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Full text of "Uncle Sham, being the strange tale of a civilisation run amok"



m 










MANUAL 

OF 



DESCRIPTIVE ANNOTATION 

FOR 

LIBRARY CATALOGUES. 



ERNEST A. SAVAGE, 

CHIEF LIBRARIAN, WALLASBY PUBLIC LIBRARIES; LATE BOROUGH 
LIBRARIAN, BROMLEY, KENT. 



With Chapter on Evaluation and Historical Note by 

ERNEST A. BAKER, M.A., 

CHIEK LIBRARIAN, WOOLWICH PUBLIC LIBRARIES; AUTHOK OF 
"GUIDE TO BEST FICTION," ETC. 



" Manifestly the Public Libraries ought to be equipped for 
serious reading .... The first business would be to get ' Guides ' to 
various fields of human interest written, guides that shall be clear, 
explicit bibliographies." H.G. Wells: Mankind in the making. 



LONDON : ^ g / / 

LIBRARY SUPPLY COMPANY, 
1906. 




Printed by Marlborough, Pewt ., 52, Old Bailey, E.G. 



PREFACE. 



IT is proposed in the following pages to explain the leading 
principles of descriptive annotation as applied to books and 
their cataloguing, and to draw up a code of rules for the 
application of such principles. Up to the present scarcely 
any attempt has been made to simplify annotation by formu- 
lating an adequate set of rules. It has even been argued 
that rules are but indifferent aids to the annotator, who 
must depend on his exact habits, his grasp of detail, and 
his literary ability. An argument of this kind is hardly 
worth considering. Book-cataloguing is the listing of books 
for convenience in finding them, and the describing of 
them accurately, and all librarians agree with the late Mr. 
Cutter in saying that "some of the results of experience 
may be best indicated by rules " (Rules, 4th ed.. pref.). 
Book annotation at any rate descriptive annotation or 
analysis, as dealt with in these pages is simply an extension 
of cataloguing: it is an art truly enough, not a science; but 
the results of the experience of English and American anno- 
tators " may be best indicated by rules." Indeed, wherever 
good annotative work is done, rules of some kind have 
either been drawn up on paper, or have been drilled into 
the heads of annotators by a chief who has mentally 
formulated them. To this argument, hortation, or literary 
hot-gospelling, which sometimes takes the place of analysis, 
is an exception ; so also is evaluation, which can only be 
attempted by those few men who combine with -adequate 
knowledge, a fine critical sense, a judicial temper and 
catholicity of taste. In analysis, much indeed does depend 
on the intellectual fitness of the annotator, but literary 



PRKFACE. 



ability, without method, may even be a snare for the 
annotator, leading him to pay far too much attention to 
the ' style" of his annotation, and so to include in it interest- 
ing but irrelevant detail, and to take little care not to omit 
essentials. The mean between the two extremes of literary 
and natural ability and the mechanical following of rules 
produces the most concise, most lucid, and most truly- 
descriptive annotations. 

The reader should clearly understand that only popular 
libraries that is to say, general circulating and reference 
libraries, as distinguished from libraries specifically and 
principally intended for scholars have been kept in mind 
in the following pages. This fact will explain the omission 
of rules relating to certain bibliographical points which 
ought to appear in the annotations to the catalogue of a 
scholars' library.'" Moreover, notes relating to the various 
editions sold by publishers at the time of annotating, and 
references to reviews, such as are given in the " A.L. A. 
catalog, 1904" and the A.L.A. "Booklist" have not 
been provided for, because they would not be included in 
the catalogues of popular libraries. Then again, evaluation, 
or criticism, is subordinated to description, as it should be 
in a reader's annotation, according to Mrs. S. C. Fairchild 
and other evaluators. But it is believed that the field of 
annotation for popular libraries, and, apart from criticism, 
which defies codification, for independent guides to 
readers, is fairly well covered. 

Tin- manual has not been published without misgiving 
on my part. Its imperfections are manifest, but are due, 
not so much to lack of time and care, as to the fact that 
< ontinuous \\oik upon it was never possible. But 



The printed catalogue cards <>| the Library of Congress 
specimens of which may be seen at the Library Association I \ 
afford examples of the provision of bibliographical information. 



1'KKI- \< 1 . V. 



account of methods of annotation is needed, and it is 
hoped that this attempt to fill the gap will be of some 
service. 

I have to thank Mr. James Duff Brown, chief 
Librarian, Islington Public Libraries, for help continuously 
and freely given. He read the MS. and the proofs, 
and his criticism served to rectify mistakes, and to suggest 
many improvements. Mr. Ernest A. Baker, M.A., has 
also read the proofs, and I am particularly grateful to him 
for kindly relieving me of the evaluation chapter and the 
historical note, with which his knowledge of, and sympathy 
with, the subject so admirably qualify him to deal. To 
Mr. Anderson H. Hopkins, Librarian, Carnegie Library of 
Pittsburgh, Mr. Melvil Dewey, late of the New York State 
Library, and Miss Alice B. Kroeger, of the Drexel Institute, 
1 am indebted for much valuable information, which has 
been vouchsafed with the courtesy and kindness English 
librarians have learned to expect from their American 
< >nirrrcs. Lastly, I would acknowledge my obligations 
the extent of which he and I only know to my late chief, 
Mr. L. Stanley Jast, of the Croydon Libraries. 

ERNEST A. SAVAGE. 



NOTK. $ 136, 154, and 158 have been deleted during revision. 



CONTENTS. 



TART I. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS AND PRACTICAL WORK. 

CHAP. PAGE. 

PREFACE iii. 

I. DEFINITIONS I 

II. LITERATURE OF KNOWLEDGE 5 

III. LITERATURE OF POWER 18 

IV. JUVENILE LITERATURE 31 

V. RELATIVE DESCRIPTION 35 

VI. EVALUATION OR CHARACTERIZATION ; BY ERNEST A. 

BAKER, M.A. ... ... ... ... ... ... 43 

VII. PRACTICAL WORK, I ' 50 

VIII. PRACTICAL WORK, II 62 

IX. HISTORICAL NOTE AND SOME REFERENCE BOOKS ; BY 

ERNEST A. BAKER AND ERNEST A. SAVAGE ... 71 



PART II. A CODE OF ANNOTATION. 

I. INTRODUCTORY NOTE 7 

II. GENERAL RULES 9 

III. AUTHOR NOTE 101 

IV. SUBJECT NOTE 104 

V. TREATMENT NOTE 113 

VI. RELATION NOTE 121 

VII. EDITING NOTE 128 

VIII. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 132 

IX. KLI IALLY APPLICABLE TO THE SEVERAL 

CLASSES OF LITERATURE ... ... ... ... 140 

INDEX 15* 



PART I. 

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS. 



MANUAL 

OF 

DESCRIPTIVE ANNOTATION. 



CHAPTER I. 



DEFINITIONS. 

1. THE following definitions should be borne in mind by 
the reader : 

A?motation is the term applied to all processes of describ- 
ing the leading features and ideas of books in a succinct 
manner, whether by analysis or criticism or both together. 

The purpose of annotation, used in conjunction with 
classification and cataloguing, is the accurate and impartial 
exposition of books. Accurate and impartial evaluation 
(assuming that such is possible) is exposition. Accurate 
and unbiassed analysis is exposition. But annotation 
deliberately designed to attract readers, without regard to 
their various mental capabilities, to read books, simply as 
books and not as varying treatments of diverse subjects, 
is not exposition but hortation. Thus, to write of Darwin's 
''Origin of species" as "an epoch-making book, which 
every educated man ought to read ; really written for 
specialists, but may be read with interest by the intelli- 
gent general reader " is not exposition, because it is untrue: 
a man may be educated without reading the "Origin," and 
only a particular class of " intelligent general reader " could 
read the book with interest. The rule to bear in mind is 
that an annotation, to be truly expository, must at the 
same time attract the people who can read the book, and 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



discourage those who cannot read it from the attempt. 
"The note," writes Mrs. S. C. Fairchild, "should as a rule 
be written for the people to whom the book will appeal, 
not primarily to discourage those who ought to be warned 
against it. In other words the quality of the note should 
be positive, not negative." This does not seem to be the 
proper view to take in regard to readers' annotations at all 
events. Do not hold any readers in view at all ; if the 
author intends his book for certain readers, say so, but 
otherwise avoid the positive quality of the annotation, 
because you may be fitting the book to the wrong people 
by the positive quality, or what Mrs. Fairchild calls its 
" come-and-read-me-air." Confine your attention to the 
book. Describe the book's subject, define its scope 
and indicate the treatment of the subject, " reproduce its 
atmosphere," and if the work be conscientiously and 
accurately done, the book will, by such means alone, be 
fitted to the readers it will suit. 

2. An Annotation is the term used to denote the whole 
of the matter descriptive of a book apart from the simple 
catalogue entry, and it consists of several parts or notes/ 1 ' 

The simple entry comprises heading, title (i.e., title 
proper, and second part of title or sub-title) and imprint. 
Notes in explanation of the details of entry, whether in- 
cluded in the entry or in the annotation following the entry, 
come within the scope of this book. 

3. A Note is the term applied to any part of an 
Annotation.* 

* These definitions are purely arbitrary, but will be found useful 
in practical work, if consistently adhered to. Throughout this 
book, whenever the word annotation is used, the whole of the 
matter added to, or following, the simple entry, is referred to; 
whenever the word note is used only apart of the annotation is 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 3 

4. The Author Note is that part of an annotation relating 
solely to the author and his preparation and qualifications 
for his work. 

3. The Subject Note is that part of an annotation 
summarizing the specific topic or topics, theory or theme 
of a book. 

6. The Treatment Note is that part of an annotation 
which indicates the manner in which the author has dealt 
with his subject the readers he had in view, his stand- 
point, and so forth. 

7. The Relation Note is that part of an annotation 
designed to show the relation of a book to other books upon 
the same subject. 

8. The Editing Note is that part of an annotation 
which summarizes the principal details of the plan upon 
which the editor has worked in preparing a new edition of 
a work, or in compiling a work of reference. 

9. The Bibliographical Note is that part of an annota- 
tion summarizing the facts relating to the history and 
conditions of publication of the book. 

An Added Note is one added to an original annotation at 
a later date in order to qualify certain statements in such 
annotation. Usually such notes are appended during a 
revision of stock, and are dated. 

10. Description. A Descriptive Annotation is a non- 
critical analysis of the leading ideas and features of a book. 
Descriptive annotation is sometimes called synoptical or 
analytical annotation. 

11. Evaluation is the appraisal, or comparative estimate, 
-of the worth of a book in relation to its subject. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



12. Expert Evaluation is evaluation by specialists, or 
by an editorial board of experts, or body of experts 
working in collaboration with an editor or editorial board. 

13. Simple reviews evaluation is evaluation by means of 
quotations from the reviews of books in various periodicals 
of standing. 

14. Composite reviews evaluation is the term applied to 
the process of combining the opinions of several authoritative 
reviews of the same books into single annotations, each of 
which purports to convey the mean of the various 
judgments. 

15. For annotative purposes books may be divided into 
two classes the literature of power, which includes all 
imaginative works (prose-fiction, poetry, the drama, and so 
forth) and the literature of knowledge, which includes 
informative books in such classes as science, history, 
philology, etc. No sharp dividing line exists between the 
two broad divisions : "avast proportion of books . . . lying 
in a middle zone, confound these distinctions by interblend- 
ing them . . . where threads of direct instruction intermingle 
in the texture with these threads of power, this absorption 
of the duality into one representative nuance neutralises the 
separate perception of either " (De Quincey). Nevertheless, 
for practical purposes, these terms are convenient, because 
they distinguish two literatures requiring somewhat different 
treatment, so far as annotation is concerned. Moreover, 
no other terms are so comprehensive or so well-known and 
understood. 



CHAPTER II. 



LITERATURE OF KNOWLEDGE. 

16. WHEN a book deals with a subject that does not 
require explanation, and in a way which is fairly obvious 
from its title, the full catalogue entry is sufficient to 
describe it. Thus the entry, 

JONES, R. Elementary algebra to the binominal 
theorem ; with exercises and answers : for London 
University matriculation students, 1906. 

is self-explanatory, and only requires an annotation if the 
author has attempted to deal with his subject in an entirely 
fresh way. Books of this kind, however, do not amount to 
ten per cent, of the whole literature of knowledge in a 
popular library : the remainder call for description supple- 
mentary to the titles for annotations which analyse them 
and distinguish them from other books on the same topics. 
Unless reasons of economy forbid, the catalogue or bulletin 
of a popular library should give such information, according 
to the degree in which it seems necessary. The late Mr. 
Cutter's dictum: "The notes should characterize the l)c.>t 
books only : to insert them under every author would only 
confuse and weary " (Rules, 4th ed., p. 105) is not now 
generally accepted. There are other ways of marking so- 
called best books, if it is thought fit to do so. The "best" 
books are those which are best suited to a reader's purpose, 
and only the reader knows precisely what his purpose is. 
Assuming that all the books in a library are fairly 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



trustworthy, we are only called upon to describe them as 
truly as may be : then the reader is able to judge for 
himself whether certain books are what he wants or not. 

Let us proceed to deal with the annotation of the 
literature of knowledge in detail. 

The Author. 

The qualifications of the author must be the subject of 
particular care. Any qualification, whether good, bad, or 
indifferent, which the author particularly refers to, is a 
qualification worthy of note. For example, if an author 
writes a description of Belgium and the Belgians, and 
states that he spent four weeks in that country for the 
purpose of his book, we must regard as worthy of note a 
qualification which will make the average intelligent reader 
realise at once the necessarily superficial and hasty charac- 
ter of the work. True, the annotator may take up the 
critic's caustic pen, and label the book straightway 
"superficial and hasty." But the intelligent reader before 
mentioned may regard this criticism as a little bit gratui- 
tous on the annotator's part, and may evefi be disinclined 
to credit a statement made, without reasons being given, 
about what seems to be an interesting book. Take such 
an example as G. W. Steevens' "The Land of the dollar," 
which may be annotated as follows : 

Author spent two months in United States in autumn, 1896, 
whilst Presidential campaign and election were in progress. 
Describes the voyage, New York, monetary questions, the 
navy, State conventions, politics, W. J. Bryan, Philadelphia, 
Chicago, the South, the Pacific slope ; with chapters on : 
Food and drink, A Strike, Among the Mormons, The Heathen 
Chinee, Business, Anti-England. PublisJied first in " Daily 
Mail" (1896). 

book may be "brilliant and suggestive," as described 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 7 

by some reviewers ; but, in this case also, the reader will 
realise the value of observations made by a two months' 
visitor upon such an expanse of territory, and upon so 
many topics of the first importance. Naturally, account 
must always be taken of the reading which has been 
accomplished by the author to correct or confirm his 
observations, because sometimes the amount of prepara- 
tory study is considerable. But it is always advisable to 
note, as exactly as possible, what personal knowledge has 
gone to the making of a descriptive work, because a book 
which is entirely, or almost entirely, the outcome of first- 
hand observation is invariably fresher, and usually more 
valuable than a midnight-oil study. 

17. Sometimes, however, the author does not state his 
qualifications, perhaps because he believes them to be well 
known. The annotator should not assume that none 
exists, but should make certain before omitting the author 
note, which serves to distinguish original books from 
"pot-boilers." "Pot-boilers" are not so described here 
in a condemnatory sense ; they are hack-work without 
freshness and depth of thought, and for that reason should 
be distinguished from original work, if it is possible to do 
so; but many of them are lucid, accurate, and very useful 
compilations by journalists. To such books no author 
notes are required. 

The annotator, of course, cannot detail an author's 
experience, but he can, as a rule, give the leading feature 
of it, or a good testimonial to it. A writer on popular 
government is known to have studied and written upon 
that subject for thirty years the leading feature of his 
experience is its known length. Or an author is professor 
of geology at Oxford University that is a testimonial to 
his fitness to write on geology. Or an author is conser- 



8 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

vator of forests in Nigeria that is a testimonial to his 
knowledge of forestry. Notes of residence amongst the 
people or in the locality described, activity amidst the 
events narrated, and long practice in the methods of work 
explained, often do more to fix the value of books in 
relation to their subjects than any other part of the anno- 
tation. Indeed, Mr. E. A. Baker writes : " If we could 
always state in full the qualifications of an author to write 
his book, there would often be no need for any further 
estimate of its value and authority." 

The Subject. 

18. The subject note carries on the individualising 
work begun by the author note. To individualise a 
book successfully in regard to its subject, one must not 
only classify it under the narrowest subject heading 
possible, but must clearly describe the specific subject, the 
nature and limitations of the subject matter. Take, for 
example, such a work as Kearton's "With nature and a 
camera." The first step towards accurately defining the 
scope of the book is the class-mark, 598.2, which is the 
Dewey number for "birds." We take other steps in the 
note. The second step is : the birds are wild fowl, there 
being but one chapter on cage-birds. The third step 
brings us to : Wild fowl in the Hebrides, particularly in St. 
Kilda, and duck-decoying in East-Anglia ; with chapters 
on catching cage birds on Brighton Downs, and on nests, 
eggs, and young. The fourth step brings us to : the 
photography of wild fowl, &c. So we get a subject note of 
this kind : 

The photography of wild fowl in the Hebrides, particularly 
ID St. Kilda, and of the methods of decoying ducks 
An^lia, and catching cage birds on Brighton Downs. C)i<i}i(< rs 
on nests, eggs, and young. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. g 

Thus the subject-matter is accurately described, and no 
reader will fail to see how completely the book is distin- 
guished from other books in class 598.2. Whatever else 
is omitted, the subject note should never fail to comprise 
the principal feature or features distinguishing its book 
from other books. Whatever is new a new theory or 
new information should be pointed out above all, when 
the new matter materially affects the treatment of the 
subject. Specially important is it to note valuable matter 
or features which the reader will not expect to find in a 
book, which the title and class-mark do not cover; con- 
versely, what is adequately described in the title or class- 
mark should not be noted two simple rules which even 
experienced annotators are apt to violate. 

The Treatment. 

19. The attitude of the author towards his subject 
next requires consideration. Scarcely two writers on any 
subject coincide in theory or practice, although th'eir aims 
may be identical. Librarians are unanimous in their desire 
to distribute good books as widely as possible, but not two 
in the country hold precisely the same views as to the way 
in which this may be accomplished. If there were four 
modern text-books of library economy, a distinct bias 
would appear in each, if the authors were earnest, thinking 
men. This is the case in all callings, and all studentship. 
But a word of warning may be given. Only the principal 
standpoint must be noted. If the author discusses his 
subject from almost all points of view, it is better to say so 
than to enumerate them. For example : 

JASTROW. Study of religion. 

Discusses religion historically, and [from the standpoint 
of ethics, philosophy, mythology, psychology, history, and 
culture] . 



io Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

The part in square brackets is of doubtful utility, or at 
least badly expressed. According to this, religion is dis- 
cussed from all standpoints save science, and one may be 
sure science is covered by the word "culture." This 
enumeration is also responsible for some tautology, for 
what is the difference between " discussing religion histori- 
cally" and discussing it from the standpoint of history? 
The viewpoint of a writer is only of significance when it 
gives either a narrower or a clearer survey of a subject. 

20. The treatment note should also take into account 
the readers held in view by the author, and the preparation 
they must undergo before they can comprehend its subject 
matter. An instance can be cited illustrating the desira- 
bility of differentiating the treatment of subjects. Two 
books on the same topic were catalogued together in an 
annotated list, and the annotation to one pointed out that 
the treatment was non-mathematical, whilst the second 
annotation stated that mathematical knowledge up to a 
certain point was required from the reader. The result 
was to be expected. The former was frequently called for, 
whilst the latter was only borrowed at rare intervals. A 
good example of the value of indicating the author's treat- 
ment of his subject is afforded by the "A.L.A. Catalog, 
1904," in class 541, Theoretic chemistry, to which Walker's 
" Introduction to physical chemistry " is assigned. There 
are various kinds of "introductions": this introduction, 
however, is described as " specially suited for brief under- 
graduate courses." The treatment is descriptive, and not 
mathematical. So that, in this catalogue, in class 541, the 
only " brief, descriptive and non-mathematical introduction 
to theoretic chemistry, as usually required for undergraduate 
courses," is Walker's book. Again, consider some rather 
more difficult examples. History does not lend itself to 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. n 



very pronounced differences of treatment, but it is always 
possible to include some note distinguishing one book 
from another. 

BRIGHT. History of England [449-1901]. New ed. 
5v. Coloured maps. 1904. 

Author: Lecturer on history, Balliol, New and University 
Colleges, Oxford. Treatment: A text-book very full on matters 
of fact ; generally praised for accuracy and impartiality. Read 
also Green's " Short history " (942051) which would serve as 
commentary on this. 

GARDINER. Student's history of England [to 1885], 
3v. Illus. 1892. 

Author: Professor of modern history, King's College, 
London ; declined regius professorship, Oxford, 1894. Treat- 
ment : Deals largely with social and intellectual development 
as well as fully with politics. Illustrations very numerous, 
and lend much interest to narrative. Contains also many 
genealogical tables, summaries of leading dates ; books 
recommended for study. A text-book for younger students 
than Bright's " History " (9426). 

GREEN. Short history of the English people [to 1873]. 
6 coloured maps. 1902. 

Treatment: Author's theory of history was that it could 
be properly understood only if constitutional, intellectual, and 
social side were treated as fully as political side. A commentary 
for the general reader rather than a text-book. Bibliographies 
at chapter heads ; chronological tables. Refer to Tait's 
"Analysis" of this history, (942X21); also see Green's 
expanded " History," 8v. (942646). 

HUME. BREWER. The Student's Hume, [B.C. 55-A.D. 
1878]. Illus. Coloured maps. 1884. Studenfs 
Manuals. 

Professor Brewer has abridged original (published 1754-61), 
revised it in accordance with results of modern research, and 
continued narrative from 1688 to 1878. Treatment : Political 



12 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

and philosophical : not full on institutions and social progress ; 
original had strong Tory bias. "Occupies an important 
place" between Green (9420) and Bright (9426) C. K. 
Adams. 

LINGARD. BIRT. History of England. Abridged and 
brought down to accession of Edward VII. [B.C. 55- 
A.D. 1900]. Pref. by Abbot Gasquet. 1903. 

Standpoint : " Remains authority for reformation from side 
of the enlightened Roman Catholic priesthood." Dictionary 
of National Biography. Bias mainly appears in omission of 
facts adverse to author's position. PublisJied first, 1819-30. 

The Editing and Bibliographical Notes. 

21. The editing note is of little value if it does not 
state clearly the character and scope of the editorial matter, 
which varies considerably in different books. The only 
means of distinguishing two editions of a classic author is to 
analyse the editors' work. Coleridge and Prothero's edition 
of Byron is an example of very thorough editing indeed : 
historical, geographical, personal allusions are fully ex- 
plained, variant readings are given, also full bibliographical 
information, full general indexes and an index of first lines, 
as well as several important appendices. Moore's edition 
of the poems has short notes on obscure allusions, on 
topography, and sparse notes on variant readings ; full 
historical notes at ends of volumes (sometimes at ends of 
poems) ; an index, but not one of first lines; and no biblio- 
graphical information worth mentioning. The differences 
are considerable and very material. 

These are examples of explicative editing. Sometimes 
the editing is supplementary to the original, as in the case 
of Kearton's edition of White's "Natural history of 
Selborne," wherein much new and more modern informa- 
tion is vouchsafed, in confirmation or correction of what 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 13 



White wrote. Special care should be taken to draw 
attention to editing of this kind. 

Sometimes, especially in the case of cheap editions of 
the classics, the editing is merely nominal. The weakness 
or inadequacy of editing, which consists perhaps of a short 
preface by a well-known writer who lends his name to the 
edition, should be exposed by a short note clearly defining 
its limits. 

22. The bibliographical note provides for the inclusion 
in the annotation of facts relating to the history and 
conditions of publication of books, especially important 
books. It is always well to note the source and basis of a 
book, unique features in format or printing, numbered 
copies, changes of title and so on. Some of these points 
are mainly of interest and service to the staff of the library, 
but others all do a little towards fitting books to their 
readers. 

23. All information in annotative work must be set 
down particularly and exactly. Each annotation ought to 
be constructed of as many hard, incontrovertible facts as 
possible. For example, vague statements in the author 
note about a writer's "well-known interest" and "long ex- 
perience " (without indicating how long) are not admissible. 
The subject note is rather too frequently invertebrate. 
Consider the following : 

WILKINSON. Command of the sea. 

, Favours a drastic and far-reaching reform in our naval 
administration. 

A reader will expect to be told something of the nature of 
the reform proposed. Just as easy and more satisfactory 
to the reader is it to say that the author favours " the 
appointment of a responsible director of the Navy as 



14 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

recommended by the Hartington commission," instead of 
making a vague statement about a " drastic and far-reach- 
ing reform," and so failing to distinguish the book from 
the many books proposing " drastic reform " in the navy. 

24. Another example of inexactness of statement shows 
that the result may be almost ridiculous. In the chapter 
on " Relative description " the desirability of relating a 
book written from one point of view to another written 
from a different point of view is urged. This is sometimes 
done. For example : 

GIBBON. Decline and fall of the Roman empire. 

Deals with the growth of Christianity, the doctrine and 
history of early church, and the conduct of Roman govern- 
ment towards Christians from reign of Nero. Written with 
strong bias. 

Now, towards which side was the bias towards Chris- 
tianity or the Romans ? The essential fact is omitted. 
Curiously enough the same catalogue couples another book 
with Gibbon, and again omits the essential fact in the 
annotation to it : 

SHEPPARD. Fall of Rome. 

Brings out with great clearness the way in which the new 
nationalities were evolved out of the confusion resulting from 
the invasions and breaking up of the old empire. The author's 
religious point of view is the opposite of Gibbon's. 

And Gibbon's is not stated that is, we know nothing 
about either Sheppard's or Gibbon's standpoints, save that 
they are opposite ! 

25. The omission of dates, and of explanations of the 
significance of some of them, is another type of inexact- 
ness. For example : 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 15 



\VALI.ACE. Darwinism. 

A popular re-statement of the theory of natural selection 
embracing later researches than Darwin's own works. 

This is well enough so far as it goes, but a little more 
particularity is necessary. The following would be better : 

Re-statement of theory of natural selection, embracing re- 
searches made between 1872 (when 6th edition of Darwin's 
"Origin of species" was published) and 1889, and answering 
objections urged in meantime. 

The dates are of the first importance : many things hap- 
pened between 1872 and 1889, and much more bearing on 
evolution has happened since 1889, beyond which year 
Wallace's book does not go. 



26. Again, consider this annotation to Jack London's 
11 People of the abyss " : 

A picture of the lives of the poorest of the poor in the East- 
end of London ; written from the American point of view. 

This note is accurate, so far as it goes. But how has Mr. 
London drawn his picture? Has he made a systematic 
survey of a part of the East-end in much the same way as 
Mr. Charles Booth did? Or is he an American journalist 
who has read up his subject, and made a few note-taking 
raids into slumdom ? No, he has not worked upon either 
of these lines. For two months he actually lived the life 
of the East-end poor, and a note stating this circumstance 
distinguishes the book from its congeners on London 
poverty by assigning it to a small class of "amateur 
casual " books. 

Discrimination between essentials and non-essentials is, 
above all, necessary. Only facts germane to the subject of 



1 6 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

a book should be included in an annotation. If a man 
write upon Free Trade, it is clearly inessential to describe 
him as an eminent novelist, or a renowned naturalist ; 
when an author writes upon some specific scientific subject, 
his B.Sc. degree should not be deemed a qualification for 
doing so, but he must have undertaken systematic investi- 
gations into the subject of his work, or he must occupy a 
prominent position among the students of it. The following 
annotation, and annotations like it, are to be regarded 
as not essential : 

DEECKE. Italy : the country, people, institutions. 
Contains much useful information. 

Sometimes a lengthy annotation will hide the signifi- 
cance of the essential fact, whilst a brief annotation will 
make it plain. The annotator will find many reviews 
which describe books the more clearly and distinctively 
because the reviewer is limited in the matter of space, 
and is therefore obliged to confine his attention to the 
points which matter. 



27. A few examples of typical annotations to quite 
ordinary books will fittingly close this chapter : 

EIDLITZ. Nature and function of art, more especially of 
architecture. 

Author (1823-96) was prominent architect of New York City. 
Subject : Two thirds of his book is given to architecture, pure 
and simple, ideas, monuments, construction, proportion, treat- 
ment of masses, style, &c. The rest deals with definitions of 
art. Object : Mainly, to show how the present condition 
(1881) of architecture may be changed, and the art made 
living and creative again. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 17 



APPLETON AND Co. Appleton's annual cyclopaedia 
and register, 1876-1902. New series, v. i third 
series, v. 7, whole series, v. 16-42. 1885-1903. 

Surveys political, military, ecclesiastical, commercial, 
financial, literary, scientific, and industrial affairs; gives 
statistics, contemporary biography. Forms annual supple- 
ment to " American cyclopaedia," (Lo3i). Cumulative index 
to new series, v. i-io, 1876-1885, in v. 7-10 ; to v. 13-20, 1888- 
95, in v. 13-20; to third series in v. 1-7. Formerly entitled ; 
" American annual cyclopaedia." Publication ceased, 1902. 

SHEPHEARD-WALWYN. Nature's riddles. 

Subject: Struggle for existence. Author attempts to solve 
riddle : " How is it that weaker species do not become 
extinct ? " by describing weapons and natural means of 
protection of beasts, reptiles, birds, and insects, particularly 
the caterpillar. Treatment : popular. 

FISCHER. The Discoveries of the Norsemen in America. 

Author: Professor of geography, Jesuit College, Feldkirch, 
Austria ; has made minute investigation of all materials 
relating to vexed question of what the Norsemen discovered, 
as to which many historians (including Bancroft [973 B.]) 
have been sceptical ; in 1901 he found the long-lost world map 
of Martin Waldseemuller (1507 and 1516), part of which is 
reproduced in this book. Has bibliography. 

RICHMAN. Appenzell : pure democracy and pastoral 
life in Inner-Rhoden : a Swiss study. 
Author: ... 

Subject: Appenzell is a canton of Swiss Confederation, 
containing within itself " almost every charm of nature- 
romantic Alps, hills, valleys, green meadows, and picturesque 
villages." Pref. Scenery, climate, history, contemporary life 
are dealt with in this vol. By "pure democracy" is meant 
the Landesgemeinde, an assembly every freed man above 18 
must attend. 

B 



CHAPTER III. 



LITERATURE OF POWER. 

28. IN most annotated catalogues the entries of poetical 
and dramatic books are treated as adequately as the entries 
of the literature of knowledge. Prose fiction is not so 
consistently treated. In the "A.L.A. Catalog, 1904," the 
Finsbury P.L. " Quarterly guide," the Croydon P.L. 
"Reader's index," the Pittsburgh P.L. "Bulletin," and 
other publications, prose fiction is treated with the same 
fulness as other literature. But in some American lists, 
and in the Huddersfield P.L. "Supplementary catalogue," 
fiction is not annotated; in the Bishopsgate Inst. "Descrip- 
tive catalogue," bulky as it is, the notes to fiction are 
exceedingly brief and sparsely given, and other catalogues 
adopt this brief method,* as in the following examples : 

LINCOLN. Partners of the tide. [Cape Cod life.] 

AUSTIN. Isidro. [Old California.] 

ROBERTS. Mademoiselle Mori. [Italian revolution, 

1848.] 
MERRIMAN. The Velvet glove. [The Carlists, Spain, 

1870.] 

The question is then : Should the entries of novels be 
annotated or not ? 

Of course, very brief annotations are better than none at all. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 19 

Experience has proved that people are led by annotated 
entries to read books which they have never had the 
slightest intention of reading before, and librarians have 
been sorely tempted to annotate non-fiction, and to leave 
prose fiction undescribed, in the hope of reducing the 
issue percentage of the latter class. This effect of anno- 
tation has given rise to the misconception that its purpose 
is to induce people to read the less popular literature. 
(See i.) A pressing need of economy in catalogue 
printing has served to strengthen this view of the aim of 
annotation. But it must be patent to every librarian that 
guidance is as necessary in the choice of novels as in the 
choice of other literature. Nowadays prose fiction occupies 
a position of very considerable importance in life, simply 
because many of the most intelligent and learned men and 
women of the time make it a vehicle for discussing social 
and political questions, which would never come within 
the purview of hundreds of thousands of readers if dealt 
with in any other form of literature. Mr. Jonathan Nield, 
and other writers, have successfully vindicated the value of 
the historical novel as a means of imparting a knowledge 
of the main tendencies and developments of history. As 
Mr. Nield says, " the general forces of the period " may be 
" placed before us in such a way as to drive home the 
conviction that, be the historical inaccuracies of detail 
what they may be in the eyes of this or that specialist, the 
picture as a whole is one which, while it rivets our atten- 
tion as lovers of romance, does no injury to the strictest 
historic sense." This opinion is shared by the National 
Home Reading Union, by the Board of Education in 
regard to its examinations for teachers, and by other 
authorities. The influence of the novel then is enormous, 
and to neglect to guide thousands of people to read it 
aright in order to induce a few of them to cease reading 



2O Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

it, or simply for reasons of economy, is illogical and 
exceedingly ill-advised. 

29. There is one legitimate means of economy in anno- 
tating prose fiction, which is described in the code, 102. 
Another possible economy consists in classification. The 
classification of knowledge literature cuts down annotative 
work ; e.g., Hugh Miller's " Testimony of the rocks," if 
classified in Dewey's 215, is annotated up to a certain point 
by the class mark, and we must continue the annotation 
from that point ; whereas, if the book be not classified, we 
must put the entire description of the book, apart from the 
title, into the annotation It follows therefrom that the 
closer, or the more minute the classification, the shorter 
may be the annotations. Now, if some satisfactory method 
of classifying prose fiction were devised, the annotation of 
this class would be cut down in the same way. For 
example, we find in Mr. E. A. Baker's (Derby) " Handbook 
to prose fiction," about a dozen novels grouped together 
under the heading "Jacobite Rebellion, 1745," whereas in 
an ordinary alphabetic author and title catalogue the same 
information must be given a dozen times over, in different 
places in the catalogue. Again, in the Philadelphia P.L. 
"Catalogue of prose fiction, 1 ' the compiler has been en- 
abled by means of the classification to group together 
books under a heading like " Historical English (Civil war 
and commonwealth)." A very short annotation to each 
book, together with such a class or subject heading, suffices 
to describe the book. 

30. The Literature of Knowledge presents material 
lending itself admirably to analysis : it conveys certain in- 
formation in a certain way, and one may summarize such 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 21 

information in annotations, and indicate the manner of 
imparting it, with some exactitude. On the other hand, the 
literature of power comprises material which does not lend 
itself to analysis to anything like the same extent: its 
information is incidental, fragmentary, not always trust- 
worthy, whilst its appeal is principally to the emotions, and 
the power of such appeal is the measure of its greatness. 

31. The question which an annotation to an imagina- 
tive work must answer is this how can we suggest the 
character of the book without disclosing the nature of 
its action ? The reader goes to the literature of know- 
ledge for information, and the annotator does well in 
precisely outlining the scope of the information obtainable. 
But a work of the imagination is read for its artistry, for 
its appeal to the emotions, and, as the appeal is more 
powertul for being strange and surprising, it is clearly 
wrong to analyse such appeal or to outline the narrative 
which is the basis of the appeal. We must be content to 
suggest the character of the book, and the nature of its 
action. Indeed, so far as two words can describe the 
difference between the two kinds of annotation one might 
say that non-fictional annotation should be descriptive, 
and the fictional suggestive. Naturally, on occasion, this 
broad rule must be modified, but the wisdom of the 
distinction seems borne out by titles, which, in general, 
are descriptive in the Literature of Knowledge and not 
descriptive (but often suggestive) in the case of imaginative 
works. 

32. But although it is easy to say that we must respect 
the narrative and only suggest its character in an annota- 
tion to an imaginative work, it is not so easy to hit upon 
proper methods of doing this. Perhaps we may get at 



22 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

the truth by first showing what kind of annotation will 
not do. 

Ex. (a) :- 

A matrimonial tangle. The husband goes for a voyage for 
his health, loses his memory, and marries again; while his 
wife thinking him dead also marries. 

Ex. (6) :- 

As a young barrister, a future judge seduces a girl, commits 
manslaughter and permits his best friend to suffer for the 
crime. Afterwards he lives the life of a good and upright 
man, with occasional twinges of conscience, till the friend is 
released from prison and forgives him, whereupon the judge 
makes public confession and dies. 



33. These annotations would seem to be due to want 
of thought as to the effect they will have upon the reader. 
In each example the whole story the course of the action, 
and, except in (a), the ending is disclosed. If, after 
reading (), a reader should borrow the book, he will look 
for all the principal events in the story, one by one, in 
their proper order he will expect the seduction and the 
manslaughter, the good and useful life, the twinges of 
conscience, the forgiveness of the wronger by the wronged, 
and he will set his nerves to bear the shock of the judge's 
public confession and his death. It will be like reading 
the story again. And, in truth, it is a second reading 
the freshness of the story is gone. This is unfair to readers 
and authors alike.* 

* Even in a guide to the general body of readers a guide which 
is not a library publication the annotator scarcely seems justified 
in giving tne pl Qt f a novel. Some guide-makers resemble 
Charles Lamb in finding it a "task" to follow the thread of a 
new story and a pleasure to re-read an old one, and they tail to 
realise that ninety out of every hundred readers enjoy narrative. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 23 

34. Do not therefore disclose the plot, the course of 
action, of an imaginative work. The reader will neither 
expect nor like it. But we can offer him substantial 
assistance with notes, written under strict limitations, on 
the characters, the setting, the theme, and the period of 
the story. 

The Author. 

35. In annotating the literature of knowledge the author 
note is almost invariably of importance. In the literature 
of power it may be worth much, or very little, or nothing at 
all. Knowledge, observation, imagination, and personality 
are all essential to literary work, but whereas knowledge 
and observation are the leading qualifications in the one 
class of literature, imagination and personality are all im- 
portant in the other class. Imagination and personality are 
the two indescribable qualifications. We may indeed recog- 
nize that personality is more potent than imagination in one 
writer, as for example, Meredith, or that imagination domi- 
nates personality in another writer, as in the case of \V. B. 
Yeats, but men of the acutest intellect differ, and always 
must differ in their analyses of these qualifications, and an 
author note, which attempts to describe them in a few lines 
is of little practical value that is why we must regard them 
as indescribable so far as annotation is concerned. 

36. Even in regard to the setting of fictional works, an 
author's qualifications or lack of them is not always of con- 
sequence. A writer of sea stones may be a sailor, and we 
may perhaps state the fact ; still, excellent novels of this 
type have been written by landsmen who are almost quite 
ignorant of navigation and life afloat, and such books are 
enjoyed even by sailors, who are fully alive to the errors 
which abound in them. On the other hand Sir Walter 



24 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

Scott was deep-read in the history of chivalry and in historic 
lore of all kinds : his " Ivanhoe " bears the impress of this 
accuracy of knowledge on nearly every page, but despite 
this accuracy, critics have urged that it by no means 
conveys the spirit of the age. The main point is 
" Ivanhoe " is a fine story. In poetry, drama and fiction 
an idea finely treated, an episode brilliantly described, a 
good yarn told well, and a few finely-conceived characters, 
even in an ill-constructed tale, are desiderata beside which 
every other consideration goes for almost naught. 

37. But in certain cases an author note may be of value. 
When a writer has produced a series of novels, all or nearly 
all with the same setting, and when it is known that this 
writer has an extensive first-hand knowledge of this setting, 
then by all means make a note of the fact. If the environ- 
ment of his stories is such a prominent feature as to call 
forth a special monograph on it, then refer to such mono- 
graph. Or if the author be of such importance as to be the 
subject of a critical monograph or monographs, refer to 
them, or if preferred to what is considered the best of 
them. But from notes of this kind it is scarcely wise to 
depart we get on very unsafe and uncertain ground. 

Environment. 

38. By environment is meant the locality in which the 
action of the story takes place, and the life ol that locality, 
the class of society, pleasures, industries, politics of the 
people surrounding the principal actors. The environment 
should only be noted when closely associated with the 
story. Thus, a story may be wholly enacted in London, 
and yet include a series of events which might be trans- 
ferred to New York with scarcely any material alteration 
in those parts of the story which purport to be descriptive 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 25 

of the city. Sometimes the scene changes from one 
locality to another frequently, no great part of the action 
taking place in any one spot, and as a general rule in such 
cases mention of the localities is hardly required. There 
are exceptions : Stevenson and Osbourne's "The Wrecker" 
would be a common " blood and thunder " detective story 
if it were transferred from the scenes which are so splen- 
didly described in it the Bohemian life of the Quartier 
Latin, the glimpse of ascetic Scotland, the quick 
transition to the feverish energy of business life in San 
Francisco, thence to the glamour and savagery of the 
Pacific Isles, and finally to the home surroundings of an 
ancient English family. 

Period. 

39. Little need be said about the period of the story, 
except to emphasize the importance of being as exact as 
possible. Novels and plays are often written to satirize the 
crazes of the hour as for instance the aesthetic and new 
woman movements of a few years ago and it is essential to 
give the correct dates, or as close approximations to them 
as possible. Often such loose expressions as " sixteenth " or 
" seventeenth century " are used when it is possible to say 
"1560" or "about 1560" or "1675-80." Thus, in one 
annotation we get "Transylvania, iyth cent.," as the 
period note to Jokai's " 'Midst the wild Carpathians," 
whilst in another we find "Transylvania, 1666, to last 
years of Turkish rule, 1680-90,''' which is much better. 

The Theme. 

40. The mainspring of the action can usually be deter- 
mined without trouble, even in the crowded pages of 
"Vanity fair." But there are exceptions; "Pickwick 



26 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

papers " is episodic, and includes no theme of any im- 
portance, the strength of the book being in the humorous 
adventures, and the curious people engaged therein. Only 
a few words are necessary to the theme note. For example, 
in "Nicholas Nickleby " the mainspring of the plot is "the 
active antagonism of Nicholas and his uncle Ralph, the 
usurer"; in Besant's "Beyond the dreams of avarice" the 
theme is sufficiently described as "the evils of colossal 
wealth." 

41. With certain books, the question as to whether we 
are to be frank or not with regard to the theme is difficult 
to answer. Mr. Cutter ("Rules for a dictionary catalogue," 
4th ed., p. 105) writes : " Dull and morally bad books 
should be left in obscurity," but such a statement ignores 
the real crux of the question. To begin with, "morally 
bad " books, if put into the library at all, are so restricted 
in circulation as scarcely to need annotation at all. But 
many books are in general circulation which, although not 
morally bad, have objectionable themes or describe objec- 
tionable incidents. The question whether such books do 
harm to young readers or not cannot be discussed here, 
but the fact that the majority of parents decidedly object 
to their children reading them concerns us very much. 
Three courses may be taken in annotating them: (i) to 
describe the theme baldly, or (2) to use one of the many 
phrases so clearly ambiguous, or (3) to leave the theme 
unmentioned. Some librarians incline to (i) and (2). Mr. 
E. A. Baker writes : Books like these "are in every library ; 
they are read by honest men who believe that these social 
problems must be discussed, but it is not desirable that 
they should be picked up by women and young people in 
ignorance of their contents. To let them pass without 
note would be mischievous." (Library World> v. 2, 181.) 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 27 



42. The contrary view is taken by Mr. L. S. Jast : 
Most librarians, he writes, will prefer to leave "question- 
able books in the obscurity of silence. To say that a 
book is ' not written for girls' schools ' . . . must really be 
frightfully tantalising to any normally built school-girl. 
One would think a little knowledge of human nature .... 
would show the utter unwisdom, to say nothing of the 
rather comic effect, of such warnings." {Library World, 
v. 2, 208). For the catalogues of popular libraries the 
latter view seems the sounder, because the public would 
probably object to Mr. Baker's plain-speaking, whilst no 
great danger of these books accidentally falling into young 
people's hands will be run if attention is not drawn to their 
peculiarities. 

Characters. 

43. The principal characters in a novel or drama 
should be noted for two reasons (i) because they are well- 
known apart from the work, or (2) because they so clearly 
suggest the nature of the story. The names of such 
characters as Becky Sharp, Codlin and Short, Captain 
Cuttle, Quilp, Squeers, Micawber, Uncle Toby, and the 
like, are familiar to many people who have not read the 
stories in which they play their parts, and, if put in the 
note, they will often awaken a livelier interest in some of 
the best fiction than would the mention of any other fact. 
The nature of the action may be indicated by pithy 
descriptions of the principal characters taking part in it. 
Thus in the case of the Zenda novels, we make the follow- 
ing note : 

Principal characters: Rudolf Rassendyll, the chivalrous 
hero and double of the weak and dissolute King of Ruritania, 
the Queen, who loves Rudolf, Rupert of Hentzau, intriguing 
against the King, and Sapt, the chancellor, and comrade of the 
hero. 



28 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

This note, when read in connexion with the notes on the 
environment and the theme, will very clearly characterize 
the story. 

44. We will now give a few examples of annotations 
built upon the method just described. 

HARDY. Hand of Ethelberta. 

Scene: Wessex (Dorset), especially Anglebury (Wareham), 
Sandbourne (Bournemouth), Corvsgate Castle (Corfe Castle) ; 
also London, Rouen. TJieme : Brains versus caste prejudices. 
Leading cliaracters : Ethelberta, a cultured and not very selfish 
adventuress of lowly birth, her rustic relations, and her lovers, 
Christopher the musician, the grim and cynical Neigh, the 
impressionable Ladywell, and Lord Mountclere, the rake. 

For author note see 183, 184. This note can possibly 
be improved upon, but examples are taken where they can 
be found. It suits our purpose. It is suggestive. It 
suggests interest to the many people who are acquainted 
with the locale. Its theme suggests interest to the people 
who like discussions relating to social classes. The 
enumeration of the characters is suggestive the colloca- 
tion of a cultured adventuress, her lowly relations, and her 
four lovers of divers characters, promises the reader some 
very interesting situations indeed, but at the same time 
reveals to him nothing of the course of the story, or of its 
ending nothing of its surprises or its incidents. 

45. Consider another example : 

FREYTAG. Debit and credit. 

Scene: Prussian Silesia, 1848, commercial centres. Theme: 
The middle and trading classes as the pillars of the state. 
Lcdilinij characters : An energetic, honourable business m.ui 
contrasted with a nobleman representing the weak and idle 
aristocracy, quite devoid of business instincts. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 29 



What will hi.- the effect of this note upon readers ? 
It will attract those who know Prussia, and are interested 
in her industrial progress. It will attract all those who are 
interested in social problems relative to commerce and 
labour. It will attract the many readers who have a predi- 
lection for stories with a commercial environment for such 
business scenes as those in " The \\Vccker," " The Market 
place," and " Fromont jeune et Risler aine." On the 
other hand it will repel all who dislike novels with a 
purpose, because in describing the environment, the theme, 
the characteristics of the protagonists, it shows that a 
purpose exists and what it is. Yet, like the annotation to 
Hardy, it respects the story. It neither outlines the action 
nor discloses its termination. 

46. Take a third and final example. 

PHILLIPS. Herod. 

Scene : Jerusalem 30-29 B.C. Theme : The murder of 
Aristobulus, at Herod's command ; enveloping action, the war 
between Mark Antony and Octavius, and intrigues with Rome. 
Leading characters : Mariamne, sister of Aristobulus and 
Herod's queen, Herod, and Cypros and Salome, intriguing 
against Mariamne. Sec Whiston's " Josephus," (935]) p. 416. 

This annotation achieves the end of the annotator of 
the Literature of Power just as well as the preceding 
examples ; that is to say, it suggests the character of the 
drama, without disclosing the story. 

47. Having thus dealt with practicable methods of 
suggesting the character of imaginative works, we are 
called upon to consider whether the descriptions might 
not be rounded off by the use of certain terms, which, 
whilst critical, border more closely upon expressions of fact 



30 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

than expressions of opinion. Thus, the word "humorous," 
used in connection with the works of W. W. Jacobs and 
Anstey, is almost an expression of fact ; but in the phrase, 
" one of the most humorous of recent publications," 
opinion predominates, and the opinion may or may not be 
true ; whilst, in using such a phrase as " one of the most 
humorous of recent publications, some of the comic scenes 
recalling Dickens," the annotator strengthens his expression 
of opinion, the truth of which will very likely be impugned. 
The moral is that it is unwise for the annotator in a 
popular library to go beyond such safe expressions ex- 
pressions which, after all, are quite sufficient as "sensa- 
tional," "tragic," "tragi-comic," "amusing," "a comedy," 
"a comedy of manners," and the like. But if he is of 
opinion that frankly critical expressions are essential to the 
annotation of imaginative works, he will be well advised to 
take them from a recognized guide. 



CHAPTER IV. 



JUVENILE LITERATURE. 

48. THE annotation of Juvenile Literature presents no 
more difficulty than the annotation of other books : the 
same rules apply : but the annotations should differ some- 
what in style and treatment. 

To whom are such annotations to be addressed ? It has 
been argued rather tritely, and without exceptions being 
stated, that they should be addressed to the children. 
Surely this depends (i) on the kind of catalogue containing 
the annotations and (2) on the age of the children. The 
Pittsburgh "Graded and annotated catalogue of books for 
use in the public schools," now (1905) out of print and 
undergoing revision, has been regarded in England as an 
ideal catalogue for young readers. The annotations, 
especially, are simply written. But this catalogue, Miss 
Frothingham ( 83) writes, was not intended for children, 
but for the teachers. Again, the same library's "Annotated 
catalogue of books in the home libraries and reading 
clubs " is primarily intended u to meet the special needs of 
these volunteer [home library] visitors, who have little time 
to read the children's books." (Preface to catalogue.) At 
the same time the simple language of the catalogue suggests 
that children are intended to use it. Indeed, this is the 
case. The annotations " were [also] designed to attract 
and interest children." (Miss Frothingham.) It is tolerably 



32 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

certain that children under fourteen will not understand 
the arrangement of the catalogue, which is graded, nor be 
able to employ its pressmarks (such as "J79oB343w," 
"jW2i3gp"). Presumably this arrangement is designed 
for the convenience of the home library visitors. The 
annotations perhaps help children, who read them without 
regard to the arrangement. Possibly home library visitors 
may find the annotations useful to read aloud to the 
children, who will choose their books by means of this oral 
delivery of the entries. 

49. The Pittsburgh catalogues and similar publications 
compel us to come to the conclusion that the more com- 
plicated the catalogue the less is the need for very simple 
language in the annotations. But in short lists, which are 
much more suitable for children's use, we think the only 
satisfactory rule is as follows : Address all annotations of 
books for children under ten years of age to teachers and 
parents, and make the language of the annotations to books 
for older children match the language of the book. Under no 
circumstances should the language of the annotation be 
simpler than the language of the book. The annotator 
cannot then go very far wrong. 

50. In some libraries it is the practice to note in the 
annotation whether books are suitable for boys or girls. 
In other libraries the books are divided into two sections, 
one for girls, the other for boys. Mr. Nield, in his 
" Guide to historical novels," 3rd ed., does not divide his 
Juvenile Books into two parts, but simply marks those 
with a pronounced girlish or boyish tendency. The result 
is that many very many are not marked at all, and are 
therefore to be regarded as suitable for both girls and boys. 
Most librarians will favour Mr. Nield's practice. But Mr. 
Nield's abbreviations "G" and "B," which he employs 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 33 



to mark girls' and boys' books respectively, are not clear 
enough for use in a catalogue intended for juvenile readers. 
It is tar hotter, though much longer, to put " For boys," or 
"For girls," or "For boys and girls." Or, as another 
alternative, in a printed catalogue for juveniles the signs 
G and B may be safely used, provided a note in explana- 
tion of them is printed at the foot of every page. 

51. So far as possible, each book should be fitted to 
children able to read it. Theoretically it appears a good 
plan to group books into several grades, and in a general 
note to define, as carefully as may be, the intelligence 
necessary to the understanding of the books in each group. 
Thus, no matter what age a youngster may be, his teacher 
or parent may find for him a book suited to his intelli- 
gence. Practically such a plan would not work very 
satisfactorily. The children's librarians at Boston Public 
Library, where a big work is done with juvenile readers, 
grade by age. Three grades are recognized: (i) "the 
upper grammar " grade ; (2) the intermediate ; (3) the 
primary. Books are allocated to these grades as the ages 
of the children actually using them may suggest ; the 
grading or classification thus being based on use, the 
only way of obtaining anything like a satisfactory result. 
But here's the rub: "Two numbers are frequently given, 
showing the book's prolonged usefulness through more 
than one of these divisions." The tendency is towards the 
indefinite. In Sargent's "Catalogue of historical fiction 
for young readers " " the letters a, b, c . . . have been 
attached to most [!] of the titles to show, in a general 
way, to what class of young readers they are best adapted, 
(a) designating works suitable for youth from twelve to 
eighteen, (b) those for children from eight to twelve, and 
(c) those for the youngest readers." Some of the books 

c 



34 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

are marked with two letters. Here again the tendency is 
to be very indefinite. The best practice is then to grade 
by age, to have only a few grades, and even so not to 
assign definitely each book to but a single class. If the 
juvenile list is not divided into grades, the age of the child 
for whom each book is suitable should be given in the 
note, but the age divisions should be wide : as, for in- 
stance, in the case of Mr. Sargent's book. Probably, it 
would be better to divide the (a) class into two divisions, 
(i.) fifteen years to eighteen years, (ii.) twelve years to 
fourteen years, but then two " age letters " would be more 
frequently required. 

52. It will be well, perhaps, to caution the annotator 
against a fault which he is liable to commit, especially if he 
be an enthusiast the fault of exaggeration, which seems to 
be regarded as pardonable when children's reading is in 
question, the aim being to make an impression upon the 
young mind at all costs. For example : 

Story of one of the boldest men who ever sailed the seas, a man 
who could undauntedly fight on with his ship aleak and afire 
in a dozen places, his guns silenced and a hundred mutinous 
prisoners ready to spring upon him from below. 

Even if the annotation tell only the bare truth, it is scarcely 
in good taste. 

The distinctly personal tone should not be adopted. 
Thus : 

You will find this book interesting. It will tell you all about 
your country's history, and the way your countrymen, etc. 

This familiar tone would not be used in annotation for 
adults, and youngsters should not be made to suffer it. 
The example given above is not of annotative simplicity 
but of annotative pap. 



CHAPTER V. 



RELATIVE DESCRIPTION. 

53. OUR progress in individualising books is taken in 
three steps : 

(1) Classification. 

(2) Annotation of Relatives (i.e., practically pointing 

out the existence of a class within a class by 
means of notes exactly descriptive of the nature 
of the relation). 

(3) Annotation of Collaterals (i.e., annotation in full 

of all the works under the class heading). 

All the books grouped together under a class heading 
are collaterals. Amongst them are certain books which are 
relations. Thus all the books usually grouped together in 
Dewey's class 291, Comparative and general mythology, 
are collaterals, but two among them, Frazer's "Golden 
bough" and Lang's "Magic and religion '"'are closely related, 
because the latter is mainly a criticism of the former. 
Again, in the same class, Cox's "Mythology of the Aryan 
nations" is related to Lang's " Modern mythology" and 
Max M tiller's book on the same topic. The following table 
shows these relations more clearly : 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



1 1 



1 






1 ^ o 

*o -Q 
>> . c 

DC V3 D 

a 


K 








c >^ 

.9 g= 

O 

*f 

1 

rt C 












I! s 


| 

*x 








.y <u 
5b 'O 

o3 O 












s 



u 


< (^ 

k> W 

h*< NJ 

^ 2 

C fe 


GOBLET i 


| HEWITT. 


KASTNER 


j KEARY. 


LANG, fl 
LANG. J 
LETHABY. 


MiJLLER. 


1 MURRAY. 


PHILPOT. 


VIGNOLI. 


I WHITE. 



x 

6 



N! 

I 




Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 37 

Relative description provides for linking together such 
relations and thus permits closer classification than the 
classification tables. * 

54. But there may also be relations which, according to 
our methods of classification, are not collaterals. For 
example, Hawthorne's "The Blithedale romance" consists 
largely of "idealised reminiscences of the famous 'Transcen- 
dental Picnic,' the communistic settlement at Brook Farm," 
the original of Zenobia being possibly Margaret Fuller, and 
of Miles Coverdale Hawthorne himself. Thus it is a close 
relation of the books in 335.9, Socialistic communities, by 
Codman, Russell, and Swift on the Brook Farm experiment, 
and its annotation should refer to them, and vice versa. 
Again, Wallace's " Geographical distribution of animals " 
in class 591.6 should be referred to the book in which the 
theory it develops was first propounded, namely, Darwin's 
"Descent of man," in class 575. Annotations for the most 
important historical novels might and it seems very 
desirable that they should have references to the historic 
account of the events upon which the story turns. This 
kind of relative description is of great importance, as it 
makes up in some degree for the shortcomings of our 
classification schemes. 

55. The principal object of the relation note is to 
encourage readers to pursue the course of study which they 
have begun. Thus a reader drawing Avebury's "Scenery 

* In the future the arrangement of books under class 
headings will be less and less frequently alphabetical. Inter- 
dependent and like books ought to be put together. All elementary 
treatments of a subject should be put together ; similarly popular 
treatments. The convenience of an arrangement of this kind is 
enormous ; unless it is done a classed catalogue is not entirely a 
catalogue raisonnt. No difficulty will be experienced in finding the 
entry of a particular book if an adequate author index is provided. 



38 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

of England " will also draw Marr's " Scientific study of 
scenery," if he has another ticket, or will make a note of 
Marr with the idea of borrowing it later on. Even if books 
are entered side by side in a classed catalogue, they should 
be compared if they lend themselves to it ; for this reason : 
a reader may not be inclined to read all the books classed 
together under a heading, but he would most probably 
borrow a book of that class which is expressly compared 
with the one he has just read. 

56. Full relative description cannot be carried out in 
annotating unclassified prose fiction. 

For example, if the entries of two books written upon the 
same theme, and describing the same period, are arranged 
separately in the catalogue, any differences or distinctions 
in the two annotations are by no means so clear as when 
the entries are placed side by side. Mr. E. A. Baker puts 
this view very clearly in a controversial article in the 
" Library World," v. 2 : 178. " In dealing with the posses- 
sions of a particular library which could not be regarded as 
fully representative of the history of fiction, I still think the 
classified scheme would be of most use to readers. One 
immense advantage it affords is that all novels depicting a 
certain period are grouped together ; Fielding is offered as 
a commentary on Besant and Reade ; Madame d'Arblay 
and Goldsmith as correctives to Thackeray and Weyman. . . 
Many books, again, are of no intrinsic value except for 
the light they throw on particular times or places." 

The great difficulty is the lack of a classification of fiction 
which is anything like satisfactory. Mr. Baker's classifica- 
tion in the Derby Handbook was admittedly a makeshift ; 
the Philadelphia P.L. catalogue scheme is no more. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 30, 

57. Reading courses. The reading course is a neat and 
effective mode of collecting relation notes, and printing 
them immediately beneath the heading in a class catalogue, 
or writing them upon a catalogue card which precedes all 
other cards on the subject in the subject catalogue. 
Or rather, it does more than collect the relation notes or 
references to related books it brings together in due order 
the books in the class proper to begin, continue, and com- 
plete a course of study, relating the introduction to the 
manual, the manual to the monograph, and the monograph 
to its relatives, if such exist. Usually criticism is intro- 
duced into reading courses ; indeed, the selection and 
ordering of the course is criticism ; but one can avoid 
entering upon critical details. 

For example : 

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. 
" Course of reading. Begin with JENKIN, or the fuller intro- 
duction of THOMPSON. Then read NOAD. MAXWELL is 
1 elementary ' in name only. The nature of electricity is dis- 
cussed in the philosophic treatise of LODGE. For a short 
popular exposition, treated historically, read MENDENHALL." 
Peterborough P.L. Class List, 3: Science and the Arts (1898). 

But it would be well to get reliable advice before com- 
piling a course. The National Home Reading Union 
regularly compile courses which may be depended upon, 
but for cataloguing purposes they should be much con- 
densed. If advice is not forthcoming, make simple refer- 
ences to related books (that is, not books merely suited to 
supplement other books, but those with subject matter 
dependent upon or directly connected with the subject- 
matter of other books) in each annotation. 

58. Reading lists. Reading lists are essentially 
elaborate exercises in relative description. They are 



40 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

bibliographies not reading courses ; they are usually too 
long for that purpose in which the best material in any way 
related to the subject is collected. Thus a reading-list on 
Napoleon will bring together lives of Napoleon, lives of 
contemporaries who had important relations with him, the 
European general, naval and military histories of the 
period, commercial history, and so forth material which 
would be scattered in a classed catalogue. This biblio- 
graphy is split up under suitable heads, and annotated in 
the usual way. In some libraries, however, the items of the 
list are linked together by a sort of running commentary, 
formed of all or part of the annotations. For example : 

"On the history of mountaineering see GRIBBLE'S 'Early 

mountaineers,' which narrates all that is most interesting 

and important about the beginnings of exploration in the 

Alps, Pyrenees, and Apennines," to about 1830. 

And WHYMPER'S ' Mountaineers and mountaineering,' in 

' Leisure Hour,' v. 45 : 150-8. 

On mountaineering in relation to health see Mosso's ' Life of 
man on the high Alps,' which is an important study of 
certain problems of Alpine physiology. 

' Some interesting facts ' on the vexed question of mountain 
sickness are contained in CONWAY'S 'Bolivian Andes.'" 
Croydon P.L., Reader's index. 

Examples of full lists in this style may be seen in the 
Providence (R.I.) Public Library bulletins, the Croydon 
Public Libraries " Reader's index," and elsewhere. The 
running commentary, of course, makes the list less formal 
than lists usually are, and, it is believed, more attractive to 
readers. 

59. Bibliographical articles. These articles do not 
differ from reading lists as regards matter. The sole 
difference is that the entries are incorporated into .<n 
article, which is merely split up into u few paragraphs, 






Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 41 

instead of into as many paragraphs as there are items, as in 
the case of lists. For example : 

(a) "In connection with GREEN, LINGARD may profitably 
be read, for the views of a scholarly Roman Catholic. The 
popularity of ' HUME ' has an astonishing vitality ; but this is 
owing to the literary rather than to the historical value of the 
work. The controversy concerning Mary Queen of Scots is 
most ably conducted on the one side by MIGNET, on the other 
by HOSACK. The Queen's most ardent advocates, however, 
are TYTLER and Miss STRICKLAND, while her most pronounced 
accusers are HUME and FROUDE." From an article on English 
history in Adams' " Manual of historical literature." 

(b) "The last author we shall mention is the lady who 
chooses to be known by the initials E. V. B. The Honourable 
Mrs. BOYLE such, the ' Literary world ' tells us, is her name 
writes lightly and interestingly in ' Seven gardens and a 
palace.' The seven gardens rank among the finest in England, 
and have hosts of memories historic and literary. The palace 
is Hampton Court, and, in describing it, her style becomes 
almost lyrical. E. V. B.'s second work is ' Sylvana's letters 
to an unknown friend,' in which she discourses garden 
philosophy to ' Dear Amaryllis '; marks the growth and 
progress of her flowers; and talks of sky-life, bird-life, and 
human-life, with many a charming allusion. ... It has been 
said, with much truth it must be admitted, that these books 
are best taken in homoepathic doses. Sane and exhilarating as 
is the best type of garden book, a consistent course of them 
would produce a mental surfeit," From an article on garden 
books in Croydon P. L. " Reader's index." 

Sometimes a bibliographical article precedes a reading 
list on the same subject, as in the Drexel Institute list on 
" Costume, dress, and needlework," 1894. The above 
examples are among the most typical we can find. In 
both, a good deal of criticism is introduced. It is ques- 
tionable whether a non-critical bibliographical article exists, 
although there should be no difficulty in writing one. At 



42 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

all events, as little criticism should be employed as 
possible, and the compiler must beware of being intem- 
perate in his language, as nothing looks worse in a library 
publication than dogmatism, misplaced enthusiasm, and 
feeble attempts at fine writing. 

60. Librarian's Annotations. Before concluding this 
chapter, it will be well to refer briefly to what are known 
as librarian's annotations. (See 80.) A librarian's anno- 
tation is simply an ordinary annotation, with the addition 
of relation notes to help the librarian in selecting books. 
All the annotations in the A.L.A. "Booklist" are intended 
for librarians. The principal features of this type of work 
are covered in the code, 150. In the States, so long as 
the " Booklist "lives and may it livelong ! librarians and 
assistants should not be called upon to make such notes. 
In Great Britain it would be a feasible plan to secure the 
co-operation of assistants in selecting books by asking 
them to make notes upon similar lines. Assistants are 
constantly seeing books, in shops, in other libraries, at the 
houses of friends, and elsewhere, which they think may be 
useful in their library. As it is clearly waste of time to 
carry vague recommendations to the librarian, let them 
note whatever particulars they can find out about each 
book they see and like the publisher, price, number of 
pages, character of illustrations, indexes, binding, with 
comparisons with books on the same subject, if possible. 
Where committee-men or trustees are in the habit of 
suggesting books for purchase, the attempt should be made 
to induce them to write notes in order that the books- 
committee, or the librarian, or whoever is responsible lor 
selecting books, should be in a position to judge ot the 
value oi the suggestions. 



CHAPTER VI. 



EVALUATION OR CHARACTERIZATION. 
By ERNEST A. BAKER, M.A. 

61. PERSONALLY I object to the American words "Evalu- 
ation " and " Appraisal," as denoting the main principle of 
annotation, not because they have been thrown at my head 
many times, but because they have been used as watch- 
words, or bywords, by two opposite parties, implying that 
the chief object of a man who writes notes on books, in 
catalogues and guide-books, is to deliver himself of critical 
estimates, rather than to provide readers with the means of 
discriminating between the books that are suitable or 
unsuitable for themselves. " Critical annotation," the 
English phrase for the same thing, is objectionable on 
similar grounds. A book-note may merely state the 
subject, scope and method of a book, or it may also state 
whether the author has successfully accomplished his aim, 
and try to estimate the relative value of the work as 
compared with others on the same subject. The first 
object of a guide, it may be argued, is to tell readers what 
are the best books the best, that is, for their particular 
needs. This implies that every descriptive note should be 
both analytical and critical. It may be argued, again, that 
appraisal is logically bound up with annotation, because if 
you annotate, you must select, and selection is evaluation 



44 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

up to a certain point. To draw up book-notes on good 
and bad alike would be as useless as it would be impractic- 
able. Selection is the first stage in a process of 
appraisement ; the next stage is to discriminate the smaller 
classes within the larger. This argument is perfectly just ; 
but it is too often forgotten that we do not select for the sake 
of praising, but merely with a view to the requirements of 
the reader. 

62. It has really been a great misfortune for the 
progress of systematic annotation that so much prominence 
has been given to these words, and so much stress laid on 
what is after all a subordinate, or ought to be a subordinate, 
element in any kind of informative annotation. In the 
heat of controversy it has been too often forgotten by both 
sides that evaluation, whether right or wrong, is only a 
method of sorting out books for a specific purpose. If it 
proceeded further, and tried, as an opponent accused it of 
doing," to set up a judicature of letters for the general 
appraisal of the world's stock of books, to pronounce 
judgment once for all, and save any further bother about 
books that it had declared useless or effete, then it would be 
not only assuming an indefensible position, but attempting 
something quite alien to the proper objects of descriptive 
annotation. In the United States the evaluators are in the 
majority, although many eminent librarians, e.$., Dr. J. S. 
Billings, Messrs. John Thomson, W. I. Fletcher, J. K. 
Hosmer, and W. D. Johnston are opposed to it. But even 
among American guides I know of only one that could be 
described as attempting such a systematic appraisal of the 
whole literature of a subject, Mr. Larned's " Literature of 
American history." There we have a most rigorous evalua- 
tion ; yet, after all, it is subservient to the objects of the 
* See L.W., v. 4 : 199. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 45 

guide, namely, to afford students, scholars and historians the 
amplest information as to the suitability of the various 
historical works for their several needs. I feel sure that 
evaluators have asserted themselves more uncompromisingly 
than they would, or ought, to have done, simply on account 
of the attacks that have been levelled at them. There 
would be less hostility if the principle were stated as 
follows : Comparative evaluation is not the primary object, 
but it is a vital one in the construction of really useful 
notes. 

63. It ought to be understood, further, that to introduce 
evaluation into a library catalogue is a very risky thing. 
Librarians whose critical estimates would be at once 
accepted as law must, in the nature of things, be in a very 
small minority ; and to give official authority to the 
frivolous comments one sometimes sees in bulletins and 
class-lists simply brings annotation of any sort into con- 
tempt. Little can be said either for the practice of quoting 
judgments from the recognized reviews, for who is to 
evaluate the critics ? The only evaluations that ought to 
be admitted into a library catalogue are such as can be 
obtained from a systematic handbook on the literature of a 
subject, and unfortunately we have not enough of these at 
present to furnish material for annotated catalogues of lar^e 
libraries. The librarian, then, who is interested solely in 
the work of his own library, need not trouble himself at all 
with the question of using or not using evaluation in 
drawing up his own notes. But the great need of the 
present time is, not so much good notes for the catalogues 
of particular libraries, as series of guide-book to books for 
the use of all. Any librarian recognizing this, and wishing 
to be of service in the work of producing such a useful 
series, must certainly make up his mind on this funda- 



46 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

mental point. Let us therefore consider some of the pros 
and cons of this thorny subject. 

64. It has been urged that such estimates as can be 
obtained will be nothing better than the evaluations of 
current periodicals, crystallized into permanent shapes, re- 
producing the personal animus, the onesidedness, and the 
lack of judgment that vitiate journalistic criticism. To 
this it may be replied that the estimates in a systematic 
guide are rather of the nature of the deliberate and well- 
considered judgments in a careful study of an author or 
of a literary species. In fact, they are still less likely to 
be hasty or onesided, because the editor, or the board of 
annotators, will have the whole mass of literature on that 
particular subject before them, and will be constantly com- 
paring books with books, and authors with authors, a 
process that is the most efficient corrective conceivable. 
As to the fear that evaluation will tend to the formation 
of what Bagehot called a "crust," hindering the free 
development of science and literature, or the suggestion 
that it will tend to perpetuate judgments, and preclude or 
discourage the employment of the critical faculty, these 
results could follow only from something far more elaborate 
and formidable than a series of mere guide-books. In fact, 
the argument might be aimed more convincingly at any 
collection of criticisms in a permanent form, such as 
volumes of essays or histories of literature. Annotation 
should certainly never aim at absolute estimates, but at 
purely relative evaluation relative, that is, to definite 
classes of readers. Its object is a practical one, not a 
judicial ; not to pass sentences in the realm of science and 
art, but to help someone who is in want of instruction to 
discover the book that is the best for him at a certain 
stage of attainment. It is undoubtedly true, as Mr. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 47 

Elmendorf contended,* that few books, even in pure 
literature, can be appraised once and for all ; and books 
characterized as the best, particularly those of a scientific 
and technical nature, are liable to be soon superseded. If 
evaluations are given, he thinks they should be signed and 
dated in every case. Of course they should. Our guide- 
books would be superseded, like everything else, as time 
went on, and would have to be revised every ten years at 
least. No rational man would dream of offering a final 
judgment on any of these subjects. Like everything else 
human, a book-note can be only the best attempt at any 
particular moment to tell the truth. It will always be 
subject to revision, just as science itself is. But we are 
not going to give up science because its statements cannot 
last for ever. Nor should we be afraid to offer a student 
the best book available for the time being, because we 
think a better one may come out next year. 

66. The best plan to obtain a satisfactory series of 
annotations on the literature of any subject, especially if 
the notes are to contain evaluations, would be to appoint 
an editorial board consisting half of specialists on that 
particular subject and half of librarians ; the former sup- 
plying the expert opinion, the latter representing the 
general reader. The specialist, particularly if he has had 
experience of teaching, has a thorough working knowledge 
of the books ; he knows the difficulties students have 
habitually to encounter, and has learnt how to overcome 
them most effectively ; he is not only acquainted with the 
defects of inferior works, but may be expected to under- 
stand the best correctives. On the other hand, opponents 
object that expert criticism is liable to be influenced by 
personal dislike, or interest, or professional jealousy, which, 
* SeeL.TF., v. 6: 13. 



48 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



being unknown to the reader, may lead him astray. Dr. 
Hodgkin, late President of the Library Association, 
pertinently asked also, whether there was not danger of 
corruption coming in.* "Was it not possible that some 
powerful publishing house might get hold of some of the 
people who did this evaluation; that the almighty dollar 
might come in?" All this might occasionally happen if 
the work were in the hands of irresponsible editors, work- 
ing single-handed. But if every note had to be submitted 
to an editorial board such as that described, there need be 
no apprehension on that point. The only alternative to 
your specialist is a man or men who may have good 
general culture, but on the topic in question are decidedly 
less able to give sound opinions. 

66. The word I should choose to describe the kind of 
book-note I myself prefer would be "Characterization." 
The characterization of a book would comprise all that is 
contained in an analytical note, and would in addition give 
the literary flavour, would " place " the book as nearly as 
might be in proper relation to other books, and would, in 
a word, individualise it to the fullest extent possible in the 
narrow compass available. Evaluation would be there, but 
it would not be the leading feature. It would simply sub- 
serve the purpose of giving the reader all the information 
he wants to enable him to draw up his own course of 
reading. In a guide-book these characterizations would 
also be cast in such a form as to link books with books ; 
every means would be adopted to encourage connected 
reading, and the notes would be supplemented by lists of 
books thrown into the form of graduated courses of study. 
More and far better work could be done in the bulletins 
and class-lists published by our public libraries now if, 
L.A.R., v. 6: 480. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 49 

instead of attempting annotation in a general, or in a 
random manner, the compilers would concentrate their 
attention on a few select books, and connect these into 
such courses, with suitable hints to private students. When 
work of this kind comes to be done in a thorough and 
intelligent way, it will, I think, be usually found that a 
(t-rtain measure of evaluation, or I would rather say, 
characterization, is absolutely essential ; otherwise the 
student will be often altogether misled. It is devoutly 
to be hoped that the sources from which such characteri- 
zations may be obtained will soon be very largely increased. 



CHAPTER VII. 



PRACTICAL WORK, I. 

67. As a rule in English libraries, the practical work of 
annotation falls upon the shoulders of either the librarian or 
his principal assistants. In most small and in one or two 
large libraries, the chief writes all the notes, which, needing 
as they do, much care and intelligence in composition, are 
thought to be beyond the capabilities of younger members 
of the staff. In such circumstances annotation is expen- 
sive, and a librarian will think twice before introducing it 
into his catalogue. But these conditions need not ah\a\> 
prevail. Means may be devised by which the processes of 
annotation may be distributed among a number of junior 
and senior assistants at a saving, in the end, of a good <kal 
of valuable time. The larger the number of assistants 
taking part, the greater the economy in at least two n-spo-t* : 
first, if the juniors bear a share, the work of the compara- 
tively highly-paid seniors is lightened ; secondly, the 
" bibliographic" intelligence of the staff is more likt-ly to 
reach an efficient level the ability to assist readers is more 
general, inasmuch as no assistant of average good memory 
can forget that his library possesses a book dealing with a 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 51 

certain subject in such and such a way when he has helped 
to make its note. 

68. One method of work is as follows: prose fiction, 
and some other books very easy to annotate, are entrusted 
to juniors ; books which are not quite so straightforward 
are assigned to seniors ; the librarian supervises generally, 
and deals himself with the books (usually philosophical and 
theological dissertations) presenting the greatest difficulties. 
Each assistant compiles his drafts of the annotations from 
the books and the reviews of them, and writes them upon 
small slips, 4 inches by 2 inches, that is, one-half the size 
of the catalogue slips used with them. The librarian corrects 
the catalogue and annotation slips at the same time, and 
usually he considerably reduces the length of the assistant's 
draft, and makes it clearer and more pointed. The cor- 
rected annotation is then copied, usually by the assistant 
who drafted it, on to the catalogue slip, which is filed away. 
So tar as economy of time is concerned this plan answers 
well enough if the assistants do not fall into the habit, as 
they are prone to do, of reserving tor the librarian to tackle 
the books which give them a little trouble. This method 
is in use at the Croydon Libraries, and the quality of the 
annotations in the " Reader's index " proves its efficacy. 

69. In the second method the books pass trom 
assistant to assistant, and then to chief, no one individual 
doing a complete annotation, but each contributing a 
clearly defined share in it. For example, two juniors would 
prepare the work, two seniors would write the catalogue 
slips and collect the material for the notes ; whilst the 
librarian or the sub-librarian or the chief cataloguer would 
mould and shape the notes into their final forrp. This 
method is especially suited for large libraries. 



52 Manna! of Descriptive Annotation. 

70. A form, designed to regulate the earlier processes of 
cataloguing and annotation, and called the "process" slip 
or blank, is used in this method. * One blank is used for 
each batch of books, no matter whether consisting of five 
or of a hundred or more volumes. As a rule, about fifty 
volumes make a good batch for several assistants to work 
upon. 



K __ 90412-60. 
Cataloguing process slip. 

1. Bio^raphees' names. 

2. Biographees' notes. 

3. Authors' names. 

4. Authors' qualifications. 

5. Previous editions. 

6. Illustrations : 

Illus. 

Maps. 

Plans. 

Portraits. 

Diagrams. 

Facsimiles. 

7. Series abbreviations. 

8. "Reviews. ~ 

9. Bibliographies. IJ . 2 
10. Glossaries. Signed....?.... 



FORM I. 
(On standard siza thin paper slip, 3-in. by 5-in., approx.). 

This form is not the unnecessary piece of elaboration it 
seems to be : actually, it is an economical device, because 
it aims to make the junior's work in cataloguing and anno- 
tation more valuable. With the form before him the junior 
cannot miss any of the details which should be prepared 

* This "process slip " might be combined with the " Accession 
routine slip," described in Mr. last's "Accessions; the check- 
ing of the processes." in The Library, March, 1900. The St. 
George-the-Martyr Public Library, London, has (or had) a routine 
slip differing from Mr. Jast's. The "process slip" described 
above is intended to be used with a "routine" stamp, which is 
put at the back of the title-page of each book. The Glasgow 
Corporation Libraries use (or did use) such a stamp ; and other 
libraries have imitated the practice. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 53 

before the books are passed on to a senior. He sets to 
work in this way. In the space at the top right hand 
corner of the process slip (Form i) he writes the inclusive 
accession numbers of the books in the batch he is told off 
to deal with, e.g., 20,412-60. 

1. Taking the first book (if a biography) of the batch 
he turns to the library catalogue, obtains therefrom the 
form of the biographee's name which the library has 
previously adopted, and enters it straightway upon the 
catalogue slip, which he puts in the book. 

2. By the same reference as i he ascertains whether a 
biographee's note exists in the catalogue ; if it does, he 
puts the initials "b.n." on the back of the catalogue slip to 
show the senior that he can pass this item ; if it does not 
then he makes no such mark. The junior's object in doing 
this is to obviate the possibility of a second and un- 
necessary note on the biographee being written. 

3. Similarly he obtains from the catalogue the correct 
form of the author's name. He discovers the author-head- 
ings for all the books in turn. Of course, he is not called 
upon to determine the precise form of heading if the author 
is so far unrepresented in the library the seniors must do 
this but he is expected to make quite certain that a 
heading already used is adhered to. When he has looked 
through the batch filled in the author headings, and put 
the catalogue slips in the books he ticks point 3 on the 
process slip. 

4. By the same reference as 3 he ascertains whether 
each author's qualifications as regards the subject of the 
book in hand have been dealt with before. One writer, for 
example, may have produced a series of books on Pauper- 



54 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

ism, some of which the library already possesses. The 
assistant refers to head Pauperism in the catalogue, where 
he will find several cards, each describing the features 
peculiar to its book, and one of them also bearing a brief 
note on the author's qualifications for writing on the subject; 
hence further reference to this point is unnecessary so far 
as such author's writings on Pauperism are concerned. 
But if this same author should turn from his speciality, 
Pauperism, to some other subject, his qualifications for 
dealing with it become important. If the qualifications of 
the author have been dealt with, the assistant will write on 
the back of the catalogue slip the initials " a. q.," to show 
the senior taking up the work after him that that part of 
the work is already done. 

5. If there should appear among his batch a work 
of which there is another edition in the library, he 
abstracts the card relating thereto from the catalogue and 
withdraws the earlier edition from circulation until its dis- 
position is finally determined upon. The withdrawn card 
is put inside the withdrawn edition, which is then placed 
upon the cataloguing shelf next to the new edition. 

6. His next duty is to collate the illustrations, and note 
their number and character upon the back of the cata- 
logue slip of each book. For example, one book may 
contain: "no illus., some coloured. 2 por." Of course, 
if it is the practice of the library not to collate the illus- 
trations, he will not deal with this head. 

7. Then he turns up the correct form of series' abbre- 
viations for any of the books which belong to series. If 
the series' title is not abbreviated he puts " ser. u.j>. 
(= series as printed) on the back of the slip. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 55 

8. He then hunts up the reviews in the periodicals 
usually depended upon for this purpose. As a rule, pur- 
chases of new books are suggested by the reviews or 
annotated guides and lists, and in such cases the name, 
volume, and page of the periodical publishing the review, 
or the list containing the annotation, is marked on the 
back of each suggestion card or slip, so facilitating the 
references of the junior when the time for annotating comes. 
These reviews are set aside for the use of the senior, 
and are kept in the same order as the hooks in the batch. 

9, 10. Finally, the assistant ascertains whether the books 
contain bibliographies, glossaries, and the like. Thus, if a 
book contains a bibliography, he writes the abbreviation 
" bib." on the back of the catalogue slip. 

71. We now give a copy of the front of a catalogue 
slip prepared by the junior : 



WELLINGTON, ARTHUR WELLESLEY, 1st Duke 
of (17691852). Morris, W. O'C. 



EXAMPLE I. 

And the back of the same slip : 



b.n. I II. For. 2 c.m. PL / Ser. a.p. / 
bib. p. 3. 



EXAMPLE 2 



56 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

That is to say, the biographical note is written, the book 
contains illustrations, portraits, two coloured maps and 
plans, the series " Heroes of the nations " is given as 
printed, and on p. 3 is a bibliography. 

72. When this work is done, he puts his initials in the 
space provided at the bottom right-hand corner of the 
process slip, which is then put in the first book of the batch. 
See Form i. The point to note is : the junior passes on to 
the senior a batch of books with their catalogue slips, upon 
which are noted the forms of the author or biographic 
subject-headings previously determined upon, illustra- 
tions, series' abbreviations, reviews, bibliographies, and 
glossaries. The senior is thus saved much labour, whilst 
the junior receives excellent practice in the elementary 
processes of cataloguing and annotation. 

73. The next step in the process is illustrated by the 
"memory table," Form 2. Each annotator has a copy 
of this card, which he keeps near at hand to refresh his 
memory. With the card, less experienced assistants can be 
employed on the work ; as they gain in experience, the 
card becomes unnecessary to them, or they may give place 
to younger workers. 

74. The senior writes the annotation upon a standard 
size slip, i.e., 5 cm. by 7^ cm., or about 3 inches by 5 
inches, or upon a slip the same size as the catalogue slip, 
if the latter varies from the standard. After completing the 
entry upon the catalogue slip, he enters the class mark and 
book number (or the accession number) upon the slip 
intended for the annotation in order that the two slips 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



57 



will arrange together again if accidentally separated. Then 
the annotation is begun, the assistant working through the 
points on the memory table one by one. 



AUTHOR (ed., compiler, ed. board) : Qualifications ; original 
research. 

SUBJECT: Scope, theory ; purpose; specialfeatures. 

TUKAT.MKNT: Standpoint, bias ; readers held in view ; pre- 
paration necessary, copious notes, language of book, 
ditl'u-ulty of foreign books, limits or novelty of treatment. 

RELATION TO OTHEH BOOKS: Effect of book, ii important; 
cognate books, continuations, sequels. 

EDITING : Plan, arrangement, changes in new ed., absence of 
index, whereabouts of index to set of a periodical. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL, : Date and manner of original publication, 
first books, source or basis, bibliographies, illustrations, 
unusual features in format or printing, numbered copies, 
changes of titles, binder's titles differing from real title, 
original titles of translated works, changes in periodical 
publications. 

l.riKHATUHK OF POWER : Environment, period.principal char- 
acters, historical personages introduced, theme, motive, 
dialect, presence of autobiographical material. 

Jt VKMI.KS : Address annotations to books for children under 
ten to adults, those to books for children over ten to 
children, making language of annotations match language 
of book. 

NOTE: Arrange matter as numbered 1 to 6 above. Acknow- 
ledge quotations. Give date of critical quotations. Explain 
obscure terms. Give call-marks of books referred to. BE 
CONCISE. 



FORM 2. 



75. i. If the author's qualifications have not been 
dealt with before, the senior makes a suitable note. 



2. The second head on the form is the subject. The 
reviews and the biographical articles put aside by the 
junior here come in handy, as, with their aid, and with the 
aid of the reference books listed in ch. 9, the assistant sets 
down his abstract of the salient points of the book. Any 
criticism used will be selected from the reviews and guides, 
and worked into the assistant's draft of the annotation. 



58 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

3. The reviews will again be of service in the treatment 
note, but usually sufficient material for it will be obtainable 
from the preface of the book. Of course, in the literature 
of power the bias of the author is not so important. In 
some books, especially " pot-boilers," no particular learning 
is traceable. 

4. Cognate books are usually referred to either in the 
reviews or the prefaces of books. 

7, 8. These are summaries of the points to be specially 
noted in connection with two classes requiring treatment 
somewhat different from that of other classes. 



76. In running over these points, the assistant must not 
forget to be as brief as he possibly can. Every word which 
does not help to make an annotation a true description of 
the contents of its book should be struck out. Before 
beginning practical work on his own account, a would-be 
annotator might well spend a little time in cutting out all 
the unnecessary verbiage in the annotations of some guide, 
and even in rearranging them, if by so doing he can make 
them briefer ; e.g., : 

The author is [Master of Balliol] and was formerly 
Professor of French literature in Glasgow University. An 
account of the ideas of French philosophy which most power- 
fully affected the development of revolutionary thought and 
action. Confined to the most important writers, d'Alembert, 
and Diderot, to Voltaire and La Porte. [Does not deal with 
secondary variations of opinion among the less important 
writers of the various schools.] Considers at length the 
development of the Voltairean philosophy in its logical and 
ethical aspects. Aims to contrast the philosophy of the ency- 
clop6distes [in its highest expression] with the. . . . 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 59 



In this note the first words in brackets are unnecessary, 
because the Mastership does not imply specific qualifications 
for deal i ni,' with the subject. The second bracketted por- 
tion is redundant, as the annotator already says that the 
work confines itself to the " most important " writers. The 
third part to be deleted is also a repetition of " most im- 
portant " and of the names of those who were responsible 
for " the highest expressions " of the philosophy. The 
annotation might be remodelled thus : 

Author was professor of French literature, Glasgow Univer- 
sity, 1895-7. Subject : The philosophic ideas of Diderot, 
d'Alembert, Voltaire and Rousseau, writers who affected most 
powerfully the development of revolutionary thought and 
action ; especially the Voltairean philosophy in its ethical and 
logical aspects. Object : To contrast philosophy of ency- 
clopedistes with. . . . 

This contains 48 words, whereas the original a para- 
phrase of an actual annotation contains 95 to express the 
same ideas. 

77. The work of this assistant will leave the books 
annotated in a crude form, as in the two specimens now 
given. The first is an annotation to Ireland's " The Far 
Eastern tropics ": 

Author was appointed (1901) colonial commissioner of the 
University of Chicago to visit the Far East and prepare a 
report on colonial administration in South-Eastern Asia. The 
report will be published separately in 12 volumes. Contains 
articles on British, American, French and Dutch colonial 
administration. Published first in "The Times" and in the 
New York " Outlook." Aiipendix : Bibliography, 9 pp. 

In this form the annotation is passed on to the person who 
finally revises the cataloguing for the press or the MS. 
catalogue. The alterations would leave the annotation as 
follows : 



60 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



Author was commissioned (1901) by Chicago University to 
visit south-eastern Asia to report on colonial administration. 
Report will be published separately in 12 volumes. Contains 
articles on British, American, French, Dutch administration 
Publislied first partly in " The Times " and partly in the New 
York "Outlook." Appendix: Bibliography, 9 pp. 

The second example is an annotation to Phipson's 
" Britain's destiny : growth or decay," edited by Major. 

Extracts from author's works entitled " The Redemption of 
labour" and " The Science of civilization." Argues that food 
and not gold is the true standard of all values ; that since gold 
became international currency the foreign and colonial 
relationships of England have been falsified ; and that our policy 
should be to eliminate gold from our currency and adopt paper 
in its stead. Editor writes introduction of 45 pp. in support of 
this teaching. 

Revised, the annotation would read as follows : 

Extracts from author's " The Redemption of labour" and 
" The Science of civilization." Argument: Food and not gold 
the true standard of values ; since gold became international 
currency our foreign and colonial relationships have been 
falsified ; paper should be adopted for our currency instead 
of gold. Editor writes introduction (45 pp.) in support of 
author. 



78. With practice the assistant will readily grasp the 
annotative possibilities of every work he handles. He will 
learn that the most copious sources of information are : 

The Title-page. 
The Preface. 
The Contents. 
Page Heads. 
The First Chapter. 
The Last Chaptrr. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 61 

Page and paragraph heads show up the contents with 
exemplary clearness, hut they only appear in certain kinds 
of books. In other cases the title-page may state the quali- 
fications of the author ; the preface may give qualifications, 
scope of the book, its aim and its standpoint; the contents 
will show the scope, the special features, appendices, glos- 
saries, and bibliographies ; the first chapter will sometimes 
compensate for the shortcomings of the preface ; whilst the 
last chapter may recapitulate the whole of the preceding 
chapters. 

With slow, sure, methodical work, annotations will be 
turned out more rapidly than any one would expect, although 
the fairly full rules given in the code, appended hereto, be 
followed. The duty of the junior who prepares the work, 
and that of the senior who takes it up from this point and 
carries it on to the final stage, can be performed in about 
the same time. Between them, they can write annotations 
for about twenty non-fiction books per hour, or about ten 
books apiece per hour ; two seniors cannot do more. The 
final correction will occupy about one half the time. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



PRACTICAL WORK, 2. 

79. THE New York State Library School has a highly 
developed system of instruction in practical work. The 
course of lectures on annotation is amalgamated with the 
course on the selection of books ; or perhaps it would be 
more accurate to say the course on the selection of books 
is almost entirely a course on evaluation. The avowed 
object of the course is to cultivate the power of judging 
books as to their value and their adaptability to various 
types of libraries and people; to discover the principles 
underlying the selection of books ; to gain familiarity with 
individual books. There are two parts, Junior and Senior, 
each comprising thirty lectures or discussions spread over 
two years. Four hours a week during each year is devoted 
to work. The Junior course comprises but two lectures 
on book annotation purely, but some of the lectures con- 
sist of discussions of selected books. Thus, at one lecture 
five biographies are discussed, at another five historical 
works, then five works of travel, ten works of fiction ; and 
so on. Each lecture of this kind is preceded by a general 
discourse on the subject of the selected works : thus there 
are lectures on biography, history, travel, fiction ; and so on. 
Altogether, 75 works are discussed in the course. Each 
student must examine all the books and read reviews of them; 
he must read 30 books, and write librarian's annotations 
and reader's annotations for them. He must also write 
librarian's annotations for the remaining 45. The Senior 
course is on the same lines, but the work is more difficult. 
Book annotations are criticised individually until a reason- 
able facility in practical work is reached. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation, 63 

80. The "librarian's" annotation referred to above is 
filled in on the form now given : 

FRONT., 

o 
Important reviews 



Translated into 

Sale 

Circulation 

Header's comments 



Enjoyed by 

Not enjoyed by.. 



Intrinsic value within its scope... 
Social effects 



Types of libraries 

college 

public (large) 

duplicate fully as means will allow 

to meet small demand 

under protest if obliged to 

village (small) children's 



Types of readers 

specialists 

students of this subject 

general readers with developed minds 

general readers with undeveloped minds. 

people interested in 

Present usefulness in American community 



CLASS NUMBER. 

LIBRARIAN'S BOOK NOTE. 



Author. 
Title.... 



p. or v. illus. Si/.e Place Date 

Publisher Price 

s t -ri<-s 

Leader read 

examined 



64 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



[BACK.; 



Subject or form. 
Scope 



Author Qualifications for writing this book 

Personality 

Education 



Experiences.. 



Other writings 

Special preparation.. 



Publisher Press. 



Typography.. 

Paper 

Cover 

Illustrations. 



Maps 

Contents 

Index 

Bibliography. 



Comparison with other books on this subject. 



Does it supersede any? 

Strong points 

Weak points 



The numbers in the left margin show where the form is folded, and 
also indicate the order in which the heads on the form art- 
to be taken. 



Manual of Dcxcriptirc Annotation. (>5 

This form is .spread over u sheet 12. 5 cm. by 30 cm., i.e., 
four times the si/A- of a standard card. Properly folded, it 
can be tiled in tlu- usual card cabinet trays. 



81. The reader's annotation is rilled in on various slips 
of standard size : 



RELIGION. 

Author Title 

Adequate knowledge 

Critical ability 

II.CM> of spirit 

Familiarity with life 

Krli^ious insight 





Similar forms have been drawn up for other classes, with 
suitable heads : 

Philosophy and Sociology. 

Heads on form : Description of facts... Trustworthiness... 
I>iscussion of principles... Logic and caution... Defence of a 
ry.. % Knowledge and fairness... Practical applications... 
Familiarity with life... Sanity and sincerity... Style... 
[Both sides of form used] . 

Science. 

Heads on form : Scientific method... Scientific spirit... 
Descriptive, theoretic... PURE SCIENCE : Originality... 
Thoroughness... Accuracy... Style... POPULAR SCIENCE : 
Selection... Accuracy... Style... 
[Both sides of form used]. 

ire books. 

Heads on form: Selection... Accuracy... Human interest ... 
Dignity... Style... Language... 



66 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



Useful arts. 

Heads on form : Adequate knowledge... Explanations... 
Accuracy... Specificness... Style... 

Fine arts. 

Heads on form : Adequate knowledge... Description... 

Criticism... Interpretation... Inspiration... Tone and style... 

Illustrations... Photoprints... Half-tones... Photographs... 

Lithographs... Wood cuts... Engravings... Etchings... Use... 

[Both sides of form used] . 

History. 

Heads on form: Research... Critical ability... Unity and 
proportion... Style... Creative imagination... 

Biography. 

Heads on form : Adequate knowledge... Fulness... Accu- 
racy... Fairness... Insight... Style... Dramatic power... 

Travel. 

Heads on form : Adequate observation.,. Perspective... 
Sympathy... Truth... Style... 

These slips are of considerable interest and worthy of 
careful study in connection with Chapter 6, " Evaluation 
or characterization." 



82. Several attempts have been made to enlist the 
services of readers for the annotation of books. The fol- 
lowing form (15 cm. by 15 cm., but a better size would 
probably be 12.5 cm. by 15 cm., or twice the size of a 
standard card), used at Finsbury, is given out with ca< li 
book. A reader undertaking to supply the annotation has 
the privilege of borrowing a new book before anybody else. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 67 



BOOK ANNOTATION SLIP. Fiction. 



M be rreittU obliged if the \',< I 

this book will kindly supply the pVOCOlWI required on 
the follouin;: I,. rni" ThU Information will be used iua 
new edition of the Catalogue and will be duly acknow- 



Author 



"f story (century or other indication). 

Locality or ro'untrv of ">tory 

Chief motive or subject of story 



Prominent incidents 

Chief characters (names and occupations). 



Signature of Reader... 



Clearly, disadvantages ' attach to this method. Inac- 
curacies are likely to creep in. But if the collaborators are 
carefully chosen, a large number of useful facts can be 
accumulated with a comparatively small expenditure of 
labour by the staff. Needless to add, by this means, fiction 
is more quickly annotated than non-fiction. 



83. Through the kindness and courtesy of Mr. 
Anderson II. Hopkins, Librarian, Carnegie Library of 
Pittsburgh, Miss Mabel Frothingham, editor of library 
publications, sends the following account of practical work 
in that library. " A regular practice is made of annotating 
titles of books as they come into the library, except when 
the titles are sufficiently self-explanatory. The annotations 
appear on the catalogue cards, in the Monthly Bulletin, and 
i in other catalogues and lists. This is made possible 
through the possession by the library of a Printing Depart- 
ment, from which all catalogue cards, forms and publications 
are issued. Linotype machines are employed which enable 



68 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

us to use the same material over and over again at slight 
additional cost. The work of annotation is done by certain 
persons who have been carefully selected for the purpose. 
We have no minute code of rules governing the work, since 
we believe that more spontaneous, interesting and satisfac- 
tory notes are obtained by laying down definite but broad 
lines, by choosing the annotators carefully and then leaving 
them free to use their individuality." This is possible 
where the annotators are already trained, and have been 
carefully selected, although " individuality " sometimes 
means " idiosyncrasy." Miss Frothingham does not send 
information as to the " definite lines " upon which the 
Pittsburgh work is carried out. " Our aim," writes Miss 
Frothingham, " is to make the book notes expository, 
rather than critical, and a simple statement of general 
principles is furnished each annotator, together with a few 
suggestions as to our printing style. The annotations for 
books on science and the useful arts are written by the 
Technology librarian, those for children's books by certain 
members of the staff of the children's department, while 
other annotations are the work of two assistants attached to 
the catalogue department, one of whom is also the classifier. 
All annotations are revised by the editor ot library publica- 
tions, the revision relating largely to questions of style and 
form. Biographical dictionaries, encyclopaedias, annotated 
bibliographies and guides are freely used in the work, as 
well as reviews in the more trustworthy periodicals. Good 
annotations in library bulletins and similar lists are often 
clipped and pasted on cards for ready reference." At 
Pittsburgh such clippings seem to be kept only for the 
purpose of providing material for the library's annotators, 
or as substitutes to be employed in the catalogue until the 
books they refer to haw be-m properly annotauil. Mi. \\ . 
!;. Doubleday, Hampstead Public Libraries, taki^ clippings 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 69 

from reviews and library maga/ines, pastes them upon cards, 
and inserts them in the card catalogue ; the source of the 
dippings is stamped on the cards with a rubber stamp, in 

small condensed type, thus: 

LITERARY WORLD 

84. -At Pittsburgh, "when annotations are quoted, credit 
is given at the end of the annotation. In the two graded 
catalogues for juvenile purposes (see ^48) many of the 
annotations were condensed and adapted from a great 
variety of sources, credit being given only when the anno- 
tation was quoted verbatim from some book or review. 
The method of procedure in annotating is as follows : As 
soon as the books are catalogued, the cards and books are 
distributed to the annotators, who write the notes on slips 
the size of the cards. Cards and slips are then sent to the 
reviser and thence to the printing department. Special 
annotations are often made for reading lists on particular 
subjects, in which case the procedure is of course some- 
what different." 



85. In the Pratt Institute Library School, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., no formal instruction in annotation is given, but 
some critical work is comprised in the lessons upon book 
selection and reviews. At the Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, 
where Miss Alice B. Kroeger is director of the library 
department, a class in book annotation is held. The course 
for this year (1905-6) is in brief as follows: the subject is 
introduced in a lecture in which illustrations of three 
methods of annotation (note on catalogue card, in book, in 
printed list) are given ; Mr. lies' plan of central office for 
annotation is discussed ; publishers' annotations are con- 
sidered ; and the character of the annotation is explained. 



70 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

The points dwelt upon in practical work are these: (i) 
Annotation should be descriptive, not critical ; (2) discrimi- 
nation between essentials and non-essentials ; (3) Atmos- 
phere of book to be reproduced as far as possible in the 
annotation (e.g., stilted language is not desirable in an 
annotation to a simple book) ; (4) Avoid set phrases par- 
ticularly adjectives such as charming, interesting, fine, 
delightful ; (5) Clear style simple, direct language, brevity 
very important. Practical work on annotation of assigned 
books follows. 

During the year books of various kinds are discussed in 
the course, and on some of these book-notes are written. It 
is not expected that the student read the book to be anno- 
tated. The use of reviews, reading of the preface, and 
"dipping into" the book, makes possible the writing of an 
annotation. During the past year, notes on the following 
kinds of books were written political science, nature-books, 
biography, literary criticism, history, fiction, children's 
books and books on gardening. No form appears to be 
used at this school. 



CHAPTER IX. 



HISTORICAL NOTE AND SOME REFERENCE BOOKS. 
By E. A. BAKER, M.A., and E. A. SAVAGE.* 

86. THE history of book annotation or characterization 
belongs really to the history of bibliography and literature, 
insomuch that it is scarcely possible to treat it separately. 
For the present work, the following brief historical note 
must suffice. 

Great Britain. 

87. Literary guides, in which some form or other of 
annotation is the essential feature, existed in earlier times 
thin one would suppose. For our purpose it is unnecessary 
to go back farther than 1802, when Adam Clarke's 
' Bibliographical dictionary " was published. This work 
was not a selective bibliography, but aimed at complete- 
ness ; the annotations are not remarkable for accuracy. 
The " Bibliotheca Anglo-poetica " (1805) is a descriptive 
catalogue of a collection of early English poetry in the pos- 
session of Longmans and Co. at the time, and is still of 
some literary value. In 1827 appeared Goodhugh's 
" English gentlemen's library, or guide to the formation of 
a library of select literature," which is one of the earliest 

' I 'radically the whole of the historical note, with an obvious 
exception, is by Mr. haker the list only is my work. E. A. S. 



72 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

modern examples of the guide, properly so-called. Follow- 
ing Lowndes' " Bibliographer's manual" (1834), which 
contained many interesting descriptive as well as biblio- 
graphical annotations, came another example of the guide, 
the Rev. James Pyecroft's " Course of English reading " 
(1844), familiar on bookshelves half a century ago. There 
are sundry good things in Pyecroft, in his general and 
particular hints on method, and in his sympathetic arrange- 
ment of select courses for different kinds of readers, which 
are worth reproducing in the general primer on method 
which one may hope to see among our future set of guides ; 
but the books he recommends are now largely obsolete. 
An example of a more recent guide is contained in a 
hortatory treatise on conduct, " Plain living and high think- 
ing," (1880), by \V. H. Davenport Adams. There is a 
chapter on " How to read," which is diffuse yet offers much 
sagacious advice, followed by chapters containing courses 
of reading. Every book the author cites is characterized 
tersely, books that may be read profitably in connection 
with it are mentioned, and practical advice of a more 
general kind is interjected. The work of annotated 
briefly annotated bibliography was carried on by Sonnen- 
schein's two weighty volumes " The Best books " and " A 
Reader's guide," both valuable to librarians, scholars, and 
advanced students ; and by Sargant and Whishaw's "Guide- 
book to books," a handier work than Mr. Sonnenschein's, 
and of no little value, at the time of publication, on account 
of its courses of reading. 



88. Mr. E. A. Baker has earned the gratitude of 
librarians and readers on both sides the water for his 
labours in describing fiction in his two works, the Derby 
Handbook and the Guide. By some librarians, the 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 73 

former, though but a small library catalogue, is preferred to 
the latter on account of its arrangement in classes, and the 
consequent brevity and clearness of the annotations. But 
both will remain for some time to come authoritative biblio- 
graphical works. Mr. Nield's "Guide," in the narrower 
IK Id of historical fiction, is equally important. One of the 
latest and best English guides is Mr. J. M. Robertson's 
" Courses of study," published by the Rationalist Press, 
although its scope is somewhat limited. The subjects 
mapped out are anthropology, the history of Judaism and 
Christianity, of civilization, the sciences, fine arts, &c. All 
the subjects are dealt with historically, there is no account 
of literature ; so the limitations of the book are evident. 
Evaluation is made full use of throughout. Perhaps we 
may look for a companion volume by the same editor. 

89. English libraries have by no means been behind 
in the publication of annotated bibliographies, and maga- 
/iiu-s, though the same cannot be said of complete 
catalogues. Peterborough began the issue of class-lists, 
but never finished the work. The Hampstead (Kilburn 
branch) "Descriptive catalogue " is worthy of note here; 
and Mr. Doubleday will provide a far superior example in 
his central library catalogue, now (Jan. '06) nearing 
completion. Among the complete catalogues of popular 
libraries, the Bishopsgate catalogue is easily first; in 
relation to research libraries, the catalogue of the British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.) (1903-04) occupies the same position. 
The more notable magazines are issued at Croydon, West 
Ham, Finsbury, Cardiff, Kingston, and Peterborough. 

90. Unofficial agencies have also assisted in describing 
current publications. " The Library World " began a 



74 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

scheme of co-operative cataloguing, but owing to lack of 
support, failure resulted. To a certain extent " The 'Times ' 
literary supplement " now carries on the work in its list of 
weekly publications. 

The United States. 

91. In America a few excellent unofficial guides have 
been published. Allibone's "Critical dictionary" and 
" Supplement " by Kirk, though not a guide in the educa- 
tional sense, and despite some inaccuracies, is an extremely 
interesting example of annotative work, which students will 
find of the best service. Moulton's "Library of literary 
criticism " is limited in scope, and compiled upon a dif- 
ferent plan, but is practically an annotated guide to the 
best literature, the annotations consisting of the criticisms 
of well-known contemporary and later writers. Gay ley and 
Scott's " Methods and materials of literary criticism " (1899) 
is compiled upon the same idea of combining the biblio- 
graphy and the primer (as seen in Sturgis and Krehbiel, 
and Kroeger, 92). Adams' " Manual of historical 
literature," and Gross' " Sources ... of English history," 
are models of good workmanship in their respective 
fields. Dr. W. M. Griswold also issued some very incom- 
plete and indifferently annotated lists of novels. 

92. America has earned the distinction of accomplish- 
ing the greatest amount of annotation by co-operative and 
official effort. The guides of the A.L.A. are practically 
based on Messrs. Bowker and lies' "Reader's guide in 
economic, social, and political literature." Mr. lies has 
worked indefatigably in the production of these annotated 
lists, not only giving his services and pleading the cause in 
n<-w -paper and magazine, but also contributing large sums 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 75 



towards the expenses of collaboration and printing ; for, of 
< -nurse, such guides do not pay commercially. In 1895 a 
.unit-nil guide to the principal departments of literature was 
published by tlu- A.L.A., under the title, "List of books for 
girls and women and their clubs," edited by Augusta H. 
Leypoldt and George lies; it contains about 2,100 entries. 
This was a great success, and the part dealing with fiction 
was so well appreciated that it was re-published separately 
in a booklet of 160 pages at the price of 10 cents. The 
collaborators included librarians, newspaper critics, pro- 
fessors, teachers, and other specialists in the various 
divisions of the survey ; the plan being to allot each 
section or sub-section to an expert, while the sprinkling 
of library assistants guarded against pedantry and lack of 
sympathy with the readers. The notes are business-like 
characterizations of each book from the standpoint of a 
kind and intelligent teacher ; they are at once descriptive 
and critical, setting forth the scope of each book, and 
stating whether it is suitable for the beginner or for the 
advanced student, and, if necessary, how it compares with 
other books on the same subject. 

Besides this, brief introductions to some of the sections 
convey tactful hints, both positive and negative, recom- 
mending methods of study, and warning against pitfalls. 
The short list of geological books, for instance, is prefaced 
by a eulogy of field work, and the list of historical works by 
Frederic Harrison's advice to study living institutions. 
Sturgis and Krehbiel's "Bibliography of fine art" is 
much more than a bibliography, or even a guide 
to books. Adopting a broad view of their functions, 
the authors have, in a series of prefaces and correlating 
paragraphs, given it some features of an introductory 
treatise on the study of fine art ; it enunciates principles as 



76 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

well as indicates the best reading ; it is primer and biblio- 
graphy combined. The year 1902 saw two A.L.A. guides, 
Larned's " The Literature of American history " and 
Kroeger's "Guide to reference books." Larned's work 
represents an enormous amount of condensed knowledge 
and criticism. The size and the arrangement, and likewise 
the price ($ 6) show that it is suited rather for scholars and 
historians than for the popular audience addressed by 
earlier guides. Yet Mr. lies makes it clear in the preface 
that the Public Libraries and their clients were uppermost 
in the minds of editor and collaborators, who desired to 
give the general reader something equivalent to the advan- 
tages enjoyed by young men and women at the colleges 
and universities. The number of books dealt with is 4,145 
and each is described in an analytical and critical note of 
considerable fulness. A good-sized supplement came out 
the following year. Of the forty contributors about half 
are professors in the chief American universities, and the 
remainder, journalists, military experts, and others, in- 
cluding seven librarians. The system of collaboration 
combines the advantages of signed reviews by scholars 
of weight with the judicial spirit of a bench of critics. 
Miss Kroeger's work reaches probably the highest level 
of annotative work in the United States, and the annotator 
will find it worthy of special study. The work of the 
A.L.A. has been continued in the "Catalog, 1904" and 
the " Book-list." 

93. Annotated catalogue cards are printed and 
published by the Library of Congress (general), the A.L.A. 
(history) and Pittsburgh (juveniles). Typical annotated 
bulletins are those issued by the New York State Library 
School, Pittsburgh, St. Louis. Corresponding with "The 
'Times' literary supplement," so far as descriptive work is 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 77 



concerned, American enterprise provides the excellent list 
in "The Publishers' weekly." 

Reference Books. 

94. An annotator cannot get along without good refer- 
books, but as all the necessary works are usually in 
the reference department of the library, he will have them 
within his reach. If the library has a cataloguing room, 
and is not very limited as regards funds, duplicates of the 
less expensive books should be bought. Given below is a 
list of the books which will be found of most service ; 
it is not a comprehensive one, but is merely suggestive of 
sources from which material may be obtained. Many good 
annotated magazines are excluded because their form is 
unhandy for reference. The annotations only indicate the 
use of the works to the annotator. 

Asterisks ( :;: ) denote that the work has been a main 
source of the examples in the code. 

95. GENERAL WORKS. 

ALLIBONE, S. A., AND KIRK, J. F. Critical dictionary 
of English literature. With supplement. 5 v. 
1882-92. 

Chief features are the selection of critical estimates of 
the more notable writers, and references to criticisms and 
biographies wherever possible. J. D. Stewart. American. 

:;: A.L.A. DEWEY, MELVIL, and others. A.L.A. Cata- 
log : 8,000 volumes for a popular library. 1904. 

Pt. i classified and annotated ; borrows freely from Baker 
and American guides. 

"BISHOPSGATE INSTITUTE. Goss, C. W. F. Descrip- 
tive catalogue. 1901. 



78 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

*LEYPOLDT, A. H., AND ILES, GEORGE. List of books 
for girls and women. 1895. 

MOULTON, C. W. Library of literary criticism of 
English and American Authors. [See note 151 (b)] 
8 v. 1901-4. 

^PITTSBURGH. CARNEGIE LIBRARY. Classified cata- 
logue. In progress. 

Pt. i (not issued in pamphlet form). Pt. 2, Philosophy 
and religion. Pt. 3, Sociology and philology. Pt. 4, 
Natural science and useful arts. Pt. 5. Fine arts. 

Full annotations, mainly expository. [See 83, 84.] 

PUBLISHERS' WEEKLY, N. York. As published. 
ROBERTSON, J. M. Courses of study. 1904. 

*SARGANT, E. B., AND WHISHAW, B. Guide book to 
books. 1891. 

*SONNENSCHEIN, W. S. The Best books. Ed. 2. 1903. 
A Reader's guide. 1901. 

"THE "TIMES." Catalogue of ..books... for... circulation 
among subscribers. 1905. 

Annotations to fiction mostly borrowed from Baker ; 
remainder from " The ' Times ' literary supplement." 

SOCIOLOGY. 

BOWKER, R. R., AND ILES, GEORGE. Reader's guide 
in economic... science. 1891. 

Brief annotations indicating scope and relative value. 
American. 

MAROT, HELEN. Handbook of labour literature. 
1899. 
Annotations analytical rather than critical. American. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 79 

FINE A ATS. 

A.L.A. STURGIS, R., AND KKEHBIEL, H. E. Annotated 
bibliography of fine art. 1897. 

Critical ; but generally tone is indecisive, and many anno- 
tations lack necessary kernel of information on matters of 
fact. Music dealt with by Krehbiel. 

LITERATURE. 

ADAMS, W. D. Dictionary of English literature. 1884. 
More useful than Chambers 's for quick reference. 

CHAMBERS'S Encyclopaedia of English literature. 
New ed. 3 v. 1901-03. 

HISTOR Y. 

* ADAMS, C. K. Manual of historical literature. 1888. 
Full critical annotations ; reading courses. 

ALLEN, W. F. The Reader's guide to English history. 
With supplement extending plan to other countries 
and periods. 1888. 

*A.L.A. LARNED, J. N. Literature of American 
history. 1902. 

4145 titles. Annotations not models of brevity. Includes 
and condemns certain books as worthless; much criticism, 
some of it satirical. 

GROSS, CHARLES. Sources and literature of English 
history, to 1485. 1900. 

Critical and analytical. Comparison of chief works and 
authorities in general annotation preceding each section. 
For the " Rolls series" annotations in advertisement pages 
of some volumes of series are probably as good as those by 
Gross. 



8o Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

TOPOGRAPHY. 

MILL, H. R. Hints to teachers and students on 
choice of geographical books. [Descriptive annota- 
tions.] 

ROYAL GEOG. Soc. The Geographical journal, v. i , 
to date. 
Descriptive annotations of recent publications. 

JUVENILE. 

A.L.A. SARGENT, J. F. Reading for the young. 
New edition, including supplement and subject 
index. 1890-95. 

A.L.A. HEWINS, C. M. Books for boys and girls. 
1897. 

^PITTSBURGH. CARNEGIE LIBRARY. Annotated cata- 
logue of books used in the home libraries and 
reading clubs conducted by the children's depart- 
ment. 1905. 

REFERENCE. 

* A.L.A. KROEGER, A. B. Guide to reference books. 
1904. 

Full annotations ; analytical mainly, but with some 
criticism. 

PROSE FICTION. 

I:\KKR, E. A. Descriptive guide to the best fiction, 
British and American. 1903. 

Full, critical annotations, many of which are abridged in 
" A.L.A. catalog, 1904, "and 'Times' Book Club "Catalogue." 
Historical appendix useful for quick reference. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 81 



BOWEN, H. C. Descriptive catalogue of historical 
novels and tales. New ed. 1905. 
For school libraries and teachers ; enlarged from list in 
"Journal of education," March, 1882. Title. 

BRKWKK, J. C. The Reader's handbook of famous 
names in fiction, allusions, references, plots, stories, 
poems. 1898. 

BRITISH MUSEUM. DEPT. OF MSS. WARD, H. L. D. 
Catalogue of romances. 2 v. 1883-93. 

Descriptive catalogue of ancient classical, Arthurian, 
Charlemagne, Eastern, Aesopic, Northern, and other 
romances and fables. Finsbury P.L. Class-guide to fiction, 
1903. 

*I )KKMY. MIDLAND RAILWAY INSTITUTE. BAKER, E. A. 
Handbook to prose fiction. [Brief, critical annota- 
tions.] 1899. 

DIXSON, Z. A. The Comprehensive subject-index to 
universal prose fiction. [Not very accurate.] 1897. 

*FINSBURY P.L. Class-guide to fiction. 1903. 

Of value for its fully annotated list of books illustrating 
history of novel. 

GRISWOLD, W. M. Descriptive lists. 1890-92. 

Eight lists of novels and tales (published 1880-90) dealing 
with American city and country life, British novels, Romantic 
novels, life in France, Germany, Italy. Russia. 

MUDIE'S SELECT LIBRARY. Catalogue. Annually. 

In part 3 novels are classified under historical, topo- 
graphical, and topical heads. 



82 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

*NIEI.D, JONATHAN. Guide to best historical novels 
and tales. Ed. 3. 1904. 

Very useful for turning up quickly the period, locality of 
story, and historical personages introduced. 

*PHILADELPHIA F.L. THOMSON, O. R. H. Prose 
fiction in the Wagner Institute branch. 1904. 
Pithy, descriptive annotations. 

SALEM P.L. Class list, i : Fiction. 1895. 

Classified list of historical fiction, with brief annotations. 

FRENCH FICTION. 

See BAKER and DERBY, above. 

A.L.A. CORNU, MME., AND BEER, WM. List of 
French fiction. 1898. 

186 titles of unobjectionable books. Brief, critical notes. 

MUSIC. 

DICKINSON, EDWARD. Study of history of music, 
with annotated guide to music literature. [Ameri- 
can.] 1905. 

See under FINE ARTS, above. 

96. SELECTED ARTICLES on ANNOTATION. 

A.L.A. CONFERENCE, 1893. Book annotation dis- 
cussion. L.J., Conf. No., 1893, p. 15. 

BAKER, E. A. Descriptive guide to best fiction. 
Review by Mr. L. S. JAST, reply by Mr. BAKER, 
and justification of review by Mr. JAST. L. (K, 
v. 5 ' 2 53> 295 ; v. 6 : 33. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 83 

BAKER, E. A. Book annotation in America. Z. W., 
v. 4: 198, 235. 

- See under DERBY and SAVAGE. 

BOND, H. See under DERBY. 

BROWN, J. D. Catalogue annotations. L.A., v. 4 : 
1 06. 

- Descriptive cataloguing. Z. (N.S.), v. 2 : 135-40. 

- Manual of library economy. * 330 (i-j), 330 
(4), 33 1 , 333-39- i93- 

- See under DERBY. 

AND JAST, L. S. Compilation of class lists. Z., 
v. 9 : 45. 

DERBY. MID. RAILWAY INST. BAKER, E. A. Hand- 
book to prose fiction. Reviews and replies by J. 
1 ). BROWN, E. A. BAKER, L. S. JAST, and H. BOND. 
Z. W., v. i : 198, 216; v. 2 : 150, 177, 206, 239. 

FAIRCHILD, MRS. S. C. Principles of book annota- 
tion. In New York State Library Bulletin, 75 : 135. 

GROSS, CHARLES. Sources and literature of English 
history. Review, Z. W., v. 3 : 183. 

I IKS, GEORGE. The Appraisal of literature. Inter- 
national conference transactions, 1897, p. 166. 

The Appraisal of literature. Z./., v. 2 r : 26. 

- Evaluation of literature. Z.y., Conference No., 
1892, p. 18. 

- Kxpert annotation of book titles. U.S. Educa- 
tion Rept., 1892-93, v. i : 994. 



84 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

JAST, L. S. Classed and annotated cataloguing, 
suggestions and rules. L. W.^ 1899, p. 159. 

See under BAKER and DERBY. 



JOHNSTON, W. D. Critical bibliography and book 
annotation ; with symposium on appraisal. Z./., 
Dec., 1902. Summarized in L.W., v. 6: u, by 
Robert Stevenson. 

NIELD, J. See under SHERLOCK. 

SAVAGE, E. A. Principles of annotation. L.A.R., 
v. 6: 575. 

Reply, and general discussion on "Co-operative 

annotation and guides," by E. A. Baker. L.A.R. 

7: 272. 

- Practical work of annotation. L. W.> v. 7 : June, 
1905. 

- Reading lists. L. IV., v. 2 : 259. 

SAVERS, W. C. B., AND STEWART, J. D. Library 
magazines. L.W., v. 8: 36, 147. 

SHERLOCK, 'Etc., pseud. Fictionitis. L. W., v. 5 : 292. 
[Satirical reflections on errors in annotation; useful.] 
Reply by Mr. J. Nield in L. W., v. 5 : 318. 

STEVENSON, R. See under JOHNSTON. 

Abbreviations: L. = Library; L., (N.S.) = Library 
(New series); L.A. = Library Assistant ; L.A.R. = 
Library Association Record ; L. J. = Library Journal ; 
L.W. = Library World. 



PART II. 

RULES FOR THE DESCRIPTIVE ANNOTATION OF BOOKS. 



i. INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

97. THE rules appear first in this part, and are grouped 
together under various heads, such as Author, Subject, 
Treatment, and so on. This arrangement has been 
deemed preferable to an arrangement by classes of 
literature, which would involve many repetitions, and would 
fail to give the reader so clear an idea of the principles 
underlying the work. At the end of the rules, however, 
those points especially applicable to the several classes 
have been summarized under proper headings. 

98. The necessity of providing full illustrations of the 
methods proposed was realised from the first. The 
question was whether books affording good examples 
should be selected and annotated expressly for this code, 
or whether examples should be chosen from annotated lists 
and guides already published. The former plan, though 
easier, was open to the objection that the annotations, 
being by one writer, would bear a personal stamp, and 
suffer from the limitations besetting all "one-man" 
compilations. The second plan was therefore adopted. 
From the following publications many annotations and 
notes were taken : 

Peterborough P.L. Class list, 3. 
FinsburyP.L. Quarterly guide. 
Croydon P.L. Reader's index. 



88 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

A.L.A. Booklist. 

Bromley P.L. Occasional list; and card 

catalogue. 
The "Times" Literary supplement. 

Other sources, affording equally copious examples, are 
marked with an asterisk* in 95. 

Many other catalogues furnished single examples. Nearly 
all the annotations were more or less re-arranged, not in a 
critical spirit, but to make them conform with the code ; 
the attempt at consistency had to be made if the work were 
to be of any value at all. Together, they form a 
systematic series of the best annotative practice of the day. 

99. At the time of writing (Jan. 1906) the Library 
Associations of the United Kingdom and the United States 
are endeavouring to come to an agreement upon an inter- 
national code of cataloguing rules. The following entries, 
which are as brief as possible, may not therefore conform 
with those rules ; and are not put forward as models. 

100. Styles of Annotation. These rules are designed 
for Full annotation, but by the excision of some of them, 
and by the modification of others, they may be made to 
serve for Medium and Short annotation. It was suggested 
to the writer that each rule should be marked either Full 
or Medium or Short, but that would be impossible for 
rather obvious reasons. The principal reason is this : to 
each book only a very few of the rules apply, and these 
would be different from those which apply to another book, 
unless it dealt with the same subject and the same aspect 
of it. One book may require no subject note, the 
subject being sufficiently described in the title, whilst, 
amongst other notes, it might call for a treatment note. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 89 



Another book may need a subject note, and not a treat- 
ment note. Again, the author note might well be omitted 
in certain cases, but it would be careless to omit it in 
others. Short might agree not to state the source of a 
book, for example, but he would be bound to do so in the 
case of an important work, say an English atlas founded 
upon a German one. And quite apart from the varying 
importance of the rules in relation to books is the fact that, 
whilst some books call for Full annotations, others call for 
very short or no annotations at all. The annotator must 
judge for himself when annotating each book, and he will 
not go wrong if he remembers that Short gives the principal 
idea of the book, Medium the principal idea and some hint 
of its authority, Full, the leading ideas, a fuller account of 
its authority, and its relation to other books on the subject. 
Below we give examples of the three styles of annotating 
the same book. 

THRING. Theory and practice of teaching. 1899. 

Short annotation. 

A nines that school should train character rather than 
solely cultivate knowledge. Pubhslied first, 1883. 

Medium annotation. 

Author, headmaster of Uppingham, 1853-87. Argues that 
school should train character rather than solely cultivate 
knowledge. Has been an educational classic since publication, 
1883. 

Full annotation. 

Author, headmaster of Uppingham, 1853-87. "He found 
the school insignificant, but made it one of the healthiest and 
best equipped among the public schools." Argument: close 
study of characteristics of individual boys essential ; the 
school a training ground for character rather than solely 



go Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



for acquisition of knowledge ; variety of additional employ- 
ments and interests in studies to suit aptitudes of different 
pupils advisable. Written with enthusiasm ; arguments 
expounded clearly, with aid of vivid similes. Has been an 
educational classic since publication, 1883. 



2. GENERAL RULES. 

101. Place of annotation. As a general rule, put anno- 
tations under subject entries in both dictionary and classed 
catalogues (see 104, where annotation is put in the 
subject entry). This is the only position in which the 
annotation has its full value, because it is usually looked 
for there, and because, when read side by side with other 
annotations on the same subject, it explains the book more 
accurately and clearly than if read alone. For exceptions 
to this rule see 102, (), (c). 

A note should be put in some prominent position in the 
catalogue stating that annotations appear under the subject 
heading. 

102. Synthetic annotation. In classed or alphabetico- 
classed catalogues, where a series of works is arranged 
under a single head, one short annotation can often be 
made to serve for all : e.g., controversial works, books 
discussing a certain theory, series written upon an almost 
identical plan. 

(a) Vegetarianism. 

Advocates of vegetarianism assert that... Opponents argue... 
Entries of books favouring vegetarianism bear the prefix j>, = 
pro ; those against, the prefix c, = con. 

p Bowdich. New vegetarian dishes. 

p Kingsford. Perfect way in diet. 

c Smith. The Vegetarian craze. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. gi 

(b) LITTLE GUIDES SERIES. 

Contain introductory chapters on physical features, flora, 
fauna, population, resources, communications, antiquities, 
literature, dialect, with gazetteer describing towns and villages. 

(c) HARPER, C. G. 

Historian of our great coach roads. His method is to collect 
information of interest relating to travelling in past days, local 
history, customs, architecture, and to illustrate his theme with 
his own drawings, and with reproductions of old prints. 

(d) JACOBS, W. W. 

Author of miscellaneous yarns in sailor's lingo, love scenes, 
practical jokes, and misadventures aboard coasting vessels and 
in the country. Principal characters are old salts, landsmen, 
yokels and their sweethearts. Humorous. 

Many cargoes. 
Master of craft. 
Sea urchins. 

(e) COOPER. The Leatherstocking tales. 

[Titles set out] . 

Scene : American backwoods, between 1750-1804 ; many 
descriptions of wood, lake, and prairie, and daily life of 
Redskins and palefaces. Principal characters : Natty Bumppo 
(Leatherstocking. Hawkeye), the backwoodsman and trapper, 
and Chingachgook, his Indian companion. 

Ex. (a) indicates how controversial works may be econo- 
mically annotated. As a further example, consider the Dar- 
winian theory. Give the leading idea of the theory in the 
annotation to the "Origin of species"; in the annotations 
to Darwin's later works, and to Wallace's, Huxley's and 
Romanes' contributions to the subject, simply state 
differing points of view, and indicate the presence of 
additional or better information. 



()2 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

Ex. (). This annotation is put to the series heading ; 
make notes for individual books under the subject. Ex. 
(c) is of the same type as (^). The following is an example 
of a note explaining the particular scope of a book 
belonging to a series. 

HARPER. The Bath road. 

Through Kensington, Hammersmith, Brentford, Hounslow, 
Maidenhead, Twyford, Reading, Hungerford, Calne, Chippen- 
ham. 

Ex. (d). In this case, should the author launch out into 
a different style of writing, write an annotation for each 
book which does not resemble those described in the 
principal annotation. 

Ex. (e). Here the annotation, instead of coming 
immediately under the author heading, as in ex. (^), 
arranges after the series of stories described. Many series 
can be treated in the same fashion ; for example O. W. 
Holme's Autocrat series, Alfred Austin's Veronica series, 
Ellis's Deerfoot series. 



103. When an author writes several books on the same 
subject, his qualifications for writing them should be stated 
in one note only, preferably under that entry which appears 
first in the catalogue. See 70 (4). In the same way, 
attach subject notes of biographical works to simple subject 
headings, which arrange before all the entries relating to 
the biographees. See 128. 

104. Short annotations. As a rule it is not economical 
to put a very short annotation below the entry. Where 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 93 



thought desirable, include it in the entry, between title and 
date of publication, in square brackets ; or, in the title if 
this can be conveniently and clearly done ; e.g.'- 

TAYLOR. Golf: impressions, comments, hints. [Has 
club directory.] 1903. 

SEELKY. Ecce Homo : a [rationalistic] survey of the 
life and work of Jesus Christ. 

JONES AND ROECHLING. Natural and artificial sewage 
treatment. [Advocates former treatment.] 1902. 

BROWN. Arthur Mervyn. [Yellow fever year, 1793, 
Philadelphia.] 

Where the columns of the catalogue are wide a good deal 
of space may be saved if attention is paid to the above rule. 
Practice must, of course, vary to suit width of column, and 
size and style of type. 

Short notes on the subject of a biography should 
immediately follow the subject heading and precede the 
author heading, and may be printed in italics, for the sake 
of clearness ; but square brackets should not be used. 
Square brackets are only necessary in cases where the 
cataloguing rule regarding additions to the entry applies, as 
in each of the examples above. 



105. Language of annotation. Avoid the use of foreign 
or uncommon English terms; plain, straightforward English 
is better suited for the purpose. E.g., avoid: Denoument, 
precis, mise-en-scene, deus ex machina, 61an, taedium vitae, 
lusus naturae, inter alia. " Do not use such an expression 



94 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

as ' his knavery being extrinsic rather than intrinsic ' or 
* details his life history, dwelling particularly on causative 
facts.'" Mrs. S. C. Fairchild : N.Y. State Lib. Sch., 
Bulletin 75. 



106. Annotations to books in modern languages should 
be written in the language of the books ; e.g. : 

ROSEGGER, PETER. Die Schriften des Waldschul- 
meisters. 

Schilderungen aus dem Alpengebiet Man glaubt beinahe die 
Leute zu sehen und zu horen, die Rosegger so sympathisch 
beschreibt. 

The reason for so doing is that anybody able to read the 
book can read the annotation, whereas some Germans, for 
example, might not be able to read English annotations. 
The Wisconsin Free Library Commission, Madison, 
Wisconsin, issues bulletins in German. 

Exceptions must be made in the case of music, and of 
books valuable for their illustrations, apart from the text. 
A short note in English, in addition to the annotation in 
the vernacular, will suffice ; e.g. : 

KNACKFUSS. Raffael. 1898. Kiinstler-monographien. 
128 half-tone illustrations from paintings and drawings; 
text German. 

Such a note would be put at the beginning of the annota- 
tion, because English users must be considered first. 

Books in early forms of a language, as middle English, 
would be annotated of course in the modern form. 



Manu.il of Descriptive Annotation. 95 

107. Explanation of unusual terms. Explain curious 
or little-known words appearing in titles, or uncommon or 
obsolete terms which must necessarily be introduced into 
annotations ; e.g. : 

CROCKETT. The Stickit minister. 
Stickit minister is an unplaced parson. 

QUESNAY. Economic picture. 

Author: Noted French political economist and physician 
(1694-1774) ; one of the founders of school of physiocrats, who 
believed that food supply was the basis and measure of 
national wealth. 

RUSKIN. Seven lamps of architecture. 

The 7 lamps (or "spirits") are those of Sacrifice, Truth, 
Power, Beauty, Life, Memory and Obedience. 

108. Abbreviations. If abbreviations are used at all, 
take them from some recognized list, as that compiled by 
Mr. Melvil Dewey, given in his "Library school rules." 
The new international code of cataloguing rules will include 
a list of approved abbreviations. But it is exceedingly 
doubtful whether the amount of space saved in annotations 
by the use of abbreviations compensates for the loss of 
clearness ; e.g. : 

SCOTT. Waverley. 

First ex. of the new hist, romance ; a splendid picture of 
Scottish society, rich in char., and an absorbing narrative of 
the Young Pretender's enterprise from beginning to end. 
Conts. many touching scenes. 

In this example the few abbreviations, simple as they are, 
might well puzzle readers unfamiliar with them, and not 



96 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

too well acquainted with language. When the words are 
printed in full very little additional space is taken up; e.g. : 

First example of the new historical romance; a splendid 
picture of Scottish society, rich in character, and an absorbing 
narrative of Young Pretender's enterprise from beginning to 
end. Contains many touching scenes. 

Rather than use abbreviations, the annotator should 
depend upon the careful arrangement of the material, 
elisions, and the substitution of Arabic figures (<?."., 5) for 
numerals (e.g., five). 

109. Elisions. Omit the articles "a," "an," and 
"the " wherever possible ; avoid circumlocutory phrases, 
e.g., delete the words in square brackets in the following 
annotations. 

The first three essays were published [in] January 1868, 
under [the] title [of] " Man's place in nature." 

Aims to point out [the] different styles of [the] chief com- 
posers for [the] piano, and [the] proper methods of performing 
their works. Gives [a] sketch of [the] general history of 
music, [the] personal history of [the] principal composers for 
[the] piano, and advice on style and execution. 

OAKEY. Counterpoint. 

Contains [the] fundamental principles [of the art]. For 
[the use of] candidates for [musical] examinations. 

Considers some [of the] practical aspects of Christianity 
and points out how many [of the] modern objections are 
irreconcilable with any plan of revealed religion that could 
f meet the wants of) th human race 
(satisfy f 

110. Note also the following excisions : 
On [the subject of the] ... 
For [the use of] electricians. 
Sermon [preached in] Westminster Abbey 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 97 

In the year 1899 should be " 1899 " or " In 1899." 

[A series of] letters... 

[A collection of] essays... 

[Gives an] outline of... 

Descriptions of [what may be seen by an ordinary traveller 

in the] most accessible portions of the Alps, 
[account of a] tour through... 
[throws light] on [the] important events... 
Account of travel during the years, 1884-86. Instead of this 

put " [1884-86] " after title in the entry. 
Lectures [at] Konigsberg University. Insert comma in place 

of " at." 
Popular; treats origin, story, [and] music. 

Observe that in the above examples it is necessary to put 
commas in place of some of the deleted words, as in the 
first example, 109, where we must substitute them for the 
words "in" and "of." Such omissions, if carefully made, 
will save much space, and will not obscure the meaning of 
the annotations. (See the " A.L.A. Catalog, 1904," which 
omits articles and locutions in its annotations, though not 
consistently.) The student should also observe that this 
agrees with the late Mr. Cutter's rule that Short should 
omit articles in the title. Mr. Cutter wrote : " * Obser- 
vations upon an alteration of the charter of the Bank 
of England ' is abridged : * Alteration of charter of Bank 
of England,' which is certainly not euphonious, but is as 
intelligible as if it were. Medium usually indulges in the 
luxury of good English. Perhaps in time a catalogue style 
will be adopted, in which these elisions shall be not merely 
allowed, but required. . . . Why not make free substitution 
of commas for words, and leave out articles and preposi- 
tions in titles wherever the sense will still remain gleanable?" 
Rules for dictionary catalogue, 4th ed., 225. All this 
applies equally well to annotating. The annotator in a 
popular library is not required to write rounded English. 

G 



08 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

111. Order of component parts. Arrange the notes, <>i 
parts of the annotation, under italicised heads, such as : 

(a) Author (editor, compiler] ; (b) subject ; (c] editing ; 

(d) appendices ; (e) bibliographical details ; 
e.g. : 

BALDWIN. Mental development in the child and the 
race. 

Author: Professor of psychology, Princetown University. 
Subject: First deals with genetic problem, principles of 
suggestion, habit, accommodation ; then the theory of adap- 
tation ; lastly, a detailed view of the "progress of mental 
development in its great stages, memory, association, atten- 
tion, thought, self-consciousness, volition." Argument : No 
consistent view of mental development in the individual can 
be reached without a doctrine of race development of con- 
sciousness, i.e., the great problem of evolution of mind. 
Published originally, 1895. 

Observe that the words italicised need not be (), (/;), (c), 
(d), (e), but should be the most suitable word to indicate 
the information to follow. Note the use of "Published 
originally, 1895," instead of "Bibliographical: Published 
originally, 1895." Clearness is given to annotations by 
arranging their parts in this manner. 

112. Transference of matter from title. If convenient, 
transfer the sub-title, or part of the sub-title, or even a 
part of the title of a book to the note. In the following 
example, if the words in square brackets are transferred to 
the note, their repetition will be avoided. 

BUXTON. Handbook to political questions of the day 
[and the arguments on either side] . 
Method : Briefly states each subject of controversy, collects 
arguments pro and con, but does not arrange them in order t 
their importance nor appraise them. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



The following example is also worthy of note. 

CARPENTRR. The Microscope and its revelations. Ed. 
8, by W. H. Dallinger [; first seven and twenty-third 
chapters re-written and text throughout revised] . 

Revision of text throughout : first 7 and 23rd chapters re- 
written. 

Modern cataloguers, especially municipal library cata- 
loguers, treat titles with less respect than the old 
bibliographers. Diffuse titles are now ruthlessly cut 
down, even in full cataloguing. A word which is not 
necessary to make sense, or fails in being informative, 
is a blemish in an entry. Hence no valid objection can 
exist to the transference even of information from the 
title to the note, if the change makes for economy in 
printing, avoidance of repetition, and perspicuity. The 
"A.L.A. Catalog, 1904," in its classified half, freely 
transfers parts of the titles to annotations, and it seems 
to gain in clearness thereby ; the short title catches the eye 
quickly, and is just long enough to show the reader whether 
he is on the right track or not. 

113. Acknowledgment. If a quotation or part of a title 
is used as an annotation, acknowledge this use at the end 
of the quotation ; e.g. : 

MURRAY. Handbook for travellers in Greece. 

Includes Ionian I., continental Greece, Peloponnesus, 
islands of the Aegean, Thessaly, Albania, Macedonia ; detailed 
description of Athens. Title. 

It would seem scarcely necessary to observe that acknow- 
ledgment should always be made when annotations are 
taken from guides, catalogues, reviews, or books. Some- 



ioo Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

times, however, probably for the sake of brevity, no 
acknowledgment at all is made ; oftener inverted commas 
are the only form which the acknowledgment takes. 

If elisions are made in quotations it is desirable, though 
not essential, to use elision periods..., three, very close 
together, being sufficient. 



. Date of critical quotations. If criticism is taken 
from a guide to readers or from a review in a periodical, 
give the date of the criticism ; e.g. : 

MOLL. Hypnotism. 1890. Contemporary science 
series. 

" Probably the best general survey of the subject." 
American journal of psychology, 1897. 

An annotator who makes use of such a criticism in a 
library catalogue without putting a date to it is careless to 
say the least. The assertion may lurk in a card catalogue 
for several years after the book to which it relates has been 
superseded by another " best general survey," but if it is 
dated an intelligent reader will not be mislead. Moreover, 
the dates are useful when the librarian is revising the card 
catalogue with the object of deleting appraisals which are 
no longer true or which are of doubtful truth. 

After " weeding-out " or revision of stock, the entries of 
out-of-date scientific, technical and other bouks which are 
still valuable in some respects, and are therefore to be 
retained in the library, should receive additional notes ; 
e.g. : 

LARDNER. Steam engine explained... 1840. 

Subject:... Note added 15/9/94: Out-of-date; but still 
valuable for its historical details and exposition of principles. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 101 

This added note assumes that the book was properly 
annotated in 1840 or thereabouts ; the out-of-date note is 
added to the original annotation on the date stated. 

In open access libraries, where it is sometimes the 
practice to paste annotations in books a practice com- 
mendable in every way these added notes are particularly 
useful. 

115. References to call-marks. When a book is referred 
to in the annotation, always give its call-mark ; e.g. : 

MERRIMAN. Religio pictoris. 

" Among our books we have a ' Religio medici ' [by Sir 
Thomas Browne (828 B)] and a ' Religio poetae ' [by Coventry 
Patmore (204P2g)] , but not a ' Religio pictoris," yet it may be 
well..." 



j. AUTHOR NOTE. 

116. Qualifications. State the qualifications of the 
author, or compiler, or editor, in relation to the subject ; 
also, refer to a memoir of the author if one is given in the 
book ; e.g. \ 

(a) GREEN. Raiders and rebels in South Africa. 

Author was nurse in Krugersdorp hospital when Dr. 
Jameson raided Transvaal (1896), and in Charterland during 
Matabele rebellion (1893-94). 



102 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

(b) CURIE. Radio-active substances. 
Author discovered radium (1902). 

(f) GEIKIE. Scottish reminiscences. 

Author " has sojourned in every part of [Scotland] and for 
60 years has mingled with all classes of its inhabitants." 
Prefaoe. 

(d) CALKINS. Introduction to psychology. 

Author is (1901) professor of psychology, Wellesley College. 

Observe particularly the use of dates. 

117. Original research. State whether the author has 
undertaken original research before writing upon the sub- 
ject ; if possible, in the case of scientific works, give the 
date at which the researches were made ; e.g. : 

(a) MAXWELL. Treatise on electricity and magnetism. 
Author devoted many years (1860-79) to researches into 

nature of electrical phenomena, and in this work he succeeded 
in laying the basis of a physical theory of electro-magnetism, 
quite as securely founded as the wave theory of light. . . Pub- 
lished first, 1873. 

(b) CREW. Editor. Wave theory of light : memoirs by 
Huygens, Young, and Fresnel. 

Authors : The theory, first hinted at by Robert Hooke, was 
first clearly expounded by Huygens (1678), but owing to 
Newton's influence on science, was neglected for over a cen- 
tury. Young again brought it before the scientific world 
(1801-4), but was received with ridicule; and it was reserved 
for Fresnel (1815) to carry out the researches and the mathe- 
matical analyses which gained the support of other workers. 

Ex. (b), from the Pittsburgh catalogues, should be care- 
fully read, because in an author note alone is given a clear 






Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 103 

idea of the scope, the interest and the value of the 
memoirs. 

118. Somewhat akin to the qualifications of an author 
is the standing of the publisher of a compilation. In such 
a case as the following, where neither author's nor pub- 
lisher's name is given in the entry, note the name of the 
publisher, if the firm makes a special feature of books of 
similar type ; e.g. : 

Business manual. 



by Isaac Pitman & Sons, who have issued many 
books on commercial subjects. 

119. Authorship of rejerence works. State whether the 
articles in encyclopaedias and similar works are signed or 
not ; e.g. : 

SMITH, Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and 
mythology. 

Authors are authorities on their subjects, and each article is 
signed. 

The purpose of this note is to indicate the thoroughness 
of the work. Many reference works, especially of the 
cheaper kind, are written by a few hacks, who cannot be 
expected to write absolutely accurate articles. In such 
works the articles are usually unsigned. 

120. Commissioners as authors. If an author deals 
with a subject which has come under his notice whilst 
acting as special correspondent for a newspaper or as 
commissioner for a government, note in what capacity he 
has acted ; e.g. : 

HILLEGAS. With the Boer forces. 

Author: Correspondent, " New York world." 



104 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

121. Private correspondents as authors. Give the names 
of the principal well-known correspondents whose letters are 
published in any collection of a man's correspondence and 
journals ; e.g. : 

TALLACK. Howard letters and memorials. 

Contains letters from John Bright, Cardinal Manning, Max 
Miiller, Lord Salisbury, ist Lord Selborne. 

122. Origin of ancient texts. In the case of such 
collections as the Nibelungenlied, Hitopadesa, sagas, heroic 
cycles and legends, give very brief account of probable 
origin ; e.g. : 

Nibelungenlied. 

Authorship disputed. Believed by some critics to be a collec- 
tion of the works of many hands, probably during 1190-1210 ; 
by others to be by the poet Von Kiirenberg, but altered by 
later writers. 



4. SUBJECT NOTE. 

123. Describe exactly the subject and the scope of a 
book ; e.g. : 

(a) Fox. River, road, and rail. 

Subject: Popular account of author's engineering experi- 
ences, railway extension and construction, subaqueous work 
and tunneling, mining in the Andes, and travel in ( an.ula. 
South America, and Mediterranean (insert dates). 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 105 



(<) COLQUHOUN. Greater America. 

Subject : United States and her recent acquisition of oversea 
possessions, with discussion of race question in America, 
transportation routes, and the influence Central American 
canal would have upon American power and trade. Chapter 
on : How Greater America is governed. Argument comple- 
mentary to that of author's " Mastery of the Pacific " (C577). 

(c) MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY. Hymn of praise. Vocal 
score ; pianoforte accompaniment. 

(.'tmtains pianoforte symphony, choruses, soprani duet, 
soprano and tenor duet and solos. 

(d) BALFE. Bohemian girl. Vocal score ; pianoforte 
accompaniment. 

Principal songs : I dreamt I dwelt in marble halls ; The 
Heart bowed down ; When other lips and other hearts. 

Ex. (c). This note is desirable in order to assist the 
many people who wish to play or sing certain parts of the 
music only. An opera (vocal score) without overtures or 
marches is of very little use to a pianist; and a soprano will 
thank the annotator for pointing out soprani songs. 

Ex. (d). The object of this note is to inform readers of 
the presence of songs, which although well-known, may 
not be known to them in conjunction with the opera. 

In these examples, the kind of score is given on the title- 
page, but this is not invariably so, and the annotator must 
supply the deficiencies in a note. 

124. (i.) Summarize any principal argument or theory 
which a book attempts to establish, or, if found impossible 
to summarize such theory with sufficient brevity, indicate 
its nature. (ii.) In the case of a book which does not 



io6 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

state, but which depends upon a theory or argument 
described elsewhere by the same or another author, give 
either a summary of the theory (as in i.), or, if the sum- 
mary is already made in an annotation to the book stating 
the theory, refer thereto ; e.g. : 

(a) MAETERLINCK. The Buried temple. 

Argues that there is such a thing as justice, though author 
cannot believe there is any innate justice in human nature, 
nor can he accept the religious explanation, which throws 
responsibility for unmerited misfortune or fortune on a higher 
justice. 

(b) LOMBROSO. Man of genius. 

Argues that genius is a degenerate and diseased condition 
allied to epileptiform mania, and in a lesser degree to dementia 
of cranks, or mattoids as he calls them. Read also Nordau's 
" Degeneration " (15 iN). 

(c) LANG. Making of religion. 

Attacks the animistic "ghost" theory of religion, as enun- 
ciated by Spencer, Huxley, and others (see . . . and article . . . 
in Encyclopaedia Britannica "). 

(d) WEISMANN. Germ-plasm. 

Theory: The germ-plasm is a special organized and living 
hereditary substance, transmitted from generation to genera- 
tion, thus being immortal ; it is composed of vital units, called 
ids, each of equal value, but differing in character, containing 
all the primary constituents of an individual. 

125. If a work is an index, state the precise character 
of the publications indexed, and the number, nationality, 
and accessibility of them ; e.g. : 

SUPLEE AND CUNTZ. Engineering index. 

Indexes more than 200 periodical technical papers published 
in the U.S., Great Britain, and the Continent, and indicates 






Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 107 



character and purpose of each article described. Continued 
monthly in " Engineering magazine." Full references to 
American material, much of which is not easily accessible 
here. Periodicals filed in this library are marked on pp. 4-10. 



126. In the case of collectanea (volumes of essays) by 
well-known authors, set out in full in authors' words; by 
less well-known authors, set out in full if the number 
of the essays does not exceed eight, otherwise give 
summary of principal contents in own words ; by minor 
authors, do not set out, but give a summary of principal 
contents in own words. Put notes to single essays in square 
brackets immediately following the title of the essay ; e.g. : 

(a) HOWELLS. Literature and life. 

Essays on : The Man of letters as a man of business. The 
Editor's relations with the young contributor. Last days in a 
Dutch hotel. A She Hamlet [Mme. Sarah Bernhardt] 

(b) COLLINS. Ephemera critica : plain truths about 
current literature. 

Sitftji'cts : The present functions of criticism, English 
literature at the universities, log-rolling and education ; reviews 
of modern guides to literature, and of new editions of classical 
works. Argues : 

127. In the case of miscellanea, that is to say, "odds 
and ends " books rather than collections of essays, sum- 
marize the more important topics touched upon ; e.g. : 

(a) PIGOU. Odds and ends. 

Subject : Reminiscences and anecdotes of boyhood and 
schoolboy life, Sunday schools, preaching and preachers, 
missions, cathedral and club life. C')i<i]>tcr on : The Relation 
of disease to crime. 



io8 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

(t>) ARNOLD. Letters. 

Dated from London, Switzerland, Harrow, Cobham, the 
Continent whilst on his tour of inspection of foreign schools, 
and the U.S. Subjects : Literature, school inspection, 
education. 

Ex. (b). Letters and journals should be treated as 
miscellanea. Such works frequently describe fully the 
places of residence of their writers, and this fact should not 
be overlooked in annotation. The Letters of Lady Wortley 
Montagu afford a much better example than (b). 

128. In the case of biographical works, note the leading 
feature of the subject's career ; e.%. : 

(a) LEICESTER, Simon de Montfort, Earl of ( 1208-65). 
Leader of Barons in their struggle against Henry III. 

(b) IBSEN, HENRIK (1828- ). Norwegian dramatist 
and poet. 

(c) CATHERINE DE RICCI, Saint (1522-90). Italian 
Dominican mystic. 

(d) CHAMPLAIN, SAMUEL (1570-1635). French founder 
of Quebec. 

(e) CLARKE, Hon. Sir ANDREW (1824-1902). 

Sir Andrew was surveyor-general of Victoria, director of 
works at Admiralty, governor of Straits Settlements, com- 
mandant of School of Military Engineering, Chatham, and 
inspector-general of fortifications. 

If the note is short, as in the case of ex. (b), (c), (d) t it 
may be included in the entry. (See 104.) Longer anno- 
tations should form a separate paragraph. (See 103.) 

The annotation of biography is sometimes considerably 
overdone, possibly because annotators are tempted to "slop 
over " with information so easily boiled down or borrowed 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. log 



from articles in biographical dictionaries. Then the cata- 
logue itself becomes something like a biographical dictionary, 
and the cost of printing is largely increased. The annotator 
cannot go far astray in remembering that the book and not the 
man is to be described ; all he need say about the latter 
must be what is just necessary to explain the former. As a 
general rule, the greater the biographee the shorter may be 
the note ; or a note may not be required; e.g. : 

(a) SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM (1564-1616). English 
dramatist. 

(b) NAPOLEON I. of France (1769-1821). 

or(r) NAPOLEON I., Emperor of the French (1769-1821). 

Ex. (a). The adjective is sometimes omitted ; all subjects 
being regarded as English unless otherwise stated. Ex. (b) 
and (f) are the usual catalogue entries, and suffice. The 
annotation to the subject heading of a biographical work 
need never exceed four or five lines. 

129. Misleading titles. If the title of a book is likely 
to mislead readers as to the subject matter, or if any serious 
discrepancy between title and subject matter exists, make a 
note pointing out such discrepancy ; e.g. : 

BARNARD. Educational biography : memoirs of teachers, 
educators, and promoters and benefactors of education, 
literature and science. 

Limited to teachers and educators, the volume that was to 
include benefactors, etc., never having been published. 

130. If a book is written in pursuance of a special 
purpose, note the fact ; e.g. : 

(a) Borderland: quarterly. Edited by W. T. Stead. 

Object : To show that psychic phenomena are worthy of 
more serious consideration than they have yet (1894) received. 



no Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



() SWIFT. Tale of a tub. 

Satirises formalism and pedantry in religion, especially 
among Roman Catholics and Puritans. 

(c) SHAW. Encyclopaedia of ornament. 

Object : To give selection of purest and best specimens of 
ornament of all kinds and all ages. 

(d) MENDEI.SSOHN-BARTHOLDY. Lieder ohne \Vorte. 
Mendelssohn "thought music much more definite than 

words." " I wish I were with you," says he to his sister, in 
sending her from Munich the earliest of these compositions 
which we possess, "but as that is impossible, I have written a 
song for you expressive of my wishes and thoughts." 

Ex. (a). Observe the date. Dates should always be 
attached to assertions of this kind, which, although 
true at the time of writing, may not be so a few years 
afterwards. 

131. If a book serves a purpose apart from the purpose 
expressly contemplated by the writer, note the fact ; e.g.: 

(a) STEEL. Tales of the Punjab. 

Indian folk tales intended for children, but notes and analyses 
make them valuable to students of folklore. 

(b) HOLLANDER. Mental functions of the brain. 

For physicians, but contains much information for lawyers. 

Many books expressly written for specialists are also of 
interest to general readers, and a note pointing this out 
should usually be made. 

132. Special features. Note important matter not 
covered by the title, or unlooked-for matter, such as the 
author's specific suggestions and discoveries; addenda of 
all kinds (glossaries of terms, statistical tables, summaries, 
lists of artists' works, chronologies, questions, answers) ; 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. in 



contributions by other writers ; material relating to imme- 
diate neighbourhood of the library in a work of too wide 
a scope to be put with the local collection ; e.g. : 

(a) SAINTSBURY. History of nineteenth century litera- 
ture. 
Chapter on : The development of periodicals. 

(/>) WILLIAMSON. Integral calculus. 

Contains Prof. Crofton's essay on local probability. 

(c) SYME. Representative government in England. 
Suggests that constituencies shall have power to dismiss 

their representatives. 

(d) KELLY. Evolution and effort in their relation to 

religion and politics. 

Chapter on : Problem of education, which advocates estab- 
lishment of endowed newspaper. 

(e) ERASER. America at work. 

Chapter on woollen industry, comparing America and W. 
Riding, to latter's advantage. 

(/) REDLICH. Local government in England. Trans. 

I . W. Hirst. 

This trans., by a native of Huddersfield, is highly spoken 
of by author himself in preface. A considerable portion 
entirely contributed by Mr. Hirst. 

(g) BACON. By land and sky. 

Contains many original observations on transmission of 
sound. 

(h) TEMPLE. Bird's-eye view of picturesque India. 
Appendix : Some leading statistics. 

(/) KERNER VON MARILAUN. Natural history of plants. 
Appendix : Glossary of terms. 



112 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



In the case of ex. (#), see 117, Original research, dealing 
with books based very largely upon new researches, to 
which the annotator is bound to refer even in Short anno- 
tation. In ex. (g) the original matter is incidental to the 
book, and it is merely desirable that the annotator should 
refer to it. 

133. Dates. Note the period covered by a work, or 
the period during which the scenes and events described 
were witnessed, in square brackets following the title, if 
such title does not already give them ; e.g. : 

HEDIN, SVEN. Central Asia and Tibet [1899-1901]. 

See 156. This section applies particularly to history, 
travels, correspondence, diaries, biography. 

134. Dates of appendices. Give the dates of such 
appendices as regulations for exhibitions and shows, 
examination syllabuses and papers, and sanitary regula- 
tions ; e.g. : 

MITCHELL. Building construction and drawing. 1900. 
Appendices : Board of Education syllabus, August, 1901. 
Examination papers, elementary stage, 1890-1900. 

Observe that in the above example the syllabus bears a 
later date than the title-page of the book. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 113 



5. TREATMENT NOTE. 

135. Standpoint, bias, controversy. Note the standpoint 
from which the author views his subject. If two books 
are known to deal with the same subject from different 
standpoints, refer one to the other. Especially distinguish 
controversial works by noting whether they are pro or con. 
[see 102 (a)] ; e.g. : 

(a) JAMES. Varieties of religious experience. 
Standpoint : Psychological. 

(b) JAMES. Principles of psychology. 
Standpoint : Natural science throughout. 

(c) ENCYCLOPAEDIA BIBLICA. 

Standpoint : Most advanced criticism ; many contributors 
are continental critics. 

(d) LINGARD. History of England. 
Point of view : Strongly Roman Catholic. 

(e) FORSTER. Statesmen of the commonwealth. 

Standpoint : Sympathies revolutionary, but Cromwell is 
severely condemned. " As Carlyle (BC42i) is Cromwell's 
most able defender, Forster is perhaps his most able prosecu- 
tor." Adams: Manual of historical literature. 

(f) MOTLEY. Rise of the Dutch Republic. 

Presents Dutch case inmost favourable light. See Prescott's 
"Philip II," (BP262) for Spanish view. 

(g) GUINNESS. City of the seven hills. 
Attacks Roman Catholicism. 



H4 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

137. Grade of treatment. State what class of readers 
the author has kept in mind whilst writing the book ; e.g.: 

(a) SYMES. Short text-book of political economy. 
Designed for reading circles and discussion classes. 

(ti) WATTS. Geology for beginners. 

Designed to meet requirements of Science and Art Depart- 
ment examination (elementary stage) and Oxford and Cambridge 
Schools Examination Board. 

(c) SMITH. The United States. 

For English rather than American readers. 

(d) HERBERT. Fifty lunches. 

Higher class ; most dishes are expensive. 

(e) MORTON. Modern typewriting. 

For students of the Smith Premier, which, however, has the 
standard keyboard. 

(/) BREWER. Reader's handbook of allusions, references, 
plots, and stories. 

Designed for the reader who desires to turn up quickly the 
full account of a story, plot or name which is simply alluded to 
in the book he is reading. E.g. : If such reader is puzzled by 
a reference to Meg Merrilies he will find in this book an 
outline of her character, and a reference to the novel in which 
she appears, viz., Scott's "Guy Mannering." Appendices: 
English and American bibliography. 

Ex. (d) should be particularly noted. Nearly all cookery 
books may be designated " higher-class," or " middle-class," 
or "lower middle-class" in addition it may be noted 
whether they are of the English, French, Anglo-Indian, or 
other school. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 115 

138. Note what preparatory knowledge is necessary to 
a clear understanding of the book ; in the case of music, 
note the presence of fingering, and state whether it is 
German or English ; e.g. : 

(a) BOOLE. An Investigation of the laws of thought. 
Reader must know important logical terms, and algebraic 

principles. 

(b) JEVONS. Principles of science. 

Reader should have knowledge of algebraic formulae to ... 

(c) POOLE. Electric wiring. 

Reader should be familiar with Ohm's law. 

(d) DARWIN. More letters : a record of his work in 

hitherto unpublished letters. 

Complementary to "Life and letters" (BD42i), which are 
more personal and less scientific. " More letters " will only be 
easy reading to those acquainted with Darwin's theory and 
scientific thought during the latter half of the igth century. 

(e) TAIT. Properties of matter. 

Reader must have sound knowledge of ordinary geometry, 
moderate acquaintance with elements of algebra and trigo- 
nometry, and basic principles of kinematics of a point and 
kinetics of a particle. 

(/) BEETHOVEN. Sonatas. 
English fingering. 

Ex. (/). If the music is fingered, the playing of it is 
rendered easier. English pianoforte fingering is marked 
by + 1234 over the notes ; German by i 2 3 4 5. A 
young player, if used to English fingering, would be very 
likely confused when playing a piece fingered in the 
German fashion. 



n6 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

139. Copious notes. Note the presence of an unusually 
large number of notes ; e.g. : 

ACTON. Lecture on the study of history. 

Full of allusions, which are explained in notes occupying 
one half of the book. 

140. If it is impossible to indicate the grade of treat- 
ment in books by the means explained in 137-139, 
use consistently the following carefully-chosen critical 
epithets : 

Elementary. 

Intermediate. 

Advanced. 

Popular. 

Semi-popular. 

Technical, non-technical. 

Non-mathematical. 

Stiff reading. 

Condensed. 

The first three terms are suitable for text-books. " Semi- 
popular " is a useful term to apply to books which appear 
from their titles to be " popular," although really not so. 
A book which deals with a technical subject, but which 
avoids as far as possible the use of technical terms, may 
be described as "non-technical." Thus "semi-popular" 
should be applied to a book in general literature which is 
not quite so popular as described or indicated in its title ; 
whilst " non-technical " should be applied to an apparently 
technical work which is really not technical. 

(a) MAXWELL. Elementary treatise on electricity. 

Not elementary ; but advanced, being mathematically and 
otherwise difficult. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 117 

(b) STORY. Story of wireless telegraphy. 

Not so technical as Tunzelmann's "Wireless telegraphy " 
(1901) and Bubier's " A B C of wireless telegraphy " (1904). 

(c) HEATH. Elementary treatise on geometrical optics. 

" Elementary, inasmuch as it uses no mathematics beyond 
trigonometry." 

(d) GLAUS. Elementary text-book of zoology. 
Despite title, advanced. 

(e) FINDLAY. The Phase rule. 
Non-mathematical . 

(f) WALLACE. Darwinism : a popular... 
Rather, s<ww-popular. 

(g) SHEPHARDSON. Electrical catechism. 
Treatment non-technical. 

The meaning attached by authors to such words as 
" elementary," "advanced," and the like, are to be regarded 
as only relatively true. The note to (<r) modifies, or perhaps 
we may say, explains the epithet " elementary " in the title. 
The notes to (a) and (d) flatly contradict the titles, and 
seem absurd ; but the annotator is on the right track in 
attempting to show as exactly as possible the grade of 
difficulty of the book. The contradiction might be avoided 
by a note similar to that in (c) thus : " Called elementary, 
but the reader is assumed to know, etc." Again in (fj the 
term "popular" must be modified by the prefix "semi-," 
otherwise this book will not be distinguished from a similar, 
and quite popular book, Clodd's " Story of creation." The 
annotator must therefore fix in his mind the precise degree 
of difficulty conveyed by each epithet, and stick to that 
degree as consistently as possible. Then he may partially 



n8 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

succeed in assisting readers to obtain suitable books. But 
always let it be borne in mind that the epithets given above 
are only to be used when it is not possible, without much 
trouble, to ascertain what knowledge is assumed to be in 
the reader's possession. 



141. Difficulty of foreign works. It is scarcely possible 
to indicate the degree of difficulty of the language of a 
foreign work with any satisfaction. Very few books, unless 
written expressly for children, are consistently easy, or 
consistently difficult, as the diction and style will vary in 
accordance with the differences in the objects, scenes, and 
emotions to be described. But if a foreign work contains 
much dialect and colloquial language, note the fact, because 
very few English readers will be able to read the book. 
Also if a French novel, for example, contains a considerable 
amount of bright conversation, this fact might be noted, 
because many readers will be attracted to such a book for 
two reasons (i) it is usually easier reading (2) it familiar- 
ises them with the idiom and the vocabulary useful in every 
day intercourse ; modern French plays are popular for this 
reason. 

142. Language of book. Note, in brackets after the 
title, the language of a book, if such language is not 
shown by the title ; e.g. : 

(a) CHAUCER. Canterbury tales. [In original Middle 

English text.] 

(b) BALZAC. Ursule Mirouet. [In French.] 

In the case of (<), if the book is annotated as provided 
for in 1 06, this note is not required. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 119 

143. Polyglots. If the text of a work is repeated in 
one or more foreign languages, note the languages ; e.g. : 

All the world's fighting ships : naval cyclopaedia and 
year-book, 1898. 
Text in English, French, German, Italian. 

The note to be in English, which is the language of the 
title. 

143a. In the case of some classes of books, as those 
on nature study, zoology, geography and so forth, it is 
advisable to distinguish American and colonial books, 
the methods and apparatus of study being often widely 
different in these countries ; e.g. : 

JORDAN. Animal studies : a text-book of elementary 
zoology. 1903. 
For high schools and colleges. American. 

This seems to be consistently done in the Cardiff F.L. 
" Catalogue of books on nature study," a good example of 
short annotation. Especially is it desirable in a catalogue 
of juvenile books for the use of teachers, as many 
teachers have a great dislike for American orthography. 
The fact that their prejudice is unreasonable is not the 
annotator's business. 

144. Limits or novelty of treatment. Note carefully the 
limits or the novelty of the treatment of the subject. Note 
specially full treatment of part of subject ; e.g. : 

(a) SAINTSBURY. History of nineteenth century litera- 
ture, 1780-1895. 1896. 

Although history is brought down to 1895, no living writer 
is included. 



I2O Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

(l^) ACTON. Cambridge modern history. 

Not a complete history of the nations, which are only dealt 
with " according to the time and degree in which they 
influence the common features of mankind." 

(c) PHILLIPS. How to become a journalist. 
Deals particularly with provincial journalism. 

(d) ENGEL. History of English literature. 

Deals very fully with Bacon-Shakespeare controversy. 

(e) HODGMAN. Manual of land surveying. 

Special attention paid to application of common and statu- 
tory law in location of boundary lines, both in originals and 
re-surveys. 

(/) BRUNETI&RE. Manual of the history of French 

literature. 

The evolution of the literature. " The Darwinian method 
applied to literature." 

Ex. (b). This note is important. A reader should be 
told that the volume on the French revolution not only 
deals fully with the national events, but with those events 
as they were affected by the whole of Europe. Many 
readers would be confused by this breadth of view, and 
some might regard it as useless. Ranke's " History of 
England " is another case in point, as the author deals 
fully with international relations. 

Ex. (/) really comes under the heading " Standpoint," 
*35 but it is put here as a good example of novelty of 
treatment, Brunetiere being quite unlike the usual text- 
books, and forming hard reading for those without a 
philosophical bent. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 121 



6. THE RELATION NOTE. 

145. Reading courses. In a classed catalogue, whether 
printed or MS., each class head may serve to cover a 
"course of reading," in which most of the reference notes 
may be grouped. This is the most concise kind of relative 
description ; e.g. : 

Geology. 

Reading course : Young students should read GEIKIE'S 
" Primer." All beginners must read a physical geography such 
as HUXLEY'S (55iH) ; then read PAGE AND LAPWORTH, or 
GEIKIE'S " Class-book," followed by RAMSAY'S " Physical 
geology and geography of Great Britain" (55111). GEIKIE'S 
" Field-work " will teach how to observe. LYELL should be 
read by those who desire a philosophical treatise, though it 
does not contain the latest discoveries. GEIKIE'S "Scenery and 
geology of Scotland" will especially interest those whose 
aesthetic perceptions are quickened by inquiry into causes. 

Call-marks are only given when the work is not included 
under the above heading ; titles are only given where 
several books by the same author appear under the single 
head. The foregoing example is adapted from Sargant and 
Whishaw's admirable guide, now, unfortunately, somewhat 
out-of-date. The Peterborough Class List, " Natural 
science," issued by Mr. L. S. Jast, also gives such reading 
courses. 



122 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

Of course, such reading-lists can only be given in general 
catalogues. 

146. Effect of books. If a book occupies an important 
place in the history of its subject, or of the form of literature 
to which it belongs, state the fact in a note ; also note the 
effect of a work in helping towards the realization of a 
scheme or project of importance : e.g. : 

(a) FIELDING. Tom Jones. 

" Of the highest importance in history of literature, as indi- 
cating lines on which the modern novel of manners was to be 
written ; Thackeray . . . avowedly took it for his model in 
Pendennis," (FTaia). Baker: Best fiction (1903). 

(b) DARWIN. Origin of species. 

The first exposition of Darwinian theory of mutability of 
species through natural selection. Before it appeared most 
scientists regarded species as individual creations ; now (1904) 
the origin of species from other allied species by ordinary 
process of natural birth is universally accepted. 

(c) MILL. System of logic. 

Marked a new epoch in literature of logic, especially by its 
exposition of methods of experimental enquiry, and its illustra- 
tion of these in achievements of modern science. 

(<f) DESJARDINS. The Present duty. 1892. 

Created a sensation in thinking world of Paris. A band 
of men, avowing same convictions as author, formed a 
" Union for moral action," which aimed to unite all serious- 
minded men, of no matter what religious or political persuasion, 
who cared to work for the cultivation of a healthy public 
opinion, for a moral awakening, and for the education and 
strengthening of modern decadent will power. 

(e) LIVERPOOL. Coins of the realm. 

Report on which English gold standard was established. 






Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 123 

(/) BESANT. All sorts and conditions of men. 

Suggested founding of the People's Palace, East London. 

Ex. (a). The history of the novel is described in a series 
of notes prefixed to the " Class-guide to fiction," issued by 
Mr. Jas. Duff Brown, when Librarian of Finsbury, and the 
student would do well to study this feature very thoroughly. 
A similar series ought to be written for certain subjects of 
importance, e.g-, Evolution. Indeed, Mr. Brown has such 
a purpose in view, and hopes to carry it out in the near 
future. 

Ex. (c) describes a book remarkable for its original 
treatment of an old subject. Ex. (*/), (^), (/) describe 
books which were the causes, or the principal causes, 
of important public movements or interesting experi- 
ments. Possibly the better position for this sort of 
note would be in a reading course ( 145), but where 
reading courses are not used, or in lists and magazines, 
the note should be attached to the book-entry. 

Ex. (<f) is taken from the Pittsburgh " Classified cata- 
logue." 



147. Cognate books. Refer to any sequel of a book, to 
its continuation, expansion, or to similar works, or to a 
parody of it, or to important reviews or criticisms of it ; 
e.g. : 

(a) LEWIS. In the shadow of Sinai. 

Sequel : Mrs. Gibson's " How the Codex was found " (915). 

(b) VERNE. Antarctic mystery. 

Continuation of Poe's "Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym " 

(FP2 4 2). 



124 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

(f) WALLACE. Geographical distribution of animals. 
Continuation and expansion of chapters n and 12, Darwin's 

" Origin of species " (575D). 

(d) BERGEN. Current superstitions. . . 

Author's " Animal and plant lore" may be regarded as v. 2 
of this work, and contains index to both v. 

(e) Arnold. FINDLAY. Editor. Arnold of Rugby : his 

school life and contributions to education. 
Supplements Stanley's "Life" (BAQ32), which is more 
personal. 

(/) SWIFT. Brook Farm : its members, scholars, and 

visitors. 

Read also: Hawthorne's " Blithedale romance" (FH394), 
which is a story founded upon the Brook Farm experiment. 

(g) DIXON. Among the birds in northern shires. 
Companion volume; "Bird life in a southern county" 

(598D). 

(h) GODFREY. Home life under the Stuarts. 

Companion volume: "Social life under the Stuarts " (9420). 

(t) KENNEY-HERBERT. Fifty breakfasts. 

Companion volume : " Fifty lunches " (642X26) and "Fifty 
dinners " (642X24). 

(j) GEIKIE. Scottish reminiscences. 

Similar work: Dean Ramsay's " Scottish life and char- 
acter" (914.10). 

(A) THRING. Education and school. 

Whilst this discusses policy of great public school, author's 
"Theory and practice of teaching" (371X21), deals with school 
method. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 125 



(I) AVEBURY. Scenery of Switzerland. 

Compare with Marr's " Scientific study of scenery" (55iM). 

(;;/) CHRESTIEN DE TROVES. King Arthur and the 

round table. 

First English prose translation of early metrical French 
version of Arthurian legend. Head also Malory's " Morte 
d' Arthur " (^gSM), which followed later and inferior French 
versions mostly. 

(n) FIELDING. Adventures of Joseph Andrews. 
Largely a parody of Richardson's " Pamela " (FR2I2). 

(0) KIDD. Social evolution. 

Read also 15 pp. review in " Political science quarterly," 
December, 1894. 

(/) FRAZER. The Golden bough. 

Criticised in Lang's " Magic and religion " (29^23). 

(q) LANG. Magic and religion. 

" Largely criticism of Mr. Frazer's position in . . . . ' The 
Golden bough ' (291 F8g), with special reference to Mr. 
Frazer's theory of origin of religion, and of the belief in 
Christ's divinity." Spectator, 1901. 

(r) WOODS. Princess of Hanover. 

Drama based on tragic story of Sophie Dorothea, consort 
of George I. See life of Sophie, by Wilkins (6846). 

Ex. (g), (ti), (/') are of notes which may be dispensed 
with in a general classed catalogue. But in reading lists 
and library magazines they should be used. 

Ex. (/). Refer also from the novel to Swift's book. 

Ex. (/), (/), (;;/), (;/). Refer also from the books men- 
tioned in these notes. 



126 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

Ex. (m) is doubly relative, as it shows the book to be a 
first translation, and also refers to Malory, a translation of 
another version. 

Ex. (o). Such a reference as this would only be made 
in a library magazine, or reading list, or card catalogue ; 
in a printed general catalogue it would be too full even for 
Full to use, although Pittsburgh makes it. 

Ex. (/). This note would be added to the entries in 
the card catalogue when (q) is annotated. 

Consider Turgenev's " Fathers and children," in which 
the word nihilism was first introduced into Russia. This 
book was replied to by Dostoyevski in " Les possedes," 
and afterwards qualified or explained by Tchernyshevsky, 
in " What is to be done ? " Together, these books give a 
correct idea of nihilism. 



148. Note also the following examples in particular. 
The dates in the titles are not sufficient ; the connection 
must be stated in all forms of catalogue ; e.g. : 

STUBBS. Constitutional history of England (to 1485). 
Continued by Hallam (342!!) and May (342M). 

HALLAM. Constitutional history of England (1485-1760). 
Serves as continuation of Stubbs' " Constitutional history " 
(342S). 

MAY. Constitutional history of England (1760-1860). 

Serves as continuation of Hallam's "Constitutional history" 
(342H). 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 127 



149. In certain cases reference notes may be made to 
serve instead of other notes ; e.g. : 

WOOD. Norwegian byways. 

Similar works: Author's " Glories of Spain " (914. 6W) (see 
note), "Romance of Spain" (914. 6W), and "Valley of the 
Rhone." 

The reference to the annotation to " Glories of Spain " 
will satisfy those who are unacquainted with the author, 
whilst the references to his other works will more than 
satisfy those who have read them as to the character of 
this particular book. 



150. Librarians' notes. Notes for the information 01 
librarians should comprise date of publication, publisher, 
price (distinguishing net and subject books), size, number 
of pages, number and character of illustrations, character 
of paper, printing, binding ; comparisons with very similar 
works ; e.g. : 

ADAMS. A Dictionary of Ameri can authors. 5th edition. 

8"X5". Boston, Houghton, 1904. 857 pp. $3.50. 

Enlarged by 146 pp. If library already owns earlier edition, 

with "Who's who in America," and "New international 

encyclopaedia," it will not need this. 

CLEMENT. Women in the fine arts.... 

32 illustrations. No index of works. Printing, paper, 
binding good. 

LANGTON. How to know oriental rugs.... 

12 coloured and 8 black and white plates. A padded 
book, containing three times as much blank paper (poor) as 
letter-press. Buy second-hand. 



128 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



POITER. The Art of the Louvre.... 

418 pp., 50 fair half-tone illustrations, folding plans. Well 
printed. Index very fair. 



7. EDITING NOTE. 

151. Arrangement and plan. In the case of edited 
works or compilations, as commentaries, annotated editions, 
reference works, catalogues, volumes of quotations, antho- 
logies, table talk and so forth, note the scope and the 
general arrangement of the material, whether classified, 
chronological or other. If the arrangement is alphabetical, 
a note is unnecessary ; e.g. : 

(a) SHAKESPEARE. Select plays : King Lear. Edited 
by W. A. Wright. 

Editor writes preface on origin of play, and appends 93 pp. 
of notes, which consist mainly of elucidations of text and 
variant readings : criticism absent. 

(t>) MOULTON. Editor. Library of literary criticism of 
English and American authors. 

Arrangement of articles chronological. Each article com- 
prises brief biography of the subject, followed by general 
criticisms of the author's entire works, then by criticisms of 
individual works. Criticisms also are arranged chronologically 
from contemporary to living writers, chapter and verse being 
quoted after each excerpt. American. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 129 



(c) BALDWIN. Dictionary of philosophy and psychology. 

Arran t /finent alphabetical under subjects such as "Charac- 
teristic," "Common Sense," "Generic image." Articles 
comprise etymology of subject word, definition of idea and 
examples of its application, and bibliography of literature 
discussing it. 



(d) HARTLETT. Familiar quotations. 

Arranged chronologically ; with indexes of authors and most 
important words. 

(e) HOYT. Cyclopaedia of practical quotations. 

Arranged under subjects, with index of quotations, and list 
of quoted authors, with dates and nationalities. 

(fj BELTON. Literary manual of foreign quotations. 

Arranged under first word, with Italian, German, French, 
and Latin indexes under catch words. 

The reader should study carefully Miss A. B. Kroeger's 
"Guide to reference books," wherein she invariably 
describes very clearly the editors' methods of arrangement. 



Ex. (d), (<?), (fj. Such notes as these serve to direct a 
reader at once to the book which will most quickly and 
effectively help him. Thus a reader seeking the authorship 
of a particular quotation will find a "first-word" index such 
as Belton's most useful ; a reader remembering some telling 
phrase and desiring to find the complete quotation will go 
to the volumes with indexes of catch-words (Bartlett and 
Belton) ; whilst a third reader, wishing to select a quotation 
on a certain subject, will consult a volume arranged by 
subjects (Hoyt). 



130 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

152. New editions. Note important changes in new 
editions of well-known works, especially scientific, technical 
and local works ; e.g. : 

(a) CARPENTER. The Microscope and its revelations. 
Ed. 8. 

Revision of text throughout; first 7 and 23rd chapters re- 
written. Title. 

(b) LAMBARD. A Perambulation of Kent.... Imprinted 
at London for Ralph Newberie, 1576. 

This edition contains : " Names of suche of the nobilitie and 
gentrie as the Heralds recorded in their visitation, 1574." 

(c) GROVE. Dictionary of music and musicians. New 
ed., by J. A. F. Maitland. V. i. 

Follows general plan of original edition (1879), bringing to 
date (1904) both in names included and authorities cited. 
Many articles entirely re-written, but material still valuable 
retained. Illustrations and portraits added. 

153. Indexes. Note the absence of an index, particu- 
larly in the case of miscellanea, journals, table-talk, diaries, 
letters, and the like; the whereabouts of indexes to sets 
of periodicals ; and explain any unusual complications in 
indexes which would be liable to confuse ; e.g. : 

(a) ARNOLD, MATTHEW. Letters. 
No index. 

(b) AMERICAN PHILOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. Transac- 
tions, 1869 to date. V. i to date. 

Indexes in v. 20 to v. 1-20, in v. 30 to v. 21-30. 

(c) INSTITUT DE FRANCE. ACADEMIE DES SCIENCES. 

Memoires, presents & 1'Institut. 

Index in Royal Society's " Catalogue of scientific papers" 
(qr 016.5). 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 131 



(d] CHAMUKKS'S JOURNAL. V. i, to date. 

Indexed in Poole's " Index to periodical literature,' and the 
" Review of reviews " index. (Ref. cata. table.) 

(e) POOLE AND FLETCHER. Index to periodical litera- 
ture. 

To find the date of an article refer to chronological con- 
spectus at beginning of each volume (except volume 2). First 
refer to list of periodicals indexed (" Abbreviations, titles and 
imprints") to find conspectus number; then run the eye 
down the column at head of which this number appears in 
conspectus until the volume number is found, against which, 
in left margin, the date is printed. 

(/) GRISWOLD. Index to ... collections of essays 

In order to make index concise, compiler refers under 
subjects to numbers; volumes representing the numbers are 
to be found by means of key in front of book. 

(g) BARRI, GIRALDUS DE, Cambrensis. Opera. 8 v. 
1861-91. 

Ind.ex to v. 1-4 and v. 8 in v. 8 ; index at end of each of 
v- 5-7 

Ex. (a). The value of such a work as Coleridge's 
"Table talk," which is arranged chronologically, is very* 
seriously diminished in an edition without an index. If 
the talk is classified, the index is not quite so important, 
but nevertheless the absence of it should be noted. Un- 
indexed editions of miscellanea should never be put in the 
library when indexed editions are obtainable. 

Ex. (e), (/). Observe that unless such peculiarities are 
pointed out a reader may spend half an hour before he 
discovers how to use the index. The above notes should 
appear in the catalogue, and should be cut out and pasted 
in the books referred to. 



132 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



8. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE. 

155. Original publication. Note whether a work has 
been published previously either serially, orally, or by 
presentation as a university or college thesis ; e.g. : 

(a) Pages from a private diary. 

Reprinted from " Cornhill Magazine," 1895 (?). 

(b) GERMANN. National legislation concerning educa- 
tion. 

Thesis submitted for degree of doctor of philosophy, 
Columbia University (1892). 

This rule applies to plays ; e.g. : 

HOBBES. The Ambassador : a comedy. 

First presented St. James's theatre, London, 1898. 

156. In the case of all books, note the date of original 
publication of a work reprinted. When necessary, note 
any subsequent event or book which may have affected the 
value of the work being dealt with ; e.g. : 

(a) SENANCOUR. Obermann. 
PublisJied first, 1804. 

(b) ARNOLD. Higher schools and universities in Ger- 
many. 

Applies to 1868, when first edition was publisfied ; now read 
for its observations and criticisms upon educational method. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 133 

(c) ROMII.I.Y. Public responsibility and vote by ballot. 

1'nlilis/n-il first 1865, prior to Ballot act, 1872. 

The date may be given thus : 

SWIFT. Gulliver's travels [1726]. 1905. 

But if this is done ilu- period covered by historical works, 
or the years during which travels were undertaken, must 
be stated in the annotation, and not in square brackets in 
the entry. (See 133.) It is preferable to put informa- 
tion most nearly related to the subject matter of the book 
in the entry if possible ; so that period dates in history, 
travel, etc., should be in the entry, and the date of first 
edition in the bibliographical note. Cutter's form (4th ed., 
274) is as in SWIFT above, with the following alter- 
native : 

ASCHAM. Toxophilus. 3rd ed. 1857 [ist ed. 1542] 
The " completeness " of the Library of Congress cards, or 
rather their insufficiently clear use of dates, has been the 
cause of complaint in the U.S. ; see Library Journal, 
v. 30 : 401. 

157. In the case of a translation give the date of a 
book in its first form. 

159. First books. If a book is believed to be the first 
on its subject, make a note to this effect ; e.g. : 

OWEN. Telephone lines and methods of constructing 
them overhead and underground. 
Author believes this to be first book on subject. 

It may be discovered later that the author's belief was 
not well-founded, but the note is useful inasmuch as it 
points out the scarcity of material on the specific subject. 



134 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

160. Bases of books. Note particulars of the basis or 
source of a work ; e.g. : 

(a) BARTHOLOMEW AND HERBERTSON. Atlas of meteor- 
ology. 

Based on Berghaus' " Physikalischer Atlas." 

(b) The Times Gazetteer. 
Originally Longman's "Gazetteer." 

(c) WAGNER. Der Ring des Nibelungen. 

Founded on famous German epic of 12 century, " Nibelungen 
lied " ; see translation by Horton. 

(d) WEBSTER. Couminghouse dictionary. 
Abridged from his " International dictionary." 

(e) HAZLITT. Faiths and folklore. 

Has an ancestry of nearly 200 years. Bourne's " Antiquitates 
vulgares " (1725) was re-edited by Brand (1777) merged into 
Brand and Ellis's "Popular antiquities" (1813) which was 
edited by Hazlitt (1870) and is now revised and extended, and 
arranged, for the first time, alphabetically. 

161. Show in what respect (if any) a work differs from 
the work on which it is based ; e.g., see e (160). 

This note is important, although it can very seldom be 
made, because publishers persistently neglect, or forbear, or 
refuse to state exactly in what way the old material has 
been treated ; e.g. : the " Maps " volume to the " Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica," ed. 10, is undoubtedly a reprint of an 
American atlas. Is it an exact reprint, or were substantial 
alterations made, and, if so, in what direction ? Moreover, 
from which American atlas was the reprint made ? No 
information is vouchsafed in answer to these questions. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 135 

162. If a book has been the source from which a great 
writer has very largely or wholly drawn his materials, make 
a note to this effect ; e.g. : 

LODGE. Rosalynde. 

Source of Shakespeare's " As you like it." 

163. Illustrations. Indicate the presence of illustra- 
tions (diagrams, facsimiles, maps, etc.) of special value. 
Also in cases where the artist is well known, or where the 
photographer is remarkable for his skill in a special kind 
of work, state the name of the illustrator ; e.g. : 

BERESFORD. The Break-up of China. 

Has 2 detailed coloured maps, one showing chief navigable 
waterways. 

Cromwell. BALDOCK. Cromwell as a soldier. 
Contains good maps, showing main roads at the time. 

MAHAN. Problem of Asia. 

Has orographical map of part of Asia. 

BOND. Bird life in wild Wales. 

Contains illustrations from photographs by Oliver G. Pike. 

In some libraries it is the practice to include particulars 
relating to illustrations in the catalogue entry between title 
and imprint, thus : 

HEDIN. Central Asia and Tibet : towards the holy 
city of Lassa [in 1899-1902]. 2 v. 420 illus., 8 
coloured. 4 portraits. 5 maps. 1903. 

or more briefly : 420 il., 8 col., 4 por., 5 mps. But even 

where this practice is followed the notes given above are 

desirable inasmuch as they point out rather important 
features of books. 



136 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

If the illustrations are collated in the entry, it becomes 
desirable to note what appear to be poor and ineffective 
illustrations ; e.g. : 

SCOTT. Rock villages of the Riviera. Illus. Map. 
Map is only a very small sketch. 

If the illustrations are not collated in the catalogue entry, 
then such a note is not required, because the annotator 
need only refer to the better kind of illustrations. 

164. Bibliographies. Note the presence of biblio- 
graphies (lists of authorities), also their extent, and their 
kind, if classed, annotated, or in chronological order. 
Observe that it is needless to state that a bibliography is 
alphabetically arranged ; e.g. : 

ASTON. Japanese literature. 
Has bibliographical note. 

Cavour. CAESARESCO. Life of Cavour. 
Short bibliography. 

THOMSON. Science of life. 

Brief chronological bibliography of history of subject. 

CARR. Synopsis of elementary results in pure mathe- 
matics. 

Contains index to papers on pure mathematics in many 
British and foreign journals. 

If bibliographies are signed, note the name of the 
compiler, unless he is also the author of the book. 

Even if bibliographies receive analytical entries, or are 
separately indexed, it is wise to note them in the annotations, 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 137 



if only because they suggest thoroughness on the part of 
the authors. KelnviKvs to authorities interspersed through- 
out the book, in the text or in footnotes, may also be 
noted for the same reason ; although, of course, scattered 
references are solely of service in reading the particular 
books in which they are included. 

165. Collation. In the case of valuable and scarce 
works, give collations ; e.g. : 

LAMBARD. A Perambulation of Kent... 

Collation: Title, dedication "To his Countriemen, the 
Gentlemen of the Countie of Kent, by T. W." (Thomas 
Wotton) Saxon characters, Sundry Faultes and Corrections, 8 
leaves. Woodcut map, entitled " Angliae Heptarchia " ; 
exposition of map, and the History, 435 pp. 

166. Unusual features in format or printing. Unusual, 
unique, or curious features in the printing or get-up of a 
book may be noted ; e.g. : 

MORRIS. Architecture and history; Westminster Abbey. 
Printed at Chiswick press from golden type designed by 
Morris for Kelmscott press. 

167. Numbered copies. If a book belongs to a limited 
and numbered edition, note the number of copies pub- 
lished and the number of the library's copy ; e.g. : 

WHITNEY. The Genteel relation. 
Only 100 copies printed ; this is 15. 

168. Titles. Note changes of title; e.g. : 

THURSTON. The Masquerader. 

Published in England as " John Chilcote, M.P." 



138 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

Folk-lore: quarterly review of myth, tradition, institu- 
tion, and custom, 1878-99. V. 1-22, in 23. 1878-99. 
Title, v. 1-5, reads "Folk-lore record"; v. 6-12, reads 
"Folk-lore journal." With v. 13 "Archaeological review" 
was incorporated with this journal. 

169. If the title on the binding differs very materially 
from that upon the title-page, note the discrepancy ; e.g. : 

UNITED STATES. Resolutions, laws, and ordinances 

relating to pay 

Binder's title reads " Revolutionary claims." 

BUDGE. Easy lessons in Egyptian hieroglyphics. 
Binder's title reads " Egyptian language." 

Such a note is absolutely essential in all open-shelf 
libraries, even if annotations are not as a rule used in 
the catalogues, because a reader looking for the above 
book would very likely be confused by the changed title, 
and imagine he had been misled by an incorrect press- 
mark. 

170. Give the original title of a translated foreign work, 
if such title has not been literally translated also ; e.g. : 

DAUDET. One of the forty. 

L'Immortel. 
or 

DAUDET. One of the forty. [L'Immortel.] 
but the entry, 

BALZAC. The Quest of the absolute, 

does not require the original title, " La Recherche de 
1'absolu." 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 139 



171. If a quotation is used as title, refer to its source, 
if possible ; e.g. : 

I'RAED. As a watch in the night. 
Title from Psalms, c. 90, v. 4. 

CRAWFORD. Whosoever shall offend .... 
Title from Mark, c. 9, v. 42. 

In the case of theological works especially, stating the 
sources of quotations used as titles will often help towards 
describing them. Full only would make such a note. 



172. Changes, etc., in periodical publications. Note 
volumes wanting, termination of publication, and the like, 
in periodical publications ; e.g. : 

Public ownership review. Devoted to spread of public 
ownership facts. Monthly. Feb. i897~Mar. 1899. 
3 v. 1897-99. 
No more published ; pts. wanting, Feb.-June, '97. 



140 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

y. RULES APPLICABLE TO LITERATURE, 
CLASS B Y CLASS. 

173. The foregoing rules apply to all classes of litera- 
ture, and only those points especially applicable to the 
individual classes have been collected below. The headings 
chosen are not those of any system of classification, but are 
intended to cover the treatment of subjects rather than the 
subjects themselves. In subject classification a book on 
the philosophy of history is shelved in the history class ; 
but from the annotator it must receive the' same treat- 
ment as any other philosophical work. Thus the heading 
" Philosophical works" embraces the philosophy of religion, 
sociology, art, literature, and history ; whilst the heading 
" Historical works " embraces the history of philosophy, 
religion, literature, and so on. 

174. Works of Reference. Authority of editor or 
editorial board ; method of arrangement ; scope of articles ; 
state whether articles are signed or not ; note whether 
references to authorities are given ; basis ; indicate special 
uses ; note special indexes. 

Philosophical Works. 

175. Author's qualifications; argument and standpoint; 
practical applications ; treatment, if unusual or novel. 
The school of the writer is sometimes worthy of note, 
but as the schools are numerous, and the deviations from 
them almost infinite, it is better to give a clear summary 
indicating the line of thought, in the case of the more 
important books. To attempt to label each philosophical 
work with the name of a school would lead to endless 
confusion. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 141 



Theological Works. 

176. Argument and standpoint (which may be indi- 
cated by giving a summary of expressed attitude of 
author, or perhaps less clearly, by stating his religious 
persuasion ; standpoint may be also critical, expository, 
hortatory) and the purpose of the work the evils preached 
against, missionary objects, and so forth. 

Sociological and Political Works. 

ill. Author's qualifications, especially details and date 
of original investigations; important suggestions; argument 
and standpoint ; statistics, and period they cover. Distin- 
guish American and Colonial books. In the case of party 
political works note which party the author supports. If 
the party is foreign, and likely to be comparatively 
unknown in England, note its leading view ; e.g. : 
Prohibitionist = member of U.S. political party pledged 
to support legislation prohibiting sale of intoxicants. 
Usually such explanations are not necessary. 

Philological Works. 

178. Preparation required by reader ; grade of treat- 
ment, unusual treatment; method advocated, i.e., "direct" 
or "natural" method or otherwise; method of editing in 
the case of texts ; special purpose, as when designed for 
an examination. 

Scientific Works. 

179. Author's qualifications, especially his original re- 
searches ; argument, standpoint or school of thought ; 
purpose ; preparation required by reader ; grade of treat- 
ment, theoretical, descriptive, practical, technical ; date of 



142 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



original publication ; matter added to new editions ; inter- 
relations of books on same subject ; distinguish American 
and Colonial books. 

Works on the Arts. 

180. Author's qualifications ; purpose ; grade of treat- 
ment, critical, expository, technical, practical, mathematical ; 
date of original publication ; additions to later editions 
very important ; illustrations ; presence of questions and 
answers, regulations of public bodies and companies 
relative to arts and trades ; in music, fingering, presence 
in dramatic music of well-known songs, or pieces, kind 
or quality of voices for songs, publisher's number (for 
purposes of identification), scores. Distinguish American 
and Colonial books on useful arts. 

Literature of Power. 

181. Note the importance of a work and its place in 
literature ; the editing in the case of standard works ; 
relationship to other works. ALSO NOTE the following 
additions to, and variations from, the annotation of the 
literature of knowledge. 

182. An annotation to a work of the imagination 
should not disclose the course and end of the action, but 
should suggest its nature by means of a synopsis of its 
setting, the characters taking part in it, its theme or central 
idea and the period covered. 

183. The "author" note should only be used when 
any feature peculiar to the book (or books) and of t In- 
first importance to the narrative (or narratives) is known to 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 143 

be the result of first-hand knowledge ; e.g., an author note 
should precede the list of Thomas Hardy's works, show- 
ing his intimate knowledge of the scene of the stories : 

HARDY, THOMAS. 

B. 1840, in Dorsetshire ; resided there 1840-62 and 1867 
onwards ; living. Scenes of his novels are laid almost wholly 
in Wessex, i.e., Dorsetshire and Wilts. 



184. In the case of an author note which has to serve 
for several books, it is as well to include in it a reference to 
work of the same author in other classes ; but this should 
only be done in classed catalogues, and when such works 
are very few and liable to be overlooked ; e.g. : 



HARDY, THOMAS. 

Has also written "Wessex poems" (8aiH) and 
Dynasts," a drama (822H). 



The 



185. In the case of an important poet or dramatist or 
novelist, refer in the author note to one or two leading 
books on him ; e.g. : 

HARDY, THOMAS. 

For account of life, see Macdonell's " Thomas Hardy " ; of 
work, see Johnson's "Art of Thomas Hardy"; of country, 
see Harper's " Hardy country " and Windle's " Wessex of 
Thomas Hardy." 

This is better than a brief critique, inasmuch as it refers 
the reader to other books in the library. 



186. The surroundings in which the action takes place 
should be noted, if bearing close relation to such action. 



144 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

If the book contains many careful descriptions of scenery 
or surroundings, note this also ; e.g. : 

FREYTAG. The Lost manuscript. 
Scene : Germany, university life. 

GISSING. The Nether world. 

Scene : Clerkenwell, London, amidst poor and working 
classes. 

STEVENSON. The Ebb tide. 

Scene : Pacific coral isles ; contains many descriptions of 
life and nature. 



187. In the case of an important work, or of a work 
depending mainly on the delineation of character for its 
strength, note the principal characters, and give a word or 
two in description of each ; e.g. : 

KIPLING. Soldiers three. 

The "three" are Mulvaney, the humorous Irishman of 
drunken proclivities ; Ortheris, a vain and irascible little 
Cockney; and Learoyd, the stolid Yorkshireman. 

188. If prominent actors in the events of the period 
are introduced, note the fact ; e.g. : 

MEREJKOWSKI. The Forerunner. 

Introduces Leonardo da Vinci and the Borgias. 

EBERS. An Egyptian princess. 

Introduces Cambyses, Darius, Sappho, Amasi^. 

BAILEY. Master of Gray. 

Introduces Queen Elizabeth, James VI., Sidney, Walsing- 
ham, Burleigh. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 145 



The mention of such names does more to make the 
period clear than dates, and gives a better idea of the 
closeness of the narrative to actual events than any amount 
of description. 

189. If it is suspected on good grounds, or known, 
that the characters of a work are historical personages 
disguised, give the real names ; e.g. : 

WARD. Marriage of William Ashe. 

Principal characters : Closely resemble a group of English 
people of early igth cent. ; Lady Kitty Bristol, the capricious 
and emotional heroine (Lady Caroline Lamb), Geoffry Cliffe, 
the lover of Lady Kitty (Byron), Mme. d'Estrees, mother of 
Lady Kitty (Lady Blessington), and William Ashe, husband 
of heroine (Lord Melbourne). 

190. If the author is known to have included auto- 
biographical memories in his work, note the fact ; e.g. : 

DICKENS. David Copperfield. 

Founded to a large extent on story of his own early 
struggles and on other memories. 

But statements of this kind should be well authenti- 
cated. Moreover, only the cases in which autobiography 
enters extensively and materially into the course of the 
narrative require such notes. 

191 Note the period of the story. If the exact con- 
taining dates cannot be determined, note the closest 
approximation thereto ; e.g. : 

PRIOR. Forest folk. 

Sce-ne : Sherwood Forest during Luddite Riots, 1811-16, 
when distress of rural poor caused revolt against machinery. 



146 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

FREYTAG. Debit and credit. 
Scene : Prussian Silesia, 1848. 

BENSON. The Vintage. 

Scene : Greece, war of independence, 1821. 

192. Note the central idea, or mainspring of the action, 
or the principal motives, if there are several. Note the 
principal historical events described ; e.g. : 

SHAKESPEARE. Othello. 

Motives : Jealousy and intrigues for preferment. 

BENSON. Limitations. 

Theme : Limitations of art and life. 

MITCHELL. Constance Trescot. 

Theme : Tranformation of character through passion of 
revenge. 

193. Use the following critical terms for works to 
which they are applicable : Humorous, fantastic, didactic, 
sensational, tragic ; a romance, a comedy, a comedy of 
manners, a tragedy, and such other epithets as may seem 
suitable upon examination of the books ; e.g. : 

COBB. The Dissemblers. 
Comedy of manners. 

Observe that the expressions given above border upon 
matters of fact, and carefully avoid terms of appraisal, of 
condemnation and of approval, or terms used in analysing 
the aesthetics of imaginative writing. 

194. If a work contains much dialect, note the fact, 
and state whether it is easy to read or not ; e.g. : 

CROCKETT. The Stickit minister. 
Contains much Galloway dialect. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 147 

HKLL. Wee Macgreegor. 

Much Glasgow dialect ; not easy reading for the Southron. 

Biographical Works, Personalia. 

195. Indicate very briefly the biographee's claim to 
reader's interest ; outline his notable achievements ; show 
whether the biography is of interest on account of the 
subject's thought or actions, or the friends with whom he 
associated, or the events he has taken part in, or of his 
experiences, either in the way of travel, or amidst a certain 
environment, political, journalistic, social, military, and so 
forth. 

Historical Works. 

196. Author's qualifications, original research; stand- 
point, political, sociological, religious, philosophical ; grade 
and limits of treatment ; containing dates, if it be not the 
practice to put these in title ; presence of analytical tables, 
chronologies, comparative statistics ; reprints of historical 
documents, treaties. 

Topographical ] I *orks. 

197. Course, objects (exploration, scientific research, 
sight-seeing, sport, prospecting, etc.) and results (if im- 
portant) of the journey ; author's acquaintance with 
country ; date and duration of journey ; novel methods 
of travel. In the case of guide books note whether infor- 
mation relating to mode and expense of travelling, 
expenses and conveniences of residence, is given or not. 

Local Literature. 

198. Note address (if local) at which author resided, 
his occupation ; local press at which book was printed ; 



148 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 

collation, in the case of rarities, and number of copies 
printed; illustrations, maps, etc., of special value and 
interest ; variations in later editions ; autograph or other 
additions to books. ALSO NOTE the following additions 
to and variations from the practice in annotating non-local 
works.* 

199. The rule in 112, suggesting the transference of 
matter from the title, does not apply in the case of local 
or rare works. 

200. Refer to such articles in biographical dictionaries 
and encyclopaedias as relate to authors of important local 
works ; e.g. : 

HASTED. History of Kent. 

Author : See " Dictionary National Biography," v. 25; no; 
Smith's " Bibliotheca Cantiana," p. 12. 

As a rule, little information is forthcoming in connection 
with local authors, and it is useful to draw particular atten- 
tion to such biographical material as exists. 

201. If it is known that copies of very scarce local 
books, either in a better state of preservation than the 
library copy, or containing important MS. notes, are in 
other libraries, refer thereto ; e.g. : 

PHILIPOTT. Villare Cantianum. 

There are 5 copies in Cough's collections in Bodleian 
library, with MS. notes by Roger Gale, Le Neve, Dundalt:. 
Ames, and Gough. 

* A librarian in charge of a municipal library which collects 
local literature is required, so far as that collection is concerned, 
to bring full bibliographical and some antiquarian knowledge to 
his work. 



Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 149 

202. Note the presence of topographical views or 
vignettes, or coats of arms, in maps and charts ; also give 
the names of the artists, or engravers, if well-known ; e.g. : 

SYMONSON AND WHITWELL. New description of Kent. 
[A map. . .] 

Two views at top, one of Rye, by Sir A. Van Dyck ; other 
of Dover Castle and Town, from ye Landside, by W. Hollar. 

SPEED. Map of Kent. 

At top are arms of Odo, Bp. of Bayeux, Will Iprese, Earl of 
Flanders, Herbert de Burgh, Edmund Woodstok, Thomas 
Holland, Wm. Nevill, Edmond Graye, Anthony Graye ; at 
lower corners are plans of Canterbury and Rochester. 

203. If a map or illustration has formed part of a book 
or atlas, note the fact ; e.g. : 
SPEED. Map of Kent. 

From his " Collection of English maps." 

204. Note curious and quaint imprints, colophons, and 
the like ; e.g. : 

THE KENTISH FAYRE, or the Parliament sold to their 
best worth. 

Printed at Rochester, 1648, "and are to be sold to all those 
who dare buy them." 

NOTE Most of the examples of annotations to local 
literature are from J. R. Smith's " Bibliotheca Cantiana," 
which is a good example of an annotated topographical 
bibliography. 

Juvenile Books. 

205. All the rules in the Code apply equally well to 
Juvenile books, but note the following : 

206. The notes to books intended for children over ten 
years of age should be written in simple, though not childish, 



150 Manual of Descriptive Annotation. 



language. So far as possible, the language of the annota- 
tion should match the language of the book ; e.g. : 

LONG. Following the deer. 

Author used to follow the deer in American forests when he 
was a boy, and he writes about everyday life of the deer as he 
saw it. 

207. Annotations to books intended for children under 
ten years of age should be addressed to teachers and 
parents. Parents expect information regarding the contents, 
the size of the type, the illustrations and the difficulty of 
the language, and usually desire to have those books dis- 
tinguished which are known to be popular with children. 
Distinguish also American and Colonial books; e.g. : 

ARNOLD. Second reader. 

Fables, nursery tales, short stories and poems. Attractively 
illustrated. In words of one syllable. American. 

BASS. Lessons for beginners in reading. 

Short sentences about flowers, nuts, seeds, etc. Coloured 
illustrations. Popular. American. 

KIPLING. Just so stories. 

Especially adapted for reading aloud. 

BANNERMAN. Story of little black Sambo. 

A tiger story, with coloured pictures ; type large and clear. 

BASS. Nature stories for young readers. 

Very simple talks intended to interest children in plant life. 
American. 



I. Unless the catalogue is graded, state the age of the 
child for whom each book is suitable ; also the sex ; e.g. : 
MULHOLLAND. Giannetta. 
For girls, aged 13-16. 



INDEX. 



NOTE. Tlie references are to the numbered sections of t/tc text, 
not to the pages. 



Abbreviations in annotations, 108 
Acknowledgment of quotations, 

83, 84, 113 
Adams, C. K., " Manual of hist. 

lit.," 59, 91 
Adams, W. H. D,, " Plain living," 

87 

Added note, 9, 114 
Addenda, subject note, 132 
Aids for annotator, 94 
Allibone's "Critical dictionary," 

9i. 95 
American books, Distinguishing, 

i 43 a 

A.L.A., Annotated lists. See 
Kroeger, Lamed, Leypoldt, 
Sturgis 

' Booklist," 60, 92, 98 
-"Catalog, 1904," 20, 28, 92, 
no, 112 

Conference, 1893, annotation 
discussion, 96 

Cooperative annotation, 93 
Analytical annotation, 10 
Ancient texts, Origin of, 122 
Annotation defined, i, 2 

in England, 87-90 
- U.S., 91-93 

Appraisal. See Evaluation 
Art books, Annotation of, 81, 180 
Articles, Bibliographical, 59 
Articles on annotation, 96 
Author note, defined, 4 

described, 16, 17, 35-37, 70 (3) 
(4) 

rules, 103, 116-122, 183-185 
Authorities referred to, 164 
Autobiographical material in 

books, 190 



Baker, E.A., author's qualifica- 
tions, 17 

"Book annotation in America," 
96 

Classifying fiction, 56 

Evaluation, 61-66 

" Doubtful " books, 41 

Guides to fiction, 88, 96 
Basis of work, 160, 161 
Bibliographical articles, 59 
Bibliographical note, defined, 9 

described, 22 

rules, 155-172 
Bibliographies, 164 
Bibliography of annotation, 96 
" Bjbliotheca Anglo-poetica," 87 
Billings, Dr. J. S., 62 
Biographical works, Annotation 

of, 81, 195 

- Place of short notes to. 104 

Subject note, 128, 195 

- Synthetic annotation, 103 
Bishopsgate Inst., "Descriptive 

cata.," 28, 89 
Bond, H., 96 
Boston P.L., Grading juveniles 

at, 51 
Bowker and lies' " Reader's 

guide," 92 
Brevity, 76, 109, no 
British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), " Cata. 

of books," 89 
Bromley P.L. " Occasional list," 

98 

Brown, J. D., Articles on annota- 
tion, 96 

Call-marks, References to, 115 
Cardiff P.L., " Cata. of Books on 

Nature Study," 



152 



Index. 



NOTE. The references are to the numbered sections of thf tc.rt, 
not to the pages. 



Cardiff P.L. Magazine, 89 
Cataloguing process slip, 70 
Cataloguing rules, Internal, code, 

99 

" Characterization " suggested in 

place of "evaluation," 66 
Characters in fiction, 43, 187 
Children's books. See Juveniles 
Clarke, Adam, " Bibliographical 

diet.," 87 
Clippings for annotator's ready 

reference, 83 
Cognate books, 147-149 
Collations, 165 

Collectanea, subject note, 126 
Colonial books, Distinguishing, 



Colophons, 204 

Commissioners, author note, 120 
Continuations, relation note, 147- 

149 
Controversial works, Distinguish- 

ing. !35 

Synthetic annotation, 102 (a) 
Cooperative annotation, 90, 93 
Correspondents, newspaper, au- 

thor note, 1 20 

Private, author note, 121 
Corrupt practices in evaluation, 65 
Courses of reading, 57, 145 
Criticism in annotation, Date of, 

64, 114 
Criticism in annotation to fiction, 

47- *93 

Criticism, treatment note, 140 
Croydon P.L.," Reader's index," 

28, 58, 59, 68, 89, 98 
Curious terms used in annotation, 

107 
Cutter, C. A., Best books only to 

be annotated, 16 
" Doubtful " books, 41 

Elisions, no 

Dates. Use of, 25, 39, 64, 114, 116 
(a)(b) (d), ii 7 (a)(b), 130 (a), 
133. '34. 156, 157. 191 



Definitions, 1-15 

De Quincey, T., on literatures of 
knowledge and power, 15 

Derby, Mid. R. Inst., Handb. to 
prose fiction," 29, 56, 96 

Description defined, 10 

Descriptive works, Annotation of, 
81, 197 

Dewey, Melvil, " Library sch. 
rules," 108 

Dialect, 194 

Doubleday, W. E., 83, 89 

" Doubtful " books, 41, 42 

Drexel Inst., instruction in anno- 
tation, 85 
- " Reference lists," 59 

Economy in annotation, 102-104, 
108-110, 112, 199 

Editing note, defined, 8 

described, 21 

rules, 151-153 
Editions, Limited, 167 
Effect of books, 146 
Elisions, 109, no 

Elmendorf , Mr. , on dating evalu- 
ations, 64 

Environment note, 38, 186 
Essays, subject note, 126 
Essentials and non-essentials, 26 
Evaluation, 61-66 

blanks, 80, 81 

by librarians, 63 

by specialists, 65 

defined, 11-14 

Principle of, 62 

Exactness of statement essential. 

23, 39 
Experts' evaluation, defined, 12 

Method of, 65 

Exposition contrasted with horta- 
tion, i 

Fairchild, Mrs. S. C., on annota- 
tion, i, 96, 105 

Fiction, Advisability of annotat- 
ing, 28 

Classification of, 56 



Index. 



153 



NoTK.-'-VV/r references are to the nunihered we lion* of the tcj:t , 

not to the pages. 



Fii-tion, Economy in annotating. 
29, 102 (d) (e) 
Guides to, S8, 96 
Principles of annotating, 28-47 

Rules for annotating, 181-194 
Fine art books. Annotation of, 

81, 1 80 

Finsbury I'.L., Annotation blank 
82 

" Quarterly guide," 28, 89, 98 
" First " books, 159 

Fletcher, W. I., 62 
Foreign books, language of anno- 
tation, 106 

Original titles of, 170 
- Treatment note, 141 

Frothingham, Miss M., 83 

Gay ley and Scott's " Methods of 

literary criticism," 91 
Goodhugh's "English gentleman's 

lib.," 87 

Grades of juveniles, 51 
Great Britain, Annotation in, 87-90 
Griswold, W. M., " Descriptive 

lists,' gi 
Gross, C., "Sources of English 

hist.," 91, 96 
Guides to books, 95 
Hampstead P.L., catalogues^, 89 
Historical fiction, Mr. Nield on, 28 

References to history, 54 
Historical personages introduced, 

188, 189 

Historical works, Annotation of, 
20. 81, 196 

History of annotation, 86-93 

Hodgkin, Dr. T., on corruption 
in evaluation, 65 

Homer, J. K., 62 

Hopkins, A. H., 83 

Hortation contrasted with exposi- 
tion, i 

Huddersfield P.L., " Supplemen- 
tary cata.," 28 

lies, George, 92, 96 

Illustrations, 163, 202, 203 



Imprints, local literature, 204 
Indexes, editing note, 153 

subject note, 125 
Instruction in annotation, N.Y. 

State Lib. Sch., 79 
- Drexel Inst., 85 
Jast, L. S., 42, 96, 145 
Johnston, W. D., 62, 96 
Juveniles, Annotation of, 4^-52; 

rules, 205-208 

distinguishing boys' and girls' 
books, 50, 208 

grading books, 51 

Kingston P.L , " Our new books," 
89 

Kroeger, A. B., " Guide to refer- 
ence books," 92, 151 

Language of annotation, 48, 105- 
107, 206 

Language of book, 142, 143 

Larned's " Lit. of Amer. hist.," 
62, 92 

Leypoldt & lies' "Books for girls," 
&c., 92 

Librarians' annotations, 60, 80, 
150 

Librarians, Evaluation by, 63 

Library of Congress, Cooperative 
annotation, 93 

" Library World," Annotation in, 
90 

Limited editions, 167 

Limits of treatment, 144 

Literature of knowledge, Annota- 
ting, 16 27 ; rules, 97 et seq. 

defined, 15 

Literature of power, Annotating, 
28-47; rules, 181-194 

defined, 15 

Local colour, 36-38, 186 

Local literature, Annotation of, 
198-204 

Loose expressions, 39 

Lowndes' " Bibliographer's man- 
ual," 87 

Memoirs, References to, 116 



154 



Index. 



NOTE. The references are to the numbered sections of the. text, 
not to the pages. 



"Memory" table for annotating, 73 
Miscellanea, subject note, 127 
Motives in fiction, 40, 192 
Moulton, C. W., " Lib. of literary 

criticism," 91 

Music, Annotation of, 123, 138, 180 
National Home Reading Union, 57 
Natural science, Annotation of, 

81, 179 

Nature books, Annotation of, 81 
N.Y. State Library School bul- 
letins, 93 

instructions in annotation at, 79 
Newspaper correspondents,author 

note, 1 20 

Nield Mr. J., "Guide to historical 
novels," 88, 96 

historical fiction, 28 

juveniles, 50 
Note defined, 3 

Notes in books, treatment note, 

*39 

Novelty of treatment, 144 
Numbered copies, 167 
Order of parts of annotation, in 
Origin of texts, 122 
Original publication, 155-157 
Original research, author note, 117 
Period of stories, 39, 191 
Periodical publications, Changes 

in, 172 
Peterborough P.L., bulletin, 89 

catalogues, 89, 98, 145 
Philadelphia P.L. , "Cata. of prose 

fiction," 29, 56 
Philological works, Annotation of, 

178 
Philosophical works, Annotation 

of, 81, 175 
Pittsburgh P. L., " Annotated cata. 

(home lib.)," 48, 49 

Annotation at, 83, 84 

- Bulletin, 28, 93 

Classed catalogue, 117 (b), 

M7 () 

- Cooperative annotation, 93 



Pittsburgh P.L., "Graded cata, 
(publ. sch.)," 48, 49 

Place of annotation, 101 102-104 

Plots of novels not to be dis- 
closed, 30, 182 

Political works, Annotation of, 
177 

Polyglots, 143 

Position of annotation, 101, 102- 
104 

Practical work, 67-85 

Pratt Inst. Lib. Sch., 85 

Private correspondents, author 
note, 121 

Providence (R.I.) P.L. bulletins, 

58 

" Publishers' weekly," 93 
Purpose of author, subject note, 

130, 131 
Pyecroft's "Course of English 

reading," 87 
Quaint imprints, 204 
Qualifications of author, 16, 17, 

70 (4), 103, 116-122 
" Questionable " books, 41, 42 
Quotations in notes, 84, 113, 114 
Readers' annotations, 81 
Readers held in view by author, 

20, 51, 137 
Readers, Preparation required 

from, 20, 138 
Reading courses, 57, 145 
Reading lists, 58 
Reference books, Annotation of, 

174 

Authorship of, 119 

for annotator, 94 
Reference lists, 58 
References to authorities, 164 
Relation note, defined, 7 

described, 53-60 

rules, 145-150 

Religious works, Annotation of, 

81, 176 

Researches of author, 117 
Reviews, 70 (8 V 



Index. 



155 



NOTE. The references arc to the numbered sections of the text, 
not to tlie pages. 



Reviews evaluation, defined, 13, 

M 

, Desirability of, 63 
Revision of annotations, 77 
Robertson, J. M., "Courses of 

study," 88 

Rules applied to classes, 173-208 
St. Louis P.L., bulletin, 93 

nt and Whishaw's "Guide- 
book to books," 87, 145 
Sargent's " Cata. of hist, fiction 

for young readers," 51 
Savage, E. A., 96 
Sayers, W. C. B., 96 
Scarce books, 201 
Scenes of stories, 38 
Scientific works, Annotation of, 

Si, 179 

Selection and evaluation, 61 
Sequels, relation note, 147-149 
Series, Annotation of, 102 (b), (c) 
Sherlock, etc., " Fictionitis," 96 
Short annotations, Place of, 104 
Slips used in annotation, 68, 70, 

7 1 - 74 

Smith, J. R., "Bibliotheca Can- 
tiana," 204 

Sociological works, Annotation of, 
81, 177 

Sonnenschein's "Best books," 
" Reader's guide," 87 

Source of book, 162 

Special features, bibliographical 
note, 166 

subject note, 132 

Specialists, Evaluation by, 65 

Standpoint of author, 19, 135 

Stevenson, R., 96 

Stewart, J. D., 96 

Sturgis and Krehbiel's " Biblio- 
graphy of fine art," 92 



Styles of annotation, 100 
Subject note, defined, 5 

described, 18 

fiction, 40, 192 

rules, T23-I34 

Suitability of book to readers, 20, 

51, 137, 207, 208 
Synoptical annotation, 10 
Synthetic annotation, 102, 103 
Technical books, Annotation of, 

81, 180 

Theme note, fiction, 40, 192 
Theological works, Annotation of, 

81, 176 

Thesis, subject note, 123, 124 
Thomson, John, 62 
" ' Times' literary supplement," 

Annotation in, 90, 98 
Title, bibliographical note, 168- 

171 

matter transferred from, 112, 
199 

subject note, 129 
Topographical works, Annotation 

of, 81, 197 
Transference of matter from title 

to note, 112, 199 
Travel, Annotation of, 81, 197 
Treatment note, defined, 6 

described, 19 
- rules, 135-144 

United States, Annotation in, 91- 

93 
Unusual terms in annotation, 

Explanation of, 107 
Useful arts, Annotation of, 81, 180 
' ' Weeding-out ' ' as affecting anno- 
tation, 114 

West Ham P.L. magazine, 89 
Wisconsin F.L. Commission, 106 



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