regards them as a section of the great Ame- 
rican family. This view may i>ossibly be sustained by fiiture inqni- 
ricrt ; but the mere fact that the Eskimaux and the proximate Indian 
tribes speak dialects of one language, is of itself no proof that they 
btilong to the same race. Thus, we may reasonably suppose that the 
Asiatic nomades, having arrived on this continent at various and dis- 
tant periods, and in small parties, would naturally, if not unavoid- 
al)ly, adopt more or less of the language of the people among whom 
they settled, until their own dialect ^vas finally merged in that of the 
(yhippewyau and other Indians who bound them on the soutL 

When, on the other hand, famine, caprice, or a redundant jiopnla- 
Clou, has forced some of these people back again, across Bchring's 
Strait, to Asia, they have carried with them the mixed dialect of the 
Esldinaux ; whence it happens that the latter tribes and the Tchatch- 

* Monuments, II. p. 5. 


ehi possess some linguistic elements in common : but here the ana^ 
logj- ceases abruptly, and is traced no farther.* 

My collection embraces 410 skulls of 64 different nations and tribes 
3f Indians, in which the two great divisions of this race are repre- 
>ented in nearly equal proportions, as the following details will show 

The Tolteqan Family. — Of 213 skulls of Mexicans and Peruvians, 
Ml pertain to the latter people, whose remains have been selected 
irith great care by the late Dr. Burrough, Dr. Ruschenberger, and Dr. 
}akford. To the latter gentieman, I am under especial obligations 
for his kindness in personally visiting, on my behalf, the venerable 
•epnlchres of Pisco, Pachacamac, and Arica. These cemeteries, at 
least the last two, are believed not to have been used since the Span- 
ish conquest ; and they certainly contain the remains of multitudes 
}f Peruvians of veiy remote, as well as of more recent times. 

Every one who has paid attention to the subject is aware, that the 
Peruvian skull is of a rounded form, with a flattened and nearly ver- 
tical occiput. It is also marked by an elevated vertex, great inter- 
parietal diameter, ponderous structure, salient nose, and a broad, 
prognathous maxillary region. This is the type of cranial conforma- 
tion, to which all the tribes, &om Cape Horn to Canada, more or less 
approximate. I admit that there are exceptions to this rule, some of 
which I long ago pointed out, in the Crania Americana^ and others 
have recently been noticed among the Brazilian tribes by Prof. Retzius. 

This rounded form of the head, so characteristic of the American 
nations, is in some instances unintentionally exaggerated by the sim- 
ple use of the cradle-board, in common use among the Indians. * * * 
But on the other hand, whole tribes, from time immemorial, have 
been in the practice of moulding the head into artificial forms of sin- 
griar variety and most distorted proportions. These were made the 
subject of the following experiment. * * * 

[The] indomitable savages who yet inhabit the base of the Andes, 
on the eastern boundary of Peru, will no doubt prove to have a far 
larger brain than their feeble neighbors whose remains we have exa- 
niined, from the graves of Pachacamac, Pisco, and Arica. 

If we take the collective races of America, civilized and savage, we 
find, as in the Tahle^ that the average size of the brain, as measured 
b the whole series of 338 skulls, is but 79 cubic inches. 

In connexion with this subject, it may not be irrelevant to observe 
that the human cranial bones, discovered by Dr. Lund, in the cavern 
near the Lagoa do Sumidouro, in Brazil, and seemingly of a strictly 
fossil character, conform in all respects to the aboriginal American 

* Bee my Inquiry into the Distinctive Characteristics of the Aboriginal Race of America. 


826 Morton's inedited mss. 

conformation ;* thus forming a striking example of the permanence, 
we might say, immutability of the primordifiJ type of organization, 
when this has not been modified by admixture with introsive and 
dissimilar races. 

I have no doubt that Man will yet be found in the fossil state u 
low down as the Eocene deposits, and that he walked the earth with 
the Megalonyx and Paleotherium. His not having been hitherto 
discovered in the older stratified rocks is no proof that he will not be 
hereafter found in them. Ten years ago, the Monkey-tribes were 
unknown and denied in the fossil state ; but they have since been 
identified in the Himalaya mountains, Brazil, and England*! 

[End o/MorUm*i MSS,] 

* M^moire de la Soc. Roy. des Antiquaires du Nord, 1845-47, p. 78. See alio Dr. Ifogi'i 
highly interesting communication on the Human Bones found at Santos, in Brmdl, in Tnai 
of the Amer. Philos. Soc. for 1830; and Lt. Strain's Letter to me, in Prooeadingi of tki 
Academy for 1844. 

f Proofs of the vast antiquity of the earth, and of man's long sojourn upon it, moltiplj 
every day. The Hebrew chronology is a human computation from the Book of Gcnciii^ 
and while it falls far short of the time requisite for the works of Man, is infinitely Mt> 
tracted when considered in reference to the creations of Qod. The Egyptian moniuMM^ 
as we have seen, date far beyond the period allotted to the Deluge of Noah (which was evi- 
dently a partial phenomenon) ; and, on the other hand, the irresistible evidence of Geolo- 
gical Science realizes the sentiment of Plato — that Past time is an eternity. 

'* These views," observes Sir Charles Lyell, <*have been adopted by all geologisti, 
whether their minds have been formed by the literature of France, or of Italy, or Scandi- 
navia, or England — all have arrived at the same conclusion respecting the great antiquity 
of the globe, and that too in opposition to their earlier prepossessiona, and to the popular 
belief of their age." 

All human calculations of time are futile in Qeological and Ethnological inquiries. Epoda 
of vast duration are fully established by the nature of the organic remains of plants and 
animals that characterize the difTerent formations; while the very interrals that separate 
these formations are evidences of other periods hardly less astonishing. In fact, Geological 
epochs present some analogy to Astronomical distances : the latter have been computed ; 
the former are beyond calculation — and the mind is almost as incapable of realiziDg the 
one as the other. It cannot grapple with numbers which approximate to infinitude. 

It is stated by Prof. Nichol, of Edinburgh, that '* light travels at the rate of 192,000 
miles in a second of time, and that it performs its journey from the Sun to the Earth, a 
distance of 05,000,000 of miles, in about eight minutes. And yet, by Rosse's great tele- 
scope, we are informed that there are stars and systems so distant, that the ray of light 
which impinges on the eye of the observer, and enables him to detect it, issued from that 
orb 60,000 years back." Wettmimter Review, 1846. 

** In the beginning God created the Heavens and the Earth " — a sublime exordiua, that 
pointer to an aboriginal creation, antedating the works of the Seven Dayt, Bdeoee hai 
raised the veil of that ancient world, with all its numberless forms of primeval organixatioB; 
but these are not noticed in the text, neither man, nor the inferior animals. When, h<nr- 
ever, we find the fossil remains of tlie latter so varied and so multitudinous, it is not iaoon- 
sistent with true philosophy to anticipate the discovery of human remains among the 
ruins of that primal creation. In fact, I consider geology to have already decided tfaii 
question in the affirmative. 


[Unavailable, owing to its unfinished condition, the TdUe mentioned 
in the foregoing Menunr$ is necessarily omitted. We cannot abstain, 
notwithstanding, from recalling the reader's attention — first, to the 
unqualified emphasis with which Dr. Morton's posthumous language 
insists upon an aboriginal plurality of races ; and secondly, to the clear 
presentiments (engendered by his extensive researches in Comparative 
Anatomy) that our revered President of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences avows respecting the eventual discoveiy of Man in a fosM 

Palseontological investigation had not fallen within the specialities 
of either author of this volume ; and, in consequence, embarrassment 
was long felt by both, whether to mould what materials they pos- 
sessed, concerning fossilized humanity, into a Chapter, or to relinquish 
a task in itself so indispensable to the nature of their work, no less 
than to the right understanding of Man's position in Creative history. 
The authors' hesitancy ceased when an accomplished friend, familiar 
with geological and other scientific literature, volunteered a digest 
of the most recent discoveries : nor will the general reader &il to be 
suiprised, as well as edified, through the perusal of Dr. Usher's 
paper; which, with many acknowledgments on the part of J. C. ST. 
and G. IL O., is embodied in the ensuing pages.] 






EvKBT discovery in modem science tends to enlarge our ideas of 
the Universe, and to prove that the date of its creation is as far distant 
in the past, as the probable consummation of its destiny is remote in 
the future. Sir William Ilerschel has shown that there are stars in 
the heavens so distant, that the light by which they are visible to us 
has been myriads of years in its passage to the earth ; and the won- 
derful powers of Lord Rosse's telescope have not^ even yet, penetrated 
to the circumference of the starry sphere. It is the gloiy of astronomy 
to have demonstrated that the planetary bodies may retain their pre- 

L.*^T *-r3 ^ -' ^.JT'^^r^ 

.»ZL IT iu Tsn ^«s: dejifrt- 
►- TIT -r-iii-n "iif* rsfc^ i-pnpefues 

.£i.4£-' -rr-TTw^A 1^ ^if tLe earth 
^ ±r:iz:£ X ±r "iii* ascccn of the 



L if ziA 'fiar:^. tv the con- 

2ii« ir:*i T= rir^.^ii diem bithe 

iiiip. "fitt MCsicc^kdoL. of the cinroiD> 
:c:r.r22r "ifc •csdz-e*! rx-ks were fi)nDed 
^»^^^ ^ATT-s'^ r^sihinff irom the & 
L'zzijftd'icsw Tbe xnvtamorphic rods 

i.fnitt-:! iniLthc: '-•^^-r-'-^r 5i;vSii"cd by the h^at of thecool' 
>.- i-v -iifTiz- -c-^fTr liLiZ- ir L^4T^ CT the central force, ind >>--: ^^i^ - L^4f=y iz. r±^r»ii.: zats of the globe. Most of the 

':'. I.- . r^L : --e I1-: ir.M'- nz-jT-i^ :»zl:::z :o ihis arstem. They rest upon 
I •i.-^i.ri: :: rnil:^. ii. i l-s"c l*^:: ihiowii by the upheaviLglbwes 
:-•: : - ". .i-r L:L:!:i.iii i: ill £-r"^ t;» the horizon. The uptnraed 
^:«-^ :: "ii-irr^ :rli_jrr =-r£^i ii. nany piac^es show a thickness of 
ir.rr^i :: r^^i-r r-il-ir: — :Lct were formed entirelv from eediment 
Tr>:- .-: 1 ly tie iltiiitrjra::':!: of the hardest rooks, and by thegn- 
1:14'. &:cl::: of :i.^ n:lcir:eLts: while their deposition, consolidation iihI 
elfrvir! :r. i:.:L?t r-ave re^'^uired fKrriods of time which the miud ehrinb 

Tr.*': Koran declares that the world was created in two day?; tnd 
'• Omar the Leamc-fl," for assigning a longer period, was obliged to 
fly from Vin countrj-, to escape the disgrace of recanting his opinions. 
Ifajipily, we live now under a more enlightened dispensation. 

In these rocks we find no traces of organic remains to show that 
tlio earth was yet inhabited by living beings. But the creation of the 
earth conHijfted of a long succession of events, each occupying a i^ 
tiiict g(;<>l()gical period, and leaving indelible records of its bistoiji'^ 
thu Holid crust of the globe. The creation of organized beings exhi 
bitH u Hiniilar Huccession — each race appearing as soon as the earth 
was prepared for its reception, continuing so long as the same etateof 


uunge existed, and vauiahing when the improvement of the earth had 
Tendered it fit for the maiDtenance of ithigher lype of hving creatures. 
#AA1 living creatures were exactly adapted through their organization 
po the peeuhar locahties they were placed in. They perished when the 
IDondittoQs necessaiy to their well-being were changed or ceased to exist 
i, lu the next aeries of strata we find the earliest traces of those tribes 
^rf organized beings which occupied the primeval earth, and have left 
&e monuments of their existence in the rocks which form their tombs. 
These primary foasiliferous strata are entirely of marine origin, 
having been formed at the bottom of the ocean ; and they contain the 
lemains of marine animals only. The types of these animals are 
.easily recognized — they include representatives of all the great de- 
partments of the animal kingdom — but the species and even the 
fcnera are entirely lost. The animals, however, all belong to the 
Jowest divisions of the different classes. Tlius the radiata are repre- 
^uted by zoophytes, crinoidea and pol^'ps — each the lowest in their 
|eepective classes. Mollusks, in like manner, exhibit only the lower 
jl^pes ; ardculata are mostly confined to ti'ilobites ; and fishes of the 
^west forms are the sole representatives of the vertebrata : there are 
|ibere no reptiles, no birds, and no mammals. 

, These primary strata are many thousand feet in thickness, and 
!' the organic remains imbedded in them, though belonging to a few 
, Bpecies, show that animal life already existed in immense profusion, 
. .and extended over wide-spread regions of the globe. They flourished 
[:tor counUees generations, and their remains are found reposing in 
|'(«artli'B earliest sepulchres. 

^ In the next stage of the earth's history we have the Silurian system, 
feBere the forms of life are more varied and abundant — species are 
jjauitaplied ; fishes now make their appearance in numbers and varie- 
j&ee corresponding with the improved conditions for their existence ; 
And sea-plants are found among the fossils of this era. In the old red 
, aancUtone, the same orders are continued ; new fishes are still more 
^buadant, and all the silurian species have already disappeared. 
' These fossils, again, are entirely distinct fixtm the con-eeponding 
i species of the carboniferous era which succeeds them. Not a single 
fisli found in the old red sandstone has been detected, either in the 
silurian system on the one side or in the carboniferous on the oti 
Throughout all subsequent geological eras similar changes took | 
md new species replaced the old at every new formation. In pr 
tion as the earth approached its perfect state, the organic types be 
more complex ; but the types originally created were never desh 
they have been preserved through everj- succeeding modi" 
improvement, up to their highest manifestation in man 




only tho great, predominant groups of animals, M. Agassiz has cLu- 
sified the "Ages of Nature" as follows : — 1. The primary or PalsBO- 
zoic age, comprising the whole era preceding the new red sandstone^ 
constituted the reign of fishes. 2. The secondary age, np to the 
chalk, constituted the reign of reptiles. 8. The tertiary age was die 
reign of mammals ; and the modem age, embracing the most perfect 
of created beings, is the reign of man.* 

A more minute classification would give us, since the first appear- 
ance of organized beings, not less than ten or twelve great groups of 
animals specifically independent of one another: so many entire 
races have passed away and been successively replaced by others; thiu 
changing repeatedly tie whole population of the globe. 

The fossiliferous strata have been estimated to be eight miles in 
thickness. They were formed, like the metamorphic rocks, at the 
bottom of the sea, by sedimentaiy deposits, and afterwards upheaved 
in their consolidated form by central heat. Such a process, doubtleflB, 
must have been very slow : e. g. the hydrographic basin of the Tigris 
and Euphrates is 189,000 square miles ; and the alluvial deposit along 
the course of those rivers, in the centre, is about 32,400 square miki 
in extent. The average rate of encroachment on the sea, at their 
mouths on the Persian Gulf, is about a mile in thirty years. During 
its season of fiood, the Euphrates transports about one-eightieth of 
its bulk of solid matter ; and the earthy portion carried by the Tigris 
past the city of Bagdad, was ascertained by Mr. Ainsworth to be one- 
hundredth of its bulk, or about 7150 pounds every hour.f But these 
rivers are insignificant compared with the Ganges, which hourly car- 
ries down 700,000 cubic feet of mud ; or the Yellow river, in Chini, 
which transports 2,000,000 feet of sediment to the sea. Our own. 
Mesha-Behey " the Father of Waters," though purer than either of the 
rivers we have named, has already formed a delta 30,000 square miles 
in extent, and is yearly sweeping to the sea, from his many tributa- 
ries, the enormous amount of 3,702,768,400 cubic feet of sohd matter. 
Yet, notwithstanding such immense deposits, it has been estimated 
that, if the sediment from all the rivers in the world were spread 
equally over the fioor of the Ocean, it would require 1000 yeare to 
raise its bottom a single foot ; or about 4,000,000 of years to fonn a 
mass equal to that of the fossiliferous rocks : and if, instead of merelj 
the present extent of the sea, we include the whole surface of the 
globe in such estimate, the time required must be extended to 15,000,000 
of yeare. J When we consider that these strata were formed at the 

* ^gossiz : Principles of Zoology, p. 189. 

f Ainsworth: Atsyria, Babylonia and Chdldaa; Euphrates Expedition, 1838, p. Ill 

\ Somcrrille : Physical Geography. 


bottom of the sea, and thence upheaved by the operation of natural 
causes ; and that in many cases this process has been more than once 
repeated ; we may claim a very respectable antiquity for our planet, 
sioec such changes must have required a duration wholly incalculable* 
We have seen that eveiy great geological change was accompanied 
by the disappearance of existing species and the introduction of new: 
while the present geographical distribution of plants and animals coin- 
cides with the rise of tiiose strata constituting the surfisice of the globe. 
Ail has been successive and progressive ; plants and animals were 
produced in regular order, ascending from simple to complex ; one 
law has prevailed from earth's foundations to its superficies ; and 
thus our present species are autoctlionoiy ori^nating on the continents 
or ifilands where they were first found. Man himself is no exception 
to this law; for the inferior races are everywhere "glebse adscripti." 
Each of these orders of living beings occupied the earth for an ap- 
pointed time, and gave way in turn to higher organizations. Fishes ^ 
ruled over the primeval waters : as land gradually formed itself, they 
made way for the great amphibious reptiles. Just as fishes represent 
the first vertebrata of the sea, so reptiles are their earliest represcnta- 
tives on land. Reptiles presided over the formation of continents, and 
next came the birds. As huge reptiles of the sea were succeeded by 
tlie marine mammalia — ^the cetaceans — so, on the land, when moun- 
tain chains were thrown up and dry plains formed, leaving extensive 
ixuFshy borders, monstrous wading birds, which have left but their 
fbotmarks behind them, succeeded the reptiles, and were followed in 
their turn by the amphibious mammals. Each epoch of the land, as 
cfthe sea, (whilst our "earth formed, reformed, and transformed 
itself") was marked by the appearance of suitable inhabitants, ne- 
cessary to the great plan of creation in preparing the globe for the 
Teception of mankind. 

The tertiary formation extends over most of Europe, and comprises 
those famous geological basins which are the sites of its principal cities, 
London, Paris, and Vienna ; while, in America, it embraces nearly all 
the level region of the Middle and the Southern States. Its fossils 
comprise a mixture of marine, fresh-water, and land species, occurring 
in such succession as to show extensive alternations of sea and land ; 
and giving reason to believe that large portions of the present surface 
of the land were covered with immense lakes, like Erie or Ontario. 
The animals of the tertiary period, while entirely different from those 
of the secondaiy, were similar to those now existing : marine ani- 
mals no longer predominated in the creation — the higher orders 
of knd animals had now appeared. The same advance is visible in 
all the great departments of animated nature. Of the radiates, the 


mollusks, and the articulata, the lower forms have entirely diBap. 
pearcd ; and the tertiary species are frequently almost identical wid) 
those now living : among vertebrata, the enamelled fishes of the ear 
lier epochs have been replaced by those with scales like the living 
species; and, in a word, the whole tertiaiy fauna resembles our 

Another important change is noticed in the relative distribution of 
animals and plants. In the early history of the earth, the same ani- 
mals were spread widely over the face of the globe ; nearly the whole 
earth was covered witli water, and a uniform temperature eveiywhere 
prevailed : none but marine animals existed, and there was nothing 
to prevent a great uniformity of type. In the tertiaiy era eveiythbg 
had altered — the earth's surface was varied with islands and con* 
linents, with mountains and valleys, with hills and plains ; the sea, 
gathered into separate basins, was divided by impassable barrien. 
Here, accordingly, we find another great step towards the present 
condition of organized nature on the earth's surface : not only hare 
higher orders of animals appeared, but they are confined within nar 
rower limits. The fossils of the tertiary system, in difiTerent regioni, 
are as distinct as the present faunas and flone of those countrie& 
Each portion of the land, as it rose above the deep, became peopled with 
animals and plants best adapted to its occupancy ; and the waten 
necessarily partaking of the physical change, the marine species whid 
swarmed along tlio shores underwent a corresponding modification. 

The earth was now inhabited by the great mammifers^ whose con- 
stitution most nearly resembles that of mankind : where they existed, 
assuredly, man could have existed also. They approximate to huma]i% 
in their intelligence, their senses, their wants, their passions, their ani* 
mal functions; and when they had " multiplied exceedingly," we may 
suppose that man would not be long in making his appearance. Here 
we meet for the first time with fossil monkeys ; the type whose organu- 
ation most closely assimilates to the human. It is only within a few 
years that fossil monkeys have been discovered, and their snppofled 
absence was formerly cited as a proof of their recent origin. Monkeys, 
in still prevalent systems of creation, are supposed to have been coe?al 
with, or at least but little anterior to, man ; the absence of their o^ 
ganic remains being considered as satisfactory evidence that both 
men and monkeys were mere creations of yestenlay ! Fossil monkeys, 
uevertliclcss, have been found in England, France, India, and South 
America. In India, several diftcrcnt species have turned up in te^ 
tiary strata, on the Himalaya mountains. The French fossils, fonnd 
in fresh-water strata of the tertiary era, belong to the gibbon or tail- 
less ape, which stands next, in the scale of organization, to the oraogs. 


le American specimen, bronght from Brazil by Dr. Lund, is re- 
red to an extinct genns and species peculiar to that country. And 
I English fossils, belonging to the genus macacus and an extinct 
des, exhumed from the London clay, were associated with crb- 
liles, turtles, nautili, besides many curious tropical fruits.* 
)nly a few fossil quadrumanes have as yet been discovered ; but 
ugle one is sufficient to establish their existence. The number of 
mals preserved in rocky Gi^ata may bear but a small proportion to 
se which have been utterly destroyed. Thus, in the Connecticut 
dstone, the tracks of more than forty species of birds and quadru- 
Is have been found distinctly marked. Some of these birds must 
-e been at least twelve or fifteen feet high ; and yet no other vestige 
tfadr existence has been discovered. They were the colossal resi- 
its of that valley for ages ; they have all vanished ; and had It not 
m for the plastic nature of the yielding sand whereon they waded 
ng the river's banks, they would not have left even a footprint 
lind them. May there not be other creatures which have left no 
oe whatever of their existence ?t 

[n each of the great geological epochas, life was quite as abundant as 
the present day. All departments of the Animal Kingdom had their 
)re8entatives, and some of them were even more numerous then than 
present. Those immense tracts formed by zoophytes, and the incom- 
diensible masses of microscopic shells, would almost seem to favor 
) theory that the whole earth is formed of the debris of organized 
Jigs. FossU fishes are far more plentifiil than their living repre- 
itatives ; and more shells have been found in the single basin of 
ris than now exist in the whole Mediterranean.}: The remains of 
) giant reptiles show their exuberance ; and now-extinct species of 
immals must have at least equalled in numbers, as they far exceed 
8126, their Uving Buccessors. Perhaps the most striking example 
seen in the inexhaustible multitude of fossil elephants daily dis- 
rered in Siberia. Their tusks have been an object of traffic in ivory 
centuries; and in some places they have existed in such prodigious 
andties, that the ground is still tainted with the smell of animal 
itter. Their huge skeletons are found from the frontiers of Europe 
X)agh all Northern Asia to its extreme eastern point, and from the 
>t of the Altai Mountains to the shores of the Frozen Ocean — a 
&ce equal in extent to the whole of Europe. Some islands in the 
ctic Sea are chiefly composed of their remains, mixed with the 
les of various other animals of living genera, but of extinct 

• Lycll: Principles. f Hitchcock : Qeology. $ Agassis. 

I lieat AdJou's Polar Vc^agt. 


In whatever way we may account for fhe series of geolc^d 
changes thus cursorily enumerated, they must have required immeiM 
periods of time ; and we have Mr. Babbage's authority for eayiog 
that even those formations which are nearest to the 8ur£Eu« him 
occupied vast periods, probably millions of years.* It is only wW 
these latest formations, however, that we shall have any immediat 

The Diluvium, or drifts as now called, is almost universal in exten 
(except within the tropics) ; and is marked by deposits of clay aii( 
sand ; and erratic blocks or boulders of all sizes, from commoi 
pebbles to masses thousands of tons in weight, occur at all leTek u] 
to the summits of lofly mountains, where no agency now in openrtio! 
could have placed them. The drift abounds in fossil remaiDS ol 
animals ; such as the elephant, mastodon, rhinoceros, hippopotamos 
and other large mammalia: genera which, now living only in wani 
climates, must have then existed in England, France, Germany, toe 
other northern countries. These animals were destroyed by the &m 
inundations which left the deposits we call drift : yet the works ad 
the remains of man have been found among them ! These drift-formi' 
lions are of immense antiquity, being in this country older than th< 
basin of the Mississippi ; and may be regarded as the last great tnma* 
tion in the earth's geological history. 

All formations of the drift do not belong to one and the same period, 
nor were they produced by the same causes. According to tbc 
glacial theory of Prof. Agassiz, the climate of the nortiiern ham- 
sphere, which had been of tropical warmth, became colder at th( 
close of the tertiary era. The polar glaciers advanced towards th( 
south, leaving the marks of their passage in the ground and upoi 
striated surfaces of rocks and mountains, whilst distributing on eveij 
side the blocks and masses they had entangled in their course : whicl 
last, with the finer detritus, were swept far and wide by toirenti 
occasioned by the melting of these glaciers. 

At other times, a sudden elevation of mountain-chains fron 
beneath the surface of the sea, produced violent inundations oi 
surrounding countries, and transported boulders and drift in even 
direction. The Alps furnish illustrations in point. They have beei 
heaved up since the deposition of the tertiaiy strata ; for those strati 
are found capping their summits or lying in their mountain-valleys 
while the "drift** is seen scattered in all directions — ontheraic^ 
of the Jura, and over the plains of Lombardy. Blocks of granite 
10,000 cubic feet in size, have been found in the Jura mountains 
2000 feet above the Lake of Geneva. The rock in Horeb, from wUd 

* Babbage : Bridgewater Treatise. 


leader in Israel miraculously drew water, is a mass of syenitic 
gnmite, six yards square, lyii^g insulated upon a plain near Mount 
SnaL There are displays of the drift in our own country, on a mag- 
nificent scale, but as our object does not require, nor our limits allow, 
more than a mere reference to this as an interesting stage in the 
eirth*B antiquity, we pass on. 

Last comes the Alluvium ; that is, the formation along the margins 
of rivers and the deltas at their mouths, and the deposition of those 
niperficial covenngs of soil which have taken place since the earth 
iBBomed its present configuration of sea and land. Of the antiquity 
of the older formations, fossils have afforded unerring information ; 
eich set serving as medals to mark the epoch of their existence. The 
lUavium must be judged by comparison, and all we shall attempt 
it, to show that the earth, in its present condition, has been the habi- 
tition of man for many thousand years longer than people com- 
monly suppose. 

It appears, from recent observations, "** that the hydrographio basin 
of the Nile (within the limits of rain), is about 1,550,000 square miles, 
and the whole habitable land of Egypt is formed of the alluvial de- 
posits of the river. The Delta is of a fan-like form, narrow at its 
q)ex below Cairo, and spreading out as it extends towards the sea, 
until its outer border is about 120 miles in extent. The same im- 
inense deposits are still carried annually to the sea, yet the Delta haa 
not perceptibly increased within the limits of histoiy. Tanis, the 
Hebrew Zoan, at a very remote period of Egyptian annals, was built 
upon a pl^ui at some distance from the sea; and its ruins may still be 
seen, within a few miles of the coast. The lapse of more than 3000 
pears, from the time of Ramses 11., has not produced any great increase 
in the alluvial plain, nor extended it farther into the Mediterranean. 
CSties which stood, in his day, upon the coast, and were even then 
referred to the gods Osiris and Horus, may still be traced at the same 
localities ; and Homer makes Menelaus anchor his fleet at Canopus, 
it the mouth of the Egyptus or Nilcf In short, we know that in 
tLe days of the earliest Pharaohs, the Delta, as it now exists, was 
covered with ancient cities, and filled with a dense population, whose 
civilization must have required a period going back far beyond any 
date that has yet been assigned to the Deluge of Noah or even to the 
Creation of the world. 

^e average depth of the Gulf of Mexico, between Cape Florida 

* Beke, in Gliddon's Handbook to the Nile, 1849, p. 29 ; and, Map of the '< Basin of the 

t Wl&inflon : Mannen and CostomB, L p. 5-11 ; ii. 106-121 : — Gliddon, Chapten, p. 42-'i 


and the mouth of the Mississippi, is about 500 feet BoringB ha[?e 
been made near New Orleans to a depth of 600 feet, without readung 
the bottom of the alluvial matter; so that the depth of the delta <tf 
the Mississippi may be safely taken at 500 feet. The entire alluvial 
plain is 30,000 square miles in extent, and the smallest complement 
of time required for its formation has been estimated at 100,000 yean.* 
This calculation merely embraces the deposits made by the riverance 
it ran in its present channel ; but such an antiquity dwindles mto 
utter insignificance when we consider the geological featoies of die 
country. The bluflfe which bound the valley of the MissisBipiM riw 
in many places to a height of 250 feet, and consist of loam contaiiuiig 
shells of various species still inhabiting the country* These abdh 
are accompanied with the remains of the mastodon, elephant, and 
tapir, the megalonyx, and other megatheroid animals, together wSi 
the horse, ox, and other mammalia, mostly of extinct species. Theee 
hhxfEs must have belonged to an ancient plain of ages long anterior 
to that through which the Mississippi now flows, and which was inha* 
bited by occupants of land and fresh>water shells agreeing with tfaoM 
now existing, and by quadrupeds now mostly extinctf 

The plain on which the city of New Orleans is built, rises only nine 
feet above the sea ; and excavations are often made far below dia 
level of the Gulf of Mexico. In these sections, several suceeflaTi 
growths of cypress timber have been brought to light. In diggiag 
the foundations for the gas-works, the Irish spadesmen, finding they 
had to cut through timber instead of soil, gave up the work, and weia 
replaced by a corps of Kentucky axe-men, who hewed their way 
downwards through four successive growths of timber — thelowe^ 
so old that it cut like cheese. Abrasions of the river-banks sho"^ 
similar growths of sunken timber; while stately live-oaks, flouriahil^' 
on the bank directly above them, are living witnesses that the b^ 
has not changed its level for ages. Messrs. Dickeson and Bwt^ 
have traced no less than ten distinct cypress forests at diflferent lev^ 
below the present surface, in parts of Louisiana where the range b^ 
tween high and low water is much greater than it is at New Orlean ■ 
These groups of trees (the live-oaks on the banks, and the successive 
cypress beds beneath,) are arranged vertically above each other, anj 
are seen to great advantage in many places in the vicinity of Xe^ 

Dr. Bennet DowlerJ has made an ingenious calculation of the las: 
emergence of the site of that city, in which these cypress forests pla-- 
— — . ■ _ - - — -^ 

♦ Lyeira Principles of Geology, Cap. xr. f I-jeU's Second Tmtf Cap. xxxit. 

X Bennet Dowler: Tableaux of New Orleans, 1852. 


important part He divides the history of this event into three 
s: — 1. The era of colossal grasses, trembling prairie, &c., as seen 
the lagoons, lakes, and sea-coast. 2. The era of the cypress basins. 
rhe era of the present live-oak platform. Existing types, from 
Balize to the highlands, show that these belts were successively 
'eloped from the water in the order we have named : the grass 
ceding the cypress, and the cypress being succeeded by the live- 
L Supposing an elevation of five inches in a century, (which is 
mi the rate recorded for the accumulation of detrital deposits in 
valley of the Nile, during seventeen centuries, by the nilometer 
Qtioned by Strabo,) we shall have 1500 years for the era of aquatic 
QtB until the appearance of the first cypress forest ; or, in other 
rds, for the elevation of the grass zone to the condition of a cypress 

jjfTesa trees of ten feet in diameter are not uncommon in the 
imps of Louisiana ; and one of that size was found in the lowest 
I of the excavation at the gas-works in Kew Orleans. Taking ten 
t to represent the size of one generation of trees, we shall have a 
iod of 6700 years as the age of the oldest trees now growing in 
basin. Messrs. Dickeson and Brown, in examining the cypress 
iber of Louisiana and Mississippi, found that they measured frx>m 
to 120 rings of annual growth to an inch : and, according to the 
'er ratio, a tree of ten feet in diameter will yield 6700 rings of 
inal growth. Though many generations of such trees may have 
'wn and perished in the present cypress region. Dr. Dowler, to 
id all ground of cavil, has assumed only two consecutive growths, 
luding the one now standing : this gives us, as the age of two 
lerations of cypress trees, 11,400 years. 

Phe maximum age of the oldest tree growing on the live-oak plat- 
in is estimated at 1500 years, and only one generation is counted, 
ese data yield the follo\ving table : — 

** Geological Chronology of the last emergence of the present site of New Orleans, 

nof ftqaatic plaints 1,500 

^of cypress basin 11,400 

!nof U^e-oak platform 1,500 

otal period of eleTation 14,400" 

Each of these sunken forests must have had a period of rest and 
adual depression, estimated as equal to 1500 years for the dura- 
m of the live-oak era, which, of course, occurred but once in the 
ties. We shall then certainly be within bounds, if we assume the 
iiiod of such elevation to have been equivalent to the one above 


arrived at ; and, inasmuch as there were at least ten such changefl^we 
reach the following result : — 

« La8t emergence, as above 14,400 

Ten eleyations and depressions, each equal to the last emergence 144,000 

Total age of the delta 166,400"« 

In the excavation at the gas-works, above referred to, burnt wood 
was found at the depth of sixteen feet ; and, at the same depth, the 
workmen discovered the skeleton of a man. The cranium lay be- 
neath the roots of a cypress tree belonging to the fourth forest level 
below the surface, and was in good preservation. The other bones 
crumbled to pieces on being handled. The type of the craniom 
was, as might have been expected, that of the aborioinal Americas 

If we take, then, the present era at 14,400 yeais, 

And add three subterranean groups, each equal 
to the living (leaving out the fourth, in which 
the skeleton was found), 48,200 

We have a total of 57,600 years. 

From these data it appears that the human race existed in the delti 
of the Mississippi more than 57,000 years ago ; and the ten subtenji- 
nean forests, with the one now growing, establish that an exuberant 
flora existed in Louisiana more than 100,000 years earlier: so that, 
150,000 years ago, the Mississippi laved the magnificent cypress 
forests with its turbid waters.f 

In a note addressed to our colleagues, Nott and Gliddon, April 19, 
1863, Dr. Dowler says : — 

*' Since I sent you the ' Tableaux,* seyeral important discoveries have been made, iUiitii- 
tive and confirmatory of its fundamental principles in relation to the antiquity of the hvou 
race in this delta, as proved by works of art underlying, not only the live-oak platfoim, but 
also the second range of subterranean cypress stumps, exposed during a recent ezoantioB 
in a cypress basin." 

The cypress trees of Louisiana, and the antiquity claimed for them 
here, naturally remind us of the longevity of other trees in connexion 
with the antiquity of the present era. The baobab of Senegal, as is 
well known, grows to a stupendous size, and is supposed to exceed aD 
other trees in longevity. The one measured by Adanson was thirty 
feet in diameter, and estimated to be 5250 years old. Having made 
an incision to a certain depth, he counted 300 rings of annual growth, 
and observed what thickness the tree had gained in that period; the 
average growth of younger trees of the same species waa then ascer- 

* Dowler : Tableaux of New Orleans. f Idtm. 


I, and the calculation made according to the mean rate of in- 

• Baron Humboldt considered a cypress in the gardens of 
iltepec as yet older ; it had already reached a great age in the 
of Montezuma, and is supposed to be now more than 6000 
old. K we could apply tie criterion-scale of Dickeson and 
1, some of these trees might prove to be older still. These 
men counted 95 to 120 rings of annual growth in the cypresses 
lisiana, and say, moreover, that the ligneous rings in the cypress 
markably distinct, and easily counted. ITow the cypress mea- 
by Humboldt was 40^ feet in diameter. A semi-diameter of 
ches, multiplied by 95, the smaller number of rings to an inch, 
give 24,036 years as the age of one generation of living trees, 
larder woods are of very slow growth, and some of the huge 
janies of Central America must be extremely old. The cour- 
►f the Antilles reaches a diameter of twenty feet, and is one of 
rdest timber trees ; and the iron wood, from the same data, may 
ked among the patriarchs of the forest 

Tellers have often been deterred from attempting to ascertain 
e of remarkable trees by the apparent hopelessness of the task. 

I one of these giants of the woods was evidentiy impossible, 
IS it an easy matter even to make such a section as would faci- 
the calculation. This difficulty is now, happily, to a great 

removed, and scientific^ travellers can hereafter obtain mea- 
mts of the largest and hardest trees in the places of their 
I. Mr. Bowman has devised an instrument something like a 
q's trephine, which, by means of a circular saw, cuts out cylin- 

* wood from opposite sides of the tree, and thus furnishes the 
itisfactory results.* 

ing drawn the general reader's attention to a few geological f 
tanical evidences of the incalculable lapse of time required for 
sting condition of things upon our globe, let us endeavor to 
comer of the veil which obscures human sight of epochas an- 
o ours. Where our alluvial rivers flowed, where our present 
ion flourished, where our mammiferous animals abounded, 
cannot assign, H priori^ a reason why all our different species 
ikind should not also have existed coetaneously. Cuvier (says 
rling most truly,) does not contest the existence of man at the 
in which gigantic species peopled the surface of the earth.J 
Qtent ourselves with lesser quadrupeds : 

II Dogs, — The dog has been the constant companion ot man in 

fe Smith. 

the parallel antiqiiity of the Nile's deposits, ef. Gliddon, Otia ^gyptiaca, p. 61-60. 

lerches inr lea Ossemens Fosailes: Liege, 1883, i. p. 6s. 


all his migrations to distant regions of the earth, and has suffered from 
the same injustice which ignorance metes to his lord. The wise UljBses 
has been ruthlessly referred to a consanguineous origin with the Papoan 
and the Hottentot ; and the noble animal that died from joy ou re- 
cognizing his master (when all Ithaca had forgotten the twenty years' 
wanderer), is left to choose a descent from the savage wolf or the 
abject jackal, and must perforce share its parentage with 

** MoDgrel, puppy, whelp, and hound, 
And cur of low degree." 

The monuments of ^gyj?t have also shed new light upon the hiBtorical 
antiquity of both men and dogs, showing that the different races of 
each were as distinct 5000 years ago as they are to-day ; and we now 
propose to inquire whether geology does not confer upon dogs a BtiQ 
more ancient origin. 

Few questions in the history of fossil animals are more difficult to 
solve than that of dogs ; for the differences between skeletons of the 
dog, the wolf, and the fox, are so trifling as to be almost undistingaifh- 
able. Indeed, some perceive no difference between them except in 
point of size. Consequently, when we meet with a fossil of the dog 
species, we are at a loss whither to refer it; and so strong are vulgar 
prejudices against the antiquity of everything immediately associated 
with man, that it is almost certain to be called a wolf, a fox, a jackal, 
or anything else, sooner than a common dog. 

It docs not appear that any canida) have yet been found in the 
oolite, the earliest position of mammal remains ; they are rare b the 
tertiary strata, and are chiefly met with in the caves of the pliocene, 
in the drift, and the alluvium. 

Owen says that fossil bones and teeth extant in caves, and their as- 
sociation with other remains of extinct species of mammalia found iix 
the same state, carry back the existence of the cants lupus in Grea-t: 
Britain to a period anterior to the deposition of the superficial drift: - 
In the famous Kirkdale cave. Dr. Buckland discovered bones of n 
fossil canis associated with those of tigers, bears, elephants, the rhino- 
ceros, hippopotamus, and other animals which Cuvier pronounced tcrs 
belong to extinct species. Fossil bones of a species of canis, similarl]^ 
associated with extinct animals, turned up in the cave of Paviland^ 
in Glamorganshire ; and the Oreston cavern furnished other examples. 
In all these cases it was difficult to designate the species of canis the 
fossils belonged to, and the Doa was never allowed the benefit of the 

Cuvier, Daubenton and De Blainville inform us, that the shades of 
difierence in canine skeletons are so slight, that distinctione are often 
more marked between two individual dogs, or two wolves, than between 


» various species. But, in spite of these difficulties, recognizable 
nudns of the true dog, eania familiarisy have been frequently ob- 
Ined. Dr. Lund discovered fossil dogs larger than those now living, 
the cave of Lagoa Santa, in Brazil ; associated, as we have else- 
liere stated, with an immense variety of extinct species of animals, 
id in a position whose geological antiquity cannot be doubted. In 
is case the dog was partner with an extinct monkey; and a similar 
aociation has been found in a stratum of marl, surmounted by com- 
ict limestone, in the department of Gers, at the foot of the Pyrenees. 
m the bones of a true dog were found, in company with the re- 
inise of not less than thirty mammiferous quadrupeds ; including 
iree species of rhinoceros, a large anaplotherium, three species of 
Ber, a huge edentate, antelopes, and a species of monkey about three 
let high. This fact is the more interesting, because fossil monkeys 
re almost as rare as fossil men in the fauna of the tertiary era ; and, 
ntil recently, their existence was quite as strenuously denied. In 
le catalogue of the casts of Indian fossils, recently presented to the 
lorton Society of Natural History by the East India Company, we 
Bd two crania of canine animals from the Sivalik Hills, but have 
information as to their species. 

Dr. Schmerling has described several fossils of the true dog, which 
ridently belonged to two distinct varieties, notably differing from each 
ther in size, as well as from the wolf and fox, whose bones, together 
fith those of bears, hyenas, and other animals, reposed in the 
une locality. Cuvier, speaking of the bones of a fossil animal of 
ie genus canisj found in the cave of Gaylenreuth, says that they 
Jaemble the dog more than the wolf, and that they are in the same 
)iidition with those of the hyenas and tigers associated with them : 
they have the same color, the same consistence, the same envelop, 
id they evidently date from the same epoch.*' Cuvier does not posi- 
''ely declare these remains to be those of the dog : he observes the 
ation which he exhibited, in 1824, when asked whether human 
nes had yet been discovered and proved to be coeval with those of 
tinct mammalia — "Pa« encorej" was his simple reply. 
In the quarries of Montmartre, Cuvier found the lower jaw of a 
ecies of canis, differing from that of any living species, and which 
i have the right to say beloDged to an extinct species of dog. 
. Marcel de Serres has described two species of dogs from Lunel 
ieil. One he supposed to resemble the pointer, and the other was 
luch smaller. The caves of Lunel Vieil are situated in a marine- 
irtiaiy limestone. In some dogs, the frontal elevation of the skull 
xceeds that of the wolf, and this characteristic is usefril as a distinc- 
ive mark. The skull of a small variety of dog, with this mark well 


developed, was obtained from an English bone-cave, and submitted to 
Mr. Clift, wh^ pronounced it to belong to a small bull-dog or laigepug. 

Our domestic dog has the last tubercular tooth wider than that of 
the wolf; which fact, together with slighter structure of the jaw, shows 
the dog to be less carnivorous. The teeth of the cave-dogs differ 
only in size from those of the common dog, being larger; and it 
appears almost certain that many of the fossil dogs were of a greater 
size than any of the varieties now common among us. This circum- 
stance, together with their general similarity of structure, has doubt- 
less led to their being almost universally designated as Wolvbs. "We 
read of wolves being constantly found in a completely fossilized state, 
associated with nuiperous extinct animals, and even with man him- 
self; and considering the difficulty of distinguishing skeletons of the 
wolf from those of the dog, we have no doubt that many of these 
fossils belonged to man's natural companion — the dog. 

Marcel de Serrcs observes, in reference to the large size of the 
fossil dogs which came under his observation, that they bear a stronger 
resemblance to the animal such as we may suppose him to have been 
before he came under the influence of man, than most of our domestic 
canes. Their stature is intermediate between the wolf and the pointer, 
their muzzle is more elongated, and all the parts of the skeleton are 
proportionally stronger. But there is no ground for assuming a 
spcciiic unity among these fossil dogs, any more than among the 
domesticated races. A careful examination of the bones found in 
the caves has shown the existence of different sizes, and probably of 
different species ; and inasmuch as we find, in the same caves, remains of 
animals which have suffered the greatest influence from man, e.^.the 
horse and ox, so we may reasonably infer that these dogs themselves 
have been contemporaneous with man ; especially because no vestiges, 
either of domestic animals or dogs, have ever been found in countries 
uninhabited by mankind since the earliest human tradition. The 
gigantic size of fossil dogs appears less formidable to us than it proba- 
bly did to M. de Serres, since Rawlinson has figured an enormous do^, 
from the sculptures of Nineveh, as large as the largest of the extinct 
animals, and Vaux assures us that a similar species is still living in 
Thibet. \_Infra^ Chap. XII.] Moreover, the skeleton of an inmiense 
dog was recently found in a cave at the Canaries, \vitli remains of the 
extinct Quanches, and thence taken to Paris. Here, however the 
man may have met his death. 


His faithful dog still bears him company." 

Very distinct traces exist, then, of at least four types of doge, in. 
fossilized state : the Canary dog, the pointer, the hound, and the bv^U- 


log, together with a smaller animal, supposed by Schmerling to have 
leen a turnspit. As we know some of these races to be hybrids, the 
igt must be still further enlarged ; for there can be ifb doubt that 
oany other fossil canidse appertained to different species of dogs. 
liese species enjoy a very respectable antiquity ; sufficient, we think, to 
fifitroy the cl^ms of the wolf or the jackal to their common pater- 
itf : especially, when to our list of species is added the fossil dog 
iflcovered by Mr. W. Mantell, in the remote region of New Zealand, 
ssodated with the bones of the Dinornis giganteus. We have no 
0Qbt that Man himself existed contemporaneously with these fossil- 
Eed animals, and that both enjoyed an associated antiquity upon 
aith which has not yet been generally conceded, but cannot much 
}nger be denied. As the hound, baying in our American woods, 
unoonces the presence of the hunter, so we may rest assured that a 
uteontolo^cal "fidus Achates" noiselessly implies the proximity of 
bsBil Man himself. 

Human FosM Bemaina have now been found so frequently, and in 
iicomstances so unequivocal, that the facts can hardly be denied ; 
icept by persons who resolutely refuse to believe anything that can 
oiHtate against their own preconceived opinions. Cuvier remarked, 
ong since, that notions in vogue (80 years ago) upon this subject would 
eqoiie considerable modification ; and Morton left among his papers 
Kcord of hia matured views stiU more empliaticaUj expressed : - 

''There is no good reason for doubting the existence of man in the fossil state. We haye 
readj sereral weU-authenticated examples ; and we may hourly look for others, even from 
t upper stratified rocks. Why may we not yet discover them in the tertiary deposits, in 
> cretaceous beds, or even in the oolites ? Contrary to all our preconceiyed opinions, 
t latter strata haye already afforded the remains of several marsupial animals, which 
f9 surprised geologists almost as much as if they had discovered the bones of man 

Human bones, mixed with those of lost mammifers, have been 
md in several places, — in England, by Dr. Buckland, in the famous 
reef Wokey Hole, at Paviland, and Kirkby. The question, whether 
equal antiquity should be assigned to such remains with that of 
finct inferior species accompanying them — or, in other words, 
lether man lived at the same time with rhinoceroses, hippopotami, 
-enas, and bears, whose entire species have disappeared from earth, 
'queathing but their fossil remains to teU us that they once existed — 
as one of mighty import ; and Dr. Buckland, Oxonian Professor, 
as loth to admit that these remains, human and animal, belonged 
► beings which had been swept from existence by the same catas 
•ophe. Instances of human fossils had often been reported, but they 

* Morton : Posthumous MSS. 


were always treated with contemptaous neglect A foBol fikdeton, 
found in the schist-rock at Quebec, when excavating the fortificatiims, 
excited but % moment's incredulous attention ; and the well-known 
Guadaloupe skeletons were pronounced recent^ in a manner the most 
summary. Human bones are known to have been found in England, 
under circumstances which rendered their fossil condition probable ; Irat, 
owing to prejudice or ignorance, they were cast aside as worthless, or 
buried with mistaken reverence. In some instances, they were nsed, 
with the limestone in which they were imbedded, to mend highways; 
and at (ill times were disposed of without examination, or apparent 
knowledge of their scientific importance. There is an instance, 
recorded by Col. Hamilton Smith, which, whether true or not, wiD 
serve to show a culpable indifference on this subject. A completelj 
fossilized human body was discovered at Gibraltar, in 1748. The &ct 
is related in a manuscript note, inserted in a copy of a dissertation on 
the Antiquity of the Earth, by the Rev. James Douglas, read at the 
Boyal Society, in 1785. In substance, it relates that, while the writer 
himself was at Gibraltar, some miners, employed to blow up rocb for 
the purpose of raising batteries about fi% feet above tiie level of the 
sea, discovered the appearance of a human body ; which they blew i^>, 
because the officer to whom they sent notice of the tact did not think 
it worth the trouble of examining ! One human pelvis found near 
Natchez, by Dr. Dickeson, is an undoubted fossil ; yet we are tdd 
that ferruginous oxides act upon an os innaminatum differently than 
upon bones of extinct genera lying in the same stratum, lest natural 
incidents might give to man, in the valley of the Mississippi, an anti- 
quity altogether incompatible with received ideas : and Sir Charles 
Lyell accordingly suggests a speedy solution of the difficulty, ^ 
saying that a fossilized pelvis may have fallen from an old Indian 
grave near the summit of the cliff. Attempts have been made ^ 
throw doubt upon every discovery of human fossils in the ea^ 
manner; and the greatest ingenuity is exhibited in adapting adeqii^J* 
solutions to the ever-varying dilemmas. In the case of the fo»^^ 
brought from Brazil, a human skull was taken out of a sandst^^^* 
rock, now overgrown witii lofty trees. Sir Charles Lyell again t^^ 
recourse to his favorite Indian burying-ground ; although thb ti"^ 
it had to bo sunk beneath the level of the sea, and become 
upheaved to its present position. But, supposing all this to be 
what au antiquity must we assign to this Indian skull, when we ^ 
member the ancient trees above its grave, and reflect upon the €^ 
that bones of numerous fossil quadrupeds, and, among others, o: 
Lorso (both found in the alluvial formation), must be of a more 
origin than the human remains ! 


Smnan fbesil remains have been most commonly found in caves 
inected with the diluvium, usually known as ossuaries or bone- 
rems. These caves occur, for the most part, in the calcareous strata, 
the large caves generally do, and they have been, in all the in- 
axcee we shall cite, naturally closed until their recent discovery. The 
ors are covered with what appears to be a bed of diluvial clay, over 
lich a crust of stalagmite has formed since the clay bed was depo- 
ed ; and it is under this double covering of lime and clay that the 
mj remains of animals are discovered. As the famous Kirkdale 
vem may serve as a general type of caves of this description, we 
ill here give a brief sketch of it : — 

The Elrkdale cave is situated on the older portion of the oolite for- 
ition — in the coral-rag and Oxford clay — on the declivity of a 
ifley. It extends, as an irregular narrow passage, 250 feet into the 
31, expanding here and there into small chambers, but hardly enough 
aywhere to allow of a man's standing upright. The sides and floor 
"WB found covered with a deposite of stalagmite, beneath which there 
IB a bed from two to three feet thick of sandy, micaceous loam, 
)» lower part of which, in particular, contained an innumerable 
oantity of bones, with which the floor was completely strewn. The 
oimals to which they belonged were the hyena, bear, tiger, lion, 
lephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, horse, ox, three species of deer, 
nter-rat, and mouse — appertaining wholly to extinct species. The 
lost plentiful were hyenas, of which several hundreds were found, 
nd the animals must have been one-half larger than any living spe- 
ies. The bears belonged to the cavernous species, which, accord- 
Dg to Cuvier, was of the size of a large horse. The elephants were 
Siberian mammoths ; and of stags, the largest equalled the moose in 
Me. From all the facts observed. Dr. Buckland concluded, that 
ie Elrkdale cave had been for a long series of years a den inhabited 
oy hyenas,* who had dragged into its recesses other animal bodies 
whose remains are there commingled with their own, at a period 
antecedent to that submersion which produced the diluvium ; because 
the bones are covered by a bed of this formation. Finally raised 
from the waters, but with no direct communication with the open 
ttr, it remained undisturbed for a long series of ages, during which 
the clay flooring received a new calcareous covering from the drop- 
pings of the roof. Such is a general description of the bone-caves : 
W it does not apply to all of those which contained human fossils, as 
We shall presently see. 
Apart from the geological formation they are found in, the only 

* Buckland : Beliqaiee Dilaviann. 



method of judging of the age of bones is, by the proportions of ini- 
mal and mineral matters which they retain. Where animal nuitter 
is present, the bone is hard without being brittle, and does not adhen 
to the tongue ; when nothing but earthy matter remuns, the bone ii 
both brittle and adhesive. If we wish to be more particular in om 
examination, we treat the bone in question with dilute muriatic add: 
the fossil bone, dissolving with effervescence, is reduced to a spongy 
flocculent mass : whereas the recent bone undergoes a quiet digesti(Hi, 
and after the removal of all the earthy matter, the gelatine still retain! 
the form of the entire bone in a fibrous, flexible, elastic, and trans- 
lucent state. If both solutions be treated with sulphuric add, we 
obtain the same insoluble sulphate of lime from each. 

Col. Hamilton Smith mentions several instances, occurring in Eng- 
land, where human bones were found kneaded up in the eama 
osseous breccia, or calcareous paste, with those of extinct animaki 
wherein the most rigid chemical examination could detect no di^renea 
between them. In 1833, the Rev. Mr. M'Enery collected, from the 
caves of Torquay, human bones and flint knives amongst a great 
variety of extinct genera — all from under a crust of stalagmite, re- 
posing upon which was the head of a wolf. Caves have been opened 
at Orcston, near Plymouth, in the Plymouth Hoe, and at Tealm 
Bridge, in all of which human bones were found, mixed with foeril 
animal remains. Mr. Bellamy subjected a piece of human bone,fioni 
the cave at Yealm Bridge, to treatment by muriatic acid, ascertaining 
that its animal matter had almost entirely disappeared ; while the 
metatarsal bone of a hyena, from the same cave, still retained soch 
an abundance of animal matter that, after separation of the eartSxj 
parts, this bone preserved its complete form, was quite transluc®^^ 
and had all the appearance of a recent specimen. Pieces of huix^*^ 
bone, from a sub-Appenine cavern in Tuscany, (probably not ^^ 
than twenty-five or thirty centuries old, and which had all the ap] 
ance of being completely fossilized and even converted into cl 
when subjected to the searching powers of such muriatic-acid 
revealed their recent origin. And human bones from the 
cavern, in England, were in like manner pronounced recent, thoii::^ 
it was evident that they had been gnawed by hyenas or other bea-^ 
of proy. Not far from the cave whence these were taken, the thorough^ 
fossilized head of a deer was picked up. This test was also fairly tri^ 
in the case (to be presently cited) of sundrj^ human fossils found in i0 
Jura. MM. Ballard and de Serres compared them with some bon^ 
taken from a Gaulish sarcophagus, supposed to have been buried fC 
1400 years, but the fossil bones proved to be much the more ancient 

It may be granted, that Dr. Buckland was justified in concluding 


from the instancea wliieh came imder hia observation, that whenever 
buman Itones were diBCOvered mixed with those of animals, they 
must have been introduced at a later period ; but even Cardinal Wiae- 
Vian admits that there are cases of an entirely different character.* 

The cave of Durfort, in the Jura, has been examined and described 
ty MNL Firmas and Marcel de Serres. It is situated iu a calcareous 
-mountain, about 300 feet above the level of the sea, and is entered 
"by a perpendicular shaft, twenty feet deep. You enter the cavern by 
A narrow passage from this shaft, and there find human bones in a 
■true fossil state, and completely incorporated in a talcareoua matrix. 
A BtiU more accurate examination, attended with the same results, 
■was made, by M. de Serres, of certain bones found in tertiary lime- 
stone at Pondres, in the department of the H^mult. Here M. de 
CnBtoUes discovered human bones and pottery, mixed with the 
remains of the rhinoceros, bear, hyena, and many other animals. 
They were imbedded in mud and fragments of the limestone rock of 
ibe neighborhood; this accumulation, in some places, being thir- 
teen feet thick. These human fossils were proved, on a careful exa- 
loiitation, to have parted with their animal matter as completely as 
ttiose bones of hyenas which accompanied them ; and they further- 
jaore came out triumphantly from a comparison with the osseous 
lelicG of the long-bnried Gaul, as just related. 

A fossil human skeleton is preserved in the Museum at Quebec, 
wtich was dug out of the solid sehiat-rock on which the citadel stands ; 
and two more skeletons from Guadaloupe are deposited, one iu the 
British Museum, and tlie other in the Royal Cabinet at Paris. The 
skeleton in the British Museum is headless; but its cranium is sup- 
posed to be recovered in the one found in Guadaloupe by M, L'Her- 
minier, and carried by hira to Charleston, South Carolina. Dr. 
Moultrie, who has described this very interesting relic, says that it 
possesses all the charaeteristics which mark the American race in 
general. t The rock in which these skeletons were found is described 
as being harder, under the chisel, than the finest statuary marble. 

Dr. Schmerling has examined a large number of localities in France 
and Liege, particularly the "eaveme d'Engihoul;" where bones of 
man occurred, together with those of animals of extinct species : the 
hamnn fossils being found, in all respects, under the same cireum- 
Btances of age and position as the animal remains.J Near these relics, 
works of art wore sometimes disclosed ; such as fragments of ancient 
□rne, and vases of clay, teeth of dogs and foxes pierced with holes 

* lecmrea on the Connection botween Science uid &e>eftled Beligloii, by Nioholu W«e- 
U1D. D. D. London, 1849. 
I iioitaa : Physical T;pe of Ameriaan Indisne. J BccherclieB, I. pp. S9-QS. 




and doubtless worn as amulets. Tiedemann exhumed, in caveni of 
Belgium, human bones, mixed with those of bears, elephants, hyenai, 
horses, wild boars, and ruminants. These human relics were pre- 
cisely like those they were associated with, in respect to the changes 
either had undergone in color, hardness, degree of decomposition, and 
other marks of fossilization. In the caves of France and Belgium, 
we often find, in the deepest and most inaccessible places, fax remote 
from any communication with the surface, human bones buried in 
the clayey deposit, and cemented fast to the sides and walls. On 
every side, we may see crania imbedded in clay, and ofi;en accompft- 
nied by the teeth or bones of hyenas. In breccias containing tte 
bones of rodents and the teeth of horses and rhinoceroses, we ako 
meet with human fossils. 

There are many other cases on record, of human remains being 
found associated with animal fossils, both in England and on the Con- 
tinent. As well at Kitely as at Brixham, such associations have been 
noticed ; and there can be little doubt that human fossils exist in 
caverns and formations beneath the present level of the sea: e.;.it 
Plymouth and other places, where remains of elephants have been 
washed up by the surf. 

In the caverns of Biz6, in France, human bones and shreds of pot^ 
tery turned up in the red clay, mixed with remains of extinct am- 
mals ; and on the Rhine, they have been found in connection with 
skulls of gigantic bisons, uri, and other extinct species. The cM 
of Gailenreuth, in Franconia, is situated in a perpendicular rock, its 
mouth being upwards of 300 feet above the level of the river. Thoee 
of Zahnloch and Kiihloch are similarly elevated ; and the latter ib 
supposed to have contained the vestiges of at least 2500 cavem-beare; 
while the cave of Copfingen, in the Suabian Alps, is not less than 
2500 feet above the sea. These caves contained collections of human 
and of animal remains ; while their elevation places them above the 
reach of any partial inundations. Ossuaries in the vale of Kostritz, 
Upper Saxony, are more interesting, because they have been more 
carefully studied. They are situated in the gypsum quarries ; and 
the undulating country about tliem is too elevated to permit of their 
deposits having been influenced, in the least, by those inundations 
which are made to answer for such a multitude of sins. Ko partial 
inundation could possibly have disturbed them since the present geo- 
logical arrangement ; nor were there external openings or incUcations 
of any kind revealing the existence of an extensive cave within. 
The soil is the usual ossiferous loam, and the stalagmite rests upon it 
as in other caverns. Beneath these deposits, human and animal fos- 
sils have been discovered, at a depth of twenty feet. These depodtB 


e first described by Baron von Schlotheim, who concludes his 
>iuit with these remarks : — 

'% is erident that the hnmaa bones could not hsTe been buried here, nor have fallen 
issores during battles in andent times. They are few, oompletelj isolated, and de- 
id. Nor could they haTe been thus mutilated and lodged by any other accidental cause 
ire modem times, inasmuch as they are always found with the other animal remains, 
r the same relations — not constituting connected skeletons, but gathered in Yarious 

lesides those of man at diflferent periods of life, from infancy to 
lire age, bones of the rhinoceros, of a great feline, of hyena, horse, 
deer, hare, and rabbit, were found ; to which owl, elephant, elk, 
. reinde