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Wm. MoLtAM a 96n 













Teo! remarkable Exhibition of Northern Irish Antiquities and Historical Reliques, at Belfast, on the 
occasion of the Meeting, in that town, of the British Association for the advancement of Science, has 
opened up a new and fertile field of Archaeology. The province of Ulster was already historically 
remarkable, as being the last part of Ireland which held out against the English sway, retaining its 
ancient customs to a comparatively recent period ; and for the extraordinary changes of population 
afterwards superinduced by a new and extensive colonisation. It was also, at an earlier period, 
known to have been the battle-field of the native Irish Chieftains and the Scandinavian Sea-kings. 
Other distinct races of men, from time to time, are recorded to have effected settlements in the 
district, whose lineal descendants yet remain. But, until the present Exhibition, it was not suspected 
that all these varied events had left vivid and unmistakeable traces throughout the whole Province. 
The correspondence elicited by the Exhibition, and the objects themselves which were exhibited, have 
proved that almost every townland in Ulster retains memorials of its singularly chequered history. 
The mountains still preserve their ancient Cairns and Cromlechs of pre-historic times ; the vallies 
their earthen tumuli, covering the sepulchres of heroes. The peat-bogs daily give up their ancient 
treasures, of gold, silver, and bronze. Even the modern innovations, the railway and canal, assist in 
revealing the singular relics of a former age. Finally, the descendants of the ancient families still retain 
in their possession many authentic and interesting records and local traditions. The whole Province, 
in fact, at this moment teems with the most varied and remarkable memorials of successive phases of 
society, still accessible, and still capable of complete elucidation. The tangled web of Northern Irish 
History can yet be unravelled by existing aids ; but in twenty years more the case will be different. 
The men who are now the depositories of family and local history will be no more, or wiU have be- 
come the denizens of another land ; the manuscripts will be lost ; the bronzes, the gold and silver, 
will be consigned to the melting-pot ; and thus a chasm will occur in our historical annals, never again 
to be filled. 

It is therefore believed, that the present is a fitting opportunity for endeavouring to rescue from 
oblivion what remains of the History of Ulster ; and accordingly, a number of gentlemen in Belfast 
and the neighbourhood, interested in Irish Archaeology, propose to establish a Journal for this espe- 
cial purpose, and now announce their intention. 

The Ulster Journal of Archaeology will appear Quarterly, and will be devoted principally (but not 
exclusively) to the elucidation of the Antiquities and ancient History of Ulster. Each number, be- 
sides being a record of interesting and authentic facts, will be open to the discussion of all disputed 
subjects in Irish Archasology ; and will be illustrated with Lithographs of curious ancient objects. 



r Messrs. ARCHER & SONS, Castle-place, Belfast ; 
Names of Subscribers received by } J. RUSSELL SMITH. Esq.. Souo-square, London ; and 

( ROBERT Macadam, Esq!, 18, College-square, Belfast. 

The Conductors of this Journal think it right to 
intimate, that, while exercising all due discrimi- 
nation in the selection of papers for publication, 
they do not hold themselves responsible for the 
statements or opinions advanced by the respective 

All communications for the Editors are to 
be addressed to Robert MacAdam, Esq., 18, 
College-Square, Belfast. 



The Archaeology of Ulster. ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Ori^ and Characteristics of the Population in the Counties of Down and Antrim. 

I. Introduction 9 

II. Antiquity of the district. 10 

in. Importance of the district. 13 

rV. Topographical Outline J5 

,.V. Its Physical peculiarities : 22 

The Island of Tory ; its History and Antiquities. Part I. ( Illustrated. ) : 

Greneral Description, 27 

The Earldom and Barons of Ulster. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 38 

Ancient Irish Ogham Inscriptions. (Illustrated) ... ... ... ... ... 43 

Ancient Stone Crosses of Ireland. (Illustrated.) 53 

King William's Progress to the Boyne. No. I. (Illustrated.) 58 

Antiquarian Notes and Queries. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 63 

The Metropolitan Visitation of the Diocese of Derry by Archbishop Colton, A.D., 1397. 

No. 1. 

Historical Introdaction, QQ 

lona. (Illustrated.) ... ... ... ... ... 79 . 

The Anglo-Norman Families of Lecale, in the County of Down. ... 92 

Additional Note on the " Earldom and Barons of Ulster." ... 100 

The Ogham Inscriptions. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 101 

The Island of Tory ; its History and Antiquities. Part U. (Illvstrated.) 

Pagan Period. jQg 

Irish Surnames; their past and present forms. .. . ... 117 

Origin and Characteristics of the Population in the Counties of Down and Antrim. 


VI. Condition of the country before the Plantation of Ulster, ... J 20 

VII. Position of ancient districts 228 

VIII. The Plantation of Ulster, 126 

King "William's Progress to the Boyne. No. II. (Illustrated.) ... ... ... 130 

Antiquarian Notes and Queries. ... ... ... 137 

The Island of Tory ; its History and Antiquities. Part III. (Illustrated.) 

Ecclesiastical Period. 142 

The Hosting against tte Northern Irish in 1566. 159 

On Hoards of Coins found in Ireland. .. . ... ... 164 

The Antiphonary of Bangor. (Illustrated.) ... ... ... ... ... ... 168 

Original Documents illustrative of Irish History. No. 1. 

Letter from the Lord Deputy, Sir Arthur Chichester, to the 

Earl ofNorthampton \^\ 

Metropolitan Visitation of the Diocese of Derry, A.D. 1397. No. IT. (Illustrated.-) 184 
On the Importance to the Archaeologist and Ethnologist of an accurate mode of measuring 
human Crania, and of recording the results ; with the description of a new Cra- 

niometer. (Illustrated.) ... ... ... ... ... ... 198 

The French Settlers in Ireland, No. I. 

The Huguenot Colony at Lisburn, County of Antrim, ... 209 

Kilnasaggart. (Illustrated.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... . 221 

Antiquarian Notes and Queries ... ... ... ... . 226 

Metropolitan Visitation of the Diocese of Derry, A.D., 1397. ... ... ... 232 

The Battle of Lisnegarvey A.D. 1641 242 

Origin and Characteristics of the Population in the Counties of Down and Antrim : 

IX. English Settlements in Antrim and Down. 246 

The Seal of Hugh O'Neill. (Illustrated.) 255 

Original Documents illustrative of Irish History. No. 2. : 

Petition of Captain Browne to Lord Burghley, relative to his 

estate in Mahee Island, County Down 259 

Ulster Roll of Gaol Delivery, 1613-161 8, 260 

Saint Mura, 227 

The Bell of Saint Mura. (^//^usfrafctZ.; 274 

Notice of the examination of an ancient Sepulchral Mound. (Illustrated.) ... ... 276 

The French Settlers in Ireland.~No. II. 286 

The Hnguenot Colony at Lisburn (continued.) 
Irish Library : No. 1. 

Colgan's Works 295 

Antiquarian Notes and Queries. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 303 


Topographical Map of Antrim and Down. ... 
Physical Map of Antrim and Down. 
Cross supposed to be from Tory Island. . . . 

Map of Tory Island 

Promontory near Horn Head, County Donegall. 






Stones with Ogham Inscriptions. ... ... ... 43 

Base of Monasterboice Cross with Inscilption. ... ... ... ... ... ... 56 

Inscribed Tomb-stone at Monasterboice. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 67 

King William's Eoora, Peel Hall 69 

Stair-case, Peel Hall. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 6!J 

Gdyton Hall 61 

Stair-case, Gayton Hall. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 62 

Inscription on Hebrew Seal. ... ... ... ... ... ... 63 

West View of Cathedral at lona, and St. Martin's Cross 79 

Gold Sacramental Spoon (ancient Irish). ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 81 

lona Inscriptions. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 84 

Do. 86 

Do. 86 

View of Port-a-Deilg in Tory Island, with Knock-na-fola in the distance. ... ... 106 

View of Tory Island from the sea. (Lithograph I.) 107 

View of West Town in Tory Island, with Round Tower. (Lithograph II.) ... ... 114 

Speed's Map of Antrim and Down, .. . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 123 

Carrickfergus, with the landing of King William from the fleet. ... ... ... 130 

Belfast in 1685 130 

Cranmore House, near Belfast, ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 135 

Autograph of William, Prince of Orange. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 36 

Round Tower, Abbey, and Cross, in Tory Island. (Lithograph III.) 142 

Cross still standing in Tory Island. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 142 

Great Cross of Tory Island 143 

Door- way of Round Tower in Tory Island. ... ... ... ... ... ... 146 

Tory Island as seen from Bealach-an-adaraidh. ... ... ... ... ... ... 149 

Sheet illustrating Antiquities of Tory Island. ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 56 

Bell of the Abbey of Bangor, Co. Down ! 179 

Map of the Diocese of Dcrry, A.D., 1396, 184 

New Craniometcr. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 201 

Diagram No. 1. illustrating use of Craniometer. ... ... ... ... ... ... 207 

Do. No. 2. do 207 

Do. No. 3. do 207 

Do. of graduated Scales, do. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 207 

Kilnasaggart Pillar-stone ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 221 

Seal of Hugh O'Neill. ... 255 

Saint Mura's Bell, Fig. 1 273 

Do. Fig. II 273 

Outline Sketches of Male Crania from ancient Sepulchral Mound 285 

Do. of Female Crania, from do. ... ... ... ... ... 286 


NURING the last half century the study of Irish Archaeology has attained ahigher position in public 
1 estimation than at any former period. The constant commotions which distracted Ireland for three 
' centuries after the invasion of Strongbow, whether occasioned by the conflicts of the invaders and 
invaded, or by the mutual jealousies of the native princes ; and the subsequent rebellions, confiscations, 
penal laws, and religious animosities, of the 16th and 1 7th centuries, had totally interrupted the current 
of thoughts and reminiscences connected with the more ancient days of our history. A thick cloud 
had gradually enveloped the whole subject ; and it is only now that the obscurity begins to be dissi- 
pated by the beams of advancing knowledge. During the more peaceful progress of the 18th century, 
the pioneers of Irish Archaeology made their appearance, and a new page of literature was unfolded, 
by the publication of the works of 0' Flaherty, Keating, and Vallancey, together with several others. 
These, however, while manifesting a praiseworthy zeal and research, in many cases exhibit a deficiency 
of judgment and of discrimination in the treatment of the subject. They have made known many 
valuable and authentic records ; but they have often noted, as equally authentic, the pre-historic tra- 
ditions of the bards, or the miraculous narratives of the monkish historians. The mine was but 
newly opened, and they had not the means of sifting the valuable ore from its accompanying dross. 
Tliey hadnot the opportunities, now available to modem Archaeologists of comparing and collecting 
the records then known, with contemporary documents of other European nations ; nor could they 
appeal to the visible and tangible evidences of the truth of our Annals, which are now daily furnished 
])y the discovery of the implements of warfare or of domestic life, on the very spots pointed out by 
tradition, or specified in the records themselves. The consequence was, that these first-fmits of Irish 
Archaeology were received by the ignorant and prejudiced with ridicule, and by the learned with 
doubt or disbelief. From the foregoing remarks the names of Ussher and AVare must be excepted : 
their discrimination in selecting such MSS. as contained the authentic History of Ireland could not be 
surpassed. As, however, they wrote in Latin, their works were comparatively unknown until a recent 
date ; indeed it would have been difficult to find a " reading public," in Ireland, for a centurj'-and- 
a-half, at least, after their day ; and when the blessings of peace and education had formed a class 
desirous of knowledge, so great was the prejudice created against aU ancient Irish history by the 
absurdities of enthusiastic writers, that records of more undoubted authenticity than those which form 
the foundation of contemporary English or European History were slighted as the effusions of poetic 
fiction, or the dreams of visionaries. It was not until the founding of the Royal Irish Academy, in 1 7 8 6, 
that a proper impulse and direction were given to the study of Irish History and Antiquities. Its valuable 
museum, collected from aU parts of Ireland,and arranged with a due regard'to topography and clironologv, 
gradually accumulated a large amount of corroborative evidence, wliich has been applied, with the 
happiest results, to the illustration of the ancient MSS. preserved in its library ; while its Transactions 
have given to the world a series of disquisitions, by many able pens, characterised by critical acumen 
and dispassionate reasoning. The obscurity which overhung the earlier periods of Irish history 
having been, by these means, partially cleared up, it was reserved for Dr. Charles O'Conor, the most 
eminent antiquary of his day, to dispel for ever all doubts as to the authenticity of our ancient records, 
by the publication of his great work. In order to insure its reception by the learned bodies of other 
European coimtiies, this work appeared in a Latin dress ; and it at once became an authority among 
continental Archaeologists, for the verification of the facts and chronology of all ancient European 
records ; while, at the same time, its own authenticity was corroborated by the very comparison. Dr 
O'Conor, therefore, enjpys a world-wide fame ; but, for the general reader,"it may be briefly stated, that he 
was a man of the highest intellectual acquirements, a descendant of one of the noblest families of Con- 
naught, and a perfect master of his native language. He was Librarian at Stowe, the princely seat of the 

Marquis (created, in 1822, Duke) of Buckingham. This nobleman, as the representative of some old 
Anglo-Irish families, was the possessor of many ancient Irish Manuscripts ; and Dr. O'Conor having 
formed the design of publishing Latin translations of these, under the auspices of, and at the cost of many 
thousand pounds to his mimificent patron, his work, entitled " Rerum Hibemicarum Scriptores Veteres" 
was printed at Buckingham, in four large quarto volumes, between the years 1814 and 1826. This 
publication, which is now very scarce, is entirely in Latin, and contains learned dissertations on, and 
translations of, the chief works of the early Irish Annalists such as the "Annals of the Four Masters 
to the English Invasion" the "Annals of Tigemach " the "Annals of Ulster" the " Annals of 
Boyle," &c., and forms a mine of reference for all subsequent writers and annotators. Of these the 
the Annals of the Four Masters is the only work that has yet appeared translated into English 
in a complete series. The popular form in which the translations of several other of our ancient 
Annalists have been placed before the public, with copious annotations, by the labours of the Irish 
Archaeological Society (founded in 1840), has been successfully adopted by Dr. O'Douovan, in his 
admirable edition, just completed, of these Annals ; and leaves little more to be desired in illustration 
of the authentic History of Ireland, from the commencement of the Christian era. The limited issue of 
this publication, and its high price, put it beyond the reach of the public ; but its place is partially 
supplied by the cheaper edition of Mr. Connellan, a work of great labour, and containing a large mass 
of information; but which, from having been issued in a serial form, is deficient in a proper classification of 
its contents. It only, however, commences where O'Conor's translation ends viz., with the 
English Invasion ; and, consequently, leaves that most interesting period of Irish history, from 
the arrival of St. Patrick, almost a sealed book to the public. Another great addition to the popular 
knowledge of our ancient history, and an incentive to the proper appreciation and study of it, is to be 
found in the works of Dr. Petrie, on the Antiquities of Tara, on the Round Towers, and on Ecclesiastical 
Architecture ; and, also,in the " EcclesiasticalAntiquities of the Diocese of Down, Connor, andDromore," 
by the Rev. Dr. Reeves. This last-named work forms a complete manual for the Northern Irish 
Archaeologist ; whilst by its ample references to, and quotations from, other contemporary authorities, it 
initiates the inquirer into a very correct estimate of the early Ecclesiastical History of the other Provinces. 
A slight perusal of any of the works just enumerated AviU show the reader the importance attached 
to the " Annals of LHster." They form a considerable part of the original materials, from which that 
most complete work of its kind, "The Annals of the Four Masters," has been constnicted ; and in 
themselves contain a partial transcript of still older documents. More perfect copies than that from 
which O'Conor rendered his translation are known to exist in other collections ; and an English 
version, from all these copies, carefully compared, and with copious annotations, has been long pro- 
mised by the Irish Archaeological Society, and is earnestly expected by those readers who have enjoyed 
the pleasure aftorded by the perusal of the works already printed by that body. In the meantime, 
the conductors of this Jounial have thought that a faithful translation into English (even with its 
admitted deficiencies), of O'Conor's copy of the Annals of Ulster, accompanied by such notes as might 
serve to explain any slight obscurity, or give reference to passages in contemporaay writers, might be 
acceptable to their subscribers in general, and might serve as a prospectus or index to the more 
voluminous publication of the Archaeological Society, They have determined, therefore, to publish 
such a translation as an appendix to this Journal, continxung it through each number until completed ; 
when, being paged consecutively, it may be detached, and formed into a separate volume. 

With these preliminary remarks they proceed to lay before their readers a translation of that part of 
O'Conor's " Dedication to the Marquis of Buckingham," wherein he introduces a short siunmary of 
the origin of the Annals of Ulster, and which will explain his references to " your Library," as mean- 
ing that of his patron at Stowe. It is to be regretted that his " Prolegomena," or critical dissertation 
on all the authors he translates, is so voluminous, as to preclude the appearance of a translation of it 
in a periodical intended for the general reader. Occasional reference, however, may probably be made 
to it in the course of the publication of the Aimals of Ulster as now projected. 



J)SSHER and WARE, whose opinions are not to be despised, think that there is a wide difference 
[rr^between the first and latter part of the Annals of Ulster. Flaherty, it is true, incidentally and 
^briefly indicates Cathal (or Charles) Maguire, who died in 1498, and Roderick Cassidy as the 
writers (of the Annals) of Ulster, by whom they were revised and continued: and Colgan says of the same 
Maguire, "he compiled from various ancient records of this country the Annales Senatenses i.e., of Ulster." 
But Ussher and Ware call Maguire and Cassidy not the writers but the collectors (of the Annals) of 
Ulster, which were known to William of Malmesbmy, as Ussher shews, although he states that they 
were not always prefen'ed by him to the Catalogue of Mimster, as they ought to have been. The 
Catalogue of Munster just mentioned, is that old list of bishops which is preserved in the Psalter of 
Cashel," written 900 years ago. When, therefore, according to Ussher (with whom Ware and Colgan 
agree), the Annals of Ulster are to be preferred to that old list in relating the events that happened 
before the 10th century, it foUows that the author of the first part must have been another person 
living long before Maguire, who died in 1498, ten centuries after (the events related). 

Ware states as follows, concerning Augustin Magraidin "In the conunencement of the 15th 
century flourished Augustin Magraidin, a canon of the Augustinian Monastery of the island of All- 
Saints,* which is situated in the River Shannon, on the Western borders of tlie County of Longford : a 
learned and experienced man. Amongst other fruits of his studies, he wrote the Lives of the Lrish 
Saints ; and continued down to his own times the clironicle which other canons of the same monastery 
had begun, a part of which M.S. I have, with an appendix (written) after his death. He died on the 
Wednesday after All-Saints Day, A.D., 1405, and is buried in the said monastery." Therefore, 
neither Magraidin, nor Maguire, nor Cassidy, nor any other person (living) after the 12th century, 
can be considered the writer of the first part of (the Annals of) Ulster. 

I have elsewhere shewn that the principal monasteries of Ireland kept in their establishment an 
Amanuensis caUed Scribhin ; and that the five chief Kings of Ireland had, in their camps and palaces, 
a Poet and Historian, or Genealogist, called, in Irish, Fileadh and SecmncJuddh, whose duty it was, by 
hereditary right, to describe in a volume destined for that purpose, whatever events might happen, 
whether praiseworthy, or whether savage and cruel, and so to preserve them for example or for avoid- 
ance, that they might not perish through the lapse of time. That these Historiographers of ancient 
Ireland were called Scribes and Annotators is plain, from the Rolls of the Irish Monastery of Saint 
Gall, in Switzerland, published by Goldast ; from the Letter of Albin or Alcuin, to Colcus a 
Reader (lectorem) of Ireland, published by Ussher ; and from Simeon of Durham's Exploits of the 

a The Psalter of Casliel is an ancient Irish M.S., partly in prose and partly in verse, and was compiled in the 
ninth century, by Cormac MacCuilenan, Archbishop of Cashel, and King of Munster, principally from the Psaltw of 
Tara, which was itself a compilation from the more ancient chronicles of the kingdom, written and preserved at Tara, 
by the directions of Ollamh Fodhla (a King of the Irian race said to have flourished 700 years before Christ), and brought 
to complete accuracy in the reign of the famous Cormac, King of Ireland, in the third century of the Christian era. 

b Tlie Island or rather Peninsula of All Saints, which still preserves the name, is situated in Lough Rce, and con- 
tains the ruins of a monastery, founded by St. Ciaran, of Clonmacnoise, who died, a.d., 548. The idands in Lough 
Bee abound in monastic remains, especially Iniscloghran, now called Quaker's Island, about three miles from All 
Saints, and on which are the ruins of seven churches. 


Kings of England, at the year 794, wherein Colcus is stated to have died : and also from that 
famous work of Mabillon, De Be Diplomaticd, p. 125. Now I liave elsewhere demonstrated that 
in such elements the origin of our annals is to be sought. 

Ware correctly remarks, that Charles (or Cathal) Maguire, a canon of the church of Armagh, had 
brought down, to his own times, the Annals of Ireland, i.e., of Ulster ; and that he died, 23rd March, 
1498, in the 60th year of his age ;'' and that Roderick Cassidy, Archdeacon of Clogher, a man very 
versed in the histoiical records of his country, besides having Avritten part of the Register of Clogher, 
had also written the latter part of the Annals of Ulster, and died at a great age, A.D., 1541. 

Truly tliere is no one who considers our subject rather carefully, that does not perceive that the 
writers of each century appeal to those preceding them, as witnesses of the times, to whose truthful- 
ness all matters related in the Annals are to be accredited. 

Tigemach, who flourished in the 11th century, declares that all the records of the Scoti, down to 
Kimbaoth,' are doubtful, and frequently adduces the very words of Ceanfaoladh, Maolm'mry, Eochod, 
and the Book of Genealogies. Ceajjfaoladh died before Bede was bom, A.D., 678 ; and some of his 
verses, quoted by Tigemach, and written in the ancient Irish language, are in your library, M.S., Vol. 
No. 1. Maolmuny, of whose writings many remain collected in the same libraiy, was the co-tem- 
poraiy of Nennius, for he died in 806. Eochod, whose verses in Irish are in your library, in the 
volmne (named) Leabhar GaMa^^a*/ flourished in the 10th centuiy. Flann MacLonain, a co-tempo- 
rary of MaolmuiTy, for he died in 896, has left many historical poems, of which some fragments are 
extant in the volmne (named) Dinnseannchusa,^' your property, and written at least 500 years (fol. 17, 

e Alcnln was secretary to the Emperor Charlemagne. Colcus or Colgu O'Donohue was a reader (in Irish Fear 
Legeind, or a reading man), or one of a class of educated men, whose business it was to read in public the documents 
submitted to them. An ample account of them is given by O'Conor, in his Notes on these Annals, which may be 
given in a condensed form in the course of this publication. Colgu wrote some religious works, and among them 
was one bearing the eccentric title of " The Besom of Devotion." 

d The Annals of the Four Masters record the death of Cathal Maguire, in the following terms, A.D., 1498 : 

MacManus, of Seanadh, i.e., Cathal Oge, the son of Cathal, &c., a man who had kept a house of general hospitality, 
a Biatach at Senaid-Mic-Manus, a Canon Chorister in Armagh, and in the bishopric of Clogher, Parson of Inniskeen, 
Deacon of Lough Erne, and Coadjutor of the Bishop of Clogher for fifteen years before his death, the repertory of 
the wisdom and science of his own country, a fruitful branch of the canon, and a fountain of charity and mercy to the 
poor and the indigent of the Lord he it was who had collected together many historical books, from which he had 
compiled the historical book of Bally -mic-manus, for his own use died of the smaU-pox (galar breac), on the tenth of 
the Calends of April, which fell on a Friday, and in the 60th year of his age." 

These Annals are named Annales Senatenses, from the Island of Senaid, in Lough Erne, the residence of Cathal 
Maguire. It was also called Ballymacmanus, and is now known as Belle Isle. 

e The death of Tigemach is thus recorded in the Annals of the Four Masters, A.n., 1088. " Tigemach O'Breen 
chef successor of Ciaran and Coman (Abbot of Clonmacnoise and of Roscommon), died in the chair of Ciaran. He 
wiis a skilful instructor and historian." His Annals, partly in Irish and partly in Latin, and to which frequent refe- 
rence will be made in the course of this publication, are considered one of the most authentic works on Irish history. 
They commence with the reign of Kimbaoth, first King of Emania, and at various times Sovereign of Ireland, who 
lived about 300 years before Christ, and are continued down to the death of the author. The wife of Kimbaoth was 
Macha, Queen of Ireland, a fierce and warlike princess, who, by her marriage, conferred the sovereignty on her 
husband. She founded the palace of Emania, and its neighbouring city of Armagh, called from her Ard -Macha. 

f Leabhar Gabhaltas (the Book of Invasions or of Couquests), was compiled from various ancient records, and from 
the works of the bards, by the O'Clery's, who were also the compilers of the Annals of the Four Masters. It is 
principally in very old and obsolete Irish, to which the compilers have furnished a copious gloss; and treats of the 
successive invasions and conquests of Ireland, from the Partholanians to the Danes. Of course it contains a great 
deal of fable, intermixed with much curious information. It has not yet been fully translated into English, but the 
reader will find many quotations made from it in the appendix to the translation of Nennius, published by the 
Irish Archajological Society. 

g The Dinn Seanchus (the Fortress of Antiquity or of History), originally composed in the sixth century by 
Amergin, Chief Bard to Dermod, King of Ireland, but added to by subsequent writers, is a topography of Ireland, 

col. 2). Mann Junior, sumamed Mann Mainistreach, whose " Synchrona " is, in like manner, extant 
in an old parchment volume of your library, No. 1, and who died in 1056, has also supplied many 
writings, by which, as being contemporary authority, the historical narrative is supported. Nor was 
there a want of very many others, as Cceman, who, in the year 1072, composed his historical poems, 
now, for the first time, published; and Gildas Moduda, who continued that poem, and died in 1143; 
who so connected the succession of Irish events, adding later events to those which were related by 
his predecessors, that no room is left to doubt their truth. These cotemporaries if it be right to use 
the terms of a later age, which the pure ear of the Latin (authors) does not admit wrote about the 
time wherein the events occurred, which they thought it their duty to add to the chronicles of their 
fathers. Lampridius calls authors of this sort "Writers of their o^\ti times;" aud just as Josephus, 
when arguing concerning the truth of the Sacred Writings, (l.i.), against Apio, asserts that it is a proof 
of true history, if all say or write the same concerning the same events ; so also we, discussing these 
Irish events which are beyond the memory of our sires and grandsires, assert, that the truthfulness 
of co-temporaries has the same weight as the authority of eye-witnesses is deemed to have as to events 
happening in our own day ; for we can in no other way understand how our Annals state not only 
the day on which certain events happened, but even particularize the hour, as in my Preface I have 
remarked, concerning the Eclipse of the year 664! ; and that so accurately, that Bede himself can be 
corrected by the assistance of these Annals. Nor do I in any other way know how the same Annals 
can relate that Niall Glundubh, King of Ireland, was slain by the Danes, near Dublin, on the 15th 
September, and 4th day of the week (17 Kal Octr., feria iv); especially when some minute circum- 
stances are related which supply other marks of the times, whereby the same true chronology 
is clearly confirmed. Eor instance, they (the Annals) say that Easter fell on the 25th of April in that 
year, and the octave of Easter in Summer; and Gormlath, the Queen of Niall, lamenting 
the fall of her husband, in Irish verses quoted in the same Annals, and a certain poet 
(named) Comgall in other verses also given therein, recite, that the same Easter day was observed 
in that year. But all these circumstances apply to the year 919 alone, in all that century. 
These, indeed, according to ancient custom, proclaimed the deeds of their ancestors in Irish 
poems sung to the accompaniment of the harp. But others committed to wTiting, in prose, the events 
of each year, and set them forth in a register; and were accustomed to Amte them down in a volume 
destined for that purpose, for the sake of keeping a public narrative, without any ornament of words 
or prolixity, thinking brevity of narration the only merit; that they might be valued, not as adomers 
but as narrators {non exornatores sed narratores). So, from the Annals of the Four Masters, and 
from Joceline, a writer of the 12th century, it appears " A.C., 438, in the 10th (}'ear) of King 
Laogaire, the old volumes and other ancient records of Ireland having been sought out everj'where, 
and collected into one place, the early historical records of Ireland were purified and arranged {expurgatas 
et conscriptas) under the authority of St. Patrick three kings, three bishops, and three antiquarians, 
whose names are preserved, having the care of them."* I have shown, in the notes to the Annals of the 

giving the derivation of the names of the principal places, and recounting the legends or myths connected therewith. 
It is most amusing, from the wildness of its legends j and interesting as identiiying localities mentioned in other 
writers, and the names of which are preserved until the present time, through so many changing centuries. It will 
be quoted, whenever opportunity offers, in the course of this publication. 

h The Annals of the Four Masters refer to this matter in the following terms : " A.D., 438. The tenth year of 
Lac^ire, the Scanchns and Fenechus of Ireland were purified and written (do glanadh agus do scriobhadli), the 
writings and old books of Ireland having been collected t<^ther at the request of St. Patrick. These arc the nine 
supporting props by whom it was done, namely Laogaire i.e.. King of Ireland, Core, and Daire, the three Kings ; 
Patrick, Benen, and Cairneach, the three Saints ; Eoss, Dubhtach and Feargus, the three Antiquaries, as thi^ 
quatrain testifies 

Laogaire, Core Daire dur (the stern). 
Padraicc, Benen, Cairneach coir (the just). 


Four Masters (anno 438, p. 114), that this work was extant in the 10th century, and that fragments of 
the same are preser\-ed in the Old Bodleian, (vol. Laud. F. 95), a specimen of which, accurately depicted 
in the engravings of the very learned Astley, you have in your library, as I shall hereafter, mih. God's 
help, point out." 

Thus, also, in the Annals of Ulster and of Tigernach, I find the Chronicle of Cuanach frequently 
quoted down to the year 628, but not afterwards ; whence we may rightly conjecture, that his chronicle 
of Irish events was not continued farther, and that he flourished at that time, as Ware and Colgan 
write ; unless he may, perhaps, have been Cuanach the grandson of Bessan, Scrida Treoit^ i.e., the 
writer of Drogheda, who, according to the same Annals, died a.d., 738. 

At the end of the 9 th century flourished Cormac ^lacCuilenain, King and Bishop, a learned man 
and very much versed in Irish antiquities; who wrote a history commonly called the " Psalter of 
Cashel," which, says Ware, " is still extant and is held in great esteem. I have some genealogical 
fragments taken from that history, in an old MS. volume, written more than 300 years ago, as is 
plain from the antiquity of the style." To these and many others is to be added Dubhdaleth, Arch- 
bishop of Armagh, who died in the year 1064, and who wrote the annals of Irish events, which I 
find quoted in the annals of Ulster at the years 962 and 1021. All these are to be considered as 
having fm*nished the origin and materials of our Annals. 

Itoss Duhhthach, Feargus go fehh (with goodness). 

Naoi Sailghe sein Seanchus moir (the nine props, these of the great ancient History. 

Colgan renders the words Seanchus and Fenechus " Hibernim Antiqmtates et SancUones legales," whicfc are tbe 

words given by O'Conor in the text, aa quoted from Joceline. Dr. Petrie, however, in his Essay ou the History and 

Antiquities of Tara, considers those terms as not correctly expressing the meaning of the Irish words. The reader 

is referred to Dr. Petrie's essay, for a great deal of Interesting information on the subject. It is published in the 2d 

part of the 18th volume of the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy. 

t TVeoit is translated by O'Conor, " Droghadensis," or, " of Drogheda," which is not correct. Tixe Irish name of 
that town is Droichead-atha, or the Bridge of the Ford ; and appears in our Anglo-Irish histories, under the con- 
traction of Tredagh. Treoit may have reference to the parish of Tryvet or Trevet, in the County Meath, a few 
miles from Drogheda, where a considerable monastery existed from the earliest ages of Christianity. Of Cuanach, 
nothing is known beyond the references, so frequently made to his writings, in the Annals of Ulster and of Hgeamach. 


nnHE study of Archaeology is daily becoming more attractive to all persons of education and taste. 
-*- Combining, as it now does, a wide range of subjects connected with literature and art, it affords ma- 
terials for the exercise of almost every kind of talent. Not merely the historian, and professed antiquary, 
but also the geographer, the painter, the architect, the linguist, and all the numerous class of explorers 
in the "nooks and crannies" of knowledge, may be, each of them in his way, votaries of Archaeo- 
logy. There is a pleasure, experienced by every intelligent mind, in exploring the unknown or ex- 
plaining the obscure ; and the fragments of the former history and condition of the world have reached 
us in so mutilated a state, that there is ample room in every department for the exercise of this faculty. 
Hence the study of Archaeology, as now understood, is becoming more and more popular. Society after 
society has been established for its cultivation, not only in England, but over all the continent of Europe : 
and minds of every class are employed in investigating the stores of the olden time, from the hierogly- 
phics of Egypt and the inscriptions of Niniveh, down to the history and local antiquities of a parish. 
Even Governments have, of late, become impressed with the importance of preserving and examining 
national Antiquities. France and Denmark have long led the way in this respect ; and Archaeology, 
in those countries, stands high in the estimation of the public. Other continental Governments have 
followed the example, and given their countenance and co-operation to inquiries in this department. 
Our own Government has lately given proof that it appreciates the importance of preserving and in- 
vestigating Irish Antiquities, by authorizing, at the national expense, the translation and publica- 
tion of one of the most venerable records in Europe, the ancient Brehoa Laws ; and which only one 
or two individuals now in existence can interpret. 

Archaeology, the science, par excellence, of "old things," likeallour other divisions of human know- 
ledge, when rightly viewed, does not standby itself but is continually coming into contact with other scien- 
ces, and receiving illustration from them. It is not History ; it is not Philology ; nor Ethnology; but these 
and many other subjects are interwoven with it so closely, that the boundaries can hardly be defined. 
Every science may be said to have its Archaeological province : and hence it is, that so many persons, 
having no other bond of imion, found occasionally wandering together in the misty fields of antiquity. 
To one section of educated society, however, the pursuit is as yet unknown : the fairer portion of our 
community have not discovered the pleasant paths of Archaeology. And yet how many a picturesque 
stroll they might enjoy ; how many a flower they might gather ; how many a romantic tale they might 
rescue from oblivion ! There is nothing repulsive in the study. It is not now confined to monks or 

schoolmen, nor wrapped up in heavy folds of Greek and Latin. Modem research assists, and' modem art 
illustrates the inquiries which were formerly only possible to the learned few. The traveller in distant 
lands will frequently record an observation, or preserve a sketch, which throws more light on an obscure 
point than an elaborate folio of one of the older antiquaries. Now, no observers are so acute as those 
of the gentler sex ; and it is highly probable that their finer perceptions would often penetrate farther 
into the mist of time than those of men can do, and discover relations and resemblances that have 
hitherto escaped notice. In all that relates to art, (and this forms one of the most interesting por- 
tions of Arch?3Bology) their assistance would be invaluable. 

The Province of Ulster presents, perhaps, as curious a field for the labours of the Archaeologist, as 
any district in the British islands. While retaining, in nearly every county, a large remnant of the 
old Irish population, living apart, and preserving their ancient manners and usages, it likewise exhibits 
other elements of population of a most varied character. Colonies of French, Dutch, Welsh, Scotch, 
and English, can be distinctly pointed out, whose characteristics or peculiarities have not even yet 
been obliterated, and whose history can be traced with certainty. Evidences likewise exist of the influx 
of still earlier streams of foreign immigration; and although these, whether Danish, Norman, or 
Anglo-Saxon, have long since been absorbed into the general mass of the native population, their 
names and physical peculiarities have been, to a large extent, transmitted to our own time. 

The present aspect of Ulster, indeed, offers a curious subject of study for the Ethnologist. Within 
its boundaries may be witnessed the living types of several different stages of social developement. 
The early Irish form of society (deprived, however, of all that gave it dignity and importance) still 
exists here ; but as if in extreme old age ; beholding its old friends and companions dying off; strange 
faces appearing on all sides ; and itself waiting for the hour of its dissolution. The traditionary feeling of 
clanship, the peculiar notions of land-tenure, the antiquated customs, and the strange semi-oriental 
language and cast of thought, still linger among the inhabitants of our mountains and secluded glens. 
Here the lineal descendants of the former lords of the soil and their retainers vegetate, as it were, in 
ignorance of the wondrous changes going on in the world around them. Driven by circumstances into 
the most sterile parts of they country, they have lacked the knowledge and industry necessary to 
elevate their position ; and in times of distress or deficient harvests they are the class who suffer the 
most acutely. 

In strong contrast to these, appear the streams of agricultural colonists, chiefly of Scotch and Eng- 
lish descent, (each presenting some marked peculiarities,) who are now found located on the good lands 
and whose favourable position, assisted by thrift and industry, has realized for them a considerable de- 
gree of prosperity. Among them, the appearance, manners, language, and tone of thought, differ as 
thoroughly from those of the first-mentioned class, as if they were separated by a wide ocean. 

Lastly, the mercantile community, not only resident in towns, but, owing to the nature of the 
Linen -trade, scattered over a considerable tract of country, presents features identical with those of the 
busy marts in the sister island. Travellers remark in the chief commercial communities of Ulster a 

strong resemblance to the "go-a-head" energy of the American citizens ; which is not snfprising when 
it is remembered, that a large and influential section of the people now inhabiting the United 
States derives its origin directly from the North of Ireland. 

The spoken dialects of Ulster form an interesting topic for examination. The precincts of the pro- 
vince afford examples of districts where English is spoken with remarkable purity, though with the 
occasional occurrence of some old forms of words, or of acceptations now considered obsolete. Other 
districts are inhabited by a population speaking as broad Scotch as is now to be met with in the parent 
country ; and who read and enjoy the poems of Ramsay and Bums with as much zest as their bre- 
thren of the west of Scotland : while a neighbouring colony of English descent can hardly understand 
a page of them. Even in the districts purely native, two distinct dialects of the Irish language catt 
be observed ; and minor differences in the use of words and idioms to a still greater extent. Finally, 
from the collision and mixture of all these varieties of speech, has arisen a sort of non-descript dialect, a 
melange, of Scotch, English, and Irish, which, uttered with a peculiar intonation differing from all the 
rest of Ireland, constitutes the language used by the lower ranks of the business population. These 
differences and pecidiarities will afford materials for several interesting disquisitions in this Journal. 

The Irish names of places are well preserved in Ulster ; and are so numerous and so minutely dd-" 
scriptive, that there is not a mountain, hill, river, lake, or remarkable rock, without its distinctive! 
appellation. The nomenclature of the sub-divisions of land is so minute and perfect, that some have 
considered this as a satisfactory proof of the existence of a large settled population at a very remote 
period. In most cases, these names are graphically descriptive of the external appearance of the place; 
in others, they refer to a remarkable personage or event in some way connected with it ; and they are 
then valuable assistants to the historian. They are always explicable by means of the Irish language; 
though sometimes requiring a knowledge of its oldest forms. Frequent occasions will present them- 
selves in this Journal of explaining the meaning of such names. Where the old names have been 
superseded by English or Scotch ones, there is generally an "alias" either to be found in old re- 
cords, or still floating in the memories of the native Irish peasantry. 

The numerous wars which, for many centuries convulsed this province, (the last strong-hold of the 
Irish Chieftains,) and the forcible settlements effected by strangers, from time to time, among the 
natives, were unfavourable to the preservation of written documents. It is known that many Irish 
families of distinction, dispossessed of their lands, and emigrating to various parts of the continent of 
Europe, (and latterly to America) carried with them their old manuscript papers. Some of these 
have occasionally been met with in Belgium, France, Germany and Spain. It is believed, however, 
that a number still remain in the province ; and means will bo taken, through this Journal, to elicit 
as much information as possible respecting them. Various public and private libraries, also, in Eng- 
land and Scotland, as well as in this country, contain ancient M.S.S. relating to Ulster, the contents 
of which are likely to prove very interesting. Arrangements are made for examining these docu- 
ments, and from time to time communicating the most important portions to the public, with suit- 

able explanatory notes. There are, likewise, individuals in the province who possess cui-ious family 
papers, and letters written by persons of note, chiefly of the last two centuries. Several collections 
of these have been placed at the disposal of the Editors. 

Besides the native histories and traditions, there is another soxirce of information regarding the 
ancient state of Ulster. The records of Scandinavia, and of Wales, and still more, the early annals 
of Scotland, contain frequent allusions to the North of Ireland ; and, though hitherto little used for 
the purpose, afford the means of elucidating many portions of its early history. It will be one object 
of the conductors of this Journal to turn attention in this direction ; under the persuasion that such 
extern and unbiassed evidence is a most important corroboration of facts recorded by authorities at 

In Music and Poetry the Northern Province had early acquired great celebrity throughout the 
rest of Ireland. The Bards, in ancient times, were numerous and formed a distinct class ; the pro- 
fession being handed down, from father to son, in certain families, some of whose representatives 
yet remain. Even to a comparatively recent date, bards and musicians were retained as part of the 
suite of the northern chieftains, in the same way as they were till lately in the Highlands of Scotland. 
A vast quantity of poems in the Irish language, the compositions of these minstrels, exist in a more or 
less perfect state ; many contained in manuscript collections, but a large number preserved traditionally 
by the people of different districts, and still repeated at the winter fire-side. Within the last quarter 
of a century there were many old men in the pro\T.nce, the last depositories of this bardic lore, who 
could recite Irish poetry for days together, though generally ignorant of reading or writing. The num- 
ber of these is now small, and some curious pieces are irretrievably lost ; but still many could be recovered 
from those who remain, or from individuals who retain them in their memory. Even now the poetic 
talent exists to a considerable extent among the native peasantry. Persons are to be met with in dif- 
ferent localities who possess (in the Irish language) a remarkable facility of versification, and whose 
productions are often by no means deficient in play of fancy or pungency of satire. Spencer's descrip- 
tion of similar poems, extant in his own day, would still apply to some of these. *' Yea truely, I have 
caused divers of them to be translated unto me, that I might understand them, and surely they 
savoured of sweet wit and good invention, bnt skilled not of the goodly ornaments of poetry ; yet 
were they sprinkled with some pretty flowres of their naturall device, which gave good grace and com- 
linesse unto them." 

Irish poems were always composed to suit particular musical airs ; and the same author often pro- 
duced both air and words : hence the surprising number of Melodies which we hear sung among the 
people. Frequently the airs have been remembered and handed down when the original verses are 
forgotten ; and thus many a wandering piper or fiddler of the present day possesses tunes of peculiar 
rhythm for which words can no longer be found. The characteristics of Irish Music are too well known to 
be enlarged upon here ; the works of Moore and Bunting have rescued from oblivion many precious 
gems ; but it is not so well known that many remarkable airs exist which have never been published. 

It was not until the close of the last century that a systematic attempt was made for the first time to 
write down a portion of the ancient melodies of Ireland. In 1792 a society was formed in Belfast for 
this purpose, and an invitation issued to all the remaining harpers and other native musicians through- 
out Ireland to assemble in that town, prizes and other inducements being oflFered. ' The attempt was 
successful ; Mr. Bunting was employed to note down the melodies performed ; and these, with others 
collected chiefly during excursions through Ulster, were published by him in 1793. This led subse- 
quently to the production of Moore's immortal lyrics, which have made our national Music known over 
the civilized world. An additional volume of melodies was afterwards published by Bunting in 1840, 
besides several minor collections by other hands which appeared in the interval. But these publications 
by no means exhausted the store. Up to the time of his death, Bunting was constantly re- 
ceiving from various sources many additional unpublished airs ; and different collectors, since 
his time, have discovered others. It is with a feeling of much gratification that the editors 
of this Journal have heard of the recent establishment of a society in Dublin for completing the publi- 
cation of the Irish Melodies ; and heartily do they wish it success. The northern province can still fur- 
nish a number of beautiful airs not yet noted down. In the remote mountain districts, melodies re- 
markable for sweet and wild simplicity are to be heard, sung by the peasant girl at her spinning or 
cow-milking, and by the herd-boy on the hill-side. Occasionally, too, in the larger towns, the 
passer-by is struck by the thrilling notes of some melody of singular pathos sung by a strolling ballad- 
singer. In such cases, he is sure to find collected a groupe of attentive listeners, whose hearts 'vibrate 
sympathetic' to the strains of the rude minstrel. 

The old Irish " funeral cry" or musical lament, formerly the constant accompaniment of the pro- 
cession, is now becoming obsolete in Ulster. It is sometimes, however, to be heard in certain secluded 

The numerous stirring events which, during a long succession of centuries, have agitated the North 
of Ireland, have not failed to leave many visible traces behind them. The remains of the pre-historic 
period are extremely abundant. Examples of all the varieties of monumental, religious, and military 
structures, left by the primitive inhabitants, are met with in many localities. Ruined strong-holds of 
all ages are scattered over the country, from the grass-covered earthen fort with its ramparts, to 
the feudal castle of the Baron ; and each with its traditionary story. Of the famous round towers, 
many exist in Ulster ; two of them being among the most perfect in Ireland. Of ecclesiastical build- 
ings many specinious are to be met with, though in a much more dilapidated condition than elsewhere. 
But it is in the nuniiroas classes of smaller antique objects, connected more immediately with 
military and domestic life, that Ulster surpasses all other parts of the country. There is hardly a 
townland, perhaps, in the province, that has not afforded specimens of stone and bronze weapons or 
implements, ornaments, coins; cinerary urns, or similar articles ; and these often in surprizing quan- 
tlties. The recent exhibition of Irish Antiquities at Belfast (on the occasion of the Meeting of the 
British Association in that town) excited the astonishment of visitors by the number and variety of 


these relics: althotjgh the aasembling of the collection was only the work of a few^weeks. The 
comparison of these ancient remains with those of a corresponding kind found in other countries, will 
meet with due attention in this Journal ; as forming a valuable link in the chain of evidence for iden- 
tifying races of men. Pictorial illustrations of the objects themselves will be given when necessary. 

The ecclesiastical Antiquities and history of the North of Ireland form a branch of inquiry which 
has hitherto been little cultivated, and for which curious materials exist. This subject has lately been 
taken up by one of the most accomplished members of the Established Church, Dr. Reeves ; and it 
would be presumptuous to interfere with a province of Antiquities which he has made so much his own. 
The conductors of this Journal, however, have reason to expect many valuable contributions from hia 
pen, in elucidation of this interesting department of inquiry. 

It will be seen, from the topics already adverted to, that a very considerable variety of subjects 
present themselves here for dicussion in the pages of an Archaeological Journal. Ethnology, Topo- 
graphy, Philology, Music, History both civil and ecclesiastical, and Irish Antiquities in every depart- 
ment, may find in the province of Ulster numerous illustrations. But, although the first place will be 
given to the Antiquities and peculiarities of their own northern district, the conductors of this Jour- 
nal will by no means exclude the general subject of " Irish" history and Antiquities. Ulster, in 
some respects, possesses a little history of its own ; but in others, its Annals, of course, form merely 
a component part of the whole history of the Island. 

When the peculiar position of this country is considered, and the unsettled nature of its population 
for so long a period, it is remarkable how much has been done in preserving its records. We have 
many examples of individuals, who, under the most discouraging circumstances, have struggled for this 
object. It is unnecessary to do more than allude to such names as those of the *' Four Masters" 
those laborious collectors of our early Annals, and whose great work has been lately given to the 
public under the able editorship of Dr. O'Donovan ; of Colgan, or O'Flaherty, or of Lynch, the spirited 
vindicator of his country from the aspersions of Griraldus Cambrensis ; nor of the two O'Connors ; all 
of whom have laboured so ardently in the cause. Still less does our space permit us to dwell on the 
merits of those Britons, "more Irish," in this respect "than the Irish themselves," who have di- 
rected their talents to the same object. We can merely enumerate the honourable names of Usher, 
Ware, Nicholson, Hutcheson, and Vallancey, with their coadjutors ; nor must we omit that of our 
townsman, Dr. Neilson, to whose exertions, at a critical moment, we are, perhaps, indebted for a 
renewed interest in the ancient language of Ireland. Several literary Associations in Dublin have also 
from time to time given their powerful influence to the same great cause. The Graelic Society, and the 
Iberno-Celtic Society, though of short duration, have left some curious volumes behind them. The 
Royal Irish Academy, however, the most important of all, has rallied round it a phalanx of ArchaBO- 
logists, and fostered and encouraged the study of our Antiquities during a very long period. The 
transactions and proceedings published by this distinguished body are yearly increasing in impor- 
tance; and are exciting an interest in our Antiquities throughout literary Europe. From this "alma 

mater" have sprung up several vigorous young societies, which vie with each other in assisting the 
good work. The Irish Archaeological Society, and the Celtic Society in Dublin, and the Klilkenny 
Archaeological Society in Munster, have already given abundant proof of their earnestness, and their 
vitality. The northern Province, however, is at present totally unrepresented; and as far as "out- 
ward and visible signs" would indicate, all the energies of her population might be considered absorbed 
in the promotion of physical prosperity. And yet, a larger number of individuals here, than is generally 
supposed, take an interest in the Archaeology of Ireland, and in preserving the remnant of her his- 
tory. The Exhibition of Antiquities, already alluded to, excited a very considerable interest ; and 
was visited by large numbers from the most distant parts of the province. It is worth noting, also, 
that the taste for such subjects is not confined to one class of the community ; but exists in a much 
lower grade of society than would be anticipated. It is not, by any means, rare in Ulster, to meet 
with men in the humbler walks of life who possess considerable knowledge of history and of local anti- 
quarian lore. During the last twenty years, articles, relating to matters of the kind, have appeared 
in local newspapers, from various quarters ; but the want has been felt of a more regular medium 
by which persons of similar pursuits might communicate with each other, and which might collect to 
one focus the faint rays from many different points. Much curious information of a detached nature 
may be expected to arise from the correspondence of this Journal ; and persons possessing authentic 
particulars even regarding a single point, such as a name or a date, are solicited to communicate them. 
To the Antiquary, groping his way in the dark cavern of the past, every rush-light is of service in dis- 
pelling the gloom. 

We are on the eve of great changes. Society in Ulster seems breaking up. Old things and old 
notions are passing away so rapidly, that the events appear to be but the shifting scenes in the drama 
of a night. The retired glen, where lately the shepherd held undisputed sway, is now invaded by the 
Engineer with his army of railway excavators. Before long, the puffing and snorting Locomotive 
will rush wildly over the path where Fin Mae Cool followed the flying deer. The ghosts of Ossian's 
heroes soon may look on aghast at a wondrous chase through their old hunting-grounds ; where a 
new race of men, seated in chariots, and whirled along a road of iron, with the speed of the whirl- 
wind, pursue imceasingly a bellowing beast emitting from its nostrils flames and smoke ! 

Mit KettDlang und einem neuen Gotte 
Und tausend Donnem naht sie dir. * 

The smoky steam-boat, the representative of modern civilization, now plies peaceably along the 

coasts where once floated only the primitive "curragh;" or where the Scandinavian Sea- King, of 

old, landed his plundering hosts. Noble bridges now span the rivers where dangerous fords or ferries 

formerly obstructed the passage ; and, on the spot where history merely notes a village of fishermen, 

the tall " minarets of industry" now shoot proudly into the sky. To the eye of the calm spectator, 

* Schiller." The Spanish Armada.'' 


the changes now going on in Ulster, and indeed through many parts of Ireland, present the appear- 
ance of one of those " dissolving views" where the receding picture of the past blonds strangely with 
the features of the coming scene. The hand of Time has rudely shaken the Kaleidoscope : the old 
elements of society are falling asunder, even while we gaze, and are forming new and unexpected 
combinations. Much that is now familiar to us, or at least within our reach, wUl soon be mere mat- 
ter of history. That which conquest and colonization failed to effect in centuries, steam and educa- 
tion are now accomplishing peacefully and rapidly ; so that, ere long, the traces of the olden time 
will have faded from our view. " Verily old things shall pass away, and the place thereof shall 
know them no more." What would we not give now to possess a series of photographic pictures, 
taken in Nineveh, Babylon, G-reece or Rome, at any period of their history ! How a single glance 
would enable us to comprehend many a dark allusion in ancient authors, which all the labours of 
modern scholars cannot explain ! There has fortunately been preserved to us one remarkable series 
of ancient pictures of society, in the paintings found in the Egyptian tombs ; and we know to what 
important uses these are applied by the enlightened scholarship of the present day. But other na- 
tions, as powerful and as civilized as Egypt, have run their race, and become engulphed in the 
abyss of time, leaving us hardly a clue to the understanding of their manner of life. Let iis then, 
as far our humble means admit, endeavour to preserve a few features of another vanishing phase of 
society. We stand, as it were, at the threshold of a new social edifice, in process of erection and not 
yet completed ; while around us lie scattered the ruins of the ancient structure fast hurrying to de- 
cay. Before these are altogether swept away, let us gather a few fragments. 




By tue Rev. A. HUME, D.C.L., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Breathes there the man, with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself hath said, 

This is my own, my native land ! 


i. introduction. 

TiiE people in every country bear some relation to the district which gave them birth. The action 
of climate, for example, is well known, in producing the idleness of tropical lands, the voluptuousness of 
southern Europe, or the stunted gi'owth and peculiar appetites of the polar regions. Similarly, elevation 
produces its effect. The Highlander is temperate, active, and independent; the inhabitant of the plains 
is taller, more bulky in person, and more luxurious in habits. In the neighbourhood of the sea, there is 
generally health of body and soundness of mind; near a large town vice is easily learned. In some ru- 
ral districts, where the routine duties of life are merely mechanical, man possesses few traits that 
raise him above the^mere animal ; in the worst part of the Irish bogs, it seems as if the exhalations had 
poisoned the energies of the people. But other causes, which Blackstone would call " incorporeal," 
are quite as effectual as physical ones. The hardy borderer, of the temperament of the gallant Sir 
Philip Sidney, is stirred by some local ministrel's tale more than with the "sound of a trumpet." The 
Englishman, from traditional association, regards it as part of his national creed to despise the French, 
and to consider his own country as the greatest in the world. And often when the Irishman of pure 
descent is destitute both of food and shelter, he will relate with glowing cheek and flashing eye, the 
ancient glories of his country, of which few, alas! even of the readers of history know or care to 
know anything authentic. If Ethnology be not a fable, and education and association mere amuse- 
ments, instead of powerful operating causes, it is necessary to consider the circumstances into which 
any people are cast, in examining the character of the people themselves. 

The examination, which I propose to myself to make, commences at a comparatively modern point > 
there are however, some influences which are permanent, and others of very long standing. The facts 
of external nature arc of com'se the same at all times, and influence the people of one century as well 
tis those of another. But as there may be enemies or friends, so there are attachments or antipathies, 
obstacles or advantages. The settlers in the unpeopled plains of Australia are free from all interfe- 
rence but that of their countrymen or comjianions ; but immigrants to a country which has pre- 


vioiisly been at all populous, may become, as some did in Ireland, ' more Irish than the Irish 
themselves," or may, like the Saxons in England, make the name, and language, and institutions 
of the country their own. For these reasons, a few preliminary remarks are indispensable. 


Regarded as a scene of human existence, the district comprised by these two comities yields in 
antiquity perhaps to no otlier in the island. Beyond the period of historic records, it is true that 
we can only arrive at general conclusions, but some of these arc too important to be overlooked. 
Of the implements which are generally known in Ireland as "pagan," some are the production of 
a rude primitive people, and others are so artistic in their character as to indicate a high degi'ce of 
civilization. Both classes are frequently found in the district ; showing that it has been trodden by 
the foot of the savage, as well as inhabited by the more enlightened people over whose history a cloud 
still rests. From north to south of the district under review, the monuments which are called Drui- 
dical, British, Celtic, &c., exist ; others popularly assigned to the Danes are very numerous, and 
occasionally peculiar in their structure ; there is a fair proportion of the Round Towers of primitive 
christian times ; and antiquities of a mediajval or more recent character are not wanting. All of 
these will, no doubt, be treated of in order, in separate articles of this Jom-nal. 

It is little to say, however, that these two counties possess the average amount of interest, and 
demand a fair share of attention, in connexion with the history of the Island. They do more; 
for the history of the Island cannot be written without their obtaining a special notice. For example, 
the ecclesiastical historian, in treating of the introduction of Christianity and the happy and marked 
results which it produced, must notice the patron Saint of the Island, who was prominently iden- 
tified with this district. In Antrim he herded swine. " in the capacity of a youthful captive, before 
truth had dawned on his mind, or his great mission had become a settled duty. In Down he made 
his first convert within a few miles'' of Belfast; and in the church yard of a neighbouring town" which 
still bears his name, he found his last resting place. Downpatrick and Armagh may almost be regarded 
as twin sisters ; and from the light which they shed in an early age, a spark must have emanated 
to illuminate and to warm the district which lay between them and around. 

Nor does the writer of civil history find any deficiency of materials. At a remote period he finds 
here the territory of Ulidia, whose name was extended to comprehend the whole of modem Ulster, for- 
merly a kingdom of the pentarchy, and still traditionally and conventionally a province. In Antrim was 

* Near Mi3, viz.: Slievcmis, the modem Sleamish. tongue Zabbul Padrig, that is Patrick Zabbul, or 

^ At Saul near Downpatrick, the Chieftain Dicho and I'atnck's barn." Monas Hiberxic" 
Ills people received the truth near a large barn, on the yitc 

of which a church was erected. Tlie place, named from < Hi tves in Duxo, tiimulo tumulnntur in uno, 

the cliurch, is to this day 'ip the Scottiijh (i.e. Irish) IJrigida, Patricius, atquc Columba pius. 


the residence of the kings of Ulidia ; and in Down the chivalrous Red-Branch Knights ^ held their terri- 
tory. After the English invasion, the story of these counties is full of incidents, and these are more defi- 
nitely preserved. There is no romance required to gild the biography of the gallant DeCourcy, who con- 
tended with his stout heart and strong arm, in the unequal struggle against both "friends" and foes. 
One can easily imagine, too, the difficulties that beset the early invaders who resided in this part of 
the Pale, in battling for a foothold on the fertile plains of Lecale, or among the hillocks of the Ards- 
The men whose fathers and whose grandsires had successfully repelled an invasion of Danes * were 
unable to resist the power and pertinacity of the Normans^ 

K Literature be the theme, we claim the real Ossian, as not partly, but altogether, our own. 
He was an Irish hero, and his praises are still sung by the peasantry, in a language which possessed 
written characters for centuries before the Erse of North Britain was any thing else than a spoken 
tongue. A modem writer fancies that he sees in the district around Belfast,' the places which are 
faintly shadowed in Macpherson's alleged translation ; but this is only "the echo of an echo ;" fancy 
playing with what is now acknowledged fiction. We claim more than this, for we identify the hero 
of history as distinct from the creation of romance ; and it is unquestionable that the traditions and 
poems respecting him first reached the Highlands of Argyle, through our countrymen who settled 
there in the early ages of Christianity. Round the coast of Antrim or along the right bank of the 
Bann, the bearers of these traditions must have passed ; and many of those who cherished and 
transmitted them, resided in the "Glynnes;" opposite the shores where their countrymen had 
found a new home. It is a fact of much interest and of some significance, that the very imitations ' of 
these poems, in connexion with another country, a difi'erent language, and secondary sources of in- 
formation, should have attracted so much of the attention of the learned. 

- But it is not merely our Literature by which other lands have been benefited. Scotland has received 
from this country, and mainly from these two counties, the race of her conquerors, the line of her kings 
and her very name. The Dalriadic Scots '' who emigrated, some from Down but the greater part 
from Antrim, in the third century, gave the name of their leader ' to districts on both sides of the chan- 
nel : amid the mountain fastnesses of the modern Argyle, they maintained their position for more 
than two centuries ; occasionally asserting their supremacy in some of the neighbouring isles. In 

"* Her kinfcs, with standard of green unfurl' d, House, April 16th, 1805. "The Bishop of Dromore Ivi^ 

Led the Red Branch Knights to danger ; "allowed Dr. Anderson to declare, that he repeati-i'v 

Ere the emerald gem of the western world "received the most positive assurances from Sir.lH!-; 

Was set in the crown of a stranger. " Elliott, the confidential friend of Macpherson, thiit all 

MooEE, " the poems published bj- him as translations of Os^iur 

e From the Isle of :\ran, by Magnus, King of the Ork- '' ^^re entirely of his own composition." See Mak-lm 

neyg. Laing s edition and prefaces. 2 vols ovo. 

^ An attempt was made to establish this in "Ossiano," That is Irish. 

a pamphlet by Flu Campbell, Esq., the principles of i Dal-riala, so called from Cairbre Riada son of King 

which are explained in Benn s History of the town of Conaire, comprehended the greater portion of the mo- 

Beltast, 8vo., 1823. je^n County Antrim. It is often confounded with Dala- 

8 The following is part of a note from Bishop Percy to radia in Down, to which it was naturally related ; but 

Dr. Robert Anderson of Edinburgh ; dated Dromore from which it was artificially distinct. 


the very begmning of the sixth century, they were strengthened and re-established by a new coloni- 
zation from the same district ; in which the three sons of Ere Loam, Fergus and Angus ^ were the 
acknowledged leaders. Of two of the brothers, one has written his name on the shore of Belfast 
Lough, '' the other is still commemorated in Lorn which gives the title of Marquis to the Dukes of 
Argyle. More firmly concentrated, and exalted to the dignity of a separate kingdom, these Soots 
from Scotia- Major (Hibernia) called their country Scotia-Minor ; and carried on occaaonal war- 
fare with the Picts and other tribes of Caledonia. The religious establishment of lona is of Hibernian, 
not of Caledonian, origin ; it was by L:ish ecclesiastics that its services were maintained for centuries ; 
and the first kings interred within its consecrated limits were those of the Dalriadic " race. About 
the middle of the ninth century, one of the kings of this line, Kenneth the son of Alprn, vanquished 
the Picts, " who occupied the central and elevated parts of the modern Highlands. Caledonia thus be- 
came united under one sovereign ; and as the ancient name Scotia had been superseded and nearly forgot* 
ten in Hibernia, the whole of North Britain was called Scotland" from its conquerors of the south- 
west. The veil which concealed the early history of Scotland has been thrown back several cen- 
turies by the researches of modern historians ; the doubtful limit between fact and fiction is far away 
in comparison with what it was in the days of Robertson ; the Annals of L^land and the Sagas of the 
North throw much light on the shires which lie next their respective countries ; and doubtful facts in 
the histories of those countries are illustrated in turn by a reference to the records respecting Scot- 
land. There is a concurrence of facts and testimonies, giving us almost as strong moral certainty as 
we can either expect or require, that Kenneth was the lineal representative of Fergus the son of Ero, 

J " The children of Chonaire, the gentleman " ".Kinath MacAlpin 16 an. super Scotos regnavit, de- 
Raised the strong Irish. structis Pictis. Dcccxxxvn Cinadius filius Alpin pri- 
Three sons of Ere, the son of Eachach the great, mus Scotorum rexit feliciter istam, ann xxvi, Pictavlam. 
The three got the blessing of Patrick ; Pictavia autem a Pictis est nominata, quos Cinadius de- 
Possessed Aiban the great likewise, levit Iste vero biennio antequam veniret Piota- 

LoARN, Fergus, and Angus. viam, Dalrietae regnum suscepit." 

Ten years Loarn flourished Chronica Pictorum. Ritson. 

In the government of West Albany ; 

After Loarn a space Ukewise o xj^e chronicle of Melrose, comprising the Chronicom 

Seven and twenty years Fergus, Eleoiacum, contains the following entries : "843 Obiit 

Albanic Duan. Alpinus Rex Scottorum oui successit Kined filius ejus, de 

Fergus filius Eric fuit primus qui de seraine Chon- 

aire suscepit regnum Albamae, i. e. a monte Drumalban > p_: ; aiu: a.^j.,,, .^ ir- ;ii 

usque ad kare Hiberniae et ad Inch Gall, S aS^ .?r ""^ '^T."'''^^ Kmedhus, 

^ ri T. o -c liius Alpmi, proelia multa gerens. 

tJiRONicA Regum Scottor, Expulsis Pictis regnaverit octo bis annis : 

k Cnoc-Fergus or Knock-Fergus (the hill of Fergus) ^^^^ Fortemet mortuus ille fuit ;' 

Craig-Fergus, Carrickfergus, or briefly, Carrick (the rock t . ^ ^ 

of Fergus). ^\^ vocatus est Rex Primus,_ non quia fuit, sed quia 

primus Leges Scoticana instituit, quas vocant Leges 
Mac Alpin." "The 'Fortemet' mentioned is Forte^ot 

1 Limited by the districts of Moidart, Loch Aber, ^ 

(the lake of the strangers) and Breadalbane, as well in the valley of Strathearn, PerthshVrerwirore'the princT 

as by the inlets of the ocean. pal palace of the Pictish Kings was situated. In the eleventh 

n. "I^nath MacAlpin sepultus in Yona insula, ubi tres H^-'l^^' Malcolm Canmore still maintained a summer 

filii Ere, scilicet, Fergus, Loam, et Enegus sepulti fue resiuence nere. 

Reg. St. And. 


and the lineal ancestor of Malcolm Canmorc * from whom our Plantagenet kings are descended. The 
last successor of these, whose throne was north of the Tweed, James VI. of Scotland, and I. of Eng- 
land, is the father of our present Royal line ; so that Queen Victoria traces an authentic descent 
from the petty chieftains furnished by these two counties fourteen centuries ago. 

The tourist from other lands may laugh, if he will, at the imlettered guides, on our northern coasts 
who tell him of monuments piled by the giants, and a pathway beneath the tides of the ocean for the 
mighty men of Dalriada to hold intercourse with their brethren in the Western Isles. The wildest 
legend or fable may have a fact at the bottom of it ; the myths of Assyria, Egypt, Greece, Rome and 
Scandinavia, embalm the events of true history ; and why should we expect the legend of an Irish 
peasant to be an exception to that which is elsewhere a rule? The vivid fancies of an imaginative 
people clothe their heroes with such qualities as are most popular at the time, in the effort to make 
them mere "mortal Gods;" but to the inquirer after truth, the most remarkable tales respecting 
them, consist of the naked facts of true history, recorded without apology or exaggeration. 


When a Prime Minister states, that of all parts of the United Kingdom, Ireland is his "great 
difficulty," the Province of Ulster is an understood exception. It is there that the people of Anglo- 
Saxon ancestry are found in greatest numbers, and that the modes of thought and habits of action 
bear the closest resemblance to those which are found in Great Britain. There, is the stronghold of 
the United Church of England and Ireland ; and there also are found the numerous Presbyterian 
communities which claim proximate or remote relationship to the Established Church of Scotland. 
In Ulster, too, partly as a consequence, and partly as a collateral fact, law and order are respected, life 
and property are secure. The wheels of commerce and social life move smoothly on ; allowing for 
slight exceptional cases, property and population maintain a steady increase ; and the visitor of en- 
larged views finds that, as in Scotland, a soil which was naturally unproductive has noiirished a pop- 
ulation of high promise. In short, except geographically, Ulster is not Irish at all. The Austrian 
stigmatises the term "Germany" as a "mere geographical expression ;" but to the Ethnologist and the 
man of general intelligence, it conveys a distinct idea of a definite thing ; and similarly, our own 
interesting Province may be regarded as an outlying parish in the diffused but interesting do- 
minions which brother Jonathan calls " Anglo-Saxon-dom." 

Now, what Ulster is to Ireland, Down and Antrim are to Ulster. Within their limits, every 
favourable influence exists in the greatest force, and the elements of civilization and progress have arrived 
at the greatest maturity. For three centuries, the history of Ulster, and in a less degree of the whole 

p " Malcolm (Canmore), son of Donchad, (i.e. Duncan, kings of the race of Ere have reigned over Albany, ye 

who W!is .laiii ))y .Macbeth.') is the present king. Uou learned." 

alone knows how long he is to roign. To the present , _ 

time of the son of Uonchad, the lively-faced, fifty- two O'CoNon's Translations of the Albanic Duan. 


island, belongs mainly to these two counties. They lie iu the pathway to Scotland, from which the 
largest tide of immigration flowed ; and they opened their arms to the gallant adventurers of England, 
who risked danger and difficulty in the permanent purchase of title and estate. Whenever blood has 
flowed in Ulster, whether for the defence of civil liberty or in the deadly feuds of race and creed, the fields 
of Antrim and Down have been moistened ; and in guarding their own hearths and homes as well as in 
affording more than a fail* proportion for the public service, their sons have never been found wanting. 
The walls of Derry, it is true, are beyond their limits, and there is no portion of their soil watered 
by the Boyne ; but containing, as they do, the capital of the province, they maintained an onward 
and upward struggle permanently, such as others are deservedly celebrated for exhibiting in a single 
act. It could not be expected that any part of the province would be beyond the tides of good or evil 
influence which have ebbed and flowed within this district : but in some they were were felt but 
slightly, and in others only as the ripple of the exhausted wave. 

One reason for the variety of population which these two counties contain, is the fact that they 
were always regarded as a sort of sanctuary. The Huguenot of the Seine felt that he might thank 
God and take courage, not only in Portarlington, but on the banks of the Lagan. The persecuted Ca- 
meronian, fleeing from the enemy or the avenger, hung up his claymore in peace, in a farm-house of 
Ahoghill or Ballyeaston. The crest-fallen Cavalier in the days of Cromwell, and the stern Puritan in 
the days of " the merry monarch," pledged their respective toasts without molestation, in Dromore, 
Carrickfergus, or Ballymena. And later still, the songs of the expatriated Jacobites were sung over 
the loom and the ploiigh, by those who little knew what inflammable materials they were handling, 
" while George III. was king." Meeting for purposes of common industry, differences of opinion were 
subjected to the operation of a tacit truce ; and a common danger, when it occurred, sometimes saw 
them present to it a firm and united front. AVhen the guns of Thurot in 1760, and those of Paul 
Jones in 1778, woke the echoes around Belfast Lough, they acted as a call to arms of the people in 
the neighbouring district. Many a "village Hampden" who found a new home in the Western States 
of America, and many a grey -haired patriarch on the plains of Australia, has secured the breathless 
attention of an humble auditory, as he related with pride, how his father rushed to the mustering 
at the "Maze Course," or in the market-place of Newtownards. Even the minister of peace was de- 
termined not to inherit the curse of Meroz ; * for in the van ^ of those who acknowledged his influ- 
ence, he exhorted them to defend their blessings and privileges, in language which savoured less of 
earth than the well-known injunction = of the Protector. 

It would be foreign to the purpose of this sketch, which is itself only secondary to the general sub- 
ject, to detail with any degree of minuteness the various points in which these two counties are 
entitled to pre-eminence. It may be sufficient to mention, as suggestive to the reader, that in all 

a Judges v. 23. undoubted courage. 

*> The writer ventures to mention, as an example, his <= " Trust in God, boys, and keep your powder dry." 

own grand-sire ; a man of the most humble piety yet of 

Ai^if efiiii^' 


that indicates clearness of head, soundness of heart, and determination of purpose, they hold a foremost 
place. The calendar at the Assizes and general Graol deliveries shows a comparative absence of crime; 
though general diffusion of knowledge, and the abundance of employment, in part account for this. 
The favourable condition of what the French call " Primary Education" is shown by the reports 
of the Commissioners of National Education, the Church Education Society, and the Sunday School 
Society for Ireland ; the schools of all of which are numerous. For communicating a high grade of 
education, many excellent schools have been established since the Royal Belfast Academical In- 
stitution was founded ; and for professional education. Queen's College in Belfast is, perhaps, more 
practically useful than those of Cork and Gralway united. Nor is it merely within the range of the 
educational circles that we may look for the extended diffusion of useful knowledge ; many of those 
who are permanently engaged in the avocations of business have obtained a degree of deserved cele- 
brity, of which the mere man of letters might be proud. The manufacture of both cotton and linen 
lies within an irregular circle, of which Belfast is the centre. The plain linens of Lisburn and Bel- 
fast, the diapers and damasks are known over the world ; some of the country towns, especially in the 
county Down, are famous for delicate embroidery ; and the cambric handkerchiefs of Lurgan and Porta- 
down, tied with a beautiful tri-colom"ed thread and enclosed in elegant boxes, are currently sold 
in England and the United States, as of French manufacture. The mention of linen and cotton 
suggests Agriculture, in the growth of the material for the one, and Commerce, in the importation of that 
of the other. Rivals, but not antagonists, these two subjects have both made great progress of late years. 
The supporters of the one can refer with honest pride to the establishment of the Royal Flax Society; 
and those of the other to the improved harbour, the straightened channel, and increased tonnage at the 
port of Belfast. But far above all these details is the indescribable spirit of the people. It makes the 
landlords in Down and Antrim a pattern to the whole country, and explains why the Scoto-Irish 
emigrants in America are distinguished from what Fynes Morrison calls the '*meere Yrish.^' It has 
caused cultivation to creep slowly but gradually up the mountain side, so that game has now hardly 

a cover ; it has shown itself in the numerous institutions for every charitable purpose ; and it has 
...... ^ 

exhibited its capabilities in almost rebuilding the principal parts of the town of Belfast, within the 

last seven or eight years. 


Tjie two counties of Down and Antrim are situated on the East of Ulster, and therefore on the 
North-east of Ireland. The former is strictly on the eastern side of the island ; the latter is one of 
the three that reach to the north, and therefore belongs properly to that division. Between them 
lies the Lough of Belfast, anciently known as Carrickfergus Bay ; as if the angle had been rudely 
broken off which terminated their mutual extension. 

They are separated from the adjacent counties, and from each other, by boundaries which are partly 


natural and partly artificial. Thus, if we run up the western side, we find the Town and Liberties of 
Coleraine, naturally in Antrim, but artificially in Londonderry. The Lower Bann, which is else- 
where the western border of the county, here flows through Londonderry alone. The western 
boundary of Down, which separates it from Armagh, may be said to be artificial throughout ; though 
the Newry river, and the canal which unites it with the Bann, practically constitute the boundary for 
nearly twenty miles. Before reaching Lough Neagh, the Upper Bann flows through a portion of 
Armagh ; thus separating the Barony of Oneiland East, including the town of Lurgan, which more 
naturally belongs to Down. From the aqueduct near Moira, where the Belfast and Lough Neagh 
canal crosses the Lagan, the latter to its embouchure is the boundary between the two counties them- 
selves ; higher up, the canal, following the natural line of levels, like that of Newry, may be said to 
form the remainder of their separation. 

The great divisions of Shires, which, since the time of Alfred, have been known as Hundreds 
in England, are in L-eland called Baronies. The term " Shire" itself (i.e. a di\ision or portion 
cut ofi") is quite unknown in the island ; "County" being the only recognised term. It is highly pro- 
bable that this fact is not the result of mere accident, but a link in a chain of causes and effects. 
The enlightened Alfred, and the peaceful Edward, though not free from the excitements of their 
country and their age, spoke of the union of Tithings into a * Hundred as a matter of mere number, 
and of their concentration in a Shire, as a fact of convenience. But the conquering race who visited 
this island, and who, like Earl Warrenne, won and maintained their possessions by the sword, spoke 
more naturally of divisions which indicated dominion. The smaller, " Barony," was the domain 
suitable for the rule and title of a Baron ; the larger, "County" was adapted to the state and title of 
of an Earl. '' 

Several of the Baronies are sub-divided for the sake of convenience, into Upper and Lower districts. 
In Antrim, for example. Upper Toome extends to Lough Neagh, while Lower Toome is farther down 
on the right bank of the Bann. In the same county, we also find Lower Dunluce on the sea coast 
near the Causeway, and Upper Dunluce more inland in the valley of the Bann. In Down, also, 
Upper Iveagh is among the mountains ; Lower Iveagh is in the lowlands. Upper Locale comprises 
those parishes that lie, as it were, on the skirts of the Mourne range of hills ; and Lower Locale those 
that are more completely in the district of the "marl-pits." This last division is but little known, and 
of no more than local importance. A little examination will serve to show, however, that aU these 
examples of the appropriateness of the terms "Upper" and "Lower" are merely accidental coinci- 
dences, if not positive exceptions to the rule. The residents in the two counties are frequently struck 
with the apparent anomalous use of names; the higher districts being generally called "Lower," and 
the loioer districts, "Upper." The English reader will explain this at once, as merely a Hibernicism, 

a T-vvelvc Titliing3 made a irundred, i.e. 120 villages. are pynommous terms : and their relation is still pre- 

Tliis has ever coustituted what is still called the long served in the words Count-ess and Vis-Count. On the 

hundred, ' Continent, the term Count has a more general signifi- 

^ In the United Kingdom, Earl (comes) and Count cation. 


an "Irish bull ;" but, after proving the curious fact, it is worth an inquiry whether there be not a better 

The barony of Lower Glenarm, in Antrim, hangs upon the steep and lofty sides of Knocklayd. 
It rises to the height of 1810 feet, the greatest elevation known in the covmty ; and nearly nine-tenths 
of its area lie at the height of 500 feet above the level of the sea. In some places, so sudden is the 
descent that this line is, for miles, distant only a few perches from the water's edge ; and one of the 
most picturesque roads in the kingdom, exhibiting great efforts and triumphs of engineering skill, is 
bounded, for a considerable distance, by an almost perpendicular cliff on one side, while it is covered 
with the spray of the tide on the other. The barony of Upper Glenarm approaches the level shore 
of Lame Lough, and only about half its area lies at an elevation of 500 feet. It is worthy of re- 
mark that this is the portion which adjoins Lower Glenarm and Lower Antrim, and which lies upon 
the slope of the hills belonging to them. The barony of Upper Massareene lies along the flat coun- 
try, from the valley of the Lagan on one side, to the shores of Lough Neagh on the other. It is a 
sort of extended plain, including much that, until the present century, was mere marsh and turf-bog. 
Lower Massareene, on the contrary, stretches along the hills which form the western slope of Devis, 
until it reaches Lough Neagh. About one third of it lies at the height of 500 feet ; while there is 
less than one-twentieth of Upper Massareene at that elevation. Lower Antrim lies among the wild 
and desolate hill tops of Skerry, Racavan, and Glen- Wherry ; while Upper Antrim brings us to the 
more inhabited and inhabitable region of Antrim, Donegore and Doagh. The baronies of Upper and 
Lower Belfast are nearly equal. The former possesses a greater amount of plain country along the 
valley of the Lagan, but, it also contains the highest districts, round Devis and the Cave- Hill ; the 
latter does not rise to the same height, but possesses a much larger acreable extent at an elevation of 
500 feet. 

In Down the same anomaly exists. Lower Castlereagh, which stretches across the isthmus from 
Comber to Holywood, rises to the height of 720 feet ; while Upper Castlereagh contains a series of 
undulating hillocks the highest of which, Ouchley, only reaches an elevation of 615. In the barony 
of Ards, the Upper division comprehends that portion where the extremity sinksi gradually into the 
sea; the Lower division comprehends Conlig, and the whole range of bleak hills connected with it. 
The barony of Upper Iveagh is sub- divided; the Lower portion containing the whole of the moun- 
tainous districts of Kilcoo, Kilmegan, Clonduff, Drumgooland, and Drumballyroney ; while the Upper 
portion contains those parishes that lie towards Newry, Warrenpoint, and Banbridge. Lower Iveagh 
is also sub-divided. Its Upper part lies along the banks of the Lagan and Bann ; its Lotoer part 
contains the only portions of the entire barony that reach an elevation of 500 feet. 

The explanation of all this is, that the terms were not fixed by the local inhabitants, nor with 
relation to the Assize-town of each county, but by authority, and in relation to Dublin. The Metro- 
polis of every county is figuratively a head, and provincial districts are the members ; so that we are said 
to go up to the former, and doiim to the latter. Thus, we go up to London, which lies in a basin, and 


is connected with the sea by a navigable river ; we go down to the Scottish border, or to the region of 
Snowdon. In like manner in Ireland, we go up to Dublin, which is on the sea-side, from Croagh- 
Patrick or Mangerton ; we go doivn to Knock-Layd or Slieve-Donard. If, therefore, we take the Metro- 
polis as our point of view, even the apparent anomaly vanishes. In every case, the district known as 
" Upper" is nearer to Dublin in geographical position, or at least by the ordinary route for reaching it ; 
and that which is called " Lower" is more remote. The apparent correctness of the appellation in the 
case of the Toomes and Dunluces in the one county, or the Iveaghs in the other, has really nothing to 
do with either mountains or rivers. If the Bann flowed in the opposite direction, the one set of 
names would still be correct, in the sense in which they are used ; and so wr)uld the others, if \he 
mountains of Mourne were to subside and exhibit a level surface like the plain of Lecale. 

The Ecclesiastical arrangements differ in some respects from the Civil ones. There are 
three Dioceses which are almost co-extensive with the two counties, but embracing a few additional 
parishes. The Dioceses of Down and Connor existed distinct from each other from about A.D 500 to 
1441, that is for a period of nine centuries ; and as their union took place before the Reformation? 
they are united at present, in the arrangements both of the Established and the Roman Catholic 
Churches. Dromore existed as a separate Diocese from about 550 to 1842, or during thirteen cen- 
turies ; it is still so in the Roman Catholic Church ; but in the United Church of England and Ire- 
land it forms part of the Union of "Down and Connor and Dromore," in accordance with the 
Church Temporalities Act of 1833. 

The boundary line of the Diocese of Dromore coincides with the County boundary near Lough 
Neagh ; then making a circuit north of Aghalee and south of Hillsborough, it includes Annahilt, 
Magheradrool, Drumgooland, and Kilmegan. This includes the nominally " exempt jurisdiction of 
Newry and Mourne," of which the Earl of Kilmorey is the lay Lord- Abbot. The Diocese of Dro- 
more also includes the portion of Armagh cut off by the upper Bann, and which, therefore, naturally 
belongs to the county Down. In this is situated Seagoe, reaching to within a mile of Portadown ; 
3Ioyntaghs, a wilderness of bog on the shore of Lough Neagh ; and Shankill, in a portion of which, 
belonging to Down, the Belfast canal joins Lough Neagh. The only parish in Antrim which belongs 
to this Diocese is Aghalee ; which, with the two parishes of Aghagallon and Magheramesk in the 
Diocese of Connor and county of Antrim, forms a Union. A Roman Catholic tradition partly ex- 
plains this exceptional fact. It is said that Aghalefe was formerly like Moyntaghs, and uninhabited; 
and that it was united to the Diocese of Dromore as a circumstance of no practical importance. 

The Diocese of Down comprises the remainder of the County of that name ; except portions of 
Blaris (i.e. Lisburn), Lambeg, and Drumbeg, which lie across the county boundary, but are included 
in Connor. In each Diocese of the union there is but one Archdeaconry, which is, of course, co-exten- 
sive with it ; and it is a curious fact that the Archdeacon of Down, who is ex officio Rector of Hills- 
borough, resided till 1842, in the parish adjacent to the Bishop of Dromore. A design once existed 
to bring the two episcopal residences into closer proximity. The first Marquis of Downshire, a man 


of great public spirit, who died in 1794, was the contemporary of Bishop Dickson of Down and Con- 
nor. When his Lordship had erected the magnificent church of Hillsborough, which is his noblest 
monument, he was desirous to induce the Bishop to fix his residence in that town. With the Consis- 
torial court at Lisbum, (only three miles distant,) there would certainly have been concentration of 
offices, though not at the most convenient point. 

The Diocese of Connor is as large as Down and Dromore together. It includes the whole county 
Antrim, (Aghalee excepted,) small portions of Down, as we have seen, and part of Londonderry. 
Following the natural boundary, as the Diocese of Dromore does, it includes Coleraine and Agherton 
or Ballyaghran, both of which lie wholly within the " Liberties of Coleraine." Within the same limits 
lie also the principal portions of the parishes of Ballyrashanc, or St. John's Town, and Bally willin, 
or Milltown ; the remaining portions of which are in Antrim. The parish of Ballyscullion, lying 
west of Lough Beg and the Bann river, is mainly in the county Deny, yet in the Diocese of Connor. 
A small portion of it, together with the Grange of Ballyscullion, is situated in Antrim. 

Parishes are also ecclesiastical divisions, though used for civil purposes. In general they are well 
known to the inhabitants ; and therefore, in the maps which illustrate this paper, and in others yet 
to follow, their limits have been carefully indicated. For the sake of giving a definite meaning to the 
term " Parish," the Maps of the Ordnance Survey have been followed, as in Griffith's Valuation. 

Since neither Dioceses nor Parishes conform to the limits of Counties, ^for reasons which need 
not now be examined, it is not to be expected that the latter will be regulated by divisions of a subordi- 
nate kind. Accordingly, we find that many parishes are situated partially in each of two baronies, 
while others which lie near a union of baronial boundaries, are, as Dr. Barrett would have said, 
"quartered into three halves." 

In Antrim, the Parishes of Billy, Killagan, Antrim, Shankill (Belfast,) Derriaghy, and Temple- 
patrick, are examples of those which extend to two baronies ; while AhoghiU, which is mainly in 
Lower Toome, embraces portions of Kilconway and Upper Toome. Ballymoney is mainly in Upper 
Dunluce, but a portion is in Kilconway ; while a small portion, about one twenty-fourth of the 
whole, crosses the County boundary into the Liberties of Coleraine, and is thus part of Londonderry. 
There is one interesting coincidence, which, though not legally and formally, is yet conventionally and 
practically observed within this county. The " County of the town of Carrickfergus" is co-extensive 
with the parish of the same name ; and of course forms part of the Diocese of Connor. 

In Down, the irregularity is still greater. In the barony of Dufferin, there is not a single 
complete parish. In that of Kinelarty, there is one complete parish, and there are portions 
of five others. It may bo sufficient to mention the following as examples of parishes 
that lie in two baronies, Aghaderg, Annahilt, Bangor, Blaris, Comber, Garvaghy, Killileagh, 
Kilmore, Magheradrool, Newtownards, and Seapatrick. Dromara is almost equally divided be- 
tween Kinelarty, Upper Iveagh, and Lower Iveagh. ELilmegan is partially in Lecale, Upper 
Iveagh, and Kinelarty. Killinchy is in Lower Castlereagh, Kinelarty, and Dufferin. The parish of 


Newry comprehends the whole of the ancient Lordship of Newiy, together with the townland of 
Shannaghan, in Upper Iveagh, lying between the points of the parishes of Garvaghy, Annaclone, Dnun- 
ballyronoy, and Drumgooland There is one remarkable coincidence in this county also. The 
Barony of Mourne, or " half barony" as it is sometimes called, is seventy-five square miles in extent ; 
the parish of Kilkeel is co-extensive with it. 

The names of parishes are usually those of Townlands within their respective limits ; each being 
usually named from that one which contains the church, or village, or both. The name of the vil- 
lage often supplants that of the ancient townland, and sometimes both preserve collaterally a dubious 
claim to notice. A few remarks on names may not be uninteresting. 

In the parish of Saintfield, the old name of Tonaghnieve has disappeared ; but there can be little 
doubt that that was the name of the townland originally ; especially as the fraternal name of Tonagh- 
more stiU survives. It is not improbable that the ancient name of Dromore parish was Ballymagan- 
lis, from the townland of that name ; but the name of the town has naturally superseded it. In 
Hillsborough parish, the ancient name Camlin or Crumlin has long ceased to possess any of&cial existence. 
It is still, however, traditionally known in connexion \vith the ancient burial-ground, ^ now forming part 
of the lawn of Hillsborough Castle, * and its position is marked by the well-known Kate-Kush ^ tree. 
The name Shankill, derived from a townland which included a burying-place, is more than obsoles- 
cent ; except to the inquirer, it may be regarded as obsolete. The town of Belfast constitutes so 
important a portion of the whole parish that its name has taken precedence ; and instead even of the 
townland of Shankill we read "Edenderry." 

There are other instances in which towns or villages are slowly but surely superseding the old 
names. Kirkinriola, so called from a townland, is giving place naturally to Ballymena ; and Tick- 
macrecvan, the name of which as a townland has been supplanted, is likely also to be supplanted as a 
parish by the name Grlenarm. Blaris parish is named from an obscure townland in the County 
Down ; and Lii;nagarvey, an equally obscure one in the county Antrim, gave name to a town within 
its limits. Tho latter was nearly burnt down, and was thence called Lis-hum; and the little parish being 
united with one on the other side of the Lagan, ^ the whole took the name of Blaris. The little 
parish of Knock, in Lower Castlereagh, named from a townland, was united with the larger one 
of Breda, in Upper Castlereagh, named also from a townland. A village built in the latter is cal- 
le<l Newton-Breda, but the united parish is invariably called by the joint name Knock-Breda. The 

'' The t'hurch was removed to its present position in to the old burial-ground : and on leaving, stuck a green 

1662, but occasional interments took place in Crumlin branch, which she carried, at the head of the grave, 

burying- ground for nearly thirty years after. It became a large spreading tree, and was long regarded 

c Not the Fort or ancient Castle, but the Marquis of with much interest by the people. 

Oownshire's residence. s This serves to explain how a parish can lie in two 

f An idiotic girl called Kate, who generally amused Counties. 

herself by plaiting ruslies and wandering through the h This shows how a parish may lie in two adjoining 

country, liad acquired the familiar soubriquet of " Kate Baronies. 
Rush." One day she accompanied a funeral procession 


parish of Magheradrool is named from a townland in wluch there is an ancient burying-ground ; but 
the name is likely to be superseded by another word of Irish ori^, viz. : Ballynahinch, the name of 
the town. On the same principle, it is not unlikely that the parish of Seapatrick may yet be known 
by the name Banbridge ; that Drumaul may become Eandalstown ; Ballyphilip, Portaferry ; Kil- 
megan, Castlewellan ; Eamoan, Ballycastle ; Aghaderg, Loughbrickland ; &c. In some instancee, 
but they are not numerous, parishes seem never to have been named from townlands. Thus Lough- 
inisland, Annahilt, and Moiia, have no minor representatives. Moira (also written Moyrath, Moiragh, 
St. James of Moira, and Magh-Eath,) is a name known for more than 1,200 years ; yet the name of the 
townland in which the village is situated is Carnalbanagh, and the parish was only constituted from 
portions of Magheralin and Hillsborough in 1725. 

St. John's Town, vulgarly " Syngenstown," is the name of one parish in Down, and another 
partly in Antrim. The former is otherwise called from a townland, Castleboy ; the latter, as we 
have seen, is a translation of Ballyrashane. Dundonald or Dundonnell is otherwise called Kirk -Donald 
or Kirk-Donnell, vulgarly " Cur-Donal." The prefix in the former name is evidently derived from a 
large rath (Dun) near the village, and in the latter from the position of the church as described 
by the Scotch immigrants. The name of the townland in which the village stands is Church Quarter. 

The Townlancls in Ireland are equivalent to the TovfusMps in England ; in Scotland the same pur- 
pose is generally served by a minuter naming of farms and houses. The townlands are civil divisions; 
but in one respect they coincide with the ecclesiastical ; for all parishes are composed of several of them 
complete. Their names are very peculiar ; in short the history of their names might almost be made 
a history of the country. But we must not anticipate a branch of the subject to be treated of 

A curious fact has often been noticed respecting the degree of familiarity with the names of the 
townlands. In the districts where population is dense, and especially in the Presbyterian districts 
where ecclesiastical divisions are scarcely heard of, men are known by the toitmlands in which they 
reside ; they date their letters from them, and speak of them currently as well-known places. Yet 
they may not be known beyond the next market-town ; indeed the names of parishes, when not con- 
nected with towns or villages, are often utterly unknown to the people of the county. On the con- 
trary, in the districts where farms are large and population thin, or in the districts where church- 
men mainly are found, the parishes are the local divisions that are known almost exclusively. In 
the parish of KiUaney in Down, and elsewhere, it would be no difl&cult matter to find a hundred men 
of average intelligence, not one of whom could tell the name of his parish if he were put to his oath. 
In the Union of Magheramesk in Antrim, it would be easy to find a similar number, not one of whom 
could venture to swear to the name of the townland in which he was " bred and born." 



The mountains of Ireland are peculiarly situated, lying in groups or tufts round the sea-coast ; 
while the centre of the country is hollow, in general little diversified by elevations, and in some 
parts containing a large amount of bog. The ranges of hills in these two counties exhibit the gene- 
ral tendency ; the mountains of Down occupying one distinct portion of the map, and those of An- 
trim another. Between them lies a considerable tract of level country, effecting, externally, a 
complete separation between them. In Down the hills assume more completely the appearance of 
mountains, and rise to the greatest elevation ; in Antrim the elevated ground .occupies a wider area. 
In area, Antrim is the larger of the two, as it appears to the eye on the map ; if, however, the fer- 
tile land only be reckoned, or the soil under actual cultivation, Down is the larger. In round 
numbers, Antrim contains 760 thousand acres, (including 50 thousand of Lough Neagh ;) but only 
470 thousand, or less than two-thirds, are under cultivation. Down contains more than 600 thou- 
sand acres ; of which more than 500 thousand, or nearly five-sixths, are under cultivation. 

In Antrim, the greatest elevation attained is in part of the Knocklayd range. This may be said 
to commence almost at the coast near Ballycastle ; while its ridge forms the natural boundaries of 
the parishes of Ramoan, Armoy, and Loughguile, on the west side, and of Culfeightrin, the Grange 
of Layd, and the parish of Layd on the east. The crest of the hill, specially known as Knock- 
layd, lies at an angle on the borders of Ramoan and Armoy, and attains the elevation of 1685 feet. 
The barony boundary between Lower and Upper Glenarm on the one side, and Kilconway and Lower 
Antrim on the other, nms in general along the highest portions ; it may thus be regarded as the 
water-shed of the county, separating the streams which flow directly to the sea, from those that reach 
it indirectly by first mingling their waters with the Bann. In the parish of Layd, nearly opposite 
to the northern limit of Dunaghy, Trostan hill rises to 1810 feet ; farther south, near where Skerry 
joins both Tickmacreevan and Ardelinis, GoUin-Top is 1419 feet high ; and towards the southern 
extremity of this range, Agnew's Hill, between Glen- Wherry and Kilwaughter, rises to 1558 feet. 
From the south-western point of Upper Glenarm the elevated land sinks ; and changing its direc- 
tion, it runs nearly along the noi-thern boimdary of Carrickfergus, till it reaches the Cave-hill range, 
where Mac Art's Fort rises to 1140 feet, and Devis, in the same parish, to 1567. On both sides of 
this elevated line, there are other hills, of the same range of minor elevation, which still keep the 
general surface of the country at more than 500 feet above the sea. Thus, on the eastern side, 
Carnlea, near Tor-head, is 1250 feet high ; while in the adjoining parochial district of Layd- Grange 
is Glenmakeeran, of the height of 1321 feet. In the parish of Ardelinis, within a mile and-a-half 
of the shore, Nachore attains an elevation of 1180 feet. To the west of the principal range, we 
meet with the detached top of Sleamish, nearly east of Broughshane, 1437 feet high ; while Big 
Collin and "Wee Collin, near where Glcnwherry adjoins the barony of Upper Antrim, attain an elevation 
respectively of 1160 and 1006 feet. When such high tops occur, and such a breadth of elevated 







' ^ 








Li^if iifiigiT 


land runs throngh the length of a county which is only thirty miles across, we need not be surprised 
to find more than a third of its area at an elevation of 500 feet or upwards. When we find the 
mountains, too, pushing their shoulders almost close to the water's edge, we are prepared to find pic- 
turesque vales, the natural continuation of bays from the sea, running up into the interior. Such 
are actually found at intervals, throughout the whole extent of Upper and Lower Glenarm and 
the parish of Culfeightrin ; and this is just the district which the old inhabitants denominated the 
Olynnes (i. e. the glens,) when Hugh Boy O'Neill, in the fourteenth century, re-conquered the district 
from the followers of De Burgo. 

The greatest elevation attained in Down is that of Slieve-Donard, 2,796 feet, at the eastern side 
of the boundary line that separates Moume from Upper Iveagh ; while at the western side of the 
same boundary, the Eagle Mountain attains an elevation of 2084 feet. The water-shed coincides 
with the barony boundary, and the declivity of the hills is towards the south. Though this ridge 
dips rapidly into the sea throughout the whole parish of Kilkeel, one lofty hill, Slieve Bingan, stands 
out on the side at an elevation of 2449 feet. South of the main line also, but west of the limits 
of the barony of Mourne, Kosstrevor Mountain or Slieve Bane rises to a height of 1600 feet On 
the Iveagh or north side of the water-shed are the smaller mountains known as the Cock and the 
Hen ; and Slieve Snavan or the Creeping Mountain. A long sweep of very rough country, including 
the whole of the parish of Drumgooland, brings us to another less elevated tract, which may be re- 
garded as a spur or excrescence of the Mourne ridge. The highest point of it, Slieve Croob, lies on 
the barony boundary, between Kinelarty and Iveagh, and, therefore, on the diocesan boundary be- 
tween Dromore and Down ; and up the sides of this mountain five parbhes converge Drumgooland, 
Dromara, Magheradrool, Loughinisland and Kilmegan. The whole of the continuous plateau does 
not occupy more than one fifth of the county, including about eight parishes. 

In one respect Down is peculiar, and, in its physical features, differs from Antrim. Its plains are 
not plains, its slopes are not slopes, and its undulations are not undulations, in the ordinary sense. 
It consists, in general, of a series of hillocks, which have been quaintly compared to " wooden bowls 
inverted, or eggs set in salt." They may also be compared to gigantic water-worn stones ; and the 
vertical outline of many of them is not unlike the curve of the back of a pig or an elephant. 
In no fewer than ten instances, single hills, which are quite separated from the principal 
elevation, and which are geologically known as " hummocks," attain a height of 500 feet or 
upwards. We may mention, as examples, Scrabo, near Newtownards ; Ouchley, in Saintfield 
parish ; Clogher, on the boundary between Hillsborough and Dromore ; and Tully-ard, in 
Drumbo. The elevations which serve to divide the basins of rivers, as we approach the 
borders of Antrim and Armagh, are sometimes very slight. Lough Neagh is 48 feet above low- 
water level at Belflist; and the "head-level," or highest portion of the canal which joins the two, is 
only 120 feet. Between Moira and Lurgan, the Ulster Railway passes from the valley of the Lagan 
to that of the Bann by a cutting which is scarcely perceptible ; on the bye-road from Hall's-mill, 


across the parish of Magherally, the elevation is noticeable, but little more, to either man or horse, at 
the Black Scxill ; and the neighbouring hill, where the " Tommy Downshire men" used to meet, is 
about 500 feet high. 

The rivers of both counties are determined by this physical arrangement. To the east of the 
water-shed of Antrim, a number of small mountain-streams discharge themselves into the sea. To 
the west of this, the drainage is into the Bann and Lough Neagh ; except the Bush, which has an exit 
of its own at Bush-mills. The Maine-water, guided by some minor elevations on the right bank of the 
Bann, flows southward into Lough Neagh ; the Six-Mile-Water, rising in the angle formed by the 
northern and western ridges, discharges the streams of both into the lake at Antrim ; and the Crumlin- 
Water divides Upper and Lower Massareene. Li Down, the streams from the ridge of Moume, as the 
Annalong, Kilkeel, White-Water and Causeway- Water, flow southwards through Kilkeel parish to 
the sea. The Shimna, on the Iveagh side, flows bto Dundnmi Bay, at Newcastle ; and, north-east 
of the central elevation, a stream passes Ballynahinch, and, flowing between Downpatrick and Inch, 
imder the name of the Quoile, reaches Strangford Lough. But the two principal rivers are the La 
gan and Bann, each of them connected with both counties. They both rise in the Moume range; 
and, separating by the inequalities which have been noticed, reach the sea through two tracts of low- 
land ; each becoming a coimty boundary in its course. It is estimated that the basin of the Lagan 
contains an area of 227 square miles, the whole of which lies within these two counties ; and the Bann 
and Maine jointly drain an area of 1266 square miles, at least the half of which is in these two 

In the lower parts of the country, along the river margins, are to be sought the past and present sites of 
marshes. The parish of Moyntaghs in Armagh, has its corresponding townland of Moyntaghs in 
Aghagallon ; both of which will disappear in time, so that the philologist may have to inquire hereafter 
for the reason of the name. The Bogs of Kilwarlin, the Maze Moss, Blaris Moor, and many such places, 
have become fertile fields; and the numerous names, (such as Moss-side, where there is now no moss,) are 
historical, as well as topographical. It is not, however, on the levels or lowlands, merely, that we are 
to look for bogs. The well-known " black earth" is found at high elevations, and in immense quan- 
tities ; sometimes as if the usual " sterner stuff " of the mountain top had become metamorphosed into 
this spongy material. When it is very light and porous, like heath slightly compressed, it is called 
" flow moss ;" and districts of considerable area are known by the name, as, Duncan's-Flow in 
Glenwherry, and Mathers's-Flow in Dromore. The parish of Finvoy in Antrim, great part of Skerry? 
the whole of Newtown-Crommelin, Glenwherry, and other portions of the high district, consist 
almost exclusively of bog ; and the straight lines, which sometimes bound parishes and townlands, 
similar to those near Donaghadee in Down, or which show the directions of roads, form a marked 
contrast to the graceful curves at other points, and show that the land has been won from the terri- 
tory of the snipes. In the parish of Skerry, and in numerous other places, the cultivated oases are 
called " islands ;" as Island-town, Island-brackey, &c. ; and those who have ever seen them will ad- 


mit, that the term is not a Hibernicism, but the appropriate application of a figure of speech. In 
Newtown-Crommelin alone, there are nearly 3000 acres of bog at a height above the level of the 
sea, ranging from 800 to 950 feet. When about twenty years ago, a vigorous attempt was made to 
colonize it, the humblest of the people, though anxious to become landholders on the favourable 
terms which were offered them, often fled in dismay from the cheerless solitude of these lofty 
regions ; and the two townlands of Skerry, (otherwise known as Skerry Rabble,) became popularly 
known as '' Scare-the-Devil." It is curious that the same feeling is not shown in the County Down, 
at least by a portion of the population- To the remnant of the native Irish, the bog is indispens- 
able ; they creep up the mountain-sides, but never move far from it ; their food may be scanty and 
their shelter insufficient, but they welcome the howling of the storm by a roaring peat fire, and 
cherish a sort of brotherly affection for " thunder and turf." It is said that in the allotment of spoil 
before the rebellion of 1798, some of the insurgent cbieftains in Down objected to the estates of 
neighbouring gentlemen falling to them, " because there was no bog in them." 

In the northern and elevated districts of Antrim there are few Lakes ; but throughout the whole 
of Down they are numerous. The peculiar inequalities of its surface present, in the mountainous 
districts especially, a number of natural basins ; and there are, perhaps, not half-a-dozen parishes in 
the whole county which do not contain a few acres of water, or give evidence that such has formerly 
existed. This would be an interesting subject for the pen of the geologist ; for there is not a stage 
of the transition which his science indicates that may not be seen here, from the lake with its plea- 
sure parties and its anglers, to the marl-bed re-converted into a pond by the exigences of agriculture. 
The principal lakes are Loughinisland, which gives name to a parish ; Lough-Island-Reavey in Kilcoo ; 
Ballyward in Drumgooland; Ballyroney and Himshigo in Drumballyroney ; Lough Shark and 
Lough Brickland in Aghaderg ; Cowey, Ballyfinragh, and others without special names in the penin- 
sula of Ards ; and several in the parishes of Kilmore, Saintfield, Magheradrool, and Annahilt. The 
last parish contains one with a floating island. Examples of partial natural reclamation exist at 
Loughinisland and Inch. The island which gave name to the former is now a peninsula connected with 
the main land by a marshy isthmus ; and as the waters of Quoile do not now flow round Innis Courcy, 
in the latter it has ceased to be an island, except in name. In other instances, from the discharge of 
watef extending the outlet, and the contemporaneous deposition of matter, we find small lakes standing 
in the midst of bogs, where the natural evidences show that there must once have been extensive 
sheets of water. Thus Drumaroad lake in the parish of Loughinisland, a small lake north of Seaforde 
Demesne, Carrowvanny in Saul, and Monteith's Lough in Annaclone, are situated each in the midst 
of a bog. In the last montionei, the surface of the water is only eight feet below the highest point 
of the surrounding bog, and the limits of cultivation. In Ballywillwill Demesne there is a lake in the 
midst of a marsh ; and another in Ologhskelt, a part of Drumgooland, Lough Kellan, which gives 
name to a townland in Ballycultcr, is part of a very large lake which extended along the parish boun- 
dary near Saul and Bailee. In other instances, the large lake of ancient times is represented by se- 


veral small modern ones. Thus, Ballyroney lake, connected with a large territory of adjoining bog, 
represents the waters of the western side ; the three Ballyward lakes are near the north-eastern limit ; 
Hanshigo claim? kindred with aU these on the south ; and Gargary on the east. Also, there is strong 
reason to believe that the lake in Hollymount Demesne, now in the midst of a bog, was at one time 
connected with the marshes of Downpatrick ; and the lake of Ballydugan, which is obviously one of 
the same sort, may at one time have been a part of the great whole. In Slievenaboley, Drumgooland, and 
in Drumnakelly, Loughinisland, even the water of the diminished lake has disappeared, and there is 
merely a marsh in the centre of a bog. Lough Doo in Castleboy is now turf bog at a height of fifty- 
two feet above the sea; the same may be said of Lough Cook in Drumgooland; while Loughorne, in 
the Lordship of Newry, has been filled up eleven feet, and its southern half is now a marsh. Lough-a- 
dian in Aghaderg is what is called a " blind lough ;" and there is another in Magherally which con- 
sists, in like manner, of quagmire and turf bog. The Stron' (i.e. strand) near Killough is of a 
different character, as it is a portion of marsh and moor recovered from the tide; but the 
numerous marsh-pits of Lecale exhibit, in the most interesting way, the alternating strata of sea- 
sh3lls and diluvium which have converted them from estuaries or fresh- water lakes into arable land. 

The trees, which are still found in large numbers and of various sizes, afford sufficient evidence of 
the former condition of the face of the country . Bat farther evidence is afforded by the names of 
such places as Killinchy-in-the- Woods, and by the numerous places whose names contain the prefix 
Kil, not indicating the position of a " barying-grouad," but the situation of a " wood." There is an 
uibroken tradition too, that wood only was burned in ancient timas, and that the old leases contained 
a stipulation that it alone should be used. 

What with woods, hills, lakes, undrained marshes, and the want of roads, even the portions that are 
now regarded as arable must formerly have supported but a scanty population. The best portions 
of the land were occupied by ecclesiastical edifices, and the male population rarely lived half their days, 
from the military and predatory dispositions of the people. The insecurity of property prevented its 
natural increase ; and the population was thus kept for centuries at a low figure, and in a semi-bar- 
barous condition. Wide districts were scarcely named, and others only partially explored ; but there 
was a time coming, when every rood of land rose in moral importance and in commercial value. To 
explain who, and what the agents were, to whom this altered state of things is attributable, is one ob- 
ject of this essay. But at present, having merely placed the scenes and raised the curtain, we will 
pause a little before the introduction of the actors. 



" Usque Columbinam insulam quae Thorach dicitur." 


Dr. Johnson, by a few eloquent words, created an interest in lona tliat still 
attracts to its shores {)ilgrims of every class ; and awakens a lively curiosity 
regarding the history of the personage who founded its remarkable ecclesias- 
tical buildings, our own Columba. It is not, however, any dispar. 
^yv agement to that sacred territory to affirm, that the Island which 

forms the subject of the present article (and which was also one of 
the seats of the Royal Saint) has an interest not possessed by the 
Hebridean ; inasmuch as we find in it, at this hour, remains of the 
very buildings erected by the early Christian monks, who had there 
devoted themselves to a life of holy seclusion. It will be found that this interest 
will not be diminished by a careful examination of the remains themselves ; nor 
wiU the poetic fervour of the visitor be cooled down by the " ipse di^t" of 
some member of a Church-architectural Society, informing the enthuaast that 
" none of these ruins date earlier than the thirteenth century." 

Saint Columba was one of the most remarkable Christian missionaries of 
the post-apostolic ages, not only on account of the number of churches which 
he founded, but for the purity of his life and doctrine. He was bom at Gar- 
tin, in the county of Donegall, about the year 521 ; and, although his descent 
from King Niall of the Nine Hostages gave him a high civil rank among his 
countrymen, he, from a very early age, devoted himself to the service of reli- 
gion. According to Jocelyn and Usher, he founded one hundred monasteries : 
and, in one of the lives published by Colgan, his entire ecclesiastical foundations, 
including monasteries and churches, are estimated at three hundred. A well- 


defined tradition still existing in Donegall, and likewise tlie records o^the period immediately 
succeeding his death, have handed down numerous interesting details of his private life, and of his teach- 
ing. It is not to be denied that, in the course of ages, many fictitious particulars have been added by his 
admirers ; but, as the lichen on an ancient monument does not conceal its form, so the judicious in- 
quirer has no difficulty in perceiving that this holy man was indefatigable in his exertions to spread 
over the land the pure Christianity of the Apostolic ages ; that he was earnest in prayer ; that he de- 
voted much time to the study and transcription of the Holy Scriptures ; and that in his own person, 
he gave an illustrious example of practical virtue. 

It is difficult to conjecture why, at a time when the Irish had already been converted to Christianity, 
he should have determined on establishing a monastery in Tory, * an island so completely cut off, as 
it must always have been, from communication with other parts of the country. In lona, which 
is a secluded spot of about the same extent, he and his disciples found a comparatively safe retreat 
in troubled times, whence they could extend their missionary labours, and to which, as a harbour of 
refuge, they could return, when civil strife prevented their progress on the main land. In like man- 
ner, we may presume that, dreading some civil convialsion in Ireland which might prove fatal to the 
cause of religion, he intended that this almost inaccessible spot should be the means of preserving the 
sacred deposit until better times should arrive. 

Th e island further deserves attention as having been (even before the ecclesiastical epoch already men- 
tioned,) one of the strongholds of that extraordinary people, who, under the general name of Scandina- 
vians, ravaged and partially settled the coasts of the British islands; the same people who afterwards as 
Normans, played an important part in the history of this country : for the invasion in the time of Henry 
II. was only a return of the ancient foe, civilized by the restraints of a settled government, and inclined 
to colonize, rather than to plunder, the land they had so often stooped on from their impregnable rock- 
fortresses. This is not the fitting place to pursue such an inquiry, further than suggesting that many 
of the early invasions, supposed to have been direct from Denmark or Norway, may have been made 
from settlements in some of the numerous islands along the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland : 
for we have, as yet, no proof that the people spoken of by the Bards as " Africans," really came from 
the south. 

The present communication originated in a visit paid to the island in August 1845, by the writer, 
accompanied by Mr. Hyndman and Mr. Grattan of Belfast, with the view of making some excava- 
tions at the round tower, by permission of the proprietor, Mr. Woodhouse. 

The nearest point, at which a vessel can lie in safety, is Sheephaven ; and here the yacht took the 
party on board opposite to the little town of Dunfanaghy. From this the sail to Tory is very beau- 
tiful, passing under Horn Head, a bold promontory > descending abruptly into the sea, from a height 

* This name is always pronounced as if written in > It is composed of mica-slate and quartzose and sand- 

English ToKRT. stone. 


nearly seven hundred feet. Large flocks of water-fowl breed in its caverns and continually encircle its 
rugged sides, while the sea-eagle soars aloft with its young. The peculiar appearance which gives 
name to the head-land is very discernible ; two projecting peaks at the summit assimiing the resem- 
blance of the short thick horns of an ox. 

Another promontory, to the west, presents the 

_^-^t^^tjjBf^^^^^:^ appearance of a human bust, the profile of which 

"^^^^^^^^^^^^H^^^^ is very perfect, much more so than the one so often 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Hjp pointed out on the Cave-Hill at Belfast. It bears 
|^^^^ffl|^MHHHlBRP|||HHQ^^ some likeness to the portraits of the Duke of Wel- 
l^^^pP^PPHL. ^sSi -^ lington, and the form of features is well developed- 

^^B^^^^^^^^^^B^S^S^Ste^^ As the island is approached, the sea assumes the 
""^^^S^*^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ l)eautiful ultra-marine blue which we look for in 
Vain in shallow water. When Tor-more on the east is reached, the cliffs of the island form a beauti- 
ful prospect ; while, on the opposite side, the coasts of Donegall and Derry, with their receding head- 
lands and mountains, and Innistrahull on the verge of the horizon, altogether form a picture equal to 
any on the Irish coast. 

Under the most favourable circumstances there is always some difficulty in effecting a landing on 
Tory, even with the kind assistance of the inhabitants. On this occasion, they sent off a " curragh" 
and a large boat to receive the " new master," (as the landlord was called among them,) and the 
shore and head-land were covered with people, as if to welcome the arrival of the visitors. The land- 
ing-place is in a small " cove" romantically situated in the shelter of the cliffs, and partially defended 
from the waves of the Atlantic by a high pinnacle of rock called Tor-a-hauv, having a narrow pas- 
sage between it and the land. This landing-place is called Port-Doon from its proximity to an an- 
cient Dun or strong-hold. There is, however, no safe anchorage where a vessel can lie ; and there- 
fore, it was necessary to send back the yacht to the main land, or, as it is termed in the phraseology 
of the islanders, " the country." The present party, after remaining in the island a sufficient time to 
effect their objects, returned to Dunfanaghy ; and it may be mentioned, as showing the uncertainty 
of the communication with Tory, (even in simimer,) that it was not till a considerable time after their 
departure that any vessel or boat could approach its shore. Even in Sheephaven the sea was running 
fearfully on the bar ; and a smack which passed the yacht, beating up to the island to load kelp, was 
wrecked, a few hours after, on Innisbofinn. 

From Ballyness Bay, a boat occasionally goes out to Tory with letters ; passing in its direct course 
the three smaller islands of Innisbofinn, Innisdooey, (on which is a cemetery,) and Innisbeg. The 
principal intercourse with Tory is from this quarter ; the people being under the spiritual direction of 
the priest of " Cross roads" for the time being. It is not necessary at present to make any further al- 
lusion to these smaller islands. Near Horn Head is a place called Marafagh, where it is the custom 
to inter pro tempore the bodies which are a-bearing to Tory, but detained by stress of weather. 


Tory lies about nine miles from tlie nearest part of the coast of Donegall, and is included territori- 
ally in the parish of Tullaghobegly, barony of Kilmacrenan. Its length is about three miles, its 
breadth one. Its superficial contents are 1200 acres ; 200 of which are considered arable or pasture 
land. It contains three lakes, two of them, Lough Ayes and Lough Ahooey of considerable size ; 
the other is named Lough A-her. The Conmiissioners of Irish lights erected a light-house here in 
1832, which is of great service to mariners, and has greatly diminished the number of ship- 
wrecks, caused by the position of the island in the direct course, vessels entering or departing by the 
North Channel. It is visible in clear weather at the distance of 17 nautical miles, the lantern stand- 
ing 122 feet above the level of the sea at high-water. Numerous birds are killed by striking against the 
plate-glass windows, being attracted by the light. A very interesting collection of these was made by 
IVIrs. Bailie, an English lady who resided here for some years, while her husband was in charge. The 
specimens were all preserved and set up by herself, and exhibited a proof, if such were required, that 
a person of intelligence can never be at a loss for useful employment. 

Before the erection of the light-house the inhabitants derived considerable profit from acting as 
pilots, and also from the timber thrown on shore. In one place a deep hollow is shewn on the cliffs 
communicating with the sea, through which whole logs of timber are occasionally shot up by the violence 
of the waves. A gun fired into it produced a very loud report. It resembles the famous cavern near 
Horn Head, called MacSwine's gun, through which the water rushes with such violence as to produce a 
loud report. It is not uninteresting to add that Mr. Graham, in his account of lona, describes a 
cavern of the same nature there. 

The only place on the island where a few shrubs flourish is a hollow formed by the subsidence of the 
surface into a cavern beneath. This was named by the party " Hyndman's garden," but its Celtic 
designation is Lagrehy or the " ram's-hoUow." 

There are two "towns" on the island, ("villages" perhaps is a more correct expression,) East 
Town and W^est Town ; the latter being the principal, and containing the Round Tower and the 
Ecclesiastical ruins. The building materials are fragments of red granite, and the covering of the 
houses is straw, kept down by ropes of the same material and by stones. As limestone is not found 
on the island, the mortar, both ancient and modern, has been obtained by burning sea shells, chiefly 
those of the limpet ; the animal of which is used in large quantities as food and as bait. To a cursory 
obser\'er, the present dwellings have as much appearance of antiquity as the older bmldings ; and it 
is difficult to distinguish ancient from modern walls. In one place artificial caves are shown, said to 
have been formed during the war " to conceal the people from the French ;" but more probably from 
English press-gangs. The most likely suggestion, however, is their use by smugglers before an Excise 
steamer put an end to their traffic. At one time, large quantities of whiskey were illicitly distilled 
on the island. the trade is now at an end, and every inhabitant a "teetotaller." 

The land is generally held by the old "rundale" tenure, by virtue of which, each individual 
tenant has a proportion of every kind of land, and no one a permanent possession of a separate part. 


Improved agriculture, or fencing and ditching, are of course, almost unknown ; the land is badly til- 
led, and affords scanty crops of oats and potatoes ; and it is, perhaps, a result of the perfect sim- 
plicity of the modes of culture, that the potato disease did not reach this distant island. " The most 
profitable business seems the manufacture of kelp from sea-weed ; and at the tune of the present 
visit, the "market" was as much agitated, on its small scale, by the arrival of a few purchasers, as 
some of the great marts where the wealth of nations is exchanged. The prosperity of this trade 
arises from the large proportion of iodine this kelp produces, which ^ves it a comparatively high 
value. Every one was alive to exertion. Persons of every age and sex were employed collecting 
the sea-weed, or carrying it off the beach on the small island horses, in panniers having a moveable 
bottom which drops down on removing a pin. Lord Brougham would have been delighted with the 
" schoolmaster," for even he was " abroad." ^ 

Mr. Hyndman introduced a new trade, by offering a reward for the eggs and young of the 
** Mother Carey's chickens," which he understood bred on the Island. Demand, as usual, in such 
cases, produced supply ; and the market which opened at 6d. per egg, soon fell to a very small 
fractional part. This gentleman records a story that fully confirms the opinion of Avicnus 
regarding the Irish, " negociandi cura jugis omnibus;" for wishing to ascertain if the " fork-tailed 
Petrel " was also found, he offered a reward for a specimen. A boy, 10 or 12 years of age, soon 
brought him one, which he had ingeniously manufactured on the instant to agree with his description, 
by extracting the middle feathers of the tail of the Mother Carey's chicken, and so claimed the 
reward ! ! 

Few quadrupeds are found, except the rabbit, which is plentiful : and it is positively stated, that 
rats, ^the universal plague of man, will not live here. There is no doubt, that the frequency of 
wrecks, formerly gave them every facility for making the experiment ; but this, with other ques- 
tions, is better reserved for discussion in notices of natural history. (See Appendix communicated ly 
Mr. Hyndman.) 

<= Since the above was written, the proprietor has in- but little was produced : but since the opening of tlie 

duced a considerable number of the inhabitants to leave works in Ramelton by the enterprising exnibitor. (who 

the island, and abolished " Rundale" entirely ; and the was generally considered at the time to be making a 

land is now divided into farms, as in other parts of the rather bold experiment.) a large annual consumption of 

country. kelp at the works has caused it to be made in much 

d The following notice of chemicals produced from greater abundance, and the prices raised to a consider- 

Irish Sea-weed, appeared in the Dublin Freeman's Jour- able extent ; causing thereby not only a large circula- 

nal, under date 27tn Sept. 1851, tion of money in that part of Ireland, but conferring 

Irish Produce. I observed in the Great Exhibition a great benefits on the neighbouring coasts by the exten- 

case of chemical stuffs produced from Irish sea-weed sive employment it aflFords to the poorer classes round 

viz. iodine, chloride ot potassium, sulphate ofpota.'^h, the districts; who. but for this field of commerce having 

and alkaline, or kelp salt manufactured in the Kamel- been opened up almost at their own door-i^, would, in 

ton Chemical Works, by the exhibitor, Mr. John Ward. many cases, be unemploye<l, and in destitute circum- 

These works, the first of the kind started in Ireland, stances. To the town of Kamelton the chemical works 

were established by Mr. Ward, in March IS^*!, in Ramel- have been of the greatest benefit, by the number of 

ton. a small town on an arm of Lough Swilly, Co. Donegal. workmen and labourers employed in and around it, and 

Previous to their establishment the people of the north- the very considerable sliipping trade, in vessels ranging 

west coast of Ireland had comparatively no home mar- fh)m 60 to 120 tons, which the importation of manufac- 

ket for the produce of their industry, in so far as regard- red stuffs has been the means of bringing to Lough 

ed the manufacture of kelp from sea-weed, consequently Swilly. 


There is no flax grown on the island ; but there is pasture for a limited number of sheep. There 
is neither resident magistrate nor clergjman, doctor nor lawyer, and it is only very recently that a 
schoolmaster made his way thither under the auspices of the National Board. Irish is the universal 
language ; and, with the exception of a dwarf called Halliday, and the officials connected with the 
light-house, the people belong exclusively to the Roman Catholic Church. A clergyman from 
Cross-roads, on the opposite coast of Donegall, visits them periodically ; or, in a case of urgency, a 
" curragh" is sent over to bring him. In his absence, prayers are read on Sundays by one of the 
islanders, at what is called "St. John the Baptist's altar," near the Round Tower; and baptism is ad- 
ministered in case of necessity, the water used being contained in an ancient stone vessel, which will 
be afterwards more particvdarly noticed. 

It is said that, when occasion requires more than usual deliberation on the part of the people, they 
elect a " king." The last occasion when this august ceremony took place was for the purpose of 
considering whether geese should be allowed to be kept on the island ; as complaints had been made 
that they injured the crops. A legislative decree was the result, banishing all geese for the future I 

A general notice such as the present would be incomplete without some account of the "Curragh," 
the principal means of communication possessed by the islanders with the main land. The Curragh 
is one of the most primitive, and certainly, with parties accustomed to its management, is, from its 
buoyancy, one of the safest of boats. The canoe formed from the hollow trunk of a tree may have 
preceded its use ; but the raw hide of a newly slain animal, properly extended, presented a readier means 
of constructing a boat, and became, to the early inhabitants of the British islands, what the birch-tree 
bark is to the American Indian. In the sculptures from Nineveh, a similar use of the hide is observed 
as a means of crossing rivers, but the application is less ingenious ; being merely a skin inflated by air, 
like what is called on some parts of the Irish coast a " stookey." Caesar, Pliny, Claudian, Festus 
Avienus, Sidonius, Gildas, all refer to the CuiTagh ; and Dr. O'Connor in his first Prolegomenon 
(Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores) has collected numerous references with regard to it " They are 
still used," he says " and are called in Irish Nimhog and Curragh.^' In these boats, according to Gildas, 
the Irish made their irruptions into Britain about the year 431, during the Reign of the Emperor Theodo- 
sius. The term Curragh (Corrocha in Latin) is possibly derived from the same root with the Latin 
word Coriuni. The frame-work consists of a gunwale and a quantity of branches for ribs, which are 
kept in their places by smaller twigs interwoven. According to the original fashion, a fresh hide with 
the hair inside was drawn over this skeleton, and, being laced with thongs to the gunwale, became rigid 
as it contracted in drying. At present, a cheaper material is found in tarred canvass, manufactured 
from flax or hemp spun by the women, and which is considered of superior strength to what is purchased 
at a warehouse. The same opinion exists respecting fishing-gear; for the fishermen consider nets, formed 
from twine made in their own houses, much more valuable than any other. To render the canvass 
secure it is made double, and tarred ; a layer of brown paper being generally inserted between the two 
portions of canvass. On the coast of the opposite main land, the curraghs have generally sharp bows 


and square sterns ; but those of a moderate size, intended to pass with safety tlirough the long swell of 
the Atlantic, are square, or nearly so, at both extremities. An old^ cutter's-man stated that, off the 
Shannon, they often pull six oars, and that few boats can come up with them. He agreed in con- 
sidering them the safest of all boats in the hands of men accustomed to their management ; during 
all his experience in the Sound of Tory, he never knew or heard of one being lost, though they ven- 
ture out in all weathers. They are rowed with short oars or paddles, the smaller ones having two 
pair, one man puUing a pair : they are what fishermen call " club-oars." In crossing through a 
heavy sea the islanders were observed to impel them in the manner of the Indians ; that is, in 
place of oars, each man used a paddle without any rest on the gunwale. When two men so circum- 
stanced are in one boat, one kneels in the bow, while his partner sits about the centre, both 
paddling in the manner described. 

Cattle are transported across the Sound in these boats ; and they are so light that a man easily 
carries one on his back. They then present a rather curious appearance, not unlike a huge beetle ; 
and this led to a standing joke against an Entomologist of the present party, who was charged with at- 
tempting to stick a pin into one of them and transfer it to his cabinet ! 

In one of the numerous legends connected with the history of the Irish Saint Brendan or Brandan, 
who flourished in the eleventh century, he and his companions are represented as constructing vessels 
on the west coast of Ireland, precisely similar to the Curragh of the present day, " in accordance with 
the established custom of the country." His, however, had the addition of a mast and sail. Saint 
Brendan is the Sinbad of clerical romance ; and so firm a hold on men's minds had the exploits of 
this christian Ulysses acquired at one time, that islands, supposed to be discovered by him, became 
subjects of treaty ; and it is even not improbable that at a later period they may have stimulated a 
higher class of navigators to attempt discoveries across the western ocean. 




>fti3 musculus, the !Mouse, common in the houses. 
(Mus decuman us, the Rat, is not found on the Island, 
The common opinion among the people is that it 
will not live there: they state as a fact that a 
couple which once came ashore from a vessel were 
found dead next morning.) 

Lepus cuniculus, the Rabbit, is common, burrowing 
in various places, often close to the cliflFs. 

Phoca ? Seals are said to be found about the island, but 
it is not known that they breed here. 

Whale, We saw one spouting off Horn Head. It several 
times tlirew a jet of water 6 or 8 feet high in the 
air. Tliere was a play of Gulls near, as if the 
whale wa among a shoal of fish. It was, perhaps, 
20 to 25 feet in length. 

(Five Whales were taken, 2 or 3 years ago, off 
Dunfanaghy or mouth of Mulroy Bay.) 


Halioeetus albicilla, the Sea-Eagle. A pair of this bird 
was seen on the island ; it is said to be occupied 
by a pair every year, but never by more. 

A tame one was seen at Dunfanaghy, where 
it was allowed to fly about and always returned. 
It appeared pleased when noticed by its owner. 

Falco peregrinus, the Peregrine Falcon, was not seen 
by any of the party, but is said to breed regularly 
on the island. 

S;ixicola oenanthe, the Wlieatear, several were seen. 

Motacilla Yarrellii, the pied Wagtail, one or two seen, 

Anthus petrosus, the rock Pipit, a few seen along the 

Emberiza miliaris, the common Bunting, a few seen. 

Passer domesticus, the common Sparrow, several seen 
about the Round Tower and the Houses. 

Sturnus vulgaris, the Starling, numerous on the island. 
Several were seen among the rocks on the edge of 
the cliffs, where they were said to resort gene- 
rally, except in the breeiling season, when they 
took possession of the Round Tower, which is sur- 
rounded by the cabins of one of the " Towns." 
(A young bird of this season was shot by one of the 

Frugilus gniculas, the Chough, was seen in numbers 
about the rocks. 

Corvus corax, the Raven, its croak was heard on the 
islanl. It is said that one pair and never more 
freiiuent Tory, 
orvus cornix, the hooded Crow, seen. 

Cuculus canorus, the Cuckoo, was said to be occasionally 
heard on the island, " once in seven years," and 
its note is considered a good omen for the crops. 

Hirundo -; : One species was said to breed either 

against the cliffs or in the caves. We saw some of 
the birds on the wing as we rowed along the rocky 

Columba livia, ^the Rock Dove, builds in the caves along 

the coast. 
Scolopax gallinago, the common Snipe, is'said to coma 

to the island in winter, but is not known to breed 

Crex pratensis, ^the Corncrake, or Landrail, iras heard 

by us every day whilst we remained. It is said 

to visit the island regularly. 
Uria Troile, the common Guillemot, was seen swimming 

between Tory and Horn Head, one pair with 

young ones full gro\vn, 

Fratercula arctica, the Puffin, a few were seen swim- 
ming between Tory and Horn Head. 


Several of the Gull Tribe breed here in the sea- 
son, but we were too late to see them in numbers. 

Larus marinus? and argentatus? ^were'probably the 
species seen perched on the isolated pinnacles of 
rock, of which there are many on the N.E. end of 
the island. 

Thalassidroma ' pelagica, the Stormy Petrel, called 
by sailors Mother Carey's chickens. These birds 
breed in numbers in the Rabbit burrows of the 
cliffs on the northern side of the island, out of 
which they were drawn by the boj^s with their 
hands : when so far in that they could not be 
reached, the entrance was broken down by the 
feet until the birds were within reach. There 
seemed to be only a single nest in each burrow. 
The season was rather far advanced for the eggs to 
be found plentiful, but about 6 or 8 were procured, 
as also about half a dozen of young birds, all in the 
down, but of different ages. Fully twenty old 
birds were taken and many more could have been 
had, but as we had no wish to allow them to 
be destroyed wantonly, about the half of those 
taken were set at liberty. AVhen released from 
the top of the cliffs which were 2iJ0 to 280 feet high, 
they shot off immediately in a straight line down 
towards the water, their flight resembling that of 
a swallow. The boys who caught the birds seemed 
desirous to prevent me from seeing how they took 
them, so that I did not get a good opportunity of 
seeing if any nest was formed, but I believe not, 
and that the eggs are laid on the soft dry mould 
in the burrows : I observed that the boys put their 
ears to the holes while others stamped over them, 
by which they seemed to know if the birds were 
within. In the few cases I had an opportunity 


of observing I never saw more than one young bird 
or one egg taken out of one burrow, but I could 
not ascertain if more than one old bird was ever 
taken in one nest. 

I was surprised to hear one of the old captives, 
when held in the hand, warbling some sweet notes, 
which resembled the swallow's twittering, but of a 
stronger tone. Several when first taken ejected 
food from their stomach, which appeared to be the 
remains of fish. I did not observe any of them to 
eject oil from their nostrils, as they are'said to do, 
although I tried to make them do so. The natives 
called them by an Irish word which signified Oil 

From the circumstance of these birds being 
generally seen at night, which is their regular time 
for feeding, the people here imagine that they 
would be killed by the Gulls, and that this is the 
reason of their not being seen by day. One bird 
which escaped from me was watched to see 
whether it would not be attacked by the Gulls 
before it reached a place of safety, but nothing 
of the kind took place, nor is it likely from the 
rapid flight of the Petrel that any Gull could mo- 
lest it. 

All the birds seen by me were the common Pe- 
trel, and I offered an extra reward for the capture 
of a fork-tailed Petrel, (P. Leachii,) nor was it long 
till a specimen was brought to me manufactured 
on the instant by the middle-tail feathers being 
extracted, and the outer ones left. A little fel- 
low, perhaps, 10 or 12 years of age, came forward 
seriously to claim the reward of one shilling for 
this Fork-tail ! 

None of this tribe, not even the Frog, is found in Tory. 


Cottus bubalis, one taken in the rock pools. 

Pagelliis centrodontus, this fish is called the " Brazier" 
by the people nt Tory and along the coast of Do- 
negal adjacent. It is taken in great numbers by 
the people who go out to fish in their corraghs 
with fishing rods, using the animal of the common 
Limpet as bait. 

Scomber Scomber, tlie Mackerel, we caught a single 
specimen only on the evening of our return from 
the Island. 

Blennius pholis, common in the rock pools. 

Blennius gunnellus,^taken with the last. 

Gobius niger, taken under stones left dry at low water. 

Labrus maculatus. The Wra.sse, or Bavin, two spe- 
cimens caught by fishermen, were seen and pur- 
cliasefl : one of them was very large, spotted and 
barred with orange and purple, the other was a 
uniform dark green and small size. 

Clupea liarengus or sprattns, Herrings or Sprats, (if the 
former the young,) are occasionally taKen in 
great quantities, simply by creels let down from 
the cliffs, in which they were said to be drawn up 
in hundreds. I saw their remains scattered about 

on the grass. The people think that they are 
driven in thus clcte to the shore by the large fih 
which prey on them. 

The Tory people have nonets nor long lines, 
nor any effective apparatus for fishing but their 
rude corraghs. 

When at AlCford, I saw at table, plenty of sprats 
(as ascertained by the late W. Thompson. Esq., 
from two specimens I brought home.) which had 
been brought from Donegal Bay, where they were 
eaid to be taken in great quantities occaeionally ; 
they are carted through the country and sold 
at a cheap rate. 
Gadus Morrhua, G..^glefinus and Lota molva, the Cod, 
Haddock and Ling, are said to be abundant oflF 
the coast in the season and to be taken by the jpea- 
ple in their usual way out of the corraghs with 
Land lines. 
Motella mustela, five bearded Cod, one specimen taken 

in a rock pool. 
Lepidogaster comubiensis. Cornish Sucker. Of this cu- 
rious and beautiful little fish several specimens 
were taken under stones left uncovered at low 

Syngnathus lumbriciformis, a few taken under stones at 
low water. 


Helix nemoralis, a single dead specimen only found, but 
it may be indigenous. (The species is extremely 
common among the Sand-hills on the coast near 

Limax agrestris, several were seen. 

Limneus pereger, several were found in the bog holes. 

Littorina littoreus, found on the rocks. 

rudis, do. 

neritoidea, do. 

Eissoa parva 

Lacuna quadrifasciata. 

Phfxsianella puUus adhering to a large Holothuria. 

Trochus cinereus on the rocks. 
umbilicatus, do. 

Nassa macula several found alive among the rocks at 
low water. 

Purpura lapillus common on the rocks. 

Cypri^a europsea one found living among the rocks at 
low water. 

Lottia virginea two specimens found alive on the rocks. 

Patella vulgata. This shell is very abundant, and of 
large size, and is of great importance to the island- 
ers. It is taken in quantities by the women, off 
tlie rocks, by means of a flat sharp edged piece of 
iron, apparently made for the purptwe, and used 
as bait for fish, principally, (at the time of our vi- 
sit,) for the Brazier, (Pagcllus centrodontus). I 
could not learn that it is # eaten by the inha- 


Large piles of the shells were to be seen before 
the doors of the cabins, and the only lime to be 
had on the island is procured from the burnt 
shells. This seems to nave been the case from 
remote times, as the mortar of the Round Tower, 
and the old churches, and the castle, seems to 
have been formed solely of this material. We also 
saw some of the houses that had been recently 
wliitewashed from the same lime. 

Patella pellucida found on the rocks. 

IflBvis, or ccerulea from the root of Laminaria. 

Cliiton cinereus two specimens on the rocks. 

Mytilus edulis, var. incurvatus was the only bivalve seen 
on the island. It was abundant, clustering in the 
crevices of the rocks, exposed to the sea, as I have 
seen on the coast of the Giant's Causeway. 

Teredo navalis seen in several pieces of drift wood, ly- 
ing at one of the towns. 

Anatifa laevis on drift timber with the last. 

Balanus punctatus covering the rocks. 



Xantho floridus was abundant under rocks and loose 

stones, near low water mark. 
Cancer pagurus the common Crab, was seen very large 

and fine. 
Homarus vulgarus the Lobster, also very fine. 
Portunus puber several were found of full size, under 

stones, just changing their shells. 
Porcellana platycheles with the last. 
Amphipoda three species. 

Orchestia littorea ? 

Talitrus locusta ? 

not ascertained. 

Iilotea one species, do. 

Lygia oceanica on the rocks, at the sea side. 

Three species. 



Ophiocoma neglecta three or four among the sand, un- 
der stones. 

Asterina gibbosa several adhering to the under side of 

Echinus sphsera a few at low water. 
lividus numerous among loose rolled stones 

of Granite, at low water mark, (consequently not 


Cucumaria under a large stone at extreme low 


A very large species, like the "Nigger." 

Syrinx granulosus two specimens under stones. 

(Sponges,) three species. 
Halycnondria seriata. 


(Corallines,) corallina officinalis common. 

Nullipora pol^orpha, a singular variety was found, 

encrusting the rocks, and sometimes covering the 

clusters of Mussels. 


The common white Butterfly and the small cop- 
per, were seen in the Hollow (Legareighy) : a large 
Moth was also seen flying about in the evening. 

The common Earvrig and a few Coleoptera were 
all that time permitted to observe. 

List of Birds killed against the Light House, and pre- 
served by Mrs. Bailey. 

House Martin A Bird of this species was found in Dec. 

1844. " Its body was much wasted as if it had 

been long without food." 
Tringa variabilis. 

Wigeon This Bird struck the copper dome, above the 
light, with such force that the sound was mistaken 
for that of a cannon shot fired by some vessel as 
a signal of distress, so that the Light House keep- 
er actually went out to ascertain if such was the 
case. The Bird was found killed the next morn- 


Oyster catcher. 

Ring Dotterel. 

Wood cock. 

Land Rail. 

Stormy Petrel The fork-tailed Petrel had never been 
seen by Mrs, Bailey. 

(Two sorts of West Indian seeds were in Mrs. 
Bailey's collection found on the shore.) 


Actinia mesembryanthemum plentiful. 


List of Plants found on Tory Island ; 

40 Phaenogamia Two Ferns. 
Ranunculus flammula. 
Crambe maritima. 
Polygala vulgaris, 
scene maritima. 
Spergula arvensis. 
Sagina procumbens. 
Arenaria rubra. 
Sedum anglicum. 


Peplis portula in a boggy swamp by the road side. 
Lotus comiculatus. 
PotentUla anserina. 
Tormentilla officinalis. 

* Bosa spinossissima, almost herbaceous, and I saw 

only two little specimens, which I abstained from 

{)ulling, lest I might deprive the island of its 
ast rose. 

* Angelica sylvestris 

* Crithmum maritimum (samphire) on the cliffs, at the 

west end of the island. Brought to me by a man 
who said he had to be let down by a rope to 
reach the plant. I did not see it growing. 

* Lonicera periclymenum (Honeysuckle.) 

* Hedera Helix (Ivy.) 

A single plant of Ivy was found climbing a lit- 
tle detached pinnacle of rock on the precipitous 
side of a curious deep Hollow (called by the na- 
tives Lag-a-reithe, (pronounced Lagareighy) the 
Ram's Hollow. This seemed to have been origin- 
ally a large cave, 'communicating by an arched 
passage with the sea, the roof of which had after 
wards fallen in. The passage to the sea still 
remained, but blocked up by loose stones. 

The Plants marked * were only found in this place. 

Jasione montana. 

* Solidago virgaurea. 

Bellis perennis (the Daisy, "blossoms everywhere ") 

Carduus one species of the Thistle seen. 

Apargia (species seen by Dr. Harvey, but could 

not be determined from the badness of the speci- 
men I had.) 

Plantago maritima. 
Statice armeria. 
Calluna vulgaris. 
Erica tetralix. 

* cinerea. 

Erythraea centarium. 

Gentiana campestris. 
Anagallis arvensis. 

tenella very abundant on the damp soU, 

flowering profusely. 
Euphrasia officinalis. 

* Thymus serpyllum. 

* Rumex acetoseUa. 
Atriplex patula. 

Salix fusca, v. argentea. 

* Juniperus communis. 
Juncus bufonius. 

Two Grasses. Agrostis canina. 
Holcus lanatus. 
Asplenium marinum. 
Athyrium filix femina. 

ALGiE, (Seaweeds.) 

t Fucus vesiculosus. 

t nodosus 

t Himanthalia lorea. 
t Laminaria digitata. 
Rhodomenia laciniata. 
Plocamium coccineum. 
Ptilota plumosa. 
Conferva rupestris. 
Codium tomentosum. 

adhoerens ? (examined by Dr. Harvey, and con- 
sidered by him to be this species.) 

t These are used in making Kelp. The manufacture 
of which has been latterly revived, on account of 
the (quantity of Iodine which can be extracted 
from it. This substance is now used in the arts 
in dying some particular color, as well as in me- 
dicine. The Tory Island Kelp is found to be of 
very good quality, owing to the large Algse being 
principally used in making it. 


Ik a recent number of the London periodical, " Notes and Queries," a writer, under the signature 
" Ceridwen," mentions having seen a card, on which was engraved the name of a gentleman, having 
around the crest a label, with the words, " One of the Barons of Ulster," and requiring information 
respecting these personages. As, up to the present time, we have seen no reply to this query, and as 
the subject seems to properly belong to a publication having for its leading object the illustration of the 
history and antiquities of Ulster, we trust a few words as to these Barons will lead to a fuller inquiry 
in this journal. Sir John Davies, in his Eeports of Cases, &c. (Dublin, 1762), p. 167, writes, that 
in Ireland three Palatinates were created in the time of Henry 11. The first in Leinster, granted to 
Strongbow ; the second in Meath, granted to Sir Hugh de Lacy the elder ; the third in Ulster, 
granted to Sir Rugli de Lacy the yoimger ; and that, afterwards, when WilUam the Marshal of Eng- 
land, having married the daughter and heiress of Strongbow, had issue five sons and five daughters, and 
the five sons having died without issue, the seignory of Leinster descended to the five daughters; and 
upon partition among them, each of them had a several county Palatinate, and all the liberties and 
prerogatives " in her several purparty," He also adds, that there was a several royal liberty, within 
Kerry and Desmond, granted by Edward I., to Thomas Fitz Anthony ; and such another in Tippe- 
rary, granted to the Earl of Ormond, by Edward III., which existed when Davies vsTote. 

The question has been raised, whether the three Earls of Leinster, Ulster, and Meath, possessed, 
of riglit, equal juiisdiction and incidents in their seignories, as the English Palatines of Chester, 
Durham, and Lancaster in their counties ; or whether they were not rather identical with those of the 
great regalities of Scotland : be that as it may, it seems probable, from such evidence as has reached 
us, that these lords exercised almost equal authority and power as the English Palatines, notwith- 
standing the endeavours of the Crown to restrict them ; though this may, perhaps, have arisen from 
the absence of the sovereign, and the necessity of conniving at the acts of men who were the 
protectors of the English pale against the encroaclmients of the great Irish chieftains. According to 
Davies, every Earl palatine had the jura regalia of his county or palatinate viz., royal jmisdiction 
and royal seignorj- royal jurisdiction, in having all the high courts and officers of justice, criminal 
and civil, which the King had ; and royal seignory, whereby he had all royal services, such as power 
to create tenures in capite, to be holden of themselves j and, also, tenures by grand serjeanty, whereby 
he created Bakons and gi'anted charters of incoi-poration ; and had, also, royal escheats for treason, 
or for want of heirs ; so that no king's Avrit ran there (except writs of error), but only in the church- 
lands thereof, caUcd " the Crosses," wherein tlie king had his ovvn Sherifi". It is, however, very 
questionable whether these Palatines had, as Davies writes, escheats of treason ; which Sir Martin 


Wright, in his Treatise on Tenures, says, are not escheats in the ordinary meaning, but forfeitures, and 
given to the King by the common law ; and this distinction is important, for, as a consequence of the 
principle, may have ensued the otherwise unaccountable fact of lands, formerly parcel of the seignory, 
being in the King's hands, or held immediately from him, whilst the seignory was stiU entire, or at 
least unforfeited. They had, moreover, rights of wardship, fines for relief, and the power of taxing 
their own Barons, when aids and subsidies were demanded by the Cro\vn. However, as early as the 
reign of John, we find that King becoming jealously alive to this subject, and endeavouring to limit 
such extraordinary powers, by directing his Justiciary to issue writs throughout his (the King's) whole 
land and dominion of Ireland ; and subsequently charging aU persons not to answer in any court 
whatsoever, but in that of himself, or of his Justiciary, for any pleas of freedom, or pleas of the 
Crown ; and that none should buy or sell but with the King's money only. He likewise rendered 
such Barons, as had acqiiired their fees and titles by sub-infeudation, liable to the royal Avrits for 
military aids and services. The Palatines' power of creating Barons does not appear to have been 
profusely exercised. Davies only mentions eleven as being in Ireland, though this was far short of 
the number ; of whom two alone, the Baron Misset (correctly, Bisset), and the Baron Savage, were in 
Ulster ; but, although there is no authentic list of the Ulster Barons extant, there were unquestionably 
many more. 

AccordingtoSirWilliamBetham (Histoiy of the Constitution of England and Ireland), and with him 
Davies, the prerogatives and jurisdiction which the Palatine Lords had power to conferon their Barons (who 
sat in their superior lord's courts), were very large and extensive, little inferior to their o^vn jurisdiction. 
They granted to them, soc, the power of ministering justice in their, the Barons' own Courts ; sac, of 
holding pleas ; thol, of taking toll and buying and selling custom free ; theniy of having, restraining, 
and judging bondmen, neifs (bondwomen) and villeins, with their children, goods and chattels ; in 
fang thef, of trjdng thieves taken within their fees ; otit fang thef of trying felonies committed out of 
their fees powers something gi'eater than those rights and royalties given and limited by royal 
charter to Lords of Manors. Among the many incidents pecxdiar to the relationship which existed 
between the Earl and his Barons was, that the latter became pledges or sureties to the King for the 
fidelity of their lord. These Barons were not, however, dejure, Peers of Pai-liament ; for, in fact, when 
tliis tenure was originally created, no Parliament existed in Ireland ; and though many of them were 
afterwards specially summoned to the great councU, by their Palatine titles, it was not in their 
character of Palatine Barons.* No copy, as far as we are aware, has been preserved of the instru- 
ments by which these sub-infcudations were granted to the lay Barons of Ulster, though several of 
Leinster and Meath have; but in the Patent Bolls, in the Tower of London, 42 Edward III., is an 

* Edmund Spenser, indeed, observes, that certain gentlemen were snmmoned by Edward the III. to a Parliameut 
held in Dublin, in the 46th year of liis reign, entitling them Barons which Barons, he says, were not afterwards 
Lords, but only Jianrets, sundry of whom retained the name in his time. 


inspeximus of De Courcy's grant to the Prior of Down, a copy of which has been printed in Dugdale's 
Monasticon. We annex a translation, by which it will be perceived that the Prior had very large 

"We haye examined, moreover, a certain other charter of John de Courcy, which runs in 
these words : ' Know all men, as well of the present as of all future times, that I, John de Courcy, 
have given and granted, and by this present charter have confirmed to God and Saint Patrick, and 
to his Church of Do^ati, and to D., the Prior and Monks of the same Church, and to their successors, 
to hear all pleas, and to pass all sentences concerning all their >men, and concerning all their tenants, 
whatever they have at this present time, and whatever they shall have hereafter, imder the entire of my 
rule and under all my authority, concerning murder, and concerning rapine, and concerning rape, and 
concerning fire, and conceniing blood, and concerning blood-shed, and concerning all forcible occu- 
pation, and concerning all sort of force and violence, and concerning all causes, and cases, and 
matters, and things whatsoever, whatever are usual or may arise ; and full power to punish crimes, 
and to dispense pardons, and fidl right in eveiy way to administer and to execute justice on all such 
persons as aforesaid ; and on all persons who live in the respect and regard of me and mine, whether 
of my sword or my government, save and except (as to tliis they have assented) that my officer shall 
have the privilege of being present at all those causes, without any attempt to assume or interfere 
with their jiu'isdiction, but solely for the pm'pose of seeing and hearing that all things may be done 
according to justice and order. TFihiess, 'Richavd Pitz Kobert, my Seneschal; Eoger de Cestria, my 
Constable ; Adam, my Clianiberlain ; William and Henry Copland, William Saraceno, WiUiam de 
Courcy, Philip de Hasting, Simon Passelew, William Savage, Eichard de Dundodenald, Eeiner his 
brother, William Hach, Walter de Logan, Master Walter, and many others." 

Sir John Davies eiTs in stating Sir Hugh de Lacy, the younger, as the first Earl or Palatine of 
Ulster ; for Sir John de Courcy, as the preceding document proves, exercised full palatine power therein ; 
and we find by the Liber Mimeinun, on the authority of Lodge, that de Com'cy was created, by patent. 
Earl of Ulster, in 1181 ; and it Avas not until 2d May, 1205, 7th of King John, that that dignity was 
confen-ed on De Lacy. In the grant of Ulster, made to him the same year, it is also particularly stated, 
that he, De Lacy, should hold as De Courcy had theretofore held, and the same is repeated in the con- 
firmatory gi-ant from John, in the following year. The following is a translated copy of the original 
charter to de Lacy as given in Lynch's Feudal Dignities of Ireland : 

" The King to Meyler Pitz Ileniy, Stc, and the Barons of Ireland, &c. Know ye, that we have given 
and granted to Hugh de Lascy, for his homage and servdce, the land of Ulster, with the appiirtenances, 
to have and to hold as Jo'nn de Cm-cy held the same the day on which the same Hugh overcame him 
in the field, or on the preceding day -. Saving, however, to us the Crosses of the same land : and 
know ye, that we do retain vaiXx us the aforesaid Hugh, and are leading him -wdth us in our service ; 
and therefore, to you, we commend that his land and all his, you preserve, maintain, and defend, as 
our demesne. Witness myself, at Windsor, the 2d day of May." 


De Lacy died in 12 i3, leaving an only daughter and heir, Maud ; who being married to Walter 
de Burgo, he was created, in her right, Earl of Ulster, 49 Henry III. (1264), in which family it 
remained until it came to his great great grand-daughter, Elizabeth, only child of William, Earl of 
[Jlster (who died 6th June, 1333), who carried the seignory and earldom to her husband, Lionel, 
Duke of Clarence, third son of Edward III., who dying, in 1368, left an only daughter, Philippa, 
who being married to Edmund IMortimer, Earl of March, he was created Earl of Ulster, in her right, 
in 1368. Anne, his heir-general, daughter to Roger, and sister and heir to Edmund, Earl of Marcli 
and Ulster, being married to Eichard, of Coninsburg, second son of Edmund of Langley, l)uke of 
York, fifth son of Edward III., the earldom descended to their son, Eichard Plantagenet, Duke of 
York (1425), and the title and seignory merged in the crown, by the accession of his son Edmund, 
Earl of March and Ulster, to the throne of England, by the name of King Edward the IV., in 1461. 
The seignory of Ulster thus lasted 280 years, or, counting from the grant to de Lacy, whence it 
flowed in uninterrupted succession, 256 years. During this long period, we find frequent evidence, 
in the patent and memoranda roUs, that the Earls maintained high judicial and administrative courts, 
with their corresponding officers. Thus we have the Savages, Bissets, Fitz Warins, Whites, Cheynes, 
Bellews, Prestons, and the Bishops of Connor and of Man, acting as seneschals, though no complete 
list of these officers can be made. We find the Court of Exchequer, with its Chancellor, Treasurer, 
Chief, and other Barons, Eichard EusseU being Chief Baron in 1385. It was not until 1297, that, 
at a Parliament, held in Dublin, it was enacted, or rather agreed, tliat the first Sheriif for the liberties 
of Ulster should be appointed, " as well as in the Crosses, to make executions in the Liberty of Ulster, 
when the Seneschal of the same Liberty should be found in defoult, and that the Sheriff of Dublin 
should not thereafter enter into LHster." But it does not seem that the crown acted immediately on 
tliis order, as no Sheriff of Ulster appears until -some time afterwards, when we find the Maundevells, 
Audleys, Russells, and llalywoods, all Ulster families, acting as Sherifl's. 

The earliest mention of the " Barons of Ulster," is in that from King John, addressed to them, 
6th year of his reign, stating that if they did not cause their lord, John de Courcy, to come to the 
King's senice, as they were bound, and gave hostages to do, he, the King would seize on their hostages 
and estates. Lynch says, these Barons were of his kindred and friends, amongst whom he made sub- 
infeudations of that vast territorj' ; but \mfortunately, he neither gives the wait nor the names of those 
to whom addressed. We, however, leani from Dr. Butler (Notes to Grace's Annals, Irish Archaelogical 
Society's Publications), that Eobin, son of William Salvage, was one of those hostages, and the title, 
" Lord Savadgc," frequently occurs in Irish Historj' ; the last mentioned as bearing such a title being 
Patrick Savadge, Lord Savadge, of the little Ardes, stated, in the Ulster Inquisitions, as having died 
the last day of December, in the 2d year of King James I. Eussell, of Lecale, was also one of the 
Barons of Ulster, the head of the family residing at Bright, whilst another branch resided at Eathmul- 
lan Castle. We find George Baron Eusshel affixing his seal, with the Bishop of Down and Connor, 
the Prior and Archdeacon of Down, the Abbots of Bangor, Saul, Inch, and Grey Abbey, there also 


having been attached thereto the municipal seals *' of the County of the City of Down," the 
Towns of Ardglass, Kilclief, &c., to a supplication for aid addressed to Edward IV., about 1405, 
on behalf of themselves and "all the faithful and true liege-people of Thebldome of Vlstek, 
whiche some tyme was named the third moost Rialle (royal) Erldome in Christiante," bnt then daily 
destroyed and under tribute to the O'Neyll, O'Kane, Magennis, Macartan, and other Irish tribes, as 
well as the Scots of the Isles. At this time the seignory of Ulster was in the King's hands as De 
Lacy's heir Janico Savage being his Seneschal. The original of this singidar record is in the Chapter 
House, Westminster ; but a copy, with notes by the Eev. Dr. Eeeves, was printed in the transactions of 
the Royal Irish Academy. In the Irish State Papers, time of Henry VIII., in a paper on the state of 
Ireland, we find mentioned, among " the great English rebells of Wolster," " The Baron, Russell and 
his KjTmesmen j " also, Fitzjohn, Lord of Glynnes, in another place styled Fitz John Byssede, 
and F'dzliowlyn Lord of Tuscard, which was the original anglo-Norman name of the MacQuil- 
lans of the Routes of Antrim, the latter being the Irish form, when they became ijpsis 
hiberniores, &c. Bisset, as before stated, is, in Sir John Davies' list, though, being called 
Lord of GljTines, is evidence that he then held immediately under the King such, according to 
Sir William Betham being invariably called domini, as were all lords paramount of palatinates. By 
an inquisition held at ^Vrdwhy, (Ardquin) in the County of Down, 4th of July, 3 of James I., to enquire 
into those lands of which Queen Elizabeth had been seized in right of her crown, we find, inter alia, 
on the list of jurors, John White, Lord of the Duffrin, Christopher Russell, of Bright, and " Robert 
Sxcoordes, alias Crooley, of Ballidonnell," near Downpatrick. According to the tradition of the 
countr}^ the CroUys were Barons of Swordes ; and the head of the family, to the close of the last 
century, was invariably called Baron Crolly. Tradition also speaks of the Jordans as Barons Duns- 
forth ; of the Mandevells, Logans, and Fitz-Waiyns, being Barons in their own name, as Russell was 
in his. But, without resting on tradition, we have, on written evidence of the Barons of Ulster, as 
far as the present Aviiter's researches reach, the Barons Savage, Russell, Bisset, "White, and Crolly ; and 
doubtless, several of the other gi-eat English families residing in the liberties of Ulster were similarly 
entitled ; as we find, of the numerous peers and magnates summoned to the Parliament held at Kil- 
kenny in 1309, before Richard, Earl of Ulster, and Sir John Wogan, Lord Justice, the following 
names belonging to this province : Reginald Russell ; Thomas, Philip, Peter, and John de MaundeviU ; 
Hugh, John, and Hubert Byset ; Alan, William, and Thomas Pitz Waryn ; Adam, and John, son of 
Alan de Logan ; Richard le Savage, INIilo de Swordes, Richard and Walter de Valle, &:c. We hope 
this subject Avill be followed up and elucidated by some of our readers conversant with the records 
of Ireland, published or in manuscript, and that complete lists of the Barons, Seneschals, Sheiiffs, &c., 
of Ulster, may yet appear in our pages. 

J. W. H. 






Whethee the Pagan Irish had any knowledge of letters, has long been amongst the debateable 
subjects of Irish archaeology. Innes, Ledwich, and several of our modem antiquaries, peremptorily 
reject the testimony of our native writers in favour of the question. It is curious that our anti- 
quaries, who support the affirmative, tender, in evidence of it, the vulgar cursive character in which 
all our ancient MSS. are written : its arrangement, order, and number, afford proof sufficiently valid, 
according to their view. But, unfortunately for it, Astle's work has substantially demonstrated that 
the character, at least, must have had a Roman origin, as the affinity to the debased letters of the 
lower empire, and the Longobardic period, are but too apparent. In truth, O'Flaherty, O'Conor, 
O'HaUoran, and the rest of them, argued for an erroneous character, overlooking, or but confusedly 
glancing at, a native and primitive letter, traditionally and historically attributed to the Druids, and 
whose number, denominations, and order, formed the basis for the adopted Roman " Abgitir." The 
discovery of this letter the Virg\dar Ogham, or Ogliani Craobh on various ancient monuments 
whose era is clearly pagan, is a verification of the bardic story; whilst the non-discovery of 
Romanesque characters on any monument earlier than the mission of St. Patrick is demonstrative 
that the Ogham is the original native letter, and the Romanesque but one imported, and adapted to 
our more ancient scale. 

To those conversant with the Irish language, it would be supei*fluous to describe the Oghamic 
elements ; but there are others to whom the subject will be perfectly novel, and to whom some 
explanation is therefore necessary. 

Ogham, then, signifies a secret or mysterious mode of writing, differing from the vulgar form. 
It is peculiar in its principles, and has but little affinity to any other known system. It is denomi- 
nated the Ogham Craov, from its having been constnictcd in resemblance to a tree, and is evidently 
the parent of many other virgular scales modified from it. A main trunk, called a Fleasg, forms a 
centre line, from and through which extend, and pass vertically and obliquely, a number of simple, 
straight lines, deriving their values from their combinations, which ascend from a unit to five. 
Besides this general resemblance to a stem and its branches, each letter thus formed is named after 
some specific tree or shrub, as Beth (the beech), Luis (the quickbeam), Feam (the alder), &c. 

This arboretic similitude is carried out still farther in the reading, which commences at the rcot, 
or lower extremity, and ascends to the top. The trunk, or medial line, is, in almost all instances 
hitherto discovered, represented, when found on monuments, by the angle of the stone, or by coped 
elevations in the centre. There are two instances, however, wherein it is incised on the face of the 
stone, as at Callan, in the County of Clare, and Kilcoleman, in the County of Kerry. In other cases, 
the Fleasg is only ideal, and intended to be imderstood, as in the rounded stones at Ballintaggart 
and Fort-William, and on the Dallans, at Lomonach, and Kinnard, Kerry. 


The alphabet consists of 16 primitive characters and 8 dipthongs, besides the letters H and P, 
whose antiquity is luicertain. These are classified into five groups, containing five letters each. The 
primitives, in all probability, formed the whole of the original scale, and are so given by O'Halloran. 
(History of Ireland, I., p. 68.) The fifth, or final group, with the exception of the character answer- 
ing to ea, must certainly be an after-addition appended by later bards, for none of its letters have 
hitherto been found in any inscription. 

That this was the original scale of the pre-Christian Irish, practised from the earliest periods by 
the Druidic priesthood, the repositories of all the learning of their time, and used by them on monu- 
ments and wooden tablets, has been invariably maintained by the native Seanachies and later Irish 
writers. {See Molloy's and MacCurtin's Irish Grammars, &c.) 

An ancient tract, preserved in the Book of Ballymote, which is an abstract from the Uraicept 
na n-Eges, or Primer of the Bards a compilation itself made in the 7th century by Cenfaela 
the learned from more ancient treatises by Amergin and Feirceirtne attributes the invention 
of the Ogham to Ogma, one of the early princes of the Tuatha de Danaan race. The passage is 
as follows : " In what place, at what time, by whom, and wherefore, was the Ogham invented ? 
Locus est IlibeiTiia insida, quam nos Scoti habitamus. The time during the reign of Breas, son of 
Elatan, King of Ireland * * by Ogma, a celebrated linguist and philosopher, the Ogham was 
invented." The antiquity thus assigned is so remote, that w^e are earned back into that misty and 
nebvdous period which the learned annalist, -Tigernach, pronoimced "uncertain" in the 10th century. 
The elder Chas. O'Conor, of Bealnagar, deems it a conclusive proof of this high antiquity, that the 
names of the letters are partly vernacular and partly Phenician ; and, as if to coiToborate this, it is 
not a little singidar that ]\I. Gebelin, a learned foreigner, drew attention to a resemblance, which he 
was the first to observe, between the Oghams and the Assyi'ian Cuneiform characters a remote one, 
no doubt ; but the simple wedge, which receives its power or value from its combinations and posi- 
tion, whether vertical, horizontal, or oblique, confined witliin long parallel lines, has a nearer affinity 
to the Ii-ish score than to any other known character. 

Than the Ogham no alphabet can present to the vieAV a more artless or primitive appearance. 
There is an evidence of antiquity about it which, added to its order and nomenclatm'e, tends to de- 
monstrate the nideness of its origin, and the truth of its long transmitted histoiy. Nevertheless its 
aiTangement has been impeached as displaying the art of the gi'ammarian, and especially in having the 
vowels gi-oupcd together, and classified into 'broad' and 'slender' : as if the capability to effect a classi- 
fication so simple and obvious, was too much for the capacity of a hieratic order so trained, so 
practised, and so experienced as the old Celtic priesthood. But was this aiTangement peculiar to 
them ? How know we what that of other ancient alphabets had been ? Wlio can tell whether the 
AssjTian, Phenician, Etmscan, or Celtiberian scales commenced with a B or an A ; or whether the 
vowels were grouped together or intermixed mth the consonants ? At least, this argument veiy much 
needs support : it is at total variance with our traditions and ancient literature. Indeed, it is 


irresistibly overthrown by the character of the monuments and sites on which Ogham inscriptions 
have been found. The significant fact should, furthermore, be borne in mind, that, when with Chris- 
tianity, Ireland received, in the 5th century, the debased Roman letter, instead of accepting the ar- 
rangement of the Roman alphabet, as then presented, a very different order was adopted. For the 
ABC of the former, were substituted the native Beth, Luis, Nion ; and several of the foreign letters were 
altogether rejected, to bring the number retained into evident accordance with the original Irish scale, 
said to have been invented by Ograa. 

We are only now at the commencement of our acquaintance with the contents of our ancient 
writings. Our M3S. have hitherto been sealed to the public; and therefore but little is known to us, 
from this source, of what has been delivered in regard to Oghams. What that little is, represents them as 
being peculiar to the Druidic period, and used on monumental inscriptions. Thus, in the LeabJiar 
na h-uidhre a work older than the 12th century, the Cam of Airgtheach, a Monarch of Ireland, who 
fell in the battle of Ollarba, near Lame, in A.D. 285, is pointed out as having an Ogham on the 
end of the pillar-stone which stood above his grave. So, also, in the tale of the death of the chil- 
dren of Usnach, we are told that the " leacht " and stone of the hapless lovers were raised, and their 
names were inscribed in Ogham. 

Above the grave of Piachra, King of Connaught, at Hy Mac XJais, in Meath, his name was also 
written in the same character upon his monument, as we are told in the Book of BaUymote. 

Again, in the Book of Leinster, a reference is made to a similarly inscribed monument, situated 
on the site of a battle, fought in the 3d centmy : 

" That Ogum which is on the stone, 
Around which many were slain. 
If Finn of the many battles lived. 
Long would the Ogum be remembered." 

No instance of its use, in Christian times, on monuments, has hitherto been disinterred from our 
old literature. 

In truth, all our romantic legends, as well as our graver historical writings, abound in instances 
of its use in recording the sepulture of men eminent in pre-Christian times. O'Brien, fully informed 
of this, tells us, in his "Irish Dictionary," that the "Dalian cloiche" were erected as monuments, having 
inscriptions, " all written mostly in the Oghams or occult manner of writing." 

Evidences like these were always accessible to Irish scholars, and should have been suggestive of in- 
quiry. Yet they remained unheeded ; and although Lluyd, the Welsh antiquary, a century-and-a-half 
ago, saw, and attempted (veiy unsuccessfully indeed) to describe the Trabeg stone and inscription 
near Dingle ; and O'HaUoran tells us he saw an inscribed pillar stone near Keldorrery, in the County 
of Cork (which, by-thc-way, from the vagueness of the statement, has set all our attempts at dis- 
covery at fault), our antiquaries never dreamed of making any practical inquiries to verify those old 
accounts. Some of them, as Keating, Colgan, Ussher, Lynch, and Lanigan, are totally oblivious on 


the subject ; wliilst Ware, O'Flaherty, O'Conor, O'Halloran, kc., advert to it in an almost casual, and 
certainly, in a very superficial manner. The speculations and labours of these writers have been con- 
fined to books and MSS., whilst the monuments of the land were treated with indifference. 

In 17 85, a transient attention was awakened by O'Flanagan's announcement of the discovery of 
the Callan inscription, in the County of Clare, to the Royal Irish Academy ; but it was followed by 
no results. A notice oi some unmeaning scorings on a stone, forming part of a sepulcliral circle at 
Cambawn, in the County of Armagh, communicated in 1799, was the solitary evidence, given for 
years after, that the subject was borne in any one's recollection ; if we except an ignorant and men- 
dacious attempt to reduce some of the carvings upon a stone cross at Castledermot into an Ogham in- 
scription, by Beaufort, one of the associates in the "Collectanea" with VaUancey. And this brings us 
to the writings of that zealous and indefatigable, but wildly-speculative and untrustworthy, an- 
tiquary. And yet we owe to him some debts of gratitude. To his various papers on Ogham, and espe- 
cially to that in which is given Pelham's announcement of the rich store of inscriptions existing in Kerry, 
theretofore unknown, are we indebted for information of a positive and unmistakeable character 
touching the reality of these remains. Pelham was an agent on the Lansdowne estates in Kerry, and 
projected a new history of that county. He had ample opportunities, and possessed an inquiring mind ; 
and, although the copies furnished by him are rude and inaccurate, it may be believed that, had he lived 
and possessed more experience, he would have done better service in tliis inquiry. His communications 
to the Collectanea included inscriptions at Ballmtaggart, Kilmelchedor, Ballinistinig, Aghadoe, &c.; and, 
in after times, filled the writer of this paper with an ardent desire to see and examine them for himself. 
That in the old church of Aghadoe, as being most accessible, formed the object of my ear- 
liest enquiry ; but its removal from that site, and the otrange ignorance of the neighbourhood as to 
its subsequent fate, had for several years rendered my search for it fruitless. It was only in 1838 
that I first discovered from Lady Chatterton, then just returned from her visit to Kerry, (the record 
of which she has given us in her very pleasing " Rambles in the South of Ireland,") that it hid been 
taken away by the late Lord Headly, and placed by him in the lawn adjoining Aghadoe House. 

For years previously to this period, my attention had been steadily fixed upon the subject of 
Ogham discoveries. In all the various explorations of that not very brief period, it always formed a 
leading object of investigation. An inscribed stone, now no longer extant, which stood in the gap 
or entrance of an ancient Lios or fort at Coolowen, near Cork, and which was traditionally known by the 
names of clock na n-arm and clock na var, was amongst the earliest of the Ogham discoveries in this 
locality. It was of a square form, and detached ; and on its upper surface, in connexion with the 
angles, were a number of scorings incised, which bore a striking similarity to Ogham lines. A rough 
sketch is all that now remains of this monument, the stone itself having been afterwards broken up 
by the occupier of the gi'ound. It had lain there undisturbed for ages, but, in an evil hour, it was 
applied in the construction of a bam. The subsequent death, within a few months, of the perpetrator of 
this deed, was attributed, by his awe-stricken neighbours and family, to this act of sacrilege and Vandalism. 


With fhe late Mr. Abraham Abell, I made my first acquaintance with a district fertile in 
Oghams the parish of Ahabullog, west of Cork, in which several inscriptions have been found. 
Its mountain vicinity, the comparatively recent period in which a clearance from its primeval woods 
had been effected, its still craggy and moorland character and seclusion, had rendered this section of the 
county less attractive to the utilitarian cultivator; and its ancient monuments werej therefore, left but little 
disturbed, thus offering a productive field to the explorer. Here are still to be found the ancient uncon- 
secrated circ\ilar Kiel, the mystic Circle, the Cromleac, the solitary Dalian, and the Rath. Ten inscribed 
stones were the first fruits of Mr. Abell's and my joint explorations here, several of which have since 
been brought in and deposited in the Cork Institution. Our success in this quarter induced more 
extended enquiries ; and Kerry naturally attracted attention, not only reljdng on Pelham's report, al- 
ready alluded to, but excited still further by communications from the Eev. John Casey, P.P. of 
Ferriter and Dunquin. In 1838, accompanied by Messrs. AbeU, Horgan, and Willes, I made a very 
interesting exploration of the barony of Corkaguinny ; and I have, since then, visited various portions of 
that county, always with satisfactory results ; the discoveries continuously made exceeding even our 
most sanguine expectations. 

Hitherto, the process of investigation was left exclusively in the hands of the members of the 
South Munster Antiquarian Society ; but, within the last five or six years, Mr. Eichard Hitchcock, a 
native of Keny himself, and possessing an ardent predilection for archaeological pursuits, having been 
temporarily located in Corkaguinny, had his attention attracted to the inscribed monuments so nume- 
rous in that district. Few have ever entered into researches of this nature with more downright and 
hearty zeal than did this gentleman. Unsparing of time, labour, and correspondence, he has pursued 
his investigations with more than the zeal and devotion of "Old Mortality" himself. I fouiid, in 1848, 
when I paid a second visit to the Dingle district, that he had already added considerably to the 
number of inscriptions which we had discovered, and anticipated us in the examination of others, 
which we had on our note-books. He has, since then, been engaged by the Rev. Dr. Charles Graves, 
of Trinity College, Dublin, to continue his researches on behalf of that learned gentleman, who has 
announced a work on Ogham literature, which the Irish Archaeological Society have determined to 
print as one of their publications. Mr. Hitchcock has, accordingly, extended the sphere of his enqui- 
ries, as we perceive by his discoveries in Kilkenny, and added to the number of inscriptions already 
collected. By researches thus prosecuted, and thus productive in other parts of Ireland, a plea ad- 
vanced by some of our metropolitan and northern antiquaries, to the effect that the Ogham was only 
to be found in the South of Ireland, is effectually answered. At best it was but an apology for in- 
dolence. Neilson in his Irish Grammar, (pp. 65, 66, & 86) had long since demonstrated its fallacy by his 
statement respecting an inscription in|a Rath near Dundrum ; and the inscriptions found at Knockmany, 
in Tyrone, of which William Carleton, our unrivalled novelist, gave us the first indication, are a further 
evidence. I have myself seen and copied a double inscription in a " souterrain" in Connaught ; and it 
would but little surprize if the crj^its of those great Raths still remaining at Tara, Emania, Teltown, 


Uisnach, Cruaclian, AJmliuin, &c., were explored, that, unchristian as these remains are, writings in 
the primEval characters should be found. They have been met with in Scotland and Wales, and no 
doubt may be traced wherever the footsteps of the Gael had been. 

The following catalogue of inscriptions hitherto discovered, with the names of the finders, has 
been made out as fully as any infonnation has been attainable : 





Do. - 



























Llhuyd, J. Windele. 


Pelham, J. Windele 





Ballintaggart, 7, 


Lugnagoppol, 2 


Ballinrannig, 7 



G. Petrie. 


The MacGiUycuddy 


T. C. Dublin. 


J. Windele. 



Coolcoolaght, 5, 


Dunloe 5, 








Tinahealy, 2, 






Ballintarmon 2, 


Castle Gregory, 

K. Hitchcock. 



Kinnard, 2, (sec plate) 










Aglis, 2 




Emlagh, ... ^ ... 













Ballinyeanig, ... 



Brandon, 3, . . . 



Ardavenagh, ... 



Kilgobinet, ... ... :. 






Aghacorribel, 3, 



Derreenderagb, (see plate) 




Z. C. Hawkes and J. Windelc. 

Do .. 



. Hackett and J. Windele. 


Aghabullog, 10, 










Ballyhank, 6, 



Bealahamire, 3, 



Knockoran, ... 



Muskeny, 5, ... 















Ballycrovane, (see plate) 



Keelgal, 3, 


Limerick, ... 


llaU, J. Windele. 

Waterford, ... 

Ardmore, ... 











Scattery Island, 

SeeBub. Univ. Mag., Jan., \%o'i 










J. G. A. Prim & O'Neill. 






Knockmany ... 

W. Carietou. 








Turpillan, ... ' ... 



Tlie great majority of the Kerrj' inscriptions, with Mr. Hitchcock's name attached, it is right to 
add, have also been seen and copied by myself; but, to him is certainly due the credit of original 

Of those several inscriptions herein enumerated, 39 have been found in Eaths, 24 on Dallans or 
pillar-stones, and 1-i in Christian burial-grounds. Others have been discovered displaced from their 
original sites ; some in unconsecrated Kiels or burial-places for unbaptized infants and suicides ; a 
group of seven on a sea-side tumulus; two on a funereal LeacJit ; and more as forming part of ancient 
Queirts or circles. Twelve are marked with the Christian emblem. 

The tumulus is that of Ballinrannig, near Smerwick, which was crowned by a circle of seven 
stones, each inscribed. On excavating there, human remains were disintered. Five of those stones 
were most unnecessarily removed, in 1848 some to Burnham, the seat of Lord Yentry, and others to 
BlennerviUe, near Tralee. 

The Leacht is a square heaped enclosure, at Ounagoppol, east of Dingle ; at its angles are placed 
four stones, two of which are inscribed. 

One of the Glounaglouch stones, and another at Derreendragh (depicted in our lithograph), 
formed a portion of circles at those respective places. What the precise nature of the remains, at 
Bealahamire, near Cork, is, cannot be positively determined. Whether a great cemetery, or a vast 
temple, nudoque sub cetheris axe, are subjects for consideration. The principal object is a large oblong 
enclosure, encompassed with an earthen vallum and fosse ; within this is a lesser space, also sur- 
rounded with a now very ruinous fence. This was probably a burial-place, whilst the greater area 
was used for religious rites. Several pillar-stones mark the place ; two are inscribed. Outside the 
fosse are an ancient holy well Tobar Midhr and several souterrains. O'Brien (Irish Diet.) translates 
the name of the place, "the passage of the plain of adoration" whilst others derive it from Midhr, 
one of the Tuatha de Danaan demigods, a son of the Daghda. 

It is not necessary to advert to the universally received Pagan origin, and use of the Lallan. 
All antiquaries, foreign and native, are agreed on these heads. It is amongst the undisputable monu- 
ments of pre-Christian Ireland : our oldest literature recognizes it as such. Eochy OTlyn notes the 
stone Fal, at Tara, which Petrie has so felicitously illustrated. The Cairthe dearg, or red sepulchral 
pUlar, at Eeligna righ, in Cruachan, stiU remains to mark the grave of the Pagan monarch, Vathi. 
The perforated pillar-stone, at Tvdlow, County Carlow, is the monument of an historical event in the 
2nd century. Cathaldus Maguire, in the 15 th century, saw the ClogJior, or golden stone, once an 
object of Pagan worship, standing, at the right side of the church of Clogher. Dr. Petrie 
found, in the Leabhar na h-tddUre, a record of the inscribed DaUan of the heathen monarch, 
Airgtheach. Such, also, no doubt, was the fine pillar-stone at Ballycrovane, (represented in the en- 
graving,) standing on an elevated knoll, looking out on the sea shore, over the old historic watersof Inver 
Sgeine (the Bay of Kenmare), the scene of the first landing of the Milesians on their island of destiny. 


Of tlie Raths, in whose hidden chambers so many inscriptions have been met with, all our 
evidences are in favour of their heathen antiquity. Those at Tara, Emania, Cruachan, the hills of 
Allen, Teltown, and Usnach, are aU referable to that period. The inscriptions in most of these 
chambers are engraved on the transverse roofing-stones, and must have been cut before the formation 
of the crypts themselves ; as their extremities, and much of the lettering, are placed out of view in 
many instances. On no stone so found occurs the Cross. 

Immense importance has been attached to the presence of this sacred emblem in the few instances 
where it has been observed ; as also on the occurrence of Ogham in Christian cemeteries. But 
the value of such evidence is greatly weakened, when we recollect the practice of the early missionary 
Church, in all countries, iu_ reference to the superstitions, the religious practices, and the venerated 
monuments of their converts. (See Bede Hist. Ecclesiast. Lib. I., c. 29, especially.) The wide extent 
of toleration, the transference of places " from the worship of daemons to the service of the true God," 
the substitution of angels and saints, for false deities, &c., are weU known. Frequent are the instances 
of Christian Churches built on Pagan sites sometimes in the immediate vicinity of the heathen fountain, 
the obelisk, the cromleac, and the round tower, The monument, theretofore, dedicated to a false worship, 
they christianized, by imposing the figure of the cross upon it. St. Patrick himself did so in a memo- 
rable instance. Furthermore, if all Ogham-inscribed stones were, as they have been called, " the se- 
pulchral )nonuments oj Christians" they would, like the Christian monuments at Clonmacnois, Lis- 
more, and elsewhere, all bear the cross upon them ; and the accompanying inscription would, in like 
similitude, present to us the well-known " Oroit" never absent from the epitaphs at these places. In- 
deed, there is a manifest improbability in the supposition, that a Christian clergy in possession of the 
Roman letter, and using it extensively in their sepulchral inscriptions, should also invent another of 
great rudeness, borrowing the idea from the Runes of their ignorant and ferocious heathen enemies the 
wild freebooters of the North, the wasters, spoilers, and destroyers of churches and clergy alike ; that 
they should falsify the fact by attributing it to a Pagan deity Ogma and that they should spe- 
cially, and almost solely, employ it on monuments confessedly belonging to Pagan times, dropping in 
such cases the customary and pious " Oroit." WeU may we ask, where is the record of such alleged 
invention, derivation, and use? Not, certainly, in the whole range of Colgan's collections, or in the writ- 
ings of the O'Clery's, MacFirbises, or any other of our old authors, lay or clerical. Whilst, on the 
contrary, all the evidences of Seanachie, Bard, and Historian, are alike unanimous in ascribing tliis, 
not to monks, but to the Pagan Ogma. 

When these inscriptions shall be collected in their entirety, and when the competent translator 
the profound scholar, conversant with their language in its most archaic form, untrammelled by 
hypotheses or the prejudices of antiquarian schools shall give us their trutliful meaning, they will 
then speak their own history, and doubtless tell a tale but little in accordance with the vain imaginings 
of dreaming visionaries, past or present. But many obstacles impede our approach to that consummation. 
Besides the baneful influences of preconceived views, warping and misleading the judgment, on the 


very tliresliold of our inquiries we have to contend with the serious difficulties arising from the 
very condition and execution of the inscriptions themselves the i-udeness and unskiifulness of the 
engraver the action of time and accident, and weather, in obliterating, defacing, or rendering doubt- 
ful the characters the total absence of division in words and often in letters the imperfection in 
orthography the studied obscurities*-the abbreviation of words, or their expressionby mere initial letters 
in all these, too much is left to the imagination, and the consequent chances of error are infinitely mul- 
tiplied. But in the language will be found the cardinal difficulty. Convinced that, in those ancient 
inscriptions, is contained the oldest remnant of the Celtic now extant that this must belong to a 
period of almost unfatliomable antiquity and well aAvare of the ever-fluctuating nature of human 
speech this hoary idiom must offer the most embarassing obstacles to him who would attempt to read 
it aright. If the language of the time of Cormac Ulfada had become obsolete in the seventh century, 
and then required a gloss from " Cenfaelad the learned ;" and if even that gloss has since become 
nearly unintelligible (as we are told it has, by competent authority), what must be the impediments 
and hindi'ances in his way who would seek a key to the lost speech of OUamh Fodhla, and Tuathal 
the Acceptable ! No wonder then that scholars shrink from the attempt ; or that, when tempted to a 
trial, they hopelessly differ upon the formation of its words, and the rendering of its meanings ! 
An instance is at hand in which an inscription of only nine letters has been translated in seven 
different fashions, as variant and wide apart as the poles where one gentleman has found the 
Latinized name of a French Bishop of the sixth centuiy, another has discovered that of a Druid, of 
some unknown anterior age a third regards it as a bUingual epitaph, a Latin and Irish compound 
a fourth reads in it " the flag of Dima," &c., Sec. These discrepancies should serve as a salutary 
warning. Indeed, until these researches are more advanced until other portions of the island are 
explored, and more important monuments examined it may not be too much to say that veiy decided 
opinions should be withheld : the time has hardly yet anivcd for positive conclusions. 

Editors' Note. The discovery of inscriptions in the Ogham character, botli in Scotland and England, has 
latterly given a fresh interest to tliis whole subject. The foUo.ving particulars, relating to those found in Scotland, 
were communicated at a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries, of Scotland, held 9th Feb., 1852 : "The secretary 
('tilled attention to an Ogham inscription engraved round the margin of the '-stone at Golspie, in Sutherland, of so 
marked a character, as to leave no doubt of its correspondence with the~Irish Oghams; and thereby adding a second 
example to the Ogham inscription already pointed oat on the Newton Stone. The interest, as well as the impor- 
tance, of the latter is greatly 'ncreased, as it ajjpc irs to be a bilingual inscription, and holds] out the hope that tlie 
unknown cliaracters engraved on it may yet be decyphercd." Another monument of the same class as that at 
(iolsjjie has since been discovered, also having an Ogham inscription round the edge, in the churchyard of ;Aith,.' on 
tiio East side of the Island of Rressay, Shetland, where an ancient church formerly stood. It was^exhibited by 
Dr. Cliarlcton, during the Congress of the ArcliKological Institute, at Newcastle, in the month of August. 



Many evidences of the steady growth of a healthy national feeling in Ireland, of a recent date, force 
themsehxs upon the attention of the most careless observer ; and, among the rest, the judicious mode 
in which the study of our many historical remains is now cultivated. At length this subject appears to 
be rescued from the hands of incompetent persons, whose labours, if in truth they deserved that name, 
were calculated rather to bring contempt than to throw light upon the pursuit of this study. 

Many objects of ancient Irish art still attest the advanced state of civilization at a remote period ; 
and, every day, fresh efforts are being made, by persons of sound judgment, to elucidate facts calcu- 
lated to put such pursuits in a proper and practical point of view. 

The ancient Stone Crosses, which aboimd in Ireland, have, among other matters, attracted the 
attention of some distinguished persons, actively engaged in developing the resources of our country, 
and desirous of promoting her best interests. Lord Talbot De Malahide, one of our most judicious 
archaeologists, is now concerned with others in procuring models of some of the finest and most 
characteristic specimens of these interesting objects,, which it is proposed shaU be placed in some pail 
of the building now in progress of erection in Dublin, for the purposes of the great industrial exhibi- 
tion of 1853. Probably something similar to the Mediaeval Court of the Great National Exhibition 
in London may grow out of the labours of these gentlemen. In an application which has been 
transmitted to many persons, for the promotion of this design. Lord Talbot suggests, that faithful 
facsimiles of ancient works will have a direct tendency to promote proper artistic feeling ; and it is 
now known that such are in course of being executed, under the superintendence of a committee, of 
which his Lordship is chainnan. In almost every part of Ireland examples of these interesting monu- 
ments are to be found, of dates ranging from the earliest Christian period down to verj' modem times. 
While some are characterized by simplicity, approaching even to rudeness, in others the utmost skill 
of the sculptor seems to have been lavishly exerted, in the elaborate profusion of ornamental tracerj-, 
with which every part is loaded in the most amazing variety of intricate involutions. In almost all 
of them the elegance of their varied forms exhibits a degree of attainment in design, at one time dis- 
playing itself in proportions of massive solidity, at another of the most airy lightness, which render it 
altogether incredil)le that they should have been the chance productions of a barbarous and unculti- 
vated age. 

It is not easy for a student, at the present time, to throw his mind so completely into the feelings find 
habits of a remote period as to enable him to realize the objects which the persons who erected them 
had in view. Many facts seem to indicate that the earliest Christian missionaries, anxious to win 
their pagan auditors to the Christian faith, impressed the symbol of the cross on the pillar-stones 


which already stood in places where they had assembled for the purposes of their superseded religion. 
Travellers, in modern times, have found the cross sculptured on some of the temples in Upper Egypt 
and Nubia ; while in Brittany, one of the chief seats in the West of the cult, usually termed Druidical, 
we find that upon the Menliirs, or tall pillar stones, once the objects of heathen devotion, one or 
more incised crosses have been deeply impressed ; while others have been hewed into varied forms of 
the great emblem of Christianity. The first promulgators of our faith appear to have souglit to 
change the grosser objects of pagan adoration into memorials of the purer worship of the true God, 
contenting themselves with thus altering the venerated objects of a false faith, without rudely or 
harshly attacking the prejudices of the simple and barbarous people they sought to convert. 

The train of evidence which thus presents itself leads to the conclusion, that the earliest examples 
of these monuments are those in which the head has been rudely rounded, and a cross of the 
simplest form carved upon it, or where the general form is produced by four perforations within the 
circle. From a gradual developement of this last idea has sprung some of the most beautiful 
forms, in which a slender circle connects the more solid and massive shaft and arms. 

The wisdom of thus gradually removing from view the objects of heathen worship appears to 
have been present to the mind of Constantine the Great, who caused crosses to be erected at various 
points along the Roman highways thus supplanting the Mercurii and Terminal gods of Polytheism 
by the symbol of Christianity. In this country, the earliest crosses were doubtless erected, partly 
in commemoration of the peaceful conquests of Christianity ; and perhaps, also, to indicate those places 
where the neophytes might assemble to hear the divine truths taught. A similar object seems, in the 
fifteenth century, to have been in the minds of those who were commissioned by Don Henry of Portugal 
to explore the shores of Africa, who erected crosses at various points along the coast, as far as the 
Cape of Good Hope ; and, in the year 1492, the first act of Columbus, when landing in the new world, 
was to erect a cross, before which he, with his companions, prostrated themselves, to return thanks to 
God for conducting their voyage to such a happy issue. 

Por the purposes of instruction in the great and leading doctrines of Christianity, the sculptm*es 
on many of the early crosses were obviously intended to afford illustrations of the events of the Old 
Testament ; the scenes selected for this purpose usually having some prophetical bearing upon the 
history of C^hrist. The chief and most honourable part of the cross was usually occupied by a repre- 
sentation of the crucifixion. That the crosses of the oldest date, however, did not bear such represen- 
tations seems certain ; as we know that the first Christians were used to represent the death of Christ, 
not by the sculptured figure of his human form extended upon the cross, but preferring to follow the 
symbolical descriptions of his office as, for instance, such as was suggested by St. John, in the Apoca- 
lyptic visions of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. At the Council of Tioillo, held at 
the close of the seventh century, it was, for the first time, authoritatively decreed, that as, in many 
instances, Jesus Christ had been represented under the figiu*e of the lamb, for the future he should 
be imaged under his hiunan form, such a way being more becoming. 

The places on which our first crosses were erected in Ireland having been, as it were, consecrated, 
and set apart for religious purposes, we may easily suppose that it quickly suggested itself to ecclesi- 
astics, that the sacred symbol would serve suitably to mark out the bounds of the hallowed ground, 
just as the Termini of the Pagans had been used to indicate the extent of certain divisions of land. 
Accordingly, at an early Irish Synod, it was enacted, that the bounds of holy places should have their 
limits thus marked out, and an injunction was added in these words : " Wherever you find the cross 
of Christ, do not do any injury." Many fanciful etymologies have been suggested for the word "Ter- 
mon," by which these consecrated possessions are designated. After aU, the simplest has received the 
sanction of the learned Archbishop Ussher, who says it signified an asylum, or sanctuary, " because 
such privileged places were usually designed by special marks or bounds." One of the most 
distinguished philologists of modem times, Professor Pictet, of Geneva, was of opinion that the Irish 
word, termon, may not have been derived from the Latin, but from a far more ancient language, 
and that it has preserved the original abstract import of a sanctuary ; while the Latin, terminus, has 
retained only the material signification of a boundary. 

The crosses placed around the possessions set apart in Ireland for religious purposes, of which a 
considerable number stiU exist, were called Termon crosses, and the lands received the name of Ter- 
mon lands, or " Lands of the Crosse." Such crosses were erected in a public manner, and with much 
solemnity ; and it appears, firom another ancient canon, that the King, the Bishop, and the people of 
the district, were accustomed to assist at the ceremony. The Cross-lands, or Crocea, as they Avere called 
in the old law Latin, soon became numerous and extensive, and the thorough elucidation of their histoiy 
would be a task well deserving the attention of an accurate and energetic historical antiquary. Con- 
siderable jurisdiction and privileges were granted to those of Kilkenny, Meath, Kildare, and Louth ; 
as well as those of Navan, Ferns, Carlow, Wexford, Leiglilin, and other places. In later times, when, 
by the ill-judged liberality of the English monarchs, grants of royal liberties were made to some of the 
most powerful of the English settlers in Ireland, nine Palatinates, as they were termed, were erected ; 
but from these the lands of the Cross, or church lands, within them, appear to have been specially ex- 
cepted. Sir John Davis, the attorney-general for Ireland, in the reign of James L, tells us, that the 
King's writ did not run into those counties palatine, but only in the church lands lying within the 
same, which were called " The Crosse," wherein the King made a sheriff'. Thus, the Crocea, or 
Church-lands, were successively erected into counties, with civil jurisdiction ; and, accordingly, we find 
in some documents they are so teraied ; as for instance, "the County of the Cross of Tipperar\\" 
Some curious notices respecting these lands are to be found in the rolls of the Court of Chanceiy, in 
which mention is made of the subsidies and other burdens imposed upon " the commonalty of the 

In the very ancient burying-gi'ound at Monasterboice, in the Coxmty of Louth, there are still 
standing erect, amid a group of niins of great interest, two stone crosses, which long ago drew from 
a learned and judicious archffiologist, since deceased, the late Sir Kichard Colt Hoare, of Wiltshire, the 


remarkable acknowldgement, that " neither the sister kingdom of England, nor the principality of 
Wales, could produce their equals." Both are richly decorated with sculptured ornaments and gi'oups 
of figures, in small compartments. The varied and intricate tracery of the former bears some relation 
to similar designs which enrich many manuscript volumes still remaining in our libraries : the figures, 
which, on the loftier cross, are considerably time-worn, on the second, and shorter cross, are sculptured 
in high relief ; and, from the durability of the stone, have so resisted the action of time, as to present 
still some very distinct representations of the ecclesiastical and military costume of the period to which 
these monuments belong. An inscription at the foot of the second cross records the name of the 
person ])y whom it was erected, in the following words : 

OK'DO "muiHe^Dacli lay} Tit)eKnat) m diKopi^a 


In the annals of the Four Masters, as well as the annals of Ulster, it is recorded, that two indi- 
viduals of this name were connected with Monasterboice, which was once a great monastic establishment, 
of considerable celebrity ; of these, the first died in the year of our Lord 844, and the other, in the 
year 922. The date of this most interesting monument is thus fixed, with great certainty, within a 
limited period. It stands fourteen feet and eight inches in height, upon a massive base, which is now 
but little raised above the surrounding graves. Its extreme breadth, across the arms, is seven feet. 
The shaft measures in thickness one foot seven inches ; and two feet nine inches across the front. 

The loftier cross is exactly twenty feet in height, and, being of slighter proportions, has the 
appearance of being much taller than it really is. It has suffered greatly, both from the effects of 
the weather, and, also, as it would appear, from wilful injury. During the last autimin both these 
crosses were carefully moulded, under the superintendence of a committee of gentlemen, for the pur- 


pose of having casts made, to be placed in the approaching industrial exhibition of 1833, and its 
visitors will thus have vivid and exact representations of two of the most renaarkable national monu- 
ments in our country. 

The effect of thus drawing attention to the historical and archaeological interest which attaches 
to such remains, it is to be hoped wUl have some important results. The cultivation of pursuits of 
this nature is ever found to have the effect of softening down various differences which often impede 
the growth of national prosperity. The effects of gentler influences must lead to good; they are always 
of an ameliorating character. May they tend to make Ireland better known. May they aid in 
developing her great resources, and in rendering her thus as tmly prosperous as those who love he 
best can desire ! 

The history of Monasterboice, which was founded in the sixth century, and speedily became the 
abode of many learned and distinguished persons, as our annals abundantly record, has never vet 
received the attention it merits. The ruined churches and lofty round tower, within the precincts of 
its burial ground, as well as many other objects aPits vicinity, deserve a much more lengthened notice 
than can here be given. 

Of the many tombstones which this ancient cemetery doiibtless contained, but one remains that 
can be referred to a remote period. It is a rude, unsquared slab, measuring five feet six inches in 
length, and two feet six inches in its greatest breadth. An incised cross, of not inelegant design, 
incloses tlie sinrple inscription, in early Irish characters, of 

OR t)o -RuaRcan / 


No clue has been discovered as to the history of the person whose name alone has been thus recorded ; 
but a tradition prevails, that it is the monvmient of an ecclesiastic whose body yet remains entire and 
undccayed beneath. 



It gives us pleasure to notice, in our first number, this volume, the third or fourth of a series that 
may be expected to bring to light much curious historical matter. Few parts of Great Britain possess 
richer stores of information than the County Palatine of Lancaster, owing to the number of ancient 
families and records still remaining ; for neither the wars of the Eoses nor of the Commonwealth 
produced the sad havoc there that accompanied civil wars in Ireland. It is true that Dr. Whitaker, 
that most accomplished local historian, has taken a first crop off this rich field ; but still much valu- 
able material is left to be gleaned by societies like the present. Some curious old collections, we 
believe, remain almost untouched for instance, at Townley Hall ; and it is not many years since 
the Parker collection was broken up, where Dr. Whitaker spent many laborious but, we have no 
doubt, happy days, in investigating the history of his native county. We trust the Society, to whose 
labours we are now referring, will, as far as possibflf- prevent these old family collections from leaving 
the Duchy. 

The volume before us takes a very wide range of subjects : Pre-historic Period ^British and 
Saxon Period Medieval and Modem Period-^Architecture Topography Genealogy, &c., &c. 
and, on aU these, contains articles of interest ; though, perhaps, in some instances, too local in their 
character to be generally appreciated. From the miscellaneous articles we are tempted to extract the 
following passages, which occur in a paper, by Joseph Mayer, Esq., F.S.A., on " The alleged Royal 
Visits to Liverpool." This memoir contains several notices respecting the progress of King William 
III., which will be interesting to our readers, from their connexion with the history of this part of 
Ireland. By the kind permission of the Society, we are also enabled to give copies of the original 
illustrations of this paper ; and, we may here add, it is our intention, in our next number, to continxie 
the subject of this royal progress, by tracing His Majesty's course from his landing on our own 
sliores to the scene of the battle which secured him the crown of these countries. 

The place of embarkation was Hoylake; for, according to our author, "there were many 
reasons why Liverpool was not chosen as a place of rendezvous amongst which was the uncertainty of 
obtaining provisions for the army in that neighbourhood; as the country was, for the most part, an 
uncultivated waste, for many mUes round, on this side of the Mersey, entirely without roads, and the 
necessary means of conveyance." This appears to have been well known to the authorities of that 
day ; and wfi find, some time before, that orders were given to the Commissariat, as follows : 

" Instructions to be observed by Godphrey Richards, Purveyo'^ of their Majs^ies Train. 
" You shall, w*^ all convenient speed, repair into England, p'ticular into County of Lan- 
caster and ye adjacent there, to bargain for, and buy att the chepest rates, & in y^ most 
convenient place or places for shipping off & transportation to Belfast, in this pro\dnce, such 
& so great a quantity of good, cleane, dry, and wholesome oals, as may be a convenient supply 


in y* season, for ye Horses of their Maj^'^s Train. And if y may not be had in & about 
Lancashire for & at a reasonable Price, you are to use all Expedition in repairing to Milford- 
haven and the country adjacent, their to buy y^ said quantity of y said grain, in which yo" 
shall use yo' utmost care, skill, & Diligence. 

" And for a supply of money to buy or purchas the said quantity of oates, jo^ shall have 
& recieve a lett"^ of creadite directed to y Hono''''' S' Henry Goodrich, Knight & Barr". L^ 
Genrall of their Maj^'es Ordinance & y^ rest of y principall officers of y same, to supply yo^ 
with any siun to any place, for y^ purpose aforesaid, not exceeding three Hundred Pounds 
starling. And in regard expedition is to be used in y s*^ service, for y better performance 
thereof y" shall also iTs^ive a wart** for one of y ships now in their Maj*^ service, to 
Transport y said oates into y^ s^ Towne of Belfast, of 35 Tuns, or thereabouts. 

" You shall also observe such further ord" & Instructions as from tyme to tyme yo" shall 
recieve of me, or shall be sent yo" by S' Henry Goodiich & the rest of the Principjdl Officers 
of y Ordinance before mentioned. 

" Given att y head Quarters at Lisbome,* this 8th of January, 1C89, in y* first yeare of 
their Maj"* Eaine, &c." " Schombekg."! 

" Let us now trace the records of the Eoyal progress, and we shall find it stated that King 
^Villiam left London on the 4th of June, 1690 ; slept at Peel Hall, the seat of Colonel Soger 

* Now Lisbum, in the County of Antrim. 

t J'he original of this Document is now in the possession of Joseph Mnjcr, Esq., Livci-pool. 


"W'liitelev, near Tavvin, on the 9tli. The next day we find him at Chester, and, being Sunday 


morning, attending Divine SeiTice at the Cathedral. From thence, the same afternoon, he travelled 
to Gay ton Hall, near Parkgate, the mansion of William Glegg, Esq., where he staid on the night of 
the 10th ;* and the next morning, conmaanding Mr. Glegg to kneel before him, he struck him on the 
shoulder with his sword, and, putting out his hand, raised him as Sir William Glegg. Departing 
from Gay ton, he at once proceeded to the Leasowes ; and the troops, striking their tents, were put in 
motion, and embarked on board the Eoyal Fleet (at a point since called the King's Gap), lying on the 
Lake, and sailed out with the tide at noonday. 

" The following order corroborates the date of the King's staying at Gaytou : 

"By virtue of His Majesty's order, dated at Gayton, the 10th day of June, 1G90 : I doe 
discharge you, William Reyiner ((formerly) Edward Tarlton, master of the James of Liver- 
pool, irom his said Majestie's sersice ; and you are hereby discharged from the day of the date 

* It was during his stay at Gayton, that the King granted, to Sir William and his heirs for ever, the free 
fishery of the Kiver Dee; which right is now e.xercised by his descendants. 


liereof. Given at my office, at Hoylake, this Eleventh day of August, Anno domini, One 
thousand six hundred & ninety. 

" Samli, Atkinson. 

To William Reymer ((formerly) Edward Tarlton, master of the James, of Liverpool 


"This Edward Tarlton was the person whopQoted the King's vessel from Hoylake to Camckfergus. 

Copied from the original dot^unient in the possession of Mr. Thomas Mo)re, a descendant of the Tarltons. 
IJut, for the above service and others rendered to the King, we find that Edward Tarlton never received his due 
reward; and bis widow, petitioning the Parliament, received the following order though never paid: 

Ti-ntuport Office, Aug. 20, 1695. 
No. 252. 
" Wliereas, by an Act of Parliament passed in ye scaventh year of his Maties Reign, y Comm of Transpor- 
tacon are Impowercd and Directed to make out authentick Debentnres for all and every the Shijw hiretl for Trans- 
jMjrting Forces, Aumuniicon, and Provisions, for reducing ye Kingdom of Ireland to iti due olxjdience to Ids Ma^e. 
We, ye said Conimrs, doe certifie that there is due to the Ship Wheel of fFortune, Ralph Standish, Mr the surae of 
fourtey three Pounds & Eight Shillings, as appears by an acct in ye Books of this office, and is hereby to be pd to 
Mrs. Ann Tarlton, or her assignes, for ye use of ye owners of said ship. 

"Sam. Atkinson. 
"Entered in ye Auditor's Office, "Anth. Dvncombb. 

pr order yf Comiu. " Robt. Henly. 

Jouif Henly." "Tjio. Hopkins." 



By a computation of the state of the tide on the 10th of June, 1690, old style, I find it was 
high water at Hoylake or Liverpool, at nine o'clock, a.m. ; but we now find, by the alteration in time 
of flowing of the tides, that, by the present computation of rise and flow, it would have been twenty- 
two minutes past eleven. The fonner coijiputation is, however, no doubt correct ; as we find that the 
King's ship, on board of which his Majesty was, gi'ounded on a bank near the Point of Ayre, off the 
Isle of JMan, at about four o'clock the next morning. This being the low water of a spring tide, his 
vessel did not get oft' for more than an hour afterwards ; and the bank has ever since been called 
" King William's Bank." 


Ancient Hebeew Seal. At a meeting of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society, held on the 
12th of J^anuary the Rev. J. Scott Porter presented to the Society a wax impression, which had heen forwarded 
to him by Dr. Wilson, of Edinburgh, Honorary Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, of Scotland. The impression 
is taken from a bronze matrix of a round seal, found, not long since, in ploughing a field, at Arthur's seat, in the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh, and which is curious from containing a Hebrew inscription. The impression has, in 
the central part, a turbaned head in profile, and facing the left; with a branch of the almond-tree; while round 
the edge is the following legend, as he reads the letters, m the Rabbinical Hebrew character : 

The letters are grouped, and divided with points as above; and, if furnished with vDwels, &c., in the usual manner, 
would read 


of which the literal English translation is 

" Solomon, son of Isaac-Amamos : these are his tapestries." 

Mr. Porter conceived that the bronze matrix was a seal used by a Jewish manufacturer, of the above^raae, 
for authenticating the produce of his looms ; just as the linen seals are employed, by the merchants in this neigh- 
bourliood, to distinguish their respective fabrics : the only difference being, that, in the latter case, the seals are cut 
in relief, so as to make a stamp upon the cloth with coloured ink, while the matrix is cut in intaglio, to make an im- 
pression in wax. He thought there could be little doubt that the letters which he read, " Am'amos," denoted the family 
name of Isaac and his son ; perhaps the same that was borne by the celebrated critic and scholar, Sixtinus Amama, 
who taught Hebrew at the Universities of Oxford and Franequer in the early part of the 17th century the Jews 
being accustomed to take the family names which are common in the countries where they reside. Of Isaac 
Amamos, however, or his son Solomon, he had been able to find no mention in any work in his possession. The 
last word in the inscription is not found in the proper or biblical Hebrew : he had little doubt that it is intended 
to express the Latin word vela (with which it accurately corresponds, letter for letter), the suflix pronoun, signify- 
ing " his, " being appended. The word thus viewed might signify, according to the different meanings of the Latin 
word, sail-cloths, or women's veils, or curtains ; he had preferred the last meaning, because he found that the Jewish 
Rabbis, in their writings, often speak of the great curtain of the temple, by the term velon, Latin, velum. Various 
other interpretations of the Inscription had been proposed, with none of which he could concur. M. Meyer, a learned 
Jew, of Germany, reads and translates " Solomon, the son of Rabhi Isaac, Almaame^' (the Collector or Distributor 
of Taxes ?), " these?' (or Qod .) " his memory he blessed P' But M. Meyer admits, that, " according to his explanation, 
there remains a letter of which he cannot make any thing." And any reader will perceive that the whole inscription, 
thus interpreted, makes no sense at all. Accordingly, M. Meyer subjoins, as a gloss, " This is Solomon, son of Isaac 
AUnaames : his memory he blessed .'" which is contrary to grammar . D. Listen, Esq., Professor of the Oriental Languages, 
in the University of Edinburgh, explains the legend as signifying " God caused Solomon, the son of Isaac, to hear 
the Oovernmeat." But there is no word in the inscription which can possibly signify " the Oovernment;" and the 
last word, velav, is left altogether unexplained. Moreover, this interpretation would make Solomon a prince or 
sovereign : at the very least a prime minister. Who then was he ? No such personage is known. Another oriental 
scholar takes the fifth and sixth words as merely numeral notes : the fifth denoting in numbers, 66 ; the sixth, either 
52, 53, or 54 : the uncertainty arising from the doubtfulness of two of the characters in the last word. The sum 
of course, must be 118, 119, or 120. But take what date we please that was in use among the Jews, these indications 
lead to nothing. Dr. John Forbes translates, " Solomon son of Isaac, if Ood has loaded thee tcith benefits, take 
thy rest !" There is nothing, however, to express " benefits ;" and the other words, however read, caimot bear the 
meanings thus assigned. Mr. Porter stated, that he had called the attention of the Society to this subject, how- 
ever unimportant, in the hope of inducing persons who might have such relics in their possession, or know of their 
existence, to present them, or at least impressions of them, to the Belfast Museum, where they would be carefully 
preserved, properly catalogued, and always available for the purposes of science. He alluded to the benefits which had 
already resulted from the labours of Mr. Getty, in collecting and describing the ancient Chinese Porcehun Seals, found 
in the bogs of Ireland ; and trusted that all the members would endeavour to forward such researches to the utmost 
of their power. 


[Mr. Porter is desirous of subjoining to the foregoing statement, that some uncertainty hangs over a few of the Hebrew 
characters, the engraver having apparently been careless or unskilful. He has given what he conceives the simplest 
and best interpretation. The word which he reads " Am'amas," may, perhaps, denote " Al-maames," the second 
character being often used as a contraction for the letters Aleph and Lamedh : the same character occurs again in 
the last word but one ; but there it can only stand for a simple Aleph. The first and last letters of the last word, 
which he has interpreted as Vaus, are, by others, taken to be Zayins ; the last is, by one scholar, considered to 
be a Nun final. He cannot be surprised if other critics reject his explanations.] 

UNPTTBiiiSHED Letteh OP Jeeemy Tatloe. SiB, the following letter from the celebrated Jeremy Taylor, 
Bishop of Down and Connor, I have reason to believe has never yet been published; you will, therefore, probably 
give it a place in your pages. 

Your obedient servant, 


HiLSBOEOTJGH, Octohr 22, 1660. 

Srs, I first give you many thankes for your very great civilities to me at Carricfergus. If I |live & be able, 
I will requite your kindnesse or publikley confesse my debt, if I be unable to make an equal returne. Next, I 
returne you my hearty thankes for the communicating to me notice of your late intercourse. Your letter to 
the Commissioners was prudent & well penu'd, & I hope will produce a faire answer, & authority to you to 
secure his Majestie's peace & just Eoyalties. Your zeale of duty to the King & his just government will doe 
you honour & great regard amongst all wise & good men ; and I am confident you will manage it prudently, 
and withoiit detriment to any man. I pray give my service to your good bedfellow, and my thankes for enduring 
so much trouble from me, and doing me so much kindnesse, I pray tell Mr, Dobbes that his letter was very 
welcome to me ; & that I thinke he is upon the right point : if his tenants take the oath of supremacy, it is 
not onely according to law ; but much for the publicke peace, and Lis owne interest amongst his tenants as much 
as peace & unity of opinion amounts to. The Covenant which they pretend is so far from excussing their not 
taking the oath of supremacy that it is their sin, & they are bound to repent of it, & ask pardon of God & 
the King. Commend my service & respects, I pray, to Mr. Maior and Capt. Lindon. 

I pray give great charge to your kinsman John Twig, to be diligent, dutiful, willing to doe anything that 
may helpe, & to be humble, and I intend to try him for a quarter of a yeare, and see how he does. Sr, I wish 
you all happinesse, and remain 

Your very thankful & aflectionate friend, 

Jee. Tatloe, 


I heard yesterday from my Lord Cawfield, who is very right : and very careful of his charges, & will give very 
good account of it ere long. 

If you can spare the nurse's son-in-law for two or three days to come & see his father, it is much desir'd here by 
his relations. 


To my very worthy friend Captaine Charles Twig, Governor of his Majestie's Garrison of Carricfei^us. 
hasten this. 


The Bishop of Downe, his Lr. of ye 22th of Sb,. 60. 

New Wobk on Ieish Ecclesiastical Seals. Siqilla Ecclesiae Hibernieae lUustrafa. The Episcopal and 
CapHidar Seals of the Irish Cathedral Churches Illustrated. Under this title Mr. Richard Caulfield has just 
published, at Cork, the first number of a work of considerable interest to the student of Irish Ecclesiastical Antiquities. 
It contains descriptions of the seals of Cashel and Emly, and is carefully illustrated by plates, representing seals 
of various dates ; some of them very ancient. The introductory remarks are curious ; and as we are informed that 
Mr. Caulfield has paid very minute attention to this department of Antiquities, the succeeding numbers will, no 
doubt, bring to light many interesting particulars. 

lEisn Vttlgabisms of Speech. It is so common a habit with many persons to conclude that the peculiarities 
of pronunciation and modes of expression, in the English language, as spoken in Ireland, are all essentially vulgar 
and provincial, that it may, perhaps, be to them a matter of surprise to be told that many " vulgarities " belong to 
the Augustan period of English literature ; that they have come down to us from the time of Elizabeth, when the 
great mass of the native Irish first learned the language of the sister country. In truth, the Irish peasantry having 


once learned the vernacular English of that period, have never lost it to this day : hence, it has often been tru ly 
observed, that, in Ireland, the English language is purer and better spoken than by the natives of Engla nd 

Among many other instances, the placing of the accent on the second syllable of the word " contrary," is to be 
found in Spencer's description of the Temple of Venus. Speaking of Love and Hate, he says, they were 

"Begotten of two fathers of one mother, 
Tho' of contrary natures each to other." 
The word " beholden," signifying " under an obligation," is now scarcely ever used ; yet, in Shakspeare's " Julius 
Cajsar," we find the line 

" For Brutus' sake I am beholden to you." 
The word " posy," is rarely used, except by the children of the poor, to express a " bouquet," or bunch of 
flowers ; yet it is but a slight alteration from one applied thus, from the custom of combining flowers so as to form 
a significant expression, then termed " poesy." 

In the second part of the Play of King Henry VI., Eleanor, Duchess of Glo'ster, says to Queen Margaret 
" Could I come near thy beauty with my nails, 
I'd set ty ten commandments in your face." 
This phrase, which one would now think more suitable to a fisherwoman than a lady of rank, was common to many 
of the dramatists, who wrote before the date of this play. Thus, in the " four P.'s," about 1569 

" Now ten times I beseech him that hie sits. 
Thy wife's X com. may serche thy five wits." 
And, again, in the play of " Westward Hoe," in 1657 

" Your harpy has set his ten commandments on my back." 
These are but a few of the numerous examples that might be adduced to shew that many of our so-called 
" vulgarisms" are but so many proofs that we draw our language from the " purer well of English undefiled," 
of Sidney, Spencer, Shakspeare, Milton, and their contemporaries. 

J. H. S. 

Q U E E I E S. 

Derivation op Names. "Can any Irish scholar, amongst your readers, ftimish a derivation of the name 
Garmoyle,' found in charts of the Clyde and of Belfast Lough ? I have often asked the question, but never 
received a satisfactory reply. It is nearly the only Celtic term remaining in use in Belfast harbour ; miless 
' Haussins,' eoid to be the name of a part of Garmoyle, be also derived from the same ancient language. 

H. P." 
" The rock of ' Camaleagh ' was often mentioned in some late l^al trials at Belfast, as a boundary in several 
Patents. It is situated near Crawfordsburn. Can any one give information respecting this spot, and its name ? 

B. B." 
Oghams. " In Chaucer's ' Miller's Tale,' where he describes the magical apparatus belonging to ' bendy 
Nicholas,' the scholar, whose 


Was turned for to lerne astrologie, 
the following lines occur ; and, as they contain a word, which seems to me in some way or other connected with 
Off ham, or Kuioic inscriptions, I beg, through the medium of your Journal, to ask information on the subject from 
some of yoiu' more learned correspondents. Tlie lines are 

'His almageste, and bokes gret & smale. 
His astrolabre, longing for his art, 
His Augrim-stones, layin faire apart. 
On shelves couched at his beddes hed-'^ 




Translated from the Rev. Dr. Reeves' edition of the original Rcord ; with a Historical Introduction, a Map, and 


By the Rev. J. SCOTT PORTER. 


The document, of which a translation is here presented, is the original record, in ecclesiastical Law 
Latin, of a Visitation of the Diocese of Deny, made by Archbishop Colton, as Primate and Metro- 
politan, during a vacancy of the See, A.D. 1397. It consists of a vellum roll upwards of six feet 
long, with a schedule of nineteen inches in length appended ; and is preserved in the Record Room of 
the See of Armagh. By permission of the present Lord Primate, it was printed at the private ex- 
pense of that accomplished Antiquarian, the Reverend Dr. Reeves, and presented by him to the Irish 
Archaaological Society,' as one of their publications; with an Introduction, Notes and Appendix, in 
which a vast multitude and variety of topics, all the topics indeed which are required for the illus- 
tration of the text, are discussed in a manner equally clear, learned, and copious. The able editor has 
brought together nearly all the information that can now be procured on the history of the persons, 
families, localities, and institutions, the titles of dignity, and the religious ceremonies, mentioned in 
the record. Nothing of the kind has ever been brought before the public in a style more satisfactory 
and complete. From the moment when that publication first met my eye, I regretted that a docu- 
ment, throwing so much light on the state of religion, morals, law, and civilization in Ireland at the 
close of the fourteenth century, should remain locked up from common readers in the obscurity of a 
dead language ; and hoped that the learned editor would republish it in an English version, I even 
took the liberty of suggesting to Dr. Reeves that he should bestow this additional labour ol a docu- 
ment for which he had already done so much, and which no other person is equally competent to 
illustrate ; but finding, from his reply, that he had no intention of bringing out a translation, and 
b(>ing encouraged by his offer to communicate to me, in case of my undertaking the task, some farther 

Acts of Archbishop Colton in liis Metropolitan Visi- cord Closet of Armagh, with an Introduction and Notes, 

tation of the Diocese of Derry, A.D. mcccxcvii- with By the Rev. William Reeves, D.D. M.R.L A., &c. Dub- 

a Rental of tlie See-Estates at the time : edited from lin : for the Irish Archaeological Society, 1860. 
the Original Roll preserved iu the Archiepiscopal Re- 


information which had occurred to him since his edition was published, an oflPer of which I eagerly 
availed myself, I have determined to lay before the public a version which I made some time since, 
partly for my own amusement, and partly for the use of a friend who wished to read the work, 
and found the Latin style of the original somewhat troublesome to master. Subjoined to the text 
are some notes ; chiefly such as are required for the mere purpose of explanation. By an obliging 
permission from Dr. Reeves, I have been at liberty to make use of the materials amassed in his Notes, 
Introduction and Appendix : and I have availed myself of the privilege as far as they coincided with 
the design of a translation. I have frequently referred to Dr. Reeves as my authority ; but I must give 
my readers notice that in his work they wiU find many subjects discussed and much information 
given, of which there is no mention whatever in mine. In a very few points I have ventured to differ 
from him : but always with that respect which I sincerely feel. In the Historical Introduction I 
have freely availed myself of the labours of Dr. Petrie and Professor 'Donovan, whose admirable 
Memoir on the History of the city of Londonderry, contained in the first volume of the Ordnance 
Survey, ^the only one as yet published, gives us great reason to regret the obstacles which have in- 
teriTipted, (may we hope, only suspended ?) the continuance of their labours in that department. 

An outline map of the Diocese of Derry is given, which is designed to explain the local allusions 
occurring in the Visitation Register, and in the Notes. The sites of churches marked are those of 
the old edifices, probably those which existed in A.D. 1397 : but most of them are now in ruins, 
being replaced by modern structures. 


Episcopacy in Ireland is co-eval with Christianity. Palladius, the forerunner of Patrick was con- 
secrated a Bishop before he set forth from Rome on his mission. St. Patrick was in like manner 
consecrated in Q-aul before he sailed for Ireland, to which he came as the herald of the Grospel, after 
having left it as a fugitive slave. Many of the companions of St. Patrick were raised to the episcopal 
rank, after having, like himself, passed through the inferior orders of deacon and priest. There cannot be 
a doubt that the early Irish church acknowledged the superior order and authority of Bishops as com- 
pared with Presbyters. It would be strange, indeed, if ecclesiastics educated in Gaul and Italy, 
in the fifth century, or the pupils of those who had been so educated, had entertained any other opin- 
ion. The church which they planted in Ireland never was without Bishops. It had, at particular 
times, great numbers of them : so many that it was often able to send out whole troops of Bishops 
to the continent of Europe, and yet retain an ample supply for the discharge of home duty. It 
never was other than an episcopal church. 

Bat with all this I suspect that the establishment of permanent Sees, having territorial jurisdiction 
and a regular succession of Bishops, is of comparatively recent date in Ireland. 

Diocesan Episcopacy, as now understood and practised, implies the establishment of distinct Sees, 
each of which, unless it be canonically suppressed, must always have its Bishop ; who, again, has, 
during his incumbency, jurisdiction over a defined territory, within which no other Bishop can, 
against or without his consent, exercise episcopal functions ; and, unless the See be canonically abol- 
ished, removed, or annexed, must have for his successor another Bishop with the like powers. 

But Bishops of this kind were not, for many years after the planting of the church, known in J#e- 
land. St. Patrick was not a Bishop of this sort, for he itinerated through the whole island, converting, 
baptising, and ordaining; founding churches and erecting monasteries wherever it was in his power 
to do so. Auxilius, Iserninus and Secundinus, all of them Bishops, joined him while engaged in 
the labours of his mission. Their arrival made no difference in his manner of proceeding : each of 
the illustrious four laboured wherever he could find an opening. They consecrated not a few Bishops, 
during their lives ; but still they, and their new colleagues, appear to have proceeded precisely as they 
had done before. It never seemed to have entered their minds that each of them ought to have a 
limited territory for his diocese that he was to confine his episcopal care and oversight to it exclu- 
sively that no other Bishop could or ought to intermeddle with the churches, the clergy or the peo- 
ple there, without his own consent. Some'modern writers, or writers comparatively modem, trans- 
ferring to the past, the ideas of the present time have spoken of the erection of Sees by St. Patrick, 
and his companions, or immediate followers, in this place and that ; but it is remarkable that in 
the vast majority of instances, the more careful inquirers find, that though the existence and rci\- 
dences of the Bishop be indisputable, something is wanting to the proof of the erection or existence 
of the See. To prove this it is not sufiicient to show that a particular person was a Bishop, and that 
he lived and died in a particular place : it is required to shew that he had a definite territorial jurisdic- 


tion, and an episcopal successor ; and it is truly wonderful how often the proof of both these points 
is totally wanting. Dr. Lanigan abounds in rectifications of mistakes made by his predecessors in 
such matters. If, indeed, every place where a Bishop was located, is to be considered as an episcopal 
See, it would follow that thre must have been many hundred Sees in Ireland. St. Bernard, in the 
11th century, complains that almost every church in Ireland had its Bishop. (Vita S. Malachice. 
c. 1.) 

And this might easily happen : for ^however contrary it may seem to the notions which at present 
prevail, the Episcopate in the early Irish Church, appears to been h, personal not a heal prerogative. 
Whenever a clergyman was found, who, in the judgment of the neighbouring Bishops, united in him- 
self the qualifications requisite for sustaining the episcopal character, they conferred the office and 
rank of Bishop upon him, by consecration. Sometimes a single Bishop felt himself authorized to in- 
stitute and consecrate another Bishop, without the concurrence of any of his brethren, or their con- 
sent previously obtained. Facts of this kind meet us frequently in every good Ecclesiastical History 
of Ireland, and in the documents from which they are drawn. Dr. Lanigan, to his honour, does not 
attempt to deny them, nor to conceal them. He even admits that the Bishops, thus consecrated, were 
not Prelates in the modern sense of the word ; nor their dwelling-places episcopal Sees. He calls 
them Chorepiscopi, and Suffragans, that is rural and elective Bishops ; and allows that there were 
great numbers of them ; but his own facts and extracts shew that there was, originally, no distinction 
whatever between those whom he thus denominates and those whom he regards as the Bishops of proper 
Sees. He admits that the Irish called both by the very same name ; and he has failed to bring forward 
a single passage from any ancient authority, in which the powers of those whom he calls Chorepiscopi or 
Suffragans are declared to be different, in any respect, from those of diocesan Bishops, or to be limited 
to districts governed by those Bishops who ordained them, or dependent on the will and pleasure of a 
superior or Ordinary. His argument is briefly this : The consecration of these multitudinous Bishops 
would have ^been uncanonical, had they been other than chorepiscopi ; but they were consecrated in 
Ireland and in great numbers ; nor was their consecration ever regarded as uncanonical ; therefore, 
they were Chorepiscopi. The argument, however, runs quite as well in logic, and far more consis- 
tently with fact, the other way : The Irish consecrated, in great numbers and for many generations, 
Bishops, who neither had fixed Sees, nor any regular succession, and yet possessed none of the dis- 
tinctive marks of Glwrepiscopi : therefore they did not regard such consecrations as uncanonical : 
which I believe was truly the case. Indeed Dr. Lanigan admits that " it was quite usual in Ireland 
to raise pious monks to the episcopacy without giving them fixed Sees. * * * The Chorepiscopi, 
of whom we had great numbers, were styled Bishops ; and, perhaps, no small part of those seventeen 
Bishops buried in Cork :" [they were too numerous to have been sticcessive in the same See ;] " belonged 
to that class." (Eccles. Hist. ii. 318.) It is sufficient to reply, perhaps they loere not : and that this 
is just as probable as the other alternative, or a little more so, is manifest from the fact that the 
earliest and only passage in which the learned kistorian has found mention of Chorepiscopi at all is in 


Rochfort's Constitutions passed at Newtown* in the year 1216 : which we admit to be genuine, hut 
think of little authority in reference to the early history of the church ; for they were enacted a hun- 
dred years after the synod held at Rathbreasail A.D. 1118, (under the anspices of Gillebert, Bishop 
of Limerick, Legate of the Pope, the first who ever appeared under that character in Ireland,) at which 
canons were passed making Diocesan Episcopacy the law of the Irish Church ; and, therefore, long 
subsequent to the time when a tendency to it had begun strongly to manifest itself. 

I do not mean to deny that a tolerably complete series of Bishops may be traced, ^not without 
some interruptions and some rather fanciful links, however, in Armagh, and, perhaps, in some other of 
the more important monasteries, which were founded at a very early period after the introduction of 
Christianity. But even though the series could be well made out in all its parts, there would be 
nothing in it inconsistent with the opinion already expressed. Armagh, for example, was a great 
monastic institution, founded by St. Patrick, for the maintenance of the Christian religion and the 
fulfilment of its duties. It is highly probable that, from the first, it contained not only a society of 
monks, but a convent for pious virgins, such as would now be called a nunnery : it is certain that it con- 
tained a school for the education of youth. All these institutions flourished vigorously for many 
years. There were multitudes of the most learned and pious monks in the world there assembled : 
and as " it was quite usual in Ireland to raise pious monks to the episcopacy," no doubt several of 
those in Arjnagh were from time to time advanced to that dignity. When once it became customary 
to find a Bishop or Bishops resident at Armagh, the next step was to consider that it ought never 
to be without one ; and this I imagine to have given rise to the unbroken succession, which we 
find in after times, and to the See. When the same notion began to prevail regarding other places, 
the limitation of their respective jurisdictions by territorial boundaries was an unavoidable conse- 
quence. In all this, I have been conceding what can seldom be proved, that a continuous scries of 
Bishops is traceable in several of the ancient Sees of Ireland, as they are now called. It is certain 
that in many places Bishops were succeeded, not by Bishops, but by Abbots who were merely Pres- 
byters ; and Presbyter- Abbots by Bishops ; that Deacons and Presbyters sometimes became Bishops, 
being chosen to that dignity, not as suffragans or successors to any former Bishops, but as a matter of 
personal respect, and a help to thebr farther usefulness : that the profferred elevation was sometimes 
declined by those to whom it was tendered ; and, that when it was declined, it never seems to have 
been thought necessary to elect another person to the episcopate as to a vacant ofl&ce : all which cir- 
cumstances are capable of easy proof, but are not easily reconciled with the prevalence of Diocesan Epis- 
copacy in the early Irish Church. Of course they are totally irreconcilable with the assertion that 
the early Irish Chm'ch was not episcopalian ; an assertion which it is surprising to find some learned 
men bold enough to hazard. 

But however this question may be viewed, it cannot be denied that for many years after the plan- 
ting of Christianity in Derry, it was not in any sense, the See of a Bishop : that the first Bishops 
" Near Trim, in the County of Meath : (see Wilkins, Cmcilia, vol. i. p. 645.) 


who, at intervals, appear to have had their residence at the place, were not Bishops of the See ; and 
that no succession of Bishops with jurisdiction over a diocese can be shewn to have existed at Derry^ 
from an earlier date than the middle of the thirteenth century. 

Yet Derry has been eminent in the history of the Irish Church, from the middle of the sixth cen- 
tury to the present time. It was about the year 546 that Columba, afterwards called St. Colunib- 
kille, Columba of the Churches being then of no higher rank in the hierarchy than that of a simple 
Deacon^ erected a monastery on a pleasant eminence covered with oaks, and thence denominated 
Doire Calgaich, " the Oak wood of Calgach," afterwards called from himself Derry-ColumhJcill, 
in more modern times, London-derry^ or Derry^ without addition. That he was a Deacon at the 
time of this foundation, may be inferred from the legend recorded by Dr. Lanigan ; (J^ccl. Hist. ii. 
117 :) that he was of no higher order in the church may be concluded with certainty from that which 
is related by the same author as having occurred several years afterwards, while Columba was still 
at Daire-magh, or Durrow in Meath, where he founded another illustrious monastery, which, as all 
authorities are agreed, was erected after that at Derry- Calgach, though before that of lona. " It 
is related that, being judged worthy of the episcopacy, he was sent, with the approbation of several 
prelates, to St. Etchen for the purpose of being consecrated by him. Etchen resided at Clain bile, 
[now Clonfad in Westmeath, which lies not far from Durrow.] * * * " Being arrived near Etchen 's 
church, the saint inquired for the Bishop and was told, * there he is below ploughing in the field.' 
He then went up to him and was welcomed with the greatest kindness by the holy prelate, who, on 
being apprised of the reason of his visit, did not hesitate to ordain him soon after. Yet * * * 
through a sort of mistake, Etchen ordained him not a Bishop, as was the general wish of the clergy 
and people, hut a Priest. * * * Etchen on discovering the mistake oflFered to consecrate him a 
Bishop, which proposal Columba declined, attributing what had happened to a dispensation of Provi- 
dence, and declaring that he would remain during the rest of his life in the order to which he had 
been admitted." (Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, vol. ii. p. 125-6.) 

This anecdote is very adverse to the idea of diocesan jurisdiction and perpetual succession as 
necessarily belonging to the episcopal office : and Dr. Lanigan labours hard in a closely printed note 
of two pages, to bring the fact into harmony with the present theory, by means of his imaginary 
clwr episcopate, &c. ; of which his authorities say not a single word, and manifestly never dreamed.- 
But, leaving him to settle that point with his readers as best he may, the anecdote at least proves be- 
yond dispute that the monastery and church at Derry were founded not by a Bishop, r.or even bj' a 
Presbyter, but by a mere Deacon ; a member of the lowest order of the clergy, properly so called, 
in the church. 

The monastery founded by Columb-kiUe was the germ of the city of Deny : it holds a conspicuous 
place in the history of the Irish Church. The sticccssors (in Irish comharba, by Latin writers render- 
ed comorhanvs, by English most frequently coar?),^ of Colimib-kille, i. e. the Abbots of Derry, are 
frequently mentioned in the " Annals of the Four Masters," and other registers of the same nature : 


but we pass over a long series of years before we come to any who possessed episcopal dignity. The 
writers of the " History of the City of Londonderry" contained in the first volume (the only one yet 
published) of the * Ordnance Survey of the County,' have been exceedingly careful and industrious 
in collecting all notices of this nature. To them I am indebted for the following extracts : I begin 
with the first who is called a Bishop. 

A.D. 927. " Caoncomhrac, son of Maoluidhir, Abbot and Bishop of Derry-Calgach, and keeper of 
the canons of St. Adamnan," [at Kaphoe,] "died." This was nearly 400 years after the foundation 
of the monastery. All the intervening Abbots of whom we have any account, were of no higher 
rank than Presbyters. 

A.D. 936. " Dubhthach, coarh of Columb-kille and Adamnan in Ireland and Scotland," that is 
Abbot of Deny, Raphoe, and lona, " died." The writer in the Survey says " he was the nephew of 
hia predecessor ;" but he does not appear to have been a Bishop. 

A.D. 937. " Finachtach, the son of Kellach, coarb of Derry, a BisJiop and a sage, skilled in the 
old language of Ireland, died." 

A.D. 948. " Maolfinnen the learned Bishop of Derry-Calgach, died." 

A.D. 950. " Adland, the son of Egneach, who was the son of Dalach, coarh of Columbkille, the 
Guaire Aidhne," (proverbial for generous hospitality,) "of the Irish clergy, died." He was the suc- 
cessor to the foregoing Bishops, as coarb of Columb-kille ; but yet is not said to have been a Bishop. 

And so we have, in the year 952, the death of Robhartach recorded, in 957 that of Dubhduin, 
in 962 that of Dubhscuile, and in successive years the death of other persons, all of whom are 
commemorated as Coarhs or successors of Columb-kille ; but not one of whom is described as a Bishop, 
till we arrive at 

A.D. 1010. " Muireadhach, the son of Criochan, Coarb of Colvmab-kille and Adamnan, a learned 
doctor and Bishop, a son of purity, lecturer of divinity at Armagh, and intended Coarb of Pat- 
rick, died in the 75th year of his age," &c., &c. 

Afterwards the deaths are registered of Maoleoin O'Tomain, Maolmuireadhach O'Ochtain, Robhart- 
ach, GioUa-Chriost O'Maoldoraidh, and some others, Coarhs of Columb-kille : but not spoken of as 
Bishops. No particulars being given with reference to any of the foregoing personages, it may, per- 
haps, appear to readers probable, or at least possible, that there may have been an orderly succession 
of Bishops, a fixed See, and the centre of a diocesan jurisdiction at Derry ; the records of which, 
with the exception of the foregoing brief notices, are now lost. But the fuller information which 
we have respecting the Abbot and Bishop, Flahertach O'Brolchain, renders this supposition in the 
highest degree improbable. 

A.D. 1158. " An assemblage was held by the Irish Clergy at Brigh-mac-Taidhg in the territory 
of Hy-Laoghaire, at which were present twenty-five Bishops together with the apostolic legate, for 
the purpose of establishing ecclesiastical discipline and the improvement of morals. In this assembly, 
the clergy of Ireland and the Coarb of St, Patrick," [Grelasius, Archbishop of Armagh, so called. 


however, as It appears to me, because he was also Abbot of the monastery there,] "decreed by com- 
mon consent that a Bishop's chair," [cathaoir Easpoicc, Cathedra Ejoiscopi,"] " should be given to 
the Coarb of St. Columb-kille, Flahertach O'Brolchain." (Annals of the Fmir Masters.") Again the 
same Chroniclers, at 1175, record that "Flahertach O'Brolchain, Coarb of Columb-kille, a tower of 
wisdom and hospitality. to whom, for his wisdom and great virtues, the clergy of Ireland had given 
a Bishop's chair, and offered the superintendence of the monastery of lona, after having borne the 
pains of a long infirmity with patience, died most piously in the monastery of Derry. He was suc- 
ceeded, in the Abbey, by GioUa MacLigg O'Brennan." The Annalists knew of no successor to 
O'Brolchain, as Bishop. It is needless to point out how utterly irreconcilable all this is with the 
existence of an episcopal See at Derry, or of a diocesan jurisdiction dependent upon it. These entries 
show that there had been nothing of the kind there before the time of Bishop O'Brolchain. That a 
permanent See. with diocesan jurisdiction, was not erected there by the convention of Brigh-mac- 
Taidhg, is evident from the request afterwards made to Flahertach, to undertake the superintendence 
of lona : for that would imply that, after placing his chair at Derry, the clergy wished him to remove 
it to the Hebrides, or leave it vacant. That no permanent bishoprick was established at Derry is 
farther manifest from the fact that, for nearly a hundred years afterwards, there were no Bishops 
there. In short the elevation of O'Brolchain to the episcopal rank, was a tribute of respect to his 
personal worth and eminent talents. There was evidently no intention of giving to him a diocese to 
govern, with episcopal authority, and exclusive jurisdiction within its limits. He was made just such 
a Bishop as his illustrious predecessor Columb-kille would have been made, but for St. Etchen's mis- 
take : 4ihat is, what we may call, a Bishop at large. This is the more remarkable, as the conse 
cration of Bishop O'Brolchain came forty years after the synod of Rathbreasail which enacted the 
principle of diocesan episcopacy as the law of the church in Ireland : it shews how inveterate was the 
custom of consecrating Bishops with unlimited commissions, or with authority over particular mon- 
asteries and churches only. I should, perhaps, have mentioned before, that Keating and Ware state 
that, at a synod held at Kells in A.D. 1152, under the legate Cardinal Paparo, Derry was raised to 
the rank of a diocesan See and placed in subjection to the archiepiscopal See of Armagh. But Dr. 
Lanigan has shown th^t this is a mistake on the part of these learned writers, or the authorities which 
they followed. Indeed the facts relating to the consecration of Bishop O'Brolchain in 1158 suffi- 
ciently prove the statement to be incorrect. It is needless to dwell farther upon it, nor upon Dr. 
Lanigan's own assertion, (equally gi'oundless,) that, at the convention of Brigh-mac-Taidhg, " after 
the ordinary business was over, it was resolved that Derry should be raised to the rank of a regular 
See, and Flathbert," \_Flahertach'] " O'Brolchain, abbot of its monastery, was appointed its Bishop." 
(EccL Hist. iv. 168.) For the statement in Italics, I cannot find the shadow of authority: the 
learned writer himself has produced none. Keating, indeed, had fixed a See there already, dating it 
even from the sj-nod of Rathbreasail, A.D. 1118 : and Dr. Lanigan adopts that statement, (p. 42.) 
though quite inconsistent with what he says 120 pages farther down. From what has already been 

stown, it follows tliat it cannot possibly be true. Yet I hold tbat the synod of Ratbbreasail, planted 
the germ of the See of Deny, by instituting a permanent bishoprick having jurisdiction over the Kinel- 
Eoghain, a territory whose limits then nearly coincided with those of the present counties of Tyrone 
and Londonderry. This bishoprick ia sometimes called that of Kinel Fereadaigh, because the ori- 
ginal dwelling-place of its Bishops was at the monastery of Ardstraw, situated in that locality ; some- 
times it was called the bishoprick of Ardstraw ; sometimes that of Rathlury, (now Maghera,) be- 
cause some of the Bishops fixed their abode there ; but its most frequent title in the Annals is the 
bishoprick of KinelEoghain : and because this comprehensive title is in many cases the only one 
employed, there is often the greatest uncertainty as to the places where particular Bishops of the 
diocese held their seat ; and learned and diligent antiquarians have found it impossible to decide at 
what precise time the See was removed from Ardstraw to Rathlury (i.e. Maghera,) or thence to 
Derry, which was its final resting place. 

For a long period after the time of Bishop O'Brolchain there is no authentic record of any Bishop 
at, or of, Derry. The Four Masters, no doubt, speak of the death of Muireadhach O'Cobhthaigh, 
(this difiicult looking name is pronounced Murragh O'CoiFy,) Bishop of Derry and Raphoe, in 1173; 
but this is a manifest error : for in that year O'Brolchain was still living, and if there was then any 
Bishop of Derry, he was certainly the man. The entry was copied from the Annals of Connaught ; 
and there Muireadhach is correctly styled the Bishop of Kinel-Eoghain. Hence it appears the 
O'Clerys have in this instance substituted the modern name of the See for its ancient equivalent. 
With this exception, if it can be called an exception, there is no notice of any Bishop of Derry for 
a long series of years. Yet the Annalists were not inattentive to the affairs of Derry-Columbkille. 
There is frequent mention of the deaths and resignations of the Abbots of Derry, their transactions, 
the election of their successors ; the death of a Chief Professor or Principal of its school is recorded ; 
' even a Herenach of pious character, though but a lay-man, is commemorated ; but no Bishop. It 
would be strange if the chroniclers, who record the fate of these inferior personages, had left the most 
eminent characters who adorned the place entirely out of view. Be it borne in mind that while thus 
strangely forgetful of the Bishops of Derry, (if there were any,) they are faithfiil and regular in 
their notices of the Bishops of Kinel-Eoghain, or Tyrone as the name is expressed almost uniformly in 
Mr. Connellan's Translation of the Four Masters. Thus in 1173, we have, or rather ought to have, the 
death of Muireadhach O'Cobhthaigh, Bishop of Kinel-Eoghain : in 1185, we find that " Amhiaoibh 
O'Muireadhach, Bishop of Anhtraiv," [Mr. O'Connellan undera mistaken impression, translates this 
Archbishop of Armagh : but see Ordnance Survey, p. 31.] *' and of Kinel Fereadaigh, a shining light, 
illuminating both clergy and people, died : and Fogartaidh O'Cearbhallain," [Fogarty OCarolan] 
" was elected his successor." In 1230, " Florence O'Cearbhallain," [Florence is but a Latinized va- 
riation of the Irish Fogartaidh,'] "Bishop of Tyrone, a select and dignified sage, died in the 86th year of 
his age." In 1276 and again in 1279, in one place or the other by mistake, ^we read, " Giolla- 
an Coibhde O'Cearbhallain, Bishop of Tyrone, died." By other writers his first name is Latinized, 


Cermanus. Thus for ratter more than a century after the time of Bishop O'Brolchain, we have 
Bishops of Ardstraw, Kinel-Eoghain or Tyrone : but no Bishops of Berry. It is for those who hold 
with Dr. Lanigan that Berry- Columbkille was by the synod of Brigh-mac-Taidhg " raised to the 
rank of a regular episcopal See, and that Flahertach O'Brolchain was appointed its Bishop," to re- 
concile these facts with their own view of the case. 

- From this time forward, however, all this is reversed. After 1279 we read of Bishops of Berry ; 
but hear not a word more of Bishops of Ardstraw or Kinel Eoghain. 

In 1293, " Florence O'Cearbhallain," [otherwise Fogartaidh,] " Bishop of Berry, died." He seems 
to have transferred the See to Berry : and I think the writer of the Historical Sketch in the Ordnance 
Survey has laid good grounds for believing that it was not till the time of his immediate predecessor, 
and probably his kinsman, Germanus, that Berry itself was annexed to the Biocese of Kinel Eoghain, 
having previously belonged to that of Kinel- Connell, now called Baphoe. Germanus is certainly 
spoken of by good writers as an ecclesiastical usurper. He is accused in the Register of the See of 
Clogher of having stripped that See, and also the See of Raphoe, of certain territories, by force. It is 
thought that he added the whole peninsula of Innishowen to his jurisdiction : otherwise it wiU not be 
easy to explain how a district which then formed part of Kinel Connell, should ever after be found 
in connexion with the bishoprick of Kinel-Eoghain. 

It may be presumed that when Bishop Florence O'Cearbhallain removed the seat of his episcopal 
jurisdiction to Berry- Columbkille, he took measures for providing a regular Cathedral, with a Bean 
and Chapter. To this purpose the great structure " TeampuU 3Ior," built by O'Brolchain about a 
century ago, was appropriated : the more ancient church of " Duihli Hegles," or the Black Abbey, on 
the site which was occupied by St. Columbkille, being left as a conventual chapel to the monks of 
the monastery, now reformed into a society of Canons Regular. After this time, the succession of 
Bishops is quite regular, and proceeds in the following order, the years given being the years of the 
recorded deaths. 

A. D. 1297. Henry Mac Oireachty, died. In the Annals of the Four Masters, and also in the 
Connaught Annals, lie is entered as Bishop of Connor : but that he was in some sort Bishop of Berry 
is evident; because Ware has found the Conge d^elire, dated on the 25th October 1293, for the elec- 
tion of a successor to Fogartaidh O'Cearbhallain ; the royal assent to the election of MacOii-eachty 
on the 3rd of March following; and the king's writ for the restitution of the temporalities of the 
See, dated the 16th of June, 1291. This shews that the power of the king of England had begun to 
make itself felt in ecclesiastical appointments in Ulster at this period: although probably MacOir- 
eachty had never ventured to exercise episcopal jurisdiction within his new diocese. 

A.B. 1315. Gorry, [Godfrey or Geoffrey] Mac Loughlin died. He was consecrated Bishop of 
Berry and obtained a Writ for the restitution of the temporalities, A.B. 1297, on the 26th of June. 
Hence he governed the See upwards of seventeen years. His name would appear to imply that he 
was of the blood royal of the ancient Irish kings; the first or most noble branch of the family of th^ 


O'Neills that which reigned at Aileach near Derry being called, in ancient times, O'Loughlin or 
MacLoughlin; more recently, O'Neill simply. 

A.D. 1319. Odo, [Hugh] O'NeiU. 

A.D. On the death of Odo, "they elected Michael MacLoughlin. " [Ware.] It is un- 
certain how long he governed the diocese. He sat in 1324. 

A.D. " Simon, a Friar, (but I know not of what order,) governed this see in 1367 and 

1369. I have not yet discovered either when he was consecrated, or when he died. " [Ware A^. 
Ord. Sur:\ 

A.D. 1395. John Dongan, " a Benedictine Friar, was translated by the provision of Pope Boni- 
face IX, from the See of Derry to that of Down in 1395: in which See he died in 1412." [Harris' 
Ware Ap. Ord. Sur!\ The See continued vacant six years. It was during this vacancy that the 
Visitation occurred which is the subject of the following record. The instrument itself gives ma- 
terials for a definite determination of many points which, but for it, must ,have remained altogether 
unknown. Thus we find that the Diocese of Derry had now lapsed into the condition of a Bishop- 
rick " inter Hibemicos " or without the pale: that its limits were nearly, if not exactly the same as 
at present : that the Bishop's authority as Diocesan was now fully recognized in every parish within 
its bounds: and that the money payments and "refections " claimable by the Bishop were settled at 
the same rate, very nearly, at which they continued till the beginning of the sixteenth century. We 
also find that the Irish Lords and Chiefs were very anxious to appropriate to themselves the spoils of 
the church to which they professed to belong : in fact they shewed the very same feeling in this re- 
pect which animated the nobility of England in the reigns of K. Henry VIII. and Edward VI. and 
had their desires been gratified by the reigning powers, as was the case in England, it is possible 
that a similar effect might have been produced on the religious profession of the country. 

In this outline, the history of the See or Diocese of Derry has been rapidly traced from the ear- 
liest period of the planting of Christianity to the time when the following record was composed. A 
few minor details will be found in the notes which have been subjoined to the Visitation Roll. I 
have not thought it necessary to carry the narrative farther down. 

I shall conclude this Introduction by a passage from the finding of an Inquisition as it is called, 
held at LymmavadJy in the then County of Coleraine, now called the County of Londonderry, empan- 
uelled in the month of August 1609, for the purpose of deciding what lands, incomes, and rights of 
property, arising out of the lands in the county, belonged to the see of Derry ; and other points which, 
however, are only described as "matters specified in the Commission of the Court." The jurors were 
persons of the ancient Irish families which were then the leading septs in the County : and although 
their finding goes further back into the history of the past, apparently, than there were, or are, sure 
documents of evidence to guide them, and although it appears to have been constructed, in many re- 
spects on a partizan model, and in some of its determinations was outrageously unjust, yet in the 
question respecting the general nature of the episcopal revenues, it appears to be perfectly correct, 


and no less applicable to the time of Primate Colton's Visitation than to the beginning of the 17th 
century. I add, that when the jurors speak of Bishops, as of recent institution, and introduced by the 
authority of the Roman See, I understand them to mean Diocesan Bishops, with extensive jurisdic- 
tion, and rights of property extending beyond the particular monastery or church in which they 
resided. Thus limited, I conceive the verdict to be sound : if taken without some such limitation, 
I look upon it as erroneous in this particular. 

" Touchinge the originall and difference of Corhes and Herenaghes, and the Termon Lands of the 
said Countie of Coleraine, the said jurors doe, upon their oathes find and say that Donell Mac-Hugh 
O'Nealle, kinge of Ireland [in 635,] did, longe before any Bushopps were made in the said kingdome 
of Ireland, give unto certain holy men whom they call Sancti Fatres, \these were manifestly the saints 
tvho founded churches and monasteries in the district^ "severall portions of lande and a third parte of all 
the Tiethes, to th'end they should say praiers," \the jurors might have added 'for the soul of the do- 
nor' ; but that would have made the gift in law superstitious, and so vested it in the crown, which was 
not what the promoters of the inquisition ivanted^ " and bear a third parte of the chardge of repairinge 
and mainteyninge the parishe church ; th'other twoe third parts beinge borne by the parson and vic- 
car to whom the rest of the Tiethes is yerely paied ; and alsoe for their own honor and sustentation ; 
and that afterwards the said holy men did give unto severall septs, severall proportions of the said 
lands, and placed one or more of them in every parishe, and withall gave unto him a third parte of 
the Tiethes of that parish, to hould both the said land and the third parte of the said Tiethes, for 
ever, according to the course of Tanistrie, free from all exactions : and that for that cause the land 
was called Termon, ox free; and the tennant thereof some tymes called Corhe, and some tymes Here- 
nagh ; and that the said Corbe or Herenagh was to boare a third parte of the chardge in repairinge 
and mainteyninge the parishe church ; and that the said portion of land and the third parte of the 
Tiethes so continued free unto the Corbe or Herenaghe for many yeres, until the Church of Rome 
established Bushopps in this kingdome and decreed that every Corbe or Herenagh should give unto 
the Bushopp (within whose dioces he lived,) a yearly pension, more or less according to his proportion 
out of his entire Herenachie consisting of the said land and the said third parte of the Tiethes; and 
that thereunto the said Corbes and Herenaghs submitted themselves ; but held their Herenachie free 
for ever, and could not be removed by any of the Temporal or Spiritual Lords, oy [or] other person 
whatsoever." {Appendix to Ulster Inquisitions. No. III.) 

The term Corhe, Coarh, Comorhan, (Irish Comhorba,) seems to have puzzled Sir John Davies ; he 
adopts in one of his works, a notion, put into his head by an Irish scholar, (whom he does not name,) 
that it was the title of an ecclesiastical dignity ; and yet he finds it hard to explain how it was found 
constantly applied to persons who exercised no clerical functions whatever. Others have stumbled 
at the same difficulty. The matter, however, is extremely simple. Without meddling with Celtic 
etymologies, of which I know nothing, I find the word continually determined by its usage, to signify 
9. succeesoK Certainly it is used most frequently, if not exclusively, in matters ecclesiastical ; but mat^ 


ters ecclesiastical are of two kinds, temporal and spiritual. In spiritual matters, the Corhe, Coarby 
or Gomorban, is the person who succeeds to a spiritual rank, office, or jurisdiction ; thus the Abbot of 
lona, of Durrow, of Dunchrun, or of Deny Calgach, was the Coarb of Columb-kille : the Abbot of 
Clonard was Coarb or successor of St. Finnian ; the Abbot of Clonmacnois Coarb or successor to St. 
Kieran, &c. Coarbs or Comorbans of this sort, are justly described as ecclesiastical dignitaries. 
But the occupants of the church-estates likewise claimed a right of succession in their properties : 
they held them by Tanistry from the founder of their sept, to whom they had originally been 
granted by the prior, abbot, bishop, &c., who had first put a Herenach on the lands. They were his 
successors, that is Corbes. The difference between these two very different kind of Corbes is gen- 
erally marked by the adjunct connected with the term. The Coarb of a personis his official represen- 
tative, his spiritual successor ; the Corbe or Coarb of a place is the occupant of the church-land there 
situated. Thus in the year 1146 it would appear that Erchelaid was Coarb of Columb-kille, that is 
Abbot of the monastery of Derry ; while, at the same time, Maoliosa O'Branain was Coarb of Derry, 
that is, hereditary (or elective) occupant of the abbey -lands. All the Termon and Herenach lands 
in the Diocese of Derry, with the exception of those in Derry itself, are now annexed to the See, to bo 
held in frankalmoign, (the Herenachs and Corbes having been adjudged to have no legal title in the 
same,) by patent granted in 1610, on the solicitation of George Montgomery, brother to the Lord Vis- 
count Montgomery of the Ards, and first protestant Bishop of Derry, Raphoe, and Clogher. 

These considerations are not out of place in the introduction to a document, in which the nature, 
sources, and management of the episcopal property in the Diocese of Derry are so frequently brought 
before us : some of them appear almost necessary to render it intelligible. I must add that the care 
which Archbishop Colton tock to preserve to this See, property in which he had himself no permanent in- 
terest, far from casting any imputation upon his memory, seems to me to do him high honour. So far as 
Any judgment can be formed from this record, he seems to have been a truly well disposed and upright, 
as well as able man. 

[77(6 Sequel will appear in the next dumber of the Journal.} 



The history of the island of lona, from the period at which St. Columba landed upon it, and founded 
there his celebrated ecclesiastical establishment, in the sixth century, has been closely connected with 
that of Ireland, as our Annals abundantly show by the frequent notices of it which they furnish. 
Its secluded situation, and the difficulty of procuring accommodation for any prolonged stay, still pre- 
sent such obstacles to ordinary tourists, that few are tempted to remain longer than during the short 
time allowed by the periodical visits of the steamers in the summer months, which rarely exceed an 
hour. It will be easily conceived that this affords but brief opportunity for making one acquainted 
with the remains of the Cathedral, the church of St, Oran, and a few of the other more remarkable 
buildings, of a very considerable group, all of which, as well as many other objects on the island, well 
merit a more lengthened examination. The following notes were made a few years ago, after a 
sojourn of nearly a week in the hospitable house of one of the small landholders, who cheerfully 
afforded all the assistance in his power both as a host and a guide. 

. la the beginning of the 8th century, when venerable Bede wrote his history, this island was called 
simply I, or Hy, to which a pious regard for the memory of St. Columba added his name, thus giving 
it the appellation, since so well known, of Hy-Colunib-hille, In the glossary of British antiquities, 
of the learned William Baxter, we are told, that the name lona is compounded of the Irish 
word J, and the Pictish Onas^ both of which signify an island; and it is farther stated that 
in some dialects, Onas is used for Inis. 

The aecount which venerable Bede gives of the time and manner in which St. Colimiba founded 
his ecclesiastical establishment in this island is as follows ; 

" In the year of our Lord 565, there came into Britain a famous priest and abbot, a monk by habit 
" and life, whose name was Columb, to preach the word of Grod to the provinces of the northern Picts. 

" Columb came into Britain in the 9th year of the reign of Bridius, who was the son of Meilochon, 
" and the powerful king of the Pictish nation, and he converted that nation to the faith of Christ by 
*' his preaching and example : whereupon he also received of them the aforesaid island for a monas- 
" tery ; for it is not very large, but about five miles in compass according to the English computation. 
" His successors hold the island to this day. He was also buried therein, having died at the age of 
'* seventy-seven, about thirty-two years after he came into Britain to preach." 



The general character of the island Is wild and rocky, affording, however, excellent mountain par- 
ture to numerous herds of cattle, and in some places exhibiting rich patches of arable ground, of smal^ 
extent, but producing luxuriant crops. In the very highest spots it is said that, in digging through 
the peat, sand is invariably discovered ; from which it may be presumed that the whole island was origin- 
ally formed by the drifting of the sands into the space between the rocks. 

The first considerable ruin which attracts attention, after passing the group of houses at the usual 
landing-place, is the Nunnery. The outer wa!ls are massive, and enclose a chapel and burying-ground, 
in which are many monuments and tombs of considerable interest; some are elaborately ornamented, 
and bear inscriptions which record the names and virtues of several prioresses of these a number have 
been engraved by Mr. H. D. Graham, in his " Antiquities of lona," published in 1850 ; but others, 
sculptured with patterns of great beauty, (having, however, no inscriptions,) have not hitherto been 

The roof of the chapel existed in the memory of several persons now living, and Pennant speaks of 
it as being entire when he visited lona in 1769. It is not long since the floor of the chapel was cleaned 
from an accumulation of fragments of the ruin, clay, and other matter to the depth of three or four 
feet, left by the cattle to which the building had been long abandoned ; and then appeared the tomb- 
stones with which the floor is so thickly spread. The windows of this building are lofty, narrow, and 
round-headed ; splaying widely internally. A very curious'* square -headed doorway leads from the 
chapel into a small vaulted sacristy : its height is six feet and nine inches, and its width about three 
feet. This small chamber is lighted by a small window having a triangular head, much resembling 
others which may be noticed in some of the older portions of the cathedral. A paved road, or cause- 
way, of great antiquity, is observable, leading from the Nunnery towards the Cathedral ; its direction 
is followed, for the most part, by the very narrow pathway which leads to the church of St. Oran, 
Two of these causeways are still distinctly traceable in the neighbourhood of the Nimnery. One of 
them is known by the name of Straid-na-marhh, or " the road of the dead," and extends from a 
low mound called Ellaidh, which stands close to the shore about a hundred yards to the southward 
of the usual place of landing at Port-Ronan. Another smaller landing place near this mound is still 
called Port-na-marhh, and here the mortal remains of those who are conveyed from the neighbour- 
ing lands for interment in lona, are invariably brought a-shore, and are deposited on the mound, 
while the mourners and friends form the order of the funeral procession. The second causeway is of 
greater breadth and size, and leads up directly from Port Ronan, where about twenty great stepping 
stones have, from a remote period, served the purposes of a rude boat quay. Tradition states that 
they were originally brought from the opposite shore of Mull ; they are of red granite, of which, it is 
said, no trace is to be found in the island of lona. This greater causeway runs nearly parallel, for a 
considerable distance, with the Straid-na-marbh, and is said to have been continued to the great 
western door of the Cathedral. 

It has been statod, bub upon uncertain authority, that so inany as three hundred and sixty crosses 


were standing in lona, at the tinae of tlie Reformation: of these, however, two only remain erecK 
The smaller one, known as * Maclean's cross,' stands at the side of the narrow road leading from the 
nunnery to the burying-ground called the Beilig Orain. The shaft measures ten feet four inches above 
a base of masonry of about three feet in height. This cross is formed of thin slate, two inches and 
three quarters in thickness ; it is covered with sculptured knots, and interlaced patterns, whose deli- 
cacy and beauty of design are yet discernible, though much time-worn. The circle, which occupies 
the intersection of the shaft and arms, encloses a quatre-foil, within which is the figure of our Saviour. 
The shaft, which is sixteen inches in breadth at the bottom, tapers upwards, till it is but ten inches 
across where its arms project. The present breadth across the arms is twenty-six inches ; but at the 
end of each there is a groove, resembling a mortice, designed to admit a tenon, to hold, it would seem; 
an additional piece, in order to elongate the arms : and a similar groove or mortice is observable also 
in the arms of the great cross, called ' St. Martin's,'* near the Cathedral. The base appears to have 
consisted of three or more steps, the top being formed of a thin flag, into which the shaft is inserted. 

Not far beyond Maclean's cross stands the church of St. Oran, which, there can be little doubt, is the 
most ancient structure now existing upon the island ; it is within the burying ground called the Rei- 
lig Orain. The manner in which this cemetery obtained its name is thus stated in a note to the life 
of St. Columba, by Dr. Smith, of Campbelton, who cites the ancient Irish memoir by Manus O'Don- 
nel as his authority. " St. Oran, one of the twelve who first accompanied Columba from Ireland, 
" finding himself unwell soon after he landed, expressed his desire ' that his soul might soon be with 
' Christ, and his body the first pledge that should consecate lona to his companions.' ' My dear Oran,' 
" said Columba 'shall have both his wishes, and they who shall hereafter ask for my tomb, shall next 
* enquire where is Oran's.' Accordingly ReHig Orain is still shown to strangers." 

Perhaps the earliest published description of the Reilig Orain is that given by Munro, Dean of the 
Isles, who wrote in 1549. He says: "within this isle of Kilmkill there is ane sanctuary also, 
" or Kirk-zaird, callit in Erishe Belig Orain, quhilk is a very fair kirk-zaird, and well biggit about 

* EniTors' Notk. In an account of a Tisit to lona by an American Clergyman, published in 1849, it is mentioned 
that, a short time previously, in raising St. Martin's Cross from its fallen position, a small gold sjwon was found un- 
derneath it. At the recent Exhibition of Irish Antiquities in the Belfast Museum, (during the visit of the British 
Association,) among other objects found lately in the Lower Bann, during the Engineering operations going forward 
in that river under the direction of C. S. Ottley, Esq., C. E., that gentleman sent for exhibition a small gold spoon of 
peculiar form. The annexed wood-cut is an accurate representation of it. 

With the view of ascertaining whether the <?poon found in lona was similar, an inquiry was addressed to the Rev. D. 
,i V^.''^7' residmg on the island In reply he writes : " The spoon you refer to, as found, some years ago, under St. 
Martin s Cross, and which is in the nosseesinn nf fhoDnVA f>f ir.rr^iX ^<,cr.;ta r,i;., ^e ^^ ^i / ^^a ,t>i,i 

\f i- '' r< T 'iT' r ^- *" '^t" J ""^ "i *<<=> j-ue spoon you reier u), as louna, some years ago, unuer oi. 

Martin s Cross and which is in the possession of the Duke of Argyle, was quite plain, of an oval figure, and very shal- 
low ; the length was about four inches. It was not gold, but of a sort of bronze or copper-like metal. I am sorry I can 
give you no further particulars regarding it." There is no doubt that these spoons were used in Roman Catholic rites : 
a dignitary ot that church having informed the editors that, at a former period, in these countries, such spoons 
were employed to mix a single drop of water with the sacramental wine. The author of the " Visit to lona," above 
auuded to, mentions, that he had often seen the priests in Greece administer the Communion, the bread and wine 
and water mingled together, from such a spoon." 


" with stane and lime. Into this sanctuary there are three tomhes of staine, formed like little cha- 
"pels, with ane braide grey marble or quhin stane in the gairth of ilk ane of the tombes. In the 
," staine of the ane tombe there is written in Latin letters Tumulvs Regtim Scotice, that is the tombe 
*' or grave of the Scottes Kings. Within this tombe, according to our Scottes and Erishe cronikles 
** ther laye fortey-eight crowned Scotts kings, through the quhilk this isle has been richly dotat be the 
" Scotts kings, as we have said. The tombe on the south side forsaid hes this inscription, Tumulus 
'* Begum Hibemice ; that is, the tombe of the Irland kinges : for we have in our old Erishe croni- 
" kells that ther were four Irland kinges erdit in the said tombe. Upon the North syde of our 
*' Scotts tombe the inscription bears Tumulus Begum Norwegioe ; that is, the tombe of the Kinges of 
" Norroway." 

** Within the sanctuary also lye the the maist pairt of the Lords of the Hes, with ther lynage ; 
" twa Clan Leans with ther lynage ; M'Kynnon and M'Quarie with ther lynage ; with sundrie other 
" inhabitants of the hail ilea : because this sanctuary was wont to be the sepulture of the best men of 
*' all the iles, and also of our kinges as we have said." 

This remarkable description has been either quoted or alluded to in almost every account of lona 
since Munro's time. Pennant, in his tour, says he was very desirous of viewing the tombs of the 
kings described by the Dean of the Isles. He could discover nothing more than certain slight re- 
mains that were built in a rugged form, and arched within, but the inscriptions were lost. " These, " 
he adds " are called lomaire ruin Bigh, or the ridge of the kings." 

In the year 1833 the society called the lona Club was formed for the investigation and illustration 
of the History, Antiquities, and early literature of the Highlands of Scotland, and held its first meeting 
upon the Island of lona in the month of September, in that year. In the 1st volume of their Tran- 
sactions they state that the result of excavations, made by them in the Reilig Grain, proved the fallacy 
of a notion generally entertained, that there were subterraneous vaults or chambers in that part of the 
cemetery where the tombs of the kings are said to lie. In one word, these tombs no longer exist, and it 
seems most probable that they must have resembled those sepulchres of a more architectural character, 
of which a few examples yet remain in Ireland, erected to contain the moiddering remains of dis- 
tinguished persons; they correspond in form (though of course on a reduced scale) to the earliest 
Christian churches or oratories. Those which still exist, in a tolerable state of preservation, are the 
tombs of St Cadan, at the church of Tamlaght Ard ; that of Muireadach O'Heney, near the church 
of Banagher ; and the tomb of St Ringan, the founder or patron of the church of Bovevagh ; 
all of which are situated in the county of Londonderry. Remains of similar tombs are found in other 
parts of Ireland, some of which appear to have been of greater size and importance, but they are usu- 
ally in a state of great dilapidation. 

That the Reilig Grain is the last resting-place of many distinguished kings, chiefe, and ecclesiastics, 
is evident from the numerous tomb-stones, of every class and period, from the seventh century down 
to the present day, with which the cemetery is thickly covered. The excavations of the lona club 


brought to view many of those tomb-stones, which the lapse of time, and accumulation of earth and 
rubbish, had concealed. A considerable number of richly sculptured stones were thus exposed for the 
firdt time for many years, which had never before been seen by any one then living ; and were 
placed on the surface of the cemetery. Very many fragments of stone crosses, of considerable size and 
beauty, are still to be seen used chiefly as head-stones ; yet judging from those remains, the statement 
that three hundred and sixty crosses were once standing here seems exceedingly questionable. It ap- 
pears to have received currency from a passage in Sir Walter Scott's diary written in 1814 ; and is 
said to rest upon the authority of a M.S. description of lona, written in 1693, and preserved in the Ad- 
vocates' Library in Edinburgh. In a little account of lona, published by L. Maclean in 1841, he states 
that an Act of the Convention of Estates was passed at the desire of the Church of Scotland in the 
year 1 561, * for demolishing all the Abbeys of monks and friars, and for suppressing whatsoever monu- 
ments of idolatry were remaining in the realm. ' In consequence of this edict a pitiful devastation 
of churches and monasteries ensued ; and at this time many of the crosses which adorned lona were 
destroyed or carried away. 

William Sacheverell, governor of the Isle of Man, who was employed, in 1688, in the attempt to 
recover the stores of the " Florida," 'one of the great vessels of the Spanish Armada, which was 
blown up and sunk m the harbour of Tobermory, in Mull,' has left, in a letter dated the 7th of Sep- 
tember in that year, an account of I-columb-kill, in which he states that " the Synod of Argyll or- 
dered sixty crosses to be cast into the sea." Judging from the fragments which remain, and all other 
probabilities, it seems more than likely that, by the accidental prefix of a single figure, some hasty 
transcription of the original account may have added 300 to the 60 spoken of by Sacheverell. 

The church of St. Oran stands, within the Reilig Grain, by compass N.W. and S.E. Its most re- 
markable feature is the great doorway, its only entrance ; and which, allowing for its age, is still in a 
remarkably perfect state. Its height is seven feet and eight inches. It is surmounted by a round arch, 
or rather by three concentric arches, each richly ornamented with a series of sculptured ornaments 
which are, however, so much time worn that it is now, in some degree, conjectural what they were 
intended to represent. The inner arch appears to contain the rudiment of the beautiful toothed ornament 
of a later period ; the central one a series of heads of animals ; while the external or largest of the 
three seems decorated with human heads. The number of stones forming the inner arch is eleven ; 
those of the central are seventeen ; and of the external arch twenty-two. These three arches diminish 
gradually in breadth : the inner one being eight inches in depth, while the largest is but six. These 
arches are supported by slender columns of the simplest form ; the distance between the outer ones 
being five feet, narrowing to three feet nine inches between the inner columns. On the outside of 
the church, at the left hand of the door, is a small recess, about eighteen inches square, which seems 
int3nled to hold a vase for holy- water. The building itself, is in form, a simple parallelogram, and 
nieasures in length, externally, 35 feet; and in breadth, 20 feet and 8 inches. Internally, its length 
U 29 feet and 8 inohes, and its breadth 15 feet and 10 inches. The height of the side walls, to the 


under edge of the eave course, is 11 feet and 2 inches. There are but two small windows ; one in the 
northern, and the other in the southern wall, at the upper end of the church : they open upon the 
place where the altar once stood; of which, however, no trace now remains. The window in the 
northern wall is twenty-six inches in height, about seven in breadth, and is five feet from the 
ground ; it is round-headed, and has a slight moulding marked on the outside. The window in the 
Bouthern wall is four feet in height, lancet-shaped, and triangular-headed. The original open of both 
these windows was probably six inches only ; internally they are splayed to a breadth of three feet 
four inches. There was no window nor opening of any kind in the eastern gable. 

Within the area of the church are many tomb-stones of a highly interesting character ; they are 
chiefly those of Highland chiefs, of the 15th and 16th centuries, with others of a later period. Simi- 
larly sculptured stones, having a figure in low reUef, wearing a pointed helmet and shirt of mail, 
and the hands resting on a broad-sword, are to be seen in many church yards in the west of Scot- 
land ; as, for example, at the ruined church upon the beautiful little island of Inishail, in Loch Awe, 
and others also at Dalmally. On the right hand of the door-way is a canopied recess in the thick- 
ness of the side-wall, surmounted by a wide triple arch of elegant design. The altar-tomb, which it 
once contained, has disappeared, and in its place lies a portion of the shaft of a cross, the head of 
which is wanting, but the inscription, within one of its compartments, is fortunately perfect, and 
runs thus : 

HiBc EST CRUX Lacclanni Maic Finqon jj et ejus filh Johannis Abbatis de Hy. Facta Anxo 

Domini m.ccoc. lxxx. ix. 

Sacheverell, who has been already mentioned, vsTiting in 1688, says, he was informed by " the' 
Dean of the Isles, Mr. Frazer, an honest episcopal minister, that his father " who had also been 
Dean of the Isles, left him a book with above three hundred inscriptions, which he had lent to the 
"late Earl of Argile," but he adds a sad conjecture that "they were all lost by that great man's 
' afflictions." 

Two grave-stones, which bear inscriptions in the Irish character, have attracted the attention 
almost every one who has visited lona ; and various interpretations have been offered, but aU more or 
less incorrect. Pennant, Maclean, Benjamin Motte, H. D. Graham, and lastly Dr. Daniel Wilson 
in his " Archgeology and Preliistoric Annals of Scotland" have all suggested translations, and attri- 
buted these monuments to difierent individuals. The first of these inscriptions records little more 
than the name of Eogain, or Owen, thus : 

OK an anmin eo'sain 

Tb(! fust word is the contracted form of okoit, equivalent to the Latin word oratio, a prayer ; the 
the second word signifies upon ; the third, anmin, is the cognate to anima, the soul. The whole is 
tlu ivlure to be translated 



The second grave-stone has the following inscription : 

Hh on "DO TYiaicpacarjic 


This inscription gives a proper name very common in Irish history," and which may be 
rendered 'the tonsured servant of Patrick.' The first part of this name is to be found in 
many others, as, for example, Maelbrigid, and Maelcolum, or Malcolm ; and a remarkable 
instance occurs in the original autograph of the transcriber of part of the Book of Armagh 
written by Mael Suthain, the secretary, as he has been styled, of the celebrated Brian Boru, who 
flourished in the 11th century. The autograph is followed by a translation in the Latin language, 
but in the Irish character, in the hand-writing of the individual himself, thus : "I Calvus Perenms^ 
wrote this in the sight of Brian." ****** 

As to the individual over whose remains this stone was placed, a strong presumption, at least, may 
be deduced from an entry in the Annals of the Four Masters, at the year 1174, where it is recorded, 
that " Malpatrick O'Banan, Bishop of Connor and Dal-Araidhe, a venerable man, full of sanctity, 
meekness and purity of heart, died happily in Hy of Columbkille, at a good old age." He was evidently 
a personage of some importance, for his name appears among those of the subscribing Bishops to the 
acts of the famous Council of Kells, held in the year 1152, where Gillachrist, Bishop of Lismore, 
presided in the capacity of Legate, and the two additional palls were conferred on Dublin and Tuam. 

In Scotland the Archaeologists seem still to be at issue with regard to these two inscriptions. The 
latest notice of them occurs in a commimication made on the 10th of May 1852, by Mr. W. F. Skene, 
a gentleman of the highest attainments, and who has been long known as a person of the most accu- 
rate research, to the Society of Antiquaries in Edinburgh. It is entitled generally, on '' Ancient 
inscribed Scottish monuments," and was published in the Proceedings of the Society, vol. i. part i. 
page 81. The first of these inscriptions he concurs with Dr. D. Wilson (Prehistoric Annals, page 
507,) in reading thus : 

OR QR aHmin eo^ain 

and translates it, 


Mr. Skene proceeds to say that the word "armin means a hero, or chief," and cites, in confirma- 
tion of this reading, a passage in the Annals of the Four Masters, at the year 1103 In a note, how- 
ever, he intimates that "the second letter of the third word may be read either K, or N," and in 
the latter case the word would be more properly read 

a n m 1 n 

AXMiN, ANiMA, the soul ; and he concludes, " should this word be found on other similar inscriptions, 

it is probably the best reading." 


The conjecture, thus merely hazarded, is however placed beyond a doubt by a comparison with simi- 
lar inscriptions met with very often in Ireland, and it will be, perhaps, deemed suflScient to cite 
four. Two of them occur on gravestones in the cathedral of Lismore, and were lithographed for Mr. 
Windele, of Cork, in 1849. They read as follows : 

berroach-c ipon anmain cocsen 


6ent)acliu por? on Tnar?can 


Two others were found by the Rev. James Graves, of Kilkenny, in the church-yard of Kil- 
lamery, in the county of Kilkenny, and are copied from tracings made by him : they appear to have 
been commemorative of two individuals of the same name, which is one of some celebrity in the his- 
tory of early Christian times. The fir&t of them reads thus : 

on an anmin aet)aen 

The second runs in nearly the same words, with a slight variation in the spelling, thus : 

on an anmainri .aeT)ain 

and they maybe similarly translated, 


It is to be presumed that these examples, (and others doubtless exist which have not yet been no- 
ticed,) will suffice to establish the true reading of the much controverted inscription at lona. 

A little to the north of the Reilig Grain stands the Cathedral, which covers the greatest extent, 
and is the most conspicuous of the various groups of ruins in lona. The great Tower, which is placed 
at the intersection of the Nave and Choir, with the Transepts, catches the attention from every point of 
view. At once massive and elegant, simple in its general form, yet not wanting in the decoration of 
its details, it may well be a matter of pride to Ireland that an inscription on the upper portion of one 
of the supporting columns exhibits the name of an Irish ecclesiastic as its builder, in these words : 


He was doubtless of the family of Flahertach O'Brolchain whose name is foimd recorded in the An- 
nals of the Four Masters at the year 1175, as coarh, or successor of Columbkille, " to whom, for his 
wisdom and great virtues, the clergy of Ireland had given a bishop's chair, and oflFered the superinten- 
dence of the monastery of lona." The lithographic illustration of this paper shows the general 
aspect of this fine square Tower, and the Cathedral, as seen from the west, with the great Cross of 
St. Martin in the foreground. 

Notwithstanding that the Cathedral, and the group of buildings which surround it, have always at- 
tracted the chief attention of those who have visited lona, there are many most interesting and 


characteristic features which have escaped observation. The very striking and picturesque effect of 
this noble pile ever fill the mind with a solemn pleasure when \newed with a just feeling. Upon a 
closer examination it will be found to consist of portions of greatly varying interest and antiquity. 
While the great tower and perhaps the larger portion of the nave, and aisles, are probably the erec- 
tions of the 12th and next succeeding century, many parts of the ruins must be referred to a still more 
remote period. To distinguish these from each other would require greater space than can be de- 
voted to a detailed inquiry in these pages. Numerous and careful drawings, also, would be required 
in order to make any description available, and after all would fail to supply the want of a close per- 
sonal inspection of the architectural characteristics of the various parts. It will be sufficient, for the 
purposes of this brief notice, to pass on to a general view of the most striking features which present 

Entei'ing the Cathedral by the great western door, a lofty pointed arch, of the most elegant pro- 
portions, and consisting of four members, the general plan of the building is at once perceived to be 
cruciform. It consists of Nave, Transepts, and Choir, with Aisles at the sides. It is, however, obvious 
that many of its minor features arose from various departures from the original design, and were 
made, chiefly by way of additions, at different and very distant periods. 

The Nave measures 64 feet in length, by 23 feet and 6 inches in breadth. A considerable portion 
of its northern wall has long since fallen ; the southern still stands, and contains the remains of three 
lofty windows of a very simple form. The northern wall is curiously projected so as to form a little 
chamber ; which, it may be conjectured, was intended for the apartment of a porter, who through a 
narrow serrated slit which it contains, could command a view of persons at the outside of the great 
western door. At the eastern end of the nave rises the great tower, the arch beneath which has been 
built up to the top ; a small space only being left for a modern door. 

This noble square tower forms a most conspicuous object from a distance, and is not only the most 
prominent and important feature in these ruins, but fortunately continues in a much more perfect state 
of preservation than any other part. Its ground plan, on being measured, is found not to form an 
exact square, but measures 22 feet lengthways, while it is 26 feet and six inches across. Like every 
other part of the building, it is now unroofed, and can only be ascended to scarce one third of its 
entire height, which is said to be altogether about ninety feet. It stands upon four lofty pointed 
arches, supported by clustered columns, which lead respectively into the Nave, the Chou- or Chancel 
and the northern or southern Transepts. Of these arches, the northern is evidently richer in its de- 
tails than the southern. It presents below a cluster of seven members, from which above spring five ; 
while, in the southern, there are but three members springing from a cluster of seven. At the top 
the tower is lighted by four beauteous square windows, one at each side. They are formed of quatre- 
foils, wrought in stone-work, and each window is supported within by a single baluster, producing a 
angularly fine effect. They all are distinct in form and details, yet harmonize with each other. In- 
deed throughout the entire of this interesting building there is perhaps no feature more worthy of 


of especial note than the elegant differences, in various instances more or less remote, which, upon 
examination, are found to exist between every corresponding window, column, capital, arch, and other 
minor detail and decoration ; exhibiting the profound skUl and power of design possessed by the archi- 
tect, who, as it were, disdained to copy or repeat himself. 

The Chancel is, as nearly as possible, of the same extent in length and breadth as the Nave. The 
eastern window is still tolerably perfect, and of an early Grothic style. The arches on each side rest 
on massive circular columns, with sculptured capitals. On the northern side, the gpaces between the 
arches have been built up. The clerestory windows above are narrow, and have tre-foiled heals. Of 
these there are five ; two in the northern wall, and three in the southern ; and, though differing from 
each other, they present a sufficient degree of general uniformity to ensure perfect harmony in general 

The open arches on the southern side of the Choir, running up to the place where it is presumed 
the stone pulpit once stood, give a light and beautiful effect to the wiole structure. At the upper 
end are the recessed sedilia, which are surmounted by tre-foiled arches, having sculptured heads 
above ; that next the high altar wears a mitre. The seats, as usual, are raised a little one above the 
other, as they approach the altar. Between the two higher seats a crowned head appears. The win- 
dows at the side of the altar are of an ornamental character, and are nearly pure Gothic in the 
style of their tracery. The mullions of the eastern window are much corroded by decay in 
their upper portions, which gives them a singularly picturesque effect. In the north wall two arches 
are visible, whose bases are at a considerable height from the ground. The round-headed door-way 
already spoken of, is placed beneath one of those arches, but by no means in the centi'e ; from which 
it may be concluded that it did not form a part of the original design. These arches are closed up 
with solid masonry, which, it is quite evident, was done at some remote period. Corresponding with 
the tops of the clerestory windows, but a little below them, is a row of corbels, simply but not inele- 
gantly carved, and of similar designs to others to be found in the great tower ; these supported the wood- 
work of the roof, which was doubtless of a perpendicular character, the corbels being lower than the 
tops of the clerestory windows. That the roof must have been of wood is manifest from the fact that no 
provision was made for the support of the weight of stone vaulting, to cover the breadth of the Choir _ 
The great altar stood upon a large dais, nearly extending across the whole breadth of the Chancel. 

The southern transept is remarkably simple and unornamented ; its only feature worthy 
of particular notice, bolng the round arch leading into the southern aisle, and a large pointed 
window in the south wall, the mullions and tracery of which have disappeared. Along the eastern 
side of the northern transept arc three round recessed arches, of a remarkably ancient form ; the 
centre one, which is the smallest, surmounts a niche, which once contained a statue of a saint or 
ecclesiastic, but of which the feet, and a portion of the lower drapery alone remain. The others open 
into deep clonet-shaped recesses, having windows corresponding to the arches, and opening eastwards 
into an interspace between portions of the building. The northern wall of this transept haa been 


long wholly prostrate ; the western wall separates it from the cloisters, with which it communicated 
by a low pointed door- way, the fragments of which still lie about; it having but recently fallen down. 

On the south side of the Chancel an aisle extends to within about fifteen feet of its eastern end, 
where it is terminated by a pointed window ; while, to the north, an apartment, nine paces by four, 
is found in a position corresponding to the southern aisle, formed by two buttressed walls, and com- 
municating with the Chancel by a round-headed door-way, supported by sculptured columns with 
massive capitals. These are decorated with foliated ornaments, some figures of animals, (one of 
them a boar,) and intei-laced vine-leaves, in low relief. The outer columns are squared, and each 
bore a couchant human figure, supporting on his shoulders the superincumbent ornament : one of 
these is nearly obliterated, while the other is perfect, excepting the head. Above these columns 
rises a semicircular arch, with its mouldings; while on those of the doorcase within it rests a beauti- 
ful trefoil arch, the effect of which beneath is singularly striking and elegant in general form, as 
well as in its details. Nearly^opposite to this door- way is a base of massive masonry, which probably 
supported a stone pulpit. The side chapel, or sacristy, contains a ' piscina' of carved sandstone, the 
same material in which the mullions of the windows, and various other parts of the ornamental work 
of the Cathedral, are executed. It has also a recessed space for an ' aumbry ;' and is lighted by four 
widely splayed windows, none of which are symmetrical either in form or place. Two of these are in 
the south-eastern wall, one above the other ; the upper one is very small, but opens widely within by 
a bold splay above and below, as well as laterally. The mouldings on the inner surface of the wall 
are triple, and contain a bold bead-ornament between the outer moulding, and that next to it. The 
form of this upper window is rectilinear ; the upper part terminating in a triangular head. The lower 
window is similarly splayed, and square in form. A thirJ window was placed opposite to the door- 
way, between the ' aumbry' and the centre of the sacristy, and is now in a ruined state. The 
fourth window is placed higher up in the north-western wall ; its form is square, of small dimen- 
sions, and devoid of ornament ; and, as it exhibits no mark of decay, it would seem to be of more 
recent date than the others. 

The great aisle on the southern side of the Cathedral, extending nearly the whole length of the 
chancel, opens into the transept by a massive and plainly moulded round arch, supported on the left 
by a low round column with a richly decorated capital, while that on the right is square and devoid of 
enrichment, being little more than the edge of the wall dressed with a chamfered edge : on this, at a height 
of about three feet above the ground, a small cross is sculptured within a circle. Crosses of a similar 
form occur sometimes in the external walls of churches and cathedrals, as, for instance, in that at 
Salisbury. Another is to be seen at one side of the beautiful door- way of the church of Freshford, 
in the county of Kilkenny, engraved in Dr. Petrie's essay on ancient Irish Ecclesiastical Architecture. 
They were occasionally inlaid with metal, and have been supposed to mark the spots which were 
anointed with ' chrism' at the dedication of the building. 

One half of the capital of the transept column, (already alluded to as on the left of the arch,) is 


foliated and divided into compartments; wbile the remainder, which looks towards the aisle, 
bears a sculptured representation of the expulsion of our first parents from Paradise, by an 
angel holding a drawn sword. A cable-moulding runs beneath the decorations of this capital, 
which is repeated on the other columns supporting the side arches on the south of the Chan- 
cel: while from the transept columns it is continued upwards vertically till it meets a plain 
moulding surrounding the loftier clustered column of the great transept arch which terminates 
the Chancel. 

The aisle is formed of three massive buttress walls, sloping to the ground externally. At 
the eastern wall is a pointed window of admirable proportions; and two inner walls form 
segments, apparently massy quadrants of great circles, which abut against the outer moulding 
of the Chancel arches, and repose on the capital or ' archivolt' of the great circular columns. 
The remains of five windows are still visible in this aisle. Of these, three were placed be- 
tween the buttresses, and must have been of a large size: a foufth, much smaller, is close 
to the end on the south side; the last, which is placed at the eastern, or rather the south- 
eastern end, is the noble pointed window, already mentioned, which yet exists in a tolerably 
perfect state. It has a massive central mvdlion, and triple head, the centre of which is so 
disposed as to exhibit a cross of a very beautiful form. The entire stone-work of this fine 
window, although most elaborately wrought, is yet remarkably massive in proportion to its height. 
It may be safely stated to be a very superior example of the pointed style, in which the general beauty 
of effect is produced rather by the proportions of the stone-work, than by the glass, however beautiful, 
which it may once have contained. It seems worthy of note that this window, as seen from the tran- 
sept, is in a great degree hidden by the arched buttresses, which leave but about two-thirds of its 
height visible. 

There are traces of various minor buildings surrounding the Cathedral, some connected with it, others 
detached, though close at hand ; and many more may be traced, by their foundations, at short distances. 
Some of them are still popularly distinguished by such names as '' the Bishop's house ;" others have 
indications of their ecclesiastical character, and one at least may be safely presumed to have been a 
small church. 

It has already been intimated that much remains to be told of lona, its exquisite nat- 
ural beauties, and its antiquities, which belong to a period even antecedent to the Christian 
era; much, also, of its subsequent and archaeological associations, as well as its ecclesiastical 
ruins, of which but a brief and imperfect notice has been given in these pages. A curious 
circumstance has yet, in conclusion, to be noticed : it is this. Among the inhabitants of this 
sequestered islet a constant and unbroken tradition exists to the present day, derived, as they uni- 
formlv tell, from the earliest Christian period, that lona will, in process of time, be restored 
to its pristine greatness, and resume the distinguished position it once held as the great lumi- 
nary of the western world. la confirmation of this tradition it may be observed that Pen- 


nant, writing iu the middle of the last ccutury, records the following Gaelic prophetic E,ann 

or verse :- 

'Seachd bliadhna roimli an bhrath, 
Thig muir thair Eirin ri aon trath, 
Is thair Da ghuirm ghlais ; 
Ach snamhaidh I Cholum claraich." 

which he thus translates 

" Seven years before the end of the world, 
A deluge shall drown the nations. 
The sea, at one tide, shall cover Ireland, 
And the green-headed Islay ; but Columba'a isle 
Shall swim above the flood." 

and a still more exact embodiment of this vivid and remarkable tradition is frequently recited in the 
island, having survived, in a singular manner, the entire change produced, by the effects of time, in 
its population and religious creed. It is given first in Gaelic, and afterwards translated in the foUoW' 
ing words, by Mr. 11. D. Graham, in his 'Antiquities of lona' : 

I mo chridhe, I mo ghraidh, 
An aite guth manaidh bithidh geum ba, 
Ach mun tig an saoghal gu crich, 
Bithidh I mar a bha. 

The isle of my heart, the isle of my love, 

Instead of a monk's voice shall be the lowing of cattle. 

But before the world comes to an end 

lona shall flourish as before. 



In the month of February, 1177, Sir John de Courcy accompanied by his brother-b-law Sir Ar- 
moric St Lawrence, Sir Koger le Poer, twenty-two knights and 300 foot soldiers, and many of the 
Irish, according to Lord Lyttleton, marched from Dublin to Ulster, reaching the city of Down 'on the 
fifth day, which he surprised, and, without resistance, captured and rifled. The Annals of the Four 
Masters, of Ulster, of Innisfallen, &c., record many battles as being fought between De Courcy and 
the Ulster Irish, principally with the chieftains of Ulidia, at that period held by the family of Mac 
Donslevy, originally called O'h-Eochadha. (O'Haughey.) Victory sometimes leaned to the native forces, 
but ultimately to the English, owing, in some degree, to their superior description of arms, and the 
almost impenetrable armour with which they were clad, (as stated by Hanmer,) as well as to De Courcy 's 
own gigantic strength and indomitable courage, and the support which he received from the clergy, 
who were constrained by the Bulls of Popes Adrian and Alexander, and by the influence of the Cardinal 
Legate Vivian, then in Down. There can be little question but the number of De Courcy 's troops has been 
vastly underrated ; and that the success which he achieved attracted still greater numbers, who flocked 
to his standard, hoping to share in the spoils, "the cloathing, gold, silver, plate, and rich booties," which, 
Hanmer writes, the English obtained, "without checke or controubnent of any," on their first victory 
in Down. Eventually, such was the progress of his arms, that he subjugated to the English crown 
the greater part of the maritime coasts of Ulster, from the Boyne to the Bann, with considerable por- 
tions of the interior, having his chief castle at Downpatrick in the territory of Locale, But the Irish, 
though defeated, were not subdued ; and to protect his conquest of Locale, De Courcy foimd it neces- 
sary to erect a chain of upwards of 18 castles, (including the seven in Ardglass,) girdling the entire 
sea-coast and river of Lough Coyne from Duudrum to Ath-na-cleidhe (now Annacloy) on the 
Marches ; with another at Clough to guard the mountain passes from Iveagh, and which stood in 
view of the greater fortress of Dundrum. This remarkable feature in the topography of this and the 
adjoining districts, could not fail to strike such a keen observer as Mrs. Hall, and we accordingly find 
her writing that " along the whole of its borders north, south, east, an! west are the ruins of nu- 
" merous castles. The character of the scenery, indeed, strongly reminded us of the ' Barony of Forth' 
" in the county of Wexford ; for everywhere we noted indications that a comparatively small number 
" of strangers had been living in the midst of enemies, whom they had ' come to spoil,' and who were, 
" consequently, compelled to keep ' watch and ward' at all seasons, in or about their * strong houses of 
" stone.' " 

With portions of the lands thus conquered, De Courcy richly endowed many of the monastic 


houses; also amply rewar(3ing such of his fellow-soldiers, as determined on abiding his fortune, ^ith 
similar grants. Sir John Davies, in his " Discoverie of the True Causes why Ireland was never 
subdued, &c.," mentions the Aiideleyes, Gemons, Clintons, and JtusscUs, as among such "voluntaries;" 
whilst Harris, in his History of the County of Down, gives, in addition, the families of Savage, White, 
Riddel, Sandal, Poer, Chamberlane, Stokes, Mandeville, Jordan, Stanton, Passelew, Copland, and 
Martell; and adds, "perhaps the Fitz-simons, Crowleys, andBensons." The "perhaps," of Harris is, how- 
ever, perfectly gratuitous, as it is highly probable he extracted his list from the Act for the attainder of 
Shane O'Neill, passed in the 11th year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth; which, after enumerating the 
Queen's numerous historical titles to the realm of Ireland, mentions the conquest of Ulster, by John 
de Corsie," who " brought the people of the same in due subjection to the crown of England 5 
and for his painefull service and worthy deedes, did hold and possesse the sayd countrey of Ulster 
quietly of the king of England's gift : of whose companions in armes there remaineth at this day in 
Ulster, as a testimonial of that conquest, certain stirpes of English bloud ; as the Savages, Yordans, 
(Jordans), Fitz Simons, Chamberlins, Bensons, Russels, Audeleyes, Whites, and many others, as pro- 
prietors of large portions of land, hardly and valiantly hitherto kept by them, although with great 
peril and povertie." In a M.S. written about 1598, and printed in Dubourdieu's Antrim, it is alsQ 
stated that De Courcy planted in Le Cahill sundry English gentlemen, " where some of their pos- 
terity yet remain. Their names are, Savages, Russels, Fitz-simmocs, Audlies, Jordans, Bensons." 
In the list, subsequently given by Harris, of the principal gentlemen resident in Down in the time of 
Queen Elizabeth, (query, end of her reign?) of those decidedly of British origin he mentions only the 
families of Savage, Fitz-simmons, Dowdal, White, Benson, Russel, Jordan, Audley and Mandevill ; 
omitting those who have been stated as followers of De Courcy, the Riddels, Sandals, Poers, Cham- 
berlanes, Stokes, Stantons, Logans, Passelews, Coplands, Martins, and CroUys ; though some of these, 
for instance the latter, were then possessed of ample possessions in Down, as also the Chamberlanes ; 
for we find, by an Inquisition held at Downpatrick, 14th September, 1634, that so late as 1615, Ro- 
ger Chamberline, of Mozellrath, in Louth, then granted to Francis Annesley, Baron of Moimtnorris 
the estate of Cloghmaghercatt, (now the town of Clough,) in whose family it remained until 1783, when 
it was sold to the grandfather of the present proprietor, David S. Kerr, Esq. 

Some of the above names, under their Norman forms, are to be found in the attestations to the mo- 
nastic grants from De Courcy, to Down, Neddrum, &c., and in the grants from his followers, to Ned- 
drum. Thus Adam Camerario we may presume to be the founder of the Chamberlanes, Roger de 
Dunseforth of the Jordans, Willielmo de Coupland of the Coplands, Radulfo Martcl of the Martels, 
Simone Passelew of the family of that name, Walter de Loga of the Logans," Will' de Stokys of tho 

a There are many families of the name of Logan in Lecale as well as the rest of Down, but they are of Scotch origin. 
Walter Logan of Provestown, in the Ards, a Scotchman, 18 May. 11, James I, received a grant of denization to be free 
of the yoke of Scotland. The Wardlaws, also, who are supposed to be of Englislr descent, are Scotch, William 
Wardlow, of Lismullen, now Bishops Court, received alike grant in 1614. 


Stokes; and we may fairly presume that Osberto T. Tussel, an attesting witness to the grant of Bally- 
kinlar from De Courcy to Christ Church is a copyist's mistake for Russel.'' It is very probable 
however, that the Riddels, Poers, Stantons, Passelews, and Martels, never resided in Down, though the 
map accompanying Connellan's translation of the Four Masters, places the Martels in Upper Castle- 
reagh, and the Stantons and Le Poers in Lower Castlereagh ; but nothing can be more in- 
correct than this map in the placing of most of the English and Irish famiUes in Down, as 
we find the Russels placed in the south of DuJQferin. which belonged to the Whites, instead 
of in Lecale ; and the Fitz-simons in the Ardes, which belonged to the Savages ; the Audleys 
in Lower Castlereagh, and the Jordans in Upper Castlereagh; though it will appear that all these 
families were located in Lecale. Harris, it will have been perceived, has the Mandevilles so late here 
as Elizabeth's reign : we have for this, however, no other evidence, and we think it highly pro cable 
that that family, as well as the Logans, and Stokes, had left Ulster shortly after the death of the 
" Bed Earl." 

Up to the time of Cromwell a continued intercourse and intermarriage of the old British families 
were kept up between the inhabitants of Lecale and of the County Louth ; the communication between 
the districts being maintained, at an early period, according to Harris, by sea, " while the Irish pos- 
sessed all the passes in the mountains between the two counties." This intercourse arose not alone from 
the sympathy of common origin and motives of mutual defence, but also fi-om the fact, that many of those 
families held property in both places; such as the Dowdalls, Clintons, Whites, Chamberlines and Stokes, 
whom we find constantly appearing in the 'Inquisitions' as trustees for the Lecale families ; and that, 
in the confusion consequent on the death of the '' Red Earl," and the fierce wars of the O'Neills, many 
of these families parted with their lands in Lecale, and removed to Louth, 3Ieath, and Dublin ; thus 
accounting in some degree for their decay and disappearance out of Down. But many of them clung 
with desperate fidelity to the ancestral homes and fertile fields which their forefathers had won with 
their good broad-swords ; and we believe we do not exaggerate when we state, that one half of the pre- 
sent population of Lecale is their direct posterity, the remaining moiety being of modern English, 
Scotch, and Irish descent. At first it seems difficult to account for so many of the descendants of the* 
old Anglo-Norman settlers being located here, while they have disappeared from the rest of the 
County ; but this apparent difficulty will vanish, when we recollect that a great portion, more than one 
half of this Barony, belonged to the Church, and that, prior to the suppression of the religious houses, 
from the reign of Henry the seventh the Fitzgeralds held, ( with a short period of intermission,) the 

''Lodge vol. vi. p. 140, under Lord Kingsale, Trritos that, in 1190, De Courcy took a garrison-castle at Killsandall, 

_ by . 

tel or liotsel J'i'.un in command, and, thonph thoy mention bis defeat, say nothing of his being killed. It is very pos- 
sible tlio mimes were identical, tlie affix I'itun l)cing subsequently abandoned. The castle of Killsandall was on the 
east side oi' the river 15ann, near Coloriiino : its foundations are still visible. See O'Donovan, Four Masters ; Kecves, 
Eccl. Anli'inities. p.p. 74-324, and I'riuiate Colton's Visitation, pp. 2l)-31. 


large estates of Ardglass and Strangford ; that no forfeiture, of any importance, took place until tli6 
time of Cromwell; and that consequently, there being no sudden change of proprietors, there was no 
new plantation and expulsion of the old stock. 

Of the families whose descendants still remain, or who held property up to the middle of the seven- 
teenth century, such as the Savages, Russells, Jordans, Audleys, Fitzsimons, with some others also of 
British descent, we purpose now entering into a brief memoir ; for, though the subject could be greatly 
enlarged on, we prefer treating it with conciseness, but at the same time with' the strictest accuracy. 

And first of the Savages ; their possessions were principally in the Ardes, where they resided in 
their Castles of Portafcrry, Ardkeen, and Ballygalgot; yet they were occasionally designated 'Lords of 
Leathcathail,' [Lecale,] but this was only at short intervals, when with the strong-hand they over-ran 
the territory, until driven back to their peninsular highlands by the yet stronger forces of the 
O'Neills, and finally by the Fitzgeralds. It does not, indeed, appear, that they were ever able to at- 
tain a permanent footing in Lecale, though often making claims to portions, which, even so recently 
as the time of Mary, the deputy St. Leger, by an order in Council dated 11 Feb. 1553, denounced, 
in consequence of their attempts to usurp the castle of Kilclief from the Bishop of Down and Con- 
nor. This family was the only one of British origin in the County known to have assumed an Irish 
name, as the great families of Be Burgh, Birmingham, de Angulo, and Dexecester did in other parts of 
Ireland. The name adopted was " Mac Seneschall," from their so often filling the office of Seneschal 
of Ulster; and Harris says, they had so far degenerated as to fall into rebellion against the Crown. 
And here we may observe as a singular fact that, except in a very few instances, (some seven or eight,) 
the British settlers did not Anglicize the local denominations as they did in Louth ; the exceptions 
being Ballystokes before mentioned, three townlands from the Kussels, two from the Jordans, two 
irom the Audleys, and one from the CroUys ; while it is still more singular that up till some forty 
years since, the familiar language of the "lower side of Lecale" was genuine Irish. The family of 
Savage has given many distinguished officers to the service of their country, in the army as well as navy 
particularly the latter. The Portaferry branch some time since changed its name to Nugent, and is 
now represented by Patrick John Nugent, Esq. The Ardkeen branch is represented by Clayton 
Bayly Savage, Esq., D.L., of Norelands, County Kilkenny, who is the present proprietor of the Holly- 
mount Estate, in this Barony, comprising seven townlands. The name is still pretty numerous 
through the Barony, in families who claim to be of the same stock. ' 

The family of Russell, (indifferently spelled, in the Chancery Rolls, liosel, Rossel, Bussel, and i?5- 
selJ,) we find very early seated in Down, enjoying high offices as Sheriffs, Chancellors, and Barons of 
the Exchequer of Ulster. In the reign of Charles I., by reference to the Ulster Inquisitions we dis- 
cover that they had then branched into five or six families, namely, those of Bright, Killough, Rath- 
mullan, Quoniamstown, l-JalK'vaston, and Ballygallaghan, possessing large conterminous properties 
along the eastern sea-board of Lecale; one branch of which, (that of Killough,) held the estate of 
Sheephouse in Meath, and another, that of Seatown, County Dublin. The greater part of these ee- 


tates was, however, swept away in tlie time of Cromwell, the only branch that retained its possessions 
being the family of Quoniamstown ; which townland, with the adjoining one of Ballystrew, near Down- 
patrick, they still enjoy ; the present proprietor being Thomas John Russell, Esq., of Dalkey, Coun- 
ty Dublin, in whose family this property has, therefore, remained for upwards of six centuries. 
There are still extant in Locale, several other families of the name, descendants of junior branches, 
and enjoying considerable affluence ; of one of which, (that of Killough,) the Rev. Doctor Russell Pro- 
fessor of Ecclesiastical History in Maynooth, and a distinguished writer and Archaeologist, is a 

The family of Crollt, alias Swordes, originally seated at Ballydonnell, and subsequently at Bally- 
kilbeg, held eight townlands, forming the southern portion of the parish of Down, of which they 
lost all but Ballykilbeg, during the time of the Commonwealth ; the latter being sold about the com- 
mencement of the present century. Two families of them still remain in that townland, of whom the 
late venerated Primate Crolly of Armagh was a younger branch ; the eloquent divine poet and es- 
sayist, the Rev. Doctor Croly of St. Greorge's, London, being also a collateral descendant. This family 
is not to be confounded with that of Croly, or 0' Croly, alias 0' Crowley, the former proprietors of Kil- 
shallow, in the Barony of Carbery, County Cork, which is purely Celtic ; though it is not a little 
strange that the English family at Stourbridge, in Worcestershire, of whom Sir Ambrose Crowley was 
the head, in the first half of the 18th century wrote their name in the same manner as the Irish 
one appears in the Munster Inquisitions. 

The DowDALLS, long subsequent to the reign of Elizabeth, held property in Ardglass and Ballyder- 
gan, which they sold early in the reign of Charles I, retiring to their estate of Desert, County Louth ; 
after which they totally disappear from Lecale. 

The AuDLEYS, of Audleystown, sold part of their property, in 1643, to the "Ward family, to whom, 
also, they sold the remainder about the beginning of the last century ; the latest mention we can find 
of the name in this locality being a Thomas Audley, residing in Ballynagalliagh in 1732. 

The JoRDANS, of Dunsford and Ardglass, (the head of which, in Elizabeth's reign, was Simon Jor- 
dan, so well known for the noble defence of his castle in Ardglass against the O'Neills,) had large 
possessions in Dunsford, Lismore, Jordan's Crew, Jordan's Acre, &c., which Simon, his son, sold, in 
1656, to Nicholas Fitzsiraons of Kilclief. It does not appear by the Inquisitions that he had any 
children ; but a few families of the name are still to bo found in the barony, who claim, and doubt- 
less are of, the same lineage. 

The family of Fitzsimons, in addition to the property acquired by purchase from Jordan, had a 
large patrimonial estate of their own in Kilclief, Ballynarry, Granagh, &c., which they parted with, 
in piecemeal, to the Smiths, Wards, Brices, &c. The name, however, we shoidd say, is at present, by 
far the most prevalent in the barony, particularly the northern part, where there are entire town- 
lands bearing that cognomen, upwards of forty being on the registry of voters, in 1852 ; nearly 
double that of any other. 


But independent of the British families, before mentioned, whose names appear in Harris and the 
Inquisitions as early settled in Lecale, there are, at the present time, several others whose ancient 
standing cannot be disputed such as the Denvirs, Starkeys, Clintons, Blaneys, and Marmions ; " the 
latter, however, whose name was originally Merriman, only dating from the reign of Elizabeth, at the 
same time as the Wards and Wests. 

The family of Den viR is unquestionably Anglo-Norman, (said to have come here from Essex;) or, 
rather it is originally French, being the same name as Be Anverso, D'Anvers, Danvers, derived from 
the town of Anvers, now Antwerp, in Brabant. In the Post Mortem Inquisitions of Edward III., 
the name is spelled Danvere, and in the same form it is found, in numerous instances, in an old Tithe 
Book of the Deanery of Down, of the date of 1732 : afterwards it was spelled Denver, and it is 
only lately the spelling Denvir was adopted. The Rt. Rev. Dr. Denvir, of Belfast, is of this family j 
and on the list of registered voters, 1852, we find 23 of this name. As a proof of the French origin of 
this family we may state, that the name Denvers, (pronounced Denver,) is very numerous in Paris ; 
one of them being a member of the Court of Cassation. 

The family of Starkey, of whom there are considerable numbers in Lecale, (there being eight on 
the registry of voters,) is, also, purely English ; many highly respectable houses of the name are to be 
found in England, particularly in Lancashire and Cheshire, from the latter of which it is probable 
they came to Ireland with De Courey. We find a James Starkey of Ardglass, in 1586, joint trustee 
with Audley, of Audleystown, of the estates of Robert Swordes, alias Croly ; but there is little or no 
mention of them at a subsequent date in the Ulster Inquisitions. 

We also find on the registry of voters, of the other English families incidentally mentioned, eleven 
Blaxeys and two Clintons, though tliei'o are a great many more of the name in the barony: and here we 
may observe, once for all, that the same fact holds as to all the other families whose numbers have 
been given on the authority of these lists lists which we have no doubt will render invaluable assis- 
tance to such persons as are desirous of studying this subject as regards the rest of Ireland. 

If space had permitted, we purposed entering on the subject of the later English and Scotch colo- 
nists, inhabitants of this district, as well as of the Irish families, descendants of its lords previous to the 
advent of De Courey ; but the subject is too extensive for the limits of this paper, and, for the pre- 
sent, we must rest content with a few hurried observations. It is highly probable that little or no 
change occurred in the population of Lecale until after 1641, when the new proprietors introduced 
a number of Scotch settlers, and a portion of the army of Munroe made it their home. There is no 
means of ascertaining the names of these new colonists in full; but from the list of Presbyterian land- 
holders of Ulster proposed to be transplanted into Leinster and Munster, in 1653, on account of their 
attachment to monarchical and Presbyterian principles, for which list we are indebted to the re- 

= The Down Survey returns William Merry man as having been possessed of seven townlands in the Parish of Kil- 
clief, principally episcopal lands. The Merry mans and Wards frequently appear as trustees of the Russells, and 
other Lecale families, and several intermarriages between the Russells and Wards are recorded. See Lodge, vol. vi. 
p. 68, and Ulst. Mg. 

search of the late Doctor Reid, the historian of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, we obtain the 
names of those who were to be removed from Leeale Quarters : they were Lieutenants Hugh Mont- 
gomery, Launcelot Greece, (Gracey,) Thomas Lindsay, Woodney, John Reynolds, Capt. John 

WooU, James Stewart, John Dunbarr, John Tenant, James Porter, Stephen Masor, (Mercer ?) and 
John McDowell. Of these there still exist in the barony the families of Gracey, Stewart, and Lind- 
say ; and, up to very lately, that of Mercer and McDowell : the Mercers and McDowells being highly 
respectable citizens of Downpa trick. However, the Scottish populuation docs not seem to have been 
at that time very numerous, if we may judge from the fact, that in the list of ]\Iinisters receiving 
stipends from the Civil Establishment in 1655, ** there is only one, the Rev. Robert Echlin of Strang- 
ford, returned for Locale. This paucity of numbers may have arisen from the circuaistance that 
during the Cromwellian wars several regiments had been raised in Locale, one of which was 
stationed in Dundalk in 1647 ; which regiments, we may fairly presume, were raised exclusively 
out of the Scottish population, and which, no doubt, largely contributed to drain the strength of 
those colonists in the barony. At the period of the Revolution, in 1688, after the " Break of 
Dromore," Locale was overrun by the regiment of Magenis, Lord Iveagh, who had his head-quar- 
ters at Downpatrick ; when many of the adherents of King William, previous to the blockade of 
the ports, were taken prisoners, and others fled to England and the Isle of Man. Several petty skirmishes 
ensued ; the Iveagh troops were defeated, and Iveagh's prisoners liberated by Captain Hunter, who, 
in turn, was overthrown by Major General Buchan. In August 1689, Schomberg landed in 
Groorasport^ when many of the inhabitants of the barony, who had been supporters of King 
James, abandoned the country for Connaught, Amid such scenes it is only natural to expect that the 
country would become desolate and greatly depopulated ; and though, when peace was restored, 
many families returned to their former homes, yet numbers deserted it altogether. To remedy this, 
several Eiiglisli and Scots, and some farmers from the Ards, were invited here, and had large tracts 
of land allotted to them. Of the English fimilies the principal were Moore, Hunter, Swail, Porter, 
Jennings, Hunter, Neill. Ncsbitt and Cochran ; to which we may add the families of Seeds, Polly, 
Elsinor, (now changed to Nelson,) Coatcs, and Quaile, who were brought over from England, early in 
the 18th century, by the Hon. Justice Ward, and several of whose descendants are still very numerous 
in the parish of Bally culter. The second colony of the Scots were chiefly Martins, Henrys, Lowres, (now 
Lewis,) Hoggs, Carsons, and Newclls, whose descendants are also numerous in difierent parts of Lo- 
cale ; and it is remarkable that, although the Scottish idiom never prevailed here, owing, no doubt, 
to the English and Scots " mixing, intermarrying, and communicating with each other, in so many 
different ways" so as to become one people, ^yet they preserved intact some of their native customs, 
habits, rnodes of life and agriculture, up to a recent period, to such an extent, that by looking at the 

< Reid. vol. IT., p. 498. 
Journal of the House of Commons, March 1G47. 


face of the country and observing its plantations, it could be told whether the proprietor was of Scotch or 
English descent, the Scotch principally planting ash trees, the English oak, elm, birch and beech. From 
1725 to 1758, Priiriate Boulter states, in his letters, there was a continuous series of bad harvests all 
over Ireland, but principally in Ulster ; where provisions, particularly oatmeal, (which he mentions as 
the staple subsistence of the inhabitants,) rose to a high price ; which, conjoined to uneasiness about the 
exactions of the tithe farmers, induced great numbers of the northern farmers to emigrate to Ame- 
rica and the West Indies. The emigrants, it appears, were chiefly Presbyterians, and, it may be as- 
sumed, of Scottish origin; which circumstance contributed largely to the reduction of that class of colo- 
nists, and the increase of the old English and native population in Locale. 

Of the oU native Irish tribes, branches of the Dal Fiatach, mentioned by Dudley M. Firbis as re- 
siding at Dun-da-leathglas, (Downpatrick,) it would be folly to attempt tracing any direct descendants 
at the present time; particularly as surnames were not adopted by the Irish until the tenth century, 
and from there being so many migrations of the Ulidian tribes to Leinster and other parts of Ireland: 
for even in 1666, when Mr. Firbis wrote, he states that they had become " extinct ultimately, except a 
few of them who are a long time in insignificance." The principal tribes of the Dal Fiatach were the 
Cinel Aengus, the Clan Fiachaidh, the O'Cairill, and the O'Connmaigh ; but, unless they adopted other 
tlian the tribe-names, there are none of them now in Lecale. From the Clanna Rudhraidhe, of which 
ilagenis and Macartan are branches, was descended Cathal, living in the 8th century, from whom 
Lmlh Cathail (Lesale) derives its name, and whose descendants long held its lordship ; and from the 
same Cathal was descended the family of O'Morna, otherwise MacGrioUa Muire, who frequently appear 
as lords of the territory, even subsequent to the English invasion. The name, in the Irish xVnnals, is 
sometimes written MacGillmurray, MacGilmorie, orGilmor, (Dr. Keeves in his researcbes, stating Gil- 
mor as the present equivalent;) but, though some of the descendants of these "lords" may have so Angli- 
cized the name, the original one of MacGiolla Muire, written M'llmurray, is still common in the bar- 
ony, and was pretty numerous, in that part of llathmuUan called ScoUogstown, up to a recent date. A 
family called MacMilmorie was resident in Kilwater, County Westmeath, in the reign of James I., 
whether an oifdhot of the Lecale family is uncertain ; but it has been suggested, and is very proba- 
ble, that the various families of Murrays in Carrickmannon in Castlereagh, and Slieveaniskcy in 
Iveagh, are so. We have before observed, that the King of Ulidia, in de Courcy's time, was Duinn- 
shleibhe O'h-Eochadha, also of the Dal Fiatach race; and whose descendants, according to the topo- 
graphical poem of ODagan, afterwards branched into the two families of O'Dunlevie and O'Heochy, 
wliii:h last very singularly Anglicized their name, not to Hoey, but Hawkins. The name Dunlevy 
is now unknown in Locale ; but up to a late period there were several families named O'Heoghy. 
The only proprietor of Irish lineage we find in Leci^le, in the reign of Elizabeth, is Donat Magrory 
or ]\LacRory, (as the chief of the Kilwarlin branch of Magenis was called,) who died in 1599 seized of the 
lands of Clogher, near Downpatrick, and of the Odd Hall and several messuages in that town, and which 
lands Owen his son, and DonnoU his grandson, successively held up to 1662. It is probable it was sold 


shortly afterwards ; as, in the Letters Patent creating the manor of Killough, granted to Sir Robert 
Ward, Knt., dated 29th May, 1671, we find the lands of " Clougher" included in the grant. But, 
although there were no native proprietors for the last two centuries, the rural population was exten- 
sively Irish, continuing so to the present day ; thus proving the correctness of the theory, that, in the 
country districts, the population is, or rather was, averse to migration, while, in towns, it was ever 
changing. A very slight examination of the Tithe Book previously referred to, in conjunction 
with the Rental of the Cromwell estate in 1708, (then comprising the town of Downpatrick and a- 
about 70 different denominations,) shews at once that, whilst not more than seven or eight of the fa- 
milies resident in Downpatrick now remain, the same names and families which resided throughout the 
Barony are still to be found in the same identical localities. The principal Irish families^now inhabi- 
ting the territory, which we wish to state as nearly as possible according to their relative numbers, are the 
M<2Keatins, Hynds, JMaglenons, (in other parts of Ireland this family have dropped the Mac, and are 
simply Grlennon,) Hannets, (who have Scotticized their name to Hanna,) Connors, Magreevys, Taggarte, 
McConveys, Crangles, McKeameys, (who latterly have dropped the Mac,) Killens, Mcllmeals, and 
McCumuskeys, (Mac Cumuscagh), a name which we have found in no other part of Ireland with the Mac 
prefixed, excepting Dublin, and there they are natives of Downpatrick. This name, Cumuscagh, was 
frequent amongst the Fids, or Cruithnians, who, at an early period, made Locale one of their habitats ; 
the townland, Ballytrostem, being derived from Trostem the Druid who accompanied the first of the 
Gruithenians who settled in Ireland. Another name, Curoe, common in Lecale, is also we believe pe- 
culiar to it, as we have not found it elsewhere, but whether of Pictish or Milesian origin is uncertain. 

J. W. H. 


Since the above article was written, the writer found, on examining Lodge's Peerage, by Archdall, 
(vol. vi. p. 143,) that the Writ 6 King John, alluded to page 41, as not being in Lynch, was given by 
Lodge under the title " Kingsale." It is there stated that Philip Augustus of France having disputed 
with John as to the Duchy of Normandy, the decision was referred to a single combat between two 
champions ; that John selected De Courcy as his, and thereupon demanded him of his Barons of Ulster 
by the following writ : 

" Rex omnibus Baronibus de Ultonia, &c. qui juraverunt et Obsides dederunt pro Johanne de 
Curcy, Salutem. Mandamus vobis et vos districte summonemus, quatenus venire faciatis Dominum 
vestrum Johannem de Curcy in Servitium nostrum, unde jurastis et Obsides vestros nobis tradidistig, 

* See tlie article on this subject in our last Number, Ed. 


sicut eosdera ObsiJes et Fcoda vestra diligitis ; scientes, quod nisi venerit in Servitium nostrum infra 
tenninura, qui ei inde a Justiciario nostro statutiis fuit, Nos ad Obsides vestros, et ad Feoda vestra 
nos capiemus. Et in hujus Rei, &c. Teste Domino Norwicensi apud Greitinton primo die Septem- 

Hishostaf^es were, ' "Milo filius Jchannis de Curcy, Juxenis, et Bobinus, filius Willielmi Salvage, 
liberantur Roberto de VeteriPonte in custodia Johannes de Curcy, filius Rogeri de Cestria, libera- 
tur Willielmo Briwer. Walekinus, filius Augustini de Ridall, liberatur Willielmo Boterell, Viee- 
comiti Cornubia;. Petrus, filius Willielmi Hacket, liberatur Beginal de Clifton, constabularis de 
Dunster. Alexander, filius "Willielmi Sarazin, liberatur "Willielmo de Blunvill, Constabulario de Corf. 
Johannes, filius Adas Camerarii, et Johannes, filius Bichardi filii Roberti, liberantur Hugoni de Nevil.'' 

And upon their assent to send him to the King, he grants him a safe conduct i"" "Rex, &c. Omni- 
bus, &c. Salutem. Sciatis quod concessimus salvum et securum Conductum Johanni de Curcy et 
suis, quos secum duxerit, in veniendo ad Nos, et in redeundo, usque ad medium Quadragesimae Anno, 
Sic. \I. Et in hoc Rei, &c. Teste meipso apud Brehill xxio. die Octobris." 


"With very great interest have I perused the Essay, by Mr. Windele, on the Ogham inscriptions, in 
the Ulster Journal of Archaeology. 

Many years ago, I gave a good deal of attention to the interpretation of these inscriptions. The 
investigations of Dr. Young upon the Egyptian inscriptions kindled a zeal within me to do something 
fur the elucidation of the native monuments of Ireland ; but I pursued the subject under the two dis- 
advantages, frst, of knowing nothing of the Celtic language except what any one may pick out of a 
grammar and dictionary : and secondly^ of having very few transcripts on which to work, and even 
these not always to be relied on as exact copies of the originals. The difficulties and perplexities, 
which beset the study nearly thirty years ago, were so great, that I came at last reluctantly to the 
conclusion that the case was hopeless ; and felt inclined to conjecture that the Ogham was not pro- 
perly an alphabetical mode of writing at all ; but rather a kind of arbitrary notation, like the nick- 
sticks, not many years ago, used by our peasants, and the farmers who employed them as labourers, 
in our own country, as records of the days' works performed and the wages due ; the tallies of the 
Exchequer, which were slips of wood with notches, by means of which the accounts of the national income 
and expenditure were kept, until some time since the commencement of the present century : the 
hnotted cords of the South Sea islanders ; the quipos of the Peruvians, of which Garcillaso Inca de la 

* In eodera llotulo, M. 1 mo, Dorso. i> In eodom Eot, M. 7 facie, 

t The three following: communications have been sent to us in reference to Mr Windele 's paper on Oghams, which 
appeared in our last number. Ed. 


Vega gives such a curious account : and the squares and ciiclcs found on the Mexican cloth paint- 
ings called picture wiitings, in the Museums at Vienna and Madrid. 

From Mr. Windele's Essay it appears that much pains have teen taken to procure accurate tran- 
scripts of all the known inscriptions in Ogham : this is the first step towards a satisfactory settlement 
of the question. I am sure the accomplished Celtic scholars, who now adorn our universities and 
other learned societies, will not withold their aid ; and thus the way seems clear, either to a satis- 
factory determination of the import of these mysterious records, or to the conviction that no such 
determination is capable of being reached ; which would be the thing next best in importance. 

Until the results can be seen, it would be preposterous to anticipate ; I therefore write merely to 
express my hope, that all persons who are aware of the existence of unpublished Oghams will commu- 
nicate them, in time, to the learned inquirers who are engaged on the subject ; or to your pages. 


I think Mr. Windele has satisfactorily proved that this character is of pre-Christian date ; by show- 
ing, statistically, that the stones, on which it is found, are to be met with chiefly in the Uos^ the raih 
and the subterranean crypt or cave; the most ancient, and the rudest remains of human art in this 
island. Another feature about it, as yet I believe unnoticed, seems to me to place its great antiquity 
beyond doubt, and I beg to invite special attention to it. It is the coincidence between the order of 
arrangement in the Ogham, and that of the ancient Irish, alphabet : this requires explanation. 

The serial arrangement of the letters of the alphabet is the same in many ancieut languages. In 
the Hebrew, for instance, it is, A. B. Gr. D., &c. ; in the Greek, A. B. Gr. D., &c. ; in the Latin, 
A. B. C. D., &c. This coincidence cannot be accidental ; it shows that the alphabets were borrowed 
from the same source ; or, that each was a copy of the elder one, so arranged. 

Now, if the Irish got the alphabet, which they at present use, from the Romans, through St. Pat- 
rick, the arrangement must have been, A. B. C D.,'&c., but it is not : it is B. L. F. S. N. D. T. C . 
and this arrangement corresponds with that of the Ogham characters. 

Order of the ancient Irish alphabet, according to the Book of Leacan, and Forchern. 

B. L. F. S. N. II. D. T. C. AR. M. G. NO. SD. R. A. O. V. E. I. 

Order of the Ogham character, ' 

B. L. F. S. N. n. D. T. C. AR. M. G. NG. SD. R. A. O. U. E. I. 

- ' " ' '' ' " I II HI 111! 1 1, 1 1 i I I itHi ii mil \ \^\v\^vm^; 

From this table it is manifest that the Ogham is but an occult cipher, contrived upon, and afier thee 
alphabet ; and, the antiquity of the Ogham being proved, the antiquity of letters in Ireland im- 
mediately follows. 

0. MacSWEENY. 


In the first number of this Journal appeared a highly important and interesting paper on ancient 
Irish Ogham Inscriptions, contributed by my friend Mr. Windele, of Cork. Concerned as I am in 
the inquiry into the origin and uses of these mysterious inscriptions, and feeling a very lively interest 
in the entire subject, I trust that the few following remarks, which I have written on Mr. Windele'a 
article after reading it, may not altogether prove an uninteresting sequel to his valuable paper. They 
have been written chiefly with the view of affording him further information on the subject of his 
paper, and with very kind feelings towards himself. 

Certainly, too much cedit cannot be given to Mr. Windele for his untiring labours in the Og- 
ham field if it were nothing else than keeping the subject before his antiquarian brethren a field, 
the cultivation of which seems to promise as rich a return as ever did the various inquiries into the 
orii^in and uses of the Eound Towers. Into this part of the subject, however, I have no desire to 
enter simply, because I have not the ability nor time for doing so. At present, I merely wish to go 
over the descriptive part of Mr. Windele's paper, and what concerns myself, saying a word as I go 

I would not, if I were Mr. Windele, suffer the " Kill-Dorery " (not Keldorrery) stone which O'Hal- 
loran mentions, (Introduction to and an History of Ireland, vol. i. p. 39.) to go so easily, if I were 
sure that O'Halloran had seen it, and was a judge of the Ogham character. I would, at least, ascer- 
tain what had become of the monument. Kildorrery is a post town and parish, and is marked on 
sheet 18 of the Ordnance Survey of the county of Cork. I find a " children's grave-yard/' (proba- 
bly one of the ancient unconsecratcd Calluraghs or heels,) marked a little to the north-west of the 
town ; and at some distance to the east, on sheet 19, is " Cloghleagh," which may be O'Halloran's 
inscribed "Dalian." Mr. Windele has already satisfactorily ascertained the fate of the Coolown 
stone ; (Notices of Cork, p. 247 ;) and his account of its destruction there, and in .private letters to 
myself afterwards, I found to be literally true, when I visited the locality, in March, 1848. 

I feel highly flattered by the distinguished position which such a man as Mr. Windele has given to 
myself amongst the Ogham investigators. Indeed, I can scarcely aspire to the rank in which he has 
placed me ; but if my humble efforts, as a labourer in the field, shall be hereafter productive of any 
good in the history of this interesting class of our Irish antiquities, I shall be satisfied. 

The first original Ogham inscription I have ever seen is that at Ballymorereagh, engraved at p. 135 
of Dr. Petrie's work on the Round Towers of Ireland. I made a sketch of this stone and inscription 
on the 10th of May, 1846, nearly seven years ago, and one year more than the five or six, " within" 
which Mr. Windele says, I had my attention attracted to the Ogham monuments. I had moreover, 
been reading and copying all I could find about Ogham inscriptions for at least eight years before that 
time ; but it was not till the beginning of the year 1846 that an inscription of the original monument 
in the interesting barony of Corkaguiny, in the west of the county of Kerry, filled me with an ardent 
desire to know more about them. I accordingly commenced a correspondence with Mr. Clibborn of 
the Royal Irish Academy on the subject, which ultimately led to my acquaintance with the Rev. 


Dr. Graves, my subsequent services for whom were entirely voluntary and honorary, and not " en- 
gaged." The result is, I am happy to say, a collection, between Dr. Graves and myself of over we 
hundred and thirty Ogham inscriptions, with their accompanying notes, rather more than the. num- 
ber mentioned in Mr. Windele's catalogue, which, on the other hand, I believe, contains a few loca- 
lities unknown to either Dr. Graves or me ; so that the entire nimiber of Ogham inscriptions dis- 
covered must be much greater than that above-mentioned. 

In Mr. Windele's catalogue, he and I and seem to have made common property of certain localities ; 
he having appropriated to himself some of mine, and given to me a few others, of which I know nothing. 
For instance, I cannot well part with Whitefield, (which, however, Mr.Windele docs net take to himself,) 
Dunmore, Ballynahunt, Lomanagh, Drumkeare, and some others, notes of my early discovery of which 
I have in my possession ; and of some of the groups of seven, which I have seen, (as Ballintaggart, and 
Ballinrannig,) Pelham and Mr. Windele have hitherto mentioned only five in each place, (vide Val- 
lancey's Collectanea, vol. vi., p. 228, and Notices of Cork, p. 395.) Indeed, the number five seems to be 
a favourite one with Mr. Windele, as he mentions only that number in each of the localities of Kill- 
coolaght and Dunloe, where there are also seven. In some of the localities which he gives to 
me with one monument, two or more have been found. The discoveries which I disclaim as my own 
are, Keel, Ardavenagh, Killgobinet and Brakel ; but I have seen some of these, and there are doubt- 
less some of my other localities concealed under the rest. 

The spelling of most of the names of the localities, given in Mr. Windele's catalogue, seems very 
strange to me ; and if I were looking over the Ordnance Survey Maps of Kerry which I generally 
take as my standard for the spelling of Irish names of places in that county, ^for a month, I do not 
think I could find such words as Ballyreagh, I3allynahunta, Coolcoolaght, Lomanach, Droumcaor, 
Ballintarmon, Logher, Kinnard, Aglis, Killfountain, Ballyinyeanig, Brakel, Aghacorribel, and some 
others less misspelled. I should like to know where Mr. Windele found these names ; or has a new 
and corrected edition of the Ordnance Survey Maps appeared which I have not seen ? 

I have no doubt but that a faithless attendant, whom I had with me, shewed Mr. Windele most of 
my di-scoA^eries iu Corkaguiny, so that he had not much difficulty in "seeing" and "copying" these 

The tumulus of Balllnrannig is strewed with bones, which every shifting of the sand continues 
to expose. These are, in all likelihood, human remains, because we cannot well account for the ap- 
pearance of animal bones in that place. I picked up some pieces of the bones and teeth, one or two 
of which I presented to the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, at their meeting, in September, 1850. 
Every lover of a sight of the Ogham monuments in their original localities, where they have braved 
the storuis of centuries will deplore the removal unnecessary, indeed, of five of the Smerwick or 
Ballinrannig stones by Lord Ventry, on the first of September, 1848. I am glad to be able to state 
that these five stones are safe; but of course have lost much of their interest. Three of them are 
standing in the lawn at the front of Burnham House, and the other two are similarly placed at Chuto 


Hall (not Blennerville,) at some distance to the east of Tralee ; in both of which places I had much 
pleasure in revisiting my old acquaintance in August and September last. The regret which I feel 
at the removal of these monimients, which were very safe in their original site, under the guardian- 
ship of the venerating peasantry of the place, compels me to mention here, that I have heard of similar 
attempts having been made, by another member of the Burnham family, to remove two or three other 
safe Ogham monuments from their own beautiful localities (one of them an ancient churchyard,) in Cork- 
aguiny, but that the peasantry, with one voice, exclaimed against such desecration, and would not 
give any assistance towards its accomplishment. I do not, of course, mean to say that this saved the 
stones from being carried off ; but it must at least have awakened some slumbering feeling of human 
nature in the breast of the lord of the soil, which induced him to listen to the entreaties of the simple, 
but noble, peasantry of the peninsula of Corkaguiny, for their beloved monuments of ancient piety and 
civilization. The rescue and removal of unsafe Ogham monuments is laudable ; and 1 have myself 
removed a few which I saw likely to be subjected to the mason's hammer, and so forth, and have de- 
posited them in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, where their value is known, and where 
they will be accordingly cared for ; but the division of the monuments of one locality, and their re- 
moval here and there, and far apart to private gardens, where few, knowing anything about them, can 
see them, merely to gratify a certain momentary curiosity, ^is anything but praiseworthy; and I hope 
many noble proprietors will not be found following the example set by some of their brethren in 
the South of L'eland. 

None of the two Derreendarragh (not Derreendragh,) stones, (depicted in Mr. Windele's lithograph) 
formed a part of the circle at that place. The stones represented stood within, and independent of, 
the circle of twelve stones, all of which, I believe, are still visible. The two gallauns were originally 
standing; but, having been undermined by treasure -seekers, they both fell, as shewn in Mr. Windele's 
drawing : when standing, and surrounded by the circle, they must have had a striking appearance. 

It is true that none of the Ogham monuments found in the Raths, and they are many, at least so 
far as I am aware, bear the Christian emblem ; but I liave found in the same rath-chamber with Ogham 
inscriptions what I consider tantamount to it namely, a stone with a cross, or two, within 
circles, engraved on it which must have been placed in the interior of the rath at the same time with 
the Ogham inscriptions, and both at the time of the original construction of the interior chamber ; 
they being necessary to its support. 

One word as to the engraving by which Mr. Windele's paper is illustrated. I have myself seen two 
of the three monmnents figured on it, and I can therefore speak with certainty of them. The stones 
at Derreendarragh are pretty well drawn ; but the Kinard monument is not. Not to speak of the 
inscription being incorrectly placed in relation to the window shaped figure on the stone, and a small 
cross omitted from the lower part of the monument, the drawing is too square and gives an idea of 
the stone being flat, while it is in reality of an oval shape. An engraving of my sketch of this monu- 
ment may be seen in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, vol. iv. p. 357. It will be per- 
ceived that I say nothing about the inscriptions themselves. R. HITCHCOCK. 



PART n. 


" O'er the sun's mirror green 
Come the Norse Coursscrs ! 
Trampling its glassy breadth 
Into bright fragments ! 
Hollow-back 'd, huge-losom'd 
Fraught with mail'd riders, 
Clanging with hauberks, 
Shield, spear, and battle axe, 
Canvas- winged, cable-rein'd 
Steeds of the Ocean ! " 

In the first part of these 
notices of Tory, it was pro- 
posed to give some general 
aocoont of its position and 
extent, introductory to those 
subjects more immediately in 
the province of the Archae- 
ologist, which may be classed 
under the general heads, Pa- 
gan and Christian ; the for- 
mer constitutes tl;ie subject 
of the present part ; the lat- 
ter, including all the infor- 
mation preserved respecting the original ecclesiastical settlement by Saint Columbkille, will be treated 
of in a succeeding article. 

When Ireland, herself, is so briefly disposed of in the annals that have survived her misfortunes, 
(and they are amongst the most precious of written records,) it would be absurd to expect to cx- 
tract from them much information towards the history of ft remote island like Tory. But, scanty 


as these notices are, they afford a fuller account of its ancient state, than modern sources supply of the 
period intervening between the early part of Elizabeth's reign and the present time ; which is little more 
than an account of the incursion made, in 1695, by George Bingham, governor of Sligo who, after 
plundering Mary's Abbey, at Lough Swilly, terminated his expedition by wantonly devastating this 
helpless little island and of the engagement on the 12th October 1798, between the fleet com- 
manded by Sir John Borlase Warren and that under the French admiral Bompart. The En- 
glish armament consisted of two line-of-battle ships and five frigates, two of the latter razees ; the 
French, of one liner, eight frigates, a schooner and transport, having on board, in addition to their 
regular complements, three thousand soldiers. The sound of this engagement is said to have been 
heard to a very great distance, and it resulted in the capture of the entire French squadron, with the 
exception of two frigates, and the two small vessels. The Annals of the Four Masters, it may 
be added, have the following notice " A.D. 1517. Donagh, the son of Torlagh O'Boyle, the best 
gentleman of his means, who made the most warfare and performed the most intrepid exploits of any 
of his own tribe, went with the crew of a boat to Toraigh and a wind having driven him westward 
to sea, no tidings of them were ever after heard." 

Dr. 'Donovan, in a note to his admirable translation of the battle of Moira, informs us that " Tory 
is one of the earliest places mentioned in the bardic history of Ireland, and is first referred to as 
the stronghold of the Fomorians or African pirates who made many descents on the coast of Ire- 
land, at a period so far back in the night of time that it is now impossible to bring chronology to 
bear upon it. In the accounts of these pirates it is called Torinis or the island of the Tower ; but 
in the lives of Saint Columbkille, and other tracts, it is always called Torach, that is the towery, as 
in this tale ; (the battle of Moira ;) and the inhabitants of the opposite coast of Donegal believe that 
it has derived this name from the tower-like cliffs * by which it is guarded against the angry at- 
tacks of the mighty element. This seems to be the correct explanation of the latter name, for 
there are many lofty isolated rocks on the opposite coast, called by the natives Tors or towers, and a 
remarkably lofty one, on the east side of the island, itself called Tormore or the great tower." But, 
though this is the true interpretation of its more modern name, Torach, "still I am convinced," says 
Dr. O'Donovan, "that it was also called Torinis, that is 'tower island,' from a Cyclopean 
tower or fort erected on it at a very remote period, of which no vestige now remains ; ^ and, not as 

See illustration No. 1, parti. nicia, Syriaca et Hebroea in Latinam invectam fuisse 

b A note to Connellan "s translation of the Four Mas- demonstrant." 

ters says that Eighneachan, the father of Dual, prince of In 1838 Sir Charles Giesecke makes the following note. 

Tirconnell, gave his three beautiful daughters in mar- " There are ruins of two old castles on the island, one at 

riage to three Danish Lords named Cathis, Torges, and the eastern, the other at the western end. That at the 

Tor, to secure their friendship, &c. It may be asked, east end consists of only two large Iwalls I was informed 

did this last chief give his name to the island ? that it was built by a Danish King of the name of Barro 

The same work speaking of MacSweeny na d- Tuath, says which led me to think that the name of the island might 

it signified MacSweeny of the Territories. His districts be of Danish or Scandinavian origin, composed from the 

were also called Tuatha Toraighe, or the district of Tory words Tor or Thar, the name of the god of thunders, and 

island. Ey, island consequently Thor-ey, Thorisland. The Scan. 

O'Conorsays, [Prol '\.,page^%'\ dinavians placed their god Thor on the most boisterous 

" Xe autem vocem Tur Latinam essse suspicamur. pro- places. " 
hibent Ainsworth aliique Lexicographi qui earn ex Phce- 


some have supposed, from St. Columbkille's cloigtheach or ecclesiastical round tower which still re- 
mains." = 

It is impossible now to separate the grain of truth that most probably lies concealed in the collections 
of fable of which this, like all traditional history, is composed. The statements of Keating and other 
writers, who have given a systematic form to the bardic accounts, must be received with great caution ; 
and while it may be supposed that, in the notice of the Fomorians, we have traditions of a strange 
people, it is not necessary to assume that they were Africans. This historian informs us that the 
Fomhoraigh were the descendants of Shem, but without giving any authority. After the death of a 
famous Irish chief Nemedim, to revenge some previous defeat, they landed and subdued all Ireland, 
so that these vagabond Africans who settled at Torinis, in the north of Ireland, entirely subdued the 
old inhabitants and made them tributaries. More the son of Dela, and Connig the son of Faobhar, 
who gave the name to Torconnig, to support themselves in their new conquests fitted out a fleet and 
strengthened themselves with a standing army, and by these military methods harassed the unfortu- 
nate Nemedians, and obliged them to bring the tax and contributions they laid upon 'them from the 
several parts of Ireland to a place called Magh-Gceidne, between Drobhaois and Eirne,** and to de- 
liver their tribute punctually upon the first day of November, in every year. " These conquerors 
were very cruel and severe in their exactions upon the vanquished ; for they demanded two parts 
of their children, of their cattle, of their milk, butter and wheat ;' which was collected in this man- 
ner. The Africans employed a woman to be the gatherer of their tribute, and she obliged every 
family to pay three measures' of wheaten meal, three measures of cream, and three measures of but- 
ter every year, and compelled them to bring their contributions to Magh-Gceidne before mentioned. 
This place receives its name from the violence that was ixsed upon the Nemedians, in the collection 
of their taxes, for the word Magh signifies a field or plain, and Gceidne signifies compulsion." 

In a battle afterwards " the Nemedians, with sixty thousand men by land and sea fell desperately 
on the enemy, and a bloody battle ensued, wherein Conaing, the African general, with all his children, 
was slain, and his garrison which he had fortified was taken and destroyed." " During this attempt 
of the Nemedians to free themselves from slavery. More, the son of Dela, was absent with his fleet 
in Africa ; but he returned soon after the battle, and landed at Torinis, with sixty sail and a nume- 

The Rev. Caesar Otway says in a note, page 11, of "I believe the Irish have had wheat in the more fer- 

his ' Sketches' " Here are the ruins of a fortress, erect- tile valleys and plains from a most remote period. The 

edbyErick of the Red Arm, one of the Norwegian Sea- word is cruithneacht, which is cognate with the Latin 

Kings, whose roomy rule extended around these isles triticum 9 The derivation of Cruithnigh, Pict, from 

and coasts. The name of this island is of Runic etymo- this word is most absurd ! It is mentioned constantly 

logj', and ' Thoreye,' now corrupted into Torry, de- in the Brehon laws, and in our most ancient poems, 

notes that it was consecrated to Tnor, the Scandinavian The Irish for barley is eoma, which is co^ate with the 

God, that presided over stormy and desolate places. Latin honkum, called in French orge. Rye, is seagal (secal) 

See illustration 2, part 1. which is surely cognate with tecale; but where we get 

d These rivers are the one at Bundroose and the other coirce (Welsli ceirch) oats, I cannot decide : but I believe 

the Erne at Ballyshannon. it to be a very ancient word. " 

e Dr. O'Donovan has favoured the writer with the ^ In the third part some notice of these measures will 

following highly interesting reply to a query on the sub- be given, 


rous army on board ; and as they attempted to come on shore, the Nemedians opposed them and a 
most desperate fight ensued. The two armies fought with equal courage upon the strand, with- 
out any sign of victory on either side, and the greatest part of their men were slain. The action 
was so hot that they did not observe how the tide flowed in upon them till they were quite surrounded ; 
and when they offered to retire upon the land they were hindered by the depth of the waters, so 
that those who had escaped the sword were drowned. More, the son of Dela, had the good fortune 
to make his way to his shipping ; and, having the advantage of his fleet, with the remains of his 
forces took possession of the whole island." 

In another part of his work the same author, giving an account of the kings of the Tuatha-de- 
Danaan, says, "Nuadha Airgiod-lamh or the 'silver handed' ^ reigned king of Ireland thirty years, and 
was slain by Ealadh, son of Dealbhaoith, and by Balar ua Neid in the battle of north Muigh-Tuir- 
eadh." This latter is evidently the Balar of Tory, of whom the inhabitants still retain many tra- 
ditions ; anJ, who has left his name to a very remarkable part of the island which will be afterwards 
described. There is another allusion to Tory, in the notes to the battle of Moira, referring to the 
plaae intendod, when mention is made of Donnall of the lofty fort of Balar. " It is identified as 
what is still named Dun-Balar and Balar's castle and prison, after the general who commanded 
the Fomorians or sea-pirates, in the second battle of Magh-Tuireadh, fought according to O'Flah- 
crty's chronology, about the year of the world 2764." Dr. O'Donovan adds " King Donnall is 
called Dun-Balair, not because he resided there, but because it belonged to TirconneU, the princi- 
pality of iiis own immediate tribe. The custom of calling persons after such places is very common 
among the Irish poets ; but it leads to confusion, as it is often used in too vague a manner." 

From the above references, and others, which, owing to the limited space this paper is necessarily 
confined to, are omitted, it may be reasonably concluded that fi*om an extremely early period the coasts 
of Ireland, at least its northern shores, were much infested by pirates, who came and departed at 
pleasure ; it is also probable that the unhappy natives have handed down very exaggerated accounts 
of their numbers and power, and that the invaders endeavoured to impress their minds with a strong 
belief in their invincibility. It may also be supposed that these Sea-kings, of whatever nation they 
were most probably from the north of Europe possessed themselves of strongholds like Tory, from 
which they made their incui'sions, and that the Irish Balars were only ruder examples of the Conrads of 
the modern poet. Any one who has viewed Balar's Castle and Prison, can readily understand how 
a large body of pirates might very conveniently sojourn there, as long as they had a portion of the 
main land under contribution. This appears to have been the case, and the tradition that Balar used 
the portion of the island called ' The Prison,' which was strongly fortified, for confining sheep and cattle 
for the service of the garrison, and likewise prisoners reserved for ransom, is far from improbable.* 

s This hand, and the attempts to make a more natural pubstitute, form an important part of the legend of the 
children of Tuireann. The pedigree tracing him to Nemedius is omitted here. 

* See Map. 


Other notices of Tory, and of the persons connected with its early history, are found in the Irish 
annals and manuscripts ; from which it is now proposed to abstract a brief notice of what is 
stated regarding the people, who, under the general title of " Fomorians" are so frequently mention- 
ed in Irish History; also, of the antagonistic race, the "Nemedians," without, however, entcriug 
on the debatable ground of the colonization of this country. 

The Nemedians, so named -from their leader, Nemedius, are by some called 'Scythians,' and 
by others 'Gauls,' of the ancient tribe 'Nemetcs:' they are mentioned as having possessed them- 
selves of Ireland at a very remote period. They are even imagined to have displaced an earlier 
people, and afterwards to have become tributary to the 'Fomorians,' a nation of 'African pirates' 
who are asserted by some to have had even an earlier claim on this country than their rivals. According 
to O'Brien, this name is derived from fogh, ' plundering,' and muir, ' sea ;' Fo7)ior being explained by 
the same lexicographist as signifying ' pirate,' or ' giant.' He states, as a proof of the awe with which 
they viewed them, that the ancient Irish called the Giant's Causeway Clochan na hh-Foinor- 
aigh, ' the Fomorians' Causeway.' It is to be kept in view that all the bardic accounts tend lo show that 
these pirates were considered oppressors ; and, from the joyful celebration of their reverses, we may 
conclude that in the Fomorians are represented the invaders, and in their rivals the rightftil pos- 
sessors. The history of the place under consideration confirms this view ; for Tor-Conaing and Dun- 
ard Balair, merely describe strongholds of invaders, not the castles of reigning princes. Con- 
aing's tower, indeed, seems to have been as much dreaded as Algiers was some years ago by the mer- 
chants of Europe ; and it is not, therefore, surprising that its name was associated with the island, and 
that its destruction became a favourite theme with the bards. In confirmation of this it may 
be mentioned that Dr. O'Conor, in his very valuable work, Reram Hibernicarum Scriptores, has 
given notices of several poems referring to the very early history of Tory. The first of these in 
order is one written by Gildas Coeraanus in the eleventh century, Chronologia Metrica Regum Hi- 
berniae scripta anno serai communis mlxxii.i "I Sin aimsir sin raidit raind ro togladtiar tor Conaind." 
or according to his Latin version " In tempore isto, dicunt versus expugnata fuit turris Conani." 
In the same work is found a notice of a manuscript at Stowe containing several metrical relics of the 
Irish Bards. One of these commences " Torinis, inis an tuir, cathair Conain," " Torinis, the island of 
the tower stronghold of Conan." This poem is of forty-eight lines, each of which, by a rule peculiar 
to ancient Irish poetry, is resolvable into two lines or one distich ; the rhyme in the middle of the 
line agreeing with that of the last syllable of the same line. The author is imcertain, but Dr. O'Conor 
leans to Eochodius. The same writer speaks of another poem by Eochodius, commencing 
' H Erin all orduitt Gaedhal :' this is constructed like the former, and consists of seventy lines. It 
records the acts of the Nemedii, and their expulsion from Ireland after the fall of Conan 's tower in 

Prolcgomema II., page 32. 


Dr. O'Conor, in his second introductory essay, page 36, further speaks of the poems by Eochodlus, 
There were in the Library at Stowe two ancient copies of an Irish poem, " Togail tuir Conain," written 
by Eochodius, ' and cited by Cormac of Cashel, who died in the year 908. O'Flaherty calls Eochodius 
the author of the ancient poem the " storming of the tower of Conan" extant in the library at Stowe, 

In Mr. Connellan's edition of the Four Masters, a translation of this poem is given. The following 
Terses are those which apply most particularly to the present subject : 

" Tlie demolition of Conang's Tower by valour, 
" Against Conang the great, the son of Faobhar : 

To which marched the men of Erin, 

Under the command of their three brave chiefs. 

Erglan, son of Beoan, the son of Starn, 

Simeon, the son of Jarman the fierce ; 

With ships the hero of poetic strains advanced, 

The son of Nemedius, namely, Fergus of the red side. 

Sixty thousand of brave men. 

Valiant forces both by land and sea, 

Was the number of the army which marched forth 

Of the Nemedians to destroy the Tower. 

Tor-inis, the island of the Tower, 
The fortress of Conang, the son of Faobhar ; 
By Fergus himself, who fought the foreigners, 
Conang, the son of Faobhar, was slain. 

In another place mentioning the tower, he speaks of a certain ancient African naviga- 
tor, celebrated in very old metrical traditions as Conan, who, from the Peninsula of Mona and the 
Island of Torinis, where he built a fort, infested the Irish coasts, and from whom those territories re- 
ceived the name of Conan. In the same traditions there is also mention of the Fomorians, as a 
maritime people, who, conducting colonies from Africa, often reached and wasted Ireland : some, 
it is added, suppose they were Carthaginians. 

The Nemedians at length collecting their forces entirely destroyed the fort of Torinis. The Fo- 
morians, however, afterwards arriving from Africa, having driven out the Nemedians, held an exten- 
sive dominion, until being routed by the Belgae, they were finally compelled to return to Africa. 
This is the account given by Eochodius, in one of his poems, J and in another, ' Adam athair Sruth,' 
before mentioned. "^ 

The following notice of the same tradition may, also, be quoted. "Year of the world 3066. Storm- 

i " Who," says D' Alton [History of Ireland, vol. 2, page 124, No. xli, folio 237, et ex exemplare Dr. Caroli 

p. 3,] ' may be presumed to be one of the ' peritissimi OConor verse 3. 

Scotorum' whom Nennius expressly mentions having Earglan iar ttocht as a loing, 

consulted in compiling that portion of his work which Do aithle togla Tuir Conaing 

relates to Irish history ; and in which he reiterates these Clamantes postquam exscenderunt e suis navibus 

accounts." Celeriter expugnaverunt Turrim Conani. 

J Carmen Hibernicum " A Eolcha Albain uile" R.H.S. k Annals of Ulster in Rerum Hibernicarum, vol. 4, p. 38. 


ing of the tower of Conan, by the people of Nemethus, against Conan, son of Faobhar, and the 
Fomorians, also, in retaliation for the evils inflicted on them as shown by the chronicle "called the 
Book of Sieges ; it is notable that there were not more than thirty killed on both sides. ' " 

The Four Masters thus record the same event : 

" The age of the world 3066. The demolition of the tower of Conainn in this year, by the race 
of Neimhidh, against Conainn, son of Faobhar, and the Fomorians in general, in revenge for all the 
oppression they had inflicted upon them [the race of Neimhidh,] as is evident from the chromcle which 
is called Leabhar Gabhala ; and they nearly all mutually fell by each other ; thirty persons alone of 
the race of Neimhidh escaped to difierent quarters of the world ; and they came to Ireland, sometime 
afterwards, as Fir-bolgs. Two hundred and sixteen years Neimhidh and his race remained in Ireland. 
After this Ireland was a wilderness for a period of two hundred years." 

One of the poems mentioned by 0' Conor is particularly interesting, as connecting Conang with the 
sister-island. "Conan is a Welsh as well Irish name ; as, for instance, Gryffth-ap- Conan ; our an- 
nals call Anglesea Mon Conan." The same appellation is also given to the same part of Wales, in 
another poem by the same bard. 

0' Flaherty [_Ogygia] states that Balar Bemen or Ballibemnich, general of the Fomorians, was 
slain in the battle of Northern Magh-Tuireadh, by a stone thrown at him by the son of his daughter 
from a machine called Tahhall, whic^j is believed to have been a sling ; and that Kethlenn, the wife of 
Balar, fought with desperation, and wounded Dagda, afterwards King of the Tuatha De Danaan, 
with some missile weapon. It will be seen how far this agrees with the opinion respecting his 
death contained in a legend still existing on the island, which wiU be given towards the end 
of this paper. 

A glance at the first lithographic illustration, given in our last Number, will satisfy the reader of 
the difficulty of approaching the island ; and on it the artist has marked, as " the Castle and Prison," 
the portions of the perpendicular rock to which tradition has given the name of this celebrated chief. 
Indeed it may be safely presumed that the appellation ' Dun Balar' always applied, not to any 
work of art, but to the inaccessible rock-fortification that gave protection, rather than shelter, to 
the chieftain and his hardy free hooters ; who, most probably, had not much higher ideas of comfort 
than the Sea Eagle of Horn head ; being satisfied if they possessed a secure * eyrie,' when return- 
ing gorged with prey from the more productive lands of the greater island. 

The cliffs here are very precipitous, rising about 280 feet above the sea : they are broken into nu- 
merous coves, with arches and caves, and several picturesque detached pinnacles. Tor-more is cap- 
ped with large blocks of stone, on which are generally seen perched some of the large sea-birds that 
frequent the island. On the top of one rock a large and apparently loose stone is shewn, called by 
the natives the "wishing stone," They say that whoever reaches this stone, plants himself on 
it, and turns round three times, will obtain whatever he may wish for. 

' Scrip, llib. vol. 3, p. G. 


The map accompanying this article has been reduced from a late survey made for the present pro- 
prietor, and the names of places are copied in Irish and English as found there. Many of these it will . 
be seen are connected with very ancient traditions. 

Before making any reference to the ' Christian period' and its ecclesiastical remains, certainly the 
most important and interesting, and'which are reserved for a third paper it haa been the object 
of the present communication to select from various sources some account of what may be 
named the ' Pagan era,' including the bardic accounts of Coning and, (as far as they are proper 
for publication,) the traditions respecting Balar, and the accounts of him given by the bards 
and annalists. This chieftain, and his family, it may be added, are introduced in a very ancient 
Irish romance called the "Death of the Children of Tuireann;" one of the three ''tragic tales 
of Ireland," a translation of which has been prepared for this Journal. The place just men- 
tioned, being the most remarkable site on the island connected with its ancient civil history, 
requires a more particular description. A reference to the map accompanying this Num- 
ber, and to the lithographic drawing. No. 1, already alluded to, wiU explain, very distinctly, 
the position of the "Castle and Prison." They forma natural fortification of considerable ex- 
tent, easily rendered impregnable by art a little Gibraltar in fact, on this distant isle. This 
rock-fortress consists of two peninsulas of irregular form, of about twenty acres in extent, 
connected with the other part of the island by a narrow isthmus. On crossing this neck of land the 
ground ascends ; and there, at one time stood, so as to command the passage, a castle of which the 
foundations only can be now traced ; the walls having been removed by a former proprietor when 
erecting a cottage residence on the island: enough, however, remains to mark very accurately the place 
where this stronghold stood. After passing the ruin which, at one time, (though certainly long 
subsequent to the age of Balar) constituted the first defence, the ground gradually rises and a circular 
space of grass-land is passed. The rock again narrows to a small isthmus, which seems to have 
been defended by ditches carried across it; four of these can be still traced. The portion of ground 
within this is what is termed " the Prison," and from it projects the remarkable headland of Tormore 
connected with the part already described by a narrow arched wall of rock. Tradition affirms that 
hero the Fomorian or Vi-king confined the cattle taken in his excursions, and such inhabitants of the 
main land as fell into his hands and were likely to be ransomed. "" 

"Sir Walter Scott in the "Pirate," chap. 28. very hap- lime or cement of any kind without any timber, so far 

pily illustrates this style of building. as can be seen from their remains without any know- 

" The dwelling of Xorna was not unaptly compared by ledge of the arch or the stair. The Burgh, of which we 

M.ignus Troil to the ejrie of the osprey or sea-eagle. It at present speak, had been altered and repaired at a 

was small, and had been fabricated out of one of those later period, probably by some sea-rover, who, tempted 

dens which are called Burghs and Picts'-houses in Zet- by the security of the situation, which occupied the 

land, and Duns on the mainland of Scotland and the whole of a projecting point of rock, and was divided 

Hebrides, and which seem to be the first effort of architec- from the mainland by a rent or chasm of some depth, 

ture the connecting link betwixt a fox's hole in a cairn had built some additions to it in the rudest style of 

of loose stones, and an attempt to construct a human ha- Gothic defensive architecture." 
bitation out of the same materials, without the use of 


The ruins are most probably those of the castle, stated in some histories to have been erected by 
the O'Robharties," (the hereditary 'Erenachs' in later times,) who may have selected this spot on account 
of its proximity to the landing-place ; for the natural fastness had then ceased to be of import- 
ance. It may also be the case that this family chose the site of some more ancient structure or 
Dun. " The writer inclines to the opinion that the Cyclopean building of ancient days, if such there 
were, (as the name of the island seems to indicate,) stood on the high ground, behind West- town, 
about the place where the figures are shown in the drawing. No. 2. This is confirmed by the 
fact of a number of very large stones, like the remains of a Cromleac, being remarked on the spot, which 
is the only part of the island where any such indications are observable. The tower, so often men- 
tioned in ancient Irish poems as being besieged or captured, cannot have been the place first described, 
which a few bold men could have held out against a host ; and this circumstance is also in favour of 
the view just taken. ^ It is farther to be observed, that though mention is made of these victories, it 
does not appear that the native Irish succeeded in expelling the invaders from the island itself, which 
was probably held by a garrison on the rock-citadel. The traditions respecting Balar, so common to 
this day, all tend to show that the comparative importance of Tory, at a very remote period, was caused 
by its connexion, as already alluded to, with the Northmen, who availed themselves of the facilities it 
afforded for securing their persons and their plunder from the attacks of an exasperated people. The 
notices, too, respecting them, seem to have all converged into one ; for in the legends of Balar are 
probably contained references to several Scandinavian chiefs who infested the coasts of Tyrconnell. 

Dr. O'Donovan gives the curious legend of Balar, founded on the historical fact of his having fal- 
len by the hand of his grandson ; it is contained in a note to his translation of the Pour Masters, 
and is here abbreviated and slightly altered in language. It was taken down on Tory in the year 
1835, from the dictation of Shane O'Dugan, the representative of one of the most ancient island 

" This story," says the learned historian, "is evidently founded on facts; but from its having floated 
on the tide of tradition, for, perhaps, three thousand years, names have been confounded, and facts much 
distorted." The resemblance to the Homeric fable of the Cyclops, and the similarity to several 
incidents found in Eastern tales, is not alluded to by Br. O'Donovan, though very obvious. 

n In the "Tribes of Ffy Fiachracli," (Irish Archseolo- and others ; but they said that its stones were removed 

gical Society's Publications,) page 268, under the name by O'Roarty, to build a modern castle, about three or 

' O'Robhartaighs,' is the following note, " There was four hundred years ago." 

another family of this name in Tirconnell, who built a p Mr Jlyndman suggests that ns the island may have 

castle on Tory island, off the north coast of Donegall ; been much worn away by the action of the sea 

and another in ^Meath, where the name is still name- on its N.E. side this probably accounts for two facts 

rous." the disappearance of every trace of Conning's tower, and 

" Dr, O'Donovan, whose most trivial note is worthy the injury the remaining buildings have sustained by 

of attention, gave the following memorandum on this the sea breaking over at this point, of which several in- 

mibject in reply to an interrogatory of the writer : stances have occured within a few years. The soundings 

" The Cyclopean Cft^hd or Cathair of lialar was near along that side are much less than in other ports ; which 

Tor-more, according to Shane O'Dugan, my informaut, adds weight to this opinion. 


Three brothers resided on the main-land opposite Tory : one a proprietor : another a smith, who 
had his forge at Drumnatinne. The former possessed a wonderful cow, called Glas Gaibhnann which 
he was in the habit of leading about with him during the day and carefully shutting up at night. 
Balar coveted the cow and determined to obtain it ^by foul means of course. Once in his possession 
it was not likely to be recovered by the owner ; for the pirate is described as having the advantage of 
one eye, Cyclopean fashion, 'in his forehead, and a second in the hinder part of his skull. " This 
latter eye, by its foul, distorted glances, audits beams and dyes of venom, like that of the basilisks 
would strike people dead;" and for that reason Balar kept it constantly covered, except when he 
wished to get the better of enemies by petrifying them with looks ; and hence the Irish to this day 
call an evil or overlooking eye by the name * Suil Bhalair,' (Balar eye.) A prophetic warning had 
been given that the chief should die by the hand of his grandson, and to avert this calamity he con- 
fined his only child, Ethnea, in a tower on the summit of Tor-more, where she was guarded by 
twelve trusty matrons. Like all other heroines, this young lady grew up a paragon of beauty and 
grace. She was strictly preserved from any knowledge of the world without, and the only indication 
of a community of feeling, was when she innocently inquired what the beings were that she observed 
passing in 'curraghs' thro' the sea, whose likenesses also visited her dreams. 

Balar was fortunate in all his predatory excursions ; but he still felt dissatisfied because he did not 
possess the wonderful cow. This at length became the great object of his life. *' One fine day," the 
legend proceeds, "MacKineely, the chief of the tract opposite to the island, repaired to his brother 
Gavida's forge to get some swords made, taking with him the invaluable Glas Gaibhnann. At the 
door, in an unguarded moment, he intrusted her to the care of his other brother, MacSamhthainn, who 
it appears, was there also, with his brother the smith, on business connected with war. Balar watch- 
ing his opportunity, assumed, (as it seems he had the power of doing,) tho form of an innocent-looking 
red-headed little boy, and persuaded MacSamhthainn to put the halter into his hand and go into the 
forge on his business. Having thus succeeded in his object, Balar immediately carried off his prize to 
Tory ; and the place is still shewn where he dragged the cow up by the tail " a great memorial 
of the transaction" called ' Port-na-Glaise' the harbour of the ' Glas or green cow.' f 

A Druid satisfied MacKineely that his property could never be recovered during Balar's life ; as 
he would never close the basilisk eye, but would keep it ready to petrify any man that ventured to 
approach. The ultimate fate of this troublesome quadruped is not told; but it is related that the 
legal owner had a 'Leannan-sidhe,' or familiar sprite, called 'Biroge of the mountain,' who under- 
took to put him on a plan of destroying Balar. Having dressed him in woman's clothes, she wafted 
him, on the wings of the ctorm, across the sound, to the airy top of Tormore ; and there, knocking 
at the door of the tower, demanded admittance for a noble lady whom she had rescued from a cruel 
tyrant who attempted to carry her off by force from the protection of her people. The matrons fearing 

t See Map. 


to offend a * Banshee,' admitted both into the tower, and the daughter of Balar recognized in her 
guest a countenance familiar in her dreams. Mac Kinneely thus becomes the son-in-law of the pirate ; 
who in due time imderstood the extent of his danger, when he found himself unexpectedly possessed 
of three grandsons. Self-preservation being the great rule of his life, he immediately secured the 
children, and sent them rolled up in a sheet (fastened by a Delg or pin,) to be cast into a whirlpool. On 
the way the delg lost its hold, and one of the children, (the first-bom of course,) dropped out and 
was saved by the 'Banshee.' The scene of this event is called ' Port-a-deilg'J the* harbour of the 
pin ' to this day. The child was intrusted to the care of his uncle, the smith, to whose pro- 
fession he was educated. Balar revenged himself on MacKineely, whom he seized near ' Knock-na- 
fola' ^Bloody Foreland and finally decapitated on a large white stone, called by the natives 
Clogh-an-heely,<i still to be seen near the village of Falfarragh or Cross-roads, where it forms 
a very conspicuous object ; and, by the red veins through it, confirms the belief in this deed of blood. 

Notwithstanding all Balar's efforts to avert his destiny, the ' Banshee' had executed the will of the 
Fates ; for after the decollation of MacKineely, the pirate was thrown off his guard, and frequented 
the continent without fear. He also employed Gavida to make his arms. The heir of MacKineely 
his grandson in course of time grew into an able-bodied man, and a good smith ; and, as such, 
became an especial favourite of Balar, who knew nothing of his history. The other was well aware 
of the story of his own birth, and his father's end, and often visited the blood-stained memorial. 
One day Balor visited the forge to have some spears made, and the uncle Gavida being from home, the 
work was in charge of his foster-son. Balar happened to boast of his victory over MacKineely, and by 
so doing roused the slumbering ire of the young smith, who, on the impulse of the moment, snatched a 
glowing rod from the furnace, and thrust it into the basilisk eye, and through the head of the chief; 
who thus, according to the decree of fate, perished by his grandson's hand. 

Another version of this legend appeared in the number of Bentley's Miscellany for November 1837, 
most probably compiled by some gentleman connected with the Ordnance Survey. According to this 
the owner of the Glass-dhable cana, "the gray flanked cow," was called Gabshegonal, whose brother was 
named Kien Mac Caunthca. Two attendants of Balar are also mentioned, Mool and Mullock, not 
more amiable than their master ; and it is further affirmed, that a drop of blood which fell from 
Balar's head, was of so poisonous a nature that it split the rock, thus forming a broken cliff that is 
still shewn. 

t See Map. See Vignette, 

s Cloch-Cieannfaoladh, now Clochancely, ia the name of a district^of country in the barony of Eilmocrenan. 



The family names of a people constitute a portion of their history, and are, as it were, monuments 
which serve to verify or correct it. When such names are perpetuated in their original forms, or 
nearly so, their value for this purpose is the greater. Even when changed, more or less, by the lapse 
of time, it may still be possible to trace them back to their origin, and thus restore their historical 
importance. In Ireland numerous examples occur of very ancient names, still borne by families, 
nearly unaltered from the oldest forms found in the pages of our Annals ; while others have under- 
gone the most singular transformations ; the same name being often found in different parts of the 
country completely disguised by corrupt pronunciation, by provincial accent, or even by translation 
into English. 

Irish surnames, are, for the most part, of very ancient origin, and had all, no doubt, their several 
meanings in the language of the people ; though it may now be difficult in all cases to ascertain these 
with certainty. Still, a careful comparison of the names, as they now exist, with those which occur 
so copiously in our old M.S. histories, and a due attention to the traditional knowledge preserved among 
the people themselves, will throw considerable light on the subject. In the present paper it is inten- 
ded to offer a few observations on one or two classes of names, the origin of which can be found in a 
very remote period of Irish history : afterwards, the subject may be pursued further. 

The early history of Ireland, like that of other countries, is a strange combination of truth, exag- 
geration, allegory, and downright fiction. Though truth be overloaded, however, it is still to be 
found beneath the superincumbent mass. It woidd be rash to deny the existence of fe.mous person- 
ages, merely because mysterious or incredible exploits are ascribed to them : and although the tra- 
ditions of a people, highly imaginative, and fond of the marvellous, represent Finn Mac Cool, and his 
comrade hunters and warriors, as giants, and attribute to them works exceeding even the strength of 
giants, we are not justified in asserting that there never were such persons in existence. Mythic char- 
acters are to be found in the early history of every country; but the judicious historian of the present day 
inclines to the opinion that these were real individuals, remarkable for some great quality, and whom 
tradition has invested with a supernatural glory. In Ireland, besides the authority of tradition and 
of authentic history, we find the very names themselves, celebrated in those early times, transmitted 
to the present day, so little changed that they can be readily identified. 

To begin with the semi-fabulous heroes of the Ossianic tales : These national epics of our Celtic 
Homer, celebrate the exploits of a number of warlike hunters, the chief of whom was Finn Mac Cool ; 


Finn, the son of Comhal. His father's name, ^Comhal,' is prononnced in Irisli as if written Cow- 
al, or Cool. Now we have still in Ireland the patronymic O'Comhail, (pronounced O'Cooil) and its 
Anglicized form Coyle. But further, in another branch, of the Celtic fomily, the Welsh, we find a 
surname of very ancient origin, which seems identical with this, viz ; Howell. From it have arisen 
the modern names Hoyle and Hoole ; and by prefixing the usual Welsh particle ap, (equivalent to our 
Irish mac^ have been formed the names Powell, (Ap-Howell,) Pole and Poole. Moreover, we have, in 
Irish, diminutive forms of patronymics produced by the addition of an or in, as terminations to radi- 
cal words. Cuillean, (whence O'Cuilleain, abridged to CuUen, and Anglicized Collins,) is a dimi- 
nutive which bears the same signification as the patronymic of the Royal family, Guelph or Welf, 
that is, equivalent to the Latin Catullus or the English word, W/ielp. From Comhal or Cool, how- 
ever, a diminutive might be formed, nearly the same in sound, if not in signification : at all events 
there are several such in Irish, Now in Welsh, it is possible that from Howell was formed, in like 
manner, the diminutive Howlin or Howlyn, still known as a family name in the county Wexford ; 
and this, according to some, may be identical with the present Welsh name Llewelyn. In a pa- 
per in the last number of this Journal, (page 42,) it is stated that the Norman-looking appella- 
tion of Fitz-Howlyn, Lord of Tuscard, was that which became modified into the name of the Mac 
Quillans of the county Antrim. If so, the preceeding argument would trace the whole series of 
names, both in Welsh and Irish, up to the remote period represented by Finn Mac Cool. The 
opinion, that Mae Quillan is an equivalent of 3Iae Llewelyn, is also held by one of our leading archaeo- 
logists. The name Finn, or O'Pinn has descended as a family name ; but it is not probable that it is 
in any way connected with that of Finn Mac Cool. The epithet ^n?i ox fionn is one descriptive of 
a personal peculiarity, signifying /azV or fair ^haired, and has, therefore been applied to numberless 

Macpherson, in his version of Ossian's poems, gives Trenmor as the name of Comhall's father, the 
grandfather of Finn : more properly Treanmhar, pronounced Treanwar. From this has descended, 
very possibly, the Irish family names Treanor, and MacCreanor (Mac Threanmhair, which is pro- 
nounced MacHreanwar, or MacChreanwar.) This name is often met with in the North of Ireland. 
A song which the writer frequently heard sung there, when a child, and since then, even as far south 
as the Queen's County, had for its burden, " My beautiful young Treanor 0! " Battersby's Ecclesi- 
astical Directory mentions that the present parish priest of Kilshery, county Tyrone, is the Bev. 
Thomas Treanor. 

The bard Ossian, (in Irish Oisin,) has left undoubted traces of family descent. The name Cussen, 
Cushin, or Cushion occurs in the county Limerick, as well as in other parts of Ireland. In the 
western part of the county Wexford is a place called Cushinstown, and in another part of the 
same county is a second whose name is written Ballymacushion, pronounced Ballymacusheen : this ia 
nothing more than " the town of Mac Ossian," the town of the son of Ossian. A family-name borne 
still by persons in the same neighbourhood, is written Cousins, but called by the people Cuzzcen : this 


aecms to be merely another form of the same word. Oscar, the name of Ossian's heroic son, is no 
longer heard in Ireland as a personal name ; but in Sweden it is still borne by the King, in common 
with many of his subjects. In the north of Ireland, however, we meet the name McCosker or 
]\lcCusker, which is unquestionably McOscar. In the county Wexford it is called Coscar after 
the manner of abbreviation which prevails in the south : there, too, as in various other localities, 
it is Anglicized Cosgrave. 

One of the companions of Finn Mac Cool was Caoilte Mac Konain, who is described as living to an 
advanced age. The name Caoilte is still perpetuated in the family name Keelty, Kielty, or Queelty : 
and the name Ronan is, in like manner, represented by the surname Ronayne. 

Among the characters described in the Ossianic ballads is GoU Mac Moirne, the great rival of 
Finn, and the Ajax of the Irish warriors. The present family name of McGill, (in Ulster written 
ISIagill,) seems to be Mac Goill, i. e., the son of GoU, Goill being the oblique case of the word Goll : 
and Moirne is represented by the northern surname Murney or Mac Murney. 

The Thersites of Ossian's heroes was Conan Maol. This name, Conan, still exists, without change, 
in Kilkenny. In Connaught it has assumed the form Cannon, and in the north, that of Canning. 
Cannon, however, may be merely a diminutive of Con, another Irish personal name ; at least Scott 
uses it as such in his ' Eokeby,' when he says of O'Neill : 

Conan More, who doomed his race 
For ever to the war and chase, 
Forbade, with deadly curse and scorn 
To plough the land or sow the corn. 

The character in the old Irish poems, who corresponds with the Paris of Homer, is Diarmuid 
O'Duibhne, who carried off Graine, the daughter of the monarch Cormac, from her husband, Finn 
IVIac Cool. His name Diarmuid is heard to this day, perfectly unchanged in Irish ; while, in English, it 
is variously rendered Dermott, Darby, and even Jeremiah. From it has been formed the common 
family name Mac Dermott, which, in the neighbourhood of Carlow, has taken the form of Mac Darby. 
The surname O'Doin or O'Dain, now written and pronounced Dunn and Doyne, some would believe 
to be identical with O'Duibhne ; but, as in the case of Finn, it is more likely to have been derived 
from a personal epithet donn, which signifies hrown, or hrown-haired. The names Divenny and Di- 
vin, however, are common in the north of the county Tyrone, and are, no doubt, the true modern 
representatives of O'Duibhne, the pronounciation of which is precisely in accordance ; namely, O'Divny. 



(Continued from page 26.^ 


Sin John Davies, adopting in his enthusiasm, a quotation slightly varied from the Latin Vulgate, 
declares that "the description of the land of Canaan, in the eighth of Deuteronomy, doth in every part 
agree with Ireland, being ' Terra rivorum, aquarumque, et fontium ; in cnjus campis, et montibus, 
erumpunt fluviorum abyssi ; terra frumenti, et hordei ; terra lactis, et mellis ; ubi absque ulla penu- 
ria concedes panem tuum, et rerura abundantia perpueris?" * It was not difficult to perceive, even 
in the earliest years of the seventeenth century, that it was a country for which nature had done much, 
though art and industry were little practised ; and a man who possessed great discernment of its 
capabilities probably mingled a little of his hopes of the future with his estimate of the present. At 
all events, an error of a similar kind is committed by many among ourselves, who judge of a past 
condition of society by a standard that applies only lo the present. When we look, from an eleva- 
tion, at the country which for many miles is all under cultivation, with comfortable houses, blooming 
orchards, regular hedge-rows, and good roads interspersed, we are disposed to forget that some of 
these existed in a very inferior degree only fifty years ago, and others not at all. At the close of 
Queen Elizabeth's reign, and beginning of that of James I, various causes had contributed to reduce tho 
north of Ireland, and not the north only, to a pitiable condition. The customs of the native Irish 
were unsuited to produce a generation of "prosperous gentlemen ;" the English and Scotch in their 
immigrations looked more to the rapid acquirement of a share of existing property than to the slow in- 
crease of national wealth; and seldom were famine, pestilence, and the sword, all absent at the same time. 
It is scarcely credible that a country which had been nominally owned by England since the time of 
Henry II, should have remained so much in its condition of original semi-barbarism. The labour 
of conquest was " never ending still beginning;" and the utter insecurity of property naturally para- 
lysed industry and enterprise. Large districts, therefore, had retrograded in wealth, comfort, and 
intelligence ; and population had become greatly diminished. 

Deut. viii. 7-0. " A land of water, of^fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of 
wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig-trees, and pomegranates, a land of oil, olive, and honey ; a land wherein 
thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it ; a load whoso stones are iron, and 
out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass." 


One valuable authority, accessible to every reader, is Camden, wbose " Britannia" was first pub- 
lished in 1586. He had less assistance from previous writers, in the materials for his account of 
Ireland, than for those of England and Scotland ; he, therefore, took advantage of the latest official 
information, and, no doubt, sought personal intercourse with those who were minutely acquainted 
with the scenes of which he treated. His accoimt of our own district has not been always re- 
ceived as correct ; but it has been confirmed in the most satisfactory manner by a totally independent 
authority, the MS. of Dean Dobbs, published by Dubourdieu in 1812. This is supposed to have 
been ^vritten about 1598 ; and, from internal evidence, it is clear that that date is not much in error two authorities give us a picture of Down and Antrim by which our own sketch is guided ; 
and their joint testimony is confirmed by less formal statements and brief allusions in various other 

To commence with authorities still later than these, Bankes, whose immense folio was issued about 
1786, says of the whole county Antrim, "it consists chiefly of bogs and marshes; but those parts 
which are cultivated are tolerably fertile." We cannot reasonably doubt the correctness of the for- 
mer statement, from what we know of the present condition of the county ; especially when we con- 
sider what a large amount of bog was converted into arable land, in one of the very best parts of it, 
and since the commencement of the present century.'' The character of the county Down is not very 
flattering either, for at a late period also, viz. in 1691, Laurence Eochard" writes of it, that "it 
is very fertile, though in some places encumbered with woods and bogs." It is to be observed, how. 
ever, that he described the country as it stood before the contests of the revolution, not after; and 
that the increasing familiarity with Irish affairs enabled him to bring his information down to the period 
that he wished. The following is a more detailed account, from north to south of the district under 
review, in which very little more has been required than to express the names of places, which the 
writers employ, in terms familiar to the modern reader. 

The extent of the district called the "Glynnes" has been noticed, p. 23 ; it is described as having "few 
inhabitants." This is accounted for by its elevation, which makes great part of it inaccessible, even if 
it were not naturally sterile. The old road along the shore, which constituted the leading thorough- 
fare till within the last few years, still exists ; and it never fails to excite the wonder of the stranger how 
a path so difficult to follow could be of any material use in promoting intercourse. 

On the western side of the hills, or in Dunluce and KilconWay, the county was " strong but with 
few people." The former term applies to the elevated portion, the latter to the whole of it. It ap- 
pears, however, that the bogs and woods, on the right as well as on the left bank of the Bann, afforded 
great shelter to rebels and freebooters whom it was difficult or impossible to dislodge. These consist- 

^ Dubourdieu's Antrim, II. 314. 

c ".An exact depcriotion of Ireland, Chorographically surveying all its Provinces and Counties," with maps 
and a Gazetteer ol places. 


ed in part of the native Irish, but mainly of Scotch islanders ; and the nuisance extended almost 
from Toome to Coleraine. One of the early editors of Camden says in his notes, that the " King 
graciously purposes a civil plantation of those unrefor'med and waste parts." 

The more level country comprised in the Baronies of Upper and Lower Antrim was held by various 
tribes, occasionally at war with their neighbours or each other ; and that which is now Upper Toome, 
being covered with bogs and forests to the water side, was a stronghold to its inscrupulous chieftain. 
His territory lay on both sides of the Bann, so that when pressed on one side he easily retreated to 
the other. 

The condition of Island Magee was characteristic of the times. Though naturally fertile, and, un- 
like the other districts quite free from wood, it was " all waste." 

The whole of that which is now Upper and Lower Massareene, part of Upper Belfast, and the 
northern part of Lower Iveagh, form an extensive tract of great fertility and beauty at the present 
day ; but the waters of the Lagan and its tributaries, not being confined within convenient limits, 
naturally produced marshes and bogs, and the natural fertility of the soil covered the greater part with 
timber. Accordingly, the description of it is contained in such expressions as the following, " much 
incumber'd with woods and boggs," " a very fast country, full of wood and bog," and " a very 
fast woodland." 

The country lying between the Upper Bann, Lough Neagh, and the Lagan, including the greater 
part of the modern Tullylish and Donaghcloney, is described in similar language, ' a very fast coun- 
try of wood and bogg." 

It is probable that the greater part of Iveagh (Upper and Lower) was in a more available condi- 
tion, for nothing is stated respecting the dijficulties of its surface. Magennis, the owner of it was in 
friendly alliance with the English, yet his sister was married to O'Neill of Tyrone ; and the number 
of both horse and foot, which he could command on any emergency, was equal to one third of that for 
the whole county of Antrim. 

Kinelarty was "likewise a woodland and bogg;" Dufferin was a woody vale," or "for the most 
part woody;" and Upper and Lower Oastlereagh "for the most part a woodland," or "a woody 

The southern part of the peninsula of Ardes is represented as " a fertile champion country," and the 
north as " a champion" or " fertile land." It appears, however, that there was " a flat boggy plain 
in the middle, of about twelve m'leslong." 

Lecale is represented as a rich soil, and, like Island Magee, free from trees. The latter fact is 
probably accounted for by its having been inhabited, more or less, by English settlers for several 

The lordships of Newry and Moume, were " almost waste" a very few years before the close of the 
sixteenth century ; and Camden speaks of the Upper Bann rising in " the solitude of the mountains of 


III corroboration of this account it may be added, that the whole of Antrim contained but one 
respectable town ; the description of the remainder, by every writer, referring only to districts of open 
country. " Carrickfergus is the only town in the shire," says the writer of the Dobbs M.S. ; and Cam- 
den, speaking of Antrim, says "it is a small town, only remarkable for giving name to the shire." 
The only castles wardable were those of Belfast and Edenduff-carrick (Shane's Castle) ; while that of 
Lame, and two others, were in ruins. And in an age when every male capable of bearing arms was 
reckoned among fighting men, the available force of the whole county could only be estimated at 
about 260 horse and 640 foot. At the present time, an equal number could be produced by the least 
important baronial division, or by some of the larger parishes. In Down there were three towns, New- 
ry, Downpatrick and Ardglass ; and in the neighbourhood of Strangford Lough there were three cas- 
tles, Strangford, Scattery, and Ringhaddy. In other parts of the county there were those of Green- 
castle, Narrow Water, Dundrum and Castlereagh. This county could send into the field 280 horse 
and 1420 foot, a force nearly twice as strong as that of Antrim, but small when compared with its 
great extent. At this time, too, Down comprehended some of the best districts of modern Antrim 
a fact which accounts in part for their relative strength. 


The histories of an earlier period mention few of the names of places with which we are familiar ; 
and in attempting to identify the ancient districts with modern ones, we are usually at fault. For 
this there are two reasons : first, that except where great natural divisions occurred, such as a lake, 
a river, or a ridge^of hills, there were usually no formal boundaries assigned ; and second, that the 
conventional limits, sufficiently well known in general, were contracted, expanded, or shifted in any 
direction, according to circumstances. There is, therefore, not only naturally but necessarily, a cer- 
tain amount of indistinctness in the geographical allusions ; and this is particularly noticeable in our own 
days of rigid topographical exactness, when every square yard of ground is assignable to some civil or 
ecclesiastical district. '\\Tien an uncivilized tribe roamed generally over an area of twenty or thirty 
square miles, tending their flocks, and calling the land by the name of their leader, it is clear that the 
common occurrences of victory or defeat, increase or diminution, must have altered the limits of the 
districts currently assigned to them. 

Speed's map of Ulster, which was engraved in 1610, was one of great merit in its day. It was co- 
pied at once by continental geographers who aimed at minute accuracy, and Camden's description 
shared the same fate." It is still valuable to those who treat of the beginning of the sixteenth century ; 
and, notwithstanding some instances of a trifling nature, confirms the verbal accounts already alluded 

According to it, the County Antrim had the river Bann for its western boundary, from Lough 

'. G. "Joanais Jaassonii Novus Atlas." Tomus Quartus. fol. Amstelodami, 1663, 


r- 1 


Neagh to the sea, thus including the "Liberties of Coleraine." But the southern boundary diverged 
northerly from the Lagan, a little above Belfast, and reached the shore of Lough Neagh near the 
place called Crumlin- Water-Foot ; thus giving to the county Down the whole of Upper Masserene, 
and part of Upper Belfast. This county was still fiirther enlarged by the addition of a considerable 
district of the modem Armagh. 

This, however, was the result of an early attempt to reduce all Ulster to shire ground ; and both 
Down and Antrim were soon after brought within their present limits. 

At an early period of the English possession an English colony settled near the mouth of the Bush^ 
and at certain points along the coast near the Giants' Causeway. They built castles and cultivated lands; 
and the low lying district on both sides of the Bush, including parts of Dunluce and Gary, was called the 
Barony of Tuscard. The followers of Hugh Boy O'Neill dispossessed them, and at the close of the 
sixteenth century this district was known as the Boute. A presbytery, in connection with the I^res- 
byterian Church in Ireland, is called by this name ; and the conventional limits of the district may 
be inferred generally from the post towns of the congregations that concentrate there : they are 
Eallycastle, Ballymoney, Bushmills, and Dervock. Like every district of the kind, it had a cap- 
tain or principal person to whom the fighting-men were obedient ; it was probably in a similar state 
of society that the ancient title of " captain of a parish" originated in the Isle of Man. 

Lower or North Clandehoy extended from the southern limits of the county to the Route, having 
the Glynnes on the east and the Bann on the west. It comprehended, therefore, the modern ba- 
ronies of Belfast, Antrim, and Toome, over which the MacQuillans, MacGenniscs, O'Neills, and 
others, had spread themselves. Some of the mongrel Scots wrested a portion of it which lay between 
the Bann and the Maine, in the modern Toome ; and giving the name of their leader to that and an 
adjoining district in Tyrone, called the whole Bryan Carrogh's country. 

Upper or South Clandehoy altered its limits at various times. The term was first applied to the 
northern part of the peninsula of the Ards, when Hugh Boy's followers drove the English settlers to 
the south or point of it, thence called the Little Ards. Subsequently, the North was called by way of 
contrast the Great Ards, and the then South Clandeboy was employed to denote the country that 
" reacheth from the Dufiryn to Knockfergus." It gave the title of Viscount to James Hamilton, 
whose activity during the reign of James VI. of Scotland, was rewarded after the union of the crowns j 
and when the title became extinct more than half a century after, a member of the same family. Vis- 
count Limerick, was created Baron Clandeboy. This title also became extinct in 1798 ; in 1800 
the creation of the present Irish peerage. Baron Dufierin and Clandeboy took place ; and so recently 
.18 1850, the present peer has been elevated to the peerage of the United Kingdom, under the title of 
Baron Clandeboy. Though the name of the district has thus been used four times in the peerage 
within 131 years, the district itself has no official existence, and is hardly known, even conventionally^ 
to the inhabitants. Lord Dufi'crin has, however, with much good taste, lately named his residence 
Clandeboy House, instead of Ballylcidy, named from a townland. 


Kilhiltagh, is represented in 1598 as "as bordering npon LougH Eagho and Clandbrassil" ; and in 
Speed's map it occupies the position of the modern Aghalee, Aghagallon and Ballinderry, between the 
Lagan river and the lake. In 1C91 it is enumerated as one of the baronies of Antrim, to which it 
then belonged ; and both Upper and Lower Masserene are omitted ; it is evident, therefore, that 
it wad then co-extensive with them. Its ofEcial existence is now merely as a manor, the general ex- 
tent of which is coincident with the Marquis of Hertford's estate. It includes the town of Lisburn, 
and possesses some peculiar privileges connected with it. The district which gave origin to the 
name is now a townland of less than 700 acres in extent, in the parish of Ballinderry. Its forma 
name is Derrykillultagh, though popularly abridged ; and a respectable mansion, now a farm-house^ 
commanding an extensive prospect, is known as Killultagh House. This district gave the Irish title 
of Viscount to Sir Edward Conway in 1626 ; but it and other honours expired at the death of his 
grandson, Earl Conway, in 1683. Popham Seymour and his brother Francis, who were cousins to 
the Earl through their respective mothers, inherited the estates in succession, in accordance with the 
will of the late Earl, greatly to the annoyance of those who possessed naturally the blood of the Con- 
ways, as did Sir Arthur Rawdon, Bart., grandfather to the first Lord Moira. Francis Seymour having 
assumed the name and arms of Conway, was created a peer both of England and Ireland in 1703; the 
title, in the latter case, being Baron Conway of Killultagh, now merged in the superior dignity of 
Marquis of Hertford. 

Kilwarlin is frequently spoken of in connection with Killultagh. It was " bounding upon Kill- 
ulto," the Lagan river flowing between ; and according to Speed it had the modern Lough Beg on 
its west. He has, however, misplaced the lake of that name, which lies on the parochial boundary 
between Glenavy and Ballinderry, (not the Lough Beg at Toome, north of Lough Neagh) ; and under 
the name of Lough Eyle reaches it till in a straight line between Donochelon, (Donaghcloney,) and 
Blare. (Blaris) ! In 1598, Kinelarty lay "between Kilwarlin and Le Cahell;" the district must 
therefore have embraced the greater part of Lower Iveagh. During the contested county elections 
in the close of the last century, it was regarded as co-extensive with Lord Downshire's home 
estate, and the term ' the Kilwarlin estate" is still occasionally heard. "Within the last thirty 
years the understanding was, that Kilwarlin corresponded with the Downshire property west of 
Hillsborough ; and a Roman Catholic chapel built just within those limits, is called, in the Report 
of the Commissioners for Public Instruction, 1834, the chapel of Kilwarlin. At the present 
day, very few would recognise the propriety of the name. It is now popularly almost confined 
to five contiguous townlands: three in the parish of Hillsborough, one in Moira, and one in 
Blaris. This district is mentioned in two inferior titles of the Marquis of Downshire, whose 
ancestor was created Baron Hill of Kilwarlin in 1717, and Viscount Kilwarlin in 1751. From 
the fact of the latter title being merged in superior ones, it is rarely used in reality. It was, 

b Supra Dromore, ad lacus auc,h marsinem, Eilulto et Kilwarny, sylvis et paludibus impeditiores." 


however, held by Arthur, (afterwards second Marquis,) from 8rd March 1753, to 19th August 1789) 
and by a son of the present Marquis for a few days, in June, 1841. 

Glanbrassil is in some degree connected with Down, for a part of it formerly lay within the limits 
of that county, though the gi'cater part was situated in Armagh, about the mouth of the Upper Bann. 
It is alluded to in song by Sir Walter Scott,'' and associated with districts well known in Down. It 
gave the title of Earl on two occa&ions, to the family of James Hamilton of Clandeboy, i. e. in 1647 
and 1756 ; and at this moment, the title by which the Earl of Roden, great grandson of the last 
Earl, sits in the House of Lords, is Baron Glanbrassil, conferred in 1821. 


Before the death of Queen Elizabeth, King James of Scotland, in anticipation of the union of the 
crowns, had turned his attention anxiously to Ireland. He had succeeded in quelling the fierce spirit of 
the Border people, and he hoped, no doubt, to be able to increase peace and prosperity in Ireland also. 
This was impossible without good laws ; but laws themselves, unless they are obeyed, are of little avail. 
Sir John Davies, whose service in Ireland began in 1603, published his " Discovery of the True 
Causes, &c.,"* in 1612, in which he traces former errors and contemporary misfortunes to their true 
source. He shows that the nominal possessors of land were too few in number, " all Ireland having 
been cantonized among ten persons of the English nation ;" and that the Irish customs or laws, such 
aa elective chieftainship, ** and the arbitrary division of the lands among all the males by the chief, 
were difficulties quite insuperable in the way of progress. " This is the true reason" he adds, " why 
Ulster and all the Irish counties are found so waste and desolate at this day ; and so would they con- 
tinue to the world's end, if these customs were not abolished by the law of England." 

In 1604 Sir Arthur Chichester was appointed Lord Deputy, and, with the intermission of a single 
year, he continued in this important position till 1614. In July 1607, he determined to make a 
judicial progress through " the wastest and wildest parts of all the north," viz. : the counties of Ca- 
van, Monaghan, and Fermanagh, and Sir John Davies was associated with him in his expedition. 
Sir John has left us an accomit of it in a letter to the Earl of Salisbury, then Secretary of State. 
The district was almost destitute, even of villages ; the Lord Deputy and all his retinue were obliged 
to encamp in the open country ; it was scarcely possible to obtain a passage for such carriages as were 

= ' Once again, but how changed since my wan- formed and ingraven a foot, which they say was the 

d'rings began, measure of their first Captaine's foot, whereon hee 

I have heard the deep voice of tho Lagan and Bann, standing-, receives an oatli to preserve all the auncient 

And the pines of Claubrayil resound to the roar, former customcs of the countrey inviolable, and to de- 

That varies the echoes of fair TuUamorc " liver up the succession peaceably to his Tanist, and then 

lictum to Ulster. hath a waad delivered unto him by some whose proper 

a " A Discovery of tho true Causes why Ireland was office that is: after which descending from the stone, he 

never entirely subdued, till the bcginnuig of his Majes- turneth himselfe round, thrice forward, and thrice l)ack- 

tys Ueign." ward." Spencer's ViewoftheStntpoflTrcland. The stone 

b " They use to place him that shall bo their Captaine, at which the O'Neill wfi^s iiist;tlle 1, whose rule extended 

upon a stone alwayes reserved for that, and placed over Down and -Vntriui, was situated near t^tcwartotovvu, 

commonly upon a hill. In some of which I have seen about the p'jsitiou of Ballyneclog. 


indispensable ; and many of the poorest people had not abandoned the habits of dress and appearance 
which earned for them the name of " the Wild Irish.'" It was evident, therefore, that a greater as^ 
similation of the country to England was not only desirable but absolutely necessary. 

Of several plans which were proposed for the "planting" or colonising of Ulster, by people from 
Great Britain, that of the Lord Deputy himself was adopted. " No body better knew the tenitories 
to be planted," says Carte, ^ " the situation of every part thereof, the state and condition of the na- 
tives, as well as the pretensions and expectations of the Irish chiefs ; so that none could be better 
qualified, either to propose a scheme for the plantation that would be practicable, or to see it executed^ 
so as to make it effectual." The following is a brief outline of it. (1) To create a numerous body 
of respectable proprietors instead of a few large possessors, the allotments were of three kinds, 2000 
acres,' 1500, and 1000 ; half of each district consisting of the smallest class of sections. (2) Plant- 
ers of the first class were required to build each a castle and bawn^ within four years ; to plant within 
three years 48 able bodied men, natives of Great Britain ; 600 acres were to be kept as a demesne round 
the castle, and the rest to be divided, in stated proportions, among farmers, artificers, and labourers ; 
they were all to be well armed and to reside in towns and villages. The conditions for those of the 
second and third class were the same in spirit but different in detail ; the former, for example, were 
required to build a strong house of brick or stone, with a bawn, in two years, and the latter a bawn 
only. (3) Though, in practice, people classify themselves, it was not thought desirable to separate 
the English and Scotch ; but the Britons generally were kept distinct from the Irish, " as well for 
their greater security as to preserve the purity of the English language." (4) The previous offences 
of the Irish chieftains were overlooked, and a fair proportion of the grants were given them, with 
special authority to employ natives of the Roman Catholic religion in their service. It was thought 
that in this way they would be encouraged, and that they would necessarily profit by good example. 
Ofiicers who had served in Ireland also received special encouragement. They were expected to occu- 
py positions of the greatest danger ; and in return a small military force was granted them till the 
country became more settled. (5) Surveys were made, and the most suitable places for bridges, fer- 
ries, towns, castles, &c., were carefully noted. (6) To remedy the evils in the church, which Sir 

"= '' They have another oistom from the Scythians, the ^ History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormond, 1. 15. 
wearing of Mantles and long Glibbes, which [latter] is a 

tliicke curled bush of haire, hanging downe over their e The land measure which is still known as " Irish 

eyes, and monstrously disguising them, which are both Plantation Measure," containing 49 square yards in the 

bad and hurtfull. * * The Glibbes are fit maskes for perch, instead of 31J, was adopted at this time. It was 

a thiefe. For whensoever he hath run liimself into that intended as a compensation for portions of ground not 

peril of law, that be will not be knowne, he either cut- easily reclaimable. 
teth of his glibbe quite, by which he becommeth nothing 

like hiniselfc, or puUeth it so low downe over his eyes, f A strong enclosure, to protect cattle and other pro- 

that it is very hard to discerne his theevish countenance. perty. At first the bawns were usually of timber, but 

* * Tlie commodi tie of the Mantle doth not coun- they were occasionally stone walls and these were some- 

tervaile the discommoditie ; for the inconveniences which times fortified. Hamilton's Bawn in Armagh gave nam 

thereby doe arise, are much more many ; for it is a to a village, and was the scene of a poem by Swift. 
fit house for an outlaw, a meet bed for a rebel, and an 
apt clokc for a theife." Spencer's View. 


John Davies and others had described in such strong terms, ^ the various divisions, especially those of the 
largest class, were erected into parishes ; and it was stipulated that churches should be erected and 
sufficient land set apart for a glebe. 

Though the plan of the plantation was agreed upon in 1609, and Sir John Davies reports, in 1610, 
that a certain part of it had been carried into efifect, it is clear that the King and the more intelligent 
people of the nation continued to attach considerable importance to it. This is evident from the in- 
stitution of the Baronetcy, in England in 1611, and in Ireland in 1619, The Letters Patent re- 
hearse that it was "to promote the plantation'' of the Kingdom of Ireland, and chiefly of the ample 
and celebrated province of Ulster, and to establish that it should more and more flourish, not only by 
the sincere culture of religion, civil humanity, and probity of morals, but also from the affluence of 
riches, and plenty of every thing that can either adorn or make happy a commonwealth." Among 
several directions respecting the order, it was decreed that the English -^' Baronets and their dcscc7Hl- 
ants,^ shall and may beare, either in a canton in their coate of armcs, or in an inscutchion, at their 
election, [i.e. according to their choice] the Armes of Ulster that is in a field argent, a hand geules, 
or a Bloody Hand."J The same rights were afterwards granted to the Baronets of Ireland ; and, to 
show the precise terms upon which the dignity might be obtained, commissioners were appointed to 
select from candidates with certain qualifications. These were, (1) a present payment of a sum 
sufficient to maintain thirty soldiers in Ireland for three years, at the rate of eight pence per day,^ (2) 
that each should have an income from landed properties of the annual value of j1000, of which one 
third might be in reversion ; and (3) the paternal grand-father at least must have been entitled to 
bear arms. The proportion of Baronets in the two counties of Down and Antrim was unusually 
small ; for during the seventeenth century we find only the names of Rawdon of Moira, ^ MacDon- 
nell of the Glynnes (1627-1791), Magill of GUhall, (1680-1701), and Ward of Killileagh (1682-91). 
Other Baronets have been prominently connected with the counties, as Bateson of Moira, and Blun- 
dell of Dundrum ; or have been more recently created, as Johnston of Gilford, and the Macnaghtens 
of Bushmills ; but to these the present remarks do not refer. 

The Plantation of Ulster is commonly said to have embraced only six counties, Cavan, Ferman- 
agh, Armagh, Donegall, Tyrone, and Dcrry, because almost the whole of these had been forfeited 
in consequence of the previous rebellion. Probably the settlement of Monaghan, by the Lord Deputy 

B " For the churclies, they are for the most part in before it was adopted as the arms of Ulster. Spencer 

ruins: snch as were presented to be in reparation are speaking of battle-cries, says "they under O'Neall cry 

covered only with thatch. But the incumbents, b)th par- Laundargabo, that is the bloody hand, which is O'Neales 

sons and vicars, did appear to be such poor i-ag?od igno- bad^e." The hand is now universally emblazoned ;w a 

rant creatures, as we could not esteem any of themlworthy sinislfr one, but there is reason to believe that, as orijrin- 

ofthe meanest of thosclivings, albeit many of tliem are ally borne by the O'Neills, it was a dtxtcr one. See 

ni)t worth above 40s. per annum." Brown's Baronetage, Appendix. 

' ' De plantatione rc'ni nostri Iliberniae, &c. '' 1095. 

' In practice, the Baronets only take advantage of the ' These Baronetcies were afterwards merged m the 

privilege. neeragc ; the fii-st is still possessed by the Marquis of 

J This was the standard of the O'Neills for centuries IListings. 


in person, in 1G07, was regarded as sufficient for that shire. At all events, the counties with which 
we are concerned, Down and Antrim, are not prominently mentioned in connexion with the Planta- 
tion scheme ; though it is, also, evident that they were not excluded from it. It must be borne in 
mind that it was only in the "escheated" lands that the re-distribution took place ; but that the 
grants which had previously been made to loyal subjects remained, as most of them do to the present 
hour, undisturbed. In Down, the forfeited lands extended from Clanbrassil on the west, across the 
territories of Kilwarlin, Iveagh, Kinelarty, and South Clandeboy ; and embraced also the greater part, if 
not the whole, of the Ards. These were the lands which had been directly subject to O'Neill or his 
tributary captains ; but Newry and Mourne, for the improvement of which Sir Nicholas Bagnall had 
made great exertions, were undisturbed; as was also Locale, which had been received in exchange by 
the Earls of Kildare. In Antrim, in like manner, the forfeited lands included Killultagh, North 
Clandeboy, Island ]\Iagee, Bian Carrogh's country and a portion of the Route. The whole county 
was near being involved ; but the brother of Sorley Boy !&IacDonnell [yellow Charlie] slew O'Neill 
by a stratagem, and the lands, which the family had acquired, descended peaceably to the Earls of 
Antrim. From this date, the districts which had been the worst became the best. They were filled 
with a population of Anglo-Saxon origin ; and though the original fountain had sent forth two 
streams, each of which possessed qualities of its own, their confluence in this new land was unattended 
by shock or disaster, but tended, on the contrary, to diffuse wealth and prosperity, 

Though the p-incijoles of the Plantation, as sketched by Sir Arthur Chichester, were strictly car- 
ried out, there was, from time to time, a great departure from the details. In certain circumstances, 
for example, larger tracts were granted to individuals ; and these being increased by subsequent for- 
feitures in 1641 or 1690, by inheritance, by purchases, or by mere occupation, assumed the form of 
modem estates. Most of our peerage families belong to this fortunate class ; while among the county 
magistrates and lesser gentry of Ulster, we find the descendants of the adventiirers, servitors, and 
other planters, who retain their ancestral grants to the present hour. And after all the changes that 
have taken place, during an eventful period, and in the lapse of two centuries and a-half, the outline 
of the territorial arrangement is visible in our present structure. A large number of parishes and 
townlands bear some fixed relation to the unit of 500 Irish acres ; the former in general consist of 
several such units, and the latter of a fractional part of one. 

We now proceed to show the peculiar locality occupied by each set of people, native and foreign ; 
distinguishing, as far as possible, the original elements of the Plantation from the numerous Protes- 
tant accessions at subsequent periods. 

A TPrwpcct cf CA'U'Ute-JE'HqMS 

i^et^ta /de <^-uu:e w/ae Jtiiicv 'IVifdaiii ^n^et/ tn Xilc^OA/ib, 

A. The King in the Mary Yacht Gapt Collins 

B. Prince George, jin the Henneretta Yacht Gap* Sanderson 

C. The King goeing a Shoare in S^ Glo: Chouells Barg 

D. Sr G Shovell, Bear Adm" of the Blew in the Monk mith his Squadron 
X Bonfiers on the Shoare 


About 3 o'clock on the 14th of June 1G90, King William landed at Carrickfergus, accompanied 
by Prince Grcorge of Denmark, his brother -in-law, and attended by the Duke of Ormond, the Earls 
of Oxford, Portland, Scnrl orough, and Manchester, besides other distinguished individuals. The ac- 
companying illustration is reduced from the one given in Captain Grecnvile Collin's " Coasting 
TMlot;" and altliough rude, most probably gives a correct representation of the scene, as this officer 
had tijo honor of commanding His Majesty's yacht, the " Mary." It may be mentioned, as some- 
what remarkable, that the only other Government Survey of Carrickfergus Bay was that made in 
1 "^41, by Captain I>cechcy, Pv. X., who, like his predecessor Collins, had the honor of piloting the 
inly other Loyal vls^itor to the harbour. Queen A'ictoria. His Majesty, on landing, rode through 


this ancient town, and most probably visited the site of what King James the I. designates " our 
lloyal Palace of Mountjoy." Crowds of people are stated to have assembled, who welcomed the King 
with continual shouts and acclamations. The inhabitants still point out, at the quay of Carrickfer- 
gus. the stone on which he first placed his Koyal foot ; and at the late Exhibition of Antiquities, 
in the Belfast i\Iuscum, amongst other relics connected with this period, the chair was shown on which 
he had afterwards rested.' As the forces disembarked at the " Old Whitehoiise," or what is now bet- 
ter known as " Macclon Point," the King, without much delay, proceeded to place himself at their 
head. The remains of a house arc still shown there, where he is said to have rested ; having been 
joined, at that place, by the Duke Schomberg, the Prince of Wirtemberg, Major-General Kirk, 
and others. The former brought with him his coach, drawn by six horses, for the use of the King, 
who is described in the " Villare Hibernicum" as having driven over the strand to Belfast, attended 
by a single troop of horse and a few gentlemen. This will appear rather an extraordinary statement to 
many persons at the present day ; but it is a well-ascertained fact that, within less than a century, 
it was a common practice to cross the strand in this manner : the deep deposit of mud, now accu- 
mulated there, being of very recent dste, and probably occasioned by the extensive plantations along 
the shore sheltering it from the wind. 

" The uncertainty of the time and place of His Majesty's landing, and the suddenness of the news was 
such, that few of the multitude that flocked to Belfast to see it had their ends, the General's motion 
was so quick : yet before they got into the town there were abundance that met them, and, coming to 
the North Gate,** he was received by the magistrates of Belfast in their formalities : " a guard of 
the Foot-guards, and a general continued shout, and shouts of ' God save the King,' ' God bless 
our Protestant King,' ' God bless King William.' His ^Majesty went directly to the castle, which 
had been some time before prepared for him, where he alighted, and went into an apartment appointed 
for him."d 

The chart, already referred to, shows all the high grounds in the neighbourhood covered with bon- 
fires ; and it appears, from the authority above adduced, that the streets of the town were lighted up, 
and that signals, repeated from guns stationed at different points, notified the important event of the 
day to all the surrounding country. The curious Ordnance Survey of the town (now in the British 
Museum,) male by Ciiptain Phillips, in 1685, shows the North Gate mentioned above, as well as the 
Castle of Belfast : these have been copied as appropriate illustrations of the present article. 

A very interesting account of King William's proceedings is given in a small duodecimo volume 

a This was lon^ preserved at Castle Upton : about a Duke of Schomberg's proclamation of 14tli Sept. 1689, 

century since it came into the possession of Mr. Bur- restoring ancient charters wliich had been superseded by 

leigh, of Burleigh Hill, and was subsequently given to a James. When the King reached the Castle, this officer, 

gentleman now residing at Carrickfergus. on his knees, "*' humbly presented the rod of authority," 

'> At the extremity of what was lately Mary Street, which was graciously returned; and then, again kneeling;, 

Belfast. he presented the Corporation address. 

c The Sovereign or chief magistrate was Captain d Villare Hibernicum. 
Robert Leith, who had resumed his office by virtue of the 


l:i' 'f^ 



published at Amsterdam in 1691, and evidently written by an eye-witness of the events described. 
It is entitled " Histoire de la Revolution d'Irlande, arrivte sous Guillaume ni." We give some 
extracts from this in the original French considering that they would lose a portion of their interest 
in a translation. The first is an account of the address presented to the king at Belfast. "Dts que 
Sa Majeste put estrc complimentee, plusieurs adresses luy furent presentees, tant de la part du 
Clerge de I'Eglise Anglicane, que de celuy des Presbiteriens ; les Villes de Londonderry and de Bel- 
fast, nommement, luy donnerent en cette rencontre des marques sensibles de leur vene'ration, de leur 
zele, and de leur attJtchement inviolable. Nous ne rapporterons point icy tontes ces differentes adres- 
ses ; nous nous contnterons d'en mettre une de deux comt^s ; elle est conceue en ces termes. 

Nous les Sherifs, les Juges de paix, et les Gentilshommes des Comtds de Downe et 
d' Antrim, congratulons, de tout nostre coeur, Vostre Majesty, sur son heureuse arrivte dans 
ce Royaume ; and nous ofirons tres-humblement a Vostre Majeste nos sinceres remercimens 
des grandes peines and des perils ausci[uels Elle s'expose, pour nous retablir dans I'cxercice de 
nostre Religion, dans nos Libertez, dt ns nos Biens, and dans nos Droits. Nous ne doutons 
point que comme Dicu s'est scrvi de Vostre Majeste pour estre I'instrument miraculeux 
du retablissement de ces Biens and de ces Avantages dans le Royamne d'Angletcrre, Vous ne 
le soyez aussi dans ce Pais affligo ; ce que nous prions la Providence Divine d'effectuer. 
Nous supplions aussi le Seigneur, et bien ardemment, de donner a Vostre Majest un long 
et heureux Regno. Ce sont., SIRE, les voeux and les souhaits de ceux qui sont avec un 
tres-profond respect, &c." 
There is a modern earth-work, two miles from Belfast, on a commanding eminence, in 
the grounds of Richard Langtry, Esq., of Fortwilliam, supposed by some to have been thrown 
up at this period. The authority for this opinion cannot be ascertained ; and there is no 
reason to suppose that William found it requisite to employ his soldiers in any work of de- 
fence in a place where he was surrounded by friends, The work is not large, but is formed ac- 
cording to modern practice, and for resisting an attack by Artillery. It has been asserted that there 
are old documents extant in which this earth-work is called " Port Essex," which would throw back 
the date of its erection to a still earlier period : and, on the part of the same hill (called the Trench 
Hill) fronting towards Belfast is another earth-work, seemingly very ancient, covering one of the 
' taves' so frequently met with throughout the north of Ireland, but which is not included in the re- 
gular iutrenchment. It is possible that this fortification was thrown up rather for practice to young 
engineers than for actual use, as its dimensions are very confined. 

It has been already mentioned that the king proceeded to the Castle of Belfast ; other notices of 
this visit state that he remanied for five days, and lodged at the house of Sir William Franklin, the 

e We have been favoured with the use of this vohime from the library of Herbert F. More, Esq., County Wex- 


site of which is now occupied by the Donegall Anns Hotel. It is more probable, however, that some 
of his suite occupied this house. The Corporation Minutes record that his Majesty staid five nights 
in Belfast, and was "very well pleased with the inhabitants, and the town and its cittenation, and said 
(when within the Castle, and the doors being open to the garden,) that was like Whitehall." 

It is stated in some accounts that, on reaching Belfast, His Majesty immediately issued a Procla- 
mation, from His " Court at Belfast, prohibiting the army from laying waste the country ; indeed 
his whole com-se seems to have been, as far as possible, conciliatory. The following extract from a 
rare published letter, dated '25th August 1689, is curious from its detailing the prices of provisions 
in Belfast and its vicinity, as ordained by G-eneral Schomberg, while prosecuting the siege of Car- 
rick fergiis. ^ 

' To our great surprise, and no less joy, we found the whole country full of corn, and all manner 
of provision, whose plenty you may guess at by the folio wing table of rates set up at the market-cross 
of this place, (Belfast), and the which is so satisfactory that, while I was transcribing it, I heard the 
sellers say, it was enough in, all conscience, and almost double what they got before our landing. 

Rates set upon goods and victuals to be sold in the camp before Carrickfergus, and 

all other places hereabouts. 

Wheat the barrell, containing 32 Winchester pecks, or two Winchester ) 

barrells, ... ... ... ... ... I 00 13 00 q 

Mault the barrell, containing 44 Winchester pecks or two barrells and ) 

a-half, ... ... ... ... ... ... J 00 15 00 

Old oats by the mault measure, ... ... ... ... 00 10 00 

New oats, the same measure, ... ... ... ... 00 06 00 

Oatmeal, the peck containing 16 quarts, .. . ... ... ... 00 01 00 

Fresh butter, 18 ounces to the pound, ... ... ... 00 00 02 

Salt butter, 10 ounces to the pound, ... "... ... ... 00 00 02 

Ncw-milk-checse, a poimd, ... ... ... ... 00 00 01. ] 

Scim'd-milk-cheese. a pound, ... ... ... ... ... 00 00 01 

New milk, 2 quarts for . . . ... ... ... ... 00 00 01 

Scim'd milk, or buttermilk, 4 quarts. ... ... ... ... 00 00 . 01 

Brandy, a quartern, ... ... ... ... ... 00 00 03 

Jlay, a hundred weight. ... ... ... ... ... 00 00 08 

Fresh beef, a pound, ... ... ... ... ... 00 00 00. c 

f This letter lias been communicated to us by the kindness of William Pinkerton, Esq., Ham, near Richmond, 
."SuiTey. It is from the King"s collection of historical tracts in the British Museum. 


Mutton, a pound, ... ... ... ... ... ... 00 00 01 

Geese, a piece, ... ... ... ... ... ... 00 00 08 

,Hen3, a piece, ... ... ... ... ... ... 00 00 04 

Eggs, Sfora ... ... ... ' ... ... ... 00 00 01 

White-bread, 15 ounces for ... ... ... ... ...^ 00 00 01 

Household, or oat bread 20 ounces, ... ... ... ... 00 00 01 

Aquavita, a quartern, ... ... ... ... ... 00 00 02 

To ivhich all persons are hereby required to conform at their peril ; and if any conceal their said 
goods, and keep them from tJte market, in expectation of greater rates, the same shall be seized." 

On Sunday the 15th June the King attended at the old church in High-street, where St. George's 
now stands, and heard a sermon preached by Dr. Royse, on Hebrews vi. ii. ** Through faith they 
subdued Kingdoms" on that day and the next he was waited on by the nobility, gentry, and mili- 
tary, and received addresses from the Episcopal and Presbyterian clergy. , 

The King is understood to have remained at Belfast for five days, and then to have joined his 
army, which consisted (according to the French work already quoted,) of sixty-two squadrons of ca- 
valry, and fifty-two battalions of infantry, in four divisions. The van-guard was commanded by 
Lieutenant- General Douglas ; the right wing by Major-General Kirk ; the left wing by the Earls 
of Oxford and De Solms ; and the main body by His Majesty, in person, the Duke of Schomberg, 
and Monsieur de Scravemoer. " Les choses estant ainsi disposees il fust resolu de faire marcher 
I'Armee vers Market-hill, et d'entrer ensuite duns le grand chcmin qui conduit d' Armagh Sk Dun. 
dalke. Le Roy, au mesme temps, commanda Monsieur de Scravemoer, Major-General, pour aller 
avec trois cens cavaliers, et deux cens dragons, reconnoLstre les Ennemis, voir ou Ton pourroit camper, 
ct s'approcher aussi pres de Dundalk qu' il lay seroit possible, afin d'observer la contcnance des Enne- 
mis, qui estoient on cet endroit-la, au nombre de ncuf ou dix mille hommes ; le restc de I'Arm^e du 
Roy Jaques estant du cote de la riviere de Boine." 

After breakfasting at Belfast, His Majesty resumed his advance towards the Boyne ; but about two 
miles on his way to Lisnegarvy [Lisburn] he was overtaken by a heavy shower of rain. Observing 
.some very large trees near the road, a short distance within the present avenue-gate of "Cranmore," the 
residence of Mrs. Tenipleton, the King, with the habit of an old campaigner, took shelter under one 
of them. Mr. Eccles,^ however, the gentleman who at that time resided at the place, requested the 
King and his staff to honor him by making use of his house. The invitation was accepted, and his 
Majesty partook of some refreshment ; some barrels of home-brewed ale being sent to such of the 

^ Mr. Ecclcs was grcat-j;r'mdfathcr to tlic celebrated chemist Dr. Joseph Black, the orismator of the theory 
(if 'latent heat.' 


escort as remained under the trees. As the rain continued without abating, and the King was suffer- 
ing from severe head-ache, ho consented to repose himself for some hours ; after which, as the 
weather improved towards evening, he resumed his march. The name by which this house had been 
previously distinguished is not now known : in an old will it is simply called '* Malone." However, 
in 1775, it is mentioned in another will as " Orange Grove," a name very probably given to it soon 
after the King's visit. The tree which sheltered the king was long an object of interest to his admirers : it 
was blown down, however, during a violent storm in 1796, the same which dispersed the French fleet off 
Bantry Bay. The Orangemen afterwards adopted the next tree as the memorial : and this also has 
ceased to exist, having been destroyed by another storm in 1808. The accompanying lithograph re- 
presents Cranmore as it stood previous to some alterations lately made by the present proprietor. It 
Is, perhaps, the last remaining example, in this neighbourhood, of the residence of an English settler in 
the reign of Elizabeth. The name of the original occupant is not known. Within the last thirty 
years it was commonly known, among the old residents in the district of Malone, as the " Big House." 
The present name was given to it by the late eminent naturalist, Mr. Tenipleton, as descriptive of the 
giant chesnut trees which form so striking an object in front of the house. Mr. Templeton, in a 
Journal dated September 1809, makes the folloTying note which possesses some interest with refer- 
ence to the present subject. " In a conversation with Mr. Legg about the time when ' Shaw's 
Bridge' was built, he mentioned his father having informed him that he had heard from old people 
that this bridge was built out of the ruins of an old castle, situated on the brow of the hill above 
called Castle Calm ; long before the erection of the ' Long Bridge' of Belfast, where there was then 
a ferry ; and that where ' Drumbridge' is now built there was a wooden foot-way. In leases which 
Mr. Legg has seen, the lands, in the immediate neighboiirhood of Shaw's Bridge, were under a much 
higher rent in 1G80 than other lands in the vicinity. Mr. Legg's father remembered to have heard 
the present Mr. William Russell's grandmother state, (when about the age of 75,) that her father 
told her there was a wooden bridge across the Lagan a little below the place where Mr. Russell's house 
now stands ; and the present Mr. Legg recollects large stones and pieces of wall lying in the river, 
wliichwere removed when the canal was making." *" 

As the King passed through the village of Lambeg, near Lisbvirn, he was addressed in French by 
Bene Bulmer, a Huguenot, who had fled from France, with others, on the revocation of the Edict 
of Nantes, and settled in the neigboui-hood of this village. After having explained to his Majesty the 
cause of his being in this coimtry, as the King was going on, he asked permission to embrace his Ma- 
jesty, who assented ; and having received the salute on the cheek, the King, stooping from his horse 
towards Bulmer's wife, a pretty Frenchwoman, said, " and thy wife also," and saluted her heartily. 
The King stopped at Lambeg House, then belonging to the Wolfendens, now the property of Mr. 

.^^ith respect to the erection of these bridges, and the ' forges,' &c., on the Lagan, some curious information 
will be given in a future JS" umber. 



DATED 1685 

.4^/f in ffi^3i.tishMuseuw. 


Kichard Niven : the cliair he used, while there, is now in the possession of Mrs. Christian, in Der- 

It was necessary to cross the river Lagan at this part by an ancient ford, and here one of the wag- 
gons broke down, which caused some delay. It was repaired with timber fiimished from the neigh- 
bouring manufactory of Mr. Wolfenden, and a pike, which fell from the disabled waggon, remained 
a long time in his family. Two persons of this name had, at the time, their works at this part of the 
river ; one, on the county Antrim side manufacturing blankets, the other, on the county Down side 
making paper : they were originally Germans, 

There is an entry on record in the Vestry Brook of the Cathedral of Lisburn, stating that his Ma- 
jesty King William III. and army marched through that town in 1690, and encamped at Blaris, on 
his way to the Boyne ; but did not stop there, as he proceeded to Hillsborough. The late Dr. Cup- 
pies, when Rector of the parish of Lisburn, alias Blaris, was called upon, in the coxirse of his duties, 
.to visit a parishioner called Connor, who told the Doctor, among other matters, that he had a 
perfect recollection of seeing the army of King William pass on their way to the Boyne : that he 
saw his IMajesty alight from his horse, and throw the reins over a bush, which is still in existence 
and known as " the King's Bush," on the present road to Blaris grave-yard. This old man, Con- 
nor, died shortly afterwards, aged 110, and possessed his faculties to the last:' he was an inhabitant 
of Blaris, near the locks on the canal. 

The army encamped on Blaris Moor, on the part which is now intersected by the road to Dub- 
lin, and known as the townlands of Magheragarry and Tannabrick ; and the place where the cavalry 
were stationed from this circumstance retains the name of " Trooper Field." 

'Many remarkable instances of longevity have been noticed in this locality. 


Barons of Ulster Sir, Permit me to suggest to your learned correspondent, J. W. H , who has so clearly and 
ably traced the history of the Countv Palatine of Ulster, and of the Barons created h\ the De Courcys, De Lacys, 
and others, who successively enjoved that Earldom, that he should discuss the farther question, which his own 
paper raise's, tchether (he Jiarons of Ulster, created by virtue of the powers vested in the said Counts Palatine, be not 7iow 
liarons of the realm, in consequence of the Earldom of Ulster having merged into the Crown, in the manner set 
forth in his previous Essay. 

The decision in the case reported by Sir John Davies, and referred to by J. W. H., would appear to countenance 
an affirmative answer to this question. 

In that case it was found by office, in the County of Wexford, that one Prendergast anno 27 Henry viii. was seized 
in fee of certain land in that county, niid held it of George, then Enrl of Shrev>sbury and Waterfortl, and Lord of 
Wexford, " as of the person of the aforesaid Earl, then being Count Palatine of the County of Wesford." It was 
likewise found that, by the statute 28, Hen viii., c. 8. it was enacted that the king, his heirs and successors, should 
liave and enjoy, as in light of the crown of England, all honours, manors, castles seignories, franchises, liber- 
tie?, counties Palatine, jurisdictions, knights' fees, advowsons, &c., which the said Earl of Shrewsburj- had 
within the realm of Ireland : after which Prendergast died, seized of this land, his heir being of full age. And now 
the question arose (9. Jac. 1.) whether upon this office, the land sliould be f-e!7ed into the king's hands, by 2>rfW)?<T 
feisin : " and. upon that, one point only was considered, viz : whether the heir of Prendergast should hold of the 
king in cajtite. or by what tenure he should hold the said land." And it Avas resolved that he should hold of the king 
in capite. In this case, the counsel for Prendergast maintained that the tenure which is found by the office should 
not now be a tenure in capite, but a tenure in common soccage, by fealty only : and urged that the power of creat- 
ing a tenure in capite is a high branch of the prerogative royal ; which no subject, not even the Prince of Wales, 
can possess or exercise. This was admitted on the other side : with the exception, nevertheless, of those subjects 
to whom (as to the Earls of Palatine of Ireland,) royal jurisdiction, and royal seignory had been conveyed by the 
express grant of the crown. It was urged by the King's Attorney General and held by the court, that when such 
jura rejalia had been reannexed to the crown, (as was the case with those formerly held by the Earl of Shrewsbury, 
by the 28 Hen. viii.) then tenures of the person of the Count or Earl Palatine, became ipso facto tenures of the king 
in capite. Tlie court seems to have been influenced by the suggestion that if the point were otherwise ruled, the 
king would be deprived of the suit nnd service which he had a right to claim in respect of the lands formerly held of 
llie Earl Palatine in capite ; and to which the holdei's of the said land were bound by their several tenures. And all 
this seems to be capable of application by analogj- to the Barons of Ulster and the other Counties Palatine in Ireland. 

The creation of Barons is undoubtedly a branch of the Prerogative Eoyal : yet, as has been shown by Sir John 
Davies in his argument, and by J. W. H., is capable of being granted to, and has been exercised by. Earls Palatine, 
both in England and Ireland. The Jitra rer/alia of these Earldoms being reannexed to the Crown, it would follow 
tliat the Baronies, formerly erected by the Palatines, become Baronies held immediately of the Crown : and, there- 
fore that the holders of them are Barons of the realm. Otherwise the king will be deprived of the suit and service in 
liis High Court of Parliament, which are his due in respect of the lands comprised within the Palatinates ; and the 
Biirons will be deprived of the honour conferred by their several titles and investitures. 

In thii< argument it is assumed that the tenure by barony is, like grand sergeanty, both oi\us and hones. The case 
i< different with lands held by knights' service, which is onus merely : for there, if the mesnalty be vested in the 
crown b\- any contingency (such as descent, &c.,) not arising out of the act of the tenant himself, the tenure shall 
be by knight's service as before. Even this case does not seem to apply specifically to Counties Palatine but to 
that of ordinary subjects. 

0. P. S. 

" I was much interested by the information which your last Number contains regarding the Barons of Ulster. I 
fancy th;it a branch of one of those families (the Russels) became connected with the County of Cork. A Colonel 
Ciiri-^tcph^r Bnssel was governor of Minorca at one time ; and his son, born in island, was rector of Skull, in 
t'lis county, ami author of a volume of poems published after his death. Other members of the family were high in 
office : Peter Bussel was governor of Canada. I confess I have but slight reasons for referring their descent to 
Ulster ; but the name of ' Christopher' mentioned in the article in your Journal is a slight clue, and I have not been 
able to connect them with the Bedford family." 

T. T. Cork. 

In D'Altons's Annals of Boyle (vol. 2. p. 121.) I observe he mentions a Richard, ' Earl of Ulster,' as summoning 
his adherents in 1314 against Edward Bruce. Was this one of the De Lacys ?" 



Buried cities m Uister. " In reading lately of the researches of Layard and others in the East, and of the 
buried treasures of Archaeology discovered hidden in mounds of earth on the plains of Ninireh, I could not avoid being 
struck with the idea (however startling it may appear) that seme of the remarkable egg-shaped mounds in the Coun- 
ty Down, described in your last Number, page 23, may conceal the remains of ancient cities. In another part of ire- 
land I have discovered, more than once, in similar situations, undoubted indications of the former sites of towns, no 
mention of whose existence is made in history, so far as I am aware. Might it not be worth while to ascertain 
whether, at any particular mound, unusual appearances have been observed by the people living on the spot ; and 
if these were sufficiently encouraging, to make an excavation ? We know that very frequently, in Ireland, the 
plough has revealed cemeteries of unknown antiquity, filled with stone coffins, on spots where neither history nor 
tradition gives the smallest indication of their existence If the memory of Niniveh and of its probable site, had not 
been preserved in the Sacred Records, the mounds of earth, which are now disclosing the secrets of olden time, would 
have been passed by as unnoticed as the hummocks of the County Down." 

M. N. Dublin. 

TopoGRAPiiT OF THE CouNTY DowN. " On looking over your first Number I observe it stated at p. 19, last line, 
that Killinchy is in Lower Castlereagh, Kinclarty, and Dufferin. Now Killinchy parish runs into Upper and Lowet 
Castlereagh and Duflei-iu, but not into Kinelarty." 

R. P. KUlLnchy, County Down. 

A NATiONAi, STTiB OP Chtiech ARCHiTECTrpE "Standing a few days ago at the railway station, near Antrim, 
I had within View the Round Tower and the spire of the church : and the question occurred "to me, why, in the pre- 
sent state of church building, the Irish liave never recurred to a style of ecclesiastical architecture so beautiful and 
so national as the round-tower style. Surely a design for a churcli might be prepared by some architect, not a ser- 
vile imitator (if such there be, as I believe there are,) that would give permanence to this very original style. 
The Towers themselves give the forms of doors and windows ; and, perhaps, the stone-roofed chapels, which, m my 
opinion, bear a close relation to the Towers, would afford sufficient hints for the body of the building. H. P. 

80-CALtED Vulgarisms op Speech. "In addition to the vulgarisms in your last number, allow me to add a few.^ 
There is a common plirase of being " a peg too low" or " a peg above one.' The origin of it is curious. King Edgar, 
in the middle of the l()th century, directed the publicans to keen vessels with pegs or pins in the side of them at certain, 
distances, inflicting a pennlty on those who drank more liquor than from one peg to another. A canon of the 12th cen- 
tury also forbids prie-sts " to drink to pegs." The hoops on quart-pots, so unpopular with ' Jack Cade,' had thd 
same object : it may be supposed, however, that his idea of the three-hooped pot containing ten hoops was that the 
measure should increase in proportion without increase of price. ' Hold,' used as a verb in betting or wagering, is 
found in common use by the old English writers : 

"Now by St. Jamy 

I hold you a penny." 
" Naye, by the masse, Iholdje a grote." Z, 

" Your correspondent, T. H. S., in the Notes and Queries of your last Number, (p. 65,) alludes to the old use of 
the word 'posj/' as a significant expression formed by the combination of a number of flowers. It seems, also, to have 
been equivalent to our modern word ' motto,' as in the old song of ' Giles Scroggins' Ghost," ' 

" He bought a ring with this posy true 
' If vou loves I as I loves you' 
No knife shall cut our loves in two." 

Many specimens of ' posie-rings' are preserved in collections of Antiquities in England : several curious ones are 
described by Mr. Crofton Croker in his " catalogue of the ancient Rings, and personal ornaments, in the coUectiou 
of Lady Londesborough." 


Carnaleagii. " I am inclined to that the place your inquirer, B.B., refers to in your last number, may 
have some connexion with ' Lugliaidh Mai,' a chief mentioned in the ' Genealogy of Corca Laidhe ' published lately 
in the Miscellany of the Celtic Society, which commences with the histonj of the race of Lughaidli, son of Ith. Ap- 
pendix A gives a poem respecting liiiii. He was one of the sons of Daire Sirchrejichtach, as appears from the follow- 
ing story given concerning him and his brothers in the 'Dlnnseanchus' in the Book of Leacan, fol. 250, a.b. voce 
Cam Mail. ' Carn Mail in ISTagli LHadli, whence w.'is it named ? It is not difficult to tell. It wjvs otherwise called 
Cam Luighdheach from Lughuidh Mai, who was driven from Eire with a fleet of seven ships ; and from Alba he set 
out for Eire with the great fleet of Alba, and they gave bsittle to the Ulster-men and defeated them Everyman 
that came into battle with Lugliaidh carried a stone, and thus the cairn was formed : and it was on it Lughaidh was 
standing while the battle was f jiiirht.' I think there is, also, an earthen mound in a field very near the point of rock 
called by the name ' Carnleagh.' " DujiEA'sifl, 



Garmotle. " An inquiry having been maxie as to the probable origin of the word ' Garmoyle,' it occurs to me that 
this name, which is applied to the well-known anchoring-pool or road-stead in Belfast Lough, may be derived froiA 
Irish words descriptive of the place itself The water of the river is naturally muddy ; whereas the deep water at its 
mouth is blue. Now ' Gorm' is blue in Irish ; and as the spot in question is that where the deep blue water would be 
first entfli-ed in sjiiling down the river, it may have been named according to the first impression received ; i.e. blue 
water, or plain, or whatever else of meaning can be found in the remaining part of the word ' moyle,' or ' oyle.' The 
fishermen on the coast of Antrim call a big swell of the sea ' Donald gorm, i.e. blue Donald, from the blue colour of 
the water before it breaks on the shore. It is, perhaps, nxsh in one ignorant of the Irish language to offer any sug- 
gestion ; but my doing so may, at least, elicit something better from other more competent persons, who might, other- 
wise, have remained tdlent. ' 

William Bell, Belfast. 

Tlie local names ' Garmoyle' and the ' Hassins,' respecting which j-our correspondent //. P. inquires, seem to me to 
be of easy explanation by the Irish language. Car, (of which Gar is merely another formj, signifies a turn or berid ; 
tnaol, 'always spelled and pronounced in English moyle), signifies without horns, blunt; so that car maol is the blunt or 
moiled bend, i. e.. of the river. " Uarmoyle is the place where the crooked bed of the river Lagan ceases, and the 
liended liwps are seen no more. Hence the term is properly applied to the last turn or bend of the river, as it is ap- 
plied to the last link of a chain. 'Haussin' is cassin, the twists or bends; from the Irish cos, a twist. The part sq 
named is, no doubt, about the middle of the turns formed by the channel of this crooked river ; hence the "Haussins" 
signify the crooks or ticists. 

John M'^Cambridge, 

AuGRiM Stones. "In reply to a query in your last number, allow me to say, that Mr. Wright, in his admirable edi- 
tion of Chaucer, published by the Percy Society, under his editorship, has the following note on ' Augrim Stones. 
' Augrim signifies ^lre'/A;c^/c ; it is not very certain what Augrym Stones were, but they were probably counters 
marked with numerals, and used for calculating on a sort of abacus. Counters for reckoning with are mentioned by 


" At page 6.5, in the first number of your Journal, ' Seiiex' asks for information respecting the words Auffrim 
Sto7ies, quoted from Chaucer's '^Miller's Tale.' The context, as well as the words themselves, in my opinion clearly 
show that the words have no relation to Ogham. I take them to mean ' auguring or divining-stones' such as Dr. Dee s 
magic mii-ror." 

S. A., Dublin. 

Lv reply to the query of Senex in the last number of the journal, asking some explanation of the term " Augrim 
Stones' which occurs in (,'haucer's " Miller's Tale," there does not appear to be the slightest gronnd for supposing that 
tlio poet intended a reference to Ogham inscriptions. He evidently, from the subject and context, had in view the 
ancient superstition rcspectinr; tlie " angin ing stones," or stones of divination, long employed by astrologers and divines 
both in England and on the continent. The one which was used by the celebrated Dr. Dee is still in existence." 

J. HuB.iND Smith, Dublin. 

Augrim is a corruption o Algorithm derived from the Arabic Al Guarismo^ signifying the science of numeration. 
The very curious work on arithmetic, printed by John Hertforde, at the Abbey of St. Albans, in 1537, is entitled 
-in Introduction for to Lern to Reckon with the Fen, and with the Counters after the true Cast ofArismetyke or Aicgrwm," 
and concludes with: '" Thus enddhthe Science of Aivjrwm." Resor le, in his work on Arithmetic, fLondon, 1058, j 
says : ""what great rebuke it were to have studied a science and yet cannot tell how it is named. Both names, Aris- 
nietrick and Augrime. arc corruptly written, Arismetrick for Arithmeticke as they Greeks call it, and Augrime for 
Algorism, as the Arabia;is sound it." Sacrobosco, the celebrated mediseval mathematician, whom Harris claims as a 
native of llolywood, county Down, wrote a Latin poem entitled " Cirnien de Algorismj," and Halliwell, in his Mara 
Mathematica, quotes a French version of the Carmen, as follows : 

'En Argorisme devon prendre 
Vll especes. 
Adision, Subtracion, 
Donbloison, Medeacion, 
Mounteploie, et Division; 
Et de radix enstracion. " 

Speght in his glossary, (London, 1^187;, says the Augrim-stones were "pibbles to cast accounts wit'ial." Stones and 
counters, algorithms were used as reidg-reckowj-s long after the introduction of tiie Arabic numer.als. The frontis- 
pie-jti of llartforb's work, alreily meationel, represents a man reckoning with counters; and the clown in the 
' \\'iniers Tale." Act iv. Scene ii., siys : '" Let me see : avery "leven ws.ither tods : every tod yields pound and odd 
shilling: fifteen hundren shorn what comes the wool to? I cannot do't without counters." 


* Naturalized in Spanish " i4{;ti<iHiiHos." 


New DrcTiONART or the Irish Language. A prospectus has lately been issned in Dublin, by the Archaeological 
and Celtic Societies conjointly, for the publication of a new Dictionary of the Irish language on an extensive scale. 
The want of a complete Lexicon, containing, not only the words used in the spoken language of the present'day, but the 
numerous obsolete words found in our ancient M.S.S., has long been found by all who have paid any attention to our 
native literature. The dictionaries which already exist, such as those of Brien and O'Keilly, are extremely de- 
fective and full of errors; and there is hardly a M.S. in which words do not continually occur which are not to be found 
in either of them. But independent of this, the study of the Irish language, and its kindred dialects, has of late as- 
sumed a new importance in the modern science of Comparative Philology, from its forming a most important link in 
the chain of linguistic researches. Ireland, from her insulated position in the ' far west,' remained for many centuries 
comparatively free from the revolutions and conquests which affected all the rest of Europe, and which produced there 
such extensive changes of population and language. She preserved, in a great degree unaltered, her manners, her 
laws, and her ancient tongue ; and, being, for a very long period , the only asylum of learning in the West, her lan- 
guage received a considerable degree of cultivation. Fortunately, too, constant attention was paid to the preser\'a- 
tion of the original and very peculiar orthogiaphy, throughout all the mutations of the spoken tongue : hence its im- 
portance is greatly enhanced for the purposes of the philologist. Indeed, this singular Celtic idiom, witn its unknown 
antiquity and mysterious origin, is, at the present time, considered one of the most precious relics of the olden time to 
be found in Europe. Being for a long period a written language, a large number of M.S.S. have come down to our 
time, and are preserved in various collections here and in England, as well as on the Continent, to which they were 
carried by Irish families leaving their country from political causes. These M.S.S.. of dates ranging through many 
centuries, contain a vast amount of vocables, the comparison of which, with those of other languages, will unquestion- 
ably throw much light on the darkest portions of Comparative Philology. Indeed it is the opinion of some of the first 
modern scholars, that the L-ish language is destined to serve as the key to many mysteries which have hitherto baffled 
the learned. But,'in order that the full advantage may be derived from the application of this new instrument to such 
inquiries, it is obvious that the entire body of the language, as far as possible, should be made accessible to scholars. 
Fortunately we possess the means of doing so in a most satisfactorj- manner. AVe have not only abundance of ancient 
M.S.S., preserving the most antique and obsolete forms of words, but we have men still who can read them, and who 
have devoted their lives to the study of them : and we are glad to perceive that, in the anouncement of this projected 
publication, the names of the distinguished Irish scholars, O'Donovan and Currj-, appear prominent. During the 
many years which these gentlemen have employed exclusively in examining and decyphering our ancient records, 
they have amassed a large store of information, of the most accurate kind, on the significations of ancient words ; ana 
have made notes and references to IVI.S.S determining all doubtful points. These, we are informed, as well as other 
sources, will be made ample use of in the intended Dictionary. So extensive a work caimot be produced without a 
large expenditure, probably amounting, as has been calculated, to 3<i(X); and this might appear an insurmountable 
obstacle to the undertaking. But hero, we are proud to say, the spirit of true patriotL-m ha^, to a great extent, met 
the difficulty already. One gentleman in Dublin, Mr. William Elliott Hudson, already known as a munificent en- 
courager of Irish literature, has himself placed the sum of iM) at the dii-posjil of the two Societies, as a contribution 
towards the expense of the work. Other subscriptions are in progress, and it is believed that an additional sum of 
the same amount can be obtained, and will be sufficient to defray such of the cost as cannot be covered by the sale of 
the work. 



" There is generally great interest attached to tlie finding of the last resting-places of the dead in unnstial places, 
which is greatly increased when it is found that the death was caused by violence ; and, more especially, when the 
deceased fell fighting in a cause which they believed to be just and patriotic. These remarks will apply to the 
grave of the " Culfeys" which is situated in tlie corner of a field near Killyleagh, County Down. It is marked by a 
plain head-stone with this inscription, which I quote from memory, and which appears to have been erected at th 
time to which it refers : 

" Ilere lies y*- bodys of 

John and William Cuffeys 

Who was killed y= 2d of April 1688 

In defence of y* Protestant cause." 

Tradition says these men were killed in what is called the " Break of Killyleagh," which was a gathering of the 
Protestant inhabitants of that jiart of Down to the Castle of Killyleagh, early in 1G88, and eight or nine months before 
the landing of William in England, for the uurposc of opjtosing the government of James. A regiment of dragoons 
was sent from Dublin, by whom thoy were ai.>ii)erscd, and the Cuffeys were probably among the first persons killed 
in the war of the llevolution. As little is known about the affair, 1 would feel obliged to any of your correspondents 
who could give any information on the subject." 


Can any correspondent of the Lister Journal of Archaeology inform mc whether there is any local tradition of the 


spot in the ford where William De Burgh, the last Earl of Ulster, was assassinated by the Mandevilles in 1333. The 
'ford' is the site of Belfast." "Also, is any account known of the remarkable rectangular entrenchment figured on 
Blaen's >Iap of Ulster ? The longer limb of the trench runs nortli and south under some hills, and parallel to Lough 
Neagli, and as far as the foot of Sliav Crallen at the entrance to Glanconkan forest. The shorter limb runs east and 
west ; the angle of the entrenchment is near Dunmark. The longer fosse would seem to have been some eight " mil- 
liaria Ilibernica" in length It was probably thrown up by the English to keep out the O'Donells and Mac Swynes." 
" Is any thing known of the fate or ' ve stone where O'Iseile is chose,' as Blaen writes on his Map ? We know the 
Btone was broken ; but are there any fragments of it?" " Blaen engraves under ' Owen Maugh' these words, ' the 
ancient seat of the Kinges of Ulster ; is it known at what period it ceased to be the residence of the Ulster princes?" 

H.F. II 

DERn-ATiON OF Woups. " I havc alwaj's been greatly at a loss to know the origin of the word " sept," used to sig- 
nify a clan or tribe of the Irish, by Spencer and other early writers ; and since their time adopted in the English 
Dictionaries. It is not of Gaelic derivation, so far as I am aware ; and I can see no root from which it can be deduced 
iu Latin, Greek, or German, I beg to inquii-e through your journal whether its origin can be ascertained." 


" Can any of j-our friends say what drink was meant by ' balderdash ?' and what by ' bonny-clabber ?' Are the 
words of Irish origin ? Amongst English drinking-vessels I find the ' mazer' mentioned, as a broad-mouthed dish. 
Has this any relation to our Irish meddar, or mether ? " 

s. s. s. 











PART in. 


" By thee ve might correct, erroneous oft, 
The clock of histoi-y, facts and events 
Timing more punctual, unrecorded facts 
Kecov'ring, and misstated setting right." 

West Town is quite a quarry of remains of religious edifices; but, with the exception of the Round 
Tower and eastern archway of the Abbey enclosure, called Rath Finain, they are nothing more than 

ruins. A Cross is mar- 
ked on the Ordnance map 
between East town and 
West town ; this no longer 
exists : a fragment of 
slate, however, has been 
set up, a short distance 
from the Abbey, a memo- 
rial, perhaps, of the more 
elaborate work : ' still 
nearer, is one of rude form, 
as shown on the accom- 
panying wood cut. It is 
monolithal, of the follow- 
ing dimensions, full height 
C feet; breadth of shaft, 
2 feet 2 inches ; across 
the arms, 3 feet 8 inches ; 
and formed of mica slate 
five inches and a quarter 
in thicknes.*?, of very du- 
riiblc texture, having withstood the effects of time much better than many similar works here, of 


See plan of West Town in tlie sheet of Illustrations. 


which fragments only lemain. The base is little more regular than a cairn of stones. A curious 
tradition, respecting two marks across its front, is prevalent amongst the inhabitants, who believe 
they were caused by an iconoclast, who had permission to attempt the destruction of the cross ; 
but was limited to two cuts of his sabre. The confidence of the people in the capability of endu- 
rance possessed by this holy emblem was fully warranted by the result; and it retains these 
proofs of the vain attempt at its destruction.^ 

A cross belonging to Tory 
now lies supine in the burial 
ground, at Cross-roads or Fal- 
carragh, having been removed 
from the island to the opposite 
coast since the date of the Ord- 
nance Survey. It is composed 
of a kind of slate with veins 
of white quartz, and was origin- 
ally of one piece; but has been 
fractured in several places. Its 
extreme length is twenty feet 
six inches ; its width, from 
arm to arm, seven feet five 
inches, and its thickness five 
inches. It bears no traces of 
sculpture, with the exception of 
that shown on the arms, which 
is very indistinct, the whole 
being much defaced by the ef- 
fects of weather and bad usance. 

o c 

In the cemetery of Hath 
Finain there was observed what 
was evidently a portion of a 

cross. It is a small segment 
of a circle, but perfect in itself; 
the material, a thin mica slate, 
ornamented with a pattern of 
curved lines ; not the interwoven 
serpents so often seen on Irish 
works. It was not considered 
judicious to disturb the cairn in 
which it lay for the purpose of 
its removal. The circular head 
of the cross just described may, 
at one time, have been ornamen- 
ted in this manner. 

On the same heap of stones 
a rectangular block was observed 
two feet four inches by eight 
inches, and seven inches on the 
sides, having a groove five inches 
long in the centre ; evidently 
the base of another cross. Be- 
tween the Abbey and a Chapel, 
(yet to be described,) but nearer 
the sea there is another grooved 
stone, also the base of a cross. ^ 

'> When seen by .a spectator looking from this cross 
through tlie abbey arch the tower bears by compass due 
east and west. 

"^ The hole shown near the foot of the cross was used 
in the "fixture," by which it was supported in a ratlior 
ingenious manner, as explainoi by the sketch in tiie 
jilatc of illustrations. (No. 2.) 

<!. (I. represents a ch'cular stone sot on its edge, very 
like, if not I'cally, a millstone or quern. It. is along 
shr'.ped stone about six inclies in diameter, passing 
through a hole in the centre of a.a. and through c.c, the 

stem of the cross, and resting on the upper sui-face of 
d (/., a stone apparently formed into its present shape by 
cutting a mill-stone (similar to a.a.) in two. In anotlier 
part of this paper some observations will be maile on the 
use of mill-stones in ancient works in this country. * By 
calculations made of its size there seems little doubt that 
this cross had, at one time, been ornamented by thin por- 
tions veneered on, such as described in the suceeding 

ti See sheet of Illustrations, No. 4. 

^ See sheet of Illustrations, No. 4. 


An upright fragment of slate, said to be a portion of another large cross, ^^ hich \ras shattered dtirirg 
a gale of wind and irrruption of the sea, is now wedged fast by a rolled stone into the singularly 
shaped groove of this base. The restoration attempted here, as well, perhaps, as in the first case 
mentioned, is with the view of making a place for holding stations : it is, therefore, difficult to 
know whether the part remaining belongs to the original cross. 

Including Saint Golumba's cross, '' (afterwards described,) three perfect works of this kind remain 
connected with the early ecclesiastical history of Tory ; and there are, besides, traces of at least 
three others as mentioned above. 

In making the tour of the Island the first building observed is Rath Finain, or the Abbey enclo- 
sure, of which a single arch, at the east end, only remained to mark the site of an edifice once of con- 
siderable extent. It is shewn in the lithographic drawing, Number 3, and, as it appeared surrounded 
by crosses and ruins of other ecclesiastical buildings, might have elicited the eloquence of Dr. 
Johnson, had his pilgrimage extended to this earlier foundation of the saint. ' 

Dr. Petrie, an authority always to be respected, speaks of it as founded by Saint Calumbkille in the 
sixth century ; his reference applies better, perhaps, to a building in close proximity to the Round 
Tower ; for the first mentioned seems rather to be the site of the Abbey, founded, according to the 
Four Masters, by Saint Ernan, in the seventh century. On each side, as ho passes through the arch- 
way, the visitor observes curious recesses formed in the thickness of the wall ; and a similar recess is 
afterwards remarked, nearly, but not quite, opposite, which is probably the remains of another arch- 
way. As giving a good example of the general character of the construction of this ancient building 
it is figured in the accompanying sheet of illustrations. (No. 8.) 

The islanders have established their burial ground within the precincts of the Abbey ; this 
by limiting the researches of a stranger, renders it difficult to trace its original outline. There 
is a raised part or platform, not exactly in a line with the archway, but rather situated diago- 
nally, the original intention of which is not easily determined ; being too large for the place of the 
altar of a small church, though undoubtedly forming a part of the original design. It is to be re- 
gretted there is no good ground-plan of this interesting church. Every thing tends to connect this 
dlace with St. Finan : even his own designation of Finan Ratha may have a reference to this en- 
closure. The space measures, according to a late survey, 26 perches ; so that it cannot all represent 
the site of the Abbey. It may be that the raised part, just described, gives the true dimensions of 
the ancient building, and that the archway shown in the drawing, with its recesses, was only the en- 
trance to the Rath or enclosure surrounding the edifice ; and the second arch, of which traces are 
still observed, may have been the great door into the Abbey. 

The part last described is now used for holding "stations" ; and a rude heap of stones has been 
formed on it, appropriated to this object. 

f See sheet of niiistr.ations. No. 6. given (No. 1,) to show the relative poeitions of the an- 

8 In the sheet of Ulustrations a map of West Town is tiquities described. 


As the visitor proceeds towards the Tower, he reaches the remains of a building, where, in fine 
weather, the priest, during his stay on the island, performs mass. The altar, indeed, is rude, but 
still he (as is often the case in this country,) feels surprised that the inhabitants treat, with so 
little apparent respect, a place associated with their most important religious observances. 
Tliey are at the same time, very sensitive with regard to the interference of strangers. This 
chapel is of small dimensions. Some of the people reported that it contains two burial vaults ; 
this they afterwards qualified by describing the places alluded to as "large graves built of stone." 
A man, found drowned, is said to have been buried in one of them which they pointed out ; this is 
unusual, as bodies cast on shore are generally interred in some part of the island not connected with 
rolifrious edifices. This grave is covered by a flat stone or flag, sculptured on both sides, which is bro- 
ken across ; but the fragments measure five feet eight inches long, and one foot nine inches in 
breadth. This had evidently been prepared originally to stand on end, and about one foot of it had 
been sunk in the earth. Fragments of a stone of similar size and design, were observed on the south 
side of the ruin. The rubbings taken from these stones show indistinctly a vermiculated pattern 
on both sides, not uncommon in ancient Irish churches. 

On the north side of this chapel, and immediately in a line with the Tower, there is a somewhat 
rectangular cairn or heap of stones apparently erected for some religious purpose the inhabitants 
designate it the altar of St. John the Baptist. At the extremity, farthest from the Tower, a stone 
trough is placed, the original use of which is unknown, having within it a hollow vessel capable of 
containing about a quart of water ; the sketch in the plate of illustrations (No. 5.) gives an accurate idea 
of these vessels; the larger is four feet nine inches in length, and six inches in depth; in breadth two 
feet, and one in height ; the material from which it was formed is a hard sandstone ; it does not 
seem to be now applied to any purpose. One man stated that water poured into the smaller vessel 
was considered ' holy' and was used by the people in the priest's absence : this vessel is seven inches 
high, and two feet and an ineh in circumference ; it is also of sandstone, but does not seem to have 
any necessary connexion with the other : its true place, perhaps, was in one of the recesses already 
described at the entrance to the Abbey. On one side of the cairn or heap of stones just mentioned, 
there is a rude stone rather larger than the trough, slightly hollowed, and having a socket cut in one 
side apparently to receive the foot of a cross : from the position in which this lay it could not be 
examined accurately without removing part of the stones, which was not considered judicious. This 
is made of the same material, and, perhaps, formed a stand or tray for the first mentioned vessel, so 
planned that the cross stood above the side of the latter. 

At the end of John the Baptist's altar, a rude, but very curious, cross is observed, having a human 
figure sculptured on the side towards the tower. It seems to remain on its original site, and the flat 
altar-like step shown in the drawing is next that building.'' Although broken across the shaft, all the 

" See sheet of Illustrations, No. 6. 


parts are easily restored for the purposes of an artist. The figure probably represents Saint Coluniba, 
or Saint Ernan ; it is difficult to determine whether the intention was to represent the head as 
covered with a hood or cowl, or to exhibit the ancient Irish tonsnre from ear to ear.' 

The people of Tory as.sert that every building on the island has a mill-stone in the foundation ; and 
they anxiously point out, in confirmation, a hollow under the base of this cross where they affirm that 
one can be discovered." This receives some degree of corroboration from what has been already stated 
respecting the large cross taken from Tory, and now at Falcarragh ; and it may be added that in ex- 
cavating within the Round Tower a quern was discovered at a considerable depth. 

The next building in order is the Hound Tower, the erection of which is by some attributed to 
Saint Columba. 

It is of small dimensions and built rather rudely of boulders of red granite cemented by lime manu- 
factured from shells. The height is about 51 feet the outer circumference measures 51 feet 6 
inches the diameter is 17 feet 2 inches. The door is 8 feet 6 inches from the first ofl!set of the base 

outside, and bears by 
compass south-west. It 
is arched with narrow flat 
stones, the key-stone 
being rather wedge-sha- 
ped. It gives an admi- 
rable example of the ex- 
traordinary fidelity of 
Dr. Petrie's drawing ; 
every stone and every 
line being correctly gi 
ven. ' The peculiar cha- 
racter of the granite 
blocks, in other parts of 
the Tower, is shown with 
equal accuracy. The 
door is five feet six inches 
high, one foot nine inches 
wide, and, measured a- 

cross the lintel, gives, 
for the thickness of the 
wall, four feet three in- 
ches. On excavating 
the interior besides the 
quern the remains of a 
brazen vessel, and frag- 
ments of an urn were 

The dome-shaped sum- 
mit partly remains, as 
shown in the drawing, 
and enables the visitor 
to understand the origi- 
nal construction, which 
is curious; for the sec- 
tion made by its partial 
dilapidation discovers a 
second dome consider- 

> See sheet of Hlustrations, No. 0. 

kThe tvtulition respecting the use of mill-stones in an- 
cient works is curious, if correct, they were probably so 
placed with some superstitious object. An old man, 
Ncill Loughery, who nad resided at Belfast all his life, 
etated that he "was one of the men first employed, about 
178C, to remove the old Ford from which Belfast derives 

its name; after raising a great quantity of stones and tim- 
ber he took up a large quern which he used as a hearth- 
stone in the small house where he resided for a great 
number of years. 

' Transactions of Royal Irish Academy, vol, 30. 

By the kind permission of Messrs. Hodges and Smith, 
we embellish our text with the original wood out. 


ably lower down. This, which may, perhaps, be considered a stone floor, 'sueli as seen in some an- 
cient buildings, separated an upper apartment of considerable height which was, perhaps, intended 
for purposes of special security, or only to contain a bell. If the former was the object, it may have 
been thus planned with the intention that a person, looking up from below, should suppose he saw to 
the top, when in reality his view only reached this lower dome. It is not possible to ascertain what 
means of access was provided, but it must have been either by an aperture through the floor, or by a 
difficult ascent from one window to another. 

A man was induced by the writer to climb up and examine this upper chamber : he reached to 
about six feet above the lower arch, and stated he coiUd see two offsets for floors upwards, 
and three downwards ; five in all. According to this, the arch mentioned may be the only one re- 
maining of six stone floors ; but the writer was inclined to believe that any other floors had been of 

Several of the inhabitants confidently state that a bell remained in this tower until a comparatively 
recent period, when it fell down, and was sold to a travelling tinker. The statements, however, are 
rather vague, particularly as to the period ; Dr. Petrie, however, as well as Dr. O'Donovan, seem 
satisfied that the bell was removed as mentioned above. It is not improbable it was concealed by the 
floor described until a portion of the side of the upper part of the tower was shivered by lightning, or 
fell from decay. If discovered, an article of this kind became, of course, an object of cupidity to 
the poor islanders. 

At the east side of the Tower a flag of red granite is found, bearing some resemblance to 
the cover of a sarcophagus ; its lower side is plain, but the upper has a well defined cross 
sculptured on the surface. This stone is four feet six inches long, one foot six inches broad, 
and five inches thick. As shown in the illustration sheet, (No. 7,) it seems intended either to stand 
upright in the earth against some building, or, if originally placed horizontally, the rudely fin- 
ished part was inserted into a wall, for the purpose of retaining the flag in its place. It is to be re- 
gretted that nearly all the antiquities on the island, that are moveable, have been displaced either by 
the people themselves, in forming places for holding "stations," or by the ravages of the sea when it 
broke over the cliffs and destroyed or injured the little that time had spared." 

A very ancient building is still traceable on ascending a slight eminence after passing the Round 
Tower. This is named Murrisher " the church of the seven," and is just outside of West Town, 
overlooking the sea. The end only remains a few feet above the surface, and the whole is built on 
a kind of platform. It is very small, being only ten feet by nine ; in this respect it resembles the 
ancient stone-roofed chapels sometimes observed in this country, such as St. Molaise's house at Deve- 

n The following extract from Dr. Whitaker's history of about six feet by four, to which it is difficult to assign 

Craven, (page 114,) refers to an apartment in the church any use, unless it were intended to preserve the plate or 

of Long Preston, and may illustrate the present sub- vestments of church from thieves or fire." 

ject. " Within the Steeple, and at a considerable dis- n See Appendix, 

tance above the ground, is a strong vaulted chamber, Correctly Mor'Sheishear literally "big six" 


ttish, in Lough Erne. Where the side wall joins the end it does not meet it at right angles ; but is 
slightly curved, at least this is the impression received from examining the few stones that re- 
main. On the north side is the entrance and remains of a narrow door- way, consisting of a few 
broad stones only some rude steps can be traced leading to it. There is no reference to this build- 
ing in the Irish records, from which it can be determined why it originally received a name derived 
from the Irish ordinal number seven, p The tradition of the inhabitants is that a boat was driven on 
shore in a bay'^ which still retains the name Murrisher, having seven dead bodies on board, six men 
and a woman '' They were Hollanders ;" said a man who spoke a few words of English "they 
were buried in this ancient church, but on three successive mornings the woman's body was throwa 
to the surface, and was finally buried in a spot near the church now distinguished by a heap of 
stones : here it was satisfied to rest." The inference is that the female being a nun, her body could 
not rest in peace beside her male companions. Earth, taken from a hole resembling a well on the 
side of this grave, is supposed to possess great efficacy in keeping away rats, preventing fever, as- 
suring vessels against loss, and the passengers against sea sickness. 

This small building may have been the tomb of seven persons, of remarkable sanctity, and if so, 
the granite flag, before described, may originally have closed its entrance ; all this, however, is only 
conjecture, in the absence of record or tradition. 

Having thus endeavoured to give a view of the Ecclesiastical remains, it may not be uninteresting 
to inquire how far ancient books or manuscripts contain any records concerning them. 

It is generally understood that Saint Columba, influenced, most probably, by a desire of securing 
a safe and calm retreat in his own part of Ireland, first introduced Christianity into this remote island 
of the ocean. 

Colgan, in the Trias Thaumaturga, introduces what he denominates " the fifth life of the holy Co- 

p The church of the Seven. [Ditto. In the martyrology of Donejjall. &c.] 

It i.s diihciilt to iiuagiuo how this small building re- Seven sons of Eilnius of Aluigh. ~[Cal. O'Clery, 22d May] 

ceived its n.inie ; for tlie tradition of tlie people is evi- Seven daui^hters of Fergus, of Tech-inghen-rerghasa. 

deutly an attempt to account for a circumstance ot which [Ditto, 24 .May ] 

the true reason was lost. Mr. Windele, of Cork, wiiose Seven lUshops in Tigh-na-Comairce io Tirconaill near 

zeal, as an Irish anti(iuary, is generally acknowlcdgetl, Loch Feahhail. [Ditto, '28 .May.] 

furnishes the following note : " In tlie romance of the Seven lJis!ioi)sin Tamhuach-buadha. [Ditto, 21 July.] 

death of the chihhen of Turan, one of the " Tliree tragic Seven Bishops of Aolmagh in Domhnach->lor. [Ditto, 

tales of IrelauillJilor IJeimnach, the hero of TorinLs, SM August.] 

cuts a prominent figure. The tile is founded on tlie ef- Seven holy virgins of the Termon of Ardmach. [Ditto, 

foi't made by the Tu.itha de D.uiians to shake ott the 8 October ] 

tyrannical yoke of ]> ilor and the Komarigs, wiio in tliis Seven sons of Steallan, of Rath-mio Steallain in Arg- 

tale, arc called Lochliiiaehs, [or Scandinavians]. The hal. [Ditto, 27 October.] 

Mor Sk-isher, or Seven wives of the Seven Foniarig leaders, Seven sons of Aodh of Echdruim (Aughrim). [Ditto, 

are also mentioned in it. Those ladies must, 1 presume, 2d December.] 

altliougli pagans, have some legendary connection with Seven .sons of Dacitil, of Inis-uacUtair. [Ditto, 22d 

the .Mor Shesher church which I perceive marked on the December.] 

Ordnance .Map." . Seven brothers martyrs. [Feilire of Angus, 10 July ] 

Dr. K(!eves Ins kindly furnishe I the following list of Seven Bishops of Druim-airbhealaigh. [oal. O'Clery, 

Sets of Seven Saints invoked together, principally con- 15 .J.-inuary,] 

nected with Douegall. Seven Bishops of Cluain-cun. [Ditto, 3d October.] 

S.S. Septem .Mon iclios (Egyptios, qui jacent in Discrt, Seven Bishops of Cill-tidil [Ditto, Ist November.] 

Vli lliinuoco, &c. [Dr l*etrie. Bound Towers, p. l:>').] q See map. 

S.S. Septem I'cregrinos de Imle.ich-Mor invoco. 


lumba, briefly extracted from the one that Magnus O'DonncU, chief of Tirconnell, wrote out from 
the original volume in Irish : translated into Latin and divided into three books." ' From this work 
it may be interesting to extract the account of the dedication of this island. " This servant of Christ," 
says the legend, " departed thence, [Gartan,] into the part of the country commonly designated Tua- 
tha, (the territories,) in the northern plain on the sea coast of Tirconnell, Being there admonished 
by an angel of the Lord to cross into Tory, an island in the open sea of those parts, stretching 
northward from the mainland ; and, having consecrated it, to erect a magnificient church ; he pro- 
ceeded towards it accompanied by several other holy men. On reaching, however, Belach-an-adh- 
raidh, " the way of adoration," a high precipitous hill that lay in his course, whence Tory is ob- 

scurely visible in the distance, there arose dissension amongst these holy men, with respect to the 
individual who should consecrate the island, and thereby acquire a right to it for the future : each 
renouncing, from humility and a love of poverty, the office of consecrator and right of territory. 
After discussing the question in its several bearings, they all assented to the opinion of Columba, that 
such a difference was best settled by lot ; and they determined on his recommendation to throw their 
staves in the direction of the island, with the understanding that he, whose staff reached it nearest, 
should perform the office of consecration, and acquire authority over Tory. Each threw his staff, but 
that of Columbkillc, at the moment of issuing from his hand, assumed the form of a dart or missile, 
and was bom to the island by supernatural agency. The saint immediately called before liim Ali- 
dus, the son of Boedain, toparch of the island, who refused to permit its consecration, or the erection 

gee Colgan, Lib. 1. cap. 73, Tri. Tli. page 401. col. 1. 


of any building. He then requested him, at least, to grant as much land as his outspread cloak would 
cover. Alidus readily assented, conceiving the loss very trivial ; but he had soon reason to change 
his opinion, for the saint's cloak, when spread upon the ground, dilated and stretched so much, by its 
divine energy, as to include, within its border, the entire island. Alidus was roused to frenzy by this 
circumstance, and incited or hunted upon the holy man a savage, ferocious dog, unchained for 
the purpose, which the latter immediately destroyed by making the sign of the cross. The religious 
feelings of Alidus wei-e awakened by this second miracle, he threw himself at the saint's feet, asked 
pardon, and resigned to him the entire island. No further opposition being made, the blessed father 
consecrated Tory, and built a magnificent church, which he placed under the control of Emanus, ' one 
of his disciples, surnamed, from this circumstance, Torracensis. Amongst other things, the saint 
commanded that no dog should ever again bo introduced into the island. ' 

' Ernanus. " The Genealogies of the Saints," gives 
the descent of this Saint Ernanus in these words. Er- 
nanus of Torry, son of Colman, son of Muredacius, son of 
Engenius, son of Niall Naoigiallach, from which it may 
be supposed that this is the Saint Ernanus whom Maria- 
nus Gorm, M Tamlacht, and the Martyrology of Done- 
gall, call the son of Coemanus, and set down to be wor- 
slupped on the 11th January ; and that by an error of 
those writers, the son of Ccemanus is put for the son of 
Colmanus. If, however, such an error seems not admis- 
sible, it must be some one of the saints of the same name 
(whether Ernanis, or, which is the same, Erninis,) who, 
according to the martyrology cited, are worshipped 28 
February, 12 April, 12 May, 1st July, 17th August, and 
23 December, on which days no circumstance of place, 
parent, or time, is added, by which it can be determined 

NLall of the 

who were the Ernani, of whom notice is taken on those 

In O'Clery's Irish Calendar, sometimes called the 
IVIartyrology of Donegall, there is a notice of the 17th 
August: "Ernan of Torrach, of the race of Eog;han, son of 
Niall, that is, of the Cinel-Eoghain." (Note by Dr. 

Saint Ernanus, the son of C'.lman. abbot of Torry, in 
Ulster, flourished about the yejir t>5(). CColmn act S.S., 
page 17, b.) lie is mentioned amongst the Irish abbot 
and bishops, to whom, according to j3ede, Clerus Koma- 
nus adrcssed a letter, wliich Ussher inserted in his Syll- 
oge. In an old Irish life of Saint Columbkille, he is 
mentioned as having founded Toraigh, and left a learned 
man of liis people in it, namely, Torraine. His pedigree 
is as follows : 
Nine Hostages. 

Eoghain a quo cinel Eoghain 


Moan a quo cinel Moain 

Connal Gulban a quo cinel Conaill. 


Fergus Erca. 
Fedhlin Ethnca. 
Saint Columbkille. 

S. Ernanus Toracensis 

Faolan | from whom sprung the O'Gormlys of Cenel Moain. 

In the pedigree of Irisli Saints in the book of Lccau. 
the pedigree is given as follows : Ernan of Torry, son of 
Colman, son of Maenan, son of Muiredhach, son of Eo- 
ghan, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages. The following 
is interesting as shewing the connexion between him and 
another Irish saint of Royal descent. 





St, Ernan, 



St. Damongoch. 

It appears on the same authority, that Saint Damon- 
goch was also connected with the Lsland of Torry. 

t Note by Dr. O'Donovan. " The story related by 
Manus O'Donnell about Ailidns, the son of Baeden, set- 
ting his dog at Saint Columbkill on his first landing on 
Tory Island, is yet remembered, and the impression of 
the dog's foot is pointed out in a stone at the place. It 
is now believed that it Wiis a man of the name of O'Dugjin 
that granted the island to Saint Columbkill : the senior 
of that family, at the time of the Ordnance Survey, was 
the patriarch of the island." 

Mr. John Doran, who accompanied Air. Ilyndman, (one 
of the party whose visit gjive occasion to this naper,) was 
shown, by some of the iimabitants, the stone Dearing the 
mark of the dog's paw. 


" The people of Tory have a celebrated stone that the blessed man knelt on, resting his head with his 
face buried in his hands, when overcome with sleep aflcr sermon ; the impression left by the sacred 
hands is to be seen to this day, and it is believed that liquids poured in have a salutary influence on 
those grievously afflicted, particularly on women in labour." " 

The following is another of the legends recorded by Colgan. " At a time when the Saint, in the 
port near which he had cast anchor, withdrew himself for the purpose of prayer, he observed that 
Finanus Ratha" his most illustrious disciple was much annoyed by thirst, and, as there was no sup- 
ply of water at hand, by three strokes of his staff on the neighbouring rock, he caused a tri-form 
jet of limpid water to spring forth, which has continued to flow from that time. The disciple quench- 
ed his thirst, and invalids have continued to recover their health by drinking of it. The water flows 
in an unceasing cataract, and retains the name of the disciple, being called "Eas Finain" that is the 
cataract of Finanus."" There is another legend also deserving a place amongst notices of this" island, 

" Mr. Doran was shovm the stone said to bear the im- 
press of the Saint's hands and knees. 

" This was Saint Finanus son of Pipanus vrho, in the 
church of Rothensis, in the diocese of Rathbotensis, in 
TjTConnell, as patron of the place is worshipped on the 
2oth November, ^according to Marinus Gormanus at that 

day.) Finanus, inquit, filius Ripani, in Eeclesia Ratheni 
in Tyrconallia. 

Similar notices are found in Maguire and in the mar- 
tyrology of Donegall at the same daj' He was a relative 
of St. Columba himself, as is stated in 4, appendix, c. 3, 
page 481, a., where Ms genealogy is given as follows : 

Conall Gulban 

Feargus Ceannfada-Earca 

S. Columba 


Failbhe Finan 

8th Abt. of Hy. Ratha 

ob. 679. [Coin. 25 Nov.] 

o tetmpsU ratha I ccenel Conaill 

Finan mac Piopain. [Marian Gorman 25 Nov.] 

Finan mac Piopain o theampall ratha i ccenel Conaill 7 do cenel Conaill Gulbain mic Neill do somh. [Cal. O'Cler- 
25 Nov.] 
Finan, son of Pipan, Temple-ratha in Cinnel Conaill, and he was of the race of Conal Gulban, son of Niall. 

" Dr. O'Donovan, whose kindness in imparting freely 
any information he possesses is well known, has furnished 
the following notes : 

" Eos Finain, or Saint Finan' s cataract, still remains, 
it is situate near the old church of Rath Finain. It 
issues from a rock on the coast ; they call it now Eas 
Peenan. I was there during a storm in 1835, and got 
quite wet from the spray of the ocean." 

" In the cemetery of Rath Finain there is a large cross 
now lying prostrate, which measures about sixteen feet 

in length. It is said to have been cut from the solid rock, 
by Saint Columb, for his friend Saint Peenan." In ad- 
dition to Dr. O'Donovan's statement it maybe mentioned 
that some of the inhabitants affirm that the place is still 
discernible on Muckish mountain from which it was 
taken. This is the cross now at Falcarragh on the main- 
land, and which the Rev. Dr.M'Gettigan, of Letterkenny, 
stated to have been removed from Tory; and it is pro- 
bably " the great cross" referred to by Colgan, 


which, like lona, at one time, abounded in crosses ; it has already been stated that three of them are 
still in existence and the bases or fragments of several others, found in the ruins, denote the anxious 
care with which this remote seat of religion had been adorned. 

" The holy father Pope Gregory, when one day engaged in the celebration of the most sacred sacrifice 
of the mass, observed a wooden cross placed on the altar by the hands of angels. Some of the 
clergy in attendance endeavoured to raise and remove it to another place, but found the attempt im- 
possible. They were all struck with astonishment ; the pontiflF, however, having approached, lifted up 
the cross, saying to the bystanders, ' this cross is not intended by God for me or any of you ; but for 
a certain servant of the Almighty named Columba who resides at the extremity of the earth.' He 
therefore commanded certain of the clergy, whom he summoned, to prepare for a journey and to convey 
the gift, thus let down from heaven, to this ever-to-be-remembered servant of Christ at the Island of 
Hy. They set forward and at length approached the monastery of Hy, where Columba, on information 
of an angel, was aware of their approach, as well as of the cause of their journey. He said to his monks 
" messengers are this evening approaching from his holiness Pope Gregory venerable guests be 
careful, therefore, that ample provision be made for their evening meal." "When they did arrive some- 
time after, and nothing was forthcoming worthy to be placed before such guests except a cake of bread 
baked in the ashes, and a single cup of wine reserved for the mass, the Saint vexed at the circum- 
stance, blessed these viands, when they were placed before him, in the name of Christ, and the Saviour 
assenting increased them so much that they became abundantly sufficient for the refreshment of the 
guests and the entire family. The Pope's messengers then placed the gift confided to their care in 
the hands of the holy man ; it is the celebrated monument preserved in Tory, an island on the west 
of Ireland (of which mention has been often made already,) in memory of Columba, and commonly 
called the great cross." 

The references to the erection of the church, and ecclesiastical buildings on Tory, in the Irish An- 
nals are numerous, and indicate a considerable importance in this establishment ; doubtless from 
its secluded and almost impregnable position. 

These are here arranged according to their dates, so as to form a series of Annals for this 

A.D., 612 " The devastation of Torrach by trim] abbot of Beannchair, died, Con- 

a marine fleet." nere [Connor] was burned. The devas- 

[Four Masters, R.H.S., iii. p. 192.] Formerly tation of Torach, by a marine fleet. 

belonging to the jurisdiction of Tyrconnell, now * -pv /.-irt << mv,<: k,,,.r.:r,/. .^f T,%.,o T?^ 

Tory Island -by the maritime fleet of Muradus. A.U., bib Ihe burmng of Donuau Ega, 

[Dr. O'Conor in Annals of Ulster, R.H.S., vol. on the 15th Kalends of May, with 150 

4. page 38.] martyrs, and the slaughter of Torrach, 

The same notice is thus given in Dr. and the burning of Connor." 

O'Donovan's valuable edition of the same [Annals of Ulster, R.H.S., iv, p. 40.] 

''^ork. A.D., 616 "Devastation of Donnan Ega on 

The age of Christ 612. The second year 15 Kal. IVIay." 

of Suibhne Fintan of Oentrebh, [An- [Annals of Innisfallen.] 


A.D.. CI G Cover or roof of the cliurcli of 
Tory made by the people of TyrconneU, 
after a predatory fleet had destroyed it 
sometune before." This, says_ Dr. 
OConor, is the most ancient notice of 
this isknd extant. 
[Dr O'Conor, R.Il.S , iv. p. 38.] 

A.D., 616 " The re-erection of the church of 
Torrach by the Cinel Connaill ; it having 
been destroyed some time before." 
[Four Masters, R.Il.S., iii. p. 194 ] 

A.D.. 617 " The bm-ning of Donnan Ega on 
15 kalends of May, with 150 martyrs ; 
and the devastation of Torach ; and the 
bui'ning of Connor." 
[Tighcrnach, R.H.S., ii. p 18-3.] 

* The first mentioned place is what is 
now called the island of Egg, in Scotland, 
of which Saint Donnan was the patron 
saint. He was killed on this occasion, 

A.D.. 617 " Devastation of Donnan Ega on 

15 Kalen. May." 

[Tighernach, R.Il.S., ii. p. 183] 

t)10. 017. To this year Isidorus wrote liis chronicle. 
BanD^or tvjis burndl in the same year, but the 
name of the devastator is unknown. 

A.D.. 621'- At this time the church of Tory 

was built." 

[Tighcrnach, R.Il.S., ii. p. 185.] 
A.D., 640. A letter is preserved by Bede, 
[ Eccl. ii. 19.] written to the northern 
clergy of Ireland by the clergy of Rome, 
on the subject of the Pasclial Controversy. 
Several names are in the superscription, 
and among them Ernianus, of whom 
Colgau says : " S. Ilernanus the son of 
Colnian, aV)bot of Torry, in Ulster, flour- 
ished in the same Ulster about the year 
660, and died on the 16th May according 
to our .Martyrology. [Acta Sanctorum, p. 
17. col. 2.] 

Lanigan thus mentions the same Erni- 
anus. *' Ernian was, in all probability, 
Ernan, abbot of Torey i.sland who flour- 

ished at this period. He is called the son 
of Colman, and must not be confounded 
with Ernen or Erneneus, son of Crescen, 
of whom Adamnan says, [Vit. S. C. 1. 
i. c. 3.] that he was famous and very 
well known throughout all the churches 
of Ireland, for his skill in holy scripture 
and his miracles. For this Ernen, be- 
sides having been a southern, died, as 
will be seen hereafter, in 635; and accord- 
ingly some years before, the Irish clergy 
&c., wrote to Rome. Ernian of the let- 
ter was difierent, also, from Ernene 
or Ferreobus, who was buried at Druim- 
Tomma, and who, according to every ap- 
pearance, was not a priest. Ussher seems 
to have confounded together these three 
Ernenes or Ernans. (Compare page 968 
with Ind. Chronad, ad. a. 635.) 
Colgan has taken care to distinguish Er- 
nan of Tory island from the one of Dm- 
im-Tomma. Of the latter he treats par- 
ticularly at 1st January, the day to which 
he assigns his death, while he observes 
elsewhere, [Tr. Th. p. 451, col. i. n. 70.] 
that Ernan of Tory island seems to be 
the Ernan whose memory was revered on 
the 11th January. [Eccl. Hist. vol. ii. p. 

A.D., 650 Colgan, [Acts of the Saints,] says, 
" Saint Hernanus, son of Colman, abbot 
of Torry, flourished about the year 650." 

A.D., 732 "Dungall, son of Belbach, vio- 
lated Torrach, when he forced Brudeus 
from it ; and on the same occasion inva- 
the island of Cuilren-rigi." 
[Annals of Ulster, R.H.S., iv. p. 82.] 

A.D., 733 Same notice. 

AD., 733 Dungall, king of Scotland, sailed 
on an expedition to Torry. (He died same 
[Annals of Tighernach, R.H.S , vol. 2,-238 ] 

A.D., 736 Dungall the Second, the son of 
Selbach, succeeded his uncle Muredus for 

* .\.D., 781 The Annals of Innisfallen in the year 781, record a similar outrage on another foundation of Saint 
C'jlumba, lona. [Il.H S., vol. 2. page 24,] 


seven years. He it was, who, according A.D., 736 -aSngus, gon of Fergus, King of 

to Tighemach, made an expedition against the Picts, wasted the territories of Dal- 

Torry, in the year 733. At the year 736 riada, and took Durrad, (a hill-fort near 

it is said of him: "^ngus, the son of the Crinan Canal,) and drove away prey, 

Fergus, king of the Picts, wasted Dalria- and bound in chains the two sons of Sel 

da, took possession of Down, and burned bach. 

Crec ; he bound in chains the two sons of [Tighernagh R H S ii p ] 

Selvachus Dungall, and Feradach ; and A.D., 1002-kaolcoiaimm O'Branain Ari- 

shortly after Brudeus, the son of ^ngus, ^each of Tory, died. 

son of Fergus, died. , pa i * t- -^ r. ,,,,.. 

^T^ ,.^ ^ T, ^ , , [Annals of four Masters, Connellan's Edition, 

[Dr. O'Connor, R.H.S., vol. 1. page 140, xxii,] page 30.] 

A.D., 735 Angus, son of Fergus, king of the -^-^ , 1041 Soerghasus, prselector et praeposi- 

Picts, laid waste the territories of Dalri- tus of Torry, died. 

ada, and tQok Durrad, (arces,) and burned Dr. O'Donovan gives this entry thus 

Criech, (regiones,) and bound in c^liains io41. Soerghasus, lector and Airchm- 

radalr '''''^ *'^''^' ""^ ''^'^'^'^' ^^ 

[Annals of Four Masters, R H.S., vol. 3. iMure 
[AnnalsofUlster, R.HS., iv. p. 85.] 92.] *^ 

In the appendix to the Ulster Inquisitions, No. 5, in coimty Donegall, there is a reference to 
Torro, which gives what may be considered an accurate notice of its state in the reign of 
James the First. It was taken at Lifford, 12th September, 1609, 7th James, " before the Right 
Honorable Sir Arthur Chichester, Knight, Lord Deputy- General of the realm of Ireland ; Henri, 
Lord Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of all Ireland ; George, Lord Bishop of Derry, Clogher, 
and Raphoe; Sir Thomas Ridge way, Knight, Vice-treasurer and Treasurer at "War in said 
realm ; Sir Humphry Winche, Knight Chief Justice of his Highness' chief place in said realm 
of Ireland ; Sir John Davies, Knight, his Majestie's Attorney- General for the said realm of L-e- 
land; and "William Parsons Esqre, Surveyor of his possessions in said realme of Ireland, com- 
missioners assigned and lawfully authorised by virtue of his Majestie's commission, &c. The 
jurors being duly sworn say, that in the Barony of Kilmacrennan is the island of Torro, con- 
taining two quarters of Termone land, (whereof O'llohertye is both Herenagh and Corbe,) pay- 
ing thereout to the said Bishop of Raphoe, seven shillings, Irish, per annum, and also for every 
balliboo inhabited, forty tercian madders of malt, and thirty yards of bracken-cloth of their 
own making, so thin as being laid upon the ground the grass might appear through the same; 
and that the said O'Rohertie being dead, the bishop is to institute one of his sept in that place; and 
they also say, that in the parish of Torra is both a parson and vicar, and that the said vicar hath 
free grant of glebe, and paycth to the bishop two shillings proxies ; but for the proxies paid to the 
parson the said jurors refer themselves to the bishop's register, and further they say that the tythes 
of this parish are paid in kiud, or a third part to the parson, one-third part to the vicar, and the bi- 
shop's third part to the herenagh ; out of which third part the said herenagh payeth to the said 
bishop six shillings and eight pence, pencion ; and the parson, vicar, and herenach, are to bear 
the charge of repairing and maintaining the parish church as before." 


In the tribes of Hy Fiachrach [Irish Arch. Soc. Pub.] the following reference is found to this 
O'Rohertie family, which is there mentioned several times : " There was another family of this name 
in Tirconnell, who built a castle on Tory island, off the north-west of Donegall, and another in 
Meath, where the name is still numerous." 

About tho year 1300 the following was the tazation of Tory : the church of Torragh 2 shillings ; 
tenth 14J pence. 



The Rev. Robert King, in his admirable work, modest- 
ly designated a Primer of the Church Historjr of Ireland, 
notices a vision of Saint Patrick, the tradition of which 
may have influenced St. Columba in his choice of sites 
for his establishments. " He is said to have seen first, 
all Ireland, as it were, on fire, and the flames reaching up 
to Heaven ;" then, after a little while, " fiery mountains 
as it were, in all parts of the island, stretching towards 
the skies. Presently, after the lapse of a shoi't interval, 
he saw in several places as if lamps lighting, and soon 
after, as the darkness grew thicker, small tapers, and at 
last a few coals reduced to ashes, but appearing stiU un- 
extinguished, although hidden.'" The Saint was given to 
understand that by these appearances were represented 
the different states of Ireland, as it then was, and as it was 
to be in after ages ; whereupon he burst into tars, and 
began repeating over and over the 7th, 8th & 9th verses, 
of the 77th Psalm, " Will the Lord cast off for ever, Jj-c." 
But the angel of God desired him to look to the north, and 
that he should see a change originating there ; and ac- 

cordingly he beheld in that quarter, first, a moderate 
sized light, arising and struggling long with the darkness, 
until at length it prevailed so as to illumine the whole 
island, and "grew brighter and stronger until it ap- 
peared to restore Ireland to its first fiery condition." Tne 
Saint, we are told, understood the blazing fire to repre- 
sent the fervour of Christian faith and love, and zeal for 
religion manifested by the people of this island : the 
fiery mountains were the Saints eminent for the great 
works which they performed, and for their holy and vir- 
tuous lives : the waning away of the brightness was the 
decay of holiness : the darkness that covered the land 
set forth the spread of unbelief in it, and the subsequent 
pause, the interval of time succeeding. It is not impro- 
bable that a belief in this prophetic vision may have in- 
fluenced the acts of this remarkable person ; for it is not 
an easy matter to account for the erection of extensive 
buildings on an island affording such difficult access to 
other parts of the country. 



No manuscripts remain amongst the people of Tory ; 
but some of tlie Dooghans or Dugaus are said to be able 
to repeat many Celtic poems. Xir. Ogilbv of Liscleen, 
informed the writer .several years ago that his uncle, Mr. 
Alexander Ogilby, of Kilcatten, once visited Tory, when 
a priest, then resident there, presented him with a num- 
ber of manuscripts he had collected on the island about 
fifty years previously. In l&to, Mr. Ogilby placed these 
in the hanos of a very competent judge Mr. Eugene Cur- 
ry of the Royal Irish Academy. One of them was mere- 
ly selections from Keating, and none of them rare. 

Mr. Curry on being lately applied to sent the following 
note, dated 11 November, 1852 : " As well as I remem- 
ber the M.S.S. shown me by my worthy friend, Mr. Wil- 
liam Ogilby, were not of great value, but I cannot, at 
this distance of time, give an accurate opinion." 

One of the Douchans, a carpenter at Dunfanaghy, was 
mentioned by several islanders as an established au- 
thority for Legends and Poems. When the party were 
leaving the island, they were accompanied to the beach 
by a large body of the people, several of them singing 
Irish songs. 

i-- . 


Mr. WoodhousCj the proprietor of the island, has fur- 
nished the following list of his present tenants' names, 
which is preserved, as showing those of most common 
occurrence on the island : 

1. Patrick Dugan, 

2. James Doohan, Senr., 

2. Edward Doohan, (Shane, j 

3. Owen Dugan, 

3, Shane Doohan, (Mackan,) 

4 Roger Doohan, 

6. Shane Doohan, Senr., 

5. Widow Grace Doohan, 

6. Widow B. Doohan, 

6. Pat Doohan, (Daniel,) 

7. Owen Doohan, (Nelly,) 

7, Edward Doohan, (Margt.,) 

8. Widow W. Doohan, 

8. William Doohan, (Roe,) 

9. James Doogan, (Roe,) 
9. John Duggan, 

10. Owen Doohan, (Oge,) 

10. Hugh Doohan, 

11. Denis Doohan, 
Edward Doohan, (Roe,) 
Bryan Doohan, (Shane,) 
John Dugan, 
Widow Mage Doohan, 
Bryan Doohan, (More,) 

14. Owen and Teague Doohan, 

14. Alexander Doohan, 

15. Pat Curran, 

16. Pat Rogers, Junr., 
16. Owen Diver, 

16. Anthony Rogers, 

17. Daniel Rogers, 
Phelim Rogers, 

18. Daniel Wlioriskev, 

19. Denis M'Ginley, Senr., 

19. John Whorskey, 

20. James M'Clafferty, 

20. Michael Meenan, 

21. Denis Diver, (late Pat CaiTohy,) 

22. James Diver, (Hugh,) 

22, John Meenan, 

23. Daniel Whoriskey, Junr., 

23. Bryan Curran, 

24. Edward Diver, 

24. Neal Heraghty, 

25. Denis Diver, Senr., 

25. Owen Whoriskey, 

26. Mary or Pat Diver, 

26. Pat Rodgers, Senr , 

27. James Diver, (Sally.) 

27. Owen M'Carroll, 

28. James Ilerraghty, 

29. Thomas Meenan, 

30. Shane Diver, 

30. Edward Herraghty, 

31. Shane Diver, Junr., 

32. Denis Curran, 

33. Owen Doohan, (King,) 
33.. William Doohan, (Oge,) 

34. William Doohan, (Nelly,) 
34. William Mackan, (or Anthony Rogers.) 


The late Rev. John Brown, formerljr of Belfast, and 
afterwards incumbent of a church at Litchfield, related 
the following story : 

" The people of Tory, some years ago, had a supersti- 
tious objection to visit Ireland, and it was considered a 
disgrace to be banished to the mainland. On this ac- 
count, even when they approached its coasts while fish- 
ing, or when returning from piloting vessels, which, be- 
fore the erection of the light-house was a more frequent 
occupation than at present, they never went on shore. * 
On one occasion a curragh with four youn^ men, who had 
been engaged piloting, was driven into fcheephaven by 
stress of weather, and the men having drawn up their boat 
within Hornhead, lay down under it on the beach. Their 
curiosity got the better of their prejudice, and they a- 
greed, after much deliberation, to venture to the summit 
of the headland at whose base they had taken i-efuge. 
From point to point they advanced through a country 
not less bleak than their own island, until they saw ex- 
tended before them a goodly town, from whose houses 
the smoke arose, waving merrily in the strong western 
breeze. They paused, but agiiin the demon curiosity 
tempted them to advance. They are now within the 
town. It is a city compared with East Town or even 
West Town, with its ruins, its crosses, and its tower. 
Here too is a ruined church; but the dwellings are pala- 
ces to theirs, vegetation assumes the stature of the tree 
or shrub. There are shops : they stand in fact in Dun- 
fanaghy. The greatest object of attraction to these 
children of the Isle, is the apothecary's shop; the "Doc- 
tors," of late it has been called the Medical Hall. How 
did its little window beam with every hue of light, red, 
blue, green, to the delight of the visitors, who stood 
80 long in admiration of the wonders before their eyes, as 
to attract the attention of the great man himself, who 
invited them to enter and examine, at leisure, the rep- 
tiles stuffed, and other curiosities of the place One in 
particular took their fancy ; it was a large, white delf 
jar, that stood on a shelf, oval in form and of a marbl 
whiteness. The Doctor, who was a wag in his way, and 
nearly monopolized the wit ofDunfanaghy in those days, 
informed the Tory-men, in reply to tlieir inquiries, 
that it was a mare's egg A mare's egg ! Now it so hap- 
pened that in those days there were no horses on the is- 
land, and the practicability of introducing these useful 
quadrupeds, of which they had some traditionary know- 
ledge, was often debated among the inhabitants. Here 
then was an opportunity not to be neglected, of signali- 
ring themselves as benefactors to the Tory race. The 
mare's egg was purchased at the moderate price of half- 
a-crown. which seemed nothing to men with pockets well 
lined with the produce of their piloting. They were ad- 
vised to keep the egg warm and be careful not to injure 
its shell. One of the men in consequence of this caution 
stripped off his coat, in which he enfolded it, promising 
to keep it safe and sound, as well as warm until they 
reached the boat. As the party trudged along proud 
of their acquisition, they indulged in many speculations 
on the advantages they in particular, and the inhabitants 
in general, would derive from the introduction of the 
useful animal so long desiderated ; and nothing occurred 

* The Revd. Caesar Ottway gives some interesting particulars of the conduct of a Boat's crew driven ashore near 
Ards. " They were seen putting some leaves and small branches of trees in their pocket to show on their return." 


to mar their satisfaction till thev commenced the descent 
towards their boat ; but then the islander who carried 
the precious egg unhappily stumbled, aud, losing Ids 
presence of mind, allowed this valuable article to escape 
from his grasp. As it rolled down the steep incline, 
bounding from one tuft of grass or heath to another, they 
followed its progress, not only witli their eyes, but active 
limbs, until, horror of horrors, the egg was dashed to 
pieces against a jutting rock. An unfortunate hare had 

her form to leeward of the rock, and being alarmed at 
this unusual invasion of her peaceful abode, sprung from 
her place of concealment and hurried away : a circum- 
stance that only increased the regret of the Torrymen, 
who had thus ocular demonstration that their egg, had 
it reached its destination, would have fully redeemed 
the promises of the honest Galen from whom they had 
made the purchase. 



Lanigan thus explains the office of Corbe or Here- 

It appears that in Ireland in early times, influential 
persons were chosen as a sort of chui-ch wardens, to be 
the managers and protectors of the church lands. But 
they, in process of time, began gradually to usurp, for 
tlie use of theniselves and their families, the property so 
entrusted to them ; part of which was known by the 
name of Tervion lands, that is, church territories, free 
from all claims of secular lords. The stewards, or man- 
agers, here spoken of, were designated Vmnorbans, Comor- 
ias, or, as more commonly called, Corbes and Erenachs. 
Comorban means posses ior or inheritor of the same patri- 
mony, or land, and it seems originally to have signified a 
successor, in an ecclesiastical dignity. Thus the Comor- 
ban of St. Patrick ivas the Archbishop of Armagh ; the 
Comorban of Columbkille Avas the abbot of loua, &c. The 
persons who seized on church lands iu the way above 
noted, were afterwards called Comorbans. They were 
elected out of particular families, who kept the right to 
themselves, leaving the clergy ouly whatever was paid 
in the way of tithes and offerings. The Erenaghs were 
an inferior class, held smaller farms, sometimes under 
the Comorban, and were more numerous. It was neces- 
sary for them, when elected, to be confirmed in their of- 
fice by the bishop. The word Erenach seems to signify 
an Archdeacon. 

The expression " tercian meddar," used in this part of 
the Ulster Inquisitions, refers e-sadently to some well- 
known measure, which was the tliird part in capacity of 
a larger vessel ; and this we may conclude to be, as stated 
in the same Inquisition, equal, in the county of Donegall, 
to two English gallons. This would amount to nearly 27 
gallons to each balliboe of land. It is a proof also, that 
barley was, at this period, the common crop of the inha- 
bitants. We may also infer, from the expression used, that 
many of these vessels were made to contain a fixed quan- 
tity. The measurement of the large collection in the 
Belfixst Museum exhibition did not give any satisfac- 
tory result as to uniformiy of contents. Probably 
those found in bogs filled with adipocere" were mea- 
sures, and many have been originally filled with but- 
ter, as a rent or tribute, such as is represented as paid 
to the Fomorians Mr. Bell of Dungannon, whose muse- 
um is rich in these vessels, says, in a letter to the writer: 

" The meathers found in bogs are of a peculiar shape, 
and are, all of them, similar in dimensions. They are 
equilateral, but have one handle only, projecting from 
one of the sides, although fashioned from a solid block of 
wood, like the common four-handed meather. They are 

of a distinct and different shape, and are characterized 
by a lateral ogee curvature, which may, at an early pe- 
riod, have suggested that beautiful form now found in 
the manui\ictured porcelnin of all nations. The mea- 
thers with four or eight handles are now only to be found 
in remote parts of the country, and in the possession of 
families where they have been carefully preserved. 
They are of various dimensions, some so small as to hold 
not more than the contents of a wine glass, whilst others 
are large enough to contain several gallons. They are 
made of alder or crab-tree, whereas the bog-meathers are 
made of another description of timber. The bog-meather 
when found, frequently contains adipocere. 

I have no doubt that the meather of our peat bogs 
must have been that referred to in the old Inquisition ; 
and, as two of these meathers are now in the collection at 
Belfast, the contents of one or forty may be readily as- 

Dr. Petrie, when applied to, gave the following notice 
on this subject, dated October 1852, which, like all his 
communications, deserves to be put on record. 

" I have but little to communicate to you in answer to 
your question ; probably, indeed, nothing with which 
you are not already acquainted. I am not aware that 
the meadars had, among the Irish, any fixed relative pro- 
portions, though I believe amongst the Scots and Scoto- 
Irish it was so ; but their meadars were round and not 
four-sided as the Irish. This opinion is the result of a 
good deal of inquiry, and an examination of a great many 
scores of those curious ancient vessels In short the sum 
of my knowledge on this subject is precisely concurrent 
with the conclusion of Harris, in his edition of Ware, vol 
2, p. 223. Thus : " I do not find that the ancient Irish 
or the Britons, had the use of any fixed or certain mea- 
sure of capacity in a commercial sense ; so that as far as 
I am informed, the terms. Pint, Quart, Pottle, &c , do not 
so much as occur in the ancient languages of either of 
the said countries. The Meadar, a vessel so called in 
Irish, and Medr in British, was of no certain capacity, 
but larger or smaller according to the artificer's fancy, 
or the materials he had ready at hand for working upon. 
It was a can, or pitcher, four cornered, and made of one 
piece of timber, hollowed into angles with a chizel. The 
British, and the Scottish-Irish, made them round, and 
hooped them for strength. The meadar of the county of 
Donegall is mentioned in the grand Inquisition of the six 
escheated counties, taken in the year 1609, to contain 
two gallons, English measure, and in the county of Fer- 
managh, six quarts." To this I have nothing to add. 

The " bracken cloth," that constituted part of the rent, 


shews that the people not only grew barley, but had a ma- 
nufacture m ancient days. The term is not now used ; 
but a metaphor, employed by Sir Kenelm Digbv. serves 
to explain it : " ' Let them compare my work with what' 

is taught in the schools, and if they find in theirs many 
bracks and short ends, which cannot be spun into even 
piece, and in mine, a fair coherence throughout, I shall 
promise myself an acquiesence." 



It has been mentioned that this seems rather an en- 
closure than the remains of a building, and that within 
are traces of foundations, probably of a church. The read- 
er is referred for many interesting Tacts, illustrative of 
the enclosure of religious edifices by the early Christians, 
to the 2d part of Dr. Petrie's Ecclesiaatical Arclutecture 

of Ireland, sub-sections, 4 and 7. Rath Finain however, 
differs from those described by Dr. Petrie, in form, l>e- 
ing rectangular, not circular ; the name however seems 
to bring it within his meaning, and it has always been con 
sidered as connected with religion. 


These have Ijeen comparatively frequent within a 
late period, and the inhabitants attribute to them the 
injury of many of the most ancient monuments. Sir 
Charles Giesecke in his notice of Tory, which he visited in 
1826, says: " I behold an unparalleled scene of misery and 
wretchedness amongst the inhabitants, which was in- 
creased by an unexampled gale in July last, when the sea 
broke over the island, destroyed all their crops, and ren- 
dered their fresh water undrinkable." The number of 
inhabitants he reckoned at 400. The Rev. Csesar Ot- 
way, at a subsequent period says, " There are about 600 

inhabitants on the island, and these poor creatures have 
been, in the course of the present summer, visited by a 
great calamity. In the month of Augu.ot la^t, a strange 
and unforseen storm set in from the north-wesL which 
drove the sea in immense waves over the whole nat part 
of the island. The waves even beat over the hignest 
cliffs ; all their corn was destroyed, their potatoes wash- 
ed out of the ground, and all their springs of firesh wat^r 
filled up." Nothing can be imagined more deplorable 
than this. (1826.) 


The census of 1841, was 

80 inhabited houses, 3 uninhabited, 

85 families, 191 males, 200 females. 

The present proprietor, in 1849, made arrangements by 
which the population was reduced by the amount of lUO 


The following Despatch addressed, by the Government of Ireland to Queen Elizabeth, presents a 
vivid picture of a great *' Hosting," or " Rising- Out" which the " Englishry" of the Pale at that 
time almost annually performed, as an expedition or campaign against one or other insurgent chieftain 
of the unsubjugated "Irishry.." 

Shane or John O'Neill, the formidable enemy against whom this martial demonstration of the 
year 1566 was directed, was the famous Shane-Dymas, or John "the Proud," chief of the Cinel- 
Eoghan, or Clan O'Neill, Lord of Tir-Eoghan (Tyrone), or " the country of Eoghan's race," and 
principal Chieftain of Ulster. He was the legitimate son of the first Earl of Tyrone ; but, an illegi- 
mate brother having been preferred by his father to be appointed as successor apparent to the earl- 
dom, he slew the rival claimant ; and on the death of his father, was elected to be chief of his power- 
ful clan. His right, however, was disputed by his successor, Turlough Luinnach, and by the celebrated 
Hugh O'Neill, Baron of Dungannon, the son of the slain bastard, and afterwards Earl of Tyrone. Nor 
was it acknowledged by the State. The "loose men" of his country, together with those of the border- 
ing regions, were in the habit of plundering the inhabitants of the Pale. Their chiefs were unable to 
check these depredations even had they been inclined to do so. The Englishry were thus continually 
subject to raids and ravages, which kept burning a constant hostile feeling towards the bordering 
Irishry ; and this disposition soon lighted up into fierce warfare whenever the State called on the colo- 
nists to repel or revenge aggressions. All the nobility and other feudal tenants of the Crown were 
bound by their tenure to perform military service for a certain number of days in each year. It would 
seem that they responded, in the year under our notice, to the summons for an expedition which ap- 
pears to have been especially intended to punish a predatory band led by three brothers of the 
O'Reilly sept with such alacrity, as to have equipped a force double that which they were obliged 
to supply. Considerable stress is laid on the circumstance of the Earl of Desmond having joined the 
Hosting. The loyalty of that potent nobleman, who was afterwards the ingens rehellihus exemplar of 
Irish history, was questionable : and therefore it was of no mean importance that he showed such 
readiness to serve the Queen. The obnoxious O'Reillys were brothers of the O'Reilly, (Hugh) 
chieftain of Brefny, (now the county of Cavan,) who, together with his brother Edmond, Tanist or 
successor-elect to the chieftainry, agreed with Lord Deputy Sir Henry Sidney, by indenture dated 
1567, to prosecute these three insurgent leaders with fire and sword. [Note to Annals IV, Masters, 
anno 1583.] 


The force, marched into Ulster, consisted of 3,000 men of the Pale, and of 500 stout Galloglasses, 
dashing horse, and good marksmen under Desmond: these, however, were amateurs in comparison with 
" the garrisons," or Queen's soldiers, who joined them, and whose numbers are not mentioned. The 
exploits of this not inconsiderable force appear somewhat incommensurate with its magnitude. But, 
while commenting on the insignificance of its performance, we must recollect that the redoubted and 
dreaded O'Neill hovered over this little army with a " host" to which it was, doubtless, numerically in- 
ferior. The force following O'Neill's own banner is, in the succeeding year, described as amounting 
to 200 harquebusiers, 400 horse, 1,500 galloglasses, 800 red-shank Scottish island-auxiliaries under 
MacLean, and 2,000 kerne, or foot- soldiers, besides many loose irregular followers. With the ac- 
customed policy of Celtic strategy, Shane O'Neill always declined to come to action unless his posi- 
tion gave him an advantage ; and, like an able general, made sure of a retreat into the fastnesses of his 
country, the islands in Lough Neagh, and the forest of Glenconcan. 


Pole-Hore, Wexford, 
2d May, 1853. 

Despatch from the Lord Deputy and council of Ireland to Queen Elizabeth. 

[F7'om the Original in H. M. State-Paper Office, London.'] 

It may please your most excellent Majesty to be advertized that, for the defence of your Highness' 
English Pale against the rebelles of the Northe, while I, your Majesty's Deputy, with the force of your 
Majesty's army, addressed our repair into Ulster, a general Hosting of the ordinary force or rising out 
of your Majesty's English pale was proclaimed for six weeks, and besyds that, an extraordinary holding 
or entertaynment by them granted in supple and augmenting of the same hosting untyll our retome 
for 200 horsemen and 1,200 archers and gonners of the same English pale hiered and waged of their 
benevolent and generall contribution. And also by a further benevolence and contribution of the 
gentlemen of the same your Majesty's English pale in easement and dischardge of the rest of your 
Majesty's subjects of the same, a lyke extraordinary cesse borne to the fyndying of horsemeat and 
man's meat, during the same space, to the Earl of Desmound and his trayne, who frankly and honor- 
ably of his owne offer, to declare his dewtyfulness unto your Majesty, and his faithfulness and loyaltie 
to the defence of your Majesty's good subjects of this your Highness' realme, his natyf country, did ac- 
cordingly repayr from his contree unto these borderers, (assisted with Sir Warham Seint Leger and 
Captain Heron,) to joigne with other, the lords, gentlemen, and forces left for the defence of the 
same, bringmg with him in his company his brethren John of Desmound, and Thomas, the Lord 
Fitz-Moryce of Kyrye,* the Barons of Dunboyne and Coraghmore, and others of the best gen- 

Paternal ancestor of the Marquis of Lansdowne. 


tlemen of his country, as "William Burke,'' WiUiam O'Mulryan,' the White Knight, and many 
other lyke gentlemen, with an hondreth horsemen, 300 galloglasses, and four score and twelve gon- 

The Lord Chancellor, the Bishop of Meath, Justice Plunkett, the Master of the Rolls, Justice Dil^ 
Ion, Sir Thomas Cusack, and others, were left commisioners for the raysing and commanding of those 
and the rest of the forces of your Majesty's English Pale and other your good subjects of this realme, 
to the said defence, and all other ways as occasion should require. 

The Barons of Delvyn, Trymlettstown, Howth, and Lowth, were assigned to the leading of such of 
those horsemen and fotemen as, being severally distributed under their chardges, were placed sundry 
where on those borders for the defence of the same. And the Earl of Desmond, assisted with the said Sir 
Warham Saint Leger and Captain Heron, was appointed of special trust to be General over the rest. 
And with this also, by another letter of commission, the said Earl and all those noblemen, with also 
Sir. W. S. and Captain H., or any two of them, were authorized to every parcel of the said service in 
general, and (if further cause and occasion so required) with the advice and consent of the more part 
of your Majesty's Privy Council here left behind me your Deputy, to pursue, invade, and plague with 
hostilitye whatsoever rebells or enemyes to your Highness in those borders or elsewhere in this 

These things thus left in order, I, your Highness' Deputy, accompanied with the Earl of Kil- 
dare, Francis Agard, and other the captains andretynew of your Majesty's army here, tokeour jorney 
into the rebel's country northwards. And in oxu" absence, Cahir O'Reigly, Shane, and Owen, three 
brethren to O'Reigly that now is, came to Rathesker ^ in Uryell, the last of September, in the 
night-tyme, and burned two villages, and retourning back in the break of the day, were so pur- 
sued by the Lord of Lowth with the horsemen of Uryell and Roger Fynrglas," Captain of the 
garrison of Ardee, as Shane O'Reigly was sore wounded, and two of their footmen slain, and 14 of 
then: horses taken. The 5th day of October, for the better revenge of that former feat, the Earl of 
Desmond with the rest of the lords and gentlemen of Mounster attending upon him, and the Lord of 
Trymlettston, Captain of the garrison of Kells, with other of the gentlemen and force of the country 
attending on him, went into the said Cahir's coimtry and made a prey of a thowsand kyne, and burned 
a great piece of his country, and camped there that night ; and after returned every man to his 
charge. Synce which tyme there was no harme done by those rebells in those borders. 

Afterwards, Shane O'Neill with his force came to Uryell the 13th of October in the night tyme, in as 
secret wise as he could ; remayning himself in a pi'ivy place in tho country, with the more part of his 
host ; and sent a force of his horsemen and footmen to Terfeighan, beside Drogheda, who at the 

> Afterwards created Lord Castleconnel. d Two miles and a half west of Dunleer, in the Co. 

Louth, then called Uriel, 
c Chief of Owny, in the counties Limeiick and Tip- One of an Anglo- Danish family, seated at Weetphal- 

perary. eton, in Fingal, near Publin. 


day-rising did prey and bume in the country, and in their retoume towards Shane O'Neill, (part of 
the prey being dryven afore them) the Lord of Loirth, Sir Warham Saint Leger and Captain Heron, 
perceiving the fire, marched towards the same, (the Earl of Desmond with his company following after 
them,) and lighted upon McMahowne ' and other of the rebells, and kyllyd of them the same time 
above 200 men, and took of their horses and hackneys above eleven score, and took of their gentlemen 
prisoners, without the loss of any man on our side. And so the rebels were chased out of the country; 
Shane O'Neill himself with all his company flying to their fastness. After which conflict those of 
Uryell, finding divers of Shane's men scattered in woods and other places, slew them. 

The whole rising-out of the English pale, within two days after, were assembled, (upon occasion of 
Shane O'Neill's said entries) for the defence of the borders, to the number of 3,000, besides the gar- 
risons, and Shane O'Neill came with his host eftsoon to the borders of Uryell the Wednesday next 
following, being the 16th of October, and burned two villages. Whereupon he was pursued by the 
lords and gentlemen of your Majesty's said English pale and Munster, namely the Baron of Delvin, 
the Lord of Lowth, Sir Warham St. Leger, and Captain Heron, with their horsemen, the Lord of 
Trymleston, Sir Thonias Cusack, and divers other knights and gentlemen of the English Pale, hav- 
ing the leading of men. So as the rebel, perceiving the same, retyred towards his fastnes, and, being 
stowtly charged, was put to flight. In which conflict and onsett, O'Hanlan, captain of a country 
on the borders so called, with divers others of the traitor's men, were slayne, and two hondreth of 
their horses and hacneys taken, with the spoil of their weapon and apparel, and no hurt done to any 
of our syde, but only two horsemen hurt. 

This done, understanding that those three brethren of O'Reigly's, Owen, Shane and Cahir, were 
the chiefest disturbers of the English pale, and to the intent to be revenged upon them, the Earl of 
Desmond, the Lord of Lowth, and Sir Thomas Cusack, being at Ardye with the rest of the Commis- 
sioners, required the Mayor of Dublin to meet in the borders within fower days after, with six score 
able men of the city's power, and did write to the Lord Chancellor, and the Justice Plunkett, and 
the gentlemen of Meath, appointed captains of baronies, to the number of 2,000 men, to meet the 
lords and gentlemen attending there, for the plaguing of those rebells. And they accordingly assem- 
bled, went with the said lords, the Bishop of ]\Ieath, Sir Thomas Cusack, and the captains, gentle- 
men, and forces aforesaid, with five days' victuals, into the countries of the said Owen, Shane and 
Cahir, and there burned much corn, and destroyed in effect the country, camping there three nights; 
and after, every man returned to his charge. 

For the revenge thereof, the said Shane O'Neill with his main host, came sodeynely into Uriel!, 
which is the eastest part of all that long border, and there did burn certain villages in the country, 
what time, none of the aforesaid lords, gentlemen, or forces, were then near hand in those parts. But 
the Lord of Lowth, Sir Warham St. Leger, Captain Heron, and Symon Bamewall, having with 

' Hugh M'Mahon, chieftain of Monagban, iixaugurated in the year 1560. 


them not in all an hondreth horsemen, encountered with the rebels and kylled of their horses, and for 
lacke of more ayde, were fayne to retourne ; and so the enemyes departed. Thus, having advertized 
your Highness the foil discoorse of as much as happened to be doune in the absence of me, your Ma- 
jesty's Deputy, which was to the greate charge of the lords, gentlemen, and inhabitants of the Eng- 
lish Pale, who, in our opinions, have, for their humble, willing, and dewtyfull behayvyor in those af- 
fayres, deserved your princely thanks to their encouragement in the lyke. We pray the Almightie 
Lorde to protect your Majesty, long and prosperously to reigne over us, and graunt you victorie over all 
youre enemyes. From Dublyn, the 22d of November, 1566. 

Your Majesty's most humble and faithful subjects and servants, 
A. Dublin, Canc : H. Sydney, 

H. MiDEN, Or. K1LD.4RE, 

R. Daren, Jo. Plunket, 

"Warham Sentleqer, Thomas Cusake. 

John Chaloner, 



Having given some attention to the subject of coins foiind in Ireland, I have, for a number of years 
past, kept a record of various hoards which have been, from time to time, discovered in the country, 
and of as many particulars as I could ascertain respecting them. Some of these are interesting ; and 
I have thought it might be desirable to publish the present list in the Ulster Journal of Archaeology, 
with a view of elioiting information of a similar kind from collectors in other parts of the country. 

Belfast, March 1853. 


1808 About 250 ounces of silver coins, of ELIZABETH, were found near Downpatbick, in 

the County Down; they were all sold in Dublin for the value of old silver. 
1809 In this year were found, in downpatrick, upwards of 60 ounces of silver coins, chiefly Groats 

of Henry the 8th, and a few of RICHARD Hi. they were disposed of in Belfast. 
1810 In this year a penny of ATHELSTAN was found near Drogheda. 
1811 Several thousand silver pennies of EDWARD the r. II. Z, III, and ALEXANDER 

III., of Scotland, were found near Ballyclare, County Antrim. 
1843 At Derry nearly ten ounces of silver Coins were found ; amongst which were two G-roats of 

RICHARD III., two Groats of EDWARD IV., minted in Limirici, and the remainder 

were Groats of HENRY VIM ; minted by Cardinal Wolsey. 
1843 This year several ounces of Groats of EDWARD IV. were found in the County Derry, 

and disposed of in Belfast. 
1843 A large number of Irish base coins, of PHILIP AND MARY, were discovered near 

CoLERAiNE, County Derry. 
1840 ^ About this time was found, near Belfast, a gold coin, marked on both sides 4 dwt. 7 grs., 

supposed to have been struck by LORD INCHIQUIN, in the reign of CHARLES I, 

and to represent in value a French Pistole. This unique specimen is in my collec- 
1850 About this time five similar coins were discovered ; two of which are in the British Museum, 

two in the cabinet of Sir Montague Chapman, Bart., and the other in the possession of Dr. 

Aquilla Smith, of Dublin. 
1815 In this year a few ounces of base money, of PHILIP AND MARY, of the ordinary 

kind, and one base Testoon of EDWARD VI, were found near Newry. 
1820 Duringthis year twelve base Pennies of ELIZABETH, and PHILIP AND MARY, 

were found near Do^vnpatrick. 


1814 A man dng np, near Bklfabt, a cow's horn full of coins of DAVID and ROBERT 

of Scotland. 
1843 Near Newtownards, County Down, were discovered about twenty Groats of DAVID II. 

and ROBERT II. of Scotland, together with several groats of HENRY IV. Xr VI. 
1845 This year two hundred Pennies of EDWARD I. 11. AND III. and a Calais Groat of 

EDWARD III. were discovered near Larne, County Antrim. 
1840 Near Nevtry, some labourers discovered about eighty English pennies, of HENRY 111^ some 

of which were of rare type. 
1843 About this time two hundred Pennies of EDWARD I. II. III., and ALEXANDER III, 

of Scotland, were found near Saintfield, County Down ; they were all common except 

one EiUETEB penny of EDWARD I. 
1842 At Kn-LiNCHT, County Down, there were found near five hundred English pennies of 

HENRY III, all of the Short-Cross type. 
1820 In the demesne of Mountstewart, County Down, were found several base Irish coins of 

1845 There were discovered, near Belfast, about twenty ounces of silver coins, of ELIZABETH 

and CHARLES I. and II., among which was one Inchiquin Shilling. 
1848 Found at Castle Connel thirty Guineas of QEORQE III. 
1847 About thirty silver coins of ELIZABETH were found at Barn-hill, County Down, the 

residence of Guy Stone, Esq. 
1840 In the townland of Mullaghsandal, near Carrickferqus, County Antrim, about fifty Pen- 
nies of EDWARD 11. and one Penny of ALEXANDER III. 
1848 About this time a few base coins, of PHILIP AND MARY, were discovered near Belfast. 
1845--In December of this year, a brass token, struck by James Biggar, Merchant, Belfast, 1666, 

was found near Belfast, 
1845 Was found, near Belfast, a Penny of JOHN, minted by John in Dublin. 
1845 At this time was found, near Belfast, a light groat of HENRY IV, minted at Bbistow, 

(Bristol.) This coin differs from those mentioned by K-uding and Hawkins, in having the 

OB mint-mark, a trefoU, and, on the RE a cross. This rare coin is in my cabinet. 
1843 In June of this year, some persons, when digging a grave in the burying-ground of the old 

church of Derrykeehan, near Dervock, county Antrim, discovered two hundred and sixty 

Saxon coins, of the following kings : EDWIG EADRED EADCAR ERIO 

1845 At this time some labourers, when digging potatoes in the reclaimed fish pond of the Abbey 

of ines, or Ardquin, in the Great Ards, County Down, discovered, near the surface, a small 

box which contained the following Coins, viz: 1 Groat RICHARD II., 1 Coventry Groat 

EDWARD IV., 1 Dublin Halfpenny, EDWARD I., 1 Cork Penny EDWARD I., 


very rare; 1 heavy Groat, weight 66 grains, EDWARD IV., 250 Pennies of EDWARD 
I, II, Z, III, 20 Pennies of RICHARD II, all in poor condition, but rare; 6 Halfpennies of 
EDWARD III, 10 Groats of DAVID II of Scotland, 10 Groats of ROBERT II of 
Scotland, 2 Pennies of DAVID II and 2 Pennies of ROBERT II. 
The chief part of this hoard came into my possession. 

1844 At this time were discovered, near Dromoke, County Down, twenty ounces of the coins of 
EDWARD \/\f and ELIZABETH, none of which were of rare type. 

1844 This year a labourer dug up, in the fosse of the ruined Castle of Con O'neill, at Castlereaqh, 
County Down, one hundred and fifty shillings and sixpences of EDWARD VI and ELIZA* 
BETH : the coins were contained in a pewter vessel. 

1820 This year the sexton of Siiankiiill, the old parish chtu-ch of Belfast, when making a grave, 
found a Penny of JOHN, type, ROBERD ON DIVE. Coins have been discovered 
at various times in this place. 

1840 Found near Belfast several ounces of HENRY VIII., Harp Groats; they escaped exami- 
nation having been melted. 

1820 At this time was discovered, in the thatch of an old house near Newtownards, county Down, 
a tea-cup filled with French and Spanish gold coins. 

1847 Were found twelve Danish coins at Buttaok, county Armagh ; being very much decomposed 
they could not be identified. 

1824 This year about 20 ounces of Irish Three-Crown Groats of EDWARD III, and HENRY 
VII, were found near Belfast. 

1846 Found near Ballymena, County Antrim, fifty coins of ELIZABETH, JAMES I, 
and CHARLES I, all of which were in poor condition. 

184G Early in May, a few ounces of the silver coins of CHARLES I, and one Scotch Shil- 
ling of JAMES I, were discovered near Belfast. 

1849. In August, seven Gold Coins of JAMES I, X. CHARLES I, were discovered near 
Newhy, County Down. 

1849 During the month of September an Irish silver shilling of MARY was found near Newry, 
County Down. 

1849 Was found a small hoard of the Irish base coins of ELIZABETH, and PHILIP AND 
MARY, at Ahoguill, County Antrim. 

1847 It was reported that a large hoard of gold coins was discovered at the townland of Anticob, 
near Ballymoney, county Antrim, by a labouring man, who immediately lefl the country, 
and was not heard of afterwards. 

1849 Some time in September a hoard of coins was found at Gilford, county Down. 

1850 Sixty-one coins of ELIZABETH, and JAMES I, were found in the county Armagh. 

1851 There were found at Caledon, county Tyrone, a few Groats of EDWARD W.f and 


HENRY VII., minted at Dublin, Waterford, and Drogheda; they are in the cabinet 
of the Countess of Caledon. 

1851 Found at Sandymount, Richiiill, county Armagh, a number of silver Coins, struck in Hol- 
land, during the years 1609 and 1660. 

1S52 About four hundred coins of ELIZABETH were discovered near Killtlea, county Armagh. 

1848 j^ hoard of Elizabeth's base Irish money, weighing fourteen pounds, was found in the town- 
land of Bkiqiit, barony of Innisiiowen, county Doncgall ; it is not known where the coins are. 

1850 Found at Tcllyard, county Down, a large quantity of silver Coins. 

1850 Found, near Armagh, a number of large silver Coins of LOUIS XIII. and XIV, also a 

quantity of ELIZABETH'S Copper Irish Pennies and Half-pennies. 

1849 At this time was found, at Clonca, Innishowen, County Donegall, a large earthen mug 

filled with silver Coins of HENRY VII. and VIII., now in the cabinet of John Harvey, 
Esq., Malin Hall, County Donegall. 

1852 Found, at Abbey-Side, Dungannon, County Tyrone, eleven gold Coins of CHARLES I. 

1851 Found, at Grey Abbey, County Down, a very curious bronze box which contained about 
fifly Coins of HENRY IV. and VII., and one piece called an Abbey- Counter, formerly 
used by the monks in keeping their accounts. These are now in the cabinet of Hugh Mont- 
gomery, Esq., Eosemount, Grey Abbey. 


By the Rev. W. REEVES, D.D. M.R.I.A. 

The grandeur of a cathedral, or the extent of an abbey, instead of being an evidence of antiquity, 
is often the reverse, and indicates the unity of design, or the affluence of a community, which belongs 
to a comparatively recent age. Sometimes, however, a majestic religious pile occupies the site of an 
earlier structure whose history has been connected with the implantation of Christianity, and thus to 
the splendour and capacity of a mediaeval building are transferred the associations which belong to 
primitive simplicity and economy. The noble piles of St. Peter's of Westminster, and St Cuthbert's of 
Durham, nay even St. Paul's of London, connect the active present with the distant past ; St. Augus- 
tine's of Canterbury, and St. Patrick's of Armagh, arc identified with the early history of our national 
religion ; the interesting ruins of lona and Lindesfarne mark the transition dignity of those fa- 
mous retreats ; but in many cases we look in vain to present local condition, in order to discover any 
remaining indications of early greatness, or even a trace of ancient existence. Thus Whithorn in 
Galloway, and Bencor in Arvon have perished except in memory, and the descriptions which Ven- 
erable Bede gives of their pristine importance " find no counterpart in existing remains. Often in 
Ireland the antiquarian traveller happens upon a name hallowed by saintly associations, yet he finds 
no local materials to quicken his feelings, and, with book in hand, he might almost as improvingly visit 
the spot in tlio meditation of his study. A round tower sometimes stands as a solitary monument, 
or confers upon some mean edifice erected beside it, the dignifying influence of its presence ; but, too 
often, the hand of time acquires double powers of demolition from the hand of man, and all vestiges of 
antiquity vanish. 3Iuckamore, Comber, St. Patrick's of Newry, and several monasteries of Down- 
patrick, arc uttei'ly swept away ; Goodburne, which was powerful in its day, is now a bleach-green ; 
Black Abbey is a corn field ; and the sites of many earlier establishments are even unknown. 

But, among all the places of note in Ulster, there is not one whoso present condition contrasts so 
strongly with its primitive glory as Bangor ; it possesses a church indeed, and a steeple, but they 
are modern ; there is a cemetery, but no monuments of antiquity therein ; and a few dark patches in 
the garden wall of the parsonage are the only indications of age which the precincts afford. At tho 
dissolution of religious houses Bangor was an Augustinian abbey, but in a very impoverished and di- 
lapidated condition ; for, even in 14G9, it was found to have gone so much to ruin that a Bull of Pope 

nistoria Ecclegiastica ill. 4 ; iL 2. 


Paul n. authorised the friars of the Third order of St. Francis to take possession of it. ^ This ab- 
bey dated its origin from the year 1120, when the celebrated Malachi O'Morgair, finding Bangor a 
waste, and its ancient endowments alienated, among the early acts of his public life, made an effort 
to restore this famous conventual seat to its original dignity. The following narrative from the pen 
of his friend and biographer, St. Bernard, was written seven hundred years ago, and attests the pro- 
found veneration in which the history of Bangor was held even at that remote date : " A wealthy 
and influential individual who was in occupation of the ground of Bencor, " and its possessions, acting 
under divine influence, forthwith placed all his property, and his own services, at Malachi's disposal ; 
and thou<h he was his maternal umle, the bond of the spirit was, with Malachi, a stronger tie than 
that of the flesh. The owner bestowed upon him also the site of Bencor, that he might build, or ra- 
ther rebuild, a monastery there. For in early times there had existed in this place, under the found- 
er Coragellus, a most noble institution, the parent of many thousand monks, the head of many mo- 
nasteries. A place it was, truly sacred, the nursery of saints, who brought forth fruit most abun- 
dantly to the glory of God, insomuch that one of the sons of that holy congregation, Luanus by 
name/ is alone repvited to have been the founder of a hundred monasteries : which I mention for this 
reason, that the reader may, from this single instance, form a conception of the number to which the 
remainder of the community amounted. In short, so widely had its branches extended through Ire- 
land and Scotland, that these times appear to have been especially foreshadowed in the verses of Da- 
vid : " Thou visitest the earth and waterest it ; thou greatly enrichest it ; the river of Grod is full of 
water; thou preparest them corn, when thou hast so provided for it. Thou waterest the ridges there- 
of abundantly ; thou makest it soft with showers; thou blessest the springing thereof."' Nor was it 
only into the countries I have mentioned, but even into distant lands, that crowds of saints, like an 
inundation, poured. One of whom, St, Columbanus, penetrating into these om- regions of Gaul, built 
the monastery of Luxieu, and there became a great multitude. So great do they say it was, that 
the solemnization of divine offices was kept up by companies, who relieved each other in succession, so 
that not for one moment, day or night, was there an intermission of their devotions. 

' These facts may serve to illustrate the ancient glory of Benchor. But, ages before Malachi, it had 
been rlemolishod by pirates, and now he gladly took possession of it, resolved upon planting a second 
paradise on the spot, partly through respect for its ancient dignity, and partly because of the bodies 

*' W.adilin.!?, Annales Minorum. cited in Archdall, Mo- life. Fleming, Collect, p. 3G8. It also appears in the forms 

nsLSticon Ilib. p. 110. Lugliaidh, and Lugidus. 

c This form of the name approaches nearly to the old " Psalm, cxv. 9. 

spelling. See Reeves' Ecclesiastical Antiquities, p. 199; fxT- t^ tt i, th -i ntn 

Colton's Visitation, p. 35. f Hishfe is given in Messmgham s Florilegmm, pp 219 

-2.j2. The whole of that extremely rare volume, rlem- 

d That is, Lua, wliich, with the common prefix mo, ing's Collectanea, is devoted to the life, writings, and rela- 

makesMolua.thenameunderwluchheisdescribedinhis tions of Columbanus. Fol. Lovanii, 1607. 


of saints which slept there. For not to mention those who were buried in peace, it is related that 
nine hundred perished together on one day, massacred by pirates." ^ 

Under Malachi, Bangor revived ; his first oratory was " constructed of boards, but well and closely 
united, a Scotic fabric, respectable enough," "" and this was a step in advance of the early structure, 
which probably answered to the description "of wicker work interwoven like a fence, and surrounded by 
a ditch."' Subsequently, however, when foreign travel had enlarged his views, " it seemed fit to 
Malachi that he should build at Benchor an oratory of stone, like those churches which he had seen 
in other countries. But when he had begun to lay the foundations, some of the inhabitants were as- 
tonished, for no buildings of the kind were known in that land." Whereupon a factious crowd gath- 
ered round him, and one who was chosen as their spokesman expressed their sentiments in these me- 
morable words: '' 0, worthy man, what is your motive of introducing this novelty in our neighbour- 
hood? "We are Scots, not Gauls. Why this vanity? what need of a work so extravagant, so 
aspiring ?" ^ The work, however, proceeded, and subsequently received additions at various times ; 
but, like the second temple, it fell very far short of primitive greatness, and in process of time, under 
civil commotions, it dwindled into insignificance, and finally became but a name. 

One monument, however, of its ancient glory has survived the injury of time, and this not of brass 
or marble, but, what is a better historical conductor, though apparently more perishable, a manuscript 
Antiphonary, or Book of Anthems, compiled expressly for the use of this community, thoroughly 
Irish in its matter, and written eleven centuries and a half ago. If it had been left in Ireland it 
would have probably shared the fate of nearly all our native service-books ' ; but, being conveyed to 
Italy soon after it was written, it was there preserved among other treasures of Irish industry, and 
remained until the seventeenth century, when it was removed to a more accessible depository in the 
capital of Lonibardy. 

What a pity it is that a small portion of the learning and zeal which afforded to the early Irish the 
means of enriching, with the fruits of their labours, even distant kingdoms on the Continent, does not 
inspire their descendants, who have time and money at command, to follow the steps that have been 
hallowed by the name of Irish, and gather up those fragments of national history, those legitimate 
materials for national pride, which remain scattered among the various nations of the Continent, and 
assign to the memory of Ireland a place in the western world which no other country in 
Europe could venture to claim. If, instead of the servile, bewildering routine of sight-seeing, 
which most travellers embark in, and in which one pleasurable ingredient is an abstraction from 

K Vita S. Malacliiac, cap. 5, in Messinsli:im, Florilc- the preat Stowe collection, and has now passed into Lord 

^iump. 360. Ai^hl HI nihil m's hnmls, was obtained on the Continent 

'' Vita ut supra v 367 ^^ "'*'''" f'race of Xenagh. an officer in the German 

. ,,. ' .-* service. It is supposed, with some reason, that it be- 

V ita, ut supra, p. 6(n>. longed to the Irish monastery of K.itisbon, and t hat it had 

k Vita, ut supra, cap. 9, p. 371. been sent thither in 113() by Turlogh O'Brien. See 
' The iiiestimablo Irish ritual, which was the gem of O'Conor's Stowe catalogue, vol. i Appendix. 


homo, the well educated wanderer would keep home ever in memory, and diligently seek out the 
vestiges of his countrymen, and carefully collect whatever redounded to the credit of his nation, the 
Irishman would find a wider field, and richer return than any other investigator engaged in a like 
cnterprize. "" Everywhere would he, be it in France, or Belgium, or Switzerland, or Bavaria, or 
Austria, or Italy, discover matter for self-respect. In one country he finds the name of an Irish- 
man imposed on a canton and city, and his eflBgy borne on their seals and banners ; in othei*s 
he meets with cathedrals and monasteries where the memories of their Irish founders are vividly 
preserved; a proud dukedom owns an Irishman as its patron saint; almost every library of 
importance possesses some mLinorial of Irish missionaries ; and in many are to be seen ancient books, 
illustrated by the vernacular annotations of a people, whose language was familiar in the haunts of 
their foreign travels a thousand years ago. 

The Antiphonary of Bangor is written in Latin, but contains the strongest internal evidence of its 
Lish origin. We owe our acquaintance with it to IMuratori, the illustrious historical antiquary of 
Italy, who printed it at full length in his Anecdota Ambrosiana," and assigned to it the place of anti- 
quity and honour which it so well deserves. Yet, notwithstanding its value to the Irish ecclesiasti- 
cal student, strange to say, no fac-simile of it has been published, and there is evidence to shew that 
as yet the text has not been exhibited with accuracy. We know indeed of one accomplished Irish- 
man who examined the manuscript, but felt disappointed at its contents, and, having failed to find in 
Muratori's own library a copy of his works, came away without paying any further attention to it. 
It IS to be hoped that, ere long, some Irishman of zeal, in visiting Milan, will make it his chief business 
to collate this precious relic of antiquity, and, if possible, bring home a tracing of every page. Mean- 
while, we must content ourselves with the information afibrded by the foreigner, and continue to draw 
upon his description. 

The manuscript formerly belonged to the monastery of Bobio in the Apennines, whence, with other 
Irish books, it was removed to Milan by Cardinal Frederic Borromaeo, when he founded the Ambro- 
sian library there ; and now it is to be found under the reference C. 10. in that collection. Though 
at so great a distance from Bangor, there was a peculiar fitness in the place of its preservation. Bo- 
bio was founded by Columbanus, an Irishman of distinction, who received his education at Bangor, 
under the famous Comgall, and was a member of his community ; so that, as Muratori justly ob- 
serves, it might be expected that henceforward between the monks of Bobio and of Bangor a close 
connection and exchange of aiFcction should subsist, and that, although we cannot suppose this Anti- 
phonary was conveyed into Italy by Columbanus, (for it bears internal evidence of a date subsequent " 

"The writer of the present article is preparing a Me- with great learning in his Rerum Hib. Script, vol i 

moir in support of this assertion.__ Epist. Nuncup. pp, CLXiit.-CLxxiii. From this Dr. 

nVol. ly.pp. 12l-l:jy, latavii, Kl-'^. Also in his Opere, Lanigan has borrowed some valuable remarks. Eccl. 

Tom. Lndcc. pnrt. terza, pp. lilc'Jol. Arezzo 1770. Dr. Hist. vol. i. pp. vii 69. 

O'Conor introJuce:! this work to notice in this country, "Columbanus died, AD. 615, whereas the Antipho- 

and has discussed the history and age of the Antiphonary nary was not written before 680 


to his death,) yet we may safely conclude that it was taken out by his disciples or immediate succes- 
sors. ** 

The manuscript is membranaceous, large octavo size, and written in the peculiar hand which Mu- 
ratori describes as approaching to the Saxon, but which, with more propriety, may be named, as in the 
ancient catalogue of the library of St. Gall,'' " the Scotic style." At the commencement it has 
suffered some injury, but fortunately the most interesting portions are unhurt. Ijts contents are as 
follows : 

1. Hymn of St. Hilary on Christ; being a metrical summary of our Saviour's life, and designed, 
as it appears from the concluding verses, for the service of Noctiu'ns.' It contains 35 quatrains writ- 
ten in a kind of Trochaic dimeter. The 4th stanza runs thus 

In Prophetis invcniris 
Kostro natus saiculo 
Ante sascla tu fuisti 
Factor primi iseculi. 
2. Hymn of the Apostles. Consisting of 42 quatrains, chiefly commemorative of Redemption. 
3. Three short Canticles. 

4. Hymn on Lord's Day. The Te Deum with a short preface. Instead of numerari in the verse 
''make them to be numbered with thy Saints, &c.," it has munerari, which is the more ancient read- 

5. Hymn when the Priests communicate. Eleven quatrains, beginning 

Sancti venite, 

Christi corpus snmite, / 

Sanctum bibcntes, 
Quo rcdcmpti, sanguinem. 

6. Hymn when the toax-light' is blessed. Nine quatrains. 

7. Hymn for Mid-night. Fourteen quatrains. 

8. Hymn on the birth-day of the 3fartyrs, or on Saturday at Matins. Nine verses of six lines 

[).-Hymn at Matins on Lord's Day. Nine verses on the Incarnation. 

10. Hymn of St. Patrick, the teacher of the Scots. Of 25 quatrains, commencing with the letters 

of the alphabet in regular succession. This is the famous alphabetical hymn of St. Secundinus or 

Seachnall, beginning 

Auditc omnes amantcs Deum sancta merita 
Viri in Christo bcati, Tatrici episcopi, 
Quomodo bonum ob actum similatur Angclis, 
Pcrfcctamquo propter vitam ajquatur ApostoUs. 

PMuratori, subsequently to the publication of the .\nti- tury, is still preserved at St. Gall, Xo. 728. It enumo- 

phonary, stated of it "quod teniporibusCaroliMagni Dun- rates the "Libri Scottice Scripti," somo of 'which still 

talus monachus Scotus Ticinuni deportavit, et l3obiensi rcnuiin. 

deindc monasterio dedit." De Ileb. Liturj,'. Dissert, col. r ^ jg found also iu the Libor Hymnorum. 

145. Vcnet. 174^. t rt _. i 

H This very curious record, compiled in the ninth con- <^"'""'' * ^^^^ uncommon word. 


Copies of this ancient composition are preserved in the Liber Hymnorum of Trinity College, Dublin, and 
in the Consuetudinarium of St. Patrick's Cathedral.* It has been printed by Colgan, Ware, and 
Villanueva. On a recent occasion, a copy fairly wTitten on parchment was judged a suitable me- 
morial for enclosure in the foundation stone of St. Patrick's Church of Ballymena, laid on the 
ITth of 3Iarch last. 

Muratori relates that, on one occasion, he showed this manuscript to the distinguished Bernard 
Montfaucon, during a visit to Milan, who congratulated him on the existence of so early a record 
of St. Patrick observing that there was a learned man in France who entertained suspicions that not 
only were the Acts of St. Patrick, but even the existence of the Saint himself, to be ranked among 
Romish fabrications." 

11. Hymn of St. Comgill our Abbot. This is also alphabetical, like the last, and consists of 23 

verses, commencing with a preface, and then proceeding 

" Audite pantes ta erga" 
Allati ad angelica 
Athlette Dei abdita 
A juventute fiorida." 

The second verse begins, " Bonam vitam, justitiam;" and the third, " Contemptum mimdalium ;" 
and so on. 

St. Comf^all, the founder of Bangor, was born at Magheramorne, in the year 517, built his mon- 
astery in the year 558, and died on the 10th of May in the year 602.* His acts, which are mixed 
with fable, aiid not as satisfactory as the importance of his history demands, are preserved in manu- 
ssript in the libraries of St. Sepulchre's, and Trinity College, Dublin, and in Brussels. They are printed 
in Fleming's Collectanea," and the Acta Sanctorum, at his festival, the 10th of May.'' There is ex- 
tant a metrical composition called the Rule of Comgall, of Bangor, consisting of 36 quatrains. It is 
written in Irish, and although probably not the composition of St. Comgall, is certainly proved to be 
of great age by its style and construction.'' The only genuine fragment of his writings which re- 
mains is a quotation by his disciple Columbanus, who in his second Instruction thus writes : 

" Not venturing, like some, for whom one must feel ashamed, to enquire into subjects that are too 
exalted, according to that saying of the wise man "seek not things that are too high for thee;" but 
rather, discoursing on things that tend to edify the soul, I presume not to lay down principles of 

Tliis most valuable MS. was purchased by the late w See Reeves' Ecclesiastical Antiquities p. 269. Tig- 
Bishop Maut at liodd's the bookseller's, in London, and hernach's Annals, 
was by him preseatolto the llcv. Dr. Todd, who pub- op, ^-.q 
lished some articles on it in the British Magazine. '" PP- ^^^-^^^ 

mi i.- i. t 1 TT 1 ' 1 I. TA T> > Mens. Mali. Tom. ii. pp. 579-588. 

" This notion was started in Ussher s day by Dr. Ry ves, ->ii-uo. .ii if 

and was elaborated ad nauseam by Dr. Ledwich in the z it is preserved in a copy made by Michael O'Clery, 

age just past. early in the seventeenth century; now one ofthevol- 

V The introlaction of Greak into Latin compositions umes in the valuable Msh collection at Brussels. 

was a common practice at this date. See Reeves' Eccl. 

Ant. p. 131, 


mine own littleness, seeking the authority of an abler teacher, namely the most enlightened and com- 
prehensive teaching of Faitstus,' from whose words I most appropriately select a few for the com- 
mencement of my work, inasmuch as it was by these same precepts, of which I desire to speak, that 
he instructed me, unworthy as I am, while under his direction ; and thus in age, in worthiness, and 
knowledge, my superior, let him first speak, and, as it were, in advance of me assail the ignorant and 
slothful. His words are : 'If the cultivator of land and husbandman, when preparing the soil to 
commit to it the seed, does not consider his work all done when he has broken up the earth with the 
strong share, and by the action of the plough has reduced the stubborn soil, but fiirther endeavours 
to cleanse the ground of unfruitful weeds, to clear it of injurious rubbish, and to pluck up by the root 
the spreading shoots of thorns and brambles, fully persuaded that his land will never produce a good 
crop, unless it be reclaimed from mischievous plants, applying to himself the words of the prophet 
Break up your fallow ground, and sow not among thorns ;*> how much more does it behove us, who 
believe the hope of our fruits to be laid up not in earth but in heaven, to cleanse from vicious passions 
the field of our heart, and not suppose that we have done enough when we subdue the groimd of our 
bodies by the labour of fasting and of watching, unless we primarily study to correct our vices, and 
reform our morals."" Such was the teaching of the founder of Bangor, and the purity of its sentiment 
leaves the more room for regret that so small a fragment of his writings has survived. 
12. The Hymn of St. Camelac, consisting of 24 lines running alphabetically thus 

" Audite bonum exemplum 
Benedict! pauperis 

Camelaci Cumieusia , 

Dei justi famuli, &c." 

This was the " Caomlach of Rahan," whose festival occurs in the Calendar of Donegal at the 3d of 
November. He is also mentioned in Tirechan's list of St. Patrick's disciples, under the name " Ca- 
mulacus," as one of the bishops, of the first class, ordained by him. ^ To which may be added this 
curious passage: " Ho sent Camulacus the Commiensian into Moy-Cuini, and with his finder he 
pointed out a place for him from the top of Granaret, namely the church of Raithin."" 

The alphabetical order of the verses in these three poems, and a fourth which will be presently 
noticed, is an artificial contrivance which was much adopted in the Latin hymns of the early Irish 
church. It does not appear in any of the ancient vernacular poems which have descended to us, and 

Notker Balbulus, a monk of St. Gall, who flourished b Jeremiah iv. 3. 

in 89t), identifies this Latin name with the Irish equiva- c pipniinB' PnllprfAnnji. t 47 ml 1 

lent very satisfactorily : " Columba cum plurimos disci- , i.'^f ^o^^cmea. p. 47, col. i. 

pulos sanctitatis suie pares habuisset, unura tamen Com- ** Book of Armagh, Fol. 9 6 6 ; Ussher, Bnt. Ec. Ant. 

(/ellumi Latino Fausti nomine illustrem, pr;oceptorem B. cap, ivu. ; V ks. 01. vi. p. 518. 

Columbani magistri domini patrisnostri Galli, virtutum "Et mittens Camulacum Commiensium in Campum 

BC meritorum suorum, quasi unicura, exemplo Isaac, re- Cuini, et digito illi indicavit locum do Graneret, id est 

liquit hieredem." Martyrol. ix. Junii. This interest- ecclesiam Raithin." Tirechan Vit. S, Patricii, in Book 

ing passage exhibits four generations la the spiritual of Armagh, fol. 11 a a." 
family of Ireland. 


was, probably, borrowed from foreign usage. Compositions of this nature are found among the writ- 
ings of Isidore of Seville, and of Bede, the latter of whom introduces in his Ecclesiastical History a 
hymn in alternate Hexameters and Pentameters, each distich commencing with the letters in regular 
order, and ending with the acrostic Amen/ The oustom seems to have originated in a laudable imitation 
of the 119th Psalm, as in the Hebrew, where the parts are ranged acrostically according to the 22 
letters of the alphabet, and each of the 8 verses commences with the letter which heads the part.^ 
Other Irish alphabetical hymns are, the "Altus Prosator" said to have been composed by St, Co- 
lunibkill in praise of the Trinity, in the Irish preface to whiclx the arrangement professes to be adapted 
after the manner of the Hebrews ; the Lamentation of Ambrose, beginning '* Adonai Domine Sa. 
baoth ;" and the Hymn of St. Lasrianus, all in the venerable Liber Hymnorum. To these may 
be added two compositions of later date, the hymns on St. Moninna in Conchubran's Life of that Saint.' 
There is extant a metrical epistle of Columbanus to Hunaldus, consisting of 17 hexameters, forming 
the acrostic Columbanus Hunaldo.'' 

13. Collects for the Canonical Hours. Nineteen. 

14. The Creed. The Lord's Prayer. In the third Council of Toledo, A.D. 589, it was pre- 
scribed that in all the churches of Spain and Gaul the Creed should be said before the Lord's Prayer 
was recited.' This is the order in the Mozarabic Liturgy, where, however, the Creed is differently 
worded : indeed the present Creed differs in expression from all others that exist. 
15. Occasional Prayers, fifty-one in number. 
16. Versicles of the Family of Benchor. Ten quatrains. 

Benchuir bona regula. Excellent the Rule of Benchor, 

Recta atque divina. Correct, and divine, 

Stricta, sancta, sedula, Exact, holy, constant, 

Summa, justa, ac mira. Exalted, just, and admirable. 

Munther Benchuir beata. Blessed the family of Benchor, 

Fide fundata certa, Founded on unerring faith, 

Spe salutis ornata, Graced with the hope of salvation, 

Caritate perfecta. Perfect in charity. 

Navis nunquam turbata, A ship that is never distressed, 

Quamvis fluctibus tonsa. Though beaten by the waves. 

f Hymnus Virginitatis. Hist. Ec. Gent. Anglor. Lib. ' In the MS. of Conchubranus* Life of Moninna, Britiali 

1^' ?: 20- . Museum, Cotton, Cleop. a. 2. 

Psalms XXV., xxxiv.. Lamentations i., n., iv. have 22 u-d i. j /^ u ^ t> j.- o a a- 

yerses severally, commencing according to the order of t F" i? m Goldaatus Parsenetica ; Camsius,, Antiq. 

the letters. In Psalm xxxvii the order runs in the alter- ^^'^^ ^o^' ^i^x Sirmpndus, Epist. Eugenu Toktani : Mes- 

nate verses ; and in Lam. iii. there are three verses under "gliam, Flonlegmm p. 411 ; Ussher, Sylloge, Ep. v. ; 

each letter, severallv commencing with that letter. * leming, Collectan. p. 167. 

h Leabhar Breac, fol. 109 a. Colgan, Trias Thaumatur- ' Mabillon, Liturgia Gallicana, p. 31. 
ga, p. 473 


Nuptiis quaque parata, 
Regi Domino sponsa. 

Domus deliciis plena, 

Super petram constructa ; 
Nee non vinea vera, 
Ex ^gypto transdueta. 

Certe civitas firma, 
Fortis atque munita, 
Grloriosa ac digna, 
Supra montem posita. 

Area Cherubim tecta, 
Omni parte aurata, 
Sacrosanctis referta, 
Viris quatuor portata. 

Christo regina apta, 
Solis luce amicta, 
Simplex simulque docta, 
Undecumque invicta. 

Vere regalis aula, 
Variis gemmis ornata, 
Gregisque Christi caula, 
Patre summo servata. 

Virgo valde foecunda, 
Hgec et mater intacta, 
Laeta, ac tremebunda, 
Verbo Dei subacta. 

Cui vita beata 

Cum pcrfectis futura, 
Deo Patre parata 
Sine fide" mansura. 

Bencbuir bona regula. 

Fully prepared for nuptials, 

A spouse for the Sovereign Lord 
A house full of dainties, 

Founded on a rock : 

Also the true vine 

Brought out of Egypt. 
Surely an enduring city, 

Strong and fortified. 

Glorious and deserving. 

Built upon a hill. 
The ark shaded by the Cherubim, 

On all sides overlaid with gold, 

Filled with sacred objects, 

Borne by four men. 
A princess meet for Christ, 

Clad in the sun's light, 

Innocent yet wise, 

On every side invulnerable. 
A truly regal hall, 

Adorned with various gems ; 

The fold also of Christ's flock, ^ 

Kept by the supreme Father. 
A virgin very fruitful, 

A mother also chaste, 

Joyful, and reverential. 

Submissive to the word of God. 
For whom a happy life 

Is laid up with the perfect, 

Prepared by God the Father, 

Ordained to last for ever. 
Excellent the rule of Benchor. 

This poem bears evident marks of its Irish application. The word "familia" which is used in the 
rubric to express " community" is rendered by the Irish equivalent Munther, or Muinter, as it is 
found in our dictionaries. It is the term which is always used in native records to deuote the con- 
gregration of a monastery, and is correctly represented in the text as a feminine noun. The word 

"Fide appears to be an error for;fn; unless the idea be borrowed from 1, Cor. xiii. 13. 


BencJiuir is inflected in the genitive case, from Benchor, and " Munther Benchuir" is the correct Irish 
form for Familia Benchorioc. Tlie poem also ends according to the rule of Irish composition, which 
requires at the conclusion the repetition of the first line. 

IQ.Two Collects. 

17. Sixteen occasional Anthems. 

18, The Commemoration of our Ahbots." This poem, consisting of eight strophes of eight lines 
each, is the most valuable in the collection, and by it the date of the manuscript is determined. The 
reader will observe that after the prefatory verse the lines run in alphabetical order. 

Sancta sanctorum opera 
Patrum, fratres, fortissima, 
Benchorensi in optimo 
Fundatonmi aecksia, 
Abbatum eminentia, 
Numerum, tempra, nomina, 
Sine fine fulgentia, 
Audite, magna mereta ; 
Quos convocavit Dominus 
Caelorum regni sedibus. 
Amavit Christus Com^um ; 
Bene et ipse Dominum ; 
Carum habuit Beognoum ; 
Dominum omavit Aedeum ; 
Elegit sanctum Sinlanum, 
Famosum mundi magistrum. 
Quos convocavit Dominus 
Caelorum regni sedibus. 
Gratum fecit Fintenanum, 
Hercdem almum inclitum ; 
Inlustravit Maclaisreum, 
Kapud abbatum omnium 
Lampade sacra Eseganimi 
Magnum seripturaj medic um. 
Quos, &c. 

The holy, valiant deeds 

Of sacred Fathers, 

Based on the matchless 

Church of Benchor ; 

The noble deeds of abbots 

Their number, times, and names, 

Of never-ending lustre. 

Hear, brothers ; great their deserts, 
Whom the Lord hath gathered 
To the mansions of his heavenly kingdom. 

Christ loved Comgill, 

Well too did he, the Lord ; 

He held Beogna dear ; 

He graced the ruler Aedh ; 

He chose the holy Sillan, 

A famous teacher of the world. 
Whom the Lord hath gathered 
To the mansions of his heavenly kingdom. 

He made Finten accepted. 

An heir generous, renowned ; 

He rendered Maclaisre illustrious, 

The chief of all abbots; 

With a sacred torch [he enlightened] Segene 

A great physician of scripture. 
Whom, &c. 

" The text is here given from Peyron's copy, which is 
more correct than Muratori's, and represents the peculiar 
orthography of the composition. He observes : "Omnia 
edidit Muratorius, sed sajpe insincere; atque ut prseter- 
mittam alia errata ab ipso admissa, quae curiosa magis, 

quam utiliter persequerer, juvat adfidem codicLsiterum 
vulgare Hymnum, quo solebant Monachi piam suorum 
abbatum memoriam recolere." Peyron, Ciceron Orat. 
Fragm. Ined. pp. 224-6. 


Notus vir erat Beracnus ; 

Ornatus et Cuminenus ; 

Pastor Columba congruus ; 

Querela absque Aidanus ; 

Rector bonus Baithenus ; 

Suramus antestes Crotanus. 
Quos, &c. 

Tantis successit Camanus, 

Vir amabilis omnibus, 

Xpo [Christo] nunc sedet suprimus, 

Ymnos canens. Qmndecimus 

Zoen ut carpat Cronanus, 

Conservet eum Dominus. 
Quos convocabit Dominus 
Caelorum regni sedibus. 

Horum sanctorum mereta 

Abbatum fidelissima, 

Erga Comgillum congrua, 

Invocamus, altissima ; 

Ut possimus omnia 

Nostra delere crimina, 

Per Jesum Christum, aeterna 

Regnantem in saecula. 

Beracnus was a distinguished man ; 
Cumine also possessed of grace ; 
Columba a congenial shepherd ; 
Aidan without complaint ; 
Baithene a worthy ruler ; 
Crotan a chief president. 

Whom, &c. 
To these so excellent succeeded Caman. 
A man to be beloved by all ; 
Singing praises to Christ 
He now sits on high. That Cronan. 
The fifteenth may lay hold on life 
The Lord preserve him. 

Whom the Lord will gather 

To the mansions of his heavenly kingdom. 
The truest merits 
Of these holy abbots, 
Meet for Com^ll, 
Most exalted, we invoke ; 
That we may blot out 
All oiir offences 
Through Jesus Christ, 
Who reigns for ages everlasting. 

The harmony which exists between this enumeration of the first fifteen abbots and the entries in 
the Irish annals is very remarkable, and bears most important testimony to the fidelity of those re- 
cords, especially when it is remembered that the Antiphonary has been nearly 1200 years absent from 
home. A comparative arrangement of the names will show this more distinctly. 
1. CoMQiLLus, Comgall born, A.D. 517." Church of Bangor founded, A.D. 558. Comgall ab- 
bot of Bangor rested in the 91st year of his age, in the 50th year, and 3d month and 10th day 
of his presidency ; on the vi. of Ides of May. 
2. Beoqnous, "Beogna, abbot of Bennchor next to Comgall, rested," A.D. 606, Aug. 22. 
3. Aedetjs, His name does not occur in any of the ani^,,^bably owing to his short period 

of ofiice. 
4. -SiNLANCs. "Sillan, son of Cammin, abbot of Benchor, died 28th Feb." A.D. 610. 

These dates are occordine to tlie annals of Tighemach ; the facts are gathered out of his annals, and those 
of Ulster, Inisfallen, and tlio Four Masters. 


5. FiNTENANus. " Fintaii of Oentrebh, abbot of Benchor, died" A.D. 613. 
6. Maclaisreus. " MacLaisre, abbot of Benchor, died 16 May," A.D. 646. 
7. EsEQANUS. " Segan, son of UaCuinn, abbot of Benchor, died," A.D. 663. 
8. Beracnus." Berach, abbot of Benchor, died," A.D. 664. 


10. COLUMBA ; 

11. AlDANDS; 

12. Baithentts. " A great mortality in the year 667, wherein four abbots of Benchor died, so. Be- 
rach, Cumine, Colum, and Aedh." The only discrepancy here is Berach instead of Baithenus. 
But in the year 666, according to Tighernach, " Baithine, abbot of Benchor, died." This obit 
is possibly antedated a year by the annalist. 

12. Crotanus, "Criotan, abbot of Benchor, died," A.D. 669. 

14. Camanus, " Colman, abbot of Benchor, died," A.D. 680. 

15. Cronanus, "Cronan, son of Cuchailne, abbot of Benchor died 6 Nov.," A.D. 691. 

This Cronan was alive when the Memoria was written, from which it follows that its date is 

some year between 680 and 691. 


This Bell, now in the possession of Dr. Stephenson, Belfast, was found about 60 years ago in the ruins of the Abbey, 
and purchased from the finder by the late Dr. Stephenson. It is quite perfect, except the clapper, and is made of 
dark-coloured bronze, giving out a good tone when struck. The cross and ornamental pattern are incised with 
some graving tool. It measures across the base in front, 9 inches, across the top 6 inches ; across the base laterally, 
8 inches, and across the top 2 inches. Extreme height to top of handle 14 inches, and to top of hollow part 12 inches. 
Thickness of the metal at the lip, ^ of an inch. Weight of the Bell 201bs, 6}oz. 



From the Cottonian Collection. British Museum. 

My Honorable Lord, 
Your lop's comfortable and kinde letters do geve life and spirett to my poore endeavours in his 
maties service, w^b grace were a sufficient motive for me to goe on, and cheerfully to perform my 
deutie in the place I hoolde, this notwth standing your lop. is pleased to grace me further, and in extra- 
ordenarie fashion by publycke applaus and commendations. Sr Oliver Lambeart hath acquanted me 
wth some passages of your lop's discourse wth him concerninge me and how nobly you stande affected 
towardes me, and gratiously inclyned to do me good and to advance my fortunes ; this proceeds meerly 
from your lop's honorable disposition to geve each laborer more then his deue if he do his best, al- 
boyt others might perchance have done far better. I can never discharge the debt I owe unto you 
for so gratious acceptance of me into your good favoure, nor to that noble lord who did first recom- 
mende me unto you, but if the service of him whom you have made yours maye att anie tyme meet 
part of such aboundance it is truly devoted and shalbe readely imployed att all occasions. 

Your lop's extraordenarie care and paynes taken in all matters concerninge the kinges honore, and 
profitt, and the generall good of the commonwealth hath fixed all good men's eyes upon you who 
geve therto all deue respect and commendations, for wt^out such providence and watchfullness, the 
honore and expense of a state can not be supported, especyally in that kingdome when it is suckt by 
two such huugrie weaklynges as Scotelande and Irelande, wherof the later had never yet strenth to 
support hyr selfe, w^li I impute rather to the neglect that hath byne in former tymes in usinge the 
meanes and takinge the occasion w^h hath often presented hit selfe for reformation in this kynde, then 
in the baseues and barrennes of the soyle and countrie, and therfore yt is to be hoped in this adge to 
see amendment, and if such a course be intended wee must followe the example of good husbandmen 
who undertakinge the manurance of a land wet hath long layne wast, and become a wyldemes over- 
growne with thornes and briers, doth first inhable hymselfe to cut downe and weede out those hinderers 

Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton, was a younger I., Howard's genius for intrigue, and the misfortunes of 
son of the talented and unfortunate Earl of Surrey. his family, partly incurred by their adherence to Mary 

Queen of Scots, recommended him to the favour of the 

" AVho has not heard of Surrey's fame? British Solomon, and he soon rose to rank, power, and 

His was the hero's soul of fire, fortune. His character, however, was never good, and 

And his the bards immortal name." he was deeply implicated in the mysterious murder of 

Sir Thomas Overbury, but died before the great Oyer of 
Though of little note previous to the accession of James Poisoning. 


of hi8 profitt, and is content for a fewo yeares to laye out his monie to fence aud preserve such plautes 
as he shall sett, and the seed he shall sowe untyll y t growe upe, and retourne him the profitts of his 
labores when on the contrarie wee have hetherto suffered the weedes to overgrowe the come, and sel- 
dome tooke care to preserve the one, or roote out the other untyll meer necessitie inforced yt for pre- 
servation of the whole, wch brought wtt hit such consumption of men and treasure that by the tyme 
hyt was reduced to peace lyttle substance was left and lesse care was taken to repeople, and plant yt as 
after such a warre was expedient, when it is probable if the tenth part of the monic consumed in sup- 
pressinge this last Ilebellion had byne expended in strentheninge placies of advantage and plantinge of 
good and honest subiects, that peace and pleyntie would followe, wherby the Kinge might make profitt 
of the kinf dome or att lest be freed from the hazarde of future expence vf^^ this omission is now lyke 
to drawe upon us if it be not tymley prevented, for hetherto wee have but driven the noythsome beastes 
out of the forest, and left all wayes and passages open for them to reenter. 

I know not what ayde or supportation the fugetives ^ shall receave from the Spaniard or Archduke, 
but the kinde intartaynement they have receaved compared wtli the multitude of pentions geven to 
base and discontented men of this nation, makes them ther, and their associates and welwishers heere to 
<eve out largly, and all wise and good subiects to conceave the worst. I am manie wayes assured that 
Tyronne and Tyrconell wyll retowrne if they live, albeyt they should have no other assistance, nor 
supportation then a quantitie of monie, arms, and munition, wtli wcli they will be sufficiently inhabled 
to kindle such a fier heer (wher so many hartes, and actors affect and attend alteration) as wyll take 
upe much tyme w*^ expence of men and treasure to quench yt, I knowe your lop. in your wisdome 
doth forsee their myndes, and their meanes, and wyll have care to prevent the harme that is 
threatned, the best advise that I can geve is to staye them from retorninge unto us, and the next to 
that is to inhable us here wtli monie to secure the princypale townes, and to intartayne in his Maties 
pay such of this nation as wyll be of the one syd, or other upon the first occasion that shall present 
yt selfe. I have hertofore written to this effect, but can not remember it to often it beinge a matter 
of great Consequence for preservation of the whole, for beinge assured of the townes, and princypale 
harbors wee shall in tyme gett more forces to assist us, if wee be to weak at their first arrivale, and 
upon the revolt of the countrie (wcli is greatly doubted) and shall be able to loearie and beate our ad- 
versaries in tyme Jioivo manie soever and by intartayninge the old soldiares, and others apt to serve of 
this nation before hande we shall greatly toealcen the cont r air ie part ivho expect their assistance.'' Your 
lop's noble acceptance of my former letters imboldens me to impart my mynde playnly and in so large 
a discourse for wct I beseech your lop. to excuse me. 

And now I humbly pray your lop. to geve me leave, (for that Charitie beginnes wth hyrselfe) to 
put your lop. in minde of my perticulare. It hath pleased you hertofore, to enter into consideration 

^ Alluding to the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel, who All the words in italics are xmderlined in the origi- 
fled from Ireland on the festival of the Holy Cross (four- nal. 
teenth of September) 1607. 


of my estate, and to how meane a fortune I shoulde be left when this great place, (wch is but tempo- 
rarie,) is transferred to an other, if I be not enhabled by some entartaynement, and honorable im- 
ployment in his Maties service. It pleased you at that tyme to recommend me for the Presidencic of 
Mounster amonge other your gratious remembrancies, that place is now wourthily bestowed upon a 
noble gentleman. I then made bolde to acquant your lop. wtt my desire for the Precidencio of Ul- 
ster, (if anie such goverment were erected,^ wct I did more for the service I might ther do his Matie 
by reason of my knowledge and experience in the province, then for the profitt I expected ; the Earle's 
flyght, d (who indevored to oppose all good goverment and reformation in those parts) hath since that 
tyme left the passage open for the settlement therof, and I well uuderstande both from your lop. and 
my 1. of Salisburie that the same is intended unto me, for w^h your honorable favours I am much boun- 
den. It can not be otherwise thought but this newe goverment wyll bringe wth hyt some increase of 
charge, as well in respect of the preparation that must be made to lodge the president and state in 
convenient manner, and in safetie ; as for the intartaynement that must be geven to the president 
and other officers accordinge to the forme of Mounster. But I conceave this and a greater wyllo 
rayzed out of the landes and perquisetts of that provence over and above that wcb is att this tyme re- 
ferred to his Matie, and to make it so I wyll not omitt tyme nor opurtunitie. I will cause the next 
Easter Rents of the fugetivcs' landes to be collected, and if I maye therin receave allowance the 
same shalbe imployed towardes the buyldinge and fortefienge of some convenienl place for the presi- 
dent to lege in either att Dungannon or Armagh^ of wet Armagh is the more commodious, but Dun- 
gannon the more convenient, in respect of the name and opinion heelde of hit hy the people of that cotin- 
trie. I have written to this effect to my 1. of Salisburie, to whom and your lop. I do wholly ad- 
dresse myselfe both for supportation and directions. If the settlement of a President be thought dis- 
advantagious, or disproptable for his Maties service by those that knowe more or looke further into the 
forme of governement then myselfe, I must, out of my zeale to the reformation of that countrie, and 
good of the Kinge's service, humbly praye that certayn tvell chosen men be made govemois or supa-iri- 
tendants over the severall shyres, and I shall rest satisfied wih anie imployment his Mat'' shalbe pleased 
to bestdwe upon me. ' 

d The circumstances which led to the flight of the North- Would that God had but permitted them to remain in 

em Earls, and the subsequent confiscation of their es- their patrimonial inheritances until their children should 

tates, are shrouded in the dim obscurity ever attendant arrive at manhood ! Woe to the heart that meditated, 

on the conflicting statements of religious animosity. It woe to the mind that conceived, woe to the council that 

is clear, however, that whether the Earls were guilty of recommended the project of this expedition, without 

plotting against the King or not, the King and his rapa- knowing whether they should, to the end of their lives, 

cious counsellors were exceedingly anxious to seize the be able to return to tueir native principalities or patri- 

wido possessions of the Earls in Ulster. The Anrials of monies!" They ultimately died at Rome, and were bu- 

t/w Four Masterx, as translated by O'Donovan, after re- ried in one grave, on 

cording the embarkation of Tyrone and Tyrconnell with " The Mount whereon the Martyr-snJnt was crucified." 

their families and friends at Swilly, says: "this was a Lloyd in his 5<afe Worthies, London, 1070, speaking 

distinguished company ; and it is certain that the sea of Sir Arthur, sajrs : " he was bigb in his proposal be- 

has not borne anci the wind has not wafted in modern yond the expectation of his own. The devil Drought the 

times a number of persons in one shin more eminent, il- bashful man to court, where none succeeds but he who 

lustrious. or noble, in point of genealogy, heroic deeds, can ask enough to be granted and enough to be abated." 
valour, feats of arms, and brave achievements, than they. 


Sr Olever Lambeart tells me your lop. is desirotis to place a gentlemantin to wtom you wysh well 
in some imployment in this kingdome. I am hartely sorrie I had not understood yt sooner before 
these last companies were devided, when I shoulde have taken the opurtuuity to do somethinge to 
your lop's lykingo, seeinge this tyme is lett slype not understandinge your lop's desire that waye, maye 
it please you to make me knowe the partie, I wyll take hoold of the first opportunitie to performe the 

I humbly pray your lop. to excusse my longe letters, and so, with remembrance of my deutie, 

I remayne your lop. in all treue and faithfull service. 


Att his Maties Castle of Dublyn, the 7th of Februarie, 1607.' 
Albeyt I write of the Presidencie of Ulster, it may please your lop. to understande that I ex- 
pect no settlement therin untyll some other be assigned to the place I now holde, or as your lop. shall 
thinke best for his Maties service. 

[The superscription on the back of the letter in Sir Arthur's writing, is : "] 

" To the Right Honorable my verie good lorde, the Earle of Northampton, one of his Maties most 
honorable privie Coimcell." 

[The seal is in excellent preservation, has been evidently impressed by a signet ring, and represents 
on a shield the chequy and chief vair of Chichester ; the first and fourth quarterings of the present 
arms of the Donegall family.] 

ivf. fi/ww^^:?^-. W. P. 

f It may be necessary to observe for the benefit of the The historical year, however, has, for a very long period 

non- archaeological reader who will probably be sur- commenced, as the year of our present reformed calen- 

prised to find Sir Arthur, apparently, writing of the dar, on the first of January ; consequently, historically 

Earl's flight some months before it took place that, from and according to the modern computation, the date of 

the fourteenth century till 1753, the civil, legal, and the above letter is 1608. 
jjcclesiaslical year commenced on the 26th of March. 


No. 2. 

In the Name of God, Amen ! Be it knovra to all men by tliis public Instrument, that the mat- 
ters and things here following were transacted by the Most Reverend Father in God, John, ' by 
the Grace of God, Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of Ireland, Guardian of the Spirituality and Spi- 
ritual Jurisdiction, and of the Temporality of the Bishoprick of Derry, (that Bishoprick being vacant 
and deprived of the benefit of a Pastor,) ^ asserting his lawful rights, and actually exercising all 
manner of Episcopal Jurisdiction, Spiritual and Temporal, at the times and places hereinafter signi- 

In the Year after the Incarnation of our Lord, according to the course and computation of the 
churches of England and Ireland, MCCCXCVII, in the 6th Indiction'^ in the eighth year of the 
Pontificate of our Most Holy Father and Lord in Christ, the lord Boniface the Ninth, by Divine 
Providence, Pope, and on the eighth day of October, the Venerable Father aforesaid, setting forth 
from a certain village commonly called Termon, ^ in the Diocese of Armagh, towards the Diocese of 
Derry, and passing with his retinue over certain mountains commonly called the Mountains of Glen- 
gavyn, came to a certain field near to a certain church called Cappagh in the Diocese of Derry, 
as was said : and there, taking refreshment with his attendants, he summoned before him, a certain per- 
son, the Reeve of the said church, * and on that account, already heretofore enrolled (as he the 

* Jolin Colton or de Colton, an Englishman ; Doctor of 
the Canon Law, and successively Master of Gonville 
Hall, Cambridge; Dean of Saint Patrick's, Dublin ; Lord 
Treasurer and Chancellor of Ireland ; and Archbishop 
of Armagh. To this last dignity he was promoted A.D. 
1382, and resigned it in or about A.D. 1404. See Br. 
Reeves, Historical Introduction, pp. i. &c. 

''By the resignation of Bishop John Don^n, a Bene- 
dictine Monk, -who was translated by provision of Pope 
Boniface IX. from tlie Seeof Derry to that of Down, A.D. 
1395. The see remained vacant for six years. Ord- 
nance Survey of Londonderry, p. 32. 

c The Indiction of any year is its place in a cycle of 15 
years, the iirst of which cycles commenced with AD. 
312 : hence to find the Indiction, from the date A.D., 
subtract 312 : divide the diflference by 15 ; the remain- 
der, if any, will be the Indiction ; if there be no remain- 
der, the Indiction is 15. But note, that in like manner, 
as the year A.D. was variously calculated, some reckon- 
ing the 25th of December, some the lit of January, and 
some the 24th of March, as the beginning of the year, so 
the Indiction year was by some computed as beginning 
on the 1st of January, and by others on the 24th of thei>re 
vioua September. The latter computation is followed in 

this document ; which explains the record of the Indic- 
tion being given as the sixth, (the Roll being dated in 
October,) when the rule above pven would appear to 
make it only the fifth. The date of the Indiction la still 
given in Papal Bulls and Rescripts. 

<^ Termon, now called Termonmaguirk, is a parish lying 
midway between Omagh and Cookstown in the county of 
Tyrone and Diocese of Armagh. Glengavyn mountain 
is now called MuUaghcam. 

e " The Reve of the said church '"ipsitis ecclesia Vi- 
eanim, not " tlie Vicar" in the now common acceptation 
of tlieword; (for in this instance the l7c<7rM was the same 
person manifestly as the Ilerenach ; and the Herenach, 
as all authorities ancient and modern agree, was a mere 
laj-man) ; but the Bishop's agent, dejmty or representative; 
employed, as I conceive, m collecting, on account of the 
Diocesan, the portion of the tithes of the parisli to which 
he was by the custom or law of the locality entitled. In 
tlio Diocese of Derry, down to the time of the Plantation 
of Ulster, the Bishop was entitled to one third of all 
tithes ; another thirtl was payable to the Parson, a per- 
son not usually in holy orders, though supposed to be 
pursuing his studies with a view to obtain them ; the re- 
maining third was the portion of the Vicar, or Parish 


said Reeve affirmed,) Herenach' of the hcrenachship of the same, by himself the said Lord Primate, 
by virtue of his Guardianship of the Bishoprick of Derry ; and inquired of him whether that place 
wherein he, the Primate, then sat, was situated in the Diocese of Derry. And when he, the Reeve 
aforesaid answered in the affirmative, the said Lord Primate having summoned before him the witnesses 
under written and many others, in the presence of me, the Notary, and the said witnesses, openly and 
publicly protested, that whereas the Guardianship of the Spirituality of all the Bishopricks of the Pro- 
vince of Armaf'h within the English Pale, when vacant or deprived of the benefit of their pastors, 
and the Guardianship of the Spirituality and Temporality of all Bishopricks without the English 
Pale, during the vacancy of such Bishopricks, and, in particular, the Guardianship of the Bishoprick 
of Derry now vacant, or at least deprived of the benefit of its pastor, belongs at present, by most an- 
cient approved and prescript custom, duly, lawfully, and inviolably observed, from a time whereof the 

Priest, -who served the cure. To assist the Bishop in col- 
lecting his Terda Episcopalis, a Vicarius or Episcopal 
Tithe-proctor was appointed, usually the Ilerenach wliere 
there was one : in process of time the Proctor became 
the farmer of the tithe, by the substitution of fixed in- 
stead of fluctuating returns in kind : these soon became 
settled at a customary rate, and ultimately took the form 
of an annual money payment. Such was the case at the 
time of Archbishop Colton's "Visitation, as will hereafter 
moi-e fully appear ; but the original name Vicarius was 
retained, though no longer strictly applicable. I have 
ti-anslated it by the old English word Reeve, as less liable 
to mislead than any otlier I could think of. 

iterenacum : the Lantinized form of the Irish Airchin- 
tmic.h, which is said to signify literally, a supreme chief, 
and is therefore often translated into Latin by the word 
Princcps, taken in a technical sense, which no one now 
living need be ashamed to confess himself at a loss to un- 
derstand, when the learned and inquisitive Sir John 
Davies, writing in 1697, while the oifice of Herenach was 
still in full vigour, and who was called upon to deter- 
mine judicially its natui'e and rights confesses the same 
difficulty, {heller to the. E. of Salisbury, Tracts p. 246, ^c.) 
Tlic Herenach, Erenach or Eirinach, is always spoken of 
with reference to certain lands, connected with a Church 
.Monastery, Bishoprick, or other Ecclesiastical Dignity. 
The Herenach may at first have been a steward who cul- 
tivated these lands for the proper owner ; but in process 
of time the return of the gross produce (if such was ever 
required, for authorities differ,) was universally com- 
muted unto a stated annual payment of an ascertained 
quantity or value, which in Bisliop Colton's time had 
farther assumed tlie form of a money rent : along with 
which many incidental contributions were leviable. The 
Herenach h:;d to pay a subsidy on the marriage of any 
of liis daughters, and on tlic entry of a new Bishop into 
the Diocese : (Sir J. Davies, p. 240 :) he was bound to 
bear one third part of the expense of keeping the parish 
clmrch clean and in rcpaii] ; (although this was proba- 
bly one of the incidents of his office as Tithe-reeve, the rest 
being defrayed by the Parson and the Vicar :) he had to 
provide conveyance, lodging, and provisiona for the Bis- 

hop and his retinue when on his progress or visitation : 
and was obliged moreover to furnish supplies in kind, 
for the Bishop's table, as often as he might be called on. 
Dr. Reeves has given the words addressed by a Herenach 
to his superior, one of the Bishops of Derry. "My lord 
cannot change the ancient rent ; but if he wants supplies 
of fat cattle, &c., he ought to send to us, and we are 
bound to furnish them to him : for we and all that we 
have are his." {See Dr. Reeves, p. 9.) The Herenach 
was also bound to maintain hospitality, and to give alms 
to the poor for the soul's health of the founder, and to 
make a weekly commemoration of the founder in the 
parish church. {Sir J D.) The herenachship, for many 
ages before its abolition, was transmitted by Tanistry ; 
the family or clan in which it was hereditary electing 
a successor to each herenach during his life : and the 
Herenach lands were occupied by the Sept under the Bre- 
hon law of Gavelkind, according to which the territory 
was the property of the whole tribe, and a new distribu- 
tion of all, except the mensal lands of the chief, took 
place every third, in some cases every second year. It 
was a maxim of the Irish law of property, that no Here- 
nach duly discharging the claims upon him, as above 
specified, could be ejected from his ofiice or possessions : if 
ejected for non-fulfilment, his Tanist succeeded as of 
right. But this tenure being unknown to English law, 
(so at least it was argued by the lawyers in the time of 
K. James I., See Sir John Davies ubi svpra See also 
the Case of Tanistry, Reports of ca-ses,p 78, ri|'-c.) the lands 
thus held, were, on the plantation of Ulster, annexed to 
the Bishop's sees in frank-almoin, the Herenach and sub- 
tenants were declared to have no title, and were ousted 
without compensation. The passage in the Visitation 
Roll, to which this note refers, shows that, though in some 
sort a hereditary officer, the Herenach, on succeeding to 
his post, was enrolled, {incartafus)hj the Ordinary ; in 
this respect, as in some others, resembling the Copy- 
holders of England. The Herenach-lands are called by 
Bishop Montgomery, (A.D. 1604,) " Censuales terroe or 
Copye-hold lands which payed rent." Ordnance Survey, 
&c., p. 50. 


memory of man runneth not to the contrary, to himself the Lord Archbishop and Primate aforesaid, 
and to his Church of Armagh, as it aforetime belonged to his predecessors, Archbishops of Armagh, 
and to the Metropolitan Church of Armagh, and especially to the lord Milo of blessed memory, late- 
ly Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland,'' his immediate and last predecessor, during the 
times of the vacancies of the aforesaid Bishopricks, He, I say, the aforesaid John Archbishop and 
Primate, protested as above, and openly asserted that, for thb cause principally and chiefly, he had 
turned aside and come into the Diocese of Derry, that he might actually exercise and possess all man- 
ner of Episcopal Jurisdiction whether Spiritual or Temporal, voluntary or compulsory, within the afore- 
said Diocese of Derry, as Guardian of the Bishoprick of the same while vacant, agreeably to fact 
and to his declaration, and that he might enjoy the said Guardianship during the time of the vacan- 
cy of the said Bishoprick. Which protestation thus emitted, the said Lord Archbishop and Primate 
required me, the Notary underwritten, to make a public Instrument or public Instruments, of and 
concerning the aforesaid protestation, and concerning all and every thing which might be done by 
him with respect to the exercise of Episcopal Jiu-isdiction in the aforesaid Diocese of Derry, in virtue 
of the aforesaid Guardianship. Then the said lord Archbishop commanded the aforesaid Reeve and 
Hcrenach of Cappagh, that, inasmuch as the village of Cappagh had not houses enotigh to receive and 
lodge the said lord Primate and his retinue with their travelling furniture, and, therefore, the said 
lord Primate had determined to leave that village and proceed the same night to the Parish of Ard- 
straw, ^he the said Reeve and Herenach should cause beef for the kitchen of the said Archbishop and 
Primate for the approaching night to be brought to the village of Ardstraw at the common expense of 
the aforesaid parish and village of Cappagh, as the inhabitants of that parish and other parishes were 
accustomed, and, by prescriptive usage, were bound to do, for the convenience and accommodation of 
the Bishops of Derry when passing through their Diocese. Which Reeve and Herenach, in obedience 
to the mandate of the said lord Primate, returning to the aforesaid parish of Cappagh, followed soon 
after the said lord Archbishop, and brought with him, and delivered unto the officers of the said lord 
Archbishop, one fat ox for the use and supper of the said lord Archbishop and of his retinue. 

And at length the said lord Archbishop arriving with his retinue at the village of Ardstraw, and 
having summoned before him the Reeve and the Herenachs of the village aforesaid, commanded them 

s By the law of England, all lay revenues, lands and porality ; in the latter, the Metropolitan, who waa able 

tenements belonging to a vacant see are immediately the to guard the church's possessions by means of excommu- 

right of the King, who is entitled to the custody of them, nicatious and spiritual censures ; probably the only 

with enjoyment of the profits, till a successor be ap- weapons of which the Irish lords and chieftains stood in 

pointed. (Blackstone's Conim. i. p. 282.) iJut as, on the awe. The custody of the Spirituality of a vacant see 

decline of the English power in Ireland, soon after the wherever situated, was by the Canon I>aw, vested in the 

conquest, the King's Courts had no jurisdiction nor did Metropolitan The Bishoprick of Derrj* was considered as 

his writs run in tiie greater part or the country, and inter Uihemieos, from the rise, (or revival) of the power 

yet some provision wiis necessary to prevent wjuste and of the O'Neill, about A.D. 1333. till the year 1608, when 

spoil during a vacancy, a distinction was made between the whole of Ulster was reduced to shire-ground. 
Bishopricks situated '^ inter Anglicos" i.e. within the ' This was Milo (or Miles) Swetenian, who filled the 

Pale, and those situated " inter Jfibemicos,"ysithout see from A.D. 13G1 to A.D. 1380. XV. Reevet. 
the Pale. In the former the King was custos of the Tem- 


to make spcody provision for the supply of things needful both to the men and horses : as also for a 
sufficient night-watch for the person, goods, and things of said Archbishop and his retinue. Who, obe- 
diently submitting to his commands, caused to be brought and furnished at the common expense of the 
Ilerenachs and inhabitants of said village, bread, butter, milk and flesh-meat : halters, straw and 
corn for the horses, for each house where men and horses of the said Archbishop were lodged, accord- 
in' to the number of men and horses lodged in their houses : and with great diligence placed night 
watches of men through difierent parts of the village aforesaid, and especially around the house where 
the aforesaid lord Archbishop was lodged.'' 

Witnesses present at the Acts of this day. Doctor Maurice O'Corry, Dean of Armagh ; Brother 
Nicholas O'Loughran, Abbot of the Monastery of the Apostles Peter and Paul at Armagh ; Doctor 
Thomas O'Loughran, Canon of Armagh ; Sirs, Kobcrt Nottyngham, Cross-bearer to the Archbishop 
and Primate aforesaid, Rector of the Parish of Ardmacash, [now ISlanes,] in the Diocese of Down ; 
Richard Waspayn, Rector of Balsoon, in the Diocese of Meath : Brother John Brown, one of the 
Brethren of the House of St. John, at Ardee, and William Botyller, Presbyters ; Masters, Thomas 
Talbot, Richard Bagot and Richard Whyte ; John Wolf, John Sandale, and Richard De La Foe Tour, 
\^Dc la Vautour, i. e.. Vavasour ?] Clerks, and many others } 

In the Year, Indiction, and Pontificate aforesaid, and on the ninth day of the month of October 
aforesaid, the aforesaid Lord Archbishop, consenting at the urgent request of Sir Laurence 'Boyle, 
Vicar of the church, and of the Herenachs, and parishioners of Ardstraw, to re-consecrate " the eeme- 

' " For each house :" Lat. unicuique domui: so I doubt of religious houses in Ireland. The remains of the old 

not it will found that the passage ought to be read. church are still traceable. 

Dr llceves reads and prints " umamque domui :" and, as After some hesitation as to the manner of expressing 

the first of these words is certainljr not Latin, he sug- the honorary titles prefixed to these names, I have 

gests that it may possibly be a Latin form of the Irish thought myself justified in rendering as above, "Magis- 

word uaimhin " an oven," for the house where the men ter" by the term ^^Doctor ;" because, in the 14th and 15th 

and horses were lodged." The matter is of little impor- centuries, a Doctor of Divinity was always accosted by the 

tancc, but the context does not favour such an interpre- form " Magister Noster." Persons of the rank of Bachelor 

tation. in any of the Faculties, are still honoured with the 

k The ancient church of Ardstraw (Ardstratha,) de- title " Dominus" in University records : this is trans- 
serves more than a passing notice, on account of its lated into English by the word Sir ; as " Sir Fitzgerald," 
great antiquity, and long continued eminence. It was " Sir Dogherty :" and as this usage was, in former times, 
founded by Eugene or Eoghain, a Bishop, who is by some not confined to the precincts of the Universities, [e.g. in 
said to have been a disciple of St. Patrick ; though this the Merry Wives of Windsor, the Welsh parson is called 
must be a mistake, as he lived till A.D. 618. {Lanigan's " Sir Hugh"} I have thought it allowable, and found it 
Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, ii. p. 190, &c.) With the necessary, to adopt the same formula. " DomiceUus," as 
church Eugene_ connected a monastery : and some wri- the diminutive of /^omtre^^s I have rendered "Master:" 
ters seem to think that ho also planted a Bishoprick in for which precedents in abundance may be found in the 
the same place. But although some of the Abbots of old Dramatists, and elsewhere. 

Ardstraw, in succeecling times, undoubtedly were of " Reconciliare volens. The form of reconsecrating an 

episcopal^ rank, (which in the early period of Irish altar, church or burying-ground, which had been polluted 

church history was not unusual,) yet several others were by homicide, bloodshed, or any other abomination, was 

mere presbyters : and no regular succession of Bishops called Reconciliatio : and several forms for the ceremony 

in that place can be traced, till the date of the Council are found in the MSS., and printed editions of the Pon- 

of Ratlibreasail in the year 1118. At that time it cer- tificale, or as it was sometimes called, (e.g. in this Roll,) 

tainly. became the seat of a regular Bishop having terri- the Liber Pontificalis. One of them is given at full length 

torial jurisdiction, and canonical succession. The see from a MS. Pontificale of the r2th century, formerly the 

being transferred to Rathlury or Maghera, the monas- property of Abp.'Ussher, by Dr. Reeves in his Appendix 

tery became once more the principal ecclesiastical estab- B, pp. 93-lOG: together with a copious selection of 

lishment of the place, and continued to tlie dissolution extracts from the Irish Annals, shewing the frequen- 

tery, of said church, polluted, as was stated, by the shedding of blood, having taken his station in 
front of the said cemetery reverently read and said certain prayers: then entering the church he bles- 
sed the letanies, (so called,) the salt, the ashes, the water, and the wine ; and sprinkled holy water 
throughout the said cemetery, as is contained in the Pontifical Book. The re-consecration being fin- 
ished, certain horses having been brought by the Herenachs of the said villages, to the number of 
seven horses or thereabouts, and loads of the provisions and baggage of the aforesaid Lord Archbi- 
shop and his attendants having been placed on each of the horses aforesaid, the said Lord Primate 
proceeded with his retinue to the village or parish of Urney, in the said Diocese of Derry : taking 
with him gratis^ and without any cost paid or to be paid by the said Primate, but at the common ex- 
pense of the Herenachs and inhabitants of the parish, (i.e., of Ardstraw,) the horses so loaded as afore- 
said. And arriving there, (i.e., at Urney,) Donald O'Carolan, Rector, the Herenachs and inha- 
bitants of the said village of Urney, being summoned into the presence of the said Lord Primate, 
at his command, gave directions concerning provisions for the men and horses, and the night-watch 
as is said above with reference to the preceding night ; and supplied the same in and throughout all 
things gratis, without any pajrment whatsoever. Witnesses present at the Acts of this day, Dr. Mau- 
rice, and the others above written. 

Li the Year, Indiction, and Pontificate aforesaid, and on the tenth day of the month of October, 
aforesaid, the same Venerable Father, rising early and having heard mass, and having had horses 
brought to him by the Herenachs of the aforesaid village of Urney, to carry the victuals and baggage 
of the said Father, to the number of seven horses or thereabout, the said horses being loaded as is be- 
fore said, gratis, and without any price paid, or to be paid by the said Father, but at the common 
charges of the Herenach and inhabitants of the village of Urney, proceeded to a certain parish, vulgarly 
called Leek Patrick, but in Latin, Lapis Patricii, (i.e., the Rock of Patrick,) and there the Here- 
nachs and inhabitants of the aforesaid parish and village, because their own horses were then scat- 
tered in the fields, and the aforesaid Father could not conveniently wait until these horses should be 
caught, promised, and found sureties to pay to the Herenachs and inhabitants of Urney, a certain 
price agreed upon between them, for carrying the victuals and baggage of the said Lord Primate, on 
to the city of Derry. Which being done, the said Venerable Father, with his retinue, and with his 
baggage, proceeded towards Derry, and, having crossed the river by means of boats, advancing towards 
the city, Doctor William M'Camayll, Dean of the Cathedral church of Derry, with many others, 
clerks, friars, and laymen, reverently came forth to meet the said Father, and conducted the said 

cy of the crime, the effects of which the act of Epis- in this Progress, to reconcile not fewer than three 

copal Reconciliation was designed to avert. Dr. Reeves Convent or Farisii Churches, in the small portion of the 

justly remarks upon the melancholy view of tlie stat Diocese of Derry through which his route conducted 

of society, at the close of the fourteenth century, him ; all of which had been defiled by bloodshed, ap- 

which we catch through the fact recorded in this parently within the space of two years, tor which period 

Roll, that it was necessary for ^Vrchbishop Colton, alone the BCO had been vacant. 


Father to the monastery of Canons Regular, called the Black Abbey of Derry," and reverently lod- 
ged him and his attendants, and placed them in suitable chambers and place. He also procured and 
caused provisions in abundance to be supplied for the said Lord Primate and his retinue, and for their 
horses, and that, even till the Saturday next following, gratis, and without expense to the said Arch- 
bishop. "Witnesses present at the Acts of this day, Doctor Maurice O'Corry, and the others above- 

In the Year, Indiction, and Pontificate aforesaid, and on the 11th day of the same month of Octo- 
ber, the aforesaid Venerable Father, entering the choir of the church of the Canons aforesaid, after 
one mass solemnly sung, and another heard without singing, the aforesaid Venerable Father, sitting 
on his Tribunal in the choir aforesaid, the Canons of the said house having been summoned to his pre- 
sence, the said Venerable Father charged them that if they knew of anything relating to the state or 
government of the said house, which required reformation, they should declare it unto him. Which 
Canons, having withdrawn themselves apart, and having held some discourse among themselves, re- 
turning to the said Father, one of them, constituted, as he asserted, the organ of the voices of the 
rest, complaining before the said Father, presented that a certain brother, Hugh M'Gillivray O'Dog- 
herty," a Canon of their convent, and who, after the resignation of their monastery by a certain bro- 
ther, Reginald O'Hegarty, their last Abbot, had been, by consent of the convent aforesaid, deputed 
as Guardian of the said monastery, had usurped to himself the Common Seal of the aforesaid monas- 
tery, which, according to the statutes of their order, ought to be, and had formerly customarily been, 
in the custody of the convent under three keys. Wherefore he begged, presenting in the name of 
the convent aforesaid, that a fit remedy should be provided for himself and the convent by the Vene- 
rable Father aforesaid. Which matter being propounded and heard, the said Venerable Father in- 
quired of the aforesaid brother, Hugh M'Gillivray, the Guardian, being then and there present, if the 
case were so or not. And when he answered and judicially confessed that he had the said Common 

" The monastery of Canons Regular, called the Cella by the Londoners until the erection of the present Cathe- 

J\%m fe J5fln'a, or Black Abbey of Derry," was the origi- dral, {Ordnance Survey, p. 26,) was built on this occa- 

nal monastery founded by St. Columbkille, about A.D. sion. It stood 'on what is now a part of the Bishop's 

546; which obtained the name of -DM2Mi2e.(7/es, CfeZ/aAl^ra, Garden, near the King's Bastion The ancient monas- 

the Black Abbey, in or after the year llf>4. It stood out- tevy of Derry was no doubt subject to the same rule as 

eidethewallsof the modern city, very nearly on the site of the other houses founded by St. Columbkille: in the 

the present Catholic chapel ; and adjoining it was one of year 120o its Abbot, Amhalgaidh O'Ferghail was appa- 

the ancient Round Towers, the origin and use of which rently regarded as the head of the whole Columbian Or- 

have been so much controverted. The buildings of this der: [Annals of the Four Masters, A.T). VIQi.) Hence 

monastery, though often injured by fire and violence, Ware is undoubtedly mistaken in speaking of Gelasius 

were always re -erected on the same spot, till the year &s sm" Augustine Canon of the monastery of Derry" in 112,1. 

156S, wlien an English garrison which had been stationed It had however, abandoned the rule of tlie Columbian In- 

in Derry, having converted the churcli into a magazine for Btitute, and adopted that which bears the name of St. Au- 

powder, it was blown up during, or shortly after, an a,s- gustine (that of the Order of Canons Regular,) at some 

sault made upon the town by Shane O'Neill. {O'Sulli- time between A.D. 1203 and the date of this Visitation: 

van, His. Catkol. Ilib. vol. ii. 1. 4.) The English garri- probably at or near the time when Derry became the re- 

8 )n having departed, the monks returned, and appear gular see of the Diocese. See Introduction. 

to have erected a new convent on a different site. I pre- o This name is in the Roll, Odo M'Gyllebryd O'Dochgr- 

surae that the " Augustinian Church" which stood with- tyr. The prcenomcn appears to be a Latinized form of the 

ia the existing walls, and which waa repaired and used Irish Aodh, i.e. Hugh. 


Seal, the said Venerable Father commanded him, under penalty of law, to deliver the same unto him- 
self, the said Venerable Father, to be eflfectually kept until he should order something else to be done 
with it. Which brother Hugh, at the command of the said Venerable Father, delivered and yielded 
up the Seal aforesaid to the said Venerable Father, before a full assemblage of clergy and people. 
And the said Father receiving it, retained and kept it in his own custody till the Lord's day, then 
next ensuing, viz., the 14th day of the same month of October. After whose surrender of the Sea 
aforesaid to the aforesaid Venerable Father, the Canon aforesaid, constituted, as he asserted, the or- 
gan of the voices of the rest, in the name of his brethren then present proposed several complaints 
concerning the discipline of the said house, praying the said Venerable Father to constitute and or- 
dain certain Definitions on and concerning all of them ; and so prayed all the Canons then standing by : 
and also the Dean of the Cathedral Church of Derry, and many other clergy of the diocese of Derry 
then standing by, presented the same prayer. And the said Venerable Father, assenting to their sup- 
plications, did afterwards constitute certain Ordinances and Definitions, concerning the state and dis- 
cipline of the said house ; as will hereafter appear. Witnesses present, the aforesaid Doctor Maurice, 
Doctor William, Dean of Deny, and the others above-written. 

In the Year, Indiction, and Pontificate, aforesaid, on the 12th day of the same month of October, the 
aforesaid Venerable Father and Lord, John, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland, being 
seated on his Tribunal in the Choir of the church of the aforesaid Canons, there appeared before him 
a certain reverend religious man, Brother Reginald O'Hegarty, Canon of the said house, and lately 
Abbot of the same, and humbly supplicated the aforesaid Venerable Father, that he the said Venerable 
Father would be graciously pleased to ratify and confirm the resignation of the said Abbey afore- 
time made by him Reginald, as has been above set forth : ^yea, that he would be pleased to accept 
anew, and ex-ahundanti, the resignation of the said monastery from him the said Reginald. Which 
the said Venerable Father shewed himself extremely reluctant to do, and urgently prayed the said 
Reginald to exercise the office of Abbot continuously, or at least to undertake it anew ; to which the 
said Reginald utterly refusing to consent, resigned the said monastery, the charge and dignity of 
the same, into the hands of the aforesaid Father ; many religious persons, clerks and laymen, standing 
present. And the said Venerable Father overcome by importunity of the prayers, as well of the said 
Reginald, as of others standing by, accepted as Judge Ordinary, and Guardian of the Spirituality of 
the aforesaid Bishoprick of Derry, the resignation of the said monastery thus made by him the said 
Reginald. But afterwards, a long and lengthened interval having elapsed, the Canons of the house 
aforesaid, appearing together in presence of the aforesaid Lord Primate, unanimously besought him 
that he might be pleased to confirm the election of a certain brother, Hugh M^Gillivray one of their 
Canons, by them harmoniously agreed upon, to the said monastery so vacant as aforesaid, by the re- 
signation of the said Reginald. And the aforesaid Venerable Father inquired of each of them, the 
said Canons individually, whether he consented to the said Brother Hugh as his future Abbot. And 
all and every one unanimously replying that they consented to him as their future Abbot, the afore- 


said venerable Father caused a public proclamation or cry to be made and set forth in the same 
place ; that if any person wished to object against the aforesaid Brother Hugh, thus elected, or against 
the form of the election made concerning him, he should, on the next day following, viz., on the 13th 
day of this month of October, legally appear in the Cathedral Church of Derry, at the usual hour of 
the sitting of the court, and should legally object and oppose at his own pleasure. Witnesses present 
Maurice, Dean of Armagh, Doctor William, Dean of Derry, and the others above-written. 

In the Year, Indiction, and Pontificate, aforesaid, and on the 13th day of the month of October afore- 
said, the aforesaid Venerable Father and Lord, John, Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of Ireland, 
Guardian, as he asserted, of the Spirituality and Temporality of the Bishoprick of Derry, having per- 
sonally taken his place in the Choir of the Cathedral Church of Derry p after high mass solemnly 
sung, and sitting on his Tribunal, in a place honourably prepared by the officers of the said church ; 
and certification having been made on the part of Doctor William McCamayll, Dean of Derry, by tes- 
timony viva voce, concerning a certain mandate of the said Venerable Father, the Archbishop and 
Primate, Guardian as aforesaid, directed to him the said Dean, in which mandate it was contained 
that he the said Dean of Derry should summon, or cause to be summoned, peremptorily, on imminent 
peril of their souls, the Archdeacon, and all and every one, the members of the Chapter of Derry, 
as likewise all whatsoever of the clergy of Derry, promoted to dignities or ecclesiastical benefices, or 
to holy orders, as also the Herenachs, and all officers whatsoever, of the Bishoprick of Derry, 
to appear on the aforesaid 18th day of October, before the said Lord Primate, Guardian as afore- 
said, in the Cathedral Church of Derry aforesaid : and then and there to exhibit their Letters of 
Dignities, Benefices, Orders and Dispensations; as likewise their Charters or Letters of Here- 
nachships, lands, possessions, and offices of whatsoever kind ; and to do and to receive what might be 
just and agreeable to reason : concerning which mandate, I the Notary underwritten have full and 
perfect knowledge. And Certification having been given, as is above set forth, viz., that all and every 
one, in the above mandate contjiined, had been duly an dlawfully summoned to appear, exhibit, do, 
and receive as the tenor of the mandate exacts and requires ; the said Venerable Father caused the 
Archdeacon, and others of the Chapter of Derry, to be called by the crier. And when they did not 
appear, he graciously awaited them in the same place, until the hour immediately after the None'' of 

P " Tlie Cathelral Church of Derry" was the Team- was built. It was eighty feet long : and its walls were 

pull Mor, or Great Church, erected by the Abbot Fla- erected in forty days. It stood close to the more ancient 

hertach O'Brolchain, (or Flaherty O'Brollaghan,) in the church otDuibh Regies, and with it was blown up in the 

year \WA. In lloO " tlie Visitation of Kinel-Eoghain," explosion of 15G8 ; but its foundations were visible at the 

[including tlie modern counties of Londonderry and Ty- time of the siege in 1688, and are marked on the maps 

rone, and part of Donegal.] " was made by Flahertach of that period. On thetransferenceoftheBishoprickfrom 

O'Brolchain, Comharba,'" [i e. Successor] "to Columb- Rathlury to Derry, the TeampuU Mor became the Ca- 

kille : ami he received a horse from every nobleman, a thedral church of the Diocese, and a Chapter consisting 

cow from every two Bja*ju;ih" [i.e. persons who held land of a Dean, an Archdeacon and ten Secular canons, seems 

bythe tenure ofexercising hospitality:] " acowfrom every to have been soon afterwards organized, 

three freemen, and a cow from every four common peo- i " Ncmam \horam] diet:" the ninth hour of the day, 

pie." {Annala of the Four Masters.) Similar visitations counting from sunrise : about three o'clock, p.m. accora- 

of other districts were made in 1151, 1153 and 1101 ; and ing to our computation. The Canonical hours were i>riffe, 

with the contributions thus gathered, the TeampuU Mor (6 o'c.) tierce, (9 o'c.) sexte, (12 o'c.) and none, (3 o'c. ) 


day. But very many others, beneficed and non-benificed, Presbyters and also Herenachs, being s\im- 
moned by the crier, appeared personally, exhibited their Letters of orders and benefices, and their 
Charters of herenachships and lands and oflBices, as is more fully contained in a certain roll remaining 
in the Archives, concerning which, I the Notary underwritten have full and perfect knowledge. Which 
exhibitions being so made, the Canons Regular of the Black Abbey of Derry, with great urgency beg- 
ged of the aforesaid Venerable Father a confirmation of the election by them made, of Brother Hugh 
McGillivray, one of their Canons, to be their Abbot. And the said Venerable Father having held some 
discourse with the Dean of Armagh and others of the clergy present, again ex ahundanti caused and 
made a public cry to be made, that if any one wished to propound or object anything against the afore- 
said election, or against the form of his election, he should do the same forthwith or never after be 
heard. And no one appearing or objecting, the same Venerable Father, as Guardian of the Spiritua- 
lity and Spiritual Jurisdiction of the Bishoprick of Derry, whereof he then and there made public pro- 
testation, judicially confirmed before a large assemblage of clergymen and people, the election of the 
aforesaid Brother Hugh to the aforesaid monastery, called the Black Abbey of Derry ; and authori- 
tatively instituted the said Brother Hugh as Abbot of the aforesaid monastery ; and by the delivery 
unto him of his ring, invested him with the same, committing to him the care and government of the 
aforesaid monastery : and caused the said brother Hugh to take an oath of obedience and fidelity 
to be yielded and kept unto him the said Venerable Father, as ordinary of the Bishoprick of Derry, 
by virtue of the Guardianship aforesaid, and to his successors the Archbishops of Armagh, Primates 
of Ireland, the see of Derry being vacant ; and also to the future Bishops of Derry, canonically 

Which things thus transacted, the same Venerable Father came to the monastery aforesaid, and 
having taken refreshment, again came to the cathedral church of Derry about the hour immediately 
after the None, and there sitting on his tribunal, caused the Archdeacon and the other members of the 
chapter of Derry to be separately and singly summoned by the crier ; who having been waited for, 
but not appearing in any manner, nor any one of them, the aforesaid Venerable Father pronounced 
them all and every one contumacious;, and for punishment of their contumacy, (proof having been given 
of the malicious and fraudulent latitation of them and each of them, by Dr. Thomas O'Loughran, 
Canon of Armagh, and Instructor or Promoter of the office of the aforesaid Venerable Father) the 
said Venerable Father decreed that they and each of them should be cited by* public edict of citation 
in the church of Derry aforesaid, in presence of the clergy and the multitude of people there being, 
so that the knowledge of the aforesaid citation might and ought probably to come to them and each 
of them, that they and each of them should appear before the aforesaid Venerable Father or his com- 

' Thi8 declaration involved the sentence of excommu- mysteries, or even being present at them ; as appears 
nication, ipso facto: and the person so excommunicate from the subsequent portion of this Register, 
was interdicted from taking part in any of the sacred 


missary, one or more, in the village of Dermot O'Cahan in the diocese of Derry, on the Monday then 
next ensuing, to do and receive as is contained in the former mandate directed to the Dean of Derry, of 
which mention is made above. Which public citation of the said Archdeacon and the other members 
of the Chapter of Derrj-, and of each of them, having been made, singly and by name, with loud and 
intellif'ible voice by the crier in the same place, in presence of a large multitude of the clergy and 
people, the said Venerable Father withdrew from the church aforesaid. Witnesses present al the 
acts of this day, the Venerable Father Cornelius, by the Grace of God, Lord Bishop of Raphoe, Dr. 
Maurice, Dean of Armagh, Dr. William, Dean of Derry, Dr. Florence, Dean of Raphoe, Brothcj- 
Nicholas Lochlinnach, Prior of the house of the Preachers ' [i.e. the Dominicans] at Derry, and the 
others above-M'ritten. 

In the Year, luJiction, and Pontificate, aforesaid, and on tha Lord's Day next before the Feast of 
St. Luke the Evangelist, viz. on the 14th day of the month of October, the Venerable Father the 
Lord Archbishop and Primate aforesaid, having taken his place in the presence of me the Notary and 
the witnesses under-written, at a certain parish church of St. Brecan, situate in the lands of Clooney, 
in the Diocese of Derry, near the river of Derry, [i.e. the Foyle,'] on the eastern side thereof, (which 
lands are known to belong to the Church of Armagh,) Dr. William McCamaill, Dean of Derry, and 
Rector as he asserted, of that parish of Clooney, appeared before the said Venerable Father, and 
humbly supplicated the Venerable Father aforesaid that he would reconsecrate that church and its ceme- 
tery, polluted as he said, by the shedding of blood, and afterwards would deign to celebrate a solemn 
mass before the thousands of people there assembled out of respect for the said Father. And the 
said Venerable Father, assenting to the prayers of the aforesaid Dean, reconsecrated the said church 
and cemetery according to ecclesiastical rule ; and an altar for the celebration of mass having been 
prepared with becoming respect, outside the western door of the said church, there appeared the Arch- 
deacon and the other members of the Chapter of Derry, through the mediation of the Reverend 
Father Cornelius, Lord Bishop of Raphoe, humbly supplicating thes aidVenerable Father the Lord 
Archbishop, Primate, and Guardian aforesaid, that he the said Father Archbishop might deign to 
absolve them, the Archdeacon and other members of the Chapter, from the sentences of excommunica- 

* Dominican Abbey and Cniirch. Tlie Dominicans or Pre- tThis was manifestly the Church of which the ruins 

dicants hail a_house in Derry "These buildings were are laid down in Captain Neville's Map illustrative of 

founded in 1274. * The number of friars in this the seige of Derry in 1688, and therein named " 6Wm6- 

house previous to its suppression, was generally 150. It kill's Chapel in Ruins;" it was situated on the bank of 

had the honour of supplying two Bishops to the see of the Foyle nearly opposite to Pennyburn ; and its gables 

Derry, and, according to O'Daly and De Burgh, of send- are still standing. See Capt Neville's map in Sampson's 

ing fortli five martyrs. ^^ Its site is not now ac- Statistical Survey of Londonderry, -pAlO.ThQi^TesQntm- 

curately known. * ** * A convent of the order was strument shows that the name given to the ruins by Capt. 

m-aintained at Derry till a Lite period, Avhich in 1750 Nevillewas erroneous: but it is stillretained.theadjoining 

contained nine hvoXt^av^:' Ordnance Survey of London- villa and grounds being called St. Columb's. " In the pa- 

derry, p. *2-x fliere is no mention of any inquiry into tent of the See-lands of Derry, the King grants to the Bi- 

the state of tbis monastery by Archbishop Colton: the shop of Derry the Erenach-land of Clooney, containing 4 

Dominicans being exempt from Episcopal Jurisdiction balliboes, [or townlands,] out of which two marks a year, 

since the middle of the 13th century. are reserved to the Archbishop of Armsigh." Reeves. 


tion under which they had been laid by the said Father as Gruardian of the Spirituality of the Bishop- 
rick of Derry, for their contumacy and disobedience : that so, without scruple of conscience, they 
might be present at the solemn mass, there to be celebrated by the said Archbishop. And the said 
Archbishop, assenting to their prayers and to the request of the said Lord Bishop of Raphoe, com- 
missioned viva voce the said Lord Bishop of Raphoe that he, by authority of the said Primate and 
Guardian, should absolve them and each of them according to the church's rite : under pain and 
condition nevertheless of falling a second time under the same sentences, if they did not afterwards 
obey the mandates and ordinance of the aforesaid Lord Archbishop. And the said Lord Bishop of 
Raphoe accepting this commission, absolved, in due form of law, them, the Archdeacon, and other 
members of the Chapter, there present, having first administered to them, and each of them, an oath 
to abide by the mandates of the church. Which being done, the aforesaid Venerable Father Arch- 
bishop and Primate, performing the solemnities of the mass, in the course of the solemnities of the 
said mass solemnly blessed the aforesaid Brother Hugh, Abbot of the monastery called the Black 
Abbey of Berry, aforesaid, according to the rite and custom of the church. And the mass and bene- 
diction being finished, the same Venerable Father, with consent of the whole convent, and by advice 
of the Dean, Archdeacon, and Chapter of Derry, delivered and yielded up the Common Seal of the 
aforesaid convent, which the aforesaid Father had in his custody, to a certain Brother, Donald 
O'Hegarty, a canon of the said house, on behalf of the whole convent, commanded the said Brother 
Donald, the canon aforesaid, and the whole convent, under penalty of the greater excommunication, 
to replace, as soon as they conveniently could, and to keep the said Common Seal in the common chest, 
under three keys and locks ; and to deliver the said keys unto certain regular persons of the said 
convent, to be chosen by the whole convent, that is to say, one key to each person, to be by him kept; 
and enjoined the said Abbot, that he, at no future time, should usurp to himself singly, the custody, 
the carrying or handling of the said Seal ; which Abbot promised, under debt of oath, to do as en- 
joined. Which matters thus transacted, the aforesaid Venerable Father and Primate, proceeded with 
liis retinue to the village of Dermot O'Cahan. Witnesses present at the acts of this day, the Vene- 
rable Father, Cornelius, Lord Bishop of Raphoe, and the others last above-written. 

In the Year, Indiction, and Pontificate aforesaid, on the Monday next before the Feast of St. Luke 
the Evangelist, viz., the 15fch day of the month of October, the Dean, Archdeacon, and other mem- 
bers of the Chapter of Derry, appearing in the presence of the aforesaid Lord Archbishop and Guar- 
dian in the village of Dermot O'Cahan" in the Diocese of Derry, prayed him that he would grant 

Villa Dermitii O'Qtlhan. Dr. Reeves considers Der- nnd the expression Villa Dermilii O'Cathan, the Vit- 

mot O'Cahan a chieftain living at tlie time of tlie visita- laf/e of Drrmot O'Cathan may have been then, as part of 

tion; which is prol)ahle, as the deatli of a distin<ruished it is still, the mere proper name of a place: for the 

person of that name " Lord of Ctannaciita and Croibh" parish in which the ViUa Dermitii was situated, is to 

is recorded by the Four Masters as having occurred A. D. .;.. .J"- "ii-j r-i j * -_/^m-_j . mi .^- 

1428 : but it appears that the chief of the sept of O'Ca- 
han, at the time of tliis visitation, was called Maponiut, 
i.e. Magnus : (or as the name is now commonly pro- 
nounced and written, Manus, as will bo hereafter seen ;) 

is recorded by the Four Masters as having occurred A. D. this day called Clondermot or Clandermot. TheL_ 

1428: but it appears that the chief of the sept of O'Ca- of the ancient church are situated on the banks of a 

han, at the time of tliis visitation, was called Magmiut, small lake now called Ainagh Lough, about three miles 

i.e. Magnus: (or as the name is now commonly pro- from Derry, on the road to Nowtowolimavady. 


unto them, the Tuesday next following, in the parish church of Bannagher, in the same Diocese of 
Derry, for doing, expediting, and receiving, all and each of the things unto which they had formerly 
been summoned. Which Lord Archbishop, Primate and Guardian aforesaid, prescribed and assigned 
unto them the day and place aforesaid, viz., the 16th day of the month of October, in the church of 
Bannagher, within the Diocese of Derry, to do and receive as unto law should appertain. Subse- 
quently, on the same day, and at the same place, viz., on the 15th day of October, and in the village 
of Dermot O'Cahan, came to the said Lord Primate, a certain lady, Una O'Connor, saying that she 
was the lawful wife of Magnus O'Cahan, the chieftain of her sept; and that she had been by him 
put away without the judgment of the church, and another taken in her stead : wherefore she prayed 
of the aforesaid Lord Primate that fitting redress should be granted to her upon the case. " Which 
thintr being heard, the said Lord Primate and Guardian commanded and caused the said Magnus 
O'Cahan, being there close at hand, to be peremptorily summoned, on account of the imminent peril 
of souls, to appear before him immediately, to answer the petition of the said Una, in cause matrimo- 
nial, to be amenable to law, and to do and receive as justice should direct. Which Magnus O'Cahan, 
humbly appeared in presence of the aforesaid Venerable Father, sitting on his tribunal ; and the said 
Lord Primate, as Judge Ordinary of the Bishoprick of Derry, by virtue of the Guardianship afore- 

There were two septs or families of the name of 
O'Connor connected with the district : one, (of a different 
extraction from the O'Cahans,) which possessed the 
principality of Cianachta from the beginning of the 
seventh till the eleventh century ; when it gave place to 
the O'Henerys, who in turn yielded to the O'Cahans. 
Tlie other family was a junior branch of the O'Cahan 
line, being descended from Loingseach grandson of Ca- 
than, from whom the sept derived its patronymic Ua- 
Cathain, i.e. O'Cahan, now commonly written and pro- 
nounced O'Kane, sometimes Kane : and in a few well 
known instances, Kean and Keane. {See Dr. Reeves, 
p p. 367, note.) Dr Reeves regards the lady Una .as of the 
former family : I think, from her calling her husband, 
siMie, nationis capitaneum, " the chieftain of her line," it is 
evitlent that she belonged to the other ptock. However 
this may have been, she was wedded to a chief of ancient 
lineage, and ample domains. Magonius or Magnus 
O'Cahan was the chief of Ciannachta and Croibh, two 
districts which included the modern Baronies of Tir- 
keerin, Kenaght, and Coleraine in the county of London- 
derry, or about two thirds of the whole shire, extending 
from the Foyle to the Bann, and as far southwards as 
the mountains of Cairntogher and Moneyeeny. The fa- 
mily of O'Calian was an offshoot of the O'Neills, feuda- 
tory to the Tyrone (or O'Loughlin) branch ; and like it, 
and the O'Donnells of Tyrconncll, descended from Niall, 
King of Ireland at the end of the 4th century, commonly 
called Niall of the Nine hostages. The principal seat 
of the family, at the time of the Archbishop's visitation, 
was a castle situated near the ancient church and monas- 
tery of Ainagh ; but at a later period it possessed another 
residence, in the very centre of its territories, a little to 
the south of the present town of Newtownlimavady ; of 

which I take the following account from Mr. Sampson's 
StatistimlSurvey of the County of Londonderry, p.p. 462-3. 
" The principal residence of cliief, O'Cahan or O'Kane 
was at the beautiful range on the bank of the Koe, now 
called the Deer-park. The site is well known, and even 
the ruins of the strongly posted castle were lately dis- 
cernible ; it was on the verge of a perpendicular rock 
hanging over the river, and near 100 feet high. On the 
land side, the defence consisted of a moat : the terrace, 
orchards, fish-ponds and pleasure grounds may still be 
traced. * * The whole scenery of this spot is de- 
liglitful : among the rest the cascade of the River Roe, 
called the Dog-leap, {lAim-7ia-mhady,lAmnn.\iiAy,) is 
well worthy of the pencil." This cascade is within a few 
hundred yards, and in full view of the remains of the 
Castle. Tlie chief O'Cahan being in 1607 " implicated" 
in the "rebellion" of the Earls of Tyrone and Tyi-con- 
nell, of which the sole proof was an anonymous letter 
dropped in the Council Chamber of the Castle of Dublin! 
was thrown into prison, where, apparently, he was kept 
a long time : and his estates, being found by an Inquisi- 
tion which was sped at Limavady in the year 1609, to 
have been vested in the crown by the Act of 11, Q. Eliz., 
attainting Shane O'Neill and his confederates, which 
in law they certainly were, (though forty years' posses- 
sion meanwhile might liave been somewhat regarded,) 
were granted to the City of London, and other under- 
takers. I cannot refrain from adding the following ex- 
tract, also taken from Mr. Sampson. " The Duchess 
Dowager of Buckingham, being, after her widowhood, 
married to the Earl of Antrim, had raised 1,(X)0 men 
among her lord's yeomanry in the County of Antrim, in 
aid of K. Charles I. The Deputy Lord Wentworth, had 
directed her Grace to have these recruits marched by 


said, articled and objected unto the said Magnus O'Cahan, of his office and for his soul's health, that 
he had formerly contracted marriage with the aforesaid Una by words of the present tense, and had 
confirmed the same by cohabitation, and had begotten offspring of her, and that he had afterwards, 
of his own temerity, without the judgment of the church, put her away, and adiilterously joined him- 
self to another ; wherefore the said Father inquired of him if he could show any cause why he ought 
not to be compelled to take her back, and to do canonical penance for so great an enormity. And the 
said Magnus O'Cahan, asked for time to deliberate upon his answer ; which being granted, after some 
discourse held with his council, he answered and said that he had never contracted matrimony with 
the aforesaid Una. Wherefore the statements of the parties upon the matter in question being mu- 
tually contradictory, " and being sworn to by them respectively, the aforesaid Father enjoined the 
aforesaid Una to produce witnesses in support of her charge, if she had any ready ; and the said 
Una immediately produced two witnesses, viz., Donald O'Cahan, and Sir Simon O'Feenaghty, canon of 
the cathedral church of Derry; who haviug beau sworn in form of law, in presence of the aforesaid 
Magnus O'Cahan and the aforesaid Una haviug waived all further right of producing witnesses the 
said Father assigned to the parties next day, viz., the 16th day of October, at Bannagher, in the 
parish church, for publication (if the canon law hinder notj and the meanwhile for examination. 
The other matters which concern this suit are elsewhere recorded. ' And afterwards there came unto 
the aforesaid Lord Primate, a certain other woman, viz., Catherine O'Dogherty, asserting that she had 
contracted matrimony with a certain Magnus M<=Gilligan ; * and that she had been judicially and defini- 
tively adjudged the lawful wife of the said Magnus McGilligan by the Archdeacon of Derry and a 
certain other Doctor John M^'Kaig, judges appointed in the aforesaid cause matrimonial ; but that the 
said Magnus McGilligan, notwithstanding the premises, had divorced her without any reasonable 
cause, and taken other women in her stead ; wherefore she sought of the aforesaid Lord Primate, that 
a remedy be for her provided. Wherefore the said Lord Primate judicially articled unto the afore- 
said Magnus McGilligan, summoned and appearing. And the said Magnus McGilligan denied as well 
the matrimonial contract as all adjudication of the kind alleged ; and oath being administered to both 
parties as to the charge, the said Catherine O'Dogherty called, as witnesses to sustain her as sertion, 
the Archdeacon of Derry aforesaid, and Doctor John McKaig, Canon of Derry, formerly judges in this 

the route of Limavady. In passing through this village, * Instead of Unde lite nsffative awfra, which is neither 

curiopity induced her Grace to visit the wife of O'Cahan, sense nor grammar, I read and translate, Unde lite tie- 

whose castle had heen demolished, and liimself banish- gata e contra. 

ed." (This I conceive to be a mistake.) " In tlie midst x As there is no more mention of this case in the In- 

of this half ruined edifice was kindled afire of branches. strument, we may suppose it to have been settled by the 

The window-casements were stuffed with str.iw to keep parties without the farther intervention of the court, 

off the rigours of the season. Thus lodged the aged wif^ y The sept of McGilligan was of note in Ciannachta : 

of O'Cahan. She was found by her noble visitant, sit- haviug bequeathed its name to the parish of Tamlnght- 

ting on her bent hams in the smoke, and wrapt in a ard, now called Magilligan. Of this Parish, 40 Balli- 

blanket." (.S'affj/?OTi',< 5ryey, &c., p. 4G3 ) The name of boes, or Townships, (being the whole of the Parish ex- 

O'Kane or Kane is still very common in the neighbour- cept one township/) were herenachdand : the McGilli- 

hood : it is chiefly borne by persons moving in the hum- gans were the hereoitary Herenachs. 
bier walks of life. 


cause ; who, by command of the said Lord Primate, being immediately summoned and appearing be- 
fore him, were, aa to the aforesaid adjudication which is pretended to have been made by them, secretly 
and singly examined by the said Lord Primate, in the presence of me the Notary, and of two wit- 
nesses, viz., the Dean of Armagh, and Doctor Thomas O'Loughran, who concurrently deposed that 
they had made such adjudication ; and a day was given to the aforesaid Catherine to reproduce her wit- 
nesses in the church of Bannagher ; viz. the morrow, the 16th day of this month of October. 

These things being thus transacted, the aforesaid Venerable Father having taken with him horses 
provided by, and at the expense of the Dean of Deny, for the carriage of his victuals and baggage, 
proceeded together with his retinue, and with the Dean, Archdeacon, and others of the Chapter of 
Derry, to Bannagher, in the Diocese of Derry ; at whose arrival, the Herenachs and inhabitants of 
that place, made arrangements, at their own expense, for provisions to the men and horses of the said 
Venerable Father, and of his officers, as also for the night-watch. Witnesses present at the acts of 
this day, as above. 

{To he concluded in the next Number.) 






Member of Council of the Natural History and Philosophical Society, Belfast. 

Probably in no department of research is the admitted dependence of one branch of knowledge upon 
another more sensibly apparent than in the study of Ethnology, or that science which attempts to 
investigate the progressional history of the various races of mankind. 

To decypher the faint and fading records of antiquity, and penetrate the mystery that enshrouds the 
earlier conditions of our race, in order to inform ourselves, so far as such can now be done, of the social 
and mental status of those our predecessors who constructed the works of art, or transmitted to us the in- 
tellectual revelations of themselves, which have reached our day, and to define the epochs and distin- 
guish the races to which the several results are to be assigned, is a work requiring the labour and co- 
operation of many hands. 

By what means, for example, are we to ascertain whether the (so-called) Stone, Bronze, and Iron eras 
of these countries are to be attributed to a slow development of one race continued through a series of 
ages, or are due to successive impulses derived from new occupants of the soil ; who, themselves " for- 
getting their cunning" and lapsing into unimprovable supineness, came, in their turn, to be supplanted 
by others of fresher energies and higher capabilities ? The Archaeologist may pursue the history 
of an implement or a weapon until he fancies he has detected its prototype in the product of 
some distant land, where knowledge and the arts of life had made early progress; or the 
Philologist trace to their apparent source such lingering relics of language as may have chanced 
to outlive the mutations of time and the obliterating influences of civilization; but, however 
strong the probabilities thus arrived at may appear, they are still no more than probabilities : 
for it may be possible that such coincident results are, after all, but exponents of the instinctive 
efforts of our common nature to provide for the necessities which are the heritage of every race : 
just as at the present day, in New Zealand, the Society Islands, and other countries where civili- 
zation has made but partial progress, we find stone hatchets, flint arrow-heads, and bone imple- 
ments, identical in design and execution with those of the remote ages of our own country. 


How then, it may not unreasonably be asked, are we to arrive at anything like conclusive know- 
ledge upon such subjects ? Clearly, in no other way than by adding, to the probabilities thus es- 
tablished, the further corroboration of identity of race between the individuals cotemporaneous with 
their respective works of art. 

That numerous migrations of the human family have taken place at various periods, both tradition 
and history aver ; and that changes alike vast and durable have resulted therefrom, will scarcely admit 
of question. But, while history, within the limits of her domain, testifies to the facts and records the 
results, thereby affording a reasonable presumption that the assertions of tradition cannot be wholly 
without foundation in truth, we are, nevertheless, far from being in a position to assign to each race 
its true influence, or to award to it its proper share in the general scheme of social progress ; inasmuch 
as we are yet without adequate scientifically recorded data by which to determine the distinctive 
physical characteristics even of those races that have performed the most prominent parts in the pro- 
gress of the world. 

That such should be the case with regard to those separated from us by long intervals of 
time, is scarcely to be wondered at ; but it is little creditable, either to our industry or re- 
search, to be compelled to admit that, not even as we approach comparatively nearer to our own day, 
is this deficiency less apparent. We know, beyond the reach of question, that Picts, Celts, Romans, 
Saxons, Danes and Normans, either originally occupied these countries, or successively invaded and 
colonized them ; yet where are our proofs that they differed in physical conformation from each other ; 
or how, and in what particulars ? Their language, their weapons, their works of art, their wars, reli- 
gious ceremonies, and superstitions, have either left behind them tan^ble representatives to reward 
the labours of the archaeologist, or been recorded with sufficient minuteness to furnish materials for 
the historian ; whilst of the men themselves those actors in scenes, and originators of movements, 
which have been so largely instrumental in the erection of our present social structure we are, 
(scientifically speaking^ absolutely without reliable information. Nay, we are not, even at this 
moment, in possession of properly digested materials for establishing, upon a scient'fic basis, the speci- 
fic differences between the two great races, the Celtic and the Saxon, known to be so largely inter- 
mingled in these islands. 

If such be the case concerning these, who possess the advantage of historic recognition, what rea- 
sonable probability, it may fairly be inquired, can there be of our attaining to any knowledge of 
those who are beyond the ken of history, and of whom even tradition herself is mute. Fortunately, 
the physical conformation and mental aptitudes of the races that have occupied any country, are pro- 
minently represented by the osseous remains of the individuals themselves; and these, though ex- 
extremely perishable, and less abundant than could be desired, are still, to a considerable extent ac- 
cessible. The spade and the ploughshare, the cuttings of the engineer, and the excavations of the 
architect, are daily bringing them to light ; and though, through ignorance of their value, much may 
have been irretrievably lost, much also has fallen into safe keeping, and been preserved with religious care 


"Hitherto," however, as has been remarked with equal force and beauty by the projectors of a 
contemplated work upon the Crania of the British Islands,* " hitherto, no publication has been de- 
voted to the chief vestige of the organization of the primitive Briton and his successors, that most im- 
portant and instructive of all his Cranium. In the skulls themselves, we have the very " heart of 
hearts " of all their remains, which the gnawing " tooth of time and razure of oblivion" have spared. 
These present an exact measure of their differing cerebral organization, of their intellect, and feelings; 
and may be said to be impressed with a vivid outline of their very features and expressions. 
It is believed that a sufficient number of these precious relics have now been exhumed from Bar- 
rows and other tombs, in which the living hands of their brethren (observing the dictates of eternal 
love or the rites of an all-pervading superstition, based in inextinguishable aspirations,) deposited 
them, to enable us not merely to reproduce the most lively and forcible traits of the primaeval Celtic 
hunter or warrior, and his Roman conqueror, succeeded by Saxon or Angle chieftains and settlers, 
and, later still, by the Vi-kings of Scandinavia ; but also to indicate the peculiarities which marked 
the different tribes and races who have peopled the diversified regions of the British Islands : and, as 
we thus picture our varied ancestry, to deduce, at the same time, their position in the scale of civili- 
ation by the tests of accurate representation and admeasurement. These primitive remains are 
of great interest, of real national value, and deserve the most careful examination and study, 
that they may be delineated with the utmost precision, with artistic skill worthy of the subject ; 
and, being thus perpetuated, they will be rescued from the grasp of accidental destruction, and the 
further inroads of fretting age." 

Entirely concurring in these views, and recognizing to the fullest extent the value of pictorial re- 
presentations, still, as they alone do not fulfil the exact requirements of science, and as we are as yet 
without any authentic standard of reference, or accredited system of measurement, it appears to me 
that we shall not be in a position to do justice to our materials, or to render them as available and 
instructive as they are intrinsically capable of becoming, till we adopt some method of measuring cra- 
nial forms and magnitudes, which, by possessing the calm authority of mathematical precision, shall com- 
mand universal acceptance, and concentrate, upon a uniform plan, the detached efforts of all inquirers. 

For many years past my friend Mr. Gretty and myself have had in our possession some exceedingly 
interesting and valuable specimens of Irish Crania, obtained from Round Towers and other 
authentic sources, several of which have already been exquisitively drawn on stone by our 
talented fellow-townsman, Mr. Burgess. Up to the present time, however, we have been deterred 
from proceeding further from inability to furnish measurements of them sufficiently accurate, either to 
satisfy our own minds, or to permit of their being conveyed with precision to the minds of others. 

My attention having been thus, in a manner, compelled to the subject, I have at length succeeded 

* Crania Britannica, or Delineations of the Skulls of the aboriginal Inhabitants of the British Islands, and of the 
races immediately succeeding them. By Joseph B. Davis, and John Thurnham. London, Taylor & Francis. To be 
printed for Subscribers only. 


in devising an Instrument which, I am sanguine enough to hope, will enable us to meet most of the 
essential requirements of the case, and supply us with the means of taking and recording measurements 
of Crania, in a manner combining perfect simplicity and facility of application with rigid scientific 
accuracy ; so that, shoidd the originals themselves ever chance to be destroyed, we could, without 
Jifficulty or hesitation, reproduce fac-similes of them, minutely correct in all essential particulars, by 
means of the measurements thus recorded. 

The importance to the Ethnologist of any method, which will thus enable him to avail himself 
of the recorded observations of others without risk of misapprehension, can scarcely be over-estimated ; 
and, should my expectations on this point be justified by experience, I look forward to our accu- 
mulating, at no very distant period, a large amount of well-defined and unimpeachable data, to 
whisli all interested in such pursuits may refer with confidence; and to our eventually deve- 
loping general laws respecting the cerebral conformation of the various races of mankind, which will 
contribute no unimportant quota to the history of their dispersion, and reflect new light, not merely 
upon the accessible present but, deep into the dark recesses of the shadowy past. 

Having premised so much, I shall now proceed to describe the Instrument and the mode of 
employing it. 

Upon a horizontal platform 16 inches by 8, the sides of which, for facilitating description, may be 
supposed to represent the cardinal points, its long diameter corresponding to North and South, a 
toothed circular disk 8 inches in diameter, having its periphery divided into degrees of which each tooth 
occupies 10, is made to revolve freely eastward or westward round a vertical axis. 

Upon and across this disk, imraoveably secured thereto, extends from east to west a bar of wood 9 
inches by 2, which carries at either ex:tremity an upright 7 inches long. Through these uprights, 
close to their upper extremities, pass two long screws which, if continued till they met, would exactly 
intersect the vertical axis round which the disk revolves. The ends of these screws are tipped with 
bra'^s, shaped so as to permit of their insertion into the external auditory foramina of a skull, 
and allow of the ready rotation of the Cranium upon them. Thus two motions of rotation can be 
given to the Cranium, one vertical upon a horizontal axis passing through the auditory foramina the 
other horizontal round a vertical axis bisecting the horizontal axis the point of bisection constituting 
the common centre from which the majority of the measurements are calculated. 

Instead of simply suspending the Cranium upon the screws described, a small stage is appended 
which revolves round them, carrying with it the Cranium and also a second toothed disk similar to the 
first but of rather smaller dimensions. Each disk has the degrees marked upon it eastward and west- 
ward from zero up to 180 : the zero of the lower disk corresponding to the due north point of the 
platform ; that of the upper to any determinate point upon the median line of the Cranium. A sli- 
ding ratchet locks the teeth of each disk ; and, as it becomes depressed by the passage of each tooth, 
(the equivalent of 10 degrees,) it puts in motion a multiplying index which indicates single degrees, 
or even fractions of a degree, if desired. 



Upon the platform, 8 inches north from the centre of the lower disk, is fixed a. perpendicular up- 
right 6 inches high, which carries a scale divided into inches and tenths. This scale slides freely north- 
ward or southward in a horizontal plane. Its southern extremity terminates in a pomt, and is so ad- 
justed that, when the index stands at 0, the point exactly coincides with the point of intersection of the 
axes of the two disks. This scale likewise admits of being elevated or depressed, without disturbance 
of its horizontal or meridional direction. There are some subsidiary contrivances for insuring facility 
and accuracy of manipulation which will be sufficiently intelligible by simple reference to the accom- 
panying sketch. 

In order to employ this Instrument, it is to be adjusted with the zero of the lower disk due north, 
and that of the upper in coincidence with an index attached to one of the uprights carrying the screws 
upon which the stage revolves : both disks to be secured in these positions by contrivances for the 
purpose until the Cranium is adjusted. 

A Cranium being now placed upon the stage with its median line north and south, the face looking 
northwards, it is to be secured by turning the screws vmtil their brass extremities ent^r the auditory 
foramina. The zero point of the Cranium (the naso-frontal suture or point of junction between tlie 
nasal and frontal bones) must then be elevated or depressed until the point of the graduated scale, 
when pushed forward, shall exactly impinge upon that spot : the Cranium is then to be secured in 
situ by means of screws attached to the stage for that purpose. 

If this stage be now made to revolve on its axis the horizontal disk remaining stationary the en- 
tire median line of the Cranium will be successively carried past the point of the scale, each tooth of 
the revolving disk moving it through 10 degrees ; the scale at the same time indicating the exact dis- 
tance, in inches and lOchs, between the point with which it is brought into contact and the axial 
centre. Know we bring any point of the median line we please, say 50 degrees from zero, to the. 
point of the scale, and, fixing the stage in that position, set free the horizontal disk, it may be moved 
eastward or westward through an arc of 90 degrees, carrying the Cranium with it past the scale ; 
which, as in the preceding case, will indicate the radial length of every point to which it may be ap- 
plied : and thus the whole of the Cranium may be measured to any degree of minuteness, and tlie 
results recorded with mathematical precision. In a word, the longittuh and latitude, so to speak, 
of every point, can be determined, and its radial extension measured. 

In addition to these measurements, which may be distinguished by the terms J{fe(?tan and Transverse 
Sections, a series of horizontal measurements, having the vertical axis for their centre, may be taken at 
successive elevations of 0.5 inches, by securing the skull at zero, raising the graduated scale the re- 
quired amount, and rotating the horizontal disk round its axis. These may be denominated Horizon- 
tal Sections. For a few other measurements the callipers will still be indispensable. 


In the accompanying Tables the measurements of two skulls, taken upon this plan, are 
attempted to be reduced to system : they are offered, however, merely as a first attempt, 


accurate as far as they go, but open to be modified or remodelled by more extensive experience. 

Tbe first Table contains measurements from the skull of Donatus or Dunan who, (according to 
D'Alton's "Archbishops of Dublin," page 26,) " was the first among the Ostmen who was Bishop of 
Dublin. By the aid of Sitric, the King, he built the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, afterwards called 
Christ Church, in the heart of that city, about the year 1038 ; and on the 6th of May, 1074, died at 
an advanced age, and was buried in his own Cathedral, in the upper part of the chancel, upon 
the right hand side." Worsaae,t likewise refers to him, and also gives 1074 as the date of 
his decease. Several years since, during the progress of some repairs, the grave of this Donatus was 
discovered in the position indicated ; the church having undergone very few alterations since it was 
first built : the only material one being the rebuilding of the south side of the nave, which fell down 
in the year 1562. Fragments of his mitre, adhering to the skull, still remained ; portions of a pewter 
chalice and platten were found in the grave ; and also a block of stone, so hollowed out and situated 
as evidently to have been intended for a support to the neck. The body had not been buried in a cof- 
fin, but, as far as the very Rev. Dr. Spratt, (in whose possession these interesting relics at present 
are, and to whose kindness I am indebted for access to them,) could recollect, in a grave lined with 
flags and covered with the same material. 

In Dr. Wilde's Ethnology of the ancient Irish, republished in his "Beauties of the Boyne and Black- 
water" (page 236) a side-view of this skull is given "as that of a Danish head of undoubted authenti- 
city," though by some inexplicable oversight, he notices it for its " peculiar length in its antero-pos- 
terior diameter;" whereas one of its most striking peculiarities is its immense lateral or transversal 
diameter, as compared with its longitudinal. 

By the aid of a moderate magnifying lens, portions of short perfectly white hair can be discerned 
adhering to the bone ; and a microscopical examination of a fragment of the lining of the mitre, 
the mitre itself, having been made of a rich silk and gold tissue, furnishes the curious fact that cottcm 
enters into its composition : a circumstance indicating the fabric to be, most probably, of Eastern 
manufacture ; as cotton could scarcely have been introduced into Europe, in an unmanufactured con- 
dition at so early a period. 

The second Table is from the skull of a human skeleton, discovered in November 1840, along with 
several weapons 'and ornaments, in the vicinity of Lame, County Antrim ; an account of which, by 
Huband Smith, Esq., will be found in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, for 1840-1, 
part v., page 40. 

At the time the Paper was read, the skeleton, weapons, ornaments, &o., were supposed to be of Irish 
origin and of very remote antiquity ; a conclusion at variance with the subsequent observations of 
Worsaae, who, in his " Danes and Norwegians in Ireland," (page 311,) has the following remarks : 

" Lastly, Snorro Sturleson relates that in, the beginning of the 11th century, a desperate naval bat- 

t " Danes and Norwegians in Ireland," pages 3i3-4. 


tie was fought between the Orkney " jarl" Einar, and the Irish king Konofogr, in Ulfrek's, or Ulflek's 
Fiord, on the coast of Ireland. The situation of this fiord or firth was entirely unknown until it was 
lately discovered that, in a document issued by the English-Lrish king, John, in the year 1210, the 
frith Lough Lame, on the east coast of Ireland, about fourteen miles north of Belfast, was at that 
time still called " Wulvricheford," which agrees most accurately with the Icelandic name " Ulfreks- 
^ordr." By a remarkable coincidence, a skeleton was dug up a little while previously, just on the 
shores of Lough Lame, together with a pretty large iron sword, having a short guard and a large tri- 
angular pommel at the end of the hilt ; the form of which sword, ( as I shall prove, ) was not Irish, 
but pure Scandinavian, like that of the swords used towards the close of heathenism in the north. 
There is every probability that the skeleton and sword belong to one of the Scandinavian warriors 
who fell in the above-mentioned battle, and was afterwards buried on the shore. Thus, both the ex- 
humed antiquities, and the lost but re-discovered name of the place, contribute to corroborate the cre- 
dibility of Snorro Sturleson's account." 

The accuracy of this conclusion has been recognised, and the skull, ticketed " Danish Invader," is 
preserved in the Museum of Trinity College, Dublin ; where, through the kindness of Dr. Ball, I was 
afforded every facility for examining and measuring it. Both the Crania selected, therefore, are sup- 
posed to be of the same race, and referable to a period not later than the 11th century. 

In general appearance these two Crania afford some well marked contrasts, which the tables and 
diagrams will more precisely indicate. The skull of Donatus is broader, shorter, and less high, than 
that from Lame, and the whole contour more spherical. The sutures are much obliterated, the sa- 
gittal entirely. The teeth are all gone, the majority having evidently been lost during life time ; cir- 
cumstances further corroborative of the age of the individual. The nasal bones are much decayed; 
the cheek bones of moderate dimensions, rather receding, and projecting on either side considerably 
less than the temporal bones. The Foramen Magnum is an oval, 1.4 x 1.26 inches; its transverse 
diameter being the longest. 

In the Lame skull the sutures are singularly distinct, even to the continuation of the sagittal 
through the frontal bone as far as the naso-frontal suture : the Wormian bones, also, are remarkably 
large. More than half the teeth have been dropped out of their sockets ; only the six back -teeth 
of the left side remaining. These exhibit no traces of wearing, and the last molar, or wisdom-tooth 
is considerably below the level of the others ; all which circumstances justify us in concluding that 
the individual must have been young or in the prime of life. The nasal bones are perfect, projecting 
gracefully downwards with a slight downward curve at their extremities. The cheek-bones are mas- 
sive and prominent, and project on either side to not much under the breadth of the temporal region. 
The Foramen Magnum is an oval, 1.6 x 1.3 inches ; its median axis being the longest. 


Median Section. 



























Angle of 
L. Maxilla. 














































Edge of 






































Nasal Crest. 















Nasal Bones. 























Naso-frontal S. 


























































































Coronal S. 





























































































Lambdoidal S. 

































































































Foramen M. 



Lateral diameter of F 

, Mag. 


Antero-posterior ( 














Breadth of Zygomata 




































Median Section. 



























Angle of 
L. Maxilla. 






























































Nasal Crest. 















Nasal Boues. 



























Naso-frontal S. 










































































60 4.6 












Coronal S. 












2.5 1 






















































































Lambdoidal S. 























0) a> 














































































Foramen M. 



Lateral diameter of F. Mag. 

Antero-posterior do. 













Breadth of Zygomata, 







































By the aid of the accompanying circle and scale, the one divided into degrees, and the other into 
inches and tenths, the 3 following diagrams have been projected from the preceding measurements. 

No. 1: the median section of each skull, traced upon the same plane, is sufl&ciently simple and in- 
telligible. It affords, at a glance, ample means for comparing their relative forms and numerical pro- 
portions as viewed in profile. 

The entire angular extent of each skull, from zero to the Foramen Magnum, is, for that of Donatus 
184, and for that from Lame 185 degrees ; of which, in Donatus, the frontal bone occupies 60, the pa- 
rietal 61, and the occipital, 59 degrees ; and in the Lame skull, the frontal 64, the parietal 60, and 
the occipital 65. 

Comparing their peripheries they will be found to coincide only in the occipital region; first at 130 
degrees, where each has a radius of 4.1 inches, again at 156 upon a radius of 2.25 inches, and lastly 
at 173" upon a radius of 2.25 inches: at every other point they differ considerably. At zero the 
difference amounts to 2.5 inches, which is reduced at 10 degrees, to 0.2, at 20 and 30 degrees it 
again amounts to 0.25; but at 40 falls a second time to 0.2; from whence to 70" it sinks to 0.15; 
at 80 and 90 it again reaches 0.25, thence gradually falling away to 130, the first coincident point. 
They then separate, again to coincide at 156, the difference, for so far, being altogether in favour 
of the Lame skull, and the preponderance chiefly in the frontal and coronal regions. From 1 56*^ to 
173 the skull of Donatus projects slightly beyond that of Lame. The longest radius in the skull 
of Donatus is 4.45 inches, and in the Larne skull 4.7. 

The difference in these various amounts, though apparently insignificant in figures, is sufficiently 
palpable when converted into outline; the 0.05 of an inch constituting a marked distinction. The 
angular and radial measurements of the face contrast quite as remarkably, but, after the preceding 
observations, will sufficiently explain themselves. 

The second diagram is projected from the maximum horizontal measurements of the right side, re- 
peated also for the left, affording outlines such as we should have if we were to look down upon the 
skulls from a point perpendicularly above the vertical axis, and presuming both sides to be symmetrical. 
If a scale be extended from the centre of this diagram along any of its radii, that portion of the table 
of horizontal measurements corresponding to the angular position of the radius will indicate the ex- 
tension of the Cranium along that line at every successive elevation of 0.5 inches. 

The third diagram represents transverse sections of each skull, at 90 degrees from zero; the right 
side projected from the horizontal, and the left from the transverse measurements. These are free 
from error and exhibit a difference^ between ihe rigid and left sides of each skull, of 0.1 inches ; the 
left exceeding the right in that of Donatus, and the right exceeding the left in that from Larne, by 
that amount, making a difference between the two skulls, at this particular section, of 0.2 inches more 
than the second diagram indicates; a defect I can devise no present method of correcting, unless it be 
to make similar measurements of both sides, and take the mean. Probably further experience may 
suggest some simpler remedy. In the meantime, the measurements recorded in the present instance 

I I I I I I I I I [ I I I I I I M I [ I I I I I I I I I I [ I I I I I I I I I I I M I I I I I I I I I h I I I I I [ 
I 2 . 3 4- 5 6 


furnish a perfectly faithful representation of each Cranium; insomuch that if we were to be at the trouble 
of cutting out the various sections in card, and adjusting them in their proper positions upon the me- 
dian section, we shordd have almost every portion of the sk\ill proper, or brain-box, accurately deli- 

A very cursory examination of the tables and the diagrams will now be sufficient to exhibit how 
remarkably these two Crania differ in form and size, as well as in what particulars. Thus the skull 
of Donatus considerably exceeds the one from Lame in breadth, and falls short of it in length. It 
is less elevated throughout, and particularly so from zero to 40 degrees in the frontal region, and from 
70 to 100" in the parietal. Viewed vertically, it gradually extends beyond it from 50 to 140, at- 
taining its maximum preponderance between 80 and 100 ; seen from behind, it exceeds it in breadth 
through a range of 60 degrees from 30 to 90, attaining its greatest magnitude at 55,o and exhibiting 
throughout a remarkably circular outline. On the other hand the Lame skull is broadest at about 
43 degrees, and gradually narrows downwards, in a nearly straight line, to 90; ita sides somewhat 
overhanging the perpendicular. 

The unusual lateral diameter of the Foramen Magnum exceeding, as it does, its longitudinal, by 0.16 
inches, may possibly indicate, in the skull of Donatus, some abnormal lateral development, referable 
rather to individual than to typical deviation ; but, making every allowance for such possible aberra- 
tion, the differences enumerated, and which have their special signification for the phrenologist, are 
amply sufficient to stamp the two Crania as belonging to widely different types. 

If the one be authentically Danish, as we have every reason to believe, what then is the other ? 
It certainly is not Irish, as we expect before long to be in a position to prove. The weapons and 
ornaments found with it, would, upon the high authority of "Worsaae, indicate it to be of Northern 
origin. If so, there must have existed the most marked typical differences in the cerebral organization 
of those who were, at the very remote period to which these Crania belong, classed under the common 
denomination of Northmen. This much these two Crania incontestibly prove ; but beyond this, we 
must wait the accumulation of farther materials before we can hazard even a conjecture. 

In conclusion, the chief value of the method now suggested appears to me to be its strictly nume- 
rical foundation, and consequent unquestionable accuracy. The facility with which measurements can 
be taken, recorded, and compared, and the perfect outline of any section produced, in the absence of 
plates; besides the advantage, specially its own, which it affords, for combining any required number of 
observations, and deducing therefrom averages which shall represent the normal type more faithfully 
than any single specimen. As yet the leisure at my command has not permitted me to work out the 
question so fully as I contemplate doing ; but already, I think, I can perceive the practicability of con- 
straoting, from these tables, a simple method of approximatively ascertaining the cubical dimensions 
of a Cranium. As already observed, what has now been offered is merely as a first experiment, my 
principal object in making the present communication public being to take the opinion, and solicit 
the advice, of those who feel an interest in such investigations. 


No. 1. 


Among the various immigrations which have so diversified the population of Ireland, there is none 
that has been attended with more important results than that of the French Huguenots, which took 
place at the close of the 17th and beginning of the 18th century. For a long series of years they had 
enjoyed in France the toleration granted under the celebrated " Edict of Nantes." By virtue of 
this law every " lord of a fief, whose power extended to capital punishments, was allowed the free 
and unrestrained exercise of the Reformed Religion within his own castle ; every lord without capital 
jurisdiction was permitted to have thirty persons present at Divine Worship in his family; and the 
full and plenary exercise of this religion was authorised in all places under the immediate jurisdiction 
of a parliament."' The Huguenots might also obtain offices of honour ; were allowed the privilege of 
being tried before magistrates of their own persuasion ; and might print books without applying for 
license to their superiors, in those cities where their form of religion was permitted. Their churches, 
also, as well as garrisons, were to be supported, in part at least, from the public resources. A clause, 
however, was introduced, restricting Protestant places of worship to certain distinct localities ; 
none were to be erected within several miles of the capital ; and several cities were held as pledges 
for the due performance of these stipulations. The Huguenots continued in possession of their privi- 
leges until the reign of Louis 13th, who, having established the Roman Catholic religion in 
Beam, drove the Protestants to arms, and refused to make peace with them unless they would 
demolish their garrisons and abandon their " cautionary towns." In 1625 he attacked Rochelle, 
which, after a siege of many weeks, and the loss of 13,000 of its citizens, surrendered to him. After 
its fall he granted to the Huguenots what was called the "Edict of Grace" by which (though the 
exercise of the Protestant religion was prohibited at Rochelle and some other places,) the " Edict 
of Nantes" was to a certain extent confirmed. But the hatred to Protestantism was as strong as 
ever, and soon shoxed itself in many annoying forms. Any man who called the Protestant 
places of worship " churches" was made liable to a fine of 500 livres. At Rouen a Protestant youth 
could not be apprenticed unless fourteen Roman Catholics were taken at the same time ; and no 

* As it is our intention, in future numbers of the settlements in Ireland, we shall feel obliged to our cor- 
Jouriial to give an account of all the different French respondents for any information on the subject. [Ed.] 


Protectant was allowed to act as an apothecary. Numerous separate edicts now appeared attacking 
them on all sides. One [in May 1659, and again in March 1661,] prohibited them from singing 
psalms, even privately in their own houses. Another [1664] compelled them to bury their dead 
clandestinely, and in the night. Another [1663] deprived the Protestant magistrates of the privi- 
lege of presiding in their coiu-ts. Another withdrew the means of instructing their children, 
leaving them only the minor schools, where they were taught merely to read, write, and count. 
Another prohibited them from printing books in favour of their religion, without permission from the 
King's Council ; and this, of course, could not be obtained. Another obliged parents, when children 
changed their religion, to give them a pension. Another [1665] prevented Protestants from giving 
charity to their poor brethren. Another exempted, from the payment of their debts, all those who 
should turn Roman Catholic. Another prohibited the ministers from preaching beyond the place of 
their residence. Another authorised priests and friars to enter the houses of Protestants, and to come 
to their bed-side, when sick or dying, to urge them to change their religion. By a single decree 
[August 1662] not less than 23 churches were pulled down on the merest pretences ; and in four 
years 187 Protestant places of worship were destroyed. A monk of Beam boasted that, of 123 
churches in the province, (resting on the most unquestionable title,) only 20 then remained. Similar 
cases might be cited in the other provinces of France ; and Protestants were often obliged to travel 40 
miles or more to attend public worship, or to get their children baptized. The intermarriage of Pro- 
testants with Roman Catholics was forbidden ; and the next step was to constitute children, at the 
age of seven years, capable of choosing their own religion. These, with other intolerable oppressions, 
induced many to determine on quitting France ; and, in 1682, three thousand families emigrated from 
a single quarter. This rapid depopulation of the country alarmed the Government, and an act was 
passed declaring departure from France severely penal. Part of the French army, which was then 
marching against Spain, was turned to the south of France ; these were quartered upon the Protes- 
tants, and their oppressive and overbearing conduct is since recorded under the name of the " Drago- 
nade." Notwithstanding the numerous petitions presented to the king entreating his clemency, of 
which the last, couched in the most submissive terms, was placed in his own hands by the Marquis de 
Bourigny, the General-Deputy, in 1684, he remained inflexible ; and on Thvu^day, the 8th October 
1685, the fatal Edict was signed, and the doom of the Protestant church was sealed. To this measm-e 
Louis the 14th was incited by the united influence of the Chancellor Le Tellier, his son Louvais, and 
jMadame de Maintenon, as well as by the Jesuits and the Church of Rome. The " Revocation" con- 
sisted of a Preface and twelve Articles ' ; and these were so rigorous that the entire Protestant Church 

The Preface is meant as an apology for the measure, religious assemblies of what kind soever. The 3d pro- 
nnd. as might be expected, is full of false statements, hibits the exercise of religion to all lords, and gentlemen 
By the 1st Article, the King repeals the protective edicts of cjuality, under corporal penalties, and confiscation of 
in all their extent, and ordains that all the temples, their estates. The 4th banishes from the kingdom all 

the ministers, and enjoins tliem to depart thence within 
fifteen days after the publication of the edict, under pen- 

which may be yet found standing in his kingdom, shall 
bo immediately demolished. By the L'd. he prohibits all 


was utterly crushed, and those who possibly could, hastened to the frontiers. These, however, were 
strongly guarded, as Louis did not wish to lose such good subjects ; so that the fugitives were beset 
with danger : however, by gaining over some of the guards, no less than fifty thousand families were 
enabled to escape. These dispersed and settled in various countries, benefiting them by the introduc- 
tion of their arts and manufactures. Those who were not fortunate enough to escape endured the 
most dreadful punishments. Some were hung up by the feet, and fires of wet straw lighted under 
them : when nearly dead, they were taken down and asked to abjure their religion, and then, if they 
refused, the torture was again applied. Some were half roasted; others, tied with ropes, were plunged 
into deep wells, from whence they were not drawn out until they promised to abjure. Laval in his his- 
tory of the Reformed Church of France, has an appendix of 100 pages in which he describes, in 
detail, the seven different ways in which Louis tried to force the Reformed to change their religion. 
Many of the highest rank and station, (such as Marolles, and Le Fcbvre,) were consigned to the 
galleys, where they lived in chains for many years, or died under the hands of their task-masters. 
However, as already mentioned, large numbers effected their escape : and arriving in Switzerland, 
Germany, England, Holland &c., were kindly welcomed in each. Great exertions were made in 
their behalf by the Queen of Denmark ; and the Swiss showed the greatest sympathy, and received, 
without exception, all who came, concealed as the were under the most varied disguises. Women were 
oftn dressed as men, and children packed up in chests as clothes. Those who passed into Holland 
at once received patronage and protection from William, Prince of Orange ; and all who had served in 
the French army received commissions of equal rank in his service. Several entire regiments of the 
refugees were formed, and accompanied him to England, and eventually to Ireland. Here, after 
peace was restored, they formed several settlements, being joined by nimibers from England and 
Holland. The chief localities of the colonies in Ireland were Lisburn (then called Lisnagarvey,) 
Dundalk, Dublin, Portarlington, Youghal, and Cork. Here they enjoyed many religious privileges, 
having their own pastors, their service conducted in their own language, and their ministers supported 

alty of being sent to the galleys. In the 5th and 6th he of his kingdom and the countries and lands of his obe- 

promises recompenses and advantages to such ministers, dience, there continue their commerce and enjoy their 

and their widows after them, as shall change their reli- estates without trouble or molestation on account of the 

gion ; and ordains that those children, who shall be born said religion, on condition that they have no assemblies 

thenceforward, shall be baptized and brought up in the under pretext of praying or exercising any religious 

Catholic religion ; enjoining parents to send them to the worship whatsoever." 

churches under a penalty of 500 livres. The 9th gives b Sec Appendix. Many went to Ireland, the Cape of 

four months time to such persons as have already de- Good Hope, Jamaica, North Carolina and New- York. 

parted out of the kingdom to return ; otherwise their A small colony came from Picardy into Scotland, and 

goods and estates to be forfeited. The 10th prohibits introduced there the manufactures of silk and cambric, 

all his subjects, of the said religion, and their wives or Another party came from Bordeaux, and settled at a vil- 

children, from departing out of the realm, and from con- Inge near Edinburgh, still known by the name of "Bor- 

veying away their effects: under penalty of the galleys dy-liouse." At Glasgow, also, a paper manufactory was 

for the men, and confiscation of money and goods for the established by a French Huguenot who escaped, accom- 

women. The 11th confirms the declarations heretofore panied only by his little daughter; and who was obliged, 

made against those that relapse. And the I'ith declares at first, to support himself by picking up rags through 

that, "as to the rest of his subjects of the said religion, the streets. Not less than 20 millions (francs) of pro- 

they may (till God enlightens them) remain in the cities perty left France with the emigrants. 


by the state. In Portarlington the service was performed in the French language till within the last 
fifty years. 

The Huguenot settlement in Lisburn, (to which the present article more particularly refers, and 
whose beneficial eflFects are visible at the present day throughout the province of Ulster,) owed its pros- 
perity, in a great degree, to the fact that the Grovernment of that day was desirous of discouraging 
the Woollen manufacture in Ireland, as injurious to England, and of encouraging the Linen manufacture 
in its stead. In November, 1697, in consequence of the representations of the Commissioners of 
Trade, presented to Parliament, a Bill was passed for this purpose, which contained various enact- 
ments calculated to foster the Linen Manufacture ; and which were to continue in force for 21 years, c 
After the passing of this act. King William next invited over, from Holland, Louis Crommelin, a 
French'Huguenot, who had obtained great celebrity in the Linen trade in that country, and who was 
considered the most suitable person to introduce the manufacture, in its most improved state, into 
Ireland. Accordingly, in the year 1698, he left Holland, accompanied by his son, and proceeded 
to the North of Ireland, to examine what place would be best adapted for the undertaking. After 
due deliberation, he selected Lisnagarvey, (now Lisburn,) in the county of Antrim, as the centre of 
the proposed settlement. The King, who took great interest in the project, approved of the site, and 
appointed Louis Crommelin " Overseer of the Royal Linen Manufacture of Ireland." He encou- 
raged him to invite over others of his countrymen, both of high and low rank, to take part in esta- 
blishing the manufacture and instructing the natives ; promising to befriend all who came, and gran- 
ing a premium of 5 for every loom kept going."! Louis now brought from Holland 1000 looms and 
spinning-wheels of an improved construction ; and invited over a number of French and other families, 
(in general, Huguenot refugees, like himself,) who gladly complied, and soon founded quite a colony 
among themselves. Three of these were appointed assistants to Louis, at a yearly salary of 120 
each. A church was built for the accommodation of the community, " and a chaplain ordained, receiv- 
ing 60 per annum. ' Their original bible and prayer-book in the French language is still preser- 

c The following is an abstract from this Act. Tho best piece to receive 10 premium, adjudged by the Fore- 
Linen manufacture was to be set on foot and encouraged man of the Grand Jury, those conversant with the Linen 
in Ireland, so as to make it the staple trade of this coun- Manufacture, and an officer appointed by the directors 
try. Spinning to be taught gratis to the childi-en of of the trade : the workman to be recorded as a " master 
those who were not worth more than 40 shillings per weaver." Five directors to be appointed, each rocei\-ing 
annum. At every Summer Assizes it might Ije lawful 100 a-year; their salary to increase as the trade pros- 
for any female inhabitants of a district to come and show spcrcd. 

their skill in spinning on the double wheel : a premium d This was discontinued after his death, 

of 10 to be awarded by the Graml Jury to the one who Tliis still exists, being the present Court-house of 

should spin the best thread in an hour, and her name to Lisburn. 

be recorded in Court as a "mistress-spinner:" a certifi- f There were three French Chaplains in succession, 
cate of tho same to be granted, witiiont fees, in presence The first was the Rev. M. de la Valade ; the second re- 
of the Judge, Sheriff, and Foreman of the Grand Jury, en- mained onlv 2i years and his name is not known: the 
titling her to privileges in wliatcver city she dwelt. And third was the Rev. Saumarez Dubourdieu. who was mi- 
that poverty might not keep any back, two pence per mile nister for 4o years, and was so beloved in the neighbour- 
was allowed for travelling expenses: the person, if desti- hood that, in the insurrection of 17i8, he was the only 
tute, to receive double relief from any charitable society person in Lisburn whom the insurgents fvgreed to spore, 
in the place. Every weaver at Summer Assizes, might The clerk of the chapel was ^I Peter Goyer. 
bring a piece of clotli as sample of his workmanship ; the g Now in the possession of the Rev. E. J. Cordner 


This colony consisted, besides the Crommelins, of about twenty-seven families, who were accom- 
panied by many respectable tradesmen. These settlers closely adhered to each other, generally 
intermarrying for two or three generations ; and long cherished the hope of being one day enabled to 
return to their own country. During the reigns of William and Anne they continued to enjoy 
many privileges and marks of favor. King William, after some time, considering that Louis 
Crommelin had expended, out of his private fortune, a capital of 10,000 on the undertaking, 
granted to him a pension of 200 a year, during his life. Louis, however, requested that this 
{tension should be given to his son, which was accordingly done; but this son dying only three 
months after, '' the pension reverted to the crown, and was not renewed ; so that Louis himself deri- 
ved no benefit from it. Louis Crommelin had many personal interviews with the King, who shewed 
hira much honor; and he likewise received the formal thanks of the L-ish Parliament in 1707. 
He was followed to L-eland, some time after, by two of his brothers, who brought with them a ca- 
pital of 20,000 ; each brother having been left 10,000 by their father. Several tradesmen, also, 
came with them; and finally Alexander, Ihe third brother, and Madeline, their sister joined them. 
The other sister, Marie, had married, whilst in Holland, Nicholas de la Cheroy ; after his death, in 
1706, she, likewise, with her children, Samuel and Madeline, came to reside at Lisburn, near her 

Derramore, Lisburn, a relative of the writers. It is 
printed in folio, at Geneva, A.D. MDCLXXVIII ; the 
Title-page is as follows : "La Sainte Bible, qvi con- 


Grecs par les Paste urs et Professeurs de I'Eglise de 
Geneve. Avec les Indices et les Figures necessaires 
pour r instruction du Lecteur. On a ajout^ en cette 
dernicre Edition les Pseaumes de David, mis en rime 
Frantjoise per Clement Marot, et Theodore de Beze. A 
Geneve, chez lean Anthoine Chovet. MDCLXXVIII." 
An Epistle is prefixed, addressed, "A tons ceux qui 
niment la v<;'rit^ de Dieu, comprise dans les Livres de 
lancienne et de la nouvelle Alliance : Grace soit et paix, 
de la part de Dieu notre Pere, et de notre Seigneur 
Jesus Christ :" and concludes in these words. " Au 
resto tres-chers freres, en quels lieux, pais, royaumes, et 
nations, que vous-vous trouviez unis, ou memes en quels 
endroits que par la malice des temps vous soyez epars, 
puis que c'est principalement a vous que nous avons 
desire et tache de servir, en proposant en notre langue 
matemelle ce grand et indicible thresor, selon notre 
capacite : c'est aussi a vous de le rccevoir avec une droite 
.affection, pour y chorcher cette perle uniquement pre- 
cieuse de la connoissance, crainte, et amour de Dieu, et 
de notre Seigneur Jesus Christ, tjui est ici raise comme 
en son Sanctnaire, au lieu qu' aiUeurs il n'y a que des 
cistornes crevassees, et des ruisseaux troubles des inven- 
tions humaines ; par lesquelles les hommes sont rendus, 
non pas religieux, mais superstitieux ; dont il ne naist 
qu' un penser, et non un croire : une opinion, et non une 
vrayc foy." 

Then follows a Prefsice by John Calvin, entitled ; " Pre- 
face montrant comment Christ est la fin de la Loy, par 
Maistre lean Calvin." Pi efixed to each Book of the Old 
and New Testament is an " Argument" or summary of 
its contents, and a like summary at the head of each 
chapter. The volume also contains tlie Psalms of David 
in French ver^e, and accompanied with the Music. The 
1st Psalm begins as follows : 

Qui au conseil des malins n' a ^te, 
Qui n' est au train des pecheurs arrete, 
Qui des mocqueurs au banc place n' a prise, 
Mais nuict et jour la Loy contemple et prise 
De I'Eternel, et en est desireux ; 
Certainement celuila est heureux. 

Then follows the form of Church Prayers with the 
manner of celebrating marriage, administering the sacra- 
ments &c. The whole concludes with the Catechism, and 
the Confession of Faith, which last is thus entitled : 
" Confession de Foy faite d'un coramun Accord par lea 
Fraiigois qui desirent vivre selon la purete de 1' Evan- 
gile de notre Seigneur, Jesus Chri'^t." 

^ His grave is in the present church-yard of Lisburn : 
the tomb-stone in the wall bears the following inscrip- 
tion : " Six foot opposite lyes the body of Louis Cromme- 
lin, born at St. Quintin in France, only son to Louis 
Crommelin and Anne Crommelin, Director of the Linen 
Manufactory, who died beloved of all, aged 28 years, 1 


Louis Crommelin, who thus may be said to have founded the present Linen Manufacture of Ul- 
ster, seems to have been respected and esteemed both by his countrymen and by the L-ish. as a 
most intelligent, upright man ; and, though a foreigner, taking a warm interest in the welfare of his 
adopted country, and devoting himself to its improvement. He was the author of a valuable Essay, 
printed in 1755, and entitled, "An Essay towards the improving of the Hempen and Flaxen Manu- 
factures of Lreland," containing many useful instructions for the better management of the Flax plant 
in its various stages, and for the several processes of spinning, weaving and bleaching. Almost 
every one of these has been adopted in Ulster; and though, of coxirse, many other improve- 
ments have been introduced of which he was ignorant, still his Essay must be considered as a 
very remarkable production. With all the details of the Linen Manufacture he was well ac- 
quainted ; the Crommelins having been, for nearly 500 years, extensive linen merchants, and 
possessed of large estates at Armandcourt, (anciently Vermanduorum,) a village near Saint 
Quintin, in Picardy. More prudent, however, than many of their countrymen, they had forseen 
the approach of the storm, and had gradually removed much of their wealth to Holland, be- 
fore it burst. In that country they continued to prosper, both as merchants and bankers; and 
they had became so eminent that Cooper, the American novelist, mentions the Crommelins of Amster- 
dam as well-known bankers in the time of Queen Anne. Louis Crommelin died in 1727.' 

Closely connected with the Crommelin family was that of De la Cherois, also Huguenot refugees, 
and forming part of the colony at Lisbum. They had suffered deeply under the persecutions in 
France ; and at length were so utterly scattered and despoiled that, after the general flight, only two 
members of the family were known to have remained behind; and those two were deaf and 
dumb co-heiresses, who had been placed for education in a convent. Immediately on the departure of 
their rightful guardians, they were forcibly detained, and their property confiscated for the use of the 
convent. The only branch of the De la Cherois family, which can be traced at all through their 

' Louis Crommelin^ having lost his only son, left one dren, viz., Mary who married Mr. De la Cherois, of Do- 
daugbter, who married Capt. de Bemiere, likewise a naghadee ; and Jane, who married R. Hammond, Esq. ; 
Huguenot. Alexander, the third brother, had been mar- 2, Daniel, married Madeline, daughter of Major de la 
ried in Holland to a Mdlle. de Lavalade, and had two Cherois, by whom he had three sons, Daniel, Nicholas, 
children ; 1, Charles, who died unmarried ; and 2. Ma- and De la Cherois. Of these, only De la Cherois left is- 
deline, who married Archdeacon Hutchinson, by whom sue, a daughter, Mary Angelica, who married Dr. Hut- 
she had three children ; 1, Samuel ; 2, Frances, who mar- chinson, and was mother to Mrs. G. Leslie, of Donagha- 
ried D. Browne, Esq. ; and 3, Matilda, who married R. dee. 3, James, married a French lady, Mdlle. Gillotte, 
Smyth Esq., of Duncree, county Westmeath. but died without issue. 4. John, likewise married a 

William, the younger brother, settled in Kilkenny, bo- French lady, Mdlle. de Blacquiere, by whom he had one 

ing one of the assistants appointed to his brother Louis : son, Isaac, who afterwards went to Holland, married and 

he conducted the branch of the Linen trade established at settled there, with the family of Madeline de la Cherois, 

that place. He married Miss Butler, one of the Ormond (mother of Lady Mount Alexander.) who had never left 

family, and had two children ; Louis, who died unmarried. Holland, and whose descendants still continue there, 

and Marianne. Madeline Crommelin, sister of Louis, and daughter of 

Samuel, the second brother, married, after arriving in the first Samuel, married Paul Mangen, Esq. 

this country, the daughter of General Bellecastle ; by Marie Crommelin, the only remaining sister, married 

whom he had issue four sons, Samuel, Daniel, James, as we have said, Nicholas de la Cherois, in Holland, 

and John ; 1, Samuel, married Harriet Mangen, by The Crommelins in the male line, are thus extinct in 

whom he had eight children: of these only one left chil- Ireland. 


Irish descendants, is that of Languedoc, to which belonged the three brothers who fled to Holland. 
Of their previous history scarcely anything is now known, more than is above stated ; owing to the 
he peculiarly reserved character of the first of this family who settled in Ireland. He felt so deeply 
the utter ruin of his fortunes, and the banishment from his country, that, in his anxiety to spare his 
children unavailing regret, he always evaded entering into the particulars of his history. The few 
that have been ascertained have been obtained chiefly from old papers and fragments apparently pre- 
served by chance, and from some of the original old Commissions. From these sources we learn that 
the family was derived from a small town or " seigneurie," called Chery or Cheroy, near Sens, in the 
province of Champagne, where, in the beginning of the 17th century, they had large possessions, and 
where they had continued in the rank of noble "proprietaires" for upwards of 500 years. They 
were connected with some of the flrst families in that country; amongst others, with the noble house 
of Montmorenci, by the marriage of Catherine de la Cheroy with Jean, Seigneur de Beauferney, 
whose daughter married Antoine de Montmorenci. We also find in an old French genealogical MS. 
the following account of some alliances of various branches of this family, commencing as far back as 
the year 1400, when the name seems to have been Chcry. In this is related how Louise de Chery mar- 
ried "Kaoul de St. Reiny; Chevalier tu^ a la bataille d' Agincourt en 1415." We next find a 
Seigneur de Chery, de Senailly, et d' leche, marrying Ammesson de Veroncourt, who was left a 
widow in 1449 ; " avait lo bail de ses enfans, et fit hommage pour eux de la terre de Cheroy." 
Her eldest son, Jean, married, first, Isabel de Huacourt, and secondly, Catherine de Choiseul, who 
appears to have been an heiress, and in right of whom her children and husband assumed the name 
of Choiseul. By her he had issue, 1. Claude de Choiseul, Sergent de Chery, and Maitre des Regents, 
who married " Marie de Beauvais, veuve d'Olivier Le Fevre d'Ornessan, et fille de Claude de Cahout, 
Seigneur des Ormes, President des Tresoreries de France a Orleans, et de Marie Fontaine des Montres:" 
and 2. Jeanne, who married " Charles de Courtenay, Seigneur de Blenan, et de Catherine de I'Hos- 
pital : il fut I'un de ceux qui prirent Ics armes pour s'opposer au Due de Orleans en 1485, et se 
trouve a la battaille do St. Aubia du [ ,] en 1488." Dying of the wounds he received at this 

battle, his widow Jeanne, married again, (17 April 1502,) Pierre de Poliegue, Seigneur de Borneville. 
After this we find no memorial until 1616, when it is stated that " Robert, Seigneur de Chery, et de 
Beauchamp, en Bourgogne, et de la Chapelle, fils de Jean, Seigneur de Chery et de Frangoise 
Lc Conquerant," mairied (16 Sept.j Marie de St. Simon, by whom he had one daughter, 
JVIarie Thercse, who married " Pierre Forest, Seigneur de Bellefontaine et de Pulsseux, Conseiller au 
Parlemcnt de Paris." By him she had a daughter, "Marie Anne, qui fut marine par contrat, 4 
Juin 1698, a Bonaventure Frotier, Seigneur de la Messaliere, dit le Marquis de Messaliere, regu 
page de la grande ecurie du Roi, le premier Janvier, 1672 ; apres avoir ete Exempt des Gardes du 
corps du Roi, il fut nomme Lieutenant des Grendarmes de Bourgogne le 31 Janvier, 1672, 
Brigadier de Cavalcrie en Jan. 1702, fut blesse a la bataille de Hochsted au mois d'Aout, 1714, et 
conduit en Angleterre. II fut nomme Marechal de Camp, au mois d'Octobre, la memo ann<?e, et 


mourut en sa terre de la Messali^re, 14 Sept. 1711." His wife (Marie Anne) "s'est remariee, Fevrier, 
1720, k un Exempt des Gardes du corps du Roi, ayant eu de son premier man quatre enfians." 

These notes, however, are so incomplete that we must take up the history of the Languedoc branch 
through the " Capitaine Samuel," a younger son of the Cheroy family. We find him first mentioned, 
in 1600, as an officer in the army, and obtaining a company about 1641 : serving, no doubt, fre- 
quently under the banners of the great generals of the time, and in the wars with Austria undertaken 
by Louis XIII., under the rule of Cardinal Richelieu. Of his three sons, two followed his example, 
and embraced a military career, while the eldest, Daniel, remained at home with his father ; who, on 
retiring from the army, had married an heiress in Languedoc, and settled there. At his death 
he left a handsome fortune to his eldest son, besides providing for his two daughters, Judith and 
Louise, and for his younger sons, Nicholas and Bourjonval, then subalterns in a regiment of Fusiliers. 
Nicholas' commission as Lieutenant, bears date 1675 ; and he was promoted to a company in 1677, 
at which period we find his brother Bourjonval a Lieutenant also. They had the honour of serving 
under the great Conde, who, with Turenne, at that time shed such a lustre on the French arms. 
Conde, however, resigned the command of the armies of France about this time, and died shortly 
after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. 

The two brothers remained with the army, and generally in action, until the " Revocation" com- 
pelled them to fly with so many of their countrymen. Nicholas and Bourjonval went at once to 
Holland, whither Daniel followed them. Judith and Louise, their sisters, who seem at first to have 
been averse to leaving France, were, in the end, obliged to fly in disguise, on horseback, accompanied 
by a faithful page, travelling always by night, and concealing themselves in the woods during the 
day. They took with them all the jewels and money they could carry, hiding them in the folds of 
their dresses. They made their way to Ham, where they continued to reside for some years ; 
though eventually they followed their brothers to Ireland. 

The three brothers having, as we have said, fled to Holland, were there received with the utmost 
kindness by William, Prince of Orange. He at once enrolled all the Huguenots, who had been of the 
military profession, in distinc t regiments attached to his own service, in which the officers obtained com- 
missions of equal rank to those which they had held in France. Nicholas de la Cheroy was given a com- 
pany, and Bourjonval a lieutenancy, in the regiment commanded by Colonel de Cambon, while Da- 
niel was made a lieutentant in that of the Comte de Marton. They remained, from this period, 
closely attached to William, and constantly engaged in his service, until the time of his ascending the 
English throne, when they also were among his followers. During their residence in Holland, they 
became known to, and finally connected with, the Crommelins. Both Nicholas and Daniel married 
ladies of this family ; Marie, (sister of Louis Crommelin, employed by King William to introduce the 
Linen Manufacture into Ireland,) becoming the wife of Nicholas ; and Madeline her cousin, the wife of 
Daniel de la Cheroy. 

In the year 1689, William first came over to Ireland, accompanied by his French guards ; and the 


individuals now mentioned followed him also the next year, and distinguished themselves not a little at 
the '* Battle of the Boyne." Their joy at the success of their cause however, was sadly damped soon 
after by the loss of their favourite brother, Bourjonval, who was killed, while gallantly fighting at the 
head of a small party of men, who were attacked unexpectedly near Dungannon by a large party of 
the adherents of James. In 1693, the kingdom being at last at peace, and the government of Wil- 
liam firmly established, Daniel de la Cherois was appointed by the King, governor of Pondi- 
cherry, in the East Indies, then recently taken from the French by the Dutch; and, although 
at the peace of Kyswick, in 1697, this place was restored to its former masters, Daniel continued 
to reside there for several years, realizing a large fortune. He seems never to have given up the hope 
of recovering some of his former possessions in France ; and is said to have gone over there himself 
secretly, several times, with this fruitless expectation. He left but one daughter, Marie Angelique 
Madeline, who married first an English gentleman, named Gruebar, of Feversham Park, Kent ; and 
on his death became the wife of the Hon. Thomas Montgomery, afterwards fifth and last Earl of 
Mount Alexander. The Earl also died without children, leaving his widow sole heiress of his estates 
in the County of Down. Her memory is, to this day, held in afiectionate remembrance by the aged 
poor of Newtownards and Donaghadee, where she principally resided. She was partly the means of in- 
ducing her two aunts, Judith and Louise, to come from Ham, and settle at Lisburn ; Louise died 
soon after her arrival there, but Judith lived to the great age of 113 years. She never could 
speak English, though upwards of 50 years a resident, and ascribed her failure to the ridicule excited 
among the Irish, by her imperfect attempts. 

Before Lady Mount Alexander's death, her cousin, Madeline de la Cherois, married Daniel Crom- 
nielin, (her mother's nephew,) and died, leaving three sons ; and at the death of Lady Mount Alex- 
ander, the estates were left divided equally between the eldest of these and her cousin, Samuel de la 
Cherois : but Nicholas Crommelin dying unmarried, and neither of his brothers having male heirs, 
left his portion to the youngest of Samuel de la Cherois' sons, who then took the name of Crommelin. 

Nicholas de la Cherois being the only one of three brothers who left a son, may consequently be 
considered as the head of the Irish branch, and to his history we therefore return. 

He still continued in the army, and was engaged with King William in all his continental cam- 
paigns, obtaining his Majority about 1694. After William's death he again served under the Duke 
of Marlborough, and distinguished himself on several occasions. Tradition records that one of his pro- 
motions was received in consequence of his having made 1500 men lay down their arms, with only a 
subaltern's guard ; and that, besides promotion, he received a reward of 1500 crowns. His commission 
as Lieutenant-Colonel was drawn out, but not gazetted, when he unfortunately lost his life about the 
year 1 706, through the carelessness of an apothecary, who sent him poison in place of medicine. 

In a subsequent article we purpose to collect all the particulars now known relating to the Linen 
Factory at Lisburn, and the other Huguenot families who settled there. 

^ Her faculties, even at this extreme old age, were still so perfect that she is known to have taught a child the Lord's 
Prayer two or three days before her death. 




- 16 April, 1689. " Acts of the English Parliament. 
It was ordered that the Committee to whom it is referred 
to consider of a way to relieve the French Protestant min- 
istere, and such as are incapable, otherwise than by 
charity, who are fled out of France for their religion, 
have power to send for persons, papers, and records." 
The Committee report. 24 April, " That the French 
ministers and divers other Protestants of France, fled 
hither for refuge, being summoned, appeared and ex- 
pressed a high sense of their gratitude for the generosity 
and charity of this House, in taking their distressed case 
into consideration ; and to show how ready they were to 
manifest their fidelity to the Government of this nation, 
they represented how the youngest and strongest of their 
body were lately formed into three regiments, who were 
ready to lay down their lives in defence of the Protestant 
religion and liberties of England ; that there are nearly 
20,000 more of them who exercise their trades in divers 

Earts of this kingdom, without any detriment fthey 
umbly hope) but rather to the advantage of the people 
of this nation : but that there still remain above 2,000 
persons, some of them old, others infants, others sick and 
impotent, but all unable to provide for themselves ; di- 
vines, physicians, merchants, gentlemen, common people, 
many of them heretofore rich and flourishing in their 
own country, but are now reduced to the utmost misery, 
and must infallibly perish and starve, unless assisted by 
this House." On 24 April, 1689, the sum of 17,200 per 
annum was granted for their support. On 1st May, 1699, 
it was resolved " that an humble address be made to His 
Majesty by such members of this House as are members 
of Privy Council, that he will please to take the condition 
of the French Protestants into consideration, and afford 
the same relief for their subsistence." Reply. " The 
Chancellor of Exchequer acquaints the House that His 
Majesty had received the petition concerning the poor 
French Protestants, and to allow the same ; with their 
Majesties' declaration of 2-5 April, 1689. William R. 
Whereas, it has pleased Almighty God, to deliver our 
Realm (England) and the subjects thereof from the 
persecution lately threatening them for their religion, 
and from the oppression and destruction which the sub- 
version of the laws and the arbitrary exercise of power 
and dominion over them had very near introduced. 
We, finding in our subjects a true and just sense thereof, 
and of the miseries and oppression the French Protestants 
lie under, for their relief and to encourage them that 
shall be willing to transport themselves, their families, 
and estates, into this our kingdom, do hereby declare, 
that all French Protestants that shall seek refuge into this 
our kingdom, shall not only have our Royal jjrotection 
for themselves, fiimilies, and estates, but we will also do 
our endeavour in all reasonable ways and means, so to 
support, aid, and assist them in their several and respec- 
tive trades and ways of livelihood, as thiit their living in 
this Realm may be easy and comfortable for them. 
Given at our Court, Whitehall. 

Presented in a petition to Pai-liament. Case of the 
poor French Protestants. " The French Protestants, 

who, by a special Providence, have taken refuge in this 
country, need not to justify their retreat into a kingdom 
where so great zeal hath been shown for that holy religion 
which they profess, and for which they sufiered so many 
things. The greatest part of them, have, after some time, 
found ways to maintain themselves and families by 
trades they were brought up to, or by bearing arms for 
the service of this nation. Nevertheless, there remain 
about 3,000 who had universally perished, had not their 
Majesties had compassion on them. It is for these 
poor Protestants that we implore the compassion of this 
House, beseeching you to consider that among them are 
1. many persons of good quality, bom to fair estates, and 
bred accordingly without trade or profession, which, 
after being ruined by the Dragoons, were forced to come 
over without any part of their estates : 2. a great many 
ministers, whose education and attendance on their mi- 
nistry do render them unfit for any other work, and who 
are so much more worthy of compassion, for that Edict, 
which broke the Edict of Nantes, did command them to 
depart out of the kingdom of France in fifteen days, upon 
pain of being sent to the galleys j so that they are come 
naked and destitute of support into the several coun- 
tries where they have taken refuge. 3. Many gentles, 
and others brought up either to the law or physic, and 
many merchants and tradesmen of all sorts, wno, by great 
age, and infirmity, and losses, are disabled to follow any 
employments: besides children yet too young to be put 
to any trade. All these are now reduced to the greatest 
extremities, and will be forced to beg their bread about 
the streets, if not speedily relieved. Above thirty mi- 
nisters, who are maintained in the country by charity- 
money, will be obliged to quit their congregations, and 
will be immediately followed by their flocks : both being 
necessitated to come to London to get bread. The un- 
paralleled charity which this generous nation hath mani- 
fested to them since their coming, makes them to hope 
that it will not suffer them to be reduced to that sad ex- 


Report of the Commissioners of Trade (to promote 
trade in the kingdom,) presented to the House of Com- 
mons, England, 26 May, 1700; Extract. " His Majesty 
having likewise referred to our consideration some pro- 
posals made by "Mr. Crommelin, a French refugee, long ex- 
perienced in the linen manufacture, for the more effectual 
establishment and improvement or that manufacture in 
Ireland, we humbly offered our opinion that his Majesty 
would be pleased to allow 800 per annum for ten years, 
to pay the interest, at 8 per cent, of 10,0tX), advanced 
by said Crommelin and his friends, for the setting on 
foot of that manufiUJture. The said 800 to be received 
and issued out by trustees appointed by his Majesty 
to inspect the employing of the said 10,000 : and Ms 
Mfuesiy having been pleased to give directions accord- 
ingly, the said Crommelin is lately gone to Ireland in 
order to put his proposals into execution : and we have 
reason to believe he will be able to make a considerable 
advance therein." 


The following is extracted from the acts of the Irish 
House of Commons 1705 ; " That the like privileges and 
immunities shall extend to all foreigners, master-work- 
men, bein Protestants, as are now or shall hereafter come 
into the kingdom and set up looms and work at the Linen 
Trade." [They are to be exempted from being petty 
constables or church-wardens or sides-men for seven years 
from their setting up ; they are also to be freemen in 
whatever city or corporate town they may reside, and 
not to serve as jurors.] 

1709. Irish House of Commons. Report of Com- 
mittee. " Mr. Speaker, the Committee appointed to 
inspect the state of the Lmen Manufecture, to report how 
the laws relating thereto have been extended, and in 
what manner and to whom the bounty-money, allowed 
by her Majesty for the encouragement of the Linen Ma- 
nufacture, hatb been hitherto disposed, have met accord- 
ing to the order of the House ; and do find, upon exami- 
nation of the registry and accounts belonging to the 
trustees appointed for the management of the Linen 
Manufacture : that in the year 1700 a patent was granted 
by his late Majesty King Willijim, of glorious memory, to 
a colony of French Protestants, who were to settle in the 
kingdom, and instruct the inhabitants thereof in the 
Hempen and Linen Manufacture: in which patent, among 
other regulations, it was directed that 880 should be paid 
yearly in salaries to said colonies, and 800 as bounty- 
money for linens by them made according to regulations 
appointed by said Trustees ; both which sums amounted 
to 1,180 yearly ; all which by said patent did more fully 
appear : That after the death of his late Majesty the 
grant determined, having been 21 years in force ; during 
which time there appeared to be payable, by virtue of 
said patent, the sum of 2,655 ; but that the Clerk of 
Register to the Trustees, being at the time out of the 
kingdom, the particulars of the payments of the said 
sums not appearing to your Committees, they had re- 
course to the Auditor-General's office, and there found 
that the sum of 1,027 Izs Od had been paid by warrants 
or orders of the Trustees for the use of said manufacture, 
which sum is acknowledged by them for the said 2i 
years, so that there remains in the Treasury the sum or 
1 ,<j2t3 8s Od being the balance of said sum of 2G55 : 
That upon her Majesty's happy accession to the throne 
a second patent was granted to continue for the space of 
ten years, whereby the bounty-money was extended to 
the natives of the kingdom, with a further latitude given 
for the Trustees therein nominated to do and act as they 
think fit for the encouragement of the said manufacture; 
and the said sura of 1180 per annum, to be placed 
upon the establishment : That, according to the intent of 
the present Patent, several of the small Hempen and 
Linen manufactories have been erected within the king- 
dom which have received a share of the said bounty- 
money ; part whereof hath also been expended upon other 
contingencies relating to the Linen and Hempen manu- 
facture as directed by said Trustees : we find that of 
the ten years for which the last Patent was continued, 
6i years expired 23d of December, 1708, for which said 
time there was payable out of the Treasury the sum of 
7,607, of which sum 7,2-n3 123 O^d hath been paid in 
bounty-money, salaries, and contingencies as aforesaid, 
so that there remains as yet due 386 7s lUd, all which 
will appear more at large in a particular account here 
annexed." " By Patent granted by King William of 
glorious memory, for the encouragement of the Linen 
Manufacture, beginning 25 March, 1700, to 24 January 

1702, there was due from the Treasury 2 years at 1,180 

Eer annum, 2,665, Since the second Patent granted by 
er Majesty the French colony at Lisburn has receivea 
from time to time for the interest of their advance the 
following items : 

1708 2,457 128 Hi 

Pensions paid to French colony at Lisburn. 
1704 1705 February 10. To Louis Crommelin 

for three years, 600 

To French Minister for two years 120 

To flax-dresser for 2} years, 27 

To the reed-maker for like term, 18 

January 18. To Louis Crommelin &c., &c.. for one 

year, 280 

November 26. To same for nine months, ... 210 
1707 Aug. 26. Tosame for like term, ... 210 

To the arrears of two assistants, 360 

November 20. To L. Crommelin, Minister &c., 

for three months, 80 

1708 June 19. To L. Crommelin for six months 160 
December 11. Tosame 26 


A petition of Louis Crommelin, " IMerchant and Over- 
seer of the Linen Manufacture of the kingdom," repre- 
senting the great improvement of the Linen Manufacture 
in the kingdom, and the present state thereof ; praying 
his services and those of the French colony, concerned in 
the manufacture, may be taken into consideration was 
presented and read, 1707. 

In 1717, a petition was presented to the House of 
Commons by " Louis Crommelin, gent, proposing, upon a 
suitable encouragement, to set up and carry on the Hem- 
pen manufacture of sail-cloth, in such part of the king- 
dom as the House thinks proper." 


Commission appointing Nicholas de la Cheroy, Lieut. 
1675, " A Mou, de Sclana, Capp '. d'une Compc. fpanche 
d.g. Int't'^ de fuziliers pour mon service. La Cheroy. 
Mon. de Sclana ayant donne a M. de la Cheroy la charge 
de Lieut, de la compe franche d'inf'* de fuziliers que 
vous commandez, vacante par la retraite de Dobayne, Je 
vous fais cette lettre pour vous dire, que vous ayez a le 
faire recevoir, et a s'etablir en la ditte charge et recon. 
en telle de tous ceux a moy qu' il appartiendra la presente 
restant pour notre foy. Je prie Dieu qu'il vous ayt, Mons. 
de Sclana en sa s' garde. Ecrit a Versailles, le dou- 
zieme Avril, 1675. Louis." 

Commission, dated 16 Nov. 1677. " Pour le Sr. de la 
Cheroy, Nous, par la grace de Dieu Roy de France et de 
Navarre, a notre cher et bien-aime le Cappn la Cheroy 
salut, La Comp"i franche d'infanterie de fuziliers que 
commandoit le Cappede Sclana es taut a present vacante 
par sa demission, et desirant remplir cette charge d'une 
personne qui s'en puisse bien acquitter. Nous avons 
estim^ ne pouvoir faire pour ce Seigr. une meilleur 
choix que de vous, pour les services que vous nous avez 
rendues, dans toutes les occasions qui s'en sont presen- 
tees, oh vous avez donn^ des preuves de votre valleur, 
courage en la guerre, vigilance et bonne conduite, et de 
votre fideliie etaifection a notre service: A ces causes 
etaustres a ce nous mouvant. Nous vous avors commi.", 
ordonne, et estably, comme tous ordonniis et establissea 


par ces pr^sentes sig^nes de notre main, Cappae de la 
a** Compie franche vaccante comme du et en y dessue ; 
Laquelle vous commandirez, conduirez, et exploiterez 
Bouby notre autorito et souby celle de nos lieutenants 
* * * * qu'il vous sera par Nous ou eux 
commande et ordonne pour notre service, et nous vous 
ferons payes ensemble les oflSciers et soldats de la d"*. 
Compie des estats, appointements, et soldes, qui vous 
seront et a eux deuby, suivant les moustres et revues 
qui en seront faittes par les commissaires et control- 
leursdes guerres et de la patrie, tant et si longuement que 
la d^e Compie sera sus pied pour notre service et nay 
la manef acquelle vine en si bon ordre et police que nous 
n'en puissions revenues doplantes. Tel faire nous don- 
nons pouvoir, commission, autorite, et mandement sp6- 
cial ; Mandons k tons qu'il appartiendra que vous ayez 
faisant son obey ; car tel est notre plaisir. Donno a St. 
Germains Lay, le seizieme jour ae Novembre, I'an de 
grace mil six cent soixante dix septs, et de notre regne 
le trente ciuq. Par le Roy. " Levis, Le Tellier. 
Another contains the commission of Bourjonval de la 
Cherois, 1677. 

The next contains merely leave of absence for two 
months to Nicholas de la Cheroy, and is only interest- 
ing from the date (24 Feb. 1686,) rendering it probable 
that it was obtained for the purpose of then making his 
escape, as, excepting his passport of the same period, it 
is the last of the official French papers. The following is 
a copy of the passport alluded to, which is worth record- 
ing, as it gives not only the age, but the personal ap- 
pearance of Nicholas de la Cheroy : he must have been 
born about 1661. It is headed, as usual, with the Fleurs- 
de-lis, and proceeds : " Joseph de Fonts, Baron de Mon- 
telar Lieut. Gen. des armes du Roy, Mestre du Camp, 
Geniral de la Cavallerie legere de Prance, Commandant 
en chef pour sa Majeste dans la Haute et Basse Alsace, 
Suntgau et Brisgau.Laissez seulement et librement 

Sasser et repasser le porteur du present passeport, age 
'environs trente cinq ans, de poil chattain. portant per- 
ruque, Capitaine au Regiment des fuziliers du Roy, allant 
a Liege pour y faire des recrues pour le Regiment et 
pour la Compagnie.~Fait a Strasbourg le vingt deuxieme 
Octobre, mil six cents quatre vingt six." The route of 
this recruiting-party is also among the old papers, but 
need not be copied here. 

The date of the following Commission (the first he 
received from King William, and which is written in 
the Dutch language,) seems to confirm the supposition 
that his " conge" had been obtained as a ruse in order 
to enable him to go over secretly to Holland ; since, 
as we have seen, the permission is dated 24 February 
1686, and this, 17 July 1687, Whether he afterwards 
returned to France is uncertain, but it seems unlikely, 
as his passport dates from Strasbourg. " De Raedt 
van State der -vereenighde Nederlanden heeft uyt 
krachte ten ende in executie van de Resolutie, van 
liaer Hoogh Mog. de Hcrrn Staten General genomen den 
negenthienden Junig Sesthien hondert sevenentachtigh 
Midtagaters op do acte van syne Uoogheyelt, den Ileere 
Prince van Orange, Judan den 19 Jany soors, van Nicho- 
las de la Clierois gewesen Capiteign te soer in dienst van 
den Konengh van Vrankrejik, geaccordccrt, werdt midts 
dese een jaerlycks Pensiventer sonmic van seven hon- 
dert Carols- goldens, ingaende op hcden tebetaken van 
Maendt tot Alandt ten comptoire van den outfanger 
general Mr Cornelis de jonge van EUcinat. sender eenighe 
atkortinghe toy van honderstem Penningh, ofte ondcr 
wat naam hat selve sonde mogen wescn, des dat hy 
geliondcn is te praesteren den Eedt van den lande te sul- 
len wesen gehouw ende gotrown, ende te dienen in alle 

occasion in de welcken goedtgevonden sal worden syien 
en dienst te gebruiken, eulcks eels by-t Formulier van 
den Eeltdaer van zignde nader staet ge-expresteert Ac- 
tum den seventhienden July sesthien hondert sevenen- 
teeghtigh. Gly van Hoethye, 1687. TerOrdennantie van 
den Raedt van State. G. Hacssingel. Andg." 

There is another Dutch Commission among the papers 
at Carrowdore Castle, County Down,datedayearpreviou8 
to this, (12 Feb 1686,) and addressed to Lieut. Abraham 
de la Cheroy ; but it is not necessary to copy it, as it is 
not known now what relation he was to the brothers, 
though evidently of the same family. He may have es- 
caped a year before them, and have paved the way for 
their reception ; and Nicholas, perhaps, did not leave 
France until some time after the date of the last French 
documents. The " Route " for the recruiting party, al- 
ready alluded to, after his " cong6 " had expired, is dated 
from Versailles, August, 1G86; after which follows the 
passport dated 22 Oct., 1686 : and hisfirst Dutch Commis- 
sion bears date 17 July, 1687, nearly nine months alter. 
Should our supposition be correct, it proves the urgent 
necessity for his flight, since the circumstance of remain- 
ing so long behind the multitudes of his countrymen 
would show the great reluctance with which he went 
at all. 

The next Commission is the first one received subse- 
quent to William's assuming the crown of England, and, 
as no Christian name occurs in it, it is uncertain whether 
it belonged to Daniel or Bouijonval ; the latter is most 
probable, fi-om his having previously served in France 
under Nicholas, whose Commission immediately follows, 
at the same date. 

A Commission, appointing Nicholas to a Majority, clo- 
ses the number preserved of this period : the one appoin- 
ting him Lieutenant-Colonel not oeing quite, fofficially,) 
completed, (although drawn out,) at the time of his death. 

William Rex. William and Mary, by the Grace of 
God, King and Queen of England, Scotland France and 
Ireland, Def. of the Faith, &c. To onr trusty and well- 
beloved Nicholas de la Cherois, Esq", greeting: We 
reposing especial trust and confidence in your loyalty, 
courage, and good conduct, do, by these presents, consti- 
tute and appoint you to be Major of our Keg' of foot com- 
manded by our trusty and well-beloved the Comte de 
Marton, and likewise to be Cant, of a coninany in the 
same. You are therefore to talce the said Regiment aa 
Major, and the said company into your care and charge, 
and duely to exorcise the officers, as well as the soldiers 
thereof, in armes, and to use your best endeavours to 
keep them in good order and discipline ; and we do hereby 
command them to obey you as their Major and Captain 
respectively : and you to observe and follow such direc- 
tions, from time to time, as you shall receive from us, 
your Colonel, or other your superior officers, according to 
the Rules and Discipline of War, in pursuance of the 
trust we hereby repose in you. 

Given at our camp at Mount St. Andr'. the 1st day of 
August, 1604. In the sixthyear of our reign. Le 3, Fev- 
rier, 1694, Jay, [commusntSj h. I'eglise en paroisse de, St. 
Martin, etle s'l du dit jay wit serment du test a la Cour 
de la Chancellerie a Westminster, adixheures du matin. 
By his Majesty's command, William Bleth way Che- 
rois to be Major. 

The remainingpapers and memoranda, though interest- 
ing from their antiquity, are not of any further use for 
our present purpose. Many valuable relics, which were 
still in preservation at the beginning of this century, are 
now lost; among others the old Commission appointing 
Samuel de la Cheroy to a company in ltV41, the only on 
under Louis ISth ; also some valuable diamonds. 


By the rev. W. REEVES, L.L.D., M.R.IA. 

The small parish of Jonesborough, in the diocese and county of Armagh, consists of three town- 
lands, which were severed from Killevy in the last century, called Foughill Etra, Foughill Otra, and 
Edenappa. The last of these forms the south-western extremity of the county, and is traversed by 
the old road from Dundalk to Newry ; at a short distance to the east of which, and very near the 
junction with Louth, is a place, which is marked by the Ordnance Survey, both on the townland and 
Index maps of the county," Kilnasaggart. 

This name signifies the " Church of the Priests," and thes pot which bears it is a small, unenclosed, 
and slightly-elevated space near the edge of a field, on which may be recognized some traces of ancient 
sculpture, but none of any building ; and were it not for the respect which the country people enter- 
tain for the spot, and a conspicuous pillar-stone which stands in it, the inquirer would in vain search 
the neighbourhood for a place ta realize, by any symptom, the import of the name. The pillar-stone 
however, is of such unmistakeable antiquity, and the brief record, which is inscribed on it, so explicit, 
that it may safely be pronounced to be one of the most interesting Christian monuments now 
existing in Ireland. 

The stone, of which a front and back view are given in the accompanying illustration, is about eight 
feet high, and seems to have been no otherwise dressed than the preparation of the surfaces for the 
inscriptions and designs. The former is a good deal obliterated by time ; but some of the letters, 
which are large and deep, are very plain, while the rest, which are not so well incised, and are with dif- 
ficulty docyphered. The whole, however, has been recovered and is here exhibited with a collateral 
Latin translation. '' 


fO"DO -chl HVNC CON- 

TnmaeT?in secravit 

rennohc ternocvs 

Tnaccer?an filivscerani 

6it: eR cue sit svb patrocinio 
pe^eRap Petri apos- 

r^ec/ toli 

" Sheet 32. ^ Iha writer is indebted to Dr. O'Donovan for the interpretation here given. 





illX^O lV.Ls. 


The structure of these words is very ancient, but very clear, and the following analysis of them may 
not be unacceptable : 

/n, an old form of the article An. 
Loc, 'Place,' root of Latin Locus. 
So, Demonstrative pronoun. 

Do thimmaerni, 'Devoted,' 'made over,' past tense of the verb ftWaT^azm. The corres- 
ponding word in the Book of Armagh, and some of the Latin Lives of the Saints, is im- 
molo; thus we find in Tirechan : " Patricio in sempiternum ymmolaverunt,' qui funda 
vit aecclesiam, Deo consecratam, Patricioque immolatam ; Colmanus episcopus aecclesiam 
suam, id est, Cluincain in Aehud, Patricio episcopo devotiva immolatumein sempiternum 
obtulit' ;" nay, to a reader unapprised of this technical use of the term, like the fate of 
Jephtha's daughter, it would have a startling eflFect to be told that Hercaith, immediately 
on his baptism, " immolavit filium Patricio ;'' and to find Endeus saying " filium meum et 
partem hereditatis meae ego immolo Deo Patricii et Patricio."* 
Bit, 'Let him be,' now hiodh, 3d. person, sing, imperative of the verb-substantive Taim. 
J5V cid, Er, the old form of the preposition ar 'on.' Qui is ' back; ' and the two words some- 
times form a compound-preposition in the form Arculaib, or Ar g-cul, 'behind.''' In a 
metaphorical sense the expression denoted 'under the protection,' 'under the patronage, 
as in the lines of the Rann by Aengus the Culdee : 
Ar cul Fhinnein Moighe-hile, 

Ulaidh uile. / 

Dal nAruidhe no sol imglrinn 
Ar cul CorngJioiU. 
" Under the patronage of Finnian of Movilla, 
Are all the Ulidians : 
The noble illustrious Dalaradians 
Are under the patronage of Comgall.'" 
Peter Apstel. ' Peter the Apostle.' This was a departure from the custom of the early Lish 
church, whose patron saints were, nearly all, natives of the soil. Tho Liber Angeli, 
in t'lc Book of Armagh, claims for the see of St. Patrick this honour, " nihilominus 
ventrari debet honorc summorum martyrium, Petri et Pauli Stefani, Laurendi, et 

.r,ook of Armagh, fol. ]?,.. in the Life of St. Rarrus of Cork. M.S. Trir. Coll. Dub., 

,,.. f ] ,- I E. 3. 11, fol WX h.b. 

' i\-^' f 1 1- '" ' O'Donovan, Irish Gram. pp. 282, 289. 

%. . , ' , e ' " "" 1 Colgan Acta Sanct., p 646, col. a; RecTes' Eccles. 

f llml. fol. 8, . ^. ,,.,., Antiq.p.151. 
s Ibid, fi)l. 10, b. I. The word is u!=cd also, in like sense. 


The large cross at the foot of the inscription is probably intended as his symbol, while the ten 
smaller ones in the back seem designed for the remaining ten of the faithful apostles. The cross in- 
scribed on the ragged, oblique, surface at the top, and that on the detached stone, possibly refer to the 
apostate and the supplementary members of the Twelve. It is to be observed that the crosses, and 
the circles enclosing them, are in relief. 

The individual, in whose memory the stone was erected, flourished in the beginning of the eighth 
century, and appears to have been a person of some importance, who dedicated himself and his pos- 
sessions to the service of God. His obit, which is all that is recorded of him, occiirs in the Annals 
of Tighernach, at the year 716, which is the true date, and in those of the Four Masters at 714.'' 

Ternoc Mac Giarain decc. 
Ternoc son of Ciaran died. 
He was descended from Fiacha AraiJhe, the ancestor of the Dalaradians, and was of the same race as 
the great families of Magenis an IMacartan. The Naomh Seanchus, or ' Sacred Genealogy,' preserved 
in the Book of Lecan and the Mac Flrbis manuscript, gives his pedigree as follows : 

1. Fiacha Araidhe, ob. A.D. 236. 


2. Cas. 


3. Fedlimidh. 


4. Iomcuadh, 


5. Ros. 



7. Eaciiacii Cobha, from whom Iveagh 

and Mov Cova. 


8. Crdnn-Badbaigue. 


9. Caolbadh, obiit A.D. 358. 

10 Saran, contemporary with St. Patrick. 

11. Ciaran or Ciarog. 

12. Ternoc or Trenoc. 

This pedigree serves to show his lineage, but is evidently incorrect in some parts, for it is redun- 
dant between 1 and 7, and greatly deficient between 10 and 11.' 

In the Calendar there are five saints called Ternoc, but all disposed of elsewhere Colgan, indeed, 
who cites the above pedigree,'" identifies the subject of it with a Ternoc, who is mentioned by O'Don- 
nellus as one of St. Columba's companions, " and with a St. Ternoc, of Airiodh-muilt, who is com- 
memorated at the 28th of February ; but neither the date of one, nor the place of the other, is refer, 
ible to the individual under consideration. He rather seems to be the Ernan, who is commemo- 

k In his note on the place, Dr. O'Donovan observes : 
" This Ternoc was interred at Kilnasagart, near Jones- 
borough, in the county of Arniagh, where his grave is still 
marked by a pillar stone exhibiting his name, Ternoc mac 
Viarain." Annals Four Mast. p. 313. 

' See the calculation in Reeves' Eccles. Antiq. p. 349. 

^ Trias Thaum., p. 4-51 b, n. 84. 

" Vita S. Columbse, i. 103. Tr. Th. p. 40G b. 


rated in the Calendars of Marian Gorman and O'Clery, at the 26th of October ; and whose name, 
by a process that was common among the Irish, was capable of assuming the form of Temoc : 
Eniain Miodhluachra Cill-na-Saccart. 
' Ernain, of Miodhluachra, in Cill-na-Sagart.' 
Miodhluachra was, in ancient times, one of the five great roads of Ireland, but its identification has 
hitherto escaped discovery " ; so that this entry, taken in conjunction with the following extracts, is 
valuable in fixing part, at least, of its course at the Moiry Pass, and so determining it as the high road 
which led from Leinster through Louth, and over the heights of Slieve Fuaid, into the county of Ar- 

"Die quadam cum sanctus pra3sul [Patricius] in Ultonian profecturus, iter ageret per viam 
publicam quae via Midh-Luachra vulgo nuncupatur." Vit. Tripart. iii. 57. '' 

" Postquam autera sanctus Secundinus hymnum praedictum composuisset, eum attidit ad S. Pati- 
ciuni ; quem in regions Ccnalliorum juxta viam Midh-Luachra ad pedem montis sedentem reperiens, 
&c., Ibid. iii. 91.'' 

" Vir ille qui hodie tres jubilationes in agro Miodhlxmchrce fecit, possidebit hunc locum : ipse est 
Telli filius Segeni." Vita S. Munnae, c.lO. ' 

" Glunsalach mac Costamail, of Sliabh Fuaid, near Miodhluachra." Calendar at June or 
In the fourteenth century the name became disguised in the uncouth forms of Inncnnallan,, aud 
KjnerduUam, as in the following passages, the former of which is given at some length because it 
connects this spot with an important period of Irish history. 

" Schir Edward then would take on hand / 

To ride forth farther in the land ; 

And of the kings of that country 

There came to him and made fcwty, 

Well ten or twelve, as I heard say ; 

But they held him short while their fay, 

For two of them, one Macgtdlane 

And another heght Maclcartane 

Withoct a pass into his way, 

Where him behooved need away 

With two thousand of men with spears, 

And as many of their archers, 

And all t he cattle of the land 

> See Introduction to Book of Rights, p. lix. Copied from the Scholium in Marian Gorman into 

i> Pnlo.,,,, Trii Tli'imn n M'JO a the text of the O'Clerya. 

. t ; ! ' ^' ' This place was far t- o south for Mac Quillan. Mac 

I 1 nas Thaum . p. 1U() a. Duileachan may be intended. Sec Kcevcs' Ant. p. 3G8. 
' Colgan. Act. IsS. p. lo a, c. 4. 


"Were driven thither to warrand : 

Men call that place Innekmallanb 

In all Ireland straitor is nane ; 

For Schir Edward there keeped they, 

They thought he should- not there away: 

But his voyage soon has he tane, 

And straight towards the pass is gane. 

The Earl of Murray Sir Thomas 

That put him first to all essays, 

Lighted on foot with his menzie, 

And apertly the pass took he, 

Thir Irish kings I spake of air, 

With all the folk that with him were, 

Met him right sturdily; but he 

Assailed so with his menzie 

That mauger theirs, they wan the pass 

Slain of their foes many there was. 

Throughout the wood them chased they, 

And seized in sik fusion the prey 

That all the folk of their host were 

Refreshed well a week or mare. 

At KiLSAGART Schir Edward lay. 

And thar wele sone he has herd say 

That at Dundalk was assemble 

Mad of the lordis of that cuntre." 

" The Brus" by Barbour, cxii. 199. 
The other record in which the disguised name of the pass occurs is Grace's Annals, at the year 
lo4o, wlicre it is said of Sir Ralph Ufford the Justiciary, "going into Ulster he suffered great loss 
Ir Jill MacCartan in the pass of Emerdullam, [in angustiis Emerdullam] having lost his clothes, his 
money, his vessels of silver, and some of his horses, he also lost some of his men ; yet, by the help 
of the men of Uriel, he, at last, made by his escape into Ulster." " 

In the sixteenth century the pass was known among the Irish by the name ofBealach an Maighre ; 
an 1 we accordingly find it mentioned by the Four Masters, at the years IGOO, 1601 ; while English 
writers term it phonetically, the Moierie Pace, or Moyry Pass, which is still preserved, as shown on 
the Ordnance Map of Armagh, sheet 32, which marks the " old road from Dundalk through Moiry 
Pass," and the *' Moiry Castle," a small square fortification that stands on the high ground a little 
above Kilnasaggart. 

Grace's Annals, edited by Rev. Ilichard Butler, for the Irish Archfcological Society, p. 137. 
[Erratum. In page 221, line 11, for "sculpture" "sepulture."] 


Celtic Antiquties in the HoLjr Land. " There is 
now exhibiting at the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly, a moving 
Diorama of the Holy Land, painted from Photographs and 
Daguerreotypes taken on the spot in 1849 and 1850, One 
of these views deserves the especial notice of Irish Anti- 
quarians, from its presenting a feature so strikingly Irish 
tuat one would think it was taken from an Irish subject. 
In the immediate vicinity of the Lake of Tiberias and of 
Mount Thabor stand two monuments of that sort which 
we call in Ireland " Druidical Altars," or " Croraleacs." 
The larger is of this kind : three great blocks or pillars 
of stone support a fourth placed horizontally upon them. 
Ireland is full of monuments of this description, and it 
is impossible to deny that they were erected with the 
same desi^jn. The second is composed of two blocks of 
unequal size and height, supporting a third, which thus 
presents an incline like the stone altar at the " Giant's 
King" near Belfast. These monuments are probably ol- 
der than the time of Moses ; and there can be little doubt 
that they are structures raised by the C.inaanites or pri- 
mitive inhabitants of the Holy Land. Another striking 
feature in these views of Palestine, (taken, be it obser- 
ved, from nature on the spot,) is the number of Pillar 
Towers which we discover in every city; Jerusalem 
in which I counted not less than six or eight ; Joppa, 
Tyre, Sydon, Beyrout, &c. In the ruins of Petra, the ca- 
pital of ancient Edom, also stands a Pillar Tower. Most 
of them indeed, are modem ; but they prove that this kind 
of building is proper and peculiar to tlie country. Tlie 
ruined Tower at Petra stands solitary in the midst of the 
desolation of that wonderful place ; and in spite of scep- 
ticism one is compelled to say, " How like an Irish Round 
Tower!" This is the only ancient Round Tower repre- 
sented in the views of the Diorama ; but if the country 
were thoroughly known and explored we should perhaps 
discover many more, not only of these, but of stone al- 
tars." C. MacS. London. 

Carolan's Skull. In the collection of Antiquities 
and other objects illustrative of Irish History, exhibited 
in the Museum of Belfast, during the late meetinij of the 
British Association, there was a skull (in case Iv umber 
9,) said to be that of Carolan the celebrated Irish Bard. 
I was particulai'ly struck with its very small size, and 
showing by its phrenological developments very little of 
a musical taste and at the same time, I had some doubts 
of its authenticity. I have since, through the kindness 
of a friend, been referred to " Walker's Historical Me- 
moirs of the Irish Bards," published in Dublin by Luke 
WhitCj in 1786, wherein at page 96 of the A^>pendix is the 
following passage : " Mr. O'Connor when in tlie neigh- 
bourhood of Killronan, last summer, indulged himself 
in the melancholy pleasure of visiting the grave of his 
departed friend. 'I last Sunday,' (says he) 'paid a visit 
to poor Carolan's grave at Killronan. It excited some 
melancholy feelings, and reminded me of my approaching 
dissolution ; my feeble state convincmg me that the 
thread of my life is between the shears. May I make the 
proper use of this merciful suspension of tlie cut ! ' And 
again, in another place : ' lu my pensive mood at Killro- 

nan I stood over poor Carolan's grave, covered with a heap 
of stones, and I found his skull near the grave, i^er/bra/^fl^ 
a little in theforehecul, that it might be known by that mark.' 
And in another part of tlie same work, he speaks of the 
perforation in the forehead of the skull, and through 
which a small piece of ribl)on was drawn. Now the skull 
shown in the Museum of Belfast during last Autumn as 
Carolan's, had no indication of any perforation such as 
spoken of by Mr. O'Connor, Carolan s personal and inti- 
mate friend in life ; and therefore I am disposed to think 
that the skull exhibited was of very doubtful authenticity, 
if not an imposition. 

MacStephen. May 1863. 

Old Maps. " I observe you have given, in your last 
Number, a copy of Speed s Map ; and I would suggest 
that no bettter foundation for investigating the Arclise- 
ology of Ulster could be laid than a publication of the fac- 
similes of old Maps. I s&y fac-timilea ; for new Maps con- 

he lays down a ford that could have had no existence : 
for he has made the river Lagan diverge more than balf- 
a-mile from its course to convert the bank (still remain- 
ing at May's Market, into a ford. The same authority 
shows a bridge in the year 1811, at the foot of Chichester 
Street, wluch never existed. A copy of the Down survey 
of this neighbourhood would be very valuable. The orig- 
inal in Birmingham Tower, has been injured by fire; 
but even what remains is important ; and it is said that 
a perfect copy is preserved at Paris. The maps, also, of 
the Chichester and Hamilton Patents would give us much 
useful information." H r. Belfast. 

The Mac Sweeny's, " Tlie following has been sug- 
gested to me by the perusal of a note in p. 107 of your 
last Journal. The MacSweenys of the district com- 
prised by the present County of Donegal were distin- 
guished into three families or tribes, under the names of 
three territories or tuatha, which they occupied. [See 
O'Brien's Irish Dictionary.] Mr. Connellan, in the note I 
have referred to, says they were called " Clann t-Suibhne 
na ttri dduatha," the clan Sweeny of the three dis- 
tricts or territories. But there was another tribe or clan 
of the M.icSweeny3, distinct from these apparently, who 
were hereditary battle-axe bearers to the O'Neills of Ulster. 
A body of this latter tribe was transplanted 'into Munster 
in the 12th or 13th century, where they obtained land 
and possessions under the Macf.'arthys for the same mili- 
tfiry service. These MacSweenys were called "Clann 
t-Suibhne na ttuadha," The Mac Sweenys of the battle- 
axes. Misled by the coincidence between the wonls 
" tuatha'-'terntoriic*. and " tuadha, "-aza, my learned 
friend Mr. Connellan denies or ignores altogether the 
" MacSweenys of the battle-axe," and says that this de- 
signation is a mistake arising from confounding the 
two similar words. I know not whether such a mistake 
has ever been committed j but even though it had, it 
would not disprove the existence of " the SlacSweeneys 


of the battle-axe, for it is matter not only of familiar 
popular tradition but of history. In a memoir of Father 
Maurice Kendrick, chaplain to the Earl of Desmond, who 
was executed on a charge of high treason at Clonmel, on 
the 3()th of April, 1585, tlie author. Dr. Roth of Ossory, 
[Pro^essti Marti/ru!i] informs us that he was betrayed to 
Sir John Norris, President of Munster, by one 5lauri- 
artum Swinium Morty MacSweeny who is thus de- 
scribed, " coryphieus securigerorum, eorum nimirum qui 
cestram rotare assueverunt, quorum ir> patriis bellia 
magnus antehnc usus inoleverat" "a noted fellow of the 
hearers of the battle-axe, whose province it was to wield the 
hatchet, (or axe,) a service formerly very much employed 
in native wars, but recently grown into disuse." Here 
we have a writer of the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and 
James 1, bearing testimony to the "MacSweenys of the 
battle-axe," Clann t-Suibhne na ttuadha, as a tribe 
known to himself. Nothing has produced more erroneous 
conjecture and assertion in Irish subjects than the simi- 
larity of Irish words." 

All incident is recorded of one of these MacSweenys, 
wlio.e Christian name was MaolMuire, which has given 
rise to a proverb still very popular in the County of Cork. 
In tlie heat of a certain conflict the axe flew ofl his shaft, 
but he still continued to lay about him vigorously with 
the shaft itself, exclaiming ;" Gach aon neach air a 
tluiaisr, as MiiolAluire air a shafaig,"ie. "Every one at 
his axe, .md M.iol.Muire at his shaft " 1 his phrase is 
now employed as a proverb, in reference to one who does 
liis best under a disadvantage. Another version of the 
story say that the exclamation was used by his com- 
mander. C. Mac S 

Ossrvxic Society. A Society under this name has just 
been formed in Dublin for the special object of publish- 
ing in tlie original Irish, with translations and notes, the 
chief Fenian poems, tales, and romances, which are pre- 
served in manu.script in various libraries throughout 
the kingdom. This has long been a desideratum. These 
compositions, some of them handed down from a very 
early date, are not only interesting as exhibiting the kind 
of literature current among the Irish for many centuries, 
and en.abling us to compare it with that of other coun- 
tries during the same periods, but are valuable for the 
language in wliich they are written. The orthography is 
in general preserved with wonderful correctness en- 
abling the student to trace the rcots of the words with 
more ease and certainty, perhaps, than in the similar 
compositions of most European countries. Even where 
an old word has become obsolete it is retained in the 
transcripts, and in general explained by the addition of 
a more modern word. They are thus of great value in 
ascertaining the meanings of many expressions long since 
gone out of 'use They abound in graphic pictures of 
manners and customs, very difl"e rent from those of the 
rest of Europe; and in many cases corroborate the 
facts handed down as history. They illustrate the geo- 
graphy of the country, giving, in tliousands of instances 
the origin of tiie names of places which remain unaltered, 
to the present day ; and supplying others now superseded 
by English ones. Lastly tliey assist in unravelling the 
perplexing history of Irish tribes and families, and throw 
much light on that difficult subject, the derivation of 
personal and family names. The Irish works hitherto 
published in the original languaa-e, have, with few ex- 
ceptions, been of quite a different character ; Annals, His- 
toric Poems, and Songs. The present undertaking opens 
up a new vein of native literature, quite as curious, and 

much more amusing. The Ossianic Society has need of 
some courage in opening the tombs of these old chival- 
rous knights ; for ' their name is Legion." An attempt 
to publish the whole of the Fenian Tales and Poems 
would not only prove a failure, but would be unneces- 
sary. What is wanted is a judicious selection of the most 
important and interesting of the compositions, collating 
as many copies as possible, and enriching the translation 
with abundant explanatory notes. As a preliminary 
step we wouldsuggest that a list should be published of all 
the MSS. of this cia8 now existing in Dublin and in some 
of the English Libraries, with a request to private col- 
lectors to furnish information as to those in their pos- 
se.' si in. We are pleased to see a goodly array of Irish 
scholars named as the Council of the society, and have 
great hopes that the work will be well done. The an- 
nual subscription is extremely moderate, (five shillings,) 
and the society engages to deliver to each subscriber a 
volume yearly. The works, we observe, are to be 
printed, for the subscribers only. [Ed.] 

Kino James's Marine School. " In your first two 
Numbers you have given some very interesting notices 
of William the Third's progress. I beg to call your at- 
tention to the following fact, as it is connected with Bel- 
fast. The Act 7, William III , Cap. 3 made void all 
Acts passed in 1687 by the Irish Parliament of James. 
One of these, for the advancement and improvement of 
trade, and for the encouragement and increase of ship- 
ping, enacts, among other things, " that in the respective 
cities and towns of Dublin, Belfast, Waterford, Cork, 
Limerick, and Galloway, there shall be establisheil, 
erected, and settled, before the 1st day of December 
1089, in each of the said towns and cities, a free school 
for teaching and instructing the Mathematics and the art 
of Navigation : in every of which schools there shall be 
placed and continued one or more sufficient master or 
masters for teaching and instructing the said arts :" 
" and that every of the said cities and towns shall, out of 
the public revenue and stock to them belonging, or other- 
wise, settle and secure a reasonable pension and stipend 
for^ such master or masters, to be paid them quarterly, 
during his or their continuance in such employment or 
employments " This project of the Sailor-King has 
quietly been allowed to sleep until 1853 : an order 
for the establishment of a marine school at Belf^ist having 
(according to the Mercantile Journal of 28th June,) been 
made by the Education Board on the 18th inst. 

H. P. Belfast, June. 

Ogham Inscriptioxs. Mr. C. MacSweeny requests ug 
to state that the Ogham Alphabet given in his communi- 
cation (Journal No. 2. page 102,) is taken from Vallancey's 
Irish Grammar, which, however, differs in some respects 
from the Alphabet given by Halliday in his Grammar, 
and by some other authorities. In vallancey's table the 
sloping characters are drawn from left to right, while in 
Halliday 's they are the reverse In the former table 
these characters are all consonants, while in the latter 
they represent the vowels " I do not pretend to decide." 
says Mr. MacSweenj, "which is the more authentic; 
but, if the characters on the monuments described by 
Mr. Windele be veritable Oghams, those in Vallancey's 
table must be erroneous." It would be highly desirable 
that this question should be settled at once in the outset 
of an important investigation : and we shall be glad to 
receive information from any gentleman who has paid 
attention to the subject. [Edit.] 


Ogham Inscriptions. " I cannot refrain from no- 
ticing a communication on this subject in your last 
JS umber by Mr. Hitchcock. I wonder, and so do many 
in Dublin, to whom I have spoken on the suWect that 
this paper found a place in your Journal. Mr. Hitch- 
cock s objections seem to be grounded merely on the 
diflference he finds between the topo;?raphical nomencla- 
ture adopted by Mr. Windele, and that employed in the 
Maps of the Ordnance Survey. Now it is right to ob- 
serve that many well-informed persons consider the or- 
thography used in the Ordnance Maps extremely incor- 
rect, and that the sooner it is revised the better. It is 
much to be wished that Irish topographic spelling 
were rather adapted to coincide with the original Irish 
names, than with the English forms, which are merely 
uncouth imitations. N O'Keabney. Dublin. 

[We have received several other letters animadverting 
rather severely on the tone and spirit of Mr. Hitchcock's 
paper in our 2d Number, and regretting that two such 
meritorious labourers in an interesting field, should not 
act together in perfect harmony. We think it sufficient, 
however, to publish the foregoing. Ed.] 

ToRRT Island. Extract from an imprest, in the Ilar- 
leian collection. No. 1G38, relating to Torrv, signed by 
Sir. A. Chichester, and dated 1st N^ovember, 1()()8 : 

' Mr. Tre isurer : These are to pray and to require 
you to satisfie and paye unto .lolm Branston, owner of the 
Angell of Hillne, (?) who was by speciale direction sent 
to the island of Torrye, the sum of thirtie povmds in re- 
compence of his travell and charge sustayned in that voi- 
age, which sum is to be charged upon the Master of the 
Ordinance as imprested unto him. 

My impression is that the voyage here mentioned was 
connected with the war with O'Dougherty in the North." 


Kilkenny Arch,ological Society. We have a gra- 
tifying proof of the energy of onr fellow- Archaeologists in 
the south, in the announcement of a new annual publi- 
cation, to contain original Documents and Records illus- 
trating Irish History. A printed circular, issued by the 
Council of the Society, specifies, as intended for this 
purpose, a number of curious and interesting papers, of 
various dates, containing valuable historical information, 
and which are now preserved in various libraries. The 
subscription to this work (ten shillings) is moderate, and 
from the rapidly developing taste for Archreological pur- 
suits in these countries, there is little doubt but that the 
requisite support will be obtained. Truly we seem at 
length to be on the proper path for penetrating into the 
dark recesses of our history, and we rejoice that North 
and South can, each in its own sphere, assist in the im- 
portant work But our zealous friends of the Kilkenny 
Society are doing still more in the cause. The be lutiful 
Abbey of Jerpoint, a fine example of the Hiberno-Ro- 
manesque style of architecture, having been in danger 
of utter destruction from the effects of time and of wan- 
ton dilapidation, the Society have, in the most praise- 
worthy manner interposed in its behalf: and not only 
are exerting tliemselves to procure the sum nece,ss.iry for 
its repairs, but, in order to secure its permanout prc-^crva- 
tion, nave actually become tenants of the Abbey them- 
selves at a nominal rent, and have appointed a rc'^idcnt 
curator As the smallest contributions are received by the 
committee, we hope the lovers of the olden time will all 
give their mite to complete the sum required. While on 
the subject of the Kilkenny Archirological Society, we 
must not omit noticing a very beautiful work now being 

published under its auspices : O'Neill's " Lithographs of 
Ancient Stone Crosses in the County of Kilkenny." The 
specimens we have seen are full of artistic feeling, and 
we understand are faithful representations of the objects 
themselves. [Ed.] 

A National Style of Ciicrcii Architecture. Tha 
suggestion of your correspondent U.S., in your last Num- 
ber, is a most interesting one ; and will, it is to be hoped, 
call attention to the proper use again of that beautiful 
and picturesque object, the Round Tower of our early 
Irish Church Architecture. It has been long neglected, 
and may be almost said to have been discarded, and ut- 
terly cast out beyond the pale of Christianity by the ad- 
mirers of Pagiinism, fire-worship, &c. ; though undoubted 
proofs of its Christian origin have again and again been 
adduced, and though it is in all cases found as an adjunct 
in the groupings of our early Christian foundations. The 
" Round Tower style " is certainly our national style of 
Ecclesiastical Architecture ; and even now after a thous- 
and years' experience in church-building a recurrence, 
an actual retrograde movement, towards again appropria- 
ting this original feature to modern ecclesiastical struc- 
tures, would be unquestionably an improvement on the 
present useless though certainly ornamental church 
spire. Butanamalgamationof thedetJiilsof the "Round 
Towers " and " the stone-roofed cliapels," (as propos- 
ed by H.S.,) should be executed judiciously and with 
a strict attention to the dates when the different 
styles prevailed; so that the style, for instance, of the Sax- 
on era should not be mixed up with the Norman or that 
of the 13th century, in a heterogeneous manner. The 
Oratories or stone-roofed Ciitipels, I think, will be found 
all to belong to the Saxon period, while the Round Tow- 
ers will be found to embrace the three period.s of Saxon. 
Norman, and the 18th century. Each style or period 
should occupy a distinct position in the design, so that 
the whole, when properly placed, and united to.?ether, 
would form an elegant epitome of the whole history of 
Irish Church Architecture. And now, to make a begin- 
ning, I shall submit for your correspondent's considera- 
tion, a rough draught or skeleton-design for a church 
based on these principles, and which, if properly filled in 
and matured, might, m my humble opinion, become wor- 
thy the attention of even the eccle.siastical connoisseur. 
A Round Tower of the Saxon period to occupy, say, the 
south-west quoin of this our " national church : ' of course 
projecting its' whole rotundity, except the part which 
would unite the south and west walls. It should be en- 
tered on a level with the floor of the Church, and from 
the south aisle. Access to the top should be had by a 
winding stone stair with landinm at each floor, which lat- 
ter should be arched in stone. Bells would, of course, oc- 
cupy the upper storey : and, if not considered too great 
a laxity of antiquarian " morals, " heating, or ventilation 
flues might also be carried up this structure with good 
economy. The most elev.ated or honorable position, the 
apex of the conical cap, should certainly terminate in the 
symbol of our common Christianity : for I think we have 
good grounds for believing this to have been its appro- 
pri>ite finish in early times. The Aisles, North and 
South porches, I should also propose to be of the Saxon 
pcrioil; the West entrance. West window, Clerestory 
windows, and Nave, to be of the Norman period, splen- 
did e'camples of which stvle are not lacking among our 
ancient Irish remains. I'he roof of the Nave to be of a 
good design of the 13th century, of course open to the 
naked eye, displaying its beauty of construction, fearless 


of criticiam': and of this. also, elegant Irish examples are 
not wantinj?. The Tnmsept and Chancel arch I should 
propose to be in the style of the l:5th century ; a few of 
the details of the former might be in tliat of the Semi- 
Norman period. The Choir or Chancel should, by all 
means, be in the sumptuous decorated style of the 14th 
century: in that full-blown blaze of Gotliic beauty never 
equalled in the gorgeous over-wrought styles of sub- 
sequent centuries. An east window from the Chan- 
cel of St. Mary's, Youghal. would be no bad speci- 
men of Irish decorated work : and many other de- 
tails from the same source could be supplied. Now, 
Sir, we have here, in the South, a paper called "the 
Pi-ovifice of Munster," in which I find, on the 11th 
of June, a Review of your list Number, wherein the 
reviewer, speaking of the subject before us, and highly 
approving of the proposal about the Round Tower, 
8^yl5. " the suggestion of adopting the Round Tower in 
modern Irish Church Architecture is excellent. No 
doul)t it will be acted upon : and in this anticipation 
we hope great cnre will be taken that no mortar 
shall appear in the joints of the masonry. If a 

Tower were to be built of cut stone, the Towers of 
Devenish or Ardmore would be good models: and it 
would be found that the joints in those structures are so 
close that nothing thicker than a fluid-cement, as thin as 
white-wash, could have been placed between one stone 
and another." And speaking of Gothic jointings he says, 
" our readers can judge how the effect of a lofty deco- 
rated window must be injured, if the slender shafts are 
visibly divided at each joint by half an inch of not very 
fine mortar." This critique from your Munster contem- 
porary I shall certainly not subscribe to, nor adopt in the 
design under consideration. All stone-work, vvhether 
cut or otherwise, should be well bedded in a substantial 
layer of well-beaten mortar, of moderate thickness; for, 
without good sinews, the strongest bones must soon fall 
asunder : and, instead of concealing the joints, I would 
certainly have them exposed, that my masonic skill or 
constructive ability might stand the test of criticism. 
Indeed well-defined jointings are considered by our best 
authorities in Gothic architecture to be one of its pecu- 

liar beauties. 

E.F. Youghal. 


Owen M.^it.h. If your correspondent H. F. H. can 
refer to the ancient Irish Tale of " Deirdre or the death 
of the children of Uisneach," he will find therein all that 
is known of " Maugh." the ancient seat of the kings of 
Ulster. It ought to be written " Eamhain Mhacha" and 
is Latinized " Emania." If that be not within his reach, 
Keating's History of Ireland will gratify his curiosity on 
the same subject In the vicinity of Eamhain Mhacha 
was another place celebrated in Irish Romance, " Craobh 
Ruadh," the " Red Branch" of Moore's Melodies. The 
sons:, " Avenging and bright fall the swift sword of Erin," 
with its note, have reference to the story of Deirdre and 
to Eamhain ^Ihacha. Having thus far answered him, he 
will not, I am sure, refuse to satisfy my curiosity as to 
the exact spot that now answers to the " Owen Maugh" 
of Blaen. I would Avalk a hundred miles to stand on 
that ground. Its destruction took place long before the 
age of St. Patrick ; and from that period it ceased to be 
the seat of the Kings of Ulster." _ C. M'S. 

Dk BuRfio's Death. " In reply to an inquiry in your 
l.vt number, I be^ to say that Belfast is a bad ground for 
recovering early local traditions, as everything there is 
modern. The accounts of De Burgo's death plainly inti- 
mate that he was killed at the " Eord" ; but this may 
have been at any point between Strand-town and oppo- 
site to where St. George's Church now stands. Perhaps 
on a future occasion I may send you some notices of this 
remarkable ancient work." II. P. Belfast. 

The Word " Sept."" The derivation of this word 
may be discovered from the following roots : Cap is the 
French for the stock of a tree or plant ; C^ppo in Italian ; 
Cepa in Spanish : which is perhaps from the Latin Caput 
the head, by Metathesis : hence a stock, a race, genera- 
tion, nation, tribe, or family. There are other early wri- 
ters who have used this word besides Spencer : viz., Ho- 
lingshed. Fuller, Boyle, and Clarendon 

Adolescens. Belfast. 

Gakmoti-e. This word, so often mentioned ;n charts 
of the Clyde, (Scotland,) and of Belfast Lough, may be 
derived from the Irish as follows: gar, close, moyle, a heap 
cast up, which conjointly signify a close heap What cor- 
respondence this may have with the places so called I do 
not know ; but if the suggestion be satisfactory to your 
correspondent H.P. it isat his service." W.E.C. Belfast. 

Barons of Ulster. " Senex, in the Antiquarian 
Notes and Queries of your last Journal, (No. 2,) inquires 
'Was the Richard, Earl of Ulster,' mentioned in my An- 
nals of Boyle,' vol. 2, p. 121, as summoning his adherents 
in 1-314, against Edward Bruce, one of the De Lacys?" 
He was not ; but a more prominent character in Irish 
history Richard de Burgo, commonly stj-led the " Red 
Earl of Ulster," the lineal descendant of William de Fitz 
Adelra, the founder of this name in Ireland. In 1803 he 
was appointed by King Edward I., to command those 
auxiliaries who were then summonedto aid that monarch 
inhia Scottish war. In 1311, on the extinction of the chi- 
valrous order of Knights Templars, this Richard ob- 
tained a grant of sundry of their commanderies and pre- 
ceptories with their possessions. The religious houses, 
however, continued long after to be upheld as Royal 
liouscs. He obtained, about the same time, further ter- 
ritorial possessions and honours from the crown, as for 
his past services. In 1314. (as above stated,) he is record- 
ed to have summoned his followers against Edward 
Bruce. That rash invader had, however, hardly landed, 
when, on insinuations that his attempt had been invited 
by Earl Richard himself, that nobleman was arrested 
and confined in the Castle of Dublin but after a short 
imprisonment he was released, on pledging himself by 
oath, that neither he nor his sept or adherents would 
avenge his detention on the citizens He had a singular 
summons to attend, with other nobles of Ireland, a Par- 
liament, ' to be held at Westminster in 1316, there to treat 
with the Peers of England, on the state of the country.' 


In ten years afterwards he died, and was buried in a 
priory which Fitz-Adelm had founded at Athassel." 

John D'Alton. Dublin. 
Barons of Ulster. The inquiry which your 
Journal has led to, respecting the rank claimable by the 
descendants of these old nobles, may open up some 
curious questions. It has recalled to my mind a conver- 
sation that took place some years ago, at the table of an 
English common-law lawyer, respecting the connection 
between Peerages and the lands originally held, and in 
right of which the creations took place. One gentleman, 
a Barrister, deeply learned in such matters, mentioned 
that there still existed estates in England, the possession 
of which, for the time being, was by a tenure equivalent to 
that of a Peer of Parliament. I think it probable that he 
referred to some Barons of Lancashire or Cheshire, 
created in a similar manner to our Ulster Barons. It 
was further explained, I believe, that the lands in ques- 
tion had for ages been held by some of the great Peers of 
the realm themselves, and that hence the claim had 
never arisen. His opinion, however, was that, if the 
claim were made by a commoner becoming possessed of 
these lands, it must be admitted. ' 

U^.:.-J.- 'ntPZ^ ^- ^--Belfast. 

Gabmoyle. " In the first Nnmber of your Journal a 
correspondent made inquiry concerning the derivation 
of the word " Garmoyle." the present name of a part of 
the Lough of Belfast. In the second Number two deri- 
vations were given, from which I entirely dissent : and I 
now send you what I believe to be the true etymology of 
the word. The narrow channel or strait, dividing the 
Northern part of Ireland from Scotland was anciently 
called Sruth na Maoile, i.e the " course" or " current of 
the Moyle." This channel is celebrated in Irish history 
and in mythological reminiscences : on its waters the 
three "children of Lir," metamorphosed into swans, 
were docmed by their cruel step-mother to sojourn. 
Moore commemorates this mythic fable in his beautiful 
song of " Fionnuala"' ; 

" Silent, O Moyle be the roar of thy waters," 
The part of " the current of the Moyle"' forming the 
Lough of Belfast, was teimed Car, the " turn ' or 
" angle" : and probably the whole of the Lough from its 
form was called Cur-Maoile, which easily became Gar- 
Maoilf , : (c.nm\g. being commutable letters,) and after- 
wards Anglicized " Garmoyle." 

N. O'Keabnet Dublin. 


Derivation of Names. "Can any of your friends 
give replies to the following questions? 1. Ihe name 
" Owen O'Cork" I see applied to a mill-prci ci ty at 
Beer's Bridge, Ballymacarrett, beside Belfast. What is 
its origin ? 2. What is the derivation of " Blackstaff," 
the name of a well-known stream passing through Bel- 
fast? 3. Who was John De Logan, who is mentioned 
A.D 13.33, in the ^;o<7norfeTO Inquisition after the death 
of William De Burgo, as having laid waste all the lands 
near Belfast, and destroyed the town or village itself? 
4 The part of the lands near " the Grove," rather more 
than a mile from this town, is called " the Earl's 
meadows." How did it receive this name?" 

N.G. Belfast. 

IlrsTORic Doubts. " Ulster seems the proper ground 
for solving one of the most perplexing difficulties in llie 
history of the British Islands : how far wasCharlcs I im- 
plicated in the Eebellion of 1(41 ? Some of your in- 
(juiring readers might usefully turn their attention to 
this subject; and it might still be possible to ascertain 
whether the Caulfield family ever lest any Patent or 
otlier Deed, from which the seal could have been cut, as 
alleged in the King's defence. It fecms qucstiei;abk> if 
the Crown, in that reign, possessed any lands in Ulster 

to grant : at all events, the Caulf eld Patents must be 
enrolled somewhere, and will speak for themselves as to 
dates." FizBAROx. 

" Leixlip is the name of a salmonileap in the County 
Kildare. Madame Pfeifier, in her anuising travels, 
mentions paying a visit to a salmon-fishery in Iceland, 
called Lax-sflOf the river. If our term be of Ice- 
landic derivaticn, hew did it reach Ireland?" Ey. 

E.\i!MK.sT Irish Missicnakijs. "As it appears Ircm 
the writings of Eusebiusand Chrysostcm. supported by 
the testimony of other authorities, that Cliristianity had 
been propagated in Ireland previously to the mission of 
Saint Patrick ; could any of the correspondents of the 
Ulster Journal of Archteology furnish answers to any of, 
or all the following queries .'' 1. In what year did the 
first Christian teachers or missionaries arrive in Ireland? 
2. What wore their names, and from what country did 
they come? 3. With what church had they been pre- 
viously connected. Eastern or Western? It is reques- 
ted, if any replies le furnished to these queries, that the 
autliorities upon which such replies are founded may be 
particularly stated, and if possible, that the jassages, up- 
on which reliance is placed, may be quoted in ulmso. ' 



{Concluded from p. 197.) 

In the Year, Indiction, and Pontificate aforesaid, and on the 16th day of the month of October, the 
aforesaid Venerable Father, Primate and Guardian as aforesaid, proceeded from Bannagher to the 
priory of Canons Kegular of Dungiven": and there at the supplication of the Prior and Convent, he 
solemnly re-consecrated the church and cemetery of that place, polluted by the shedding of blood ; en- 
joining the inhabitants of that town that they should contribute, as was customary, towards the suffi- 
cient entertainment of himself, his men, and their horses, for that night ; and should transmit what 
they had thus provided to the village of Bannagher, where he, the Venerable Father aforesaid, was to 
remain for that night. And this they cheerfully did. And the said Venerable Father returning 
again the same day, from the aforesaid Priory of Dungiven to Bannagher,'' and there sitting on his 
Tribunal in front of the High Altar, caused the Archdeacon of Derry, and all others of the Chapter 
of Derry, to be summoned before him by the crier ; who humbly appearing before the Venerable 
Father, the Archbishop, Primate and Guardian aforesaid, and the aforesaid Venerable Father having 
himself declared and expounded unto them the cause of his coming to the aforesaid Diocese of Derry, 
viz., that he came there in order to the free and plenary exercise of the Guardianship of the Spirituality 
and Temporality, and Spiritual and Temporal Jurisdiction of the Bishoprick of Derry, belonging, by an- 
cient custom, lawfully prescript, and heretofore uninterruptedly observed and used, unto himself and 
the church of Armagh, the said Bishoprick of Derry being vacant, or otherwise deprived of. 
the benefit of its pastor which, as he said in the presence of the same, then hearing and assenting, 
he had exercised in various cases, and intended to exercise, as he and his predecessors, each in their 
own times, had already exercised it, within the other Dioceses of the Province of Armagh when va- 
cant, and particularly within the Diocese and Bishoprick of Derry when vacant. Whereupon the 
Venerable Father, Primate and Guardian aforesaid, admonished them all and every one, under pain of 

The full name of this Convent waa the " House of the ^ This church, " the old Church of Bannagher," is still 
Blessed Virgin, for Canons Kegular of the Order of St. standing, and though a ruin, in a state of tolerable pre- 
Augustine, at Dungiven." The conventual church, now servation ; even the buildings of the convent with which 
a niin, was remarkable for a Tower fifty feet high, square it was anciently connected, have not altogether disappear- 
at the base, but round from the spring of the roof up- ed. 1 he ruins stand on the right bank of the little river 
wards, which was incorporated with the building. Mr. of Owenreagh, a short way from the road which now con- 
Sampson gives three views of this church : an exterior, ducts the traveller from Derry to Dungiven, not far from 
representing the Round Tower, now fallen : an interior the modern (.'hurch and the Parsonage. The church yard 
view; and an elevationofa remarkable monument erect- is remarkable for the Tomb of a Saint named OHeney, 
ed to the memory of one of the O'Ciilians, named in La- by whom the convent and church are stated to have been 
tin Congalus: in Irish Cumoigho na Gall: ie. Cooey erected; of which Mr. I'etrie has given a drawing in his 
of the English, The church ajjpcars to belong to the book on the Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland. The 
twellth century. Dr. Reeves has collected together all buildings appear to belong to the elevenlh century, 
the early notices of this interesting ruin : Seepage 42, ^c. 

2 N. 


law, that all and every one of them should, in all things, faithfully obey himself, and his successors, the 
Archbishops of Armagh and Primates of Ireland, for the time being, as their Judge Ordinary, solely 
and exclusively in lieu of the Bishop, by virtue of the Guardianship aforesaid; and that they should 
recognise, confess, and effectively admit none other ; and that they, and each of them, should afford 
to the aforesaid Venerable Father full satisfaction for the rents, possessions, or emoluments. Spiritual 
or Temporal of the aforesaid Bishoprick, by them, or any of them, received : and that they should re- 
ceive from him canonical and lawful penance for their misdemeanours : and that neither they, nor 
any of them should, at any time hereafter, claim, usurp, or in any manner exercise the Guardianship 
of the Spirituality or of the Temporality, or any administration of the said Bishoprick, when vacant : 
but should leave in peace, for themselves and their successors, the aforesaid Guardianship and all manner 
of Episcopal Jurisdiction, Spiritual and Temporal, to the aforesaid Lord John, Archbishop of Armagh, 
Primate of Ireland, and his successors ; which declaration, protestation, and monition, having been put 
forth by the said Venerable Father the Dean, the Archdeacon of Derry, and the others, all and every 
one, of the Chapter of Derry, there present and constituting the Chapter, unanimously answered, purely 
and freely, and judicially confessed, that all manner of Episcopal Jurisdiction, Spiritual and Temporal, 
voluntary and compulsory, of the Bishoprick of Derry, the same being vacant or destitute of the benefit 
of its Pastor as also the Guardianship of the Spirituality and Temporality, and of both the Spiritual 
and Temporal Jurisdiction, and also the collection of the rents, fruits, and emoluments Spiritual and 
Temporal, pertaining to the said Bishoprick, had belonged, now belonged, and ought to belong solely and 
exclusively to the said Venerable Father, the Lord John Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of Ireland, and 
to his predecessors and successors for the time being, and to none other whatever. And therefore, the 
Dean and the Archdeacon, and all and every one of the Chapter there present, promised that they will 
hereafter be faithful and obedient to the aforesaid Lord John, Archbishop and Primate, and to his succes- 
sors, for the time being, as what he is in truth Guardian of the Spirituality and Temporality, and of 
the Spiritual and Temporal Jurisdiction of the Bishoprick of Derry, when vacant, andas their Bishop and 
Judge Ordinary, dui'ing the vacancy of the said Bishoprick ; and to do, fulfil, and faithfully observe these 
things and every one of them, the aforesaid Dean and Archdeacon, and the rest of the Chapter of Derry 
there present and every one of them, gave their corporal oath, touching the Holy Gospels : whose names 
here follow: Doctor William M<=CamaylI, Dean of Derry; Doctor William O'Cahan, Archdeacon 
of Derry, Doctor John M^'Kaig, Doctor Donald McLoughlin, Doctor David O'Moryson, Sir 
Laurence M^CuUimore, Doctor Maurice O'Kinlay, Doctor Eogger O'Doyle, Doctor Simon 
O'Feenaghty, Doctor Hugh McKaig, Doctor Maurice O'Cahan, Doctor John O'Cushely. Which 
promises and oaths being made and taken, the said Capitulars earnestly prayed the Lord Pri- 
mate aforesaid not to grant to farm, to any powerful layman, any possessions Spiritual or Tem- 
poral, of the Bishoprick of Derry, lest such laymen, having obtained a colourable pretext, should 
afterwards detain them to the detriment of the church, contrary to the will of those who 
are interested in the matter. To which the aforesaid Father willingly assented. And the 


said Capitulars prayed the said Venerable Father, secondly, to depute certain of the Chapter 
of Derry, as his sub-guardians, commissaries, and collectors of the rents and episcopal rights 
for the use of him, the said Primate, in the said Diocese. Which Venerable Father having held some 
deliberation on this matter, and express renunciation having been made by the Dean, Archdeacon, and 
Capitulars aforesaid, for themselves and their successors, purely, freely, and absolutely, of all right or 
title in what manner soever belonging or to belong to them, or any of them, in the Guardianship of 
the Spirituality and Temporality, and of the Spiritual and TemporalJurisdiction of the Bishoprick of 
Derry, whon vacant or deprived of the benefit of its Pastor ; and a horse having been given to the 
aforesaid Lord Archbishop, by the aforesaid Dean of Derry, and another horse by the Archdeacon of 
Derry, on account and in part payment of the rents and other episcopal emoluments, by them or any 
of them received during the vacancy of the See, the same not being to them due and payable ; the 
aforesaid Father deputed, under a certain form, the Lord Dean of Armagh, the Dean of Derry, the 
Archdeacon of Derry, Doctor Thomas O'Loughran, Canon of Armagh, and Maurice O'Cahan, Canon 
of Derry, as his sub-guardians, commissaries, and collectors of rents and episcopal emoluments in the 
Diocese of Derry, the Bishoprick being vacant : and commanded and caused his letters thereupon 
to be made patent, the tenor of which appears in the Register. ' 

Which things being thus transacted, there appeared before the said Venerable Father a certain per- 
son, constituted in my presence, and that of the witnesses underwritten, proctor of Magnus McGilli- 
gan, in the cause matrimonial above-mentioned in this Record of Proceedings, before the Venerable 
Father; and judicially propounded before him, that if it should happen that the said Catharine should 
prove that she had ever contracted matrimony with his lord, Magnus McGilligan, (which he does not 
admit,) or if it should happen that she shall prove the said adjudication, of which mention is made 
above,'' the said proctor offers that he will prove, that before ever the said Catharine contracted in 

^ Although this Record is too well authenticated by tion that the Primate entered the DiocCFO of Derry. By 
the dates of time and place, and the names of parties and launching the sentence of excommunication against the 
witnesses, to justify the slightest suspicion of untruth as recusant Chapter, he gave to its members the pretext 
applying to any of its statements, we may very well sup- which they desired, for casting off the usurped authority 
pose that in some of the which came before the of their local chieft^iins: they at once succiuiibed to the 
Archbi'^hop there were circumstances, which, either be- nutliority of their spiritual superior: he promptly Be- 
cause ihcy were not urj^ed in open court, or for other rea- cepted their submist^ion : and although he admonished 
sons, may not liave found a place in the Register of pro- them of his powers and their duty, and exacted from them 
ceedings. Some of them, however, may not be beyond an oath to yield obedience in future, he seems to have im- 
the reach of conjecture ; and among the rest, the reader posed upon them neither penalty nor penance : being, aa 
will, no doubt, feel himself prompted to ask, what could it seems to me, aware that, until his arrival, they had 
have been the motive wliich induced the Archdeacon and not been free agents. I may add that Bishop Montgo- 
Chapter of Derry to decline appearing, in the tirst in- mery's letter, already quoted, and the Ulster Inquisi- 
ptance, on the Archbishop's summons; and yet to submit tions published by the Commissioners of Records, afford 
.so j>roinptly to liis sentence ? To me it appears that in many instances of the native Ii-ish Chieftains in the 
tlieir refusal they acted under constraint or terror of North attem|)ting to their own revenues by exac- 
Dogherty, O'Cahan, and other lay chieftains of there- tions uixin tlie estates of tlie Church, 
gion : who probably looked upon a vacancy of the See of d In translating this sentence 1 have assumed that the 
Derry as a fitting oi)portunity for making an inroad on words from " vel si contingat" (p. 48 1.17) to " qiiod non 
its vast possessions ; and conceived that the Chapter j'aMur" (1.20.) ic/. are repeated by accident, in the roll, 
might be made an instrument for effecting this purjiose. or in copying from it; also that "probaiet " iu line IG is 
It was perhaps for the purpose of checking their usurpa- a mistake for " probai'e." 


any manner whatsoever with his lord Magnus M^^Gilligan, the said Magnus, his lord, had lawfully con- 
tracted matrimony with another woman, namely, with Mary MCloskey; which matter he prayed 
mit'ht be let in, anl right be done. Whereupon the aforesaid Lord Primate, not being able to give 
sufficient time to the discussion of this cause, on the advice and petition of the Dean, Archdeacon, 
and Chapter of DciTy, committed viva voce the examination and determination of this cause to Wil- 
liam Archdeacon of Dcrry, and John M^'Kaig ; and entered his lodging. And the Herenachs and 
inhabitants of the village provided, at their own expense, the needful requisites and night-wat<;h. 

In the Year, Indiction, and Pontificate aforesaid, and on the 17th day of the month of October, af- 
ter early mass heard in the church of Bannaghcr, in the diocese of Derry, the Dean of Derry, and others 
of the Chapter of Derry, came to the Venerable Father aforesaid, then being in his lodging ; asking 
that lie should leave in writing his Definitions and Ordinances concerning the state and discipline of the 
monastery at Derry, which is called the Black Abbey of Derry, and should depute certain executors 
for the more perfect observance of the said Definitions. And the said Venerable Father delivered in 
writing unto the aforesaid Dean of Derry, certain Definitions and Ordinances, sealed with his authentic 
seal ; and the said Dean delivered the said Ordinances unto Brother Hugh, the Abbot of the same 
place, there personally present, of which Definitions the tenor is contained elsewhere, in the Eegister. 
Moreover, on the requisition of the Dean, Archdeacon, and other members of the Chapter of Derry, 
the said Venerable Father handed over and delivered to the Dean of Derry letters addressed to di- 
vers persons, of monitions, suspensions, excommunications, and interdict, against O'Donnell, O'Dogh- 
orty, O'Cahan, O'Gomiely, Donald and Brian Mor, sons of Henry O'Neill, on account of their us- 
urpation of the Episcopal Plights of the Church of Derry. Afterwards the same Venerable Father 

' TiiesclettersaudaJmonitions, which undoubtedly were into insurrection, conducted it with treachery and cruel- 

not expedited without sufficient cause, and tlie petition ty, and was slain in rebellion on the 18th of July, 

of the Chapter that the administration of the See estates 1G08. His estates were confiscated, and the greater part 

might not he given to any lay chioltain, lest they should be of them granted to the Lord Deputy Chichester. The 

held over to the detriment of the church and its officers, family of O'Cahan and its fate have been already men- 

strengtheu the conjecture which I have already hazai'ded. tioned in these notes. The O'Gormely was another ofF- 

as to the motives of the Chapter and the Archbishop in shoot of the O'Neills of Cinel-Eoghain. Its territory in- 

these transactions. Tlie cliieftains here enumerated were eluded the Barony of Raphoe, in the County of Donegal, 

among the most powerful lords in this part of Ireland. and some of the adjoining parishes in the County of 

The sept of O'Donnell was co-ordinate in birth and rank Tyrone. The O'Gormeljs early fell under the sway of 

with the great family of O'Neill; it held the sovereignty the O'Donnells, and had disappeared from history be- 

of Tyrcoiinell, a territory nearly corresponding with the fore the time when so many of their kindred chieftains 

modern counties of Donegal and Sligo. Its last chief- were banished, forfeited, &c. The Donald O'Neill, son 

tain was Red Hugh, Earl of Tyrconnell, who was the of Henry, "who is spoken of in the text, became chief of 

firm ally of Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone, in his wars the house of O'Neill, by Tanistry, about six years after 

against Queen Elizabeth : with him Tyrconnell submit- the Primate's Visitation : he was slain in 14.32, by the 

ted and was pardoned ; was involved with him in the grandsons of Magnus O'Cahan, already mentioned, 

* rebellion" of the anonymous letter; fled with his asso- against whom he was waging war in their territory of 

ciato, beyond sea: was attainted by Act of Parliament, Ciannachta, or Kenaght. His brother, Brian Mor, was 

and stripped of his estates. The O'Doghertys were the slain in 1401, by the O'Donnell spoken of above. It is 

chieftains of the peninsula lying between Loughs Foyle melancholy to peruse a list of so many princely and no- 

and Swilly, now called Enuishowen. The last of their ble houses, once the sovereigns of spacious territories, 

line was Sir Cahir O'Dogherty ; wlio, having received a and leaders of brave and faithful followers, now dis 

jiorsonal insult from the Governor of tiie City of London- appeared, leaving no representatives, or none but per- 


on the requisition of the Dean, Archdeacon, and Chapter of Derry, there present, judicially and defini- 
tively settled a certain dissension between two inhabitants of the village of Bannagher aforesaid, re- 
specting the herenachship of the said village. Then on the requisition of the Dean, Archdeacon and 
Chapter of Derry, then present, the same Venerable Father then conferred, by his ordinary authority, 
the Rectory of the church of Dromogarvan, in the Diocese of Derry, in law and fact vacant, and in 
the gift of the Bishop of Derry whilst he lived, ^ but now in the gift of the said lord Archbishop, by 
virtue of the Guardianship aforesaid, upon a certain Dermot O'MuUigan, Presbyter ; and authorita- 
tively instituted the said Dermot into the said Rectory of Dromogarvan, and by delivery of his ring 
invested him with the same ; commanding the Archdeacon of Derry, there present, to induct the said 
Dermot into corporal possession of the said Rectory, and defend him when so inducted. 

These affairs being settled, having taken with him certain horses from the village of Bannagher, to 
the number of five or thereabouts, for his own baggage and that of his retinue, at the common expense 
of the Herenachs and inhabitants of the village of Bannagher aforesaid, the said Venerable Father 
returned towards the Diocese of Armagh ; the Dean, Archdeacon, and other members of the Chapter 
of Derry accompanying him for the space of two miles or thereabouts; to whom having bidden fare- 
well, and having dismissed them in peace, the said Venerable Father, proceeding with his retinue 
through the trackless mountains of Glenelly, came in peace to the church of Desertereat, in the [rural] 
Deanery of Tullyhog, within the Diocese of Armagh. 

Here followeth the tenor of the Ordinance and Commission of which mention is made above ; that is 
to say 

" SloHU) by Divine Permission, Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of Ireland, Guardian of the Spiritu- 
ality and Temporality, and of the Spiritual Jurisdiction of the Bishoprick of Derry, said Bishoprick 
being deprived of the benefit of its Pastor, to his beloved brethren, Hugh McGillivray O'Dogherty, 
the Abbot, and to the Convent of the Black Abbey of Derry, Health, Grace, and Benediction. 

" Whereas, wehavcjudged it right and proper, to make certain Constitutions and Definitions, concern- 
ing the state and government, as well of your persons as your place aforesaid, we now transmit the 
same unto yon. here expressed, firmly enjoining upon you, in virtue of your obedience sworn unto us, 

cluinics. That their fiiU was nccelernted hy the cupidity confidence in the power of right, and the same prone- 

of those \\ho Avcro eager to seize upon their possessions ness to have recourse to favour, force, or art, in prefer- 

cannot be doubted : as little doubt, I conceive, can there ence to law, which unfortunately characterize the Irish 

be, that it could not liave occurred, with luivarying uni- people to the present hour. Had it not boon for these 

formity of result, if not of detail, had there not been on great faults, the O'Neill, the O'Donnell, the O'Dogherty, 

their own side groat faults eoniniitted, which rendered and the O'Cahan, might still, for aught that appears 

possible a ruin wliic'i c<iulil not ollicrwise have been ac- in history, have been in possession of their princely 

comiUislicd. Of these the iiin-t glaring was tlieir obsti- domains. Jh's aliter ristim ! 

nate adherence to the Ihciion Code, with its dazzling but ^ Ad coUationem F.piscopi Perensis, dnm vixit, ,rj>rr- 

fatal pretensions to intlependcnt sovereignty, in the face tanlem The words diim vixit clearly imply that the See 

of a power mightier than theirs, and sure in the end, if was now vacant by the death of the last occupant ; but 

resisted, to crush them to the earth : with those unli- as this is contrary to the well ascertained fact, I suppose 

mited exactions, "cuttings and co-herings" upon the infe- the Notary who drew up this ]?ecord to have introuuced 

rior people, which ellectually separated their interests, them inadvertently, from some customary fonn of pre- 

and must in the end have seymrated their affections, from sentation by the Archbishop scde vacaiUe, not happening 

their chiefs. To this must be added, the same Avant of to observe their inapplicability. 


that ye observe them in and through all things entirely and faithfully, under pain of the greater ex- 
communication which we intend to launch against each one of you, if ye do not effectually obey our 
mandates. In the first place, we ordain, define, and command, that thou, brother Hugh, Abbot afore- 
said, within the space of three days after notification of these presents made unto thee, dismiss and 
send away from thy precincts, cohabitation, and care, never again to take her back, that Catherine 
O'Dogherty, whom thou art said lately to have taken imto thee in concubinage. Item, we ordain, de- 
fine, and at the same time command, that thou, the Abbot aforesaid, altogether desist from all manner 
of promise whatsoever made for the superinduction of the aforesaid Catherine : and that thou make 
no promise, nor give any donation for any other woman whatsoever, to be as concubine taken unto thee 
(which God forbid !) but that thou do rather violate (all such promises) in future. Item, we ordain, de- 
fine, and at the same time command, that within the space of ten days, thou revoke, and ftilly and effec- 
tually restore to the said house, whatsoever goods, moveable or immovable, belonging to the said 
house, have been by thee, whilst thou wast guardian of the said house, alienated ; so that neither thou, 
nor any other Canon whatsoever of the said house, mayest or may give out, expend, or promise, any 
of the goods of the said house for the keeping of any woman. Item, we ordain, as aforesaid, that no 
suspected woman be, by thee or any Canon of the aforesaid house, introduced within the precincts of 
the said house, or sleep or rest within the precincts aforesaid. Item, we ordain, that thou, and each 
and every one of the Canons of the said house, eat together in the common Refectory, keeping up holy 
and devout reading during the time of refection, and that ye sleep together in one dormitory, within 
the house aforesaid. Item, we ordain, define, and at the same time command, that on every Lord's 
Day, and on every solemn feast, all the Harm Canonicce, and one solemn Mass with singing, and another 
without singing, be devoutly recited in the Choir of the church aforesaid, and that on every other 
day one IMass at least be devoutly celebrated in the said church, and the Horce Canonicce be recited 
in the Choir, at least without music. Provided always that each brother, who is to celebrate, ap- 
proach the Lord's altar, contrite for his sins, and after confession in true penitence. Given under our 
seal at Bannagher in the Diocese of Derry, on the 15th day of this month of October, in the year of 
our Lord, one thousand three hundred and ninety seven, and of our consecration the fourteenth. 

" Moreover, we give and grant to the Dean of the Cathedral Church of Derry, by the tenor of these 
presents, the power of compelling you and each of you, if necessary, to the observance of the Ordi- 
nances aforesaid, by all ecclesiastical censures ; and, if it happen, (which God forbid) that any con- 
travene them, the power of punishing you, and each of you, canonically. " ^ 

s It would be superfluous to make any remark on the specified, had been, a few days before, unanimously 

dreadful state of conventual discipline and morals which chosen as their Abbot by the brethren of the Monastery 

must have existed in a monastery where such an Ordi- of Canons Regular, in the Black Abbey of St. Oolumb- 

nance was deemed requisite. It may, however, be ne- kille, at Derry ; and had been accepted, instituted, and 

cessary to remind the reader, that the same Hugh solemnly blessed, by the Primate himself It seems that 

M'^Gillivray O'Dogherty, who is here solemnly charged these his offences, though, if persevered in, they would 

with incontinence, and with applying the property of incur excommunication, were not held sufiScient to stop 

the monastery in payment of the scandalous services his preferment. Yet his elevation to the Abbacy may 


" 3o)in> by Divine Permission, Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of Ireland, Guardian of the Spir- 
ituality and Temporality of the Bishoprick of Derry, said Bishoprick being deprived of the benefit of 
its Pastor, to our dearly beloved sons, Doctor Maurice O'Corry, Dean of our Church of Armagh, Doc- 
tors William McCamayll and William O'Cahan, Dean and Archdeacon of Derry, also to Doctors 
Thomas O'Loughran and Maurice O'Cahan, Canons of the Churches of Armagh and Derry, Health, 
Grace, and Benediction. We, by these presents, commit unto you, or any three of you, our authority, 
with the power of all manner of coercion, civil and canonical, to exercise in our name, stead, and au- 
thority, all manner of Episcopal Jurisdiction in the Diocese of Derry; also, to receive, levy, and exact 
all rents, incomes, and other profits to the said Bishoprick belonging, in consideration of a faithful 
account to be unto us hereafter rendered ; excepting, nevertheless, and unto ourselves reserving, the 
presentations of benefices and the leasing of lands. In testimony whereof, we have caused our seal to 
be appended to these presents. Given at Bannagher, in the Diocese of Derry, on the 14th day of the 
month of October, in the year of our Lord, One Thousand Three Hundred and Ninety-seven, and of 
our consecration the fourteenth." 

The things above-written were transacted in the Year, Indiction, Pontificate, Month, Days, and 
Places above-stated, in presence of the reverend and discreet men. Doctors Maurice O'Corry, Dean 
of Armagh, Brother Nicholas O'Loughran, Abbot of the Monastery of the Apostles Peter and Paul, 
at Armagh; Doctor Thomas O'Loughran, Canon of Armagh ; Sirs Robert Notyngham, Cross-bear- 
er to the Archbishop and Primate aforesaid, Rector of the Parish Church of Ardmacash, [i.e. Slanes] 
in the Diocese of Down ; Richard Waspayne, Rector of Balsoon in the Diocese of Meath ; Brother 
John \_Broum,'] a Brother of the House of St. John of Ardee ; and William Botyller, Preshyt^s ; of 
Masters Thomas Talbot, Richard Bagot and Richard Whyte ; of John Wolf, John Sandale and Ri- 
chard de la Foe Tour, [de la Vautour .?] Clerks of the Dioceses of Armagh, Dublin, Meath and Derry ; 
Sir Lawrence O'Mulvany, Rector of the Parish Church of Donaghmore ; Sir Lawrence O'Boyle, Per- 
petual Vicar of Ardstraw, Sir Philip O'Carolan, Rector of Clonleigh, and Donald O'Carolan, Clerk, 
Rector of Urney, in the Diocese of Derry ; and many others, as well clerks as laymen, specially sum- 
moned and invited as witnesses to the premises. 

And I, Richard Kcnmore, clerk of the Diocese of Meath, by apostolical authority, Notary Public, 
was personally present, together with the witnesses afore-named, at all and every one of the premises, 
whilst they were acted and done as is premised ; and I saw and heard them every one so done : and 
being occupied with other important matters, I caused them to be written down by another hand : and 
being asked and required for faith and evidence of all the premises, I have made them public and 
reduced them to this public form, and signed them with my common seal and customary sign.' Nor 

have been, with the Archbishop, matter of necessity ra- b Signoque [not sigillo,'] meo solito et asmeto signavi. 

ther than of choice: for it would appear from tlie Ordi- " There is no seal attached to the roll, nor does there 

nance and Jlonition above recited, tliat the whole of appear ever to have been. There is, however, at the 

the Canons in this Convent were charge.ible with simi- foot, a curious device drawn with the pen, surmounted by 

liir irregularities. a double cross. A smaller, but similar, pattern, is drawn 


let it impede [</te authenticity of these presents^ that the word "predido'^ is interlined between the 
56th and 57th lines; nor that the word " Ipsaque" is erased between the 58th and 59th lines count- 
ing from the beginning of this Instrument ; nor the word "eo" between the 97th and 98th lines, 
counting from the end of this Instrument : which words, the scribe aforesaid negligently omitted, and 
I, Richard, the Notary aforesaid, have supplied, before aflSxing my sign, and hereby ratify. 


Rental of the Most Reverend Father and Lord in Christ, the Lord John, by Divine Permission, 
Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of Ireland, Guardian of the Spirituality and Temporality of the 
Bishoprick of Derry, its see being vacant ; made in the City of Derry, on the 8th day of the month of 
October, in the year of our Lord, MCCCXCVII. 


[The modern names of the Parishes are given in parenthesis.] 


Rents in the City of Derry 

Faynwor (Fahan,) 

Disertegny, (Descrteigny,) 

Clonmane, (Clonmany) 

Townach-glyntachyr, (Donagh,) 

Cluancha, (Clonca,) 

Gryllagh [now included in CuldafF,] 

Norborgh, (Moville,) ... 
Coldochaa, (Culdaff,) ... ... 


Downaghmore, (Donaghmore,) 

Furny, (Urney) 

Taghncgomei-yk, [now in Clonleigh.] 

Clanlege, (Clonleigh,) ... 


Episcopal Thirds. 









































over each of the two seams, where the membranes of the name ; hence our expi*ession to sign a paper, instead of 

i-ollarestitchedtogether,asasecnvityagainstalteration."-- to subscribe it. In this case the double cross may have 

Dr. Reeves. Signiim, in the mediajval Latinity, generally been used in allusion to the crosses of the two apostles, 

means the sign of the cross, which was often placed as a St. Peter and St. Paul, 
mark at the foot of documents, instead of the writer's 


Ardsraa, (Ardstraw,) 

Kappagh, (Cappagh,) 

Dromeraa, (Dromrath, or Drumragb,) 
Kylchyrryll, (Termonamongan) 
Lawchyll, (Longfield E. and W.) 
Downaghgede, (Donaghedy,) ... 
Botowny, (Badoney,) ... 
Kylpatrick, (Leckpatrick) 


Achedoffy, (Aghadoey,) 

Dysert Otwachyll, (Disertochill,) 

Areg}-lyll, (Erigal,) 

Tawlaght McNioagh, (Tamlaght O'CrUly,) ... 

Dromogaruan, (Drumagarner, now included in the foregoing,) 10 

Kylrey, (Kilrea,) 

Rathlowry, (Maghera,) 

Ecanegea, (Termoneeny,) 

Kyllagh, (KiUelagh,) 

Kylcronechan, (Kilcronaghan,) 

Balleneserine. Ballynascreen,). . . 

Balle O'Skullyn, (Ballyscullion.) 

Disertmartyn, (Desertmartin,) 

Cammys, (Macosquin or Camos-juxta-Bann,) ... 

Donboo, (Dunboe,) ... 

Dunchrun, (now included in Magilligan,) 

Tawlaghtard, (Magilligan,) 

Ballenescrene de .iVrdo, (included in preceding,) 

Athlouge, (Agbanloo,) 

Tawlaghtinlan, (Tamlagbtfinlagan,) ... 

Focbwayll, (Faughanvale,) 

Bomawe, (Boveva,) 

Bangoria, (Bannagher.) 
Coramyr, (Comber.) 

'I o. 





















. 100 












ing,) 10 



















































41 17 4 

36 6 



The Bishop's Grange contains two Plough-lands and a half; and the Archdeacon hath held it fcir 
seven years. 

The sum total is 78 3s 4d.' 

' Tlie true sum is 78 4 0, if the figures be correctly- 
copied. It will have been remarked that, in the Rental, 
the Episcopal Thirds of four of the enumerated Parishes, 
are omitted : and what appears more strange, no less 
than six Parishes, which unquesrionablj- belonged to the 
Diocese, (some of them are mentioned in the Visitation 
Roll,) are left out altogether: viz.: Camus-juxta- 
Mourne, Killowen, Drumachose, Balteagh, Clondermot, 
and Dungiven. The date of the Schedule shews that it 
was written, jirobably at Derry, on the very day that 
Archbishop Colton entered the Diocese : and, perhaps, it 
may have been fraudulently made out, or else it may 
have been a rough draught, intended merely to serve as 
a foundation for further inquiries. Its happening to be 
attached to the Record of the Visitation, is no proof that 
it was accepted by the Archbishop, or his officers, as a 
full .and satisfactory account of the income of the See.^ 
Dr. Reeves states that "in the Report on Ecclesiastical 
Revenue and Patronage, 1833, the Income of the l;^ee of 
Denv. arising from Rents, was 2,593 14 2.V, and from 
Renewal Fines, 9,607 18 7; in all 12,291 12 9}." 
From this is to be deducted, in conformity with the pro- 
visiuus of the recent Church Property Act, the annual 
sum of 4,1G(), jiayable to the Ecclesiastical Commission- 
ers during the iiicumbencv of the present Bishop ; after 
which the deduction will be 0,160 per aniuim. I 
slioull add that, in copying this Schedule, I have, to 
save space, thrown the Rents and Thirds into the form of 

separate columns in the same table : in the Roll they 
form distinct Tables for each Deanery. In the Table of 
the Bishop" 8 Thirds, in the Deanery of Inysowyn, the 
first entry is Redoria et Tertia Episcopalis de Oivitate 
Derensi extendunt se ad vi. viarc, [Here and elsewhere I 
have reduced marks to shillings and pence.] The Bishop 
was in fact itarson of the parish of Derry, and as such, 
was entitled to one-third part of the tithe: another third 
was paid to the Dean as Vicar : the remaining third to 
the Herenachs, (who were the sept of O'Deery now called 
Deery :) but out of this the Herenach had to pay a cer- 
tain sum yearly to the Bishop. I should also mention 
that in the Table of Rents in the same Deanery, another 
hand has inserted after the entry respecting Norburgh, 
" Mtrjdbylly, ij marc." But this says Dr. Reeves, "seems 
to have been added by some one who was not aware that 
the preceding entry is an alias for it. It is not added in 
the corresponding list under the Tertia. Moville is in- 
tended by either name." For this reason I have not 
taken this item into the computation. I may add, in 
closing this paper, that there wdl be found in Dr. Reeve's 
notes upon the original, a great amount and variety of 
information concerning the churches and parishes of the 
Diocese of Derry, which, though in the handsomest 
manner placed at my disposal, I have not thought myself 
justified in copying. The Map given at p. 183 of this 
Journal will show the situation of the parish churches 
as they existed in A.D. 1397. 


Lisnegarvey,' the 28th of November, 1641 . 
A breife Relation of the miraculous Victory there that day over the first formed Array of the 
Irish, soon after their Rebellion, which broke out the 23d of October, 1641. 

Sir Phelemy O'Neile, Sir Conn Maginnis, their generals then in Ulster, and Major-General 
Plunkett, (who had been a souldier in forraine kingdomes,) having inlisted and drawn together out 
of the Counties of Ardmagh, Tyrone, Antrime, and Downe, and other Counties in Ulster, eight or 
nine thousand men, which were formed into eight regiments, and a troope of horse, with two feild- 
peeces; they did rendezvous on the 27th of November 1641, at and about a house belonging to Sir 
George Rawdon, at Brookhill, ^ 3 miles distant from Lisnegarvey, in which town they knew there 
was a garrison of five Companyes, newly raised, and the Lord Conwayes troop of Horse. And theyr 
principall designe being to march into and beseige Carrickfergus, they judged it unsafe to pass by 
Lisnegarvey, and therefore resolved to atacque it the next morninge, makcing little accompt of ye 
opposition could be given them by so small a Number, not halfe armed, and so slenderly provided 
of Ammunition, (which they had perfectt Intelljiyce of by severall Irish that left our partye, and stole 
away to them,) for that they were so numerous and well provided of Ammunition by y^ fifty barrels of 
Powder they found in his Maties store, in the Castle at Newry, which they surprised the very first 
night of the Rebellion. Also they had gott into their hands the Arms of all the Souldgiers 
they had murdered in Ulster, and such other Arms as they found in the Castles and houses which 
they had plundered and burned in the whole province. Yet it pleased God to disapoynt their Con- 
fidence ; and that the small garrisson they so much slighted, was much incouraged by the seasonable 
arrivall of Sir George Rawdon, who being in London on the 23rd of October, hasted over by ye way 
of Scotland, and landed at Bangor, and gott to Lisnegarvey, though late, on the 27th of November, 
where those new-raised men, and the Lord Conwaye's Troope were drawn up in the market-place, 
expecting hourly to be asaulted by the Rebells ; and they stood in that posture all that night, and 

Tlic following tract is written by a contemporary the middle of the seventeenth centurj-. In the cliarter 

band in the beginning of an old Vestry-Book of the parish of ('harles II., 1G62, it is called Lisburn alijis Lisnagarvie. 

of Lisburn otherwise Blaris.. It was printed in 184.3 in In Jeremy Taylor's works are his " Rules and Advices to 

a little account of Lisburn by Henry Bayly, but with the clergy of Down and Connor, given at the Visitation of 

various inaccuracies, and in a work of mere local circula- Lisnegarvey." Vol. xiv. p. 489. (London, 1828.) See 

tion. By tlic kindness of the Very Ilev. the Dean of Ross, Reeves' Eccles. Antiq. pp. 47, 38^3; Montgomery MSS. 

we have obtained an accurate transcript from the origi- p. IW ; and especially Smith's Belfast and its Environs, 

nal, iji his possession. [Ed.] pp. 8, 82. 

L'Lsnegarvey, in Irish Ltos na g-cearlhnrh, ' the game- b In the parish of Magheragall, about 5 mils N. W., of 

sters' fort.' is at present the name of tlie townland ad- Lisburn, known in modern times as the residence of the 

joining Lisburn, and was also the name of the town until late John AVatsou Esq. 


before sunrise sent out some horse to discover their numerous Enemy, who were at mass, (it being 
Sunday,) but immediately upon sight of our scouts, they quit their Devotion, and beat drums, and 
marched derectly to Lisnegarvey ; and before ten of y clock, apeared drawn up in Batalia in the war- 
ren (not above a muskett-shott from the Town,) and sent out two devisions, of about six or seaven 
hundr apeece, to compass the Town, and placed their feild-peeces on the high-way to it, before their 
body, and with them and their long fowleing peeces killed and wounded some of our men, as they 
stood in theyr ranks in the market-place ; and som of our muskateers were placed in windows, to 
make y like returns of shott to y Enemy. And Sir Arthur Terringham, (governor of y Newry,) 
who commanded y^ garrison, and Sir George Rawdon, and y officers, foreseeing if their 2 devissions 
on both sides of the Town, should fall in together, that they would overpower our small number. 
For prevention thereof, a squadron of horse, with some muskateers, was comanded to face one of 
them yt was marching on ye north side, and to keep ym at distance as long as they could ; which 
was so well performed, y* ye other devision which marched by y^ river on ye south side, came in be- 
fore ye other, time enough to be well beaten back by the horse, and more yn two hundred of y^ 
slaine in Bridge- Streett", and in theyr retreat as they fled back to theire maine body. 

After which execution, the horse returning in to the markett- place, found ye Enemy had forced 
in our small party on y^ north side, and had entred the Towne, and was marching down Castle-Streett, <i 
which our horse so well charged there, yt at least 300 of ye rebells were slaine in ye street, and in Jq 
medow behinde y houses, through which they did run away to theyr maine body ; whereby they 
were so much discouraged, that in allmost two hours after theyr officers could not get out any more 
partyes to adventure a second asault upon vis ; but in the mean space, they entertained us with con- 
tinued shott from theyr body, and theyr fcild-peeces, till about one of the clock, that fresh partys 
were drawn out and beaten back as before, with loss of many of theyr men, which they supplied still 
with others till night ; and in the dark they fired all the Town, which was in a few hours turned in- 
to ashes ; and in that confusion and heat of ye fire, ye Enemy made a feirce asault ; but it so pleased 
Grod that wee were better provided for them then they expected, by a releefe that came to us at night- 
fall from Belfast, of the Earle of Donegall's troope and a company of foott, comanded by Captain 
Boyde, who was unhappily slaine presently after his first entrance into the Town. And after ye 
houses were on fire, about 6 of the clock, till 10 or 11, it is not easy to give any certaine account or 
relation of ye scverall encounters in divers places of the Town, between small partyes of our horse 
heere and there, and ye Kebells, whom they charged as they mett, and hewed them down, so that 
every corner was filled with carkasses, and the slaine were fownd to bee more than thrice the number of 
those that fought against them, as apeared next day, when ye Constables and inhabitants, imployed to 
bury them, gave up their accounts. " About 10 or 11 of the clock, their two generalls quitt their 

"^This is the street in Lisburn which commimicates with ''Among those who fell on this occasion was Ever 

the bridge over the Lagan, ami the County of Down. Magennis, whose name occurs in a manuscript-pedigree 

This IS the main street of the town, deriving its name, of the family preserved in Trinity College, Dublin, thus 

as do the Castle Gardens, from the old castle of Loi-d "Eimer son of Rory Oge Magenis was killed at Lis-na- 

<-'onway. Gearrbach, 26 November, IWl." MS. H. 4. 31. 


station and marched away in the dark, and had not above 200 of theire men with them, as wee were 
informed next morning by several! English prissoners that escaped from them, who tould us the rest 
of theire men were either run away before them, or slaine ; and that their two feild peeces, 
was thrown into the river, or in eom moss-pitt, which wee could never finde after ; and in this theire 
retreat, or rather their flight, they fired Brookhill House, and the Lord Conway's Liberary in it, and 
other goods to ye vallue of five or six thousand pounds, theire fear and hast not allowing them to 
carry any thing away, except som plate and linen ; and this they did in revenge to ye owner, whom 
they heard was landed ye day before, and been active in y service against them, and was shott yt day 
and also had his horse shott under him, but mounted presently on another ; and Captain St. John 
and Captaine Burley were also wounded, and about therty men more of our party, most of which re- 
covered, and not above 25 or 26 were slaine. And if it be well considered how meanly our men were 
armed, and all our amunition spent before night, and yt if wee had not been suplyed with more, by 
yc timly care and providence of ye Earle of Donegall, and other Comrs from his Maties store at 
Carrickfcrgus, (who sent us powder, post, in mails, on horseback, one after another) and yt most of 
our new-raised companyes were of poor strypt men, yt had made theire escapes from y^ rebells of 
whom they had such a dread, yt they thought them not esely to be beaten, and yt all our horse (who 
did ye most execution) were not above 120, viz., ye Lord Conwayes' Troope and a squadron of ye 
Lord Grandison's Troope (ye rest of them haveing been murdered in their quarters in Tanrogee) ' 
and about 40 of a country Troope newly raised, untill that suply of the troope and company 
from Belfast came to us at night : It must be confest yt ye Lord of Hosts did signally apear 
for us, who can save with or without any means, and did by very small means give us this 
victory over his and our cnemys, and enough of theyr arms to suply ye defects of our new 
companys, besides about 50 of their Collours and drums. But it is to be remembered with 
much regret, that this loss and overthrow did so inrage y llebells, yt for severall dayes and weeks 
aft^r, they murdered many hundreds of Protestants, whom they had kept prissoners in ye Countyes of 
Ardmagh and Tyrone, and other parts of Ulster, and tormented them by severall manners of death. 
And it is a circumstance very observable, yt much snow had fallen in ye week before this action, and 
in the day before it was a little thaw, and a frost theropon in ye night, so yt ye streets were covered 
with Ice, which proved greatly to our advantage ; for yt all ye smiths had been iraployed yt whole 
night to frost our horses, so yt they stood firm when ye brogues slipt and fell down under theyr feet ; 
For which, and our miraculous deliverance from a cruell and bloody Enemy, how great a cause have 
wee to rejoyce and prayse ye name of our God, and say with that kingly prophet^ " If it had not been 
ye Lord himsclfe who was on our side, when men rose up against us, they had swallowed us up quick, 

fNow Tandragee, a very ooTT'.inoii triwnlanii r.imo in 
Ireland, generally applic'if to hills o.\|M.K('(l t., (.lie wuii, gpsalm cxxiv. 

Ton-re- gaoHh ' Back to tlio wind. 


when they were so wrathfuUy displeased at us. Yea ye waters of the deep had drowned us, and ye 
stream had gon over our soule ; the deep waters of ye proud had gon over our souls, but praised be y 
Lord who hath not given us over for a prey unto their teeth ; our soule is escaped even as a bird out of 
ye snare of the fowler : the snare is broken and wee are delivered. Our help standeth in the name of 
the Lord, who hath made Heaven and Earth." Amen. 



(Continued from page 129.) 


Sir Arthur Chichester, before he became Lord Deputy, had rendered good military service in the 
north of Ireland ; he had taken the strong fort of Innisloughlin in Kilwarlin, with all the treasures 
of the rebels deposited in it, and he had driven Bryan Mac Art from Killultagh. While his services 
and influence entitled him to consideration, therefore, his official connexion with these two counties ** 
enabled him to choose land in situations which promised a rapid improvement. The natural position 
of Carrickfergus, and its relative magnitude and importance, pointed it out as a species of centre ; 
and this accordingly was. his first position. His castle of Joyraount was situated near the town, 
while his grants lay north, west, and south, in the baronies of Carrrickfergus, Upper and Lower 
Belfast, and Castlereagh. The districts enumerated extend from Islandmagoe to Belfast, and 
thence up the valley of the Lagaa, including the modern Falls, Carnmoney, Shankill, Ballynafcigh, &c., 
then included in the manors of Mountjoy and Belfast. The principal portions of these were " planted" 
with Englishmen, especially in the towns of Carrickfergus and Belfast ; but the rural districts, and 
the towns after 1691, contained a considerable number of Scotch. Of course, these were merely a 
part of the extensive grants made to Sir Arthur and his family throughout Ulster ; but with his pos- 
sessions in Donegall and elsewhere the present sketch has nothing to do. 

While the men of English birth who had sought homes in the new country still survived, and while 
the plantation scheme was in full progress, an English tourist passed from Carrickfergus, through 
Belfast, Lisburn, Dromore, and Newry, on his way to Dublin. Occasional extracts from his manu- 
script account have been published since the beginning of the present century, but under an erroneous 
name ; and it is only recently that it has been printed entire. From the light which his remarks 
throw upon this part of the country, it is necessary to introduce him formally, and it is desirable to 
quote fully. Sir William Brereton, of Handford in Cheshire, was a distinguished Parliamentary ge- 

"Near the modern "Spencer's Bridge," across the " CarriekfcrKus, both the Clandcboyes, the Duifraine. 
Lagan, north of .Moira. Kidultagh, Kilwarliug, the Little Ards, the Route, and 

*> As (."olonel and Governor of the Forces stationed at the (Jlynnes." 


neral; he was born in 1604, a baronetcy was conferred upon him in 1626, which became extinct in 
1678, and he died in 1661. In the year 1634, he travelled in Holland, and in 1635 in Scotland 
and Ireland. His manuscript refers to both years, and from internal evidence, appears to have been 
written out from brief notes taken on the spot. It was printed in 1844, by the Chethara Society, 
Manchester as its first volume; Mr. E. Hawkins, F.R.S. &c., of the British Museum, contributing some 
valuable notes as editor. The spelling has been modernised, in the printed copy except in the names 
of places ; it is here restored. " 

On Sunday morning, July 5th, 1635, Sir William landed at Islandmagee, from "the Port Patrick," 
and was hospitably entertained at a large farm house belonging to a respectable Scotchman. 

" Hence wee went to Carck-Fergus, corruptly called Knock-Fergus, wch is 4 miles : & came 
thither about ii hours. Tooke uppe o^ In" in Mrs. Wharton's house, who is a Chester Woe-man, 
a neate Woe-man in hir House ; good lodging & vsage, 6d. ord. 4d a night hay & oates, 6d peck 
provendr. This Towne, soe called from one Fergus, who built the Castle, & from Carick, wh in 
Irish signifies a Rockc ; & indeed the Towne may well take his Denomination from the Castle wch 
is seated uppon a Rocke & commandes both Towne & HaA^en. All-most all the houses in this 
Towne were built Castle-wise, soe as though the Irish made spoile of & burnt the Towne, yett were 
they p'^served unburnt. This is butt a preattie little Towne w^^ in the walls of a verye small extent 
and capacitie : the onely grace of this Towne is the Lord Chichester's Hoiise, wcli is a verye State- 
lye House, or rather like a Prince's Pallace, where-vnto there belongs a stately Grate-house, & grace- 
ful Terrace & walke before the House, as is att Denton, my Lord Faire-fax-house.^ A verye faire 
Hall there ia, & a stately Staire-case, & faire dineing Roome carrying the proportion of the Hali : 
Fine Garden, & mightye Spatious Orchards, & they say they bcare good store of Fruite. I observed 
on either side of his Garden, there is a Dove-house placed one opposite to the other in the Corner of the 
Garden, & twixt the Garden & the Orchards ; a most convenient Place for Apricockes or some such 
tender Fruite to bee planted ag* the Dove house wall, that by the advantage of the heate there of 
they may be rondred more fruit-full, & come sooner to maturitie, butt this use is nott made there- 
of. Verye Rich Furniture belongs vnto this House, wch seemes much to bee neglected, & be- 
gins to go some-thing to decay. It is a most stately Building, onely the Windowes & Roomes & 
whole Frame of the House is over-large & vast ; & in this House may you observe the Incon- 

' The pedigree ofthovolumcisas follows. In 1791, it was pool, by whom it was presented to its present owner, Sir 

purchased at an auction by General Vallancey, and by rhilip Grey Egerton, Bart., M.P. of Oulton Park. Tar- 

iiim it was lent to Bishop Percy, through whom the extracts porley. About the year 1827, it was seen by Sir Walter 

were otjtaincd that have been printed at different times. Scott, who offered his services as editor ; and the Camden 

Proin numerous allusions, it was clear that the writer was Society subsequently declined to issue it as one of their 

anative of Ilandford, and, supposing him to be of the fa- publications. Sir Philip, with his usual kindness, has 

mily of Egerton, tlie Bishop wrote a remark to that ettect forwarded to me the original ; from which these extracts 

inside the cover. This has misled Dubourdieu, Monck Ma- are made. The book is a foolscap folio of sixty leaves, 

sou and othei-s. From Vallancey it came into the pos- with five or six blank pages. It is roughly bound ia 

session of Mr. J. Cooper Walker, who, previous to his parchment 

death in 181.3, was secretary to the Royal Irish Academy. <^ This is one of the local allusions. 
His sister sold it to Mr. Christopher Bentham of Liver- 


venience of great Buildings, wct require an unreasonable chardg to keep them in Repaire, soe they 
are a Burthen to the Owners of them. 

There is maintained in this Towne 2 Companies of Souldiers, the one a Troupe of Horse the other 
of Foote, consisting of 50 in either Company, und^ the Commaund of my Lord of Chichester's eldest 
son. The Troupe of horse were lately sent to attend ray Lord Deputie, in his Progress, verye com- 
pleately furnished, well horsed & in Red Coates all suiteable. This Towne of Carick-Fergus is 
governed by a Maieor, SheriflFe, & Aldermen, endowed wth great priviledges, & is the Shire- Towne. 
Itt is reported of this Towne that they have been all-waies loyall & faith-full to the State of Engl. 
This is seated uppon a Locke whch comes from the Sea, & is navigable wtt the tide for small 
Vessels, to the Key. 

This Locke runnes all along to Bell-fast, -woh is 8 mile from Carick-Fergus, & is thither all- soe 
navigable. It is about 3 or 4 miles broade, well furnished wth Fish, & all-soe wtt Fowle in Winter, 
Here uppon that Part of this Locke next to Bell-fast, I observed a Convenient seat. From Carick- 
Fergus to Bell-fast you ride all uppon the Locke-side ; itt is most basse way, & deepe in winter & 
wett weather, though now itt is hard & drie. 

At Bell-fast my L : Chichester hath another daintie House,* (wch is indeed the Glorye & 
Beautye of that Towne all-soe,) where hee is most resident, & is now building an outter Brick Wall 
before his Gates. This is nott soe large & vast as the other, butt more convenient & commodious ' 
the verye end of the Locke toucheth vppon his Garden and Backside. Here all-soe are daintye Or- 
chards, Gardens, & Walks planted." 

The importance of the family of Chichester may serve as an excuse for a few additional remarks, 
before we pass on up the valley of the Lagan. Sir Arthur was created Baron Chichester of Belfast, 
but left no surviving issue ; his honours were renewed, however, and his estates continued in the 
family of his brother. The numerous titles of the family correspond with the extent of their pos- 
sessions. The Marquis of Donegall is a peer of Ireland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, 
taking titles from Carrickfergus and Belfast in these counties. The Lords Templemore represent 
another branch of the family ; a third branch possessed a Baronetcy now extinct ; and the lineage of 
Chichester promises to occupy the place of one of the most ancient and distinguished native families 
in Ireland. 

The property of the present Marquis of Hertford comprises the two territories or " manors" of Eall- 
ultagh and- Derryvolga, and includes either the whole or the greatest portion of eleven ' distinct parishes. 
The most northern of these are Camlin and TuUyrusk, but those first reached in the line which the set- 
tlers of the Plantation followed, are Lambeg and Derriaghy. Both of these, the former especially, are 

L . 

e This was the Castle from whicli Castle- Street. Ca.stle- 'Lambeg, Derriaghy, Blnris, Ballinderry, Magheragall, 

Lane, and Castle Place are named. It was acciden- Glenavy Camlin and Tullyrusk, Aghalee Aghagallon, 
tally burned. April 24, 1708, when three daughters of and Magheramesk. 
the third Earl of Donegall were destroyed with it. 

2 p. 


wholly Englisli in their character ; and it is probable that they were settled by Sir Fulke Conway at 
the same time as Lisnegarvy. The current statements respecting him are very incorrect, people 
being misled by his name. His family had been resident at Bodrythan in Flintshire, and no doubt 
derived their name from the town of Conway. His father and grandfather were distinguished sol- 
diers and the former was Governor of Ostend in 1586 ; but there is not the slightest evidence that 
** the town of Conway was the property of Sir Fulke." * The assertion is equally gratuitous that the 
first settlers in Lisnegarvy were Welsh ; for the names of the first British settlers (fifty-two in num- 
ber) are still preserved, and the list comprises only four Welsh names. These are Morgan, Edwards, 
Ap Richard'' and Ap Hugh.' 

The maternal grandfather of Sir Fulke Conway was Sir Fulke Greville, descended from *' the 
flower of Woolstaplers," and ancestor of the earls of Brooke and Warwick. Lady Grreville, who pos- 
sessed large estates in Warwickshire, was doubly an heiress, representing both Lord Brooke and 
Lord Beauchamp of Powyk. Connected as the family was, therefore, with the County of Warwick, 
both by relationship and occasional visits, it is not surprising that Sir Fulke's father purchased the 
manor of Ragley there, in the close of Queen Elizabeth's reign. When Ireland became the land of ad- 
venture and promise, and the Conway family became interested in it, the tenantry and other in- 
habitants of both properties sought a settlement in that country : but they came almost exclusively 
from Ragley, and no doubt sailed from Bristol. When Sir Edward succeeded to the represen- 
tation of the family, he continued to prosecute the designs of Sir Fulke ; and the important por 
sition which he occupied in public affairs, afibrded him opportunities of doing so with success. 
In 1622 he succeeded Sir Robert Naunton as one of the Secretaries of State ; and about a year 
before the death of James I. was created Baron Conway of Ragley. On the accession of 
Charles I, he was re-appointed Secretary of State, and continued so till 1630 ; but in the mean- 
while he had been elevated to a higher grade of the English peerage, as Viscount Conway of 
Conway Castle, and also to the L:ish peerage as Viscount Killultagh. The manor of Ragley is 
situated on the right bank of the classic Avon, where the shires of Gloucester and Worcester join that 
of Warwick ; and hence it is highly probable that the additional men required to plant the new dis- 
tricts, extending finally to Lough Neagh, came from those counties also. Lady Conway was a native 
of Gloucestershire, and the second Viscountess came from Somerset. The tradition of the people is, too 
that their fathers came from " the apple counties" of England ; and some of them can even name the 
offices which their ancestors of English birth held, under the first and second Lords Conway. 

Edward, the second Viscount, also extended the plans of Sir Fulke, and was vigorously engaged 
with them during the brief visit of Sir William Brereton. "From Bellfast to Linsley Garven," says 
that writer, " is about 7 mile, & is a Paradise in comparison of any part of Scottland. Linsley 
Garven is well seated, butt neither the Towne nor the Countrie there-abouts well planted. This 

g Heterogenea, by J. M. Johnson, Esq., p. 94. ' > Popularly altered to Pritchard and Hughes. 


Towne belongs to my L. Conoway, who hath there a good hansome House, butt ferr short of both 
my Lo: Chich. Houses, & this House is seated vppon an Hill, vppon the side whereof is planted a 
G-arden & Orchard, & att the Bottorae of w^l^ Hill runnes a pleasaunt River wch abounds wth 
Salmon. Here-aboutes, my Lord Conoway is now endeavoureing a Plantation ; though the Land here- 
boutes bee the poorest & barrenest I have yett seen, yett may itt bee made good Land wtt labour & 
chardge." The "house" which the writer mentions was afterwards called the Castle of Lisbum ; and 
itia probable that it was improved and strengthened after the disasters of 1641, for it is spoken of as 
a building of strength and respectability in 1707, when it was accidentally burned along with the town. 

About the middle of the Protectorate, another Edward Conway succeeded as the third Viscount. 
He was the fourth individual, and the third generation of his family that had been connected with 
Killultagh ; and passing beyond Lisburn he selected for his residence a point of extreme beauty, at 
the opposite extremity of his possessions. On the eastern bank of the little lake of Portmore, an ancient 
castle of the O'Neills occupied a gentle elevation. To the west, the situation commanded a view of all 
the lake below, and the greater part of Lough Neagh ; to the north and east, the eye rested for miles on 
the beautiful lands of Glenavy and Ballinderry, with the tower of Ram's Island rising from a curve 
of the lake ; and to the south, across the bogs of Aghagallon, appeared the county Armagh. This 
spot, which is held in great veneration by the rustic inhabitants, will surely be not less interesting to 
the more intelligent ; for here the learned, pious, and accomplished Jeremy Taylor resided, who taught 
mankind both how to live and how to die. On a little island in the smaller lake, now known as the 
Sally Isle, was an arbour erected by his patron Lord Conway ; this was the favourite scene of his 
studies, and there he put the finishing hand to his Ihictor Dubitantium. At the restoration, as is well 
known, he became Bishop of Down and Connor, and in 1661 Bishop of Dromore also. 

In 1664, the castle of Portmore was rebuilt on a scale of great magnificence ; and here Lord Con- 
way, now an Earl, continued to dispense his generous hospitalities for nearly twenty years. The 
splendour of the castle may be inferred from the quality of the outbuildings ; and the provisions 
which were made are a commentary on the condition of society at the period. The stables constituted a 
sort of cavalry barracks, with the most ample accommodation for two troops of horse. They were 140 
feet long, 35 broad, and 40 high ; and water was supplied by pumps to a series of marble cisterns. 
When the Lords Conway became extinct, and the new proprietors did not feel inclined to make Ire- 
land a place of residence, the glories of Portmore departed. ^ The castle and other buildings were 
removed about 1761, and the only vestige that now remains of them is a portion of a wall. The 
garden and terrace are still entire under the name of "the Bowling Green;" but the decoys for 
wild ducks, such as are well known in Lincolnshire, and used to be common in Lancashire, have dis- 
appeared. The beautiful deer-park, said to have contained 2000 acres, is now changed to com and 

k There is a local ballad on the subject. 1 possess a assist me in procuring a more correct copy ? 
copy, which appears to be imperfect. Can any reader 


pasture fields ; and of the gigantic oaks, ' that were the pride of the neighbourhood and the wonder 
of all who saw them, not one remains. The church, which had been removed by Lord Conway from 
Templecormac to Portmore, was superseded by a new one at the Restoration, near the village of Upper 
liallinderry ; and, though the burial ground of this is still used, it has been superseded in turn by 
another church about half a mile distant, erected in 1827. Thus, the single parish of Ballinderry 
contains four parochial burial-places, and has had as many churches, all of which were used " since the 
commencement of the seventeenth century. The majority of these facts are less known than the 
contemporary history of other portions of the two counties : they form, however, an interesting illus- 
tration of the English settlement in Ulster, and are some proof of its extent and importance. 

Among the prominent men of the Plantation period was Sir Moses " Hill, said to be descended 
from a Norman family, of which branches are still seated in the shires of Devon and Stafford. He 
had served under two successive Earls of Essex, during the Rebellion of O'Neill in Elizabeth's reign ; 
and had been governor of the castle of Olderfleet or Lame. He had also served under Lord Deputy 
Chichester ; had represented the county of Antrim in Parliament ; and when numerous offences and 
disorders required the poena proesens of martial law, he was appointed Provost Marshall for all Ulster. 
One of the first portions of property which he acquired, was situated at Carrickfergus; there Captain 
Hill obtained a " whole share, " of the Corporation land in 1600. Arthur Hill was one of the three 
trustees for the corporation in 1637, and in 1811 the Marquis of Downshire was one of five, (out of 
a large number,) whose family name still coincided with that of the original grantee. All this por- 
tion formed part of a district then thoroughly English. 

To the south of Belfast, also. Sir William Brereton noticed the labours of Sir Moyses during his 
brief visit. " Near hereunto," (Belfast), he says, " Mr. Arthur Hill, [son and heir of Sir Moyses 
Hill] hath a brave plantation, which he holds by lease, which still is for thirty years to come ; the 
land is my Lord Chichester's, and the lease was made for sixty years to Sir Moyses Hill, by the old 
Lord Chichester. This plantation, is said, doth yield him a 1000 per annum. Many Lanckashire 
and Cheshire men are here planted, with some of them I conversed. They sit upon a rack-rent and 
pay 5s. or 6s, an acre for good ploughing land, which now is clothed with excellent corn." The clause 
in brackets though practically true, is literally an error ; for in 1635, Peter Hill, Esq., was the son 
and heir of Sir Moyses, and was seated still farther inland, at a place which he called Hill- Hall. 

I The gresxt oak of Portmore was blown down about is little doubt that it formerly included the latter ; at 

1700. To the firHt branch from the ground was 25 feet, all events it was the more important place. The church 

and the circumference measured 14 yards! A single of Portmore was then the existing one, originating no 

branch was sold for '.) ; the stem for in : and the prin- doubt in the chapel of the Castle ; and the " half ruined" 

cipal part of the remainder, bought f<jr 8it, built a one was that of Templecormac: only the foundations, and 

lighter of 41) tons' burthen. Many articles of furniture a small part of the wall of which, are now visible. The 

were made of it. and are held still in great estimation. late Bishop Mant seems to have known nothing of the 

The tradition which Ilcber notices as preserved by church of Templecormac ; and his informant, the Rev. 

Taylor's des^cendants, that " he often preached to a small Edward Cupples. evidently did not think of it. (History 

congre;?ation of Loyalists, in the half ruined church of of the Church of Ireland. Vol. I.p. &)0.) 

Kilulta," admits of easy explanation. Killultagh or Always written in the ancient form Moyses, 
Kilulta is a townland adjoining Templecormac, and there 


Arthur, the younger son, who was bom in 1600, and died in 1603, not only succeeded by inheri- 
tance to the lands of Peter, but in 1656, had so added to them that his estate lying in Antrim, Down, 
and Louth, was excelled by few in the kingdom. In. 1635, Sir William Brereton, found the country 
" almost all woods and moorish, [from Linsley Garven] until you come to Drum-moare ;" and in 1657 
Arthur Hill received from the Protector and his council, for services done in Ireland, a grant of more 
than 3000 acres, of which 912 are described as " wood and bogg." All this was in the " territory 
of Kilwarlin, and county of Down," and this account of it confirms the view already given of the 
state of the country. Some portions of the grant are enumerated in the confirmation of 1662, as 
Culcavy, Cromlyne, &c. ; though the fort which he had erected at his own cost, commanding an im- 
portant point of communication, again embodied the family name, and gave origin to the town of Hills- 
borough. The manor of Hillsborough was composed of two more ancient ones, Hillsborough and 
Growle ; the latter of which was named from what is now an obscure townland in the parish of Dro- 
more. So early as 1669, a village had sprung up on a distant portion of his property called Carcul- 
lion or Carquillan. Its distance from Newry, and the fact that a bridge there crosses the Bann, 
gave to it the English name of Eight-mile-bridge ; but the family name was applied a third time, and 
the name Hilltown has become permanent. 

It is unnecessary to trace the gradual accumulation of property by grant, purchase, inheritance, or 
otherwise, though the owner and the situation in general, account for the nature of the population. 
The estate acquired by the sons of Sir Moyses Hill is less concentrated than that which was created 
by the Lords Conway; but, in the two points of extent and value, it will bear a comparison with any 
other in the two counties. The boast of the country people in Down is not far short of the truth, 
that " the Marquis of Downshire, can ride his horse from Newry to Belfast on his own ground." The 
hereditary distinctions have kept pace with the growing influence of the family, and not one has be- 
come extinct. Three distinct branches are njembers of the peerage, the Marquis of Downshire, Vis- 
count Dungannon, and Baron Sandys ; in the first of which titles several minor ones are merged, and 
one also in the second. In several distinct walks of public life, the individual members have attained 
deserved distinction. The first Marquis was well-known as a statesman ; Lord Sandys sustained and 
extended the military honours of the family, during a connexion with the army of more than thirty 
years ; and few are unacquainted with the successful exertions of the philanthropist of Gweedore. 

The portion of the manor of Hillsborough which was colonised by natives of England is that ad- 
jacent to Killultagh. They spread up the valley of the Lagan, on the right as well as on the left 
bank, but did not establish themselves among the hills by which the valley is here bounded. The 
town of Hillsborough, and the whole western portion of the parish, lie within the area of the 
English plantation ; but in the eastern portion very few established themselves, and those only by slow 

Farther inland, and later in point of settlement, was Sir George Rawdon, a native of Rawdon, 
near Leeds in Yorkshire. His connexion with the North of Ireland may be traced to the fact that 


in early life ho was Secretary to the first Lord Conway, while his lordship was Secretary of State, 
and indeed till his death. He afterwards became more intimately related to the Conways, by marry- 
ing in the decline of life, as his second wife, the daughter of the second Lord, sister to the Earl. In 
1641, Sir George was one of the most active in defending Lisbum, and the adjoining country against 
Sir Phelim O'Neill; and some years after, he was the Earl of Donegal's deputy, as governor of Car- 
rickfergus, the county Antrim, and adjacent parts. In 1666 he had grants of land in Down, as well 
as in two other counties, under the acts of settlement; and other lands were assigned to him from 
time to time, in lieu of arrears of pay for services in the reign of Charles I. 

In the earlier years of the Plantation of Ulster, in the anxiety to form settlements of the native 
Irish, grants were made to the well-disposed, in the open and least defended parts of the country. 
Accordingly, in 1611, a district consisting of fourteen half-towns, " in the territory of Moyra and 
country of Iveagh," was granted to Murtagh MacTerlagh O'Lavery. At his death it was enjoyed by 
his grandson Hugh, who alienated great part of it in 1639 ; and in the disturbances of 1641 called by 
the country people " the Forty-one Wars," all the rest was forfeited. Sir G-eorge Rawdon, having 
arrears of pay due, purchased this for a small sum, and introduced "conformable Protestants," viz, 
English soldiers, and colonists from his paternal property. The Laverys of Moira still survive, and 
though now a very humble people they possess some characteristics of great interest. About 1781, 
when Lieut. Col. Lord Rawdon was serving with great distinction in the war with our American 
colonies, one of them, a Corporal, from near " the back of the wood" on his father's estate, performed 
an act of great bravery, which was mentioned with high eulogium in the House of Commons. 

The Moyra estate is now the property of Sir Robert Bateson, Bart, and since the commencement 
of the present century the history of the Rawdon family belongs to England. They have been iden- 
tified with several parts of the County Down, greatly to its advantage ; and the earldom of Moira, con- 
ferred in 1762, is one of the numerous peerages possessed by the Marquis of Hastings. There is a 
tradition among the tenantry that a small portion of the estate adjoining the church -yard was re- 
served, when all the rest was alienated, lest the title Earl of Moira ^ should pass away ; and the belief 
is an interesting illustration of the hold which Baronies hy tenure practically possess on the popular 

John Magill Esq., supposed to be a junior branch of the family of that name in Scotland, Earls of 

, u 1 -^ account is not always given in the same way, but enemy, he thrust it into the wound and crawled to a 

I had It in earlv life from an eye witness. His lordship hollow tree. There he was found next day by his com- 

beiu| in a i)Osition of great difficulty wished to com- panions, expiring from the irritation occasioned by his 

municate with another detachment of British troops, heroic conduct. In Boyle's Speeches it is stated that at 

separated from him by woods filled with sharp- Moira " a chaste monument records at once the glory of 

shooters. Lavery, knowing the difficulty and danger of the deed, and the gratitude of his illustrious country- 

the embassy, volunteered to carry a letter to the com- man Lord Rawdon.' Can any one inform me what this 

manding officer ; and as had been expected, he was shot is or was, and where? 

at and wounded. The bullet laid open the covering of p What would they say of such titles as Earl of Lia- 

the peritonaeum without injuring a vital part; but in his burne, Viscount Downe, or Viscount Strangford? 
auiiety to conceal the contents of the letter from the 


Oxford and Lords Magill, obtained grants of land beyond those of Sir Arthur Hill and Sir George 
Kawdon. They lay chiefly in the modern parishes of Dromore, Magheralin, and Tullylish; in the 
first of which his name is preserved in Gill-Hall, and in the last in the village of Gilford on the Bann. 
In private friendship, as well as in several undertakings of public importance, he was intimately as- 
sociated with Alderman Hawkins of London, who was also a planter in the County Down : and by an 
intermarriage of their families, a common descendant, the Earl of Clanwilliam, possesses the pro- 
perty'' acquired by both. Though Mr. Magill resided principally at Gill-Hall his property was 
erected into the manor of Gilford ; and in its descent, the male line has become extinct three times, 
in the families of Magill, Johnston, and Hawkins. Mr. Johnston assumed the name and arms of 
Magill, and became Sir John Magill, Bart ; Mr. Hawkins was also known as Robert Hawkins Ma^. 
The Magill propertjklay on both sides of the county boundary, i.e. ia Armagh and Down; and in 
that which adjoined the rivers Bann and Lagan, it was inhabited almost exclusively by Englishmen. 
Those portions which adjoined the Kilwarlin Hills and the town of Dromore, were inhabited by a few 
straggling Scots, who increased in numbers with the natural increase of property and population. The 
following facts illustrate the value of land at the close of the seventeenth century. When the battle of the 
Boyne had restored peace to the country, there was a better field for industry ; and Sir John Magill, 
being desirous to encourage it, sent for his tenantry, and offered to give them leases with lives re- 
newable for ever, at the rents which they had previously paid. A very large number accepted them, 
at a rent of less than half a crown per acre : ' and thus the Clanwilliam property is much less produc- 
tive to its possessor than that of the neighbouring landlords. Baron Gilford is one of the inferior 
titles of the Earl of Clanwilliam. 

[Though not directly connected with the subject of the present Essay, it may be interesting to some 
readers to know that the English colonists did not stop at the verge of this county, but pressed on 
across Armagh. Bankes, in speaking of Lugarn, [Lurgan,] says *' This town from the similarity of 
its general figure, of the language, manners, and dispositions of its inhabitants, to those of the English, 
hath for many years acquired the name of Little England." Leaving the bogs of Oneiland to the right, 
the planters passed from Seagoe, Shankill, and Magheralin, across to the Blackwater at Killyman and 
Charlemont ; and large numbers settled in Dungannon and the parishes immediately surrounding it. 
Thus, from the tides of the Channel at Carrickfergus, to the base of the Pomcroy mountains in 
Tyrone, across a considerable portion of four counties, and independent of smaller numbers scattered 
at other points, the English portion of the plantation existed in an unbroken line. The characteris- 
tics of the fathers are discernible still, in a generation farther removed than the children's children ; 
but these it will be time enough to investigate when we have assigned the proper locality to each of the 
other elements of the population.] 

q The townland of Tullycarne was an exception. Mr ' This took place in 1696, again in 1726, and no doubt 

Magill bequeathed this to " his servant John Magill,"with at other times also. In 1696 one tenant accepted a lease 

whose descendants it remained till vrithin the last few of a quarter of a townland (about 60 IrLh acres) ; but his 

years. Another branch of the Oxfurd family settled at wife complained bitterly that it would be impossible to 

Islnndderry ; it is now represented by John Alagill, Esq., procure the rent, and that he should only haye accepted 

of Dublin. enough for a good garden and a cow's grass. 



The house of O'Neill is so ancient, and its fortunes so inti- 
mately interwoven with the history of Ireland, that neither 
the antiquary nor historian will ever fail to discern in its events 
circumstances of interest according to his peculiar study. 

This race, whose pedigree is traced back, by Irish genealo- 
gists into the very vacuum of memory through ninety-four 
generations, enjoys the airy portions of its honours in com- 
mon with many northern families; but it becomes a line ia 
itself, and acquires severalty when Donnell, on the death of his 
father Muircertach, in the year of our Lord 943 becomes mo- 
narch of the North, and in memory of his grandfather, Neal 
Glunduv, creates the family name of Ua Neill, or Niall's Grandson. During two succeeding 
centuries his descendants gave way before the rising power of the MacLaughlins who were 
also of the northern Hy-Neill, and a senior branch of the Kinel-Owen. Towards the close of the 
twelfth century, however, the Neills began to recover their former supremacy, and, by occasion- 
ally calling in the aid of the English who were their neighbours, finally broke the power of the 
rival bouse, who being more remote from the new element in the population, were more thoroughly in their relations. 

The following table represents the generations which intervene between that period and the in- 
dividual whose seal is the subject of the accompanying wood-cut. 



Some time Lord of Kinel-Owen ; was slain by O'Loughlin in 1177, when Donnell O'Loughlin be- 
came Lord of Kinel-Owen, who died in 1188, and was succeeded by Murtogh O'Loughlin, who waaJ 
slain in 1196. 



(nial roe, or red.) 

Alive in the yeir 1222, but not distinguished, 
honours devolved upon his brother. 



The family First appears in the Annals at 
1198, 1199. The struggle for the 
lordship was carried on between 
him and the O'Loughlins, for he 
was deposed from it by them in 
1200, and Conor O'Loughlin made 
Chief. He continued however to 
dispute the title. See the Four 
Masters at 1208, 1210, 1213, 
1221. He died in 1230. 


Advanced to the Lordship of Kinel-Owen through the influence 
of the English, on the deposal of Donnell O'Loughlin in 1238. 
Installed in 1241. Flourished during 1246, 1248, 1252, 1258. 
Slain in 1260 at the battle of Down. His seal bearing a 
mounted cavalier, and the legend S. Brieni Regis de Kenel 
EoGAiN is published in the Proceedings of the R. Irish Aca- 
demy, Vol. IV. p. 484 ; and in the Miscellany of the Celtic 
Society (1849) p. vii. 



Succeeded his cousin Aodh Buidhe 
in 1283. Deposed by the Earl of 
Ulster in 1286. In possession in 

1290. Deposed and banished in 

1291. Slays Brian O'Neill in 
1295. Expellel in 1819 through 
the united power of the English 
and of the family of Hugh Boy, 
and forced to take refuge in Fer- 
managh. Soon after he recovered 
the lordship. He died in 1325 at 
Lough Leary, near Newtown Stew- 
art. His name occurs three times 
in Rymer's Foedera ; sc. : in 1302, 
Doue7ialdus O'Nel is one of the 
Magnates addressed by Edward I. 


Placed in the Chieftaincy 
by the Earl of Ulster on 
the deposition of his bro- 
ther in 1286. In 1261 
he had been elected in 
place of Aodh Buidhe 
who was banished: but 
he was deposed in 1262, 
and Aodh restored. In 
In 1291 Donnell was 
deposed, and he put in his 
place by Richard de Bur- 
go, Red Earl of Ulster, 
but soon after he was 
slain by his rival Donnell. 
In Rymer is a record 
2 Q 


Succeeded his father in claiming 
the Chieftaincy of Kinel-Owen, but 
was deposed by Donnell O'Lough- 
lin in 1232 and slain by him in 
1234. In 1238 it was recovered 
to the family by his elder brother. 


(Hugh Boy or the Yellow.) 

First mentioned at 1259. Became 
Chief on his Uncle's death, in 1260. 
Banished in 1261, and Niall Cul- 
anach put in his place. Restored 
in 1262, and Niall deposed. In 
1281, aided by the English, he 
signally defeated the KinelCon- 
nell under O'Donnell at the battle 
of Disert-da-crioch (Desertcreat). 
He was slain by MacMahon and 
the men of Oriel in 1283. His 
sons established themselves in the 
present County of Antrim, and 
assumed the title of Clann-Aodha 
Buidhe, anglicised Claneboy. 


regarding the war in Scotland. (30 
Ed. i.) In 1314 Douenal O'Neel 
dux Hibemicorum de Tyroton sum- 
moned by Edward ii. to the 
war in Scotland. (7 Ed. ii.) Ho 
it was who in 1318 addressed the fa- 
mous Complaint to Pope John xxii. 
recorded by John Fordun, in which 
he styles himself. " Dovenaldus 
Oneyl rex Ultonice, ac totius Hiber- 
ni(B hereditario jv/re verus heres," 

of the year 1275, in which 
he addresses Edward i. 
N. Onel Rex I. de In- 
chcun. (3 Ed. i). His 
sons, in 1325 slew their 
cousin Cuuladh, heir to 
the lordship of Tyrone. 


(IIuGii THE Cor- 

He is the Odo of 
the accompanying 


Tanist of Tyrone ; 
slain at Rath Lury 
(Maghera) in 1319, 
by the Clann- Hugh- 
Boy and Henry 


Heir to the lord- 
ship of Tyrone ; 
slain by his Cousins 
the sons of Niall 
Culanach in 1325. 

The present Viscount O'Neill, 
who is seventeenth in descent from 
Aodh Buidhe, is the senior survi- 
ving representative not only of 
this branch, but of the entire race. 


Raised to the 
Chieftaincy in 
1291, by the 
Earl of Ulster, 
on the murder 
of Niall Cul- 
anach. He was 
supported by 
MacMartin, and 
MacEoin, thro' 
whose means 
Donnell his ri- 
val was driven 
into Tyrone. 
He was slain in 
1295 by Don- 
nell son of Brian, 
and was suc- 
ceeded by his 
brother Henry. 


He succeeded to 
the Chieftaincy 
of the Clan- 
Hugh-Boy, on 
his brother's 
death in 1295. 
In 1335 he was 
summoned to 
Scotland by Ed. 
iii. as one of 
the " Principa- 
les Hiberniae."- 
(Rymer, Foed. 
9 Ed. iii.) He 
died in 1347. 

AoDu Reamuar, son of Donnell, appears in the Irish Annals for the first time at the year 1337, as 
making peace with the men of Oriel and Fermanagh who had slain Hugh Boy in 1283; and thus 
strengthening himself by the Irish interest. But previously to this he is introduced to notice in an 
English record, namely a summons of Edward iii. in 1335 to the Magnates of Ireland to attend him 
in his war in Scotland. In this Instrument the names of 56 Knights, 14 Irish Princes, and 111 
Esquires are set out, and foremost in the second class is Irewere Oneel de Ulvester, and tenth in 
the list is Hen. Oxeel, his first cousin. (Rymer Focdera, 9 Ed. iii.) Irewere, which to an English 
eye is inexplicable, is simply a phonetic compound of the two Irish words Aodh Reamhar, the former 
pronounced as E<:, the latter Rimer. His subsequent history we learn from the Four Masters. 


In 1339 Hugh Reamiiar O'neill led an army into Tirconnell. In 1343 he joined the Mac- 
Sweenys in deposing Niall O'Donnell. In 1345 he entered Lough Neagh with boats, to plunder the 
opposite country, but the Clann-Hugh-Boy mustering their forces attacked him ; and after consider- 
able loss on both sides, he made his escape in his boats. In 1353 Gormlaith, daughter of O'Donnell) 
his wife, died. In 1354 he sustained a signal defeat from the Clan-Hugh-Boy who were aided by the 
English of Dundalk. In 1358 he gained a victory over the men of Oriel and Fermanagh. At 1364 
the same Annals thus record his death : " Hugh O'Neill, the best man of the Irish of his time, died, 
having gained the palm for humanity, hospitality, valour, and renown." He was succeeded by his 
his son Niall More, who survived till 1397. 

The legend upon his seal is 


The Irish, " Aodh" is Latinized by '' Odo" and pronounced, as has been observed, Ee. 

This beautiful specimen of the sphragistic art is the finest work of the kind, connected with Ire- 
land, which remains, and far exceeds in elegance the other seals of the O'Neill family. The high re- 
lief of the scutcheon, and the bevelled edge with the small quatrefoils running round the margin, are 
very remarkable. It is to be observed too, that the Hand, as in other early seals of the family, is a 
Dexter one, the same as that which now appears in the arms of the present Lord. " Argent, a hand 
Gules" was the heraldic characteristic of Baronetcy when created in IGll, and 1619, in considera- 
tion of O'Neill's extermination; and it was remarkable to find Sir Bryan O'Neill, of Bakerstown, inl642, 
and Sir Henry O'Neill, of Killelagh, in 1666, the one in the English, and the other in the Irish Ba- 
ronetage, adopting an achievement which they were supposed to viva, from themselves. 

The diagonal cross-hatching on the field of the seal is not to be regarded as heraldic, being pro- 
bably an expedient of the engraver to give effect to the relief of the hand. 

All that is known of its history is that it came into the hands of Horace Walpole, in the course of 
the last century, from the neighbourhood of Belfast. This appears from his own description of 
Strawberry Hill, printed there in 1784 : 

" A silver seal, extremely ancient, of Hugh O'Neal, king of Ulster ; brought out of Ireland by 
Mr. William Bristow." p. 64. 

It occurs again in Mr. Robins' Sale Catalogue, Fifteenth day, lot 10 : 

"-4 curious antique silver Seal, extremely ancient : this remarkable relic once belonged to Hugh 
O'Neil, King of Ulster. Brought from Ireland by Mr. William Bristow." p. 151. 

It was knocked down at the sale for 73, and came into the hands of the late Otway Cave, Esq., 
in the possession of whose representiitives it is supposed still to be An electrotype copy is in the 
cabinet of a collector, and from an impression of it in wax, the above drawing was made. 




See Dr. Reeves' Description of Nendrum, commonly called Mahee Island, 4to, 1 845 ; also 
his Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, Connor, and Dromore, p. 187, &c. 

From the State Paper Office, Whitehall, Jiondon. 

To the right honorable my Lorde of Bnrley, 

Right Honorable, I doo humbly crave your honor's favor and do beseeche the same to have con- 
sideracion of my case, in this respect that I was the first of our nacyon that did, in a dangerous and 
rebellyous time of Turloghe Lenoghe then invading that country, sett downe in the wast place of 
Clandeboye in the north of Irelande uppon the lande of the Bisshopp of Downe, called Ilande JMac- 
hye, with his appurtenances, being viii townes as by their names may appere, then havinge a lease of 
the late Bisshopp John * of the same lands for his lieff, at xxs- Irish a towne, as well for the spiritu- 
alties as for the temporalties of the same, (a towne is a plowe lande,) and also havinge a bonde of the 
Slid Bisshope of ij- li to make to me astate of the same in fee-farme, upon wch lands your petycioner 
did builde a castle *> that cost him fowre hundreth marks and upwards as my late Lorde Deputye can 

And since that your honor's peticyoner hath been a suiter a longe time at the Court, the said Bis- 
shopp is dcade, and hath not made to him astate in fee-farme of the premisses, so that nowe your ho- 
nor's peticyoner hath no right or title to the saide house and lands ; I doo therfore beseeche and 
crave your honor's favor to bee my good L. to this effect, that the next ' bisshopp of Downe that her 
IMatie shall make, may bee enjoyned, (upon the consideracions aforcsaide,) to make to me an estate of the 
same in fee-farme, that another doo not reape the fruite of my labour and expences. 

a John Merriman, Bishop of Down, dead before tlieCth structure to those which abound along the shores of 

of July, 1571. Strangford Lough." Reeved Description of Nendrum p. 

i> At the northern extremity of the Island are the 3l). 

roofless walls of an ancient square castle, similar in <= Hugh Allen, succ : 1573, 


And wbeare I understande that Sr Bryan MachfeKm keepeth a warde in my house, I doo beseech 

your honor that I may have your honor's and my lords of the Counseill's letters to my L. Deputy to 

give me possession of my house againe. 

And whereas there is not a deane and chapitre to that see of Downe, neither hath been a longe time, 

and without a dean and chapitre no assurance of any of the Bisshop's wast lands can bee made to any 

man by the Bisshopp. 

And without assurance by lease for a long time no man will buylde upon those wast lands, and ther- 

by it shallbee both hurtful to the Bisshoprick, and to the cuntry itself, because the Bisshop hath great 

lands in that party es. (sic.) 

Ldoo beseeche your honor to bee a meanes to her Matie to make a Deane of Downe, apoyntinge suche 

lyvinge to the office out of the Bisshoprick as her Matie by your honor's advise shall thinck good, for 

that there is not as yett neither the saide office nor any certayne lyvinge to the same. 

Yt may also please your L. to bee meane for me to her Matie to geve me the revercion of the Cunstable- 
shipp of the Castle of Knockfargus in soche sorte as Captayne Piers hath it. Your honor's favor 
and good lykinge in theis my poore suites I doo hxmibly crave, and I shal bee ever your Lordeshippcs 
bounden at comaundment. 
(endorsed) " Captayne Browne," 


Amongst the ancient Kecords of the Court of Exchequer which are deposited in the Exchequer 
Record Office, at the Four Courts in Dublin there is to be found a Roll, by which it appears that, 
between the years 1613 and 1618, the Justices of Assize and Gaol Delivery proceeded to try the 
criminals who were then confined in the gaols within the province of Ulster. By this Record, which 
consists of 100 membranes of parchment, and which is written in contracted Latin, we are informed 
of the names of the jury appearing upon the Inquests, of the names of the d^inquents and the crimes 
of which they were accused, of their acquittal or otherwise, and of the sentences which were pro- 
nounced by the Judges ; but of the more interesting particulars of those proceedings, such as the 

* Made no doubt in pursuance of Writs of Certioriari, to make a return to that Court of all treasons, and fe- 
which were issued by the Court of King's Bench, direc- lonies, and the misprision thereof, therein committed.' 
ting the Clerks of the Crown in the province of Ulster, 


examination of witnesses, the address of counsel, and the charge of the Judge, this document is 
entirely silent. Incomplete, however, as it is, we cannot but gather from it much insight into the 
sad state of society in Ulster at the period of time to which it relates, as well as the severity of 
the Executive in its desire to carry forward the then favourite scheme of the " New Plantation" 

in that province. 


No. 1. 

On the 27th of February, 1613, an Inquisition was taken at Down, before Christopher Sibthorp^ 
one of the Judges of the King's Bench, and John Beare, Sergeant-at-Law, the Justices of Assize, 
appointed by a Commission dated the 11th of February in the same year, upon the oaths of the fol- 
lowing Jurors: 

Christopher Russell, of Bright, Esq. Robert Swordes, of Balledonell, gent. 

Edward Johnson, of Boyle, Esq. William Morris, of Foynebrege, gent. 

Robert Yonge, of Newery, gent. John Russell, of Killogh, gent. 

James Audely, of Audlyston, gent. John Barr, of Balleedog, gent. 

James Russell of Magherytenpany, gent. Donell oge M^Duiggin, of Mahheretuck. 

Brian boy O'Gilmer, of Gregvade, gent. Walter oge Olune, of Bally gygon, 

Christopher Walsh, of Walsheston, gent. Phelyme McDoaltagh Offegan, of Edenmore, 

John Savage, of Rathalpe, gent. 

Who find that Tirlagh oge McBryne, late of Loghany, county Down, yeoman, on the 1st of January, 
1613, with force and arms at Ballyhennocke took and carried away a mare of a chestnut colour, 
price 8, the property of Con O'Neile. When placed at the bar he pleads not guilty, and is acquit- 
ted. The said Jurors also find that on the 20th of January in the same year at Logheny, county 
Down, he carried away a cow price 20s. the property of Donnogh CaiTagh McKenan, of which he 
is also acquitted. They also find that Murtagh Moder Magrane, late of Dromneknogher, county Down, 
yeoman, on the 20th of August, 1613, at Ballemullnany, stole a chestnut-coloured mare worth 40s. the 
property of John Prestly, of which he is found guilty ; and the judgment of the Court is that he be 
brought back to the gaol by the gaoler and be disengaged from his chains, and that he be led from the 
gaol thro' the midst of the town of Down as far as the gallows, and there hung by the neck until he be 
dead, and the Sheriff of Down is commanded to carry this into execution. The Jurors also say that Art 
3Iagenis, of Kilwarlin, gentleman, and Donnill Magenis of the same, yeoman, on the 20th October, 
1613, at the woods of Kilwarlin and other places, waged cruel and open war, by burning, murder- 
ing, and spoiling the King's liege subjects, and that on the last day of the same month, Turlagh 
McGregory and Patrick M'^Gregory aided and supported them and other ialse traitors; but the said 
Turlagh and Patrick are acquitted. The Jurors also find that James McDavye of Little Deleing, yeo- 
man, on the 31st October, 1613, at the fields of Balleclavars, took a black-coloured mare worth 4, the 


property of Patrick Oranton, and he is acquitted. They also say that Murtagh O'Kerran with others, 
on the 9th of November, 1605, with force and arms about 12 o'clock at night broke into the man- 
sion house of John Bellew, gent., putting him in bodily fear by threatening to kill him, or at least 
to spoil him of his goods and money; but he is acquitted. They also say that on the 3rd of August, 
1609, Owen Savadge of Ballindre, yeoman, at Kathlelan, carried away three mares price 10 each, 
the property of a person unknown ; and he is acquitted. They say also that Manus Offlyn, of 
Roowe, yeoman, on the 11th of February, 1613, at Rodony, carried away two sheep worth IDs. the 
property of John Mountgomerey and Michael Cragg of Rodony, yeomen, and he is acquitted. 
That Owin Offcgan, of Dromore, yeoman, on the 17th of November, 1613, at Dromore, broke in- 
to the stable of John Todd between 7 and 8 o'clock in the evening, and carried away a mare valued 
at 8, his property. Acquitted. That Owin McConan, of Killwarling, yeoman, on the 26th of Sep- 
tember, 1613, at the fields of Balligligor, carried away two brown coloured horses, price 4 each, the 
property of John Dunbarr. Acquitted. That Patrick O'Corran, of Tallomc, yeoman, on the 6th of 
November, 1613, at same place, carried away 4 pigs, price 33. each, the property of Teige O'Brian. 
Not Gruilty. That Robert Edger, of Portferry, yeoman, on the 8th of December, 1613, at Ballycorog, 
stole a black heifer price 16s. the property of Richard Savage. Acquitted. That he also on the same 
day, at Portferry, stole a black heifer worth 20s. belonging to Hugh McLiiske. Acquitted. That 
Teige McMuUan of Evagh, yeoman, on the 12th of January, 1613, at the fields of Lisnacrewe, stole a 
black mare price 40s. belonging to Patrick oge O'Gcrron, yeoman. Acquitted. That Gilleduff 
O'Mqjgan, of Mourne, yeoman, on the 1st of February, 1613, at Tullaghomy, stole 4 pigs, price 4s. 
each, the property of* Gilleduff 0' Morgan. Acquitted. That Gilledufi' O'^Iorgan, of Newery, yeo- 
man, on the 6th of February, 1613, at MuUaghmore, stole 17 pigs worth 3s. each, belonging to 
William O'Dalye. ^icquittcd. That Jane M^Craken of Kunningburne, spinster, on the 1st 
of December, 1613, went to the mansion house of Dugald Craford, of Kunningburne, gent, and 
between the hours of 8 and 9 in the evening, with a lighted torch in her hand, of malice 
aforethought, set fire to a small heap of straw there, whence the house and Mr. Craford who 
was in it, were burnt. Acquitted. That Edward O'Carr, of Drurakreigh, yeoman, on the 12th 
of August, 1613, forcibly at Tawnymoore, County Armagh, stole a m?re, price 4, be' 
lont^ing to Patrick McTawny. Acquitted. That Con Boy Slagenis, of Evagh, yeoman, 
on the 16th of February, 1613, at Dromore, stole a chestnut-coloured horse price 3, the 
property of John Todd. Acquitted. That James Mc Williams of Downepatrick, yeoman, on the 27th 
of September, 1613, " apud Downe Patrick, in apertuloco vocato ' a cow-house' cujusdam Simonis 
GofFockes in qnan^lam vaccam de bonis et cattallis dicti Simonis Goffockes adtunc et ibidem existente 
insultutn fecit, ac cum dicta vacea sceleratissime felonice ao contra nature ordinem tunc ibidem rem 
habuit venercam, dictamque vaccam carnaliter cognovit, ac sic cum eadem vacca peccatum illud 

So in the original. 


horribile ac hodomiticum (Anglice vocatum B******) adtunc ct ibidem felonice comisit ac perpetravit." 
Acquitted. That Teige O'Hoyro of Balleenlogb, yeoman, on the 13tb of September, 1C13, in the 
fields there " in quandam Rose ny Hanlon spinster virginem etatis duodecim annorum tunc et ibidem 
in pace Dei et dicti domini Regis existentem iusultum fecit, et tunc et ibidem eandem Rose contra 
voluntatem ipsius Rose felonice rapuit et carnaliter cognovit," Acquitted. That Barnard Turke of 
Arglas, yeoman, on the 16th of January, 1613, about twelve o'clock at night, entered the mansion- 
house of John St. Lawrence, at that place, and stole 3 in money there lying in a chest, his property. 
Acquitted. That Patrick Groome McGennis of Dounoan, yeoman, on the 15th of December, 1613, in 
the fields of Belfast, County Antrim, stole a black horse worth 6, the property of John Maukin, of 

Belfast, yeoman. Acquitt d That Phelym Starky, and Owen Gilboy, of Down, yeomen, on the 

18th of March 1612, at Cargaghnebeg, stole 3 in money, the property of Art McGUkenny. Ac- 
quitted. That Laghliu Dufic 'Hanlon, of Omeathe, yeoman, on the 1st of February, 1613, entered 
the mansion-house of Art O'Brynof Newery, between 10 and 11 o'clock in the evening, and stole a 
keg of butter worth 10s. He is found guilty, and the judgment given is the same as that 
which was pronounced in the above-mentioned case of Murtagh Moder Magrane namely, that he 
should suffer execution in like manner. That Manus Moder O'Bryne of Magherhawle, yeoman, on 
the 20th of December 1613, at Leitrym, stole a sow worth 8s, the property of Patrick oge 
O'Rogan. Acquitted. That Phelim O'Morgan of Newery, and Patrick Boy O'Morgan of same, yeo- 
men, on the 1st of December, 1613, at Tallaquoyle, stole two horses price 40s each, belonging 
to Brian Roe Offegan, and Shane McJlchrewe. Acquitted. That Donnell MGennis of Kiljarley, 
yeoman, on the 26th of March, 1606, at the woods ofClerant, insulted James Russell with "adarte" 
price 6J, which he held in his right hand, and struck him upon the head, giving him a mortal wound 
one inch broad and three inches deep, of which he then and there instantly died. Guilty. His 
sentence is that he be brought back to the gaol, his fetters or chains taken off him, and that from the 
gaol thro' the middle of Downepatrick he be led to the gallows and there hung by the neck " ac semi- 
mortuus ad terram prosternatum ac interiora et membra secreta ejus extra ventrem suum scindantur 
ipsumque adhuc viventem combiu:entur, et caput ejus amputetur, quodque corpus ejus in quatuor 
partes dividatur et caput et quarteria ilia disponantur ubi dominus Rex ei assignari velit." That 
William Colt, of Roemoorc, yeoman, on the 11th of February, 1613, at Rodine, stole two sheep, worth 
10s each, belonging to John Mungemery and Michael Cregan, of Rodin, gentlemen. Ac- 
quitted. That Owin Carragh O'Laurie of Tobbercorr, yeoman, on the 6th of February, 1613, at 
the fields of Erduach, stole a chestnut-coloured mare worth 6, the property of Owin O'Keynan of 
Kiltaghlin, yeoman. Acquitted. That John Morris, yeoman, on the 5th of October, 1612, at 
Downc, stole a brown mare worth 3, the property of John Morghye of Downe. Acquitted. That 
Knockor McCranewell of Cliuconnell, yeoman, on the 2nd of November 1613, stole a pig worth 5s 
at Cliuconnell, belonging to Neilc McCasey, of Clancanby. Acquitted. That Christopher 
Magyn, of Cloonagh, yeoman, Hugh O'Lawrye of Evagh, yeoman, and Hugh M^Gillvan of same, on 


on the last day of August, 1613, at Dondrom, stole two mares worth 5 each, belonging to Bichard 
Gerland of same. Acquitted. That Edward and William Bettee of Duffrin, yeomen, on the 20th 
of February, 1613, at Foynebroge, carried away six cocks of oats worth 6s Sdeach, the property of 
Edmund O'Mullan and Cowlogh O'Kelly. Guilty. To suffer execution in the manner above- 
mentioned. That Brian O'Carran of Ballemurphey, and Augly O'Carrane of Strangford, yeomen, 
on the 1st of August, 1613, at Portferry, stole a [" unum eramentum 

esis"] worth 10s. the property of Rowland Savadge. Acquitted. That James Roneland of Ran- 

dufieran, yeoman, on the 2nd of February, 1612, at Killelogh, stole a sheet [" unum lodisem"] 

worth 5s., the property of John Moore. Acquitted. That Patrick Reagh O'Mackerrill of Lismore, 
yeoman, on the 5th of August 1613, in the fields ofDongannan, County Tyrone, stole a horse worth 
5 belonging to Dermot O'Corran. Acquitted. That Robert Meaghan of Cloghmaghracat, yeo- 
man, on the 2nd of June 1613, in the fields of Rasrillan, stole a brown-coloured cow worth 40s., the 
property of Robert Farrenan. Acquitted. And that Brian McConnor Offegan, of Quibdell, yeo- 
man, on the 8th of November, 1613, at Edengarry, stole a red-coloured mare ["unam equam colons 
rubeam"] worth 3 belonging to Thomas McNelekin. Acquitted. 

No 2. 

County Antrym. An Inquisition taken at the castle of Carregfergus before the same Judges on 
the 8th of March, 10. James 1. (1613) by the following Jury : 

Brian Boy M^Cauly of the Glins, gent. Roory O'Murry of Calliaghian, gent. 

CoUoghe Moiller McHughe Multicollcn of the John Shaw of Ballikelly, gent, 
same, gent. Hugh Magy of Band Magee, gent. 

Gilbert ]\IcPctrishe of Camglasse, gent. William Dure of Glinarme, gent. 

Edmund McDonnell of Donagurr, gent. William Boyll of Donluce, gent. 

Shane M^Edmond grome O'Quinn, gent. Donel M<=Closter of Lame, gent. 

Rory M'Hughe O'llarae of Largee, gent. Donel grome McNeil of Brade, gent. 

Murtaghe O'Hara of the Brade, gent. Andi-ew Ilatton of Glinarme, 

Art Ballagh O'llara of INIeghboy, gent. 
Who say that Richard McEvagh late of Munomer, yeoman, on the 3rd of November 1613, at the 
fields of TuUee, stole a chest nut- coloured mare worth 5, the property of Brian O'MuUchallen. Not 
guilty. That Henry McNealle boy O'MuUchallen of the lands of Crelagh, yeoman, and Brian 
McNealeboy O'Midlchallen of the same, yeoman, on the 10th of December 1613, at Lielte, stole 12 
sows price 6d each, the property of Henry Magye. Not guilty. That said Henry and Brian on 
the 2Sth November 1613, at Lyclto, stole two mares worth 4 each, and a colt worth 4, tho pro- 
perty of said Henry Magy. Not guilty. That Teige O'Brine, of Lisnetudor, County Down, yeo- 

2 R 


man, od tho 3d of August 1613, at Lisnegarvae, stole a horse worth 5, belonging to John Dobb. 
(jiiilty. The sentence is that the gaoler shall take him back to prison and strike off his fetters, and 
that he be thence led through the middle of the town of Carregfargus to the gallows, and there 
hung by tho neck until he is dead. That Manus OChane McDonnogh McMorris, of Root, yeoman, 
on the last day of December 1613, at Ballemoney, ** vi et armis &c. in quandam Rose ny McQuyllyn 
spinster tunc et ibidem in pace Dei et dicti domini Regis existentem insultum fecit ac tunc et ibidem 
eandem Rose contra voluntatem felonice rapuit &c. Et postea, scilicet" 1st February, at same place, 
said Rose ny M^Quyllyn received three of his cows to conceal said felony. Both acquitted, That 
Patrick Poyne M^Grehan, of Killagh, yeoman, on the 10th of December 1613, at Lilke stole 12 
pigs the property of Henry M^Gee, price 6d each. Acquitted. That Gillaspicke M^Gilpatricke 
and Gillpatrick M*' Alexander, of Dunluce, yeomen, on the 1st of November 1613, at Glanarrae, levied 
open war against the King and his lieges, and at Moylone Shane Omony, of Oldstone, Donnell 
O'Brenan and CoUough Moder McCormock O'Mulchallen of the same, supplied them with meat, drink, 
and other necessarries. Acquitted. That Abra Loe of Mounterenede, gentleman, and Neale M- 
Hugh McMurtagh O'Neale, of Fragh, gentleman, on the 26th December, 1613, at Mountere- 
neddee, insulted Brian boy McRedmond O'Chane with a dagger (pugione) worth 2s. which Abra held 
in his right hand, and that said Neale with a knife (cultro) worth 6d., struck him on the left side of 
his face, between the left eye and his ear, giving him a mortal wound of an inch in breadth, and six 
inches deep, of which he then and there instantly died. Guilty. The sentence is the same as that 
above given in the case of Teige O'Birne. That William Cowen, of Castlenorten, yeoman, on the 
13th November, 1613, at Antrym, stole two yards of linen, called Karsene, worth 4s each yard, the 
goods of William Nocke. Acquitted. That Brian McGilleduffe McHughe, of Port Rushe, gent., and 
Phelim McHughe, of the same, yeoman, on the 25th November, 1613, in the fields of Maghrimore, 
stole a black mare, worth 5, the property of Owen O'Haghie. Acquitted. That Edmond o'wise 
Adam Magye, of Hand Magye, yeoman, on the 10th February, 1613, between 10 and 11 o'clock at 
night, burglariously broke into the mansion house of Thomas Lock, at Brad Island, and stole a 
coat (vestimentum) and other things worth 3, and beat and wounded him with a sword. Guilty. 
Sentence of death pronounced as in the two former cases. But in the same cession he says that 
" he is a clerk and prays the benefit of clergy;" upon which comes Samuel Todd, minister of the 
reverend father in Christ, Robert, Bishop of Connor, the Ordinary of that place, constituted in the 
said Bishop's stead to challenge, seek for, and receive, clerks accused of any crime, and the book being 
handed to him by the Court he reads, that the clerk and the said minister seeks that the said Ed- 
mund, otherwise Adam, should be delivered up to the Ordinary. Therefore it is considered by the 
Court that the said Edmund should be branded, (cauterizatur) in his left hand according to the form of 
the statute. That Rowry McJIughe M^Gill, of Batroder, yeoman, and Reelin Boy McCurly, of the 
same, yeoman, on the 26th of October, in 1613, in the fields there, stole a brown horse, worth 7, 
belonging to Alexander Clare. Guilty. To be executed. That Art McHugh, of Syconway, gent. 


on the 4th October, 1613, at Inchcloughandowne, broke into the stable of Greorge Hunter, and stole 
his gelding, worth 6 10s, Acquitted That Neale boy Roe McConnell, of Root, yeoman, on the 
14th February, 1613, at Root, stole two heifers worth IBs 4d each, the property of Alexander 
McCaye. Guilty. To be executed. That Brian O'Heuran, of Donaneny, yeoman, on the 10th 
November, 1613, stole a roan-coloured colt worth .6, the property of Sir Randell McDonnell, 
Knight, and that he was abetted by Manus Roe Magye, of CaiTigfergus, yeoman. Neither verdict 
given nor sentence pronounced. That Murtagh McColville, of Moyalle, County Tyrone, yeoman, 
on the 1st March, 1612, atBalligeat, County Antrim, stole a mare worth 5, the property of Hugh 

Oge O'Mulchallen Acquitted. That Donnell Grome McAlexander, of Downenenye, yeoman, on 

the 13th of December, 1605, at Knocklade, insulted Lawrence McKirckpatrick, of Knockfergus, 
merchant, and with a sword worth 5s. which he held in his right hand, he struck him on the right 
side, giving him a mortal wound of three inches broad and five inches deep, of which he immediately 
died. Guilty. To be executed, "ac semi mortuus ad terram prosternatum ac interiora &c," as in a 
former case above set forth. That Gillaspicke M^Gilpatrick, and Gillaspicke McAllexander of Dun- 
luce yeomen, on the 1st November, 1613, at Glenarra, waged open war by murdering and spoiling the 
Kings liege people. Guilty. Sentence as in the last mentioned case. 

No. 3. 

County Cavan. A Gaol delivery at Cavan on the 30th of March, 11. James I. (1614,) 
before Sir Francis Aungier, Knight, Master of the Rolls, appointed by Commission dated the 2l8t 
March, 1613, to deliver the gaol &c., in the said county, before the following jurors. 
John Taylor, Esq., Caher McShan O'Reyly. 

"Walter Talbott, Esq., Owen boy O'Reyly, 

Claud Hamilton, Esq., Philip McRrien brock O'Reyly, 

Richard Dowdall, Shane McHugh O'Reyly, 

William Leyton, Hugh Roe McShan O'Reyly, 

Richard Worrall, Tirlagh boy O'Reyly, 

William Herridan, Tirlagh McEdmond O'Reyly. 

Maurice McTully, 
Who say that Mclaghlin Boy O'Gown, of Laghrawre, and Cale MoTeig boy Brady, yeomen, on the 
20th of August, 1613, with other traitors, at Lowgrawre, levied war, and that Patrick Moluc, Cale 
Duffe Olynscy, and Shane McPatrick M^^Cale duffe Olynsey, yeomen, abetted them. The said Pat- 
rick pleads not guilty, which the Attorney-General, John Walker, Esq., denies. The Jury find him 
guilty. The sentence is that ho be led back to prison, his fetters taken oflf, that he be then led to the 
place of execution and hung until he be dead, " et ipse semivente ad terram prostcmato et membra," 


&c., as in foregoing cases is mentioned, with this addition, "that his head should be cut off," before 
his body was divided into four parts. That Melaghlin boy MGowne, of Killichuan yeoman, on the 
15th December, 1613, rebelled, and that Gillise Dowdie supplied him with meat and drink. Judg- 
ment not given. That Phelym M<=Brene Barren O'Connally, and Patiick M^Art M^'Thomas, of 
Dartry, county Monaghan, yeomen, on the 30th June, 1610, at Dronecasshell, county Cavan, stole 
4 mares worth 40s. each, the property of Phelem McCahill. No judgment entered. That Hugh 
McDonogh oge MMahon, of Liskenan, yeoman, with other traitors, on the 20th January, 1613, le- 
vied open war, and Philip Lea M^Mahon, Hugh M^Gilpatrick oge McMahon and Alexander M^Don- 
ill aided him. Acquitted. That Walter M^Cartan, of Artelogh, yeoman, on the 20th May, 1608, 
at Ballegowne, stole a horse worth 40s., belonging to Edmund Olinche. Acquitted. That Nice 
ODaly, of Newcastle, County Meath, and Murtagh Duffe, of same, husbandmen, on the 18th July, 
1610, at Dromharny, Covmty Cavan, stole a horse worth 40s. the property of Cahir boy O'Reyly, of 
Dromharny. Acquitted. That Edmund Kcogh M^Murry, of Dubally, yeoman, with other traitors, 
levied open war. Acquitted. That Patrick boy iMcMalon, of Drohillagh, yeoman, on the 27th of 
December, 1611 " in quandam Johanam ny Clery spinster virginem etatis quatuor decern annorum 
adtunc &c. contra voluntatem suam felonice rapuit&c." Acquitted. That Tirlagh garrowe O'Gowne, 
of Clary, yeoman, on the 2d May, 1613, levied war, and was relieved by Edmund McFardorogh 
O'Rely. Acquitted. That Patrick McShane McHugh McManus Melaghlin Boye O'Gowne, and 
Cale McTeige liegh Brady, of Annaghlee, yeomen, on the 10th January 1613, levied war, and were 
relieved by Cahire Boye M^Brian M^'Donell O'Rely, and Chale McPardorogh M^Cale O'Rely. [Re- 
cord defaced here.] Similar finding as to Patrick M^Shane McHugh McManus and Cale McShane 
Moyle Brady. Acquitted. Like as to Melaghlin O'Gowne, of Killechrian, yeoman. Muragh McShane 
M^Tirlagh Brady, Owen McRrian McPhilip Oge O'Rely, and Cormuck McCahall. Acquitted. 
That Mulmore McPhilip oge O'Realy, of Colgan, and Thomas McTeige oge Offarrell, of Rue, Co. 
Longford, gentlemen, on the 17th November, 1613, at Dromhillagh, stole two horses worth each, 
the property of Owen McCabee, yeoman. Acquitted. That Brene Offarrall, and Shane O'Realy, 
of Turchor, yeomen, on the 7th December, 1613, stole at Turchor, 15 pigs price 2s each, the pro- 
perty of Mulmore McConchor O'Rely, and were aided by Owen boy 0'[ ] Patrick, Edmund, 
and Shane Olinche, of Croffegan, yeomen. Said Brian is found guilty and sentenced to be executed 
at the gallows in Cavan. 

No. 4. 

County Colrane. An Inquisition taken at Lemevady before Sir William Methwold, Knight, Chief 
Baron of the Exchequer, and Gerrard Lother, Esq., one of the Judges of the Common Pleas, on the 
9th of August, 1614, by virtue of a Commission dated the 23rd of July, 1614, before the following 


Fardorogh O'Mullan, 

William Johnson, 

Rory O'Cahane, 

Manus McGillreagh O'Mullen, 

Shane boy ^PConnelly, 

John Rosse, 

William Nesbett, 







John O'Kenney, 

Gilleduffe McRrian O'Cahan, 

Phellemy Duflfe O'Quigge, 

Cowy Ballagh McRicharde, 

Gorry M^Shane, 

William Tanckarde, 

Gilleduffe oge O'Mullan, 

Gorry McGilglasse O'Cahan, 
Who say that Thomas Cocks, and Shane O'Maddigane, both of Lemavadie, yeomen, on the 9th 
of August, 1613, stole two sheep price 4s each, the property of Margaret ny Hagane. Acquitted. 
That the following persons levied war, Brian M^Garrald, Henry McHugh, Tarry McClaman, yeo- 
men, Shane Mc E. Corbe O'Chane, all of Dromcose, gentlemen, Donnell Crone M^'Tirlagh, of 
Dromery, yeoman, and are acquitted, That Rorie Duffe O'Cahane, of Tullaght, yeoman, broke into 
the mansion-house at Tullaght, of one Robert Lyle, yeoman, and stole " a gowne" worth 3, " a 
ketle" worth 27s., a. jacket (tuniculam) worth 22s 6d., two "brachans" worth 12s each, and a 
quantity of " yearne" worth 20s., and another kettle worth 8s. Guilty. To be executed at Leme- 

No. 5. 

County Donnegall. An Inqusition taken at Liffer, before the same Judges, on tjie 16th August 
1614, before the following Jurors : 

Edward Bussell, 

Brian McNellis, 


William Goodhand, 


Farrall McMuUiane, 


Christopher Kighley, 



Donnogh McGenille, 


John Knaxes, 


William Bull, 


Alexander Steward, 


Manus oge M^IIugh O'Donell, 

Richard Byrne, 


Patrick Scott, 


James Walshe, 

William Carmichell, 


James Cambell, 


Neill oge McPhelim Breflo O'Dog- 

Robert Fleminge, 

hcrty, gent. 

Who say that Brian oge O'Dcvicr, of Rapho, yeoman, on the 30th September, 1613, there, stole 
two mares worth 3 each, the property of William Willson, Esq. Acquitted. That Robert 
Fleminge, of Rathfoocke, yeoman, on the last of February, 1611, at Rahee, "inquandam Mewe ny 
Ilyreno spinster contra voluntatem &c. rapuit &c." Guilty. Says he is a clerk and prays benefit of 
clergy, audit is accorded to him. That Toole O'Galchor, of Donagall, yeoman, on the 31st April, 
1613, there stole a maro worth 3, the property of Hugh M<5Shane Velles, yeoman. Acquitted. 

No. 6. 

County Armagh. An Inquisition taken at Armagh, before Gerrard Lother, one of the Judges of 
the Common Pleas, and Sir Robert Jacob, Knight, the Solicitor General, on the 13th of April, 1615, 
by virtue of a Commission dated the 15th February, 1614, before the following Jurors : 

John Purvis, of same, yeoman, 
Richard Caddell, of same, yeoman. 
a John Hastings, of Clincan, gentleman, 

^ Richard Kinde, of Cloneaden, 

tio Richard Hanley, of Loghgall, 
Ralph Grindon, of Corrie, 


John Elcoke, of Olonmean, 

William Peerson, of same, 

Edward Poe, of Dromminesow, 

Turlagh CNeile, of Breslagh, 

Thomas Smyth, of Armagh, 

Mullmurrie M^'Donell, of Dinarnagh, 

John Curtis, of Ballegroolaiugh, yeoman, William Wolsey, of Ballenemone, 

Peirce Williams, of Ardmagh, gent. 

Who find that Thomas Poe, of Hochleywood, and Hugh Perkins, of same, yeomen, on the 20th of 
September, 1614, at Teergarden, stole four sheep worth 4s each, the property of Hugh McGildufFe 
O'Quin. Acquitted. That William Poe and Edward Cooke, of Hocklyc, yeomen, on the 1st of 
November, 1614, at Teergarden, stole three pigs, price 3s. each, the goods of Patrick O'Gormelyes. 
Acquitted. That Phelomy O'Neale McRrian oge M^Turlagh Braesley, of Dungannon, gent., 
Cormack M^^Cugh M^Phelomy M^Can, of Clanbrassell, and Edmund McCan, gentlemen, on the 1st 
of December 1614, at Clanbrassell, levied open war &c., and on the 7th December, at Oryer, were 
assisted by Turlagh grome O'Hanlon. Acquitted. That Henry McDonnogh McHenry, of Onelan, 
yeoman, on the 30th September, 1613, at Benburbe, stole a roan-coloured horse price B, the pro- 
perty of Edmund Blomer, Esq. Acquitted, That Donell O'Hagon, of Fewes, and Brian O'Quin 
of same, yeomen, on the 1st November, 1613, stole a brown horse worth 40s., and a roan-coloured 
mare worth 3, the property of Shane O'Brian. Acquitted. That Phelim McDonnell stole a 
dark grey horse at Benburb, worth 4. Acquitted. That George Johnson and Hugh Crosebye, 
yeomen, on the 17th July 1613, at Shanecrakar, stole a brown horse worth 3, and another worth 
50s. George Johnson found guilty. To be executed at Armagh. Hugh Crosebye acquitted. 
That Shane O'Casie, and Donnogh M^Kooye of Tynan, yeomen, on the 19th December, 1614, 
wounded Owny Doowe O'Donelin, widow, "et contra voluntatem felonice rapuerunt &c." Ac- 
quitted. That Patrick oge M^Rory O'Hanlone, of Modagh, yeoman, on the 11th November, 1613 
at Devenny, stole a black mare worth 4, the property of Thomas Wadworthes. Acquitted. 
That Randell M'^Donell of Clunkarnee, yeoman, on the 20th December, 1614, at Monohan, County 
Monohan, stole five cows worth 20s. each, the property of Sir Edward Blayney, Knight. Guilty. 
To be executed at Armagh. That Hugh Dcltyn M^Shane, of Kilultagh, County Down, yeoman 
together with Cormack, Edmund, and Galtagh McCan, and others, on the 4th November, 1614 at 


night, broke into the house of Richard MAnuffe, and levied open war at Lurgen. Guilty To be 
executed at Armagh, ** et semimortuus ad terram prosternatum &c." as in former cases mentioned. 
That Hugh O'Donnoghee of Dongannon, County Tyrone, yeoman, on the 10th August, 1614, at 
Balliloghan, County Armagh, stole two brown-coloured horses worth 40s each, the property of 
Neice O'Quyn. Gruilty. To be executed at Armagh. 


By Rev. Wm. REEVES, D.D. 

There are several saints who flourished in the seventh century, and acquired great celebrity as the 
founders of churches or the patrons of tribes, and yet of whose age and history we have no exact ac- 
count. St. Mura is one of these ; and nearly all the little that is known of him is collected by 
Colgan, at his festival, the 12th of March, under the title " De Muro sive Murano." He was the son of 
Feradhach, and sixth in descent from Eoghan son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, the ancestor of the Kinel- 
Owen. His mother was Derinilla, surnamed Ce^/imV-c^ic^eacA, that is, ' Of the four paps,' as we learn 
from Aengus' tract on the Mothers of the Saints of Ireland : ^'Derinill cetJiar chicked matJiair Doman- 
fjairt mec Ecliach ocus Ailleain ocus Aedain ocus Mura Fhothna ocus Mocuma Droma ho ocus Chilleain 
Achaid cliail i ILeith Gaihail ar ur traga Duine droma" [Booh ofLecan^ " Derrinilla of the four 
paps, mother of Donard son of Aughy, and of Allen, and of Aedan, and of Mura of Fahan, and of 
Mocuma of Drumbo, and of Killen of Aghakeel in Lecale, on the border of the strand of Dundrum." 
The curious epithet applied to Derinilla, Colgan interprets, not as a monstrosity, but as a figurative 
expression to denote that she was four times married. And this opinion is strengthened by the cir- 
cumstance that St. Donard's father was Aughy, whereas Feradhach was St. Mura's. 

None of the Irish Annals record the name of this Saint, and it is only by his pedigree that we are 
enabled to approximate to his date. Colgan calculates from the fact that he wrote an account of St. 
Columba who died in 597, and that he was in the fifth generation from Eugenius who died in 565, (rec- 
te, 465,) and accordingly fixes his date after the beginning, or possibly the middle, of the seventh 
century. We can calculate even more closely than this, by taking the names of his kinsmen, who 
are equidistant from a common ancestor, and making an average for his age. The genealogical lists, 
coupled with the Annals, give the following as his co-ordinates : 

Maelcobha, King, died in 615 ; his brother Domhnall in 642. Segene, fifth abbot of Hy, died in 
652. These were of the race of Conall Gulban. Maolfitrigh, son of Aodh Uairiodhnach, died in 
631 ; he was of the race of Eoghan, and more immediately allied to our Saint. The average of these 
allows 635 for St. Mura's obit, to which we may safely add ten as he was an ecclesiastic, and set 
down 645 as an approximation to the date of his death. A successor, probably his immediate one, died 
in 657. 

He founded the abbey of Fathain, on the west side of Innishowen, which retained its monastic 
character for many centuries, until, at last, under the name of Fahan Mura, it sank into the condi- 
tion of of a parish church. 

'O'^ra^^'?^^ ^LyCfjrru^ "^^"^ '^ '^^ ^-?//^<i"'' 


St. Mura was the patron saint of all the O'Neills, and being sixth in descent from Eoghan, 
their fouader, whose patrimony Innishowen was, and from whom it derived its name of Innis- 
Eoghain, it is probable he had ancestral claims on the lonely spot which was chosen for his 

Colgau states that among other monuments which were preserved in his monastery, was a metrical 
account of the Acts of St. Columba, of which fragments were extant at his day, and of which we 
still have some remains embodied in the original Irish life of St. Columba by O'Donnellus, deposited in 
the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Also a large and very ancient volume of Chronicles, and other records 
of the country, held in great value, and often cited by those engaged in the study of antiquities. lie 
states that there were also extant, until modern times, numerous reliques of St. Mura, and other saints 
who presided over this church ; but that how far rescued from the fury of heretics, and still preser- 
ved, was unknown to him, living, as he then was, far away in Belgium, though in early years well ac- 
quainted with the place. He adds that there was extant in his day, and preserved as a most sacred 
treasure, the staff, or pastoral wand, commonly called BachuU-Mura, i.e., * Baculus Murani,' enclosed 
in a gilded case and adorned with gems, by which many miracles were wrought, and through which, 
as the avenger of falsehood, and the unerring evidence of right, in cases where persons wished to re- 
move all doubts from their declarations, or to terminate a controversy by the solemnity of an oath, 
the pious people, and chiefs, and especially the members of the O'Neill family, were wont to swear. 

Colgan adds that there was also in existence, previously to these troubled times, a Proper Office 
for this saint, a fragment of which he once saw, and in which were recited some of his signs and mi- 
racles. [.^c^a Sanctorum Hihernioe, xiL 3fartii\ p. 587.] 

The following notices of St. Mura's monastery in the Annals of the Four Masters, are evidence of 
the early importance of the place : 

A-D. 657, " Ceallach, son of Saran, abbot of Othainmor, died." We calculated 645 as the 
year of St. Mura's death, which allows 12 years for his successor. 

A.D. 720." Cillene Ua CoUa, abbot of Athain, died." His festival is set down in the 
Calendar, at the 3rd of January. 

A.D. 757. "Rovartach, son of Guana, abbot of Athain-Mor, died." 

A.D. 769." Ultan hUa Berodherg, abbot of Othain-mor, died." 

A.D. 788. (rede 793.)" Aurthaile, abbot of Othain, died." 

A.D. 818. "Fothiidh, of Fothain, died." This is supposed by O'Conor, and with reason, to 
have been the celebrated Fothadh na Canoine, or ' the Canonist,' of whom mention is 
made in the Four Masters at 799, and Annals of Ulster at 803. 

A.D. 850." Lcrghal, abbot of Othain, died." 

A.D. 1070." Fearghal Ua Luiihgnen, abbot of Othain, died." 

A.D. 1074 "Cucairrgo Ua Ccallaich, successor of Mura, died." 

A.D. 1098. "Maolmartin Ua Ceallaich, successor of Mura of Othain, died." 


A.D. 1119. "Rualdhri, erenacli of Othain-Mor, died." The Annals of Ulster supply his fa- 
mily name of Ua Domain. 

A.D. 1136. *' Robhartach Ua Ceallaich, erenach of Fathain-mor, died, after a good penance." 

It will be seen from the above, that the office of ' herenach' in this church became hereditary, after 
the middle of the eleventh century, in the family of Ua Ceallaich, or O'Kelly. In the early part of 
the seventeenth century the family of Donnell MacNeale O'Donnell were returned as the ancient he- 
renaghs of Letir, in this parish ; the Mounter-Heiles, as the herenaghs of Sleane and Millquarter ; 
and the sept of Murtagh O'Donnell in the quarter of Lisbanagh. [Jng'. Ulst.'] 

The place is twice mentioned in the Annals, without reference to its superiors. 

A.D. 716. " Three wonderful showers fell this year ; a shower of silver in Othain-mor ; a shower 
of honey in Othain-beg ; and a shower of blood in Leinster." This is recorded in Tighemach, at 718. 
The Annals of Ulster omit the shower of silver. 

Othain-beg was probably in the neighbourhood. That it was in the barony, we learn from the Ca- 
lendar of the O'Clery's, where, at the 8th of July, is commemorated, " Colman lomramha, of Fath- 
ain-beg, in Inis-Eoghain." There is a place called Templemoyle in the townland Luddan, in Lower 
Fahan, (Ord. Sur. s. 296,) which may be the ancient Othain-beg, and thus cause this parish, which in 
point of income is inferior to the other portion, practically to be the Little Fahan. 

A.D. 1429. " Rory O'Dogherty died, at Fathan-Mura-Othna." This last entry affords an in- 
stance of a reduplication of a new upon an old form. Mura Othna means Mura of Othain, but the 
annalists forgetting this, write, ' Fahan of Mura, of Fahan.' Thus in the Annals we meet the name 
in a variety of forms : Athain, Othain, Faihain^ Fothain, Othain-mor, Faihain-mor, Fathain-mura 
and Fathain-Mura-Othna. Athonmura is the equivalent in Pope Nicholas' Taxation; Fathunmurra, 
in a Patent Roll of 1310 ; Faynwor in Colton's Visitation, 1397. It is now written Fahan, and 
pronounced Fawan. - . 

In modern times the parish has been divided into Upper and Lower Fahan, the latter having the 
town of Buncrana, the former the ancient site. The road from Buncrana to Derry passes close to the 
gate of the old church-yard. Within it are some remains, principally the east wall and window, of 
;i middle-age church. Beside them stands a very ancient table cross, carved with the Irish pattern, 
and similar to, but finer than, those of Donagh and Cloncha. Outside the gate, at the left, is built 
into the wall a curious cut-stone with a bore through it, and on the right a stone having on it a very 
chaste Greek cross ; both evidently from the church-yard. The church-yard being shaded with trees 
and the grass long, summer is a bad time to examine the ground ; but the inquirer might find a good 
deal, between inspection and report, to repay him for a visit, in early spring, to this lovely as well as 
interesting spot. 




U77/?^/ {></ j'J Jfr>?i//7 jyi*?7-^aPt^Jo^ 

.^^iC^<'^qpr^rmf .^// -X-?:^^-^ ^^, Jfec/a 





Ancient ecclesiastical Bells are associated, in Ireland, with so much legendary lore, and regarded 
still with so much veneration, that their history form a curious and interesting branch of inquiry. 
The Bell, which is the subject of the present notice, is remarkable in several particulars, both as a work 
of art, and as a genmne relic of the most venerable antiquity. It was purchased about three years ago, 
from a person residing in Innishowen, County Donegal, near the Sf ot where once stood the famous Ab- 
bey of Fahan, founded in the 7th century during the reign of Aodh Slaine, by Saint Mura or Muranus. 
For centuries this Abbey was noted as the depository of various valuable objects which were held in 
especial veneration by the people. Amongst these, we are informed, were several M.S. volumes 
written by Saint Mura himself, and of which Colgan says " some fragments have escaped the fury of 
the reformers of the latter ages." The Crozier or " Bachall" of the saint is mentioned by Sir James 
Ware as having been for centuries in the keeping of the O'Neills ; and is believed to be the one now 
in the collection of Mr. John Bell, Dungannon. The only other relic of the Abbey and its founder 
is this Bell, which still retains much of its curious and elaborate ornamentation. It is accurately re- 
presented, of its full size, in the accompanying illustrations. 

The material of the Bell itself is bronze, and the form quadrangular. From a comparison with 
other ancient Irish Bells, its date has been fixed conjecturally, by various experienced Anti- 
quarians, as about the 7th century; but it is most probable that it received the first series of its 
ornaments not earlier than the 9th. It will be ol served, on referring to the illustration Fig. 
2, that a portion of the ornamental work at the right hand side of the base has been displaced, 
revealing underneath a second set of decorations which are attached to the body of the Bell itself. 
It was the accidental removal of this comer plate that revealed the existence of the earlier work- 
manship. The portion disclosed is a tracery of Runic knots wrought in brass, and firmly attached 
to the Bell by a thin j)late of gold. "Whether the remainder of the early decorations, now con- 
cealed, be similar, cannot be determined without removing the outer plates, which might cause 
an irreparable injury. This fixed ornamentation is a great peculiarity, and must have been the 
result of a feeling of extreme veneration for the object so decorated: as it was thus set 

* The present proprietor of the Bell It was sent by the Belfnst Museum, (during the Meeting of the British 
him, last year, to the Exhibition of Irish Antiquities, in Association,) and attracted much notice. 


apart for purposes more sacred than those to which ordinary Bells are applied. The upper series 
of ornaments which encase the Bell (but of which a portion is lost,) are evidently of a style two cen- 
turies later. It is difficult to assign a reason for the addition of these decorations, except that some 
circumstances may have enhanced the value of the relic and increased the religioas veneration in 
which it was held ; and that this f, cling was manifested by enriching it with still more costly embel- 
lishments. These exterior ornaments consist of a number of detached silver plates of various sizes, 
diversely embossed in the style known to have prevailed in the 11th century. The centre is adorn- 
ed with a lar<e crj'stal or Irish diamond set with great skill ; and on either side of this, as well as at 
the lower corners and the centre of the base, were originally set smaller gems, the places of which 
are now vacant, with one exception. That which remains is a fine specimen of rich cherry-co- 
loured amber. The entire tracery on the plates is of excellent workmanship, and the form of the 
Cross is seen conspicuously introduced. The arched top, also of silver, has on its summit three 
raised oblong figures surmounting a scroll, similar in pattern to that of the tracery on the left hand 
lower corner of the front. This scroll-work is filled in with a dark composition, giving it somewhat 
of the appearance of mosaic. The extremities or continuations of the arched top are of brass, be- 
neath which the bordering attached to the hooks (for suspending the Bell) is made of silver ; the in- 
tervening spaces being occupied by a plate of the same metal. The two larger spaces in /ro7it of the 
arched top were most probably filled with precious^ stones, as the gold setting still remains entire. 
The ornaments on the back consist of figures engi-aved on silver, gilt : the execution is rude, and no 
conjecture has been offered as to the objects intended to be represented. (See Fig. 1.) 

Several legends are connected with St. IMura's Bell. It has no tongue ; but tradition says that 
when it appeared at first, descending on earth from the celestial regions, its approach was announced 
to mortals by its loud ringing. xV large concourse of people were assembled, expecting the arrival of 
some unearthly visitant. The object approached nearer and nearer, until at length the Bell appeared 
visibly ; but, when almost within reach, it suddenly ceased to ring, and the tongue was observed to de- 
tach itself from it, and return towards the skies. Hence it was concluded that the Bell was never to be 
profaned by sounding on earth, but was to be kept for purposes more holy, and more beneficent. In 
fact, from time immemorial, this Bell has had attributed to it mysterious power in alleviating human 
sutfering. It has been regularly used by women of the district previous to their confinement ; a drink 
out of it being consiilercd an infallible safeguard against danger. It is well known that it was used very 
extensively for this purpose, for miles round the locality where it was kept : and when a former at- 
tempt was made to obtain it from its late keeper, whose poverty rendered him willing to part with it, 
a serious disturbance was excited among the people of the neighbourhood, and he was compelled to 
retain it. Subsequently, his increasing poverty, combined with other cirumstances, led him to dispose 
01 it, and it passed into the possession of the present owner. 




Slembsr of Council of the Natural History and Philosophic al Society, Belfast. 

IIavinq accidentally ascertained that a mound situated upon the property of George Newsoni, 
Esq., of Mount Wilson, in the King's County, had been extensively cut into, and several human 
skeleton's discovered therein ; and, subsequently having had the honour of being entrusted by the 
Marchioness of Downshire with four human Crania procured there by her Ladyship herself, it appeared 
to me absolutely indispensable that a careful examination of the mound, which is in daily progress of 
removal, should be made without further loss of time, if any clue as to the probable date of its erection 
was ever to be hoped for. Accordingly I applied to Mr. Newsom for permission to make the inves- 
tigation and, my request having been promptly and cordially responded to, availed myself of his 
willing hospitality, and with the aid of his valuable assistance, succeeded in making a careful exami- 
nation of the spot, upon the 20th of last May The results though obscure and inconslusive, 
appear to me, nevertheless, to be of sufficient value to merit preservation. It may chance that they 
will admit even of present explanation by those sufficiently conversant with the sepulchral usages of 
the early Irish ; but, should they not, it is quite possible that they may yet either contribute to throw 
light upon some future investigation or receive their own interpretation therefrom. 

The mound in question is situated in the parish of Ballymacwilliam, Barony of Warrenstown, in 
the North Eastern part of the King's County, and will be found set down upon the 11th map of the 
Ordnance Survey of that county, executed in 1838, as a "fort and principal trigonometrical point 
having an elevation of 278 above the level of the sea." It will require to be carefully searched for 
however; as the symbol employed to denote a "fort," Is, at least, in the impression before me, in 
part confounded with, and scarcely to be distinguished from that which indicates the hedge by which 
the mound is bounded. Its precise position upon the map is the extreme South of the field, upon 
which the third L of the name of the parish, Ballyraacwi(L)liam is printed. It occupies the sum- 
mit of one of several gentle eminences in a plain of considerable extent, designated by the early Irish 
Annalists as the territory of the plains' and from it the following hills ate readily discernible ; viz., 

' Page 29 of the Annals of the Four Masters. 


Brumcoley, S.S. East about 2J miles ; Ballynakill, due South 3 miles ; Croghan, West 7 miles, 
and Carrick, E.N. East 3 miles. The spot itself is nameless, and bo far as can be ascertained, is un- 
associated with any local tradition or superstition whatever, nor was it even suspected of being the 
depository of human remains, until some years since, when Mr. Newsom commenced removing it for 
agricultural purposes, its material being a coherent loamy gravel, well adapted for the improvement of 
reclaimed moorland. Some sixteeen or seventeen skeletons were removed at that time and reburied 
in another locality. More recently the place has been explored for skulls by Thomas Murray, Esq., 
of Edenderry, agent to the Marquis of Downshire, and as already intimated, by the Marchioness of 
Downshire herself, but no detailed examination of it had been undertaken by any one. 

This deficiency it was my object to supply. 

Originally the mound may have had a diameter h.t ifg base of 90 feet, but at the time of my visit, 
probably one half of it had been removed or disturbed upon its Western and N. Western sides. 
From its Southern side, also, a small portion had been cut away in constructing, at a very remote 
period, a road of which Scarcely any at present exists, it having been disused for the last 80 or 90 
years, though at one time the direct route from Dublin to the stronghold of Athlone. What re- 
mains of this road is IB feet wide, and ten feet below the summit of the mound, forming the boun- 
dary hereabouts, of Mr. Newsom's ground, from which it is separated by a hedge of large and very 
old thorns. The mound, in its present condition, has a diameter upon the top, at its broadest part, 
of 42 feet, and an elevation of six feet above its base, towards which it slopes down at an angle of 
about 30 degrees. Upon its summit was a circular excavation three feet wide by 16 inches deep, lined 
for half its circumference with quarried stones, having much the appearance of a rudely constructed 
fire-place, for which purpose possibly it may have been employed by those engaged in taking the Ord- 
nance Survey. It is unlikely that it could have been in any way associated with the original object 
of the mound. 

In order to examine the Interior of the mound our first step was to remove the soil for a breadth 
of four feet, and to a depth of two, completely across it from East to West. After which we pro- 
ceeded to work abreast inwards from the Western or ciit-away side. In (.his manner were cau- 
tiously laid bare the lower extremities of some skeletons, apparently the remains from which Crania 
had already been obtained. Advancing further we came upon other skeletons perfect and laid at full 
length each in a separate grave and lying East and West, with the feet towards the East. This sec- 
tion explored, we next cut away on either side of it, proceeding thus over the whole of the horizontal 
surface, beneath which alone skeletons had been discovered. By this means it was ascertained that the 
graves lay parallel to each other, at irregular intervals of from two three feet; were excavated out of 
the otherwise undisturbed subsoil of the field ; and rarely exceeded four feet in depth from the sur- 
face of the mound. They contained no traces either of wood or metal, nor was any work of art 
whatever found either on or about them. In one instance, observed by Mr. Newsom, two perfect 
skeletons lay side by side in the same grave ; and in two which came under my own observation, the 


disjointed members of two skeletons were found buried each in a grave, with, and beneath, an undis- 
turbed skeleton. The osseous remains all exhibited palpable evidence of having been subjected to 
the slow and long-continued action of moisture. The greater portion of their gelatinous constituent 
had disappeared, leaving the naturally denser bones light, porous, and exceedingly friable, while the 
less compact were reduced to the condition of a crumbly pulp, breaking down under the slightest 
pressure, so as to render their removal in an unmutilated condition perfectly impossible. Such 
Crania as I procured, were, without exception, removed in fragments, which, when they had became 
dry, were restored as far as practicable. In fact the majority were broken when discovered, having 
been crushed in by the weight of the superincumbent material, and some in places were completely 
corroded into holes, and others were so exceedingly contorted as not to permit of their being correctly 
restored. In a few of those which had yielded to pressure, the superior cerebral vertebra were found 
lodged within the cavity of the skull, indicating that fhe individuals had been buried with the head 
somewhat raised, and the chin resting upon the sternum ; indeed, in one instance, a stone was found 
so placed beneath a skull as apparently to have been employed for the purpose of securing it in such 
a position. The number of skulls met with by me amounted to ten, of which fi^e only were suj35- 
ciently perfect to permit of being satisfactorily restored. Mr. Newsom is of opinion that fully 30 had 
been disturbed from time to time, prior to my visit ; consequently 40 persons at least must have been 
buried in this mound. Owing to the perishable condition of the bones it was not possible to un- 
cover a perfect skeleton so as to ascertain its exact length. The length of three, from the crest of the 
Ilium to the base of the Os calcis, was, however, measured, and found to be respectively, 3 feet, 3 
feet \\ inches, and 3 feet 2 inches; the thigh bones of each being in order, IQf, 17 J and 18 
inches long : dimensions which would probably indicate an original stature of 5.G to 5.8 at the 

The individuals were of both sexes, and of ages varying from to 6 or 8 years, up to 70 or 80. In 
all, even the very youngest, the teeth were much worn as if by the attrition of some very hard descrip- 
tion of food, the process of degradation curiously keeping pace with the age, as indicated by the teeth 
themselves. Thus in a child's jaw in which the first permanent molar had mad(j its appearance, and 
attained an elevation slightly above the temporary teeth, it exhibits no indication whatever of wear ; 
while the ten temporary are all very much worn down, the grinders especially. In other cases where 
the temporary teeth have all been replaced, and some of the wisdom are just making their appearance, 
the wearing down is much less apparent than in the older and more used temporary teeth of the 
child. In one case the teeth on the left side of the lower jaw have had the process of wearing ar. 
rested, in middle age, by the loss of the antagonistic teeth in the upper jaw ; while the incisors and the 
teeth of the right side have continued to wear down until the crowns are all but gone : and, in two 
extreme cases, the ycry fangs of the molars have manifestly performed the duty of grinding ; the teeth 
nevertheless, with one or two exceptions, exhibiting a perfectly sound and healthy condition, 
strongly indicative of habits referable to an early and very primitive condition of society. Three 


fragments of the jaws of the lower animals were found, and four or five detached teeth. These 
have been submitted to Professor Dickie, *" by whom they are stated to be portions of the upper 
jaw of a small Ox, and of the lower jaws of a hoai- and of a goat. The detached teeth are those 
of oxen also ; but, unfortunately the specimens are not sufficient to permit of the variety being 

The number of Crania either originally not much injured, or correctly restored, including those ob- 
tained by Lady Downshire, is eight adult and one child's. Along with this paper I have given 
outline sketches of the eight adult Crania taken by means of the Camera Lucida three views of each, 
lih the natural size ; and also tabulated measurements of them. As was to have been expected, in- 
creased experience and the sound criticisms of judicious friends have enabled me to simplify, for de- 
scriptional purposes, the method of tabulating the measurements obtained by means of the "Cranio- 
meter,' by substituting measures of diameter, in inches and tenths, at regular intervals along the skull," 
in place of the transverse and horizontal measurements of my first experiment, and also to expunge 
fjome unnecessary facial measurements the bones they were intended to record, being rarely found 
perfect. By means of these emendations a reasonable amount of attention will enable any one to 
ascertain with cleai'ness and perfect accuracy the relative proportions of the Crania to each other, and 
the special points in which the concide or disagree. For example, if we examine the tabulated 
measurements at zero, which, phrenologically considered is pretty nearly the situation of the " ob- 
serving" faculties, we shall find the male skull No. 1, to have a radius of 3.9 inches ^No. 2, one of 
3.75 whilst that of the young female. No. 7, is but 3.35, being a difference between the extremes of 
upwards of half an inch. If we examine the same three heads at 30 degrees, the neighbourhood of 
the," reflecting" faculties No. 1 is now but 4.8 inches whilst No. 2 has reached, 5.1, and No. 7 only 4.5 
inches. K we proceed to 60, the locality of" Veneration" they will be found to be respectively 5.0 
5.3 and 4.7 inches, a difference of 6-lOths between 2 and 7. At 90, the position of " Self-esteem." 
they are 5.05 5.35 and 4.8 inches. From 130 onwards Nos. 1 and 7 keep in advance of No. 2 
the measurements of No. 7 being as great as those of No. 1 from 130 to 150. So in like manner 
may any of the other Crania be compared at every point of their median line. The table of dia- 
meters gives the breadth of each skull at the points A. and B. upon the several radii laid down upon the 
sketches ; each radius, for this purpose, being divided into three equal lengths, the measurements com- 
mencing at the meatus^aditorius externus, the diameter of which being also given, we may be said to 
have three diameters measured upon each radius. The contrasts in this table are not less apparent 
and striking than in the former, and can be examined with equal facility ; which will be sufficiently 
apparent if we contrast, as in the annexed table, two of the Crania already selected for comparison ; 
viz., Nos. 2 and 7. 

1) Professor of Natural History in the Queen's College, <" See last Number of this Journal. 



At 30 degrees. 

At 60 degrees. 

At 90 degrees. 

At 120 degrees. 

Number of Cranium 









Lengtli of Kadius 









Diameter at Meatus Audit, 



























Thus at 30^degree3 No. 2 exceeds No. 7 in length by 6-10th3 of an inch, and in the three diameters, 
Meatus A and B by 3-lOths 6-lOths and 8-lOths. At 60 the same difference in length continues, the 
difference in the diameters A and B having fallen to 4-lOths and 3-lOths. At 90 No. 2 still maintains 
nearly the same advantage as to length and predominates at A and B by 3-lOthsand 1-lOth Whilst 
at 120 it exceeds No. 7 in length but 1-1 Oth, is of precisely the same diameter at A and is less by 
4-lOths in diameter at B features indicating an enormous preponderance in No. 7. of the posterior 
over the anterior region, and which it would be impossible for any amount of artistic excellence 
whatever to convey adequately to the mind. 

Accompanied by these numerical data the following general description of the Crania may now be 

No. L T^e skull of a male probably about 70 years of age. Bone thick and coarse. Sutures con- 
siderably obliterated. Teeth very much worn, especially in the upper jaw, in which the fangs of 
two molars and three bicuspides have been converted into grinding surfaces. Has had the full num- 
ber of 32.^ Frontal region narrow; coronal moderately high. Temporal full. Parietal and occipital 
large, the former especially broad above. Eeceptaculum Cerebelli moderate. Cheek bones mode- 
rately broad, not prominent Jaws well proportioned, and little projecting. Nasal bones imperfect. 

A I have beep particular in noting the number of the 
teeth, because some few Iriwh Crania, of undoubtedly 
old persons, have been obtained in which no more than 
28 teeth had ever been developed, giving rise, in conse- 
quence, to some rather hasty conjectures. Such an oc- 
currence is by no means uncommon : the wisdom-teeth 
being occasionally subject to capricious and unaccount- 

able irregularities. Bell instances a case, from Ids own 
experience, in which they did not appear until the age of 
Co. Our second illustration is not less instructive; and 
I have no doubt that a careful examination in the in- 
stances referred to, would establish the existence, in the 
jaws, of their imperfectly developed rudiments. 


Christian burial, could have fallen into such utter desuetude and oblivion, in favour of another site 
absolutely within view of it ? Much more likely is it that it owed its orign to some rare and unex- 
pected calamity, the memory of which had died away, long, long ere the church beside it had an 


In Christian burial-places, too, from the date of the earliest times, to the present day, it has been 
the habit of the Irish to cluster round the old sanctified spots, heaping body upon body, until all me- 
thod and regularity is lost in one confused mass of human debris. Our mound exhibited no such ap- 
pearance : all the interments bore evidence of having been made about the same period, not a bone 
having been disturbed or displaced from the time they were deposited, until we laid upon them our 
unhallowed hands. No doubt the simultaneous burial of 40 bodies or more, necessarily implies the 
occurrence of some sudden fatality, either by pestilence or the sword ; but the early records of Ire- 
land are not without instances of both. The consequence of a battle it cannot have been, else the 
remains would have been those of adult males only, and it is far from probable that the perpetrators 
of an indiscriminate massacre would have been at the labour and trouble of erecting such a struc- 
ture over their victims. Taking all the circumstances therefore, into consideration, it appears to me 
by no means improbable, that these may have been the remains of the victims of one of the many 
pestilence that are recorded in the Irish annals, buried at a period antecedent to the introduction of 
our present Christian sepulchral usages.* In the absence of more substantial testimony, however, 
such an inference can be received merely as a plausible conjecture, justifiable only in so far as it 
may tend to stimulate to fresh inquiry and renewed research. 

In an interesting memoir by Dr. Thurnam, published in the sixth volume of the Journal of the 
Archaeological Institute, to which he has kindly directed my attention, he describes a mound named 
Laurel Hill, near York, examined by him. Though the appearances exhibited many features of re- 
semblance to those already described, there were also some remarkable and important differences. 
At Laurel Hill vast quantities of disturbed bones overlay the undisturbed skeletons a large sepul- 
chral urn was found in the midst of the lowermost deposit of skeletons numerous fragments of iron, 
supposed by Dr. Thurnam to have been the fastenings of vx)oden coffins were found in the undis- 
turbed graves, which lay ten feet below the surface. Between the length of the skeletons also, in each 
place, there was a marked distinction ; many of those at Laurel HiU being of individuals whose 
stature could not have been less than from 6 feet to 6 feet 4 inches. On the other hand the re- 

e In the Annals of the Four Masters, page 9 A.M. seen on the hill there. The word " taimhleacht" or tarnh' 

2820 a great mortality of Parthenon's people is stated lacht" signifies a place where a number of persons cut off 

to have taken place ; and the spot where it occurred to by plague were interred together. See Cormac's Glos- 

have been named, in consequence, Taimleacht Muintire sary in voee " Taimhleacht." The word frequently enters 

Parthaloin : upon which the Editor thus comments in into the topographical names in Ireland, and is angli- 

note c " O'Flaherty states that a monastery was after- cised Tamlaght, Tawlaght, Tallaght." That pestilences 

wards erected at this place, and that it is situated three were of frequent occurrence, is further evident, from 

miles to the South of Dublin. It is the place now called the fact that three are recorded in the same ^inuals be- 

Taliaght, and some very ancient Tumuli are still to be tween the years 543 and 553 of our present era. 


. .. 284 

duced sketches of Crania, wMch accompany the paper, would appear to me, so far as sketches alone 
admit of the comparison to indicate a somewhat inferior cerebral organization to those discovered at 
Mt. Wilson. The measurements supplied, however, having been taken according to the method de- 
vised by Carus, unfortimately afford no means of testing the accuracy of this conclusion, inasmuch as 
Carus's method is not only wanting in scientific precision, but absolutely involves serious and unavoid- 
able errors his measures of height not being those of the perpendiculars professed to be measured, 
but of the hypothenuse of the triangle formed by the perpendiculars and the semidiameter of the base 
of the Cranium : as a matter of course, therefore, they must all be more or less exaggerated, accord- 
ing to the varying lengths of the perpendiculars and bases, and consequently, for any scientific pur- 
pose, worse than useless. Dr. Thurnam is of opinion that Laurel Hill has been a cemetery of the 
early Anglo-Saxons. In both the instances of Laurel Hill and Mt. Wilson, the bodies were buried 
with the feet towards the East Has that usage been exclusively Christian or could it possibly have 
been derived from some Pagan sourca, as many of our other ceremonial observances admittedly have 






















1 Number of Cranium. 


i 2 

1 3 







Angle of Lower Maxilla. 











Symphisis Menti. 







Edge of Incisors. 









Naso-frontal Suture. 



























































Coronal Suture. 











































Lambdoidal Suture. 















































Foramen Magnum. 



189 197 
1.3 1.9 






Greatest Circumference . 








Approximate capacity in Cubic Inches. 








Diameter at Zygomata. 






Do above external angle of the Eye. 









Do. Do. Meatus Auditorius Externus, 








at 10 degrees, point A. 










30 A. 









GO A. 










90 A. 












120 A. 











150 A. 














(Continued from page 220.) 

Having now traced the history of the Lisburn colony, and the causes which led to its foundation, 
and given the biography of its founders, it may not be uninteresting to glance at the state of the 
town itself, at the time when L. Crommelin chose it for the seat of his operations, as well as at the 
condition of the Linen Manufacture at that period. 

Lisnegarvey pLisburn] had, at this time, recovered from the siege of the L-ish rebels, under Sir 
Phelim O'Neill, * and was almost in the same condition in which an English traveller described it 
about 45 years previously : " Linsley Garven, about 7 miles from Belfast, is well seated, but neither 
the town or the country thereabouts well planted, [inhabited,] being almost all woods and moorish, 
until you come to Dromore ; the town belongs to Lord Conway, who hath a good handsome house 
there." There were not more than 100 tenements, besides the Castle, then remaining perfect : 
the town returned two members to the L:ish Parliament ; and was the residence of the Bishop of the 
United Diocese of Down and Connor, its church being the Cathedral of the Diocese. 

A wooden bridge here crossed the river Lagan, and it was at the foot of this bridge, at the wes- 
tern side of Bridge-street, that Louis Crommelin built the first linen-factory ; the old water course of 
which remained until the beginning of the present century. He also established a bleach-green at a 
place in the vicinity, now called Hilden; and, having obtained a Patent' from King William, he com- 
menced operations for the improvement of the Linen trade. This manufacture had made little pro- 
gress in Lreland from the time of Lord Strafford, (in the reign of Charles I,) who was the first to 
adopt any measures for its encouragement, and who may therefore be considered its founder. 

* For an account of this siege by an eye witness see the of persons employed bv advances, to be paid by them in 

present number of this Journal page 242. [Edit] small payments as they are able ; advancing sums of 

a The following is the substance of the Patent. " In mouev necessary for the subsistence of such workmen 

consequence of a proposal by Louis Cromineliu to es- and their families as shall come from abroad, and of such 

tablish a Linen Manufacture in Ireland, and the design persons of that our kingdom, as shall apply themselves 

and method in said memorial being approved of by the m families, to work in the manufactories : such sums to 

Commissioners of Tre;isury and trade : tlio following bo advanced without interest, and to be repaid by de- 

graut was made. That 8'ji) per annum be settled for grees. That 200 per annum to be allowed to said Orom- 

ten years as interest on 10,(KX) advanced by said Louis melin, during pleasure, for his pains and care in carrying 

Crommelin, for the making a bleaching yard, and holding on said work, and that 120 per annum be allowed 

a pressing house, and for weaving, cultivatiu.^, and press- for three assistants, together with a premium of 60 per 

ing hemp and flax, and making provision of lx)th to be annum, for the subsistence of a French Minister, and 

sold ready prepared to the spinners at reasonable rate, that letters patent be granted accordingly. Dated 14th 

and upon credit ; providing all tools and utensils, looms, February, lt>99, 
and spiuuiug wheels, to be furnished at the several coats 


It is known that Linen was manufactured In Ireland from the earliest ages, and it is said by some 
to have been introduced, (with the spindle and loom,) by the Phoenicians ; but, of course, in a com- 
paratively imperfect state. Yet it was extensively used, and formed even, a considerable article of 
commerce, as is proved from an act of Henry VIII, and another restricting the higher orders from 
wearing an extravagant quantity of linen in their shirts. It was exported as early as the reign of 
Henry IH : as wo find mention made in Maddox's History of the Exchequer, of two thieves, who 
stole some Irish linen, amongst other goods, at Winchester, and fought about it. The Irish themselves 
used it largely in their garments, the long " Cota " being made of it : as Camden mentions that 
O'Neill and his followers were so clad when they visited Queen Elizabeth. 

Nevertheless, Louis Crommelin was justified in the expressions he used in his publication,'' "that 
the people were entirely ignorant of the misteries relating to its manufacture." This he attributed 
" to the prejudices that prevail in the minds of the people, that the spinner's, the weaver's, and the 
bleacher's trades are such poor abject trades, all the world over, and particularly in Ireland, that it 
is impossible for men of a free, generous spirit, (such as the people of this kingdom must be allowed 
to be,) to conform themselves thereunto ; they having no prospect of sufficient benefit or reward." 
The way in which the flax was prepared was very pernicious ; " being managed by women altogether 
ignorant as to their choice of their seed or soil, for which reason their flax was and is too short, and 
unfit for making good yarn ; they do not know when or how to pull their flax, whereby their seed 
degenerates, and their flax wants strength and substance. They have no judgement when or how to 
vMter or grass their flax, so as to give it a natural colour ; and what is yet worse than all is, they con- 
stantly dry their flax by the fircy which makes it impossible to bleach cloth made of their yarns ; for 
let all the skill and judgement of the world be used to bleach cloth made of difierent sorts of flax, you 
shall never bring it to a good colour : for, till such a time as it is woven, and so bleached, the best 
artist in nature cannot discover the mischief. They also use, in cleaning their flax, things which 
they call ' breaks," which I can in no way approve of. They spin their long and short flax athwart, 
which is extremely preposterous, as the flax cannot be spun fine ; so the linen is cottony. The wheels 
used in spinning are turned by the foot, and have two cords, one going round the wheel and the whirl 
of the spindle, the other going round the wheel and whirl of the spool, which overtwists the 
thread. Their manner of reeling yarn is one of the greatest grievances, as many honest, in- 
dustrious men are undone by the deceitful methods now used by the crafty and unfair people 
in this particular ; as, for instance, there is no standard for the measure of reels, and every body 
uses such reels as they think fit ; for which reason a stranger to the markets is imposed upon 
to his ruin. The cuts and hanks are reeled by several threads, through laziness or wickedness 
to the utter ruin of the poor dealers, who think they buy yarn, and that they have good and marketable 

b An Essay tOTvards the Improving of the Hempen By Louis Crommelin, Overseer of the Royal Linnen Ma- 
and FlaxenManufactures in the Kingdom of Ireland. nufacture of that kin