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Full text of "Types and market classes of live stock"

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Class r)/^ JOc^ 



Book 



COPYRIGHT DEPOSm 




AN IDEAL FEEDER'S HEAD 

Hereford steer, Peerless Wilton 39th's Defender, Grand Champion 
at the International Live Stock Show in 1906. Bred, fed, and exhibited 
by Mr. F. A. Nave of Attica, Ind. Sold to Iowa State College. 



Types and Market Classes 
of Live Stock 



By 

H. W. VAUGHAN, M. Sc. in Agr. 

Associate Professor of Animal Husharxdry^ 
Iowa State College 



R. G. ADAMS & CO. 
COLUMBUS. OHIO 

1916 



<,.< 



,qr 



COPYRIGHT. 1916 

BY 
H. W. VAUGHAN 






NOV 20 1916 



»aA445902 



PREFACE. 

During the past eight years there has been added to the 
curriculum in most of our agricultiifal colleges a new course 
dealing with the types of farm animals, market demands, and 
market classes of live stock. More properly speaking, it has 
been inserted at the very beginning of the work in animal hus- 
bandry, forming, as it logically does, the foundation course in 
the study of that important branch of agriculture. This is a 
soundly practical study; the student is brought to a much 
clearer conception of values and a much better appreciation 
of live stock than was possible under the former system of 
teaching. 

Recognizing the need of a text on this subject which could 
be placed in the hands of students, the writer prepared and 
printed a loose-leaf edition which has been used at Ohio State 
University during the past three years. This met with favor- 
able comment, and requests have been made that the material 
be put into book form. After careful revision and the addition 
of a number of illustrations, this is now attempted in the hope 
that students and teachers and the general reader as well may 
find such a book useful. 

The arrangement of the subject-matter corresponds to 
the order usually followed in teaching, but may be varied as 
desired, each section of the book — Cattle, Sheep, Hogs, and 
Horses — being complete in itself. 

The writer desires to express his indebtedness to numer- 
ous commission men, buyers for the packing houses, and others 
who have kindly given their assistance during his quests for 
information, and to numerous experiment station publications, 
particularly the series of excellent bulletins issued by the Illi- 
nois Station setting forth the results of their study of the 
Chicago and St. Louis markets. Acknowledgment of valued 
assistance is due my present co-workers, and also Professors 
C. S. Plumb and F. R. Marshall at Ohio State University. 

Iowa State College. H. W. VAUGHAN. 

July 1, 1915. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

An Ideal Feeder's Head. (Courtesy of Iowa State College.) ..Frontispiece 

Fig. Page 

1. Correct Type in the Fat Steer. (Photograph by Mr. F. E. 

Colburn. Courtesy Iowa State College.) 24 

2. A Feed-Lot Model. (Photograph by Mr. J. M. Evvard. Cour- 

tesy Iowa State College.) 27 

3. Knocking Cattle 34 

4. Wholesale Cuts of Beef , 37 

5. Cuts of Beef Indicated in the Live Animal. (Courtesy Iowa 

Experiment Station.) 38 

6. Beef Ribs. (Courtesy Iowa Experiment Station.) 45 

7. Well-Marbled Beef. (Photograph by Colburn. Courtesy Iowa 

Experiment Station.) 46 

8. Union Stock Yards, Chicago. (Courtesy Mr. A. C. Leonard 

and Union Stock Yard and Transit Co.) 63 

9. Prime Baby Beef. (Courtesy Iowa State College.) 71 

10. Prime Fat Heifer. (Courtesy Prof. H, W. Mumford, Illinois 

Experiment Station.) 75 

11. Prime Fat Steers 81 

12. Choice Steer 82 

13. Good Steers. (Courtesy Prof. H. W. Mumford, Illinois Experi- 

ment Station.) 83 

14. Prime Baby Beeves. (Courtesy Iowa Experiment Station.).... 84 

15. Old-Time Texas Long-Horn. (Courtesy Prof. F. R. Marshall, 

Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C.) 86 

16. Modern Western Range Cattle 87 

17. Good to Choice Heifer. (Courtesy Prof. H. W. Mumford, Illi- 

nois Experiment Station.) 88 

18. Good Cutters. (Courtesy Prof. H. W. Mumford, Illinois Ex- 

periment Station.) 89 

19. Common or Inferior Canner Cows. (Courtesy Prof. H. W. 

Mumford, Illinois Experiment Station.) 90 

20. Fancy Selected Feeders. (Courtesy Prof. H. W. Mumford, 

Illinois Experiment Station.) 92 

21. Choice Feeder. (Courtesy Prof. H. W. Mumford, Illinois Ex- 

periment Station.) 93 

22. Good Feeders. (Courtesy Prof. H. W. Mumford, Illinois Ex- 

periment Station.) 95 

23. Medium Feeders. (Courtesy Prof, H. W. Mumford, Illinois 

Experiment Station.) 96 

24. Common or Inferior Feeder. (Courtesy Prof. H. W. Mumford, 

Illinois Experiment Station.) , 97 

25. Fancy Selected Stocker Calves 98 

9 



10 List of Illustrations 

Fig. Page 

26. Choice Veal Calf. (Courtesy Iowa Experiment Station.) 99 

27. Correct Type in the Beef Sire 108 

28. Correct Type in the Beef Cow Ill 

29. A Dairy Cow With Utility Points Emphasized. (Courtesy 

Iowa State Department of Agriculture.) 113 

30. A Combination of Beauty and Utility 115 

31. Excellent Type in the Dairy Cow 119 

32. An Inferior Dairy Cow 124 

33. Excellent Type in the Dairy Bull. (Courtesy Iowa State De- 

partment of Agriculture.) 128 

34. A Dairy Bull With Strength and Vigor 129 

35. Where Milk Is Made 134 

36. Circulation To and From the Udder 135 

37. The Dual-Purpose Typ?. (Courtesy Mr. J. J. Hill, St. Paul, 

Minn.) 156 

38. Correct Type in the Mutton Sheep 162 

39. Long-Wooled Sheep. (Courtesy Iowa State Department of 

Agriculture.) 166 

40. Killing Sheep at Chicago 171 

41. Wholesale Cuts of Mutton 173 

42. Prime Lambs 183 

43. Prime Lambs. (Courtesy Iowa State College.) 185 

44. Choice Fat Western Lambs. (From Illinois Bulletin No. 129.) 186 

45. Good Lambs. (From Illinois Bulletin No. 129.) 187 

46. Common or Cull Lambs. (From Illinois Bulletin No. 129.) 188 

47. Prime Native Yearlings. (Courtesy Iowa State College.) 189 

48. Prime Western Yearlings. (From Illinois Bulletin No. 129.).. 190 

49. Good Yearlings. (From Illinois Bulletin No. 129.) 191 

50. Common Wethers. (From Illinois Bulletin No. 129.) 192 

51. Fancy Selected Feeder Lambs. (From Illinois Bulletin No. 

129.) 193 

52. Good Feeder Lambs. (From Illinois Bulletin No. 129.) 194 

53. Common Feeder Lambs. (From Illinois Bulletin No. 129.).... 195 

54. Correct Type in the Mutton Breeding Ram. (Courtesy of Mr. 

Alan Eltringham, Babraham, Cambridge, England.) 204 

55. Correct Type in the Breeding Ewe 207 

56. A Flock of Uniform Type 209 

57. Class A Merino Ram. (Courtesy U. S. Bureau of Animal 

Industry.) 216 

58. Class B Merino Ram. (Courtesy U. S. Bureau of Animal 

Industry.) 218 

59. Class C Merino Ram. (Courtesy U. S. Bureau of Animal 

Industry.) 219 

60. A Wool Fiber Highly Magnified 223 

61. Cross-Section of a Wool Fiber 224 

62. Correct Type in the Lard Hog 241 

63. Fancy Market Bacon Pig. (Courtesy Iowa Experiment St^i- 

tion.) 251 



List of Illustrations 11 

Fig. Page 

64. Correct Bacon Type. (Courtesy Iowa Experiment Station.).. 254 

65. The HoR Hoist 258 

66. Dressing Hogs 259 

67. A View of the Pork Coolers 260 

68. Wholesale Cuts of Pork. (After Illinois Bulletin No. 147.).... 261 

69. Effect of the Underline on Trimming of Side 263 

70. Fat and Bacon Carcasses Compared. (Courtesy Iowa Experi- 

ment Station.) 266 

71. Unloading Hogs at Chicago 278 

72. Prime Heavy Hogs 282 

73. Prime Butcher Hogs 282 

74. Choice Butcher Hogs. (Courtesy Iowa Experiment Station.) 283 

75. Packing Sow 284 

76. Good Type in the Breeding Boar. (Courtesy Iowa State De- 

partment of Agriculture.) 290 

77. Good Type in the Breeding Sow. (Courtesy Iowa State De- 

partment of Agriculture.) 296 

78. Skeleton of the Horse. (From Sisson's Anatomy of the Do- 

mestic Animals after Ellenberger & Baum, Anatomy for 
Artists.) 302 

79. Bones of the Fore Leg 304 

80. Fore Leg From Knee to Ground 305 

81. Bones of the Hock 306 

82. Man and Horse Compared. (From the Book of the Horse, by 

permission of the Gresham Publishing Company, London).... 308 

83. Exterior of the Hoof 309 

84. Diagram Showing Structure of Foot 310 

85. The Parts of the Hoof 311 

86. Attachment of Fore Leg to Body. (From the Book of the 

Horse, by permission of the Gresham Publishing Company, 
London) 315 

87. The Horse in Motion 318 

88. Front View of Fore Legs 321 

89. Side View of Fore Legs 321 

90. Side View of Hind Legs 322 

91. Rear View of Hind Legs 322 

92. Defects in Fore Legs and Their Effect on Action 324 

93. The Draft Type 341 

94. Heavy Drafters in Harness 348 

95. Carriage or Heavy-Harness Type. (Photograph courtesy Prof. 

C. N. Arnett of Montana State College.) 352 

96. The Heavy-Harness Horse in Action. (Courtesy Mr. Wm. 

Little, Irvington Farm, Sewickley, Pa.) 354 

97. The Carriage Horse in Harness. (Courtesy The Spur, New 

York City.) 356 

98. Sensational Action. (Courtesy The Spur, New York City 360 

99. Roadster or Light-Harness Type. (Courtesy Hon. John R. 

Thompson, Libertyville, 111.) 366 



12 List of Illustrations 

Fig. Page 

100. The Light-Harness Horse in Action 370 

101. Five-Gaited Saddle Horse. (Courtesy Mrs. R. Tasker Lown- 

des, Danville, Ky.) : 374 

102. The Saddle Horse in Action. (Courtesy Mrs. R. Tasker 

Lowndes, Danville, Ky.) 375 

103. The Three-Gaited Saddle Type 378 

104. The Hunter 385 

105. The Hunter in Action. (Courtesy The Field, New York City.) 386 

106. A Hunt Team and Pack of Fox Hounds. (Courtesy The Spur, 

New York City.) '. 388 

107. Polo Pony of Excellent Type. (Courtesy The Spur, New York 

City.) 390 

108. A Good Type of Polo Pony. (Courtesy The Spur, New York 

City.) 391 

109. The Polo Pony in Action. (Courtesy Mr. Harold A. Taylor, 

Coronado, Cal.) 393 

110. Horse Market at Union Stock Yards, Chicago 395 

111. Eastern Chunk. (Courtesy Prof. C. N. Arnett of Montana 

State College.) 400 

112. The Fire Horse 403 

113. The Fire Horse in Action 404 

114. Cavalry Horse. (Courtesy Prof. C. N. Arnett ol Montana 

State College.) 409 

115. High-Class Draft Mules 414 

116. Correct Type in the Draft Stallion 422 

117. Correct Type in the Draft Mare. (Courtesy Iowa State De- 

partment of Agriculture.) 425 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

General Introduction 15- 18 

PART ONE. CATTLE. 

Introduction 19- 21 

Chapter I. Beef Type 23- 33 

Chapter II. The Beef Carcass 34- 50 

Chapter III. The Value of Type in Beef Making 51- 56 

Chapter IV. American Cattle Markets 57- 68 

Chapter V. Fashions in Market Cattle 69- 78 

Chapter VI. Market Classes and Grades of Cattle.... 79-101 

Chapter VII. Breeding for the Market 102-112 

Chapter VIII. Dairy Type 113-130 

Chapter IX. The Secretion of Milk 131-139 

Chapter X. Variations in the Usefulness of Dairy 

Cows 140-147 

Chapter XI. Breeding for Milk Production 148-153 

Chapter XII. Dual-Purpose Cattle 154-157 

PART TWO. SHEEP. 

Introduction , 159-160 

Chapter XIII. Mutton Type 161-169 

Chapter XIV. The Mutton Carcass and the Pelt 170-179 

Chapter XV. Sheep Markets and Market Classifica- 
tion 180-200 

Chapter XVI. Breeding for the Market 201-210 

Chapter XVII. The Merino or Fine-Wooled Type 211-222 

Chapter XVIII. Wools and Wool Growing 223-235 

PART THREE. SWINE. 

Introduction 237-238 

Chapter XIX. The American or Lard-Type Hog 239-248 

Chapter XX. The Bacon-Type Hog 249-256 

Chapter XXI. The Hog Carcass 257-271 

Chapter XXII. Hog Markets and Pork Packing — 

Past and Present 272-280 

13 



14 Table of Contents 

Chapter XXIII. Market Classification of Swine 281-289 

Chapter XXIV. Breeding for the Market 290-298 

PART FOUR. HORSES. 

Introduction 299-300 

Chapter XXV. Brief Anatomical Study of the Horse 301-314 
Chapter XXVI. Some Important Facts Concerning 

the Horse 315-325 

Chapter XXVII. Origin of the Types of Horses 326-336 

Chapter XXVIII. Draft Types 337-351 

Chapter XXIX. The Carriage or Heavy-Harness 

Horse 352-361 

Chapter XXX. The Roadster or Light-Harness Horse 362-371 

Chapter XXXI. The Saddle Horse 372-382 

Chapter XXXII. The Hunter and Polo Pony 383-393 

Chapter XXXIII. Market Classes of Horses 394-412 

Chapter XXXIV. Market Classes of Mules 413-417 

Chapter XXXV. Horse Breeding 418-428 

Chapter XXXVI. Unsoundness in the Horse 429-442 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

Two distinct systems of farming are practiced in the 
United States — (1) grain farming and (2) live-stock farming. 
Grain farming is the growing of crops useful for food or 
clothing, the income being derived from the sale of these crops. 
Live-stock farming is that system in which the crops are 
used chiefly or entirely as feed for the live stock which is pro- 
duced, the income being derived from the sale of animals, milk, 
and wool. 

The maintenance of soil fertility is more difficult under 
the first of these two systems. Although it has been experi- 
mentally demonstrated that fertility may be maintained and 
increased without the aid of live stock, nevertheless the keep- 
ing of live stock and the utilization of farm manure afford the 
easiest method of maintaining and increasing the fertility of 
the soil. Where farming has been practiced for a long period 
of time, the most fertile and prosperous communities are those 
in which much live stock has been kept and the manure care- 
fully handled and applied to the soil. 

Of the two systems, live-stock farming affords much 
greater opportunity for the development and application of 
knowledge and skill. The live-stock farmer must be equally 
competent as a crop producer with the grain farmer, and in 
addition must know how to handle and feed live stock econom- 
ically. He must have a certain practical knowledge of animals 
.''nd their requirements which comes with long experience, 
but which can be readily acquired by one who has a liking for 
farm animals. 

Dr. C. E. Thorne of the Ohio Experiment Station has said, 
"While it is true that meat is an extravagantly wasteful food, 
viewed solely from the economic standpoint, yet it is also true 
that the ruling peoples of the earth are the meat eaters, and 
the time is probably far in the future when in this country 
meat will be banished from the tables of any but the improvi- 
dent, even though further advance in its cost should take 
place. The outlook, therefore, is that for a long time to come 

J5 



i6 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

the farmer who possesses the abihty to handlt uve stock suc- 
cessfully will find ample opportunity for the exercise of his 
talents and ample reward for the larger ability which such 
exercise involves." 

Experiments indicate that if animals were kept in stalls or 
pens throughout the year and the manure carefully saved, the 
approximate value of the manure produced by each horse or 
mule would be $27, by each head of cattle $20, by each hog $4, 
and by each sheep $2. The total fertilizing value of the 
m.anure produced in the United States in one year would, there- 
fore, be $2,477,100,000. In this estimate, no account is taken 
of the value of the manure for improving the mechanical con- 
dition and drainage of soils, which is fully as great as the 
value of the phosphoric acid, potash, and nitrogen contained 
in farm manure. 

When fed to animals, a large proportion of the fertilizing 
element of the food is recovered in the excrement. For ex- 
ample, if a ton of corn is sold off the farm, it removes fertility 
to the value of $6.56 ; while if fed to animals, this ton of corn 
results in manure worth, while fresh, $5.24. If this manure 
is properly handled and applied to the soil, little of its fer- 
tilizing value will be lost. The corresponding figures for one 
ton of wheat are $12.74 and $10.19 respectively, for oats $7.43 
and $5.94, for timothy $5.21 and $4.16, red clover $8.79 and 
$7.03, alfalfa $8.76 and $7.00, oat straw $3.30 and $2.64, corn 
silage $1.22 and $0.97, whole milk $1.96 and $1.52. In many 
instances the best method of increasing the fertility of a farm 
is to buy feeds which may be fed profitably to the live stock 
on hand, and then carefully handle and apply the manure pro- 
duced. For example, a ton of cottonseed meal or wheat bran 
used for feed gives manure worth, while fresh, $19.20 and 
$10.19 respectively. 

The live-stock farmer who fails to harvest the manure 
crop carefully is surely overlooking a great source of profit. 
On the other hand, animals should not be regarded merely as 
fertilizer factories. The manure produced by farm stock, while 
valuable, is secondary in importance to the value of the ani- 
mals themselves. The stockman converts his crops into animal 
products of higher value to man, aiming thereby to reap a 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 17 

larger profit than is possible by the grain-farming system, and 
at the same time he increases the fertility of his land. His 
success depends very largely upon the degree to which his ani- 
mals meet with favor on the live-stock market. If he is to 
make a financial success of his business, he must produce what 
the market wants. 

Far too many feeders of live stock lack acquaintance with 
market demands. Far too many breeders devote themselves 
to a breed simply because it satisfies a hobby and because the 
breed appeals to their fancy, rather than because they see in 
their animals any special utility. Unless a breed of beef cattle 
makes possible the production of better beef for the market; 
unless a breed of swine is fostered because in it is seen the 
possibility of improving the quality or cheapening the cost of 
pork ; unless a breed of draft horses is really useful when put 
to the test in the collar; then such breeds have little excuse 
for their existence, and those who foster them must sooner 
or later suffer financially for their efforts. Both the breeder 
and the feeder must know the demands of the open market 
and keep them always in mind. 

The word "purebred" has a wonderful charm to many 
persons, and perhaps rightly so, yet many an animal, very in- 
ferior from a utility point of view, has brought a large price 
merely because it had a pedigree and a registration number. 
The word "imported," when prefixed to an animal's name, 
lends even greater charm. The greatest breeders of the past 
refused to be carried away by any charm of family history 
or lure of names. They rode no hobbies. They were intensely 
practical; they never overlooked the market requirements of 
the kind of animals they bred. No animal met with favor in 
their eyes unless such favor was earned by meat upon the 
back, milk in the pail, weight and quality of wool, pounds 
gained for pounds of feed consumed, or some other perform- 
ance of practical value. With them it was a question of ulti- 
mately furnishing the market with something better or cheap- 
ening the cost of production. It must be just so with the 
master breeders of the present and future. 



18 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

These pages aim to familiarize the reader with the types 
of farm animals, market demands, and market classes of live 
stock, such knowledge being fundamental in all live-stock work 
and study, and valuable not only to breeders and feeders, but 
to all persons who buy and use animals. 



PART ONE 

CATTLE. 



INTRODUCTION . 

Cattle are useful to man because they produce meat and 
milk, both of which are in such demand that the production 
and marketing of them engage the attention of many thou- 
sands of people in America. Over two-fifths of the expendi- 
tures of families of medium income is for food. In 1910 there 
were 20,255,555 families in the United States. About one- 
third of the national dietary is composed of meat. Milk, butter, 
and cheese are produced in vast and increasing quantities, be- 
ing staple articles of food. 

America has been an exporter of meats and dairy products 
to the value of many millions of dollars annually. During the 
last few years these exports have fallen away markedly and 
we have now begun to import beef from South America. This 
change is partially due to a decrease in home production, but 
is chiefly due to a population increasing at such a tremendous 
rate that the increase in home production of food does not 
keep parallel with it. The United States had 7 millions of peo- 
ple in 1810, 17 millions in 1840, 38 millions in 1870, 76 millions 
in 1900, and 93 millions in 1910. Will it not be 150 millions in 
1940, and 200 millions in 1960? Need the producer of hve 
stock feel concern as to the future of his market? 

Excepting Australia and New Zealand, the inhabitants of 
the United States are the most liberal eaters of beef, mutton, 
and pork. The average per capita consumption of dressed beef 
in this country was 80 pounds in 1909, and the total consump- 
tion of dressed beef, veal, mutton, pork, and lard amounted to 
172 pounds per capita. Cuba follows with 124 pounds, the 
United Kingdom 119 pounds, Germany 113 pounds, France 
80 pounds, Denmark 76 pounds, Belgium 70 pounds, and 
Sweden 62 pounds. The average for Australia is 262.6 pounds, 
and for New Zealand 212.5 pounds. 

19 



20 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

Experience has shown that it requires a certain kind or 
type of cow to produce a large flow of milk, and quite a differ- 
ent kind to produce beef. For this reason, two distinct kinds 
of cattle have been developed — dairy cattle and beef cattle. 
The dairy cow possesses certain characteristics which make 
her useful as a machine for producing milk, and we call this 
combination of characteristics dairy type. Likewise, the beef 
animal has certain characteristics which stamp it as an animal 
that will convert feed into flesh rather than into milk, and we 
call this combination of characteristics beef type. This gives 
us an understanding of what is meant by type, and we may 
now define type by saying it is that combination of character- 
istics desired by the breeder which makes an animal highly 
useful for a specific purpose. 

Some breeders have endeavored to establish what is called 
a dual-purpose type of cattle. They believe there is need of a 
cow that can produce both beef and milk, and they have, there- 
fore, tried to combine dairy type and beef type as nearly as 
possible. The dual-purpose cow does not give as much milk 
as the dairy cow, nor does she make as much beef as the beef 
cow. At present the demand for dual-purpose cattle is com- 
paratively limited, but it has been predicted that many farms 
will ultimately adopt the dual-purpose type as the one most 
profitable. 

Various breeds of cattle have been evolved to meet the 
demands for each of the three types of cattle. Each breed has 
its own peculiar and special features not found in individuals 
of other breeds. These special characteristics constitute what 
is called the breed type. For example, there are six breeds of 
beef cattle all of which possess beef type, yet each breed is 
distinctive in certain points which make up the breed type. 
The breeds of beef cattle are the Shorthorn, Polled Durham, 
Aberdeen-Angus, Hereford, Polled Hereford, and Galloway. 

The dairy breeds are the Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, Guern- 
sey, Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Dutch Belted, French Canadian, 
and Kerry. 

Dual-purpose demands are met by the Red Polled and the 
Devon. The Shorthorn breed is also famous for many indi- 
viduals and several families of dual-purpose type. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 21 

Various groups of men in different localities under differ- 
ent conditions and with different sorts of unimproved cattle 
took up beef production, or dairying, or a combination of the 
two. In this way originated the various breeds of the three 
types of cattle as we know them today. Competition does not 
narrow each type down to a single best breed, because no one 
breed is best under all conditions of soil, climate, and food 
supply. 



CHAPTER I. 
BEEF TYPE. 

The following description applies particularly to the fat- 
tened steer. Special or additional features of type which 
should characterize the beef bull and the beef cow will receive 
attention later. It should be understood, however, that all good 
beef animals — steers, heifers, cows, and bulls — are similar in 
the essentials of beef type; therefore, the description given 
here applies in almost every respect to all classes of beef 
animals. 

General appearance. — When correct in form and fatness, 
the beef animal presents a massive, blocky appearance from 
every angle of view. As viewed from the side, the body is 
rectangular, very deep, and short from shoulder to hip. The 
body is very wide, and the legs are short and placed squarely 
under the body. Two dimensions of the beef animal should 
be great — width and depth ; the third dimension, length, should 
be relatively small. There should be great smoothness of out- 
line everywhere, all the parts being uniformly developed and 
so blended as to form a symmetrical and balanced animal. The 
back is uniformly broad, the more width the better. From a 
side view, the top line and underline are straight and parallel. 
A fullness of outline is presented everywhere. 

An animal showing too much length of middle is referred 
to as "rangy," while animals standing high off the ground on 
long legs are termed "leggy." The head should be short and 
broad, and the neck short and thick. Such a head and neck 
are associated or correlated with the desired type of body. 
Rangy, leggy animals usually have long narrow heads and 
long thin necks. With only the heads and necks of a number 
of beef animals in view, the best animals may be picked out 
with reasonable certainty simply upon the general proportions 
of heads and necks. A straight-edge laid against the side of 
a beef animal should touch the shoulder and hindquarter and 
all points between them. 

23 



24 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



The head should be short and broad with a broad muzzle, 
indicating capacity for grazing and feeding. The nostrils 
should be large, indicating capacity for breathing and hence 
a good constitution. The face line, from a side view, should 
be straight or show a slight inward curve or dish from eyes 
to muzzle. The head below the eyes should be as short as pos- 
sible, the eyes themselves being wide apart, large, prominent 
bright, and clear, and indicative of a gentle disposition. A 




Fig. 1. Correct Type in the Fat Steer. 

Two-year-old Aberdeen-Angus steer, Victor, Grand Champion at 
the International Live Stock Show in 1911. Fed and exhibited by Iowa 
State College. Sold for ninety cents per pound. 

quiet expression of the eyes means a quiet, contented feeder 
that will transform feed into flesh ; a nervous, restless expres- 
sion is evidence of an unsatisfactory feeder that will neither 
consume enough feed nor store up the energy of the feed con- 
sumed, but waste it in nervousness and too much moving 
about. The forehead should be very wide. The jaws should 
be broad and well muscled. If horns are present they should 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 25 

not be coarse at their base, but rather fine and nicely shaped 
and proportioned, tapering evenly to their tips. The ears 
should be of medium size, fine texture, fringed with fine hair, 
and neatly attached to the head. The entire head should be 
clean-cut, all lines being sharply defined, giving a well-bred 
appearance, sometimes referred to as "character." 

The neck should be short, thick, and muscular. Its attach- 
ment to the head should be neat and trim, while at the shoul- 
ders it should show depth and smoothness, A long neck lack- 
ing in thickness is frequently found, and it is undesirable 
chiefly because it is associated with a rangy type of body. 
When the animal is standing in natural position, with the head 
up, the top line of the neck should be straight and the poll of 
the head should be slightly higher than the withers. 

The shoulders should be very smooth, blending perfectly 
with the rest of the body. This conformation is secured when 
the shoulder blade lies snugly against the ribs beneath, and is 
covered over with a uniformly thick layer of flesh. The withers 
should not be sharp and fine, nor yet so wide that the tops of 
the shoulder blades are prominent and outstanding, but should 
be moderately wide and nicely rounded over with flesh. Rough, 
angular shoulders, unevenly covered, are among the most com- 
mon defects of beef cattle. When the shoulders are not prop- 
erly laid in, but are wide and open, the appearance of the ani- 
mal is injured, the fleshing over the shoulder is not taken on 
properly, and, when slaughtered, the carcass lacks the smooth, 
tidy appearance so much desired. A prominent shoulder also 
causes the development behind it to appear insufficient. 

The brisket and chest are highly important. The former 
should carry forward prominent and wide, and be well fleshed, 
yet neat, presenting a full, well-developed, and trim appear- 
ance. The chest, which lies between the shoulders and imme- 
diately behind them, ought to be very wide and deep. Too much 
width and depth are never found. A full, deep chest with 
large heart-girth indicates a rugged sort of animal possessed 
of much constitutional vigor. The floor of the chest should 
be wide, as shown by the distance between the two fore legs, 
provided width at this point is not due merely to prominent, 
open shoulders which set the fore legs wide apart. The fore- 
rib, lying just behind the shoulder, should not be flat, but 



26 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

should arch boldly so that no flatness or depression exists im- 
mediately behind the shoulder. Many beef animals present a 
hollowness or flatness of fore-rib which detracts much from 
the desired smoothness of conformation, and reduces the chest 
capacity. Care should be taken to see that the animal carries 
down deep and full at the front flanks just behind the elbows. 
The butcher cares nothing for a beef animal's constitution, but 
every intelligent feeder places great emphasis on the depth 
and width of chest, which indicate to him that the steer will 
be a good doer in the feed-lot. Briefly summing up all the 
points in the description thus far, we may say that the fore- 
quarters should be smoothly laid, smoothly and thickly fleshed, 
and very wide and deep, showing no lack of constitution any- 
where. 

The front legs should be short and placed squarely under 
the animal. They should come straight down, and the toes 
should point straight ahead. For reasons already given, the 
fore legs should be set well apart. The arm should be wide 
and muscular at its attachment to the shoulder. Fineness of 
bone and smoothness of joints are evidences of quality, 
whereas rough, coarse animals have heavy joints and big 
shank bones. 

The back carries great weight, and it is desirable that it 
be straight and strong. When some people refer to the back 
they include the entire top of the animal from shoulders to 
tail. Others mean the top from shoulders to hips. The score 
card restricts the meaning of this term to that portion of the 
top lying between the shoulders and the last rib, which is some 
distance in front of the hip. In this description we shall use 
the word in the score-card sense. The back furnishes one of 
the high-priced cuts of beef, and always receives critical at- 
tention in judging. It is important, first of all, that the back 
be very wide in order that it may carry the maximum amount 
of meat. Beef cattle are never criticized for too much width 
in this part. Width is secured when the ribs arch boldly from 
the spinal column ; if the ribs are not arched, the back must 
necessarily be narrow. 

Fully as important as the width of back is the depth of 
flesh which covers this part. When touched with the fingers, 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



27 



great depth and mellowness should be found. No mere beauty 
of outline or stylishness of appearance can ever make up for 
lack of fleshing in a beef animal. The flesh must be there. 
Dimples or ties, rough spots, or uneven patches of fat detract 
from the value because the carcass of such an animal will be 
rough in appearance and uneven in its covering of flesh. If a 
wide back furnishes greater space for meat than does a narrow 
one, then length of back might be advised for the same reason. 
But a long back is not wanted because one of the outstanding 
features of correct beef type is compactness, by which is meant 




Fig. 2. A Feed-Lot ModeL 

Prince Rock, a grade Aberdeen-Angus steer, fed and owned by Iowa 
State College. Note the extreme depth of chest and middle in this 
steer, giving him a strong constitution and great feeding capacity. His 
short legs and blocky body indicate heavy gains on feed and quick ma- 
turity. 

shortness from head to tail, and especially shortness from 
shoulder to hip. We naturally expect the back to be short, 
because length there is associated with the undesirable rangy 
type of animal too often found. 

The ribs should not only be well sprung, but should also 
carry down with much depth to help make a roomy or capaci- 
ous body. A wide, deep middle is essential to digestive ca- 
pacity. Cattle have thirteen pairs of ribs. In beef cattle they 



28 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

should be placed close together along the sides, and the last 
pair should come as close to the hips as possible. This provides 
a framework upon which the fleshing can be smoothly laid. 
When there is much space between the ribs, a smooth fleshing 
is not often found, for then the position of the ribs will be 
marked by ridges and there will be hollows between them. 
When the distance is great between the last rib and the hip, 
it is impossible to get that part filled out smoothly; instead 
there will be a large "hunger hollow" which detracts much 
from the appearance. Once more, therefore, the necessity for 
compactness (shortness) of middle is emphasized. 

The development along the side of the animal should be 
such that all points fill out plump and smooth to meet the same 
straight line from front to rear. The fleshing over the ribs 
should be thick, smooth, and even, and the hind flank should 
be well filled with flesh so that when the hand is placed under 
it and lifted, it is found to be thick, full, and heavy. If the 
front and hind flanks carry down properly, the underline will 
be straight, as it ought to be. 

At this point it is well to state that while the middle of a 
beef animal should be wide and deep, a distended condition of 
the paunch is not desirable. When this occurs, the animal is 
referred to as "paunchy." The lines of the middle, both at 
the sides and along the belly, should be straight and trim, 
giving a neat, tidy appearance sometimes described as "well 
tucked up." Given good arch and depth of rib, a steer may be 
straight and trim in his middle without sacrificing proper feed- 
ing capacity, and such animals suit the butcher much better 
than paunchy ones, because an excessive paunch means much 
waste when the animal is slaughtered. 

The loin is that portion of the top lying between the rear 
edge of the back and the hips. It has no ribs below it, but 
consists of large muscles, aff'ording the very choicest cuts of 
the entire carcass — the porterhouse and sirloin. The loin 
should be very wide and very heavily and smoothly fleshed to 
afford as high development of this part as possible. 

The hips should be laid in snugly, and nicely covered over 
with flesh. The eye should not be able to locate the hip of a 
well-fattened animal ; only when the* hands are used should 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 29 

the point of the hip be possible of location. This helps to give 
the smoothness desired in both the living animal and the car- 
cass which it ultimately yields. Wide hips cannot be covered 
over with flesh, and the animal suffers a rough and ragged 
appearance. 

The rump is the top between hips and tail-head. It should 
be level so as to carry out the top line straight and square to 
the end of the body. Some animals droop in the rump, and 
some rise prominently ; in each case the conformation is faulty. 
The rump should be as long as possible and as wide as the rest 
of the top. This permits a maximum fleshing and provides 
the most attractive form. The width should be carried as 
uniformly as possible from hips to end of rump. As the tail- 
head is approached, there is bound to be some rounding off, 
yet this does not mean that the end of the rump need be nar- 
row or peaked. Rather it should be wide and plumped out 
with flesh. Beef cattle very frequently exhibit roughness 
about the tail-head or at the end of the rump on each side of 
the tail, due to the accumulation of patches or gobs of fat. 
Smoothness here indicates better fleshing qualities. 

The thigh begins at the border of the rump and extends 
down the outside of the limb. It should be wide and plump 
from every angle of view, and come down with some bulge on 
the outside to where the thigh naturally narrows. The plump- 
ness and thickness should carry down as close to the hock as 
possible ; viewed from the side, the thigh should be very wide, 
and when the animal is viewed from the rear there ought to 
be much thickness from side to side. The hindquarters fur- 
nish the third most valuable cut of the carcass and are worthy 
of careful examination in judging. 

The twist is the fleshing between the hind legs, just as 
the thigh includes the fleshing on the outside. It should be 
very deep and full, filling in the space between the legs and 
carrying down as far as possible toward the hocks. 

The hocks and legs, by their position, indicate the capacity 
for fleshing in the twist and also on the thigh. If the hocks 
are straight and properly placed, showing no special tendency 
to come together, they will be associated usually with more 
heavily fleshed hindquarters than otherwise. It is important, 



30 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

therefore, that the hocks stand squarely under the animal. 
The shanks should carry straight down, and, as in front, they 
should be short and show refinement in bone. The joints of 
the limb should be clean-cut. 

The quality of the beef animal is shown in bone, skin, hair, 
and head. Quality, which is synonomous with refinement, is 
essential because it insures against coarseness of texture in all 
parts, especially the texture of the muscles. The head should 
be of medium size and should be clean-cut, presenting a sort 
of chiseled appearance. The heads of many animals do not 
exhibit that "finishing touch" which characterizes the head 
expressive of refinement. Heavy bone, large rough joints, and 
heavy horns show lack of quality. Perhaps the best indication 
of quality is the hide, which should be found pliable, easily 
stretched, and only medium thick when rolled up in the hand. 
The hair should be soft and fine. 

Animals are frequently found which possess too much 
quality. In such cases there is a delicacy of make-up ; quality 
is purchased at the expense of constitution. Extreme quality 
is also purchased at the expense of size, for over-refined ani- 
mals are usually undersized. The proper degree of quality 
represents the middle ground between two extremes, each of 
which is undesirable. This middle groui?d is hard to define; 
it may be said that all the quality is wanted which may be had 
without sacrifice of constitution and proper size. 

The fleshing of beef cattle is of the highest importance. 
The fact that the butcher's block is the ultimate end, and beef 
the ultimate product, must never be lost sight of by the 
breeder, feeder, or judge of beef cattle. All over the body, and 
more especially in the back, loin, and hindquarters, there 
should be found a uniformly deep covering of flesh. The flat of 
the hand pressed along the shoulder, back, or side should find a 
deep, mellow fleshing, without any patchiness or bare spots. 
When mature cattle are heavily fed they thicken in their flesh, 
and this increase in thickness is due not to a growth in muscle, 
but to a mixing of fat among the muscle fibers, a storing of 
fat between the muscles, and a laying on of fat externally just 
beneath the skin. The quantity of muscular tissue remains 
constant unless the animal is starving, in which case this tis- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 31 

sue may be drawn upon to support life. The only factor of 
fleshing which the feeder has under his control is the quantity 
of fat. If the animal is matured, feeding is exclusively a fat- 
tening process ; if the animal is not matured, fattening is ac- 
companied by increase in bone and muscle. The degree of 
fatness shown by a steer is referred to as his "condition," and 
this feature will now be discussed. 

Condition. — In comparison with dairy cattle, one of the 
most distinctive features of beef cattle is their ability to fatten 
easily and to deposit the fat in and around the muscles, there- 
by making the meat tender and juicy. As pointed out above, 
the feeding of beef cattle is largely a fattening process. The 
practical feeder knows, however, that it is not profitable to 
feed an animal up to his limit of fatness, because the last gains 
a steer makes are most costly, and such animals do not suit 
the consumer of beef as well as a steer fattened in moderation. 
Thin cattle are characterized by a very firm fleshing, so that 
when the flnger-tips are pressed on the back and ribs the flesh 
is found to be hard and unyielding. When such cattle are 
properly fattened a decided change takes place ; the flesh now 
has a mellow, yet firm and springy feel, and is no longer hard 
and unyielding. This firm, springy, and mellow condition in- 
dicates that the steer is properly fattened from a market 
standpoint. When feeding for show purposes, the fattening 
proceeds further, and, if continued to excess, the fleshing be- 
comes soft and blubbery. To the fingers, such an animal seems 
incased in blubber, and when the animal is slaughtered this is 
indeed found to be true. 

The best way to determine the state of fatness of an ani- 
mal is to use the hands in the manner mentioned above. This 
can be done rapidly, yet thoroughly, by a vigorous handling 
along the top and down over the ribs and shoulders. Other 
means of determining the condition consist of examinations 
of the cod, hind flank, and tongue-root. At these points the 
fat tends to accumulate extensively, and they are, therefore, 
good indices of condition. After castration, the scrotum with 
its content of fat is called the cod. Thin steers show very- 
little fullness of cod, while fat ones have the cod completely 
filled with fat. Thin animals also exhibit a very light hind 



32 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

flank. At the beginning there may be little more than a fold 
of skin; when fat, this part fills out remarkably full and 
heavy. By placing the flat of the hand beneath it and lifting, 
the quantity of fat in the flank is easily determined. When a 
fat steer walks, there is a characteristic roll or swell to the 
flank as the hind leg swings forward. This is not noticeable 
in a thin animal. The thickness of the tongue-root may be 
determined by grasping the part with the thumb and fingers. 

Some individuals fatten smoothly, with no special ten- 
dency to bunch the fat in patches or rolls at certain points, 
while others become "roily," or "patchy," in spite of all the 
feeder's skill. Patches and rolls are most often found about 
the tail-head and end of the rump, along the ribs, and at the 
edge of the loin. The occurrence of these is highly undesir- 
able; they indicate an improper distribution of fat, give the 
animal a rough appearance, and, when the animal is slaughter- 
ed, the carcass is discounted, for then the bunches of fat 
are very evident and the appearance is spoiled. The fatter the 
steer becomes, the greater is the tendency toward patchiness, 
yet many animals begin to exhibit this defect before they are 
really ripe and ready for market. 

Style has actual market value in a fat steer. A stylish 
steer is one that stands squarely on his feet, with his back 
level, head well up, and eyes and ears attentive to what is 
going on about him. This doe's not mean a nervous animal, 
but a wide-awake one, full of life, and seemingly interested in 
the things about him. When he walks, he does it easily and 
without awkwardness. Other things being equal, such a steer 
will attract buyers much more quickly than an animal that 
slouches while standing, showing a pronounced dip in the back, 
and having an awkward stride when in motion. These two 
animals may dress out equally high, and yield equally valuable 
carcasses ; the difference is that the first steer forces his good 
points to the attention of the buyer and shows for all he is 
worth, while in the case of the second steer, the buyer is left 
to discover the animal's good points without any assistance 
from the animal. Cattle with style sell more readily and at 
slightly higher prices than cattle without style. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 33 

Size and weight vary according to age, sex, breed, and 
fatness. Disregarding breed differences, for this factor need 
not be considered here, the following figures represent fair 
standards of weight at different ages for well-fattened steers : 

At birth 70 pounds 

6 months 450 pounds 

12 months 850 pounds 

18 months 1100 pounds 

24 months 1300 pounds 

30 months 1475 pounds 

36 months 1600 pounds 

Age from the teeth. — The ages of cattle may be determined 
with a fair degree of accuracy by an examination of the teeth. 
There are eight incisors in the lower jaw of mature cattle. 
There are no incisors in the upper jaw, but a tough fibrous pad 
instead, amply suited to the grazing habits of cattle. The 
dentition at various ages is as follows : 

12 months. All calf teeth in place. 

15 months. Center permanent incisors appear. 

18 months. Center permanent incisors in wear. 

24 months. First intermediates up. 

30 months. Six broad incisors. 

36 months. Six broad incisors in wear. 

39 months. Corners up. 

42 months. Eight broad incisors in wear. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE BEEF CARCASS. 

Buyers of fat cattle at the large market centers make 
their bids according to their estimates of the kind of carcasses 
the animals will yield. These estimates are made with con- 
siderable accuracy because the buyers have made a study of 
carcasses and the cuts which they yield. A similar knowledge 
of meats is essential to the beef producer in order that he may 
learn to judge and value beef cattle correctly. 




Fig. 3. Knocking Cattle. 

Slaughtering. — Upon reaching the packing house, the cat- 
tle are driven into knocking pens where they are dealt a sledge- 
hammer blow by the "knocker" who stands on a platform 
about even with the head of the animal. They are then rolled 
on the dressing floor, where a shackle is placed about the 
hind legs. The carcass is raised and bled, and the head re- 
moved. Again floored, the feet are removed at knees and 
hocks, and the hide is stripped. The carcass is then placed 

34 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 35 

on a spreader, known as a "beei tree," where it is disem- 
bowled, the hide removed entirely, and the back split. An 
endless chain then conveys the sides of beef through a set 
of washers to the coolers. The time required for dressing a 
carcass is less than 40 minutes. The beef remains in the 
coolers from one to two weeks before it is ready for the mar- 
ket, the temperature being kept at about 38 degrees Fahren- 
heit. Prime meats require three to four weeks ageing in a 
refrigerator to arrive at their best. 

The offal. — The feet, head, hide, internal organs, loose 
fat, blood, and contents of stomach and intestines are collec- 
tively called the offal or waste of the steer, so called because 
formerly, with the exception of the tongue, hide, and tallow, 
this offal was thrown away. Today all of it is valuable for 
manufacturing into various by-products. 

The dressing percentage. — By comparing the weight of 
the chilled carcass with the live weight of the animal, the 
percentage of carcass, or what is called the dressing per- 
centage, is determined. This is a very important point in 
determining the market price of a steer, and the buyer always 
estimates the dressing percentage when bidding on a load 
of cattle. For instance, suppose we have a steer of 1.200 
pounds weight on foot. When dressed, the carcass weighs 
say 720 pounds. The dressing percentage would then be 60 
per cent. Now suppose we have two loads of 25 steers each. 
The average live weight of the steers in each load is 1,200 
pounds. When slaughtered one load dresses 60 per cent., 
and the other 571/2 per cent. Each load had a total live weight 
of 30,000 pounds. When dressed, one load yields 2i/^ per 
cent, higher than the other, a difference of 750 pounds of 
carcass — a difference exceeding the weight of a single carcass. 
The total dressed weight of the 25 steers in the best load 
was 18,000 pounds ; 26 steers of the lower dressing kind would 
not yield this weight of carcasses by 60 pounds. We will sup- 
pose each lot of carcasses brought a wholesale price of $9.50 
per cwt. Then 750 pounds of carcass amounts to $71.25, 
which is the difference in the income from the sale of the two 
lots of carcasses. This amounts to $2.85 per head in favor 
of the high dressers. In handling thousands of animals, as 



36 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

do the large packing firms, the question of dressing percentage 
is a very important one. The range in the dressing percent- 
ages of cattle is from 35 to 70 per cent. 

The chief factors determining the dressing percentage of 
a steer, in the order of their importance are: (1) fatness, 
(2) paunchiness, and (3) quality of bone and hide. Aged 
dairy cows which have outlived their usefulness as milk pro- 
ducers are sent to market; they are very paunchy and very 
thin, and dress around 45 per cent. Well-bred steers, well 
fattened and with straight lines, that is, free from paunchi- 
ness, dress out 62 to 65 per cent. The highest record know^n to 
the writer, where the steer was dressed in the usual manner, 
is 69.9 per cent. Quality of head, feet, and hide is of less 
importance as a rule than paunchiness or fatness, although 
in some animals the weight of hide is a considerable item. 
Commission men who sell cattle on the big markets are al- 
ways careful that the cattle consigned to them get plenty 
of feed and water before they are offered for sale. This is 
called the "fill," and it is important because it corrects the 
gaunt appearance caused by shipping, and adds weight to 
the animal. The buyer estimates the fill in various ways, 
particularly by the degree of paunchiness. Hence the fill does 
not constitute a fourth factor of the dressing percentage, 
"but is included under paunchiness. On hot days when cattle 
take a heavy fill of water, buyers stay off the market as long 
as possible. 

The wholesale cuts. — When the carcass has been suf- 
ficiently ripened in the cooler, it is ready for cutting up into 
the wholesale cuts. The full side of beef, half the carcass, 
has the appearance shown in the following diagram. The 
wholesale cuts are indicated by the dotted lines. 

The navel and brisket are usually sold together in one 
piece, called the plate; otherwise the navel is difficult to dis- 
pose of. Sides are usually quartered or "ribbed" between 
the 12th and 13th ribs. The quarters are called "fores" and 
^'hinds." The forequarter yields the rib, chuck, plate, and 
shank cuts. The hindquarter yields the round, loin, flank, 
and kidney suet. Regular hindquarters contain 47 to 49 per 
cent, of the carcass weight, and fores, 51 to 53 per cent., the 
averages being about 48 per cent, hinds and 52 per cent, fores. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



37 



Hinds are quoted about 25 per cent, higher than fores in 
cold months, and up to 40 per cent, higher in summer. This 
variation is due to the large amount of boiling and stewing 
pieces in the fores, which meats are in greater demand in 
winter. 




Fig. 4, Wholesale Cuts of Beef. 

1, Chuck; 2, shank; 3, brisket; 4, rib; 5. navel; 6, loin; 7, flank; 8, 
round; 3 and 5, plate; 6, 7, and 8, hindquarter. 

The loin is separated from the round at the hip joint. 
The shank is sawed off just below the shoulder joint. The 
plate is taken off on a line extending from about the middle 
of the twelfth rib through the point at which the shank is 
removed. The rib and chuck are separated between the fifth 
and sixth ribs. 

A 720-pound carcass will yield a 360-pound side. When 
the side is cut up, the weights of the various wholesale cuts, 
their prices per pound, and their total values are as given in 
the following table, the figures for weights representing aver- 
ages for good carcasses. Prices are given for No. 1, No. 2, 
and No. 3 grades. 



Wholesale cuts 


Wts. 

in 
lbs. 

100 
60 
10 
35 
40 
82 
18 
15 

360 


Price 
No. 1 


per lb. , 
No. 2 


cents 
No. 3 


Total value of parts 
No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 


Round 

Loin 


10.5 
16.5 

4 
13 

4.25 

5.75 

3.5 

4 


9 
15 

3.5 
11.5 

3.75 

5.25 

3 

4 


7.75 

9.5 

3 

7 

3.25 

4.25 

3 

4 


$10.50 

9.90 

.40 

4.55 

1.70 

4.72 

.63 

.60 


$ 9.00 

9.00 

.35 

4.03 

1.50 

4.30 

.54 

.60 


$ 7.75 
5.70 


Flank 

Rib 

Plate 


.30 
2.45 
1.30 


Chuck 

Shank 

Suet 


3.48 
.54 
.60 


Total 


9.16 


8.14 


6.14 


$33.00 


$29.32 


$22.12 



38 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



High-priced and low-priced cuts. — The average price for 
the entire No. 1 carcass is, then, 9.2 cents per pound. From 
the foregoing table it is seen that the loin, rib, and round 
constitute slightly more than half of the carcass weight, but 
bring a little more than three-fourths of the return from the 
sale of the wholesale cuts. The 195 pounds of loin, rib, and 
round have an average price of 12.8 cents per pound, while 
the remainder of the side, weighing 165 pounds, brings an 
average of nearly 5 cents. Hence the packer wants cattle 




Fig. 5. Cuts of Beef Indicated in the Live AnimaL 

as highly developed in loin, rib, and round as possible. Buyers 
of cattle for slaughter emphasize this point. They want 
cattle smoothly and heavily fleshed in all parts, and especially 
in the three parts mentioned. The selling price of a load of 
cattle is greatly dependent on this feature. 

Variations in carcasses. — A study of the carcasses in any 
cooler brings out striking differences. Some are large, being 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 39 

from 1,500- to 1,600-pound animals ; others are from younger 
beeves that weighed 800 to 1,100 pounds. Some are com- 
pact and wide, others are long and narrow. Some are well 
developed in the regions of high-priced cuts, while others 
are deficient in this respect. Some carry heavy fleshing, 
others are very poorly covered indeed. The layer of external 
fat is very thick in some, these being highly finished cattle 
fed on grain. Others show practically no external fat. These 
are from grass-fed cattle — poor pasture too, for a steer puts 
on some external fat on grass if the pasture is good. Some 
show a nice intermixing of fat and lean, called "marbling," 
while others exhibit this feature very slightly, or none at all. 
The lean meat of some carcasses has a pale red color: in 
others it is very dark. Some carry snow-white fat; others 
carry fat of a yellow color. Some beef is fine grained, and 
some is very coarse and fibrous. Some carcasses have soft 
bones, somewhat cartilaginous in character ; others have hard 
flinty bones. Size of bones varies a great deal in diflferent 
carcasses. 

To sum up these diflferences we may say that carcasses 
vary in respect to (1) size, (2) shape, (3) thickness of 
fleshing, (4) thickness of external fat, (5) marbling, (6) 
color of lean meat, (7) color of fat, (8) grain of meat, (9) 
flintiness of bones, and (10) size of bones. The butcher or 
packer is interested in all these things, for each is of con- 
siderable importance. The packer grades the wholesale cuts 
of beef, as they vary in these points, into No. 1, No. 2, and 
No. 3 grades. No. 1 cuts bring the highest price, and be- 
tween No. I's and No. 3's there is a marked diff'erence. These 
three grades are all used on the butcher's block. Cuts from 
inferior carcasses not suitable for block use are called strip- 
pers ; these are manufactured into boneless cuts, barreled beef, 
and sausage. 

How the carcass is produced. — Before taking up a dis- 
cussion of the qualifications of a good carcass, it will be 
profitable to consider briefly how an animal grows and builds 
up the parts of its body which eventually make up the car- 
cass. The carcass consists of bone, muscle, connective tissue, 
and fat. At birth the calf weighs about 70 pounds. Its 



40 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

bones are soft and elastic, and its muscles are tender. It 
carries a certain degree of fatness, depending on how well 
it was nourished before it was born — in other words, on 
how well its mother was fed. Up to weaning time it subsists 
largely upon its mother's milk, which is primarily a bone and 
muscle builder, producing growth. 

When weaned, the future of the calf depends upon (1) 
ancestry, (2) feed, and (3) management. If its ancestors 
were dairy animals, it will never fatten properly nor make 
a valuable carcass. However, we are dealing with beef pro- 
duction and will assume the calf is from a good line of beef 
cattle. If given plenty of feed and good care, in other words 
every opportunity to develop quickly, the calf rapidly increases 
in size and its flesh expands and thickens. It also lays on fat. 
It is hard to fatten young animals because they tend to utilize 
their feed for growth rather than fat. Growth is increase 
in bone and muscle. However, with heavy feeding, cattle be- 
come fat before reaching maturity, and may be sent to market 
under 20 months of age weighing 800 to 1,200 pounds. Such 
animals are called "baby beeves." 

Another way to handle the calf is to turn it out to 
pasture and perhaps help it along with a little grain if the 
pasture is short. In this case the object is to produce growth 
only, and the animal may then be finished as a two-year-old. 
Under this plan the animal should be roughed through the 
winter with care, otherwise it will receive a setback. A 
third way to manage this calf would be to put it on pasture 
where it can get grass if there is any, and get thin if there 
isn't — so thin that it loses what we may call its baby flesh. 
In winter, under this system, the animal starves along as 
best it can, and the result is that it never makes a good beef, 
even though liberally fed at the finish. Once the baby flesh- 
ing is lost through setbacks received during development, the 
steer does not make as desirable a carcass as he would other- 
wise. 

As an animal increases in age, its bones become hard 
and flinty. The bones which bear the most strain become 
most flinty, these being the shank bones. In young cattle 
the tips of the spinous processes of the vertebrae are soft 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 41 

and cartilaginous. These "buttons," as they are called, are 
present up to the age of 18 months ; thereafter they gradually 
ossify, and at about the fifth year the spines are hard to the 
tips. Similar changes take place in the cartilages on the 
breastbone before the third or fourth year. The breastbone, 
backbone, ribs, and pelvis gradually harden and whiten, es- 
pecially after the age of 18 months. When visiting a beef 
cooler, the age of the animals from which the carcasses came 
may be told approximately by the bones. With increase in 
age the muscles become tougher through use. The muscles 
which the animal uses most and which do the most work 
become the toughest in their make-up; these are the muscles 
of the neck and those used in locomotion, including the mus- 
cles of the thigh, shoulder, and arm. 

Wild animals store up fat in their bodies as a reserve upon 
which they rely in times when food is scanty. The bear, 
for instance, takes on lots of fat during summer and fall, 
which is resorbed and used to support life during hiberna- 
tion in winter ; he comes out in the spring in very thin condi- 
tion. The storing of fat is a provision of nature. The camel 
with his hump of fat furnishes another good example. In the 
domestic animals which produce meat, man has encouraged 
this fat-storing tendency by methods of breeding and feeding. 
That great success has been achieved along this line is shown 
by the highly finished cattle, sheep, and hogs coming from 
the hands of the best stockmen. The natural place for the 
storing of fat is along the back, forming a layer of clear 
fat just beneath the skin. It is also stored about the internal 
organs, between the muscles, and within the muscles among 
the muscle fibers. This storing of fat among the muscle 
fibers gives the marbled appearance already referred to. Prac- 
tically no fat is stored up in the muscles which do much work, 
hence we find the round steak coming from the thigh to be 
almost completely free from fat, being lean all the way across. 
The muscles of the loin and back, having little work to do, 
take on the marbling feature quite easily if the animal is well 
fed and properly handled. This largely explains why cuts 
from the loin and back are most tender, although in these 
muscles there is not the stimulus to the growth of connee- 



42 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



tive tissue such as is the case in working muscles, and this 
is undoubtedly another reason why the loin and back yield 
cuts of superior tenderness. 

The following figures show the relative amounts of lean, 
fat, and bone in the cuts from a good carcass, as compared 
with those from an inferior carcass. 



Name of cut 



Good Carcass 



Lean 



Fat 



Bone 



Inferior Carcass 



Lean 


Fat 

1 


per cent.lper cent. 


43.8 


5.0 


82.9 


8.2 


47.4 


30.1 


62.4 


24.9 


49.3 


9.2 


60.8 


3.2 


62.8 


21.5 


66.3 


14.8 


69.9 


15.4 


67.9 


11.7 



Bone 



Hind shank. 

Round 

Rump 

Loin 

Flank 

Shank 

Plate 

Rib 

Chuck 

Neck 



per cent 
28.1 
72.2 
44.7 
54.8 
46.3 
15.2 
53.9 
61.1 
62.8 
54.3 



per cent 
13.5 
17.0 
32.9 
33.3 
53.2 
13.1 
34.3 
21.5 
21.4 
21.9 



per cent. 
57.8 

9.2 
22.2 
11.1 

0.4 
34.1 
11.5 
17.2 
15.1 
23.6 



per cent. 
50.0 

8.5 
21.1 
11.9 

0.7 
35.3 
14.7 
18.0 
13.6 
19.4 



A careful comparison of the figures for the good carcass 
and the inferior one shows that they have about the same 
percentage of bone, but the inferior carcass shows a con- 
siderably lower percentage of fat and, therefore, a higher 
percentage of lean. 

As stated in the previous chapter, the feeding of mature 
cattle is essentially a fattening process. This is clearly shown 
by some results at the Missouri Experiment Station, where 
muscle fibers and fat cells extracted from steers at different 
periods during the fattening process were examined and meas- 
ured under the microscope and it was found that while there 
was very little or no increase in the diameter of the muscle 
fibers, the fat cells increased enormously both in number 
and size. 

Thus we understand why cattle differ a great deal in 
the kind of carcasses they yield, depending upon their in- 
herited tendencies and upon their feed and care. The effects 
of inherited tendencies upon the carcass are discussed in 
more detail in the next chapter. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 43 

The demands of the butcher and ultimate consumer. — The 

questions which now come before us are: 1. What kinds of 
lean meat and fat does the butcher want ? 2. How much lean 
meat does he want, and how much fat? 3, How does he 
want these two substances arranged with regard to each other ? 
These questions bring up the demands of consumers ol 
meats, for the butcher is guided by what the consumer of 
beef wants and will pay for. You and I are consumers of 
meat, and what we like, or dislike, together with the size 
of our pocketbook, guides the butcher who buys our cattle. 
Now what do we want? We want meat that is (1) nutri- 
tious, (2) tender, (3) juicy, (4) of good flavor, (5) attractive 
in appearance, and (6) has a small amount of outside fat. 
Provided beef is well ripened in the cooler and well cooked, 
there is not much variation in its nutrition or food value. 
The tenderness depends upon the work the muscle has done 
and upon the amount of marbling it carries. It is impos- 
sible to get too much marbling, the more the better. Meat 
free from fat shrivels and drys up when roasted, becoming 
dry and tough. Ageing or ripening in the cooler helps to make 
meat tender. Juiciness results from the presence of fat and 
manner of cooking. The flavor depends mostly upon fat- 
ness and upon proper ripening of the carcass. The cuts 
of beef which are most attractive in appearance are those 
with bright, rich, red lean, snow-white fat, and a high de- 
gree of marbling. The consumer desires a maximum of lean 
meat well marbled, and a minimum of bone and outside fat 
in the cuts of beef. 

All carcasses not suitable for side beef. — Carcass beef 
which is thick and fat enough so that the entire side can be 
sold over the butcher's block in retail cuts is known as "block 
beef" or "side beef." Carcasses that are not thick enough in 
flesh to be entirely utilized by the retailer are called "cutters." 
The loins and ribs of cutters may be sold over the block. 
"Canners" are the worst carcasses to be found, from which 
none of the regular wholesale cuts may be sold over the block, 
but which must be disposed of as boneless fresh meats and 
cured beef products. In this chapter our attention is confined 
to side beef and to a study of the qualifications of a good 
carcasa. 



44 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

1. Weight of carcass. — The heaviest carcasses .seldom 
exceed 1,050 pounds, and the minimum is about 250 pounds. 
Sufficient finish and quahty are not often found in carcasses 
weighing less than 800 pounds. No definite fine as to weight 
can be drawn between carcasses of beef and veal, because 
there are many factors determining the character of the flesh. 
The greatest demand is for carcasses from 1,200- to 1,400- 
pound steers, and most of the cattle coming to market are of 
about these weights. Such carcasses yield retail cuts of a 
size to suit the average family. Then there is also a demand 
for heavy carcasses to supply hotels, restaurants, and dining 
cars, which use large cuts. 

2. Shape of carcass. — The ideal carcass of beef is com- 
pact and has good width in proportion to length, short shanks 
and neck, and full rounds, loins, and ribs. Large plates, hollow 
loins, prominent hips, thin chucks, or rangy, loosely coupled 
sides are especially discriminated against. A "rimmy" side 
is one showing an unusual curvature of ribs, giving a warped 
appearance and corresponding to paunchiness in live cattle. 

3. Thickness of fleshing. — There is a clear distinction 
between thickness due to fatness and thickness due to mus- 
cular flesh. Only the knife can completely reveal the thickness 
of a side and the relative thickness of fat and lean ; even 
expert dealers are often mistaken as to the actual thickness 
of flesh in an uncut side. 

4. Thickness of external fat. — This is referred to as 
the "finish." Perfect finish consists of a smooth covering 
of firm white fat over the entire carcass, with the greatest 
depth along the back, a white brittle "kidney" of medium 
size, and a lining of flaky fat on the inner surface of the 
ribs. The rounds and shanks are covered last in the process 
of fattening. Carcasses show variation in thicknessof external 
fat, ranging all the way from zero to four inches. Beef fat 
is not palatable to most people. The average consumer does not 
want more than one-half or three-fourths of an inch of ex- 
ternal fat, and if the carcass weighs 500 pounds or less, about 
one-fourth of an inch is sufl^cient. It is impossible to secure 
proper marbling unless a certain amount of fat is put on ex- 
ternally at the same time, but the necessary marbling is 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



45 



usually secured when one-half or three-fourths of an inch 
of fat is laid on externally ; after this point is reached, the 
fat is stored externally only. A certain amount of outside 
fat is necessary in prime beef in order to insure proper ripen- 
ing in the cooler, and also for proper roasting. In the lowest 
grade, such as canners, outside fat is entirely lacking and 
such carcasses will rot before they ripen. A carcass carrying 




Fig. 6. Beef Ribs. 

The rib cut on the left is too fat, the one on the right is too lean, 
and the cut in the center is correctly fattened. Note that the amount of 
lean meat is practically the same in all three. 

soft, "gobby" fat sells at a discount. Grass-fed cattle yield 
carcasses that are watery and flabby, with a marked lack of 
finish. Heifers carry a higher percentage of fat in all cuts 
than do steers. This is one of the principal reasons why 
they often sell at a discount in this country while in England 
they are not discriminated against because the Englishman 
likes fatter beef. 

Cattle fed to a complete finish, as are the beef cattle 
exhibited at the larger live-stock shows, carry a great excess 
of external fat — far too much to suit the average consumer. 
This excess of tallow adds practically nothing to the value 
of the carcass as food. In a way, the fat-stock shows set a 
wrong example for feeders to follow. Such a finish results 
from a long feeding period of 8 to 10 months, and in some 
cases even longer. A 3 to 6 months feeding period gives a 
carcass which suits the consumer better, and such a plan is 
undoubtedly more profitable to the feeder, because the first 



46 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



gains a steer makes are acquired much more cheaply than 
the last or.es. This does not mean that the farmer should 
send thin cattle to market; it means there is a place to stop 
in the feeding of a bullock which results in greatest profit 
to the producer and best satisfaction to the consumer. A 
smooth and firmly finished steer is the sort this implies. As 




Fig. 7. Well-Marbled Beef. 

Rib roast, showing correct proportion of fat to lean, and a high 
degree of marbling. 

bearing on the matter of cost of gains, the Kansas Station 
found the grain required for 100 pounds of gain with fatten- 
ing steers for different periods to be as follows : 

Grain for Increase of 

100 lbs. gain feed required 

Up to 56 days 730 pounds of grain. 

Up to 84 days _ 807 pounds of grain. 10 per cent. 

Up to 112 days 840 pounds of grain. 15 per cent. 

Up to 140 days 901 pounds of grain. 23 per cent. 

Up to 168 days 927 pounds of grain. 27 per cent. 

Up to 182 days 1000 pounds of grain. 37 per cent. 

These figures indicate the heavy cost of thoroughly fat- 
tening a steer, and the importance of selling as early as 
possible. 

5. Marbling. — The highest quality of beef is that which 
contains the largest proportion of well- marbled lean. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 47 

6. Color of lean meat. — The meat from grass-finished 
cattle is dark in color. Grain feeding gives the best color — 
a bright, rich red. Dark color is due to the presence of much 
blood in the tissues. Anything which causes the blood to flow 
into the tissues in large quantities results in dark color. 
Exercise or excitement will bring about this condition, hence 
the dark-colored flesh of western range cattle, and of grass- 
fed cattle in general, is not due to the nature of the food, 
but to the amount of exercise made necessary in ranging about 
at pasture. Stags and bulls kill out dark because of their 
restlessness, and of heifers in heat the same is true. Dark 
carcasses break down (decompose) quicker than light-colored 
ones, and customers object to the appearance, hence butchers 
have two good reasons for disliking a dark-colored carcass. 

7. Color of fat. — A clear white color of fat is desired. 
An unattractive yellow color is rather frequently met with. 
Some packers believe the yellow color is due to the kind of 
feed upon which the animal was fattened. Cottonseed meal 
has been charged with this fault, but experimental work has 
shown that cottonseed meal does not produce yellow fat. 
Cattle of Jersey and Guernsey breeding usually kill very yellow. 

8. Grain of meat. — This is a little difficult to describe. 
When the fresh-cut surface is viewed, it should show a smooth, 
fine-grained appearance, and should feel "velvety" to the 
touch. Meat with fine grain comes from the animal with 
quality, that is, one with fine hide, hair, and bone. Such 
an animal is finely textured throughout, and if well fed, so 
that the baby fleshing is preserved, a carcass with fine-grained 
flesh will result. Some meats are very coarse indeed. 

9. Size of bones. — The bones should be as small as the 
weight of the carcass will allow. From the producer's stand- 
point, however, such carcasses do not always represent great- 
est profits, because extremely fine-boned cattle do not usually 
make the greatest gains on feed. 

10. Flintiness of bones. — As already shown, flintiness of 
the bones is an indication of age. The most desirable car- 
casses are those of young animals approaching maturity, the 
meat from old ones being tough, dark-colored, and lacking 
in marbling. The bones of cows and heifers, and of dairy- 



48 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

bred animals, turn hard and white earlier than those of steers, 
indicating quicker maturity. 

Grading carcasses. — As to the relative importance of the 
above factors in grading carcass beef, it may be said that 
finish (by which is meant the thickness and smoothness of 
outside fat) is particularly essential, with thickness of flesh, 
fineness of grain, color of lean and fat, fineness of bone, and 
shape of carcass of about equal importance. From what has 
been said we now understand why the loin and rib bring such 
high prices as compared to other parts of the carcass; it 
is because of their superior tenderness, marbling, and pal- 
atability, combined with attractive appearance. The round 
brings a good price because it contains so much lean and so 
little bone and external fat. Other parts of the carcass are 
as nutritious as the loin, rib, and round, but are difficult to 
cook in such a way that they appeal to us as do the porter- 
house, sirloin, and rib roast. But a carcass will yield only 
so much of these, hence the great variation in the price of the 
various wholesale cuts. It is perhaps well that there are 
cheap cuts of meat and cheap carcasses, for there is a great 
percentage of population not able to buy any other kind. The 
packer does not want all beef to be of highest quality. He 
must take care of the second and third class trade as well 
as the fancy trade. But the producer of market cattle must 
aim to produce the highest quality of product, for this work 
requires skill, and skill always commands a higher reward 
than unskilled effort. Anybody can produce medium or in- 
ferior beef, and the price obtained is in proportion. 

Sex differences. — Steer carcasses are identified by the cod 
fat and generally by their full, fleshy rounds and loins, heav- 
ier, coarser bones, and short necks as compared with cows. 
They show more quality and finish than any other class, and 
are sold as carcass beef more extensively than any other class, 
except heifers. Heifer carcasses are distinguished by the ud- 
der, and usually they have smaller bones, more prominent hips, 
more angular rumps, less development of lean meat, and they 
average lighter in weight. The tendency in heifer beef is to 
carry the fat more extensively as kidney suet or gobby fat 
than do steers. They have flatter loins, flatter plates, and 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 49 

longer, thinner necks than steers. Carcasses of cows have 
the bag trimmed off as closely as possible. The form is 
angular, the neck long, the bones hard and white, and the 
majority lack thickness of flesh. Fat cow carcasses often 
carry an excess of kidney fat and bunches of fat on the back 
and rump. The flesh is seldom as well marbled as that of 
heifers or steers. Cow carcasses require more ageing or ripen- 
ing to make the meat tender. Dressed bulls are easily recog- 
nized by the heavy neck and heavy shoulders, thick rounds, 
dark color, coarse-grained flesh, and absence of cod fat. They 
have rough shape and the bones show maturity. The coarse 
dark flesh has no marbling as a rule, and but few bulls are 
suitable for dressed beef. They are used for sausage and the 
rounds are made into smoked beef hams. Many stags ap- 
proach steers in form, quality, and finish; others resemble 
bulls. 

All carcasses of cattle are classified and graded as fol- 
lows: 

Classes Grades 

Steers ,.... Prime, choice, good, medium, common 

Heifers Prime, choice, good, medium, common 

Cows Choice, good, medium, common 

Bulls and stags Choice, good, medium, common 

Cutters Good, medium, common 

Canners Good, medium, common 

Conclusion. — The study of the beef carcass therefore 
teaches : 

1. That well-bred cattle yield the best carcasses and 
bring the highest price. 

2. The market wants young, highly finished cattle. 

3. Steers yield the most desirable carcasses. 

4. The best results come from a method of management 
which offers no chance for a setback during growth and fat- 
tening. 

5. The breeder and feeder of beef cattle should secure 
as high development of loin, back, and hindquarter as possible. 

6. To bring a good price, cattle must dress high. 

7. To dress high, cattle must be free from paunchiness 
and must be fat. 



50 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

8. Broadly speaking, heredity regulates the lean meat, 
and man regulates the fat. 

9. Feeding is a fattening process. 

10. Fatness is desirable because it adds weight, makes 
perfect ripening possible, gives tenderness and juiciness to 
the meat, and increases the dressing percentage. 

11. Cattle may be made too fat. 

12. Carcasses vary widely in weight, shape, thickness 
of fleshing, thickness of external fat, marbling, color of lean, 
color of fat, grain of meat, and size and hardness of bones. 

13. Ancestry, age, feed, and care determine what sort 
of a carcass an animal will yield. 

14. Half of the carcass meets with strong demand and 
sells high, while the remainder sells low. 

15. There is demand for carcasses of all weights, but 
the strongest demand is for handy-weight carcasses from 
cattle weighing 1,200 to 1,400 pounds. 

16. To secure the greatest returns, the feeder should 
send his cattle to market well done after a short feeding 
period, but not in an excessively fat condition resulting from 
long continued feeding. 



CHAPTER III. 
THE VALUE OF TYPE IN BEEF MAKING. 

In order to determine just what advantages are possessed 
by the beef-type steer as compared with dairy-type steers, 
some experiments have been carried out which have resulted 
in interesting findings. It has long been known that beef steers 
suit feeders and butchers better than steers of dairy breed- 
ing. It has been claimed that beef steers gain faster in 
proportion to feed consumed, that they fatten more readily, 
dress out higher, yield a more valuable carcass, and hence 
bring a higher price on the market. Experimental results 
have upheld some of these views and disproved others. 

In 1903, the Iowa Experiment Station conducted a series 
of experiments dealing with the comparative merits of the 
two types for beef production. The object was to provide 
answers to the following questions: 1. Which type of steer 
makes the greater gains from pounds of feed consumed? 

2. In the gains made, what differences exist between the 
two types as to distribution of such gains over the body? 

3. Which type of steer yields the greater profit to the feeder? 

4. Which type shows the greater amount of offal? 5. Which 
type carries the higher percentage of tallow? 6. Which 
type carries the higher percentage of valuable cuts? 7. In 
considering the various commercial cuts from the two types, 
what differences are to be found as regards : weight, thickness, 
covering of fat, marbling, color, and fineness of grain? 8. 
Is the low price paid for dairy-type steers due to prejudice, 
or to an actual inferiority in the value of the carcasses? 

Four beef-type steers and four dairy-type steers were 
put on feed January 1, 1903, and fed one year. The steers 
were on dry feed during the entire time, so that the exact 
amount of feed consumed by each lot might be known. Of 
the four beef steers, two were high-grade Herefords, and 
two, purebred Angus. The four dairy steers consisted of 
two Jerseys and two Holsteins, The ages at the beginning 

51 



52 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

of the test were approximately as follows : Average of Here- 
fords, 16 months; of Angus, 18 months; of Holsteins, 24 
months ; and of Jerseys, 18 months. The feeds given were 
mixed hay, sorghum (during July and August), corn meal, 
bran, oil meal and gluten feed. The conditions were alike 
for all the animals, and the feed was the same, but each 
animal was given all he would clean up regularly. At the 
end of the feeding test the cattle were bought in separate 
lots by the head buyer of a packing company of Des Moines, 
Iowa. The prices given were the market prices for such 
steers, December 28, 1903. 

Following is a summary of the first part of the investiga- 
tion: 

Beef Dairy 

steers steers 

Average weight at beginning, lbs 685 574 

Average gain per steer, lbs 606 598 

Average value of feed consumed per steer $47.27 $45.18 

Average cost of one pound of gain 7.81c 7.63c 

Percentage of dressed weight in slaughter test 61.7 57.15 

Selling value, average price per pound 4.888c 3.752c 

The dairy-type steers made their gains at a trifle less 
cost per pound than did the beef steers, indicating that their 
digestive and assimilative functions were slightly more vig- 
orous in this instance. The gains made by the dairy steers 
were not distributed on the body in such a way as to command 
the highest prices. The beef-type steers made a large pro- 
portion of their gains on the back, loin, and hindquarters, 
while the dairy-type steers showed but little increase in 
thickness on these parts. 

The beef-type steers were far more profitable to the 
feeder, for although both lots made approximately the same 
total gains, and although the average of the four dairy-type 
steers compared with the average of the four beef-type steers 
shows that the former made his 600 pounds of gain cheaper 
by $1.70 than did the latter, nevertheless this 600 pounds 
gain of the beef steer brought $7.18 more on the market. 
When $1.70 is deducted from $7.18, there is left $5.48 profit 
in favor of the beef animals, or a total of nearly $22 for the 
four head. Nor does this represent all the financial advantage 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 53 

of the beef-type steer, for the value of the initial weight 
(685 lbs.) of the beef steer was increased to a greater degree 
by feeding than was the value of the initial weight of the 
dairy-type steer. The report of the experiment furnishes 
no initial valuations, hence a complete accounting in this re- 
gard cannot be made. 

Following are given the weights of the cuts from the 
carcasses, expressed in percentages of the total carcass weight ; 
also the wholesale and retail prices of these cuts. 

* Weights in Wholesale price Retail price 

percentages per lb. per lb. 

Beef Dairy Beef Dairy Beef Dairy 

Ribs 9.27 8.80 12.25 10.25 17.6 16. 

Chuck 25.97 26.78 5.5 5.1 10. 10. 

Brisket 5.92 5.72 4. 4. 6. 6. 

Plate 3.85 3.48 4. 4. 6. 6. 

Navel , 3.00 2.72 4. 4. 6. 6. 

Shank meat 53 .66 5. 5. 6. 6. 

Shank beef 2.60 3.04 2.5 2.5 3. 2.8 

Loin 17.55 17.09 14.9 12.5 

S S. 17.6 16. 

) P. 23.1 21. 

Round 17.74 18.88 7. 7. ' 12.' I2! 

Rump 5.19 4.78 7. 7. 10. 10. 

Flank steak 66 .58 10. 10. 12.5 12.5 

Flank beef 2.16' 1.67 5. 5. 6. 6. 

Cod fat 1.98 1.56 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 

Suet 3.48 4.18 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 

NOTE: S, sirloin; P, porterhouse. 

It will be observed that the carcasses were cut up into 
a greater number of parts than result from the regular method 
of cutting explained in the previous chapter, but the differ- 
ences in the cuts are not great enough to prevent a full under- 
standing of the above table. 

On the basis of the above figures we are able to deter- 
mine the relative profits of the beef- and dairy- type steers to 
the wholesaler or packer. This is shown as follows : 

Beef steers Dairy steers 

Cost of 4 live steers $242.52 $170.64 

Cost of killing at $1.50 per head 6.00 6.00 



Cost of carcasses and offal $248.52 $176.64 

Received from sale of hides, tallow, and tongue 36.13 30.27 



Cost of dressed beef $212.39 $146.37 

Cost of dressed beef per lb „ 0715 .0583 

Actual virholesale returns when beef was sold 232.61 179.83 

ISIargin between cost and selling price of dressed beef 20.22 33.46 



54 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

The last item in the above table is interesting. It shows 
that there was $20.22 margin for the beef-type steers and 
$33.46 for the dairy-type steers, or a difference of $13.24 in 
favor of the dairy-type cattle. If this difference in margins 
were applied to the live-weight price of the dairy-type steers, 
their price per cwt. would have been 28 cents higher ; in other 
words the dairy-type steers would have brought 4 cents per 
pound, instead of 3% cents. 

At a meat demonstration in January, 1904, conducted by 
Mr. John Gosling, some further important differences were 
brought out between the cuts from the dairy- and beef-type 
carcasses. Mr. Gosling is recognized as one of the leading 
authorities on meats in this country. In grading the car- 
casses, he placed three of the beef-type carcasses as No. 1, 
and the other as No. 2. Two of the dairy-type carcasses 
were graded No. 2, and the other two as No. 3. The color 
of the flesh was fairly good in all eight of the carcasses, al- 
though in the Jersey carcasses it was somewhat dark. The 
external color (or color of the fat) was good in all except one 
— a Jersey — which killed very yellow. The other Jersey killed 
very white, although, as a rule, carcasses of Jerseys or grade 
Jerseys are very yellow. The spines in the backbone of the 
dairy-type carcasses were hard, indicating the early maturity 
of the dairy-type. They were much more cartilaginous in the 
beef-type carcasses, although the ages were nearly the same. 
The fore-ribs from the dairy-type steers were light and lacking 
in marbling. The Holstein ribs lacked depth, and were very ir- 
regular and rough. The dairy-type steers carried more kidney 
fat or suet ; this is a cheap product which increases the dress- 
ing percentage, but reduces the value of the carcass when 
excessive. 

The answers to the questions asked at the beginning of 
the experiment are, therefore, as follows: 1. The gains 
from pounds of feed consumed are practically the same for 
both the beef and dairy types. 2. The beef-type steer uses 
his gains to slight advantage as compared with the dairy-type, 
placing a slightly greater percentage of his gains in the 
valuable cuts. 3. The beef -type steer yields the greater profit 
to the feeder. 4. The dairy-type steer shows the greater 



Types and Market Classes cf Live Stock 55 

amount of offal. 5. The dairy-type steer carries the higher 
percentage of tallow. 6. As regards the percentage of val- 
uable cuts, there is very little difference; if any, it is in 
favor of the beef- type steer. 7. The beef-type steer yields 
cuts that are heavier, thicker, usually covered with whiter 
fat, nicer in marbling, and a little better in color of muscle. 
There is no apparent difference in fineness of grain. 8. The 
low price paid for dairy steers may be due partially to preju- 
dice, and to the greater expense of carrying and selling the 
low-grade carcasses, but it is chiefly due to an actual infer- 
iority in the carcasses. They are unsatisfactory to the con- 
sumer, because they do not furnish thick and well-marbled 
cuts; they are unsajtisfactory to the butcher, because they 
furnish low-grade carcasses which are difficult to dispose of; 
and they are decidedly unsatisfactory to the feeder, because 
they yield him little or no profit, and both breeder and feeder 
waste their time in producing such a type of steer for beef 
purposes. 

In an earlier experiment at the Iowa Station, James 
Wilson and C. F. Curtiss found the quantity of fat about the 
internal organs of fat steers of the various breeds to be as 
follows : 

Breed Average dressed Loose Per cent, of loose 

weight tallow tallow to beef 

Shorthorn 1,092 145 13.3 

Hereford 1,022 129 12.6 

Red Poll 990 125 12.6 

Galloway 1,088 147 13.5 

Angus 1,137 157 13.8 

Devon 815 123 15.0 

Swiss 1,017 119 11.7 

Holstein 862 155 17.9 

Jersey 880 166 18.8 

This table gives further evidence of the tendency of the 
dairy breeds to deposit proportionately more fat about the 
intestines, paunch, kidneys, and caul. Experiments at the 
Kansas Station substantiate the results of the Iowa investi- 
gations. 

Professor W. A. Henry, of the Wisconsin Agricultural 
College has the following to say in Feeds and Feeding 
relative to the comparative merits of beef-type and dairy- 
type steers : 



56 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

"Beyond that which can be expressed in figures or stated 
percentagely lies that indefinable something described by the 
word 'quality' which enters into all objects of barter. No 
one can compare a bunch of well-fed beef-bred steers with one 
representing the dairy breeds without being impressed by a 
difference not measured by the scales. The matter at issue 
may be illustrated by a condition in the fruit world: No 
orchardist will hold that the Baldwin apple tree necessarily 
grows faster than the seedling apple tree, or that it will make 
wood and fruit on less material from soil and air. Neither will 
he hold that Baldwin trees necessarily yield more barrels of 
fruit than seedlings, nor that a given measure of Baldwin 
apples contains more juice or human food than the same meas- 
ure of common seedling apples. Fruit growers do rightfully 
assert, however, that the market wants Baldwin apples and 
will pay more for them than for common seedling fruit, and 
that from this judgment of the market, be it reasonable or 
unreasonable, there is no appeal. Beef cattle have been bred 
for meat production — it would be passing strange if they did 
not excel for that purpose." 



CHAPTER IV. 

AMERICAN CATTLE MARKETS. 

The largest live-stock markets of the United States are 
located in the central part of the country. With the West 
and Central West on the one hand as the great breeding and 
feeding ground, and with the East on the other as the chief 
region of consumption, it is logical that the large markets 
have a central location. Following are the twelve largest 
cattle markets and their receipts of cattle during 1914 : 

1. Chicago 2,237,881 7. Denver 406,903 

2. Kansas City 1,827,246 8. Sioux City 349,082 

3. St. Louis 1,040,957 9. St. Joseph 322,348 

4. Fort Worth 990,763 10. Pittsburg 310,141 

5. Omaha 938,817 11. Indianapolis 256,885 

6. St. Paul 467,507 12. Buffalo 241,715 



Total 9,390,245 

From the figures we see that the Chicago market is the 
largest in the United States, in fact Chicago is the largest 
cattle market in the world. The 2,237,881 cattle received at 
Chicago during 1914, if placed end to end, would reach out 
in a line 4,250 miles long. Their total value was $191,788,783. 
Texas and western range cattle constitute about nine per 
cent, of all cattle received at the Chicago yards. Chicago 
also received 363,614 calves during 1914, valued at $4,908,790. 
Cattle weighing 300 pounds per head or less are classed as 
calves. 

The great markets of the Middle West are points of 
focus of never-ending processions of beef animals moving 
from western ranges and cornbelt feed-lots. Upon reaching 
market, the cattle are either slaughtered at the great packing 
houses located at the stock yards, or are shipped out of market 
on the hoof. Both dressed carcasses and live animals are ship- 
ped to various cities and towns to fill the orders of retail 
butchers. For example, the Chicago packing houses slaughter- 
ed 1,430,770 cattle in 1914, and the remaining 807,111 head 
were shipped out alive. Of the latter number, only 217 head 

57 



58 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

were exported, while 521,625 were shipped to various parts of 
the country for slaughter, and 285,269 were taken out for 
feeding. The average weight of Chicago cattle in 1914 was 
1,002 pounds. 

The chief business of the Denver, St. Paul, and Buffalo 
markets is forwarding cattle — only about 30 per cent, being 
retained for slaughter. Centers whose shipments are less 
than 70 per cent., but more than 50 per cent., include Chicago, 
Kansas City, St. Louis, Omaha, Indianapolis, Fort Worth, 
St. Joseph, Louisville, and Cincinnati. 

Early cattle markets. — A century ago, cattle markets 
were small and largely local in character. The "West" at 
that time comprised what we now designate as the Middle 
West, embracing Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, and 
the live-stock business and the meat business of that time 
Vv^ere far different propositions than today. There were no 
railroads, no live-stock cars, no refrigerator cars, no steam- 
ships, and no large live-stock markets. Every large town 
had its own stock yards or cattle market to which cattle 
were driven from the surrounding country and sold to butch- 
ers. The cattle business and the meat business were local 
affairs of small dimensions depending upon the size of the 
town. In time. New York, Philadelphia. Boston, and Balti- 
more became rather large markets, and in some instances 
cattle were driven long distances to supply them. 

Early methods of transportation. — This was before the 
days of railroads, and even after the railroads came, very 
few live animals were carried until about 1860. Prior to 
1850, it was the general practice to drive live stock to market 
on foot. At that time, in many parts of the country, pasturage 
was free along the routes, and the animals were driven by 
easy stages, reaching market without very much depreciation. 
George Renick, of Ohio, was perhaps the first man to find 
an outlet for cattle fattened in what was then "The West." 
He was one of the first settlers of the Scioto Valley, having 
come in with his brother, Felix, from Virginia and selected 
large tracts of land near the present site of Chillicothe, Ohio, 
In 1805, against the advice of his neighbors, he successfully 
drove sixty-eight head of cattle from the Scioto to Baltimore, 
and disposed of them at a profit. This gave a great impetus 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 59 

to the western cattle business of that time, and afforded a 
means of marketing corn. In 1817, Felix Renick drove one 
hundred head of prime Shorthorn steers to Philadelphia, re- 
ceiving $134 per head for them. He became the leading pro- 
ducer of high-class cattle in Ohio, and one of the most ex- 
tensive breeders and feeders in the United States. R. R. 
Seymour, of Ohio, fed 100 to 700 head annually, and in 1841 
drove 840 head to Philadelphia. 

One route from Kentucky to New York City covered about 
800 miles and required over ten weeks to complete it. Another 
route from Lexington extended to Charleston, S. C, a dis- 
tance of 550 to 600 miles. Drives to the eastern seaboard 
were made from as far west as Iowa, and even Texas cattle 
passed eastward in this manner. There is record of a drove 
of several hundred cattle from Texas passing through Penn- 
sylvania, on the way to New York City, which had left Texas 
four months previously. Sheep were driven across country 
also, notably from Vermont to Virginia. Large numbers of 
hogs were driven to market, but they were a more active type 
than the modern fat hog. By 1860, few hogs were driven 
any considerable distance. Today we do not even drive hogs 
from the farm to the shipping point, but haul them in wagons. 

Development of large markets. — The large live-stock mar- 
kets grew up with the country. As long as the market was 
simply the scene of barter in live animals for local use, no 
large markets were developed. About 1830 pork-packing was 
begun, and this furnished the first impetus to the creation 
of large markets of more than mere local importance. Pork 
could be pickled, salted, and smoked, and the fat rendered into 
lard, and the products thus produced could be shipped to dis- 
tant points. As these products met with good demand, pork- 
packing was the natural beginning of a vast meat-manufactur- 
ing business, tending to centralize the hog markets, and much 
increase them in size. So far as cattle were concerned, how- 
ever, the development was not parallel. Outside of an article 
known as barreled beef, which was put down in salt, packers 
had found no method of handling beef as they did hogs. Not 
until the era of the refrigerator car. beginning in 1875, were 



60 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

cattle of much interest to packers, and not until that time did 
the large cattle markets reach a maximum development. 

The advent of railroads marked a decided turning point 
in the development of the live-stock industry and the live- 
stock markets. However, it was a long time after the hauling 
of live stock had been taken up by railroads before it was 
done efficiently. An account of one of the first shipments of 
cattle from Kentucky to New York City, made in 1852, shows 
how crude and expensive were the first attempts at trans- 
porting cattle by rail. One week was consumed in driving 
the cattle, one hundred in number, from near Lexington, Ky., 
to Cincinnati, where they were loaded in box cars and shipped 
to Cleveland. They were taken to Buffalo by boat, where they 
were given several days rest and then driven to Canadaigua, 
N. Y. They were at once hauled to Albany in immigrant 
wagons, rested two days in a feed-yard, and sent to New York 
by boat. The cost of the shipment from Kentucky to New 
York City was $14 per head. 

The cattle markets of the United States migrated from 
east to west, following closely upon the settling up of the coun- 
try. It was at one time believed that Albany was to be the 
final gateway for western cattle. Next Buffalo, Pittsburg, and 
Cincinnati were in turn regarded as the future great market 
of the country ; but eventually it became evident that Chicago, 
by virtue of location and railroad facilities, was to become and 
remain the largest cattle market in America. This fact was 
clearly established by 1870. 

Chicago's early cattle trade. — The history of Chicago as 
a cattle market extends back many years to the time when a 
few hundred animals were driven in to supply the garrison at 
old Fort Dearborn. It was not until the advent of railroads, 
however, that Chicago took prominence as a live-stock center. 
When railroad communication with the Atlantic seaboard was 
established and lines were built from Lake Michigan toward 
the Mississippi, a revolution was brought about. Half a dozen 
stock yards were located in various parts of the city, and when 
these became glutted, the cattle were grazed on the surround- 
ing prairie until a price could be realized. Mess pork and 
barreled beef were staple articles known to the trade under 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 61 

the appetizing names of "sow belly" and "salt horse." Dressed 
beef was then unknown to commerce, artificial refrigeration 
was not even speculated upon, the refrigerator car existed 
merely as an idea, if at all, and the canning of meats had not 
been attempted. Armour was not a prominent name at that 
time, Swift had not yet discovered Chicago, and nearly every 
concern then engaged in the manufacture of meats has since 
gone out of business. 

Prior to 1870, the Chicago cattle business was almost ex- 
clusively a matter of buying, selling, and shipping live animals. 
Then there were no market papers to inform the producer of 
the state of the market, and no well-organized commission 
firms to attend to the disposal of his stock. The producer did 
most of his own selling. There was danger of finding the mar- 
ket glutted, or shipping facilities swamped. Since that time 
a trade mechanism and a trade demand have grown up, bring- 
ing a constant market and quick, sure sales for the cattleman. 
The loss by wear and tear in shipment from farm to market 
has been reduced to a minimum. 

In the early days it was all guesswork — guesswork as to 
how long it would take to reach the market, guesswork as to 
the freight charges, guesswork as to promptness in handling 
the stock by railroads, guesswork as to the condition of the 
market, guesswork as to the price the animals would bring. 
Luck usually counted for more in determining the profits than 
did skill in the preparation of cattle for market. 

Founding of the Union Stock Yards. — In 1865, John B. 
Sherman purchased two of the principal yards then in exis- 
tence in Chicago, and founded the present Union Stock Yard 
and Transit Company, thus laying the basis for a greater live- 
stock trade at Chicago. In 1876 the Chicago market com- 
prised 475 cattle yards, 675 covered hog and sheep pens, 375 
chutes, 15 corn cribs, and 10 hay barns. The company owned 
and operated 24 miles of railway, had put down several miles 
of macadamized streets and alleys, and installed a drainage 
system. The market could then accommodate at one time 
20,000 cattle, 100,000 hogs, 15,000 sheep, and 1000 horses— in 
all, 136,000 animals. About one hundred commission firms 
were then doing business. 



62 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

The Union Stock Yards today. — ^The Chicago yards now 
occupy an area of 500 acres, 450 of which are paved. There 
are 25 miles of streets, and 300 miles of railway tracks. The 
number of pens is 13,000, of which 8,500 are double-decked 
and covered; there are 725 chutes, 25,000 gates, 25 miles of 
watering troughs, and 450 commission and other offices. The 
water system has a reservoir holding 10,000,000 gallons, and 
pumps with a daily capacity of 8,000,000 gallons, of which 
7,000,000 gallons are consumed on hot days. Separate accom- 
modations are provided for each kind of stock ; sheep and hogs 
are kept in sheds of two or more stories each, and cattle oc- 
cupy open pens holding from one to several carloads. These 
yards would hold at one time 75,000 cattle, 125,000 sheep, 
300,000 hogs, and 6,000 horses and mules. It is estimated that 
50,000 people earn a living at the stock yards and the packing 
plants, and that 250,000 of Chicago's population are more or 
less dependent on the live-stock industry. 

Since 1900, a yearly average of more than 15,000,000 ani- 
mals have found a cash market at Chicago. Since 1865, 
104,137,000 cattle, 7,624,000 calves, 295,618,000 hogs, 
116,578,000 sheep, and 3,071,000 horses have been handled, 
making a grand total of 527,028,000 animals, the value of 
which was $10,082,342,000. Sixty per cent, of the cattle re- 
ceived at Chicago have been slaughtered there, also 83 per 
cent, of the calves, 72 per cent, of the hogs, and 75 per cent, 
of the sheep. The business often amounts to $3,000,000 in a 
day, and averages more than $1,000,000 for every business 
day of the year. Not infrequently 2,000 carloads of stock are 
received on Monday or Wednesday, the largest market days. 
When unloaded, the stock is taken in charge by some one of 
the many commission firms who sell to the packer, shipper, 
speculator, or feeder, and remit the proceeds to the consignor. 
Average carloads. — Reports of stock yards and railroads 
show that the average number of meat animals to the carload 
is for cattle about 25, hogs in single-deck cars about 75, and 
sheep about 120 per deck. 

Sources of receipts. — The corn-growing area of the Missis- 
sippi and Missouri valleys affords the best facilities for the 
production of meat animals, and this area is tapped at many 



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64 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

points by lines of railway centering in Chicago. The corn-fed 
cattle of Iowa, Nebraska, Missouri, Kansas, Illinois, Indiana, 
and Ohio, and the grass-fed cattle of Montana, Wyoming, the 
Dakotas, and Texas, have easy access to Chicago. Steers are 
sold in Chicago that were born in Texas, matured in Montana, 
and finished in an Iowa feed-lot. Sheep often experience simi- 
lar wanderings before reaching market, but hogs usually come 
direct from the farm on which they were farrowed. 

Federal mspection. — Federal inspection for disease is rigid 
and includes live animals, carcasses, and packing-house prod- 
ucts intended as food. Nothing has done more to instil 
confidence in packers' meats than has the rigid governmental 
inspection. Packers' losses are frequently heavy on account 
of this inspection, mainly owing to tuberculosis. Crippled ani- 
mals may go into the food supply. Diseased animals, diseased 
meats, and dead animals are consigned to the rendering tank, 
the products of which are grease, glue, and fertilizer. 

Development of the packing industry. — No explanation 
of the rise of the large live-stock markets in America is com- 
plete without some reference to the development of the im- 
mense packing industry. The history of the meat business is 
closely interwoven with the history of the live-stock markets, 
the two enterprises being mutually dependent upon each other. 
The Chicago market benefitted not only from its location and 
shipping facilities, but to a great extent also because of the 
large packing interests which centered there. That part of 
the yards where the group of packing plants is located is called 
"Packingtown." The various plants composing it are owned 
by Armour & Co., Swift & Co., Nelson Morris & Co., Libby, 
McNeill & Libby, Anglo-American Packing Co., Roberts & 
Oake, Hammond Packing Co., Western Packing Co., Louis 
Pfaelzer & Co., Sulzberger & Sons, Boyd-Lunham Packing Co., 
Miller & Hart, Independent Packing Co., Brennan Packing Co., 
and others. Many of these firms do a big business in dressed 
beef, thereby increasing the demand and helping to sustain 
prices for live cattle at Chicago. As already pointed out, hogs 
benefitted from the packing industry long before cattle, be- 
cause beef did not interest packers to a great extent until the 
invention of artificial refrigeration and the substitution of 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 65 

the tin can for the oak barrel. Arthur Libby introduced 
canned corn beef in 1874, which was followed by dozens of 
palatable canned preparations. Previous to the installation of 
ice machines, packing operations were largely confined to the 
season of low temperatures. 

In 1876, about 250,000 cattle were slaughtered in Chicago, 
and more than three-fourths of these were handled by two 
firms — the Wilson Packing Co., and Libby, McNeill & Libby. 
The Wilson Packing Co. canned 15,000 to 16,000 head of cattle 
annually, and Libby, McNeill & Libby over 180,000, about one- 
half being canned and the other half put in barrels and tierces. 
Three-fourths of the product went to Great Britain. 

The refrigerator car. — There have been three eras in the 
evolution of the American meat industry: (1) The era of 
pickled meats, such as hams, pork products generally, and 
salted beef; (2) the era of the refrigerator car; (3) the era 
of complete utilization of by-products. The supremacy during 
the first era was first at Cincinnati, but it shifted to Chicago 
in the early sixties. As early as 1868 a refrigerator car had 
been invented, and in 1869 the first consignment of dressed 
beef had been shipped from Chicago to Boston, but the attempt 
was not successful. In 1875, G. F. Swift, who had come to 
Chicago that year, and who founded what is now Swift & Co., 
fitted up a car and shipped it east successfully. Thereupon, 
this branch of the packing business was entered into rapidly, 
thus eliminating freight charges on the 40 to 44 per cent, waste 
of the live animal, the shrink on cattle during the long haul, 
the expense of feeding and watering en route, and the loss of 
those which died in transit. It cost $4.00 to $4.40 to ship a 
steer of 1,250 pounds weight from Chicago to New York, while 
the freight on the 700 pounds of fresh beef yielded by the ani- 
mal would amount to only $3.15, not including the expense of 
icing. From Kansas City to New York the saving amounts to 
about $2.50 per head. 

Pioneer exports of beef. — Still greater savings have been 
effected by changes in the export trade. Mr. John J. Bate, 
of New York, was the first to undertake shipments of dressed 
carcasses to Europe. On February 11, 1875, he made a small 
shipment to Liverpool which arrived in good condition. This 



66 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

was followed, on June 6, by a larger shipment, and on August 
10, a still larger consignment to Liverpool was made, all ar- 
riving in good condition. In October, 1875, Mr. Timothy C. 
Eastman began his first shipments of fresh beef from America 
to England ; Mr. Eastman is generally regarded as the pioneer 
in this enterprise. He built up a very large business which 
continued many years. Others entered into the industry, and 
shipments were made from New York, Philadelphia, and Port- 
land, Me. American beef was found in no way inferior to 
British beef, and was sold at from four to six cents lower re- 
tail rates. The advent of American meats caused considerable 
excitement among British farmers and stockmen, and con- 
siderable prejudice against our meats was aroused at some 
points, which has never been wholly overcome. The business 
increased rapidly, meats being successfully shipped from 
Chicago to England. A saving of more than one-half in ship- 
ping expenses is effected by exporting dressed beef rather than 
its equivalent in live animals. From Argentina to England, 
two-thirds of the live-weight expenses are saved by sending 
dressed beef. 

The modern packing plant. — No better illustration of the 
growth of the packing industry can be had than that afforded 
by the rise and present proportions of one of the large packing 
plants at Chicago. In 1885, this concern was capitalized at 
$300,000; in 1886, at $3,000,000; in 1896, at $15,000,000 ; later 
at $35,000,000; since 1906 it has been $50,000,000. It has 
9,000 stockholders to whom it distributes $3,500,000 annu- 
ally in dividends. Its profits in 1907 were $6,200,000. It 
has packing plants covering 206 acres in seven American 
cities, has 90 acres of buildings, 237 acres of floor space, and 
has distributing houses in over 300 American cities, 41 cities 
in Great Britain, and 32 cities in Asia, Africa, and Continen- 
tal Europe. Its profit on dressed beef sales is less than two 
per cent., but the money is turned over several times during 
the year. Its assets are $100,000,000. It converts into dressed 
meat in a year 1,634,000 cattle, 470,000 calves, 4,635,000 hogs, 
2,547,000 sheep, and hundreds of thousands of chickens. Not 
counting poultry, it consumes over 1,000 head of live stock 
every hour of the twenty-four during every day of the year. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 67 

The products amount to 350 carloads each working day, be- 
sides large local sales in the seven cities where plants are lo- 
cated. It annually consumes 565,000 tons of coal, burns 6,000 
cords of hickory wood, has 63,000 engine horse-power avail- 
able, runs 30,000 electric lights, sends and receives 1,388,000 
telegrams and 4,279,000 letters. 

The American packing industry has made the outlet for 
American meats practically world-wide, and has afforded to 
the American grower of live stock an opportunity not enjoyed 
by producers elsewhere. The development of the American 
meat industry made a demand for cattle; cattle made a de- 
mand for corn, and increased its price; corn land rapidly in- 
creased in value, and with it all have come better farmers, 
better farming, and a more prosperous American agriculture. 

The cattle business of today. — The unknown quantities of 
shipping and marketing, which were the bugbear of the cattle- 
man of earlier times, have been reduced to a minimum. The 
producer of cattle knows, or ought to know, if he is to succeed 
in his business, just what grade his cattle will be classified 
under when they come before the buyer. Each class has its 
own price, varying from day to day in response to supply and 
demand. Daily market reports put the producer in touch with 
conditions and prices, and commission men advise him by 
letter whether it is a good time or a bad time to ship. Where- 
as charges were formerly uncertain, now they are definitely 
fixed, and the feeder can figure out all expenditures to the cent 
before his cattle start for market. Railway rates are much 
lower than twenty-five years ago, transportation is more direct 
and fast, there is much less cruelty to the animals in transit, 
less loss in transit, and less shrink between feed-lot and mar- 
ket. Yardage at Chicago is 25 cents per head for cattle and 
15 cents for calves, hay is $25 per ton, and the commission 
for selling cattle is 50 cents per head. As success in the com- 
mission business rests upon soundness of judgment, honesty, 
and skill, very few consignors undertake to do their own sell- 
ing, but do it more profitably through the medium of the com- 
mission man. Today it is almost entirely a question of intel- 
ligence and industry in the business of cattle breeding and 



68 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

feeding. The market still fluctuates, to be sure, yet not in the 
violent fashion of old, and, as compared with early conditions, 
certainty has displaced uncertainty, giving stability and foun- 
dation to a great permanent cattle industry. 



CHAPTER V. 
FASHIONS IN MARKET CATTLE. 

England and America, and other countries inhabited by 
Enghsh-speaking people, lead in meat consumption, especially 
in beef consumption. "The roast beef of old England" is well 
known as characteristic of the Englishman's culinary tastes, 
but Youatt records that in the time of Henry VIH. the Eng- 
lish people were "strangers to beef and mutton." The con- 
sumption of beef was confined principally to the summer 
months, and it sold at a very low price, so that there was no 
encouragement toward the production of beef cattle or beef. 
Instead, cattle were valued for milking purposes and most of 
all for field labor, and not until they had served a number of 
years as draft animals were they fattened for the butcher. 
Six-year-old oxen were sold from the plow to be fattened and 
then brought $50 to $75. There is record of an ox that was 
worked until fifteen years old and then fattened fairly well. 
Those most certainly were not days when men talked of baby 
beef. Size, usefulness for field labor, and for dairy purposes 
were the qualities chiefly sought. Prior to the close of the 
eighteenth century, there was little exercise of care in the 
breeding of cattle, and feeding was an unknown art. But 
conditions gradually became better; England became more 
prosperous and wealthy, and there arose a demand for more 
and better beef, for which higher prices were paid. This im- 
petus gave rise to the formation of the breeds of beef cattle, 
all of which originated in England and Scotland, unless we 
consider the Polled Durham and Polled Hereford real Ameri- 
can breed creations, which, of course, they are not, being the 
result of slight modifications of English breeds. 

When beef production was begun in earnest, more atten- 
tion was given to size and quantity than to quality. Judging 
from the records of early weights of cattle, and from draw- 
ings made at that time, cattle were ponderous, rough, slow- 
maturing beasts, and very patchy with great lumps of tallow. 

69 



70 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

The ideals of those days were exempHfied by such famous 
animals as the Durham Ox, weighing 3,024 pounds at five years 
of age, and The White Heifer That Traveled, weighing 2,300 
pounds. These were early Shorthorns. Among early Here- 
ford cattle a bull. The General, weighed 3,640 pounds at six 
years. Another bull, Wellington, weighed 2,912 pounds, had a 
girth of eleven feet, three inches, and measured eleven feet, 
four inches, from muzzle to tail-head. Another Hereford bull, 
Hamlet, weighed 2,800 pounds, and a steer reached 2,912 
pounds. 

In England and America the attainment of large weights 
continued to be the aim of beef producers until rather recent 
times. Early maturity was not given much attention. It was 
simply a matter of making each animal as large as possible 
before consigning it to the butcher. Cattle were grown and 
fattened cheaply in those days, and the advantages of young, 
quick-maturing, highly-finished cattle were not so marked, nor 
was a good price offered for any except matured beeves. 
Stockmen at Albany, N. Y., offered $1,000 to anyone who would 
deliver a bullock weighing 4,000 pounds. Prior to 1856, two 
Illinois cattlemen fed one hundred head of high-grade Short- 
horn steers and marketed them at an average weight of 1,965 
pounds. About the same time, another feeder collected a lot 
of one hundred grade steers and fed them to the enormous 
average of 2,377 pounds as four-year-olds. These feats are said 
to have widely advertised the Shorthorn as a beef-making 
breed, the paramount consideration of cattle feeders at that 
time being the attainment of great weight and immense bulk. 

Fat-stock shows are, in most respects, criterions of mar- 
ket demands in cattle. The champions of early days were big, 
matured steers. In 1891, the Chicago Fat Stock Show elimi- 
nated classes for three-year-old cattle; that date marked the 
turning point toward what has since become known as "baby 
beef." The tendency is more and more toward the finishing 
of younger, quicker-maturing aniinals. The changes that are 
being wrought are not plainly evident unless comparisons are 
made extending over a period of years, or unless the opera- 
tions of some of the more prog-ressive feeders have been fol- 
lowed during recent times. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



71 



Breeders and feeders now put much stress on quickness 
of maturity. This they have secured by selecting short- 
legged, blocky, compact animals, which type reaches maturity 
much more rapidly than the long-legged, more rangy type, 
popular in the early days. Some sacrifice has been made of 
size and weight in order to produce a type that will make beef 
quickly, yet the better breeders are careful to maintain a 




Fig. 9. Prime Baby Beef. 

Hereford steer, Peerless Wilton 39th's Defender, Grand Champion 
at the International Live Stock Show in 1906. Bred, fed, and exhibited 
by Mr. F. A. Nave of Attica, Ind. Sold to Iowa State College. 

proper degree of size along with the low-set, blocky type of 
body. The change has been vastly beneficial to the breeder, 
feeder, butcher, and ultimate consumer. 

Baby beef are choice and prime fat cattle, between 12 and 
24 months of age, weighing 800 to 1200 pounds. Yearlings 
make 25 to 50 per cent, more meat for the grain consumed 
than the same animals would make if kept until two or three 
years of age. The small, com.pact carcasses cut up with less 



72 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

waste, and furnish thick, light steaks such as are most in de- 
mand, because they are cheaper and of a size adapted for do- 
mestic use. Such cattle will not dress out quite as high as 
older cattle, but the difference in percentage yield of carcass 
is due to a greater amount of tallow in the older animal, which 
materially lessens the older animal's superiority in this re- 
gard. The production of baby beef necessitates starting the 
fattening process at birth and carrying it on simultaneously 
with growth ; the animal receives full feed from start to finish. 
As stated by the Breeder's Gazette: "The making of baby 
beef is a continuous performance which shows 365 days in the 
ordinary year and 366 days in the leap year. It is readily ob- 
servable that there is no such thing as 'warming-up' or 'short- 
feeding' calves intended for the buyers of prime baby beef. 
Cattle may be 16 to 18 months of age and afterwards warmed 
up a bit, but they will not class as baby beef and they will not 
bring the prices of that article." 

Baby beef can only be produced from well-bred calves, as 
only well-bred ones mature early enough to meet the market 
requirements for this kind of cattle. Such calves are hard to 
buy and the producer of baby beef cannot feel assured of ob- 
taining them season after season by purchase, but is prac- 
tically compelled to breed them for his own use. As breeding 
and feeding are rather distinct lines of enterprise, and as few 
feeders care to maintain a breeding herd, or have facilities 
for doing so, baby beef production is much less followed than 
would be the case if good calves were readily available. Fur- 
thermore, it has been shown that only those feeders skilled 
in the art of finishing cattle, and fully equipped to give the 
animals every chance, can successfully produce baby beef. 

Profits in cattle feeding come from skill in feeding and 
managing, and also from intelligent buying and selling. There 
is practiced what is known as "speculative cattle feeding" in 
which feeders emphasize the buying and selling more than 
they do the actual feeding of the animals, the object being to 
buy on a low market and sell when the market is high. Omit- 
ting from further consideration this speculative feature, it 
may be said that the sources of profit in feeding a steer are 
(1) the increase in weight of the animal, and (2) the increase 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 73 

in the value of the animal's initial weight. For example, if 
we buy a thin steer at seven cents per pound, and feed him 
six months, we increase not only his weight, but also his value 
per pound. If the initial weight was 1,000 pounds, six 
months' feeding should bring him to a weight of 1,325 pounds, 
and he should sell at eight and one-half cents per pound with- 
out any rise of the cattle market during the feeding period. 
Then the net income to the feeder would be as follows : 

325 pounds at 8.5c _ $27.63 

1000 pounds at 1.5c _ 15.00 

Net income ..._ $42.63 

The difference between the cost price and selling price 
per pound is spoken of as the "margin." The steer feeder 
counts on at least 1.5 cents per pound margin, and when feed- 
stuffs are high in price the margin should be not less than 2 
cents. As shown by the above calculation, older cattle may be 
handled on narrower margins than young ones, for if the in- 
itial weight of the steer had been 500 pounds instead of 1,000 
pounds, other factors remaining the same, then the net in- 
come would have been less by $7.50. As a matter of fact, 
however, the younger steer would probably make his 325 
pounds of gain somewhat cheaper than the older steer, thus 
compensating, in part at least, the advantage of the older ani- 
mal. As long as thin two- and three-year-old steers may be 
purchased for feeding, there will be no marked increases in 
baby beef production. The time is now at hand, however, 
when a large percentage of beef cattle must not only be fed 
on the farms of the Mississippi and Missouri valleys, but bred 
there also. As it is no longer profitable for the farmer to first 
grow a steer and then fatten him, the growing and fattening 
processes must be combined, and the cattle sent to market 
under 24 months of age ; in other words, beef production must 
be placed very largely on a baby beef basis. 

Clay, Robinson & Co., of Chicago, in a recent communi- 
cation to the writer, had the following to say concerning baby 
beef production: "There has been marked increase in the 
production of this class of cattle for the reason that the public 
demands them. For years the tendency has been toward the 



74 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

maturing of cattle at a younger and younger age. It was not 
so many years ago when an animal was not considered ready 
for the market under four years old, but evolution in beef 
production started, and the most desirable beeves in the mar- 
ket today are prime, fat yearlings." 

The above quotation is good evidence of the buyer's atti- 
tude toward baby beef. As showing the possibilities for profit 
to the producer of such cattle, the Kansas Station fed 130 
grade Shorthorn, Hereford, and Angus calves that had just 
been weaned, and during seven months' feeding secured an 
average monthly gain of 56 pounds per head. The average 
weight at the beginning was 408 pounds ; when sent to market 
seven months later, the average weight was 800 pounds, and 
the age was a little over one year. All except 32 head were- 
heifers. The remarkable feature of this demonstration was 
the small amount of feed consumed. It required only 503 
pounds of grain and 509 pounds of hay to make 100 pounds 
gain in weight. The best record was made by 10 skim-milk 
calves that were fed alfalfa hay and corn. They consumed 
only 439 pounds of grain and 436 pounds of hay for every 100 
pounds of gain. When older cattle are fed, it usually requires 
about twice these amounts of grain and roughage to secure 
100 pounds of gain. 

E. M. Cassady & Sons, of Whiting, Iowa, made a test of 
the cost and rate of gains made by Hereford steers started on 
feed as calves and yearlings. These steers were of the same 
breeding, having been bred on the Cassady farm from the 
same sire and dams. The calves weighed 475 pounds when 
put on feed, and were charged at $6.00 per cwt. ; the yearlings 
weighed 775 pounds, and were charged at $5.70 per cwt. Al- 
though the calves were fed for a longer period than the year- 
lings, the average cost of 100 pounds of gain was $10.80 for 
the calves, as compared with $15.65 for the yearlings. The 
calves made a profit of $20.00 per head, and the yearlings made 
a profit of $14.00. 

The Indiana Experiment Station found that when feed 
prices were such that it cost $5.92 to produce 100 pounds of 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



ih 



gain on baby beeves, it cost $7,22 to make the same gain on 
yearlings, and $8.98 on two-year-olds. 

Steer and Heifer Beef. 

The heading of this chapter, "Fashions in Market Cattle," 
implies that the demands of the cattle market are subject to 
change. The truth of this has been shown by the preceding 
discussion of the trend away from the old-time, heavy, ma- 
tured beeves, and toward the finishing of younger cattle. The 
word, "fashions," also implies that the market indulges in 
some practices that are not entirely utilitarian and practical. 




Fig. 10. Prime Fat Heifer. 

but are more or less fanciful and whimsical. That this is true 
will be shown by a consideration of the cattle market's dis- 
crimination against fat heifers as compared with fat steers. 
When the heifer is well fed, she is consigned to a lower class 
than a steer of the same breeding, same fatness, same quality, 
same age and form. In some countries, heifers outsell steers 
for beef purposes. In this country there is discrimination in 
price against heifers on the market, and for that reason heif- 
ers are rarely as well fed as steers. 



76 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



In September, 1892, Wilson and Curtiss, of the Iowa Ex- 
periment Station, purchased five steers and ten heifers and 
began an experiment to determine whether a discrimination 
against fat heifers is justifiable. All of these cattle were year- 
ling grade Shorthorns, all sired by the same bull. Five of the 
heifers were spayed soon after purchase, and all fifteen head 
were roughed until January 4, 1893, when they were grain- 
fed for eleven months, and then shipped to Chicago. There 
they were sold on the open market to Swift & Co., who made 
slaughter and block tests of the animals. The results of the 
experiment are condensed into the following table: 



Weights, costs, gains, prices, yields, profits. 



5 
Steers 



5 
Open 
heifers 



5 
Spayed 
heifers 



Original weight, September 12th, lbs 

Cost, per lb., cents 

Total cost _ 

C ost of pasture and fodder prior to January 4th.. 
Weight, January 4th, lbs. 



Average gain on feed per animal per day, lbs. 

Total gain 

Average cost feed per lb. gain, cents 

Total cost feed _ 

Shrink in shipping, lbs 

Selling weight, lbs 

Selling price per lb., cents 

Selling price, total 

Freight, yardage, and commission 

Profit 



I I I 

.14005. 13455. |3998. 
.| 3.5 I 2. I 2. 
.|$140.18|$ 69.101$ 79.96 
^^ 
3994. 

2.07 
3416. 

5.86 
$200.32 

280. 

7130. 

4.75 

02j$338.67 

711 24.71 

511 13.68 



Beef (warm weight), Ibs. 

Dressing percentage 

Total tallow, lbs..._ 



10 loins, per cent, of carcass 

10 loins, price per lb., cents 

10 ribs, per cent, of carcass 

10 ribs, price per lb., cents 

10 rounds, per cent, of carcass. 
10 rounds, price per lb., cents.... 



20.001 


20.001 


4093. 3592. 


2.44 1.99 


4032. 3288. 


5.02 6.04 


$202.47 $198.70 


215. 


290. 


7910. 


6590. 


5.75 


4.75 



$454.82l$3i3 
24.71 24 
67.46 



4997. 
63.2 
9^9.5 
16!7~ 
15. 
10.1 
15. 
24.1 
6. 



4110. 14475. 
62.4 62.8 
648.75 701.5 



17.6 I 
13.5 I 
10.8 I 
13.5 I 
21.5 I 
5.751 



17.7 
13.5 
10.9 
13.5 
21.7 
5.65 



Margin between live cost and sales of meat and I 
by-products, not including expense of killingl 
and handling | 



20.451$ 58.12|$ 64.84 

I I 



The returns made by the heifers to Swift & Co. would 
have justified a purchase price of $5.37 per cwt. for the spayed 
heifers and $5.32 for the open heifers, instead of $4.75 for 
each, and still have left the same margin of profit as in the 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 77 

steers. It is clear, then, that the difference in the live-weight 
value of the steers and heifers was only about 40 cents per 
cwt., instead of $1.00 a cwt. made by the buyers. Expert 
opinions secured from Chicago packers as to why the heifer 
carcasses sold at less price per pound than the steer carcasses 
were to the effect that heifers make more fat where the steers 
make lean meat. There is said to be more lean meat in a steer 
loin and a larger tenderloin. Otherwise, the carcasses were 
said to be of equal value. 

It is a well-known fact that Englishmen make no discrim- 
inations against heifer beef, indeed they pay more for it than 
for steer beef. Wilson and Curtiss corresponded with several 
Englishmen concerning this matter, and the subtsance of the 
replies was that heifers yield meat of finer grain and better 
quality, are good cutters, and yield little rough meat. Rib 
and loin cuts from spayed heifer carcasses were valued two 
cents per pound higher than the same cuts from steer car- 
casses equally well fattened. Plate cuts from heifers were 
valued one cent higher. Heifer beef was said to be better 
marbled, more pleasing in appearance, more juicy, and more 
palatable. 

Evidently English and American standards for meats 
vary somewhat, and public preference has been cultivated 
along different lines in the two countries. So far as our 
American markets are concerned, it seems that the difference 
in prices paid for fat steers and heifers may not be justified 
by any real difference in the cuts of meat, yet the condition 
must be accepted nevertheless, and producers must shape their 
operations accordingly. There is, however, one logical objec- 
tion to heifers ; it is that they are frequently pregnant, which 
lowers the dressing percentage and may affect the value of the 
carcass. At the present time the discrimination against 
heifers amounts to 50 or 75 cents per cwt. for open heifers, 
and about 25 cents per cwt. in the case of spayed heifers. 
There is not as much discrimination in price against fat young 
heifers as against fat heifers of older age. 

The question of spaying. — As the experiment just dis- 
cussed dealt with spayed and open heifers, a word may be said 
here about the comparative merits of the two from the stand- 



78 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

point of the feeder. As a rule, open heifers make greater 
gains because of the setback caused by the operation of spay- 
ing. Once recovered from the operation, the spayed heifers 
gain faster, but do not reach as large weights as open heifers. 
The recurrence of heat in open heifers and their restlessness 
at that time retards the gains made, as compared with spayed 
heifers recovered from the operation. Spayed heifers are said 
to yield beef of slightly higher quality. Spaying entails a cer- 
tain expense and there is danger of mortality. The general 
practice is not to spay when it is possible to separate the 
heifers and feed them in a lot by themselves. When it is de- 
sired to feed heifers along with steers, it is desirable that 
they be spayed, otherwise the recurrence of heat causes con- 
siderable turmoil among the cattle, decreasing the gains made 
and increasing the cost. 



CHAPTER VI. 
MARKET CLASSES AND GRADES OF CATTLE. 

The large live-stock markets classify their receipts of 
cattle into various classes and grades, depending upon the 
quality, condition, weight, and age of the animal. A market 
class may be defined as a group of animals on the live-stock 
market, all of which are suitable for a certain commercial use. 

There is a clear distinction between type and market 
class. A type represents an ideal which the breeder or feeder 
is endeavoring to produce. Types represent only the most 
highly desirable or profitable sorts of animals, while there 
are market classes for all sorts of animals — profitable and 
unprofitable from the producer's standpoint. The market 
classification represents the practical outcome of producers' 
attempts to reach ideals, and a visit to any market will show 
that often they do not reach them. Hence, some market 
classes have counterparts among the types, and some have not. 
The latter might be termed the by-products or misfits of the 
breeder's art. Of these there is always a percentage, depend- 
ing upon how difficult a task the producer set for himself; the 
more extreme the type, the greater the percentage of misfits. 
Most of these misfits are useful, and some return a profit to 
the producer. There will always be some market classes 
which return a maximum profit to the breeder and feeder, and 
these the breeder will try to produce by adjusting his type 
accordingly and selecting animals for breeding purposes which 
nearest approach the ideal, — in other words, typical animals. 
The less profitable market classes are filled incidentally, not 
through any design on the part of the breeder. Some market 
classes are composed of animals that have already served one 
or more purposes ; having outlived their usefulness, they are 
discarded and sent to market. The market is accommodating ; 
it provides a place for all sorts of odds and ends, and hunts 
up a use for them. Thus, some market classes persist which 
at first thought have no excuse for being. Everything classi- 

79 



80 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

fies somewhere. The types are logically much fewer than the 
market classes. _ 

On the large live-stock markets, cattle are handled ac- 
cording to the following classification: 

1. Beef cattle, including all fat steers suitable for block 
beef, and also a few fat heifers. 

2. Texas and western range cattle, including all grades 
of Texas cattle and branded cattle from western ranges. 

3. Butcher stock, including the better grades of heifers, 
cows, and bulls suitable for block beef. 

4. Cutters and canners, including mostly thin cows and 
bulls, but also inferior steers and heifers, in fact anything not 
suitable for feeding, and too inferior to yield a carcass suitable 
for block use. 

5. Stockers and feeders, including thin calves, yearlings, 
two-year-olds, and older cattle. It may include steers, heifers, 
cows, or bulls. 

6. Veal calves, including all grades of veal calves. 

7. Milkers and springers. — These are cattle of dairy 
breeding which are usually more valuable for milking pur- 
poses than for beef. They are sorted out and sold for dairy 
purposes. 

Beef Cattle. 

The beef cattle class represents the cream of the market, 
including steers and some heifers, which show the effects of 
good feeding. In this class condition and quality are of more 
importance than weight. The demand comes from two classes 
of buyers: (1) Packers for dressed beef slaughtered in 
Chicago, and (2) eastern buyers who ship for slaughter to 
Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Baltimore, Cleve- 
land, Albany, Detroit, and many other cities. The cattle which 
classify as beef cattle may be divided into five grades or minor 
groups. A market grade is a division of a market class or 
sub-class, the division depending upon value. The grades of 
beef cattle are : (1) prime, (2) choice, (3) good, (4) medium, 
and (5) common. Each market class is divided up into vari- 
ous grades. For example, we speak of "prime steers," 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



81 



"medium steers," "good cows," "common canners," "choice 
feeders," etc. Beef cattle dress from 55 to 67 per cent, and 
supply the highest class of trade. 

Prime steers. — This is the most select grade of the beef 
cattle class. Buyers for eastern markets take most of this 
grade, and packers take the rest. Prime steers are practically 
above criticism in quality and fatness. They show a high de- 
velopment of flesh in loin, back, thighs, twist, and rump, are 
very broad and deep, and are free from paunchiness. The 
head is medium sized and clean-cut. The bone is clean and 




Fig. 11. Prime Fat Steers. 

fine, the skin pliable and medium thick, and the outlines are 
smooth and well rounded. The flesh is abundant in all parts, 
and is firm, yet mellow and springy to the touch. There are 
no ties, rolls, or patches of flabby fat, but a smooth, even, deep, 
firm fleshing everywhere. Prime steers weighing from 1200 
to 1400 pounds are in greatest demand, although they fre- 
quently weigh up to 1600 pounds. Very few steers come to 
market which grade as prime. At the conclusion of the Inter- 
national Live Stock Exposition, which is held at the Union 
Stock Yards in December, most of the fat cattle are sold, and 



82 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



these are usually prime, but it requires much searching to 
locate cattle of this sort at other periods of the year. 

Choice steers. — If a steer is not quite right in quality or 
condition, but still possesses to a marked degree the charac- 
teristics most sought by packers and shippers, he is called a 
choice steer. 

Good steers. — Good fat steers may be of very good qual- 
ity, but noticeably lacking in condition or finish ; they may be 
finished or in prime condition, yet lacking in quality; or they 



1 




Fig. 12. Choice Steer. 

may be noticeably deficient in both quality and condition, but 
still good enough to be above the average grade of fat cattle 
reaching the market. By far the largest number of steers be- 
longing to the good grade may be said to be a little (?n the 
coarse order; they are fat and of good weight, but rather 
plain. 

Medium steers. — These are of about average quality and 
condition, lacking to a marked degree the finish and quality 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



83 



demanded in a prime steer. They are generally too paunchy 
and too lacking in condition and quality to dress a high per- 
centage of beef or show a good proportion of fat. The beef 
from such steers is not good enough to meet the demands of 
dealers in beef of the best quality, nor is the proportion of 
the high-priced cuts large. 

Common rough steers. — This is the lowest grade of 
steers coming to the market. They are very much lacking in 
form, quality, and condition. Steers of good quality that are 




Fig. 13. Good Steers. 

not fat enough to be classed as beef steers are classed among 
the better grades of stockers and feeders ; therefore, this 
grade includes only those steers which are too thin to sell 
among the higher grades of beef cattle, and too coarse and 
rough to be sold as stockers and feeders. 

Heifers. — Loads made up entirely of heifers do not classify 
as beef cattle except in rare instances when they are very 
fancy and in high finish. Two to four heifers mixed in with 
a load of fat steers are passed without any cut in price if they 



84 



Types and Market Classes of Li\^ Stock 



are similar to the steers in all respects except sex. However, 
the beef cattle class is a fat-steer proposition, and market 
reports always give separate quotations for fat steers and 
fat heifers. 

Sub-class baby beef. — Choice and prime fat steers be- 
tween one and two years of age and weighing from 800 to 
1200 pounds are styled "baby beef" or "fat yearlings" upon 
the market. These are not separated from the beef cattle 
class, but constitute a sub-class within it. As pointed out in 
the preceding chapter, the fat yearling is fast becoming the 




Fig. 14. Prime Baby Beeves. 

These are representatives of the famous "blue-grays" so popular 
in the British markets. They were sired by a Shorthorn bull, and their 
dams were Galloway cows. 

most prominent feature of the cattle market. Beginning in 
1904, fat yearlings have steadily increased in numbers, this 
increase having been most marked during the past few years. 
Most market reports now give separate quotations for this 
sub-class. 

Sub-class distillers. — These are cattle which have been 
fed on the by-products of distilleries. Such cattle, with only 
a few exceptions, are included in the beef cattle class. They 
sell high because they carry neat paunches which make them 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 85 

high dressers. Distillery cattle may usually be identified at 
the stock yards because of their smooth finish, small paunches, 
and sleek coats of hair. 

Source of the beef cattle class. — Cattle which classify as 
beef cattle in the market sense of that term, come from the 
feed-lots of the cornbelt states. They are steers which have 
been grain-fed. 

Texas and Western Range Cattle. 

Not so many years ago, Texas cattle were distinguished 
by very long horns, long legs, thin flesh, narrow bodies, and 
large, deep brands. So many purebred beef bulls have been 
taken to the ranges, however, that today the long-homed 
Texan is rarely seen. Texas cattle now carry a high per- 
centage of the blood of the improved beef breeds, and the 
heads are either naturally polled or have short or medium- 
length horns. Many prize-winning bulls have been bought by 
western cattlemen and turned loose upon the range, and to- 
day range cattle usually have the low-set, blocky form and 
flesh-making qualities of their sires. There were no cattle 
in America prior to its discovery ; the old-fashioned Texas and 
western cattle undoubtedly sprang from animals which es- 
caped from the hands of early Spanish explorers or were left 
behind when they were forced to make a retreat. 

The best western cattle are used for the same purposes as 
the best native cattle, but being largely grass-fed, they are 
more subject to shrink during shipping. Perhaps one-half 
of the cattle on the ranges of the West and Northwest are 
now bred there, whereas nearly all cattle in those sections 
were formerly bred in Texas and nearby states and taken 
north for feeding. Mr. James E. Poole, of the Chicago Live 
Stock World, says : "The two-year-old exodus of other years 
to the Northwest now stops at Kansas pastures, going thence 
to market the same season instead of being double-wintered 
in the North. So inadequate is the stocker supply that Mon- 
tana graziers, outbid on the Texas two-year-olds, have been 
compelled to cross the Rio Grande to secure Mexican cattle 
for the purpose of replenishing their depleted herds." Cattle 
bred in Texas, but fed in Montana, are known on the market 
as "Montana-Texans," those fed in Wyoming are called 



86 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



"Wyoming-Texans," thus indicating in few words the source 
of such cattle. All Texas and western range cattle are brand- 
ed, and are sometimes spoken of as "branded cattle." As a 
rule, branded cattle sell at a discount because of the damage 
to the hide. In cases of brands on the body, the damage to 
the hide is estimated anywhere from five to fifteen cents per 
cwt., according to size and location, and in extreme cases 




Fig. 15. Old-time Texas Long-Horn. 

Formerly a prominent feature on the large cattle markets. 

where there is a big, sprawling side brand, covering a large 
part of the surface, the discount will be very much higher, as 
it practically spoils half the hide. 

The range country furnishes grass from the middle of 
July until the middle of November, and cattle coming to mar- 
ket from the grass of western ranges are known upon the 
market as "grass westerns." "Fed westerns" are cattle that 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



87 



were shipped to Nebraska, Iowa, or some other cornbelt state 
and fattened on grain before reaching the market. The best 
fed westerns are in every way equal to the best native steers 
and sell at the same prices. When grass gives out on western 
ranges, the cattle are sent to market. Texas cattle begin to 
appear in May and make a heavy run from that time until 
October, while other branded cattle from the West make a 




Fig. 16. Modern Western Range Cattle. 

These cattle were sired by purebred bulls, and were fattened on 
grass. In the background appears a scales-house where cattle are 
weighed to the buyer when sold. 



heavy run from August 1 to December 1. During the five 
months from November until May, very few such cattle reach 
Chicago. 

The heavy immigration of settlers to the West and the 
cutting up of ranches into small farms is constantly decreas- 
ing the open range country used by stockmen. In the future 
the range-stock industry will be confined to areas too rough 
for cultivation, or too arid for successful crop growing. 



88 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



During the summer season, many stockmen will secure graz- 
ing permits in the forest reserves. Whenever possible, 
enough feed will be raised to carry the stock safely through 
winter. Herds will be smaller and cattle better bred in order 
to make profits under the new conditions. 

Butcher Stock. 

Butcher stock and cutters and canners may be looked 
upon as by-products of the cattle-feeding industry. Butcher 
stock has the same relation to beef cattle which skim milk 




big. 17. Good to Choice Heiter. 

has to cream. The bulk of butcher stock is made up of fat 
cows, heifers, and bulls. They dress out from 50 to 61 per 
cent, of carcass and are used to supply the trade in small 
towns, and the medium class of trade in cities. The grades 
within this class are: Prim.e, choice, good, and medium 
heifers ; prime, choice, good, and medium cows ; and choice, 
good, and medium bulls. 

Heifers. — The same conformation, quality, and condition 
are demanded in prime heifers that have already been noted 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



89 



as characteristic of prime steers. The only noteworthy differ- 
ence is that of sex. Choice, good, and medium heifers are 
similar to steers of the same grades. 

Cows. — The prime grade includes a very small number 
of strictly fancy, well-bred cows, in prime condition. Choice 
cows are prime in condition, but are somewhat deficient in 
quality. Good cows lack in both condition and quality, but 
are fat enough to be reasonably good killers. Medium cows 
are poor in form, low in condition, and deficient in quality. 
This is the lowest grade suitable for block beef. 

Bulls and stags. — There are very few choice bulls; the 
supply is made up of good beef bulls which have become too 




Fig. 18. Good Cutters. 

aged for further use as breeders. Bulls of the good grade 
lack in quality and condition. Medium bulls are thin, long 
legged, and coarse, and are just good enough to escape bologna 
or the tin can. Very few stags come to market. They are 
classed and graded the same as bulls. 

Cutters and Canners. 

Cutters carry sufficient flesh to permit of the loin or rib, 
or both, being used for block purposes, the remainder of the 
carcass being canned. The cutter and canner class is made 



90 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



up mostly of old thin cows that are very paunchy, indicating 
a high percentage of offal when dressed. Many of them are 
cast-off dairy cows which are sent to market without any 
attempt being made to fatten them. They dress from 35 to 
55 per cent. The lowest grade of canners furnishes a sort of 
comic supplement to a cattle market ; marketmen refer to them 
as "Dairy Maids," "Nellies," "Hat Racks," "Skins," "Dogs," 
and "Sea Horses," thus showing their lack of appreciation for 
such cattle. 

Canners include thin cows, inferior steers, heifers, bulls, 
and stags, and in fact anything of a low, inferior grade that 
is too lacking in flesh to permit of even a part of the carcass 




Fig. 19. Common or Inferior Canner Cowis. 

being sold over the butcher's block. They are the very lowest 
grade of cattle coming to market. 

The grades within the cutter and canner class are good, 
medium, and common cutters; good, medium, and common 
canners; and bologna bulls. 

Stockers and Feeders. 

The man who makes a business of breeding or feeding 
cattle for the market is primarily interested in two classes of 
cattle which should receive his most careful study. These two 
classes are beef cattle of the better grades, and stockers and 
feeders, — the beginning and the end of the feeding process. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 91 

Stockers and feeders include calves, yearlings, two-year-olds, 
and older cattle. The difference between a stocker and a 
feeder is that the former is usually a younger and thinner steer 
or heifer, used mostly for grazing purposes and possibly fed 
out after being grazed for a time, while a feeder is usually 
a steer, older and in higher flesh than the stocker, and suitable 
for placing in the feed-lot immediately and feeding upon a 
grain ration. It is seldom that a steer weighing less than 
600 pounds is placed on feed, and the common practice is to 
buy steers for feeders that weigh from 900 to 1,000 pounds, 
ojr even heavier. Such steers are eighteen months old, or 
older. Heifers are not commonly classed as feeders. 

Profits in cattle feeding are largely dependent on intelli- 
gent buying and selling, and the feeder must be an expert 
judge of a thin animal, as well as a good judge of the finished 
piroduct. One is as inportant as the other, and lack of ability 
tb select the right kind of steers for feeding is alone sufficient 
to cause failure in the business. The cattle feeder must have 
a good knowledge of the values of the various grades of feed- 
ers, and must use judgment as to whether or not to buy, 
and if he buys it is again a matter of judgment as to which 
grade of feeders may be purchased, fed, and sold with the 
greatest profit. The actual buying, however, is usually put in 
the hands of a commission firm ; such firms also freely and in- 
telligently advise the purchaser concerning the matters here 
discussed. The grades of stockers and feeders are: Fancy 
selected, choice, good, medium, and common feeders; feeder 
bulls ; fancy selected, choice, good, medium, and common year- 
ling stockers; good, medium, and common stock heifers, and 
stock and feeding cows. 

Fancy selected feeders. — Very few of the fancy grade 
reach the market, as breeders fortunate enough to own thin 
steers of such quality usually hold them until finished as 
prime steers, or sell them direct to neighboring feeders at 
good strong prices. Fancy selected feeders must not only 
possess the characteristics of choice feeders, as described 
further on, but must be uniform in color, and show unmistak- 
able signs of good breeding. They are practically above 
criticism. 



92 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



Choice feeders. — Steers of this grade will, under proper 
management, develop into choice and prime fat steers. They 
possess the ability to make economical gains in flesh. We 
look for these tendencies in the form, quality, constitution, 
age, breeding, and disposition. 

1. Form. — The form should be as nearly identical as 
possible with the description given for the ideal fat steer. 
Allowances must of course be made for the absence of flesh 




Fig. 20. Fancy Selected Feeders. 

and fat in the thin animal, for we cannot expect a thin animal 
to appear extremely blocky or low set. Yet even in thin con- 
dition, the steer should be low set, deep, broad, and compact, 
such conformation insuring the desired earliness oi maturity. 
Broad, flat backs and loins, and level rumps make possible 
a maximum production of high-priced cuts, and are indicative 
of superior form in the feeder. One of the characteristic 
points of high-grade feeders is a straight top line and straight 
underline, the two being nearly parallel. To insure feeding 
capacity, the mouth and muzzle should be broad, the barrel 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



93 



should be deep, and the flanks should be well let down. If 
there is much paunchiness, it is sharply discriminated against, 
as it rarely disappears during the fattening. Although low 
in flesh, the feeder should present a fairly smooth outline; 
at least, there should be nothing in his form that will prevent 
smoothness being secured when he is fattened. It should 
be remembered that the proportions of the head and neck 
correspond with the type of body, and in making selections 
of young thin cattle these are fairly dependable indicators 
of the turn the form will take during development and finish- 
ing. 




Fig. 21. Choice Feeder. 



The head demands far more attention in the feeder than 
in the finished steer. We look for what is termed the "feeder's 
head," that is, a head of much width between the eyes, short 
and clean-cut from eyes to muzzle, very broad at the muzzle, 
but not coarse, large of nostril, and strongly muscled and 
well developed in cheeks and jaws. The eye should be large, 
prominent, bright, clear, and placid. Polled or dehorned 
cattle are preferred by feeders, although this feature does 
not affect the grading of the animal. More hornless cattle 



94 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

can be put in the feed-lot or car, and they make more rapid 
gains on feed because of less commotion and less difficulty 
in getting up to the feed-racks. Hornless cattle shrink less 
in shipment, the carcasses show fewer bruises, and the hides 
are more valuable. Being in greater demand, they sell at 
slightly higher prices. 

2. Quality. — The indications of quality in beef cattle 
have been discussed. Quality and good breeding are usually 
found in company, and good breeding surely "tells" in the 
feed-lot. 

3. Constitution. — A wide, deep chest, full heart-girth, 
and deep, broad body are evidences of a strong constitution. 
Avoid that steer which has quality carried to the point of 
delicacy, as only vigorous, rugged cattle make big gains on 
feed. When choosing between two steers, one of which is 
too refined in head, hide, and bone, and the other a trifle 
too rugged, or what might be termed slightly on the coarse 
order, it will usually be wisest to select the more rugged 
steer; he will usually consume more feed, gain more con- 
sistently, and make his gains at less cost than will the over- 
refined animal. , 

4. Age. — Form, quality, and constitution are the fun- 
damental points determining the value of the feeding steer, 
but there are some other points worthy of consideration. 
Attention should be given to the age, and to the weight for 
age. A young, thrifty steer, well developed for his age, is 
far more profitable than a stunted animal. Whether young 
steers or matured steers shall be fed depends largely upon 
the length of the feeding period. If it is desired to "short- 
feed" them or "warm them up" during a 60- or 90-day feeding 
period, using a great deal of roughage and proportionately 
less grain, a plainer sort of two- or three-year-old steers 
will be more desirable. For the "long feed" of 120 to 180 days, 
young steers of good beef breeding are preferred. 

5. Breeding. — Steers of good beef breeding are much 
preferred over those which have more or less of a scrub or 
dairy ancestry. We look for evidences of beef breeding in 
the form and color of the animals. The beef-bred animal 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



95 



is more rectangular in build, more compact and blocky, and 
lower set than the dairy-bred individual. The dairy-bred 
steer stands high off the ground, has a long, narrow head, 
cuts up in the flank, is split up in the twist, cat-hammed, high 
and short in the rump, and rough in the conformation over 
that part. His bone is usually too fine, and his hide is too 
thin and "papery" in texture. Red, roan, and black colors 




1 ig. 22. (jood Feeders. 

are sometimes accepted as proofs of good breeding, but many 
scrub animals masquerade under these colors. The Short- 
horn and Hereford red and the Angus and Galloway black 
are frequently found in animals carrying a very small per- 
centage of the blood of these breeds ; the same is true of the 
polled head of the Aberdeen-Angus, Galloway, and Polled 
Durham. Other things being equal, the colors of the beef 
breeds are preferred in feeder steers, and most certainly the 
fawn color, or spotted white and fawn of the Jersey and 
Guernsey, or the black and white markings of the Holstein 



96 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



are evidence of dairy breeding and are to be avoided if pos- 
sible. As to which of the beef breeds should be given prefer- 
ence when selecting feeders, that is almost entirely a matter 
of personal fancy. They are all good and there is no best. 
There are differences, to be sure, but none great enough to 
claim attention here. 

6. Disposition. — Nervous, irritable, restless cattle are 
profit-losers on feed. In many instances, with proper handling, 
such steers quiet down a great deal as the feeding period 
progresses, but in many other instances this is not true. The 




Fig. 23. Medium Feeders. 

eye and the carriage of the head and ears are indications of 
the disposition. A high-headed, wild-eyed steer, with ears 
in motion to catch the slightest sound, stampedes on the 
least provocation. The poll of the head should be carried 
on a line with the withers, and the eyes should be placid in 
expression, indicating a quiet, contented feeder that will make 
gains in proportion to the feed he consumes, instead of wast- 
ing his energy in nervousness and frightened antics. 

7. Uniformity in size and color adds much to the at- 
tractiveness of a load of cattle, and in buying feeders this 
point is worthy of attention. They look better in the feed-lot, 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



97 



and an even load of steers attracts more attention on the 
market than does a heterogeneous mixture of all sorts. 

Good feeders. — These possess in less degree the qualities 
which characterize choice and fancy selected feeders. They 
are not so thrifty, have not as good conformations, and carry 
a smaller percentage of good breeding. They are easily 
criticized, for they are too long of leg, too narrow across 




Fig. 24. Common or Inferior Feeder. 

the back, and either too fine or too heavy in bone. Good 
feeders will finish into good fat steers, or perhaps may make 
the choice grade. 

Medium feeders. — These are very much lacking in form, 
quality, and constitution, and very seldom grade higher than 
medium when fattened. Many of them are off-colored and 
spotted and bear little promise of accomplishing anything 



98 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



noteworthy on feed. Marketmen refer to such cattle as 
"doggy." 

Common feeders. — These are common in quality, confor- 
mation, and condition. It seldom pays to feed them. Dairy- 
type steers classify here. 

Feeder bulls. — These are young bulls of good beef type. 
Both the supply and the demand are limited. 

Stockers. — Thin yearling steers are not in much demand 
as feeders so long as the supply of two-year-olds is large 




Fig. 25. Fancy Selected Stocker Calves. 

enough to satisfy feeder demands. The yearlings are mostly 
available for stocker purposes and are quoted in market re- 
ports as "yearling stockers." They are such cattle as will, 
after a summer on grass and good wintering, be suitable to 
put on grain feed. Most of the stocker trade, however, is in 
heifers which when sent to the country are used for grazing 
and for breeding purposes. The better ones have considerable 
beef blood and good square frames. They are too thin to 
classify as butcher stock, and are too good in form and 
quality to sell at the low prices paid for cutters and canners. 
Stockers are graded on the same basis as feeders. 

Stock and feeding cows. — A rather common practice is 
to buy thin cows showing evidences of beef breeding, turn 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



99 



them on pasture and breed them, rough them through the 
winter, and the next season, after their calves are weaned, 
fatten them off for market, retaining the calves for feeding 
purposes. Such cows are called stock and feeding cows. 

Veal Calves. 

The most important factors determining the value of a 
veal calf are age, condition, and weight. Weight is not so 
important as age and flesh. To command the highest price. 




Fig. 26. Choice Veal Calf. 

a young calf should carry high finish, weigh from 140 to 160 
pounds, and be about eight weeks old. A strictly fat calf 
of 150 pounds at seven weeks of age is the sort that tops 
the market. Veal calves range in weight from 80 to 300 
pounds, and in age from 5 to 12 weeks. The grades are 
choice, good, medium, and common. Following are the re- 
quirements of the various grades as to fatness, weight, and 
age: 

Choice well fatted 120-160 lbs 6- 8 weeks 

Good fat 110-200 lbs 6-10 weeks 

Medium medium fat 100-240 lbs 5-12 weeks 

Common thin 80-300 lbs wide range 



100 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



Cattle Prices at Chicago. 

Chicago prices during 1914. — The average price for fat 
steers on the Chicago market during 1914 at $8.65 stood as 
a new record in that market. Butcher stock reached a new 
record average at $6.55, and the same was true of westerns 
at $7.65, cutters and canners at $4.60, and stockers and feed- 
ers at $7.35. The lowest and highest prices paid at Chicago 
for the various classes of cattle in 1914 were as follows: 
Fat steers, $4.50-$13.00; distillers, $6.75-$10.50 ; Texas cattle, 
$6.00-$7.65 ; western range steers, $5.25-$10.00 ; western cows 
and heifers, $4.40-$8.45; fat native cows and heifers, $4.50- 
$10.30; native bulls, $4.00-$8.75; cutters and canners, $2.50- 
$5.35; stockers and feeders, $4.75-$8.50; calves, $4.00-$12.50. 

Market values of the various classes. — In determining the 
comparative market values of the various market classes, 
averages for one year are not sufficient as a basis for com- 
parison. The following table gives the yearly average prices 
at Chicago for the several market classes from 1905 to 1914, 
and also the averages for the entire ten-year period: 









i Texas and 


^ 1 - 1 








Native Beef Cattle 


Western 


Fat 


Cut- 


stock- 














cows 
and 

heif- 
ers 


ters 
and 
can- 
ners 


ers 
and 
feed- 
ers 


Veal 


Year 


901)- 
1050 


1050- 
1^00 


1200- 
1350 


135e- 

1500 


1500- 
1900 


900- 
1900 


Tex- 
as 


West- 
ern 


cal- 
ves 




lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 














1905 


$4.15 


1 1 

$4.55 $5.05 i $5.50 


1 

$5.85 


$5.05 


$4.20 


$3.80 


$3.65 


$1.90 


$3.60|$ 5.75 


1906 


4.55 


5.05 


5.30 


5.85 


6.20 


5.30 


4.45 


4.40 


3.70 


2.05 


3.85 


1 6.25 


1907 


4.55 


5.40 


5.80 


6.20 


6.50 


5.80 


4.85 


4.50 


3.85 


2.15 


4.20 


1- 6.40 


1908 


5.25 


5.55 


6.00 


6.60 


6.95 


6.10 


4.80 


4.80 


4.10 


2.50 


4.25 


6.50 


1909 


5.40 


5.90 


6.30 


6.90 


7.30 


6.35 


5.40 


5.25 


4.25 


2.75 


4.50 


7.10 


1910 


5.90 


6.40 


6.95 


7.35 


7.70 


6.80 


5.60 


5.40 


4.60 


3.10 


4.851 8.10 


1911 


5.65 


6.00 


6.50 


6.75 


7.00 


6.40 


5.35 


6.65 


4.35 


2.85 


4.75 


7.60 


1912 


7.10 


7.35 


8.10 


8.80 


9.60 


7.75 


6.75 


7.60 


5.25 


3.40 


5.70 


8.75 


1913 


8.00 


8.10 


8.30 


8.65 


8.85 


8.25 


6.75 


7.40 


6.10 


4.25 


7.05 


10.10 


1914 


1 8.10 

1 5.85 
1 


8.30 


8.70 


8.95 


9.75 
7.55 


8.65 


6.50 


7.65 


6.55 


4.60 


7.35 


9.90 


10-yr. 
ave. 


6.25 

1 


6.70 


7.15 


6.65 


5.45 


5.65 


4.65 

1 


2.95 


5.00 7.65 

1 



From the standpoint of averages, it will be observed that 
the price of a fat steer bears a constant relation to his weight, 
the heavier the steer, the higher the price per cwt. This 
is due to the fact that as a steer becomes older he fattens 
more easily ; and in dealing with groups of very large numbers 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 101 

of fat steers of different weights, all factors determining value 
are equalized except the factor of fatness. Between the 
average prices of 975-pound and 1,125-pound fat steers, there 
is a difference of 40 cents per cwt. ; between 1,125-pound and 
1,275-pound steers, the difference is 45 cents; between 1,275 
and 1,425 pounds, it is 45 cents; and between 1,425 and 
1,600 pounds, it is 40 cents. The sum of all these differences 
is $1.70, which is the difference between the average prices 
of the lightest and heaviest groups of fat steers. All fat 
steers together sell $1.10 higher than Texas and western 
range cattle, and $2.00 higher than butcher stock. Between 
stockers and feeders and fat steers, there exists a margin 
of $1.65, based on the Chicago figures. Butcher stock sell 
$1.70 higher than cutters and canners. Veal calves bring the 
highest price of any class, exceeding native beef cattle by $1.00. 



CHAPTER VII. 
BREEDING FOR THE MARKET. 

Market cattle are bred on the farms of the East and 
Central West, and also upon the large ranches of the West 
and Southwest. During recent years an unusually large per- 
centage of western cattle coming to market have been cows, 
heifers, and bulls, which is one evidence of the continual 
narrowing of the range country as the West becomes more 
thickly settled. If beef production is to continue in its present 
proportions, larger crops of farm-bred calves must be pro- 
duced. 

The first live-stock census was taken in 1840, at which 
time the number of cattle, excluding calves, to each inhabitant 
was .88 of an animal. It was .81 of an animal in 1860, .79 
in 1880, .92 in 1890, .69 in 1900, and .58 in 1910. By the 
use of better and better animals for breeding purposes, how- 
ever, the average value of all our domestic animals has been 
constantly increased, so that loss in numbers has been par- 
tially equalized by increase in quality. 

At the present time there is a world shortage of beef 
cattle; since 1900 the eleven chief cattle-producing countries 
have increased 19.9 per cent, in population, and only 2.18 
per cent, in cattle. The national shortage is much more 
marked; the United States has decreased over 15,000,000 
head in beef cattle since 1907, and at the same time has in- 
creased over 9,000,000 in population. In other words, since 
1907 the beef cattle of the United States have decreased 30 
per cent., while population has increased 9.5 per cent. During 
the same time, the ten range states have decreased from 
22,659,000 head to 14,223,000 head, a decrease of 37 per cent. 
The range country is being settled and range cattle are bound 
to decrease still more in numbers. Thus the feeder cattle 
supply is certain to be even more limited than at present. 
There never was a better time for the cornbelt farmer to 

102 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 103 

get into beef production; the time is ripe for the man who 
wants to breed as well as feed cattle for the market. 

Baby beef production has the following advantages: 
1. There is money in the business at present and prospective 
prices. 2, It pays better than average market prices for 
farm crops. 3. It makes use of rough lands otherwise wasted. 
4. It helps to maintain soil fertility. 5. Helps solve the 
labor problem. In Iowa during 1911-1912, 24 farms produced 
816 calves and fed them out at a profit of $7.00 per head. 
The cost of keeping the cow a year, the cost of feeds at full 
market prices, and the interest on the investment were all 
figured in. In 1912-1913, 36 farms bred, fed, and sold 983 
calves at an average weight of 876 pounds. The average age 
of these calves was 16 months. They sold at $8.60 per cwt., 
or $75.30 per head. The cost per head was $59.20 ; this left 
a profit of $16.10 per head. A comparison of crop yields 
during five years on ten beef cattle farms in ten counties 
in Iowa, and on ten grain farms in the same neighborhoods 
showed that the cattle farms averaged 14 bu. more corn per 
acre, 7 bu. more oats, and 1 ton more hay. 

There were 56,592,000 cattle in the United States in 
1914. Of this number, 20,737,000 were dairy cattle and the 
remaining 35,855,000 were reported as "other cattle." The 
average value of milch cows was given as $53.94, and of 
"other cattle," $31.13. The leading states in numbers of 
cattle other than dairy animals were as follows: 

1. Texas 5,173,000 6. Missouri 1,386,000 

2. Iowa 2,555,000 7. Illinois 1,216,000 

3. Nebraska 1,883,000 8. Minnesota 1,173,000 

4. Kansas 1,565,000 9. Wisconsin 1,158,000 

5. California 1,410,000 10. Oklahoma 1,097,000 

The distribution by geographical divisions was as follows : 

North Atlantic 2,071,000 

South Atlantic 2,890,000 

North Central, East of Missi-^sippi Rivf^r. 4,599,000 

North Central, West of Mississippi River 9,942,000 

South Central 9,222,000 

Far Western 7,131,000 



Total United States 35,855,000 

When breeding for beef, the producer must use good 
cattle of the beef type. Attention must be given to the selec- 
tion of both the cows and the bulls, and an effort must be made 



104 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

to breed for market what the market wants and will pay for in 
amount sufficient to return a profit. In some years, feeders 
of cattle find it more profitable to buy rather a low grade 
of cattle for feeding purposes, although as a general rule, 
it pays best to feed high-class cattle that will sell at the 
top of the market, or near the top, when finished. Breeders 
of cattle are confronted with no such dilemma as to what 
to aim for in breeding; they should always try to breed 
the best. Breeding herds are not so easily or quickly changed 
to suit fluctuations in market demands as are cattle in the 
feeder's hands ; hence, breeders abide by the general rule that 
greatest returns come from the production of the highest 
grade of cattle. 

When the object of the breeder is to produce calves to 
be fed for the market, the cows in the herd are purebred 
only in very rare instances. Purebred cattle are not so 
numerous as to permit their widespread use, and it is im- 
practicable to advise that purebred cows shall constitute the 
common herds of the country, nor would it be possible to 
bring about that condition for many years to come. By all 
means, however, the cows in such herds should be high grades 
of some one of the beef breeds. 

At this point some definition of terms is necessary. A 
purebred animal is one whose sire and dam were members 
of the same breed, and its advantage lies in the fact that 
its ancestors were specially selected anfmals, all possessing 
certain desired characteristics insisted upon by the men who 
founded and developed that breed. As it is a rule of breeding 
that what goes into an animal through its ancestors will come 
out in its offspring, the superior advantage of the purebred 
animal is apparent. The terms "full-blooded" and "thorough- 
bred" are often erroneously used in place of the word purebred. 

A cross-bred animal is one whose sire and dam were both 
purebred, but belonged to different breeds. A cross between 
a Shorthorn bull and a Hereford cow would, for example, 
produce a cross-bred calf. A scrub animal is one bearing 
no evidences of good breeding — one without any purebred 
ancestors, or, at most, very distant ones. Such animals are 
usually of indeterminate type and little value. When a 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 105 

purebred is mated with a scrub, the offspring is called a grade. 
If this grade animal is in turn mated with a purebred of the 
same breed as its own purebred parent, or with one of some 
other breed, the result will still be a grade. When several 
crosses have been made upon scrub stock by sires from 
the same breed, the resulting offspring will possess 87.5 per 
cent, or more of purebred ancestry and may be referred to as 
high grades. 

Returning to the point under discussion, cows in market 
beef breeding herds should be high-grades, preferably with 
all the purebred ancestors members of the same breed. From 
this breed also, a purebred bull should be selected to mate 
with the cows, thus insuring a uniform lot of calves for feed- 
ing. As the bull is at least half of the herd, more money 
and time should be expended in his purchase than in the 
purchase of a cow. No progress whatever will be made 
by usmg other than a purebred bull and continuing in the 
same breed when future herd-headers are selected. The 
grading-up process must be continued, and where this has 
been done through a number of generations, herds will be 
found that are, for all intents and purposes, purebred so far 
as production for the market is concerned. 

As to what price the breeder is justified in paying for 
a bull, that will vary depending upon the conditions. Some 
very satisfactory bulls have been bought at very moderate 
prices. In grading up western range cattle, high-priced, 
prize-winning bulls have been purchased in a number of 
instances and the bull turned out on the range as his pedigree 
burned in the office stove. If a full quota of cows is at hand 
for breeding, not less than $100 should be invested in a bull, 
and more often it will be advisable to pay $200, $250, or 
more, rather than $100. A small increase in the value per 
head of one season's crop of calves by the use of the higher- 
priced bull, as compared with the cheap one, will return the 
difference in the price of the two animals. Furthermore, 
when the heifer calves by the higher-priced sire are gone 
over with a view to keeping out certain ones for use in the 
breeding herd, there will result a herd of higher average 
merit than otherwise, and improvement thereafter will be 



106 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

doubly fast. The man who sees no further than first cost 
when purchasing a bull is surely doomed to failure. As to 
which breed of beef cattle to use for market production, that 
is a matter to be decided somewhat by the conditions, but 
it is largely a matter of personal preference. Each breed 
has its own special advantages, and there is no best breed 
of beef cattle. 

The producer of feeding cattle secures his bulls from 
breeders who maintain strictly high-class herds of purebred 
and registered beef cattle. These are the sources of all that 
is good in beef cattle, their function being to produce bulls 
to be sold to grade up the common cattle of the country. 
Hence a knowledge of market requirements is very essential 
to the breeder of pedigreed beef cattle, for he is engaged, 
indirectly, but most certainly, in the production of cattle for 
the open market. Very many breeders have overlooked this 
consideration, and with them cattle are a mere hobby rather 
than an agent in the improvement of the quality of beef 
or in the cheapening of its cost to the ultimate consumer. 
The breeder of registered cattle who ignores the require- 
ments of the oyren m.arket will never be able to build up an 
active demand for his stock, because the mere fact that an 
animal is purebred and registered does not suffice. Purchasers 
insist that a thoroughly useful animal shall accompany the 
pedigree, and the inferior animal, no matter how glowing 
his family history, does not receive serious attention or ap- 
proval. 

Fancy, purebred, registered beef cows and bulls frequently 
sell for $1,000, and wonder is sometimes expressed that a 
bull or cow can command such a price. Only when it is under- 
stood that the sons and daughters of these high-priced animals 
will not be sold to the butcher, but will be used as breeding 
animals in herds that produce cattle for the butcher, is it 
realized that such prices do not necessarily represent a foolish 
waste of money. It may be several years before many de- 
scendants of such an animal reach the market, they being 
multiplied in the meantime, but when the market finally 
feels the good influence of such an animal, the benefits are 
lasting and society in general is repaid many times the price 
of the original bull or cow. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 107 

In selecting beef animals for breeding purposes, the 
breeder must not only emphasize those points which are 
important to the feeder and butcher, but must keep in mind 
his own interests as well. The features which are of particular 
interest to the breeder are: 1. The possession of a good 
constitution, 2, Deep natural flesh. 3. Quick maturity. The 
first of these is also of much importance to Jthe feeder, the 
second interests all parties concerned with beef cattle, and 
the third interests both the breeder and feeder. Constitu- 
tion is of the greatest importance, for it guarantees thrift 
and vigorous reproduction. It is the cornerstone of the suc- 
cessful herd. By deep natural flesh is meant a full muscular 
development such as will expand into a maximum fleshing 
when the animal is fattened. Slow maturity means loss to 
the breeder, and as cattle vary a great deal in the time re- 
quired to arrive at maturity, the breeder should select 
growthy, quick-maturing animals. In selecting aged animals, 
the only means of estimating quickness of maturity is by 
the form — the blocky, compact, and low-set type being the 
quickest to mature. In the case of young animals, the size 
and weight may be compared with the age and a conclusion 
reached as to the growthiness and maturity. When cattle 
intended for breeders are in good condition, the standards 
for weights at various ages are as follows : 



//I'M //iC 


Weights 


of 


Weights of 


lOHlnS 


bulls 




heifers and cows 


6 


500 




450 


12 


925 




850 


18 


1350 




1150 


24 


1725 




1400 


30 


1900 




1600 


86 


2000 




1650 



The beef bull. — In general appearance the beef bull is 
identical with the steer, being wide, deep, compact, and low 
set. When in use as breeders, bulls are seldom kept in high 
condition, hence in studying the form certain allowances 
should be made for lack of fatness, as this has much to do 
with the appearance of blockiness and massiveness presented 
by the animal. The bull should have plenty of size and we 
should not expect the same degree of refinement in bone 
that is desired in the steer, yet quality should be easily ap- 



108 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



parent. The hide should roll up mellow and loose in the hand, 
showing medium thickness, and the hair should be soft and 
fine. Even when in a medium-fat condition, the fleshing 
should be abundant and smooth. The head should be clean- 
cut, wide, and short, but larger than the steer's, with heavier 
horns, and a more burly appearance generally. The eye 
shows more animation or spirit, and the countenance has a 
more resolute expression. Such a head is indicative of mas- 
culinity which is insisted upon by all breeders, it being an 




Fig. 27. Correct Type in the Beef Sire. 
Erwin C, Champion Aberdeen-Angus bull at the 1913 International, 
owned by Mr. W. A. McHenry of Dennison, Iowa. 

evidence of potency, or breeding capacity. The bull at matur- 
ity should show a powerfully muscled neck with a pronounced 
arch or crest, this also indicating masculinity. The crest 
should come forward close to the head, and the neck should 
be short. Masculinity is again shown in the shoulders by a 
heavier, more massive development than is found in the 
steer, yet this does not excuse a rough, prominent shoulder 
such as would be troublesome in the offspring when they 
are fed for market. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 109 

The entire front of the bull is well developed and mas- 
sive, a condition which is inherited by domesticated bulls 
from their wild ancestors. In the wild state, a bull became 
the head of the herd only by right of conquest, and his burly 
head, heavy horns, muscular neck, and massive front were 
needed to defeat his male rivals, and to protect the herd 
from its enemies after he had gained leadership. It was a 
survival of the fittest, which is nature's method of improving 
the wild animals. Under domestication, the masculine char- 
acters have not the same values as in the wild state, yet 
they are none the less valuable, because they indicate a 
rugged, vigorous, and potent animal — qualities highly prized 
by any breeder. A wide and deep chest with a full heart-girth 
insures a good constitution. The middle is identical in form 
with the middle of the steer, but more emphasis is placed 
upon straightness and strength of back. The hips should 
be well laid in, and the hindquarters should be long, level, 
wide, and heavily fleshed. Great variation will be found in 
the manner in which bulls walk, some doing it awkwardly 
and clumsily, with the back humped to a marked degree, and 
with the legs sprawling; others are active in their move- 
ments, keeping their legs under them, and carrying them- 
selves with little apparent effort, the latter of course being 
much preferred. Style has market value in a bull as in a 
steer, and between an animal that stands and walks grace- 
fully, and one that slouches, other things being equal, the 
former will sell much more readily if they are priced the 
same, and his calves will more quickly attract buyers when 
they reach the market. Before purchasing a bull, the cows 
in the herd should be carefully studied and their weaknesses 
noted, so that a bull may be selected that is strong in the 
points where the cows show weakness. 

The beef breeding cow or heifer. — Cows reach maturity 
quicker than bulls, but do not attain as much size or weight. 
They show more refinement at all points than do males, but 
in form and fleshing are identical with all good beef animals 
regardless of sex. In selecting cows, emphasis is placed upon 
constitution, deep natural flesh, quick maturity, and feminine 
character. The head shows marked refinement, and there 



110 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

is a calm expression of the eye, showing a more retiring dis- 
position than the bull. As compared with steers, the horns 
are less developed, and the neck is not so thick and perhaps 
not quite so short. The shoulders are well laid in and smooth, 
and throughout the forequarters there is an absence of the 
great strength and massiveness found in the bull. The re- 
finement of the cow's head, neck, and shoulders is an evi- 
dence of femininity, which, like masculinity in the male, is 
evidence of breeding capacity. Masculine-appearing cows 
are seldom regular breeders or good mothers. A straight, 
strong back and wide, deep middle are as desirable in the cow 
as in the bull or steer, indeed even more so, as a capacious 
middle provides ample room for carrying the calf. Cows are 
perhaps a little longer in the middle, a little less compact in 
other words, than steers and bulls. 

The hips are notably different, showing more width and 
prominence, and this feature is often so pronounced as to 
cause criticism. While a wider hip is accepted in cows than 
in other beef animals, nevertheless care should be taken to 
guard against undue prominence. Cows are also usually 
shorter and rougher in the rump than bulls, but the rump 
should be as long, level, wide, and smoothly fleshed as pos- 
sible. So far as condition is concerned, it must be remembered 
that the breeding cow is more valuable on account of the 
progeny she produces than on account of her own excellence 
as an animal suitable for slaughter, hence we do not seriously 
fault her if she lacks in fatness, provided her constitution, 
form, and quality are good. However, the beef cow must 
possess the ability to lay on heavy flesh when put on heavy 
feed, for "like produces like," and if the cow will not take 
on flesh readily, then we cannot expect her calves to be profit- 
able in the feed-lot. It is on this account that beef breeding 
bulls and cows are shown in heavy flesh in the show ring, 
thus indicating their capacity as beef producers. Beef cows 
are sometimes made so fat for showing that their usefulness 
as breeders is injured by a heavy deposit of fat about the 
generative organs. The practice has, therefore, been severely 
criticized, yet the danger is not great if the feeding is care- 
fully managed, and the advantages so far outweigh the dis- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



111 



advantages that the showing of breeding animals in high 
condition seems destined to continue. In the show ring, 
little or no attention is paid to the udder of the beef cow, 
but the man who breeds cattle for the market cannot ignore 
the beef cow's milk-producing qualities. The udder should 
be of good size and shape, with well-placed teats, and the cow 
should be able to furnish ample milk for her calf during at 
least the first six months of lactation. 




Fig. 28. Correct Type in the Beef Cow. 

Fair Start 2d, a famous Shorthorn show cow, owned by Mr. Geo. J. 
Sayer of McHenry, 111. 

Value of records. — The possibilities for better agriculture 
through the application of business methods to farming are 
very great, and this is especially true of live-stock farming. 
The feeder ought to weigh his cattle regularly, and keep 
careful and complete records of the weights and of all items of 
expense incurred in finishing and marketing, so that he may 
know whether his cattle return him a profit or were fed at 
a loss. In either case, the records are available for study, 
and when the next lot is fed, comparisons may be made and 



112 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

benefits derived from past experiences. This is all the more 
important in the case of feeders who breed their own calves, 
for then such records are doubly valuable as they greatly 
assist in determining the producing qualities of the various 
animals in the breeding herd. If the breeder has records 
showing the gains made, the costs of the gains, the market 
prices received, and the dressing percentages of various calves 
from various cows and by various bulls, he has the best pos- 
sible measure of the worth of his herd bull and his breeding 
cows. If such records are complete they permit comparisons 
of one cow with another and one bull with another, thus 
indicating what animals should be retained as breeders and 
what ones discarded. If the breeder has a chance to see the 
carcasses yielded by fat cattle of his own breeding, he should 
most certainly avail himself of it and talk with some well- 
quahfied butcher regarding their merits and faults. By such 
progressive methods will the breeder forge ahead and obtain 
the maximum profit and satisfaction from his business. 

In conclusion, there is good opportunity for profit in beef 
production, and the soil needs the fertility which comes from 
the keeping of live stock. The factors necessary to insure 
success in beef production are (1) putting more land in blue- 
grass pasture, (2) better care of pastures, (3) utilization of 
com stalks through the use of a silo — build a silo, (4) the 
growing and feeding of alfalfa, (5) keeping the best heifer 
calves for breeding purposes, (6) buying only good, purebred, 
beef bulls to mate with them, and (7) staying by beef pro- 
duction year in and year out, making it a permanent part of 
farming operations. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
DAIRY TYPE. 

Dairy animals that are correct in type present a marked 
contrast to beef animals. The body and back are longer and 
much narrower, the thighs are thin, the neck longer and 
more slender, and in all parts the animal is lean and angular, 
whereas the beef animal is thick-fleshed and smooth. The 
dairy animal should present a muscular appearance, without 




Fig. 29. A Dairy Cow with Utility Points Emphasized. 

Holstein cow, Chloe Artis Jewel. Correct form, strong constitution, 
large feeding capacity, good quality, good dairy temperament, and ex- 
ceptional mammary development are all evident in this cow. Note espe- 
cially her wonderful mammary veins. Owned by Mr. C. A. Nelson of 
Waverly, la. 

being at all beefy, but should not be so low in flesh as to 
present an emaciated appearance. Both males and females 
are rather sharp at the withers, deep ribbed, fairly short of 
leg, and are well divided between the hind legs. There should 
be no bulge to the thigh, and no tendency toward the de- 

113 



114 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

velopment of what is called the twist in beef cattle. There 
is a limit to an animal's feeding and digestive capacity, hence 
one animal cannot produce both beef and milk in maximum 
quantities. Breeders of dairy cattle want the dairy cow to do 
one thing only; they discriminate against beefiness just as 
sharply as they favor evidences of large milking capacity. 

The Dairy Cow. 

Dairy cows may be judged by two distinct methods. 
One method consists of keeping records of the cow's pro- 
duction, including the duration of the lactation periods, the 
pounds of milk given at each milking, and the results of 
the Babcock tests for butter-fat. Records may also be kept 
of the quantities of feed consumed anO the cost of the feed- 
stuffs used, so that at the end of each year an accounting may 
be made with each cow, and her profitableness or unprofitable- 
ness accurately determined. This method gets right at the 
cow's producing capacity and removes all doubt concerning 
her right to a place in a producing herd. It is also much 
used in estimating a cow's valufe for breeding purposes. This 
method may be called judging by performance. 

Breeders of dairy cattle have an advantage over breeders 
of beef cattle, it being difficult for the latter to obtain complete 
records of performance. A slaughter test fully reveals a beef 
animal's capacity as a meat producer, and records of the 
cost of feed and labor may be as easily kept as for dairy 
animals, but after the beef animal has demonstrated its value 
on the block it is no longer available for breeding purposes. 
However, calves by a certain bull or from a certain cow may 
be slaughtered and records made which will help to reveal 
the worth of that particular bull or cow; but this is much 
more troublesome and expensive than the testing of dairy 
cows, and the resulting records are more meager and less 
significant. Beef producers must rely upon the hand and eye 
in valuing their cattle, and upon such records as the gains 
made, costs of gains, prices received for animals sent to mar- 
ket, and the dressing percentages. 

The other method of judging dairy cows consists of a 
detailed study of the animal, and an examination for certain 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



115 



characteristics which are evidences of milk-producing capacity. 
If the fifty highest-producing- dairy cows in the United States 
were assembled so that comparisons might easily be made, 
considerable variation would be found among them in form, 
quality, udder, and other points. Yet through all these cows 
would run certain well-defined characteristics which dairymen 
have come to know are associated with heavy production. 




i^ ig. SU. A Combination ol Beauty and Utility. 
Jersey cow, Bosnian's Anna, Champion at the National Dairy Show. 
Her chiseled, feminine head, straight top line, deep rib, nicely balanced 
udder, good teats, and large veins are all noteworthy. She is especially 
strong in temperament and quality. Note also the correlation between 
straightness of rump and levelness of udder. Owned by Mr. C. I. 
Hudson of East Norwich, L. I., N. Y. 

These characteristics may be causes of the heavy yield, or 
merely incidental correlates, but in either case they are evi- 
dences of productive capacity, and are valuable aids in judg- 
ing dairy cows. Many dairymen keep no records of the pro- 
duction in their herds, and rely solely upon an examination 
of the individuality when additional cows are purchased. 
There are other men who ridicule the idea of judging a cow 



116 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

by any other means than records of her performance; they 
will tell you of cows which score high but are poor yielders, 
and of other cows which score low but are big producers. 
However, such instances are exceptional and should not dis- 
lodge one's faith in the value of studying the individuality 
of dairy cows. No doubt it is wrong to rely solely upon either 
method of judging, for the two methods may be combined 
to the advantage of each, and in this way the best estimate 
of the value of a dairy cow is made. 

The form of the high-class dairy cow is that of a triple- 
wedge. One wedge is apparent from a side view; the cow 
is much deeper behind than in front, so that if the top line 
and underline were continued on forward they would meet 
at a point not far in front of the animal. The second wedge 
is formed by a widening from breast to hindquarters, so 
that the side lines rapidly converge if they are carried out 
in front of the cow. These two wedges are sometimes se- 
cured, in part at least, by a lack of width and depth in the 
chest, whereas they should result solely because of much 
width and depth of barrel, thus giving the needed digestive 
capacity. Although the wedge form is characteristic of the 
dairy cow, it is not valuable in itself, and the mere fact that 
a cow has it is not sufficient. The examination should go 
deeper; the wedges should be analyzed and their causes de- 
termined. The third wedge is formed by the shoulders and 
withers; the withers constitute the point of the wedge, and 
the shoulders widen out below to provide the necessary chest 
capacity. This wedge insures against coarseness at the 
withers and heavy fleshing on the shoulders. The general 
form of the cow is very angular throughout, due to a well- 
developed frame and the presence of but little flesh to give 
smoothness to the parts. Some allowance, however, must 
be made for sex and age; we naturally expect more fleshing 
in the bull than in the cow in milk, and the same is true of 
young heifers before their first calving, and also of dry cows. 
Some dairymen make an eff'ort to fatten dry cows, for the 
added body fat is resorbed and converted into butter-fat when 
the cow again comes in milk, thus temporarily raising the 
percentage of butter-fat above the normal. These features, 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 117 

however, do not excuse any persistent beefy tendency in dairy 
animals, it being distinctly objectionable. 

The head of the dairy cow should be lean, and have a 
broad muzzle, large nostrils, and a dished face. Compared with 
the head of the beef animal, there is less width and more 
length, the proportions of the head being described as medium 
long and medium broad. The eyes should be prominent, 
bright, calm, and wide apart, and the forehead should be 
fairly wide. The jaws should be strong, and the cheeks well 
muscled. The ears should be fine in texture, and of medium 
size. The horns should be fine and have a curve that adds to, 
rather than detracts from, the appearance. In Guernsey 
cattle, a yellowish secretion of the skin inside of the ear, 
and a waxy color of the horn are often regarded as evidence 
that the butter will have a rich, golden color. The head should 
have a distinctly feminine expression, and in all its features 
should be clean-cut and sharply defined. Such a head has a 
chiseled appearance indicative of quality and good breeding. 

The neck is long and thin, but muscular. The upper edge 
has a slight concave curve, and the lower border has a thin 
fold or edge of skin, called the "dewlap," extending upwards 
from the brisket. If the neck is short and thick, or has much 
depth, so as to make it appear heavy, there is a lack of true 
dairy type. The throat should be neat and trim, rather than 
full. Naturally we do not want the neck and shoulders to 
blend smoothly as in beef cattle, for this results from heavy 
fleshing. 

The brisket of the dairy cow is much narrower and sharp- 
er than in beef cattle, and does not carry forward so prom- 
inently, the difference being mainly due to the heavy fleshing 
of the beef animal. 

The shoulders should be light, that is, free from heavy 
fleshing, and the tops of the shoulder blades and the spines 
of the vertebrae form rather sharp and refined withers. The 
shoulders will not appear smooth, but they should not be 
rough and coarse. A rather open, loosely connected shoulder 
is associated with the loose-jointed conformation desired in 
the dairy animal, and is a feature found in many of the rec- 
ord-holding cows. 



118 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

The front legs should be fairly short, should come down 
straight, and the toes should point straight ahead. The pas- 
terns should be strong. There should be no coarseness of 
shanks or joints. Very often the knees come quite close 
together, the leg being crooked, and the toes turning out, 
but this is a faulty position and often indicates a narrow 
chest and lack of constitution. 

The chest gets its capacity from depth more than from 
width. However, the fore-rib should have at least a medium 
degree of arch ; breeders of Holstein-Friesian cattle place 
much emphasis upon a pronounced arch of rib. The fore-rib 
should carry down deep to give plenty of room for the heart 
and lungs. Beef cattle should fill up full and smooth with 
flesh behind the shoulder, but dairy cattle typically show 
some slight depression just behind the shoulder, although the 
heart-girth must be very large to insure a strong constitution. 
The distance between the front legs is a fairly accurate 
measure of the width of the chest floor, which should not be 
cramped, but ample, with the front fianks well filled out. 
In making a large flow of milk, the heart has to pump great 
quantities of blood which the lungs must purify, thus demand- 
ing that the dairy cow have an excellent constitution. 

The back should be straight and strong, and have mod- 
erate width, and a fair degree of length. Dairy cattle 
seem put together somewhat loosely; it is not desired 
that they should be closely coupled or short in the back. A 
sway-back is sometimes said to indicate true dairy type, but 
there is no good argument in support of this view; it is 
logical that cows with big middles should have straight, 
strong tops. Some dariymen also desire that the backbone 
shall stand up prominently along the back, loin, and rump, 
and terminate in a long tail. The argument is that a well- 
developed backbone encloses a large spinal cord, and as a 
large nerve branches off at the last dorsal vertebra and goes 
to the udder to control operations there, a large spinal column 
is accepted as evidence of proper development of the nervous 
system, which, in turn, is supposed to signify increased ef- 
ficiency on the part of the cow as a milk machine. Whether 
the size of the brain, spinal cord, and branching nerves, rather 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



119 



than their quality and texture, determines the efficiency of 
the nervous system may be questioned, and as for the course 
of reasoning showing the relation between the size of back- 
bone and quantity of milk yield, the reader may take it for 
what he deems it worth and form his own conclusions. In 
any event, there are many other ways of estimating a cow's 
value, the reliability of which are better substantiated. How- 




-froCHSMPiOM ri)!>L. DAIRY SHOW19I3 - \9I* 



Fig. 31. Excellent Type in the Dairy Cow. 

Ayrshire cow, Kilnford Bell 3d., Champion at the National Dairy 
Show in 1913 and 1914. Note the beautiful head of this cow, and her 
large shapely udder. Her conformation indicates strength and vigor 
without coarseness. Owned by Mr. Adam Seitz of Waukesha, Wis. 

ever, a prominent backbone is valuable as an evidence of 
true dairy temperament, or freedom from beefiness. 

The loin should be rather long, should carry up level and 
strong, and show a fair degree of width. 

The barrel ought to be very deep and wide, and this is 
secured when the ribs are very long and reasonably well 



120 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

arched. There will be no such degree of rotundity as is 
found in beef cattle; there should be a well-developed paunch 
with a capacity for lots of feed. A flat-sided conformation 
means a restricted capacity for food. The ribs do not lie 
close together along the side as in beef cattle, and there is 
more space between the last rib and the hip. Of all the points 
discussed thus far, two are of vast importance; these are 
constitution and digestive capacity. The dairy cow is a milk 
machine and should be studied and operated as such. When 
looked upon in this mechanical fashion, it is much easier to 
put emphasis where it belongs and so arrive more quickly 
at the true worth of the animal. Milk is manufactured in 
the udder from nutriment derived from the food consumed, 
and if the cow has the true dairy temperament and does not 
tend to take on flesh, the quantity of her milk yield will be 
in direct relation to the quantity and quality of the feed con- 
sumed. A heavy milk flow therefore necessitates full de- 
velopment of the organs of digestion, respiration, and cir- 
culation, the external evidences of which are a large heart- 
girth, a large barrel-girth, and a rather lengthy middle. 

The hips are very prominent, and should be as wide as 
possible. Narrowness across the hips is often associated with 
a lack of width in barrel, and when the hips and rump are 
narrow, the hind legs often set close together, leaving little 
space for the udder. 

The rump should be wide and level to insure against dif- 
ficulty in calving, and should not rise strongly at the tail-head 
as that conformation usually goes with the sway-back. A 
level rump is usually associated with a level udder. Length 
of rump is also very desirable; it gives symmetry to the 
form, and provides room for a long udder-attachment below. 
A narrow, peaked rump is liable to cause trouble at calving 
time, and, as pointed out, it brings the hind legs too close 
together. At the end of the rump on either side of the tail 
are the pin-bones. They should be wide apart, for reasons 
similar to those just mentioned. From the point of the hip 
to the end of the rump there should be a well-marked hol- 
low, insuring against beefiness of rump. 

The tail performs a part in milk production by protect- 
ing from the annoyance of flies. The fleshy part of the tail 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 121 

should extend to the point of the hock and the brush should 
be heavy and long. The root of the tail should be carried 
on a line with the rump, showing no undue prominence or 
roughness. 

The thighs should be muscular, but not fleshy. From a 
rear view they should be fine and there should be no fleshing 
between the legs to take up the space that should be filled 
by the udder. It is desirable that the thighs be long, and 
that the conformation inside the thigh be incurving. Wide 
variations in rumps and thighs will be found in dairy animals, 
ranging from decided beefiness to the trim, clean-cut con- 
formation shown by the best dairy cows. 

The hind legs should be placed well apart, and they should 
come down straight. If the toes point outward and the 
hocks come close together, the conformation is weak and 
there is not sufficient room for the udder. 

The udder of the dairy cow comes in for special atten- 
tion, ranking in importance with the chest and barrel, the 
three being fundamental in the make-up of a successful dairy 
cow. The udder's size, texture, shape, and teats should be 
carefully studied. 

Size of udder. — The udder should be large in circumfer- 
ence, carrying well forward along the belly, and extending 
by a graceful curve high up between the hind legs. When a 
side view of the cow is taken as she stands in natural position, 
the udder should carry out far in front of the hind legs, and 
the swell of the rear quarters of the udder should be plainly 
evident back of the limb. A measurement of nearly six feet 
around the udder has been reported, just two inches less than 
the cow's heart-girth. The udders of heifers are often de- 
ceptive, having much greater capacity than the exterior in- 
dicates. This is because the udder is held snugly against 
the abdominal wall ; but with increase in age and yield of 
milk, the added weight produces some relaxation of the sup- 
porting tissues, and the udder becomes more pendulous and 
prominent. 

Texture of udder. — Two sorts of tissue mainly compose 
the udder — glandular tissue and connective tissue. The for- 



122 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

mer is the seat of secretory activity, and the latter serves the 
purpose of a framework or support. More or less fatty tissue 
is also present. Naturally, it is very important that there 
be a large proportion of glandular tissue and a relatively small 
amount of connective tissue. This is determined by examining 
the udder with the hands for mellowness, which indicates 
that the udder is largely glandular; or still better by having 
the cow milked, when the udder should show much decrease 
in size, and the skin covering it should shrivel. When the 
udder is composed largely of connective tissue, it feels firm 
and is referred to as "meaty ;" and when it is milked out, 
the yield of milk is small and the udder shows little or no 
decrease in size. Unfortunately, meaty udders usually excel 
in shape and appearance, while the most glandular ones have 
not sufficient connective tissue to properly support them, the 
heavy weight causing them to hang down rather loosely to 
form what is called a "pendant" udder. Many large producers 
have such udders, whereas it is a fact that the type of udder 
that wins in the show ring is often lacking in milk capacity. 
The skin and hair covering the udder should be very soft 
and fine. Texture of udder is one of the most important 
considerations in judging dairy cows. 

Shape of udder. — All sorts of sizes, textures, and shapes 
are presented. The most desirable shape is an evenly balanced 
udder, with all four quarters fully developed, and having a 
flat floor, instead of being cut up between the halves and 
quarters. There is a natural tendency for the rear quarters 
to develop much more than the front quarters, the latter often 
terminating abruptly, but the most desirable shape is one 
extending well forward to make what is termed a square 
udder. Udders which carry neither forward nor backward, 
but are small and tapering from base to teats, without any 
fullness, are termed "funnel-shaped" udders. Undoubtedly 
there is considerable correlation between shape of rump and 
shape of udder. A long rump goes with a long udder, a wide 
rump with a wide udder, and a level rump is associated with 
a level udder in contrast to the tipped-up form of udder so 
often associated with a drooping rump. Shape and balance 
of udder are important, but subsidiary to size and texture. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 123 

The teats and their placement. — The teats should be cylin- 
drical, perpendicular, hang on the same level, and be placed at 
least six inches apart each way, so as to be easily grasp d 
in the hand. They should be three or four inches long and 
of a size to make milking easy, but not too large, for udders 
with very large teats are usually cut up between the halves 
and quarters, and this occurs at the expense of glandular 
tissue. When dairy cows are judged, a small amount of milk 
is drawn from each teat to make certain that the teat i? un- 
obstructed and free from defects not evident to the eye. Leaky 
teats are due to weakness of the muscles of the teat, this 
being an undesirable trait rather commonly met with, es- 
pecially in heavy milkers just before milking time. Some 
udders have not only four large teats, but also one or more 
small or rudimentary ones. A small amount of milk may 
sometimes be drawn from them, as they usually spring from 
rudimentary glands. It is preferred that the udder have four 
full-sized teats, and four only. 

In conclusion it may be said that the udder, first of all, 
should be large; second, it should be mellow and glandular; 
third, it should be well-balanced and of good shape; fourth, 
the teats should be of medium size and placed well apart. 

The milk-veins are large veins passing forward from the 
udder along the belly just beneath the skin, and disappearing 
through openings in the body-v/all known as milk-wells. The 
position of the milk-wells varies ; some are near the fore flanks, 
and some midway between the udder and the front legs. As 
will be explained more fully later, nutriment derived from the 
food is carried to the udder by the blood and is there utilized 
in the manufacture of milk. After the udder has absorbed 
those elements necessary in making milk, the blood returns 
to the heart through the milk-veins. It is evident that the 
size and development of these veins is a good index to the 
cow's milking capacity, hence they are highly useful in judging 
dairy cows. The milk-veins of young heifers are small in 
diameter and are straight. As the heifer develops and her 
milk flow increases, the veins show increase in diameter, some- 
times to an inch or more, become crooked or tortuous, and 
extend forward toward the fore flanks. The degree of tortu- 



124 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



ousness varies according to the vein's diameter, small veins be- 
ing nearly straight and large ones very crooked indeed. There 
will be at least two milk-veins, one on each side of the belly, 
and sometimes there will be three, the third one having a posi- 
tion on the middle of the abdomen between the two side veins. 
They sometimes show more or less branching, each branch 
passing forward and disappearing through its own milk-well. 
Although diameter of veins is probably most important, length 




Fig. 32. An Inferior Dairy Cow. 

Note the staggy head, coarse neck, uneven top line, small barrel, 
coarse sloping rump, beefy thighs, and small funnel-shaped udder. 
Her wedge from the side view points the wrong way. 

and extension of veins are also regarded as important, indicat- 
ing an increased venous development and capacity for a larger 
flow of blood, due to the added number of milk-wells which 
make easy the work of handling a large circulation. Nearly 
all phenomenal producers have veins not only of large diameter 
and decided tortuousness, but also of many branches and 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 125 

forward extensions. Small veins, called udder veins, occur 
on some udders, their presence being further evidence of a 
well-developed mammary circulation. 

The milk-wells vary in size to correspond with the veins, 
and are taken into account in judging. They should be large 
and easily indented when the finger is applied to them. They 
are especially valuable in estimating the milking qualities of 
dry cows, for while the udder and milk-veins are much de- 
creased in size during the dry period, the wells maintain their 
usual diameter. 

The quality of dairy cows is shown in the hide, hair, ear, 
horn, head, and bone, the same as in beef cattle. The dairy 
cow has a thinner skin than the beei cow, and it should also 
possess a maximum of mellowness and unctuousness or oili- 
ness. An oily hide is something of an evidence of milk rich in 
fat; and an abundant yellowish secretion about the udder, 
inside the thighs, around the eyes, inside the ears, at the root 
of the tail, and below any spots of light-colored hair indicates 
a rich butter color. Opinions differ on the question of quality 
in dairy cattle. Some breeders aim at a very rugged type 
having great constitution, rather large bone, and a medium 
thick hide. This type is exemplified by many Holstein-Fries- 
ians and by the St. Lambert family of Jerseys. Other breed- 
ers attempt to obtain extreme quality, even though it results 
in some delicacy of constitution. Perhaps this type is best 
illustrated by what is know as the "Island-type" of Jersey, 
which is the type developed in the native home of the breed 
on the Island of Jersey, and also fostered by many breeders 
of Jersey cattle in the United States. Perhaps the average 
dairyman will be wise to steer a course midway between the 
two extremes, insisting upon constitution first and then upon 
as much quality as may be had without delicacy. 

The temperament is of much importance. Temperament 
is a term used to express the differences in the mental and 
physical constitutions of individuals. Temperaments are of 
two kinds — sanguine and lymphatic. The sanguine tempera- 
ment is characterized by a strong, frequent pulse, firm flesh, 
soft and light hair, active movements, and sensitiveness. The 
lymphatic temperament is featured by a rather sluggish cir- 



126 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

culation, fleshiness, thicker skin and coarser hair, slow move- 
ments, and quietness. The sanguine temperament is pos- 
sessed in marked degree by the best dairy cattle, while beef 
cattle have the lymphatic temperament. The best evidence 
of true dairy temperament is a lean, angular appearance in all 
parts of the animal. 

The disposition varies greatly in different individuals. 
An irritable, kicking, fence-jumping cow is not expected to 
make much of a record as a milk and butter-fat producer. 
She uses too much of her energy in performance that has no 
market value ; the making of milk is a secondary m.atter with 
her. Such cows consume little feed and exhibit a fastidious 
appetite; in short, they are not useful cattle, there being too 
much waste of energy in nervousness and bad temper. In 
contrast to such cows is the cow that never moves faster than 
a walk and is gentle and pleasant to handle. She is a good 
feeder and is easily suited with her feed. She spends lots of 
time chewing her cud and is always busy making milk. She 
is a useful, profitable cow, provided she has the conformation 
which enables her to work successfully. The irritable cow has 
an uneasy and wild expression of the eye, and carries her head 
high. She is usually switching her tail whether it is fly-time 
or not. Proper disposition is indicated by a calm eye, and 
by a carriage of the poll of the head no higher or lower than 
the withers. If the head is carried high it indicates nervous- 
ness, while a head carried low indicates quietness carried to 
the extreme of sluggishness. 

The size of dairy cows varies between wide limits. The 
holders of the world's records in milk and butter-fat produc- 
tion are large cows, which is a condition naturally to be ex- 
pected, but does not signify that small cows are necessarily 
less profitable. The beef producer must keep up a certain 
degree of size in his cattle in order that the cuts of beef will 
have the size and weight desired, but with dairy cattle it is 
different. The dairyman cares not so much that his cows are 
large and hence large yielders, as that the yield be made 
economically ; he studies the production in relation to the feed 
consumed. Small cows not only yield less, but eat less, and 
may be as profitable as large cows. The latter have an ad- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 127 

vantage in that they can profitably consume proportionately 
more roughage, and fewer of them need be kept to produce 
a given quantity of milk, requiring fev^er stalls and slightly 
less labor. On the other hand, if the calves can be sold at a 
profit, as would be true of a purebred herd, the smaller cows 
will reahze more profit from this source. The question of size 
is of minor importance and may be almost ignored so far as 
the production of market milk is concerned. 

The Dairy Bull. 

The Dairy Bull. — The features of dairy type as they 
apply to the dairy cow having been fully discussed, and the 
fundamental points of dairy type having been set forth in 
that connection, the requirements for the bull may be pre- 
sented more quickly. In form, the bull should be rather 
long and moderately wide, with a deep rib, rather short leg, 
and rather angular body. His build should impress one with 
its strong constitution, barrel capacity, strength of back, 
and muscularity without beefiness. The head should be de- 
cidedly masculine in its proportions and expression, and have 
a wide muzzle, large nostrils, large, bright eyes with a coura- 
geous expression, and clean-cut features. In all breeds ex- 
cept the Ayrshire, the masculine head will have short, stubby 
horns. The neck should be strong and the crest heavily de- 
veloped. The brisket shows more width, depth, and promi- 
nence than in the cow, in keeping with a masculine develop- 
ment of the forequarters. The shoulders are deeper and 
more heavily developed, but should not be beefy. The 
withers show more width than in the cow, yet tend to be 
fine and free from flesh. The front legs should be straight, 
rather short, and have fair width between. The chest should 
be moderately wide and very deep, so as to remove all suspicion 
of lack of chest capacity. The back should be moderately 
wide and fairly long, but carried up straight and strong. The 
top line of the dairy bull usually rises higher over the withers 
and neck than over the back and loin, and the first impression 
may be that the animal is sway-backed, but upon further study 
the observer often finds he has been misled by the rise over 
the withers and crest. No marked covering of flesh should 



128 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



be found on the back, but the backbone should be plainly 
evident. 

The loin should be long, level, and medium wide. The 
barrel should be deep and well developed, but need not show 
as much capacity as demanded in the cow. The hips are only 
moderately wide, the points being much less prominent than 
in the female. The rump should be long, level, and medium 
wide. The thighs may be slightly heavier than in the female, 




Fig. 33. Excellent Type in the Dairy Bull. 
Guernsey bull, Holden 4th., a noted breeding and show bull. Mas- 
culinity, depth of body, quality, and freedom from beefiness are his 
outstanding good points. Owned by Wilcox & Stubbs of Des Moines, la. 

but any considerable degree of thickness is sharply criticized. 
Some dairy bulls almost rival beef bulls in the amount of 
fleshing shown in the hindquarters, and such animals are 
distinctly not of true dairy type in conformation and temper- 
ament. A dairy bull should carry no more fleshing than is 
permissible in a dry cow or in a heifer before her first calv- 
ing. The bull should be well divided between the hind legs, and 
should have rather flat, trim thighs. The hind legs should be 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



129 



placed rather well apart, and should be straight and medium 
short. In common with the males of nearly all species of ani- 
mals classed as mammals, the dairy bull has miniature teats 
called rudimentaries. These are located in front and on each 
side of the scrotum, there being two on a side. They vary in 
length from mere buttons to an inch or more. Some persons 
attach much significance to the rudimentaries, believing that 
their position and size indicate the shape and capacity of udder 




.«*« 



Fig. 34. A Dairy Bull With Strength and Vigor. 

Holstein-Friesian bull, King Homestead DeKol, Champion at many 
state fairs and at the Waterloo and National Dairy Shows in 1911. 
His masculinity, ruggedness, and length and depth of body are marked. 
Owned by Mr, John B. Irwin of Minneapolis, Minn. 

which will be shown by the bull's daughters. It is not estab- 
lished that the rudimentaries really have such a significance, 
and many persons give them no attention in judging. Dairy 
bulls also have small veins on the belly corresponding to the 
large milk-veins of the dairy cow. 

The quality of the bull is very important; it should be 
easily apparent in a loose, mellow hide, and a reasonable degree 



130 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

of quality is also wanted in head and bone. Coarseness is an 
evidence of lack of good breeding. In disposition, dairy bulls 
are much less quiet and trustworthy than beef bulls, often 
being ill-natured and sometimes unruly. This does not subject 
them to criticism unless they become dangerous and difficult 
to handle, but is accepted as an evidence of masculinity. A 
study of cattle impresses one that dairy bulls and cows exhibit 
a wider sex difference than is shown between males and fe- 
males of the beef breeds. As the making of milk is a female 
sexual character, perhaps selection and breeding for high 
milk production has tended to make dairy cows more feminine 
and dairy bulls more masculine. 

The individuality of the dairy bull is certainly somewhat 
significant of his value, but it reveals less of the animal's abil- 
ity to perform his function than does the cow's individuality 
when it is studied in relation to function. The bull is only 
valuable as a progenitor of heifer calves that will develop into 
heavy milkers. What points, therefore, in the individuality 
of the bull are evidence that he will sire deep-milking cows? 
It may as well be stated first as last that it is impossible to 
determine in any accurate manner from the bull's individuality 
what his breeding qualities, as they relate to milk flow, will be. 
There are far more reliable sources from which to form such 
an estimate and these will be discussed later. Nevertheless, 
it is important that the dairy bull show a rugged constitution, 
great digestive capacity, strength of conformation, and ab- 
sence of beefiness, these being essential points desired in his 
female offspring. If he is faulty in any of these respects, we 
may reasonably suppose that his daughters will be similarly 
deficient. He should be masculine in order to insure potency. 
Having all these points of individuality, it is still a question 
as to what sort of performance may be expected from his 
daughters. 



CHAPTER IX. 
THE SECRETION OF MILK. 

Milk is secreted by the mammary glands or udder of the 
female after the birth of young, the secretion continuing until 
the young are mature enough to live on ordinary food. All 
animals which have mammary glands are classed as mam- 
mals, and this group of animals presents wide variations in 
the number, position, capacity, shape, and prominence of the 
glands. The mammary glands are present in the male in rudi- 
mentary condition, although in abnormal cases in man and in 
lower animals, milk is secreted by males. Milk is easily di- 
gested and very nutritious, and no food for the young animal is 
equal to its mother's milk. The milk of a number of animals 
is valued for human food, including the cow, goat, and sheep. 
The highest development of the udder is found in the dairy 
cow, the extreme development having been largely secured by 
methods of breeding; the lactation period has become pro- 
longed, and the daily yield and quality of milk have been 
much improved. Cows have been known to secrete over one 
hundred and thirty-five pounds of milk in a day, their own 
weight in less than two weeks, and over fifteen tons in a year. 

Exterior of the cow's udder. — The cow's udder consists 
of four mammary glands, usually referred to as the "quar- 
ters," and sometimes there are one to four rudimentaries, all 
arranged in pairs on opposite sides of the median line of the 
body. The udder begins a few inches behind the umbilicus 
and continues backward and upward between the legs. The 
right and left sides are divided on the exterior by a well-defined 
line or groove, but the line of separation between the front 
and rear quarters is not so pronounced. The appearance jf 
size depends partly upon the strength and shape of the ab- 
dominal wall ; if the wall is loose, the udder is forced downward 
and backward and there is a seeming increase in size. This 
sometimes accounts for the apparently sudden development 
of a good udder after the second or third calving. The skin 

131 



132 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

covering the udder is very thin and elastic, and the hair is 
finer, softer, and shorter than on the rest of the body. The 
skin covering the teats bears httle or no hair, and is often 
of a darker color than upon other parts. 

Structure of the cow's udder. — When dissected, the right 
and left halves of the udder are found to be enveloped in 
strong, fibrous capsules. The fibers of the two capsules inter- 
mingle somewhat, and are prolonged upward to the median 
line of the body to form a ligamentous support and partition, 
the two halves thus being made distinct. The quarters on 
each side are not so distinctly separated, there being no such 
well-developed partition as between the halves, nor can the 
line of separation be seen unless the tissues are stained. Dr. 
A. W. Bitting of the Indiana Experiment Station injected 
different colored liquids through the teats and found that the 
liquids did not leave the quarter, his investigation showing 
that a rather distinct transverse partition exists. It follows 
that milk drawn from any teat must be produced in its quar- 
ter, although there is slight communication between the small- 
er ducts in the upper parts of the two quarters on a side. 
Between the quarters of the sam.e half, the capsule sends ofi" 
a rather incomplete transverse partition common to both, 
and there are numerous other reflections of the capsule inward 
from all sides to serve as a supporting framework for the 
gland tissue and to form the milk cisterns and ducts. 

Structure of the teat. — The tissues of the capsule are pro- 
longed downward, becoming greatly thickened, to form the 
walls of the teats. The teat is cylindrical or conical in shape, 
variable in length and diameter, and placed at the lowest por- 
tion of the gland. Its shape and size are independent of the 
size of the gland. It is very elastic and is covered with a 
tough, close-fitting, thin skin. Through its center runs a duct 
called the teat-canal, having a capacity, when distended, of 
from one to one and one-half ounces in moderate-sized teats. 
There are both circular and longitudinal muscle fibers, and at 
the lower end the circular fibers form an involuntary sphincter 
muscle, the function of which is to keep the teat-canal closed 
under ordinary pressure. At the upper end of the teat is 
another involuntary sphincter muscle, but it does not com- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 133 

pletely close the canal, and sometimes a third is found further 
above. The sphincters are sometimes so relaxed that very 
slight pressure is sufficient to open them, and the cow leaks 
her milk; of other cows the reverse is true, making them 
hard milkers. 

The milk-cistern, ducts, and alveoli. — Above the teat is 
a large reservoir, called the milk-cistern, seldom holding more 
than half a pint. This cistern is divided into pockets of 
various sizes into which the large milk-ducts empty. At the 
point of entrance of these ducts are sphincter muscles, and 
while they cannot entirely close the openings, they may very 
nearly do so, and in this way the cow is enabled to "hold up her 
milk." These large ducts ramify to all parts of the gland and 
anastomose (intercommunicate) freely; and at the intersec- 
tions are still other voluntary sphincter muscles. A strong 
effort on the part of the cow is required to close the larger 
ducts in the lower part of the udder, but a slight effort will 
close the smaller canals further up in the glands. Cows differ 
greatly in their control over these muscles and in their dis- 
position to exert it. The most common causes of holding up 
milk are fright, the presence of strangers in the stable, lack 
of familiarity with surroundings, irregularity in the time or 
manner of feeding or milking, and sexual heat. With some 
cows it becomes a habit, much injuring the usefulness and 
milking capacity of the animal. The large ducts subdivide 
into smaller ducts, and these again into smaller ones, until 
they terminate in groups of small sac-like bodies known as 
the ultimate follicles, acini, or alveoli. The teat-canal, milk- 
cistern, and ducts are lined with columnar epithelium, but the 
function of these epithelial cells is not known. 

The alveolus (plural, alveoli) is the sacculated distention 
found in groups of three to five on the end of the minute milk- 
ducts. It is the essential part of the gland. It is lined by 
a single layer of epithelial cells which are especially concerned 
in milk production. The alveolus is only 1-30 of an inch in 
diameter, and its cavity is from 1-250 to 1-100 of an inch in 
length and from 1-1300 to 1-800 of an inch in diameter. New 
ducts and alveoli may be formed up to about the fifth or sixth 
year, thereby increasing the producing capacity of the cow. 



134 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



The entire gland may be compared to a large bunch of 
grapes; the main duct of the gland branches very much as 
the stem of the bunch of grapes branches; and just as the 
branches and sub-branches of the stem lead to the grapes, so 
the branches of the duct lead to the alveoli of the gland. If 
we pack the bunch of grapes in a small basket of sawdust, 
so that the sawdust fills up loosely the spaces between the 
individual grapes and the branches of the stem, we may 
develop our comparison further; the sawdust stands for the 
connective tissue in which the ducts and alveoli are embedded, 
and the basket stands for the capsule. 




Fig. 35. Where Milk Is Made. 

A group of alveoli, a, Duct; b, capillary network; c, alveoli; d, 
epithelial cells; e, fibrous tissue. (After Hough & Sedgwick.) 

The arterial circulation. — The mammary glands are 
abundantly suppHed with blood. The blood leaves the heart 
through the posterior aorta, common iliacs, and external iliac, 
which carry backward to the region of the hips. The exter- 
nal iliac there divides into two arteries, one of which, the 
prepubic, divides into the two pudic arteries, the external one 
of which passes down the thigh and gives off a branch, known 
as the mammary artery, which enters the top of the udder 
from the rear. The mammary artery has four large branches, 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



135 



one for each quarter of the udder, and there is also a small 
branch for each rudimentary gland. The large branches sub- 
divide within the gland tissue. 

The venous circulation is more complex than the arterial. 
The blood is collected from the capillaries by from 14 to 17 
large veins which empty into the mammary vein running 
parallel with the mammary artery at the top of the udder. 
The mammary vein is divided into two parts which encircle 
the top of the udder and connect in front and behind like a 




Fig. 36. Circulation To and From the Udder. 

The broken lines represent the arteries which carry blood contain- 
ing the nutritive material to the udder where it is manufactured into 
milk. The heavy black lines represent the veins which carry the blood 
back to the heart. Note that there is but one route from the heart to 
the udder, whereas there are two routes from the udder to the heart. 
M. v., milk vein; M. W., milk well. (After Bitting of the Indiana 
Experiment Station.) 

rope tied around it. From this circuit of veins the blood 
returns to the heart by two routes. One route leads out to 
to the rear of the udder, then up to the region of the hips, 
and thence to the vena cava and the heart, the veins along 
the route being parallel to the arteries through which the 
blood came, and being similarly named. The other route is 
already familiar, leading out in front of the udder through the 
large subcutaneous abdominal veins (milk-veins) which pass 



136 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

through the chest wall and become a part of the internal 
thoracic vein, reaching the heart by way of the anterior vena 
cava. The direction of the blood in the encircling veins at 
the top of the udder is determined by the valves in the vessels. 
The larger volume of blood passes through the milk-veins, thus 
bringing them into great prominence. During pregnancy, 
the pressure of the uterus tends to interfere with the circula- 
tion through the posterior vessels, and this tends to further 
increase the size of the milk-veins. Inasmuch as the blood 
may return to the heart posteriorly, it is possible to have a 
large milker with small milk-veins, but this is not likely to 
occur. Cows with large milk-veins are large producers, and 
cows with small milk-veins may be large producers. 

Nature and composition of milk. — Cow's milk is an opaque, 
yellowish-white fluid devoid of odor except for a short time 
after its extraction. When fresh, it is slightly sweet and has 
a slightly alkaline reaction. Under the microscope, milk is 
found to be a fine emulsion of fat, a quart of milk being esti- 
mated to contain 2,000,000,000,000 fat globules, and the cow 
that gives two gallons of milk per day must therefore secrete 
at the rate of over 175,000,000 fat globules per second. The 
composition of milk varies a great deal ; there are differences 
between breeds, differences between individuals, and differ- 
ences in the milk from the same cow at different times. As 
lactation advances, the daily milk yield decreases, but the 
percentage of fat constantly increases as does the percentage 
of all solids. The specific gravity of average milk is 1.032 
and its composition is as follows : 



Milk 



I Fat 3.9% 

The results of various American experiments indicate 
that the average composition of the milk of the various 
breeds is as follows: 



'Water 87% 












^Ash 


.7% 


Solids 13% 


( Solids not 
Fat 9.1% ■ 

1 1 


Casein 

Albumin 

Sugar 


2.7% 

.7% 

5.0% 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 137 

Breeds Solids Fat 

per ct. per ct. 

Jersey 14.70 5.35 

Guernsey _ 14.71 5.16 

Devon 14.50 4.60 

Shorthorn 13.38 4.05 

Ayrshire 12.61 3.66 

Holstein-Friesian 11.85 3.42 

The quantity of milk given by the different breeds is 
almost inversely proportional to the fat content, so that the 
total quantity of solids and fat is nearly the same for all 
dairy breeds. The highest average percentage of fat in a 
regular milking that has been reported is 10.7, and the cow 
did not give milk of this richness regularly. In a few cases, 
tests showing 9 per cent, have been made and it is only rarely 
that a cow averages 7 per cent. 

Secretion of milk. — The udder is a true organ of secretion. 
Milk is not merely strained from the blood, but contains sub- 
stances not found in the blood, these being formed in the 
gland itself. Surrounding the alveoli are capillaries, and 
through the walls of the capillaries the fluids of the blood 
pass freely into the cavity of the alveoli by osmosis. At the 
same time, the epithelial cells lining the alveoli are the seat 
of secretory activities which produce some of the most im- 
portant constituents of the milk. Thus milk is formed partly 
from the osmosis of blood serum and white blood corpuscles 
directly into the cavity of the alveolus, and partly by a chem- 
ical elaboration by the epithelial cells. The water from the 
blood serum passes out of the alveolus, carrying with it some 
of the mineral constituents of the blood in solution, and a 
part of the albumin of the blood serum. During its passage 
from the capillaries to the cavity of the alveolus, by far the 
larger part of the albumin of the blood is changed by the 
epithelial cells to the casein of milk. These cells also secrete 
globules of fat, having an average diameter of about 0.0001 of 
an inch. Small amounts of fat may also be carried over di- 
rectly by the blood and appear in the milk without change. 
Only minute quantities of sugar are found in the blood, hence 
milk-sugar is no doubt also elaborated by the secretory cells 
of the udder. 



138 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

Milk secretion is not perfectly understood in all its de- 
tails. In some of its phases, milk secretior. is undoubtedly 
a continuous process, but the agitation of the udder at milking 
time seems to be very essential in completing the process of 
milk manufacture. Between milkings, the udder is engaged in 
certain important preliminary steps which make possible the 
rapid culmination of the act of secretion when the stimulus 
afforded by agitation is given. (The theory that milk secre- 
tion is largely the result of cell growth, division, and degen- 
eration, is no longer held by leading physiologists.) 

If an udder is cut open just before milking time, it is 
found that the milk-cisterns and ducts are distended with 
milk containing a very low per cent, of butter-fat. The quan- 
tity of this milk is only a small part of the total yield which 
the cow would give at a milking. Agitation of the udder is 
necessary to complete the process of secretion. Observation 
of a calf, lamb, or kitten when nursing shows that considerable 
agitation is a prominent feature of nature's method of milking. 
Under this stimulus the water of the blood rushes through the 
walls of the alveoli and carries the butter-fat, which has been 
manufactured by the epithelial cells, down into the milk-ducts 
and cisterns, and finally through the teats. Other products 
of secretion, namely casein and lactose (milk-sugar), are 
brought down also. The last milk drawn from the udder is 
the richest in fat; in one experiment, four successive samples 
taken during the course of milking tested 0.76, 2.60, 5.35, and 
9.80 per cent, of fat respectively. 

Experiments made at the Wisconsin Experiment Station 
in manipulating the udders of cows, after the regular milkings, 
resulted in bringing down considerable milk very rich in but- 
ter-fat. It was estimated that if the udders of the million 
cows in Wisconsin at that time were manipulated after the 
customary operation of milking, and if butter-fat is worth 
only twenty cents per pound, the value of the extra product 
would amount to $6.00 per head annually, or $6,000,000 for all 
the cows in the state. 

Colostrum. — Because of more or less incompleteness of 
the various processes of secretion at the start of the lactation 
period, the first milk differs in composition from that after- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 139 

wards secreted, and is called colostrum. It is thick and vis- 
cous, contains less water than normal milk, five times as much 
albumin, twice as much ash, slightly more fat, and about one- 
half the usual percentage of sugar. It has a laxative effect 
on the calf, useful in properly starting the work of digestion. 
In about one week following birth, the yield of milk usually 
increases and becomes normal in composition. 

Stimuli to secretion. — The cow has no control over the 
secretion of milk, it being involuntary. During the latter 
part of pregnancy, the embryo calf makes very rapid growth, 
and the blood supply to the placenta is much increased. At 
that time the cow does not ordinarily secrete milk, her excess 
of energy being given to the growth of the embryo. When 
the calf is born, the demand through the placenta ceases, and 
the large volume of blood is turned toward the udder. A short 
time previous to calving, the udder of the cow shows consider- 
able increase in size, and by the time the calf is born the 
mammary glands are fulfilling their function nearly to their 
maximum capacity. In young heifers that have never had a 
calf, the udder contains a watery, saline fluid. Regular at- 
tempts at milking, or manipulation of the udder with the 
hands, or allowing a calf to suck, may stimulate the secretion 
of considerable normal milk in such young heifers. The same 
methods have been known to cause the secretion of a milk- 
like fluid by the rudimentary glands of males. Thorough 
milking furnishes a stimulus that causes prolongation of the 
lactation period, while incomplete removal of milk tends to 
check the secretion and shorten the milking period, and it may 
also cause serious inflammation. Frequent milkings tend to 
increase the flow of milk, but there is no special advantage in 
milking more often than twice a day unless the cow is a big 
producer and the udder becomes very much distended between 
milkings, as such distention acts as a check to further secre- 
tion. Regularity in milking is essential to best results, both 
in the amount secreted per day and in the length of the lacta- 
tion period. 



CHAPTER X. 
VARIATIONS IN THE USEFULNESS OF DAIRY COWS. 

The census of 1910 showed that the average cow kept 
for milk production averaged 3,113.2 pounds of milk per year. 
If this milk tested four per cent, fat, each cow produced 
124.5 pounds of butter-fat. Adding 15 per cent, to estimate 
the butter, the average American dairy cow is found to have 
had 143.2 pounds of butter to her credit. Rather it was a 
discredit. Mr. H. B. Gurler, Ex-President of the National 
Dairy Show Association, estimates that at least 200 pounds 
of butter are necessary to pay for feed, labor, taxes, insur- 
ance, and interest on the investment in keeping one cow. 
As he says, "No one will become rich milking 200-pound 
cows." He further states that the 200-pound cow has a 
market value of about $30. The 250-pound cow gives 50 
pounds for profit, or $10, which will pay 10 per cent, interest 
on $100. If the 200-pound cow is worth $30, the 250-pound 
cow is worth $130, the 400-pound cow is worth $430, and 
the few exceptional cows that have produced enough butter- 
fat in a year to make 1,000 pounds of butter are each worth 
$10,000. These figures might be further increased by in- 
cluding the values of the calves produced by the cows. As 
a matter of fact, however, cows yielding 200 pounds of butter 
or less are not worth anything as dairy cows, but only what 
they will bring for beef, and the 250-pound cow will not ordi- 
narily bring $130, yet she will pay a reasonable per cent, of 
interest on that sum. These figures are only valuable as 
rough indications of the wide variations in the usefulness of 
dairy cows. It is estimated that one-fourth of the cows in 
the entire country kept for milk do not pay for the cost of 
keeping, and nearly one-fourth more fail to yield an annual 
profit. 

The following tables are compiled from the results of 
the classic tests of purebred dairy cows at the Pan-American 
and Louisiana-Purchase expositions. These tables are pre- 

140 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



141 



sented to show variations in the profitableness of different 
individuals rather than of different breeds: 

Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, 1901; six-months test. 



Breed and 
individual 



Av. 
daily 
yield 

of 
milk 



Per 

cent. 

of 

fat 



Daily 
return 
over 
feed 
cost 



Breed and 
individual 



Av. 
daily 
yield 

of 
milk 



Per 

cent. 

of 

fat 



Daily 
return 
over 
feed 
cost 



Guernsey — 

Best cow 

Poorest cow 

Red Polled— 

Best cow 

Poorest cow 

Jersey — 

Best cow 

Poorest cow 

Holstein — 

Best cow 

Poorest cow 

Ayrshire — 

Best cow 

Poorest cow 



Lbs. 

31.2 
23,5 

34.2 
30.1 

25.8 
30.3 

45.2 
41.1 

39.1 
36.8 



5.4 
4.4 

4.5 
3.7 

5.6 
4.0 

3.4 
3.3 

3.6 
3.4 



Cents 

33.0 
16.3 

28.9 
17.6 

27.9 

21.4 

27.4 
20.3 

26.2 
21.5 



Shorthorn — 

Best cow 

Poorest cow 

Polled Jersey- 
Best Cow 

Poorest cow 

Brown Swiss 

Best cow 

Poorest cow 

Fr. Canadian - 

Best cow 

Poorest cow 

Dutch Belted- 
Best cow 

Poorest cow 



Lbs. 

38.3 
33.6 



3.7 
3.4 



22.3 

13.7 


5.6 
4.3 


32.2 
34.6 


4.1 
3.3 


30.0 

21.4 


4.0 
3.7 


29.5 

21.8 


4.2 
3.1 



Cents 

23.9 
16.0 

23.8 
8.6 

22.9 
16.9 

22.6 

12.7 

21.1 
6.4 



Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, 120-day test. 



Breed and 
individual 



Average daily 
yield per cow 



Milk 



Jersey — ■ 

Best cow 

Poorest cow 

Holstein-Friesian- 

Best cow.... 

Poorest cow 

Brown Swiss — ■ 

Best cow.. 

Poorest cow 

Shorthorn — 

Best cow 

Poorest cow 



Lbs. 

48.4 
38.8 

67.5 

47.1 

51.0 
38.5 

43.4 
21.4 



Fat Total 
solids 



Lbs. Lbs. 



2.3 
1.6 

2.4 
1.5 

1.8 
1.5 

1.7 
0.8 



6.7 
5.1 

7.5 
5.1 

6.1 

5.1 

5.5 

2.7 



Per 

cent, 
fat 



Feed 

cost 

100 lbs 

milk 



4.8 
4.1 

3.5 
3.2 

3.4 
3.8 

4.0 
3.9 



Cents 

55.0 
65.0 

45.0 
61.0 

54.5 
69.5 

54.5 
107.5 



Feed 

cost 

1 lb. 

fat 



Gain 



Daily 
return 



in live[ over 

wt. feed 

I cost 



Cents 

9.7 
13.2 

11.0 
16.5 

13.7 
15.5 

11.7 
23.5 



77 
85 

54 
147 

74 
147 

139 
23.4 



Lbs. Cents 



42.1 
22.3 

38.4 
15.0 

23.1 
16.5 

27.1 
1.6 



The tests at the two expositions cannot be compared, 
except in the most general sort of way, because different 
prices were charged for feed and credited for milk and butter- 
fat produced. All of the tests plainly show that greater 



142 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

variations in economy of production exist within the various 
breeds than between the breeds. This is a point often for- 
gotten by those who argue upon the comparative merits of 
breeds. At the Pan-American Exposition, the best Guernsey 
cow returned five times as much profit as the poorest Dutch 
Belted cow. At the Louisiana-Purchase Exposition, the best 
Jersey returned twenty-six times the profit returned by the 
poorest Shorthorn. In both tests it will be observed that in 
the majority of instances the best cow of a breed returned 
twice as much profit as the poorest cow of the same breed. 

At the Louisiana-Purchase Exposition, a Holstein cow 
was the leader in total production of milk and butter-fat, 
and a Jersey led in economy of production. The following 
facts from the complete, detailed reports are of much value 
in showing the possibilities for profit from well-bred dairy 
cows of real dairy type. Although varying considerably in 
the quantity and quality of milk produced, it will be observed 
that they were nearly equal from the standpoint of net profits. 

Name Shadybrook Gerben Loretta D. 

Breed Holstein Jersey 

Duration of test, days... 120. 120. 

Days in milk at beginning of test 12. 71 

Total pounds milk 8101.7 5802.7 

1 otal pounds butter-fat 282.6 280 2 

Total pounds butter 330.4 330.0 

Average per cent, fat 3.48 4.82 

Average per cent, total solids 11.13 13.83 

Average pounds milk per day 67.5 48.4 

Pounds milk to make 1 lb. butter 24.52 17.58 

Average value milk per day, cents 86.15 83.11 

Average value butter per day, cents 68 .82 68.75 

Average grain ration, pounds 22 1 17 .5 

Average hay and silage, pounds 64 2 36.9 

Cost of ration per day, cents 30 47 26.65 

Cost of feed in 100 lbs. milk, cents 45. 55. 

Cost of feed in 1 lb. butter, cents 11 .07 9.69 

Average net profit milk per days, cents 55.68 56.45 

Average net profit butter per day, cents . 38.34 42.09 

Pounds gain in weight during test 54. 77. 

The highest records in milk and butter-fat production 
are useful in showing the possibilities in the breeding, feed- 
ing, and management of dairy cattle. Sometimes these rec- 
ords are made regardless of economy in production, no expense 
being spared to give the cow every opportunity to make a 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 143 

high record ; sometimes they have been secured at the expense 
of the cow's future usefulness, her constitution being under- 
mined and her digestion permanently deranged by the forcing 
methods that are practiced. Hence the value of such records 
is sometimes overestimated. 

Following are the leading records of the various dairy 
breeds, the world's records over all breeds being indicated 
by an asterisk (*). 

Holsteitis 

*One day, 1913, Margie Newman 136.50 lbs. milk 

*7 days, 1913, Riverside Sadie DeKol Burke 920.80 lbs. milk 

*7 days, 1913, K. P. Pontiac Lass 35. .34 lbs. fat 

*30 days, 1913, Riverside Sadie DeKol Burke 3,735.60 lbs. milk 

*30 days, 1913, K. P. Pontiac Lass 137.20 lbs. fat 

*Oneyear, 1914, Tilly Alcartra 30,452 60 lbs. milk 

*One year, 1915, Finderne Holingenfayne 1,116.05 lbs. fat 

Gtternseys 

One year, 1915, Murne Cowan . 24,008.00 lbs. milk 

One year, 1915, Murne Cowan.. . 1,098.18 lbs. fat 

Jerseys 

One year, 1913, Eminent's Bess ...18,782.87 lbs. milk 

One year, 1914, Sophie 19th of Hood Farm 998.20 lbs. fat 

Ayrshires 

One year, 1913, Auchenbrain Brown Kate 4th 23,022.00 lbs. milk 

One year, 1913, Auchenbrain Brown Kate 4th 917.60 lbs. fat 

Brown Swiss 

One year, 1913, College Bravura 2d 19,460.60 lbs. milk 

One year, 1913, College Bravura 2d 798 . 16 lbs. fat 

An Ayrshire cow, Crocus, is reported to have given over 
45 tons of milk during her 17 years of life. Another Ayrshire 
cow, Annie Bert, is reported to have given over 45 tons of 
milk during twelve lactation periods. She also had a record 
of nearly 2 tons of butter. The University of Missouri had 
a Jersey cow, Hope of Ramapo, that in 17 years produced 
78,585 pounds of milk, 4,147 pounds of butter, and 15 calves, 
thus bringing $1341.72 into the school treasury. 

Cause of wide variation in milk production. — The Mis- 
souri Experiment Station recently completed an investigation 
of the cause of wide variation in quantity of milk and fat 
yielded by dairy cows and in the economy of their production. 
Two cows in the station herd showing striking difference in 
production were experimented with. They were registered 
Jerseys, sired by the same bull from dams distantly related, 



144 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

and they had been raised under practically the same con- 
ditions. The following table gives the facts regarding these 
two cows during the first two milking periods prior to the 
investigation : 

Name Pedro's Ramaposa Pedro's Elf 

Date of birth Sept. 4. 1902 May 11, 1903 

Age at first calving 29 mo. 18 mo. 

Pounds milk, first lactation period.. 4552 878 

Pounds fat, first lactation period 238.8 44 1 

Number of days in milk 337 131 

Pounds milk, second lactation period 7174 3189 

Pounds fat, second lactation period 377 114 8 

Number of days in milk 365 232 

During these two lactation periods, Pedro's Ramaposa 
produced 2.8 pounds of milk and 3.9 pounds of fat for each 
pound produced by Pedro's Elf. While the second milking 
period was in progress, an investigation was planned to de- 
termine the cause of this difference in efficiency as dairy 
cows. The cows were therefore bred so that the calves might 
be born as near the same time as possible ; Pedro's Elf calved 
October 4, 1907, and Pedro's Ramaposa calved October 7. 

Complete records were kept of the amount and compo- 
sition of the feeds consumed. Each cow was fed a ration of 
the same composition at all times, but the amount was varied 
to suit the individual. As there was a possibility of the 
inferior cow using part of her feed for depositing fat on her 
body — a characteristic of inferior milking cows — each cow 
was fed such an amount as would keep her at a uniform body 
weight. Thus the feed consumed could be studied in relation 
to dairy qualities only. They were fed all they would con- 
sume, unless they began to lay on flesh and gain in weight. 
The refused feed was collected, analyzed, and deducted from 
the records. Complete records were kept of the milk pro- 
duced and of its composition. The same man always milked 
both cows. In order to eliminate another disturbing factor 
from such an experiment, the cows were kept farrow; had 
they carried calves, it would have been impossible to have 
accurately measured the food requirements for milk produc- 
tion. A digestion trial was conducted when the cows were 
at their maximum production to ascertain whether any dif- 
ference existed in the efficiency of digestion. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 145 

At the end of the milking period the cows were kept far- 
row and the same ration was fed as during the milking 
period; this was continued for 90 days, the feeding being 
so regulated in quantity as to maintain the cows at a 
uniform body weight. In this way the requirement for main- 
tenance was determined for each cow. A maintenance ration 
is one that will maintain a resting animal at a uniform body 
weight; such a ration keeps up the body heat, makes repairs 
in the tissues, and furnishes energy for the working of the 
heart, lungs, digestive and other organs, and for slight move- 
ments of the body. If the dairy cow is pregnant, she requires 
enough feed above maintenance to furnish nourishment for 
the foetus. Still more feed in excess of maintenance is neces- 
sary if she is giving milk as well as carrying a calf. Cows 
vary somewhat in their maintenance requirements, hence two 
cows consuming the same amounts of feed may have differ- 
ent proportions of their feed available for milk production. 
For instance, a restless cow has a greater maintenance re- 
quirement than a quiet one ; when standing up, more feed is 
required for maintenance than when lying down. Many other 
factors affect the requirement for maintenance. It is there- 
fore apparent that an investigation into the cause of differ- 
ences in the economy of production is not complete unless 
the requirement for maintenance is determined. This the 
Missouri Station did by finding how much feed was necessary 
to maintain each cow at a constant body weight while dry 
and farrow. Other experiments have shown that a well-fed 
dairy cow uses about 43 per cent, of her food for maintenance, 
30 per cent, in the work of converting food into milk, and 
about 20 per cent, finally appears as milk. These percentages 
vary, depending on the nature of the feed and the individual, 
but a good dairy cow is more efficient as a machine than 
either the horse or the steam engine. In the Missouri ex- 
periment it was found that the higher-producing cow required 
slightly more feed for maintenance; hence, the wide variation 
in production could not be accounted for by a superiority of 
the high-producing cow in regard to maintenance. 

During the year of the investigation, Pedro's Ramaposa 
produced 8,522 pounds of milk and 469.9 pounds of fat, 
Pedro's Elf produced 3,188 pounds of milk and 169.3 pounds 



146 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

of fat. The former produced 2.67 pounds of milk and 2.77 
pounds of fat for each pound produced by the latter. The 
digestion trial showed practically identical results, the co- 
efficient of digestion being 64.89 per cent, for the best cow 
and 64.99 for the poorest cow. Pedro's Ramaposa consumed 
1.75 pounds of feed for each pound used by the other cow, 
and the real cause of the difference in production was found 
to be the amount of feed consumed above maintenance. The 
maintenance requirement being practically the same, Rama- 
posa had 65 per cent, of the total food consumed available 
for milk production, and Elf had only 44.2 per cent, thus 
available. 

It was observed that Ramaposa, when producing the 
maximum milk yield, was practically to the limit of her 
capacity for handling food. Her maximum capacity for food 
seemed to coincide closely with the amount necessary to 
maintain her at uniform weight. Elf consumed all her feed, 
and would have taken slightly more had it been offered, 
although she never showed lack of food. Ramaposa had 
much the stronger appetite; she ate rapidly, swallowed the 
grain with much less chewing, and always showed by her 
impatience to get her feed a much keener appetite than did 
the latter. Both cows remained in excellent physical condi- 
tion throughout the investigation. 

After deducting the maintenance requirement, one cow 
produced milk as economically as the other. The ratio be- 
tween the food available for milk production and the milk 
produced was practically the same for each cow. The experi- 
ment showed that cows vary but little in the maintenance 
requirement, or in their ability to digest food. A superior 
dairy cow is one with a large capacity for food and one that 
is not disposed to take on fat, but uses the food above main- 
tenance for milk production. This once more emphasizes 
the importance of a large, well-developed barrel and its sig- 
nificance in judging dairy cows. 

Effect of feed on quantity and composition of milk. — The 

general statement may be made that the quantity of milk 
is dependent upon the amount of feed and upon the inherent 
milk-giving qualities of the cow. Feed therefore has an effect 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 147 

on the quantity of the milk yield. The composition of the 
milk cannot be permanently changed by any known method 
of feeding; the composition is regulated by the udder of the 
cow, each cow having her own characteristic quality of milk. 
By fattening dry cows, the fat content of the milk is tempo- 
rarily raised when the cows freshen. It is known that 
cows fed cottonseed meal yield butter that is hard and tal- 
lowy, with a high melting point, while linseed meal produces 
a soft butter with a low melting point. In spite of these 
and other minor exceptions, it may be said that improve- 
ment in the composition of milk is a breeding, rather than 
a feeding, problem. The feeder can only supply feed in such 
amount as will permit the cow to give a maximum flow of 
milk. But as we have seen, two cows may produce far dif- 
ferent quantities of milk when given the best of care, so that 
increase in the quantity of milk is also a problem for the 
breeder. Cows are born with certain inherent tendencies; 
feeding can only assist these inherent tendencies to reveal 
themselves, but cannot permanently alter them. 



CHAPTER XL 
BREEDING FOR MILK PRODUCTION. 

In 1915, there were 21,262,000 dairy cows on farms in 
the United States, and they were valued at $55.33 per head. 
If put in single file, allowing ten feet of space for each animal, 
they would make a line over 40,000 miles long, or would 
form a procession thirteen abreast from New York to San 
Francisco. 

On January 1, 1915, the leading states in numbers of 
dairy cows, and their average prices per head, were as fol- 
lows: 

I.Wisconsin 1,626,000 $59 50 6. Illinois 1,007,000 $59.50 

2. New York 1,509,000 61.00 T.Pennsylvania.... 943,000 59 50 

3. Iowa 1,377,000 57.00 S.Ohio 895,000 60.00 

4. Minnesota 1,186,000 53.50 9. Michigan 814,000 60.50 

5. Texas 1,086,000 47.50 10. Missouri 797,000 54.50 

The distribution of dairy cows, by geographical divisions, 
on January 1, 1915, was as follows: 

North Atlantic 3,416,000 

South Atlantic. '. 1,840,000 

North Central, East of Mississippi River _ 4,988,000 

North Central, West of Mississippi River 5,503,000 

South Central 3.798,000 

Far Western 1,717,000 



Total, United States. 21,262,000 

No greater strides have been made in animal breeding 
during recent years than have been made by breeders of 
purebred dairy cattle. The methods used are very practical 
because they are based on accurate knowledge of the producing 
ability of the animals bred, such knowledge being secured by 
tests of the various cows in the herd. The dairyman engaged 
in the production of market milk or butter-fat has, in many in- 
stances, seen the benefits arising from keeping records and 
using them as a basis for improving his herd and has greatly 
benefited by adopting the methods used by the more progres- 
sive breeders of purebred dairy cattle. There is great need 
for the improvement of the average dairy cow of the country. 
The small number of purebred dairy cows makes it inadvis- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 149 

able to recommend that this improvement shall be accom- 
plished by replacing the average cow with a purebred cow, 
and that all milk and butter-fat shall be produced by pure- 
bred cattle. However, this ideal is easily possible of close 
approximation by using purebred dairy bulls to grade up the 
ordinary dairy cows of the country. There is no good argu- 
ment in behalf of keeping any except a purebred dairy bull at 
the head of any dairy herd. The necessity for using pure- 
bred sires to breed to common cows and the financial advan- 
tage of such a policy was pointed out in Chapter VII., in 
which the breeding of beef cattle for the market was dis- 
cussed. The arguments there presented apply with equal 
force to the breeding of dairy cattle. 

By going to the same breed each time a sire is selected, 
the dairyman soon acquires a herd of very high-grade cows, 
having only a very small percentage of scrub ancestry. Good 
grade dairy cows often rival their purebred cousins in pro- 
duction, and many have sold at prices considerably above 
$200. By using purebred sires, and by weeding out the poor 
producers and retaining the high-producing cows and their 
heifer calves, an inferior herd may be revolutionized and 
made to yield a profit. In this way the dairyman is enabled 
to raise his standards higher and higher, each year eliminat- 
ing from his herd those cows which fail to reach the mark. 
Eventually a herd is built up in which every cow returns a 
large profit on the feed and care invested in her during the 
year. 

Selection of the dairy bull. — If an array of some fifteen 
or twenty dairy bulls are brought before a judge recognized 
as competent, and he is asked to pick out the bull that 
will sire the heaviest-producing cows, he will be unable to 
do so with any degree of certainty by studying their indi- 
vidualities. He may easily eliminate some of them because 
of lack of constitution, weak masculinity, or because they 
show a decided tendency towards fleshiness. Having such 
faults, he is reasonably certain that they will not prove sure 
breeders, or that their heifer calves will not develop into 
heavy producers. Having eliminated certain ones, there will 
probably be several bulls remaining that have no serious 
faults in conformation, and among these it is mere guess- 



150 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

work to attempt to select the most successful sire. Whereas 
the beef bull carries his evidence of merit upon his back, 
the true value of the dairy bull can only be judged by the 
kind of cows in his ancestry, the kind of cows he sires, or 
by both. The judging of dairy bulls in the show ring is much 
less conducive to good results in the improvement of cattle 
than is the judging of beef bulls. 

As a general rule, when valuing a purebred animal, more 
emphasis should be placed upon individuality than upon pedi- 
gree; but the dairy bull is an exception. On a basis of 100 
points given to the bull's selection, it is conservative to state 
that 40 points should be allotted to his individuality, and 60 
points to the records of performance in his pedigree. All 
purebred dairy bulls have pedigrees, but in many cases no 
records were kept of the production of their female ances- 
tors; in such cases the pedigree has no special significance, 
and little importance can be attached to it. When records 
of performance of the ancestors are available, the bull is said 
to have a "pedigree with performance," and to such a pedi- 
gree much attention should be given when selecting a bull. 

If the bull is matured and has been long enough in serv- 
ice so that he has heifers in milk, they furnish the best 
evidence of the bull's value as a breeder. In this connection, 
however, the dams of the heifers must be studied, as the 
seeming success of the bull may be very largely due to the 
excellence of the cows with which he was mated. If the dams 
are inferior and the heifers are good, all the more credit is 
due the sire. Most of the trade in purebred dairy bulls is 
in bull calves, for only rarely will a successful bull, as shown 
by actual trial, be offered for sale. 

The best indication of the future breeding value of a 
dairy bull calf is furnished by the milk and butter-fat records 
of his dam. If any of her female offspring have records of 
production, these also furnish valuable evidence. Next, the 
records of the cows sired by his sire should be studied, if 
such records are available. After that, the performance of 
the paternal and maternal grandams should be noted, together 
with the performance of their female offspring. The grand- 
sires' lists of performers should be studied also, and, if pos- 
sible, similar studies should be made of the great-grandams 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



151 



and great-grandsires. The fundamental principle underlying 
breeding is that "like begets like," and if the bull has a heavy- 
producing ancestry, heavy-producing sisters, and the other 
female members of his family are heavy producers, we are 
certain that he has inherited true dairy qualities of a high 
order which he will transmit to his offspring. 

As a fine example of a pedigree with performance, the 
pedigree of the Guernsey bull, May King of Ingleside 12558, 
is herewith presented. Such a bull commands too high a 
price to permit using him on grade cows, and the average 
dairyman seeking a sire cannot expect to obtain a bull with 
a pedigree equal to this one, although he may be able to 
secure a son or grandson of such a bull at the price he can 
afford to pay. 



Langwater Dorothy 
Langwater Hope 
Langwater Rosie 
Langwater Prir^cess ,_ 
Lang. May Queen . 
Langwater Daisy . ._. 

Lang. May Rose 

Langwater Felois . . . .. 
Langwater Milkmaid 
Sister Sue of Lang. 
Hayes Queen May 
Also sire of seven A 



16099 70 

15078 80 
15083 00 
12280 50 
11275 70 
10710 30 
9212 50 
9445.90 
9550 20 
10290 70 
7904 30 
R, sons. 



fat 
781 65 
773 59 
724 23 
651 19 
592 84 
557 55 
530 06 
529 81 
510 05 
469 60 
406 94 



Dolly Bloom of Langwater 154S2. A. R. 

674. 
Record: 12024 50 lbs. milk; 632.34 lbs. 

butter-fat. 
Dam of; 
Lang. Dolly Bloom 13250 80 714 60 

Also dam of one A. R. son. 



Rosa Rubra 
Florham Daisy 
May Rose Queen. _. 
Comely Rose 
Queen of the Roses 
Florham Pride 
Anton's May Rose 
Southern Rose 
May Rose of Kent 
Rutila's May Rose 
Queen of May Rose 
Pride of Place 

And seven other A. 

Also sire of nine A. 



14329 15 
14876 60 
12548 30 
12861 15 
12223 25 
10860 60 

10778 70 
12774 10 

10779 65 
9701 10 

11448 90 
10035 50 
R. daughters 
R. sons. 



fat 
788.89 
747 08 
667 19 
641 79 
604 94 
691 85 
591 55 
583 00 
556 56 
556 40 
539 03 
531 26 



Itchen Jewel 1112 E. G. H. B. 

3d prize, Bath and West, England. 

1899. 
2d. prize. Royal Counties, 1899. 

Sire of: Milk Butter- 

fat 
Royal Rose of Easton 9576 90 517 80 

1st at Royal Show. 1902 

Claremonl May Rose 8648 E. G. H. B. 

2d. prize over Island, 1895. 

Isl prize over Island, 1896-7-8 

1st prize in England, 1897 

1st prize at nearly all English shows 

of 1890-91-92. 
1st and Championship. 1902. 
1st at London Dairy Show, 1901. 
Dam of Imp, May Rose 4th — 442 lbs 

butter-fat. 



Imp. Itchen Dais; 3d. 15630. A. R. 100. 
Record; 13636 80 lbs. milk; 714 10 lbs 

butter-fat. Sold for J4,000 
Dam of: 

Florham Daisy 14876 60 748 08 

Langwater Dairymaidl3747 50 670 ,12 

Also dam of one A. R. son 



Pocomoke 6075. A. R. 74. 

Sire of; 
Dolly Bloom of Lang. 12024 50 632 34 
Nelly Jay 9576 10 477 27 

Carrie Bell 7605 00 373 38 

Also sire of three A. R. sons. 



Dolly Bloom 12770, A. R. 40. 

Record: 17297 51 lbs. milk; 836 21 lbs. 

butter-fat. 

Dam of; 

Dplly Dimple 18808 50 876 34 

Dolly Bloom of Lang. 12024 50 6.32 34 

Also dam of two A. R. sons. 



! May Day 1132 E. G. H. B. 

1st prize Royal Counties Show, 1898. 

1st Bath and West. 1899. 

Sire of Suzerain, 3d. prize Bath and 

West, 1900. 
H. C. Royal Counties. 1900 
.| C. Royal, 1900; 2d East Kent. 1901 
I Grandsire of Melanie of Goodnestone 
1 3d— 7415 60 lbs. milk; 387 76 lbs 
butter-fat 



Daisy Gem 3341 E. G. H. B. 

John R. Gentry 4655. 

Half brother to Glenwood Boy of 
Haddon. A. R. '8. sire of Jedetta of 
Pinehurst— 15109 10 lbs. milk; 778 80 
lbs. butter-fat. Also sire of 25 other 
A R. daughters, and 14 A. R. sons. 



Dosia 2d. 10D72. 




Divan 5846. A. R. 98. 

Sire of: 
Dolly Bloom 17297 51 

Dolly Dillon 11867 30 

Belle Wilson 8434 40 

Also sire of two A. R. sons. 


836 21 
532 2! 
423 55 



Questa 11385. 

Dam of: 

Dolly Bloom 17297 51 836 21 

Dolly Bloom's Sister 

Ray 7887 20 390 96 

Alao dam of two A. R. sons. 



152 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

The following records made by the herd of Peder Peder- 
sen & Son in the Benson Cow Testing Association, Cedar 
Falls, Iowa, in three consecutive years show what may 
be accomplished by the use of good sires, the keeping of 
records, weeding out the poor cows, and by proper feeding 
and management. 

Average Net income 
Average milk per cow butter-fat per cow over 

per cow, lbs. cost of feed 

1911 5665 pounds 207.7 $22.12 

Largest net income cjw in herd 54 .22 

1912 7060 pounds 251.9 53.96 

Largest net income cow in herd 106 .30 

1913 9697.47 pounds _ 341.98 75.00 

Two largest net income cows, each 144 . 00 

This herd was made up of grades and a few purebred 
Holsteins, and the number of cows remained about the same 
during the three years reported. At the end of the first 
year it was found that 40 per cent, of the cows were unprofit- 
able. They were sent to the butcher, and their places in 
the herd were taken by two-year-old heifers sired by a pure- 
bred sire out of common cows. At the end of the second 
year, 30 per cent, of the cows were "weeded out" and their 
places taken by two-year-old grade heifers, one purebred cow, 
and one purebred two-year-old heifer. The end of the third 
year's work showed that the average milk production had 
been increased over 71 per cent., the butter-fat 60 per cent., 
and the average net profit per cow increased from $22.12 to 
$75.00, or 239 per cent. 

There is danger of over-emphasizing the importance of 
pedigrees when breeding any kind of live stock, and this is 
especially true if records of tests are included in the pedi- 
grees, as is the case with many trotting horses and dairy 
cattle. Some breeders have selected and mated their ani- 
mals solely upon the basis of records, without any considera- 
tion of individuality. Animal breeding is not successfully 
supervised when the owner decides upon matings from pedi- 
grees spread out before him in his office or by the parlor 
lamp. If this is done, and individuality is neglected, defects 
of conformation may gain a foothold in his herd and even- 
tually defeat his plans. For instance, two animals may be 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 153 

selected for mating because of the excellence of their breed- 
ing; in other words, the mating looks good on paper; but 
weakness of constitution may be common to both of them, 
and if so, it is probable that their offspring will exhibit this 
defect in greater degree, so as to prevent the fulfillment of 
the offspring's inherited tendency to high production. 

Enough attempts at selecting and mating animals purely 
on the basis of records have met with failure to show that 
such procedure is very liable to wreck the herd. The breeder 
must refuse to be carried away by performance to the ex- 
tent of buying merely a pedigree. Choose several good indi- 
viduals, and then let the pedigrees be the basis for the final 
choice. A meritorious individual should accompany the meri- 
torious pedigree. 



CHAPTER XII. 
DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE. 

Dual-purpose cattle are all-purpose or general-purpose 
cattle. They occupy a position midway between the beef and 
the dairy types, the aim being to combine the good points 
of both beef and dairy cattle as nearly as possible. The 
dual-purpose cow, however, does not give as much milk as 
the dairy cow, nor does she make as much beef as the beef 
cow. At present the demand for dual-purpose cattle is com- 
paratively limited, although it has been predicted that many 
farms will eventually adopt the dual-purpose type as the one 
most profitable. It is also believed that those who maintain 
beef breeding herds will in the future pay more attention 
to the milking qualities of their cows. 

Perhaps no subject relating to cattle has aroused so 
much discussion as has the type, economic importance, and 
probable future of the dual-purpose cow. It has been argued 
that the day of general-purpose animals is past. It is said 
that this is a day of specialization in all things, and that 
better results and more profit are obtained from animals 
which do one thing and do it well, than are obtained from 
animals which do two or three things in a mediocre way. 
While it is true that the tendency in the live-stock world is 
more and more toward highly specialized types of animals, 
it is also true that there are good arguments in favor of a 
dual-purpose type of cattle. Of these arguments, the best 
one is that there is need of a farmer's cow; that is, a cow 
for the farmer who is neither a beef producer nor a dairy- 
man, but who wants to produce enough meat and milk for 
his own use. Such a man wants a cow that gives a good flow 
of milk, and yet one that has a strong enough beef tendency 
to produce a calf that will feed out well and make a good 
carcass; in other words, this man wants a dual-purpose cow. 
There can be no doubting this argument for it was this de- 
mand which made the old-time Shorthorn the popular cow 
with farmers fifty or sixty years ago. 

154 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 155 

Another argument frequently advanced in behalf of dual- 
purpose cattle is that beef production on high-priced land 
must, in the future, come from a dual-purpose type of cattle. 
On western ranches where land is cheap, a calf is all the 
return a cow need give in order to make her profitable, but 
the cornbelt farmer on $100 and $200 land cannot conduct 
a business on the same basis as the western ranchman. It 
is argued that a farmer on high-priced land cannot afford to 
keep a cow that produces calves suitable for feeding into 
beef unless she pays for her board, in part at least, with a 
fair amount of butter-fat. It is argued that he can no more 
afford this than he can afford to keep mutton sheep which 
produce lambs, but no wool. The advocates of the dual-pur- 
pose cow claim that she will be the salvation of future beef 
production. However this may be, changes will come gradu- 
ally and it seems probable that the beef -type animal is des- 
tined to continue popular for some years to come. 

The methods of management where dual-purpose herds 
are kept vary considerably. Sometimes the production of 
beef is given most attention and the milking qualities of the 
cows are esteemed only as a source of feed for the calves. 
At the other extreme are herds managed as dairy herds, the 
beefiness of the cows making possible a good income from 
choice veal calves reared on skim milk and supplemental feeds. 
Perhaps neither of these plans represents true dual-purpose 
management. The dual-purpose cow is at her best when the 
plan calls for the sale of milk or butter-fat and the rearing 
of calves to be fed and marketed as fat steers and heifers, or 
sold into other hands for feeding. All of the cows may be 
milked, the butter-fat sold, and the skim milk fed to the 
calves ; or half of the cows may be milked and the rest allowed 
to raise the calves. The writer knows of one successful herd 
of grade cows where the practice is to put four calves on 
one cow, the other three cows being milked. The development 
of the calves is somewhat restricted by this method, for they 
do not make as rapid growth nor present as good appearance 
as would be secured by more liberal feeding, but in this in- 
stance the financial return has justified the plan. 

It is said that twenty years ago the growing of calves 
by hand was a lost art. It is considerable trouble to rear 



156 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

calves on skim milk, but it is being done with good results 
on many farms. The skim milk should be supplemented by 
oats, bran, corn meal, hay, and good pasture until weaning 
time, and the calf should be wintered on grain, silage, and 
hay. When weaned and placed on regular rations, skim-milk 
calves usually advance rapidly and often overtake calves 
reared on whole milk to such an extent that they cannot be 
distinguished from the latter. 




Fig. 37. The Dual-Purpose Type. 

Milking Shorthorn cow, Pansy 2d., first prize at Carlisle, England, in 1914. 
Imported and owned by Mr. J. J. Hill, St. Paul. Minn. 

Dual-purpose type. — Descriptions of the beef and dairy 
types having been given in detail, dual-purpose type may be 
described in a few words by comparisons. The true dual- 
purpose type of animal is distinguished from the beef animal 
by certain well-marked differences in form and appearance. 
The dual-purpose animal is not so wide as the beef animal, 
nor so smooth, and the fleshing is not so thick. The neck 
is longer, the withers are not so wide and rounding, the middle 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 157 

is less blocky and compact, and the legs are longer. The 
udder receives considerable attention and should be large, 
mellow, and of good shape. The dual-purpose cow should bear 
indications of creditable performance at the pail. 

Compared with the dairy type, the dual-purpose animal 
shows more squareness and fullness of forequarters, more 
width and compactness of body, more fleshing and smooth- 
ness. The spring of rib is more pronounced, the back is 
wider, the withers are thicker, the shoulder is heavier fleshed 
and smoother, and the thigh and twist are much more heavily 
fleshed. Dual-purpose cows that give a generous milk flow 
will carry less flesh during the milking period, but when dry 
they take on flesh readily. Their calves have a reasonably 
good fleshing when fed for market, especially if sired by a 
beef-type bull. 

When dual-purpose cattle are brought into the ring at 
fairs and expositions, it is readily observable that marked 
variations in type exist, ranging from near the dairy type 
to the lower limits of beef type. What is regarded as a typi- 
cal dual-purpose animal by one man will not always suit 
another, but will be criticised as leaning too much toward 
the beef type or the dairy type. Some men accept a beef cow 
with a larger udder than usual as a typical dual-purpose ani- 
mal ; others have in mind a dairy cow showing more beefiness 
than common. In the show rings of this country much dis- 
satisfaction has arisen over the judging of dual-purpose 
cattle; some judges have apparently awarded the prizes upon 
the beef qualities of the animals shown, while other judges 
have leaned almost as much the other way. A judge at one 
show will select certain animals as prize winners, and at an- 
other show, with the same cattle on exhibition, an almost 
complete reversal will be made in the awards — hence the dis- 
satisfaction. As time goes on, breeders are getting closer 
together in their ideals of a dual-purpose animal, although 
there can never be the uniformity of ideals which prevails 
among breeders of either beef or dairy cattle. This is true 
because beef and dairy types represent extremes, while the 
dual-purpose type is an average of these two, or represents 
the middle ground. 



PART TWO. 

SHEEP. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Sheep are useful to man because they produce mutton 
and wool. Two distinct kinds of sheep have been developed — 
mutton sheep and wool sheep, the latter being commonly 
called fine-wooled sheep. Mutton sheep naturally divide into 
two groups known as (1) long- or coarse-wooled sheep, and 
(2) medium- or middle-wooled sheep. The middle- and long- 
wooled groups are separated by other marked differences 
besides length of fleece; middle-wooled sheep are of medium 
size, usually have brown faces, have high quality of mutton, 
and active dispositions; the long-wooled breeds are large, 
white-faced, somewhat coarse in flesh, lay on much external 
fat, and are more indolent in their habits. 

Fine-wooled sheep bear wool that is 2 to 4 inches long 
after twelve months* growth, middle-wooled fleeces vary in 
length of staple from 2^/2 to 5 inches, and the long-wooled 
fiber usually measures 6 to 10 inches. The fiber of the fine- 
wooled fleece is very fine and has a large number of waves 
or crimps to the inch, usually from 16 to 22. The long-wooled 
fiber is coarse and lashy, being rather straight and hairy in 
appearance. The fiber of the middle-wooled fleece occupies 
a position between the fine- and long-wooled fibers, being 
distinctly crimped and medium in fineness, but with fewer 
crimps per inch than the fiber of fine-wooled sheep. The 
breeds within each group show characteristic differences in 
length, crimp, and fineness of wool. 

The breeds of long-wooled sheep are the Cotswold, Lin- 
coln, and Leicester. The middle-wooled breeds are the South- 
down, Shropshire, Oxford Down, Hampshire Down, Dorset 
Horn, Cheviot, and Tunis. The breeds of fine-wooled sheep 
are the American Merino, Delaine Merino, and Rambouillet. 

Although variations in size, fleece, and color markings 
permit the division of all sheep into three groups, there are at 

159 



160 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

basis only two types of sheep — mutton type, and fine-wooled 
type. The mutton-type sheep is chiefly valued on account 
of its ability to make good mutton economically, although 
the wool-producing ability of the mutton-type sheep consti- 
tutes an important part of its value to the farmer. Some 
of the best mutton-producing breeds have failed to gain much 
popularity, mainly because of their deficiency as wool pro- 
ducers. It is not expected that one type of sheep will excel 
in both mutton and wool production, any more than one type 
of cattle is expected to excel in both beef and milk produc- 
tion, yet it is important that the mutton-type sheep grow 
a fleece of good density, length, weight, and quality. The 
fine-wooled type is mainly a wool proposition; the American 
Merino is of no more value for mutton than are dairy cattle 
for beef. The Delaine Merino and Rambouillet have better 
mutton qualities, although they are inferior to the mutton 
breeds in this respect. The Rambouillet might be styled a 
dual-purpose breed of sheep, as breeders give much attention 
to the form and fleshing. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

MUTTON TYPE. 

Although the breeds of sheep classed as mutton breeds 
may be grouped into two distinct classes — long-wooled and 
middle-wooled — and although the breeds within each class 
differ considerably in color markings, fleece, and appearance, 
nevertheless all of them belong to the mutton type. 

The general appearance of the mutton-type sheep is 
almost identical with the beef type of cattle. The mutton 
sheep should be markedly short legged, broad, deep, and sym- 
metrical. The top line and underline should be straight and 
parallel, and the top should be broad and level from end to 
end. The side lines should be straight, and the middle wide 
and deep, yet neat and trim. Leggy and rangy conforma- 
tions are as objectionable in mutton sheep as in beef cattle. 
There should be pronounced blockiness of conformation, com- 
bined with neatness, fullness, and great smoothness of out- 
line. 

The head should be short and broad, the mouth of ample 
width, the nostrils large, the face short, the eyes prominent 
and clear, the forehead broad and full, and the ears rather 
fine, short, neatly attached, and well carried. The mutton 
type does not have horns as a rule, the Dorset breed being 
the only exception. In other breeds, the head should be 
examined for scurs which are objectionable. The head should 
have a clean-cut appearance, indicative of quality and good 
breeding. Mature rams show a Roman profile and are strongly 
developed and wide between muzzle and eyes — an evidence of 
masculinity. 

The neck should be short and plump, arched, clean-cut 
at the throat, and the blending with the shoulders should 
be full and smooth. The ram with proper degree of mascu- 
linity shows a well-developed crest, or scrag, similar to the 
crest of the beef bull. 

161 



162 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



The shoulders should be well laid in against the ribs, 
and nicely covered over with flesh, making the forequarters 
very even and smooth. The tops of the shoulders should 
come fairly well together and be rounded over with flesh. 

The breast ought to be prominent, broad, and filled out 
plump with flesh. A wide breast is an evidence of strong 
constitution, and plumpness of this part is one of the indica- 
tions of proper finish and fatness in the market sheep. 




Fig. 38. Correct Type in the Mutton Sheep. 

Grade Shropshire, Grand Champion wether at the 1913 Interna- 
tional. Bred and exhibited by J. & D. J. Campbell of Woodville, Ont. 
Neat in form, excellent in quality, and thickly and firmly fleshed. His 
fatness, trim middle, and good quality insure a high dressing percent- 
age. This sheep belongs to the middle-wooled class. 



The chest should be very wide and deep, and have a full 
heart-girth. There should be considerable distance between 
the front legs, and also between the shoulders, and no depres- 
sion of the side should exist just back of the shoulder. The 
front flanks should carry down deep and- be well filled out. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 163 

The front legs should be short and straight, the shanks 
fine, and the joints not too large. The knees show some ten- 
dency to come together, but this should not be marked. At- 
tention should be given to the pasterns which should carry 
up strong, and to the toes which should be well developed, 
strong, and point directly forward. 

The back should be very wide, short, and straight, and 
should be thickly, smoothly, and firmly fleshed. When the 
hand is pressed down upon the back it should exhibit no dip 
or weakness, but carry up level and strong. In thin sheep 
the backbone is marked by a sharp ridge, but in well-fattened 
animals the flesh is thickened on either side of the middle 
line to such an extent that a groove is found down the middle 
of the back instead of a ridge. 

The ribs must have a strong arch to give width to the 
back, and they should carry down deep to afford a large chest 
and good digestive capacity. They should be placed close 
together along the side, the last pair coming close to the 
hips. The covering of flesh on the ribs should be thick, 
smooth, and firm. The side should be straight and even, the 
belly should be straight and trim, and the hind flanks should 
be well let down. 

The loin should be very wide and carry a deep fleshing. 

The hips are desired to be of moderate width, the points 
being well laid in and smoothly covered over with flesh. 

The rump ought to be long, level, and wide, the top line 
carrying out straight to the end of the body. The covering 
of flesh should be abundant, yet smooth and free from soft- 
ness or bunches of gobby fat. One of the most common 
faults of mutton sheep is a poorly-shaped hindquarter, the 
rump frequently rounding off or drooping on top, and the 
sides cutting in to give a peaked conformation. Squareness 
and fullness should characterize the hindquarter. 

The thighs and twist should be broad and plump as 
viewed from the rear, and the fleshing should carry well down 
toward the hocks, as in beef catle. The leg of mutton, loin, 
and back constitute the valuable parts of the carcass, and 
they must carry a high degree of fleshing. Wide variations 



164 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

in the development of thigh and twist will be found, although 
a maximum development is always demanded. 

The hocks and legs should be strong and placed well 
apart. Crooked, weak hocks are rather common and are very 
undesirable. The legs should be short and straight, and show 
refinement of bone and joints. The hind pasterns are given 
particular attention in judging, for it is by no means uncom- 
mon to find them so broken down and weak as to impair the 
usefulness of the animal to a marked degree, especially if 
the animal is a breeding ram. They should carry up strong, 
so as to bring the weight full on the toes. 

The skin should be of a bright pink color and free from 
dark-colored spots. The pink color is an indication of health 
and thrift, while a white or bluish color shows an unthrifty 
condition. Some breeds excel in this respect, and others 
characteristically show a rather dark skin color, in which 
case the dark color is not necessarily an evidence of unthrifti- 
ness. 

The quality of the mutton-type sheep is shown by the 
fineness of the bone, fineness of the skin, fineness of the wool, 
and fineness and softness of the hair which covers the face 
and legs. These are important features in either breeding or 
fat sheep. The butcher likes quality because it insures high 
quality of meat, and indicates little waste when the sheep 
is killed and dressed. 

The condition, or fatness, of a sheep may be determined 
by an examination of six points, these being the dock, middle 
of the back, the neck, the fore flank, the purse, and the breast. 
The covering over the back should be such that the backbone 
is not easily felt with the fingers. Sheep that have been 
over-fed, or improperly fed, often have rough patches of fat 
about the end of the rump, and soft fat at the fore flank in 
the form of a mass of blubber. Sheep that show much loose 
fat at the fore flank are referred to as "slipped," it being com- 
monly, but erroneously, supposed that this condition is due 
to a very heavy formation of external fat along the back 
which becomes excessive and slips down the ribs to the fore 
flank. The butcher sharply discriminates against such an 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 165 

excessively fat condition, and the breeder has found that 
slipped ewes are frequently barren. 

The style which some mutton sheep possess has an im- 
portance similar to style in beef cattle. Furthermore, feeders 
testify that the lamb or wether with stylish appearance and 
sprightly gait is usually vigorous and a good feeder, style 
being to some extent an evidence of constitutional vigor and 
thrift. Style in the ram, including an active gait and bold 
presence, is an evidence of masculinity and breeding useful- 
ness. 

The fleece of the mutton-type sheep is of secondary im- 
portance, yet constitutes an important item of value. The 
value of the fleece depends upon its weight, quality, and uni- 
formity. Weight of fleece depends upon covering, density, 
length of staple, and the amount of oil, or grease, called 
"yolk." The quality of fleece refers in a strict sense only to 
fineness of fiber, but in a general way may also include soft- 
ness, soundness, luster, color, cleanness, purity, and freeness. 
These various factors of weight and quality will now be dis- 
cussed. 

The covering of wool has reference to the completeness 
of covering over all parts of the body. Some animals are 
very devoid of wool on the belly and around the armpits. 
The breeds differ widely in the extent to which the poll, ears, 
face, and legs are covered with wool, such features forming a 
prominent part of some breed types, and making easy the 
distinction of one breed from another. The tendency in re- 
cent years, especially with some breeds, has been to secure a 
more complete covering of wool, and thus produce a fleece of 
somewhat more weight. In all breeds, the under parts of the 
body, including the scrotum of the ram, should be well 
wooled. 

A dense fleece is one that is compact, or has a large num- 
ber of fibers growing on a square inch of skin. As much 
density is desired as is possible to attain. 

The length of fiber varies greatly among the mutton 
breeds, so that it is difficult to fix requirements for length 
of fleece for the mutton type in general. However, a length 
of less than 3 inches for a year's growth should subject a 



166 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

mutton-type animal to criticism. As a rule, the longest 
fleeces are the coarsest and most lacking in density; maxi- 
mums of fineness, length, and density cannot be secured in 
one animal. The middle-wooled breeds vaty in length of 
staple from 21/2 to 51/2 inches, while the long-wooled breeds 
vary from 6 to 10 inches. 



Fig. 39. Long-Wooled Sheep. 

Lincoln ram, Champion at the Iowa State Fair. Owned by 
Mr. A. W. Arnold of Galesville, Wis. 

The yolk is a variable feature and a highly important 
one. It is secreted by glands in the skin, and passes out over 
the fibers, giving them an oily coating that is valuable be- 
cause it makes the wool soft, protects and preserves the fibers, 
and, by causing the fibers to lie even and regular, insures 
against matting, or "cotting," of the fleece. A plentiful sup- 
ply of yolk also tends to prevent the entrance of dust, chaff. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 167 

and other foreign material into the fleece. Incidentally, the 
yolk adds weight to the wool, although an excessive amount 
of oil that merely adds weight to the fleece is not desirable. 
The yolk should be in a fluid condition and should be uniformly 
distributed throughout the fleece from skin to tip of fiber. 
It should not be so abundant as to collect in drops in the fleece, 
nor should any flakes of dried yolk be in evidence. 

The fineness of fiber, from the earliest days of wool 
growing, has been esteemed one of the most important re- 
quirements of wool. It varies a great deal among the breeds 
of mutton sheep, and also among the individuals within a 
breed. It is not expected that the mutton type will produce 
a fiber with the high degree of fineness shown by the Merinos, 
yet as much fineness is wanted as may be had without sacri- 
fice of weight or quality of fleece. The crimp, or waved con- 
dition, of wool furnishes an easy and accurate measure of 
fineness. All wool is more or less crimped, and it is a fact 
that the finest wools are finely crimped, that is, have a large 
number of crimps per inch, while the coarsest wools are 
almost devoid of crimp, being lashy or broadly waved. The 
crimp of the middle-wooled fleece should be fine, pronounced, 
and uniform from skin to tip of fiber." A single fleece yields 
several sorts of wool, differing considerably in fineness. The 
finest wool grows on the belly, shoulders, and back; that next 
in fineness, on the neck, below the shoulders, and along the 
sides, while the coarsest wool is found on the thighs and 
lower parts of the legs. The fineness of fiber appears to vary 
with the fineness of texture of the skin itself, and it is also 
influenced by the quantity and kind of feed, and by heat and 
cold. Abundance of feed will increase not only the length, 
but also the coarseness of the fibers, while a continued scanty 
food supply, but not poor enough to injure the health of the 
animal, results in a very evident improvement in fineness of 
wool. 

Wool that has softness is far more valuable than that 
which, as tested by twisting, bending, or handling, is stiff 
and hard. Softness depends upon fineness of fiber and 
amount of yolk. Ill health, exposure to rough weather, or 
lack of feed results in loss of softness. 



168 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

The soundness of wool refers to its freedom from weak 
spots. Ill health continuing for a greater or less time causes 
the pores of the skin to contract, and, at the same time, the 
secretion or excretion of wool is lessened. If fibers of wool 
from such sheep are examined, they are found irregular in 
crimp, and the microscope reveals narrowness in those parts 
of the fiber produced during sickness. Yarn made from such 
wool will be lacking in strength. 

Wool is said to have luster when the fibers glisten as 
though thinly varnished. This feature is especially prized 
in long-wooled sheep. A luster wool takes a dye more readily 
than does a dull, or lusterless, wool. 

The color of the wool fiber should be a clear white. The 
occurrence of brown or black fibers mixed in the fleece sub- 
jects the animal to much criticism and furnishes grounds for 
disqualification in the show ring. Unless the fiber has per- 
fect whiteness, a rich, brilliant dye cannot be secured by the 
manufacturer. 

As regards cleanness, all sorts and conditions of fleeces 
are found, ranging from those above criticism, to those that 
are a mass of burs, sand, bits of straw, manure, and other 
rubbish — the whole fleece being matted together and con- 
stituting a product of no commercial value. Cleanness de- 
pends mostly upon the conditions under which the sheep are 
kept, although some fleeces, on account of their oiliness and 
density, tend to keep free from foreign material, while others, 
on account of their open, dry, fluffy character, offer no re- 
sistance to the entrance of foreign matter. 

By purity of fleece is meant its freedom from hair, called 
"kemp," and from dead fibers. Unfavorable conditions of 
keep tend to cause a reversion of the fleece to the original 
covering worn by early sheep; that is, hair begins to appear 
in place of wool. Dead fibers and kemp do not absorb dyes, 
hence they injure the cloths into which they find their way. 

The fleece is said to have freeness when the locks and 
fibers are not entangled, but part off readily from one another. 
When the fibers are tangled, or matted together, the fleece is 
said to be "cotted." 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 169 

A fleece with uniformity is one having sameness in char- 
acter throughout. Although there is a natural tendency for 
the wool on different parts to vary in density, length, and 
fineness, the aim of the breeder is to produce a fleece as 
nearly uniform throughout as possible. 

Age from the teeth. — The teeth are a fairly reliable in- 
dication of the age of a sheep. The lamb has eight tempo- 
rary incisors, or milk teeth. At 14 months of age, the middle 
pair of these is supplanted by a pair of larger, permanent 
incisors. At 2 years, the second pair of permanent incisors 
appears ; at 3 years, there are three pairs ; and at 4 years, 
all eight permanent incisors are in place. At five years, the 
teeth show more width between, and at six, the corner teeth 
may be broken out or the mouth may show signs of wear. 
Broken-mouthed sheep have their usefulness much impaired, 
and should not be kept unless for special reasons. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE MUTTON CARCASS AND THE PELT. 

Mutton and lamb supply a wealthier class of consumers 
than beef, pork, or veal. Lamb is ordinarily considered some- 
thing of a delicacy, while beef and pork are looked upon as 
staple articles of food. For this reason, the American meat 
industry was not much concerned with mutton and lamb until 
rather recent years, or since the country has become more 
prosperous and wealthy. The proper handling of mutton and 
lamb necessitates more careful and quick slaughtering than 
is required in the case of beef or pork, and good refrigeration 
facilities are also very essential. This is another reason why 
an extensive demand for mutton and lamb is a rather recent 
development of the meat business. Lamb is usually superior 
to mature mutton in flavor and general palatability, and the 
demand for lamb far exceeds the demand for mutton; the 
wholesale trade consists of two or three times as much lamb 
as mutton. During the past dozen years the wholesale trade 
in lamb and mutton has increased to such an extent as to have 
doubled during that period ; this may be partly due to general 
prosperity and a larger housewife's allowance, and partly to 
an improvement in the quality of lamb and mutton through 
better methods of slaughtering and handling. 

Slaughtering. — Sheep purchased by packers are driven 
to the packing plant and allowed to rest one day. They are 
then driven into a small shackling pen, and a shackle is placed 
around the hind leg. Two at a time, the sheep are raised 
by a large revolving wheel to a point overhead where the 
shackle automatically unhooks from the wheel and starts 
down a gently inclined rail. The animal moves to the 
"sticker," who quickly dispatches the sheep by a single thrust 
of a double-edged knife, one man killing 600 to 700 sheep per 
hour. After passing through many hands, the carcass 
reaches the cooler, the dressing requiring about twenty-six 
minutes. 

170 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 171 

Styles of dressing. — Illinois Bulletin No. 147 describes in 
detail the several styles of dressing sheep and lambs. Various 
styles of dressing are used, due to variations in demand and 
differences in the quality of the animals slaughtered. The 
market value is determined by the manner of dressing and the 
grade of the carcass. Plain- or round-dressed sheep and lambs 
have the pelt, head, and toes removed, and the fore legs are 
folded at the knee. They are opened only from the cod or 
bag to the breast, and are split half way through the breast- 
bone. A spread stick is placed inside the fore-ribs to properly 
shape the carcass. This is the method most commonly used 
in dressing sheep and the best grades of lambs. Caul-dressed 




Fig. 40. Killing Slieep at Chicago. 

carcasses are those vi^ith the ribs and flanks turned outward 
and fastened back with set sticks. The caul (a membrane 
investing the internal organs) is wrapped about the legs and 
laid over the inside of the carcass, thus improving the ap- 
pearance, preventing drying out, and, in some cases, fur- 
nishing the fat necessary for proper cooking of the meat, 
especially with lambs. The lowest grades of sheep and most 
grades of lambs are caul dressed. The term "pelt on" has 
reference to lamb carcasses from which the pelt and head 
are not removed. This manner of dressing is generally con- 
fined to light lambs, especially to spring lambs. They are 



172 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

opened the same as round lambs, and in some markets are 
dressed with back sets, and the caul is laid over the belly. 
Sheep and lambs dressed either plain, round, or pelt on, are 
quoted "pluck in" and "pluck out." The pluck consists of the 
heart, lungs, liver, windpipe, a portion of the diaphragm, or 
"skirt," and more or less adhering fat. It is either left at- 
tached to the carcass or removed, as indicated by these terms. 
Most lambs are sold pluck in, and sheep are usually sold pluck 
out. Government regulations now require that the toes be 
removed from all carcasses of sheep and lambs. 

The offal. — In the most common manner of dressing, 
which is the plain- or round-dressed style, the sheep loses the 
following parts in the order named: — blood, head, pelt, inter- 
nal organs, and toes. The pelt is the skin with the wool on, 
and it is a valuable product. 

The dressing percentage. — From what has been said of 
slaughtering and dressing, it is apparent that in order to 
dress a high percentage of carcass, sheep must be (1) light 
in pelt, (2) fat, and (3) neat in form, or free from paunchi- 
ness. The dressing percentage of sheep is not so important 
as that of cattle, because the waste has a higher value than 
the waste from cattle, on account of the high value of the 
pelt. If a sheep is fat in condition, and neat and trim in 
form, it will tend to dress high, but the pelt should be as 
heavy as is consistent with the production of mutton of high 
quality. As a general rule, the choicest sheep and lambs, 
from a carcass standpoint, do not wear heavy pelts, although 
a heavy pelt in itself is valuable, as will be shown later, and 
between two sheep otherwise equal, the one with the heavier 
pelt will bring the higher price on the market, even though 
its heavier pelt lessens its dressing percentage to some extent. 
Sheep ordinarily dress from 50 to 60 per cent. Mutton car- 
casses usually weigh from 45 to 85 pounds, while most lamb 
carcasses weigh from 35 to 50 pounds. 

The wholesale cuts. — The following diagram represents a 
side view of a carcass of lamb or mutton, the dotted lines 
indicating the location of the wholesale cuts. 

The leg and loin together are called the saddle, and the 
combined hotel rack, chuck, and brisket are called the rack. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



173 



The saddle and rack are almost equal .in weight. One rib is 
left on the loin. The hotel rack includes from 9 to 11 pairs 
of ribs, depending on how the carcass is divided between hotel 
rack and chuck. The chuck and brisket are usually sold to- 



^ 


1 






! ^ 


1 

1 

1 

1 


4- 


V 

I 

1 


1 3 


— \ 


•^ 





Fig. 41. Wholesale Cuts of Mutton. 

1, Chuck; 2, short rack; 3, breast; 4, loin; 5, leg; 1 and 3, stew; 
I, 2, and 3, rack; 4 and 5, saddle. 



get-her as one cut, called the stew. In average 45-pound car- 
casses of lamb and mutton, round dressed, and pluck out, the 
weights of the various wholesale cuts, their prices per pound, 
and total values are as given in the following table: 





Weights 

Lbs. 

13.7 
9.6 
6.4 

15.3 

23.3 
21.7 

45.0 


Price per pound 


Total value of cut 




Lamb 


Mutton 


Lamb 


Mutton 


Leg... 

Loin 

Hotel rack (10 ribs) 


Cents 
12.5 
21 
17.5 

8.5 


Cents 

9 

15 

. 13 

6 


$1.71 
2.02 
1.12 
1.30 


$1.23 

1.44 

83 


Stew 


.92 


Saddle 

Rack 


16 
11.1 


11.5 
8 


3.73 
2.42 


2.67 
1.75 


Totals... 


13.6 


9.8 


$6.15 


$4.42 



High-priced and low-priced cuts. — The average price for 
the entire lamb carcass is 13.6 cents per pound, while the 
mutton carcass averages 9.8 cents per pound. As in the beef 
carcass, the back, loin, and hindquarter yield high-priced cuts, 
while the breast and belly, constituting the chuck and brisket 
cuts, are low in price because they lack thickness, the quantity 
of flesh elements being relatively small. 



174 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

Qualifications of a. good carcass. — The value of the carcass 
depends chiefly upon (1) form, (2) quality, (3) covering, 
(4) weight, and (5) maturity. These various factors will 
now be discussed. 

1. Form. — The essential points of desired shape are good 
width in proportion to length, compactness, and smooth, even 
outlines. This implies a thick loin, broad back, well-fleshed 
ribs, a full, thick middle from shoulder to leg, plump, thick 
legs filled down well, and smoothly covered shoulders. The 
most common faults of form are long, slender legs, narrow 
backs, lack of development over ribs and loin, and too much 
paunch, or belly. Long necks in ewes, and heavy "bucky" 
necks, shoulders, and briskets in wethers are objectionable. 

2. Covering. — It is essential that the carcass be 
smoothly and evenly covered with fat, because of its influence 
on the appearance of the dressed sheep, the quality of meat, 
and the shrinkage both in storage and in cooking. Only in 
the most highly finished sheep are the legs and shanks com- 
pletely covered. The kidney fat should be well developed, 
but not excessive. A light kidney usually indicates lack of 
finish, while a very heavy one is evidence of overdone condi- 
tion or uneven distribution of fat. The purse, udder, rump, 
flanks, and brisket are other points at which the amount of 
fat is plainly apparent, but it should not be excessive on any 
of these parts. The lowest grades have practically no out- 
side fat, the amount of covering varying more or less di- 
rectly with the grades of mutton from common to choice. 
The external and kidney fat should be firm, brittle, and white. 
As with beef, the English consumer desires fatter mutton than 
would suit the American trade. 

3. Quality. — The term "quality" is here used somewhat 
broadly, to include not only refinement of bone and fineness 
of texture of flesh, but also color of lean and fat. The flesh 
should be firm and fine grained, without the stringy, coarse 
texture of aged or inferior mutton. The color of flesh varies 
from light pink in lambs to dull red in mature mutton, and 
is less variable than in beef. The fat should be clear and 
white. General quality is more important in mutton and 
lamb than in other branches of the meat trade, on account 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 175 

of the custom of using the carcasses for display purposes in 
retail markets. The quality of "pelt on" lambs is judged 
partially by the pelt and head, which should show no signs 
of coarseness. 

4. Weight. — This is of more importance in grading mut- 
ton than in grading beef, as it is often a strong indication as 
to whether a carcass is a lamb, yearling, or mature sheep. 
The extreme ranges in weights of carcasses are, lambs, 15 to 
50 pounds; yearlings, 40 to 60 pounds; wethers, 40 to 120 
pounds; bucks, 45 to 200 pounds; ewes, 50 to 200 pounds. 
The most desired weights for a lamb carcass are 40 to 45 
pounds; for mutton carcasses, 50- to 65-pound weights are 
most desired. As with beef, heavy carcasses are demanded 
by hotels, restaurants, and dining cars. 

5. Maturity. — As has been mentioned, the demand for 
lamb far exceeds the demand for mutton, and the price of 
lamb has been shown to be considerably higher. The packers' 
interpretation of the word "lamb" is broader than the ordi- 
nary understanding of the term, for both lambs and yearlings 
yield a "lamb" carcass. Mutton carcasses are those of 
wethers, ewes, bucks, and stags. The maturity of the car- 
cass may be easily determined with a fair degree of accuracy 
from the bones ; in lambs the brisket is soft and red, and the 
ribs and shank bones are colored with blood vessels ; in mature 
sheep the bones are white and hard. However, the break- 
joint furnishes the best means of distinguishing lambs and 
yearlings from mature sheep. The break- joint or lamb- joint 
is a temporary cartilage which forms in the head of the 
shank (shin bone) immediately above the ankle. In dressing 
lambs, yearling wethers, and some yearling ewes, the foot 
can be broken off at this cartilage, giving the end of the 
shank a saw-tooth shape. In lambs the broken surface is 
smooth and moist, and in yearlings it is more porous and 
dry. The shanks of mature sheep will not "break," because 
the cartilage is knit or ossified, and the foot is taken off at 
the ankle instead, making a "round-joint." Shanks of female 
or ewe sheep outside the lamb class are, as a rule, too mature 
to break. Consequently, 80 to 90 per cent, of yearlings are 



176 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

wethers, the remainder being ewes and a small proportion of 
bucks and stags. Yearlings substitute for lamb, and we see 
that they may easily do this because they possess the break- 
joint. 

Grading carcasses. — Carcasses of sheep and lambs are 
classified and graded as follows: 



lamb 



Classes Sub-classes Grades 

Lambs Choice, good, medium, common, culls 
Yearlings Choice, good, medium 
I Wethers Choice, good, medium, common 

MUTTON \ Ewes Choice, good, medium, common, canners 

I 

I Bucks Good, medium, common 

Goat carcasses. — Dressed goats are occasionally sold in 
connection with mutton and lambs, and are frequently sub- 
stituted for them, especially in the retail markets. They are 
similar to the lowest grades of western sheep in form, quality, 
and finish. Long shanks, coarse, dark flesh, long necks, and 
thin caul, however, render them quite easily distinguished 
from sheep carcasses. 

The Value of the Pelt. 

The market value of a mutton animal rests not only 
upon the carcass it yields, but also upon the pelt. Informa- 
tion has been given out from various sources that buyers of 
sheep for the packers prefer animals wearing light pelts. 
It has been said that the slaughtering departments of pack- 
ing houses without exception dispose of sheep pelts at a fixed 
rate of $1,25 each, the pelts being consigned at that figure 
to the wool-pullery department, or to some independent pul- 
lery. Buyers have been reported to prefer light-wooled lots 
in order to obtain high dressing percentages ; it has been said 
that buyers have no particular interest in the welfare of their 
own pulleries, or in other firms that buy the pelts for pulling. 
Farmers have been advised that the highest market price is 
obtained for sheep and lambs that are light in pelt and which 
consequently dress high. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 177 

Can it be possible that the packer, with all his genius 
for the utilization of by-products, is overlooking such an im- 
portant item as wool? If the shank bones of cattle may be 
profitably converted into buttons and other articles, is it not 
inconsistent and unbusinesslike to discount well-wooled lots 
of sheep? With wool worth 15 to 25 cents per pound, is it 
not strange that the buyer should refuse to bid higher on 
a well-wooled band of sheep than upon a lot with light fleeces, 
other things being equal, especially as the fleece is secured 
at the live-weight price of the animal, namely 4 to 8 cents 
per pound ? In handling thousands of sheep, the wool reaches 
a considerable valuation. If light pelts are wanted, why do 
shorn sheep sell at a discount? 

Such questions as these led the writer to make an investi- 
gation which included interviews with the principal buyers 
at Chicago, and an inspection of a modern wool-pulling estab- 
lishment owned by one of the packing firms. It was found 
that a few buyers do give preference to light-pelted lots, but 
that class of buyers is decidedly in the minority. Swift, 
Armour, Sulzberger & Sons, and New York butchers have 
for some time realized the added value of a heavy fleece, and 
this has enabled them, in many instances, to outbid competing 
firms who consider only the dressing percentage as an index 
of the value of sheep for slaughter. The fact that New York 
butchers have been able to dispose of pelts profitably very 
largely explains their survival in the face of keen competition 
with packers. 

The slaughtering departments of those packing houses 
equipped with wool pulleries are credited each day with the 
value of the pelts sent from the killing floor. The value per 
pelt varies, depending upon (1) size of pelt, (2) weight of 
fleece, (3) quality of fleece, (4) cleanness of fleece, (5) 
amount of grease, (6) color of wool, and (7) thickness of 
skin. On this basis the value per pelt ranges as low as 50 
cents for lambs, and as high as $2.00 for sheep pelts in full 
fleece, depending mostly upon age, breeding, and season of 
the year. The value of the pelt plays an important part in 
determining the value of a sheep to the packer. The buyer's 
appreciation of the value of the pelt results, in most in- 
stances, in a much fairer price than would otherwise be paid. 



178 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

Packing houses and other wholesale butchers not equipped 
with wool pulleries have two methods of disposing of the 
pelts; they may either contract them in advance at a fixed 
price per pelt, or they may allow them to accumulate and then 
solicit bids. In the latter case, the bidders make an examina- 
tion and the pelts sell on their merits. In the former case, 
the packer or butcher has no incentive to pay a premium for 
well-wooled sheep, but, on the contrary, it is to his advantage 
to select those with light pelts. One man prominent on the 
Chicago market designated the contract plan as "slipshod," 
and he stated that "eventually it must cease as competition 
becomes more keen." He also said, "I instruct my men to 
consider wool as well as meat, and when they make bids, you 
may be sure they have estimated the value of the pelt as 
well as the carcass." 

Pelts are most valuable in the spring just before shear- 
ing time. Shorn sheep sell at a discount because the wool 
cannot be pulled at a profit until it has a growth of three- 
quarters of an inch or more. When the staple measures less 
than this, the pelts are tanned with the wool on, and the price 
received is small compared with pelts which can be pulled. 
The time of shearing marks the close of winter and the open- 
ing of pasturage, hence shorn sheep are often gaunt, and this 
is another reason for the lower price. 

Pulled wool has the same uses as ordinary clipped wool. 
The weight of wool from an average pelt is 4 to 5 pounds. 
This seems a low figure, but the pelts are scrubbed before 
pulling, which takes out nearly all the dirt and grease, and 
causes a decided loss in weight. 

After the wool is pulled, the skins are prepared for the 
tannery. Untanned sheep skins are worth from $2.50 to 
$8.50 per dozen, with an average of $4.50 per dozen. The 
value depends upon the size, quality, and thickness. The 
Merino yields a thin, porous skin which makes a leather that 
scuffs easily and wears out very quickly. These bring the 
lowest price. The best-wearing and highest-priced sheep 
leather is made from skins of the long-wooled breeds. Sheep 
leather is used for making cheap shoes, shoe linings, gloves, 
bags, book bindings, cheap saddles, sweat bands for hats. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 179 

and many other articles. Goat skins are much in demand 
for furniture leather and are more valuable than sheep skins, 
the best untanned bringing $10 to $12 per dozen. They aver- 
age a little larger in size than sheep skins and wear much 
better. 



CHAPTER XV. 

SHEEP MARKETS AND MARKET CLASSIFICATION. 

The eleven largest sheep markets and their total receipts 
during the year 1914 were as follows: 

1. Chicago.. 5,378,345 7. St. Paul 794,842 

2. Omaha 3,113,889 8. St. Louis. 749,293 

3. Kansas City 2,002,042 9. Denver 692,247 

4. Buffalo 1,081,240 10. Fort Worth 407,793 

5. Pittsburg 1,053,799 11. Sioux City 403,927 

6. St. Joseph 830,939 

Total 16,632,947 

The Chicago sheep market is almost twice as large as 
any other in the world. The total value of sheep received at 
Chicago during 1914 was $30,358,064. Of the 5,378,345 sheep 
received, 4,105,081 were slaughtered by packers, and the re- 
maining 1,273,264 were shipped out alive. Of the latter num- 
ber, 568,637 were shipped to other points for slaughter, 702,062 
were bought for feeding purposes and sent to the country, 
while only 2,565 were exported. In 1910, only 2,913 were 
exported ; in 1905, 78,373 ; and in 1901, 210,216. The marked 
decrease in the exports of sheep during recent years has been 
largely due to the high prices prevailing in this country, 
which make exportation unprofitable. The average weight of 
Chicago sheep during 1914 was 78 pounds, as compared with 
81 pounds in 1910, 83 pounds in 1905, and 84 pounds in 1900. 

The commission charge for selling sheep or goats at 
Chicago is ten cents per head. The charge on a straight 
carload, however, is seven cents per head, with a minimum 
charge of $12.00, and a maximum of $14.00 for the car. The 
charge for yardage is five cents per head. 

Market Classes and Grades of Sheep. 

The market classes of sheep are three in number, their 
names indicating the use to which the sheep in each class are 
put. These are (1) mutton sheep, (2) feeder sheep, and (8) 
breeding sheep. Each of these classes is divided into sub- 
classes, and these are again divided into grades. Professor 

180 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 181 



W. C. Coffey, of the University of Illinois, made a detailed 
study of the market classification of sheep at the Union Stock 
Yards, Chicago, the results of which are presented in Bulletin 
No. 129 of the Illinois Station. Professor Coffey outlines the 
market classes, sub-classes, and grades as follows: 



Classes 



Sub-classes 
f Lambs 



MUTTON SHEEP 

(Native and Western Sheep) -{ 



Yearlings . 
! Wethers __. 



Ewes 



[ Bucks and Stags.. 
I Lambs 



feeder sheep 

(Western Sheep) 



BREEDING SHEEP 



I Yearlings 
Wethers . 



I Ewes 

I 

f Ewes 

(Native and Western Sheep) 1 t>„„u„ 



Grades 

Prime, choice, good, 
medium, common or 
culls. 

Prime, choice, good. 

Prime, choice, good, 
common, 

Prime, choice, good, 
medium, common or 
culls. 

Choice, good, com- 
mon. 

Fancy selected, 
choice, good, medium, 
common. 

Choice, good, com- 
mon. 

Choice, good, me- 
dium, common. 

Choice, good, me- 
dium, common. 

Fancy selected, 
choice, good, common 

(Not graded.) 



r 



MISCELLANEOUS 



Hot House Lambs 
Export Sheep 
Throw Outs 
Dead Sheep 
Goats 



The division of the sheep in each class into sub-classes 
is determined either by age or sex. The division of the sheep 
in each sub-class into grades depends upon their comparative 
merits and faults and is more arbitrary than the division 
into classes and sub-classes. 

Native and western sheep. — Before taking up a descrip- 
tion of the various classes, sub-classes, and grades, it is neces- 
sary to explain the differences between native sheep and west- 
em sheep. Broadly speaking, native sheep are those kept in 
small flocks on the farms of the central, southern, and eastern 
states, while western sheep are those coming to market from 
large bands on the ranges of the western states. There is 
also a difference in the breeding; western sheep have a large 



182 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

proportion of Merino blood, whereas natives have mostly a 
mutton ancestry. Western sheep are white faced and usually 
show more or less wrinkles, particularly below the neck; 
native sheep are mostly brown faced and are usually free from 
wrinkles. Range methods of feeding and management, as 
compared with farm methods, result in further differences in 
appearance and make easy the distinction between natives 
and westerns. The mutton and breeding classes include both 
native and western sheep, but the feeder class is composed 
of western sheep only. Although thin natives are bought 
up in the country and successfully fed, those that reach the 
market in low condition do not sell as feeders because they 
are usually infested with internal parasites, thus making it 
difficult and often impossible to fatten them. 

The stomach worm of sheep, Haemonchus contortus, is 
one of the most serious pests affecting live stock. Sheep of 
all ages are subject to it, but infested lambs show much more 
serious effects than do mature animals. The lambs become 
infested from the older sheep through the medium of the 
pasture. The symptoms are anemia, loss of flesh, general 
weakness, dullness, thirst, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. 
When the fourth stomach of an infested animal is opened 
and the contents allowed to settle, the parasites may be seen 
actively wriggling about. They are 1/2 to II4 inches -long and 
about as thick as a pin. The worms in the stomach produce 
eggs which pass out in the droppings onto the pasture, and, 
if the season is spring or summer, a tiny worm, nearly one- 
thirtieth of an inch long, hatches out and crawls up a blade 
of grass. Uninfested sheep or lambs soon become infested 
on such pastures. No treatment has been found that will 
rid the animal of this pest. The best means of combating 
the parasite is by preventative measures, although no very 
reliable plan of management has as yet been worked out that 
really solves the problem. The western rangeman with great 
areas of pasturage is able to keep his flocks on fresh ground, 
but on farms this is not easily possible. Hence, western 
sheep have a great advantage over native sheep for feeding 
purposes. 

At the large markets and in live-stock reports, western 
sheep are frequently distinguished by the name of the state 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



183 



in which they are supposed to have been produced or fed, 
such as "Montanas," "Colorados," "Mexicans," "Idahos," etc. 
The word "fed" when prefixed to the name of a class indicates 
that the sheep were fattened on grain rather than on grass 
alone. 

Mutton Sheep. 

All sheep and lambs sent to market, no matter what the 
condition, age, or weight, are classed as mutton sheep if they 
are suitable for immediate slaughter. They are either 




Fig. 42. Prime Lambs. 

Grade Shropshire lambs. Grand Champions at the 1913 International. 
Fed and exhibited by KnoUin & Finch of Soda Springs, Idaho. 

slaughtered at Chicago packing houses or reshipped to Phila- 
delphia, New York, Baltimore, Washington, Buffalo, and other 
cities. Only the better grades are shipped. The sub-classes 
of mutton sheep are lambs, yearlings, wethers, ewes, and 
bucks and stags. 

Lambs. — Of the various sub-classes of mutton sheep, the 
lamb sub-class is by far the most important, both to the pro- 
ducer and to the consumer. The producer finds the market- 



184 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

ing of lambs more profitable than the marketing of older 
animals, while the consumer has developed a strong and in- 
creasing preference for lamb. Seventy-five per cent, of the 
ovine receipts at Chicago are lambs, and the percentage is in- 
creasing. Nevertheless, mature mutton sheep will never dis- 
appear from the market, because surplus and spent breeding 
stock will always be available for slaughter. At from 12 to 
14 months of age, lambs pass into the yearling or ewe sub- 
classes. No definite age limit can be drawn about the lamb 
sub-class, for the distinction is based upon the degree of ma- 
turity exhibited by the young animal. For this reason native 
lambs pass out of the sub-class at a younger age than western 
lambs, because they are better fed and are usually free from 
Merino blood. The western lamb's slower approach to ma- 
turity, due to its breeding and feeding, is something of an 
advantage, enabling it longer to enjoy the advantage in price 
that lambs have over older animals. A feeder may buy light 
western lambs in the late fall and feed them until the follow- 
ing May, at which time they will still be classed as lambs ; 
while native lambs of the same age and similarly managed 
would be classed as sheep upon their return to market. This 
makes clear why for several weeks in the year it is necessary 
to make two separate quotations on lambs, one of which is 
for those known as "spring lambs," referring to those born 
in the year the quotations are made, as distinguished from 
those born the year previous. These separate quotations first 
appear about May 20, and continue until July 1. After July 
1, all animals born in the spring of the previous year are 
known as yearlings or ewes. The grades of lambs are prime, 
choice, good, medium, and common or culls. The grade of a 
lamb depends upon its form, quality, condition, and weight. 

Prime lambs. — Only the best lambs, or those that are su- 
perior in form, quality, condition, and weight, are graded as 
prime. They are used to supply the demands of the fancy 
city market, hotel, and restaurant trade. 

1. Form. — The buyer demands the form that shows the 
most development of loin, back, and leg of mutton, these be- 
ing the regions of high-priced cuts. The lamb should be deep, 
broad, short of leg, and free from paunchiness. Fullness and 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 185 

smoothness of outline are important as indications of thick- 
ness and evenness in fleshing. A rough, ungainly lamb 
dresses out low and yields an unattractive carcass. 

2. Quality. — The indications of quality are a medium- 
sized, clean-cut head; fine ears; fine bone; and smooth, well- 
rounded outlines. These features insure fineness in texture 
of flesh, increase the dressing percentage, and add to the 
attractive appearance of the carcass ; hence, quality is an im- 
portant factor in determining price. 

3. Fatness and fleshing. — The reasons why a lamb 
should be fat are: (1) Other things being equal, a fat lamb 
will dress a higher percentage of carcass than a half -fat or 




Fig. 43. Prime Lambs. 

Bred and fed by the Iowa State CoUearG. 

thin lamb; (2) the fat adds to the attractiveness of the car- 
cass, making it more inviting to the purchaser; (3) the fat 
carcass shrinks less in weight in cooling out in the refriger- 
ator, and the same is true in cooking; (4) some external fat 
and fat deposited through the lean meat improves the juici- 
ness and flavor of the flesh. The fleshing of the lamb should 
be deep, even, and firm, yet "springy." Lambs are seldom 
made too fat, but in the finishing of older animals this is easily 
possible. The proper degree of fatness is indicated by a 
thick dock, a mellow purse, thickness and smoothness over 
the back and ribs, fullness at the neck and flanks, and a 
plump, well-filled breast. 

4. Weight. — The most desirable weight for the prime 
lamb is 80 pounds. When spring lambs first appear on the 



186 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

market they weigh little more than 60 pounds, but if they 
have quality and finish they easily command top prices. Dur- 
ing summer months, consumers of mutton desire small cuts, 
and this gives rise to a strong demand for lambs weighing 65 
to 70 pounds. Native lambs showing the best form, quality, 
and condition, and weighing 100 pounds occasionally sell as 
prime lambs, although this is exceptional. As a rule, weight 
is of less importance than quality or condition, but in making 
selections from the lighter carcasses the average consumer 
feels more fully assured he is getting lamb and not mutton. 

Foreign material and moisture in the wool add to the 
weight. Should lambs be very wet, buyers may withhold 









Fig. 44. Choice Fat Western Lambs. 

bids until they are more nearly dry, and if bids are made on 
animals having wet fleeces, the buyer trys to allow for the 
extra weight in the price he offers. Foreign material, such 
as mud, sand, or manure, may be lodged in the fleece, and 
such offerings always command a lower price. It pays to 
market all sheep in clean condition. 

Choice lambs. — This grade includes most of the better 
lamb offerings upon the Chicago market. Lambs cannot be 
very deficient in form, quality, fatness, or weight, and grade 
as choice. Deficiency in quality or in weight frequently ac- 
counts for failure to grade as prime, but lack of condition is 
the most common cause. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 187 

Good lambs. — Marked deficiency in form, quality, condi- 
tion, or weight, or a slight deficiency in each, puts the lamb 
into the good grade. Lack of quality and lack of condition 
are the most frequent causes of failure to grade higher than 
good. 

Medium Iambs. — Here the form is frequently faulty, and 
the condition and quality fall far below the standard. Long, 
narrow, rough lambs much lacking in flesh grade here. They 
are often paunchy. Western lambs answering to this descrip- 
tion classify as feeders unless they are very coarse, hence this 
grade is mostly filled by native lambs. 




Fig. 45. Good Lambs. 

Common or cull lambs. — Coarse, ill-shaped, thin lambs 
^rade as common or culls. With one exception they are very 
light in weight, ranging from 30 to 50 pounds. The exception 
is found in the case of coarse, "bucky" lambs, the result of 
too late castration. The development of sex explains their 
coarseness and heavy weight, as they are heavier than the 
bulk of common lambs, sometimes weighing as much as 100 
pounds. Growers should castrate their ram lambs a few days 
after they are born. Common lambs are mostly natives. 
Their lack of flesh is often due to infestation by internal 
parasites. 

Yearlings. — Yearlings are used as a substitute for lambs 
dn the meat trade. The ability to substitute for lamb depends 



188 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



upon weight, quality, condition, and immaturity ; for the 
nearer the yearhng approaches the prime lamb in these re- 
spects, the better he fulfills his function. An index greatly 
depended upon for identifying the carcass of a young sheep, 
or lamb, is the "break-joint," which was described in Chapter 
XIV. Yearlings are commonly referred to as "lights" and 
"heavies," according to weights. Each year there are a 
number of lambs that for one or more reasons should not be 
marketed as lambs, and hence the production and marketing 
of yearlings is economically justifiable. The grades are 
prime, choice, and good. 




Fig. 46. Common or Cull Lambs. 

Prime yearlings. — To grade as prime, yearlings must be 
highly developed in form, quality, and condition, and of a 
light, handy weight, ranging from 70 to 90 pounds. Correct 
form in the prime yearling necessitates symmetry, compact- 
ness, roundness, and smoothness, with no suggestion of un- 
even lines or prominent parts. In quality, the requirements 
are fine, clean-cut features, fine bone, and a smooth form. 
Sharp discrimination is made by buyers against those not 
showing a high finish, this being the first essential in prime 
yearlings. 

Choice yearlings. — Yearlings of the choice grade outnum- 
ber those grading as prime. A weight of more than 90 pounds 
is usually alone sufficient to exclude a yearling from the prime 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



189 



grade. Any noticeable departure from correct form, quality, 
or condition is sufficient to place a yearling in the choice 
grade. The difference between prime and choice yearlings 
is small. 

Good yearlings. — When the weight is 110 pounds or more, 
or when there is marked lack of those qualities sought in the 
yearling sub-class, the animals grade as good, this being the 
lowest grade of yearlings. Excepting those that are badly 
off in form or quality, or both, the good grade of mutton 
yearlings merges with the yearling feeder sub-class. 




Fig. 47. Prime Native Yearlings. 

Bred and fed by the Iowa State College. 



Wethers. — This sub-class is composed of mature, cas- 
trated males. Comparatively few native wethers appear upon 
the market, this sub-class being chiefly a western product. 
It is claimed that there are fewer wethers reaching the market 
each year, and, as the demand for dressed lamb seems des- 
tined to increase, the proportionate number of wethers will 
undoubtedly continue to decrease, especially when transpor- 
tation lines are further extended through the range districts. 
At present, the rangeman has a place for wethers if his loca- 
tion is such that the shipment of animals is difficult and ex- 
pensive, if he has very cheap grazing lands and can produce 



190 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



his animals at very low cost, or if he has too few breeding 
sheep to run his ranch at its full capacity. As a mutton 
product, wethers are used in hotel, restaurant, dining car, 
and steamship trade, or in any place where the heavier cuts 
may be advantageously used. The grades of wethers are 
prime, choice, good, and common. 

Ewes. — Yearling ewes, ewes discarded as breeders, and 
surplus breeding ewes compose this sub-class. Wide differ- 
ences are therefore noticeable in age, condition, and weight 




Fig. 48. Prime Western iearliiigs. 



of offerings. As a rule, ewes dress out lower and yield pro- 
portionately less lean meat that wethers, and hence bring a 
lower price, the difference ranging from 25 to 50 cents per 
cwt. The higher grades of ewes are utilized for hotel and 
restaurant trade, while the lower grades supply the demand 
for cheap mutton in cities, mining camps, and other places. 
The grades of ewes are prime, choice, good, medium, and 
common or culls. 

Bucks and stags. — The supply of these is limited and 
hence they are not graded. This sub-class is of no special 
importance to the producer of mutton. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



191 



Feeder Sheep. 

The chief distinction between mutton sheep and feeder 
sheep is the degree of fatness. Other distinctions are notice- 
able, however, for a study of the two classes discloses the 
fact that thinness of flesh is not alone sufficient to gain ready- 
admission to the feeder class. The animal should also be 
free from extreme coarseness, and should not be much lacking 
in vitality because of disease or old age. The supply of feeder 
sheep is greatest during September, October, and November, 




Fig. 49. Good Yearlings. 

at which time rangemen are thinning their flocks in prepara- 
tion for winter. However, feeder sheep are taken out of 
Chicago during the entire year. As previously explained, 
practically all sheep sold as feeders are those grown on west- 
ern ranges. The sub-classes of feeder sheep are lambs, year- 
lings, wethers, and ewes. 

Feeder lambs. — Illinois Bulletin No. 129 has the follow- 
ing to say regarding feeder lambs : "Feeder lambs are those 
thin in flesh left after sorting out those in a band in suitable 
condition for the mutton trade. A great percentage of the 



192 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



feeder lambs reaching the markets fall into that class because 
of certain influences under which they have been placed. It 
may be that they have had an unequal chance with those in 
highest condition in the band on account of not being so well 
nourished by their dams ; they may have been born too late 
to reach that degree of condition, finish, and weight de- 
manded by the packer; or, they may have been held too long 
at the shipping place on the range or on the road by poor train 
service without the necessary amount of feed, so that the 
deterioration in condition placed what would have been mut- 




Fig. 50. Common Wethers. 

ton lambs in the feeder class." Feeder lambs are graded 
fancy selected, choice, good, medium, and common or inferior. 
Fancy selected feeder lambs. — This grade includes only a 
relatively small number of lambs, because they must meet 
not only the requirements for choice feeder lambs, but must 
also show very good breeding, great uniformity in appear- 
ance and markings, and a degree of quality that justifies no 
adverse criticism. They show slightly more fatness than the 
general run of feeder lambs, and are heavier, weighing from 
65 to 70 pounds. Such lambs are quickly finished into prime 
lambs. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 193 

Choice feeder lambs. — This grade of feeder lambs will de- 
velop into choice or prime mutton lambs, provided they are 
properly managed. The buyer looks for evidences of ability 
to make economical gains and to reach a high state of finish. 
Such evidences are manifested in the form, quality, constitu- 
tion, condition, and weight. 

1. Form. — The form should be low set, broad, deep, com- 
pact, and free from paunchiness. Such a conformation is 
especially important as an indication of quick maturity and is 
the form the butcher prizes most in a carcass. 



Fig. 51. Fancy Selected Feeder Lambs. 

2. Quality. — The head should be medium sized and 
clean-cut, the bone fine, and the skin free from folds or 
wrinkles. 

3. Constitution and thrift. — A wide, deep chest and 
roomy middle are essential to constitutional vigor. Buyers 
desire a thrifty, active lamb and hence look with disfavor on 
those that are lame or inactive. 

4. Condition. — It is not expected that feeder lambs will 
be fat, yet they should be fairly full in their outlines, and 
there should be no suggestion of emaciation, as this means 
a weakened, inactive lamb. 

5. Weight. — Feeder lambs that grade as choice weigh 
from 55 to 62 pounds. Those below this range of weight 



194 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



may be regarded as too young or too much retarded in devel- 
opment to respond to feeding as a choice lamb should. In a 
normal feeding period of from 90 to 120 days, choice lambs 
are expected to finish into the weights most desirable on the 
mutton market; hence, the initial weight cannot be much 
under 55 pounds. 

Good feeder lambs. — These are often somewhat leggy and 
coarse, yet capable of making satisfactory gains. They aver- 
age a little light in weight, and are not so high in condition 
as choice feeder lambs, hence require a longer feeding period 




Fig. 52. Good Feeder Lambs. 

to finish them. Buyers of this grade feed them all winter 
and shear before marketing. This grade especially appeals 
to buyers who take out lambs a few weeks before shearing 
time to shear and feed for a short period. 

Medium feeder lambs. — This grade is deficient in breed- 
ing, form, quality, and weight. They are long, leggy, and 
angular in form, and their wrinkled skins are evidence of 
much Merino blood. 

Common or inferior feeder lambs. — Little, light, late-born, 
weak lambs grade as common or inferior. The market calls 
them "bums," "culls," "pewees," and "peanuts." They weigh 
from 25 to 45 pounds and require five or six months feeding 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



195 



and careful management to make the feeding profitable. Ex- 
tremely coarse lambs also grade as common. 

Yearling feeders. — This sub-class is composed only of 
yearling wethers, and, as the mutton yearling should be able 
to substitute for lamb, quality and weight are of great im- 
portance in grading yearling feeders. They are not a promi- 
nent feature in the feeder trade, as but few appear on the 
market. The grades are choice, good, and common. 

Feeder wethers. — The supply is very small. The grades 
are choice, good, medium, and common. 




Fig. 53. Common Feeder Lambs. 

Feeder ewes. — Most ewes suitable for feeding bring a 
higher price when sold for breeding purposes, hence the sup- 
ply of feeder ewes is small. They exhibit considerable varia- 
tion in condition, quality, and thrift, and are graded choice, 
good, medium, and common. 

Breeding Sheep. 

Both native and western ewes are included in this class, 
but breeding bucks are exclusively natives. Bulletin No. 129 
of the Illinois Station has the following to say concerning this 
class: "The ewes most sought after are two-, three-, and 
four-year-old dark-faced natives in ordinary field condition. 
Dark-faced ewes sell better than those that are otherwise 



196 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

their equals, because their lambs, being dark faced, sell bet- 
ter than light-faced lambs on the eastern markets. Western 
ewes are very popular for breeding purposes in certain locali- 
ties, as Ohio, Michigan, and Western New York, and many- 
engaged in the trade think they should be preferred over 
natives, because they are more hardy and comparatively free 
from internal parasites. Many of the ewes offered for breed- 
ing purposes are yearlings, but they are not as desirable as 
two- or three-year-old ewes because they are immature and 
likely to be unsatisfactory at their first lambing. The native 
yearling is heavier and more nearly mature than the western 
yearling, and she meets with a correspondingly better sale." 
Bucks are not graded, but breeding ewes are graded fancy 
selected, choice, good, and common. 

Fancy selected breeding ewes. — This grade of ewes is 
composed of the few high grades of the middle-wooled breeds, 
usually grade Shropshires, which reach the market. They 
must be not only thrifty and sound, but uniform in quality, 
form, fleece, and style. 

Choice breeding ewes. — Most of the desirable breeding 
ewes found on the market belong to the choice grade. Eligi- 
bility to this grade is based upon form, constitution, age, 
soundness, breeding, quality, and condition. Below, the writer 
again quotes from Illinois Bulletin No. 129, which bulletin has 
been followed in preparing this chapter. 

1. Form. — "The smooth, low-set, symmetrical ewe is 
preferred over the angular, upstanding ewe with uneven top 
and lower lines. * * * Choice ewes, unlike fancy se- 
lected, do not necessarily have to be of stylish carriage. From 
the standpoint of breed type, they are often plain about the 
head, with rather long necks, and long in the coupling to the 
extent that they could hardly be regarded as compact." 

2. Constitution. — "Since the breeding ewe is to produce 
and nourish lambs, it is essential that she be deep and wide 
in the chest, and that she have a roomy middle, all of which 
indicates that she has a strong constitution and well-developed 
assimilative powers." 

3. Age. — "The most desirable ages are two, three, and 
four years, and more particularly two and three years. When 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 197 

breeding ewes go to the country it is the thought of the pur- 
chaser that they are to produce, on the average, three crops 
of lambs before they are sent back to the market as old mut- 
ton ewes, hence, if the age is any' greater than four years, the 
ability to produce profitably for three years is very doubtful." 

4. Soundness. — "Soundness refers to the condition of 
the mouth and udder. A broken mouth, which means missing 
teeth or teeth worn down short, indicates advanced age, and 
although ewes may otherwise look desirable for breeding 
purposes, they cannot grade as choice if the teeth are not in- 
tact. It is necessary that the choice breeding ewe have a 
sound udder, and it is pronounced sound when it is soft and 
pliable to the touch, without abnormal development on either 
side. Any ewe not having a sound udder should be rejected 
as a breeder, but in the good and common grades some care- 
lessness is exhibited in this respect." 

5. Breeding. — "The breeding most sought after is some 
one of the Down breeds, chiefly because of the dark color 
upon the face and legs. Early in the season of the breeding 
ewe trade, when Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia are taking 
large numbers of breeding ewes, color has a pronounced in- 
fluence upon the desirability of a ewe. Of two ewes, one with 
light markings and the other with dark, but equal in all other 
respects, the one with dark markings is placed a grade higher 
than the other. It is also desirable that the breeding of choice 
ewes be such that they have abundant fleeces of medium wool, 
which means that the wool be of medium fineness and length, 
dense, and evenly covering all parts of the body. Since they 
are to remain in the country for three seasons, the quality 
and quantity of wool they produce is no inconsiderable item." 

6. Quality. — "Choice breeding ewes should have smooth, 
rather refined features, and bone of medium size. Ewes of 
this grade are used to produce choice and prime lambs for the 
spring and early summer markets, and without a great deal 
of general quality, they could scarcely fulfill their mission. It 
is well to distinguish between good general quality and over- 
refinement, as delicate, over-refined ewes are without sufficient 
constitution to be profitable producers." 



198 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

7. Condition. — "While choice breeding ewes should be 
thrifty and active, fat is not desirable as the purchaser prefers 
to place these ewes on pasture and cheap forage feeds which 
will secure the condition desired at a lower cost than the price 
demanded on the market. Breeding ewes are somewhat like 
feeder lambs in that they are the result of a sort where those 
ewes of desirable form, quality, breeding, age, soundness, and 
thrift, but somewhat lower than mutton condition, are se- 
lected out from those that are fatter and desirable for mut- 
ton." 

Good breeding ewes. — Undesirable markings, age, weight, 
form, and condition cause breeding ewes to grade as good. 

Common breeding ewes. — This grade is characterized by 
mixed breeding and advanced age. The common grade of 
breeding ewes merges with the feeder class. 

Breeding bucks. — Rams are taken out of the Chicago and 
other markets for breeding purposes, but most of them are 
of poor form and mixed breeding. Anyone who has visited 
the sheep pens at Chicago or at any other large live-stock cen- 
ter will testify that the breeder who goes to the open market 
to select sires will never succeed in raising the merit of his 
flock above the level of mediocrity. The practice is unjusti- 
fiable and unprofitable. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Hot-house lambs. — These are lambs produced early and 
marketed before the general run of spring lambs starts to 
market, which is about May 20. A few shipments reach the 
Chicago market, where they are called "spring lambs," but the 
open market is not the best place to dispose of such a product. 
The men who have made the most profit from the production 
of hot-house lambs are those who cater directly to the eastern 
hotel and restaurant trade. The practice is to slaughter the 
lambs on the farm where they were produced, and pack the 
carcasses in ice for shipment, small shipments being made 
regularly during the winter and early spring. They are in 
most demand from Christmas until Easter, They must be fat 
and weigh between 40 and 55 pounds. 



TvPES AND Market Classes of Live Stock 199 

Export sheep. — Very few sheep have been exported dur- 
ing recent years. The best and heaviest wethers are preferred 
for export, but heavy ewes, yearhngs, and lambs are also 
taken. 

Throw outs. — When bands of lambs reach Chicago, they 
are at once sorted into the mutton and feeder classes. The 
buyer of the feeders usually has the privilege of rejecting 
those not suitable for feeding purposes. Lame lambs, un- 
thrifty ones, ram lambs, large lambs too advanced in age, and 
black lambs make up the rejections. They are purchased by 
small city butchers who have a cheap trade. They sell at cull- 
lamb or medium-lamb prices. 

Dead sheep. — Sheep which die in transit are valued chiefly 
for their wool, and bring 25 cents per head or less. If mangled 
and badly trampled, they are worthless, and fifty per cent, of 
dead sheep reach the market in this condition. 

Goats. — These are sold for slaughter if they are in good 
condition, but do not bring as high price as sheep. The supply 
is limited. Thin goats are often taken to the country to clean 
up brush land. 

Sheep Prices at Chicago. 

Chicago prices during 1914. — The lowest and highest 
prices paid in Chicago on the open market for the various 
classes of sheep in 1914 were as follows: Native mutton 
lambs, $5.00-$9.50 ; western mutton lambs, $5.00-$9.50 ; spring 
lambs, $6.00-$14.00 ; mutton yearlings (natives and westerns), 
$5.00-$8.00 ; native mutton sheep, $2.00-$7.00 ; western mutton 
sheep, $2.95-$7.20; feeder lambs, $5.15-$7.75; feeder sheep 
and yearlings, $3.50-$6.40 ; breeding ewes, $4.00-$6.75. 

Market values of the various classes. — The following 
table gives the yearly range of prices for the market classes 
and sub-classes of sheep at Chicago from 1905 to 1914, so far 
as they are available: 



200 



Types and Market Classed of Live Stock 





Mutton Class 


Feeder Class 


Year 


Lambs 


Yearlings — 
natives and 
westerns 


Sheep 


Lambs 


Sheep and 
yearlings 


Breeding 




Natives I Westerns 


Natives 1 Westerns 




1905 ;$3 75-$8 25 $4 50-$8 25 

1906 1 4 00- 8 50 4 15- 8 40 

1907 1 4 80- 8 60 4 00- 8 70 

1908 ! 3 00- 7 85 3 50- 8 25 

1909 4 00- 8 80 1 5 00- 9 00 

1910 4 00-10 25 4 75-10 25 

1911 2 50- 7 50 3 90- 7 55 

1912 4 00-10 25 4 00-10 25 

1913 4 50- 9 40 5 00- 9 50 

1914 , . 5 00- 9 50 1 5 00- 9-50 


$4 90-$7 25 
5 00- 7 00 
3 50- 8 00 

3 25- 7 60 

4 35- 8 15 
4 00- 9 00 

3 50- 6 00 

4 00- 8 25 

4 50- 8 50 

5 00- 8 00 


$2 75-$4 50 
3 00- 6 50 
2 00- 7 00 

1 50- 7 00 

2 00- 6 90 
1 50- 9 00 

1 50- 5 25 

2 00- 8 00 
2 00- 7 60 
2 00- 7 00 


$2 75-$6 50 
3 00- 6 50 

1 25- 7 25 

2 00- 7 00 
2 50- 6 85 
2 00- 9 30 

1 65- 5 60 

2 00- 7 50 
2 60- 7 90 
2 95- 7 20 


$3 75-$7 56 
4 50- 7 00 

4 26- 8 65 
3 50- 7 75 

5 00- 7 85 
3 50- 9 85 

3 25- 6 40 

4 00- 8 50 

5 00- 8 70 
5 15- 7 75 


$2 75-$6 60 
2 00- 6 00 
1 25- 7 50 
1 50- 5 76 
1 50- 6 85 
1 50- 7 75 

1 50- 6 00 

2 00- 6 00 

2 00- 6 50 

3 50- 6 40 


$4 00-$6 60 
3 40- 7 00 
3 25- 5 65 
3 BO- 6 50 
3 25- 6 10 
3 00- 6 00 
3 60- 5 50 

3 60- 5 75 

4 00- 6 75 



The comparative market values of the sub-classes of mut- 
ton sheep are shown by the following table, giving the yearly 
average prices for the several sub-classes from 1905 to 1914, 
and also the averages for the entire ten-year period: 



Year 


Lambs 


Yearlings 


She 


ep 


All 
lambs 


All 
sheep 




Natives 


Westerns 


Natives 


Westerns, 


1905 

1906 

1907 


$6.75 
6.80 
6.85 
6.20 
7.30 
7.40 
5.70 
6.90 
7.50 
7.75 


$6.90 
6.90 
7.10 
6.45 
7.50 
7.65 
6.05 
7.35 
7.85 
8.15 


$5.80 
6.00 
6.00 
5.30 
6.00 
6.30 
4.50 
5.65 
6.35 
6.55 


$5.00 
5.15 
5.20 
4.60 
4.95 
5.10 
3.80 
4.40 
5.00 
5.35 


$5.05 
5.30 1 
5.25 
4.65 
5.00 
5.35 
4.05 
4.75 
5.30 
5.70 1 


$6.80 
6.85 
7.05 
6.35 
7.40 
7.55 
5.95 
7.20 
7.70 
8.00 


$5.00 
5.20 
5 25 


1908 


4 65 


1909 


5 00 


1910 


5 25 


1911 . . 


3 95 


1912 


4 60 


1913 


5 20 


1914 


5.55 


10-year 
average 


$6.90 


$7.20 


$5.85 


$4.85 


1 
$5.05 


$7.10 


$4.95 



The above table shows that western lambs outsell native 
lambs by 30 cents per cwt., and western sheep outsell native 
sheep by 20 cents per cwt. All lambs together have averaged 
$2.15 more per cwt. than all sheep during the ten years from 
1905 to 1914 inclusive. Lambs sell $1.25 higher than year- 
lings, and yearhngs outsell sheep by 90 cents. The inability 
of thin natives to sell for feeding purposes largely explains 
the difference in prices between native sheep and western 
sheep in the mutton class. 



CHAPTER XVI. 
BREEDING FOR THE MARKET. 

In colonial times, sheep were all of the coarse-wooled 
type, brought with the settlers from England and Holland. 
They were the unimproved original stock from which the 
present English breeds have sprung. Later, George Wash- 
ington and other leading agriculturists of the time introduced 
sheep representing the early breeding improvement in Europe. 
After the organization of the national government the Me- 
rinos made their appearance. Half a century ago, the Merino 
was the outstanding feature among American sheep. Forty 
years ago, more than four-fifths of American sheep were Me- 
rinos or their grades. There were a few middle-wooled sheep 
and a very few flocks of the long-wooled breeds in the middle 
states and in the Ohio valley. The old coarse wools were scat- 
tered through the South. Kentucky had the largest number 
of long wools. Importations were made from England and 
Canada. In Texas and New Mexico were Mexican sheep of 
Spanish origin that had degenerated and almost reverted to 
the wild state. Their fleeces were coarse and hairy and 
weighed only one or two pounds. 

When the first exports of beef were made to England 
about 1875, the "Scotsman," a Scottish newspaper, sent Mr. 
James Macdonald to America to investigate the American 
live-stock industry and render a complete report. The results 
of this investigation were published by Mr. Macdonald in 1878 
in a book entitled, "Food from the Far West." His remarks 
upon the state of the sheep industry in the United States at 
that time were as follows: 

"No one in political or agricultural circles, or elsewhere, 
seems so confident of the export of mutton becoming or con- 
tinuing so extensive or so profitable as that of beef. Mutton 
is not considered an important article of food in America, and 
the feeding of sheep has received but very little attention from 
its farmers. Sheep-farming is certainly carried on very ex- 

201 



202 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

tensively all over America, especially in the Western States 
of the Union and on the Pacific slopes ; but, with a few ex- 
ceptions in the older and Eastern States, the sheei>-farmer's 
whole harvest is his "clip'^ of wool. There is no demand for 
mutton, and therefore he prepares none. He keeps a class of 
sheep specially adapted for producing wool, and allows his old 
sheep to die away naturally, or go where they may — that is. 
if he cannot dispose of them, even for a mere trifle, before 
they reach the ripe old age of eight or nine years." 

There has been a steady increase since 1860 in the pro- 
portionate number of mutton sheep. This has been mostly 
due to the increased demand for meat, and partly to the de- 
mand for wools other than the Merino, that is, combing wools. 
The flocks of mutton sheep increased in all parts of the coun- 
try, though Merino improvement was still the predominating 
feature in sheep husbandry in Vermont, New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Michigan, and elsewhere, and the great flocks of 
the ranges became Merino grades of a high order of merit. In 
recent years many Merino flocks in the eastern part of the 
country have been made over into mutton flocks by several 
succeeding crosses of mutton blood. East of the Mississippi 
the majority of sheep are of the mutton type, while on western 
ranges Merino blood predominates. 

The sheep census. — The United States Department of 
Agriculture estimated that on January 1, 1915, there were 
49,956,000 sheep and lambs in the United States, and that 
their average value per head was $4.50. The leading states 
in numbers of sheep were as follows : 

1. Wyoming ..:....: 4,427,000 6. Oregon 2,563,000 

2. Montana 4,379,000 7. California 2,500,000 

3. New Mexico 8,340,000 S.Texas 2,114,000 

4. Ohio 3,263,000 9. Utah . 2,068,000 

5. Idaho 3,041,000 10. Michigan 2,033,000 

The distribution by geographical divisions was as follows: 

North Atlantic 2,075,000 

South Atlantic 2,238,000 

North Central, East of Mississiopi River 8,126,000 

North Central, West of Mississippi River 4,879,000 

South Central 4,730,000 

Far Western 27,908,000 



Total United States 49,956,000 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 203 

The foregoing figures show that the far western division, 
which includes the range states, has more sheep than all other 
divisions combined. 

Source of improvement. — A certain few men have col- 
lected the very choicest purebred and registered mutton sheep 
that may be had, almost regardless of price, and have estab- 
lished magnificent flocks upon which they have used rams 
that were selected with great care and at considerable ex- 
pense. The owner of such a flock makes it his business to 
supply breeding rams and some breeding ewes to breeders of 
less prominence than himself. Year after year he slowly im- 
proves his flock by careful selection and mating, and he is thus 
enabled to send out better rams each year to head the flocks 
of less prominent breeders. In turn, these less prominent 
flocks supply better breeding animals to more numerous and 
still less noted breeders, and so the scheme works out, im- 
provement slowly, but surely, flowing downward and outward 
from a few flocks to the many. There is a third class of breed- 
ers who are producing directly for the market. The produce 
of their flocks is sold to feeders, or else they themselves feed 
out the lambs for market. We may, therefore, classify all 
flocks of sheep as follows: 

1. A few flocks solely for improvement. 

2. Numerous flocks primarily for propagation and sec- 
ondarily for improvement. 

3. Many flocks solely for mutton production. 

The breeders of the third class secure their rams from 
the second-class flocks, and their ewes are generally grades. 

The mutton breeding ram. — The selection of the breeding 
ram should be most carefully made as he affords the chief 
opportunity for improvement in the flock. For this reason 
it is wise to invest several times the average value of the ewes 
in the purchase of a ram to mate with them. However, it is 
not so much a matter of securing a ram at such or such a 
price as it is of selecting a sire of merit that is strong in the 
points wherein the ewe flock is weak, and whose offspring will 
possess a higher standard of merit than the ewes from which 
they came. It is a breeding-up process, and this fact justifies 
more careful selection and greater expenditure of money in 



204 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



each succeeding purchase of a ram. It is always a matter of 
locating the sort of ram desired, and the price demanded for 
him should not stand in the way of a purchase unless it is 
really exorbitant. 

The breeding ram of mutton type must be, first of all, a 
good mutton animal, including as high development of the 
form, quality, and fleshing as may be secured. He must, in 
addition, have a strong, robust constitution as evidenced by 
a wide, deep chest and middle and good feeding qualities. The 
story is told of an English shepherd who visited a certain flock 
to purchase a yearling ram. After much deliberation, he 
found himself unable to decide among several of the offerings, 




'- •'■ i-XW • . '-•.**""- *•>•' '-'' ■ » •' ■' 'i .^ -*;,<;■ ■r'^-J 



Fig. 54. Correct Type in the Mutton Breeding Ram. 
Southdown ram, Babraham Sapper, owned by Mr. C. Adeane, 
Babraham Hall, Cambridge, England. 

all of which suited him. Suddenly his serious expression 
changed to one of renewed interest, and turning to the owner 
he said, "Feed 'em." Grain was placed in a trough in full view 
of the rams, at sight of which one pricked up his ears and 
marched quickly to the , trough, the others following more 
leisurely. "That's him," said the buyer, pointing to the ram 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 205 

in front, for in common with all experienced feeders he 
recognized the significance of good feeding qualities. A strong 
appetite is evidence of constitution, thrift, lustiness, and 
health, and indicates a disposition to develop quickly and make 
economical gains. 

The ram should exhibit strong sexual characteristics, 
these being a strong head with distinctly masculine expres- 
sion, a well-developed scrag, a sufficiency of bone, and general 
ruggedness of build throughout. Particular attention should 
be given to the shape, position, and strength of feet, pasterns, 
and legs. These points should receive attention in any sheep, 
but in the breeding ram their importance is magnified. The 
feet should be well formed, the pasterns strong, the bone 
ample, and the limbs straight. Weakness in the hind legs is 
of more consequence than weakness in front, as it injures the 
breeding usefulness to a greater degree. The hocks should 
not be bent so as to give the hind leg a sickled appearance as 
viewed from the side ; and when viewed from the rear, the hind 
legs should not be bowed outward, but placed straight and 
square beneath the quarters. 

The ram's fleece should be heavy and of good quality ac- 
cording to his breed, special attention being given to the wool 
in case the ewe flock averages below desired standards for 
fleece. 

So far as the fatness of the ram is concerned, greater 
satisfaction will ordinarily result from the purchase of a ram 
in medium condition, or what shepherds call a field ram, than 
one that has been much pampered in preparation for sale or 
show. The latter may present a more attractive form and 
appearance at the time of purchase, but must be let down in 
flesh before he can be used for breeding purposes, and it is 
often true that with loss of fat there is revealed some rather 
disappointing points in form. This more often happens when 
the buyer is a novice and the ram has had the additional ad- 
vantage of the correcting power of shears in expert hands. In 
any case, the purchase price of a fitted ram must include the 
cost of fitting, which may be no inconsiderable amount. It is, 
of course, a fact that the very choicest rams are highly fitted 
before being offered for sale, as no flock owner expects to 



206 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

realize full value for an exceptional ram unless he is presented 
in finished and fitted form; however, this applies to the best 
offerings and is somewhat outside of the matter under con- 
sideration. When rams are purchased to head ordinary flocks 
the produce of which are sent to market, it will usually be best 
to pay up to the limit of price for a field ram that suits, rather 
than invest the same amount in a fitted sheep. 

Only purebred sires should be used on any flock, and the 
same breed should be patronized each ti^ne a ram is purchased ; 
in other words, breeding for the market should not result in 
a mixture of breeds, but the owner should breed in line, grad- 
ing up his flock by consecutive crosses of the same breed. 
Thus will the good features of that breed be so strongly 
stamped upon the flock as to give it a high average of indi- 
vidual merit and great uniformity. 

The mutton breeding ewe. — Assuming that there is an 
established ewe flock to which additions are made from the 
best ewe lambs of each year, the problem of the breeder is to 
weed out the less desirable ewes and send them to the butcher. 
Herein lies a second advantage from the use of good males, 
for if the sire proves a successful breeder, the owner is fur- 
nished with excellent material with which to replenish his ewe 
flock, thus permitting closer culling of the aged ewes than 
would be possible had an inferior ram been used. Hence, the 
use of a good ram not only results in direct improvement in 
the first crop of lambs, but there is the added advantage of 
the indirect improvement which is realized when the best ewe 
lambs reach breeding age. 

It is easiest to cull the flock a short time after shearing, 
allowing a few days to elapse in order that the ewes may re- 
cover from the shabby appearance and somewhat disorganized 
state common to many of them immediately after being shorn. 
Aged ewes and broken-mouthed ewes should have been weeded 
out the previous fall, the cost of wintering them being a need- 
less expense inasmuch as they are difficult to winter without 
becoming very low in flesh. The wintered ewes may then be 
sorted two or three weeks after shearing; faulty forms and 
lack of size are easily detected at that time. It is an easy mat- 
ter to part with ewes that are aged, broken in mouth, rup- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 207 

tured, crippled, or defective in udder, but it sometimes re- 
quires strong determination to give up ewes that are sound, 
but nevertheless unworthy because of faults in conformation, 
size, fleece, or color. This is especially true when close culling 
will not leave as large a flock as it is desired to carry, but in 
the long run it will be best to err on the side of too close culling 




Fig. 55. Correct Type in the Breeding Ewe. 

Champion Hampshire ewe at the 1913 International, owned by 
Mr. A. W. Arnold of Galesville, Wis. This ewe has strength and 
vigor, combined with femininity and quality. Her dark points are an 
asset, and her roomy middle and dense fleece are valuable attributes 
in the breeding ewe. 

rather than to carry certain individuals that do not measure 
up to desired standards. Close scrutiny should be made of 
heads, necks, breasts, shoulders, backs, ribs, rumps, quarters, 
and limbs. Form, size, quality, constitution, muscling, and 
smoothness of outline should receive much consideration, the 



208 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

requirements for which have been set forth in preceding chap- 
ters. One word more, however, on heads and necks, the fol- 
lowing being taken from Professor Wrightson's book, "Sheep 
— Breeds and Management," and is much to the point. 

"Nothing looks better than good heads, and, strange as 
it may seem, a sheep's head, which is only worth 9d. at the 
butcher's is worth a lot of money when carried on a good ram 
or ewe. A muscular neck indicates strength of constitution 
and good muscular development, and I have never known a 
sheep breeder who did not strongly object to a shabby neck. 
Mr. Ellman, the father of the Southdown breed, insisted on 
the importance of this point. Mr. James Rawlence, of Bul- 
bridge, one of the oldest of our noted breeders, would not keep 
a weak-necked ewe, and no man who values his flock would 
buy a ram with this fault. The neck ought to be muscular, 
arched, tapering, and neat." 

Uniformity in shape, size, color markings, and appearance 
in general is a valuable attribute in any flock. When the pro- 
duce is intended for the open market, this insures a uniform 
lot of lambs for feeding, and it adds much to the attractive- 
ness of the finished lot when presented to the buyer. The 
market's preference for dark color markings may well be kept 
in mind in this connection. 

The breeder who aims to supply the open market must 
emphasize the matter of wool when building up a breeding 
flock. Although meat production is the principal object in 
view, the clip of wool from such a flock ought to be an im- 
portant source of revenue. Furthermore, the ewe with the 
heavy fleece is better protected from the weather, remains 
more healthy for that reason, and the density of her fleece 
keeps it free from dirt, sand, manure, bits of straw, and other 
foreign matter. Moisture is better excluded and the yolk thus 
becomes abundant, insuring soundness of fiber and prevent- 
ing a cotted fleece. Her offspring, being heavily wooled, is 
less liable to chills which throw the animal out of condition 
and affect the gains made. In a sense, the heavy fleece is an 
evidence of strong constitution, so necessary in feeder sheep 
and lambs. And lastly, the heavy fleece finds an appreciation 
on the live-stock market. All along the line, therefore, from 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



209 



breeding flock to packing house, the fleece with density, length 
of staple, and quality meets with approval and increases the 
value of the animal it covers. 

It is evident that it takes years to build up a flock of much 
uniform merit and value. It is not a difficult matter to stock 
a farm with sheep, but whether or not the undertaking will 
be successful depends very largely upon the wisdom displayed 
in the culling of ewes, selection of rams, and general manage- 
ment ot the flock. In no other kind of live stock does the in- 
dividuality of the man in charge display itself so strongly as 
with sheep. With no other kind of stock does the man count 




Fig. 56. A Flock of Uniform Type. 

Champion Shropshire flock at the 1913 International, owned by 
A. Bfoughton & Sons of Albany, Wis. 

for so much. A successful sheep breeder is always a man of 
wisdom, energy, and judgment, a man who emphasizes the im- 
portance of little things, because he has seen the cumulative 
good eff"ects of attention to details manifested in the breeding 
and management of the animals in his charge. 

Although some essential points in flock management 
have necessarily been touched upon in discussing the elements 
that constitute a good breeding ram and breeding ewe, never- 
theless a detailed discussion of sheep management cannot be 
presented here, as it would require a great deal of space and 
is outside the range of the general subject in hand. However, 
3uch important subjects as winter management and feeding 



210 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

of ewes, the age to begin breeding, feeding as a factor in get- 
ting ewes in lamb, dipping, management at lambing time, feed- 
ing and management of ewes and lambs, docking and castrat- 
ing, the feeding of lambs, shearing, control of internal para- 
sites, crops to grow for sheep — these and many other subjects 
relating to sheep feeding and management should be carefully 
studied by anyone who contemplates entering the sheep 
business. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
THE MERINO OR FINE-WOOLED TYPE. 

All sheep are wool bearing, but fine-wooled sheep excel in 
weight and fineness of fleece. This type is the outcome of ef- 
forts to develop a sheep capable of producing a fleece of the 
greatest possible value. Some breeders carried their efforts 
so far as to ignore the meat-producing qualities of the animals 
they bred, centering practically all their attention on the fleece. 
At best, the improvement of any kind of live stock is a difficult 
and slow undertaking. When improvement is sought in one 
or a few respects, the desired results are secured more readily 
and in greater perfection than when an attempt is made to im- 
prove the animal in a rather large number of ways. It is still 
more difficult to improve a breed of live stock along two or 
more opposing or antagonistic lines, such as beef and milk, 
mutton and wool, strength and speed, or size and quality. It 
was for this reason that many breeders of Merino sheep will- 
ingly sacrificed the meat-producing qualities of their flocks in 
order that the production of wool might be made as large as 
possible. These breeders developed a type of Merino that con- 
trasts with mutton type as strongly as dairy cattle contrast 
with beef cattle. 

Other breeders of fine-wooled sheep did not entirely 
ignore the mutton qualities of their animals, but placed some 
emphasis upon a good conformation and a reasonable degree 
of fleshing; at the same time they gave most attention to the 
.weight and quality of fleece. Efforts of this kind in America 
resulted in the creation of what is known as the Delaine Me- 
rino ; in France similar efforts resulted in the breed known as 
the French Merino or Rambouillet. Thus a type was estab- 
lished having better mutton qualities, a smoother skin, a fleece 
of greater length and uniformity, and a type that is shorn 
much more easily because of its freedom from wrinkles. 
Broadly speaking, however, the differences mentioned in the 
ideals of breeders of fine-wooled sheep have not resulted in 

211 



212 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

enough variation in type to prevent a satisfactory study of 
fine-wooled sheep as a single group or type. 

The general appearance of the fine-wooled sheep is very 
distinctive. In a general way, the conformation closely re- 
sembles that of the dairy cow. There is the same narrowness 
of forequarters and moderate width of back and body, the 
same muscular rather than fleshy covering, and the same ten- 
dency to be somewhat rangy of body and long of leg. As com- 
pared with the mutton type, there is proportionately more 
length and narrowness of head, more length and thinness of 
neck, less arch of rib, and less development of thigh and twist. 
These differences are marked, so that shorn of their fleeces, 
the two types of sheep present striking differences in form. 
When viewed in the wool, further variations are manifest. 
The fleece of the fine-wooled sheep is more compact and is 
often very dark in color, the latter being due to the very heavy 
secretion of yolk which catches dust and dirt and produces a 
black gum on the exterior of the fleece. The mutton-type 
sheep has a smooth skin, byt the fine-wooled type has a loose 
skin lying more or less in folds or wrinkles. Sometimes there 
are only a few folds about the breast and lower border of the 
neck, while the middle and hindquarters are smooth; but a 
large class of fine-wooled sheep present a very wrinkled ap- 
pearance over the entire body. The live weight of rams varies 
from 125 to 180 pounds, and ewes vary from 90 to 135 pounds. 

The head should be rather short, medium wide, and well 
defined or clean-cut in its features. The muzzle should be 
broad and the nostrils should be large. Rams should have a 
Roman nose with more width than ewes. The eyes of both 
sexes should be rather wide apart, large, and clear, and have 
a quiet expression. The forehead should be somewhat prom- 
inent and have a fair degree of width. The ears should be 
fine, short, covered with silky hair, and actively carried. The 
horns of the ram frequently interfere with the carriage of 
the ears. The horns should be placed rather well apart so as 
to give width and strength to the top of the head. At ma- 
turity the horns attain a strong development. They have a 
corkscrew shape, turning backward from the base, then down- 
ward, around forward, and up, making about one and one-half 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 213 

turns. Wool covers the poll, forehead, upper part of the face, 
and cheeks, while the ears and lower part of the face are 
covered with white hair, which should be very soft and fine. 
The skin about the nose is often wrinkled. The head of the 
ram should be very masculine as shown by heavy horns, wide 
poll, Roman profile, and heavy nose, all parts being well de- 
veloped or massive and the expression resolute. The ewe 
should have a refined head and a feminine expression. 

The neck should be moderately short and rather muscular. 
The neck and shoulders do not blend smoothly as in the mutton 
type, although extreme angularity or roughness is undesir- 
able. Males should show a heavily muscled neck; a pro- 
nounced crest or scrag just behind the poll indicates a strongly 
sexed animal. 

The shoulders should be well laid in, and should be mus- 
cular. The depth of fleshing is not great enough to give that 
smoothness of form which characterizes a good mutton-type 
animal. 

The withers are often sharp and high, especially in those 
individuals showing the more extreme development of the 
type ; but a neat, rather rounded conformation with a fair de- 
gree of smoothness is more to be desired, especially in rams. 

The breast should be deep and have moderate width. The 
absence of heavy fleshing makes impossible the development 
of any marked degree of plumpness or width, yet a very nar- 
row or peaked breast indicates a cramped chest cavity and 
lack of strong constitution. 

The chest gets its capacity from depth more than from 
width. Extreme narrowness is a serious fault; the fore-rib 
should arch sufficiently and carry down far enough to provide 
a roomy chest. The fore flank should be reasonably well filled 
out. Every type of animal needs a robust constitution, one 
of the best evidences of which is a large heart-girth, proper 
allowance being made, when judging, for the thickness of 
fleshing which covers the forequarters. 

The front legs are often very crooked at the knees, too 
close together, and too long. They should be reasonably 
straight, moderately wide apart, and fairly short. The feet 
are often poorly formed and rather weak, whereas they should 



214 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

be well developed and strong. The shanks should be fine and 
rather short, and the pasterns should be free from weakness. 

The back and loin vary somewhat according to the ideals 
of breeders. In the very wrinkly Merinos in which the mut- 
ton qualities are ignored, the top is noticeably long and narrow, 
and this may be carried to an undesirable extreme. In the 
Delaine Merino and Rambouillet, the back is proportionately 
shorter and wider. In any case the top should be straight 
from withers to hips, showing a fair degree of width of back 
and a rather wide, strongly muscled loin. 

The ribs should be fairly well arched and should show 
good length in order to provide proper feeding, breeding, and 
chest capacity. The middle is not very compact, but is mod- 
erately long. 

The hips are somewhat prominent on account of their 
width and lack of deep fleshing throughout, but ragged hips 
are undesirable. Much smoothness cannot be expected in a 
Merino, yet a rather neat, tidy conformation is demanded. 

The rump is often peaked and drooping, but the best form 
embodies a rump that is long, level, and medium wide. 

The thighs and twist vary with respect to the class of 
fine-wooled sheep under consideration. Generally speaking, 
the thigh should be medium thick, and the muscling between 
the legs should be sufficient to afford at least a moderate de- 
velopment of the twist. 

The hind legs should be straight, medium long, fine in the 
shank, strong in the pastern, and placed somewhat apart. A 
large percentage of Merino sheep have crooked hind legs, the 
hocks being close together and the feet too wide apart, or the 
hocks much bent so as to place the hind feet too far under the 
body, instead of carrying straight downward from hock to 
ground. The feet should be well formed and strong. 

The skin should have a bright pink color, indicating 
health. Fine-wooled sheep usually show an excellent color of 
skin superior to the mutton type, this feature being partly due 
to their thin skins. As already mentioned, the skin is more 
or less folded or wrinkled. The Merino has not only a thinner 
-skin than the mutton breeds, but it is more richly furnished 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 215 

with oil glands and secretes a great deal more yolk. Fineness 
of skin and fineness of wool are correlated characters. 

The quality of fine-wooled sheep is evidenced by fineness 
of fleece, fineness of bone, fineness of hair on face and ears, 
and by a medium-sized, clean-cut head with fine ears. 

The style of the fine-wooled type is usually rather marked. 
Merinos have good carriage of head and ear and are quick and 
active in their movements, walking rapidly and covering 
ground with more ease and speed than the mutton-type sheep. 
Their greater activity partly explains their popularity on 
western ranges where Merino blood forms the basis of most 
flocks. 

The fleece of the Merino has a very high degree of fine- 
ness, varying, however, in different flocks according to breed 
and individual. The skin has many more fibers to the square 
inch than any of the mutton breeds ; in other words, the fleece 
is ordinarily very compact and dense. Density and fineness 
are outstanding features in a good fine-wooled fleece, the crimp 
being very fine and regular from skin to tip of fiber. The very 
finest woolen fabrics are made from this wool. A third strik- 
ing feature of the Merino fleece as compared with mutton 
sheep is the large amount of oil or yolk it contains. This gives 
a generous coating to each fiber so as to preserve its sound- 
ness and pliancy. Merino wool commonly undergoes a shrink- 
age of 65 per cent, in scouring, and this figure is not infre- 
quently exceeded. When the secretion of yolk is very exces- 
sive, the fleece is made subject to criticism and the wool buyer 
makes allowance for the extra weight in the price he offers. 

The wool should cover the head in the fashion already 
described, only the nose and ears being bare. The fleece 
should cover all of the body and extend down the legs to the 
feet. The belly and under parts vary a great deal in the cov- 
ering of wool. It is important that the belly be well wooled, 
and that the natural bareness occurring at the armpits be as 
limited in area as possible. The scrotum of the ram should 
be covered with wool. The wool on the under parts of the 
animal should be as nearly like the rest of the fleece in density 
and length as possible. It is usually of superior fineness. A 



216 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



good Merino flock should average 11 to 15 pounds of unwashed 
wool. 

Classification of fine-wooled sheep. — Breeders of fine- 
wooled sheep and the managers of the larger sheep shows 
group or classify Merino sheep into three classes or sub-types, 
known respectively as A, B, and C. As already pointed out, 
breeders of Merinos have diflfered in their ideals for a number 
of years, and this has resulted in three fairly well-defined 
classes. The classification is based chiefly on the character 





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wf^s^M^L jpf I iHwr ^ wfja^s^^ 


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Fig. 57. Class A Merino Ram. 

of the fleece, the number and position of the folds or wrinkles, 
the size and weight of the animal, and the development of 
mutton qualities. 

Class A. — This class is composed of those animals which 
are most wrinkly and have dense, heavy fleeces. There are 
heavy folds on the neck, breast, middle, and hindquarters. 
The fleece is exceedingly dense and fine, and is fully saturated 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 217 

with a free-flowing, rich-colored, creamy oil. The length of 
fiber is less than on B and C sheep, measuring from II/2 to 21/2 
inches. Typical A Merinos have from 44,000 to 52,000 fibers 
to the square inch of skin, whereas the average mutton sheep 
has between 4,000 and 6,000. At a public shearing in Middle- 
bury, Vt., in 1882, 54 rams and ewes of this class averaged 23.3 
per cent, unwashed fleece to live weight, and instances where 
36 per cent, of the original weight of the sheep was fleece have 
been reported. The ram of this type should weigh about 135 
pounds, and the ewe 95 pounds, these being standard weights 
for sheep out of the fleece. A good ram will shear 28 pounds, 
and a ewe 19 pounds. These weights for fleeces represent high 
standards. 

The wrinkly skin of the class-A Merino results in con- 
siderable variation between the wool on top of the wrinkles 
and that between. In an investigation of wools made several 
years ago by the United States Department of Agriculture it 
was found that the fiber on top of the wrinkles averaged 
15.333 crimps per inch, while that between wrinkles averaged 
18.143 crimps per inch. The former had an average fineness 
or diameter of .9751 thousandths of an inch, and the latter 
averaged .8385 thousandths of an inch. The wool from the 
tops of the wrinkles also averaged 1.100 inches in length of 
fiber, and the wool from between the wrinkles averaged 1.1375 
inches. These figures show that the wrinkles cause a varia- 
tion in fineness and length of fiber, the wool between wrinkles 
being longer and more fine. The form of the class-A Merino 
is most narrow, rangy, and leggy of the three classes, and 
mutton qualities are practically wanting. It is entirely a wool 
proposition, with weight of fleece esteemed above everything 
else. 

Class B. — The class-B Merino is distinguished chiefly by a 
smoother body with less folds and a fleece with more length 
and less yolk than the class-A Merino. They have folds on 
the neck and breast and often at the thighs, and there may be 
a few less-pronounced folds along the lower part of the sides. 
The fleece is much longer than the class-A fleece, slightly 
coarser, more uniform, and a little less dense and oily ; in other 
words, it is a more bulky fleece than that of the A Merino and 



218 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

worth a little more per pound. Class-B sheep are the largest 
and heaviest of the three classes. Proportionately, they show 
more width, compactness, and lowsetness, and there is also a 
little more natural fleshing and smoothness than is character- 
istic of class A, but none of these features are so pronounced 
as in class C. The B type has resulted from efforts to secure 
as much body weight as possible and still produce a fleece in 
which weight and bulk are the leading features, with quality 




Fig. 58. Class B Merino Ram. 

of wool almost disregarded except that the quality be uniform 
and the fiber fairly well crimped. B-type fleeces measure 
2 2/3 to 4 inches in length of staple. The weight of a B-type 
ram may be 140 pounds or it may reach 200, there being no 
definitely established standard of weight essential to best re- 
sults. Ewes weigh between 115 and 135 pounds. A high-class 
ram will shear 29 pounds, and the ewe 20 pounds. 

Class C. — This class is also called the Delaine class. The 
skin is practically smooth, there being no folds excepting one 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



219 



large fold, called the "apron," which lies across and below the 
breast, and there may be also a few light wrinkles below the 
neck. The shoulders, middle, and hindquarters are smooth. 
The C-type fleece has a definitely established standard for the 
character of wool. It should be very fine and have good length 
of staple, measuring 2% to 3% inches. There is less density 
and less fineness than in the A or B fleeces, and also less oil; 
hence, the Delaine fleece is lightest in weight, yet it sells at 




Fig. 59. Class C Merino Ram. 

top prices because it is of combing length and has a compara- 
tively small percentage of grease. Breeders of Merinos have 
found it an impossibility to grow the heaviest fleece on a 
smooth skin, and have devoted their attention to developing 
a long, fine fiber, in which field the Delaine Merino has no 
superior. It is undesirable to run below 130 pounds, fleece off, 
in the rams, and unsafe to go above 160 pounds when best 
results are wanted. For ewes the corresponding range in 
weight is 95 to 118 pounds. A good ram should shear 18 
pounds, and the ewe 11 pounds. The Delaine is most wide, 



220 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

compact, low set, and smooth in outline of the three classes, 
approaching mutton type more closely than the A and B 
classes. The covering of flesh over shoulders, back, and loin, 
and the thickness of thighs and development of twist are suf- 
ficient to merit some credit as a meat-producing animal, 
though not great enough to enable the Delaine to compete 
with the true mutton breeds as mutton producers. 

Origin of the three classes. — Inasmuch as the Spanish 
Merino was the foundation of the American Merino, the Ram- 
bouillet, and of all present fine-wooled flocks in all countries, a 
word may be said about the introduction of the Spanish Me- 
rino into the United States and of the causes that led breeders 
to diverge somewhat in their ideals, thus resulting in the A, 
B, and C classes as they are known today. Spanish Merinos 
were imported into this country in great numbers from 1800 
to 1850. For a time these sheep were esteemed merely as 
wool producers, and there was a strong temptation and ten- 
dency to breed for grease in order to give more weight to the 
wool. But on account of the difficulty of shearing a wrinkly 
sheep, seconded by a drop in the price of wool, especially wools 
of short staple, certain breeders in Pennsylvania, West Vir- 
ginia, and Ohio developed, by selection, a smooth-skinned Me- 
rino with better fleshing qualities and greater length of wool, 
which they called the Delaine Merino. This type produced a 
longer, less dense wool than the wrinkly Merino, and this wool 
sold at a higher price per pound. Trouble was experienced, 
however, in maintaining suflficient density and weight of fleece 
in the new type, these faults becoming more pronounced in 
each succeeding generation. Recourse was then made to 
wrinkly rams which were crossed upon the plain type to cor- 
rect the faults mentioned. In this way, breeders of Delaines 
have been able to regulate the fleece and keep it up to the de- 
sired standards, although it is unfortunate that the Delaine 
or class-C Merino will not breed true to type. As already 
mentioned, the B type originated from attempts to push the 
body weight to the extreme and at the same time grow a fleece 
of great density, length, and oil. 

The following, written by Mr. S. M. Cleaver, President of 
the Ohio Association for the Promotion of Purebred Sheep, 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 221 

and Secretary of the American and Delaine Merino Record 
Association, is of considerable interest concerning the evolu- 
tion of the Delaine Merino. Ohio has long held first rank in 
the breeding of fine-wooled sheep. Mr. Cleaver points out how 
the state may further improve its reputation for the produc- 
tion of Merinos and wool. 

"During the low price of wool in the early nineties, the 
extremely wrinkly flocks of the country became unpopular, 
and for the lack of mutton qualities became unprofitable. For 
this reason a large per cent, of the Spanish flocks of the State 
drifted their breeding to a plainer type, selecting rams from 
the Delaine flocks in order to increase the size of the sheep, 
lengthen the staple, and make it a more practical wool-and- 
mutton Merino. While this proved to be a valuable move, the 
old Delaine flocks that had long been bred free from wrinkles 
were having their troubles b;> ^- lack of suflficient weight of 
fleece for the best results. The union between the wrinkly 
flocks and the plain sire furnished an excellent opportunity 
for the Delaine flocks to secure rams of a medium type with 
only a few wrinkles and with greater density of fleece than 
could be found in the plain-bred flocks. The increased density 
from the union between the plain and wrinkly flocks proved 
to be of great value to the plain breeders in bringing up their 
weight of fleece, without diminishing the size of the Delaine 
Merino, and, from such a union the flocks of Ohio are greatly 
improving in length of staple of a reasonable density, besides 
increasing the size of the carcass, until the sheep of today 
average in real merit far above what they did fifteen years 
ago. 

"With proper culling each year we should, during the next 
ten or fifteen years, bring up the general form of the sheep 
to better size, better backs, and better quarters, covered with 
a better fleece of more bulk, more staple, and more quality, 
avoiding extremes by breeding too wrinkly or breeding too 
plain. Either is disastrous to the most practical type of Me- 
rinos, remembering that the quality of oil has much to do 
with the quality of fleece and general appearance of the sheep. 
Ohio's reputation for good wool must be taken care of. This 
is done by the judgment of the breeder. Too many of our 



222 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

breeders breed only for pounds instead of real merit in the 
quality of the fleece. Some of the eastern states do not un- 
derstand why they can't get the same price for their wool that 
Ohio does. This question explains itself when fleeces are com- 
pared. We can produce a heavy fleece with both quality and 
staple, and they who fail to do this must abide by results." 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
WOOLS AND WOOL GROWING. 

No animal has a covering entirely of wool; even sheep 
have hair upon the face and lower parts of the legs. Wool 
served as a necessary protection to sheep in the wild state, the 
original home having been in the higher parts of mountainous 
regions. Wool ranks next to cotton as a source of textile 
fabrics, the temperate regions universally using woolen prod- 
ucts. The per capita consumption of wool has increased very 
greatly. It was about 3 pounds in early times in the United 
States when all spinning and weaving was done in the home ; 
in 1850 it was 4 pounds ; it is now 8 pounds. No other people 
use as much wool as do Americans, nor as much cotton. The 
world's clip of wool averages about 2 pounds for each person. 

Growth and structure. — Wool is modified hair. The term 
hair is ordinarily used to designate a smooth, straight fiber 
or filament like horse hair. Wool differs from hair in being 




Fig. 60. A Wool Fiber Highly Magnified. 

This drawing shows the scaly surface of the wool fiber; the tips 
of the overlapping scales project outward and point toward the tip of 
the fiber. 

more or less crimped and in having a much more serrated or 
ridged surface. The surface of the fiber is composed of a single 
layer of irregular, overlapping scales, forming the wool cuticle, 
there being from 1200 to 3000 exposed points of these scales 
to an inch. The scales open or point toward the tip of the 
fiber, like shingles put on the wrong way. Beneath the cov- 
ering of scales is the cortex or body of the fiber, made up of 
greatly elongated cells united into bundles, and in the center 
of the fiber there is sometimes a cavity or canal which may 
contain granules of pigment. 

223 



224 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

Hair and wool are very similar in growth and structure, 
but wool is crimped, has more scales, the points of the scales 
are more open or projecting, and the entire fiber is more soft 
and flexible than hair. These small differences give to wool 
its special commercial values. Hair will not retain the twisted 
state given to it in spinning, but the crimp of wool causes the 
fibers to become entangled, and the minute scales hook to- 
gether and hold the fibers in position when wool is spun into 




Fig. 61. Cross-Section of a Wool Fiber. 

a, Central canal, which is not present in most wools; b, cortex or 
body of fiber, composed of long, spindle-shaped cells which here appear 
oval because they are cut transversely; c, wool cuticle, composed of 
scales. (After McMurtrie.) 

yarn. Thus wool has a thread-forming quality which hair has 
not, preventing slipping and separation of the fibers in the 
yarn. The entanglement and locking of the fibers is referred 
to as the felting quality of wool. 

The peculiar structure of the wool fiber was first deter- 
mined by Youatt, a famous English observer and writer. In 
Merino wool, the scales or projections are very distinct and 
sharply pointed, and it was by an examination of Merino wool 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 225 

that Youatt determined the structure of the wool fiber. In 
the middle-wooled breeds, the scales are less distinct and 
sharp, and in the long-wooled breeds, they are rounded off and 
indistinct. In fine Saxon Merino wool, 2720 of these scale 
ends are found to the inch ; in the ordinary Merino there are 
about 2400 ; in the Southdown, 2000 to 2080 ; and in the Lei- 
cester, 1850 to 1860. Hence, Saxon Merino wool is superior 
to all others in felting quality, the others standing in a rela- 
tion proportional to the figures given. 

Fineness of fiber. — Dr. William McMurtrie, who con- 
ducted extensive investigations of wools for the United States 
Department of Agriculture, found the average diameter of 
the Merino fiber to be 1/1194 of an inch, while the Southdown 
had an average diameter of 1/865, the Hampshire Down 1/769, 
the Lincoln 1/685, the Leicester 1/654, the Cotswold 1/605, 
and the Oxford Down 1/581. In 1860, American Merino fibers 
with a diameter of 1/1572, and American Saxon Merino fibers 
measuring 1/1875 of an inch in diameter were exhibited in 
London, showing the extreme fineness which may be secured 
in wools. 

Secretion and composition of yolk. — Opening into each 
wool follicle are a couple of sebaceous or oil glands, furnishing 
a profuse secretion of an oily or fatty material, called the 
yolk, which is thrown out at the same time the fiber is formed. 
This secretion consists largely of a soapy matter having a 
potassium base, together with an animal oil which gives to 
the yolk its peculiar odor. Yolk, then, is not strictly a grease 
or oil, but is a soap with an excess of oil. This explains why 
it dissolves freely in warm water and may be washed almost 
entirely out of the fleece, why it cleanses and whitens the 
hands as soap does, and why, when sheep are washed, the hard 
water of limestone regions does not cleanse the fleece so thor- 
oughly nor cause it to shrink so much in weight as does water 
containing less alkali. The quantity and fluidity of the yolk 
vary greatly, being greater when the sheep are healthy and 
well fed, and varying also according to the breed. The coarsest 
wools seldom contain less than 20 per cent, of yolk; the 
Southdown averages 45 to 50 per cent. ; and in the finest 
Merino wools it ranges from 60 to 75 per cent, of the weight, 



226 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

and has even been known to reach 80 per cent. The yolk 
maintains the softness and pliancy of the fibers, and protects 
the scaly surface from injury such as might result from fric- 
tion of the fibers against one another during the movements 
of the animal. It also helps to keep the fleece clean and fr^e 
from a cotted or matted condition. 

Woolens and worsteds. — When wool is combed, that is, 
drawn through metal teeth, the fibers are made to lie parallel 
to each other, some of the scales and the points of others are 
broken off, thus decreasing the felting property, and the wool 
becomes adapted to the manufacture of light fabrics. Wool 
used for combing must be at least 21/2 inches long in order to 
give the yarn sufficient strength. Such wool is called combing 
wool. The yarn made from combed wool is called worsted, 
and the cloths made of it are known as worsted goods. Wools 
which are short and much crimped and serratured are called 
clothing or carding wools. They are prepared for spinning 
by carding machines. The two distinct classes of fabrics 
thus established are known respectively as worsteds and wool- 
ens. It has, however, become common to intermix some long 
or combing wool in cloths proper; while in the making of 
worsted fabrics a varying proportion of cotton is very often 
combined. Shoddy, obtained by tearing up woolen rags by ma- 
chinery, now enters into the composition of all except the very 
finest woolen cloths, having been first used about eighty-five 
years ago. 

The difference between woolens and worsteds is largely 
due to the way the yarn for each is spun. In worsted yarn 
the fibers are arranged as parallel as possible by the combing 
process ; in woolen yarn they are crossed in every direction so 
as to assist the felting or milling of the cloth. Yarn for wool- 
en cloth is very slightly twisted, so as to leave the fibers as 
free as possible for the felting process; worsted yarn, on the 
contrary, is hard spun and made into a much stronger thread. 
By the process of manufacture, woolens are felted so as to 
leave no appearance of the thread, while in worsteds the 
threads are plainly evident. 

Classification of wools. — Many classifications of wools are 
in use. The classes and grades vary in number and name on 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 227 

different wool markets and in different market reports, re- 
sulting in considerable confusion in the minds of many persons 
who read wool quotations. 

Clipped wools and pulled wools. — The first distinction 
made in wools is to divide them into fleece or clipped wools 
and pulled wools. The former are the ordinary clipped wools 
coming to market in separate fleeces. These are the more 
valuable and constitute by far the greater portion of the wool 
of commerce. Pulled wools are those derived from the pelts 
of slaughtered sheep in the manner described later on. They 
are marketed in 500-pound bales. Pulled wools constitute 
about one-seventh of all the wool produced in the United 
States. 

Clothing, combing, and carpet wools. — Clothing wools are 
short wools and combing wools are long wools, any staple with 
a length of 2% inches or more being suitable for combing. 
Clothing wools are also those possessing the felting quality 
to high degree, thus adapting them to the making of cloths, 
hat bodies, and other similar products. Combing wools are 
poor in felting quality, permitting their manufacture into 
such open fabrics as flannels and hosiery. As a rule, the 
short-stapled fleece wools only are made into cloths, while wor- 
stpds are made from both long fleece wools and pulled wools. 
Carpet wools are the product of neglected flocks and lar^k of 
attention to breeding. They are inferior wools. Some can 
be used for coarse flannels and cheap cloths, but most of it 
goes into carpets. It sells at a low price, costing the manu- 
facturer an average of 10 cents per pound, and some of it not 
more than 7 cents. 

Classification based on condition of wool. — Wools are 
classed according to their condition into the following grades : 
1. Domestic wool, which is clean, bright, and produced under 
the best domesticated conditions. 2. Territory wool, which 
is dirty and discolored, produced under range or inferior 
farm conditions. 3. Blanket wool. 4. Carpet wool. The 
last two sorts belong to the same general class, being the poor- 
est kind of wool, containing kemp or dead fibers, so as not to 
dye readily. Domestic wools are subdivided into two groups 



228 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

or sub-classes, known as "bright" and "semi-bright," depend- 
ing on the whiteness and luster of the fiber. Bright wool is 
produced in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, West Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, Missouri, Southern Illinois, and Southern Iowa. Semi- 
bright wool comes from Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Wis- 
consin. The best bright wools are those known as "Ohio" 
wools, produced not only in Ohio, but in Western Pennsyl- 
vania, Kentucky, West Virgina, and Southern Michigan. Ohio 
wool is famous for cleanliness and general quality and always 
commands a premium on the market. 

The most commonly used classification is one which first 
divides wools into clothing and combing classes, and then sub- 
divides clothing wools into Picklock, XXX, XX, X, No. 1, No. 
2, No. 3, and No. 4 grades according to length and fineness. 
Picklock is an extremely fine fiber, of which very little is 
found, being produced by a few remaining flocks of Saxon Me- 
rinos in Western Pennsylvania and elsewhere. There is also 
very little of the XXX grade, which ranks just below Picklock 
in fineness. The bulk of high-grade clothing wool is of XX 
and X grades. No. 1 and No. 2 represent grades inferior to 
the foregoing. Very little clothing wool grades as low as 
No. 3 or No. 4. The combing wools are of two sorts. 
Formerly they were exclusively from the English mutton 
breeds, or at least were not of Merino origin. But on account 
of lack of supply of true combing wools, the combing of the 
longer Merino carding or felting wools was taken up. This 
m?.de necessary a fiber longer than 21/2 inches; such Merino 
wool is called "delaine," and the sheep which have been select- 
ed and bred to produce this long, fine staple are known as 
Delaine Merinos, of which there are several families. French 
breeders of sheep, working along similar lines with a similar 
object in view, developed the Rambouillet from the Spanish 
Merino. This Merino division of combing wools is graded into 
fine delaine, medium delaine, and low delaine. The first in- 
cludes the finest of long-staple Merino wools, the second not 
quite so fine, and the third comprises wool of combing length 
and a little finer than the combing wool of the mutton breeds. 
The wool of the mutton breeds is classed as one-half blood, 
three-eighths blood, one-fourth blood, common, and braid, the 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



229 



last being the long, lustrous wools of coarse-wooled sheep. 
Such terms as "one-half blood," "three-eighths blood," and 
"one-fourth blood" or "quarter blood" seem to indicate a knowl- 
edge of the breeding of the sheep that produced the wool, al- 
though such is very rarely the case so far as wool in the hands 
of wool merchants is concerned. Theoretically, at least, the 
term "one-half blood" is applied to such wool as is ordinarily 
produced by a sheep possessing 50 per cent, of Merino ances- 
try, while the three-eighths and one-quarter blood wools re- 
semble the product of sheep having 37.5 per cent, and 25 per 
cent, of Merino breeding respectively. However, some of the 
mutton breeds produce three-eighths and quarter-blood wool. 
In outline, the classification of wools is as follows: 



CLOTHING 
WOOLS 



Picklock 
XXX 
XX 
X 

^No. 1 
No. 2 
No. 3 
No. 4 



COMBING 
WOOLS 



Merino 



Other than 
Merino 



Fine delaine 
Medium delaine 
Low delaine 

Yi blood 
y^ blood 
14 blood 
Common 
Braid 



The grading of wool in the wool houses is done by expert 
graders who know wools so well that at a glance they can de- 
termine the grade to which the wool belongs and the kind of 
material into which the wool will be made. The larger per 
cent, of these wool graders may never have seen a sheep in 
fleece, neither do they know the breeds of sheep and the char- 
acteristic fleeces. Hence, the wool grade does not depend upon 
the breed of sheep, and the wool from different individuals of 
the same flock and breed may be graded differently. 

Wool pulling. — Wool pulleries may be divided into two 
groups — those owned by packers and forming a part of the 
by-products division of packing plants, and those owned and 
operated independent of packing establishments. The wool 
pullery of a packing plant receives pelts daily, direct from the 
killing floor. They are at once placed in vats of cold water, 
which takes out all of the animal heat and removes some of 
the dirt and blood. The soaking continues from 12 to 24 
hours. Packing plants not equipped with pulleries salt their 
pelts, and when a quantity has accumulated send them to a 



230 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

pullery. Salted pelts are soaked 86 hours, as it requires con- 
siderable time to dissolve the salt out of the hide. When 
removed from the vats, the pelts are given mechanical treat- 
ment in a scrubbing machine which washes them in a spray 
of water, completing the removal of dirt, and leaving the fleece 
in an attractive, white condition. The wet pelts are then put 
in a centrifugal wringer which throws out the water to such 
an extent that the fleece is made very nearly dry. The pelts 
are next taken to a room where they are spread, fleece down- 
ward, upon wire screens and painted on the inner surface 
with a thick liquid bearing the trade name of "Depilatory," 
consisting of a mixture of sodium sulphide and slaked lime. 
Within 2 to 4 hours after this treatment the wool fibers become 
loosened and easily part from the hide, coming out by the 
roots when pulled. 

Before pulling, however, the pelts are taken to large 
rooms where they are spread out on the floor, fleece upwards, 
being grouped or classified according to the nature of the 
fleece. The pelts are then taken up and the wool pulled by 
hand. Coincident with the pulling the operator sorts the wool. 
The wool from the back and shoulders is put into one recep- 
tacle, that from the sides and belly, called "skirts," into an- 
other, wool from thighs and shanks into another, and painted 
wool into still another. The operator also separates out wool 
that contains much sand, manure, or grease, called "shrink- 
age ;" also wool of different colors. Thus the wool pullery not 
only classifies and grades the fleeces, but it also sorts the 
wool as pulled. Furthermore, the pullery keeps each month's 
product by itself, thus multiplying the assortments by twelve, 
and resulting finally in over two hundred kinds of pulled wool, 
each having a distinct trade name. 

Wool pulleries report a strong demand from wool manu- 
facturers for black wool which is used to produce various 
shades of natural gray by mixing it with white wool. For 
example, the manufacture of army blankets creates a demand 
for black wool, because a natural gray coloring is required by 
the government contracts. Black wool thus sells at a pre- 
mium, for the supply is small. Pelts that vary in color through 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 231 

various shades of gray and brown are not in the class of 
black pelts because the varying color makes them an unknown 
quantity in color mixing where definite results are wanted. 

The growth of wool must be at least three-fourths of an 
inch before it may be profitably pulled. Some pelts are not 
pulled, no matter how long the fleece may be, because the 
wool is not salable, or not valuable enough to pay for pulling. 

Scouring. — If the grease wool comes to the scouring plant 
in bales, it is first put through a shredding machine which 
loosens it. This machine is equipped with a blower for the 
removal of dust, and a screen for the removal of heavy dirt. 
Scouring is accomplished by passing the wool through a series 
of four bowls or vats, each containing a different liquor. 
These liquors are composed as follows : 

Bowl No. 1 — Mild alkaline solution, preferably pot- 
assium ; temperature 130 degrees Fah- 
renheit. 

Bowl No. 2 — Same alkaline solution as first bowl, 
plus soap; should be a potash soap; 
temperature 120 degrees. 

Bowl No. 3 — Soap solution only; temperature 110 
degrees. 

Bowl No. 4 — Luke warm water. 

Nearly all the yolk or grease is removed from the wool in 
the first bowl. This is done by the saponification of the oil, 
the soap readily dissolving in the warm liquid. The action of 
the soap in the second and third bowls is to whiten the wool 
and give it "life" which it loses in bowl No. 1. After rinsing 
in the fourth bowl, the wool is passed through a steam dryer. 

During treatment in the bowls, a mechanical device keeps 
the wool moving slowly, for if it is moved rapidly through the 
liquids it forms a ropy mass. • The yolk forms an emulsion in 
the bowls and may be recovered by chemical processes. It is 
known as "lanolin," and is much used in salves and ointments. 
Clipped wools shrink as much as 65 per cent, or more in scour- 
ing, while pulled wools shrink about 27 per cent, on the aver- 
age. Often, pulled wools shrink only 10 per cent. The dif- 
ference is due to the very thorough washing given to pelts 
before pulling. 



232 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



American wools and wool growing. — America is one of 
four great wool-manufacturing countries, the others being 
Great Britain, France, and Germany. American sheep are 
said to have no superior in constitutional vigor and strength 
of wool fiber. The average weight of fleece of American sheep 
has shown much improvement. In 1840 it was only 1.9 
pounds; in 1850 it was 2.4 pounds; in 1860 it was 2.7 pounds; 
in 1870 it was 3.5 pounds ; in 1880 it was 4.4 pounds ; in 1890 
it was 4.8 pounds ; in 1900 it was 6 pounds ; in 1910 it was 6.7 
pounds; in 1914 it was 6.8 pounds. The increase in the an- 
nual wool clip since 1840 is shown by the following figures: 

1840 35,802,114 pounds 

1850 _...._ 52,516,959 pounds 

1860 60,264,913 pounds 

1870 ...162,000,000 pounds 

1880... 232,500,000 pounds 

1890 .276,000,000 pounds 

1900 : 288,636,621 pounds 

1910. ...336,896,903 pounds 

1914. 247,192,000 pounds 

According to the estimates of the National Association of 
Wool Manufacturers, the leading states in number of sheep, 
average weight of fleece, and pounds of wool produced during 
1914 were as follows: 




Number ' Average 1 

of weight 

fleeces of fleece 



Wool Per cent. Scoured 
product, of wool 

raw shrinkage 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 



Montana 

Wyoming 

Ohio... 

New Mexico. 

Idaho 

Oregon 

Utah 

California 

Michigan 

Missouri 



3,869,000! 
3,560,000 
2,098,000 
3,233,000 
1,896,000 
1,970,000 
1,770,000 
1,852,000 
1,191,000 
1,071,000 



Lbs. 

7.8 



6 6 
5.9 

7.8 
8.0 
7.4 
6 2 
6.8 
6.7 



Lbs. I 
30,177,000! 
28,476,000 
13,844,000 
19,077,000 
14,792,000 
15,763,000 
13,100,000 
11,480,000 
8,098,000 
7,179,000 1 



63 
67 
52 
66 
62 
67 
62 
65 
50 
45 



11,165,490 
9,397,080 
6,645,120 
6,486,180 
5,620,960 
5,201,790 
4,978,000 
4,100,800 
4,049,000 
3,948,450 



This table brings out some important distinctions in wools. 
The figures for shrink are interesting; the western states ex- 
ceed the eastern states by 10 to 22 per cent., due to the greater 
percentage of Merino blood in range flocks and hence a more 
greasy wool with a greater shrink. The introduction of mut- 
ton sheep into the cornbelt has decreased the average weight 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 233 

of fleece, but has improved the shrinkage. The entire clip 
of the United States is estimated to shrink 60 per cent. Wool 
buyers fix the price on a scoured basis, this being the fairest 
method of dealing and also the fairest basis on which to com- 
pare production by states. Montana has the most sheep, and 
Delaware the fewest. Washington, Oregon, and Wyoming 
have the highest average weight of fleece, which is 8 pounds, 
and Georgia is lowest with 2.8 pounds. Virginia has the low- 
est per cent, of shrinkage, which is 36 per cent., and Washing- 
ton with 68 per cent, has the most. 

Imports and exports of wool. — During the fiscal year, 
1913-'14, the United States imported 195,293,255 pounds of 
wool value at $35,579,823. The average value per pound would 
thus be 18.1 cents. We export less than 100,000 pounds of wool 
annually. American wool growers produce slightly more than 
one-half of the wool used by American wool manufacturers. 
Australia is the largest exporter of wool, the figure for the 
calendar year, 1912, being 693,496,000 pounds; Argentina 
ranked second with 363,680,000 pounds; South Africa was 
third with 185,471,000 pounds; and New Zealand was fourth 
with 175,982,000 pounds. The four countries mentioned fur- 
nish over three-fifths of the exports of the world. France was 
the largest importer in 1912, with 579,624,000 pounds ; Great 
Britain ranked second with 555,161,000 pounds; Germany was 
third with 523,655,000 pounds; Belgium was fourth with 
345,758,000 pounds; and the United States was fifth with 
238,118,000 pounds. These five countries annually consume 
over four-fifths of the total imports of the world. 

Principal American wool markets. — The principal wool 
markets in the United States are Boston, Chicago, Philadel- 
phia, St. Louis, and New York. During the past few years 
Boston has handled nearly 75 per cent, of the total wool crop 
of this country, and nearly 60 per cent, of the foreign wool 
shipped into this country. Recently Chicago has come forward 
as a great wool center, although the part that Chicago plays 
is largely in the storage of wool, rather than in manufacture. 
Wool is purchased from the producer by different methods 
depending upon the size of the clip. In sections where wool 
is not extensively grown, the country wool buyer takes the 



234 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

whole clip of the neighborhood regardless of quality or clean- 
liness. In some sections a wool merchant, or his representative 
capable of grading wool, will advertise that he will buy at a 
certain place and at a certain price, depending upon quality, 
cleanliness, and grade. In such instances the farmer will re- 
ceive a price according to what is deserved. Then again, wool 
may be shipped to commission firms and stored and sold for a 
certain commission charge, including the expense of sale and 
storage. Again, large wool producers may sell direct to the 
wool merchant. Quite a number of localities in the West ar- 
range wool sales on three or four dates during the season, the 
wool being examined by buyers representing various wool 
merchants. Bids are made and the producer accepts or rejects 
the bids as he thinks best. This scheme brings the producer 
and consumer into close relationship which is mutually bene- 
ficial, and to some extent the producer benefits by the compe- 
tition among the buyers. 

Marketing wool properly. — Poor methods of sheep hus- 
bandry annually result in the loss of many thousands of dol- 
lars to wool growers. Neglect of flocks in winter, filthy con- 
ditions of keep, carelessness in handling, weedy pastures, the 
use of oil paint or tar to mark sheep, failure to separate the 
tags when the sheep are shorn, and improper tying of fleeces 
are factors which greatly lessen the returns to wool producers. 
Ohio and contiguous territory has long enjoyed a reputation 
for marketing cleaner wool of much better general quality than 
the average run of American wools. Yet in Ohio there is much 
room for improvement in the production and marketing of 
wool. The loss is large because of the presence in fleeces of 
seeds, burs, dust, chaff, sand, manure, and other foreign ma- 
terial, and because unnecessary quantities of unreasonably 
large twine are used, or because a kind of twine is used that 
injures the cloth made from the wool. The use of binder 
twine is objected to by wool manufacturers because the fibers 
of the twine become mixed with the wool and blemish the fab- 
rics made from it. Often there is enough twine around one 
fleece to tie a half-dozen or more fleeces. Even baling wire has 
been used in some instances. There has recently been put on 
the market a small, light twine of twisted paper, especially in- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 235 

tended for the use of wool growers. If wool buyers would 
m?tke more discrimination against fleeces improperly handled 
and tied, and show more appreciation in the price they offer 
for clean fleeces properly tied, reform would come more 
quickly. Recently the writer has noticed the following state- 
ment appearing regularly in one daily wool market report: — 
"Wool tied with sisal or binder twine or undue amount of other 
twine will be classed as unmerchantable." This is surely a step 
in the right direction. Neatness and honesty constitute the 
wisest and best policy, especially if the wool grower is to en- 
gage permanently in the business. 



PART THREE. 

SWINE. 



INTRODUCTION 

Swine are useful as a source of meat and lard. Some 
swine produce meat only, and some produce lard as well as 
meat. Differences in the demands of consumers of pork, to- 
gether with differences in the kinds of feed available for pork 
production, have resulted in the establishment of two distinct 
types of swine — lard type and bacon type. The lard hog is 
an American production found chiefly in the cornbelt states 
where corn is the principal feed for all farm animals. Corn 
is a great fattening food, and when fed to hogs it is converted 
into fat from which lard is made. Breeders have therefore 
developed a type of hog specially adapted to converting feed, 
principally corn, into fat, although the butcher or packer 
values this type for meat production as well as for lard. 

The bacon hog is also found in America, principally in 
Canada, however, which is outside the cornbelt. In Canada 
the feeds available for pork production are peas, barley, wheat, 
oats, rye, skim milk, and roots. As compared with corn, these 
feeds are not fattening; they are muscle builders, and hogs 
produced with such feeds take on but little fat and are not 
useful as a source of lard. Canadians have made no effort to 
compete with the hogs of the cornbelt; instead they produce 
a hog suitable for the English and Canadian trade — a hog 
whose entire carcass may be cut up into bacon. 

From what has been said it may appear that there is no 
real hereditary difference in the temperaments and make-ups 
of the two types of hogs, but that the differences between 
them are solely the result of differences in the feeds upon 
which they are produced. This is largely true, yet it is a fact 
that when pigs of the bacon type are brought into the corn- 
belt and fed along with lard hogs, they never entirely lose the 

2^7 



238 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

bacon type; and when the lard hog is taken into a bacon-pro- 
ducing section and fed with bacon hogs, there is the same de- 
gree of change, but the lard hog does not lose his identity 
under such a system of feeding. Therefore we must conclude 
that there is something besides the difference in the feeds 
which accounts for the two distinct types; in other words, 
there is an hereditary difference between the two kinds of 
swine. 

These facts in regard to swine are no more unique than 
the results of efforts by some men to produce milk from beef 
cattle, or beef from dairy cattle, or mutton from fine-wooled 
sheep. In such instances, we find dairy-bred steers tending 
toward the form of the beef animal, we find beef cattle taking 
on somewhat the appearance of the dairy animal, and we find 
that the Merino approaches nearer to mutton type. Wise se- 
lection and breeding and the establishment of definite types of 
animals suitable to special purposes cannot accomplish the de- 
sired ends unaided. The feeding and care must receive as 
much attention as the breeding. No matter how well bred an 
animal may be, and no matter how great may be its tendency 
to conform to a given type, it must enjoy a favorable environ- 
ment before its inherited good qualities can fully assert them- 
selves and thereby enable the animal to fulfill its mission. 

In America the lard type of swine is represented by the 
Poland-China, Duroc-Jersey, Chester White, Berkshire, and 
Hampshire breeds. The bacon type includes two breeds, the 
Yorkshire and Tamworth. The Berkshire and Hampshire do 
not possess true fat or lard type, but occupy a position about 
midway between the bacon and lard types, being general-pur- 
pose breeds. 



CHAPTER XIX. 
THE AMERICAN OR LARD-TYPE HOG. 

The United States has created comparatively few of the 
breeds now found within her borders. By the time this coun- 
try reached that stage in her live-stock development when im- 
provement in domestic animals became imperative, European 
nations had met and solved a similar problem by the creation 
of numerous useful breeds. It was but natural, therefore, that 
many of these foreign breeds were imported to this country, 
and it was fortunate indeed that most of them proved fully 
capable of fulfilling the requirements of our stock growers. 
We were thus afforded an easy short cut across what would 
have been a long, laborious period in the development of our 
live-stock industry. We borrowed whenever such procedure 
was practicable, and the fact that we have never found it 
really necessary to create a breed of draft or carriage horses, 
beef, dairy, or dual-purpose cattle, mutton sheep, or bacon 
hogs shows how great is our indebtedness to the breeders of 
Europe. 

Our needs were not entirely met, however, for we have 
created a breed of trotting horses, a breed of saddle horses, a 
breed of fine-wooled sheep, and a number of breeds of lard- 
type swine. We have also found it necessary to modify slight- 
ly some of the breeds we have adopted, and to our credit it 
may be said that we have made certain changes in some of 
these adopted breeds which, as viewed from the standpoint of 
American conditions and requirements, represent decided im- 
provements. The Polled Durham, the Polled Hereford, the 
"American-type" Hereford, and the "American-type" Berk- 
shire are examples of such modifications. 

The extended patronage which we have given to foreign 
stock and the lack of necessity for developing breeds of our 
own, while highly advantageous, has tended to dim our own 
glory as a breeding nation. If, because of this fact, our live- 
stock industry needs a redeeming feature, it is furnished by 

239 



240 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

the creation of a distinctly American type of hog, which in- 
cludes several breeds. European breeds of swine proved so 
fully incompetent to make pork under American conditions 
that our breeders found it necessary to create distinctly new 
breeds of a new type, and this work has been so well done as 
to give us a clear title to the distinction of leading the world 
in swine breeding and in pork production. 

Our conditions demand a type of swine possessing a mod- 
erate degree of compactness of form, great breadth of back, 
much fullness of ham, medium shortness of leg, rapid and 
heavy fattening qualities, and quickness of maturity. Such 
a type has been developed and maintained by American swine 
breeders. On account of its heavy and easy fattening quali- 
ties, it is commonly referred to as the lard-type hog. Its 
ability to assimilate the carbohydrates of corn and build up 
a valuable fat from which lard is made has played no small 
part in the rapid development of American agriculture and in 
the prosperity of our farmers. "King Corn and the American 
Hog" have always constituted an invincible combination, 
creating a channel of disposal for the former in the early days 
when there was a great surplus of that food stuff, and supply- 
ing the people of this country with highly palatable and nutri- 
tious meat at a moderate price. 

The general appearance of the lard-type hog embodies a 
broad, deep, fairly compact, and rather short-legged confor- 
mation, together with great smoothness. Both the head and 
neck are short and wide, the top is very broad and slightly 
arched, the sides are deep, and the hams are massive. As 
viewed from the side the lard-type hog shows great depth of 
body, moderate length, a slightly arched top line from head to 
tail, and a straight underline that tends to be rather close to 
the ground. He should be as deep in front as behind, in other 
words, symmetrical. When viewed from behind, the hams 
show great breadth or thickness, not only at the top but also 
at the lower part about the hocks. When a view is taken di- 
rectly down upon the top of the hog, he should exhibit great 
width at all points along the top from shoulders to tail. The 
shoulders should not be wider than the rest of the hog, nor 
should the hog taper in width from front to rear, but be uni- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 241 

formly very wide from one end to the other, thus presenting 
a balanced or symmetrical conformation and increasing the 
value of the carcass. Much quality should be shown in head, 
ear, coat, skin, smoothness of form, and fineness and smooth- 
ness of bone and joints. This type is disposed to be mild and 
quiet in disposition, but a sluggish, inactive hog is an objec- 
tionable extreme. 




lig. 62. Correct Type in the Lard Hog. 

Poland-China barrow, Grand Champion at the 1913 International. 
Bred and exhibited by John Francis & Sons of New Lenox, 111. Lengthy, 
deep, symmetrical, and smooth. This hog has remarkable quality in head, 
ear, hair, and bone. His legs are short and his pasterns strong. 

The head is of medium size, rather short, broad between 
the eyes, and short of snout. A narrow head and finely point- 
ed snout are indications of a poor feeder. The shape and 
length of head vary according to the breed, but in none of the 
lard breeds is much length or narrowness desirable. The eyes 
should be as large, prominent, and clear as possible, a small, 
sunken eye obscured by rolls of fat around the socket being 
objectionable. The carriage of the ear varies according to 



242 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

the breed, being erect in some and drooping or broken in 
others. All the breeds, however, should have a fine and rather 
small ear neatly attached to the head. The jowl should be 
well developed or full, and should extend back into the shoul- 
der. It should not be loose and flabby, but rather trim and 
firm. The cheeks and jowl should be free from wrinkles or 
seams. The poll of the head should be broad and carry for- 
ward prominently. 

The neck should be short and wide, and blend smoothly 
with the shoulder. The neck should be especially broad on 
top, and it should be deep. A neck that is narrow or peaked 
on top and rather long is not often associated with a body of 
the desired conformation. 

The shoulders are very frequently too open and promi- 
nent, so that as one looks down at the top of the hog the 
shoulders are found to be much the widest part of the animal. 
They should be well laid in, very smooth, and have no greater 
width than the rest of the body, such a hog being much more 
desirable from a market and carcass point of view. The skin 
over the shoulders of mature boars is thicker and heavier than 
on sows or barrows. This character is called the shields, and 
was a highly useful feature in the wild boar as a protection in 
fighting. The wild boar has transmitted this character in 
greater or less degree to his domesticated descendants. In 
some instances the thickening and hardening of the skin is so 
great as to produce pronounced callouses, and these are ob- 
jectionable. A smooth shoulder is desired in the boar as well 
as in the sow and barrow. The tops of the shoulders should 
not stand open and apart, but should be laid together and 
thickly fleshed so as to present a broad, smooth surface in 
harmony with the rest of the top. 

The front legs should be medium short or short, this being 
a somewhat variable feature depending on the breed, and they 
must also be straight. It is especially important that the pas- 
terns shall be short, upright, and very strong, and that the 
toes shall be strong also. These points should be particularly 
emphasized in judging breeding animals, for it is a fact that 
weak, broken-down pasterns and weak, spreading toes are 
among the most common and most serious faults to be found 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 243 

in swine of the lard type. The bone of the market hog should 
be fine, yet sufficient to carry the weight of the hog. Refine- 
ment of bone is pleasing to the butcher because it is associated 
with general refinement of the entire animal, thus insuring 
a clean-cut carcass of quality, and a smaller percentage of 
waste in dressing. The breeding boar should stand on large, 
strong bone, this being one evidence of masculinity, but ex- 
tremely large, rough bone, covered with a thick, puffy skin is 
undesirable, indicating coarseness. The breeding sow should 
show greater refinement of bone than the boar, her somewhat 
smaller, smoother shanks being an indication of that refine- 
ment which should characterize the female. However, refine- 
ment is often carried to the extreme in the sow, whereas the 
bone should be amply sufficient to sustain not only her weight 
but also the added weight imposed by pregnancy and large 
litters. Fine shank bones are not objectionable because they 
are liable to be fractured by the weight of the sow, but be- 
cause extremely fine bone is associated with small, weak ten- 
dons and ligaments which permit the pastern to drop down 
and the toes to spread apart, thus making the legs weak and 
greatly injuring the usefulness of the animal. Weak legs may 
be due to a natural or inherited weakness, or to improper 
feeding during the growing period. If growing pigs are fed 
on corn exclusively, they are liable to develop weakness of the 
legs, because corn does not carry sufficient bone- and muscle- 
building constituents to satisfy the demands of the animal 
during the growing period. 

The chest is an evidence of the constitutional vigor pos- 
sessed by the animal. It should be wide and deep, filling out 
behind the shoulders and elbows and affording a large heart- 
girth. The underline should not cut up between the fore legs, 
but carry straight forward so as to give as much depth 
through the chest as through the middle of the body. 

The back and loin of the lard hog are very important 
parts. They should be medium long and very wide, and, as 
the animal is viewed from the side, they should be slightly 
arched. The top of the hog should be very deeply fleshed 
so as to build the back and loin out level and square on either 
side of the middle line, thus forming a rather well-marked 



244 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

corner at the junction with the upper border of the side. 
There will thus be no marked rounding off from the middle 
line, but a gentle arch over the top from side to side and great 
width of top due to well-sprung ribs and very heavy fleshing, 
A "ridgy" back is an evidence of lack of fleshing, and a nar- 
row, *'sunfish" conformation is very faulty for the same 
reason. A dip in the back, or sway-back conformation, 
greatly detracts from the appearance of the animal and in- 
dicates weakness of muscling; hence the cuts from the back 
and loin will be lacking in lean meat. Or, if the animal is 
intended for breeding purposes, its value is lessened because 
of this weakness and because the defect is as liable to be 
transmitted to offspring as is any other good or bad quality. 

The sides of the hog should carry down straight and deep 
from top to bottom, and should be neither long nor short, but 
moderate in length. Very short hogs are open to objection 
because such a type does not grow big enough, and sows of 
this type are usually lacking in prolificacy because they do 
not have the capacity for carrying large litters. On the other 
hand, extreme length is secured at the expense of width and 
depth, and also at the expense of quick fattening qualities. 
For these reasons, extremes in either direction are to be 
avoided. When fattened for the market, the sides should be 
thickly and smoothly fleshed so that every point along the 
side fills out to meet the same straight line from shoulder to 
ham. Wrinkles in the skin along the side are objectionable 
because they injure the smoothness of appearance which is so 
desirable, and if the wrinkles are very deep and are perma- 
nent, that is, do not disappear when the hog changes position, 
then they may be called seams and are highly undesirable. 
These seams most often occur just behind the shoulder, but 
they may occur all along the side. They are due to creases 
in the skin and in the flesh underlying the skin, so that when 
the fingers are inserted into them they are found to be deep 
and pronounced. They indicate lack of quality and lack of 
evenness in fleshing, and are especially objectionable because 
they remain in the side meat even after it has been pressed 
and cured by the packer, thereby injuring the appearance of 
such cuts and affecting their selling price. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 245 

The belly should be straight or "well tucked up," thus 
insuring a good dressing percentage when the hog is killed. 
The belly should be firm, not flabby, and should be wide rather 
than narrow or V-shaped. However, this description will not 
apply to brood sows that have suckled several litters of pigs, 
for it is not desirable that they have straight, tidy underlines, 
but instead an udder composed of twelve or more well-de- 
veloped glands and teats. 

The rump should be long and as wide as the rest of the 
top, and it should carry out from hips to end of body with a 
slight curve downward to coincide with the slight arch of the 
entire top from head to tail. Very often the rump will be 
found very steep or drooping, the hips being carried too high 
and the tail set very low. Accompanying this kind of a 
rump, and to a certain extent causing it, is a faulty position 
of the hind legs, the feet being set too far under the body. 
This constitutes a weak conformation of the hindquarter, and 
gives the animal an ungainly appearance. The rump should 
carry out wide on either side of the tail to form rather square 
corners, and should not taper in width from hips to end of 
body, but be uniform in width throughout. When the hog is 
fat, the tail sets in a socket. 

The hams really include the rump as well as the thighs 
and twist. They should be very large and well developed, 
being plump and thick from every point of view. The thick- 
ness should carry down to the hocks, and the space between 
the hind legs and above the hocks should be filled with flesh. 
Loose, flabby hams are undesirable because they carry too 
much outside fat and require too much trimming off before 
they can be sold. Some hams lose fifteen per cent, in trim- 
ming at the packing house. The hams should be reasonably 
firm in fleshing and neat in form, yet very plump, wide, and 
deep. 

The hind legs should be medium short, or short, and 
should carry down straight and vertical from the hocks to 
the ground. The pasterns should be short, upright, and very 
strong, the feet well formed, and the toes strong. The bone 
should show no coarseness, and in the market hog should ex- 
hibit considerable refinement. 



246 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

The hair should be straight rather than curly, and should 
be fine. A harsh, bristly coat is an evidence of coarseness. 
A curly coat is objectionable because curly hair is usually 
coarser than straight hair, and curly-coated hogs do not shed 
their coats properly, which injures the appearance. A swirl 
or rose in the hair on the back or rump detracts from the 
appearance, and is objectionable for that reason. The hair 
should be abundant and smooth, and should lie close to the 
skin. Such a coat affords the most protection and adds to 
the attractiveness of appearance. 

The quality of a fat-type hog is determined by the refine- 
ment of the head, hair, and bone, smoothness of finish, and 
freedom from wrinkles and seams. The hog with quality has 
a clean-cut, well-bred appearance that pleases not only the 
producer and hog fancier, but also the butcher, because such 
a hog yields a neat, tidy carcass that attracts buyers, and 
the cuts of meat show a refined texture that is not to be 
found in the cuts from a coarse, rough hog. 

The proper finish of a lard-type hog is secured by a high 
degree of fattening, but the feeding should not be continued 
long enough to give the hog a soft, flabby covering. When 
handled along the back, below the shoulders, and at the lowei- 
border of the hams, the fleshing should be rather firm in- 
stead of soft as is often the case, especially in some breeds. 
When the fattening has proceeded far enough to round out 
the lines of the animal and give him a smooth, springy, 
mellow covering of flesh, he is in just the right condition to 
meet with most favor from the butcher. 

The temperament of the fat-type hog is quite different 
from that of the bacon hog, being less active and more in- 
clined to quietness, lying down, and the taking on of fat. 
Ideas as to what is most desirable in the temperament of this 
type of swine are tending somewhat away from the one 
formerly in favor, namely, that a hog should eat and lie down, 
and that a minimum of exercise is conducive to greatest 
economy in pork production. Many producers are now com- 
ing to believe that better results are secured if the hog is 
disposed by temperament to take considerable exercise, espe- 
cially during the growing period; they are selecting more 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 247 

active hogs for breeding, and are managing their young stock 
in such a way as to induce them to take a large amount of 
exercise. This results in growthy pigs of robust constitution 
and lessens the dangers of disease. Exercise also develops 
the muscles and strengthens the pasterns and legs. Not- 
withstanding this present-day tendency to select a more active 
hog than in the past, there must always be considerable differ- 
ence between the fat type and bacon type in this respect, the 
former being more quiet, slower in movements, and having 
much greater natural aptitude to fatten. 

The weight for age is an important consideration because 
it is a measure of the profit-making ability of the hog. Cer- 
tain standards of size and weight must be maintained in 
breeding stock in order that pigs fed for the market may 
reach marketable weights as quickly as possible. In early 
times hogs were fed to maturity before being marketed, but 
under modern conditions of higher cost of feed it is most 
profitable to finish them at an early age before the limit of 
growth has been reached. The average weight of hogs re- 
ceived at the large markets at the present time is about 225 
pounds, and hog growers generally agree that weights from 
250 to 300 pounds for market hogs are most profitable. 
Nevertheless it is as important to maintain large size in 
breeding animals today as it was in early times when the 
market wanted big, matured hogs. This is true because the 
cheapest gains are made during the growing period ; the most 
profitable hog is one that inherits the ability to grow to large 
size, but which will fatten before maturity is reached. It is 
desirable, therefore, to set the standard for matured weight 
as high as is consistent with proper form and quality. Ex- 
tremely heavy weights are very often secured at the expense 
of symmetry and proper refinement, but it is believed that 
for boars in good flesh the standard may be set at 800 pounds 
or over without necessarily sacrificing other desirable quali- 
ties. This may seem a high figure to some, but it is a fact 
that swine breeders now realize that they have not given 
enough attention to size during recent years, and today there 
will be far less objection to the figure mentioned than would 
have been true a few years ago. Sows in good flesh should 



248 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

weigh not less than 650 pounds. By proper selection of 
breeding stock and by improved methods of feeding and man- 
agement, the weights here mentioned may be equalled or 
surpassed. Some very excellent show animals of recent years 
have exceeded these weights at maturity. At six months of 
age, pigs should weigh 200 pounds; at twelve months they 
should weigh 400 pounds, and at about twenty-four months 
should be matured. Sows reach maturity a little sooner than 
boars, but do not attain as great weight. 



CHAPTER XX. 
THE BACON-TYPE HOG. 

The bacon hog presents some very marked differences 
when compared with the lard hog in form, fleshing, and tem- 
perament. These differences are very necessary because the 
bacon hog yields a product that is quite different from that 
of the fat or lard hog. The foremost countries in bacon pro- 
duction are England, Denmark, and Canada, the first men- 
tioned consuming the surplus production of the other two. It 
is a superior product to that with which the American public 
is furnished, being the finest that is produced. American 
bacon is the belly meat of the lighter and thinner hogs of the 
lard type, but English bacon is supplied by a hog the entire 
carcass of which is suitable for bacon. Denmark and Canada 
ship bacon to England in the form of what is called the "Wilt- 
shire side." A Wiltshire side represents half the carcass of 
the hog, minus the head and legs. The neck, shoulder, back, 
loin, side, belly, and ham are included. 

The best bacon contains a relatively large amount of 
lean meat and small amount of fat. The price charged for 
bacon at wholesale or retail is very largely regulated by these 
features, a cheap slab of bacon always being characterized by 
greater thickness, little lean, and much fat. The production 
of high-quality bacon therefore necessitates a different kind 
of hog than the lard hog, a hog disposed to be muscular and 
active, but not a hog that fattens readily. The production of 
the best bacon also necessitates feeding this hog on such 
feeds as will furnish nitrogenous or muscle-building materials 
in abundance, the carbonaceous or fat-forming elements of 
the ration being supplied in much less amount than would be 
advisable if lard hogs were being fed. This fact explains why 
but few bacon hogs are found in the combelt, and also why 
the United States is able to produce the lard hog at lower cost 
than he can be produced elsewhere. Whereas corn plays a 
large part in the production of lard-type swine for the market, 

249 



250 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

the bacon hog is fed on such feeds as peas, barley, and skim 
milk, which are much better suited to bacon production than 
is corn, because they contain a larger percentage of protein. 

It is of considerable importance that the producer of 
bacon hogs turn them off to market at that period in their 
development when the character of the flesh will be nearest 
the bacon ideal. To be more explicit, if the hog is marketed 
too young its flesh will be watery and flabby, whereas further 
feeding and more age result in a more desirable carcass. Pigs 
have a very strong tendency to utilize their feed for growth 
during the first months of their existence, and as they be- 
come older and more matured they fatten much more readily. 
It is for this reason that the best bacon comes from hogs 
within certain limits of weight. Experience has shown that 
a weight of 160 pounds is the minimum weight at which to 
market a bacon hog and that the upper limit is 220 pounds. 
These figures represent the extremes; the best bacon car- 
casses are from hogs that weighed 175 to 190 pounds. This 
does not mean that the bacon hog reaches maturity at a 
weight of 190 or 220 pounds, or that it is desirable that he 
should do so. The matured weight for boars in good flesh 
should be not less than 700 pounds; sows weigh about 100 
pounds less than boars at maturity. 

When the carcass of a bacon hog is split down the back, 
the layer of fat along the spine and back should be not less 
than one inch or more than one and one-half inches in thick- 
ness, and it should be as uniform in thickness as possible 
from one end to the other. The production of the best Wilt- 
shire sides is possible only from hogs that are long irom 
shoulder to ham, light and smooth in the shoulder, neck, and 
jowl, and very straight and trim along the belly. 

When thinking of a bacon hog we usually have in mind 
such a hog as the market wants, in other words, a hog suit- 
able for slaughtering and cutting up into Wiltshire sides. 
Also, from what has been said of the importance of certain 
weight requirements, it is at once apparent that boars and 
breeding sows are not desired by the packer. If, however, 
their form, quality, and temperament are such as will cause 
them to transmit to their pigs the characteristics which are 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



251 



necessary in order that these pigs may be fed out successfully 
for the bacon market, then the boar and sow are said to 
possess bacon type. In judging breeding stock, certain allow- 
ances must therefore be made and certain points must be 
emphasized which do not concern us in judging bacon hogs 
for slaughter. The same general principles and the same 
general type apply in both cases, but the judge must empha- 
size certain points that are peculiar and essential in each. 

The form of the bacon hog is strikingly different from 
that of the lard hog. There is much less thickness and depth 
of body, greater length of leg, a lighter shoulder, neck, and 
jowl, and greater length from snout to tail, especially from 




Fig. 63. Fancy Market Bacon Pig. 

shoulder to ham. From the snout to the rear border of the 
shoulder the hog should be comparatively short, this being 
the low-priced end of the carcass. There is considerable dif- 
ference between the retail prices received for the front and 
hind ends of the Wiltshire side. Length of side from shoulder 
to ham and length of ham from front to rear are of very 
great importance, but it is a mistake to make everything else 
secondary in importance to length ; length should not be car- 



252 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

ried to the greatest possible extreme. The hog should have 
enough depth and width of body to give him a strong con- 
stitution in a well-developed chest and middle. This applies 
both to the market hog and the breeding animal. There 
should be as much depth of body in front as behind, and as 
much width at one point as another — in other words, the hog 
should be symmetrical or balanced in his conformation. Great 
smoothness from one end to the other is a prime essential, 
and smoothness must be secured without the assistance of 
very much outside fat, such as greatly assists in giving 
smoothness to the lard hog. 

Proper quality in a market bacon hog is very important 
because a rough or coarse appearance detracts much from 
the price, and because it is desired that the flesh be fine in 
texture. In both market hogs and breeding stock, a fine, 
smooth coat of hair denotes quality. Well-developed wrinkles 
or seams in the skin indicate coarse-grained flesh, and injure 
the appearance of the finished product. The snout, face, 
jowl, and ear should show refinement, yet not to an extreme 
that indicates lack of vigor and feeding qualities. The bone 
should be flinty and smooth, rather than porous and rough. 
As there is a relation between the development of bone and 
muscle, bacon hogs have proportionately larger shanks than 
lard hogs; but coarse bone, covered with thick, puffy skin 
cannot be excused for this reason. Coarse bone is very ob- 
jectionable because it indicates hard feeding quahties and 
slow maturity. The butcher prefers a fine-boned hog, but 
the breeder wants the boar to stand on heavy, clean-cut bone 
covered with skin that shows no coarseness. The brood sow 
should have finer bone than the boar, but it should be in every 
way proportionate to her weight, plus the added weight re- 
sulting from pregnancy. 

Proper condition for a market bacon hog is a feature re- 
quiring considerable practice in judging. There is danger of 
too high a degree of fatness, even though the live weight be 
within the limits that have been mentioned. Most persons 
residing in the cornbelt experience some difficulty in accept- 
ing a properly finished market bacon hog as such when first 
taking up a study of this type. To them the hog looks con- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 253 

siderably underdone. The indications of the proper degree 
of fatness are difficult to describe. The hog has a well-fed, 
thrifty appearance, but not a finished look comparable to that 
of the properly finished lard hog. The flesh is firm and the 
hog is reasonably well filled out. Soft flesh at the lower part 
of the hams, at the lower border of the shoulder, or on the 
jowl, is undesirable because it indicates an over-fat condition 
and an uneven distribution of the fat. Smoothness and firm- 
ness of fleshing are decidedly essential. 

The style of the bacon hog should be marked. He should 
be very active, thus indicating a full muscular development. 
He should walk without apparent eflfort. A writhing move- 
ment when walking is taken as an indication of weakness in 
muscling along the back and loin. 

The head varies in shape a great deal, depending to a 
large extent upon the breed, but there is also much variation 
between individuals belonging to the same breed. Length of 
snout varies with the breed. A long snout is very often 
associated with a narrow chest, and a very short snout often 
goes with a heavy jowl and neck. The face should be broad, 
and the poll should be broad also and come well forward, 
these being indications of constitutional vigor and feeding 
qualities. Large, prominent, bright eyes indicate health and 
constitution. The jowl has very little market value. A 
heavy, fat jowl denotes too strong a fattening tendency for 
a bacon animal. Good width across the jowl is desirable, but 
it should be very trim and neat. Size and carriage of the ear 
vary according to the breed. A large ear does not indicate 
lack of quality provided it is fine or thin. Thick, coarse ears 
denote a thick, coarse skin, which, in turn, denotes coarse- 
grained flesh. 

The neck, while not a valuable part of the carcass, is im- 
portant as indicating constitution and feeding qualities. A 
long, thin neck is an indication of deficient constitution and 
low feeding qualities; while a short, thick neck, with a crest 
of fat on top will result in a side of bacon that is too heavy 
at the fore end, which is the cheap end of the side. Moder- 
ate length and width of neck are wanted. It is to be expected 



254 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

that mature boars will have heavier necks than sows or 
barrows. 

The shoulders should be light and set in the body 
smoothly. They should be deep from top to bottom, but not 
wide from front to rear, and as one looks down on the top 
of the hog, they should show no greater fullness than the 
back and loin. Shoulders that have more width from side 
to side than the rest of the hog are objectionable, but never- 
theless should be given preference oyer a narrow chest in a 
breeding animal. 




Fig. 64. Correct Bacon Type. 

The breast should be wide and carry well down between 
the fore legs and straight out in front to join the lower border 
of the neck, thus insuring a large chest capacity. 

The front legs should be rather long, but not extremely 
so, straight, strong, with upright pasterns, and carrying the 
weight full on the toes. 

A back of moderate width, very slightly arched, and 
rounded over the top from side to side represents correct 
bacon-type development in this valuable part of the carcass. 
A sagging back or a very much arched back is an evidence of 
weak muscling and consequently of a lack of lean meat along 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 255 

the top where the highest-priced bacon is found. The top of 
the hog should show a sHght arch from head to tail as viewed 
from the side, the highest point being over the loin. A wide, 
flat back denotes a high degree of fatness such as is wanted 
in the fat-hog carcass, but not in the carcass of a bacon hog. 
A very narrow back is an indication of a lack of flesh or lean 
meat. 

The loin furnishes the most valuable part of the side of 
bacon and therefore should be strongly developed. It should 
have the same width and form as the back. From shoulder 
to hindquarter the top of the hog should exhibit a uniform 
width, uniform arch, and uniform fleshing. When the loin 
is narrower than the back, the hog is not developed sym- 
metrically and the loin may be said to be deficient. 

A side that is flat, straight, and deep, with a great deal 
of length, and carrying a firm, smooth covering of flesh is 
demanded. The packer likes as long a side as can be had, 
but the breeder must avoid extreme length because such hogs 
incline to be narrow and shallow bodied. They lack constitu- 
tion and feeding qualities to such an extent that they do not 
make economical gains on feed. The side of the bacon hog 
constitutes the most important consideration in judging 
either breeding or market animals. Score cards for bacon 
hogs universally allow more points to the side than to any 
other part of the animal. A study of the side more nearly 
reveals the worth of the bacon hog than a study of any other 
single item on the score card. No other part of the animal 
plays so large a part in determining the nature and value of 
the carcass. When the hog is standing, a straight-edge laid 
against his side, either vertically or horizontally, should touch 
every point beneath it. There should be no signs of seams 
or wrinkles, but a smooth development everywhere. The side 
should also be firm in fleshing, without any softness just be- 
hind the shoulder or elsewhere. 

The flank constitutes an important consideration because 
a high flank injures the appearance of the carcass, necessitates 
more trimming in order to give evenness to the lower border 
of the side of bacon, and also is an indication that the belly 
meat is too thin. When the flank is carried down well, the 



256 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

flesh is usually carried well down on the ham, the belly meat 
is thick and fleshy, and the development of the side is made 
more uniform in depth and thickness. 

The belly should be straight, trim, firm, thick, and free 
from flabbiness. This part yields good bacon, but it is not 
so high priced as that from the loin and back. 

The rump should not be broad and flat, which indicates 
too much fat, but should have the same width as the rest of 
the top and should be rounding from side to side across the 
top, the same as the back and loin. It should be long also, 
and should round slightly toward the tail, but should not be 
drooping with the tail set low. 

A heavy, bulging ham is not an indication of correct 
bacon type. Such hams must have a great deal of fat 
trimmed off them in preparing the side of bacon for the mar- 
ket. The ham of the bacon hog should taper toward the hock 
and should be smooth and firm, especially at the lower part 
where flabbiness is likely to occur. The flesh should carry 
well around the bone, inside as well as outside, and should 
not taper off too suddenly below, but let down well toward the 
hocks. The ham of the bacon hog is often called the gammon. 

The hind legs should be straight and strong, the pasterns 
upright, and the weight carried full on the toes. 



CHAPTER XXI 

THE HOG CARCASS. 

A comparative study of the importance of the various 
kinds of meat in American, Enghsh, French, and German 
dietaries discloses the fact that civilization is greatly depend- 
ent upon the hog and its products. The following table gives 
the latest available figures for the annual per capita consump- 
tion of the various kinds of meat in the four countries men- 
tioned, and shows the large contribution of the hog to the 
meat supply. 



Kind of meat 


United States 
(1909) 

1 


United 
Kingdom 

(average 
1906-1908) 


Germany* 

(1913) 


France* 

(1904) 


Beef 

Veal - 

Mutton and lamb 

Pork, including lard 


Pounds 

80.00 

7.50 

6.50 

78.00 


Pounds 

56.00 

4.00 

26.00 

33.00 


Pounds 

31.35 

7.25 

1.90 

71.30 


Pounds 

37.00 

8.00 

9.00 

26.00 


Total 


J 172.00 


119.00 


111.80 


80.00 



*In addition to the above, the consumption of horse flesh amounts to 
about 1 pound per capita in France, and in Germany 1.9 pounds of goat, 
horse, and dog meat is consumed per capita. 

The British are well known to be partial to beef in their 
meat dietary, and the Germans to pork, and this is amply 
substantiated by the table; nevertheless it is seen that the 
people of the United States consume more beef than the Eng- 
lish and more pork than the Germans. The British, however, 
consume more mutton per capita than any other nationality, 
and the French come first with veal. The figures show that 
the consumption of pork, as compared with the consumption 
of beef, is greater than might be supposed. Germans con- 
sume more pork than beef, and Americans eat equally of the 
two kinds of meat, but the table shows a different proportion 
for the English and French. These variations may be due to 

257 



258 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



differences in the way appetites have been cultivated in the 
various countries, or to differences in the quantities of pork 
produced and the cost of it. 

The type of hogs found in the several countries varies 
considerably. In the United States the fat or lard type is 
produced almost exclusively, this being particularly true of 
the cornbelt. The stock yards of this country receive prac- 
tically no bacon hogs; the St. Paul market is something of 
an exception, although the number received there is com- 
paratively small. We shall, therefore, give more attention 
to the fat carcass than to the bacon carcass. 




Fiy. 65. The Hojij Hoist. 

Slaughtering and dressing. — When the hog enters the 
packing house, and this applies to both the fat hog and the 
bacon hog, he passes rapidly through the operations of (1) 
bleeding, (2) scalding, (3) scraping, (4) disembowehng, (5) 
removal of leaf fat, (6) splitting, (7) dry room (four hours), 
and (8) cooling. The legs, feet, cheek, and jowl are left as 
part of the carcass. An exception is made in the case of pigs 
and some light hogs intended for the fresh pork trade, these 
being dressed with the head on, leaf in, and the backbone not 
split. Some variation also occurs in the manner of splitting 
the carcass. All dressed hogs are cut open along the underline 
and through the aitch bone and brisket, but the best heavy 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



259 



carcasses, called loin carcasses, are split through the center of 
the backbone, while the inferior heavy carcasses, called pack- 
ing carcasses, are sometimes split on one side of the back- 
bone. Bacon carcasses are usually cut with a knife on each 
side of the backbone and then split on one side and the back- 
bone taken out, making sides suitable for the English bacon 
cuts. 

The offal and the dressing percentage. — The parts which 
the hog loses in dressing are the blood, viscera, head, leaf fat, 
and hair. The dressing percentage is determined as easily as 




Fig, 66. Dressing Hogs. 

with cattle and sheep. Hogs easily dress 83 to 85 per cent.- 
Some hogs in the carcass contests at the International Live. 
Stock Show have dressed as high as 89, 89.3, and 89.6; but 
these were hogs of show-yard quality weighing 417, 429, and 
520 pounds respectively, and had been without feed or water 
for more than twenty-four hours prior to killing. The chief 
factors determining the dressing percentage of a hog are fat- 
ness and paunchiness, of which the former is by far the more 
important. 

The wholesale trade in pork. — Only about one or two 
per cent, of the hogs slaughtered by the large packing houses 
are sold as whole carcasses. About three-fourths of the whole- 
sale trade in pork consists of various cured meats and fresh 



260 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



cuts, the remainder consisting principally of lard and a small 
percentage of sausage and canned meats. Only about twenty 
per cent, of the domestic trade and five per cent, of the export 
trade in pork products, other than lard, consists of fresh meat. 

The Fat or Lard-Hog Carcass. 

Wholesale cuts. — After the carcass has been thoroughly 
chilled it is cut up into shoulders, hams, fat backs, loins, spare 
ribs, and belly. These wholesale cuts are shown in the draw- 
ings which accompany this chapter. 




Fig 67. A View of the Pork Coolers. 

The part labeled "fat back" is a clear layer of external 
fat containing no lean meat. Studies of the carcasses of cattle 
and sheep disclose the fact that it is easily possible to feed a 
steer or a wether too long, and thus make the animal too fat 
to suit the consumer. One-half to three-fourths of an inch 
of external fat is all that is wanted on the carcasses of cattle, 
and for mutton and lamb the desired thickness is proportion- 
ate to the requirements for cattle. With fat hogs we find an 
entirely different state of affairs, for the packer wants a very 
thick layer of external fat over the top of the hog. This heavy 
layer of fat constitutes a separate cut known as the fat back, 
which may be rendered into lard, or dry salted and sold as a 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



261 



dry-salt cut. When manufactured into lard they render 85 
to 88 per cent. About one-half of them are sold as a dry-salt 
cut for which a demand exists in the South and in Europe. 
Lard is far more valuable than tallow, hence the difference in 
the packer's attitude toward very heavy fatness in the lard 
hog as compared with a similar degree of fatness in cattle or 
sheep. 




Wholesale Cuts of Pork. 



English Cuts — A, Long-cut ham; B, long side or middle. 

American Cuts — 1, Ham; 2, loin; 3, belly; 4, picnic butt; 5, Boston 
butt; 6, jowl; 7, hock; 8, fat back; 9, clear plate; 2 and 8, back; 2, 3, and 
8, side; 4 and 7, picnic shoulder; 5 and 9, shoulder butt; 8 and 9, long fat 
back; 4, 5, 7, and 9, rough shoulder. 

The belly contains stripes of lean and is suitable for 
a "breakfast bacon belly" if the cut is from a light, thin hog. 
If the hog is heavy, the belly cut is dry salted or pickled and 
sold as a "dry-salt belly" or as a "sweet-pickle belly," as the 
case may be. 



262 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



The following table gives the weights of the various 
wholesale cuts of pork, the per cent, of live weight included 
in each cut, the wholesale prices per pound, and the total 
wholesale price of each cut. This table was compiled from un- 
published data of a slaughtering and cutting test conducted 
by Mr. J. M. Evvard of the Iowa Elxperiment Station, in co- 
operation with Sulzberger and Sons' Company of Chicago. The 
test included 24 Duroc-Jersey hogs which averaged 300 pounds 
live weight and which dressed 75.19 per cent. If the heads 
and leaf fat are included, the dressing yield was 81.95 per 
cent. The following table represents averages of the 24 hogs. 

From carcass of hog having live weight of 300 pounds. 



Wholesale cuts 


Weights 
of cuts 


Per cent, of 
live weight 


Wholesale 

price per 

pound 


Total value 
of cut 


Hams 


Pounds 

36.67 

45.46 

56.70 

31.04 

1.58 

26.92 

8.45 

8.35 

17.77 

12.95 


12.22 

15.15 

18.90 

10.35 

.52 

8.97 

2.82 

2.78 

5.92 

4.32 


Cents 
16.5 
12 
14 
11 
10 
15 

5.5 
11.25 
10 

6.5 


$6.05 


Shoulders 


5.46 


Bellies (dry salt) 

Fat backs . 


7.94 
3.41 


Spare ribs 


.16 


Loins 


4.03 


Miscellaneous 


.46 


Leaf fat 


.94 


Cutting fat 


1.78 


Head 


.84 






Total carcass 


245.89 


81.95 


12.6 


$31.07 



Note. — The above table includes both sides of the carcass. The shoulder 
cut is a rough shoulder, including the jowl. "Miscellaneous" includes trim- 
mings, taii, ne:-kbones, and roujh feet. "Cutting fat" includes small fat 
trimmings from the hams, fat backs, bellie.s, and other cuts. It is rendered 
into lard. 



High-priced and low-priced cuts. — There is not much 
variation in the wholesale prices of the various cuts of pork — 
much less variation than occurs in the wholesale prices of the 
various cuts of beef, mutton, or lamb. The rib and loin cuts 
of the beef carcass sell far above the other cuts, and the rib 
and loin development, together with the development of the 
round, practically determine the value of the beef carcass. In 
the fat-hog carcass, values are rather evenly distributed, al- 
though the ham may be said to be the most valuable part of 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 263 

the hog. A study of the swine carcass emphasizes the im- 
portance of good development in all parts of the hog, and espe- 
cially is this true of the back, loin, and hams. The top of the 
hog and the hams hold most of the value of the carcass, but 
the shoulder and belly are almost equally valuable. 

Qualifications of a good carcass. — The value of the fat- 
hog carcass depends upon shape, finish, quality, and weight. 
These various factors will now be discussed. 

1. Shape. — The shape desired is one combining great 
width of side and back in proportion to length of body, 
straight, even lines, and well-filled hams and shoulders. A 
neat, trim carcass is wanted that is free from prominence on 
the underline. Hence, barrows are always preferred to sows 
because sows carry more cheap belly meat, this being espe- 
cially true of sows that have had several litters of pigs. Such 
sows are called "seedy," and they bring a lower price than 
neat, trim animals that are well tucked up along the belly. 
The accompanying drawings show the importance of the 
underline in determining the value of the side cut from a hog. 
The trimming from a seedy sow goes to the rendering tank 
and is made into a cheap grade of lard. 



Side from 
low-flanked hog 




Side from 
seedy sow 



Fig. 69. Effect of tlie Underline on Trimming of Side. 

T. trimming. 

2. Finish. — This is indicated by the depth and evenness 
of fat covering the carcass, especially along the back and over 
the sides; also by the amount and quality of leaf fat. The 
leaf is the internal fat and includes the kidney fat and extends 
down to the flanks and "skirt" or diaphragm. It is important 
that the fat be white and firm. Packers like hogs well fattened 
because this. means a higher yield of lard and a higher dress- 
ing percentage. As a rule, the heavier the hog the more fat 
he carries, because the nearer an animal approaches maturity 
the more easily he takes on fat. This is shown by the follow- 



264 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



ing figures giving the percentage of yields and percentage of 
parts of carcasses of swine of different live weights. The fat 
backs were all rendered into lard. 



Number of 

hogs 
slaughtered 



Average 


Side 




live 


meat 


Hams 


weight 







Shoulder 
cuts 



Lard 



Total 
yield 



Figures from Boore and Company, Chicago. 



2107 

1316 

1215 

907 


Pounds 
360 
302 
234 
204 


Per cent. 
37.10 
36.17 
36.10 
34.60 


Per cent. 
13.31 
13.33 
13.20 
13.70 


Per cent. 

9.62 

9.05 

11.05 

10.40 


Per cent. 
16.00 
15.45 
11.96 
11.55 


Per cent. 
76.03 
74.50 
72.31 
70.25 



Figures from Sinclair Packing Company, Cedar Rapids. 



2946 


293 


37.94 


12.74 


9.10 


15.09 


74.87 


4067 


236 


36.86 


13.52 


6.58 


15.04 


72.00 


1102 


232 


37.76 


13.38 


8.42 


14.21 


73.77 


1615 


232 


38.02 


13.29 


8.14 


13.89 


73.34 



The above figures do not include the small cuttings, ten- 
derloins, tails, pig's feet, cheek meat, etc., which are prac- 
tically alike for hogs within the weight limits mentioned 
above. When the small parts are added in, the dressing per- 
centage is increased by about seven to nine per cent., making 
these hogs dress 83 to 85 per cent., total. The figures show a 
marked increase in the percentage of lard yield as the hog 
matures. 

That the hog is by nature disposed to take on more 
fat than any of the other domestic animals is shown by the 
following table of analyses made at the Rothamsted (Eng- 
land) Experiment Station. After fasting from eighteen to 
twenty-four hours the animals were killed and the entire 
bodies analysed. 







Live 






Mineral 


Total 

dry 
sub- 




Contents 
of stom- 


Animal 


Age 


weight 


Protein 


Fat 


matter 


Water 


ach and 












(ash) 


stance 




intestines 
— moist 






Lbs. 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 








cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


cent. 


Fat pig 




185 
127 


10.9 
12.2 


42.2 
35.6 


1.65 
2.81 


54.7 
50.6 


41.3 
43.4 


3.97 


Fat sheep .. 


15 mo. 


6.02 


Fat ox 


4 yrs. 


1416 


14.5 


30.1 


3.92 


48.5 


45.5 


5.98 


Fat lamb.... 


6 mo. 


84 


12.3 


28.5 


2.94 


43.7 


47.8 


8.54 


Fat calf 


8-9 wks 


258 


15.2 


14.8 


t 3.80 


33.8 


63.0 


3.17 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 265 

These figures show why the corn crop has formed a closer 
alliance with hogs than with any other of our domestic 
animals. The hog requires more fattening food than other 
animals because he is naturally disposed to take on a very high 
degree of fatness, and, as has been mentioned, hog fat is far 
more valuable than the fat of cattle or sheep. Packers desire 
a covering of outside fat on the carcass of a lard hog that 
measures from two to six inches in thickness, the require- 
ments varying according to the weight of the carcass. 

3. Quality. — A carcass is said to have quality when the 
outlines are even and smooth, the head and shanks fine, the 
flesh firm, bright, and smooth grained, the fat white and evenly 
distributed over the carcass, and the skin smooth, thin, mel- 
low, and free from wrinkles, blotches, or bruises. Coarse or 
extremely large shoulders, neck, and jowls show lack of qual- 
ity and are indications of stagginess, and the carcasses of 
seedy sows grade low because of their coarse quality. Barrows 
and smooth, clear sows yield carcasses of the best quality. 

4. Weight. — While it is true that packers find uses for 
carcasses of all weights ranging from 20 to 400 pounds, the 
most valuable carcasses are those weighing 200 to 220 pounds, 
provided the carcass is at the same time one of good shape, 
finish, and quality. Such carcasses come from hogs with a 
live weight of 235 to 260 pounds. Carcasses weighing 200 to 
220 pounds yield loins of the proper size and best quality. The 
general statement may also be made that all carcasses should 
weigh heavy for their size, thus insuring a high degree of 
finish or fatness. 

Bacon Carcasses. 

The packing house classes the heavier and fatter car- 
casses as lard hog carcasses, while the lighter, thinner ones 
are cut up into the bacon or English cuts, so called because 
they are suitable for the English trade. The principal English 
cuts are Wiltshire sides, Cumberland sides, and long-cut hams. 
These cuts are also sold under several other names depending 
on some technical variations in the manner of preparing the 
side for the retail trade. The Wiltshire side comprises the 



266 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



entire side (half the hog), minus the head, feet, shoulder 
blade, and hip bone. The belly is trimmed smooth and even. 
These sides average 40 to 70 pounds and are selected especially 
for thickness of lean meat and a light, even covering of fat 
from 1 to 2 inches thick, not exceeding IV2 inches in the 




Fig. 70. Fat and Baton Carcasses Compared. 

Note the difference in size and especially the difference in fatness 
between the fat carcass on the left and the bacon carcass on the right. 



best grades. They are made exclusively from choice, lean 
bacon hogs. The drawings which accompany this chapter 
show a bacon side and indicate its division into the long-cut 
ham and the long-cut middle or Cumberland. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 267 

Classification of Carcasses. 

The classification and grading of hog carcasses is based 
on the uses to which they are adapted, or in other words, it is 
based on the products into which they can be converted. 
Therefore the shape, finish, quahty, and weight determine 
where the carcass will classify and grade. The generally recog- 
nized classes and grades and their respective weights as given 
in Illinois bulletin No. 147 are as follows: 

Smooth Heavy, or Heavy Loin Carcasses 240 — 400 lb. 

Butcher, or Light Loin Carcasses 160 — 240 lb. 

i Heavy ..- .....240—400 lb. 

Packing Hog Carcasses \ Medium ...200—240 lb. 

( Light 100—200 lb. 

Choice 120—160 lb. 

Bacon Carcasses I Good 110—170 lb. 

/ Common 90—110 lb. 

Shippers 100— 200 1b. 

Pigs, 20—100 lb. 

Smooth heavy, or heavy loin carcasses. — These are from 
prime, smooth hogs, either barrows or good clear (not seedy) 
sows. These carcasses weigh 240 to 400 pounds and have four 
to six inches of fat on the back. The flesh and fat must be 
deep, firm, and even, the flesh bright colored, the fat white, 
and the bones not coarse. As the name indicates, such car- 
casses are especially suitable for making heavy loins, the re- 
mainder of the side being made into a heavy fat back and dry- 
salt belly. These carcasses yield a very heavy ham. The 
per cent, of such carcasses is a very small part of the general 
supply. 

Butcher, or light loin carcasses. — A large proportion of 
the fresh pork sold in retail markets is pork loins, which are 
cut into chops and roasts, and light loin carcasses are so 
named because these cuts can be obtained from them to best 
advantage. To yield loins of the proper size and quality, a 
hog carcass should weigh about 160 to 240 pounds and have 
the same shape, smoothness, and general quality previously 
described. Thick, firm flesh, smooth, soft skin, and solid, 
white fat are especially important. The covering of fat on 
the back should be two to four inches. Barrows and smooth 
clear sows furnish carcasses of this class. The weights most 



268 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

preferred are 200 to 220 pounds. The carcass is cut up into 
the regular American or fat-hog cuts. 

Packing hog carcasses. — About one-half of the carcasses 
in Chicago packing houses are of this class. They are car- 
casses of mixed hogs of all weights, which are too coarse in 
quality, rough in shape, and uneven in finish to be well adapted 
for fresh pork products or smoked meats and are therefore 
principally packed in such form as mess pork and dry-salt 
meats. The hams are sweet pickled and the shoulders made 
into picnics and Boston butts. The general statement may be 
made that packing carcasses are inferior carcasses weighing 
100 pounds or more which are left after the best carcasses 
have been sorted out. They are graded heavy, medium, and 
light according to weight. 

Heavy packing carcasses. — These are the carcasses of 
rough and seedy sows, coarse barrows, boars, and stags aver- 
aging 240 to 400 pounds. Common defects of this grade are 
thick, rough, and wrinkled skin, dark-colored and coarse- 
grained flesh, soft, oily fat, large bones, and carcass bruises. 

Medium packing carcasses. — The only important dis- 
tinction between this grade and the preceding one is weight. 
These carcasses weigh 200 to 240 pounds. They are inferior 
to butcher carcasses in shape, finish, and quality. 

Light packing carcasses. — These weigh 100 to 200 
pounds. They are too deficient in shape, quality, and finish 
to be classified as either bacon, butcher, or shipper carcasses. 
This grade comes mostly from light sows. 

Mess pork, which is made from packing hog carcasses, is 
a simple method of packing cheap pork and was much used 
in the early days of the packing industry. It is prepared by 
cutting the side into strips about six inches wide and pack- 
ing in salt brine in tight barrels (18x29 inches) at 200 pounds 
net weight of cured pork per barrel or 355 pounds gross. It 
is shipped principally to the Southern States, northern lumber 
camps, and South America. Dry-salt meats, the other com- 
mon product of packing carcasses, are heavy sides, bellies, 
shoulders, fat backs, and jowls cured in dry salt, pumped with 
brine, and shipped in coarse salt. They are usually shipped 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 269 

loose, but sometimes are put up in boxes containing 25 to 500 
pounds. 

Bacon carcasses. — These are suitable for sugar-cured, 
breakfast-bacon bellies and English meats. Such carcasses 
have long, deep, smooth sides with a light, even covering of 
fat. The hams should be full, but lean, and the shoulders 
light and smooth. The flesh must be firm and not "watery," 
the fat solid, and the carcass very smooth. These carcasses 
weigh 90 to 170 pounds. The most desirable weights are 120 
to 150 pounds. Only a small percentage of Chicago carcasses 
are of this class. 

Choice bacon carcasses. — The depth of back fat is from 
114 to 2 inches. It must not vary more than l^ to % of an 
inch over the back and shoulders. Only carcasses of barrows 
weighing 120 to 160 pounds grade here as a rule. 

Good bacon carcasses. — These lack slightly in the essen- 
tial points of the preceding grade. The thickness of back fat 
must be 1 to ly^ inches. The carcasses range in weight from 
110 to 170 pounds and come not only from barrows but also 
from smooth, clear sows. 

Common bacon carcasses. — These are decidedly lacking 
in the prime essentials of the class. They are usually light, 
unfinished carcasses from "skippy" or "skinny" hogs. 

Shippers. — These are similar to butcher hog carcasses 
in shape and quality, but are lighter in weight and generally 
not so highly finished. Compared with bacon carcasses they 
are shorter and thicker bodied, with a deeper and less even 
covering of fat, heavier jowls, and are younger for their 
weights. Their chief use is for the fresh retail trade, and they 
must be fancy in quality. This is the only class of carcasses 
that is extensively sold as whole carcasses. They are shipped 
in carlots to eastern points, the greatest demand being in the 
winter months. They usually weigh 100 to 160 pounds. 

Pigs. — These are carcasses of light, young hogs that 
are comparatively lean and light colored in flesh, with thin, 
soft skin, soft, red bones, and weighing from 20 to 100 pounds. 
They are dressed and sold like shippers. Roasting pigs are 
dressed suckling pigs which are fat and smooth. They are 



270 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

sold like winter lambs direct to hotels and restaurants. The 
most desired weight is 15 to 20 pounds, but pigs weighing 30 
pounds are used. 

The Grades of Lard. 

From one-tenth to one-third of the hog carcass is made 
into lard in large packing houses, the proportion varying with 
the relative price of lard and grade of hogs. Lard is sold 
under six different names representing differences in white- 
ness, grain, flavor, and keeping qualities. Lard is made from 
leaf fat, fat backs, and fat trimmings from ham, shoulder, 
belly, jowl, and head. Some hams trim fifteen per cent. The 
highest grade of lard is Kettle Rendered Leaf Lard, made 
from leaf fat. It is very white in color and finest in grain and 
flavor of all grades of lard. Then there is Kettle Rendered 
Lard made mostly from fat backs, with perhaps a small addi- 
tion of leaf fat. Fat trimmings are also used at times. It 
ranks second only to the preceding grade. Neutral Lard is 
made from leaf or back fat at a lower temperature than is 
required in the manufacture of kettle rendered leaf lard. No. 1 
Neutral Lard is made from leaf fat only. It is tasteless, 
free of acids and impurities, smooth grained, and remains 
unchanged in odor and color. No. 2 Neutral Lard is made 
from back fat. It is not as white in color nor as fine in grain 
as No. 1 and sells at a lower price. Ninety per cent, or more 
of the lard made at Chicago is known as Prime Steam Lard. 
It is made from fat trimmings and internal fats. It is darker 
colored and coarser grained than other grades and is the form 
in which hog fats can be most economically stored and shipped. 
It is refined before using. Then there is Refined Lard made 
from prime steam lard by a bleaching and stirring process. 
Also there is Compound Lard or Lard Compound, which is a 
mixture of lard, stearin or other animal fat, and vegetable 
oil, usually cottonseed oil. 

Conclusions. 

The following conclusions may be drawn from the study 
of the swine carcass and its various products : 

1. In order to bring the highest market price, lard hogs 
must be fat and well tucked up in the underline. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 271 

2. The greatest demand is for 200- to 300-pound hogs, 
and hog growers usually obtain the most profit by fattening 
and selling their hogs at weights ranging from 250 to 300 
pounds. 

3. Barrows outsell sows because they carry less cheap 
meat on the underline. 

4. No other animal equals the lard hog in its fat-storing 
tendency. 

5. The production of lard hogs furnishes a logical chan- 
nel of disposal for corn, because corn is a fattening food and 
lard brings a much higher price than tallow. 

6. Any kind of a hog finds a buyer on the market, but 
the price paid depends on the kind of carcass the hog will yield. 

7. The development of the packing industry has made 
an outlet for the plainer sorts of hogs which otherwise would 
be a drug upon the market. 

8. No other kind of meat comes so nearly being manu- 
factured by packers as does pork. 

9. Indian corn and the American packing industry have 
combined to develop the American swine industry into a 
business of mammoth proportions. Corn, properly supple- 
mented, makes pork economically, and pork finds ready sale 
because packers have discovered many ways of placing pork 
on the market in attractive and highly palatable form com- 
bined with most excellent keeping qualities. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

HOG MARKETS AND PORK PACKING— PAST AND 
PRESENT. 

During the first half of the nineteenth century, Cincinnati 
was the leading pork-packing center of this continent, and this 
position was maintained until 1863, at which time Chicago 
took the lead. One by one, other western cities have crowded 
ahead of Cincinnati until now her rank is twentieth in the 
hst of American hog-packing cities. That Cincinnati's su- 
premacy was not a permanent one was due to the fact that 
until the West was settled, live-stock conditions were very 
unstable, and the logical packing center in 1850 was found to 
be too far to the east of the center of hog production as it ex- 
isted twenty years later. With the settling of the cornbelt and 
the rapid extension of the hog's domain to the westward, 
Chicago was enabled, by virtue of her location and direct rail- 
way connections with the heart of the cornbelt, to gain and 
hold supremacy as a pork-packing center. The evolution of 
the gigantic pork-packing business of the United States may be 
told in brief by first reviewing the growth and development 
of the business at Cincinnati, and then following it to Chicago 
at the close of the Civil War. 

Early packing at Cincinnati. — In 1833 Cincinnati packed 
85,000 hogs. Five years later the number packed in the year 
had risen to 182,000 head. In 1843 no less than 250,000 hogs 
were consumed by the numerous packing establishments then 
doing a thriving business at Cincinnati, and the town was 
dubbed "Porkopolis," which name was formerly in general use, 
but is now nearly obsolete. Cincinnati slaughtered 360,000 
hogs for packing purposes in 1853, and in 1863 the highest 
mark was reached, the number that year being 608,457. The 
demands of the army were largely accountable for the large 
number packed during the last mentioned year. Prior to the 
Civil War, Cincinnati was the center of the finest hog-raising 
region in the world, including the states of Kentucky, Ohio, 

272 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 273 

and Indiana. It was in this favorable environment and under 
the stimulus afforded by a large, near-by market that the 
Poland-China breed originated during the period mentioned. 
Although Chicago took the lead in the number of hogs packed 
following the war, Cincinnati continued to hold first place for 
a considerable time so far as the quality of hogs packed was 
concerned. In 1866 there were fifteen slaughter houses at 
Cincinnati, some of which employed as many as one hundred 
hands. One concern slaughtered 60,000 hogs during that year. 
Measured by the standards of the time, these Cincinnati pack- 
ing establishments were considered to be gigantic in propor- 
tions. In the same year, Cincinnati produced 180,000 barrels 
of pork, 25,000,000 pounds of bacon, and 16,500,000 pounds 
of lard. 

Development of packing at Chicago. — The earliest pack- 
ing or slaughtering done in Chicago was in 1827 ; in that year 
Archibald Clybourn erected a slaughter house for the special 
purpose of supplying the garrison at Fort Dearborn. The trade 
was mostly local until 1833, when immigration set westward 
quite strongly, creating a larger demand. During 1835, Mr. 
Clybourn packed about 3,000 hogs, besides considerable beef, 
for which a ready market was at hand. This stock had to be 
picked up at long distances from Chicago and driven on foot 
to the city. Other men soon engaged in the business which 
took on larger proportions, the surplus product finding a mar- 
ket in the East. The slaughter houses were mostly located 
on the south branch of the Chicago river, and into it the offal 
and filth were drained, which in later years became a nuisance 
and was prohibited by the city. In 1863 there were 58 dif- 
ferent establishments in Chicago doing a general packing busi- 
ness. During the winter of 1853-'54, Chicago packed 52,849 
hogs, and in 1860-'61 the number packed was 231,335. 

During the winter-packing season of 1863-'64, the rank 
of the largest packing centers and the number of hogs packed 
by each was as follows: (1) Chicago, 904,159; (2) Cincinnati, 
400,000 ; (3) St. Louis, 200,000 ; (4) Louisville, 103,996. 

Growth of American pork packing. — The pork-packing 
year ends March 1st and is divided into two seasons — the 
summer season of eight months, from March 1 to November 1, 



274 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



and the winter season of four months, from November 1 to 
March 1. This system came into use before the days of artifi- 
cial refrigeration, and, although such a designation is no longer 
necessary it is still adhered to by statisticans. Before 1873, 
summer packing was not practiced, but it began in September 
of that year when it is said to have reached the number of 
505,500. The total number of hogs packed in the West during 
the winter season, and the cost of hogs per 100 pounds live 
weight, according to the Cincinnati Price Current's special re- 
ports since 1849 and estimates previously, were as follows : 



Season 


Number 


Cost 


Season 


Number 


Cost 


1842-'43 


675,000 




1879-80 


6,950,451 


$4.18 


1844-45 


790,000 


$2.65 


1884-'85 


6,460,240 


4.29 


1849-'50 


1,652,220 


2.13 


1889-'90 


6,663,802 


3.66 


1854-'55 


2,124,404 


3.37 


1894-'95 


7,191,520 


4.28 


1859-'60 


2,350,822 


4.73 


1899-00 


8,675,898 


4.29 


1864-'65 


2,422,779 


11.46 


1904-'05 


10,456,503 


4.67 


1869-'70 


2,635,312 


9.22 


1909-'10 


8,725,224 


8.30 


1874-75 


5,566,226 


6.66 i 


1914-'15 


12,559,412 


6.74 



The number of hogs packed in the West during the cal- 
endar years, from 1845 to 1914, were as follows: 



Year 

1845.. 

1850. 

1855. 

I860.. 

1865 

1870.. 



Number 

781,000 

1,652,000 

2,124,000 

2,350,000 
2,451,000 

2,635,000 

1875- .. 6,485,000 



Year 



Number 



1914 25.610,000 



1880 12,210,000 

1885 11,350,000 

1890... 16,980,000 

1895. 15,285,000 

1900 , 23,265,000 

1905 25,485,000 

1910 25,729,000 



Present leading hog-packing centers. — During the year 
1914, swine were slaughtered under Federal meat inspection 
at 286 establishments in the United States located in 142 
cities and towns. From the government reports of animals 
slaughtered under federal inspection, the following table is 
constructed, showing the present rank of the twenty largest 
hog-packing cities: 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 275 

City Number of City Number of 

hogs packed hogs packed 

1. Chicago 5,917,396 11. Sioux City 998,990 

2. Kansas City 2,415,591 12. Buffalo _ 877,061 

3. Omaha 2,095,458 13. Cleveland 795,004 

4. St. Joseph 1,715,970 14. Jersey City .-... 767,172 

5. Indianapolis 1,376,771 15. Detroit 719,253 

6. Nat'l. Stock Yards, 111. 1,331,530 16. New York 713,420 

7. St. Louis 1,140,700 17. Ottumwa (*) 

8. Boston 1,095,544 18. Baltimore 582,040 

9. St. Paul 1,091,723 19. Philadelphia 563,427 

10. Milwaukee 1,049,176 20. Cincinnati 535,908 

*Figures not available at time of publication. 

Chicago packing at present time. — The number of hogs 
packed at Chicago by the leading hog-packing firms in 1912, 
1913, and 1914, and the total number packed at Chicago in 
each of these years was as follows : 

1914 

Armour & Co... _ 1,063,700 

Swift & Co 674,200 

Sulzberger & Sons 533,700 

Morris & Co 424,600 

Anglo-American Co 347,400 

Boyd, Lunham & Co 282,400 

Hammond Co 344,000 

Western Packing Co 453,700 

Roberts & Oake .. 306,600 

Miller & Hart 160,500 

Independent Packing Co. 366,700 

Brennan Packing Co 222,300 

All others 429,200 

Totals 5,609,000 



By-products from hog packing. — The Report of the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture for 1866 contains an interesting 
account of the early hog-packing operations in this country. 
The following, written by Mr. Charles Cist, of Cincinnati, ap- 
peared in the report for that year: 

"I have referred to the remarkable fact, that there was 
a period in the West when corn would not, in some sections, 
command six cents per bushel, and in others was of so little 
value as to be substituted for wood as fuel. Not less extraor- 
dinary is the fact, within the knowledge of hundreds now in 
Cincinnati, that in the early ages of pork packing, say in 1828, 



1913 


1912 


1,325,900 


1,340,900 


928,700 


1,060,800 


607,500 


682,000 


482,500 


430,900 


317,800 


273,800 


280,000 


236,900 


405,900 


345,200 


394,400 


311,000 


223,600 


130,800 


153,600 


125,000 


312,200 


240,000 


216,800 


174,700 


482,200 


494,900 


6,131,100 


5,855,900 



276 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

there was so little demand for any portion of the hog, other 
than hams, shoulders, sides, and lard, that the heads, spare- 
ribs, neck pieces, backbone, etc.,, were regularly thrown into 
the Ohio river to get rid of them!" The same writer also says: 
"The slaughterers formerly received the gut fat for the whole 
of the labor of dressing, wagoning the hogs more than a mile 
to the pork houses free of expense to the owners. Every year, 
however, adds to the value of fat, heart, liver, etc., for food 
and the hoofs, hair, and other parts for manufacturing pur- 
poses. Six years since, from 10 to 25 cents per hog was paid 
as a bonus for the privilege of killing. This was later raised 
to 75 cents and even to $1.00." 

In 1863, hog-packing products consisted of bristles, lard, 
mess pork, hams, shoulders, bacon, and lard oil used for mak- 
ing candles. The beginning of the immense packing-house 
by-products industry of modern times was described by an 
early writer as follows: "Since the Chicago river has ceased 
to be the sewer for all the offal from the slaughter and pack- 
ing houses, the owners have been obliged to cart it off to the 
commons and open fields beyond the city limits at a very heavy 
expense to them. An enterprising firm has, however, con- 
tracted with all the principal firms the present season to carry 
it all away by the owners paying half the expenses. Instead, 
however, of carrying it off and throwing it away, they have 
commenced preparing it for fertilizers. They have provided 
centrifugal machines, into which they place the refuse from 
the lard and grease tanks, and throw out all the water, leaving 
only the solid parts, and that in a pulpy or pulverized condi- 
tion. In this way they will prepare about three thousand tons 
the present season, all of which will be shipped east for the 
manufacture of commercial manures. Another concern is 
gathering all the bones it can pick up, from which are manu- 
factured large quantities of animal charcoal, and such as are 
not suitable for that purpose are ground up and sent east, 
they having shipped the past season over three hundred tons 
of ground bones alone." 

Packers estimate that practically 70 per cent, of the live 
hog is merchantable as fresh or cured meat. Slaughtering 
and handling involves a shrink of about 10 per cent., which in- 
cludes the contents of stomach and intestines and loss of 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 277 

weight by the carcass in coohng. The other 20 per cent, com- 
prises tankage, blood, hair, bristles, grease, and fertilizer. A 
larger proportion of the hog is edible than of any other food 
animal, and the value of the by-products is correspondingly 
less. 

Exports of pork products. — A good idea of the import- 
ance of American hog packing to European nations may be 
obtained from the following table, giving exports of pork 
products for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913 : 

Pork Products Pounds Value 

Bacon _ 156,675,310 $21,211,605 

Hams and shoulders 157,709,316 20,708,882 

Pork, canned 4,010,862 483,959 

Pork, fresh 1,355,378 159,654 

Pork, pickled 45,729,471 4,944,448 

Lard 476,107,857 52,509,217 

Lard compounds 73,754,400 7,070,967 

Sausage ..- 4,716,610 601,596 

Sausage casings 40,013,760 5,466,661 

Totals 960,072,964 $113,156,989 

The only countries exporting hog products to any great 
extent besides America at the present time are Denmark and 
China. The United Kingdom is our largest customer, and un- 
til recently provided a practically free and unrestricted market 
for all of our products. Since January 1, 1909, some minor re- 
strictions have been in force which have curtailed trade to. 
some extent. Next to the United Kingdom, Germany is our 
most important customer. Germany's purchases, however, 
consist almost exclusively of lard. Trade in meats with Ger- 
many is not possible to any large extent, owing to the high 
duty imposed. France is a steady importer of lard, and also 
buys some fat backs, trade in the latter being interfered with 
by a high duty. We also sell a good many dried sausages to 
France where this product meets with much appreciation. 
Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Hol- 
land, the West Indies, Central America, all countries in South 
America, Asia, and Australia are buyers of hog products in 
some form. Some countries buy only the casings for sausage 
making, but all pay tribute to the American hog in one form 
or another. 



278 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



Modern large hog markets. — The Chicago Daily Farmers 
and Drovers Journal reports the receipts of hogs at the 
thirteen principal markets of the country during 1914 as 
follows : 



Markets Receipts 

1. Chicago 6,618,166 

2. St. Louis ^ ^ 2,558,325 

3. Kansas City 2,264,805 

4. Omaha.. 2,258,620 

5. Indianapolis. . 2,099,787 

6. Pittsburg 1,808,731 

7. St. Joseph 1,723,966 

8. St. Paul 1,589,821 

9. Buffalo 1,568,270 

10. Sioux City 1,256,679 



Markets Receipts 

11. Fort Worth 515,003 

12. Oklahoma City 428,260 

13. Wichi:a 418,213 

Total . 25,112,146 

1913 total 26,837,217 

1912 total 26,239,753 

1911 total 27,551,366 

1910 total .. 20,014,283 



As shown by the above figures, Chicago receives more 
than twice as many hogs as any other market in the country. 
Of the 6,618,166 hogs received at the Chicago yards during 
1914, 5,327,454 were slaughtered by Chicago packers and the 
remaining 1,290,712 were shipped out alive to other points for 
slaughter. Practically no hogs are taken out of the large 




Fig. 71. Unloading Hogs at Chicago. 

markets for feeding purposes on account of the danger of 
disease. In addition to the hogs included in the above figures, 
small packing firms at Chicago, located outside the yards, re- 
ceived and slaughtered 317,959 hogs during 1914. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



279 



The growth of the Chicago market is shown by the fol- 
lowing list of receipts and shipments of hogs at that point 
during the years mentioned : 



Year 


Receipts 

540,486 

392,864 

961,746 

1,693,158 

3,912,110 


Shipments 

192,013 

227,164 
482,875 j 
924,453 ' 
1,582,643 


Year 


Receipts 


Shipments 


1858 

1860 

1866... 

1870 

1875 


1880 

1890 

1900.. 

1910... 

1914 


7,059,555 
7,663,829 
8,109,064 
5,586,858 
6,618,166 


1,394,990 
1,985,700 
1,452,183 
1,202,390 
1,290,712 









It is interesting to note that the advent of the refrigera- 
tor car, about 1875, had a marked effect on the pro- 
portionate number of hogs shipped. The largest num- 
ber of hogs received at Chicago in a year was in 1898, when 
8,817,114 head were received at the yards proper. If receipts 
by outside packing firms are included, the figure is raised to 
9,363,451. The highest record for a month is credited to 
November, 1880, when 1,111,907 hogs were received at the 
yards and enough by outside packers to make the total 
1,179,233. The record week was that ending November 20, 
1880, when 300,488 were received at the yards, and 302,070 in 
all. On February 10, 1908, the largest day's receipts were re- 
corded, the figures being 87,716 and 89,365 respectively. 

The number of hogs marketed annually varies greatly. 
This fluctuation is caused partly by the ravages of disease, and 
partly by the fact that if an unexpected or temporary demand 
springs up, and higher prices rule, great numbers of hogs of 
inferior size and weight are rushed to market. 

Some peculiarities of the hog crop. — The following table 
gives the monthly average weights of hogs at Chicago during 
the years from 1903 to 1914 inclusive. The highest monthly 
average of each year is given in black type, while the lowest 
monthly average is enclosed in parenthesis. 



280 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



Year 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 

January (208) 206 213 217 223 215 (203) (210) 226 (212) 226 (216) 

February 209 (205) (209) (215) 222 212 204 213 230 217 230 224 

March 215 206 211 218 228 212 206 218 239 218 240 233 

April 222 208 216 221 234 219 212 227 241 227 242 233 

May 227 214 219 226 235 218 216 239 242 232 242 236 

June 231 221 222 226 236 217 219 242 236 235 244 237 

July 235 226 228 231 240 222 225 246 233 239 243 244 

August 248 239 236 241 250 224 232 255 239 240 233 248 

September 257 244 241 248 253 219 232 259 224 235 222 242 

October 241 230 234 237 235 (207) 227 253 212 226 209 229 

November 228 232 230 229 (209) 213 225 232 (208) 222 (207) 218 

December. .219 228 221 225 214 211 214 224 213 223 213 226 

Average 227 220 222 226 231 216 218 235 228 226 228 231 



The above table shows that, as a rule, the hogs marketed 
in August and September are the heaviest of the year, while 
the smallest average weights usually occur in the months of 
January and February. This is due to the fact that the pig 
crop makes its annual appearance on the market in finished 
form during the first two months of the year, being held until 
the hog's share of the corn crop has been utilized in fattening 
him for the market. The heaviest weights are attained in 
August and September because of the absence from the mar- 
ket at that time of any considerable number of young hogs. 
Receipts are also fewer during August and September and in- 
clude more aged animals, such as discarded sows, the result 
of culling down breeding stock after pigs are weaned and 
before winter begins. More hogs are marketed in winter than 
in summer, the heaviest marketing usually occurring in Jan- 
uary. That the heaviest receipts occur in January and the 
smallest in September is explained by the close dependence of 
hogs on corn. Hog growers wait until the corn crop can be 
put on the backs of their hogs before marketing them. This 
explains the monthly fluctuation in receipts. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 
MARKET CLASSIFICATION OF SWINE. 

At Chicago the charge for the yardage of hogs is eight 
cents per head. The commission charge for selhng hogs is 
twenty cents per head. On straight carloads, however, the 
commission charge is $12.00 plus five cents per cwt. on all 
weight over 22,000 pounds. Public inspection of hogs costs 
twenty cents per car, no fee being charged on cars containing 
less than twenty head. 

Following is the classification of swine as used on the 
principal markets and by newspapers reporting these markets : 

Classes Sub-classes 

Prime Heavy Hogs ...350— 500 lbs. ... None 

[Heavy Butchers 280—350 lbs. 

Butcher Hogs 180—350 lbs ^Medium Butchers 220—280 lbs. 

[Light Butchers 180—220 lbs. 

[Heavy Packing 300—500 lbs. 

Packing Hogs 200— 500 lbs 1 Medium Packing 250— 300 lbs. 

[Mixed Packing 200—280 lbs. 

f [English 160—220 lbs. 

jBacon \ 

Light Hogs . ... 125—220 lbs \ [United Statesl55— 195 lbs. 

Light Mixed _ 150—220 lbs. 

[Light Light .125—150 lbs. 

Pigs 60—125 lbs. 

Roughs 

Stags 

Boars 

[Roasting Pigs 15— 30 lbs. 

^ Feeders 

Miscellaneous -^Governments 

%, Pen Holders 

,, [Dead Hogs 

The various sub-classes are graded prime, choice, good, medium, and 
common. 

Prime Heavy Hogs. 

This means a prime, heavy, fat-back hog, weighing from 
350 to 500 pounds — the extreme of the fat or lard hog type. 
With the tendency of the market toward the lighter hogs, 
there are not so many of this class as formerly. Only the best 

281 



282 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



hogs of these weights classify here. They yield a heavy loin 
carcass. 




Fig. 72. Prime Heavy Hogs. 

Carload of Berkshires, Grand Champions at the 1913 International, 
fed and exhibited by Mr. E. D. King of Burlington, Kan. Average weight, 
428 pounds. Note their smooth finish, good quality, and trim lines, com- 
bined with heavy weight. 

Butcher Hogs. 

Butcher hogs are principally barrows. Barrows sell more 
readily and at better prices than sows. In a drove of butcher 




Fig. 73. Prime Butcher Hogs. 

hogs there may be present a few good sows without detracting 
from the value of the drove. Good young sows are usually 
kept on the farm for breeding purposes, and poor young sows 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 283 

and old sows will not take on the finish required in the butcher 
hog class. Butcher hogs yield light loin carcasses and are 
commonly used for the fresh meat trade. They may be 
slaughtered and consumed in the East, may be slaughtered 
locally and the meat consumed locally, or the carcasses may be 
shipped east. About twenty-five per cent, of the hogs coming 
to the Chicago market are of this class. They range in age, 
with good care and heavy feeding, from about six months for 
the light butchers to one year for the heavy butchers. With 
less feeding the age will be greater for hogs of the various 
weights. Except in weight, the three sub-classes of butcher 
hogs are practically the same. 

Prime butcher hogs. — Hogs that will grade as prime 
butchers, either heavy, medium, or light, must be very good 
in quality, correct in form, and show evidence of ripeness in 
condition. The hog must show a high state of finish resulting 
from liberal grain feeding to maturity. Maturity is that stage 




Fig. 7 1. ( hoice Butcher Hogs. 

in the process of feeding where growth ceases and the animal 
takes on a fully developed form and appearance and a high 
state of finish. This may result at different ages and weights, 
thus giving us prime heavy hogs, and prime heavy, prime 
medium, and prime light butcher hogs ranging in weight from 
500 down to 200 pounds. 

Packing Hogs. 

The hogs of this class are a poorer sort than butcher hogs, 
and it is here that we find old brood sows and all other hogs 
that are heavy enough for this class and not good enough to 



284 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



classify as butcher hogs or as prime heavy hogs. However, 
it does not include the poorest classes, such as roughs, boars, 
and coarse stags. This is the class of hogs which, as the name 
indicates, is of particular importance and interest to the 
packer. The side pork from these hogs is used principally in 
the various processes of curing. It is made into mess pork, 
short-cut mess pork, dry-salt sides, and the hams and 
shoulders are cured. About forty per cent, of the hogs received 
at Chicago are of this class. They range in age from nine 
months upward. A 200-pound packing hog is usually an older 
hog than a 200-pound butcher hog. Packing hogs differ widely 




big. 75. Packing Sow. 

in character. The class includes old sows that bear evidence 
of once having had pigs, but are fitted in very high condition ; 
good packing hogs, either heavy or medium according to 
weight; barrows that are not well enough developed and not 
good enough in form, quality, and condition to go into the 
butcher hog class, and there may be a mixture of sows and 
barrows quite varying in quality and condition. Pregnant 
sows sell with a dockage of 40 pounds. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 285 

Sub-classes of packing hogs. — Heavy packing includes 
the heavy hogs of the packing hog class, and medium packing 
includes the lighter hogs. Mixed packing is a sub-class that 
is somev^hat characteristic in itself, for it includes hogs com- 
ing from local buyers in the country, and represents hogs of 
different classes as well as different grades, as the name indi- 
cates. There may be heavy packing, medium packing, some 
light hogs, and even a few butcher hogs in the drove. Many 
such droves come to the market and are sold to the packer 
without sorting. In such cases the sorting is done after 
slaughtering when the carcasses are being cut, the heavy 
ones being sent one way and the lighter ones another. It is 
principally mixed packing hogs that furnish a field for opera- 
tion to the speculator. He buys several carloads of these 
mixed packing hogs and sorts them into various classes and 

resells them. t • ui. u 

Light Hogs. 

The light hog class includes all hogs within the weight 
limits, 125 to 220 pounds, except roughs, stags, and boars, 
which form separate classes. About fifteen per cent, of all 
Chicago hogs are of this class. They range in age from five 
to eight months. Although alike in weight, hogs of this class 
vary a great deal in form, quality, and condition. Such being 
the case, the meat from them is prepared differently, thus 
making the sub-classes of more importance than in the two 
former classes. The sub-classes of light hogs are English 
bacon hogs, bacon hogs of the United States, light mixed hogs, 
and light-light hogs. 

English bacon hogs. — The kind of a hog that is typical of 
this sub-class of light hogs has already been described in the 
chapter dealing with bacon hog type. The hog that is repre- 
sentative of this sub-cless belongs primarily to Great Britain, 
Denmark, and Canada. Many hogs are sold on the Chicago 
and other markets for bacon purposes, but the majority of 
them are not of true bacon type. This hog must be long in 
body, deep in side, with comparatively narrow back, narrow 
and light hams and shoulders, and light muscular neck. As 
the side of the hog furnishes the best and most expensive cuts, 
it is desirable to have the side as well developed as possible in 
length and depth This hog must have firm flesh, be well 



286 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

covered with lean meat or muscle, and must not have an excess 
of external fat. The weight must be between 160 and 220 
pounds, with weights between 175 and 190 pounds preferred. 
Such weights insure cuts that are most desirable as to size, 
flavor, and firmness. A hog smaller than 160 pounds would 
furnish a side of bacon that would be too thin, while a hog over 
220 pounds would yield a side that would be too thick. A hog 
younger than is required to produce the desired weight would 
have too much water in its flesh, and the meat would not have 
proper "substance." When a hog is heavier than 220 pounds 
there is too much fat on the outside of the carcass and also 
intermixed with the lean, and there is also a tendency to lay 
on fat unevenly and in patches. Such a hog cannot produce 
good bacon. 

Bacon hogs of the United States. — As there are only a 
few real bacon hogs produced in this country, the trade is 
supplied from the lighter hogs of the lard type which show a 
tendency toward the bacon type. In other words, this sub-class 
includes hogs selected from the light hog class that conform 
as nearly as possible to the bacon type. They weigh from 155 
to 195 pounds, and range in age from six to eight months. 
The bacon made from them is inferior to that made from true 
bacon hogs and hence brings a lower price. About twenty 
per cent, of the light hogs that come to the Chicago market 
are of this sub-class. 

Light mixed hogs. — About 55 per cent, of the light hogs 
coming to Chicago are of this class, and here we find somewhat 
of a miscellaneous class quite similar, except as to weight, to 
mixed packing hogs. This class contains hogs of the light 
butcher weights that are too poor in quality, form, and con- 
dition for butcher hogs. It also contains hogs of the same 
weights as bacon hogs, that are too much of the fat or lard 
type for bacon. This class, then, is made up of outcasts of two 
other classes of hogs ; in one case it takes the poorer hogs and 
in the other case the better hogs, considered from the fat or 
lard hog standpoint. Hogs of this class are used principally 
for the fresh meat trade and weigh from 150 to 220 pounds. 
They range in age from five to seven months. 

Light-light hogs. — About 25 per cent, of the light hogs 
coming to Chicago are of this sub-class. They range in weight 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 287 

from 125 to 150 pounds, and in age from five to six months. 
They are called "light light" because they are the lightest of 
light hogs. They are used principally for the fresh meat 
trade. In the Buffalo market light hogs weighing from 130 to 
180 pounds are called "Yorkers." They are so called because 
they find ready sale on the New York market and are very 
often shipped there from Buffalo. "Dairies" is another term 
used in Buffalo, and means hogs that have been fed on slops 
and refuse from dairies. The flesh of these hogs is not so firm 
nor will they dress out so well as corn-fed hogs. 

Pigs. 

Pigs, as they are considered on the market, range in 
weight from 60 to 125 pounds, and in age from 31/2 to 6 
months. All pigs within these limits classify here. They are 
used principally to supply the demand from the cheaper res- 
taurants and lunch counters, and are in greatest demand in 
winter, being hard to preserve fresh in summer and too young 
to cure. About 10 per cent, of the hogs coming to the Chicago 
market are of this class. 

Roughs. 

In this class we find hogs of all sizes that are coarse, rough, 
and lacking in condition. The pork from these hogs is used 
for the cheaper class of trade for both packing and fresh meat 
purposes. In market reports, pigs and roughs are frequently 
classed together; not because they belong in the same class, 
but because they sell at about the same price. 

Stags. 

Stags are hogs that at one time were boars beyond the pig 
stage and were castrated. They sell with a dockage of 80 
pounds. If they are of good quality and condition and do not 
show too much stagginess, they go in with the various grades 
of packing hogs. When they are coarse and staggy in appear- 
ance they are sold in the same class as boars. 

Boars. 

Boars are always sold in a class by themselves and bring 
from two to three dollars per cwt. less than the best hogs on 
the market at the same time. They sell without dockage. 
The pork is used to supply the cheaper class of trade and also 
for making sausage. 



288 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

Miscellaneous. 

Roasting: Pigs. — These are from three to six weeks old and 
weigh from 15 to 30 pounds. They come to market in small 
numbers and only during holiday seasons. They are taken 
direct from their dams, dressed with head and feet on, and 
served like spring chickens or turkeys. The price varies 
greatly. 

Feeders. — These are hogs bought on the market and 
taken back to the country to be further fed. However, very 
little of this is done, because the profit resulting from such 
undertakings is small and the danger of diseases such as hog 
cholera is great. Hogs are usually fitted for market in first 
hands. 

Governments. — Before hogs are allowed to pass over the 
scales to be weighed out to the packer, the speculator, the 
shipper, or any one else who may choose to buy them, they 
must first pass the scrutiny of a government inspector. All 
hogs not considered sound in every respect are tagged by this 
inspector and retained for further examination. Badly preg- 
nant sows, hogs with bunches, boils, etc., also hogs with cuts 
on the hams and shoulders are retained. These are called 
"Governments." They are usually bought up by a local dealer 
and taken to one of the smaller packing houses where they are 
slaughtered under the supervision of an inspector. If found 
to be affected so as to make the flesh unfit for human food, 
they are condemned and tanked. The tank is a large steam- 
tight receptacle, like a steam boiler, in which the carcass is 
converted into grease and fertilizer. 

Pen holders. — The stock yards in Chicago are owned by 
the Union Stock Yard and Transit Company. This firm gets 
its revenue from the charges for yardage of stock, for weigh- 
ing the stock, for feed, and for terminal switching. Commis- 
sion men who sell the stock and speculators who handle part 
of it pay nothing for their privilege. They hold their respect- 
ive positions by common consent and their respective pens by 
keeping hogs in them. These are called pen holders. They are 
long legged, poor in form, coarse in quality, thin in condition, 
and worth little money. They are kept simply for the one pur- 
pose of holding pens. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



289 



Dead hogs. — These are hogs that have been killed in 
transit. They are used in the manufacture of grease, soap, 
and fertilizer. If they weigh 100 pounds or over, they sell for 
$1.25 per cwt. If they weigh less, they are held in payment 
of the cost of handling and the shipper gets no return. 

Hog Prices at Chicago. 

The Chicago Live Stock World reviewed the Chicago hog 
market of 1914 as follows: **Hog supply all around the mar- 
ket circle in 1914 was extremely light, the logical result of 
devastation of Missouri Valley herds by cholera the previous 
year. Local receipts are close to a million less than last year. 
Year-end supply was swelled by a heavy December movement 
for which foot and mouth disease was to some extent re- 
sponsible. Prices ruled high, especially during the first half 
of the year. After the European war broke out, the market 
suffered considerable vicissitude, due to closure of several im- 
portant outlets for product, especially Germany and the 
South." 

Market values of the various classes. — No detailed 
records are kept of the average prices made by the various 
market classes of hogs on the Chicago market. The follow- 
ing table compiled from reports published by the Chicago 
Daily Farmers and Drovers Journal gives the yearly average 
weight and yearly average prices of hogs marketed at Chicago 
from 1905 to 1914, and also the averages for the entire ten- 
year period. 







Average 


Year 


weight 

i 






Pounds i 


1905.. 




222 


1906 




226 


1907. 




232 


1908.. 




216 


1909.. 




218 


1910.. 




235 


1911.. 




228 


1912. 




226 


1913 




228 


1914. 




231 




Ten 


year 




average 


226 



Heavy Light 

packing hogs 

hogs 



$5.25 
6.25 



$5.25 
6.25 



05 
75 
45 
90 
70 
55 
8.20 
8.20 



$7.05 



6.15 
5.60 
7,25 
8.90 
6.70 
7.50 
8.45 
8.35 



$7.05 



Pigs 



$4.90 
5.95 



Mixed 
hogs 



75 
80 
55 
80 
05 
40 
35 
60 



;.40 



$5.25 
6.25 
6.15 
5.70 
7.25 
8.90 
6 70 
7.60 
8.50 
8.30 



$7,05 



All 
classses 



$5.25 
6.25 
6.10 
5.70 
7.35 
8.90 
6.70 
7.55 
8.35 
8.30 



$7.05 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

BREEDING FOR THE MARKET. 

Hog raising has always been a profitable and favorite de- 
partment of farming in the United States. In colonial times 
pork production was a very simple matter. Hogs were allowed 
to run wild in the woods where they fed upon roots and nat- 
ural grasses and fattened upon acorns and beech and hickory 
nuts, called "mast." The only expense to the farmer was the 




Pig. 76. Ciood Type in the Breeding Boar. 

Chester White boar, Champion at the Iowa State Fair in 1913. 
Owned by Mr. A. B. Somerville of Monroe, la. 

winter feeding of those too young for market and of those 
reserved for breeding purposes. Inasmuch as Indian corn was 
the feed used and as this cereal would not repay the expense 
of transportation to market until the introduction of railways, 
it cost very little to produce pork. Even after the organization 
of the national government and the settling up of the Middle 

290 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 291 

West it was the general impression among farmers that it 
cost nothing for a man to make his own pork, and for a long 
time large numbers of dressed hogs were sold in that section 
of the country at prices ranging from seventy-five cents to 
one dollar per cwt. and were considered sufficiently remunera- 
tive at these figures. 

As greater areas came under cultivation and the natural 
forests became more restricted, it was found more profitable 
and convenient to feed hogs on corn than to turn them out 
into the woods, as they grew faster and took on m.ore fat. It 
was at this stage in the development of the American swine 
industry that pork packing was commenced, and this gave 
a pronounced impetus to hog production. This was before the 
days of railroads, and hogs were taken overland in droves 
to the nearest packing point. Later, when the railroads came, 
a great saving was effected by eliminating losses due to the 
giving out of hogs on the route, and pork packing and hog 
raising received an impulse that has greatly helped to make 
pork one of the most important staples of the country. 

To show the importance of the United States in the 
swine industry of the world it is only necessary to state that 
we have 38.4 per cent, of the hogs of the world. According to 
the latest available figures, the United States has 64,618,000 
hogs. The leading countries are as follows: 

United States 64,618,000 Columbia. . 2,300,000 

Germany.... 21,924,000 Philippines 1,822,000 

Austria-Hungary. 14,540,000 Venezuela 1,618,000 

European Russia 13,521,000 Denmark 1,468,000 

France 6,904,000 Siberia 1,369,000 

Canada 3,448,000 Belgium 1,349,000 

United Kingdom 3,334,000 Formosa 1,308,000 

Argentina 2,900,000 Netherlands 1,260,000 

Spain 2,571,000 Portugal 1,111,000 

Italy 2,508,000 Roumania 1,021,000 

The hog census by continents is as follows: 

North America 70,152,000 Africa 1,808,000 

South America... 7,322,000 Oceania 1,196,000 

Europe 75,400,000 

Asia 5,584,000 Total 161,462,000 



292 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

The distribution of hogs (on farms) in the United States 
on January 1, 1915, was as follows: 

North Atlantic Division 2,551,000 

South Atlantic Division ... 7,074,000 

North Central, East of Mississippi River 15,812,000 

North Central, West of Mississippi River 22,988,000 

South Central Division. 13,467,000 

ir Western Division 2,726,000 



Total . 64,618,000 

The ten leading states and the number of hogs in each 
in 1915 were as follows: 

1. Iowa ..8,720,000 6. Ohio ...3,640,000 

2. Illinois 4,358,000 7. Texas 2,880,000 

3. Missouri 4,250,000 8. Kansas .2,656,000 

4. Indiana 4,167,000 9. Wisconsin 2,255,000 

5. Nebraska 3,809,000 10. Georgia 2,042,000 

The states of the Mississippi valley play a very import- 
ant part in the swine growing industry of the world. No 
other region is so favored as is the corn growing region of 
the United States. 

When the United States was settled, swine were brought 
over from Europe, but conditions here, and especially in the 
cornbelt, were very different, and the character of the hog 
was changed to meet the demand as it developed under the 
different conditions. The new type of hog which was then 
originated was what is called the fat or lard hog. There 
were three principal reasons for its development. These 
were (1) the abundance and good fattening qualities of corn, 
(2) the home demand for cured meats, and (3) the foreign 
demand for cheap meats. 

1. Corn is a plant native to America, and in the corn- 
belt can be produced with much less cost than can any of the 
other grains. It is a feed comparatively rich in carbohydrates 
and much lacking in protein. Carbohydrates are used in the 
animal body for building up fat and to furnish the fuel that is 
used in the production of physical energy. Protein is that 
part of a food material that is rich in nitrogen and is used 
principally to build up muscle or lean meat. Since corn is the 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 293 

principal feed for swine in the United States, it is only the 
natural consequence that our hogs are of the fat or lard 
type. 

2. In the earlier history of the United States, very few, 
if any, of the frontier sections had railroad facilities, so could 
not import fresh meats; neither had they facilities for local 
production of meats. Then again, these places, and especially 
the lumber camps, used a great deal of meat, and it had to 
be of such a nature that it could be hauled long distances on 
wagons and be capable of long storage after reaching its 
destination. The most satisfactory meat for this purpose 
was mess pork. There are two reasons why fat salt pork 
was better than lean salt pork, (a) Fat pork does not be- 
come so salty on being pickled as does lean pork. It is not so 
thoroughly penetrated by the salt, therefore it is more palat- 
able after long storage than is lean pork, which also requires 
a larger quantity of salt, and is not so well preserved as is 
the fat pork, (b) Fat pork was better both from the em- 
ployer's and the consumer's point of view, because on account 
of its fatty nature, it contains two and one-fourth times as 
much energy per unit of weight as does lean pork, therefore 
making a cheaper article on the bill of fare, also furnishing 
sufficient energy to the laborer who was toiling hard in cold 
winter weather. The following table giving analyses and fuel 
values of a number of common foods shows the high fuel 
value of pork products. It will also be noticed that the foods 
with the largest fat content have the highest fuel value. 



294 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



Foods 


Analy- 
ses 


Refuse 


Water 


Pro- 
tein 


Fat 


Carbo- 
hy- 
drate 


Ash 

Per 

cent. 


Fuel 
value per 
pound — 
calories* 


Lard, refined 




Per 
cent. 


Per 
cent. 


Per 
cent. 


Per 
cent. 
100.0 
89.9 
87.2 
60.2 
39.9 
7.3 


Per 
cent. 


4220 


Back fat — hog .. 


3 
6 

13 
2 

13 




7.7 

7.3 

17.8 

33.0 

7.2 


2.3 

1.8 

9.6 

10.7 

15.6 




.1 
3.7 
4.3 
5.9 
1.9 


3835 


Salt pork 






3715 


Bacon, smoked . 


8.1 
10.5 




2720 


Mess beef- 




1885 


Oatmeal 


68.0 
98.0 

70.6 

75.1 


1860 


Starch 




1825 


Entire wheat 
flour 


5 
9 

15 

108 

6 

28 

4 

44 




12.1 
12.9 

40.5 
35.4 

60.7 


14.2 
8.9 

12.8 
9.5 

18.9 
13.6 
15.3 
18.7 
13.1 
.4 
2.9 


1.9 
2.2 

31.9 

1.2 

19.5 

20.6 

19.7 

8.8 

9.5 

.4 


1.2 
.9 

.6 
1.1 

.9 
.7 
.9 
1.0 
.9 
.3 
.9 


1660 


Corn meal, bolt- 
ed 




1655 


Mutton loin, 
without kid- 
ney and tal- 
low . 


14.2 


1585 


Bread, white 


52.8 


1205 


Beef loin, bone- 
less strip 




1175 


Ribs 


20.2 


44 9 




1120 


Leg of lamb 


13.8 50.3 

8.5 ' 63.0 

10.5 66 




1115 


Round 




720 


Hens' eggs 




645 


Apples,fresh 

Vegetable soup 


10 

1 


25.0 


61.5 
95.7 


12.4 
.5 


255 
65 



*Heat and muscular work are forms of force or energy. The energy 
is developed as the food is consumed in the body. The unit commonly used 
in this measurement is the calorie, the amount of heat which would raise the 
temperature of a pound of water 4 degrees F. 



•3. There was a foreign demand by the poorer classes 
of people for cheaper meats than could be supplied by their 
high-priced bacon industry. This cheaper meat could be sup- 
plied in the form of fat pork made from low-priced corn, and 
at the same time could be furnished at a profit. 

From these various causes it is clearly evident that the 
fat or lard hog of the United States was produced not only 
because he could be produced more cheaply than the bacon 
hog, but also because there was a demand for just such a 
hog. 

Some of the weights of hogs marketed at Cincinnati in 
the early days serve to show rather strikingly that market 
hogs, like market cattle, have undergone an evolution from im- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 295 

mense weights in the early days to the handy-weight market 
animal of the present time. In 1857 the following records of 
weights were made on the Cincinnati market: 



Number of hogs 


Net weight 


Average per hog 


3 


2,301 


710 


5 


3,200 


640 


7 


5,040 


720 


22 


8,866 


403 


50 


18,750 


375 


52 


19,604 


377 


320 


104,000 


325 


657 


200,355 


305 



• 1,116 361,846 324 

In 1866 these weights were exceeded as shown in the fol- 
lowing records for that year: 



Number of hogs 


Net weight 


Average per hog 


11 


6,732 


612 


20 


15.452 


772 


30 


15,180 


506 


35 


15,785 


451 


35 


15,712 


449 


43 


15,738 


366 


107 


43,014 


402 


200 


71,800 


359 


346 


139,092 


402 


400 


150,000 


375 



1,227 488,505 398 

Of the lot of twenty included above it was said: "The 
lot of twenty, raised and fed for market in our county (Ham- 
ilton County, Ohio) has certainly no parallel in the wide 
world, none of the hogs exceeding 19 months in age, and gen- 
erally running from 15 to 16 months old." 

Wren and Schaffer of Middletown, Ohio, packed in 1870 
a lot of thirty-eight Poland-China hogs averaging 613 pounds 
gross at 21 months old, all fattened by one man in Butler 
County. Following are records of a large number of hogs 
(Poland-Chinas) raised in Butler County, Ohio, and sold to 
packers in 1870 : 



imber of 


Average Gross 


Number of 


Average G-^oss 


hogs 


weight 


hogs 


weight 


80 


574 


20 


501 


40 


516 


45 


536 


38 


570 


75 


493 


48 


513 


60 


490 


42 


517 


40 


713 


40 


504 


12 


773 



296 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

There is record of one lot of 30 Poland-Chinas marketed 
in 1870 that averaged gross 384 pounds at eleven months of 
age, while another lot of ten of the same breed and age mar- 
keted in that year averaged 410 pounds gross. 

The immense weights of earher times were made possible 
by cheap corn, by the premium paid for heavy hogs by pack- 
ers in those days, and by selecting hogs of great weight for 
breeding purposes. During late years the tendency has been 
to market handy-weight hogs, and fewer heavy hogs appear 




Fig. 77. Good Type in the Breeding Sow. 

Hampshire sow, Gloria 2d, Champion at the Iowa State Fair in 1914. 
Owned by Mr. Russell Yates of Palo, la. 

on the market each year. This change has been brought 
about by the high price of corn, by improved methods of pack- 
ing which permit hogs of less fatness and hghter weight to 
find favor with packers, by the general tendency on the part 
of the consumer to favor light cuts, and by the growing de- 
mand for bacon in place of the old-fashioned, heavy salt 
meats. The breeder also has played a part in this change to 
the handy-weight market hog, by giving preference to hogs 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 297 

of quality and smoothness over those of large size and tend- 
ing toward roughness and lack of quality. In fact some breeds 
have actually deteriorated of late years because of the fact 
that most of the breeders have gone too far in the matter of 
securing quality and refinement in their animals and have 
failed to keep up enough size and constitution to suit the prac- 
tical hog grower. This mistake is realized at the present 
time and today the effort is being made to get back on safer 
ground by breeding for all the size possible and yet maintain 
a proper degree of quality in the animal. The ideal is a med- 
ium-weight hog, or a hog slightly above what would be called 
medium weight, possessing desirable quality, smoothness, and 
symmetry. 

At the present time the profitable stage for the grower 
to market lard hogs is between 250 and 300 pounds. Never- 
theless, hogs used for breeding purposes should possess plenty 
of size along with desirable type and quality. If the breed- 
ing stock is of large size, the offspring will be growthy and 
will attain marketable weight in quick time. The man who is 
producing market hogs wants big, roomy sows with good 
length, such sows being more prolific and hence much more 
profitable than the compact type lacking in size. The boar 
should be of the same growthy sort as the sows, but in both 
sexes quality should be in evidence along with size. In breed- 
ing for the market, sows need not necessarily be purebred, 
though it is desirable that they should be, but the boar should 
in every instance be purebred. Attention should be given to 
color in order that uniformity of color may prevail among 
the animals finished for the market. This is secured by select- 
ing sows which, if not purebred,, are at least all high grades 
possessing the blood and characteristics of the same breed 
from which the boar is selected. By sticking to one breed, 
uniformity will prevail among the animals marketed, and 
this will sufficiently increase the price to more than repay 
for the extra time and trouble required in selecting breeding 
stock of the same type and color. 

With no other kind of live stock is there practiced so 
much mixing of breeds and cross-breeding as in the breeding 
of hogs for the market. It is very commonly believed that 



298 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

by crossing a boar of one breed upon sows of another breed, 
more vigorous and growthy offspring will result. While 
there is no serious criticism to be made against such a method 
so far as the first cross is concerned, it invariably happens 
that if this policy is followed up and further crossing and 
mixing is resorted to, a variety of shapes and colors is pre- 
sented that is most unattractive as compared with a bunch 
of hogs possessing good uniformity. In the majority of cases 
it will be most profitable to pick out one of the standard breeds 
of hogs and stick to that breed year after year. If this is 
done there need be no lack of vigor in the offspring if the 
parent stock is selected with due care as to constitution and 
vigor. 



PART FOUR. 

HORSES. 



INTRODUCTION. 

For centuries the horse has been a faithf uJ servant of man 
in the capacity of a burden bearer. "From remotest ages he 
has come with man, side by side, in the glory and achievements 
of the white race. In all the darings and doings of the Saxon, 
wherever countries were to be conquered, battles fought, and 
the banner of Britain carried round the world, wherever has 
been a footprint, there also was the hoof-beat." As compared 
with other domesticated animals, the horse is peculiar in his 
relation to man, for he is valuable on account of his ability to 
do work and not because he furnishes a tangible product use- 
ful as food or otherwise. It is his athletic ability which makes 
the horse useful. 

None other of our domestic animals occupies as im- 
portant a place in the economy of things as does the horse; 
if all the horses were suddenly taken from the nations of the 
world, agriculture, business, and commerce would be seriously 
impaired and we would soon be in a state of famine. Con- 
sider the vast number of horses in use on farms, on city 
streets, on country roads, in armies, and for numerous pleasure 
purposes, such as riding, driving, racing in harness and under 
saddle, hunting, and polo. We could give up any of the other 
domesticated animals with much less serious results, and this 
in spite of the advent and improvement of the automobile and 
motor truck and their wide use at the present time. 

The horse may be said to be a locomotive which consumes 
hay and grain instead of coal. He is self-feeding, self-con- 
trolling, and self -reproducing, and is at the same time a very 
efficient motor. Farmers who use horses may be compared 
to the engineer who operates a motor. Farmers who breed 
horses may be compared to the manufacturer of motors. No 
man can manufacture or operate a motor with real success 

299 



300 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

unless he understands its construction, the importance of its 
various parts, their strength or weakness, and their relation 
to one another. No man can learn the construction of a motor 
by studying its exterior only ; he must take it apart and study 
the various parts, and then put them together again. Then 
he must put it in motion and study the action of the various 
levers, pulleys, and springs, in order that he may know the 
location of weaknesses and at what points the most wear 
comes. Knowing these things, he can manufacture a motor 
of high efficiency, or, operating one, he can obtain from it the 
greatest amount of work with least danger of injuring the 
machine. Hence we see how important is a knowledge of the 
anatomy of the horse as a basis for the study of types of 
horses and the requirements and capabilities of each type. 

It is not possible to develop a good judge of any kind of 
live stock by teaching simply what to look for in an animal. 
A mere description of parts or points is not sufficient. The 
student wants to know why certain things are desirable in an 
animal, and why certain other things are undesirable. He 
must know the "why" of each point, if he is to value each point 
properly and put emphasis where it belongs. This is especially 
true in learning to judge horses. No matter how carefully the 
points to be looked for in feet and legs are described, the stu- 
dent cannot recognize the importance of these parts and know 
what constitutes a first-class foot and limb, unless he has a 
fairly good idea of their anatomy and physiology. In the pages 
which follow, the writer has, therefore, given considerable at- 
tention to some of the essential features of horse anatomy 
before entering upon a description of the various types and 
market classes of horses. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

BRIEF ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE HORSE. 

In all animal life the cell is the structural and functional 
unit. A tissue is a collection of similarly differentiated cells. 
A number of tissues grouped together form an organ. The 
body is an aggregation of organs. We feed a horse to produce 
tissue and to produce energy. The systems of organs are seven 
in number. They are (1) skeletal, (2) muscular, (3) digestive, 
(4) respiratory, (5) genito-urinary, (6) nervous, and (7) in- 
tegumentary. 

Skeletal system. — The skeletal system is important as it 
largely determines the conformation of the horse. The skele- 
ton of the horse is composed of a number of bony segments, 
most of which exist in pairs. The divisions of the skeleton 
are (1) head, (2) neck, (3) trunk, and (4) limbs. The head 
consists of numerous bones, mostly flat, united by sutures 
which gradually undergo obliteration v;ith age. The lower 
jaws are strong and in each jaw there are six molar teeth (24 
in all). Twelve of these are temporary — three in each jaw, 
and known as the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd molars, while the 4th, 5th, 
and 6th are permanent. There are also six incisors in the 
upper and six in the lower jaw, all of which are temporary and 
are entirely replaced by the time the animal is 41/9 years old. 

The vertebral column is a chain of 54 to 56 irregular bones 
(vertebrae) extending from skull to end of tail. There are 
seven cervical (neck) vertebrae, 18 dorsal (back), 6 lumbar 
(loin), 5 sacral (croup), and 18 or 20 caudal (tail) vertebrae. 
From above, the spinal column exhibits a concave cervical 
curve, a convex dorsal curve, a nearly straight lumbar region, 
and the sacro-caudal curve is concave below. The 3rd, 4th, 
and 5th dorsal vertebrae have the highest spines which form 
the withers. 

There are 18 pairs of ribs, 8 of which are true and 10 
false. The 8 true pairs join the 8 segments of the sternum or 

301 



302 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



breast bone. The 7th or £th ribs are longest. There is no 
collar bone (clavicle) as in man, and the fore limbs are not 
attached to the trunk but are connected by intervening mus- 
cles. The hind limbs are united to the trunk by the pelvic 
girdle which, in reality, is composed of three segments on each 
side. 




Fig. 78. Skeleton of the Horse. 

This illustration shows the location of the bones, and the degree to 
which the skeleton and the muscle influence the form. 

Muscular system. — The horse comprises a great number 
of systems of levers represented in the bones and joints, each 
supplied with a system of muscles which furnish the power. 
Muscles exert a force in only one way, and that by shortening, 
giving a pull. For this reason muscles are arranged in pairs, 
as illustrated by the biceps and triceps which move the fore- 
arm in man. The flexor muscles are always inside the joint 
and the extensors outside. The theory has been advanced 
that the shortening of muscles is due to a change in the form 
of the muscular cell from an elongated form to one nearly 
round when stimulated by nerve action. Muscles act through 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 308 

very short distances and upon the short end of levers com- 
posing the animal frame. Acting in this way, speed and dis- 
tance are gained with a corresponding reduction in the magni- 
tude of the force. Because muscles are able to act only 
through very short distances, it is necessary for them to act 
upon the short end of the levers in order that sufficiently 
rapid movement may be gained. 

The muscular system obtains its maximum development 
in the horse, and upon the excellence of this, beauty of con- 
formation largely depends. Especially is this latter true of 
the neck and hindquarters. The muscles of the back and loin 
are the largest in the body. There are no muscles below the 
knees and hocks — only their tendinous prolongations. Tho 
first muscle under the skin almost covers the entire body and is 
the one that enables the animal to shake flies or any irrita- 
ting foreign substance off its skin. 

Digestive system. — The tongue is small as compared with 
that of the ox. The gullet is long and has a very small open- 
ing into the stomach. The capacity of the stomach is small, 
holding between 3 and 4 gallons, while the stomach of the ox 
holds 30 to 40 gallons. But the small size of the organ is com- 
pensated for by the large size and capacity of the intestines 
which hold twice that of the ox. The large intestine has a 
capacity of about 20 gallons, and the small one 12 gallons. 
The liver is large, as are also the kidneys. 

Respiratory system, — The respiratory organs are well 
developed, and comprise the nasal cavities, the larynx, the 
trachea, the bronchial tubes, and lungs. The heart is large and 
four chambered, and the blood vessels are large and have 
strong, thick walls. Thus is the horse well fitted for his 
athletic life. 

Nervous system. — The nervous system is well developed 
and comprises the brain and spinal cord. There are 12 pairs 
of nerves which take origin from these structures. 

Integumentary system. — The hair or coat is shed in the 
spring and autumn, except that of the mane and tail which is 
permanent. There are both sweat glands and sebaceous glands 



304 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

in the skin, but the former are practically absent from the 
limbs. 

In judging horses, the judge takes into consideration many 
matters relating to the structure and interior of the animal, 
as well as the exterior. A wide, deep middle and a broad muz- 
zle, for example, indicate great digestive capacity ; a large nos- 
tril, windpipe, and chest show capacity for respiration ; a silky 
coat and fine skin are normal qualties of the integument, while 
alertness and gracefulness of movement are evidences of good 
nervous control. 

The horse differs from a mere machine in that he is 
largely capable of guiding his own movements without aid 
from his driver. Training accomplishes much in this regard, 
but the less a horse is possessed of intelligence and nervous 
control, the less he is automatic as a motor, and the more he 
becomes dependent upon his driver. 

Anatomy of the Fore Limb. 

From the top downward, the bones of the fore limb are 
as indicated in the accompanying diagram. The fore limb is 




, 2. 



—3 



Fig. 79. Bones of the Fore Leg. 

1, Scapula; 2, humerus; 3, radius and ulna; 4, seven or 
eight carpal bones; 5, cannon bone and two splint bones; 
6, two sesamoid bones; 7, large pastern bone; 8, small pas- 
tern bone; 9, navicular bone; 10, coffin bone. 



—4 



— 5 



composed of a scapula (or shoulder blade) which is articulated 
to the humerous (or arm) by a ball-and-socket joint, and the 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



305 



arm in turn articulates with the radius by a hinge joint. The 
lower end of the radius rests upon the upper row of the carpal 
bones of which there are 7 or 8 in the horse, corresponding to 
the wrist in man. Below the carpus (knee) is the large meta- 
carpal (or cannon) bone, and articulated with the back of it 
are two slender rods of bones — the small metacarpal (or 
splint) bones. The lower end of the large cannon bone forms a 
hinge with the first phalanx (or large pastern bone), which is 
followed by the second phalanx (or small pastern bone), and 
then the third phalanx (or coffin bone), the two last named 
being enclosed within the hoof. In addition to these, at the ar- 
ticulation between the cannon and the large pastern bone are 




Fig. 80. Fore Leg from Knee to 
Ground. 

Showing the bones, ligaments, and 
tendons. 1, Suspensory ligament; 2, 
inferior sesamoid ligaments; 3, branch 
of suspensory ligament; 4, flexor ten- 
don of foot; 5, flexor tendon of pas- 
tern; 6, extensor tendon; 7, splint 
bone; 8, cannon bone; 9, sesamoid 
bones; 10, large pastern bone; 11, 
small pastern bone; 12, coffin bone; 
13, navicular bone. 



two small bones, known as the sesamoids, while at the back 
of the coffin joint there is a small bow-shaped bone, known 
as the navicular, which is frequently the seat of disease. 

The bones are held together by ligaments. Tendons are 
similar in character to ligaments, but differ in that they join 
muscle to bone. 



306 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



The scapula, humerus, the radius and ulna are enclosed 
in heavy muscles which move them. There are no muscles 
about the knee and the parts below. Instead, long tendons pass 
down from the muscles above, thus connecting the power with 
the levers of the lower part of the limb. Hence there are only 
bones and tendons below the forearm, together with some 
very important ligaments which hold the bones in proper re- 
lation to one another. These ligaments are very strong elastic 
cords. The lower limb moves when the muscles exert a pull 
on their tendons, which are likewise strong and elastic. The 
tendons and ligaments of the fore limb are shown in the ac- 
companying drawing. The long ligament from fetlock to 
knee is the suspensory ligament. It supports the fetlock. 

Anatomy of the Hind Limb. 

The hind limb consists of the femur (or thigh bone) which 
is the largest in the body and articulates below with the tibia 
and also with the patella (or knee cap) . The hock is composed 

-tibia 

caVcarvevAS 



astragalus 
tarsals 

Car\nor\ 
Fig 




_5p\int-borie 



Hock. 



of six bones which may be divided into two sets, each having a 
purpose of its own. One group of four small bones (tarsals), 
arranged in two rows and resting on the head of the cannon, 
are united together and to adjacent bones by short, powerful 
ligaments, and so close is the union that the movement of one 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 307 

bone upon another is reduced to a simple gliding action of 
very limited degree. Though slight, this movement is of much 
importance in breaking the jar communicated to this joint in 
the act of progression. Above the small tarsal bones are two 
larger bones, the astragalus and calcaneus, as shown in the ac- 
companying drawing. 

To the calcaneus is attached the strong tendon known as 
the tendon of Achilles. By means of it the muscles above 
exert a powerful pull upon the hock joint, producing extension 
of the joint. This is the principal means of the horse's pro- 
pulsion. The knob-like end of the calcaneus (to which the 
tendon attaches) forms the point of the hock. In some in- 
stances the pull upon the hock has been great enough to pro- 
duce a fracture of this bone. 

Sometimes a diseased condition is brought about by the 
ossification into one mass of some or all of the bones of the 
hock. This is called a bone spavin and is a serious unsoundness 
because it destroys the important gliding action of the tarsals 
and stiffens the joint. 

The parts below the hock are similar in structure to those 
below the knee. 

The skeletcns of man and horse compared show striking 
similarity, and at some points rather marked variation and 
difference in proportionment of parts. There are seven or 
eight bones in the knee of the horse. The horse's knee corre- 
sponds to man's wrist. The bones below the horse's knee 
correspond to those beyond man's wrist. Following is a com- 
parison of the bones and parts of the fore and hind limbs of 
the horse with the arm and leg of man. 



Fore 


Limb of Horse 


Arm of Man 


Parts 




Bones 


Parts 


Bones 


Shoulder 




Scapula 


Shoulder 


Scapula and clavicle 


Arm 




Humerus 


Arm 


Humerus 


Forearm 




Radius and ulna 


Forearm 


Radius and ulna 


Knee 




7 or 8 carpals 


Wrist 


7 carpals 


Cannon 




3 metacarpals 


Palm 


5 metacarpals 


Pastern and foot 


1st, 2nd, and 3rd 




Thumb — 2 bones 






phalanx 


Fingers 


■ Other fingers — 3 
bones 


Hoof 






Finger nails 





308 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



Hind Limb of Horse 




Leg of Man 


Parts Bones 


Parts 


Bones 


Croup Ilium, ischium, 


Pelvis 


Ilium, ischium. 


and pubis 




and pubis 


Thigh Femur 


Thigh 


Femur 


Stifle Patella 


Knee 


Patella 


Gaskin Tibia and fibula 


Calf 


Tibia and fibula 


Hock 6 tarsals 


Ankle 


8 tarsals 


Cannon 3 metatarsals 


Instep 


5 metatarsals 


Pastern and foot 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 




f Great toe — 2 bones 


phalanx 
Hoof 


Toes 
Toe nails 


^ Other toes— 3 
[ bones 



The following drawing makes clear the comparison be- 
tween the hind limb of the horse and the foot of man. 




Fig. 82. Man and Horse Compared. 

Bones of the human foot and hind leg of horse compared. — From 
Axe's The Horse. A, iitiia: B, astragalus; C, calcaneus; D and E, 
small tarsals; F and G, metatarsals; 1, 2, and 3, first, second, and third 
phalanges. 

Anatomy of the Foot. 

The foot is not a mere block of horn, but is a composite 
structure made up of particular parts, each with a certain 
work to perform. There is an old saying, very full of truth, 
"No foot, no horse." Therefore a knowledge of the structure 
of the foot is very essential to the student of the horse. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



309 



The exterior of the foot may be divided into five parts, 
each including one-fifth of the circumference. These are the 
toe, laterals, and quarters. 





Fig. 83. Exterior of the Hoof. 

Showing division into toe, laterals, and quarters. 

From the interior outward, the parts of the foot are the 
coffin bone, lower end of the small pastern bone, navicular 
bone, extensor tendon, flexor tendon, suspensory ligament', in- 
ferior sesamoid ligaments, lateral cartilages, plantar cushion, 
pododerm or foot-skin, and the hoof. The foot also has its 
blood vessels and nerves. 

Bones. — The bones of the foot and pastern are four in 
number, three of which — the long pastern, short pastern, and 
coffin bone — placed end to end form a continuous straight col- 
umn passing downward and forward from the fetlock joint to 
the ground. A small accessory bone, the navicular bone, lies 
crosswise in the foot behind the coffin joint, enlarging the 
joint surface. The short pastern projects about I14 inches 
above the hoof and extends about an equal distance into it. 

Tendons and ligaments. — The extensor tendon of the toe 
passes down the front of the pastern and attaches to the coffin 
bone just below the edge of the hair. The outer branch of 
the suspensory ligament attaches to the tendon a short dis- 
tance above this point. The flexor tendon of the foot passes 
down between the heels, glides over the under surface of the 
navicular bone, and attaches to the under surface of the coffin 
bone. The bones of the foot are held together by powerful 
short ligaments. 

Lateral cartilages and plantar cushion. — The elastic tis- 
sues of the foot include the lateral cartilages and the plantar 



310 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



cushion. The lateral cartilages are two plates of gristle, one 
on either side of the foot, extending from the wings of the 
cofRn bone backward to the heels and upward to a distance of 
an inch or more above the edge of the hair, where they may 
usually be felt by the fingers. When sound, these plates are 
elastic and yield readily to moderate finger pressure, but from 
various causes they may undergo ossification, in which condi- 
tion they are hard and unyielding and are called sidebones. 




Fig. 



84. Diagram Showing Structure of Foot. 



1, Coffin bone; 2, small pastern bone; 3, large pastern bone; 4, navic- 
ular bone; 5, lateral cartilage; 6, extensor tendon; 7, flexor tendon of 
foot; 8, flexor tendon of pastern; 9, branches of suspensory ligament; 10, 
wall; 11, sole; 12, frog; 13, indicates location of plantar cushion between 
the lateral cartilages; 14, perioplic ring; 15, coronary cushion. 

The plantar cushion is a wedge-shaped mass of tough, elastic, 
fibro-fatty tissue filling all the space between the lateral car- 
tilages, forming the fleshy heels, and serving as a buffer to dis- 
perse shocks. It extends forward underneath the navicular 
bone and flexor tendon, and protects these structures from in- 
jurious pressure from below. 

Pododerm (or foot-skin). — The pododerm or horn-produ- 
cing membrane is merely a continuation of the derm, or true 
skin. It covers the foot inside the hoof, just as a sock covers 
the human foot inside the shoe. It differs from the ordinary 
external or "hair" skin in having no sweat or oil glands, but, 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 311 

like it, is richly supplied with blood vessels and sensitive 
nerves. The functions of the pododerm are to produce the 
hoof and unite it firmly to the foot. 

The hoof and how it grows. — The horny shell, called the 
hoof, which covers and protects the foot, is made up of three 
parts, (1) the wall and bars, (2) the sole, and (3) the frog. 

Each part of the hoof is grown by some particular part 
or parts of the pododerm. In general it may be said that the 
horn of the hoof is made up of tubules or shafts of horn which 
grow from papillae the same as does hair. These tubules are 
cemented together by non-tubular matter corresponding to 
dandruff exfoliated by the skin. In fact, so pronounced is the 
similarity in growth of horn and hair that coarse hair, es- 





r«s5 



bars 
sole- 



Fig. 85. The Parts of the Hoof. 

pecially on the legs and coronet, is associated with horn 
of coarse texture. Therefore the more coarse and brittle the 
hair about the coronet, the more porous, brittle, and weak will 
be the formation of the horny hoof. 

The wall horn consists of three layers known as (1) the 
outer or perioplic layer, (2) the middle or coronary layer, and 
(3) the inner or laminous layer. The perioplic layer is very 
thin. It is varnish-like in appearance and forms the surface 
or crust of the wall. Its function is to preserve the moisture 
of the foot and to absorb moisture. A horse working in sand 
or dust usually has this outer layer worn away. The coronary 
layer forms the real basis of the wall. At the heels it is de- 
flected forward to form the bars of the hoof. The angle be- 
tween the wall and bar is thickened and is called the buttress. 



312 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

The function of the bars is to react against contraction of the 
heels. The laminous layer of the wall horn is not tubular. It 
is called laminous because it has the appearance of the leaves 
of a book. There are 500 to 600 of these laminae which extend 
from the top of the hoof to the sole. It is less thick than the 
coronary layer, but, like it, is deflected forward at the heels 
to help form the bars. 

Growth of the wall. — At the lower edge of the pastern, 
running along the edge of the hair from one heel around the 
toe to the other heel, is a narrow ridge of pododerm, 1/16 to 
1/8 of an inch wide, called the perioplic ring. It consists of 
papillae, which are microscopic nobs or nodules, and from each 
papilla a shaft of horn grows downward, forming the periople 
of the wall. Like the periople, the coronary layer grows down- 
ward from a band of pododerm at the top of the hoof. This 
band is called the coronary cushion, and it lies just below and 
parallel to the perioplic ring. At the heels it is deflected for- 
ward where it produces the horn of the bars. The laminous 
horn is produced by that part of the pododerm known as the 
fleshy laminae; these laminae extend up and down between 
the coronary cushion and the sole. The fleshy laminae of the 
pododerm and the laminous layer of the wall horn dovetail to- 
gether, thus holding the hoof securely to the foot. 

The sole horn is circular in shape except that it is notched 
at the rear where it receives the bars and horny frog. It is 
naturally concave below and is bounded at its edge by the wall 
and bars. It is very brittle, non-elastic, and easily penetrated. 
The sole horn is produced by the fleshy sole, which is that por- 
tion of the pododerm covering the entire under surface of the 
foot excepting the fleshy frog and bars. 

The horny frog does not come in contact with the sole horn 
except at its apex. It is tough, elastic, and rather soft horn. 
The upper part of the horny frog has an elevation or ridge and 
on the bottom there is a corresponding notch or groove. The 
horny frog grows from the fleshy frog, which is that part of 
the pododerm just above the horny frog. 

The preceding discussion of the parts of the hoof and 
pododerm may be summarized as follows : 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 313 

fPerioplic layer, produced by perioplic ring. 

1. Wall -{Coronary layer, produced by coronary cushion. 

ILaminous layer, produced by fleshy laminae. 

2. Sole, produced by fleshy sole. 

3. Frog, produced by fleshy frog. 

All parts of the hoof grow downward and forward with 
equal rapidity, the rate of growth being largely dependent ui>- 
on the amount of blood supplied to the pododerm. Abundant 
and regular exercise, good grooming, moistness and supple- 
ness of the hoof, going barefoot, plenty of good food, and at 
proper intervals removing the over-growth of the hoof and 
regulating the bearing surface — all these, by increasing the 
volume and improving the quality of blood flowing into the 
pododerm, favor the rapid growth of horn of good quality. 
Lack of exercise, dryness of the horn, and excessive length of 
the hoof hinder growth. 

The average rate of growth is about one-third of an inch 
a month. Hind hoofs grow faster than fore hoofs and unshod 
ones faster than shod ones. In mares and geldings the horn 
grows faster than in stallions. On an average the time re- 
quired to grow the wall from coronet to ground is 11 to 13 
months for the toe wall, 6 to 7 months for the laterals, and 3 
to 4 months for the quarters. Irregular growth often occurs. 
This is almost always due to an improper distribution of the 
body weight over the hoof, — that is, an unbalanced foot. One 
authority on this subject says: — "If breeders were more gen- 
erally cognizant of the power of overgrown and unbalanced 
hoofs to divert the lower bones of young legs from their prop- 
er direction, we might hope to see fewer knock-kneed, splay- 
footed, pigeon-toed, cow-hocked, interfering, and paddling 
horses." 

Characteristics of a healthy foot. — A healthy foot is equal- 
ly warm at all parts, and is not tender under pressure with 
the hands. The coronet is soft and elastic at all points and 
does not project beyond the surface of the wall. The wall 
is straight from coronet to ground, so that a straight-edge 
laid against the wall from coronet to ground parallel to the 
direction of the horn tubules will touch at every point. The 
wall should be covered with the outer varnish-like layer of 



314 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

horn called the periople, and should show no cracks or clefts. 
Every hoof shows "ring formation," but the rings should not 
be strongly marked and should always run parallel to the 
coronet. Strongly marked rings are evidence of a weak hoof, 
but when limited to a part of the wall are evidence of pre- 
vious local inflammation. The bulbs of the heels should be 
full, rounded, and of equal height. The sole should be well 
hollowed out, the frog well developed, the cleft of the frog 
broad and shallow, the spaces between the bars and the frog 
wide and shallow, the bars straight from buttress toward the 
point of the frog, and the buttresses themselves so far apart 
as not to press against the frog. A hoof cannot be considered 
healthy if it presents reddish, discolored horn, cracks in the 
wall, bars, or frog, thrush of the frog, contraction or displace- 
ment of the heels. The lateral cartilages should yield readily 
to finger pressure. Some horsemen object to a white hoof, 
believing it to be less durable, but a white hoof is as good 
as a dark-colored one. Horn of good quality is fine grained 
and tough, while poor horn is coarse grained and either too 
mellow and' friable or hard and brittle. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

SOME IMPORTANT FACTS CONCERNING THE HORSE. 

Base of support. — The horse's legs are his base of sup- 
port, just as the table legs support the table. The longer the 
legs, the less stable the base of support. The smaller the 
base of support, the less stable it will be. The less stable the 
base of support, the greater the speed of the horse ; while the 
greater the stability, the greater the power for draft. The 
base of support of any object will be most stable when it 
comes directly beneath the center of weight. In horses the 
center of weight is far forward, lying immediately behind 



•vertebrol spine 



5u5pen(lin3 
musdc 




SCftpulor coi^viWjes 



scopula' 



Fig. 86. 



-lon<^ pastern 
-short pastern 

• Collin Done 

Attachment of Fore Leg to Body. 



Cross section through chest, showing the bones of the fore leg and 
the muscular attachment of leg to body. From Axe's The Horse. 

the shoulders. Thus the fore limbs support much more of 
the weight of the horse than do the hind limbs, in fact it is 
the function of the forequarters to support, and of the hind- 
quarters to propel. This is the more clearly shown when we 

,^15 



316 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

examine the anatomy of the horse, for we find that the hind 
legs are attached to the trunk by the strong ball-and-socket 
joint, while the fore limbs are not directly attached to the 
trunk but are connected by intervening muscles which form 
a sort of sling which suspends the body between the two fore 
legs. The muscle attaching the fore limb to the trunk is 
called the serratus magnus. It is an enormous triangular 
muscle which originates on the upper part of the internal 
surface of the shoulder blade and spreads out like a fan on the 
sides of the chest and neck and ends on the cervical vertebrae 
and first eight or nine ribs. The drawing presented herewith 
shows a front view of the muscular attachment of the scapula 
to the neck and trunk. 

When the horse is standing, the base of support is rep- 
resented by a rectangle the corners of which are the horse's 
feet. In the walk, the base of support is triangular, for then 
only three feet touch the ground. In the trot or pace, only 
two feet touch the ground, and the base of support will be 
represented by a line. In the run or gallop, the base of sup- 
port is a point. Thus as speed increases there is a corres- 
ponding decrease in stability. 

The horse in motion. — We have seen that the horse is 
rather unstable because the center of weight lies almost over 
the fore legs. Hence the fore legs answer the purpose 
simply of a support to the horse's weight when he is in mo- 
tion. If we could replace the fore legs with a wheel, we would 
have an equally efficient motor, for that is exactly what the 
fore legs represent — simply a wheel with two spokes, each 
leg representing one spoke of a rimless wheel. 

When a man walks, he leans forward in order to throw 
the center of his weight ahead of his base of support. This 
causes him to begin to fall forward, and indeed he would fall 
if he did not advance his foot and so bring his base of support 
once more under, or nearly under, the center of weight. Walk- 
ing is simply a succession of interrupted falls. The same is 
true of the horse. In walking he pushes backward against the 
ground with his hind feet and causes his center of weight to 
tip forward. The result is that he begins to fall, and if he 
did not advance a fore foot he would land on his head. By 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 317 

stepping forward he again assumes his equilibrium and im- 
mediately tips his weight forward again by propelling with 
his hind legs. Walking is simply the repetition of this per- 
formance over and over again. 

In the trot and the gallop or run, there is the same back- 
ward thrust with the hind feet and the same recovery with 
the fore feet, but the thrust is much greater, the stride is 
longer, and the shock and effort in the recovery are increased 
in proportion. 

In 1897, Tod Sloan, a famous American jockey, went to 
England to ride. He practiced the same seat which all Amer- 
ican jockeys use and with which all Americans are familiar. 
Its peculiar feature is that the jockey sits as far forward on 
the horse as possible. When Sloan appeared on English race 
courses he was severely ridiculed, for at that time English 
jockeys were not familiar with our methods and it was thought 
Sloan was trying to attract attention to himself by adopting 
a ridiculous position on his horse. Race-going people laughed 
at him until it was noticed that he was enjoying unusual suc- 
cess at winning races. Sloan rode twenty winners during his 
first season in England, forty-three the next, and in 1899 he 
was first past the post with no fewer than one hundred and 
eight horses. In the same year, two other Americans, the 
brothers Lester and Johnny Reiff, also had eighty-two vic- 
tories to their credit. The methods of these American jock- 
eys were soon copied by most of the English riders, but the 
Americans continued to pile up a remarkable record of suc- 
cesses, culminating in three successive Derby triumphs — 
Lester Reiff's in 1901, Martin's in 1902, and Maher's in 1903. 
During eight years ending in 1905, the eight or nine Amer- 
ican jockeys who appeared in England for one or more sea- 
sons divided among them, in retainers, winning fees, and 
etceteras, fully a million dollars. Their work made a new 
chapter in English turf history. 

No sooner had Sloan shown ability to win consistently 
than people began trying to find out the secret of his success. 
They could see that he carried himself as far forward on his 
horse as possible, and so these questions arose: — Does a man 
seated near the neck of a horse enable the animal to travel' 



318 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



faster than one seated near the tail? If so, why? As for 
the first question, Sloan gave it a practical answer by his 
consistent winnings. The second question was also finally 
answered. 

A horse to move forward at all must thrust at the earth, 
and the chief force of this thrust comes from his hind legs. 
If the center of weight of horse and rider is just over, or 
close to, the thrusting power, naturally it diminishes the effi- 
ciency for speed, for instead of thrusting the horse forward, 
a large portion of the muscular energy is wasted in lifting the 
weight of the jockey at every stride. The drawing below and 
the words which follow will make this clear. 




Fig. 87. The Horse in Motion. 

Drawn from a snapshot of a galloping horse. A, The center of 
weight; AB the line of thrust; ABC, the angle of thrust; Y, the center of 
weight when rider is over neck of horse; X, center of weight when rider 
sits near the tail. 



The farther forward the center of weight is, the longer 
is the line from hind foot to center of weight, called the line 
of thrust, and the more nearly will this line approach the 
horizontal. As a horse has to raise himself vertically with 
each bound, it is naturally a matter of very great importance 
whether he has to lift a dead weight or a weight which throws 
forward. A jockey on the horse's neck adds to the forward 
weight, and this moves the center of weight still further for- 
ward and places still more weight on the fore legs and equal- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 319 

ly less on the hind legs. It is like hanging heavy weights on 
the front part of a mill wheel. Or, again, the longer the lever, 
the easier to raise the weight; so the longer the angle of 
thrust, the easier and therefore the faster the horse will go, 
for his power will then be utilized almost exclusively in a hor- 
izontal thrust resulting in speed, and little of his energy will 
be consumed in simply raising weight to let it fall again. It 
is the same as a man pushing a wheelbarrow; if the load is 
near the handles it must be raised at each step, while if the 
load is over or near the wheel the man does not expend so 
much energy in a lift at each step, but can use all his force at 
pushing straight ahead. 

Where the wear comes. — From what has been said con- 
cerning the function of the fore limbs in supporting most of 
the horse's weight, we can readily understand that the horse 
is more apt to tire, exhaust, and ruin his fore legs than his 
hind ones. It is common to see men driving their horses at 
speed when going down hill, thinking that the horse is doing 
little or nothing because the vehicle follows without having to 
be pulled. This is a decided error, for in going down hill still 
more weight is thrown on the fore legs, and if the animal is 
made to descend at speed he hammers his fore legs severely. 
Hence he often stumbles and falls when thus travelling. 

Because of the hammering to which the fore legs and 
feet of the horse are subjected, and because of the great strain 
coming upon the hock joint due to its prominent part in 
propulsion, the feet and legs constitute a most vital part in 
every type of horse, in some more than in others. For this 
reason a good knowledge of the anatomy of the foot and 
leg is very necessary to anyone who desires to become a 
judge of horses. 

Hoof mechanism. — When the horse places his foot on the 
ground, expansion occurs, especially at the heels. When the 
foot is raised there is contraction. The navicular bone sup- 
ports one-third of the weight of the column of bones above. 
The navicular bone is supported by the tendon, the tendon by 
the plantar cushion, and the plantar cushion by the frogs. 
The plantar cushion, being soft, transmits force or motion 
in all directions more or less equally (as a liquid) . It cannot 



320 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

move downward to any great degree, hence it spreads or 
diffuses laterally, and so the heels expand. When the horse 
places his foot on the ground there occurs: — (1) Contraction 
of the hoof at the toe-wall coronet; (2) sinking of the sole, 
especially at its branches; (3) expansion of the heels; (4) 
sinking of the bulbs of the heels. These four movements con- 
stitute what is known as the "hoof mechanism." The health 
of the foot is dependent on the normal and free hoof mech- 
anism, and it should not be hindered by improper shoeing or 
other causes. Hoof mechanism breaks concussion and assists 
circulation. Concussion is shock and counter-shock. These 
shocks must de diffused, and this is cared for laterally in the 
foot by its changes in form. 

Absorption of concussion. — Every step at the walk or 
trot means a big concussion between the ground and the front 
foot of the horse. Were it not for certain arrangements for 
the absorption of this shock or jar, the horse would soon be 
made worthless. Hoof mechanism is, as we have seen, one 
of the means of scattering the shock, acting in much the 
same way as a pneumatic tire on a vehicle. Another safe- 
guard is found in a sloping pastern, which acts in much the 
same manner as the spring under a carriage. Then there is 
the angle between humerus and forearm, and also between 
scapula and humerus, which also act as springs. A sloping 
shoulder is useful in the same way. 

If you have ever ridden in a farm wagon over a rough 
road, standing on your heels, you can appreciate the tremen- 
dous wear which comes on the legs of a horse with poor feet, 
straight pasterns, and straight shoulders. Then if you shift- 
ed your weight to your toes and bent your knees slightly, you 
found that your teeth stopped chattering and your hat re- 
mained on your head. In other words, your change in posi- 
tion changed the column of bones supporting your weight from 
a straight, vertical column to a broken one with angles which 
acted as springs and absorbed the jar. It is just so with a 
horse having good feet and nicely sloping shoulders and pas- 
terns. 

Conformation as concerned in progression. — A line around 
the hoof on the ground gives the area of the base of support 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 321 



of that leg. If the center of the base of support of the 
leg is not directly under the center of the weight falling on 
that leg, the side of the foot nearest the point directly under 
the center of weight will be compelled to do more than its 
share of the work. Therefore the leg of the horse should 
be so set that the center of the base of support comes directly 
under the center of the weight it bears. The fore legs should 
be so placed under the body that, when viewed from in front, 
a perpendicular line dropped from the point of the shoulder 




Fig. 88. tront View of Fore Legs. 

A vertical line downward from the point of the shoulder should fall 
upon the center of the knee, cannon, pastern, and foot. A, Ideal position; 
B, toes out; C, bow legged; D, narrow chested and toes out; E, stands 
close; F, knock kneed; G, pigeon toed. 

will divide the leg and foot into lateral halves. When viewed 
from the side, a perpendicular line dropped from the middle of 
the forearm where it joins the body should divide the leg 
from body to fetlock into lateral halves and strike the ground 
just back of the heel. 

,>v. .-\ >s. ?^ 




Fig. 89. Side View of Fore Legs. 

A vertical line downward from the center of the elbow joint should 
fall upon the center of the knee and fetlock joints and meet the ground 
back of the heel. A, Ideal position; B, camped under; C, camped out; 
D, knee sprung; E, calf kneed. 



322 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



When the horse assumes his natural position, the hind 
legs should be so placed that, when viewed from the rear, a per- 
pendicular line dropped from the point of the buttock will 
divide the leg and foot into lateral halves; and when viewed 
from the side, this line should touch the rear edge of the 
cannon from hock point to fetlock and meet the ground some 
little distance back of the heel. 







Fig. 90. Side View of Hind Legs. 

A vertical line downward from the point of the buttock should 
touch the rear edge of the cannon from hock to fetlock and meet the 
ground some little distance behind the heel. A, Ideal position; B, stands 
under; C, camped out; D, hind leg too straight. 

The direction and slope of the axis of pastern and foot 
are very important. When a limb is viewed from the front 
or side, the axis of the pastern and the axis of the foot should 
be identical. As viewed from in front, the toe should point 
directly forward. This insures an even distribution of weight 







Fig. 91. Rear View of Hind Legs. 

A vertical line downward from the point of the buttock should fall 
upon the center of the hock, cannon, pastern, and foot. A, Ideal position; 
B, stands wide; C, bow legged; D, stands close; E, cow hocked. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 323 

to both sides of the foot and also trueness of action. As 
viewed from the side, the axis of the pastern and foot should 
meet the ground at an angle of 45 degrees. This angle affords 
the best combination of strength and springiness. 

When moving toward or from you, the feet of the horse 
should appear to have only one motion, which should be verti- 
cally up and down. This is very essential in every type of 
horse. Height of action in any type should be great enough 
to clear the ground by a reasonable distance, so as to prevent 
stumbling and insure length of stride. The carriage horse is 
required to go higher than this for reasons which will be ex- 
plained in connection with the description of that type. The 
essentials of perfect flight of foot are (1) straight line action, 
(2) long stride, and (3) foot should be picked up with snap. 
Defects in conformation and placing of feet and legs result 
in defects in action. Only when the legs are correctly propor- 
tioned and properly placed can good action result. Correct- 
ness of action depends also upon temperament, strength of 
muscling, height over withers as compared with height over 
hips, and general symmetry and proportionment of parts. The 
most common defects in the shape and position of the legs 
are shown in the accompanying drawings. 

A horse that is "base wide" or "toe wide" in front, swings 
the leg inward when in action. A "base narrow" or "toe 
narrow" conformation results in the horse swinging his feet 
outward, or "paddling" as it is called. (See accompanying 
drawings.) Horses that naturally stand wide at the hocks 
will travel the same way (wide), which is very undesirable. 
When the hind legs are bowed outward, they spread still fur- 
ther outward when the weight comes upon them in action, 
and usually the foot leaves the ground with a twisting motion 
which wears out shoes and is otherwise undesirable. Any 
deviation from trueness in the flight of the foot not only 
wastes energy, but the horse is endangered from nearby ob- 
jects, or may strike himself, called interfering. 

Viewed from the side, a nicely sloping foot and pastern 
leave the ground easily and describe the arc of a circle at every 
step. Straight or stubby pasterns and feet result in a short, 
stubby way of going that is stilted and non-elastic. A too- 



324 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



sloping pastern and foot are not nicely carried, but are brought 
out straight to a point in front and then slapped upon the 
ground. (See accompanying drawings.) Other defects of 
action will be discussed in connection with the various types 
of horses. 




Fig. 92. Defects in Fore Legs and Their Effect on Action. 



Determination of age from the teeth. — The age of the 

horse is easily determined up to and including the fifth year 
by an examination of the incisors, of which there are six in 
the upper jaw and six in the lower. All of these incisors are 
temporary up to two years of age, but by the time the animal 
has reached the age of 21/2 to 3 years the middle pair above 
and below have been replaced by permanent incisors. These 
are broader, heavier teeth than the temporary or milk teeth, 
and they also have a rough and rather corrugated surface, 
whereas the surface of the temporary teeth is smooth. At 
31/2 to 4 years, two more permanent incisors, known as the 
intermediate pair, appear in each jaw, thus making four 
permanents above and below. At 41/2 to 5 years, the corner 
pair above and below are displaced by permanents, and the 
horse may be said to have reached maturity. After five years 
the age is not so easily determined nor are the indications so 
accurate. An examination of the wearing surfaces of new 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 325 

permanent teeth discloses a black cup or depression of long, 
oval shape in the end of each tooth. The rims of these cups 
disappear through wear, and finally the teeth are worn down 
until the depression is entirely obliterated. The black cups 
disappear in fairly regular order. Thus, at 6 years they have 
disappeared from the middle pair of incisors of the lower jaw ; 
at 7 years from the intermediate pair below, and at 8 years 
all of the lower incisors have lost these marks as a rule. At 
9 years the cups are usually worn from the middle pair above ; 
at 10 from the intermediates above, and at 11 the corner pair 
above is also clear. 

Following eleven years of age, there are only general in- 
dications to rely upon. The horseman knows that the teeth 
change from oval to three-sided with age, and that they become 
longer and project forward more and more each year. In 
animals twenty to thirty years old, these features are very 
marked. 

Mere description here will not enable the student to de- 
termine age from the teeth. Actual practice and the study 
of many mouths is necessary in order that the would-be judge 
may master this interesting and useful art. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 
ORIGIN OF THE TYPES OF HORSES. 

The history of the horse dates back to 4000 B. C. Sev- 
eral wild species existed in Europe and Asia from very remote 
times, but it was in Asia Minor and Egypt that the horse was 
first domesticated and made to serve man. He was taken 
thence to Greece, Rome, and Arabia ; thence to more remote 
parts of Europe and Asia, particularly to Spain, France, and 
England ; and thence to America and Australia. 

For a long time the horses used by the early European 
tribes and nations were small, semi-wild animals, and no effort 
was made to improve them by breeding. They were simply 
native wild horses, captured, tamed, and put to use, and their 
size and strength was not great enough to permit them to be 
ridden, but instead they were used principally in warfare, 
harnessed to chariots. However, there were horses of black 
color and much greater size and weight native to the region 
in Western Europe now called Flanders, and these were taken 
south and east, just as the horses of Asia Minor and Egypt 
were taken north and west. The infusion of the blood of this 
larger horse increased the size of European horses and made 
them suitable for riding and other purposes. Better feed and 
care also contributed to this result. 

The development and progress of the horse was parallel 
with the development of civilization and a prominent factor 
in it. The horse was first used for military purposes; next, 
in ceremonies, both religious and civil; third, in the agricul- 
tural and commercial pursuits of nations ; fourth, in connection 
with the pastimes and sports of nations. 

First saddle horse. — The Arabian horse was the first breed 
of live stock originated by man. This horse is a saddle type 
and was developed by the nomadic tribes of the desert for 
use in warfare. The exact origin is unknown, but the great 
age of the breed is shown by a legend which says that it is 
descended from five mares in the stud of King Solomon. It 
seems to have descended directly from the wild Libyan horse 

326 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 327 

native to Northern Africa — most excellent of all known wild 
varieties of the horse. The Arabian has for centuries pos- 
sessed such exquisite quality, refinement, intelligence, spirit, 
docility, and beauty as to make him universally admired and 
famous. He was taken to England at the close of the seven- 
teenth century and was used in founding the English Thor- 
oughbred and also the Norfolk Trotter which later became the 
Hackney. In Russia he helped produce the Orloff Trotter, 
and the Percheron breed of France is also thought to owe 
much of its excellence to Arab blood in its foundation. Inas- 
much as the Yorkshire Coach Horse, Cleveland Bay, American 
Trotting Horse, American Saddle Horse, and the Morgan are 
all sprung largely from the Thoroughbred, every breed of light 
horses carries the blood of the Arab in greater or less degree. 

Turk, Barb, and Spanish horses. — The Turk, or Turkish 
horse, found in portions of European Turkey, but principally 
in Asia Minor, was of considerable importance in the seven- 
teenth century, but it has deteriorated very much since then. 
The Barb is a native of the Barbary States, whence its name. 
It is found in its greatest perfection among the Moors, who 
introduced the Barb blood into Spain during their rule in that 
country, and so improved the Spanish horse that for several 
centuries it occupied the first place throughout Europe. Span- 
ish horses of this stock brought to America by the Spaniards 
are regarded as the progenitors of the wild horses once com- 
mon to Mexico and California. 

Origin of the running horse. — In later times, England be- 
came the center of horse breeding and the nursery of most of 
the present-day breeds. One of the first types of horses de- 
veloped in England was the running horse, the sport of racing 
having been fostered there from an early date. Long before 
an Arabian, Barb, or Turk stallion set foot on English soil, 
a strain of running horses of considerable excellence had been 
developed, hence the Oriental stallions which were later im- 
ported cannot be given more than half the credit for founding 
the running horse or Thoroughbred. The Thoroughbred 
therefore owes his origin jointly to the native running mares 
of England and to the Arabian, Barb, and Turk stallions im- 
ported at the close of the seventeenth century. 



328 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

The Great Horse or War Horse.— The first type of Eng- 
lish horse was the "Great Horse" or "War Horse" used during 
the Crusades and up to about the year 1600 to carry the war- 
riors clad in their suits of heavy armor. A knight in heavy 
armor, together with the armor for his horse, weighed about 
400 pounds, hence the necessity for a big, strong horse. The 
native English horse was small, and in order to increase the 
size and strength, Flemish stallions were imported from Nor- 
mandy, and for nearly 500 years English breeders centered 
their attention on the matter of size. With the appearance of 
gunpowder and firearms in warfare, armor was made useless 
and the heavy war horse gave way to much Hghter animals 
with more speed. 

Origin of draft type. — When displaced in warfare, the 
ponderous war horse did not become extinct, but was put to 
work at tilling the soil. Prior to this, field labor had been per- 
formed solely by oxen, and the ox continued in use as a draft 
animal even after horses were introduced for farm work. 
The war horse thus became an agricultural horse and in time 
was utilized as the foundation of the British draft breeds — 
the Shire and Clydesdale — just as the Percheron breed was 
built up from the heavy diligence horses used in France in 
the early days when roads were deep in mud. The railroad 
later displaced the diligence horse and he found a place on the 
farm. When a demand arose from cities for a horse suited 
to moving heavy freight through the streets, these agricul- 
tural horses in England, Scotland, France, and Belgium were 
bred larger, heavier, and better to meet the new demand, and 
thus originated the draft breeds as we know them today — 
Shire, Clydesdale, Percheron, and Belerian. This occurred in 
the first part of the nineteenth century. The Suffolk horse 
is usually classed as a drafter also, but is in fact an agricul- 
tural horse. 

The hunter. — Fox hunting in England dates back to early 
times, and there has long existed a demand for a type of horse 
specially adapted to this sport. Strange to say, no breed of 
hunters has ever been developed, the demand being supplied 
by Thoroughbreds showing the type desired and also by half- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 329 

bred horses (sired by Thoroughbred stallions and out of com- 
mon mares) possessing hunter type. 

The carriage horse. — The modern type of carriage horse 
originated less than fifty years ago. Prior to this, there was 
a succession of types dating from the time the most primitive 
carriages came into use centuries ago. Hence the term car- 
riage horse may be used in a restricted sense or in a broad 
general sense, and the carriage horse may be said to be an 
ancient type or a modern one, according as the term is used. 
The primitive carriage horse was a semi-wild pony, and he was 
harnessed to a couple of long poles, fixed at one end to the 
pony's neck, the other end dragging on the ground beneath 
the load. Next in the evolution of the modern carriage came 
the sledge, and later came a sledge mounted on rollers. In 
time the rollers were improved to the present form of an axle 
and wheels. All this was before the Christian era. Centuries 
more elapsed before anything deserving the name of carriage 
was built. 

Carriages were first used by the nobility of England about 
the beginning of the thirteenth century, but the roads were 
so bad and the vehicles so heavy that they were of little ser- 
vice until the end of the sixteenth century. It was about 1660 
that the present custom of driving for pleasure and show in 
Hyde Park, London, was established. But it was not until 
more recent times that driving became a real pleasure, for car- 
riage springs were not invented until about 1665 and in their 
first form appear to have been crude and ineflficient. Toward 
the middle of the eighteenth century, great and rapid improve- 
ment was begun in highways, vehicles, and horses, so that 
the rate of travel was increased from 4 or 5 to 12 miles per 
hour. Then came the railway, displacing the road coach and 
consigning the carriage horse to the realm of pastime and 
pleasure exclusively. 

The first English carriage horse was the old black cart 
horse, or shire horse as he was called, heavy, ungainly, with 
a big head and shaggy fetlocks. He was descended from the 
old-time war horse, and hence was of Flemish blood. They 
were so slow that the footmen could easily go ahead when 
necessary and engage lodging at the next inn. As highways 



330 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

were improved and carriages made lighter, the cart horse 
was crossed with the Thoroughbred in order to secure lighter 
and faster animals for carriage use. In this way originated 
the Cleveland Bay and Yorkshire Coach Horse — two breeds 
of heavy carriage horses. The carriage horse as we know him 
today is comparatively a new type in both Europe and Amer- 
ica. He is a medium-sized animal with outstanding beauty 
and attractiveness in both form and action. The demand for 
such a horse did not arise until city streets were improved 
and carriages made elegant and comfortable, so that driving 
became a real pleasure rather than a painful necessity. In- 
crease in wealth during the past half-century and the crea- 
tion of a larger leisure class of people have also assisted in 
giving rise to the demand for this special type of horse. From 
what was called the Norfolk Trotter, which was a fast-trot- 
ting, plain, serviceable, moderate-sized horse formerly used 
by English farmers as a road horse (and used by them under 
saddle), there was developed in England the Hackney, which 
is today the only true breed of carriage horses. The Norfolk 
Trotter originated at about the same time as the Thorough- 
bred, being the result of crossing Arabian and other Oriental 
sires on mares showing aptitude for the trotting gait, just 
as the Thoroughbred resulted from the crossing of these same 
sires on native running mares of proven ability on the turf. 
Although the Hackney is the only breed of carriage horses, 
other breeds not infrequently produce individuals of this type 
which help to supply the demand. 

The polo pony. — The game of polo was introduced into 
England in 1874, and to America two years later. This sport 
calls for an active, rugged pony of about 14.2 hands, and those 
which best serve the purpose are small-sized or dwarf Thor- 
oughbred horses. A breed of polo ponies is now being de- 
veloped in England. 

The horse in America. — From an equine standpoint, his- 
tory repeats itself to a considerable degree in America and also 
records the creation of at least two new and distinct types of 
horses. There v/ere no horses on this continent at the time of 
its discovery, hence American horse history dates from 1492. 
The first horses were brought to this continent by Cortes and 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 331 

Ferdinand De Soto. Cortes used but few horses in his con- 
quest of Mexico, some of which undoubtedly became the pro- 
genitors of the wild horse of the western plains. Sim- 
ilarly, horses abandoned by De Soto near the Texas border 
no doubt survived and were the principal foundation of the 
American wild horse. 

In colonial times, the most common type of horse was a 
M^^^all saddle horse measuring not more than 14 hands. These 
were the descendants of the small, unimproved European 
horses brought over by the first settlers and were of no par- 
ticular breed or breeding. This little colonial saddle horse was 
indispensable as a utility animal, being practically the sole 
means of transportation in those early times. He was like- 
wise a source of amusement and recreation, being used in 
running matches of short distances. For this latter pur- 
pose, however, the little saddler soon gave way to the English 
Thoroughbred imported quite extensively by the early settlers 
of the Carolinas and Virginia. 

Field labor was performed by oxen, except in Pennsyl- 
vania and New York where Flemish horses had been intro- 
duced from Holland. This Flemish horse was, as we have al- 
ready seen, a large and rather ungainly animal, and when 
the colonies expanded westward, this horse was used to haul 
freight over the mountains from eastern ports to Pittsburg 
and Wheeling. It required 12,000 wagons annually, each 
pulled by four or six horses, driven tandem, to carry on the 
vast freighting business which developed, and the freight bill 
amounted to $1,500,000 in a year. The wagons were called 
Conestoga wagons, and the horses were given the same name. 
With the coming of the railroad and the river boat, the Cones- 
toga horses and wagons were quickly displaced and no further 
efforts were made to breed heavy horses in America until very 
recent times. The blood of the Conestoga was absorbed into 
the common stock of the country and the type became extinct. 
Thus we see that colonial horse stocks were of three types 
only — (1) the little saddle horse, (2) the Thoroughbred, and 
(3) the Conestoga. 

Origin of the roadster type. — With the opening of road- 
ways, vehicles were quickly brought into use, so quickly indeed 



332 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

that the so-called roads over which they were driven were 
little more than clearings through the woods with here and 
there a "corduroy" of logs to make passable some marshy 
spot. The roads were first improved in the more thickly set- 
tled parts of the country, and it was thus about Philadelphia 
that the roadster type of horse was originated at the beginning 
of the nineteenth century in response to the demand for a 
horse suitable for road driving and harness racing. The 
American trotting horse or roadster was derived from four 
sources: (1) the English Thoroughbred, (2) the Norfolk 
Trotter, (3) the Arab and Barb, and (4) certain pacers of 
mixed breeding. By selecting and breeding for speed at the 
trot, the American Trotter has been developed and today may 
be called a true breed, although the individuals composing it 
show considerable divergence in type. In Vermont the Mor- 
gan horse was developed. The Morgans descended from one 
horse, Justin Morgan, whose sire was a Thoroughbred, but 
whose dam was of unknown breeding. While often regarded 
as a distinct breed, they really constitute one family of the 
American Trotter. 

American Saddle Horse. — At the time roads were being 
improved in the East, Kentucky and the West were still a 
country of bridle paths only. The blue-grass region of Ken- 
tucky is splendidly adapted to the production of light horses, 
and it was principally in that state and Missouri that the 
American Saddle Horse breed originated and developed. Ken- 
tucky was settled in 1775, and as early as 1802 it was said 
that ''almost all of the inhabitants employ themselves in train- 
ing and ameliorating the breed of horses." The American 
Saddle Horse originated from crosses of the Thoroughbred 
upon pacers of mixed breeding which had been brought from 
Canada. Considerable Morgan blood entered into the making 
of the breed also. Starting with these materials, a type of 
saddle horse possessing great intelligence and beauty was 
established. These horses are taught five or more distinct 
gaits, and as a result of years of selection and breeding, there 
is today a natural inclination on the part of the American Sad- 
dle Horse to show these gaits, which include not only the walk, 
trot, and canter, but also the rack, running walk, fox trot, and 
slow pace. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 333 

The general-purpose horse. — When the railway displaced 
the Conestoga horse, many farmers attempted to produce what 
was styled "the horse of all work." By this was meant a gen- 
eral-purpose horse useful to wagon, plow, or under saddle. 
The early agricultural papers were full of advice to farmers 
that such a type be bred, and fair associations encouraged 
the movement by offering prizes for this class of horses. From 
1840 to 1850 the "horse of all work" was the horse of the 
day. About 1850, the first draft stallions were imported from 
Europe, but they were not brought over with the idea of pro- 
ducing draft horses in this country, but to breed to the small 
native mares, with which this country was well supplied, in 
order to produce a general-purpose horse. Prior to this there 
were some attempts to produce such a horse by crossing the 
Thoroughbred and the Conestoga, but the progeny possessed 
most of the defects of both parents and were utterly unsuited 
for farm use or anything else. By 1870, breeders had come to 
realize that there is more profit in producing specialized types 
of horses useful for special purposes, rather than a single gen- 
eral-purpose type not capable of doing anything well. Thus, 
although articles still appear occasionally in farm papers ad- 
vising the production of a general-purpose horse, and although 
some county fair associations persist in offering prizes for 
this ancient type, the general-purpose horse died a natural 
death a half -century ago. Let him rest in peace. 

The draft type in America. — About 1870, there arose a 
strong demand from cities for a heavy horse, and since that 
date hundreds of Percheron, Belgian, Shire, and Clydesdale 
stallions and mares have been imported to America annually 
for the purpose of breeding heavy horses fitted for the work 
of moving heavy loads over city streets — in other words, draft 
horses. America developed no draft breed of her own. After 
the Conestoga disappeared we had no heavy horses to use as 
a foundation for such a breed, and when the demand arose in 
this country several European countries had draft breeds 
ready formed which we borrowed from them. 

The carriage horse in America. — In America, as in 
England, the modern carriage horse is a recent addition 
to our types of horses. The more wealthy families among 



334 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

the early settlers of the Carolinas and Virginia kept coaches 
for use on state and social occasions, but the so-called roads 
were so miserable that driving was in no wise a pleas- 
ure. Most of the carriages in use in the early days were 
stage coaches which did the work now done by railways. 
Crosses of the Flemish horse of New York and Pennsylvania 
with the little colonial saddle horse gave the well-knit, sizeable 
horses required on these early coaches. With the growth of 
towns and cities, carriages became common, but the horses 
used would not today be classed as carriage horses although 
they were of a serviceable kind. Driving for pleasure and 
pastime, which of late years has been so popular with city 
people, did not begin until after the Civil War, in fact it was 
not until 1880 that the modern type of carriage horse came 
into use. From that date forward, there was a large and in- 
creasing demand for smoothly-turned, high-stepping, well- 
mannered horses, weighing from 1,000 to 1,200 pounds. The 
animals which supplied this demand were for the most part 
recruited from the ranks of the American Trotter and Ameri- 
can Saddle Horse, although our very choicest carriage animals 
have been English Hackneys. Since 1900, the automobile has 
displaced a great many carriage horses, especially those of 
mediocre quality, but there still exists a strong demand for 
top-notch carriage animals for which good prices are paid. 

Effect of mechanical inventions on horse types. — The in- 
vention of firearms resulted in a change in the type of the 
cavalry horse from the old-time heavy war horse to a lighter 
animal with more speed. The displaced type did not become 
extinct, but was put to use in the fields. The invention of the 
railway and steamboat and the building of canals restricted 
the horse's field of usefulness by displacing the stage coaches 
and the Conestoga horses and wagons. The Conestoga type 
then became extinct, being mingled and absorbed into the com- 
mon stock of the country. In France the diligence horse was 
gradually developed into the Percheron breed. The application 
of electric power to street railways in 1888 closed a channel 
of disposal for thousands of cheap horses such as were used 
on the old-time horse cars, and the perfection of the bicycle 
and the fad for cycling which followed led many to believe a 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 335 

horseless age was at hand. But the street car horse was not 
a profitable animal to produce, and many who took up the bi- 
cycle never owned a horse anyway. Horses came into greater 
demand and brought higher prices than ever before. 

Next came the automobile and the motor truck, and again 
a horseless age was predicted. But in the face of $250,000,000 
expended for automobiles in 1910, prices for horses were the 
highest in history. It is a fact that the automobile is the 
strongest mechanical competitor the horse has had to meet, 
and while it is impossible at this time to say with exactness 
what the effects will be on horse production, enough time has 
elapsed to show that the horse yet has an important place on 
city streets and on roadways, as well as on the farm. The 
automobile and the motor truck are not only doing work that 
is also done by horses, but they are doing work which the 
horse cannot do. In other words, the auto has to a large ex- 
tent created its own necessity. There is, on the other hand, a 
vast amount of horse work of various kinds which cannot be 
done by motors. The horse and the auto each occupy fields 
of their own, the margins of which overlap to some extent, 
and here competition between the horse and motor is keen. 
The carriage horse has felt this competition most. The man 
who formerly kept a pair of carriage horses only because he 
needed them, and not because he had a liking for a horse or 
found pleasure in driving, was quick to take up the auto be- 
cause it did the work quicker, even if at greater cost. As a 
rule, such men did not buy a fancy class of horses, and hence 
their change to the auto is not as serious a loss to the breeder 
as might be thought. The market for the high-class carriage 
horse has been restricted, but remains good. 

Many large business firms have sold their draft horses 
and installed motor trucks, only to discover that the short haul 
may be made more economically with horses, and they have 
therefore reinstated horse equipment along with their motor 
trucks. The horse's place in the realm of sport is undisturbed 
by the automobile. Saddle horses, including the hunter and 
polo pony, are in greater demand than ever before, while 
harness racing continues to prosper throughout the country. 



336 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



Classification of the breeds. — The various breeds of horses 
may be classified according to type as follows, mention also 
being made of the place of origin of each breed : 



Draft Type 

Percheron France 

Belgian Belgium 

Shire England 

Clydesdale Scotland 

Suffolk England 

Roadster Type 

American Trotter United States 

Morgan United States 

Orloff Trotter Russia 



Carriage Type 

Hackney England 

Cleveland Bay England 

Yorkshire Coach England 

French Coach France 

German Coach Germany 

Saddle Type 
American Saddle Horse .United States 

Thoroughbred England 

Arabian Arabia 



CHAPTfc:R XXVIII. 

DRAFT TYPE. 

The first question which presents itself is — What is a 
draft horse ? A draft horse is a horse adapted to the work of 
pulling heavy loads at a walk. The farmer who produces draft 
geldings for sale looks to the city for a purchaser, for in the 
cities the greatest demand is found, and the big, heavy drafter 
there finds ready sale at a good figure. The conditions of street 
traffic in large cities demand the hauling of the largest possi- 
ble loads. Distances are great and delays waste much time. 
At street crossings, bridges, and at railway crossings, min- 
utes are lost that in a day count up to hours. At sidings and 
warehouses, it is a lucky chance if a team can get up to its 
door or car without waiting for one or more wagons to be 
loaded or unloaded ahead of it. There is thus a natural 
tendency for teamsters to haul big loads in order to move the 
freight, and this makes big horses necessary. Furthermore, 
big wagons, big loads, and big horses enable merchants to 
move the goods with less equipment and fewer drivers, and 
lessen expenditures for shoeing, feed, stabling, harness, and 
repairs. There is thus a tendency toward big horses and big 
loads in all cases where quick delivery is not imperative, and 
where loading and unloading are done at one or a few points. 
The heavy loading of wagons has gone so far that many cities 
have placed restrictions upon the size of loads, in order to pro- 
tect draft animals from abuse. In Chicago, the maximum load 
for a single horse or mule is 3,500 pounds, and when two or 
more horses are hitched together, the maximum is 4,000 
pounds per animal. 

We must bear in mind that the drafter is not only adapt- 
ed to pulling heavy loads at a slow gait, but that this work is 
done on hard pavements in the city. The draft horse not only 
does the hardest kind of work required of horses, but he works 
under conditions which put his feet and legs to a severe test. 
The drafter may be said to be the real business horse, where- 

337 



338 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

as the carriage horse, roadster, and saddle horse are largely 
used for pleasure purposes. 

In order to do the work required of him, the draft horse 
must possess the following qualifications — (1) weight, (2) 
strength, (3) true, snappy action, (4) endurance and durabil- 
ity, (5) feeding capacity, and (6) good disposition. 

Weight. — This is decidedly essential. The heavier the 
horse, the more adhesion he has to the ground. When a horse 
is working in harness, the traces tend to lift the fore feet off 
the ground, and for this reason a heavy horse is able to use 
his weight to good advantage. In stage-coach days it was a 
common trick for the driver to throw a bag of meal across a 
horses' back, or get upon a horse himself, in case the coach got 
into a place where a hard pull was necessary. By so doing, his 
team was often able to start the load without other assistance. 
The added weight produced more adhesion between the feet 
and the ground, thus enabling the animal to exert all his 
strength at a pull, instead of uselessly scratching gravel when 
trying to start. When pulling, horses invariably extend their 
heads well to the front, thus again showing that the traces 
tend to lift a horse up in front as he pulls. 

A man of 200 pounds weight can easily outpull a man of 
150 pounds in a tug-of-war, for the reason just explained. If 
the 150-pound man take another man upon his shoulders and 
back, however, he can defeat his opponent who outweighs him 
by 50 pounds. The man on the shoulders of the 150-pound 
contestant adds nothing to the muscular power at that end of 
the rope, but rather lessens it ; but the added weight and the 
increase in adhesion permit the full strength of muscles to be 
more nearly exerted, and the 200-pound man is readily de- 
feated. 

The horse moves a load by (1) simply leaning against the 
collar, and (2) by muscular strength. Thus, weight has a sec- 
ond advantage in that it takes the place of some of the mus- 
cular energy, for the weight of a heavy horse more nearly off- 
sets the weight of the load than does the weight of a smaller 
horse, and every extra pound thrown against the collar means 
a corresponding reduction in muscular force required in mov- 
ing the load. Then, too, as a rule, the larger the horse, the 
stronger he will be. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 339 

To sum up, weight in the draft horse has three values — 
(1) It gives the feet more adhesion with the pavement or 
ground, so that the muscular power may be applied to the col- 
lar, (2) by offsetting some of the weight of the load, it lessens 
the amount of muscular exertion required, and (3) as a rule, 
the heavier the horse, the stronger he will be. Some horses 
make up for a lack of weight by their superior ambition and 
courage. 

Strength. — This is a matter of muscling. Draft horses 
must be very muscular throughout, especially in the hind- 
quarters. When judging drafters, fat should not be mis- 
taken for muscle. 

Action. — Action that is straight and true insures con- 
servation of energy and sure-footedness. The action should 
also be snappy ; this enables the animal to get over the ground 
rapidly, and shows a willing disposition. Action is also val- 
uable as an index to the way the horse is put together; true 
action can result only from proper placing of the limbs, in 
fact, from a proper proportionment of all parts, and their 
proper relation to one another. Correct action, showing true- 
ness, snap, and length of stride, results from a rather rare 
combination of proper structure, muscling, and temperament. 
Therefore, good action is not only valuable in itself, but is good 
evidence" of merit in the entire make-up of the horse. 

Endurance and durability. — Endurance means the ability 
to do the day's work without fagging. Durability means the 
ability to work day after day without breaking down under the 
strain. Endurance is concerned mostly with wind, muscling, 
and feeding capacity, while durability depends mostly upon 
the feet and legs. Some first-hand horses last but six months, 
or even less, on city streets. Others last as long as fifteen 
years, and, in some cases, even longer. If a draft horse goes to 
pieces quickly when put to work, he is a considerable loss to 
the owner. Feet and legs are the parts most liable to prove 
defective. Lack of wind is a common fault. The horse with 
a short rib seldom stands up to hard labor very long. Buyers 
refuse to invest much money in horses that are shallow bodied 
and cut up high in the flank, such animals being poor feeders. 



340 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

Feeding capacity. — The horse is comparable to a locomo- 
tive. He consumes hay and grain for fuel. Other things equal, 
the greater the amount of fuel consumed, the greater the work 
that can be done. The drafter should be a good feeder. 

Disposition. — To be of greatest usefulness, a draft horse 
must be a prompt, willing worker that will be pleasant to 
handle, active, and quick to respond to commands, yet quiet 
and docile. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE TYPE. 

General appearance. — The form of the draft horse is low 
set, broad, deep, massive, compact, symmetrical, and styhsh. 
He should have a short back and a long underline. He must 
weigh not less than 1,600 pounds, and ton horses are the sort 
to keep in mind as draft horses. Weights over a ton are not 
uncommon. It has been estimated, on the basis of weights 
and prices for horses at the large markets, that every 100 
pounds above 1,500 adds $25.00 to the horse's value. As to 
height, drafters usually stand from 16 to 17 hands at the with- 
ers. The height over the hips should be no greater than at 
the withers, as this detracts from the symmetrical appear- 
ance, throws more weight upon the forequarters, and makes 
the action stilted and heavy. Although the short-legged 
horse is more powerful, the horse with slightly more length of 
leg will take a longer stride, and may therefore be more useful. 
Some buyers also prefer a certain degree of height in the 
drafter because they use wagons with a high top or cover, and 
a short-legged horse would not be in harmony with such ve- 
hicles. At this point, it may be mentioned that a great many 
firms desire horses which are not only able to do their work 
successfully, but which also have considerable style and beauty 
of conformation that will attract attention on the streets and 
help to advertise the firm and its business. To this end, a 
great deal of money is invested in vehicles nicely designed and 
ornamented, which are horsed with animals that add to, rather 
than detract from, the appearance of the turnout. Buyers 
keep the vehicle in mind when buying horses. 

Quality and substance, as shown in hair, hoofs, bone, and 
joints, should be preeminent. Substance refers to the size 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 341 

of bone and size and weight of horse, while quality refers to 
the fineness of texture of all parts. Quality associated with 
substance insures good wearing qualities. Quality is shown 
in bone that is hard and smooth, joints that are large, well 
defined, and clean-cut, and cannons and pasterns that are 
entirely free from meatiness. The cannons of some draft 




Fig. 93. The Draft Type. 

Big- Jim, four times champion draft gelding at the International. 
Mr. J. H. S. Johnstone of the Live Stock World, wrote the following re- 
garding Big Jim when announcing his death in 1910: "There never was 
a prouder stepper in harness, and there never was a big one that held 
himself together and went at this work in a more sprightly manner. His 
size was immense — 2,385 pounds — and not one of his competitors ever 
approached him in that regard. Personally I do not expect to see his 
like again." 

breeds have more or less long hair, called "feather." If it is 
silky, and "pily," rather than coarse and curly, it indicates 
quality, for fine hair seldom covers rough, coarse bone. The 
entire coat, including the mane and tail, also indicates quality 
if the hair is soft and fine. The horse with quality will have 



342 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

hoofs of fine texture which will wear well, and his joints are 
less subject to bony diseases. 

Head. — The head should be lean, and proportionate to 
size of body. A pony head is not the right sort for a draft 
horse, and a barrel head indicates coarseness and lack of 
breediness. Every line and feature should be distinct, — there 
should be a chiseled appearance that indicates character, 
quality, and good breeding. Great width between the eyes 
and a broad, full forehead show intelligence. The eye should 
be large, bright, clear, and very prominent, to insure good 
vision, for the horse should be able to see where he is step- 
ping. The nose and muzzle should be broad, indicating a good 
feeder. The nostrils should be large (but not permanently 
distended), to provide easy breathing. Trim lips that are 
thin show quality and refinement. Strong cheeks and jaws 
that are wide across underneath provide good grinding ability 
for proper mastication. The ears should be of fine texture 
and medium size, and should be set well up toward the poll and 
carried alert. Ears set down on the side of the head and car- 
ried in a lopping fashion decidedly injure the appearance. 
The expression of the eye and the carriage of the ear are good 
evidences of the temperament and disposition. The head 
should be of medium length, and, as viewed in profile, the face 
line should be rather straight. A Roman face indicates a 
strong, determined will, and is not desirable. 

Neck. — The neck of the draft horse should be at least 
medium long, and should be very muscular, with some degree 
of crest or arch to the top. The crest should be pronounced 
in the stallion, but not so excessive as to break over to one 
side. At the junction with the body, the neck should be very 
deep, but at the throttle it should be very trim and rather cut 
up underneath, with no fullness or thickness there to bring 
pressure on the windpipe. The head and neck should be car- 
ried well up, to insure good vision, lighten the forehand, and 
improve the appearance. 

Shoulders. — The shoulders should be very deep, muscu- 
lar, and have much slope. An upright shoulder results in 
transmission of shock, and also in shortness of stride. A 
sloping, muscular shoulder that is laid in snugly is conducive 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 343 

to good action. Frequently, the shoulders are too open and 
prominent, so that the horse does not stand over his legs as 
he should. Such horses do not take a straight stride, but 
swing their legs outward when in action. 

Withers. — The tops of the shoulder blades should come 
well together and should be heavily muscled, to form withers 
that are somewhat rounding, rather than sharp as in the light- 
er kinds of horses. 

Breast and chest. — The breast should be very wide and 
very muscular. The chest should be full, wide, and deep, to 
provide room for heart and lungs. The horse is an athlete, and 
large lungs and good heart action are very essential. A con- 
tracted heart-girth shows lack of constitution. There is no 
such thing as too much heart-girth or chest capacity. 

Arm. — The arm should be very muscular, and should be 
thrown forward to give slope to the shoulder. 

Forearm. — The forearm should be powerfully muscled, 
so that as viewed from the side it appears very broad next to 
the body, tapering to the knee. No muscles are present be- 
low the knees and hocks, hence strength of action depends 
upon the muscles above these joints. A short forearm 
is therefore usually associated with poorer action than a 
somewhat longer one, which affords room for longer muscles. 

Knee. — The knee must be broad from every point of view, 
and must be deep from top to bottom. This provides a large 
joint, indicating strength. The knee must also be straight, so 
as to set the leg straight below the body. There must be no 
meatiness about the knee or any of the joints or parts below, 
for, as has been stated, all muscles end above the knee and are 
attached to the parts below by tendons. Meatiness about the 
knee and lower limb interferes with the working of the ten- 
dons, and lessens the free and easy flexion of the joints. 
Hence the knee should be clean-cut, flat across the front, and 
well defined. This is essential. 

Cannons. — The cannons should be short and clean, with 
the tendons large and set well back from the bone. As viewed 
from the side, there should be good width, and the cannon 
should be flat instead of round. As one passes the hand along 
the cannon bone, it should feel smooth, hard, and dense. The 



344 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

skin covering- it should be fine, and the hair silky. To the 
hand, the cannon should have the same feel as a smooth hick- 
ory stick covered with fine cloth. Between the bone and the 
tendon there should be well-marked depressions or grooves. 
Meatiness about the cannons is as objectionable as it is about 
the joints, and for similar reasons. The cannons furnish one 
of the best means of determining quality. Clean, flat, smooth 
cannons have bone that is composed of fine cells, and is flinty 
in character. Coarse, rough bone is porous and spongy, with 
large cells. Too much refinement of bone is often found in 
the draft horse. On the other hand, large bone is frequently 
found which is very lacking in quality. There should be a 
combination of substance with quality. It is possible to make 
up in quality a certain lack of substance, but not the contrary. 

Fetlock joint. — The fetlock joint should be wide from 
front to back, clean-cut, and well defined. 

Pasterns. — The pasterns should be oblique to relieve con- 
cussion, and should show reasonable length. A slope of about 
forty-five degrees is desired. More slope than this tends to- 
ward weakness. The pasterns should show plenty of sub- 
stance, yet be clean-cut, and should spread out or expand at 
the lower end into wide, round, open hoof -heads or coronets. 

Feet. — The old saying, "No foot, no horse," is as full of 
truth today as it ever was. A draft horse of excellence in 
all respects except feet is as worthless as a fine building on a 
flimsy foundation. When it is considered to what great stress 
the foot of the draft horse is subjected, the wonder is that 
feet last as long as they do on hard pavements. Driven 
against cobblestones and brick by the great weight of the body 
above, the fore feet undergo repeated shocks which soon bat- 
ter to pieces feet that are defective. The foot should be large, 
to afford a large bearing surface. When viewed from front or 
side, the axis of the foot should coincide with the axis of the 
pastern. The hoof should appear dense, waxy, and smooth, 
indicating toughness and durability. The form of the hoof 
should be round. Inasmuch as the wall of the hoof grows out 
from the coronet or hoof -head, the size and shape of the foot 
will depend largely upon the size and shape of the hoof-head, 
which should therefore be large and round. The sole should 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 345 

be concave, as this means strength. Flatness of sole is a 
common fault among draft horses. The bars should be 
strong, to insure against contraction of the heels, and the 
frog should be large and elastic. The heels should be very 
wide and fairly high, and the fore feet should be uniform in 
size and shape. The position of the feet and limbs should be 
as described in Chapter XXVI. 

Ribs. — The ribs should be well sprung and deep, giving 
a wide, deep body. Such a conformation provides a strong 
middle-piece, gives the necessary weight to the animal, and 
indicates good digestive capacity, as well as ample room for 
heart and lungs. The distance from the last rib to the hip 
should be short, and the flank should be deep. Horsemen 
speak of a deep, full flank as a "good bread basket," and in 
certain sections of the country where a business is made of 
feeding drafters for market, great care is taken to select ani- 
mals for feeding that have deep, full middles, for the other 
kind are poor feeders and cannot easily be made fat. The 
horse that is cut up high in the flank is said to be "wasp- 
waisted," "tucked-up," or "washy." When put to work, such 
horses show lack of endurance or stamina, for they do not 
consume enough feed to replace the energy expended in doing 
hard labor ; hence they become very thin in flesh, and are un- 
able to do hard work for many days in succession. The mid- 
dle of the draft horse in good flesh should be very large, and 
as round as a dollar. 

Back. — The back forms the connection between the seat 
of power, which is in the hindquarters, and the point of appli- 
cation of this power, which is the shoulder. A short, rather 
straight, broad back that is heavily muscled affords the 
strongest conformation. A short, wide back is not only more 
rigid than a long, narrow one, but also brings the power closer 
to the collar; it is therefore much desired because of its me- 
chanical advantage over the long, rangy conformation. 

Loin. — The loin is often called the "coupling." It lies 
just in front of the hips, and includes those vertebrae which 
have no ribs below them. The loin, like the back, should be 
short, broad, and heavily muscled. 

Hips. — Beginning with the hips and continuing through- 
out the hindquarters, we are dealing with the location of those 



346 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

muscles which furnish power for draft, hence we want an ap- 
pearance of great massiveness everywhere. It used to be 
thought that the draft horse did his work simply by falling 
against the collar, thus bringing his weight to bear, and con- 
sequently that his forequarters ought to be as heavy as pos- 
sible; it was no harm if his shoulders were straight, and as 
for his hindquarters, it did not matter much what they were. 
But this idea has been exploded and it is now known that he 
pulls by muscle more than by weight, and much more by the 
muscles of his hindquarters than by those of his forequarters. 
So we want the hips of the drafter to be wide and heavily mus- 
cled. 

Croup. — A very broad and long croup gives the greatest 
area for the laying on of muscle. It should also be fairly level 
from hips to setting on of tail. A steep croup not only de- 
tracts from the appearance, but is also usually associated 
with shortness of croup, weakness of coupling, and crooked 
hind legs. The croup should be covered with heavy, massive 
muscles. 

Tail. — The tail should be attached high, and should be 
full haired and well carried. Stallions and mares imported from 
Europe almost always have been docked, this being a fairly 
accurate means of identifying such animals. 

Thighs. — The thighs should be very wide and should 
bulge with muscle, and the quarters should be very deep and 
heavy. The stifle should likewise be heavily muscled, and 
there should be great width through the hindquarters from 
stifle to stifle. Viewed from the side, the thigh should be very 
wide from stifle to end of body. 

Gaskins. — The gaskins, like the forearms, should be very 
wide and bulging with muscle. 

Hock. — Suppose we have a pair of ton horses hitched to 
a big load. When the word is given to start, the horses ex- 
tend and lower their heads, lean against the collar, crouch 
down behind by bringing their hind feet forward and flexing 
their hocks, and then the pull of the powerful muscles of the 
hindquarters extends the hock joint and straightens the hind 
leg, thus bringing great pressure against the collar, and the 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 347 

load moves. The point to be remembered is that an enormous 
strain comes upon the hock, and if there is any weakness in 
that joint it is certain to cause trouble. The hock must be 
large, clean-cut, wide both ways, and deep, and the point of 
the hock should be prominent. It should be straight from top 
to bottom. A crooked hock, which places the hind foot too 
far forward, with sloping cannons, is called a "sickled hock." 
Fleshiness and puffs are distinctly objectionable. Thick, 
meaty hocks are too common in draft horses. A lean appear- 
ance, so that every angle and line of the joint is apparent, is 
very much desired. 

Cannons, pasterns, and feet. — The requirements for hind 
cannons, pasterns, and feet are identical with those described 
in connection with the forequarters. However, the hind can- 
nons are always longer and usually broader than the front 
ones. Also, the hind pasterns are seldom so sloping, and the 
hind feet are not quite so large or round. There is less con- 
cussion behind than in front, but the stress is much greater 
at the pull, hence it is proper that hind pasterns and feet be 
a little more erect, in order to provide the necessary strength 
of conformation. 

From what has been said above, the value of a straight 
hind limb, as viewed from behind, is emphasized. If the horse 
is "bow legged," his legs will prove weak when the strain 
is put upon them. Walking on a crooked hind leg is comparable 
to driving a bent nail. The force of the hammer bends the nail, 
instead of driving it into the wood, and a crooked hind leg 
bows outward, instead of remaining rigid and transmitting 
full force against the collar. 

Symmetry. — Now that the details of the drafter's con- 
formation have been described, a word may be added regarding 
symmetry or proportionment of parts. The fact is that some 
horses are good in their various parts, yet fail to present a 
good appearance. What they lack is symmetry. The head 
may be good, and the neck may be good also, but the two may 
be joined at an angle which injures the appearance. The neck 
may not rise from the shoulders as it should. The feet may 
be good, but may be either too large or too small to be in 
proportion to the size and weight of the animal. The top line 



348 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



from head to tail may be an irregular line full of angles, 
whereas it should be gracefully curved. The hips may be wide, 
which is desirable, yet they should not be wide out of all 
proportion to the rest of the body, so as to be ragged and 
prominent. Seemingly small factors such as these may or 
may not affect the horse's usefulness for work, but frequently 
they constitute the difference between a plain animal and one 
of show-yard character, between which there is a great differ- 
ence in price. One horse looks as though he were made up of 
a lot of different-sized parts which do not fit well together, 
while the other seems cast from a carefully prepared mould. 




Fig. 94. Heavy Drafters in Harness. 

This is the famous team of grays which was invincible at the leading 
shows a few years ago. They were shown in both the United States and 
Great Britain. Owned by Armour & Company of Chicago. 

Standing in natural position, the symmetrical horse carries 
his head and neck well up, so that the face line, shoulder, and 
pastern all slope at nearly the same angle ; the croup is fairly 
level from hips to tail, the tail is set high, and all parts of 
his conformation are so proportioned as to give him a well- 
balanced appearance. 

On the matter of type. — To present the best appearance, 
the drafter should not be over-drafty in type ; that is, shortness 
of leg and compactness and width of body should not be carried 
to the extreme. This type of horse is sometimes referred to 
as the "Poland-China drafter." A certain degree of length of 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 349 

limb, length of neck, and length of underline is necessary, not 
only for the sake of looks, but also because it actually makes 
the horse more useful. He takes a longer step, and will do 
more work in a day than the extremely pudgy type of horse. 
On the other hand, we certainly do not want a horse that is 
all length and style. We must aim at the middle ground, 
selecting for as much style as may be had without sacrifice 
of any of those qualities which make the draft horse useful 
for his kind of work. 

Action. — The action of the draft horse should be true, 
snappy, and bold. As you see him going or coming, the move- 
ment of the limbs should be straight in the line of motion, 
the feet being carried true, with no paddling or irregularity 
of gait. Walking away from you, he should move with 
enough snap to give you the flash of his shoe at every step. 
As you view him in action from the side, he should show 
length of stride and enough height of action to clear the 
ground safely at each step. High knee action is not essential ; 
in fact, carriage horse action in a draft horse means useless 
expenditure of energy. However, there should be a strong, 
free movement of knees and hocks, without dragging or 
stiffness. The walk is the real gait of the draft horse, and 
an active, snappy, springy walk, with trueness and length of 
stride, is the prime essential so far as action is concerned. 
The horse should walk like a soldier. However, the trot often 
magnifies defects in gait so that they are more easily seei, 
and in show and sale rings drafters are shown at both gaits. 
The stride in the trot should be long, true, springy, steady, 
and business-like, with a certain degree of height of action 
to insure against stumbling. Horsemen like a bold way of 
going that indicates willingness and courage in the horse. 

In action, the hocks should pass close together, so close 
in fact that they nearly brush each other. Some horses go 
so wide behind that a wheelbarrow could be put between the 
hind legs and scarcely touch them. Any tendency to spraddle 
behind is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, defect which 
the drafter can exhibit, so far as action is concerned. 

The study of action is one requiring close attention. The 
observer must take into consideration every movement of the 



350 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

horse. Attention must be given not only to the movement of 
the feet and legs, but also to the carriage of the head and neck 
and the entire body. The head should be carried well up, giv- 
ing a stylish appearance and a good outlook, and the top of the 
horse should be carried level and true, without any rolling or 
wobbling motion from side to side. The front and hindquar- 
ters should act in unison, and the legs should be kept well un- 
der the body as the horse travels, showing no tendency to drag 
the hind legs, and especially the hocks, out behind the body. 
When kept up underneath as they should be, and when all the 
motions of the horse are smooth and in unison, we say that he 
moves in a collected manner. As before stated, perfection in 
action can result only when there is a combination of proper 
conformation and strength, and a willing disposition. 

Common defects in the action of draft horses are (1) go- 
ing wide at the hocks, (2) swinging the fore legs outward, 
called "paddling," (3) swinging in, (4) striking supporting leg 
with foot of striding leg, called "interfering," (5) twisting 
striding leg around in front of supporting leg, called "wind- 
ing," "plaiting," or "rope walking," (6) short, stubby stride 
(7) low, skimming action, called "daisy cutting," (8) unsteadi- 
ness of gait, (9) striking sole or heels of fore foot with toe of 
hind foot, called "forging," (10) excessive lateral shoulder mo- 
tion, called "rolling," (11) lack of energy or snap, and (12) 
lameness. 

Color. — It is commonly said that a good horse cannot have 
a bad color. By this is meant that color is disregarded if the 
horse suits otherwise. Some colors, however, are very general- 
ly disliked, and still other colors are not liked by some persons. 
For instance, duns, flea-bitten grays, white horses, very light 
grays, and spotted horses are universally discounted, either 
because they are hard to groom, hard to match, or because 
the color is unsightly. Dark solid colors, such as black, brown, 
bay, very dark or steel gray, and dark chestnut, are given 
preference. Dark dappled grays are well liked by buyers, and 
some firms will accept no other color because the flash gray 
color attracts attention to their turnouts. White markings, 
including blaze faces, white ankles, and white stockings, are 
valued by some firms for the same reason. It is not uncom- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 351 

mon for business houses to adopt some color as a sort of trade- 
mark, on account of the advertising value. However, color is 
of less importance in draft horses than in any other type. This 
is true because the drafter is a business horse, whereas other 
types are valued mostly for pleasure purposes. 

Finish. — The term "finish" refers to fatness and to the 
condition of the coat. The horse market discriminates in price 
to a considerable degree between the fat drafter and the thin 
one, and it is surprising what an improvement is made in some 
horses by the addition of fat. Fatness adds to the weight, 
improves the form and spirit, and provides the necessary re- 
serve store of energy to carry the horse through the first few 
weeks in the city during adjustment to city sights, sounds, 
loads, pavements, stables, and other new conditions. Although 
fatness is important in the horse for sale or show, the judge 
must learn to distinguish between fat and muscle. The coat 
should be well groomed, so as to give the animal a sleek ap- 
pearance. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 

THE CARRIAGE OR HEAVY-HARNESS HORSE. 

The modern carriage horse is almost exclusively a pleasure 
horse. His name implies his use. He is put before various 
kinds of pleasure vehicles, ranging from the light runabout to 
the heavy coach. Because he wears heavy leather, in contrast 
to the harness worn by the roadster, he is also called the 




Fig. 95. Carriage or Heavy-Harness Type. 

Hackney mare, Queen of Diamonds, imported and owned by the 
Truman Pioneer Stud Farm of Bushnell, 111. 

heavy-harness horse. Thus we may say that the carriage 
horse is one specially fitted for work in heavy harness, before 
vehicles designed for pleasure purposes and used for carrying 
people. It is apparent that there should be a wide range in 
the size and weight of carriage horses, in order to meet the 

352 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 353 

widely varying demands of the various vehicles and uses to 
which this horse is put. In other respects, all carriage horses 
are very nearly alike. 

The value of the carriage horse is determined by (1) 
beauty of conformation, (2) action, (3) manners, (4) tempera- 
ment, (5) color, (6) endurance and durability. 

Beauty of conformation. — The conformation of the car- 
riage horse must show beauty, style, symmetry, and finish. 
Being a pleasure horse, it is the ability not only to do certain 
work which determines value, but to do this work gracefully, 
and to present, while standing or in action, a picture of pleas- 
ing appearance. Everything is sidetracked for appearance in 
the breeding of this horse. Attractiveness of form is not re- 
stricted to any one type of horse, but it brings the highest 
price when found in the carriage horse. The value of the 
drafter is very largely measured by the amount of work he 
can do; the value of the light-harness horse is measured by 
his speed ; the value of the saddle horse depends not only upon 
his appearance, but also upon his knowledge of the gaits and 
his ability to carry his rider with comfort and ease ; the value 
of the carriage horse depends chiefly upon his appearance and 
general attractiveness of form and action. 

Action. — Here again, beauty is the thing sought at the 
expense of other qualities. The carriage horse must not only 
go level, true, and collected, but he must go very high — the 
higher the better. With this end in view, he is bred, fed, shod, 
trained, bitted, and driven with a view to securing as much 
height of action as possible — not because it makes him more 
useful for his work, but because it makes him more pleasing 
to look upon. A certain degree of height of action is necessary 
in all horses, in order to secure length of stride and to pre- 
vent stumbling ; such action signifies freedom of movement of 
joints and muscles, and indicates willingness and spirit. But 
the carriage horse is asked to go higher than this, even though 
it means added wear and tear on feet and legs, and a great 
amount of energy to accomplish the result. Beauty is given 
first consideration. 

Manners. — Working oftentimes in crowded streets, where 
driving requires considerable care, it is easily apparent that. 



354 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



with proper conformation, action, and durability, the carriage 
horse will not furnish real pleasure unless he has manners. 
Furthermore, if he fails to respond to commands, possesses a 
strong will that rebels at these commands, or fails to act 




Fig. 96. The Heavy-Harness Type in Action. 

Hackney pony, Irvington Model, bred and owned by Mr. W. D. 
Henry of Sewickley, Pa. 

quickly, his lack of manners may result disastrously to the 
occupants of the carriage. In most cases, the carriage horse 
is not expected to stand without hitching, or to be as trust- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 355 

worthy in an emergency as an old "family horse," but he must 
be so thoroughly trained and familiar with the commands of 
his driver that the execution of whatever is asked will be done 
involuntarily, unhesitatingly, and instantly. Every command 
of word, whip, or rein must be received intelligently, and in- 
telligently acted upon by the horse. 

Temperament. — The sanguine or nervous temperament 
is the one desired in carriage horses, for without it we cannot 
expect that degree of action which is required, nor that quick- 
ness of response to commands which is essential. There are 
other types of horses which should possess the sanguine tem- 
perament to even a greater degree than the heavy-harness 
horse; these are the speed types, the trotter and the runner. 

Color. — With the possible exception of the saddle horse, 
color is of more importance in heavy-harness horses than in 
any other type. The dark solid colors are preferred, as being 
in proper accord with the elegant vehicles drawn by this horse. 
White ankles are often favored, because a horse so marked 
has his action emphasized and easily seen. Grays, roans, and 
light colors are heavily discounted or even rejected, except for 
certain special restricted uses, such as sporting tandems, road 
fours, or cross-matched pairs, and in horses for ladies' use, 
even the white markings are discriminated against. True ele- 
gance and good taste are wanted, and this excludes colors that 
are flashy and calculated to attract undue attention. 

Endurance and durability. — The carriage horse is re- 
quired to make only short trips at a moderate pace. Endur- 
ance is not so essential, therefore, as in other types. How- 
ever, durability, which means wearing quality, is of great im- 
portance. The extremely high action which is required makes 
necessary the best of feet and legs. Durability is almost 
entirely dependent upon the amount and quality of bone, and 
the structure and texture of feet. 

We may make a final summing up of the foregoing points 
by saying that the carriage horse is one specially fitted to 
work before pleasure vehicles, over short distances, at a mod- 
erate pace, wearing heavy leather; and that to be in keeping 
with the handsome and expensive vehicles which he moves, he 
must show beauty and attractiveness of form and action that 



356 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

will add to, rather than detract from, the appearance of the 
turnout. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE TYPE. 

General appearance. — Compactness and fullness of form 
are required, in order that the horse may fill his harness prop- 
perly and be in proper keeping with the vehicles before which 
he is put. He must possess great smoothness of conformation, 
with all his lines curving rather than angular. He must appear 




Fig. 97. The Carriage Horse in Harness. 

Compare this picture with Fig. 100, and note the difference in height 
of action, type of vehicle, and weight of harness. This is the noted 
Hackney mare, Bountiful, owned by Judge W. H. Moore of Chicago. 

snugly put together. Although it is not desired that he stand 
on very short legs, it is essential that he be not leggy, or what 
is termed "weedy," in appearance. Medium length of leg is 
required, to give proper action and lend him style and sym- 
metry. The height ranges from 14 to 16.1 hands, and the 
weight from 900 to 1,300 pounds. As previously stated, size 
and weight are of rather minor importance. There is a mis- 
taken idea prevalent among farmers that this horse should 
stand rather high, and weigh 1,250 pounds and upward. It is 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 357 

true that big horses that are good ones are harder to find than 
smaller ones, and hence size is of some importance. Neverthe- 
less, an animal of desirable carriage horse conformation, style, 
and action will bring a good price no matter what his inches 
or weight; the demand is steady, both for those of largest 
size and those so small as to be called ponies. Hence, carriage 
horse type refers to a certain kind of conformation and action, 
and the question of size and weight is of small importance in 
all except breeding animals. However, we shall consider only 
heights above 14 hands as carriage horses; those below that 
height are ponies. The greatest demand is for horses stand- 
ing from 15 to 16 hands. Quality is indicated in bone, feet, 
skin, hair, head, and smoothness of form. As the subject of 
quality has been fully discussed in connection with draft horse 
type, lengthy description is unnecessary here. Quality is valu- 
able in the carriage horse because it assures durability, and 
because refinement and smoothness add beauty to the horse. 

Head. — The head should be lean, with every feature 
clean-cut and sharply defined. The forehead should be broad, 
and the eyes should be large, prominent, and set out on the 
corners of the head. Strong jaws and a wide muzzle are de- 
sired, yet the muzzle must be refined, the lips thin, and the 
entire head free from an;, appearance of coarseness. The 
nostrils should be large. The ears should be fine and placed 
close together near the poll, turning in slightly at the tips. 
The attachment with the neck must be clean-cut and graceful. 
The appearance of the head should indicate intelligence, alert- 
ness, and quality. 

Neck. — Length of neck is very essential. It should be 
gracefully arched and bear considerable muscle, — enough 
muscle to lend fullness and strength, but not so much as to 
give an appearance of heaviness or coarseness. The upper 
border of the neck should be fine along its entire length. Ewe 
necks are very unattractive and undesirable. The neck should 
blend nicely with the shoulders. The shape and carriage of 
the head and neck have much to do with making the animal a 
real carriage horse, or a plain, inferior sort. Without a high- 
class front, no horse can qualify as a heavy-harness horse of 
superior type. 



358 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

Shoulders. — Long, snugly laid shoulders, that have a 
decided slope and are well muscled, are wanted. The withers 
should show refinement. 

Chest. — The chest should be moderately wide and very 
deep. The breast should be carried out prominently, and be 
rather muscular. 

Middle. — The middle of the horse should be round as a 
stick, short on top, and long below. This calls for long, well- 
arched ribs. The back, and especially the loin, should be thick- 
ly muscled and short, giving strength and a smooth, finished 
appearance. Depth of flank is essential, for the sake of ap- 
pearance and keeping qualities. 

Hips. — The hips should not be prominent. They should 
be smoothly covered with muscle. Prominent hips in the car- 
riage horse are decidedly faulty, because they detract from 
the smoothness of form which is so much desired. 

Croup. — A long, level, fairly broad, smoothly and heavily 
muscled croup is the most attractive and the best indication 
of strength. A short, steep croup, commonly desij>:nated a 
"goose rump," is very objectionable. The tail should be at- 
tached high and carried out from the quarters. Carriage 
horses usually have the tail docked and set. 

Thighs and quarters. — Full, muscular development gives 
the desired plumpness of form and necessary strength. The 
gaskins should be strongly muscled and long, so that the dis- 
tance from hip to hock will be great as compared with the 
distance from hock to ground. 

Legs. — Superior quality of bone, associated with sub- 
stance, should be evident in the cannons. The arm should be 
very muscular. The forearm should be muscular and long. 
The knee must be wide both ways, deep, and flat across 
the front. It should be clearly defined in all its lines, which 
means an absence of meatiness. The hocks should be wide 
from front to rear, broad across the front from side to side, 
and deep from top to bottom. The point of the hock should be 
prominent, and the rear edge of the joint below the point should 
be straight, or very slightly incurving. Roughness or coarse- 
ness of bone about this joint, puffiness, or meatiness are looked 
upon with suspicion as indicating weakness. The cannons, both 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 359 

front and rear, as viewed from the side, should be short, broad, 
and flat, with the grooves between the cannon bone and tendons 
easily seen and felt. The broad, flat appearance results when 
the tendons are placed well back from the bone, and when the 
legs are free from meatiness. Smooth, hard, flinty bone and 
well-developed tendons are necessary. Straight, strong fetlock 
joints are essential. The pasterns should slope at an angle of 
45 degrees, and be long enough to give elasticity of stride, yet 
show sufficient substance to insure strength. Proper position 
of the legs is of greater importance in this type than in draft 
horses. So much of the value of the horse depends upon action, 
and so much of action depends upon proper position of the 
legs and feet, that great attention should be given to this 
point. The legs must come straight down and the toes point 
straight ahead, to insure true action. 

Feet. — The size of the foot should be proportionate to 
the size of the horse. Roundness and size of hoof-head, width 
at the heels, and height at both heel and toe are important. 
The discussion regarding the sole, bars, frog, denseness of 
horn, etc., as given in connection with draft horse type, applies 
here with equal force. 

Action. — The requirements of action in the carriage 
horse are — (1) trueness, (2) height, (3) length of stride, (4) 
collection, (5) elasticity, (6) boldness and power, (7) grace- 
fulness of movement, and (8) moderate speed. The walk 
must be snappy, quick, and business-like to a marked degree. 
But it is at the trot that action is wholly revealed. The flight 
of each foot must be in a straight line, parallel to the direction 
of motion of the horse. The fore foot is carried forward and 
high up, as if following the rim of a rolling wheel, and the 
stride is long. The foot meets the ground easily and without 
apparent jar, in fact, the step appears elastic, and the meeting 
with the ground seems to send the foot on again as though it 
were made of India rubber. The foot, pastern, cannon, and 
forearm cannot accomplish this alone. There must also be 
freedom of action of the arm and shoulder. Every movement 
must show grace and style, and the whole attitude of the horse 
should be one of combined courage and power. 

Proper folding of the knee meets only half of the require- 
ment. Associated with this, there should be decided flexing 



360 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



of the hock. The hind foot will leave the ground with snap 
and free movement of pastern; at the same time, the hock 
will be carried, not backward, but upward toward the dock, to 
accomplish which the hock must be flexed very decidedly, and, 
when in this position, the leg swings far forward and the foot 
is let down to the ground. If the action of the hind leg is as 
described, the hind foot clears the ground by considerable dis- 
tance, and the hocks do not drag out behind the horse. Many 




\— 




Fig. 98. Sensational Action. 

Little Ruby, a Champion Hackney Pony stallion, owned in England. 

heavy-harness horses swing the hind legs back and forth with 
but slight flexing of the hocks. Such action has a straggling 
appearance that is in marked contrast to the high and col- 
lected action of a horse posessing proper action. There should 
also be unison of movement between fore and hind limbs. 

As pointed out in the description of the draft horse, ex- 
cellence of action results only when there is a combination of 
proper conformation of body and limbs, correct position of 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 361 

limbs, strength of muscle, proper temperament, and abundant 
spirit. Action is so valuable in the heavy-harness horse that 
breeders and dealers often resort to artificial means to secure 
it in horses which are deficient in their movement. Heavy 
shoes produce height of action. Drugs and intoxicants are 
sometimes given to put spirit into the horse; these have only 
a temporary effect, and when used at all are mostly used with 
show horses. Short chains are sometimes fastened to the feet 
of young horses, to teach them to lift their feet high. Exer- 
cising over rough or freshly plowed ground, or in straw, is also 
a common practice, to induce lifting of the knees and hocks. 
The toe is allowed to grow out long, requiring more energy on 
the part of the horse in breaking over as he takes a stride, so 
that when he does break over, the extra force tends to carry 
the foot higher and farther away. Action produced by any 
such methods as these is known as artificial action, in contrast 
to natural action bred in the horse. Artificial action is usually 
discovered without difficulty. The practiced eye detects that 
the horse is not doing his work with ease and pleasure. There 
seems to be a straining of muscles, a "tied up" way of going, 
and a lack of steadiness that is never seen in the natural actor. 
Artificial action results in quick tiring of the horse; it is not 
an unusual spectacle to see such horses come into the show 
ring with high action which rapidly disappears until the legs 
drag, if the horse is called upon to do much work, while the 
natural actor goes high from start to finish. 

On the other hand, no matter how natural it may be for a 
horse to go high, he still requires proper shoeing, bitting, 
training, and driving, in order that his inherent ability may 
be developed. Even after the horse is "made," as the saying 
goes, if he is placed in the hands of an inexperienced reinsman, 
unskilled in driving heavy -harness horses, the result will be an 
absolute failure. The trained carriage horse responds superbly 
when under the guidance of the master reinsman, who, by 
means of word, whip, and rein, telegraphs the signals with 
which the horse has become familiar, and to which he in- 
stinctively responds with certain desired movements. In the 
hands of a novice, however, he makes a poor showing. 

Speed. — This is not important in heavy-harness horses; 
only a moderate degree of speed is wanted. 



CHAPTER XXX. 
THE ROADSTER OR LIGHT-HARNESS HORSE. 

The roadster or light-harness horse is distinctly an Ameri- 
can type, or strictly speaking, it is a breed — the American 
Trotter or Standardbred. Such names as American roadster, 
gentleman's roadster, and trotter are also applied to this type. 
The light-harness horse is a pleasure horse exclusively; his 
domain includes the regular race tracks, where he is used for 
professional racing, and also the city speedways, snowpaths, 
and roadways, where amateur racing and road driving are 
indulged in by men who admire the trotting horse and seek 
recreation in the open air. There are many men too heavy to 
ride who turn to the roadster as the next best means of get- 
ting fresh air and exercise from the use of horses. 

The light-harness type and the sport of harness racing 
originated in and about Philadelphia at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, at which time roads were improved and 
made suitable for pleasure driving. This type is the result 
of Yankee skill and genius applied to horse breeding. With 
all his faults, the American Trotter is a wonderful production, 
and closely rivals the running horse in point of speed. Large 
numbers are exported to Europe each year, especially to 
Russia, Germany, and Austria, where harness racing is be- 
coming more and more popular each season. 

This type is styled "light-harness type" because, on both 
road and track, the horse works in light-weight harness that 
is quite in contrast to the heavy leather worn by the heavy- 
harness horse. The harness is light because the vehicles to 
which this horse is put are very light in weight. In profes- 
sional racing, the bike sulky is used, which weighs from 27 
to 35 pounds; in matinee racing, the vehicle used is a light 
speed wagon, having four wheels but of the same general con- 
struction as the sulky, and weighing only 65 to 68 pounds. On 
the road, the hitch is to a light wagon weighing about 175 
pounds, which may have a top much like the common piano- 

362 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 363 

box buggy. For snow racing, a specially constructed speed 
sleigh is used, weighing a little less than 100 pounds. 

Undoubtedly, every American realizes the largeness of 
the demand for this type of horse for professional racing, but 
the large demand for this horse for use in amateur racing is 
not so generally known. There are many men in cities and 
elsewhere who find great pleasure in holding the reins over a 
horse with speed. In almost every city and town of promi- 
nence are driving clubs whose membership is made up of busi- 
ness and professional men. Weekly matinee racing is con- 
ducted by such clubs during the summer and fall, and, in some 
cases, during the winter months as well. This is purely from 
love of the sport, the prizes being ribbons and silver trophies, 
and not purses as in professional racing. Hundreds of good 
horses, many of them holders of world's records, have been 
purchased by men who never compete for cash prizes ; for 
example, Lou Dillon, The Harvester, and Uhlan are owned by 
Mr. C. K. G. Billings who never races his horses for money. 

The value of the light-harness horse is based upon (1) 
speed, (2) stamina or endurance, (3) durability, and (4) 
beauty of conformation. 

Speed. — Whether in use on or off the track, the light- 
harness horse is prized almost exclusively for speed. We 
Americans are said to be possessed of a great deal of nervous 
energy, and to insist upon speed in everything. Our ships, 
railway trains, street cars, and automobiles are required to 
travel faster than those of any other people. Likewise, among 
our horses, we have placed more emphasis upon speed than 
have other nations. The American Trotter is a result of the 
admiration of Americans for speed wherever it is found. For 
racing purposes, the roadster is required to show 2:30 speed 
at the trot, or 2 :25 at the pace, before he is considered a light- 
harness horse in the true sense of the word ; for road use he 
should be able to do ten miles within an hour. A light-harness 
horse without speed is as useless for the purpose intended as 
a drafter without size, or a carriage horse without action and 
beauty. The abihty to "get there" is the thing for which this 
horse is bred and trained. The world's trotting record is now 
1 :58 (which means one minute and fifty-eight seconds for the 



364 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

mile) and is held by Uhlan, a gelding. The world's pacing 
record is 1 :5514, held by the stallion Dan Patch. The world's 
trotting and pacing records and the years when they were 
established are as follows: 

Trotting Pacing 

1 mile-Uhlan (1912) 1:58 Dan Patch (1905) l:B6i 

2 miles-The Harvester (1910) .. 4:15i Dan Patch (1903) 4:17 

3 miles— Nig-htingale (1893) 6:55i Almont (1908) 6:50 

4 miles-Polly G. (1899) 9:58 Joe Jefferson (1891) 10:10 

6 miles-Zombro (1902) 12:24 Professor (1907) 12:25? 

Stallion-The Harvester (1910) 2:01 Dan Patch (1905) l:55i 

Mare— Lou Dillion (1903) l:58i Dariel (1903) 2:00J 

Geldingr— Uhlan (1912) 1:58 Frank Bogrash. Jr. (1914) 1:591 

Yearling- Airdale (1912) 2:153 Frank Perry (1911) 2:15 

Two-year-old - Peter Volo (1913) 2:04i Directly (1894) 2:072 

Three-year-old-Peter Volo (1914) 2:03i Anna Bradford (1914) 2:00i 

Four-year-old -Etawah (1914) 2:03i William (1914) 2:00 

Five-year-old-Lou Dillion (1903) l:58i Braden Direct (1913) 2:01i 

Under saddle-Country Jay (1909) 2:081 Kruger (1907) 2:12 

Pair-Uhlan and Lewis Forrest (1909)... 2:03i Minor Heir and George Gano (1912) 2:02 

Stamina or endurance. — Most racing, both amateur and 
professional, is at mile heats over half-mile or mile tracks. 
Some races are two in three, and some three in five, heats. 
Not until some horse has succeeded in winning the necessary 
two or three heats is the race decided. For this reason, some 
races extend into very gruelling contests. Some horses show 
a wonderful burst of speed for a quarter of a mile or so, and 
then quit. These horses are said to "lack bottom," by which 
is meant a lack of stamina or endurance. Stamina means 
ability to go a mile at speed, and to repeat the mile, two, three, 
or more times, with intermissions of only 25 minutes. To 
accomplish this requires heart and lungs of the first order, 
together with long, firm muscles over all parts. On the speed- 
way and snowpath, there is a great deal of brush racing, that 
is, racing over short distances of varying lengths, depending 
on the wishes of the drivers and the ease or difficulty in pass- 
ing opponents. This is usually not so severe as a regular rac- 
ing program, provided the horse has been properly conditioned 
and trained. A great many horses which are possessed of 
more stamina than speed depend on their ability to wear down 
their more speedy rivals, in order to win a heat or race. This 
they do by repeated scoring for a start, or through the good 
fortune of having a race extended out to extra heats — what 
is termed a split-heat race. Other horses, with more speed 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 365 

than stamina, must be driven to win from the start of the race, 
avoiding unnecessary scoring in an endeavor to capture the 
required number of heats in short order. 

Durability. — It is readily apparent that the work re- 
quired of the hght-harness horse is of such a nature as de- 
mands the best of feet and legs. This type of horse has a de- 
cided advantage over the carriage horse and draf u r, in that he 
works on a much more yielding footing, yet the high rate of 
speed puts his feet and legs to a very severe test, and many 
horses with speed and stamina have their usefulness and 
value greatly lessened because of failure to keep sound when 
called upon to go through a strenuous racing campaign or do 
a large amount of work on the road. Some very noted horses 
and some families of trotters have been notably lacking in 
this respect. 

Beauty of conformation is a comparatively small factor 
in determining the value of roadsters. Some breeders have 
placed considerable emphasis on the matter of looks and at- 
tractiveness, but in general it may be said that beauty in the 
roadster, while appreciated whenever it occurs, is of as 
small account as it is in the draft horse. Some horsemen 
might maintain that it is even less important in the roadster. 
These statements must be modified, however, in so far as 
roadsters strictly for road driving are concerned ; for such use, 
speed is not so important as endurance and the ability to 
make a long drive in creditable time, and in selecting horses 
for this work considerable attention is given also to the ap- 
pearance of the horse. A big, strong, well-made horse, with 
quality, a well-carried head and tail, light mouth, good man- 
ners, excellent feet and legs, and a long stride, is the sort best 
suited for road driving. For the various kinds of racing, 
however, speed, stamina, and durability are the almost ex- 
clusive requirements. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE TYPE. 

General appearance. — There is wide variation in the gen- 
eral appearance of the light-harness horse. "They come in all 
shapes, and go in all forms." This is a result of breeding for 
speed alone. Speed is the only characteristic which all light- 



366 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



harness horses possess with reasonable uniformity. To be 
sure, selection and breeding for speed have resulted in fixing a 
sort of general type upon this horse. Certain things are nec- 
essary in the conformation of the horse to enable him to go 
fast. Acknowledging this, there is yet opportunity for rather 
wide differences in appearance. Beauty has been almost 
ignored ; speed is the great essential. Beauty is preferred only 




Fig, 99. Roadster or Light-Harness Type. 

Azoff, 2, 2:141/4; son of Peter the Great 2:07% and Dolly Worthy 
2:27%:, by Axworthy 2:15%. Owned at Thompson Farm, Libertyville, 
111., Hon. John R. Thompson, Proprietor. 

when the speed is equal. Even in selecting animals for breed- 
ing purposes, the basis of selection has been speed almost to 
the exclusion of other qualities. S. W. Parlin, Editor of the 
American Horse Breeder, has the following to say on the sub- 
ject of breeding trotters: "When choosing between two ani- 
mals for breeding purposes, one of which is a very attractive 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 367 

animal, but known to be lacking in inheritance from animals 
that were race winners at some gait, and a less attractive one, 
that has a rich speed inheritance on both sides, it will always 
be safer to take the less attractive one that has the richer in- 
heritance." 

The above outlined practice, while correct enough in 
breeding for speed, is responsible for the wide variation in 
appearance found among light-harness horses. A few breed- 
ers have bred for beauty and speed combined. Mr. C. J. Ham- 
lin, who during his lifetime maintained a world-famous breed- 
ing and training plant at East Aurora, N. Y., used to say — 
"When you go into a ball room, you would rather choose as 
a partner a beautiful woman who can dance well than a homely 
one who can dance equally well." He used this illustration to 
show his attitude in the production of the roadster, Mr. 
Hamlin successfully combined speed with size, soundness, 
style, and elegance of form. 

In breeding for speed alone, certain other characters are 
bound to be impressed also. Characters are seldom trans- 
mitted singly. Often there is an association of them found 
always in company, and these are called correlated characters. 
Speed in the light-harness horse is associated or correlated 
with refinement, endurance, and courage. Size, symmetry, 
and beauty are not correlated with speed except in the most 
general way. The light-harness horse varies in weight from 
800 to 1,250 pounds, and in height from 14.2 to 16.1. Weights 
from 950 to 1150 pounds and heights from 15 to 16 hands are 
most common. This type is rather upstanding, leggy, long, 
deep, narrow, and angular. Selection and breeding for speed 
have resulted in a refined race of horses. Quality is shown 
by clean, smooth, dense bone; sharply defined tendons and 
joints; fine skin and hair; small ears; fine-haired mane and 
tail; hoofs of smooth, dense horn; and a chiseled, clean-cut, 
blooded-looking head. The temperament must be decidedly 
sanguine, which brings courage, willingness, and promptness, 
with no sluggishness. 

Head. — The head should be clean-cut and straight, with 
a fine muzzle, large nostrils, and thin, trim lips. The eyes 
should be prominent, rather large, full, clear, bright, with a 



368 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

thin lid. The forehead should be high, broad, and full. The 
ears should be fine, pointed, set close, and carried alert. 

Neck. — A long, lean neck, with a fine throttle, is desired. 
Ewe necks are common. A straight neck, or one with slight 
arch, is preferable. 

Shoulders. — Long, smooth, sloping shoulders, fitted close 
together, and forming high, refined withers at the top, are 
most desirable. 

Middle. — A deep rib, without much arch, is associated 
with desirable light-harness type. The chest gets its capacity 
from depth, rather than from width. A straight, medium- 
short, well-muscled back and loin are essential. The underline 
is long, and the flanks should be well let down. 

Hips. — The hips should be fairly wide, but smooth. This 
type does not present as smooth a hip as does the carriage 
horse. A little prominence of hip is not very objectionable, 
but if this is so pronounced as to give a rough appearance it 
is undesirable. 

Croup. — A long, level, fairly broad, muscular croup is 
best suited to this type. Defective croups are common. The 
tail should be attached high and well carried. 

Thighs and quarters. — Long, muscular thighs give speed. 
Well-muscled quarters are necessary for strength. 

Legs. — Length of leg is necessary for speed, yet there 
should be proper proportion between length of leg and size of 
horse. A shallow body set up high on very long legs is not a 
good type. Yet it is just as essential that the fight-harness 
horse have length of leg to secure speed, as it is that the draft 
horse have a short leg to secure greatest power. However, the 
length must come above the knees and hocks as much as pos- 
sible; short cannons are just as essential here as in other 
types. The arm should be short, muscular, and carried well 
forward, while the forearm should be very long and broad, 
with a nice tapering to the knee. This gives room for the 
attachment of the long muscles associated with speed. The 
knees must be clean-cut, bony, straight, broad, deep, and 
strongly supported. The cannons must be as short as possible, 
broad, with large, clean tendons set well back from the bone. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 369 

Straight, wide fetlock joints and strong, sloping pasterns of 
good length are very necessary. The fore leg must be straight, 
and the toe should point directly forward, to insure trueness 
of action. A long, broad, muscular gaskin is even more essen- 
tial than a long, well-muscled forearm. This brings the hocks 
far below the point of the buttock, which is essential in secur- 
ing speed. Clean-cut hocks that are wide, deep, smooth, bony, 
with prominent point, and well supported below are very nec- 
essary. The hind legs must be straight under the horse, with 
the toes pointing straight ahead. Sickle-shaped hind legs are 
rather too common. 

Feet. — The best of feet are necessary. Although this 
type is usually afforded an easy footing, nevertheless the tre- 
mendous concussion puts the feet to severe strain when the 
horse travels at speed. At high speed, a stride of 19 or 20 
feet is attained. Imagine the force of the backward thrust of 
the ground when a 1000-pound horse strides 20 feet in less 
than half a second, as is the case when the horse is trotting 
at a two-minute gait. The feet should be uniform in size, point 
straight forward, and slope at the same angle as the pastern. 
The horn of the hoof should be dense and smooth, the sole 
should be concave, the bars strong, the frog large and elastic, 
and the heel wide and open. 

Gait. — Both pacers and trotters are found among light- 
harness horses. These gaits differ from each other in that the 
pace is a lateral motion, while the trotter moves diagonally. 
A change of a few ounces in the weight of a shoe often trans- 
forms the gait. Many horses hold records at both gaits. The 
pacing gait is about three seconds faster for the mile than the 
trot, but it is not so popular with horsemen as the trotting 
gait. With the pace there is very often associated a decided 
rolling of the body, which is disliked. The natural pacer also 
frequently possesses a steep croup, short underline, and sickle- 
shaped hind leg. 

Action. — The walk should be true, elastic, quick, and 
regular. The trot, in order to be fast without undue tiring 
of the horse, must be straight and true, with regular, even, 
long stride. Height of action is of little importance; in fact, 
the less knee and hock action the better. It is only important 



370 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



that the foot clear the ground, accompanied by enough action 
of knee and hock to secure length of stride. There should be 
no hitching or unsteadiness of gait, and no great tendency to 
break when going at speed. The legs should move like clock- 
work, and the whole appearance of the horse when in motion 
should be that of a carefully planned machine, able to travel 
at greatest speed with least expenditure of energy. It is ap- 
parent that much of the success of the light-harness horse 
depends upon his action, and action, in turn, is dependent 



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Fig. 100. The Light-Harness Horse in A<;iion. 

The Harvester 2:01, Champion trotting stallion, driven by Mr. Ed. 
Geers. Owned by Mr. C. K. G. Billings of New York City. 

largely upon the placing of the legs. Defects in conformation 
result in knee knocking, speedy cutting, over-reaching, and 
other faults of action. 

Common defects in the action of light-harness horses are 
(1) swinging the fore feet inward, instead of carrying them 
straight away, (2) a stride in which extension is more marked 
than flexion, and when the foot is placed on the ground the 
heels strike first, called "pointing," (3) pause in flight of foot 
before foot reaches ground, called "dwelling," (4) striking 
sole or heels of fore foot with toe of hind foot, called "forging," 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 371 

(5) striking supporting leg with foot of striding leg, called 
"interfering," (6) hitting front of hind foot above or at line of 
hair against toe of fore foot as it breaks over, called "scalp- 
ing," (7) the spreading trotter at speed hits hind leg above 
scalping mark against the outside of the breaking over fore 
foot, called "speedy cutting," and (8) "cross-firing," a fault in 
pacers corresponding to forging in trotters. 

Condition. — The condition of the light-harness horse is 
in marked contrast to the types previously described. When 
in desirable racing condition, there seems to be a total absence 
of fat from the muscles. The muscles are hard and firm, and 
there is a clean-cut appearance which indicates proper racing 
trim. This gives the horse a sinewy aspect. 

Color. — Taking a very large number of light-harness 
horses with records of 2:30 or beter, or from ancestors with 
records of 2 :30 or better, — in other words, standardbred 
trotters, — the colors per thousand horses are as follows : — 
605 bays, 140 chestnuts, 130 browns, 85 blacks, 25 grays, 13 
roans, and 2 duns. The first four colors — bay, chestnut, 
brown, and black — are liked best. Grays, roans, and duns 
are not popular colors. However, color is of minor importance, 
speed being the great and almost exclusive requirement. 

The misfits. — It is a well-known fact that many horses 
bred and developed for light-harness purposes do not show the 
necessary 2 :30 or better speed. These may be called the mis- 
fits, for in breeding any type of animals there is a certain per- 
centage of offspring which fails to exhibit the desired charac- 
teristics, whatever these may be. What becomes of the great 
number of light-harness-bred horses which lack the prime 
essential — speed ? Among them, a few will show good car- 
riage horse conformation, and so it is that horses of light- 
harness breeding are quite often docked and made over into 
heavy-harness horses ; some very good show horses have come 
from this source — mere accidents in breeding. Those which 
lack beauty as well as speed must be sold at a loss to the 
breeder. These find their way into all sorts of work, such as 
filling the demand for cheap driving horses, delivery wagon 
horses, and other demands for cheap horses. When horse 
cars were in use on street railways, many misfit trotters were 
disposed of for such work. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 
THE SADDLE HORSE. 

Any horse used for riding might be called a saddle horse. 
But there is a certain type of horse best suited to carrying a 
man in safety and comfort, and this is the type to bear in mind 
when thinking of saddle horses. The horse of all pioneer 
peoples is the saddler. In new countries, before the opening 
of roads, the saddle horse is of greatest usefulness. When the 
country becomes settled and roadways are opened and im- 
proved, other types of horses quickly appear, and there is 
less and less real necessity for the saddle horse; but the sad- 
dler never disappears from any community, because he is 
highly prized as a horse for pleasure and recreation. 

When roads were being opened in the states along the 
eastern seaboard, and the roadster began to gain popularity, 
Kentucky, Missouri, and the West were yet a country of bridle 
paths, and there the saddle horse was held in high esteem. 
In 1818, a traveller through the Kentucky blue-grass region 
reported that "the horse, 'noble and generous,' is the favorite 
animal of the Kentuckian, by whom he is pampered with un- 
ceasing attention. Every person of wealth has from ten to 
thirty, of good size and condition, upon which he lavishes his 
corn with a wasteful profusion." Besides Kentucky and Mis- 
souri, the states of Virginia and Tennessee have been inti- 
mately connected with saddle horse development in America. 
These four states produce many excellent saddle animals 
annually. 

Today, saddle horses are used in a business way by the 
cavalry of the United States Army and National Guard, by the 
mounted police of the larger cities, by cattle drovers in rural 
districts, by cattle buyers and salesmen at the large live- 
stock markets, by ranchers in the West, and by overseers and 
managers of large plantations and farms in the South, East, 
and Central West. However, the high prices for saddle horses 
are paid by people to whom the saddler is a pleasure horse. In 

372 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 373 

city parks and on country roads are to be seen many excellent 
saddle horses, used strictly for pleasure and recreation. 

All good saddle horses possess a general type which we 
may call "saddle type," but the uses made of saddle horses are 
so varied that several varieties or sub-types of the saddle 
horse exist, each possessing a distinct type of its own. The 
most important of these sub-types are (1) the five-gaited 
saddler, (2) the walk, trot, canter horse, (3) the hunter, and 
(4) the polo pony. All of these are pleasure horses. The 
running horse or race horse, the cavalry horse, and the mus- 
tang are other saddle sub-types adapted to certain special uses, 
but the following discussion is confined to the four sub-types 
first mentioned. A brief description of the cavalry horse will 
be found in the chapter dealing with market classes of horses. 

The Five-Gaited Saddle Horse. 

The five-gaited saddle horse is also known as the Ameri- 
can Saddle Horse, this being the name of the breed which sup- 
plies practically all horses of the gaited class. To classify as a 
five-gaited horse, the saddler must have at least five gaits, four 
of which must be the walk, trot, canter, and rack ; in addition 
to these four, the horse must have one or more of three slow 
gaits — the running walk, fox trot, and slow pace. 

The gaited saddler is the horse that has made Kentucky 
and Missouri famous. In his native home he is looked upon 
with reverence, and bred and trained with great care. Dozens 
of uses are made of him. If a call is made upon a neighbor, 
be it formal or informal in nature, this horse is brought into 
service. If it is desired to simply promenade, or to obtain 
healthful out-of-door exercise, there is the always-present 
saddle horse useful for the purpose. He carries his master 
to church, to school, and to war; on neighborhood visits, and 
on long journeys across country. Wherever and whenever the 
Kentuckian or Missourian may go on horseback he does so, 
and, instinctively, when thinking of these people, one thinks 
of them as mounted on gaited horses. 

General appearance. — The gaited horse wears a natural 
mane and tail, in contrast to the other types of saddle horses. 
The breeders of this type lay stress upon loftiness of carriage, 



374 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



airiness of movement, refinement, intelligence, docility with 
high spirit and courage, — withal, great beauty in every detail 
of conformation, without any sacrifice of those qualities which 
insure durability and creditable performance of the work de- 
manded of a saddle horse. A leading Kentucky breeder pre- 
sents the points of the typical five-gaited saddle horse in the 
following brief paragraph* : — 




Fig. 101. Five-Gaited Saddle Horse. 

The noted prize-winning stallion, Kentucky's Choice. 
Mrs. R. Tasker Lowndes of Danville, Ky. 



Owned by 



"The typical saddle horse does not dificer materially from 
other light horses in conformation. The characteristics pe- 
culiar to the type are a long, clean neck, sloping pasterns and 
shoulders, withers moderately high and narrow, a short and 
compactly coupled back, smoothly turned quarters, and a well- 
set, high-carried tail. In action there should be promptness, 
ease, and precision in going from gait to gait, and absolute 



'Bit and Spur, September, 1912, p. 22. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 375 

straightness and evenness in each. The rack should be 
smooth, swift, and without side motion of the body or legs, 
the trot should be fast and without offensive flashiness, the 
canter should be slow with no increasing speed, the flat-footed 
walk should be springy and reasonably fast, while the running 
walk, or fox trot, should be easy and comfortable and equal to 
about five miles an hour." 




Fig. 102. The Saddle Horse in Action. 

Edna May, undefeated five-gaited mare, ridden by Mr. Mat S. Cohen 
of Lexington, Ky. Owned by Mrs. R. Tasker Lowndes of Danville, Ky. 
This picture shows correct degree of knee and hock action and proper, 
carriage of head and tail. 

Gaits. — In a wild state the natural gaits of the horse 
were three in number — the walk, trot, and gallop or run. 
Some authorities also include the pacing gait as one of the nat- 
ural gaits of the horse, and there is good evidence in support of 
this contention. Under domestication these gaits have been 



376 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

variously modified and additions made for saddle purposes. 
These additions and modifications are largely the result of the 
selection for breeding purposes of those animals most readily 
acquiring the desired gaits when trained to them. The gaits 
desired in the five-gaited type of saddle horse are as follows: 

Walk. — The fiat-footed walk should be springy, regular, 
and reasonably fast. 

Trot. — This is a diagonal gait, the off fore foot and near 
hind foot striking the ground together, the body being then 
propelled forward from this support and sustained by the near 
fore foot and off hind foot. It is a "two-beat" gait. The trot 
should be fast, with only moderate height of action, offensive 
flashiness being undesirable. Many otherwise excellent sad- 
dle horses cannot trot well, "pointing" and coming down on 
their heels, instead of exhibiting a good square trot. 

Canter. — The canter is a restrained gallop. It is slower 
than the gallop and easier to ride. The horse easily acquires 
this gait. It should be slow, with no increasing speed. The 
canter is not considered perfect until the horse can perform 
it at a rate no faster than a fast walk. To "canter all day in 
the shade of an apple tree" is a well-known saying. A well- 
trained horse will change lead in the canter, and start with 
either foot leading, at the will of the rider. 

Rack. — This is a four-beat gait, each foot meeting the 
ground singly, all the intervals being equal. Hence it is some- 
times called "single foot." This gait may be distinguished 
by the ear alone, because the foot-falls are rapid enough to 
produce a characteristic musical clatter. The rack is taught 
by urging the horse with the whip or spurs and restraining by 
the curb. This breaks up the movement of a slow gait, and 
the restraint is sufficient to prevent a free trot or canter, so 
that the horse flies into a rapid four-beat gait. The rack is 
easy for the rider, hard for the horse. It is showy, and some 
horses can perform it at great speed. This gait has been offi- 
cially named the "rack" by the American Saddle Horse Breed- 
ers* Association, hence the name "single foot" should not be 
used. It should be smooth, swift, and without side motion of 
the body or legs. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 377 

Slow pace. — The slow pace is the true pace so modifie 
that the impact on the ground of the two teet on a side is 
broken, the hind foot touching first, thus avoiding the rolhng 
motion of the true pace. The slow pace is a comfortable and 
attractive gait. It is little used outside of the show ring. 
Many trainers do not favor it, for the horse easily falls into 
the habit of taking the true pace which is not a desirable 
saddle gait because it is rough and uncomfortable. The true 
pace is the worst gait a saddle horse can possess; the rider 
cannot rise to it and save himself as in a trot. 

Fox trot. — The fox trot is a slow trot or jog trot. It is 
not so popular as the running walk. It is a broken-time gait and 
difficult to describe. Some riders, when asked to exhibit the 
fox trot, simply restrain their horses to as slow a trot as pos- 
sible, seeking to pass that off as a fox trot. However, the 
true fox trot is not accompanied by restraint. 

Running walk. — This is a slow gait, as are also the slow 
pace and fox trot. The running walk is faster than a flat- 
foot walk and is taught by gently urging the horse out of the 
ordinary walk, but restraining him from a trot. The move- 
ment of the limbs is more rapid than in a walk, but in about 
the same rhythm. Each foot strikes the ground independently, 
and there are three feet on the ground all the time. The 
true running walk is usually characterized by a bobbing or 
nodding of the head, and, in some instances, by a flopping of the 
ears, in unison with the foot-falls. It is an all-day gait, easy 
and comfortable to both horse and rider, and equal to about 
five miles an hour. It is, however, not as showy or attractive 
as the other gaits. 

Many saddle horses are educated to all seven of the gaits, 
and some have a knowledge of special movements known as 
the high-school gaits. 

Walk, Trot, Canter Horse. 

This type is also styled the "three-gaited horse" and the 
"park hack." This is the horse which conforms to English 
fashions, whereas the five-gaited saddler is exclusively an 
American type. The three-gaited horse is ridden in true Eng- 
lish fashion; this means the use of the English pad saddle, 
the curb bit and snaffle, and the crop in place of the riding 



378 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



whip. At the trot, the rider does not sit close to the saddle, 
but performs what is called "posting." 

General appearance. — The walk, trot, canter horse has 
his mane pulled and his tail docked and set, in accordance with 
English fashion, whereas the gaited horse wears a natural 
mane and tail. Otherwise, the two types have practically the 




Fig. 103. The Three-Gaited Saddle Type. 

Connoisseur, an excellent type of walk, trot, canter horse, 
by Mr. Wm. Ritter of Columbus, Ohio. 



Owned 



same general appearance. Most three-gaited saddlers are 
American Saddle Horses which, for one reason or another, are 
marketed as three-gaited horses. There are also quite a num- 
ber of walk, trot horses which are of Thoroughbred breeding, 
and some have a strong infusion of the blood of the American 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 379 

Trotter. In such cases, the head and tail are not carried so 
high, and there is not the evidence of style in form and action 
which characterizes the horse that is of American Saddle 
Horse breeding. 

Gaits. — This horse must show three gaits, and three 
only; these are the walk, trot, and canter. It is as objection- 
able for a three-gaited horse to show more than the gaits 
mentioned as for the five-gaited horse to know less than the 
five gaits. 

While many people have adopted the walk, trot, canter 
horse in preference to the five-gaited type because they accept 
English horse fashions as law, there is still another reason 
why the American type with its five or more gaits is not 
favored by all riders. The reason is that there is no advantage 
in having a horse with all the gaits unless the rider is skillful 
enough to keep them distinct. If the man is less instructed 
than the horse, a sad confusion of paces is apt to result. A 
well-mouthed, well-suppled horse, with a good trot and a good 
canter is more useful to the ordinary rider than is one of the 
highly accomplished gaited saddlers; hence the popularity of 
the three-gaited horse, especially in the larger cities. Saddle 
horse breeders recognize this state of affairs and annually 
send to market a large number of three-gaited animals with 
short manes and tails, as well as large numbers of five-gaited 
horses. 

Outside of the matter of gaits, the requirements for the 
five-gaited and three-gaited types are so nearly identical that 
one discussion will suffice for both. 

REQUIREMENTS OF THE SADDLE HORSE. 

The essential points to be looked for in a saddle horse are 
(1) beauty of conformation, (2) sure-footedness, (3) comfort- 
able seat, (4) best of manners, (5) knowledge of the gaits, 
(6) durability, and (7) dark solid color. 

1. Beauty of conformation. — Attractiveness of form 
and action is almost, if not quite, as valuable in the saddle 
horse as in the carriage horse. People who ride for pleasure 
take as much pride in the ownership of an attractive animal 
as do the owners of carriage horses. 



380 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

2. Sure-footedness. — Saddle action must, first of all, be 
safe and sure. A horse inclined to stumble is dangerous, and 
cannot be highly valued for saddle purposes. 

3. Comfortable seat. — Though a horse be sure-footed, 
he will not be of much use or value for saddle work unless he 
gives his rider a pleasant ride. Rough-gaited horses are not 
useful saddle horses. 

4. Manners. — The intimate relation between horse and 
rider calls for the very best of manners. Conduct that would 
be tolerated from a horse in harness may be very disagree- 
able if. the horse is under saddle. The very nature of the use 
to which the saddler is put makes manners one of the prime 
essentials. 

5. Knowledge of gaits. — To a considerable extent the 
value of the saddle animal is measured by his knowledge of 
the gaits. As this is largely a matter of training, it is placed 
fifth in the list of requirements. There must be no mixing 
of gaits ; each gait must be pure, and the horse should change 
gaits promptly and easily at the signal from the rider. 

6. Durability. — This implies enough substance com- 
bined with quality of bone and joints to insure good wearing 
qualities. Although a pleasure horse and hence not asked to 
do extreme labor, nevertheless real pleasure does not come 
to the rider who knows his horse to be delicate in bone, or 
otherwise liable to injury, if called upon to do hard work. 

7. Color. — Dark colors are much preferred, including 
bay, brown, chestnut, and black. Flashy colors such as dap- 
ple gray, roan, dun, cream, white, and parti-color are too con- 
spicuous for ordinary saddle use, but may find a demand from 
circuses 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SADDLE TYPE. 

Size and weight. — These are quite variable depending on 
the character of the work and the weight of the rider. The 
height is usually from 15.1 to 15.3 hands, and the weight from 
1,000 to 1,150 pounds. A gaited horse of 15.1 hands and 1,000 
pounds is termed a "lady's saddler," or if a walk, trot, canter 
horse, a "lady's hack ;" but for heavier riders larger animals 
are required, some men needing a horse standing over 16 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 381 

hands and weighing 1,200 pounds or even more. For the sake 
of comparison the heights and weights of the various sub- 
types of saddle horses are here given : 

Type Height Weight 

Five gaited 15 —16 900—1200 

Three gaited 14.3—16 900 — 1200 

Hunter 15.2—16.1 1000—1250 

Cavalry 15 —15.3 950—1100 

Polo pony 14 —14.2 850—1000 

Conformation. — The saddle horse is considered by many 
people to be the most stylish, beautiful, and finished of all 
horses. The principal requirements in conformation are 
(1) a long, refined neck, (2) nicely sloping pasterns and shoul- 
ders, and (3) moderately high and refined withers. The lines 
of the head should be cameo-like in sharpness and clean-cut- 
ness. An ideal saddler will naturally have a head showing an 
unusually kind disposition and high intelligence, for the inti- 
mate relation between horse and rider demands the best of 
manners in the horse and thinking ability on both sides. The 
head should be set at the right angle on a very long, refined, 
nicely arched neck. Unless there is lots of horse in front of the 
saddle, the appearance is spoiled, and a horse with a short, 
straight, heavy neck is not easily controlled. There should 
be easy flexion of jaw and neck, and this is possible only with 
a long, refined neck, properly arched. However, a "weedy" 
neck, that is, one lacking in muscular development, is not 
wanted. Much attention must be given to the slope of pastern 
and shoulder, for straight pasterns and shoulders are more 
objectionable in the saddle horse than in any other type be- 
cause they are almost certain to make the horse a hard rider. 
Height and refinement of withers are necessary for a similar 
reason. Horses that are low in the forehand are not com- 
fortable to ride. Furthermore, the saddle cannot be made 
secure on round, flat withers, this being particularly true of 
the side saddle. The extension of the shoulder into the back 
and shortness and strength of coupling are very important. 
A straight or roached back does not afford an easy ride; 
there should be a certain degree of sprin.nriness, without any 
weakness or sway-backed conformation. The saddle horse is 
somewhat upstanding, and the head and tail should be smartly 
carried. 



382 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

Refinement and finish. — The saddle horse should possess 
a high degree of quality, and lots of smoothness from end to 
end. There should be greater refinement of head, ear, and 
bone than in the heavy-harness type of horse. The shoulders 
should be well laid in, and the hindquarters smoothly turned. 
The smoothness of the typical saddler is in marked contrast 
to the angular appearance of the roadster. Rotundity of body 
is a highly desirable feature. Levelness of croup is more im- 
portant in the saddle horse than in any other type ; if a horse 
has a steep croup, the defect is magnified a great deal when 
the saddle is placed upon his back, and he presents a plain 
appearance. 

Action. — The action should be energetic, elastic, of mod- 
erate height, and especially there should be trueness of motion 
in all gaits. Gracefulness and ease of action are very desirable. 
A springy step resulting from sloping pasterns and shoulders 
is more essential in the saddle horse than in any other type. 
A straight-shouldered and -pasterned horse gives one a ride 
like a carriage without springs. Collected action, by which is 
meant harmony or unison of movement between fore and hind 
legs is necessary for gracefulness and comfort. It also means 
that the legs will be kept at all times under the weight, thus 
permitting of quick turns or any other evolutions desired. Col- 
lected action is largely a result of properly training the horse, 
and skill on the part of the rider. By pressure of the leg, or 
use of the whip or spur, the horse is kept alert, with the hind 
legs well under the body, while the hands bring sufficient 
pressure on the mouth to restrain the movement slightly, arch 
the neck, and secure a small degree of yielding of the jaw. If 
the action is not collected, the horse moves awkwardly and 
executes sudden commands in a clumsy fashion. 

Temperament and disposition. — The temperament should 
be sanguine, as in all other light horses. The disposition should 
be kind, willing, honest, and courageous. There should be 
docility with high spirit and animation. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

THE HUNTER AND POLO PONY. 

The hunter and polo pony differ rather markedly from the 
two types of saddle horses just described, largely because they 
are required to do work of a highly specialized nature in which 
performance is of greater importance and beauty less valued 
than with the gaited horse and park hack. Hence, the hunter 
and polo pony are given separate consideration in order that 
their peculiarities of type and requirements may be better 
emphasized. 

The Hunter 

The hunter is the type used in following the hounds in 
fox hunting. He must be up to carrying his rider at good 
speed over long distances across country, jumping fences and 
ditches when called upon to do so. Like the park hack, this 
is an English type. His mane and tail are worn short, and he 
is ridden in much the same fashion as the three-gaited saddler. 

Although the American demand for this horse is some- 
what limited, the supply is still more so, resulting in high prices 
being paid for green horses of the hunter stamp. In England 
the demand is great, and American horses of hunter type have 
been much sought after by exporters. The English people 
have invested many millions of dollars in the sport of fox 
hunting. There is an increasing demand for hunters in this 
country, and the demand will continue to grow because fox 
hunting, besides being a most healthful and invigorating 
amusement, is a fashionable and popular sport among those 
who are able to take part in its pleasures. It is estimated that 
within twenty-five miles of New York there are six hundred to 
eight hundred hunters in daily use, and that the suburbs of 
New York and Philadelphia total nearly fifteen hundred such 
animals. Many are well worth over $1,000, and the great 
majority are worth $400 to $500 each. It is probable that 
this census represents from $750,000 to $1,000,000 worth of 

883 



384 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

horses for hunting. In Canada there are hundreds of ex- 
cellent hunters, and the sport is on the increase. The Cen- 
tral West of the United States is beginning to take up fox 
hunting, several hunt clubs having been organized in that 
section during the last few years. 

From the nature of the work, the hunter must be a 
horse of more size, ruggedness, and constitution than the 
other types of saddle horses. He must be a stayer at hard 
work, a jumper, and a horse of courage and decent manners. 
His bone must be of good size and of the right quality, and 
there must be an evidence of strength throughout his con- 
formation. Otherwise he cannot long withstand the hard- 
ships of the hunting field. 

Height and weight. — With reference to height, much 
will depend upon circumstances. Weight-carrying hunters 
are always more difficult to procure and command higher 
prices. Short, light-weight men prefer 15.2 hands to 15.3, but 
height is quite subsidiary to conformation. Where fences are 
high, tall horses are necessary, but conformation must not 
be sacrified to this. Some hunters are nearly 17 hands. 
Hunters are classed as light, middle, and heavy weight accord- 
ing to their size and weight. Most of the hunting horses in 
use range in height from 15.2 to 16.1 hands, and in weight 
from 1,000 to 1,250 pounds. 

General appearance. — The general appearance of the 
hunter should be that of a thin-skinned, big-boned, small- 
headed, fine-shouldered, deep-chested, clean-limbed animal, 
with a neatly turned, compact body, and having a facial ex- 
pression of great keenness, docility, and quick perception. 
In selecting or judging hunters, particular attention is given 
to conformation, and action comes in for much attention also. 

Head. — The head should be light, a heavy head in a 
hunter being very objectionable; the forehead straight; the 
eyes large and prominent; the ears erect, thin, and covered 
with fine hair ; and the skin covering the head and face should 
also be thin, rendering the various prominences upon the skull 
easily apparent. The high-class hunter should have a mild, 
keen, and extremely intelligent facial expression, expressive 
of alertness to a degree 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



385 



Neck. — The neck must be long, narrow towards the poll, 
and the head should be carried obliquely, a lofty carriage 
being undesirable in the hunter. As the shoulders are ap- 
proached, the neck should increase in width, be of moderate 
thickness, and clean along its upper border, with a closely- 
cropped mane. Many hunters are very weedy in the neck, 
and if this is the case, the horse is unable to recover himself 
in the event of a fall, as the muscles of the neck materially 
assist in raising the forepart of the body in its attempt to 
regain balance. 




Fig. 104. The Hunter. 

Withers. — The upper border of the neck should pass 
into high withers, and most of the best hunters are high in 
this region. 

Shoulders. — When judging hunters, attention must be 
fixed upon the shoulders, not only while the horse is at rest, 
but also when jumping, as good shoulder action is one of the 
most important points in a hunter. In action it must be 
free and full, yet fine, because if the shoulders are logged up 



386 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



with muscles (heavy shoulders), the free action is interfered 
with when jumping. 

Chest. — The chest must be deep ; in fact, it is self evi- 
dent that a hunter should be "well-hearted" in order to pro- 
vide plenty of space for the free play of heart and lungs under 
extreme exertion. Width of chest is not required and often 
means bulky shoulders. 




Fig. 105. The Hunter in Action. 

Mr. Edward B. McLean's Alarms jumping at the National Capitol 
Horse Show at Washington, D. C, in 1914, ridden by Mr. Louis Leith. 

Ribs. — A slightly flat side is desirable, though the ribs 
must not be short, otherwise the horse becomes "tucked up" 
or "washy" in appearance. 

Back, loin, and croup. — The back and loin should be of 
medium length, and the latter must be broad and clothed with 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 387 

powerful muscles, passing into neatly turned quarters — the 
so-called "goose rump" being of objectionable conformation. 

Arms and knees. — The arms should be strong and power- 
ful ; the forearms of good breadth above and ending below in 
broad-jointed, clean-cut knees, A stiff knee is certainly det- 
rimental, as is also low daisy-cutting action, as such horses 
cannot freely flex and extend their joints during the leap. 

Thighs and hocks. — The first and second thighs must be 
neatly turned, and clothed with powerful muscles. Particular 
attention must be paid to the hocks and to hock action ; the 
hock joints must be broad, deep from front to back, clean in 
outline, and covered with thin skin. 

Cannons, fetlocks, and pasterns. — The cannons, fetlocks, 
pasterns, and feet demand special examination. The so-called 
"clean" legs are indispensable, and every horseman knows the 
meaning of this term. If a hunter's legs are of this descrip- 
tion, there is little fear that they will fill up after a heavy day's 
work. Associated with cleanness must be considerable sub- 
stance. The fetlocks must be capable of full flexion. The 
ideal pastern is one with a moderate degree of slope, broad in 
front, deep from front to back, and well rounded at the sides. 
It should be covered with thin skin. Pasterns that are too 
long, too oblique, or light in the bone, are of bad conformation ; 
and short, upright pasterns are extremely objectionable for 
very evident reasons. 

Feet. — The feet must be concave on their lower surface, 
proportionate in size, of good shape, well open at the heels, 
neither contracted nor cracked. 

Color. — In selecting a hunter, color seldom plays any part, 
and in the hunting field are horses of almost every color. Bay, 
brown, light or dark chestnut, and gray are the principal col- 
ors, more especially bay and brown, with either white or black 
points. 

Disposition. — This is of great importance in order to in- 
sure the safety of other horses, the hounds, and the rider. 
Some hunters are tremendous pullers, in fact, defy all attempts 
to hold them. There is great difference in temperament and 
disposition — one hunter will rush at his fences in a reckless 
and headstrong way, and another will even walk to his jump 



388 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



and clear it in a businesslike manner. It is because so many 
Thoroughbreds have bad dispositions, that horses having a 
small amount of draft blood are often more desirable as hunt- 
ers than are those of straight Thoroughbred breeding. 

Production of hunters. — There is no breed of hunters. 
They are largely of Thoroughbred breeding, about seven parts 
Thoroughbred and one part cold (draft) blood being a gen- 
erally accepted formula in breeding hunters. This proportion 
is secured by mating a three-quarter-blood mare with a Thor- 
oughbred stallion of correct type to get hunters. The infusion 




Fig. 106. A Hunt Team and Pack of Fox Hounds. 



of cold blood gives greater size and ruggedness and a better 
disposition, but is said to lessen to some extent the staying 
qualities and gameness of the animal. Some most excellent 
hunters have come of straight Thoroughbred breeding. Ire- 
land has long enjoyed a wide reputation for the rearing and 
sale of the best hunting horses — the name "Irish hunter" 
carrying the idea of super-excellence in this type of horse, 
even if some so named were in reality bred in places far re- 
moved from the Emerald Isle. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 389 

The Polo Pony. 

Modern polo is largely a rich man's game. It is played 
with four mounted men on a side, the object being to drive 
a wooden ball between goal posts at the ends of a field 300 
yards long and 120 to 150 yards wide. Each player carries 
a long-handled mallet of regulation design. It is a very fast 
game for both ponies and men, requiring quickness and pre- 
cision. 

History of polo. — Polo existed in Persia and Turkey be- 
fore the tenth century. Thence it spread to Central Asia, 
Thibet, and Central India, being found at Calcutta in the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth centuries. It is said to have also existed 
in Japan a thousand years ago. English officers returning 
from India, in 1874, started polo at the Hurlingham Club, Ful- 
ham, England. Hurlingham has since been recognized as 
the great center of the sport, and the rules it has laid down 
have been accepted as authority in every country except Amer- 
ica, where a few changes in these rules have been made. 

The game was introduced into this country in 1876, and 
from a small start made in that year it has steadily grown 
in favor. In 1911 there were 42 civilian clubs and 38 military 
posts in this country where polo was played. The game is 
now played the world over. When first introduced into this 
country, the ponies used were 13.2 hands high ; from these, 
very tall men almost touched the ground with their feet. Larg- 
er and faster ponies were found more advantageous, and the 
standard was fixed at 14 hands. It has since been raised to 
14.1, and again to 14.2, the present standard. The rules limit 
the height of ponies to 14.2 hands or under, but this rule is not 
strictly enforced ; the modem game is played at such high 
speed that only big 14.3- to 15-hand Thoroughbred or three- 
quarter-blood ponies are considered good enough for important 
matches. The range in weight is from 850 to 1,000 pounds. 

Demand for good ponies. — It is a thoroughly established 
fact that a player is no more proficient than his pony. The 
question of suitable mounts has been troublesome to American 
players from the very first. There was a time when western 
cow ponies made acceptable mounts for the game. They were 
brought to the East by the carload and sold at very moderate 



390 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



prices. A small percentage of these developed into really good 
polo ponies. As competition became keener, the demand for 
better and better ponies became more imperative, and today 
the cow pony has been replaced by what is virtually a Thor- 
oughbred horse of small size. In almost every case, the best 
modern ponies were sired by a Thoroughbred stallion. English 
ponies used for polo have always carried more or less Thor- 
oughbred inheritance ; they are bred in the purple, trained two 
years, and carefully housed and fed. There has been formed 
in England a Polo and Riding Pony Society for the purpose of 
establishing and improving a breed of ponies for polo. 




Fig. 107. I'olo l*ony ol Excellent Type. 

Owned by Mr. L. Waterbury and ridden by him when a member of 
the American team which won the International Cup from England. 

Five years ago a number of American ponies were valued 
at $1,000, and for some imported English ponies up to $2,000 
had been paid. At a sale in England, in 1898, a pony named 
Sailor, brought $3,750. In 1909 the American team which 
went to Hurlingham to compete for the world's championship 
was enabled to win largely because of the excellence of their 
ponies. These ponies were English-bred, and were reported 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 391 

to have cost high prices ranging up to $5,000. The American 
victory brought as much credit to Enghsh pony breeders as 
it did to the playing abihty of the American team. In cham- 
pionship contests, four to six ponies are used by each player, 
and some players maintain a big string of ponies from which 
to make selections for games. 

What constitutes a good polo pony? — The polo pony must 
combine speed with weight-carrying ability. He must be 
wiry, agile, and under proper training must acquire ability to 




Fig. 108. A Good Type of Polo Pony. 

quickly start, stop, and wheel. He must have a light mouth. 
He must be intelligent and learn to like the game and follow 
the ball. The disposition must be such as insures a level 
head, doggedness, docility, courage, and quickness. Much de- 
pends on the rider; there is danger of the pony becoming a 
puller if the rider is deficient, and some ponies become ball- 



392 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

and-mallet shy by being struck accidentally on the head and 
legs. A pony that pulls hard or becomes wild in a fast scrim- 
mage, or swerves off the ball, is useless in first-class polo. 

The game calls for lots of endurance and wearing quality, 
hence the conformation of middle, hindquarters, feet, and 
legs largely determines a pony's adaptability for the game. 
The object of breeders is to produce a pony 14,2 hands high, 
able to carry from 168 to 200 pounds for ten minutes in a fast 
game. 

The polo pony should be built like a weight-carrying hunt- 
er. His head should be well set on, wide between the jaws, 
with plenty of room at the throttle. He should have a big, 
clear, sound, prominent eye; small, pricked ears, indicative of 
alertness; a well-formed, well-arched, and muscular neck; a 
fine, sloping shoulder; not too fine at the withers, and his 
breast should be ample and in proportion to the remainder of 
the forequarters. His forearms should be big and powerful, 
the knees wide, particularly good under the knee, with a short 
cannon. The fetlocks should be large and clean-cut, the pas- 
terns well supplied with bone, and of proper slope and strength. 
The foot should be of good size, smooth, nicely shaped, the 
heels open, and the frog well developed and elastic. 

He should be deep from withers to sternum, and fairly 
wide through the chest; he should be short in the back, well 
coupled, ribbed close up to the hip, with plenty of muscle be- 
hind the saddle. His thighs and quarters should be big and 
powerful, carrying down into the gaskin in well-defined masses 
of muscle, and the gaskin should bulge with muscle also. The 
hock should be broad and flat, with the natural prominences 
clean-cut and well developed. The tendon of Achilles should 
be well defined and powerful. There should be great bone be- 
low the hock, and in other respects the hind limb should be 
similar to the fore one. 

Production of polo ponies. — At present the only method 
of producing ponies such as the modern game demands is the 
mating of polo pony mares with a Thoroughbred stallion of 
approved type. However, a very large percentage of get is 
over height, and only a small percentage of foals that are of 
proper size have the conformation and disposition to become 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



393 



polo ponies. Evidently the breeding of this pony is not a 
proposition for the general farmer, but only for the specialist 
who makes a special study of the requirements of players and 
of methods of production. In Texas and other western states 
are a few ranches which make a business of breeding these 
ponies and training them, being equipped with polo fields for 
this purpose. Beginning with western cow ponies, they have 
graded up their pony stock by the use of dwarf Thoroughbred 
sires until the present stocks are practically of straight Thor- 
oughbred breeding. England has taken up the production of 




Fig. 109. The Polo Pony in Action. 

polo ponies in a more systematic manner than have we in this 
country. In 1893 they formed the Polo Pony Stud Book 
Society, thus laying the foundation for pedigrees and for the 
establishment of a breed. The name of the society was later 
changed to the Polo and Riding Pony Society. Beginning in 
1895, annual shows have been held by this organization, and 
enough progress has been made in breeding to indicate that 
in time a true breed of ponies for polo will be established. 
When this is accomplished, the production of polo ponies will 
not be so difficult or uncertain as it is today. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

MARKET CLASSES OF HORSES. 

The present rank and importance of the various horse 
markets is shown by the following figures giving the receipts 
for 1914. 

1. St. Louis..... 148,128 8. St. Joseph 26,073 

2. Chicago . 106,282 9. Denver 16,957 

3. Kansas City 87,155 10. Oklahoma City 14,412 

4. Pittsburg... 49,258 11. Sioux City 9,673 

5. Fort Worth 47,712 12. Wichita 7,017 

6. Omaha 30,688 13. St. Paul 5,683 

7. Indianapolis. 26,856 



Total 575,894 

Auction rules. — At the large horse markets, horses are 
sold at auction under certain rules which are well known and 
understood by all horsemen who buy or sell at these markets. 
As the horse comes into the auction ring, a clerk on the auc- 
tioneer's stand displays a placard on which appears in large 
letters the rule under which the animal will be sold, such as 
"Sound," "Serviceably sound," "At the halter," etc. The rule 
under which the horse is sold is a guarantee made by the seller 
to the buyer. The buyer has until noon of the following day 
to refuse the horse, if upon examination and trial he finds that 
the animal is not as represented. 

The definitions of the principal rules which govern the 
sale of horses are given below. Exceptions to these rules may 
be announced from the auction stand, pointing out the defects, 
in which case they are recorded and go with the horse. 

1. Sound. — Perfectly sound in every way. 

2. Serviceably somid. — Virtually a sound animal, barring 
slight blemishes which do not interfere with his usefulness in 
any way. His wind and eyes must be good, but a spot or 

The Illinois Experiment Station has made an extensive study of the 
market classes of live stock and meats, and has published five very 
valuable bulletins setting forth the information thus obtained. The 
bulletin on horses. Bulletin No. 122, "Market Classes and Grades of 
Horses and Mules," written by Prof. R. C. Obrecht, has been used as the 
basis for this and the next chapters. The student will find it well worth 
while to refer to this bulletin, especially for the excellent illustrations 
which it contains. 

394 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



395 



streak in the eye which does not affect the sight will be con- 
sidered serviceably sound as long as the pupil of the eye is 
good. He must not be lame or sore in any way. 

3. Wind and work. — The only guarantee this carries 
with it is that the animal has good wind and is a good worker. 

4. Wor'k only. — He must be a good worker, but every- 
thing else goes with him. No other guarantee than to work. 

5. Legs go. — Everjrthing that is on the animal's legs go 
with him; nothing is guaranteed except that he must not be 




Fig. 110. Horse Market at Union Stock Yards, Chicago. 

Winding and trying-out horses immediately after purchase. If the 
horse is found to be not as represented when sold, the buyer has the 
privilege of returning him to the seller. 



lame or crampy. He must, however, be serviceably sound in 
every other respect. 

6. At the halter. — Sold just as he stands without any 
recommendations. He may be lame, vicious, balky, a kicker, 
or anything else. The purchaser takes all the risk. The title 
only is guaranteed. 

Market requirements. — The factors that determine how 
well horses sell upon the market are soundness, conformation, 
quality, condition, action, age, color, training, and style. These, 
together with some minor considerations, are discussed below. 

Soundness. — The market demands that a horse be service- 
ably sound, by which is meant one that is as good as a sound 



396 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

horse so far as service is concerned. He may have slight 
blemishes, but nothing that is likely to cause lameness or sore- 
ness in any way. He must be good in wind and eyes, but may 
have small splints and puffs, and a little rounding on the curb 
joint. Broken wind, thick wind, sidebones, unsound hocks 
such as curbs, spavins, and thoroughpins, large splints, and 
buck knees are discriminated against. 

Conformation. — If a horse is to do hard work, with a min- 
imum of wear, and give the longest possible period of service, 
he must possess a conformation indicative of strength, en- 
durance, and longevity, the indications of which are good feet, 
a good constitution, good feeding qualities, good bone, and 
symmetry of conformation. Conformation has been discussed 
fully in connection with the various types described in pre- 
ceding chapters, and no further discussion is necessary here. 

Quality. — Quality in a horse is of great importance, as has 
already been emphasized. A horse lacking in quality is a 
comparatively cheap animal. 

Condition. — To be appreciated on the market, a horse 
must be fat and possess a good coat of hair, which gives him 
a sleek appearance. Condition is most important in draft, 
chunk, and wagon horses. Some men, notably in some parts 
of Northera Ohio, are making good profits by buying young 
drafters and stall-feeding them until they are fat. When a 
green horse goes to the city, he loses weight during the first 
few weeks until he becomes used to the new conditions, and 
it is a decided advantage if he enters city work carrying a high 
finish. When a horse is fed to a high, state of fatness, it in- 
variably improves his spirit and style, as well as his form and 
weight. In some individuals, fat covers many sins. The man 
who sends his horse to market in finished form is offering the 
animal in most attractive condition. Thus will the horse catch 
the eye of buyers and realize extra dollars. Fat is not muscle 
and should not be mistaken for it; at the same time, fat is 
rightfully a very important item of value on the horse market. 

Action.-^Action has been fully discussed in preceding 
chapters. We have seen that the requirements vary according 
to the type of horse, and that action is always a very impor- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 397 

tant item of value, in some instances being most important of 
all factors determining the value of the horse. 

Age. — Horses sell best from five to eight years old. Heavy- 
horses, such as drafters and chunks, sell best from five to 
seven years old, but a well-matured four-year-old in good con- 
dition will find ready sale. Carriage, saddle, and road horses 
sell better with a little more age, because they do not mature 
so early and their education is not completed as soon as that 
of heavy horses. They are most desired from five to eight 
years old. 

Color. — As a rule, the color of horses is of secondary im- 
portance, provided they possess individual excellence. As has 
been seen, more discrimination is made against color in pleas- 
ure horses than in those used for business and utility purposes. 

Training and disposition. — Every class calls for a horse of 
good disposition and well educated for his work. Mere "green- 
ness" in a drafter, however, does not aff"ect the price much if 
he is free from vice and bad habits, but carriage and saddle 
horses must be thoroughly schooled in order to realize good 
values. 

Sex. — Sex is not of great importance in the market. How- 
ever, geldings sell better than mares for city use, as there is 
some liability of mares being in foal, and if not, the recurrence 
of heat is objectionable. For farm use and southern trade, 
mares are preferred, because farmers buy horses with the 
expectation of breeding them. 

Breed. — The breed to which a horse belongs has but little 
or no influence upon his market value as long as he has in- 
dividual excellence. 

Style and freshness. — If able to shape themselves well in 
harness, very plain horses often make a stylish showing, and 
this increases their value materially. They should be spirited 
and energetic, which generally comes from being well fed. 
They should be well groomed, the hair being short and sleek, 
lying close to the body, and possessing a luster which indicates 
health. Clipping of the foretop and limbs should not be prac- 
ticed in the case of heavy horses, as it is an indication of 
staleness or second-hand horses. The presence of the foretop 



398 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



and feather leaves no doubt as to freshness from the country. 
For the export trade, removal of the foretop is said to depre- 
ciate a horse $25,00 or more. The feet should be in good con- 
dition and of a good length hoof, which is necessary to hold 
a shoe. 

Breeders make no real effort to supply some of the market 
classes of horses, either because the demand is very limited 
or the price too small. Such classes are supplied by careless 
breeding, by the mixing of types, and by the misfits which re- 
sult even when the breeding of horses is conducted as wisely 
as possible. 

The classification outlined below includes not only those 
classes of horses which may be said to be regular commodities 
on the large horse markets, but also other more rare and valu- 
able classes which are only to be had from certain dealers and 
breeders who cater to an exclusive trade not represented at 
the large markets. 



Classes 
DRAFT HORSES 

CHUNKS 



Sub-Classes 



Height 
Hands 



Heavy Draft.„ 16 to 17.2 

; Light Draft 15.3 to 16 2 

[Loggers. 16 1 to 17 2 



(Eastern Chunks . 
jFarm Chunks 
Southern Chunks 



15 
15 

15 



to 16 
to 15.3 
to 15 3 



Weight 

Pounds 

1750 to 2200 

1600 to 1750 

1700 to 2200 

1300 to 1550 

1200 to 1400 

800 to 1250 



WAGON HORSES 



[Expressers 15.3 to 16.2 1350 to 1500 

Delivery Wagon 15 to 16 1100 to 1400 

Artillery Horses 15.1 to 16 1050 to 1200 

Fire Horses 15 to 17.2 1200 to 1700 



CARRIAGE HORSES 



ROAD HORSES 



SADDLE HORSES 



Coach 15 . 1 to 16 . 1 1100 to 1250 

Cobs 14.1 to 15.1 900 to 1150 

Park Horses 15 to 15.3 1000 to 1150 

[Cab 15.2 to 16.1 1050 to 1200 

Runabout 14.3 to 15.2 900 to 1050 

Roadster 15 to 16 900 to 1150 

fFive-Gaited Saddler 15 to 16 900 to 1200 

Three-Gaited Saddler- 
Light, Heavy 14 .3 to 16 900 to 1200 

Hunters — Light, 

Middle, Heavy 15,2 to 16.1 1000 to 1250 

Cavalry Horses 15 to 15.3 950 to 1100 

Polo Ponies 14 to 14 .2 850 to 1000 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 399 

Draft Horses. 

A full description of draft type has already been pre- 
sented, so that it is only necessary to mention the chief dis- 
tinctions between the three sub-classes, Heavy Draft, Light 
Draft, and Loggers. 

Heavy draft. — These are the heavier weights of the draft 
class ; they stand from 16 to 17.2 hands high, and weigh from 
1750 to 2200 pounds. 

Light draft. — The light drafter is similar in type to the 
heavy drafter, but is smaller; they stand from 15.3 to 16.2 
hands, and weigh from 1600 to 1750 pounds. While 15.3 hands 
is accepted as the minimum height for light drafters, it should 
be understood that a 15.3-hand horse is less desirable than 
one taller and he borders closely on the class known as eastern 
chunks. 

Loggers. — These are horses of draft type that are bought 
for use in the lumbering woods. This trade demands com- 
paratively cheap horses, yet wants them large and strong. 
Because of the prices paid, the trade is usually compelled 
to take the plainer, rougher horses of the heavy draft class, 
and some are slightly blemished or unsound, such as "off in 
the wind," small sidebones, curbs, wire marks, etc. Loggers 
should stand from 16.1 to 17.2 hands, and weigh from 1700 
to 2200 pounds. 

Chunks. 

Usage has fixed the name of this class, which is significant 
of the conformation of the horse, rather than the use to which 
he is put. However, the prefixes given in the sub-classes are 
rather indicative of his use. Chunks are divided into three 
sub-classes. Eastern, Farm, and Southern. 

Eastern chunks. — At one time, this class was known as 
Boston chunks, but as the trade has widened to other cities, 
they are known by the general name of eastern chunks. They 
are most generally used in pairs or three abreast to do the 
same work as draft horses; but may be used in pairs, in a 
four-in-hand, or in a six-in-hand team. The eastern chunk 
may be briefly and accurately described as a horse of draft 
horse type in all respects except size and weight. He is, then, 



400 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



a little drafter. He is usually a little more blocky and compact 
than the true drafter. He stands from 15 to 16 hands high, 
usually not over 15.3, and weighs from 1300 to 1550 pounds, 
depending upon size and condition. Being required to do his 
work mostly at the walk, his action should be similar to that 
of the draft horse. The walk should be elastic, quick, balanced, 
straight, step long, trot regular and high, without winging, 
rolling, interfering, or forging. 




•i;„v-.*_;_: 



Fig. 111. Eastern Chunk. 



Farm chunks. — Horses of this class may be found on the 
market at all seasons of the year, but during the spring 
months they form an important feature of the trade. They 
are bought to be used on the farm, and are in most urgent 
need during the season when crops are being planted. They 
are usually of mixed breeding, draft blood predominating, and 
are commonly known among farmers as "general-purpose" 
animals. Mares are more generally taken than geldings. For 
this class, low-set, blocky horses are wanted, not so heavy as 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 401 

the eastern chunks. Farm chunks are usually lighter in bone, 
and often slightly blemished or unsound. In general, the typi- 
cal farm chunk should be a moderate-sized, all-round good in- 
dividual, standing from 15 to 15.3 hands high, and weighing 
from 1200 to 1400 pounds. Being lighter horses than the east- 
ern chunks, they should be a little quicker and more active on 
foot. The varied use to which horses are put on farms re- 
quires ability to trot readily if necessary. However, since the 
walk is their most important gait, they should be good walkers 
and do it with ease and rapidity. 

Southern chunks. — In some markets these are termed 
"southern horses," or "southerns." They are small horses 
that are taken by dealers to large southern cities and sold to 
southern planters for tilling their lands and for driving and 
riding. The southern farmer does not cultivate deeply, and 
the soils are light, consequently he does not require very large 
horses. However, each year the trend of the market is for 
larger horses for this trade. Southern chunks are small 
horses standing from 15 to 15.3 hands high, and weighing 
from 800 to 1250 pounds. They are rather fine of bone, pos- 
sessing an abundance of quality, and are more rangy in con- 
formation than any of the other chunks, having more of the 
light horse blood. Many of them are similar to the cheaper 
horses used on the light delivery wagons of cities. They 
should have good all-round action. The southern chunk is 
comparatively a cheap horse. 

Wagon Horses. 

This class includes horses useful for quick delivery. The 
demand is from cities and towns. These horses must be closely 
coupled, compactly built, with plenty of constitution and 
stamina. They must be good actors, have a good, clean set 
of limbs, with plenty of bone and quality, and a good foot 
that will stand the wear of paved streets. The sub-classes are 
Express Horses, Delivery Wagon Horses, Artillery Horses, and 
Fire Horses. Their breeding is a mixture of draft and light 
bloods. They are neither light nor heavy horses, but may be 
said to be middle-weights. 

Express horses. — Express horses are used by express 
companies to collect and deliver goods to and from railroad 



402 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

stations. Different companies use horses of slightly different 
size and weight. For instance, if the business of a company 
is centrally located in a city, and depots are not far apart, 
they use larger horses and load heavier ; if the business is done 
in the outlying parts of a city, and the depots a considerable 
distance apart, lighter horses with more action are wanted. 
They are used singly or in pairs, and the size of the horse will 
depend on the weight of the wagon. The lightest ones are 
called "money horses," as they are hitched to the lightest 
wagons to deliver valuables, this kind of work demanding 
quick service. 

The typical expresser is rather upstanding, deep bodied, 
and closely coupled, with good bone and an abundance of qual- 
ity, energy, and spirit. He should stand from 15.3 to 16.2 
hands high, and weigh from 1350 to 1500 pounds in good flesh ; 
the average express horse is 16 to 16.1 hands high, and weighs 
around 1400 pounds in working condition. His head should 
be neat, his neck of good length, and his crest well developed. 
His shoulder should be obliquely set, coupled with a short, 
well-muscled back and strong loin. His croup should be broad, 
rounding, and well muscled, his quarters deep, and thighs 
broad. He should not be goose rumped, nor cut up in the flank. 
His underpinning should be of the very best, his cannons broad 
and clean, and his hoofs of a dense, tough horn. 

The express horse is required to do his work both at the 
walk and trot, the latter being the principal gait. He should 
be quick and active, and should keep his feet well under him 
and throw enough weight into the collar to move a heavy 
load at the walk, or a lighter load at the trot. As in the previ- 
ous classes, he should be a straight-line mover, with possibly 
a little more knee and hock action. 

Delivery wagon horses. — Generally speaking, delivery 
wagon horses are not as large as expressers, and not as high- 
grade animals; most mercantile firms are not such liberal 
buyers as the express companies, and consequently they get 
a cheaper grade of horses. However, this is not always true, 
as some of the large department stores, whose deliveries serve 
as an advertisement, will pay more for the very best than 
express companies, thus getting very choice animals. The 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 403 

conformation requirements are practically the same as for ex- 
press horses, except they are not quite so large, standing from 
15 to 16 hands, and weighing from 1100 to 1400 pounds. The 
action requirements are the same as for express horses, 
though some are not as good actors. The demand for delivery 
wagon horses comes from all kinds of retail and wholesale 
mercantile houses, such as meat shops, milk houses, grocery 
houses, dry goods firms, and hardware merchants, for use on 
light wagons for parcel delivery. Some of the coarser, rougher 




Fig. 112. The Fire Horse. 

ones are used on the huckster wagons, junk wagons, sand 
wagons, and by contractors for cellar excavating, street clean- 
ing, railroad grading, or almost any kind of rough, heavy work. 

Artillery horses. — Artillery horses conform very closely 
to the better grades of delivery wagon horses of the same 
weight. The following specifications, prepared under the di- 
rection of the Quartermaster General of the United States 
War Department, clearly set forth the requirements. 

"The artillery horse must be sound, well bred, of a supe- 
rior class, and have quality ; of a kind disposition, well broken 



404 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



to harness, and gentle under the saddle, with easy mouth and 
gaits, and free and prompt action in the walk, trot, and gallop ; 
free from vicious habits ; without material blemish or defect, 
and otherwise conform to the following descriptions : A geld- 
ing of uniform and hardy color, in good condition ; from 5 to 
8 years old; weighing from 1050 pounds, minimum weight 
for leaders, to 1200, maximum weight for wheelers, depending 
on height, which should be from 15.1 to 16 hands." 

The demand for artillery horses is rather spasmodic, at 
some times being much greater than at others. Contracts are 
given to the lowest responsible bidder to supply them in large 
numbers at a specified time. Because of the rigid examination 




Fig. 113. The Fire Horse in Action 

and requirements of official inspectors, many men have lost 
money in filling contracts. 

Fire horses. — The fire horse is more rangy in conforma- 
tion than the expresser, he being required to throw weight 
into the collar and often to take long runs. The requirements 
are very rigid, as will be seen by the specifications set forth 
by Mr. Peter F. Quinn, former Superintendent of Horses of 
the Chicago Fire Department: 

"The work required of a horse best suited to fire depart- 
ment services necessitates almost human intelligence. Such a 
horse must not only be well bred, sound in every particular, 
quick to observe, prompt and willing to respond to every call, 
but as well, ambitious to discharge his numerous and unusual 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 405 

duties under constantly differing surroundings. In selecting, 
the first requisites are tractability, good feet and legs, with 
bone and hoof of the best texture, a short, strong back, and 
well-proportioned fore- and hindquarters, well covered with 
firm, elastic muscles. For heavy engine companies and heavy 
hook-and-ladder trucks, a gelding of uniform and hardy color, 
in good condition, from five to seven years old, standing 16 
to 17.2 hands, and weighing from 1500 to 1700 pounds should 
be selected. Hose-carriage horses, same age; weight from 
1200 to 1400 pounds; height, 15 to 16.2 hands." 

The demand for fire horses is very limited, coming from 
fire companies of cities. There are usually enough horses 
in the general supply to meet the demand. 

Carriage Horses. 

The chapter dealing with carriage horse type presents a 
detailed description of the general class known as carriage 
horses, and while this general class is subdivided into at least 
four smaller groups, known as Coach, Cob, Park, and Cab 
Horses, nevertheless the differences between them relate 
mostly to size and weight, and practically the same confor- 
mation, style, and action is desired in all four sub-classes. 
Keeping carriage horse type in mind as applying to all four 
groups, only a few remarks are necessary in order to give 
the reader a correct idea of each sub-class. 

Coach horses. — Coach horses may be described as car- 
riage horses of large size. They should stand from 15.1 to 
16.1 hands high, and weigh from 1100 to 1250 pounds. The 
weight is not of such great importance with coach horses as 
with draft and wagon horses. The essential thing is to get 
a horse that looks right and proper before the large, heavy 
vehicle to which he is hitched. For instance, the most desir- 
able height in horses for a park drag, body break, or heavy 
coach is 15.3 to 16 hands, and they should weigh around 1150 
to 1200 pounds. For a light brougham, a pair of 15.2 hand 
horses, weighing 1100 pounds is more appropriate. A hearse 
requires black horses from 15.3 to 16.1 hands high, weighing 
1200 to 1250, and without white markings. White horses are 
also used to some extent by undertakers. 



406 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

The demand for coach horses comes from wealthy men 
who maintain stables of fine horses and equipages for pleasure 
driving, and at times there is also quite an active demand 
from exporters, who ship to Mexico and European markets. 
They are hitched singly, in pairs, unicorn (sometimes called 
a spike, as one horse is hitched to the end of the pole, ahead 
of a pair), four-in-hand, and six-in-hand, to coaches, breaks, 
park drags, etc. A large percentage of coach horses have a 
predominance of American Trotting Horse blood, while a few 
are produced from the imported coach breeds ; but since many 
of the imported so-called coach horses possess the common 
fault of grossness and coarseness, as a class they do not pos- 
sess the requirements demanded by the American markets. 

Cobs. — Cobs differ from coach horses in size and in the 
use to which they are put. They are driven singly, in pairs, 
or tandem, usually by ladies, though they may be used by 
gentlemen as well. Cobs stand from 14.1 to 15.1 hands high, 
and weigh from 900 to 1150 pounds. Strictly speaking, this 
is an English horse, and in England they never consider a 
horse a cob that stands over 15 hands, but the American mar- 
kets accept them 15.1 hands high. A 15-hand cob should not 
weigh over 1100 pounds, but his condition will have much to 
do with his weight. The strongest demand comes for horses 
14.3 to 15 hands high, and weighing from 1000 to 1100 pounds. 
Being essentially a lady's horse, solid colors are wanted, with- 
out flash markings. The demand for cobs comes from much 
the same source as for coach horses. Since they are a little 
more proper for ladies' driving than a full-sized coacher, they 
are often spoken of as ladies' cobs. They are usually hitched 
to a light brougham, phaeton, or some carriage that is not 
intended for carrying more than four. While the demand 
is strong, it is more limited than for coach horses. 

Park horses. — The park horse, sometimes called the gig 
horse, is neither a large nor a small carriage horse, but is a 
carriage horse of medium size. Many coach and cob horses 
meet the requirements for park horses so far as size and 
weight are concerned, yet cannot correctly be classed as park 
horses. This is because the park horse represents the cream 
of the carriage horse class. He is a higher-priced horse than 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 407 

either the coach or cob horse. He has the same conformation 
and action as they, but his conformation is more perfect, his 
action higher and more sensational, and his style and ele- 
gance more outstanding. This does not mean that coach and 
cob horses are in any wise cheap horses, for they are not. It 
means that the park horse is the fanciest of a strictly high- 
class group, to which all three belong. Park horses are strictly 
dress horses, and, as their name implies, one that a lady or 
gentleman would want to drive in a park. They are hitched 
to a cart or gig, or may be driven tandem to the latter vehicle. 
They are also driven in pairs before mail phaetons and vic- 
torias. The limits for height and weight are 15 to 15.3 hands 
and from 1000 to 1150 pounds, the most desirable height 
being 15.1 to 15.2 hands, and the weight from 1000 to 1100 
pounds. The demand for park horses greatly exceeds the sup- 
ply, and such will doubtless continue to be the case. It is 
readily apparent that the park horse is difficult to produce. 
Some are of Trotting Horse breeding, a few have been pro- 
duced by crossing Hackney stallions on Trotting or Thorough- 
bred mares, but the best are of pure Hackney breeding; the 
latter method is attended by greater certainty of good results 
than any other method of production. 

Cab horses. — The cab horse is a comparatively cheap 
horse, and the requirements are not so rigid as for coach, 
cob, or park horses. They are used on cabs, coupes, hansoms, 
and other vehicles for public service in cities. They are much 
the same type as the coach horse, in fact many of them are 
the discarded and lower grades of the coach sub-class. Cab 
horses stand from 15.2 to 16.1 hands high, and weigh from 
1050 to 1200 pounds. The principal quahties sought are sym- 
metry of form and endurance. They should possess good feet 
and bone, strong constitution, a deep barrel with good spring 
of rib, and should be closely coupled. Not as much flesh is 
demanded in cab horses as in coach horses, for they supply a 
cheaper trade, but they should be in good condition. Their 
action should be straight, but need not be excessively high. 
In fact, moderate action is all that is desired, since moderate 
action means greater endurance. The demand comes from 
livery and transfer companies, and at times from export buy- 



408 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

ers. Horses of this class are generally of nondescript breed- 
ing, excepting the discarded coachers, and the supply is greater 
than the demand, making them cheap horses. 

Road Horses. 

This class includes Runabout Horses and Roadsters. Run- 
about horses occupy an intermediate place between typical 
roadsters and carriage horses, but on account of their action, 
conformation, and the use to which they are put, may be more 
properly classed as road horses. 

Runabout horses. — A runabout horse is a rather short- 
legged horse, standing from 14.3 to 15.2 hands high, and 
weighing from 900 to 1050 pounds. His head should be neat, 
ear fine, eye large and mild, neck of good length and trim at 
the throttle. The neck should be of medium weight, not quite 
so heavy as that of the coach horse, and not so light and thin 
as that of the roadster. The shoulder should be obliquely set, 
the withers high and thin, the back short, well muscled, and 
closely coupled to the hips by a short, broad loin. The barrel 
should be deep and round, the ribs well sprung, and the chest 
deep; the croup should be long and the hips nicely rounded. 
The limbs should be well placed and heavily muscled, the bone 
broad and clean, and the pasterns of good length and obliquely 
set, joined to well-shaped feet. The runabout horse is not 
quite so stockily built as the cob, being not so heavy in neck 
and crest, not so full made and rotund in body, and not so 
heavy in quarters. The action is more moderate than that 
of a cob ; he does not need to be as high an actor, but should 
have more speed. The action should be bold, frictionless, and 
straight, such as is conducive to speed and beauty of form. 

The demand for runabout horses is for single drivers. 
They are used largely by business men of cities on runabouts 
and driving wagons. The demand is active at remunerative 
prices. They are of more or less mixed breeding, the pre- 
dominating blood being either of the American Trotting Horse, 
American Saddle Horse, or Hackney breeds. 

Roadsters. — The chapter dealing with light-harness or 
roadster type sets forth the requirements for roadsters in 
form, action, and speed, and discusses the uses to which they 
are put. No further discussion is needed here. 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 409 

Saddle Horses. 

The saddle horse class includes the five sub-classes known 
as Five-Gaited Saddlers, Three-Gaited Saddlers, Hunters, 
Cavalry Horses, and Polo Ponies. All of these, with the ex- 
ception of the cavalry horse, have received full consideration 
under the subject of types of horses in preceding chapters. 
Space need be given here only to a description of the cavalry 
horse. 

Cavalry horses. — The Quartermaster General of the War 
Department has sent out the following specifications as the re- 
quirements for an American cavalry horse: 



A 


^ 


M 6 


7 6 L 








1 A 










^^ fl 




■ 


1 






^ -.^ 


1 

1 : 


^H • 


■H 


i 












^1 


m 






wt 


^.^J^*" 





Fig. 114. Cavalry Horse. 

"The cavalry horse must be sound, well bred, of a superior 
class, and have quality ; gentle and of a kind disposition ; thor- 
oughly broken to the saddle, with light and elastic mouth, 
easy gaits, and free and prompt action at the walk, trot, and 
gallop; free from vicious habits, without material blemish or 
defect ; and otherwise to conform to the following description : 
A gelding of uniform and hardy color, in good condition ; from 
four to eight years old; weighing from 950 to 1100 pounds, 
depending on height, which should be from 15 to 15.3 hands." 

Cavalry remounts for the United States War Department 
are purchased as needed through contract orders, the contract 
being let to the lowest responsible bidder. In filling orders, 



410 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

dealers are often obliged to educate many of the recruits to 
the saddle, in order to meet the specific requirements. 

Miscellaneous Horses. 

Feeders. — Feeders are horses thin in flesh which are pur- 
chased to be put in condition and resold. They may belong to 
any of the above classes, but the practice is more generally 
applied to draft horses, chunks, and wagon horses. The old 
adage, "a little fat covers a multitude of defects," is still true ; 
the value of flesh when put on thin horses can hardly be appre- 
ciated, unless one has seen them fleshed and placed again on 
the market. 

Range horses. — During certain seasons of the year, there 
may be found on the market horses bred and reared on the 
range, commonly known as "range horses." They are divided 
into two general classes, light and heavy, according to the 
predominance of light or draft horse blood. For the sale ring, 
each of these classes is divided into carlots as follows : "colts," 
meaning weanlings; "ones," the yearlings; "twos," the two- 
year-olds; "dry stuff," the three-year-olds and over, those 
not suckling colts ; and "mares and colts," the brood mares 
with colts at foot. In the auction ring, the price is stated per 
head and the buyer takes the entire lot. Most of the range 
horses find their way to the country, where they are usually 
broken ; when educated, they may be returned to the market 
and may fill the demand for some of the commercial classes. 

Ponies. — Ponies of various grades and breeding are fre- 
quently found on the market, and are usually bought for the 
use of children and ladies. The characteristics distinguishing 
ponies from horses are not easily described. The principal 
distinguishing feature is that of height, a pony being 14 hands 
or under. But there are dwarf horses that do not have pony 
blood or characteristics that come within these limits. Other 
pony characteristics are a deep body with rounding barrel, 
heavily muscled thighs and quarters, croup not drooping, and 
width well carried out, all of which the small horse does not 
usually possess. The neck is usually short and heavy, though 
this is not a desirable quality. Ponies are essentially chil- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 411 

dren's horses, and they must be kind and gentle in disposition, 
with as much spirit as is compatible for their use. There are 
no special requirements for weight, the limits being quite wide. 
They should be straight-line movers, and the more knee and 
hock action they possess, the higher prices they will bring, 
other things being equal. The Indian pony, or "cayuse" as 
he is sometimes called, is larger; he is a descendant from the 
native range stock, and is classed on the market as a range 
pony. 

Plugs. — Plugs are worn-out, decrepit horses with but 
little value. This class is too well known to need description. 

Weeds. — Weeds are leggy and ill-proportioned horses 
lacking in the essential qualities, such as constitution and sub- 
stance; hence, they have but very little value for breeding 
or for service of any kind. 

Prices for Horses at Chicago. 

Prices during 1914. — The writer has taken the liberty of 
condensing as follows f^e Chkacio Live Stock Wor^.d's review 
of the Chicago horse market during 1914: 

''During the first six months of the year, prices on all 
sorts of horses, with one or two exceptions, remained as high 
as they had ever been, and business was better than during 
the corresponding period of any of the five preceding seasons. 
Two notable exceptions to this rule of price maintenance were 
big, rugged team horses weighing 1500 to 1600 pounds, and 
neat little farm geldings weighing around 1200 pounds. In 
July, business began to drop oflf, and a period of stagnation fol- 
lowed, for which the reason became apparent when war was 
declared. Thereafter during August and September, until the 
foreign inspections were organized, the trade was demoral- 
ized. There has been nothing doing in commercial classes 
ever since. The entire stage was monopolized by the rider 
and gunner. 

"Throughout the year, there have been signs of changes 
taking place in the horse trade. Some eastern dealers have 
gone out into the country, bought their own horses, and, after 
having them fitted at their own expense, have shipped direct 
to the East. Then sundry country buyers have got into the 



412 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

habit of going on east with their horses. The absence of these 
good loads from the market centers lowers the average char- 
acter of supplies, and lessens price averages." 

Prices of the various classes compared. — Prices during 
1914 averaged as follows upon the Chicago market, figures 
for preceding years being given for comparison: 

Class 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1902 

Draft horses.... $208 $213 $210 $205 $200 $166 

Carriage horses (pairs) 483 493 473 483 473 450 

Drivers 169 174 177 182 172 145 

General use 160 165 160 155 144 117 

Saddle horses 184 189 195 190 177 151 

Southern chunks 93 98 97 92 87 57 

The above is a rather incomplete and indefinite report, 
but it is all that is available. Taking all Chicago receipts of 
horses during 1914, their total value was $19,662,170, and their 
average value only $183, as compared with an average of $188 
in 1913, and $179 in 1912. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 
MARKET CLASSES OF MULES. 

The mule market is of more recent origin than the horse 
market, but has developed into a large business. Whereas 
horses are usually sold at public auction, mules are usually 
sold at private sale, being sold singly, in pairs, or in any num- 
ber to suit the needs of the buyer. When large numbers are 
wanted of a uniform height and weight, they are most often 
sold as a fixed price per head and the salesman gives a guaran- 
tee as to age, soundness, and other requirements. When an 
order is placed for mules of different sizes or for different 
market classes, they will ordinarily be figured individually, or 
in pairs. 

Market requirements. — The market requirements for 
mules are similar to those for horses. They should be sound, 
of a desirable age and color, well fleshed, and sleek in coat; 
and should possess abundant quality and a strong conforma- 
tion. They should also have good action. These requirements 
are discussed in detail below. 

Soundness. — Mules should be serviceably sound. Blem- 
ishes are objectionable, though not in the same degree as with 
horses. They should be sound in eyes and wind, and should 
be good workers. The most common and serious unsound- 
nesses are large spavins, puffs, sidebones, defective eyes, and 
unsound wind. 

Age. — The most desired age is from four to eight years; 
however, there are exceptions in some classes, as noted below. 

Condition. — The appearance is greatly improved if mules 
are marketed carrying flesh enough to round out their middles. 
Sleek, glossy coats of hair are often estimated to be worth 
ten dollars. The flesh should be smooth, not lumpy or roily 
The value of flesh on mules is about equal to that on draft 
horses — which is twenty-five cents per pound with a good 
grade of horses. 

413 



414 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



Quality. — Refinement of head, hair, bone, joints, and 
hoofs is an evidence of good bone and wearing qualities. 

Conformation. — All mules should have a large chest, long 
shoulder, deep barrel, straight short back with as much spring 
of rib as possible, a broad loin, and a long level croup. The 
underline should be comparatively straight, the rear flank well 
let down, and the thighs and quarters heavily muscled. The legs 




"- H 






H 



-m 




Fig. 115. High-Class Draft Mules. 

should evidence both substance and quality, the feet should 
be large, wide at the heel, and sound, and the hoofs should 
be smooth. The form, muscling, and set of legs should be 
approximately the same as in horses. The head of the mule 
is a good index of his disposition and temperament ; it should 
be of good size, yet clean-cut as an evidence of quahty. The 
forehead should be broad and flat, and the nose shghtly 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 415 

Roman, which indicates stamina and strength. If the head is 
as described, with light coloring running well up toward the 
bridge of the nose, the animal is usually considered to be a 
more reliable and agreeable worker than one not possessing 
these characteristics. The ears should be long, thin, tapering, 
and carried erect; the neck should be long, with moderate 
crest, and should join the shoulder smoothly. The mane 
should be roached, and the tail cHpped in the regular manner 
with not too short a bush. 

Color. — All mules of solid color, except white, are in good 
demand, though color is not an important factor. Dapple 
grays are popular in the draft class, but as a general rule, 
bays, browns, and chestnuts are most desirable, while flea- 
bitten grays are discriminated against. 

Action. — Action counts for very little in market mules. 
They should show vigor and energy in their movements and 
be straight-line movers. They should not be sore in legs or 
feet, nor defective in action because of badly set legs. 

The market classes of mules are determined by the use 
to which they are put, but in order for a class to exist there 
must be a demand for considerable numbers of a definite type. 
In the St. Louis market, which is the largest mule market in 
the world, there are five market classes which are as follows : 

Height Weight 

Classes Hands Pounds 

MINING MULES.. 12 to 16 600 to 1350 

COTTON MULES .13.2 to 15.2 750 to 1100 

SUGAR MULES 16 to 17 1150 to 1300 

FARM MULES ....15.2 to 16 900 to 1250 

DRAFT MULES 16 to 17.2 1200 to 1600 

Mining mules. — These are purchased for use in mines, 
principally to haul cars of ore or coal to the hoisting shafts. 
They are rugged, deep bodied, short legged, compactly built, 
and have heavy bone and large feet. They stand from 12 to 
16 hands high, and weigh from 600 to 1350 pounds. Those 
used down in mines are termed "pit mules," and the height 
of these is limited by the depth of the vein worked. Ages 
from 5 to 8 years are most preferred, but a well-developed 
four-year-old, or a well-preserved ten-year-old, is often ac- 
cepted. Geldings are much preferred to mare mules for this 



416 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

trade. Bad, wire marks on the feet are severely discriminated 
against, as they are hkely to become sore from contact with 
sulphur and other chemicals in the mine. The demand for 
miners is strong- and constant throughout the year, and comes 
from all sections where mines are operated. 

Cotton mules. — Cotton mules are very similar to mining 
mules in size, but are lighter boned and not so compactly 
built. They should have small, neat heads, and possess much 
quality and finish. Their feet are smaller and bodies propor- 
tionately lighter. Cotton mules stand from 13.2 to 15.2 hands 
high, and weigh from 750 to 1100 pounds. They are most 
desired from 3 to 7 years old, but may find ready sale up to 
12 years of age. Mare mules sell better than geldings in this 
class. The trade begins about the first of September and con- 
tinues good throughout the fall and winter months, then grad- 
ually decreases until after the cotton crop is planted, or about 
April. From this time until the following fall, the demand 
is light. Cotton mules are used by cotton growers to plant, 
cultivate, and harvest the cotton crop, but a great many such 
mules are also taken to cities for use on delivery wagons and 
other purposes. 

Sugar mules. — These are mules especially adapted for use 
on the sugar farms of Georgia, Louisiana, and other southern 
states. Sugar mules are taller, larger, more breedy looking, 
better finished, and have heavier bone than cotton mules. The 
feet should be large in proportion to the bone. They stand 
from 16 to 17 hands high, and weigh from 1150 to 1300 pounds. 
Mare mules from 8 to 6 years old are most desired for this 
trade. As sugar mules are larger and possess more quality 
and finish than cotton mules, they sell for a little more money. 
The trade begins in August, and usually ends in February. 
They are in greatest demand in September, October, and No- 
vember. 

Farm mules. — Mules purchased for use on farms in the 
central states are known on the market as farm mules. They 
are less uniform in type than the other classes, as farmers 
like to buy animals that show promise of further develop- 
ment. Farm mules are usually from 15.2 to 16 hands high, 
and from 3 to 6 years old, four-year-olds being preferred. 



' ^ 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 417 

They are often plain looking and thin in flesh, though possess- 
ing good constitution, bone and feet, and showing indica- 
tions of a good outcome when well fed and cared for. Many 
of them are worked for a time, then fattened and returned 
to the market. When resold, they may be taken as miners, 
sugar mules, or cotton mules. The strongest demand for farm 
mules occurs during the late winter and spring months. 

Draft Mules. — Draft mules are large, heavy-boned, 
heavy-set mules, with plenty of quality. They are purchased 
to do heavy teaming work. Many are used by contractors 
doing railroad grading, and consequently they are often 
spoken of as railroad mules. They are especially demanded 
for heavy teaming work in cities in warm climates, where they 
are preferred to horses because they are said to be hardier, 
able to stand the hot sun better, and not subject to as many 
ills. Draft mules stand from 16 to 17.2 hands high, and weigh 
from 1200 to 1600 pounds and upwards. They should com- 
bine weight and strength. They should be large, rugged, 
heavily boned, and strongly muscled. The feet should be 
large, the back short and strong, the middle deep and closely 
coupled, the croup fairly level, and the thighs and quarters 
massive. They are most desired from 5 to 8 years old, and 
little preference is shown regarding sex. The demand is 
strong and quite constant the year round. 

Plugs. — These are worn out, cheap mules that have but 
little value. They are usually unsound in one or more re- 
spects, very plain and rough in form, and many are of ad- 
vanced age. 

Export mules. — The export trade in mules has increased 
during recent years. Large shipments have been made to 
South Africa, Phihppine Islands, and Cuba. The size and type 
of these mules varies, depending on the use to which they are 
put and the country to which they are sent. Some are used 
for army service, some for agricultural purposes, some for 
heavy teaming, and some in mines. Hence the term "export 
mule" is a trade name which is not restricted to any particular 
kind of mules. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

HORSE BREEDING. 

This is a broad subject which may be considered and dis- 
cussed at length from many points of view. Only very brief 
treatment is possible here, however, in which the most com- 
mon mistakes in horse breeding are pointed out and their 
remedies briefly discussed. The subject will not be considered 
from the viewpoint of the wealthy man with whom horse 
breeding is mainly a hobby, nor from the standpoint of gov- 
ernment work in establishing or perpetuating certain breeds 
and classes of horses. This is written from the standpoint 
of the farmer who desires to breed horses in a moderate or 
small way for the profit there is in it. 

Horse production on the small farm. — The advantages of 
intensive farming have been widely discussed for a number 
of years. Intensive farming is farming on a small scale, but 
doing it perfectly, hence realizing the largest possible return 
on a moderate investment. Horse production on a small scale, 
as discussed here, is similar to intensive farming. It means 
the ownership of one or two pairs of high-class brood mares, 
preferably purebreds, which are used to do part or all of the 
farm work, and which are given the very best care and atten- 
tion. They are bred only to high-class stallions of the same 
breed as themselves, and during pregnancy they are well cared 
for, well fed, and not overworked. As foaling time draws 
near, they are watched carefully and assistance is given if nec- 
essary. They foal on clean bedding in a clean stall, or, better 
still, at pasture, and the foals are immediately treated to pre- 
vent navel ill. The foals are given the best of care and are 
carefully trained, being halter broken as early as possible and 
made gentle by proper handling. They are kept growing after 
they are weaned, and in due time their education in harness 
or under saddle is accomplished in a careful and complete man- 
ner. This is intensive horse production. 

418 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 419 

Intensive horse raising therefore means keeping a few 
extra-good brood mares, and each year producing a few extra- 
good foals which may be grown out by the breeder or sold 
as weanlings or yearlings to be developed by someone else. 
The first costs under this plan are not necessarily less expen- 
sive than where a large number of the average kind of brood 
mares are kept. Good brood mares cost considerable, but 
they are the only kind on which large profits may be made. 
If this plan seems impracticable because purebred mares are 
expensive, why not reach the same end by buying a weanling 
or yearling filly of the desired breed, growing out this filly 
to breeding age, and retaining her best filly foals for breeding 
purposes? In this way, given a few years' time, it is easily 
possible to get on an intensive footing with as many mares 
as are desired. 

We have had enough of the average kind of horse produc- 
tion in this country; in fact, far too much of it. Until late 
years, purebred draft mares were so scarce that they were al- 
most regarded as curiosities. Enough time has elapsed, how- 
ever, to demonstrate beyond all doubt that it pays much better 
to keep a few extra-good brood mares and raise carefully a few 
good foals, than it does to keep a lot of cheap mares and pro- 
duce a lot of cheap horses, without feed enough to give any of 
them a fair chance. Put your money in fewer mares, give the 
foals the best of feed and care, and you will make more money 
than you will by raising ten or a dozen average foals in the 
average way. Today the tendency is for the cheap horse to 
bring less, and for the good horse to bring more than ever be- 
fore. The automobile has helped to bring about this condition, 
and the writing on the wall should be heeded. 

Only recently, the writer visited a farm where he was 
shown a sixteen-year-old grade draft mare of good type and 
individuality. On the same farm were five good mares, all out 
of the aged mare mentioned. Other of her numerous offspring 
had been sold at good prices. The mare had made the farmer 
money and is still making it, for at the time of this visit she 
had a fine filly foal by her side. But the owner was not satis- 
fied. "Think how much more money I would have made," said 
he, "if I had begun with a purebred registered mare. If the 



420 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

old mare had been purebred and registered, the value of every 
one of her foals would have been easily doubled, and it 
wouldn't have cost a cent more to raise them." The lesson to 
the young breeder is clear, — start right, even if it means start- 
ing slowly by buying one young registered filly, and from her 
building up a breeding stud of fine mares. 

The farms of the Middle West and East are well adapted 
to the intensive plan of horse production, because most of the 
farms are not large, and usually the teaming is done by the 
owner himself, or by one or two hands who are always under 
close observation. On big farms, with incompetent and ever- 
changing help, if valuable brood mares are kept, they are 
liable to be injured if used to do the farm work. The writer 
is not one of those who advocate keeping brood mares in idle- 
ness. They will be healthier and will produce stronger foals 
if worked in moderation. The plan should call for working 
the brood mares, but not working them as hard as we work 
geldings or mules. Let them earn their board, and board 
them well. They may be worked well up to foaling time if 
care is taken not to back them to a heavy load, or put them to 
a hard strain, or turn them quickly. Mares have been hur- 
riedly unhitched and unharnessed while cultivating corn or 
doing some other moderate work, and have foaled thrifty, 
well-developed foals, the equal of any. But such mares have 
been well fed and cared for during pregnancy, and they should 
be given as long a vacation on pasture after foaling as the 
farm work will permit. 

The most profitable horse breeding in France, Belgium, 
England, Scotland, and America is done on the intensive plan, 
on farms of moderate or small size, by farmers who are good 
practical horsemen with a taste for doing things well. There 
is ample room in the United States for much more horse rais- 
ing on this plan, and we have always had too many inferior 
mares, too many cheap stallions, and too many cheap horses 
hunting buyers. 

Choosi-ng a type to breed. — What type of horse shall the 
farmer breed? The answer depends upon how much capital 
is available to put into the business, upon the personal quali- 
fications of the breeder, and also upon his personal preference 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 421 

as to type. To some extent, the choice will depend upon the 
location of the farm, and upon the crops that can be grown. 
It will ordinarily require more capital to engage in the breed- 
ing of hght horses than in the breeding of draft horses. Light 
horses especially require more expensive equipment to ac- 
complish the training and finishing without which they sell 
at comparatively moderate prices. Because of temperament 
and disposition, some men are more successful with one type 
of horse than another. The man who intends to engage in the 
breeding of horses should ask himself the following questions 
regarding any or all types he may have under consideration. 
1. Am I familiar enough with the type and the methods of 
its production to know what I am striving to produce and how 
to produce it? 2. Provided I can produce the type success- 
fully, how can I dispose of my animals, and what are the 
chances of realizing full value for my stock? 3. Are my 
buildings, fences, land, and crops adapted to handling the type 
I have in mind, and if not, can I remedy the shortcomings ? 

Advantages of draft type. — In the majority of cases, the 
best type for the farmer to produce is the draft horse. It has 
many advantages. The brood mares are much better suited 
to do the work of the farm than are any of the light horse 
types. Practically no special training is needed to make the 
drafter ready for market, and he is marketable at a younger 
age than is ordinarily true of the types of hght horses. If he 
is kept free from wire cuts and other blemishes, and is fat and 
well groomed when offered for sale, he should realize full 
value. The carriage horse or saddler, on the other hand, re- 
quires months of handling in order to give him a good mouth 
and develop his action or gaits, as the case may be. Further- 
more, a wire cut or other blemish is much more serious with 
these types than with the drafter. They require more care 
and attention from birth to selling time, and require a greater 
age to finish them for market. It is also true that there are 
fewer misfits in breeding draft horses than with any other 
type of horse, in other words, results are more certain and 
sure. The production of draft horses fits into general farming 
better than the production of any of the light horse types. For 
these various reasons, the draft horse is of greatest interest to 



422 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 



most farmers, and is most frequently selected by farmers who 
take up horse breeding. 

Light types require greater skill. — Let it be understood, 
however, that the foregoing arguments are not intended to 
discourage the breeding of types other than the drafter. The 
point is that carriage, saddle, and roadster horses are more 
difficult to produce than drafters, and but few persons, com- 




Fig. 116. Correct Type in the Draft Stallion. 

Fyvie Baron, Grand Champion Clydesdale stallion at the 1913 Inter- 
national. Owned by Conyngham Bros, of Wilkesbarre, Pa. Note his 
masculinity, quality, style, symmetry, correct position of legs, nice pas. 
terns, and good feet. 

paratively, are qualified to breed them successfully. The pro- 
duction of light horses requires a higher order of skill both 
in breeding and salesmanship than does the production of the 
draft horse, and when this is supplied, light horse breeding 
is a profitable enterprise. Hence the selection of the type to 
breed should be governed largely by the ability of the man 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 423 

who is to supervise the breeding, provided, of course, he is to 
work under conditions not unfavorable to the type he is best 
quahfied to produce. Failures in horse breeding, as in most 
other things, usually have been due to the man believing him- 
self capable of doing things for which he was not qualified. 

Perhaps in no other field have so many breeders found 
themselves mistaken regarding their abilities as in the breed- 
ing of the trotting horse. This type appeals strongly to the 
majority of Americans, and many farmers and others have 
believed that they knew a safe and sure system of breeding 
for speed that could not but make every animal produced a 
good one. Even in the best of hands, the breeding of trotters 
is very doubtful as to results, and only a small percentage of 
the foals ever attains anything noteworthy on the turf. Speed 
is an elusive quality dependent on such a rare combination of 
good qualities in the animal as to make results in breeding 
very uncertain, and it should be understood that only a few 
men possess the special qualifications necessary to success in 
breeding this type of horse, and that only the wealthy, who 
are willing to accept the pleasure and fascination of the under- 
taking as partial remuneration for the capital invested, can 
ordinarily afford to take up this diflScult art. A few men of 
moderate means have made a success with trotters by selling 
yearlings as "prospects" to be developed in the hands of some 
one else, but even this method is uncertain as to results 
financially. 

Pony breeding offers a good field for profit to those who 
are in position to reach the trade for Shetland, Welsh, or 
Hackney ponies. The breeding of polo ponies, however, is as 
yet a very uncertain undertaking comparable to breeding 
trotters. 

Selecting a breed. — After the type of horse has been 
chosen, it is next in order to decide what breed of that type 
shall be selected. The choice of a breed is not so serious or 
important a matter as the selection of a type or the selection 
of the individuals which are to compose the stud. It will de- 
pend largely upon the personal fancy of the breeder, although 
in some types of horses in certain localities, one breed may 
be so much liked or another breed so much disliked as to make 



424 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

it advisable for the new breeder to conform to the choice of 
the community, if it is possible to do so. He can then profit 
from the experience and advice of his neighbors, he will bene- 
fit from a greater number of local sales of his stock, and there 
will be more stallions to select among when mating his mares. 
After deciding what type shall be produced, the mistake is 
sometimes made of selecting a breed to work with which does 
not rightly belong to that type. For example, efforts are 
sometimes made to produce the carriage type from trotting- 
bred stock, or from a saddle breed, and while many excellent 
heavy-harness horses have sprung from these breeds, they 
have been largely in the nature of accidents in breeding, and 
ordinarily they cannot be produced in this way with enough 
regularity to make such a plan of breeding advisable. 

Selecting the individuals. — We now come to the matter of 
selecting the individuals which are to compose the stud. First 
of all, they must be sound ; and this is a matter to which many 
farmers pay too little attention. Buyers offer the best prices 
for sound stock, and the farmer has too frequently sold his 
young mares that were sound, and has retained those with 
sidebones, ringbones, spavins, curbs, etc., for breeding pur- 
poses. This is radically wrong and a very short-sighted prac- 
tice. Soundness is of very vital importance in every type of 
horse, and especially in animals used for breeding purposes. 
The individuals should also be true representatives of the type 
to which they belong. Whether or not the brood mares should 
be purebred depends on the amount of capital available and 
on the type of horse selected. If possible, it is preferable that 
they be purebred, registered mares. In breeding drafters for 
the market, some very profitable work has been done with 
good grade draft mares. In such cases, however, these mares 
have shown excellent draft type, even though they were not 
eligible to registry. Purebred draft mares cost considerably 
more to buy, but have the very great advantage of having 
their foals eligible to registry, and hence of greater market 
value. In breeding carriage, saddle, and roadster horses, it is 
essential in most cases that purebred mares be used. Well- 
developed feminine character and good disposition are funda- 
mental qualities in a brood mare, as such mares are usually 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 425 

more regular breeders, better mothers, and more easily 
handled and worked than are mares of masculine appearance 
or mean, vicious, or highly nervous disposition. 

A sound, purebred stallion that is true to type and a good 
individual in every way is the only kind worthy of patronage. 
If there is no such horse in the community, it will pay to ship 
the mares a long distance to reach such a one. If possible. 




Fig. 117. Correct Type in the Draft Mare. 

Coldham Surprise, Grand Champion Shire mare at the 1913 Inter- 
national. Owned by Mr. Geo. M. McCray of Fithian, 111. Note her 
roomy middle, faultless top line, symmetrical form, abundant muscling, 
and large bone. She has ruggedness and strength combined with quality 
and femininity. 

it is always best to patronize a stallion that has proved him- 
self a sure breeder and a getter of good foals. There is no 
greater folly than breeding to a horse simply because he 
stands at a low service fee, yet this is done in a vast number 
of instances every season. There would not be the great num- 



426 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

ber of unsound, mongrel, and inferior stallions standing for 
public service if there did not exist a demand for them on the 
part of mare owners. There can be only one explanation so 
far as the owner of the mare is concerned, and that is the 
saving in the amount of the service fee; but no more short- 
sighted practice can be followed, it having been demonstrated 
in almost every community that the added value of the foal 
from a high-class stallion, as compared with the foal by a 
cheap horse, repays the extra service fee many times over. 
It costs little more to raise a good foal than an inferior one, 
and the foal by the cheap stallion is not ordinarily a profit 
maker. So many breeders have shown a lack of judgment in 
this matter, and horse stocks have deteriorated to such an 
extent in some states on account of the large number of mares 
bred to cheap horses, that stallion laws have been enacted 
which debar unsound stallions from public service, and re- 
quire that placards be posted on the stable door telling 
whether the stallion is a purebred, cross-bred, grade, or mon- 
grel. Every state needs a law of this kind, modified to suit 
its needs. 

Results of careless breeding. — Another evil in need of 
remedy is the too common practice of mixing the types of 
horses. Heavy mares are mated with trotting stallions in 
order to produce an animal for road use, or with no particular 
idea in the mind of the mare owner except to "get a colt." 
Light-weight, light-boned mares, without any semblance of 
draft qualities, are mated with draft stallions in the hope of 
getting a draft foal, or again simply to "get a colt." The re- 
sults of such breeding are to be seen on every hand in the coun- 
try, and a visit to any large horse market reveals the fact that 
a large percentage of the animals offered for sale are of no par- 
ticular type or market class, because they have a variegated 
ancestry, the result of indiscriminate crossing of heavy and 
light horses. One is at a loss sometimes to know by what 
method some market offerings were produced. The result is 
a lot of cheap horses adapted to no particular work, which 
net the producer a loss in most cases and seldom yield a profit. 
Breeders must learn to stick to type. The experience of all 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 427 

successful horse breeders teaches no other lesson more for- 
cibly than this. 

Pedigree not always an indicatioTi of merit. — In the minds 
of many people, the words "purebred," "registered," and "im- 
ported" have a charm much greater than they deserve. Far 
too often, glaring faults of individuality or even serious un- 
soundness are passed with light criticism because the animal 
in question is eligible to one or more of these fascinating 
names. After all, one must conclude that there is something 
in a name. It is a fact that many purebred horses are prac- 
tically worthless for breeding purposes. If an animal is pure- 
bred and registered, its value is very greatly increased, pro- 
vided it is a good individual of useful type ; but if the animal 
is decidedly faulty in conformation, or has serious unsound- 
ness, its pedigree and registration number are of small ac- 
count, and the animal is of little or no value for breeding 
purposes. 

Feed and care. — Every successful breeder is a good feeder 
and caretaker, for no matter how excellent the ancestry of a 
foal may be, its inherited good qualities cannot reveal them- 
selves unless the foal is provided with good quarters and 
plenty of the right feed with which to build up and grow. Feed 
and care are fully as important as parentage in producing 
good horses. 

Summary. — In conclusion, therefore, follow the intensive 
rather than the extensive plan of horse production ; select the 
type to breed after careful study of the situation; select a 
breed which truly belongs to that type; select sound indi- 
viduals possessing a high degree of individual excellence; 
breed to a strictly high-class, purebred stallion, regardless of 
the amount of his service fee; if there is no such stallion in 
the immediate neighborhood, ship the mares whatever distance 
is necessary to reach a high-class horse ; patronize a tried and 
proven sire if possible; stick to a definite line of breeding — 
do not mix the types indiscriminately; raise a class of foals 
that merit plenty of good feed and care, and supply the same ; 
be conservative in your judgment and appreciative of the fact 
that the breeding of horses is an enterprise which repays 
careful study of all departments of the business. 



428 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

A Few Statistics. 

The leading countries in point of numbers of horses and 
mules in 1914 were as follows : 

Horses Mules 

United States 24,145,000 4,719,000 

Canada 2,948,000 

Argentina.. 8,894,000 535,000 

Austria-Hungary 4,374,000 43,000 

France. 3,231,000 193,000 

Germany 4,523,000 2,000 

Italy 956,000 388,000 

European Russia 24,639,000 

United Kingdom 2,233,000 31,000 

India 1,699,000 277,000 

Japan 1,582,000 

Asiatic Russia 10,330,000 

Australia 2,509,000 

World 95,698,000 8,642,000 

The United States has 25.2 per cent, of the world's horses 
and 54.6 per cent, of the world's mules. Spain is the only 
country which has more mules than horses. 

The average value of horses in the United States in 1915 
was $103.33, while the average value of mules was $112.36. 
Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Utah, and Idaho were the only 
states which reported a higher average valuation for horses 
than for mules in 1915. 

Iowa, with 1,600,000 head, had more horses in 1915 than 
any other state. The other leading states in the order of im- 
portance were Illinois, Texas, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, 
Ohio, Minnesota, Indiana, and North Dakota. The horses of 
Ohio were valued higher per head than those of the other nine 
states mentioned, so that in total valuation of horses Ohio 
ranks third, Iowa and Illinois being first and second. 

The leading mule-owning states are Texas, Missouri 
Georgia, Mississippi, and Alabama, in the order given, while 
no mules were reported in 1915 from Maine, New Hampshire, 
Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. Five 
states own more mules than horses, these being North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 
UNSOUNDNESS IN THE HORSE. 

Soundness is a very vital factor in determining the value 
of a horse, and a knowledge of unsoundness is very essential 
to success in breeding. Brief description of the most common 
unsoundnesses has been deferred until the close of the dis- 
cussion of horses in order that the student may learn to fix 
his attention, first of all, on type. The matter of soundness, 
while important, is often overemphasized. Presented here at 
the close, such information should supplement, but not dis- 
place, knowledge previously acquired. 

If a horse is unsound, his unsoundness may be accounted 
for in one or more ways: (1) he may have had a natural 
weakness in conformation or structure which predisposed him 
to the unsoundness ; (2) he may have been strong in conforma- 
tion, but forced to do extreme labor which was beyond the 
power of the animal machine to endure; (3) the unsoundness 
may be the result of a bruise, blow, cut, or other injury ; (4) un- 
soundness may result following a diseased condition of some 
part of the body, and (5) lack of proper care, as, for example, 
failure to keep the feet in proper balance so as to distribute 
the weight and wear equally over the various parts of the 
foot and leg, may bring on unsoundness. In the horse for 
work, it matters little which of the above explanations applies ; 
he is unsound, and the horse market fixes his value according 
to the nature of the unsoundness, without regard to the rea- 
son why the horse has it. In the horse intended for breeding 
purposes only, unsoundness should not be considered a serious 
detriment unless it is explained by the first of the possibilities 
listed above. For example, it is wiser to breed to a horse 
having a naturally strong hock which, because of accident or 
extreme work, has developed a bone spavin, than it is to breed 
to a sound horse having a weakly formed hock which is free 
from bone spavin only because it has never been put to the 
test of even moderate work. It is often difficult, however, to 

429 



430 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

determine with accuracy the reason for an unsoundness, and 
in all such doubtful cases the unsoundness should be looked 
upon with suspicion and the horse rejected for breeding pur- 
poses. 

Certain unsoundnesses are ordinarily referred to as 
"hereditary," on account of their marked tendency to reap- 
pear in succeeding generations. More correctly, however, it 
is some weakness of conformation that is transmitted which 
predisposes the members of the family to one or more un- 
soundnesses. Considerable difference of opinion exists among 
well-informed persons as to the hereditary transmission of 
many diseases. 

A number of minor troubles which are not unsoundnesses 
are here given brief mention, because of the frequency with 
which they are met and to satisfy curiosity regarding them. 
Treatment is briefly mentioned in some cases for a similar 
reason. Many minor troubles are important because they 
blemish a horse. A blemish merely detracts from the appear- 
ance of an animal, whereas an unsoundness interferes with 
his working capacity. Many unsoundnesses are blemishes as 
well. The list here presented is not by any means a complete 
Hst of the diseases of the horse, and it is not necessary that it 
should be complete. A study of the ills to which the horse is 
heir shows that his eyes, legs, and wind are the seats of un- 
soundness. 

Blindness. — Any defect of sight is a serious defect in a 
horse, and eye trouble always furnishes grounds for rejecting 
horses for unsoundness. Inspecting a horse for blindness re- 
quires expert knowledge of the diseases of the eye, and, al- 
though the average horseman can in many cases discover 
defective eyes, no horse is safely passed as sound in eyes 
except by a well-qualified veterinarian. Severe weeping, par- 
tially closed eyelids, sunken eyes, inability to bear strong 
light, a cloudy appearance of the cornea, unnatural or dull 
color, failure of the iris to contract to a considerable degree 
when brought from darkness to light, too active play of the 
ears, failure to blink when an object is passed close to the 
eye — these and many other conditions give evidence of de- 
fective vision. (See also cataract and periodic ophthalmia.) 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 431 

Blood spavin. — Blood spavin is situated in front and to 
the inside of the hock, and is merely a varicose or dilated 
condition of the vein passing over that region. It occurs 
directly over the point where the bog spavin is found, and is 
frequently confused with the latter. It constitutes a blemish 
rather than an unsoundness. 

Bog spavin. — This is a round, smooth, well-defined swell- 
ing in front and a little inward of the hock. On pressure it 
disappears to reappear on the outside and just behind the 
hock. It is caused by a weakness in the synovial sacs of the 
joint, accompanied by a hyper-secretion of synovial fluid or 
joint oil. Bog spavins are more often blemishes, rather than 
unsoundnesses. They are classed as the latter only when they 
are well developed or cause lameness. Slight cases are de- 
scribed as merely "a little full in the hocks.'" Treatment 
consists of rest, blistering, cauterization, and the use of pres- 
sure pads and peculiar bandages. 

Bone spavin. — This is a bony growth of variable size in 
the hock, which may or may not make itself visible on the 
exterior. It most often occurs at the inner and lower border 
of the hock, but may arise on the upper part, or on the outside 
of the hock. In some cases, no outward signs of spavin are 
perceptible; these are called "occult" spavins. Care should 
be taken not to mistake a prominent development of the inner 
and lower border of the hock, natural in some animals, for a 
spavin. Hocks that are narrow or tied in below are subject to 
bone spavin, as are also those of coarse structure. 

Bone spavins affect one or more of the six bones of the 
hock. The spavin usually represents an effort on the part of 
nature to repair the joint. Spavins are caused by sprains, 
by violent efforts in jumping, galloping, trotting, or pulling, 
by slipping or sliding, and other similar causes. This is 
classed as an hereditary unsoundness. It is one of the most 
serious unsoundnesses of horses ; it causes lameness and stiff- 
ens the joint. As with sidebones and ringbones, the size of 
the spavin is not a safe index of its seriousness. An excellent 
test for spavin lameness consists in lifting the affected leg off 
the ground for one or two minutes, holding the foot high so 
as to flex all the joints. Then start the animal off in a trot, 



432 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

when the lameness will be greatly intensified if it is caused 
by spavin. Treatment consists of complete rest for a month 
or more, blistering, the use of proper medicaments, firing, and 
special operations on the joint. Firing produces a small scar, 
and when this is present the spavin is called a "jack." 

Broken wind or heaves. — This condition is denoted by a 
characteristic hollow cough, short, and something like a grunt, 
which once heard is easily recognized a second time. Inspira- 
tion is performed normally, but expiration is abnormal, being 
double, or what is commonly called the "double lift." The 
first portion of the expiration expels the air as normally, and 
the second apparently squeezes the remainder of the air from 
the lungs in a gradual manner, seemingly with more or less 
voluntary exertion. When such an animal is put to work, 
there is also a wheezing noise with the breathing. From a 
commercial standpoint, a broken-winded horse has practically 
no value, yet he may continue to work fairly well. The cough 
is sometimes disguised by unprincipled persons through the 
administration of such substances as shot and grease; but 
this is only temporary. The abnormal breathing cannot be 
concealed. In some cases of broken wind, the air vesicles of 
the lungs have been found, after death, ruptured; the right 
side of the heart enlarged, and the walls of the stomach dilated, 
though this is not always true. A predisposition to this dis- 
ease may be inherited. In doubtful cases of broken wind, give 
the animal all the water he will drink and then ride or drive 
him uphill. This will bring out the symptoms if the disease 
is present. 

There is a great diversity of opinion as regards the exact 
cause of heaves. It is usually associated with disorder of di- 
gestion, or to an error in choice of food. Feeding on clover 
hay or damaged hay or straw, too bulky food, and keeping 
the horse in a dusty atmosphere or a badly ventilated stable 
produce or predispose to heaves. Horses brought from a high 
to a low level are predisposed. 

Capped elbow. — This malady is commonly termed "shoe 
boil," and consists of a bruise at the point of the elbow, gen- 
erally caused by the heel of the shoe when the horse is lying 
down, and sometimes from other causes. The continued irri- 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 433 

tation leads to the production of a tumor at the point of the 
elbow. The skin may be broken, and slight suppuration very 
often occurs. The cause must be removed, and the animal pro- 
vided with a leather or rubber ring around the fetlock while 
in the stall. The remainder of the treatment is surgical. 
Capped elbow may cause severe lameness, but it is usually a 
blemish only. 

Capped hock. — This is quite common and may or may not 
constitute unsoundness. It is the result of a bruise, either 
continuous or intermittent, and may appear suddenly or grad- 
ually. Such bruises may be received in shipping by train or 
boat, or by the habit some animals have of kicking against 
the sides of the stall, or at fences, or even in harness. The 
skin, bursa, or the bone may be involved in capped hock. 
Usually it is the skin, which becomes very much thickened over 
the point of the hock. It is in every case a blemish. Treat- 
ment consists of hot and cold applications and blistering. 

Cataract. — When the lens of the eye becomes so cloudy 
or opaque as to present a white or grayish color, the eye is 
said to be affected with cataract, which is a practically in- 
curable form of blindness. A blow over the eye and other 
causes bring it on. It is rather common, particularly in aged 
horses. 

Chronic cough. — A permanent cough accompanying bro- 
ken wind, glanders, and other diseases constitutes an un- 
soundness. 

Cocked ankles or knuckling. — This is a partial dislocation 
of the fetlock joint, in which the position of the bones is 
changed, the pastern becoming more nearly perpendicular. 
While it is not always an unsoundness, it nevertheless predis- 
poses to stumbling and to fracture of the pastern. Young 
foals are frequently subject to this condition, and in the 
great majority of such cases the trouble disappears in a few 
weeks without treatment. Horses with erect pasterns often 
knuckle as they grow old, especially in the hind legs. All 
kinds of hard work, particularly in hilly districts, are exciting 
causes of this trouble. It is also caused by improper shoeing, 
in which the toe is made too long and the heel too low, thus 
producing inflammation and retraction of the tendons. Last- 



434 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

ly, it is caused by disease of the suspensory ligament or of 
the flexor tendons, whereby they are shortened, and by dis- 
ease of the fetlock joint. It is one of the worst faults a 
horse can possess, and it greatly affects the value and the 
price. Treatment varies depending on the cause of the trou- 
ble. Relief may be secured by so shoeing as to shorten the 
toe and elevate the heels, thus relieving the tendons. In 
extreme cases, the tendons may be operated on to secure 
relief. Firing and blistering effect a cure in some instances. 

Contracted feet. — Contraction of the feet is not a dis- 
eased condition in itself, but is a symptom of such and leads 
to trouble. Contraction is due to a removal of the full func- 
tions of the foot, such as is the case in lameness, removal of 
frog pressure, defective shoeing, etc. Contraction occurs 
more especially at the heels, and more frequently in the fore 
feet than the hind ones. Veterinarians look upon this condi- 
tion as constituting unsoundness. Treatment is not of much 
avail, but going barefoot or wearing a special shoe to spread 
the heels will help to alleviate the condition. 

Corns. — A corn is a bruise to the fleshy sole, and is mani- 
fested by a reddish discoloration of the horny sole beneath 
the bruise. It usually occurs upon the inner quarter of the 
fore foot. A corn very often causes severe lameness, and is 
a, cause of unsoundness. The treatment consists in paring, 
special shoeing, poulticing, keeping the part thoroughly clean, 
and a few weeks' rest. 

Cracked heels. — This condition is denoted by an inflamed 
state of the skin, which becomes broken, and, if severe, may 
cause lameness. They are frequent in the horse, especially 
following a frost, the moisture from the thaw favoring this. 
It is similar to chapped hands, and Assuring is favored by the 
movements in the hollow of the heels. Treatment consists of 
the application of a soothing liniment applied daily with tow 
and bandage. 

Curb. — This is an unnatural prominence of variable size, 
located on the posterior border of the hock, four or five inches 
below the point of the hock. It is easily detected by viewing 
the joint in profile. It is caused by a sprain of the tendon 
which passes over that part, or of the strong ligament located 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 435 

there. Hocks that are sickled, coarse, and thick in appear- 
ance, or that are too narrow from front to back at their base, 
most often develop curbs. Violent efforts in heavy pulling, 
high jumping, or slipping are often the direct cause of curb. 
Curbs do not often cause lameness, or, if they do, it is usually 
during the formative stage. Legally it is an unsoundness, 
although it is not much of a detriment, especially in horses 
for slow work. Curbs are much less serious than bone spav- 
ins, ringbones, sidebones, cocked ankles, and stringhalt. Treat- 
ment in the early stages consists of cold applications to relieve 
the acute inflammation. When the first stage has passed, 
blistering, frictions with ointments, and firing are often used 
with good success. 

Fistula. — This is an ulcerous lesion found at the withers. 
Fistulas follow as a result of abscesses, bruises, wounds, or 
long-continued irritation by the harness or saddle. The pus 
burrows and finds lodgment deep down between the muscles. 
The horse becomes incapacitated for work for a considerable 
period. Most cases are curable. The treatment is largely 
surgical ; the animal should be placed in the care of a compe- 
tent veterinarian as soon as the condition is discovered. After 
the fistula is healed, a scar usually remains in the region of the 
withers. A horse that has had fistula is liable to subsequent 
attacks of the same trouble. 

Founder or laminitis. — This is a simple inflammation of 
the fleshy laminae within the hoof. Being exceedingly vascu- 
lar, the laminae are subject to congestion, and, being enclosed 
within the hoof, there is very little room for the relief of the 
congestion. The animal suffers most agonizing pain. Con- 
cussion is one of the most common causes. Another is over- 
feeding, especially on barley, wheat, or corn, causing indiges- 
tion, irritation of the alimentary tract, and inflammation of 
the fleshy laminae through sympathy. Other causes are un- 
usual excitement, bad shoeing, over-exertion, exhaustion, rapid 
changes of temperature, or any other agencies of an over- 
supply of blood to the fleshy laminae, resulting in congestion 
and inflammation. But it is the after-effects which are of 
most interest to us here. The disease sometimes becomes 
chronic, and this seriously affects the secretion of horn. The 



436 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

toe of the hoof turns up, the heels become longer than natural, 
while the hoof near the coronet is circled with ridges like those 
of a ram's horn. These ridges are wide apart at the heel, and 
close together in front, and are due to periods of interference 
with the growth of horn simultaneous with the inflammation 
of the fleshy laminae. Because of the high heel and turned-up 
toe, the leg knuckles at the fetlock joint. Usually, accom- 
panying these defects, the sole is found to be thin, convex, and 
weak, and will stand but little wear. Because of the convex- 
ity, the diseased tissues bear unusual weight, and such ani- 
mals are generally incurable cripples. 

Grease. — This is not an unsoundness, but is such a trou- 
blesome and common complaint that brief mention is here 
given. It is a skin disease appearing nearly always in the 
hind cannons. Draft horses are more subject to it than Hght 
horses. Some individuals are predisposed to it — those with 
coarse skin and coarse feather. Other horses have it as a 
form of parasitic mange, denoted by a greasy condition oi 
the skin, congestion of the skin, erect hair, and offensive odor 
due to discharge from the sores. There is a constant itching 
and the horse rubs the part, producing thickening and wrink- 
ling of the skin. Treatment varies. Half an ounce of Fow- 
ler's solution of arsenic night and morning in the feed, burning 
with hot iron, applying hot linseed poultices, dressing with 
lead lotion, giving a mild physic, decreasing amount of feed 
allowance — all these furnish good methods of treatment. 

Hip down. — This is a fracture of the point of the hip, 
often caused by the animal striking the part against the door 
post of the stable. It causes a flatness and sometimes the 
broken piece of bone may be felt. It is best detected by stand- 
ing squarely behind the animal and viewing it across the hips. 
It constitutes a blemish. 

Navicular disease. — Navicular disease is a chronic inflam- 
mation involving the navicular bone, the navicular bursa, and 
the flexor tendon of the foot. It is brought on by repeated 
bruising. Light horses are affected much oftener than heavy 
horses. The hind feet are seldom affected. It is practically 
never found in mules. One-third of the weight falling on the 
leg is sustained by the little bow-shaped navicular bone, and 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 437 

the bone in turn is supported by the flexor tendon of the foot. 
(See Fig. 84.) Such defects as an insufficient plantar cush- 
ion, a small frog, and contracted feet predispose the horse to 
navicular disease. In this way the disease may be hereditary, 
as these predisposing causes may be transmitted to offspring. 
High knee action, fast work, and hard pavements also endan- 
ger a horse from this disease. Dry stables, heavy pulling, 
and bad shoeing also tend toward the development of this 
trouble. In the early stages of navicular disease, the animal 
at rest points the affected foot forward and rests it on the 
toe, with the fetlock and knee flexed. In the lameness which 
develops, the affected leg takes a short stride, and the toe 
strikes the ground first. The disease is progressive and in- 
curable, rendering the animal practically valueless, but not en- 
tirely useless on soft ground. To relieve the pain, neurotomy 
may be performed, an operation in which the sense of feeling is 
destroyed in the foot by cutting out pieces of the nerve at 
the fetlock. Navicular disease is one of the most serious 
unsoundnesses. 

Periodic ophthalmia or moonblindness. — This is a disease 
affecting the eyes of horses, probably caused by a germ. It is 
quite commonly called moonblindness, because it was thought 
at one time that the moon had some influence on the cause 
of the disease. There is undoubtedly a hereditary predispo- 
sition to the disease, but there are few cases to indicate that 
the disease itself is transmitted from parent to offspring, but 
rather the colt is born with a weakness of the eyes, transmit- 
ted by the stallion or dam. Other predisposing factors are 
low, swampy pastures, poorly ventilated or insufficiently light- 
ed stables, over-feeding, etc. 

The disease comes on with an inflammation usually of one 
eye. The transparent portion of the eyeball becomes bluish 
or white in color, most noticeable in the lower part. The eye 
is kept half closed on account of pain produced by light. Of- 
ten this is associated by a swelling of the eyelids and redden- 
ing of the membrane lining them, with a discharge of tears 
over the face. There is no indication of an injury or more se- 
vere inflammation at one point than at another. In one to 
two weeks these symptoms disappear and the eye may be 



438 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

practically normal to all general appearances for a period of 
usually one to three months, when another attack occurs more 
severe than the first. After a few attacks have come and 
gone, the eye has a bluish appearance, looks cloudy instead of 
clear, the eyeball is shrunken, retracted in the orbit, and the 
lens develops a cataract. Not being satisfied with having de- 
stroyed one eye, the disease frequently affects the other, and 
the history of the first is repeated. 

Poll evil. — Poll evil is a fistula upon the poll of the head, 
and in no sense differs from fistulous withers except in loca- 
tion. It is caused by blows, bruises, and chafing by the halter 
or bridle. 

Ringbone. — This is a bony growth at the coronet or on the 
pastern, in either the front or hind legs. It is called "ring- 
bone" because it often grows around the coronet so as to form 
a ring, although in a large number of cases the growth takes 
the form of a lump on the pastern, rather than that of a ring 
at the hoof-head. This disease may result from severe work 
in early life, from bruises, blows, or sprains, or from improper 
shoeing. Ringbone often follows an abscess of the coronet, or 
a deep-punctured wound. It is also classed as an hereditary 
unsoundness, horses with short, upright pasterns being pre- 
disposed. Ringbones often cause lameness which may disap- 
pear with exercise, returning again when the animal is cooled. 
They may or may not stiffen the joint. The size of the ring- 
bone is not so important as its position. If it is located so as 
to interfere with the movement of the tendons behind or in 
front of the foot, it is a very serious trouble. Prevention of 
ringbones consists in keeping foals well nourished, and keeping 
the hoofs in balance. Curative measures consist of so shoe- 
ing as to straighten the axis of the foot and pastern as 
viewed from the side; blistering, followed by a few weeks of 
rest; and point firing in two or three lines over the ringbone. 
When these measures do not relieve lameness, the only re- 
course is nerving. 

Roaring or thick wind. — Horses that make a loud, unnat- 
ural noise in breathing are said to have thick wind, or to be 
roarers, excepting those which manifest this trouble because 
of a severe sore throat. Any obstruction of the free passage 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 439 

of air in some part of the respiratory tract may cause roar- 
ing; occasional causes are nasal polypi, thickening of the 
membrane, pharyngeal polypi, deformed bones, paralysis of the 
wing of the nostril, etc. However, chronic roaring is caused 
by paralysis of the muscles of the larynx, thus permitting the 
cartilage and vocal cord to lean into the tube of the larynx. 
The noise is made during inspiration, and in far-advanced 
cases may be produced also during expiration. A horse is 
tested for roaring by putting him to severe exertion, as the 
sound is usually made only when at work. Roaring is a seri- 
ous unsoundness because it incapacitates an animal for severe 
work, and it is a serious blemish because the noise is un- 
pleasant. It is classed as an hereditary disease. Treatment 
varies depending on the exact cause, and includes a course of 
iodide of potassium in the early stages of the disease, or, in 
advanced cases, operating on the larynx. 

Grunting. — When a pass is made at a horse with a stick, 
or he is otherwise startled, and he grunts, he should be further 
tested for roaring. It is a common thing for a roarer to 
grunt, although grunters are not always roarers. Such ani- 
mals should be given a severe test of wind. Pleurisy and 
rheumatism will cause grunting, which ceases when the ani- 
mal recovers from the disease. 

Whistling. — This is only a variation of the sound emitted 
by a roarer. It may be temporary, due to a severe sore 
throat. 

Sand crack. — Sand crack is a splitting of the wall of the 
hoof, beginning at the coronet, and commonly at the inner 
quarter in the fore feet or at the toe in hind ones. It is due 
to imperfection in the growth of horn. It may cause lameness 
through sensitive parts being nipped by the crack. It con- 
stitutes unsoundness. The treatment is rest and cutting a 
notch transversely below the crack. If there is lameness the 
crack may be clasped. The shoe may be seated out below the 
crack, relieving pressure. 

Sidebones. — Sidebones are formed by the ossification of 
the lateral cartilages of the foot, so that they become hard 
and unyielding, instead of soft and elastic. (See Fig. 84.) 



440 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

This disease is most common in heavy horses. They are found 
more often in the front feet than in the hind ones, and the 
outer cartilage is more often affected than the inner one. In 
the hind feet they are of little importance, since they cause 
no lameness. In the front feet they may or may not cause 
lameness, usually the latter; however, they always lessen the 
natural expansion of the heels and often result in shortening 
of the stride. When lameness is present, the horse comes out 
of the stable stiff and sore, but with exercise the gait shows 
improvement. Sidebones are caused by sprains, bruises, blows, 
and other injuries; and by high-heeled shoes, high calks, and 
short, upright pasterns. The size and prominence of a side- 
bone is not an index to the damage it may produce. Treatment 
is not of much account. It consists in using cold-water 
bandages, then blistering or firing. Neurotomy (nerving) 
is often practiced to relieve lameness. This is classed as an 
hereditary unsoundness. It is a serious form of unsound- 
ness, but is not so serious as bone spavin, ringbone, roaring, 
or blindness. 

Splint. — A splint is a variable-sized bony enlargement on 
the cannon bone, usually on the inside of the upper two-thirds 
of the front cannons. The button-like enlargements at the 
lower end of the splint bones should not be mistaken for 
splints. Splints occasionally cause lameness; if so, they con- 
stitute an unsoundness. They are more detrimental in horses 
used for fast work than in heavy horses used for slow work. 
In the great majority of cases, splints are only minor blem- 
ishes. Many horses have them. Splints often appear in 
young horses and may be absorbed shortly afterwards without 
treatment. The chief cause of splint is concussion. Other 
causes are sprains and injuries or blows on the cannon bone. 
No treatment should be given, as they but rarely cause trouble. 
Blistering and firing are sometimes practiced. 

Sprung knees or buck knees. — This defective conformation 
may be congenital or the result of heavy labor at too early an 
age, there being retraction of two of the principal flexor ten- 
dons of the parts below the knee. While not an unsoundness, 
it detracts from the usefulness and value, especially in saddle 



Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 441 

horses. Horses with badly sprung knees may fall even when 
standing at rest and unmolested. 

Stringhalt. — This disease comes under the general head- 
ing, chorea. It is manifested by a sudden, involuntary jerk- 
ing up of one or both hind legs when the animal is walking or 
trotting. It may be very slight in some horses, but increases 
with age. In some the affected leg is caught up very violently 
and high, and then lowered equally sudden and forcible. It 
is more often associated with a nervous disposition than with 
a sluggish one. It is an incurable disease and very consider- 
ably lessens the price. It is best detected by causing the ani- 
mal to back, or turning him around in his tracks first one way 
and then the other. 

Swollen legs. — A swollen leg usually indicates disease, the 
causes being many. It is also not uncommon in old horses, 
or those having a sluggish circulation. It is not an unsound- 
ness, but detracts from the appearance and is highly undesir- 
able. Treatment consists in giving laxatives, saltpeter, and 
moderate exercise. 

Thoroughpin. — This is similar to bog spavin ; it is a swell- 
ing occurring at the back and on top of the hock in that part 
known as the "hollows." It is due to weakness of the capsular 
ligament and to hyper-secretion of synovial fluid. It is round 
and smooth, and most apparent when viewed from behind. 
The swelling is usually on both sides and a little in front of 
the hamstring. When pressed on one side, further distention 
occurs on the opposite side. It seldom causes lameness. 
Treatment is the same as for bog spavin. Thoroughpin is not 
a serious ailment, being usually only an eyesore, although 
many horsemen consider it an unsoundness. 

Thrush. — This is a disease of the cleft of the frog which 
may cause lameness. It is usually the result of negligence, the 
result of uncleanliness. The cleft of the frog becomes sup- 
purating and moist, and there is a very rank odor. Treatment 
consists in washing, disinfecting, drying, dusting with a little 
calomel, and packing. This must be repeated daily until the 
part becomes normal. 

Windgall or road puff. — Joints and tendons are furnished 
with sacs containing a lubricating fluid called synovia. When 



442 Types and Market Classes of Live Stock 

these sacs at the fetlocks become distended by reason of an 
excessive secretion of synovia, they are called windgalls. 
They form a soft, puffy tumor about the size of a hickory nut 
or walnut. They are sometimes found in young horses, but 
are most common in horses used for hard labor, especially on 
pavements. They may be accompanied by lameness, but if 
not, they are classed merely as blemishes. As a rule, no 
treatment is necessary in young horses. Older animals may 
be treated by resting, cold-water douches and bandages, and 
blistering. 



4 



INDEX. 



Action, effects of conformation on, 

320-324. 
Age from teeth — 
cattle, 33. 
horses, 324. 
sheep, 169. 
Alveoli, 183. 
American Saddle Horse, origin of, 

332. 
Anatomy of horse, 301-314. 
Artillery horses, 403. 
Auction rules, 394. 
Automobile, effect of, on horse in- 
dustry, 334. 

Baby beef, 70-74. 

on the market, 84. 
production, advantages of, 103. 
Bacon — 

carcasses, 261, 265. 
hog, detailed description of, 
249-256. 
Barb horse, origin of, 327. 
Base of support of horse, 315-319. 
Bate, John J., early exports of beef 

by, 65. 
Beef- 
breeding cow, type desired in, 

109-111. 
breeds, internal fat of, 55. 
carcass — 

detailed description of, 34- 

50. 
steer and heifer carcasses 

compared, 75-78. 
weight of internal fat, 55. 
cattle — 

breeding for the market, 

102-112. 
class, 80-85. 

consumers' demands, 43. 
consumption of, 19, 257. 
from steer and heifer com- 
pared, 75-78. 
production, advantages of, 
112. 
sire — 

price to pay for, 105. 
type desired in, 107. 
type- 
defined, 20. 



detailed description of, 23- 

33. 
steers and dairy type 
steers compared, 51- 
56. 
Blindness, 430. 
Block beef, 43. 
Blood- 
spavin, 431. 

supply to udder, 134-136. 
Boar and sow, selection of, 297. 
Boars, market class, 287. 
Bog spavin, 431. 
Bone spavin, 431. 
Break-joint of lambs, 175. 
Breed — 

of horses, selecting a, 423. 
type defined, 20. 
Breeding — 

cattle, weights of, at different 

ages, 107. 
ewe, points desired in, 196-198. 
for milk production, 148-153. 
sheep class, 195-198. 
Breeding for the market — 
cattle, 102-112. 
horses, 418-428. 
mutton sheep, 201-210. 
swine, 290-298'. 
Breeds of — 

beef cattle, internal fat of, 55. 

cattle, 20. 

dairy cows, differences in milk 

of, 137. 
horses — 

classification of, 336. 
origin of, 326-334. 
sheep, 159. 
swine, 238. 
Brood mare, selection of a. 424. 
Broken wind, 432. 
Buck knees, 440. 
Bulls— 

and stags, 89. 
feeder, 98. 
Butcher — 
cattle, 88. 
hogs, 282. 
By-products from hog packing, 275. 



443 



Cab horses, 407. 
Canner — 

carcasses, 43. 
cattle, 89. 
Capped — 

elbow, 432. 
hock, 433. 
Carloads of live stock, number of 

animals per car, 62. 
Carpet wool, 227. 
Carriage horse — 
class, 405-408. 
in America, 333. 
origin of, 329. 

type, detailed description of, 
352-361. 
Carriages, description of first, 329. 
Cataract, 433. 
Cattle- 
business of today, 67. 
early, 69. 
fashions in, 69-78. 
feeding — 

margin in, 73. 
source of profit in, 72. 
markets — 

American, 57-68. 
development of large, 59. 
early, 58. 
receipts, 57. 
number, value, and distribution 
in U. S., 103. 
Cavalry horse, 409. 
Chicago — 
Cattle- 
movement and values, 57. 
prices in 1914, 100. 
development of hog packing at, 

273. 
early beef packing at, 65. 
early cattle trade, 60. 
hog — 

market, development of, 
279. 

movement at, 278. 
prices in 1914, 289. 
horse prices in 1914, 411. 
sheep — 

prices in 1914, 199. 
i-eceipts and values, 180. 
movement, 180. 
Chunk horses, 399-401. 
Cincinnati, early hog packing at, 

272. 
Circulation of blood to and from 

udder, 134-136. 
Classes and grades of — 
beef carcasses, 49. 
sheep carcasses, 176. 



hog carcasses, 267-269. 
Classes of Merinos, origin of, 220, 
Classification of — 

breeds of horses, 336. 

fine-wooled sheep, 216. 

saddle horses, 381. 

sheep, 159. 

wools, 226-229. 
Clothing and combing wools, 227. 
Coach horses, 405. 
Cob horses, 406. 
Cocked ankles, 433. 
Colostrum, 138'. 

Combing and clothing wools, 227. 
Conestoga horses, 381. 
Contracted feet, 434. 
Corns, 434. 
Cotton mules, 416. 
Cough, chronic, 433, 
Cows — 

fat, 89. 

stock and feeding, 98. 
Cracked heels, 434. 
Cross-bred, definition of, 104. 
Curb, 434. 

Cutter carcasses, 43. 
Cutters and canners, 89. 

Dairy — 

-bred steers for beef, 51-56. 
bull- 
selection of, 149-151. 
type desired in, 127-130. 
cattle, breeding, 148-153. 
cow, type desired in, 114-127. 
cows — 

methods of judging, 114. 
number, value, and distri- 
bution in U. S., 148. 
testing, value of, 152. 
variations in usefulness of, 
140-147. 

world's record-holding, 143 
type- 
defined, 20. 

detailed description of, 
113-130. 
Dead- 
hogs, 289. 
sheep, 199. 
Delivery wagon horses, 402. 
Digestive system of horse, 303. 
Distillery cattle, 84. 
Draft- 
horse in America, 333. 
mare, selecting for breeding, 

424. 
mules. 417. 
stallion, selecting a, 425. 



444 



(Draft continued) 

type- 
advantages of to farmer, 
421. 

detailed description of, 
337-351. 
origin of, 328. 
Dressing — 

cattle, 34. 

hogs, 258. 

sheep and lambs, 171. 
Dressing percentage of — 

cattle, 35. 

hogs, 259. 

sheep, 172. 
Dual-purpose — 

cattle, utility of, 154-156. 

type- 
defined, 20, 
description of, 156. 

Eastern chunks, 399. 

Eastman, Timothy C, early exports 

of beef by, 66. 
Export — 

mules, 417. 

sheep, 199. 
Exports of — 

beef, pioneer, 65. 

pork products, 277. 

wools, 233. 
Express horses, 401. 

Farm — 

chunks, 400. 

mules, 416. 
Fashions in market cattle, 69-78. 
Federal inspection for diseases, 64. 
Feed, effect of on composition of 

milk, 146. 
Feeder — 

bulls, 98. 

cattle, 90-99. 

hogs, 288. 

lambs, 193. 

sheep, 191-195. 

steers, 92-97. 
Feeds, fertilizing value of, 16. 
Feet, contracted, 434. 
Fine-wooled type, detailed descrip- 
tion of, 211-222. 
Fire horses, 404. 
Fistula, 435. 
Five-gaited saddle horse, 373-377, 

379-382. 
Fleece of — 

Merino, 215. 

mutton sheep, 165-169. 



Foods, analysis and fuel values of, 

294. 
Foot of horse, 308-314. 
Fore limb of horse, anatomy of, 

304-306. 
Founder, 435. 

Gaits of the horse described, 375- 

377. 
General-purpose horse, 333. 
Goats, 199. 
Governments, 288". 
Grade animal, definition of, 104. 
Grease, 436. 

Great Horse, origin of, 328. 
Grunting, 439. 

Heaves, 432. 

Heavy-harness type, detailed de- 
scription of, 352-361. 
Heifer beef compared with steer 

beef, 75-78. 
Heifers, fat, 88. 
High grade, definition of, 105. 
Hip down, 436. 
Hock, anatomy of, 306. 
Hog — (See also Swine.) 

carcass, detailed discussion of, 

257-271. 
crop, peculiarities of, 279. 
markets — 

and pork packing — past 
and present, 272-280. 
present leading, 278. 
packing — 

by-products from, 275. 
development of, 272-280. 
products, high fuel value of, 
294. 
Hoof— 

and how it grows, 311-314. 
mechanism, 319. 
Horse — 

anatomy of, 301-314. 

base of support of, 315-319. 

breeding, 418-428. 

digestive system of, 303. 

hock of, anatomy of, 306. 

in America, 330-336. 

in motion, 316-319. 

limb of, anatomy of, 304-308. 

market auction rules, 394. 

markets, receipts in 1914, 394. 

muscular system of, 302. 

skeleton of, 301. 

compared with man, 307. 
Horses — 

market requirements for, 395- 
398. 



445 



m 



number, value, and distribu- 
tion in U. S., 428. 
numbers of in various coun- 
tries, 428. 
Hot-house lambs, 198. 
Hunter horse — 

detailed description of, 383-388. 
origin of, 328. 
production of, 388, 

Imports of wools, 233. 

Inspection, federal, for disease, 64. 

Judging dairy cows, two methods 
of, 114. 

Knuckling, 433. 

Lamb carcass, 170-176. 
Lard — 

the grades of, 270. 
hog- 
carcass, 257-271. 
detailed description of, 
239-248. 
type, reasons for development 
of, 292-294. 
Laminitis, 435. 
Lateral cartilages, 309. 
Legs, defects in position of, 321, 
Light-harness type, detailed de- 
scription of, 362-371. 
Light hogs, 282-284. 
Limb of horse — 

anatomy of, 304-308. 
attachment to body, 315. 
Locomotion in the horse, 316-319. 
Loggers, 399. 

L o u i s i a n a-Purchase Exposition 
dairy cow test, 141. 

Manure, value of, 16. 
Margin in cattle feeding, 73, 
Market classes and grade of — 

cattle, 79-101. 

horses, 394-412, 

mules, 413-417, 

sheep, 180-200. 

swine, 281-289. 
Market classes of — 

cattle, average prices of, 100. 

horses, average prices of, 412. 

sheep, average prices of, 199. 

swine, average prices of, 289. 
Market requirements for — 

horses, 395-398. 

mules, 413-415. 
Markets, American cattle, 57-68. 
Meat consumption in various coun- 
tries, 257. 



Merino type, detailed description 

of, 211-222. 
Milk- 
cistern, 133. 
ducts, 133. 
effect of feed on composition 

of, 146. 
nature and composition of, 136. 
production, breeding for, 148- 

153. 
secretion, 131-139. 
veins, 123-125. 
wells, 125. 
Milkers and springers, 80. 
Mining mules, 415. 
Moon blindness, 437. 
Morgan horse, origin of, 332, 
Mules — 

market requirements for, 413- 

415, 
number, value, and distribution 

in U, S., 428. 
number of, in various coun- 
tries, 428. 
Muscular system of horse, 302. 
Mutton — 

breeding ewe, type desired in, 

206-209. 
carcass, detailed discussion of, 

170-176. 
ram, type desired in, 203-206. 
sheep — 

breeding for the market, 
201-210. 
class, 183-190. 
type, detailed description of, 
161-169. 

Native sheep, 180-183. 
Navicular disease, 438. 
Norfolk trotter, origin of, 330. 

Offal of— 

cattle, 35. 

hogs, 259. 

sheep, 172, 
Origin of — 

breeds of horses, 326-384, 

types of horses, 326-334, 

Pacing records, 364. 
Packing — 

hog class, 283-?,85. 

industry, development of, 64. 

plant, a modern, 66. 
Pan-American dairy cow test, 141. 
Park horses, 406. 



446 



Pedigree — 

dangers of, 152, 427. 

value of, in selecting dairy bull, 

150. 
with performance, 151. 
Pelt of sheep, value and use of, 

176-179. 
Pen holders, 288. 
Periodic ophthalmia, 437. 
Pigs, 287. 
Plug horses, 411. 
Pododerm, 310. 
Poll evil, 438. 
Polo- 
history of, 389. 
pony — 

detailed description of, 
389-393. 
origin of, 330. 
production of, 392. 
Ponies, 410. 
Pork- 
exports of, 277. 
high fuel value of,. 294. 
packing, growth of, in Amer- 
ica. 273. 
wholesale cuts of, 260-263. 
wholesale trade in, 259. 
Price averages of market classes 
of— 
cattle, 100. 
horses, 412. 
sheep, 199. 
swine, 286. 
Prime heavy hogs, 281. 
Purebred, definition of, 104. 

Railroads, early shipments of cat- 
tle by, 60. 
Range — 

cattle, 8'5-88. 
horses, 410. 
Records — 

highest made by dairy cows, 

143. 
value of — 

in breeding beef cattle, 
111. 

with dairy cows, 152. 
Refrigerator car, origin and im- 
portance of, 65. 
Renick, George, early cattle feed- 
ing operations of, 58. 
Ringbone, 438. 
Road horse class, 408. 
Road puff, 441. 
Roadster — 

horse, origin of, 331. 



type, detailed description of, 
362-371. 
Roaring, 438. 
Roasting pigs, 288. 
Roughs, 287. 

Rudimentaries of bull, 129. 
Runabout horses, 408. 
Running horse, origin of, 327. 

Saddle horse — 

class, 409. 

first, origin of, 326. 

type, detailed description ofi 
372-382. 
Saddle horses classified, 381. 
Sand crack, 439. 
Scrub animal, definition of, 104. 
Secretion of milk, 131-139. 
Sheep — 

classification of, 159. 

industry in U. S. in early 
times, 201. 

markets, receipts, 180. 

native and western, 181-183. 

number, value, and distribu- 
tion in U. S., 202. 

pelts, value and use of, 176-179. 
Shoe boil, 432. 
Shrinkage of wools, 232. 
Sidebones, 439. 
Skeleton of horse, 301. 
Skeletons of man and horse com- 
pared, 307. 
Slaughtering — 

and dressing hogs, 258. 

cattle, 34. 

sheep, 170. 
Sloan, Tod, his method of riding, 

317-319. 
Southern chunks, 401. 
Sow and boar, selection of, 297. 
Spanish horse, origin of, 327. 
Spavins, 431. 
Spaying heifers, advantages and 

disadvantages, 77. 
Splint, 440. 
Sprung knees, 440. 
Stags, 287. 

Stallion, draft, selecting a, 425. 
Standard-bred horse, origin of, 331. 
Stock and feeding cows, 98. 
Stocker and feeder cattle, 90-99. 
Stomach worm of sheep, 182. 
Stringhalt, 441. 
Sugar mules, 416. 
Swine — (See also Hogs.) 

breeding for the market, 290- 
298. 



447 



breeds of, 238. 

fattening ability of, 264. 

industry in U. S., 290-298. 

leading countries in numbers 

of, 291. 

number and distribution of in 

U. S., 291. 
types of, 237. 
Swollen legs, 441. 

Teat, structure of, 132. 
Teats of dairy cow, 123. 
Tests of dairy cows — 

Louisiana-Purchase Exposition, 
141. 

Pan-American Exposition, 141. 

value of, 152. 
Texas — 

and western range cattle, 85- 
88. 

long-horn cattle, 85. 
Thick wind, 438. 
Thoroughbred, origin of, 327. 
Thoroughpin, 441. 
Three-gaited saddle horse, 377-382. 
Throw-outs, 199. 
Thrush, 441. 
Transportation, early methods of, 

58. 
Trotting— 

horse, origin of, 331. 

records, 364. 
Turk horse, origin of, 327. 
Type- 
defined, 20. 

value of in beef making, 51- 
56. 
Types of — 

cattle, 20. 

horses — 

effects of mechanical in- 
ventions on, 334. 
origin of, 326-336. 

sheep, 159. 

swine, 237. 

Udder of — 

cow, structure of, 131-134. 

dairy cow, 121-123. 
Union Stock Yards, Chicago — 

description of, 62. 

founding of, 61. 



Unsoundness in the horse, 429-442 

Variations in usefulness of dairy 

cows, 140-147. 
Veal calves, 99. 

Wagon horses, 401-405. 

Walk, trot, canter horse, 377-382. 

War horse, origin of, 328. 

Weeds, 411. 

Weight, forage — 

beef breeding cattle, 107. 

beef cattle, 33. 

lard hogs, 247. 
Weight, importance of, in draft 

horses, 338. 
Weights of early hogs, 295 
Western — 

range cattle, 85-88. 

sheep, 181-183. 
Whistling, 439. 
Wholesale cuts of — 

beef, 36-38. 

lamb and mutton, 172. 
Windgall, 441. 
Wool- 
classifications, 226-229. 

fiber, structure of, 223-225. 

fineness of, 225. 

grading of, 229. 

imports and exports, 233. 

marketing properly, 234. 

markets in America, 233. 

-producing states, 232. 

pulling, 229. 

scouring, 231. 
Woolens and worsteds, 226. 
Wools— 

and wool growing, 223-235. 

clipped and pulled, 227. 

clothing, combing, and carpet, 
227. 

shrinkage of, 232. 
World's — 

record dairy cows, 143. 

trotting and pacing records, 
364. 
Worsteds and woolens, 226. 

Yolk, 166. 

secretion and composition of, 
225. 



448 



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