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XA56-S4N-LWNY 



'% 



UNDER 
HAWAIIAN SKIES 



A NARRATIVE 

of the 

ROMANCE. ADVENTURE AND HISTORY OF THE 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 



By 
ALBERT PIERCE TAYLOR 

Author of "Fighting a Typhoon." "Passport No. 17,849," 
"Miracle of Molokai." 



"A ole oe, no keia halau, nolaila aolc no oe i M > ko'u 
poopoo ' ' — 

"You are not of my House: therefore, you do not 
know the secret of its closets." 



HONOLULU, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 
rtiser Publishing Compan;, Ltd., Fublish«r 



Copyright applied for, 1922, by 

Albert Pierce Taylor 



MY HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 

(Translation from the Hawaiian.) 

O. give lo me my Island home. 

Where zephyrs gently whisper love; 
Where 'nealk majestic palms I roam 

To walch the wild surf rooe. 

I looe its mountains and ih dells, 

lis pathless woods with flowers gay. 
Where the bright-plumaged songster dwells. 

Warbling notes of welcome on its way. 

Beneath the lehua trees we greet 

Sweet strains of music on the wind — 
Hawaiian maids with garlands sweet — 

Endearing scenes of my dear home. 

— Mary Jane Fayerweather Montano. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 
THE WHY OF THE TALE 7 

Yesterday and Today 16 

CHAPTEB 1 

Whence Came the Hawahaks 19 

Hawaiian Version of Their Creation 21 

CHAPTER II 

DiscovEKY OF Hawaii ax Unsolved Puzzle 37 

CHAPTER III 

Teaoedy or Captain James Cook 48 

CHAPTER IV 

Hawaii 's Momentous Night 68 

CHAPTER V 

Builder of a Sea Empire 82 

CHAPTER VI 

Links Binding England and Hawaii 87 

chapteb vii 

Pirates Sought Laib is Hawaii 101 

chapter viii 

Civilization Crosses Threshold 104 

CHAPTER IX 

Mission Crusader of the Pacific 116 

CHAPTER X 

Linkis-g Old with New Hawaii 124 

CHAPTEB XI 

Entire Nation Goes to School 136 

CHAPTER XII 

Picture Rocks to Printed Pages 150 

CHAPTEB XIII 

Sweet Charm op Legends and Folklore 156 

Legend of Kahuilaokalani 157 

Legend of Kahalaopuna 163 

Legend of ' ' Puahuula " 167 

CHAPTER XIV 

Tragedy SIabkbd Discovery of Honolulu Harbor 172 

CHAPTER XV 

In Van of Moral Achievements 184 

CHAPTER XVI 

Greatest Swordsman of Pacific 192 

CHAPTER XVII 

The "Great JIahele" op Kauehaueha III 201 



PAO* 
CHAPTER XVIII 

GoLdbk Court of the Kauehamehas ao8 

CHAPTER XIX 

Merbt Days of Kalakaua, Kex 218 

Yesterdays of Hawaii Nei 2^0 

Giddj Palace and Quarterdeck Days 226 

Lament of the Kamaaina i!32 

Ancient and ModerE Kingly Symbols 237 

CHAPTER XX 

Gaukt Bebeluon 8t.\ij(ki) the IsLAyos 241 

CHAPTER XXI 

Hawaii's Pbeparedness, America's Bulwakk 263 

CHAPTER XXII 

The Cbossboads of Advestube ^69 

CHAPTER XXIII 

Isles of Aloka Land 28U 

CHAPTER XXIV 

Passing or Pictubesqub Monarchy , liSie 

Liliuokalani Is Dying 298 

Kalanianaole Passes 301 

CHAPTER XXV 

Hawaii 's Two Sweetest Melodies 303 

CHAPTER XXVI 

Hawaii's Flag Dominated the Ocean 315 

CHAPTER XXVII 

Last op the Old Guard 3lil 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

Hawaiiax Coat-of-Akms and Old Hawaiian FLA(i 326 

CHAPTER XXIX 

Only Throne Room ik America 331 

CHAPTER XXX 

SuBP-RiDiNG Has Background of Pagan Rites 339 

Unmatched Thoughtfulneas and Alolia 334 

Hawaii 'a Far Outer PossessiouH 347 

CHAPTER XXXI 

The Saint of Molokai , 349 

CHAPTER XXXII 

The Last Word 357 

CHAPTER XXXIII 

Kotzebue's Remarkable Statements 359 

Gone Are the Old Days 364 

America Received First Salute 365 

CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 368 

BULERS OF HAWAII 399 



THE WHY OF THE TALE 



IF the Hawaiian race today lacks incentive lo visualize a 
goal for national achievement, it lias at least, a glorious, 
imperial, barbaric civilization to look back upon. 

As Destiny has already played lier cards and euchered the 
Hawaiians out of their ancient birthright, out of their national 
and racial independence, and even of tlieir own beautiful, colorful 
flag. Fate, the mystic sister of Destiny, not only has brought the 
Islanders beneath the protecting folds of Old Glory, but has also 
so thoroughly stirred them in the Melting Pot of the Mid-Pacific 
that their own rare, delightful, winsome and hospitable person- 
ality has been largely absorbed in the negative and indistinct 
civilization which has emerged from the mingling of East and 
West in the great sea which Balboa discovered centuries ago. 

Out of the legendary and mythical haze of the centuries that 
have paced down the Highway of Time since the bellying sails 
of Columbus' caravels were lowered for the first time in Ameri- 
can waters, to the day when Captain James Cook, Royal Navy, 
discovered, or rediscovered, the Hawaiian Islands in 1778 — an 
achievement so soon to be marked by the flow of the great navi- 
gator's blood into the waters of historic Kealakekua bay when 
the natives learned he was a human being, not an immortal or 
a god — a civilization had risen in the Isles of Mawali, a civilza- 
tion that was richly barbaric and permeated with the pomp and 
circumstance that autocratic and priestly rule imposed. It was 
a civilization which paralleled with remarkable likeness the old 
civilization which prevailed, in varying degree, in countries of 
Europe- 

It is my firm belief that although the Haxvaiians heretofore may 
have been classed by historians and churchmen as savages, as 
heathens and as pagans, they possessed a civilization vastly sujre- 
rior to that of any other Polynesian people, or of any insular peo- 
ple isolated and never previously in contact with another race. 
This civilization attained by the Hawaiians compares favorably 



8 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

with that prevalent in Europe in the Dark Ages and the mediaeval 
period. 

The kings of the various islands were autocratic. They held 
the power of life and death over their subjects. The priests 
swayed a remarkable influence, and violations of the system of 
living which they imposed upon the people, called for the death 
penalty. Women, while acquiring a high place in the lives of 
the people, were proscribed in their daily life by the rule of the 
fearful tabu, yet women have always played important roles in 
the nation. 

But the administration of government, the habits of the rulers 
and the customs of their courts, even the cut of the garments 
for royalty, chiefs and commoners, and the manner of living 
was comparable to that obtaining in civilized countries. 

Spanish navigators are said to have been wrecked upon the 
shores of Hawaii island in the 16th century, and the impress of 
[heir lives is believed by many Hawaiians today to have been 
made upon the race. The ancient Hawaiian helmets and cloaks 
were of beautiful designs, fashioned from the feathers of small 
birds, so beautiful as to command admiration today, and were 
strangely like those of the ancient Greeks and Phoenicians, some 
historians seeing a Spanish influence. Their ceremony of eating 
was far superior to that prevailing in the baronial halls of Europe, 
where gluttony and lack of niceties in the partaking of food were 
in contrast to the delicacy of method prevailing at the fern- 
covered tables of the chiefs under Hawaiian skies. Trunks oT 
trees, fashioned into bowls beautifully polished, and other bowls 
of varying sizes and designs, furnished the table. There were 
large, round bowls for poi ; long, concave trenchers for roasted 
pig; wide, flat ones for fish; small calabashes and gourds for 
relishes and desserts ; large ones filled with water with fern 
leaves floating upon the surface for use as finger bowls — pro- 
viding the ancient Hawaiian with dishes that, in a measure, are 
as beautiful as the chinaware which graces our modern, civilized 
tables. There was no hasty use of both hands over a fish, or 
fowl, or pig. Reclining upon one elbow, even as epicurean Ro- 
mans and Greeks of old reclined, the chief used the fingers of 



THE WHY OF THE TALE 9 

the oilier hand to separate the flesh before him, and each morsel 
was conveyed to the lips witli as much delicacy and grace of 

movement as possible, and the finger bowls were frequently used. 
Can we say as much for the Europeans of ihe Dark Ages? 

So closely allied were the ceremonies of the Hawaiian priests 
to ihose of the Jews of ancient Palestine, — even to the manner 
of constructing their temples. — that there is cause to wonder 
at such superior civilization. The Hawaiians had their Temples 
of Refuge into which the pursued from justice, malefactors, and 
innocently accused persons, could seek and receive shelter and 
respite from injury until the temple authorities could determine 
their guilt or innocence. They had their purification of the tem- 
ples with salt, similar to the ceremony in Palestine. They per- 
formed the ceremony of the circumcision as it was performed in 
the Holy Land. They had their ashes and sackcloth. The priest- 
hood was related to the government and to the direction of the 
habits of the rulers as the priesthood was related to the rulers in 
Palestine. 

Out of the legendary past came the welding of island king- 
doms into one until they became the solidified, glorious and 
brilliant empire ruled by Kamehanieha L often styled Kameha- 
meha the Great, advisedly termed the "Napoleon of the Pacific." 
because of the superb generalship displayed in war by this pagan, 
barbaric ruler, who reigned wisely and with power, whose con- 
tact with (he white men of Eng^land and America gave him a 
better understanding as to the part his own kingdom might play 
in the affairs of men and nations, a remarkable man who died 
in 1819, a year before the American missionaries reached the 
shores of Hawaii to plant the seeds of Christianity. 

Kamehameha was a lawgiver as well as a soldier and con- 
queror. "Let the old men and women and the children lie down 
in safety beside the highway," was his mandate, a law simple 
'and direct, free from unnecessary verbiage, forcefully free from 
ambiguity, yet majestically phrased, and as replete with legal 
meaning as the volumes upon volumes which English-speaking 
peoples have made upon the ■iame subject. 



10 UXDKR HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Tlie royal court of Kamehamelia the Great was as brilliant, 
in a comparative sense, as that of his contemporary, Emperor 
N'apoleon I. Surrounded by great chieftains and generals of 
his own race, with here and there an Enghshman and an Ameri- 
can occupying high positions in liis court, encompassed with 
ceremony and imperial pomp, marked by a display of gorgeously 
colored feather helmets and cloaks and beautiful feather kaliilis, 
every symbol being pregnant with meaning when Kamehameha 
stood, or was seated, to listen or to speak, to hold audience, to 
impost penaliies of death, or lo receive conquered kings and 
chiefs, there was indeed a strange parallel between this court in 
Hawaii and that at Versaiiles. Napoleon roamed over Europe 
with his vast armies and brought potentates and princes to their 
knees. Kamehameha made similar campaigns and conquests over 
all Hawaii. 

It was such a kingdom, prepared ev«n for the new religion 
about lo come to the Islands, that the aged Kamehameha turned 
over to Fate and Destiny on May 8, 1819, when he passed to 
the Beyond. The ancient tabus,' the old religion, the temples 
and the stone and wood gods, were utterly destroyed when Ka- 
mehameha the Great's favorite queen. Kaaliujnanii, and Ids son, 
Liholiho (Kamehameha II). decided that it was time for women 
to be the equals of men, and that the ancient religion gave the 
people nothing. Then it was that the royal edict was pronounced 
to destroy the age-old religion. 

In this remarkable position of a race without a religion. N'ew 
England missionaries on March 30. 1820. found the Hawaiian 
people, receptive and eager for a new religion to replace that 
which they had voluntarily cast into oblivion. Never before in 
the history of the world had there been such an illustration of 
moral force. And thus the religion of the Anglo-Saxon race 
gained its foothold in tlie Hawaiian Islands, giving new impetus 
to political, industrial, maritime and social life in the mid-Pacific 
paradise. 

The kings and chiefs continued their autocratic rule, but the 
power of life and death was circumscribed. Men of England, 
America. France, Russia and Spain sailed into the island har- 



TtlE WHY OF TIIH TALI'. 11 

bors with tlieir war and trading ships; diplomats and religion- 
ists played their cards in the effort to build influence or retain 
it; the Islands, even the naiive rulers and chiefs, became pawns 
in the game of diplomacy; guns of warships were trained upon 
(!ie city of Honolulu now and then; its treasury and customs 
revenues were occasionally raided and confiscated; filibusters 
plotted in San Francisco in the 50's of the last century to cap- 
lure the Islands and establish a republic; its flag was lowerel 
frequently in the face of superior power. 

Able men entered the employ of ihe kingdom and advised the 
riders well. Others, adventurers, soldiers of fortune, sycophants 
and grafters, also secured employment and were cause of in- 
numerable scandals tn government, social and industrial spheres 
of activity. 

Diplomats, potentates, princes, admirals, generals, authors, 
travelers, scientists, explorers, scholars, painters, beautiful women 
from foreign lands, visited Hawaii in numbers as the reigns ot 
the Kamehameha dynasly came to a close in 1874 and the new 
dynasty of Kaiakaua ruled for twenty years more. 

The establishment of steamship lines between San Francisco 
and Honolulu and with the Orient and the Antipodes brought 
cultivated men and women and more soldiers of fortime to the 
Islands to bask in the smiles of royalty; for Kamehameha I\' 
was the king of the elegant and jovial manner; Kamehameha 
\', the king of regal dignity and ceremonial exactitude; Kaia- 
kaua, the royal, merry monarch, al! serving in their various ways 
to create a charming mecca for travelers. Travelers, anil jiar- 
ticularly Bohemians among them, loved (he Islands and their 
kings in those former days, forty to scveuiy years ago. and sany 
of them in prose and poem. There were plots to thrust at least 
two of the monarchs oiT their thrones, all to fail, with the ex- 
ception of the final movement against Liliuokalani in 1893. 

Kaiakaua, seeking heahh, died upon the shores of the Golden 
Gate. Liliuokalani, imperious, headstrong, looking back to the 
imperial days of Kamehameha the Great, decided she should rule 
with the personal power of the barbaric rulers and not under the 
moderate provisions of a constitutional monarchy. She believed. 



12 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

like Louis of France, that She was the State, Two years of her 
reign passeil and she was thrust off the throne. A RepubHc was 
set up by Americans and others who believed that the time had 
come when it appeared necessary to estabhsli a stable, modern 
government. A President was chosen to administer tlie govern- 
ment through a cabinet of ministers. It was the end of mon- 
archy. 

Came a day when, down in another part of the world, in the 
harbor of Havana, an American warship was sunk — the Maine. 
Soon the armies of America and Spain fought upon the soil of 
Cuba, and suddenly the world was electrified when, on the op- 
posite side of the globe, came a message that the power of Spain 
had been humbled in the great bay of Manila. Flashed (he mes- 
sage from Commodore Dewey, commander-in-chief of the Ameri- 
can fleet lying victorious at anchor in the bay before the shat- 
tered hulks of the proud fleet of Spain, to President McKinley 
at Washington: "Send troops!" 

Hawaii then became the actual "Crossroads of the Pacific." 
Long lines of troopships steamed out through the Golden Gate 
into the broad Pacific, destined for far-away Manila, a long, hot 
voyage for newly recruited troops never before out of sight of 
any land, a transport problem which America never before had 
faced. Honolulu, midway across the Pacific, nestliiig in the shade 
of its cocoanut groves, cooled by the trade winds blowing down 
from the Arctic Ocean, offered a haven, of rest — for Honolulu 
means "fair haven." 

But Hawaii was yet a Republic, a foreign land, and to receive 
America's transports and offer comfort to her soldiery was to 
declare herself an ally of America, an enemy of Spain. Then, 
as a military measure or necessity, on July 6. 1898, the Congress 
of the United States passed a Joint Resolution of .Annexation, 
Hawaii became a territon,' of the United States, and transports 
and warships flying the Star?? and Stripes thereafter sailed into 
the American port of Hotiolulu. 

Hawaii has been a land of romance and adventure. It has been 
the playground of poets and prose writers, of painters and mu- 
sicians. "The loveliest fleet of Islands that lies anchored in any 



THE WHY OF THE TALE 13 

ocean," wrote Mary Twain in a lelter which adorns the wall 
of my library. Robert Louis Stevenson, Charles Warren Stod- 
dard, William R. Bliss, George Qianey, Jack London, Lord and 
Lady Brassey, and scores of other authors have been in Hawaii 
and received inspiration for their pens. 

In monarchy days everything centered upon the court and the 
royal palace, the princes and princesses, the balls, receptions and 
audiences in the beautiful throne room of the Palace of lolani ; 
around the visits of wooden-walled warships whose presence in 
port meant dances and receptions on board, often with the king 
and queen and the court present. There were gay parties in the 
country ; there was music ; there was love and adventures in love 
when gay midshipmen plighted their troths to beautiful, brown- 
skinned, soft-eyed maidens of Hawaii, many of whom may have 
but recently returned from finishing schools in America and 
Europe. The rulers of Hawaii were as polished in manner and 
as educated as many who occupied the thrones of foreign coun- 
tries. 

And so, with this lengthy foreword, just to suggest to the 
readers of this book why so many brilliant, colorful and ad- 
venturesome incidents could happen in Honolulu and throughout 
Hawaii during days when the courts of the Kamehamehas and 
Kalakauas were so replete with pompous and semi-barbaric pa- 
geantry, this narrative of "Under Hawaiian Skies" is offered. 

This is a narrative, not a history. I have begun the com- 
pletion of this book on this January 7 , V^ll, in commemoration 
of the centennial date of the first printing dene in the Hawaiian 
Islands, or west of the Mississippi. A century ago today the 
little Ramage printing press, brought around Cape Horn from 
Boston to Honolulu in 1820 in the first missionary brig Thad- 
deus, was screwed down by the mighty chieftain- general, Kee- 
aumoku, in the presence of the King, missionaries and many 
Hawaiians of note, and the first printed sheet of words in the 
Hawaiian language was struck off, one of the most prophetic 
of the historic incidents of the western world. 

This very day, also, only a few hours back, I watched the 
eyes of the last titular Prince of the Hawaiian dynasties — 



14 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole — Hawaii's delegate to Con- 
gress for twenty years, close in death at Waikiki. Both this 
century-old incident, and this hours-old memory, are inspirational, 
and thus I dedicate this book to the people of Hawaii, both Ha- 
waiians and haoles alike, among whom I have dwelt for nearly 
a quarter of a century, and to the people of the world, who, 
having little time to read a complete, academic, chronological 
history of Hawaii, wherein may be crowded so much data that the 
average reader, or traveler, does not care to absorb, will find in 
this volume of word panels of historical events, sufficient history 
to tell what Hawaii was and what Hawaii is today. 

It has been my endeavor to permeate this narrative with an at- 
mosphere of the real, lovable Hawaii, to give an intimate insight 
into the Hawaii of olden days, so that the traveler who visits Ha- 
waii today or tomorrow and finds it modern, with much of the old, 
charming life absent, leaving only Hawaii's soft, alluring climate, 
its wonderful beaches, its active and awe-inspiring volcano of Kil- 
auea, and its hospitalily towards travelers, will know that in these 
beautiful, scintillating, colorful waters away down in the lazy 
latitudes of the Pacific, there is a group of isles that form one 
of the most charming, sunny spots under the American flag. 

In a quarter of a century devoted to Hawaii and its people, 
absorbing much of its history, its myths and traditions, and real- 
izing the lofty place which these kindly Polynesians have ac- 
quired in the sun, I have written much about the Hawaii of yes- 
terday and of today. A number of my stories of Hawaii have 
appeared in the Honolulu Advertiser, with whose editorial staff 
I have been associated these long years. From these stories I 
have retrieved much that will be found snu^led away in the 
pages of this book. Much of llie narraiive is new. and is that 
which comes "by word of mouth" from Hawaiians — "lip pages" 
of Hawaii's ancient history of the period before the Islanders 
had a written or printed language. 

I am also indebted to many of Hawaii's numerous historians, 
legend- writers and bards, and their abundant works, and to them 
I extend my acknowledgments for information that has been of 
value in my own compilation. Among these are Prof. \V. D. 



THE WHY OF THE TALE 15 

Alexander, the historian ; Thomas G. Thrum, historian and com- 
piler, an indefatigable writer, whose literary work in and con- 
cerning Hawaii covers half a century of unusually able activi- 
ties; Mrs. Mary Jane Montano, descendant of chiefs, a Hawaiian 
poetess and historian ; Robert C. Lydecker, librarian of the Ter- 
ritorial archives, whose services in preserving scattered docu- 
ments of old Hawaii has aided this work ; the late Prince Jonah 
Kuhio Kalanianaole, delegate to Congress, Prince of Hawaii, 
gentleman and adviser of his people; the late Queen Liliuoka- 
lani, whose reminiscences of old Hawaii related to m#personally 
were of exceptional value; to Sanford B. Dole, Hawaii's only 
President, its "grand old man," who has been a source of inspira- 
tion; Robert W. Andrews, custodian of the Archives of the Mis- 
sion Cousins' Association, whose office is in the little coral house 
in Mission Center, where are preserved the journals and papers 
of the first missionaries in Hawaii, and where, close by, the first 
printing in Hawaii was done a century ago, and where, also, 
some of the pages of this book were written, where I spent weeks 
in compiling the historical narratives of Rev. Asa Thurston, Rev. 
Hiram Bingham, the Chamberlains, S, N. Caslle, Amos Cooke, 
Dr. G. P. Judd, of the kings and chiefs, the queens and chiefesses, 
and others prominent in the development of Hawaii's educational, 
religious, industrial and financial needs; to Dr. H. B. Gregory, 
director of the Bishop Museum ; and to writers of decades ago, 
including David Malo and D. Kamakau, the native historians; 
Rev. Sheldon Dibble, recorder for the early missionaries ; Abra- 
ham Pomander, historian and compiler; Rev. Samuel C. Damon, 
editor of the Friend, and friend of the mariners; Col. Curtis 
Piehu laukea, court gentleman and former chamberlain to Their 
Majesties King Kalakaiia and Queen Liliuokalani; to E. Een- 
mus, traveler and writer of charm; and I am also indebted to 
many of Honolulu's men and women who moved in the royal 
court circles of the reigns of the later Kamehamehas and of the 
Kalakuas for interesting sidelights on life in Honolulu when the 
officers of the English and American navies contributed not a 
little to the gay social life of the Hawaiian capital. 



16 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

In my time in Hawaii as a newspaperman I have interviewed 
hundreds of notable persons at Honolulu, most of them aboard 
vessels as they were entering Honolulu harbor — diplomats, ad- 
mirals and generals, heroes, adventurers, soldiers of fortune, 
treasure seekers, swashbuckling war correspondents, international 
criminals, literary and musical folk, captains of industry, makers 
and breakers of empires, revolutionists, bucko mates. South Sea 
pirates, explorers, royal personages, shipwrecked castaways. It 
is thus, I believe, that I have corralled the "atmosphere" that I 
sincerely hope will make this narrative interesting and of value 
to those v/m would know Hawaii, but who cannot wade through 
a complete history, just to give the readers an insight into the 
charm of life here in (he Yesterdays so that they may the better 
enjoy the Hawaii of Today — and yet, herein, are many facts 
marshalled and placed on dress parade. 

Again, this narrative, not a history, is offered to the people 
of Hawaii, to those who travel, to those who just read, to those 
who love stories of romance, adventure and achievement, to 
those who would become better acquainted with this tropical out- 
post of America, this picturesque island territory, this Malta of 
the Pacific, lying so peacefully in these Lazy Latitudes of the 
Pacific. 

Albert Pierce Taylor. 

"Luana-Pua," 

Honolulu, January 7, 1922. 



YESTERDAY AND TODAY 

THE Hawaii of Lord George Byron, R. N., Charles War- 
ren Stoddard, Robert Louis Stevenson, of Mark Twain 
and Lord and Lady Brassey, of Sir George Simpson, of 
the Duke of Edinburgh, (ft Isabella L. Bird, the Hawaii of the 
picturesque monarchy period when dusky monarchs ruled the 
Paradise of the Pacific, has passed, but the same old moonlit 
nights remain, the cocoanut palms leisurely nod over the coral 
beaches; the strum of the guitar and the tinkle of the ukulele 



THE WHY OF THE TALE 17 

are heard in the soft Hawaiian night; for the climate of Hawaii 
has the same charm today as it had in the past. 

Hawaii only has changed its flag from the colorful, striped en- 
sign of the monarchy, to the Red, White and Blue of the Ameri- 
can Republic; has acquired paved thoroughfares, electric street 
railways, automatic telephones, cable and wireless systems, mod- 
em hotels, automobiles by the thousands, traffic police, all re- 
placing the old winding coral roadways, the old-style hotels with 
their wide hnais and charming, fragrant gardens. 

Where once upon a time the harbor of Honolulu was fringed 
with quaint wooden sheds to receive cargoes from the Eight Seas 
and where old-time frigates with lofty masts and spreading yards 
were anchored in "The Stream." today there are great concrete 
piers comparing with the most modern at the Golden Gate and at 
Gotham, with huge ships-of-war and great steel commerce car- 
riers resting their steel bulks against them. 

Some of the picturesque elements of Hawaii have disappeared 
in the march of progress, but yet it is the Paradise of the Pa- 
cific, the "Rainbow Isles" of Captain James Cook. Under the 
impetus of commercial development Honolulu has become the 
strategic maritime "Crossroads of the Pacific," for ships still 
come from the Eight Seas. They come from the lands of spice, 
of coffee, from the South Seas where old-time primitive hfe 
may yet be found even as the traders found it half a century 
and more ago; they come from mysterious realms of the Far 
East; they carry away huge cargoes of sugar just yielded from 
thousands of acres of rich sugar cane, pineapples that come from 
vast fields stretching from sea to mountain; bananas that grow 
luxuriantly in water places; tobacco and coffee that grow on 
the uplands of entrancingly beautiful Kona. 

But in Honolulu and everywhere in the Hawaiian Islands may 
be found bits of the picturesque Orient and of the South Seas, 
for Hawaii is a cosmopolitan land and upon its shores dwell 
races of the great and of the small nations of the world, and 
they dwell in amity, while the grist mill of Americanism rum- 
bles on year in and year out, mixing in its crucible all the foreign 



18 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

elements mingling in the Mid-Sea Paradise and yielding a har- 
vest of new citizens of the parent Republic. 

The modern globe trotter has flung away his pugareed helmet 
and green-lined sun umbrella ; he has discarded the label of "tour- 
ist" and "Baedeker" is no longer a conspicuous volume carried 
in his hand while he visits strange lands — even Hawaii. He 
wants to move and live abroad much as he moves and lives at 
home, and he wants the conveniences he knows at home. He 
disembarks at Honolulu from a palatial steamship upon a modern 
wharf, steps into a high-powered motor, drives along a modern 
paved boulevard, directed here and there by traffic police, and 
draws up before a hotel as modern almost as any he has left 
behind him in San Francisco, Chicago or New York — but suited 
exactly to Hawaii's "open-air" climate. That is Honolulu. 

At the picturesque port of Hilo, where Lord Byron named the 
beautiful crescent harbor "Byron's Bay," one hundred and ninety 
miles from Honolulu by water route, he disembarks upon a mod- 
ern wharf, steps into a motor and is whirled over miles of paved 
roadway to the very brink of the awe-inspiring, roaring, living, 
lava-lashed crater of Halemaumau in the volcano of Kilauea — 
a satin-slipper trip for Milady. Hawaii is a playground of the 
world, where every month is the month of May, where Nature 
smiles most alluringly be it summer or winter, for winters and 
summers in Hawaii are synonymous. 

Like Egypt, Hawaii is a land of contrasts and memories, the 
isles a mecca for travelers, but with an atmosphere laden with 
memories of an ancient existence which was a glorious period 
of the history of the Islands. 

A. P. T. 



CHAPTER I 



WHENCE CAME THE HAWAIIANS? 



OUT OF THE DAWN 

WINGING its way high above ihe vast waste of waters, 
far up under the blue vault of heaven, a great bird 
soared majestically, wheeling and dipping, now upon 
one wing and now upon the other, and then, sweeping down- 
ward, dropped an immense egg, which, falling upon the crested 
waves, burst into fragments and formed the archipelago known 
today as the Hawaiian Islands. 

— Hawaiian Tradition. 



MAUI, a superhuman being or god, is said to have laid his 
hand upon the sun and arrested its course, giving his 
consort time lo finish the work of creation which she 
was anxious to complete before darkness drew its pall over the 
face of the earth. So ended the first day in the Hawaiian 
creation. 

— Hazi-aiian Tradition. 



IN ancient Hawaii there was belief in a trinity of gods. Ka-ne, 
the creator of the world, removed the cover of a great gourd 
calabash, and throwing it high in space, formed the sky. The 
god placed his hand within the gourd and brought forth a flaky, 
white substance, and throwing it into the air, formed the clouds. 
He thrust his hand again into the calabash and drawing forth 



20 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

a great handful of seeds, threw them into space and thus formed 
the stars, the sun and the moon. Then he placed his hand once 
more in the gourd, and folding his fingers, made the mountains 
and the valleys and the fertile lowlands to the edge of the sea. 

After Ka-ne had done all this, the god Lono came, the god 
of verdure, and planted al! the verdant things which have made 
earth so glorious, fragrant and beautiful. 

Came then the god Ku, who looked this waj^ and that, striv- 
ing to determine what more should be done to make the earth 
complete, and concluded that man was necessary to what his fel- 
low gods had accomplished. Therefore, he created man and be- 
came the judge of right and wrong. 

— Hawaiian Legend. 



PELE, dread goddess of all volcanoes, a "foreigner from the 
"West," who dwelt in Hawaii, within the vast, fiery, always- 
threatening and ever-active volcano of Kitauea, linking her 
vast resources with those of the superhumans of the age agone, is 
still engaged in the task laid down by the gods of the trinity, 
and year by year disgorges vast, tumultuous, blazing rivers of 
molten lava down the slopes of the "burning mountain" of Mauna 
Loa. Hawaii is yet in the creative stage, despite the humans 
who have made a garden of the summits, the slopes and the 
shores of these Isles of the Lazy Latitudes. 

— Hawaiian Legend. 



ONE can visuah'ze regal, bronze-hued kings and chiefs of 
these isles in the days of feudal glory, surrounded by reti- 
nues of great chiefs and priests and with a background 
of warriors bearing their forest of deadly spears pointed sky- 
ward, with the tom-tom of the drums throbbing, standing upon 
the high lands of Mauna Loa's slopes, gazing out upon the still 
bosom of the Pacific Ocean, mysterious and horizon-lost in its 



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^rnivii niLil Mrs, WLIIiiiii 
! M:ukiii, wif<. of MHJot 



WHENCE CAME THE HAWAHANS? 21 

glittering, heaving monotony, and watching a tiny object drift 
ever so slowly — to them a titanic native canoe — bearing masts 
and sails, vaster than the wind-holders of native fiber they used. 

Who can satirize ignorance begotten of isolation of centuries 
upon centuries because of the fear expressed at such a spectacle 
rising out of the sea? 

Such may have been the astonishment of Kaliniopuu, the king 
of Hawaii, and of the great Kamehameha, founder, later, of the 
Hawaiian monarchy, when Captain Cook's ships of discovery 
came to anchor in Hawaiian waters in the beautiful bay of Ke- 
alakekua, island of Hawaii, where the navigator was first re- 
garded and honored as the god Lono, returned to Hawaii after 
centuries of absence, and where finally, regarded now as a human 
being, the tragedy was enacted when the Englishman forfeited 
his life upon the coral and lava shore. 



HAWAIIAN VERSION OF THEIR CREATION 



POETIC EPIC CPIANTS OF LOST CONTINENT 

HAWAIIANS and historians alike have invaded every field 
of research and opportunity to answer this question. 
None has yet satisfactorily found a solution to this puz- 
zle of the ages. 

Traditions, legends, genealogies, chants, great areas of pic- 
ture rocks whereon Hawaiians carved strange marks, even the 
sacred burial graves have been brought under the searchlight of 
investigation. 

Because of a similarity of religious ceremonies some histo- 
rians assert that the Hawaiians are of Jewish origin, descended 
from a wandering tribe of Israel which crossed Asia and went 
into the Pacific, Because of hierogl3'phics carved upon rocks 
in remote places, some historians ascribe an Egyptian or Persian 
ancestry. 



22 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Some assert that they are a fragment of the Incas or Aztecs, 
and some that Atlantis had not been eng:u!fed before a fragment 
of its people had crossed to the American continent and then 
on to these mid-sea isles, themselves part of a continent where 
now water is horizon-wide. 

Others say their progenitors are the Tahitians, because of 
similarity of appearance, build, speech and customs. But whence, 
then, come the Tahitians? And so the old, old question goes on 
and on in a circle. 

Science has come to the aid of history, and anthropology is 
now a possible link that may solve this puzzling and baffling 
question. 

To the Hawaiians there is no puzzle. The origin of their race 
is solved, in their opinion. Their legends and traditions, their 
genealogies and chants, have so impregnated their thought that 
what is myth to foreigners is fact to the Hawaiians. 

"Mai ka po mai mai ka lewa mai, makou," reply the Ha- 
waiians when they are asked their origin, whence they came. 
Interpreted, this cryptic sentence says: "We come from the 
night, from the moving space," which practically avers that 
they are the Children of God, coming into the light of day from 
the ever-mysterious night. This symbolic interpretation reaches 
back into the hazy, mystic ages hnking fact and myth, and who 
can tell when myth ends and fact begins? 

Historians and many authors dealing with the subject of Ha- 
waii, say Hawaiians, have made a grave error in their interpre- 
tation of the Hawaiian word "lewa," practically all of them mis- 
taking it to mean a boat in motion upon the water, and there- 
fore, finding the word "lewa" recurring frequently in ancient 
chants, they have caught the idea it means the movement of 
boats or ships toward Hawaii from a foreign shore, bringing 
peoples here whom they, the hislorians, assert were the origina- 
tors of the Hawaiian race. The Hawaiians who delve into the 
mysteries of word interpretations, aver that "lewa" means any- 
thing in motion, — the clouds, a flight of birds, the foamy crests 
of the billows — but not boats. 



WHENCE CAME THE HAWAIIANS? 23 

No written history recorded the favorite places of residence 
of the very ancient chiefs and people; their migrations, if any, 
with what craft they made their journeys; how their gods orig- 
inated. The narrative of ancient Hawaii has come down as 
heard by the ear, father to son, down through the centuries. It 
was only through memory, set to sonorous chants, that the an- 
cient Hawaiians were able to hand down to their descendants 
the knowledge of prehistoric events. Memory was the book in 
which they recorded all former happenings. 

But trusting to memory led to differences of opinion and dif- 
ferent understandings of what they heard of ancient events. 
One class of persons would consider that what they had learned, 
and as they learned it, was correct. Others who had heard it 
with variations would suppose that their version was preferable, 
and would treat the other as deceptive ; hence tradition would 
be divided into branches and the truth fall out. 

Hence, probably, the great differences in the genealogies of 
the chiefs. One genealogy assumes one starting point, and an- 
other, another. One thinks his genealogical series is the best, 
and the true one; another thinks the same of his, and both per- 
haps are in error, because the memory was in fault at the be- 
ginning. 

There are names of places and persons in Hawaii met with 
in ancient chants, the origin or meaning of which, however, is 
lost. The Hawaiians today know nothing whatsoever concern- 
ing them. But the explanation may be found in the chants of 
Hawaii Loa, a person of ages ago, who speaks of the "Hawaii 
moe" and "Kahiki moe," or the Hawaii "under the water," ap- 
parently a reference to the Hawaiian Deluge version. 

From these chants the Hawaiians have made the interpreta- 
tion that Hawaii was at one time part of a vast continent, in- 
stead of the present small group of isles in mid-sea, which they 
claim are only the tops of the mountains of the former conti- 
nent. There came a titanic submergence. The Hawaiians speak 
of a "Hawaii that sleeps under the water" (Hawaii moe). The 
great area of the continent bore names of places and of persons 
that were lost in this cataclysmic submergence. But the names 



24 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

continued to be chanted and chanted down through the centuries, 
but no one knows their full meaning. 

Cold, calculating science, separate and apart from mere fanci- 
ful traditions of a myth and legend-loving race, is now endeav- 
oring to demonstrate that there was once a continent in the Pa- 
cific where now are only straggling archipelagos of coral and 
volcanic isles stretching from Hawaii far down into the South 
Seas. As late as 1920 Prof. William Alanson Bryan, member 
of the staff of the Bishop Museum of Honolulu and of the fac- 
ulty of the University of Hawaii, set forth upon an expedition 
into the South Seas to prove that this theory of a former conti- 
nent, now submerged, stretching down the Pacific, is correct. 
Despite the fact that scientists have stated that volcanic disturb- 
ances thrust peaks up from the bottom of the ocean, or that tril- 
lions of coral insects built with infinite patience until coral atolls 
rose above the sea surface. Professor Bryan, a scientist, believes 
thoroughly in the idea of a submerged continent, thereby be- 
coming an advocate of the eld legend of the Hawaiians. 

So it may be proven that these names, now unknown in their 
meaning, may sometime become known. 

Hawaii Loa, according to the traditions, traveled extensively, 
and, it is assumed, along the shores of this great continent, in 
his great canoes, and that, returning, he brought peoples here. 
To the Hawaiians this tells how the slave-caste came to be in- 
troduced among the ancient Hawaiians. 

It is said in the ancient genealogical account of Hawaii that 
the race was "of themselves," had their origin here and that all 
the present race has sprung from them. In the genealogical ac- 
count called Kumulipo (kumu = foundation, root ; lipo, from the 
depth of the sea, or blackness, or a cavern), it is said that the 
very first person was a female, and her name was Lailai. It 
is also said,' in the genealogies, that she sprang from the Night, 
and from her the Hawaiian race. Kealiiwahilani (the Adam of 
the Hawaiians), was the name of her husband, but it is not re- 
lated what were the names of his parents. It is the tradition 
that Kealiiwahilani came down from Heaven and when he looked 
upon Lailai and saw that she was beautiful — she was living at 



WHENCE CAME THE HAWAHANS? 25 

Lalowaia — he took her unto wife, and their immediate descend- 
ants were the progenitors of the Hawaiians. There is a strange, 
eerie parallel in the Creation, as told in the Bible, and the crea- 
tion cf the Hawaiians as related in their ancient chants, for it 
includes a Deluge, just as Noah was the outstanding figure in 
the biblical scene described at Mt. Ararat. 

After Lailai, it was said again in the genealogy, that the first 
person was of the male sex, that his name was Kahiko, that some- 
thing was said of his grand-parents and his parents, but nothing 
distinctly as to their character. All that is clear is that Kahiko 
was a man. 

Kupulanakehao was the name of Kahiko's wife, and from them 
were born Lihauula and Wakea. Wakea had a wife whose name 
was Haumea, more frequently and better known as Pa-pa. 

Wakea and Pa-pa have generally been referred to as the better- 
known progenitors of the Hawaiian race. 

It is said in all seriousness concerning Haumea, or Pa-pa, the 
wife of Wakea, that a precipice (pali) was her ancestor. This 
tradition comes from the genealogy of Paliku, and that from 
Pa-pa was understood to have sprung a line or race of people. ■ 

Paliku was the fifty-sixth generation of the twelfth period of 
the Hawaiian creation, and he was the son of Palipalihia and 
his wife, Paliomahilo. Wakea was the twentieth generation in 
the order of things. OIolo was the brother of Paliku. 

The foregoing are the persons spoken of in the Hawaiian gene- 
alogies as Hawaiian progenitors; therefore, they are considered 
as standing at the head cf the Hawaiian nation, but the place of 
birth is not mentioned. 

Because the names of the places where these persons resided, 
as Lailai and Kealiiwahilani, residing at Lalowaia ; Kahiko and 
Kupulanakehao, at Kamawaelualani, and Wakea and Pa-pa at 
Lolomehani, are not known today, nor for more than a century 
and a half, the Hawaiians assert that these were probably 
located on what is now the submerged continent, 

Wakea and Pa-pa separated and Pa-pa lived at Nuumehalani, 
a district, but the name of the "great ground" was Nuupapakini, 
"the earth," evidently referring to the continent, that was. There, 



26 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Pa-pa (or Haumea), had many grandchildren. From Wakea 
to the time of Haumea's death there are said to have been six 
generations. After these followed nineteen other generations, 
and that some portion of these dwelt on the identical part of the 
continent that is now comprised in the Hawaiian group. The 
twentieth of these generations, called Kapawa, is spoken of as 
living at Kukaniloko, in the district of Waialua, island of Oahu, 
on which the capital city of Honolulu is located. Kukaniloko 
was said to have been Kapawa's birthplace. 

From the time of Kapawa to the present day the generations 
of men on these islands are more or less well known and readily 
traced. 

For decades historians have assumed the theory that the Ha- 
waiians came from Tahiti, because of the frequent recurrence 
of the word "Kahiki" in chants. The early missionaries and 
interpreters of the Hawaiian language immediately translated 
this word as "Tahiti." 

This interpretation led to the assertion that the Hawaiians 
had migrated to Hawaii from the Tahitian group, basing their 
theory upon the supposed fact that the Hawaiians were so simi- 
lar in build, living habits, dress and feudal relations within their 
clans. 

"Ka-hiki," however, freely translated, means the east, the east 
of the place "where the sun rises." This is according to the 
translation of Hawaiian scholars. The Hawaiian name for Ta- 
hiti is "Polapola." 

Possibly the original name of the great continent was "Ka- 
hiki," or "Kahikina," the coming of the sun. 

In the early days of the contact of the white race with the 
Hawaiians and the evident difficulty of the foreigners learning 
the native tongue, the meaning of Hawaiian words was often 
misjudged, particularly the figurative language in which the Ha- 
waiians indulged so largely. Thus, "Ka-hiki" becomes "Ta-hiti" 
to these early visitors, and their mistakes, according to Hawaiian 
authorities on their history and language, became accepted and 
each later historian used this version. 



WHENCE CAME THE HAWAIIANS? 27 

In poetic language "Ka-hiki." "Ka-hi-kina," "Hiki-mai" and 
"Ka-hikiku" mean "the coming," which again naturally inter- 
prets the coming of the dawn. So again, the theory of creation 
among the Hawaiians and the story of the later generations falls 
back upon the submerged continent, or the Hawaiian Deluge, 
called the "Sea of Hinalii," the latter being a chief of that period. 
The submergence left several groups of islands, and thus there 
were survivors, such as the Hawaiians, the Tahitians, the Mar- 
quesans, the Samoans and so on, while a vast area of land and 
names disappeared beneath the sea. 

By a strange coincidence the name of the Hawaiian Noah was 
Nuu. The latter built a large vessel, so tradition says, and a 
house was placed on top of it and called "He Waa-Halau-Alii 
o-ka-Moku," When the flood subsided the gods Kane, Ku and 
Lono entered the "Waa Halau" of Nuu and told him to go out. 
He did so and found himself on top of Mauna Kea, possibly the 
Mount Ararat of the Hawaiian Deluge, and he called a cave 
there after the name of his wife, Lili-noe, and that cave remains 
there to this day. Other legends say it was not there where 
Nuu landed and dwelt, but in Kahiki-Honua-Kele, a large and 
extensive country. Some legends say that the rainbow was the 
road by which Kane descended to speak to Nuu. When Nuu 
left his vessel he took with him a pig, cocoanuts and awa as 
an offering to his god, Kane. As he left his vessel he looked 
up and saw the moon and thought that was the god and said to 
himself, "Thou art Kane, though thou hast transformed thyself 
to my sight," and so he worshipped. Kane spoke reprovingly 
to Nuu, but on account of the mistake, no punishment was meted 
out to him. Then Kane ascended to heaven and left the rainboiv 
as a token of his forgiveness. All the previous population Having 
been destroyed by the flood, Nuu, the legend runs, became the 
second progenitor of all present mankind. 

Ancient chants relate that the island of Maui was named after 
Hawaii Loa's first born son; island of Oahu was called after 
Hawaii Loa's daughter; island of Kauai was called after Ha- 
waii Loa's younger son ; his wife's name was Waialeale, and 
they lived on Kauai, and the highest mountain there was called 



^r ■■' '"^""'"^"TW^ 



28 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

after her because upon it she was buried. And thus other islands 
and districts were called after the first settlers. 

But for the love the people here bore for the great continent 
that "sleeps under the sea" and for their surviving islands, they 
gave certain names to perpetuate events, such as Kahiki-nui, on 
Maui, but they are said, according to Hawaiian tradition, to have 
called the "great continent" Hawaii, and retained this name for 
the group on which they found themselves as survivors. 

If not so, Hawaii was then the name of a person and the 
islands were named for that person. 

What does* the word Hawaii mean? From time immemorial 
the Hawaiians have called themselves "Ko-Hawaii," meaning 
"Of Hawaii" ; "Kapae aina o Hawaii" and "Na Moku Hawaii," 
meaning "The Islands of Hawaii." This, in the opinion of Ha- 
waiians, means that the islands were those "of" the continent. 
Otherwise the meaning is not altogether clear, but is figurative, 
and means "In the beginning," or "the water trough," or "to 
dash water upon a steaming surface." 

The word Hawaii seems to be of comparatively recent origin 
and only known in the 903d generation from Lailai. These isl- 
ands, according to some ancient chants, were known by the pre- 
historic people as the Houpo-a-Kane ("the boscrni of Kane") 
anterior to the time of the last continental collapse which sepa- 
rated each island by the channels that now exist. It is strange 
that one has to refer to tradition to corroborate this event. 

It is related that certain persons landed here from a foreign 
country — "Ka-hiki,"the east — known as Paao and Makuakau- 
mana and their companions, guided across the waters by the 
stars which formed the compass for the ancient Hawaiians ; and 
that Paao lived at Kohala, island of Hawaii, but Makuakaumana 
returned to "Ka-hiki." Paao came to the Islands in the time of 
Lonokawai, chief of Hawaii, and in the sixteenth generation of 
kings after the time of Pa-pa. 

Paao continued to live at Kohala until it is said that the peo- 
ple became wicked, when Paao went abroad seeking a chief and 
returned with one called Pili, who was established in sovereignty 
over the Hawaiians. Paao finally departed from the islands. 




TiiikliiiK ukiili'U's mill U'i-!LiloriiiM in.ii.U-iis uf I[^iw;iii i-iiii.,iU 



WHENCE CAME THE HAWAHANS? 29 

It is narrated in chants that Pili brought two fishes to Hawaii 

— the opelu and the aliu, the Hawaiian tuna of today. When- 
ever the wind was strong upon the ocean, the motion of the aku, 
it was known, would be up and down in the water; when the 
opelu swam quietly the wind was quiet and there was perfect calm. 
Thus Pih and his companions landed upon the shores of Hawaii. 
There the aku and opelu were the tabu fishes in ancient times 

— that is, reserved only for the kings and chiefs to eat. After 
he arrived Pili became king of the islands and became the an- 
cestor of some of the great chiefs. 

Again, it is said that a certain person (Kanaka) relumed from 
a "foreign country." His name was Moikeha and the old chants 
say his hair was red. On his arrival Kalapana was king of the 
Islands. _ Moikeha resided on Kauai and married a woman named 
Hinauulua, and they had a child named Kila. When Kila grew 
up he sailed for a "foreign country"- — "Ka-hiki"— and it is sup- 
posed that he took his departure from the western cape of the 
little isle of Kahoolawe, between Maui and Hawaii, because the 
name of that cape is now called "the road to a foreign country" 
(Keala-i-kahiki). He returned with Laamaikahiki, and that was 
the time when he introduced bamboo tubes (kaekaeke) as musical 
instruments, and ropes made from cocoanut fiber {aha hoa wale), 
and the outrigger canoes (lanalana waa). He landed on Hawaii. 

We are not told that the first canoes in which the people trav- 
eled were called pahi (ship), but the Hawaiians called their craft 
"waas" (canoes). The recurrence of the idea that they came 
from a "foreign country" is accentuated by their phrase "mai 
ka lewa mai mai ke kua mai o ka moku," which means "from 
the crest of the land" and "from the moving space," which under 
Hawaiian interpretation means the "great continent," and does 
not refer lo the "deck of a ship," as some historians aver. 

The version of the origin of the Hawaiian race, entirely sepa- 
rate and apart from the origin of the islands themselves, as in- 
terpreted by historians other than Hawaiians, including Prof. 
Alexander and the early missionary history recorders, is that the 
people were driven across the ocean from Asia, possibly from 



30 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

one group of islands to the next, and so on until they reached 
Hawaii. 

This version includes possible descent from the Jewish race, 
from a lost tribe of wandering Israelites, because some of the 
Hawaiian customs and religious ceremonies are very like these 
of the children of Israel. The practice of circumcision, their 
cities of refuge, their tabus respecting the burying of the dead, 
the institution respecting the periodical infirmities of females and 
of their being set apart for seven days after the birth of a child, 
the purification of temples with salt, and even some of the rites 
of the priests in the temples, were strangely like those cf the 
dwellers in Palestine. 

Prof- Alexander, in a paper read before the Hawaiian His- 
torical Society, many years after he had written his Brief His- 
tory of Hawaii, in which he suggests a Jewish origin for the 
Hawaiians, said that there was possibility of the Hawaiians hav- 
ing sprung from the Persians. 

Whatever their origin they were a race that far excelled other 
races dwelling upon islands in the Pacific. They attained a high 
degree of feudal rule, strangely like that obtaining in Europe. 
Their ceremonies attendant upon the accession of chiefs and 
kings and the holding of royal courts, the conduct of war, the 
chivalric attitude of kings and chiefs toward each other, their 
practice of fashioning dishes from the trunks of trees, dishes 
shaped for fishes and for animals, for poi and other eatables, 
just as dishes are made in various forms today for the uses of 
civilized peoples, were far advanced for an island race. Some 
were dishes for finger bowls in which floated fragrant leaves of 
ferns to aid in cleansing the fingers before, during and after a 
meal, and it may be said that Hawaiians may have been among 
the first peoples to use finger bowls. They sat before a table 
that was composed of fern and ti-leaves laid upon the ground 
and upon which the calabashes were placed. They partially re- 
clined, just as the Greeks and Romans of ancient days reclined, 
partaking of their food with one or two fingers, as etiquette re- 
quired for particular occasions. 



WHENCE CAME THE HAWAIIANS? 31 

They were a stalwart people, with splendid physical develop- 
ment. Warfare developed each male, and sometimes the women, 
for there were Amazons often fighting in the ranks. It made 
a mighty race of pleasing appearance, for the Hawaiian even 
today has a marked difEerent appearance with his soft black 
hair, equally soft and welcoming eyes and hospitahty fairly 
breathing an "Aloha" to stranger and friend alike. 

Now, having digressed from the theory of the Islands repre- 
senting the remnants of a lost continent, to relating genealo- 
gies and suggesting a former high type of civilization for this 
race, one may refer to the official report cf the Board for the 
Collection of Ancient Hawaiian History and the Genealogy of 
Hawaiian Chiefs, which was authorized by the Hawaiian Legis- 
lature in August, 1880, and appointed by King Kalakaua in 1882. 

Its purpose was to gather, revise, correct and record alt pub- 
lished and unpublished history of Hawaii, to act similarly with 
the meles and to ascertain their object and spirit. When the 
beard was making its investigations there was a stonn of heated 
discussion over some of the published results, one of which was 
the theory that Hawaii was all that was left in this part of the 
world of a former vast continent. The theory was scoffed at 
and historians affected not to take notice of it, many preferring 
to cling to the theory of Jewish or Persian origin of the race 
by migrations across Asia and the Pacific through various isl- 
ands, and generally by way of Tahiti. 

Nearly half a century has passed since then. The theory of 
the lost continent is no longer chimerical. Scientists from abroad 
are working upon it as plausible and scientifically possible. In 
its report to King Kalakaua, the board, in order to arrive at a 
correct hypothesis to account for the existence of the prehistoric 
people, announced it had applied to the surveyor general's office 
at Honolulu for maps and was furnished with those of the deep- 
sea soundings made by the U. S. S. Tuscarora from the Ameri- 
can continent to Honolulu, and from Honolulu to the Asian con- 
tinent, and by H. M. S. Challenger from the same terminals to 
the Hawaiian group. 



32 UNDER .HAWAIIAN SKIES 

The object of the board in thus applying the evidence of deep- 
sea sounding to their work was not for the purpose of raising a 
geological question for determining the age of the Islands by 
Iheir volcanic formation, whether simultaneously ejected from 
the bottom of the sea or from gradual sinking of old continents. 
The evidence adduced from these soundings was considered of 
value in solving many points and theories. One quotation taken 
from notes on the maps and diagrams by Lieut. G. E. G. Jack- 
son, fonnerly of the British Royal Navy, is important: 

"My theory is there once existed two vast continents tn the 
Pacific — the eastern and the western. The eastern, consisting 
of the Hawaiian, Samoan, Tongan and all those islands to the 
eastward, taking in New Zealand and adjacent islands, and the 
eastern portion of Fiji. This continent is peopled by the Ma- 
layan race. The Western Polynesia consisted of what is known 
as New Guinea, Solomon. New Hebrides, New Caledonia and the 
western portion of Fiji, and was peopled by the Papuan and 
woolly-headed people, very black, very savage and very much 
addicted to cannibalism, a race totally different in every respect 
from the civjlized eastern Polynesian, for cannibalism was un- 
known amongst the Hawaiians. A thorough sounding of the 
whole Pacific would do much towards solving this great scien- 
tific problem, and I trust some day not distant to see this im- 
portant matter taken in hand by the great powers." 

The indications of atollic formation of the islanns that dot 
the Pacific Ocean, and the wide diffusion and distribution of the 
Polynesian race and races having the same affinity of speech, 
manner, habits, physique, and bearing the closest resemblances 
with the aboriginal races of the Eastern and Western Hemi- 
spheres, can only be accounted for by the many transformations 
of the earth's surface at its most remote period. The Pacific 
Ocean continents passed their antediluvian age in a similar man- 
ner to that of European, African and Asian continents. 

But to return lo the hypothetical area of a once-existing con- 
tinent in the Pacific Ocean, it can easily be imagined, when there 
exists a chain of islands, mere specks above the ocean, com- 
mencing from Nippon of the islands of Japan, and running 



WHENCE CAME THE HAWAIIANS? 33 

south, including In its range the islands of Bonin, through the 
Ladrone and Marshall groups. Again, from Japan eastward, 
through the chain of Ocean Island, including Midway and Laysan 
to Hawaii, thence south to Palmyra, Madelin, Baker, to the 
Marquesas, the Society or Pomutu group, including Samoa. 

And from the Philippines is another semblance of a continua- 
tion of the Asian continent running through the Caroline group, 
reaching to Fiji, which separates the Western from the Eastern 
Polynesian group. 

The board, through ancient folklore, refers to the ancient 
Mele of Kumulipo, referred to early in this chapter, which indi- 
cates a regular cosmogony of seven periods or ages given be- 
fore the appearance of the human race, the first being that of 
the woman Lailai. Four hundred and fifty generations from 
that of Lailai, the wife of Kapolokalii, by the name of Uliuli, 
leaves the country and travels toward the west. In Hawaiian 
mythology she is designated as Uliuli Ulu nui melemele o Haka- 
lauaialono, noted for her generosity, and goddess of agriculture. 

The second migrations appear to have taken place at the 656th 
generation. Halulu, wife of Kepoo, takes her departure from 
Upolu, a land at Kohala, Hawaii, and goes to or migrates to 
Kahiki-mai-e-ka, a locality now known by name at Kahaualea, 
Puna, Island of Hawaii, and upon it is a temple or heiau by the 
same name, sunk several fathoms under the sea, and said to be 
seen only by fishermen in calm weather. 

The third appears at the fourth generation after Wakea, at 
the time of Nanakehili, who is reported to have been one of (he 
wicked Kings. He was slain by his people. 

The mele Kumulipo, owing to its peculiar originality, was 
considered one of the richest acquisitions to the work of the 
board. From this source of information it is evident that the 
ancient people of Hawaii had a cosmogony of their own, though 
differing in many respects from the regular geological order and 
classification of periods. In this history there appears to be a 
faint recollection of a Great Deluge. 

The Kai-a-Kahina-AJiis, or Deluges, that have occurred on 
these Islands are but the evidences of a gradual subsidence by 



34 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

a greater or less degree of contraction of the earth's surface. 
The locality of the catastrophe which the ancients of these Isl- 
ands have often mentioned in their traditions as Kai-a-kahina- 
ahi, meaning "The sea which destroyed the Kings," or the lost 
of all vestiges of a former creation, is unknown. 

The first subsidence, or Kai-a-kahina-alii (Deluge), took place 
in the reign of Alahinalea and Palemo, his wife, the 200th gen- 
eration after Lailai. The second at the reign of Papio and 
Loiloi, his wife, the 204-th generation after Lailai; the third, in 
the reign of Liipau and Kaneiwa, his wife, the 602nd genera- 
tion after Lailai, and the last or final collapse took place in the 
reign of Kahikoluamea, the 901st generation after Lailai, 

Here enters one of the pretty myths of the ancient Hawaiians, 
so like those of the Greeks, Maui-a-Kalama, or Maui-a-Kamalo, 
who dates after the 925th generation from Lailai, and the 24th 
from Wakea, knowing the tradition of his forefathers that the 
Islands were alt one and dry at one time, determined to bring 
them together again, Maui took the famous hock of his father, 
Manaiakalani, planted it at Hamakua, Hawaii Island, to pull 
up the fish god Pimoe, and with his three brothers pulled to- 
wards the Island of Maui, Maui-a-Kalama commanding strict 
injunction upon his brothers not to look back or the object of 
their expedition would fail, 

Hina, in the shape of a bailing-gourd, appeared at the sur- 
face. Maui, unconscious of harm, grasped the gourd and placed 
it in front of his seat. 

Lo! Behold, a beautiful maid appeared, whom the brothers 
could not resist, and fascinated with her charms, all looked back 
at the beautiful mermaid. The line parted, Hina disappears and 
the grand expedition, the object of which was to connect the 
islands as they originally were, ended in failure. 

The Hawaiians had still another version of a Noah. The 
mele tradition speaks of one or more of those convulsions 
of nature, the waters rising and nearly covering the highest 
peaks of the mountain of Maunakea, so that Kahikoluamea, on 
a floating log of wood called Konikonihia, with his family, were 
the only survivors of one of the catastrophies. This legend indi- 



WHENCE CAME THE HAVVAIIANS? 35 

cates the disconnection of the Islands of Hawaii, Maui, Lanai, 
Kahoolawe, Oahu, Kauai and Niihau. 

Though but mere dots in the ocean, they are the living evi- 
dences of the remnants of the wreck, and from these may be 
deduced evidences of the existence at one time of a submerged 
island continent in the center of the Pacific Ocean. 

Scientists, who regard the Islands as entirely of valcanic origin, 
either thrust up from the bottom of the ocean by a titanic erup- 
tion, or gradually built up, flow by flow of lava from the volcanic 
craters, assert the Islands are twenty thousand years old. It is 
a theory based on scientific deductions, stripped of all myth and 
tradition. 

Do the Hawaiians of today beheve in these legends of the 
creation of their race? Do the Anglo-Saxons believe in fairies? 
The answer is the same to both questions — yes. 

Even today the Hawaiians have a strong belief in the "lost 
continent" idea, for mystic ancient rites are still indulged in at 
the Island of Niihau, at the point of Kamalino, near the landing 
of Nono-papa. 

Just to the right of the landing at Nono-pape is a rock called 
"Ka-hiki-moe," "the sleeping east." It is oblong in shape and 
not very large. Below this is a land cave. The Hawaiians who 
visit this spot to see the noted "Ka-hiki-moe" make ofl?erings 
of awa root and other things as they did centuries ago. 

As you look down into the sea there is revealed a great cre- 
vasse, which is said to be the passage through which this small 
rock came to the land. 

Far out as you look seaward and just above the waters there 
is a red stone, known as the "Pio-ke-anueanue," or "the arching 
rainbow," because of its coloring, for it is there the sun seems 
to set, and where the rainbow's end seems to pass from sky into 
the depths of the ocean. 

Near the landing there is also an indentation which is said 
to be an imu (Hawaiian open-air oven) used by and for the 
beautiful woman "Pio-ke-anueanue." There is also a rock which 
rests partly on the sand and partly in the water, in the form 



36 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

of an eel, called Puhi-ula ("the red eel"), and known as the 
guardian god of the ocean. 

Over on the Island of Molokai is a rise of the land called 
Nauea-a-pii, and from there to Mauna Loa, on Molokai, there 
are footprints of the feet of the gods, showing that even they 
came to Hawaii from "ka-hiki," the "place of the dawn." 



CHAPTER II 



DISCOVERY OF HAWAII AX UNSOLVED PUZZLE 



GAETANO OR COOK? 

THERE is no uncertainty among Hawaiians as to the truth 
of their tradition that centuries before Captain James 
Cook, R. N., sailed his ships into Hawaiian waters some 
fair-haired and hght-complexioned people were cast up on the 
shores of the Island of Hawaii from a strange looking craft, 
and that these people continued to dwell among the Hawaiians, 
and married and were the progenitors of a type of people whose 
descendants today are of light complexion among the Hawaiians, 
their hair even slightly reddish in hue. 

This tradition is as strong in their belief of the historical ac- 
curacy of this discovery of the islands by foreigners — possibly 
in the 16th century — as other historians are that Captain Cook, 
who sailed into Hawaiian waters with his two ships in 1778, was 
the first to discover the Hawaiian Islands. 

Historians of Hawaii and historians of Europe have attacked 
the puzzle of who discovered Hawaii, and yet none of them are 
as yet certain. In the end the claimants for Captain Cook are 
sure that the supposed discovery of Hawaii by Don Juan Gae- 
tano in 1555 is all a myth, Hawaiians quote their meles, their 
chants, their genealogies, their legends to prove that the Span- 
iard was first in Hawaii. 

Despite the valuable treatise on this subject written by the 
Danish historian, E. W, Dahlgren, probably one of the most 
exhaustive compilations of data from documents perused in vari- 
ous libraries of Spain, England, America and Hawaii, in which 
he concludes with the abrupt statement that all his researches 
proved that the first European to gaze upon the islands of Ha- 



38 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

waii was Captain Cook, there is much in the Spanish contention 
that Juan Gaetano is entitled to this credit. 

The honor of makings the Hawaiian Islands known to the 
world belongs undoubtedly to Captain Cook, but whether Cap- 
tain Cook had aboard his flagship, the "Discovery," copies of 
an old Spanish chart of the Pacific which was captured aboard 
a Spanish galleon captured by Commodore Lord George Anson 
on June 30, 1743, or 35 years before Captain Cook reached Ha- 
waii, on which the approximate position of these islands was 
placed, is not definitely known. Some historians assert that he 
had and that a Lieutenant Roberts marked upon his charts the 
location of the mysterious islands which eventually turned out 
to be the Hawaiian group. 

On the map of the world which accompanies the history of 
Cook's vayoge we find, on the same degree of latitude as Ha- 
waii but about 20 degrees of longitude east thereof, a group 
of four islands of which the two westernmost are called Los 
Majos; the furthest to the southeast. La Maso. 

The draughtsman, Lieut. Henry Roberts, has given a detailed 
description of the sources of this map. He says that after leav- 
ing England, Captain Cook commissioned him to draw up a 
map of the world on the basis of the best material that was 
available for this purpose; and that this commission, for the 
most part accomplished before Cook's death, so that a special 
draft was ready, in which only those parts were left vacant 
which they hoped to investigate in the course of the voyage. 
When the map was about to be pubhshed after the return home, 
however, it was found necessary to re-examine and amplify it 
in accordance with the latest and best authorities. Roberts gives 
a detailed account of these authorities, and then adds that "every 
other part of the chart, not mentioned in this account, is as 
originally placed by Captain Cook," As the above named group 
of islands and a number of other islands in the adjacent parts 
of the ocean, are not mentioned as the objects of re-investiga- 
tion after the arrival home in England, it is assumed that they 
were inserted by Cook himself, or, with his knowledge, by Rob- 
erts. Cook, therefore, probably had no doubt of their existence. 



DISCOVERY OF HAWAII 39 

but £or other reasons he quite certainly had no suspicions that 
they might possibly be regarded as identical with the Hawaiian 
group discovered by himself. 

The nearest source from which the existence of these islands 
had been derived, however, is not difficult to find : It is a chart 
of the northern part of the Pacific Ocean which Lord Anson 
■found on a Spanish galleon which he captured in 1743 in the 
neighborhood of the Philippines. 

In submitting this chart to close examination it is found that 
the group of islands in question exhibits a number of details 
which are not reproduced in Roberts' map; that instead of Los 
Majos we fined Los Mojas, and instead of La Maso, La Mesa, 
and that the fourth island has a name La Eisgraciada, which is 
missing in Roberts' map. 

Cook's successors manifestly shared his conception of the group 
as a land distinct from Hawaii, these all being English navi- 
i;ators. 

The 20th of January, 1778, the day on which Captain James 
Cook landed on one of the islands, where, a year later, the 14th 
of February, 1779, he was to end his glorious life, can safely be 
characterized as one of the landmarks in the history of geo- 
graphical discovery, not only because of the intrinsic importance 
of the discovery, but also, and to a still greater extent, because 
this discovery inaugurated the investigation of the maritime area, 
the northern part of the Pacific Ocean having remained unknown 
in its essential features to the peoples of Europe. 

That Cook was the first European who beheld the Hawaiian 
archipelago, or the Sandwich Islands, as he himself called them, 
began to be disputed not long after his death. It was then al- 
leged that Spanish navigators discovered the group and marked 
them upon the map of the world. This assertion has been re- 
peated with greater or less definiteness by practically all writers 
of history or geography ; by — to mention only some of the most 
eminent — Alexander von Humboldt, James Burney, J. G. Kohl, 
Carl E, Meinecke, Sophus Ruge, Henry Harrisse, Elisee Reclus, 
Siegmund Gunther, Konrad Kretschmer and Edward Heawood, 



40 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Thus supported by the best authorities, the statement lias been 
regarded as an estabHshed fact. 

Cook himself, however, said: "Had the Sandwich Islands been 
discovered at an early period by the Spaniards, there is little 
doubt that they would have taken advantage of so excellent a 
situation and have made use of Atooi (Kauai) or some other 
of the islands as a refreshing place to the ships that sail annually^ 
from Acapulco to Manila." 

This would make it appear that Cook really had no knowledge 
of the group of islands in that part of the ocean and that he 
was not guided in his enterprise by a previous discoverey. The 
reasons why Cook sailed northward from Tahiti over the course 
that unexpectedly led him to the discovery, or re-discovery, ap- 
pear unmistakably from the plan of his voyage and its object, 
as it was put before him in the instructions issued by the British 
Admirahy. He was to seek for a northerly route from the Pa- 
cific to the Atlantic Ocean ; in other words, to investigate the so- 
called Northwest Passage in the direction opposite to that which 
had previously been tried, through Hudson's Bay and Baffin's 
Bay. He had been specially instructed not to lose time by seek- 
ing for new lands, and accordingly he only came across the little 
uninhabited Christmas Island before, on January 17, 1778, he 
sighted some islands ; these were the westernmost islands of the 
Hawaiian archipelago. They landed on Kauai and Niihau. Of 
the greater eastern islands iliey sighted only Oahu ; the ques- 
tion whether still more existed, of which the natives seemed to 
have some knowledge, had to be left unsettled on the first visit; 
and the confirmation of this was left to future investigations. 

Now as to the Spanish discovery. Senor Don Ricardo Btltran 
y Rozpide, speaking before the Rcyal Geographical Society of 
Madrid, whose remarks were published by that society in their 
■■bulletin" of 1881, threw light on the puzzle. 

He said that in the 16lh century and the earlier years of the 
17th, the Spanish flag dominated, without a rival, in the waters 
of the two oceans. Spain continued the work on Colon, sought 
for and found a new route to Oriental India, and the fearless 
navigators, desiring to extend the dominions for their country. 



DISCOVERY OF HAWAII 41 

and by so doing gain honor and renown, fitted out numerous 
expeditions by sea; which resulted in the discovery of the Philip- 
pines archipelago, the Ladrone, the Marquesas, Solomon, Santa 
Cruz and Caroline Islands in the Pacific Ocean. In the ports 
of Peru and New Spain (Chile), he saidj were anchored the 
renowned galleons of that epoch, whose course was directed to- 
wards the coasts and archipelagos of Oriental Asia. 

With faith in God or destiny, venturesome, disregarding dan- 
gers, and with the splendid courage that characterized the earlier 
Spaniards, they led the way in these heretofore undiscovered 
and mysterious seas, carrying the proud name of their country 
and the emblems of their religion to strange shores, not forget- 
ting in their search the baser metals. One of the most import- 
ant expeditions was that of General Lopes Villalobos in 1542, 
which sailed from Chile for the Molaccas, and who wa sacconi- 
panied by Juan de Gaetano in the capacity of pilot or navigator. 

In the report of the voyage Gaetano mentions '.'las Islas del 
Rey," "the King's Islands," about 900 leagues from the coast 
of Mexico (in reality a little over 2000 miles), and as the ex- 
pedition of Villalobos followed the approximate latitude of "the 
archipelago oi Hawaii," or "The King's Islands," it is reason- 
able to suppose that they are the same which Cook rediscovered. 
There may have been errors in computation of the longitude or 
latitude, or in placing them upon the map, to account for this 
discrepancy. The Spaniards back up their contention by the 
production of charts and documents. 

The Hydrographical Department of the Spanish Government 
at Madrid, on being^ questioned concerning documentary evidence 
of the Spanish discovery of Hawaii, replied that it was true no 
document bad been found certified to by Gaetano, subscribing 
to the fact of discovery in 1555, but "there exist data which 
collectively form a series of proofs sufficient for believing it 
to be so. The principal one is an old manuscript chart, regis- 
tered in these archives as anonymous, and in which the Sand- 
wish Islands are laid down under that name, but which also 
contains a note declaring the name of the discoverer and date 



42 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

of the discovery and that he called them 'Islas de Mesa' (Table 
Islands). 

The Spanish of Madrid claim that Cook found on Hawaii 
part of a wide sword, whose existence there he could not sat- 
isfactorily account for, which the Spanish claim was of Spanish 
origin. 

Senor Rozpide continues in his address that "There are in 
the archives of the Bureau of Hydrography in Madrid, many 
letters and MSS. giving very clear and authentic information 
in regard to these islands, notably the chart of the frigate Buenfin 
in 1773, on which the islands 'Monges' are called 'Mira and 
UUoa to the eastward of the Island of Hawaii,' " These, he 
claims, are the islands seen by Gaetano, "but, from the imperfect 
instruments then in use, errors of latitude and longitude were 
made." 

Now as to the Hawaiian version, the one brought down from 
the misty past in legends, traditions and genealogies. 

It was the English missionary, William Ellis, who first noted 
down and published some of the traditions concerning the pos- 
sible visits of Europeans before that of Cook and the supposed 
traces of their influence. He arrived at the islands in 1822. 
Having been in Tahiti he was able to converse with the Ha- 
waiians within a few months, and then delved into, the past of 
the Hawaiian race. Ellis learned that they had three accounts 
of foreigners arriving at Hawaii prior to Captain Cook. The 
first was the priest Paao, who landed at Kohala, Island of Ha- 
waii, and to whom the priests of that neighborhood traced their 
genealogy until just before Ellis' arrival. 

The second account states that during the Hfetime of Opiri, 
the son of Paao landed somewhere in the southwest part of the 
island and repaired to the mountains where they took up their 
abode. The natives regarded them with superstitious curiosity 
and dread, and knew not whether to consider them as gods or 
men. Opiri (Pili) was sent for by the king of that district. 
Provisions were cooked and presented to the strangers, and con- 
versation was held, through Opiri (Pili), the tradition avers. 
The foreigners later departed. 



DISCOVERY OF HAWAII 43 

No account is preserved of the kind of vessel in which they 
arrived or departed. The name of the principal person amon^ 
them was Manahini, and it is a singular fact that in the Mar- 
quesan, ociety and Hawaiian Islands, the word manahini is still 
employed to designate a foreigner or stranger, but in Hawaii 
the word is pronounced and spelled malahini. 

The third account describes the arrival, during the reign of Ka- 
houkapu, king of Kawaloa, of seven foreigners at Kealakekua 
bay, the spot where Captain Cook subsequently landed. They 
came, according to the tradition, in a painted boat, with a canopy 
over the stern. The color of their clothes was white or wellow, 
and one wore a pahi (knife), probably a sword, and wore a 
feather in his hat. They remained, married among the Ha- 
waiians, were made chiefs, proved themselves warriors, and ulti- 
mately became very powerful in the Island of Hawaii. 

A story which rather reminds one of this last, and which is 
possibly a variant of it, is told by Otto von Kotzebue, who visited 
Honolulu in 1825 as commander of a Russian man-of-war. His 
authority was Kalanimoku, a great chieftain and general under 
Kamehameha the Great, and the one who received the first mis- 
sionaries at Hawaii in 1820, whose words were interpreted by 
Don Marini, a Spaniard who had lived for many years in the 
islands. 

The chieftain said that a boat with five white men landed in 
Kealakekua bay near the heiau ( temple ( where Opuna was 
buried. She was Queen Kalkilani-wahine-alii Opuna, who was 
killed by her husband, Lonoikamakahiki. The natives regarded 
them as higher beings and therefore did not prevent them from 
taking possession of the temple, in which holy spoto they were 
not only safe from pursuit, but also had plenty of food, as such 
was brought daily to the temple as sacrifice to the idols there 
erected, and became regarded as the envoys of Lono, who, ac- 
cording to Hawaiian traditions, governed Hawaii in the fabulous 
ages, or was even a god. 

They mixed freely with the priests and performed the holy 
ceemonies in combination with them in the temple. Then they 
appeared among the people, and though the people regarded them 



'IJ l-HPfWflWPPilSPI^'Iff '^IWAU'l^'Hi. W li«PRI9^ 



44 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

now only as men, yet they remained and were highly respected, 
and received maidens of noble birth as wives and pome became 
rulers. The descendants of these strangers, so Kotzebue wrote, 
including most of the nobility of the islands, were still distin- 
guished by their whiter skin. 

The story most often cited as evidence that before Cook's 
time Europeans had visited Hawaii is definitely presented for 
the first time in a summary of the history of the Islands com- 
posed by pupils at the American mission-school at Lahainaluna 
on the Island of Maui, and printed by the pupils themselves in 
1838. The title of the little volume is "Ka Moolelo Hawaii." 
Its contents were arranged for publication by a teacher at the 
school, Rev. Sheldon Dibble, a missionary of high literary at- 
tainments, but it is commonly cited under the name of the prin- 
cipal Hawaiian historian and brilliant author, David Malo. The 
English version, as quoted by the historian Fornander, runs as 
follows : 

"In the time of Kealiiokaloa, king of Hawaii and son of Umi, 
arrived a vessel at Hawaii. Konalihoa was the name of the 
vessel, and Kukanaloa was the name of the foreigner (white 
man) who commanded, or to whom belonged the vessel. His 
sister was also with him on the vessel, 

"As they were sailing along, approaching the land, the vessel 
struck at the pali of Keei and was broken to pieces by the surf, 
and the foreigner and his sister swam ashore and were saved, 
but the greater part of the crew perished perhaps; that is noi 
well ascertained. 

"And when they arrived ashore they prostrated themselves on 
the beach, uncertain perhaps on account of their being strangers, 
and of the different kind of people wliom they saw there, and 
being very fearful perhaps. A long time they remained pros- 
trated on the shore, and hence the place was called Kulou, and 
is so called to this day. The white rock there is called Pohaku- 
kea. and the cliff above 'Mauna-kapu,' or Sacred Mountain, for 
there the Spaniards are said to have worshipped. 

".^nd when evening came the people of the place took them 
to a house and entertained them, asking them if they were ac- 




1 <i K.-<.U!i (tin. taliu .-liff of KouiiH, riillivr nf 
iiift },isU<ri,- Koiil;ikakii:l Hay, pi,-r,'..l 



t)i<> i-lifT tniul.s 



DISCOVERY OF HAWAII 45 

quainted with the food set before them, to which they replied 
that they were ; and afterwards, when breadfruit, ohis and bana- 
nas were shown them, they expressed a great desire to have tliem, 
pointing to the mountains as the place where to get them. The 
strangers cohabited with the Hawaiians and had children, and 
they became ancestors of some of the Hawaiian people, and also 
of some of the chiefs," They were known as Lala kea, meaning 
the "white branch of the free." To the Hawaiians the white man 
was termed "kekea," while "haole" meant any foreigner, irre- 
spective of color. 

According to Fornander, this story was generally current in 
many of the Islands, and the landing of the strangers was local- 
ized in various places. The version above quoted, however, 
which places the event on the west coast of Hawaii, is regarded 
by him as the original one. 

Several attempts have been made to determine the time when 
the event related happened. Fornander, on the basis of the na- 
tive genealogies, calculated that King Kealiiokaloa, during whose 
time the strangers are said to have arrived at Hawaii, reigned 
between the years 1521 and 1530, and in accordance with this 
he assumed that the stranded ship belonged to Alvaro dc Saave- 
dra's squadron. J. J. Jarves, with the support of a similar cal- 
culation, arrived at the year 1620. 

In fact one historian has given the castaways the names of 
Juan and Beatriz Alvirez. 

Another substantiation of the idea that Spanish discovered the 
Islands and that some were wrecked on them is that there are 
evidences of European influence. It has long been held that 
the beautiful cloaks and helmets worn by the kings and chiefs, 
made from the feathers of birds, placed upon a background of 
tree and plant fiber, woven like strands of rope, are like those 
of the Spanish warriors, or were imitations of their helmets and 
cloaks. However, the helmets were more like those worn by 
the ancient Greeks and Phoenicians than the Spaniard. There 
may, however, have been a native variation of the steel helmet 
worn by the soldiers of Spain, and that the final shape resembled 
that of a Greek soldier, may have been in the gradual evolution. 



46 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Historians may differ as to who discovered the Hawaiian 
Islands. The Hawaiians are generally agreed that centuries be- 
fore Cook arrived other foreigners reached the Hawaiian shores. 
It is true, however, that Cook made the Islands known to the 
world, and from that time they came into prominence in the 
councils of the powers, and today are not the least of import- 
ance of all the states and territories of the American Republic. 

The most curious fact that presents itself to the eye of the 
traveler in the ruins of temples built by Umi, who was called 
"The Mountain King," who reigned over the whole Island of 
Hawaii in Ihe 16th century, is the existence of a mosaic pave- 
ment in the form of a regular cross, which traverses the enclosure 
in the direction of its length and breadth. 

This symbol is not found in the monuments anterior to this 
king nor in those which are posterior to him. Involuntarily one 
sees in this a proof of the two white shipwrecked persons whose 
landing upon the Island of Hawaii has been told. 

May it not be inferred from the existence of these Christian 
emblems that towards the time when the great Umi filled the 
group with his renown some shipwrecked Spanish, or even Portu- 
guese, sought to introduce the religion of Christ into the 
Islands. This peculiarity was observable in the monuments 
erected during Umi's reign, but not in other heiaus (temples), 
as for instance at Kupalaha, in the district of Makapala ; Moo- 
kini, at Puuepa; Aiaikamahina, near the sea at Kukuipahu; and 
Kuupapaulau, towards the mountain at the same place. 

The remains of these four remarkable temples are found in 
the district of Kohala, Hawaii Island. In them there is not the 
slightest division into the form of a cross. It was in Umi's 
domain, proper, that the shipwrecked foreigners landed. 

The Hawaiian chants reveal an apparent discrepancy in the 
time of the supposed introduction of foreigners to Hawaii. Umi 
was the father of the king who reigned when Gaetano is be- 
lieved to have touched at Hawaii, which was in 1555. 

The shipwrecked Spaniards who are said to have come ashore 
at Keel, near Kealakekua, Kona, Hawaii, probably reached the 



DISCOVERY OF HAWAII 47 

island when Umi was alive and they may have left the impress 
of their Christian faith with the king. 

If Umi adopted the cross as a symbol in the division of a 
part of his temples, it was probably due to the initiative of the 
shipwrecked Spaniards. What influence Gaetano and his crew 
may have had upon the Islanders is not definitely known. 

The Hawaiians, however, assert that the form of the cross 
(kau pea or peakapu) was a very ancient symbol among them. 



CHAPTER III 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN JAMES COOK- 



HAWAII'S GAIN 

THE horror which swept civilized countries when the news 
reached them of the tragic death of Captain James Cook 
of the Royal British navy, one of England's most emi- 
nent navigators and contributors to knowledge of the remote 
parts of the world, accentuated an exceptional interest in the 
Hawaiian Islands, more so than if the navigator had left the 
islands peaceably after his discovery and merely reported that 
these islands had been placed on the charts. 

The very fact that he was slain on the shores of Kealakekua 
Bay, Island of Hawaii, where he had first set foot, honored, nay, 
worshipped, by the natives, who believed that in this strange 
white leader their god Lono had returned to the Islands, was a 
deplorable freak of Fate. The report of his death indelibly 
marked the Hawaiian Islands in the memories of mariners and 
gave them greater prominence in the capitals of Europe than 
otherwise. Governments immediately saw an advantage in pos- 
session of the Islands. But England was first on the ground 
and first to take advantage even of the tragic pioneering of 
Captain Cook, and it was the English who rather stood on guard 
for Hawaii that kept olher nations from menacing the isles in 
the guise of conquerors. 

But for the failure of one of Cook's successors in visiting 
the Islands, surveying them and becoming closely acquainted 
with the king. Kamehameha the Great — Captain George Van- 
couver — to carry out a promise made to the king, American 
influence may never have gained the upper hand and resulted 
in 1898 in the annexation of the Islands by the United States. 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN COOK 49 

Vancouver discussed his religion with Kamehameha and that 
monarch listened. He seemed to desire more knowledge, where- 
upon Vancouver promised that Englishmen would be sent to 
Hawaii to tell him of the white man's religion, of Christ and 
the meaning of such a religion. That promise was never kept. 
Vancouver may have informed the British Government of his 
promise, but if so, the government failed to discharge that ob- 
ligation. 

A quarter of a century passed, and no Englishmen authorized 
to teach the Gospel went to Hawaii, although other Englishmen 
went to Hawaii and took up their residence. The king died 
May 8, 1819. The native religion was abolished in October of 
that year, and in March, 1820, American missionaries landed on 
the Islands and spread the Gospel. Naturally that event con- 
nected up Hawaii with New England, not old England, and from 
that time may be dated the beginning of American influence. 

Had English missionaries first visited Hawaii, the American 
missionaries may never have been sent there, and England would 
have had a clear field for the future. 

Captain James Cook was born at Morion, in the North-Riding 
of Yorkshire. The family removed to Marton in the same sec- 
tion, situated in the high road from Gisborough, in Cleveland, 
to Stock ton -upon- Tees, in the county of Durham. He was born 
October 27, 1728. His early education was received in the day 
school at Ayton. At thirteen he was bound an apprentice to a 
haberdasher, but the sea was his inclination. He was later bound 
to Messrs. John and Henry Walker of Whitby, Quakers by re- 
ligious profession, and principal owners of (he ship Freelove and 
of another vessel, employed in the coal trade. After he was out 
of his time he continued on the sea as a common sailor, till at 
length he was raised to be mate of one of John Walker's ships. 

In the spring of 1755, when hostilities broke out between 
England and France and there was a hot press for seamen. Cook 
happened to be in the river Thames with the ship to which he 
belonged. At first he concealed himself, but reflecting it might 
be difficult to elude discovery, he determined upon further con- 
sideration to enter His Majesty's service and to make his future 



50 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

fortune in the royal navy. Accordingly he went to a rendez- 
vous at Wapping, and entered with an officer of the Eagle man- 
of-war, a ship of sixty guns, at that time commanded by Cap- 
tain Hamer. To this ship Captain (afterwards Admiral) Paliser 
was appointed in October, 1755, and when he took command 
found in her James Cook, whom he soon distinguished to be 
an able, active and diligent seaman. The captain gave him 
encouragement. 

The captain received letters from a member of Parliament 
that he had been solicited to seek the advancement of James 
Cook. The captain did justice to Cook's merit in his reply, but 
as he had been in the navy such a short time he could not yet 
be promoted. A master's warrant was procured for him May 
10, 1759, for the Grampus sloop. Four days later he was ap- 
pointed to the Garland, but the ship had already sailed. He 
was then appointed to the Mercury. The Mercury's destination 
was North America, where she joined the fleet of Sir Charles 
Saunders, which, in conjunction with the land forces under Gen- 
eral Wolfe, was engaged in the famous siege of Quebec. Cap- 
tain Cook made soundings in the channel of the river St. Law- 
rence in order to allow the admiral to place ships against the 
enemy's batteries to cover the army's attack. He was ambus- 
caded by Indians, but escaped. His report to Captain Paliser 
was an able one. He made several hazardous expeditions, all 
to his credit. From this time on his advance was rapid, and he 
succeeded from ship to ship, each a better one than before. 

Captain Cook on his first voyage to the South Seas returned 
home by Cape of Good Hope in July, 1771, and again this ex- 
perienced circumnavigator performed his second voyage in the 
Resolution, which sailed from England in July, 1772, and re- 
turned on the 30th of the same month in 1775. The general 
object of this and the preceding voyage around the world was 
to search for unknown tracts of land that might exist within 
)re bosom of the immense expanse of ocean that occupies the 
southern hemisphere and to determine the existence, or non- 
existence, so some of his biographers assert, of a southern con- 
tinent. During these voyages the several lands of which any 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN COOK 51 

account had been given by the Spaniards or Dutch were care- 
fully looked for, and most of them found, visited and surveyed. 

The Terra Australia de Espirifu Santo of Quiros, which he 
regarded as part of a southern continent, was circumnavigated 
by Captain Cook, who assigned to it its true position and extent. 
Bougainville did no more than discover that the land was not 
connected ; but Captain Cook explored the whole group. Byron^ 
Wallace and Carteret had each of them contributed towards in- 
creasing a knowledge of the amazing profusion of islands that 
exist in the Pacific Ocean, within the limits of the southern tropic, 
but how far that ocean extended to the west, what lands bounded 
it on that side, and the connection of those lands with the dis- 
coveries of former navigators, remained absolutely unknown tilt 
Captain Cook decided the question and brought home to England 
ample accounts of them and their inhabitants. 

That nothing might be left unattempted, though much had 
been already done. Captain Cook, whose professional knowledge 
could only be equalled by the persevering diligence with which 
he had employed it in the course of his former researches, was- 
called upon once more to resume his survey of the globe. This- 
brave and experienced commander might have spent the re- 
mainder of his days in the command to which he had been ap- 
pointed in Greenwich Hospital, but he cheerfully relinquished 
this honorable position in a letter to the British Admiralty, dated 
February 10, 1776, placed his services at the disposal of their 
lordships, and undertook a third voyage, which, in one respect, 
was less fortunate than any former expedition, being performed 
at the expense of the life of its intrepid conductor. 

Former circumnavigators had returned to Europe by the Cape 
of Good Hope; the arduous, and as we now know impossible, 
task was assigned to Captain Cook of attempting it by reaching 
the high northern latitudes between Asia and America. He was 
ordered to proceed to Otaheite (Tahiti), or Society Islands, and 
then, having crossed the equator into the northern tropic, to hold 
such a course as might most probably give success to the attempt 
of finding out a northern passage. 



52 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

His patron on this voyage was the Earl of Sandwich, hence the 
fact that when he discovered the Hawaiian Islands he named 
them the Sandwich Islands in his honor, and that designation 
was retained until half a century ago. The instructions of the 
Admiralty therefore explain how the Earl of Sandwich's name 
appears in the instructions, part of which read: 

"Whereas, the Earl of Sandwich hath signified to us His 
Majesty's pleasure that an attempt should be made to find out 
a northern passage by sea from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean ; 
and whereas, we have in pursuance thereof, caused His Maj- 
esty's sloops Resolution and Discovery to be fitted, in all re- 
spects, proper to proceed upon a voyage for the purpose above 
mentioned ; and from the experience we have had of your abili- 
ties and good conduct in your late voyages, have thought fit to 
entrust you with the conduct of the present intended voyage, 
and with that view appointed you to command the first mentioned 
sloop, and directed Captain Gierke, who commands the other, to 
follow your orders for his further proceedings ; and you are 
hereby required and directed to proceed with the said two sloops 
directly for the Cape of Good Hope unless you shall judge it 
necessary to stop at Madeira, the Cape De Verde, or Canary 
Islands, to take in wine for the use of the companies. . . . 

"If possible you are to leave the Cape of Good Hope by the 
end of October or beginning of November next, and proceed 
to the southward in search of some Islands, said to have been 
lately seen by the French in the lat. of 48 deg. south and under 
or near the meridian of Mauritius. . . . You are not to spend 
too much time in looking out for those Islands, but to proceed 
to Otaheite, or the Society Islands (touching at New Zealand in 
your way thither if you should judge it necessary or convenient). 

". , . and having refreshed the people belonging to the sloops 
under your command, you are to leave those Islands in the be- 
ginning of February, or sooner, and then proceed in as direct a 
course as you can to the coast of New Albion, endeavoring to 
fall in with it in the latitude of 45 deg. north, and taking care 
in your zvay thither not to lose any lime in search of new lands, 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN COOK 53 

or to stop at any you may fall in with, unless you find it neces- 
sary to recruit your wood and water." 

Captain Cook was strictly enjoined NOT TO TOUCH upon 
any part of the Spanish dominions on the western continent of 
America, unless driven there by some unavoidable accident. 

Both sloops were put in commission on February 14, 1776. 
The Resolution was 300 tons burden and likewise the Discovery. 
Gierke had been Cook's second lieutenant in his second voyage 
around the world. On June 8, while they lay at Long Reach, 
they had the satisfaction of a visit from the Earl of Sandwich, 
Sir Hugh Paliser and others of the Board of Admiralty. The 
board ordered garden seeds, useful animals and other things to 
be put aboard for distribution on various islands. Whether any 
of these things were left on Hawaii is not definitely known. 

Captain Cook had Mr. King as his second lieutenant to be 
his professional observer. Mr. Webster was engaged for the 
purpose of supplying the defects of written accounts by taking 
accurate drawings of the most memorable scenes and (ransac- 
tions. Mr. Anderson, surgeon, added to his professional abili- 
ties a great proficiency in natural history. On board both ves- 
sels were 192 persons, officers included. Those of the Resolu- 
tion were : Lieutenants Gore, King and Williamson ; Bligh, mas- 
ter; Anderson, surgeon, and Philips, lieutenant of marines. The 
officers of the Discovery were; Lieutenants Burney and Rick- 
man; Edgar, master, and Law. surgeon. 

Bligh, master of the Resolution, was the same officer who com- 
manded the Bounty, the crew of which mutinied on April 8, 
1789, off Otaheite (Tahiti), and having bound Lieut, Bligh, 
turned him adrift in a long boat with eighteen men and with 
only a small supply of food and water. Mr. Bligh ultimately 
reached Timor, having traversed 3618 miles in 46 days. Fletcher 
Christian, the leader of the mutineers, and his followers pro- 
ceeded in the Bounty to Pitcairn's Island, where they were dis- 
covered in 1809. Their descendants stii! live on Pitcairn. 

The Resolution and Discovery sailed July 14, 1776. 



54 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

January 18, 1778, is memorable in the annals of geographical 
discovery, as it is the day on which the group of islands in the 
Pacific Ocean now known as the Hawaiian Islands were dis- 
covered by Captain Cook as he came north from Tahiti and 
Christmas Island, which had been named a few weeks before. 
Captain Cook gave them the name of the Sandwich Islands. 

It was on the morning of the 18th that an island was seen. 
Soon after more land, bearing north, was revealed, previously 
sheltered from the former. Both had the appearance of being 
high land. 

At 9 o'clock Captain Cook sent three armed boats, under com- 
mand of Lieutenant Williamson, to look for a landing place and 
for fresh water. Just as they were pulling off from the ships 
one of the natives who had gone aboard, having hypothecated a 
butcher's cleaver, leaped overboard, got in his canoe with the 
boats pursuing him. While the boats were examining the coast 
the sloops stood on and off. About noon the officer returned 
and reported he had seen a pond behind a beach, near one of 
the villages, which the natives said contained fresh water and 
that there was anchoring ground before it. In one place na- 
tives had come down to the beach in great numbers and pre- 
vented him landing. They had attempted to take away the 
oars and muskets, and he was obliged to fire and had killed one 
man. In the afternoon Captain Cock went ashore with three 
armed boats and twelve marines to examine the water and try 
the disposition of the inhabitants, several hundreds of whom 
were assembled on the beach. 

The very instant Cook landed at the beach the natives fell 
flat on their faces and remained in that humble position till by 
expressive signs he prevailed upon them to rise ; they then 
brought many small pigs which they presented to the navigator, 
using much the same ceremony as he found in other islands. 
He accepted the presents and offered others from his stores. 
He met with no objections in watering. The natives fell pros- 
trate as Cook proceeded inland to inspect the villages. This, 
he says, he found was the ceremony paid to great chiefs. 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN COOK 55 

Captain Cook had discovered the Island of Kauai, the west- 
ernmost island of the Hawaiian group. 

He inspected their heiaus (temples), their altars and idols. 
Mr. Webster made drawings of the temples and altars upon 
which human sacrifices were made. 

"Among the articles which they brought to me to barter this 
day," says Cook in his journal, recording the second day's stay, 
"we noticed a particular sort of cloak and cap, which, even in 
countries where dress is more particularly attended to, might 
be reckoned elegant. The first are nearly of the size and shape 
of the short cloaks worn by the women in England and by the 
men in Spain, reaching to the middle of the back, and tied loosely 
before ; the ground is a network upon which the most beautiful 
red and yellow feathers are so closely fixed that the surface 
might be compared to the thickest and richest velvet, which 
they resemble, both as to feel and glossy appearance. The man- 
ner of varying the mixture is very different; some having tri- 
angular spaces of red and yellow alternately, others a kind of 
crescent, and some that were entirely red had a broad yellow 
border which made them appear at a distance exactly like a 
scarlet cloak edged with gold lace. The brilliant colors of the 
feathers, in those that happened to be new, added not a little to 
their fine appearance ; and we found that they were in high esti- 
mation by their owners, for they would not at first part with 
one of them for anything that we offered, asking no less a price 
than a musket. However, some were afterward purchased for 
some very large nails. 

"The cap is made almost like a helmet, with the middle part 
or crest sometimes of a hand's breadth, and it sits very close 
upon the head, having notches to admit the ears. It is a frame 
of osiers and twigs, covered with a network, into which are 
wrought feathers in the same manner as upon the cloaks, though 
rather closer and less diversified." 

These articles were later placed in the British Museum and 
are interesting relics of the great navigator. In the Bishop 
Museum in Honolulu are many of these capes and helmets, and 
also the great cloaks of Kamehameha the Great, Kiwalao, the 



58 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

The reception ' which Cook met was flattering. The natives 
came to his ships singing and shouting. Palea and Kanaina, 
two chiefs, had already attached themselves to the commander 
and were useful in keeping their countrymen from being trouble- 
some. They brought aboard another chief, called Koa, who was 
represented to be a priest. In his youth he had been a distin- 
guished warrior. 

On the 6th Captain Cook had his first interview with Kaleio- 
puu ( Kalaniopuu } , or Terreeoboo, as Cook designated him, as 
nearly as he could transcribe the pronounced word. The meet- 
ing was conducted with a variety of ceremonies, among which 
was the custom of making an exchange of names, considered a 
strong pledge of friendship, according to A. Kippis, D. D., 
biographer of Cook in 1788. When the interview was over Cook 
look Kaleiopuu aboard his ship, the Resolution, where he and 
his suite were received with every mark of respect that could 
be shown them, and in return for a beautiful feather cloak, a 
long one, which the king bestowed upon Captain Cook, the cap- 
tain put a linen shirt on his majesty and girt his own hanger 
about him. Today that feather cloak, now in a museum, is 
valued at hundreds of thousands of dollars. 

Thus we come to a part of Cook's life in which critics have 
said that he made his greatest mistake, that of accepting the 
adoration of the natives on his arrival ashore when they mis- 
took him for their god Lono and he continued to receive this 
adoration, although at first it was a puzzle to him. 

Poetry is always the first spark that is kindled in the light 
of civilization. Relgion inspires it to sing its mysteries; kings 
reward it, hoping to perpetuate their names by its means; and 
all classes love to solace themselves with its beauties. The little 
we know about the ancient history of Hawaii is preserved in 
song; and perhaps a collection of the rhymes of the priests 
and bards might throw light on the question of the original race 
and population of these Isles of the Pacific. So Captain the 
Right Honorable Lord Byron, of the British Royal Navy, wrote 
in 1826, when he published his excellent book, "The Voyage of 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN COOK 55 

Captain Cook had discovered the Island of Kauai, the west- 
ernmost island of the Hawaiian group. 

He inspected their heiaus (temples), their altars and idols. 
Mr. Webster made drawings of the temples and altars upon 
which human sacrifices were made, 

"Among the articles which they brought to me to barter this 
day," says Cook in his journal, recording the second day's stay, 
"we noticed a particular sort of cloak and cap, which, even in 
countries where dress is more particularly attended to, might 
be reckoned elegant. The first are nearly of the size and shape 
of the short cloaks worn by the women in England and by the 
men in Spain, reaching to the middle of the back, and tied loosely 
before; the ground is a network upon which the most beautiful 
red and yellow feathers are so closely fixed that the surface 
might be compared to the thickest and richest velvet, which 
they resemble, both as to feel and glossy appearance. The man- 
ner of varying the mixture is very different; some having tri- 
angular spaces of red and yellow alternately, others a kind of 
crescent, and some that were entirely red had a broad yellow 
border which made them appear at a distance exactly like a 
scarlet cloak edged with gold lace. The brilliant colors of the 
feathers, in those that happened to be new, added not a little to 
their fine appearance; and we found that they were in high esti- 
mation by their owners, for they would not at first part with 
one of them for anything that we offered, asking no less a price 
than a musket. However, some were afterward purchased for 
some very large nails. 

"The cap is made almost like a helmet, with the middle part 
or crest sometimes of a hand's breadth, and it sits very close 
upon the head, having notches to admit the ears. It is a frame 
of osiers and twigs, covered with a network, into which are 
wrought feathers in the same manner as upon the cloaks, though 
rather closer and less diversified." 

These articles were later placed in the British Museum and 
are interesting relics of the great navigator. In the Bishop 
Museum in Honolulu are many of these capes and helmets, and 
also the great cloaks of Kamehameha the Great, Kiwalao, the 



56 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

king who was slain in battle by Kamehameha's great chieftain, 
and many others, so rare now that they are shown to visitors 
only once a month, being kept in metal and hermetically sealed 
cabinets. 

The ships left Kauai on January 2J), but owing to high winds 
were forced back and anchored again on the 29th off Niihau, 
a little island near Kauai. Cook says these natives seemed to 
be well aware of the use of iron, asking for it by the name of 
"hamite." On February 2 the ships left Kauai and sailed for 
New Albion. At this time Cook sighted Oahu and possibly 
Molokai. 

Leaving the Northwest Arctic Coast, where Cook made a fine 
survey and named many places which are today known by the 
same names, he sailed southward for the Sandwich Islands. On 
November 26, 1778, land was discovered, and Cook then found 
that the group was more extensive than he first knew. This 
was the Island of Maui. He needed fresh provisions. He pub- 
lished an order prohibiting all persons from trading, excepting 
such as should be appointed by himself and Captain Gierke. 
While the vessels lay off Maui for several days a friendly inter- 
course was maintained with the inhabitants. 

On November 30, 1779, the Island of Hawaii, the largest and 
loftiest of the group, and famous then for its mighty kings, 
chieftains and their warlike activities, was encountered. It ap- 
peared to be of vast extent, with its great mountains, Mauna 
Loa, Mauna Kea and Hualalai, looming far up toward and 
above the clouds, for later surveys showed Mauna Loa to be 
between 13,000 and 14,000 feet high. Cook spent a few weeks 
sailing around the island and examining the coast. Whilst he 
was thus employed natives came off from time to time in their 
canoes. Among the articles the natives brought was sugar cane. 
Cook proved himself an adept near-beer brewer, for he says he 
made a delectable and palatable beer from it. The crew would 
not touch it, preferring their rum, but Cook knew that scurvy 
was farther away than ever, for if the rum gave out, beer could 
be made from cane. 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN COOK 57 

On January 16, 1779, canoes arrived in such numbers that 
there were not fewer than a thousand people about the ships, 
laden with people who had plenty of hogs with them. There 
was not a weapon among them, a satisfactory proof of their 
peaceful intentions. However, there were many thefts of boat 
things that Cook resented, for it interfered with his necessary 
equipment Mr. Bligh, having gone ashore, returned and re- 
ported a favorable bay, into which the ships sailed. On the 
17th the ships came to anchor in Kealakekua Bay, Kona dis- 
trict, the western side of the island, one of the most beautiful 
bays in the 'world, with lowering cliffs on the inner land side. 
It was there that Cook afterwards lost his life. 

There were thousands of people about the ships in canoes 
and the shores were dense with people. It is this display, a 
concentrated form of welcome, that caused Cook, perhaps, to err 
in saying (hat the population of Hawaii was then about 400,000. 
It was possibly half that number, or even less, so that the re- 
ports of a "dying race," in this 1922, 150 years later, does not 
represent such a vast calamity after all. It is a calamity, but 
in the leavening of races, due to intermarriage, it is difficult to 
say whether a race is dying out after all, though the original 
numbers may be reduced. 

Thus the disappointment of obtaining a Northwest Passage, 
which caused Cook to return to the Islands, proved an enlight- 
enment for the world. He said that Hawaii was the most im- 
portant discovery in the Pacific. The concluding words of his 
own journal are: 

"To this disappointment we owed our having it in our power 
to revisit the Sandwich Islands, and to enrich our voyage with 
a discovery which, though the last, seemed in many respects to 
be the most important that had hitherto been made by Europeans 
throughout the extent of the Pacific Ocean." 

Without knowledge of the tragic fate awaiting him, that last 
sentence in his journal is of unusual import. He was correct 
in his prophecy. Little did he think that this greatest island of 
discovery was to be the scene of his last exploit. 



58 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

The reception which Cook met was flattering. The natives 
came to his ships singing and shouting, Palea and Kanaina, 
two chiefs, had already attached themselves to the commander 
and were useful in keeping their countrymen from being trouble- 
some. They brought aboard another chief, called Koa, who was 
represented to be a priest. In his youth he had been a distin- 
guished warrior. 

On the 6th Captain Cook had his first interview with Kaleio- 
puu (Kalaniopuu), or Terreeoboo, as Cook designated him, as 
nearly as he could transcribe the pronounced word. The meet- 
ing was conducted with a variety of ceremonies, among which 
was the custom of making an exchange of names, considered a 
strong pledge of friendship, according to A. Kippis, D. D., 
biographer of Cook in 1788. When the interview was over Cook 
look Kaleiopuii aboard his ship, the Resolution, where he and 
his suite were received with every mark of respect that could 
be shown them, and in return for a beautiful feather cloak, a 
long one, which the king bestowed upon Captain Cook, the cap- 
tain put a linen shirt on his majesty and girt his own hanger 
about him. Today that feather cloak, now in a museum, is 
valued at hundreds of thousands of dollars. 

Thus we come to a part of Cook's life in which critics have 
said that he made his greatest mistake, that of accepting the 
adoration of the natives on his arrival ashore when they mis- 
took him for their god Lono and he continued to receive this 
adoration, although at first it was a puzzle to him. 

Poetry is always the first spark that is kindled in the light 
of civilization. Relgion inspires it to sing its mysteries; kings 
reward it, hoping to perpetuate their names by its means ; and 
all classes love to solace themselves with its beauties. The little 
we know about the ancient history of Hawaii is preserved in 
song; and perhaps a collection of the rhymes of the priests 
and bards might throw light on the question of the original race 
and population of these Isles of the Pacific. So Captain the 
Right Honorable Lord Byron, of the British Royal Navy, wrote 
in 1826, when he published his excellent book, "The Voyage of 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN COOK 59 

H M. S. Blonde to the Sandwich Islands in the Years 1824- 
1825." 

This little reference to song and poetry of the Hawaiians, 
says Lord Byron, who commanded the Blonde when it brought 
the bodies cf King Kamehameha II and his Queen, Kamamalu, 
from London to Honolulu in 1824, leads to the meaning of the 
adoration of the Hawaiians toward Cook when they believed 
him to be the god Lono, 

One of the songs, says Lord Byron, from its connection with 
the disastrous history of Captain Cook, had been sought for and 
preserved by Europeans who succeeded him. A story, which is 
not without its parallel in the mythologies of the ancient world, 
is related of the jealousy of the Akua, spirit or founder of the 
people of Hawaii. He sacrificed his wife, or thought he did, 
for revenge, and, horror-struck, abandoned Hawaii in a boat of 
peculiar shape,' leaving a hope, or rather a belief, that at some 
future time he should return. The song and prophecy nm some- 
thing like this, says Lord Byron. 

But Lord Byron confused the story of the Akua, or god Lono, 
with the true story of the mortals Lonoikamakahiki (man) and 
Kaikilani-wahine-alii Opuna (woman). In endeavoring to tell 
who the god Lono was, the god deified in the person of Captain 
Cook, they believing their god had returned although the natives 
had burned the effigy representing this god. Lord Byron was 
given the chant that tells the story of Lonoikamakahiki. The 
priests had prophesied the return of the god Lono, that he 
"would return on an island bearing cocoanut trees and with 
swine and dogs." 

The word "Lono Akua" in the song dedicated to Lonoikama- 
kahiki is a common expression when addressing a king or high 
chief. Hawaiians always call their king an Akua (god), be- 
cause they believe that the chiefs are descendants of the gods, 
as, for instance, Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III) was always 
called a god. The Hawaiians believed he actually descended 
from the gods. But here is the story that Lord Byron told, as 
it is a picturesque tale, even though it had its mistakes: 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN COOK 61 

9. It was the promise or prophecy that induced the natives 
to believe, on seeing Cook's big ships with their masts and rig- 
ging, that they were islands and that Lono had returned, and to 
pay him divine honors — the fatal mistake of a lifetime. Later 
they discovered he was but mortal. 

Captain Cook was paid the highest honors by the natives, 
amounting to adoration. Captain King, not comprehending the 
meaning of the repetitions of the name Lcno, supposed it to be 
the title of a high priest. Byron says that Koa, the chief priest, 
and his son, Onea, who appears to have been a priest of Lono, 
received Cook with honors they really meant to be divine, and 
which he imagined meant nothing more than friendly respect, 
and perhaps fear on account of his large and powerful ships. 
Captain King says: "Captain Cook generally went by this name 
(Lono) among the natives, but we never could learn its mean- 
ing precisely." Cook was given a residence ashore which was 
a heiau, or temple. This was on the south or lower side of 
Kealakekua Bay. 

Though the kind and liberal behavior of the natives continued 
without remission, Kalaniopuu and his chiefs began at length 
to be very inquisitive about the time when the voyagers were 
to take their departure. Nor will this be deemed surprising, 
said Kippis, when it is considered that in the sixteen days in 
which the English had been in the bay of Kealakekua they had 
made an enormous consumption of hogs and vegetables. It did 
not appear, however, that Kalaniopuu had any other view in his 
inquiries than a desire of making sufficient preparation for dis- 
missing the navigators with presents suitable to the respect and 
kindness towards them which he had always displayed. 

The native accounts relate what Captain Cook apparently was 
not aware of, viz., that when the two ships arrived at Kealakekua 
the bay was under a tabu, the festival days connected with the 
ancient celebration of the new year not having as yet expired. 
But as his fame had preceded him through the group, and Cook 
himself was looked upon as a god (an Akua), and his ships as 
temples (heiau), the priests and chiefs who governed in the bay 
in the absence of Kalaniopuu on Maui, proclaimed an exception 



62 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

to the tabu in the matter of the ships of the newcomers as a 
lucky thought, a well-timed compromise to gratify their curiosity 
and soothe their consciences, according to Fomander; for most 
assuredly without some such arrangement not a single canoe 
would have dared to ripple the quiet waters of the bay. 

On January 24 Kalaniopuu returned from Maui, and one of 
his first acts was to put a tabu on the bay, no canoes being al- 
lowed to leave the beach. 

The next morning the bay was deserted. The crews endeav- 
ored to induce the natives to come alongside, and as some of 
them were at last attempting to put off, a chief was observed 
attempting to drive them away. A musket was immediately 
fired over his head to make him desist, which had the desired 
effect, and refreshments were soon after purchased as usual. 
Kalaniopuu went aboard the Resolution that afternoon for a 
visit. The firing of the musket was the first act of intimidation 
and probably wrought a new feeling among the natives toward 
the visitors, later to be put into the form of actual attack. 

Incident upon incident piled up on the wrong side of the ledger 
against Cook. He, being in want of fuel for the ships, sent 
Captain King to "treat with the priests for the purchase of the 
rail that surrounded the top of the heiau (temple)," King says 
he had some doubts about "the decency of this proposal and was 
apprehensive that even the bare mention of it might be consid- 
ered as a piece of shocking impiety. In this, however, I found 
myself mistaken. Not the slightest surprise was expressed at 
the application, and the wood was readily given, even without 
stipulating for something in return." 

But when the sailors carried off. not only the railing of the 
temple, but also the idols of the gods within it, even the lai^e- 
hearted patience of Koa gave way and he meekly requested that 
the central idol at least might be restored. The want of delicacy 
on the part of Captain Ccok was glaring in this instance. After 
his death, and when the illusion of godship had subsided, his 
spoliation of the very heiau in which he had been deified was 
not one of the least of the grievances which native annalists laid 
up against him, says Fomander. 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN COOK 63 

On February 4, 1779, the ships being caulked and ready, well 
provisioned. Captain Cook left Kealakekua Bay to visit and ex- 
plore the leeward side of the group. When abreast of Kawaia- 
hao Bay, on February 6, a boat was sent ashore to find an an- 
chorage, but there was no suitable watering place, owing to the 
fine streams of water he could see from his ship. On the 8th 
of February the ships encountered a gale, during which the 
fishes of the fore masthead gave way, and it became necessary 
to seek a resort where the damage could be repaired. After 
some consideration it was decided to return to Kealakekua Bay, 
and on the 11th the ships anchored again in their old position. 

Lord Byron says that this unexpected return to repair his 
vessel did not entirely restore him to the degree of honor he at 
first enjoyed, and the severity with which he had punished one 
or two acts of theft had perhaps a little indisposed the native 
chiefs against him. 

His unfortunate attempt to lure the king on board his ship, 
there to confine him until a boat he had lost, which had been 
stolen for the sake of the nails in her and appears to have been 
broken up the night she was stolen, and the cause of the tumult 
that ended in his lamented death, was restored to him. 

There certainly was no malice in the case — not the slightest 
intention of injuring him following his death — is the opinion 
of Lord Byron, himself an Englishman, for the body was treated 
with the highest respect as shown their own kings and chiefs. 
The absence of Captain Cook had apparently cooled the enthu- 
siasm of the natives for him. Their provisions had been taken 
away in huge amounts and the only equivalent left by Cook 
were some pieces of iron, a few hatchets and some knives. An- 
other reason assigned is that the women had taken a liking for 
the foreigners and the native men resented this. Then a sailor 
died and was given a funeral ashore, a sign that the members 
of the crew were not immortal, and could be reached by sick- 
ness and subdued by death. There is nothing on record that 
would indicate that Kalaniopuu was not as loyal and hberal on 
the second visit cf Cook to the bay as on the first. 



64 " UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

On the afternoon of the 13th a watering party belonging to 
the Discovery was interrupted and impeded by some of the chiefs 
who had driven away the natives engaged in assisting the sailors 
to roll the casks ashore. When informed of this Captain King 
immediately went to the watering place, which was on the north, 
or Kawaaloa side of the bay. On seeing him approach the na- 
tives threw away the stones with which they had armed them- 
selves. After remonstrating with the chiefs, the latter drove 
away the crowd and the watering party were no more molested. 

Fornander says that coming down to the last moments of Cap- 
tain Cook's career, there are three independent sources of in- 
formation : First, Captain King's continuation of Captain Cook's 
Journal of the "Voyage to the Pacific Ocean," Vol III ; second, 
Ledyard's Life, by Sparks; and third, the native reminiscences 
as recorded by David Malo, native historian ; Sheldon Dibble, 
the American missionary, and S. M. Kamakau, also a native his- 
torian. The main facts are the same with all these authorities. 
Captain King was not personally present, but received a report 
from Lieutenant Philips and others who accompanied Cook ashore 
that ill-fated 14th of February. Ledyard professes to have been 
one of the party ashore and an eye-witness. Malo, Dibble and 
Kamakau obtained their information from high chiefs present 
at the time who had formed the royal court of Kalaniopuu. 

Palea, who had been an early friend of Captain Cook, had a 
canoe, and some of Cook's crew used violence upon it. Palea 
making resistance, was knocked down by a paddle. Soon after 
Palea stole a boat from Captain Cook's ship. The theft, says 
Dibble, may be imputed to revenge, or to a desire to obtain the 
iron from the fastenings of the boat. Captain Cook commanded 
Kalaniopuu to make search for the boat and return it. The king 
could not restore it, for the boat had already been broken up. 

A member of the crew named Samwell wrote an account of 
the last incidents, and this manuscript was given to Kippis to 
use in his book. He tells of the theft of the cutter. Cook, he 
says, was preparing to go ashore when acquainted with the theft 
by Captain Clerke, in order to secure the person of Kalaniopuu 
before he should have time to withdraw himself to another part 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN COOK 65 

of the island, "This appeared to be the most effectual step that 
could be taken," says Samwell. "It was the measure he inva- 
riably pursued in similar cases in other islands, and had always 
been attended with the desired success." 

Cook left the ship about 7 o'clock in the morning, attended 
by ihe lieutenant of marines, a sergeant, corporal and seven pri- 
vate men ; the pinnace's crew was also armed and under the 
command of Mr. Roberts. As they rowed toward the shore 
Captain Cock ordered the launch to leave her station at the west 
point of the bay in order to assist his own boat. He was not 
apprehensive of meeting with resistance from the natives. He 
landed with the marines at the upper end of the town of Ka- 
waaloa. The natives immediately flocked around and showed 
him many marks of respect." 

A canoe came from an adjoining district with two chiefs, 
Kekukaupio, the wonderful soldier of Kamehameha, who taught 
the latter all the martial exercises of the time, and Kalimu, the 
latter a brother of Palea. The marines fired upon the canoe, 
killing KaHmu. The king's attendants were enraged, yet they 
withheld violence. The king had acquiesced in the request to 
go aboard the Discovery, but his wife pleaded for him to remain 
ashore and he did so. At that instant a warrior with a spear in 
his hand approached Captain Cook and said he was a brother 
of the man just killed, and would be revenged. Captain Cook, 
from his enraged appearance and that of the multitude, was sus- 
picious, and fired upon him with his pistol. Then followed a 
scene of confusion, says Dibble. 

Samwell says the native had an iron dagger, not a spear, and 
apparently desired to stab Cook. Samwell makes no mention 
of Cook having fired his pistol. 

The Englishman had reached the edge of the beach, and had 
paused and was on the point of giving orders to re-embark when 
a man threw a stone at him, which he returned with a discharge 
of small shot with which one barrel of his double-piece was 
loaded. The man, having a thick mat before him, was unhurt. 
He brandished his spear, says Samwell, and threatened to dart 
it at Captain Cook, who, still unwilling to take his life, instead 



66 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

of firing with ball knocked him down with his musket. He had 
given up all thoughts of getting the king aboard, as it seemed 
impracticable. His care then was to act only on the defensive 
and to secure embarkation for his small party, "pressed by a 
body of several thousand people." 

Dibble says that Cook shot dead the man who struck him with 
a stone. He struck a chief named Kalaimanokahoowaha, or 
Kanaina, and from him the late Charles Kanalna, father of King 
Lunalilo, received his name. The chief seized him. Cook strug- 
gled to free himself from the grasp and uttered a groan. The 
people exclaimed, "He groans — he is not a god," and imme- 
diately pressed forward. Samwell says that a native struck him 
on the back of the head and then retreated. The stroke seemed 
to have stunned Cook; he staggered a few paces, then fell on 
his hand and one knee, and dropped his musket. As he was 
rising and before he could recover, another Hawaiian stabbed 
him in the back with an iron daggar. He then fell into a bit of 
water about knee deep, where others crowded upon him and en- 
deavored to keep him under; but struggling very strongly with 
them he got his head up, and casting his look towards the pin- 
nace seemed to solicit assistance. Though the boat was not 
above five or six yards from him, yet from the crowded and con- 
fused state of the crew, it was not in their power to save him. 
The natives got him under again, but in deeper water ; he was, 
however, able to get his head up once more, and being almost 
spent in his struggle, he naturally turned toward the rock, and 
was endeavoring to support himself toward it when a native 
gave him a blow with a club, and he was seen alive no more. 
They hauled him up lifeless on the rocks." He says they took 
daggars from each other's hands to pierce the fallen victim. 

Then the crew began firing upon the crowd, having refrained 
before for fear of killing their captain. 

The body of Captain Cook was subjected to the same cere- 
monial as that of the chiefs, in the separation of the flesh from 
the bones. Some of the bones were sent on board the ship by 
the king. These were given military funeral honors and were 
committed to the deep. 



TRAGEDY OF CAPTAIN COOK 67 

Finally, watering being molested, the guns of the ships were 
trained on Napoopoo, houses set on fire and the temples de- 
stroyed. 

The Resolution and Discovery left Kealakekua Bay on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1779. On February 27 the ships were off the Wailua 
River, Oahu, opposite what is now Haleiwa. They crossed the 
channel to Waimea, Kauai. On March 15 the ships, calling at 
Niihau, took their final- departure for the north. 

Thus was Hawaii brought into knowledge of the world. 



CHAPTER IV 



HAWAII'S MOMENTOUS NIGHT 



KAMEHAiMEHA THE GREAT 

THUNDER, lightning and rain, driven on the dark wings 
of a storm, were heralds to signahze the birth of a great 
chieftain, the ancient Hawaiians beheved. Certain it was 
that on a night when the elements were raging, the heavens 
splitting under the titanic blows of the God of Thunder, and the 
lofty summits of Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa and Hualalei were 
mystically revealed as the shafts of the Torches of the Almighty 
pierced the clouds, and the ocean lashed the coral and lava shores 
of Hawaii Island, that Kamehameha was born. 

It was a night in the month of Ikuwa, or October, when the 
great warrior King Alapainui was mustering his armies for an 
invasion of the Island of Maui, that Kamehameha was bom at 
Ainakea, district of Kohala, Island of Hawaii, and somewhere 
between the years 1736 and 1740. Uncertainty veils the exact 
year, and he may not have been born until 1753. 

The story of the birth of Kamehameha, his concealment from 
the wrath of the king who had learned from his soothsayers 
that a chief who would "slaughter the chiefs" was to be bom, 
the protection thrown around him by his devoted chieftains, his 
education in the arts of war, his return to the royal court and 
his later achievements in war, his conquests and solidification 
of the empire, his wisdom, his laws and his acceptance of the 
advice of foreign visitors long before Christianity was intro- 
duced, reads like a vivid narrative of thrilling, yet majestic, ad- 
venture. Kamehameha was the greatest of all Hawaiians. It 
is an epic, no less an epic than the stories of Alexander the 



HAWAII'S MOMENTOUS NIGHT 69 

Great, Constantine, Julius Caesar, Hannibal, Charlemagne, Fred- 
erick the Great, Gustavus Adolphus and Napoleon. 

No flights of imagination on the stormy night of November, 
1738, in the little feudal village of Ainakea, Kohala, Island of 
Hawaii, could have visualized the coming world greatness of the 
Pacific Ocean in which the Hawaiian Archipelago rested on its 
coral moorings, when a male child was born, afterwards to be- 
come Kaniehameha the Great, conqueror of all the islands, 
founder of the Hawaiian kingdom, whose rule made solid the 
basis of an independent nation which existed as a monarchy for 
a century, and finally became merged in the greatest nation on 
earth as an integral part and its chief outpost in the western sea. 

Upon the foundation of empire established by Kamehameha, 
man of war first, but whose ambition in his declining years was 
to rule an empire devoted to the arts of peace, Hawaii was estab- 
lished to become later a link in the golden chain of states and 
territories of the greatest of all Republics. It became not only 
a military outpost in the far Western Sea, but a militant arm 
poised to enforce the peace of the vast Pacific region. 

Just a hundred years from the time Kamehameha's work was 
done Hawaii has become, officially, the greatest military and 
naval base under the Stars and Stripes, a powerful weapon for 
war or for peace, the most important commercial crossroads of 
the Pacific, and the melting pot of the rations of the world. 

The death of the great chieftain, May 8. 1819, signalized the 
crumbling of the ancient religious power, for immediately upon 
his death ensued the breaking of the tabu by women of rank ; 
the idols were overthrown ; the iron hand of Kamehameha I was 
lifted from the labor of consolidation, and the monarchy began 
to emerge from the ancient mode of life and rule into modern 
civilization, for even then, in Boston, preparations were being 
made for the long journey of the first New England missionaries 
to Hawaii to spread the gospel and lay the foundations of a new 
order of things by which the little nation was enabled to become 
almost a power in Pacific Ocean diplomacy, although at times 
the pawn of powerful rulers and diplomats of distant countries. 



70 UNDER -HAWAIIAN SKIES 

The birth of Kamehameha in 1736 or thereabouts presaged a 
new order of things in the future of the Hawaiian Islands. Of 
the male babe bom that stormy night it was prophesied that he 
should be a slayer of chiefs, and so it turned out. Like the Christ 
of long ago, whose life was sought by Herod, so did the then 
ruler of Hawaii seek the life of the young "Paiea" Kamehameha. 
His life was saved through the secret conniving of chiefs who 
brought him up in the fastnesses of the mountains. He was 
taught the arts of war by famous warriors of the ancient regime. 
He was powerful physically, he was powerful mentally. In Ka- 
mehameha were combined the might and power and intellect of 
one born to be the greatest man of his race. He fought, subdued 
kingdom after kingdom, and gradually enlarged his empire, going 
from island to island on campaigns of conquest. A sagacious 
strategist, a leader of men, possessing the keen discernment of 
a ruler. Upon meeting for the first time the strangers from be- 
yond the seas, he ga^ them consideration and justice, despite 
the hard dealings to which he and his people were subjected by 
mercenary traders and voyagers. 

That Kamehameha's character was lofty is evidenced by the 
letter which Captain George Vancouver, the English navigator, 
left for Kamehameha, or "Tamaah Maah," as the great English 
seaman wrote it, in which he spoke of the king's fine conduct 
and besought all navigators to continue the friendship which 
Kamehameha so willingly held forth to visitors. This letter, 
written by Vancouver on March 2, 1794, spoke of "cessions" 
which the king made to England, but it is interpreted by students 
of Hawaiian history to refer to what Kamehameha had done and 
wished to have done to preserve friendly relations with England 
and merely refers to concessions of goodwill and helpfulness, 
but not territorial rights. 

This was the year before Kamehameha led his great armies 
in the "peleleu" canoe fleet from Hawaii to the shores of Oahu, 
to engage in final battle for the supremacy of the island, which 
terminated so fatally to the Oahuan king and his followers at 
Laimi, Nuuanu Valley, and at the Pali gap, where the flower 
of the Oahuan's army was slaughtered and thrust over the preci- 



HAWAII'S MOMENTOUS NIGHT 71 

pice. The last large barrier to complete consolidation of the 
Islands had been overcome, and once more Kamehameha began 
to use those singular powers which have given him the soubri- 
quet of "Great." 

He was considerate of the white men who had arrived on ships 
of discovery and trade and remained here. He listened to their 
advice in that last quarter of the eighteenth century and his rule 
may be considered wise. John Young and Isaac Davis were 
men of good character as history analyzes their careers in Ha- 
waii and their closeness to the person of the king. 

It is due to them and to the promise made by Vancouver 
that ministers of the gospel would be sent here at the request 
of the navigator, that when finally the American missionaries 
arrived here a year after Kamehameha's death (1820), the 
privilege of landing was accorded them. Kamehameha, it is 
understood, waited long years for the arrival of the men who 
would teach him concerning the supreme being of the white men. 
They never came in his lifetime. 

Most of the white men surrounding Kamehameha were Eng- 
lishmen, such as Young, Davis, George Beckley and "Alika" 
Adams, and mostly Church of England men. Captain Beckley's 
prayer book remains a prized relic in the keeping of one of his 
descendants today. It was his own prized possession. He was 
close to the person of the king, for he was a military adviser 
and commander of the first fort. It is certain these Church of 
England men discussed their religion with Kamehameha and 
those of his court. 

Although Kamehameha never embraced Christianity, yet it is 
believed that he knew much of it. He might not easily have 
turned from the faith of his forefathers for that of another 
race. He was old. He had been reared under unusual restrict- 
ive conditions. The faith of his ancestors was a part of alinost 
every hour of his life. His private life and his public life were 
enmeshed with the priestly rule ; he was part of the system. 
Every art of war he learned was accompanied by a priestly in- 
terpretation. Under the influence of priests and warriors, the 
rigid etiquette of the court, the high pedestal upon which he 



72 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

had been placed by his people and the higher one to which he 
had made the way with his spear, he grew old and set in the 
ways of his forefathers, and yet laid the foundations of law 
for the government of his people, and the protection of the 
young and the weak, the sick and the aged, foundations which 
are marvels of simplicity and yet models upon which laws of 
civilized nations could be built. 

It is little wonder that, although he knew much, possibly of 
Christianity, he did not change his own attitude toward the re- 
ligion of his people. It may have been known to his court that 
he looked forward to the time when Vancouver's promises would 
be kept, for upon his death the tabu was violated by the women, 
the idols were overthrown and the ancient temples burned and 
destroyed, paving the way for Christianity to be set up within 
a year of his death. The awful dread of supernatural vengeance 
had somewhat abated, but Liholiho (Kamehameha II) took no 
immediate steps toward the abolition of the tabu system. 

Wise to his very last days, his will for the future of Hawaii 
was revealed to Kamehameha II when Kaahumanu, the queen 
of Kamehameha the Great, advanced to meet Liholiho when he 
returned to Kailua following the period of preparing the bones 
of the great ruler for burial at Ahuena-i-kamakahonu-i-kaiakekua, 
and said: 

"I make known to your highness, Liholiho, the will of your 
father. Behold these chiefs and the men of your father, and 
these your guns, and this your land, but you and I shall share 
the realm tc^ether," and so he was constituted sovereign, but 
Kaahumanu was vested with the authority of premier. Kame- 
hameha the Great placed confidence in Kaahumanu, but was also 
aware of the worthless character of his son, and so the power 
he placed in the keeping of women, was maintained until 1864. 
Kamehameha the Great recognized the right of suffrage for 
women by granting them unusual power in high office. 

It was at this same moment that Kaahumanu declared her 
freedom from the tabu and declared she and all women would 
eat what they desired and cook it when and how they pleased, 
an announced "as for me and my people we are resolved to be 



HAWAII'S MOMENTOUS NIGHT 73 

free." The high priest Hcwahewa applied the torch to the idols 
and their sanctuaries and messengers were sent as far as Kauai 
to proclaim the abolition of the cruel and oppressive system. 
The tabu system was not abolished, however, without a struggle, 
but the fight for freedom was won and Hawaii began its modern 
life the day Kamehameha the Great died. 

One of the elements of Kamehameha's greatness lies in his 
pronouncement of the Mamala-Hoa, the law for the weak. Ka- 
mehameha had gone ashore from a canoe at Pa-a'i, at Keeau, 
Hawaii, to intercept fishermen who were on the side of his enemy 
Keoua. It is said that Kamehameha really intended robbery. 
He went ashore alone and pursued the fishermen, from one of 
whom he attempted to wrench away a net. Although of power- 
ful build, the king was unable to throw his opponent. One of 
his feet became wedged in a hole or crevice in the lava plain 
and held fast. The fisherman escaped. Another fisherman came 
up to Kamehameha and struck him on the head with a canoe 
paddle, and then joined his companion in flight. His own 
canoenien extracted him from his perilous trap and he recovered 
from his hurts. 

At Kamehameha's command the fishermen were hunted until 
they were captured. The prisoners crawled before Kamehameha, 
whose head was still bandaged, and prepared to meet their fate 
— death. Kamehameha asked why tlie fishermen had not struck 
him a second time and made sure of his death. The fisherman 
replied he thought one blow would suffice. 

Kamehameha then admitted he was wrong in making an at- 
tack. 

"My kahus used to tell me that violence and robbery (pakaha) 
were evil and should be punished with death. If I live I will 
make a law against robbery and violence, and lay on it the penalty 
of death." The men were dismissed and permitted to return to 
their homes. 

One of the results of the incident at Keaau was the law di- 
rected against the very thing of which Kamehameha had there 
been guilty, and this law was called the "Kanawai Mamala-Hoa" 



74 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

in memory of the unhappy affair of Keaau. The meaning of 
Mamala-Hoa is "splintered paddle." 

As to the words of the law itself, concerning this memorable 
incident, in which the law was embodied, they were nothing 
more nor less than those oft-quoted words which seemed to 
have been generally misunderstood as being a statement of a his- 
torical fact — "Let the aged, men and women, and little children, 
lie down in security on the highway," 

When Kamehameha and his fleet of peleleu canoes arrived 
at Kahului, he ordered the canoes taken apart and buried in the 
sand. When this order was obeyed lie spoke the order which 
meant life or death: "E moi i mua e ku'u mau pokii a inu i ka 
wai awaawa he make ko hope." — ("Forward my brethren until 
you drink the bitter waters, for to go back means death"). This 
was prior to his famous battle of the lao. He cut off the supply 
of water to the enemy by using his soldiers as a human palisade, 
causing them to acknowledge defeat. 

So strong was the belief of the Hawaiians who were con- 
cerned in the rearing of young Kamehameha, combined with the 
spread of the tradition of the early prophecy, that it became a 
part of the life of the Hawaiians to contribute in every way pos- 
sible to the fulfillment of the prophecy, and it is little wonder 
that, as he grew in stature and in mind and his prowess became 
recognized, he was given the adoration of his people and raised 
gradually to the summit of the pedestal reared in prophecy. 

Therefore, it is not surprising that in 1776, Keaulumoku, cousin 
of Kekaulike, bard and prophet during the reign of Kalaniopu'u, 
of Hawaii, composed a new prophecy for Kamehameha. He 
composed the famous chant, "Hau-i-Kalani," foretelling of suc- 
cess and glory for Kamehameha I. The bard was sixty-seven 
years of age at the time. The chant was as follows : 

Soon, behold, the shadow of one seizing land, 

Even the child of Kupuapa Kalanikupuapakalani, 

The youth doing the work of the chief 
Wrestling for the islands; 

Boldly stepping into the ring he enters with left-handed blows. 
He curbs the islands with a strong band. 



HAWAII'S MOMENTOUS NIGHT 75 

It was in 1782 that Kamehameha really became king, about 
five years after the discovery of the Hawaiian Islands by Cap- 
tain Cook. 

He began as king of one-half of Hawaii Island; by 1795 he 
had conquered all the islands except Kauai and Niihau, which 
were ceded to him in 1810. Like early English rulers, he di- 
vided the country into four petty kingdoms or earldoms, and 
appointed governors over them. They were in the nature of 
viceroys, with legislative and other powers almost as extensive 
as those of the kings whose places they took. He raised his 
queen to the position of premier, or chief justiciary, and placed 
in her hands, wrote Judge W, F. Frear in a paper prepared for 
the Hawaiian Historical Society, "life and death, condemnation 
and acquittal." 

This office of Kuhina nui, as it was called, was one of power 
almost equal to that of the king, for its occupant had power of 
veto over acts of the king, and thus the two stood somewhat in 
the relation of Roman consuls. He selected four chiefs as special 
counsellors, a sort of cabinet or privy council, and also four 
"wise men" as lawyers and assistants, and consulted much with 
i-everal trusted white men. 

He put an end to wars, erected a strong central government ; 
checked the oppression of lesser chiefs; appointed officers more 
for merit than rank; improved the laws, made them more uni- 
form, rigidly enforced them and, generally, brought about a con- 
dition of peace and security. He was particular to publish the 
laws throughout the group, and set the good example of living 
up to them himself. His more important laws were directed 
against murder, robbery, theft, confiscation and extortion. He 
also made laws imposing harbor charges on foreign vessels. 

No record was ever left by Kamehameha of his signature. 
There was no written language in his day, but "His Mark" ap- 
pears on documents now on file in the Archives department of 
the government. One is attached to a document signed in 1818, 
a year before his death, by Captain Bouchard, commanding an 
Argentine- Spanish ship of war which came here in pursuit of 
Spanish pirates. On this document is the name "Tamaah Maah," 



76 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

and following it is a crude crossing of two lines, identified as 
"His Mark." 

Kamehameha was devoted to farnang, both as a civilian pur- 
suit and because, like Napoleon, he knew an army traveled on its 
stomach. After he brought his armies to Oahu and after the 
battle of Nuuanu in 1795, he put his soldiers to tilling the soil 
in Manoa Valley, planting sweet potatoes. He also commanded 
his people to plant taro and instructed them in proper attention to 
the patchs ; he told them to plant and respect the banana plants ; 
and urged them to remain close to the soil. The name "Ualakaa" 
{rolling potato hill) still designates the part of Manoa Valley set 
apart by Kamehameha to provide food for his warriors. 

Paiea Kamehameha I was born in the month of Ikuwa (No- 
vember), on a gale-swept night between 1736 and 1740, the exact 
year not being definitely known. This was at the time when 
Alapainui had called all the great feudal chiefs to assemble at 
Kohala, along the shores of Koaie to Pu'uwepa, with their men 
and war canoes. Alapainui was at Kohala collecting his war- 
riors and fleet from the different districts preparatory to the in- 
vasion of Maui to vindicate himself from the outrage that Kekau- 
like, king of Maui, had committed after the naval battle off the 
coast of Kona, when Kekaulike landed in several places and cut 
down the cocoanut trees at Kawaiahae and destroyed villages. 

Kamehameha's father was Kalanikupuapaikalani Keoua, half- 
brother of Kalaniopu'u, and grandson of Keawe, "King of Ha- 
waii." His mother was Kekuaiapoiwa H, daughter of Kekela- 
kekeokalani-a-Keawe { wahine = woman) and Haae (kane = 
man) the son of Kalanikauleleiawi (w) and Kauaua-a-mahi (k) 
and brother to Alapainui, the king. 

Before the birth of Kamehameha, Kekuaipoiwai I, wife of 
Keoua, sailed in a canoe to Maui to visit the court of Kahekili, 
leaving her older son, Kaleimamahu, with Keoua. When she 
returned to Hawaii Alapainui noticed a peculiar desire of Ke- 
kuaipoiwa, which she put to the king, to have Kauhinuia Malu- 
lani, one of the young chiefs of his court, put to death because 
she "wanted to possess his eyes." The king was surprised and 
said, "Why, you seem to want to possess the eyes of the Niuhi 




, crenlcsl of nil lliiwaiiaiis, «■ 
piitury. From puiiiling by Nu' 
irtiat, 1816. owiieil by Hawaiia 
t's nrcliivea. 




lli'lfiily, [)0(-lry ami lovo huvy Inrii i 
Waikiki Bcai-h. Bt'ut'afh its rwoB 
Diamona Heail crntor, in the iljstai 



HAWAII'S MOMENTOUS NIGHT 17 

(king of the sharks) ; it cannot be done, for he is too great a 
chief to be killed for such a whim. Why do you want the eyes 
of the tabu shark, the chief of the Great Mountain?" Then he 
immediately sent for a great prophet and astrologer, who, when 
he heard of Kekuaipoiwa's morbid desire, said that she was with 
child, and that "a man is coming to slay the chiefs." 

Alapainui was angry with the astrologer and he ordered two 
grass houses to be built in a single day, as was the custom. 
He placed the astrologer in one and then sent for all the other 
astrologers in the Islands. All came. One asked the king for 
what purposes the grass houses had been built. He replied, "One 
is for the man to be killed. The other is for the kahunas," He 
then took them one by one into one of these houses and asked 
them to explain the reason of Kekuaipoiwa's unusual desire. 
Each one said that "a man is coming to slay the chiefs," and said 
that was the interpretation of the woman's desire. Alapainui 
realized the import of the prophecy and said : "Let us pluck the 
shoots of the wauke lest it thrive and grow and spread." 

One of the astrologers, Kaha, went to Keoua and Kekuaipoiwa 
and said: "Alapai is going to pluck the bud; fear not; we will 
take the child and conceal him and rear him; my mother and 
twin sister, Kahaopulani, will take him to the Pali Hulaana at 
Awini ; have a chiefly herald, fleet of foot, ready at the moment, 
for we will direct him, and in the meantime guard yourselves." 
Kaha remained with Keoua, and his sister was sent for. 

On the night of his birth, Naeole, father of Walawala, one 
of Kalaniopuu's generals, slipped through the back of the house, 
according to arrangement, and ran to the hills of Awini with the 
young babe. Kahaopulani (w) and her mother Hikuikepualono 
(w) were waiting for the arrival daily. They had already begun 
the making of his feather cloak. They had masses of olona fiber 
being woven with the network preparatory for the laying on of 
the feathers. When Naeole arrived they immediately took Ka- 
mehameha, Hiku calling on all the gods to conceal the signs of 
the chieftain, and called upon all the elements to return to their 
habitat — the rainbow, the silvery clouds, and the thunder and 
the lightning and the rain. Uniihulumakaokalani (k), the aged 



78 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

chieftain of the mountains, grandfather of Kahaopulani, was 
guarding the mountain pass, and just as Naeole left he signalled 
that some one was coming up toward tlie pass. Kahaopulani 
placed the child under the olona fiber, whilst Hiku, her mother, 
prayed that the child might not be found by Alapai's men. 

The king's herald ran up to the house and called out : "Have 
you seen a man with a bundle — a child?" Kahaopulani spoke 
up quickly: "Why, yes, he just ran down the other way; take 
that road and you may overtake him." 

The danger was over. The babe was reared by these Awini 
chieftains, his only playmate being his little foster sister, Kaha- 
kuakane, known as Kuakane, This was opposed to all Hawaiian 
traditions, that a male child should suckle from the breast of a 
woman that had a female child, but it evidently did not harm 
Kamehameha. The young chief's people taught him to be kind 
to every one, to call the passerby in to partake of food. As early 
as this period in his life the chiefs began to teach Kamehameha 
the value of storing food for his people, lessons that remained 
with him throughout his life and were of vast value during his 
campaigns, for, like Napoleon, he believed that an army traveled 
on its stomach. 

And so was preserved the life of one who was to "slay the 
chiefs." It all came to pass. He did slay chiefs and their men. 
He fought and commanded troops, and conquered and beat 
down his opponents one by one, his personal prowess being an 
example to every warrior. 

A portion of a chant that was revealed to Alapainui, gently in- 
forming him of the existence of the baby Kamehameha, and of 
whom the king seemed to stand in awe, follows: 

Faiea, the chief, is away in Awini, 

At Hulaasa, cliff of the Eoae bird; 

The chieftain hill of Nakulokalani; 

The fleet herald chief is Hikuikekualono 'a. 

He is of the blazing aun — of the crumbling earth; 

The torch that gave warmth to the chief is from Awini; 

It ia calling to Keahialakalani, 

Where dwella UmihulDmakaokalani, 

And hia chieftains who all reared Paiea, the chief; 



HAWAII'S MOMENTOUS NIGHT 79 

The rumtling heaven, 

Tte clash of the voice of Ikuna, 

The thundering black clouds; 

At Awini the cord was cat; 

At Eeahialaka he partook of food; 

Kahaopulaui's was the breast 

Of the chiefly arching cocoanut of 

Kekuaiapoina that you all know; 

The brightest torch of life that ia living; 

The heaven that burna and blazes on. 

This chant softened the wrath and fear of Alapainui and he 
sent for the young boy to be brought home to him. He was 
about twelve years of age at this time. Alapai gave him into 
the keeping of the Chiefess Keaka (w) and her sister Hakau 
(w), the daughters of Heulu, who, with their families, taught 
him the athletic games ; chants were composed for him, and then 
he was taken to the temple by his uncles, Kameeiamoku and 
Kamanawa, and the ceremonies of dedicating the youth to be 
a warrior were performed. The pig that was offered for a sac- 
rifice for this occasion was called Hamauku-ka-puaa-i-ka-naha, 
Then the young chieftain gave himself up for a time to the pleas- 
ures of his uncle's royal court. There the High Chief Keku- 
haupio, the great warrior chief, took him and instructed him in 
all the martial exercises extant among Hawaiians. 

Later on, Kamehameha showed his strength, agility and cour- 
age by taking hold of the body of the rebel chief of Puna Ima- 
kaloa, a head of Kiwaloa, and offering it up for sacrifice. For 
this reason he left Kalaniopu'u's court. It is said that he was 
advised by his two uncles, the twin warriors, Kameeiamoku and 
Kamanawa, also Keeaumoku, father of Kaahumanu (w.) These 
three and another chief were his chief counselors, Kameeiamoku 
being his general- in-chief. 

No one knows where Kamehameha the Great sleeps. 

Undoubtedly the last resting place of his bones is a cave at 
Kiholo. Hoolulu, the chief who concealed him, once weakened 
and was about to show one of the Kamehamehas where the great 
chief slept, but the king came with his retinue, so Hooluhi turned 
to him and said : 



80 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES " 

"Thou shall not see thy father," and the place of concealment 
was never revealed. Of all the members of the royal families 
of the Kamehameha and Kalakaua dynasties only the bones of 
Kamehameha are unaccounted for, for they rest in the secrecy 
of the mountain caves of Hawaii with those of his forfeathers. 

Kamehameha was called "Papaleaiaina-ku'u Aloha" by Kaahu- 
manua, his queen, and by that name only by her. 

Upon the solid empire founded and fostered by Kamehameha 
the Great, whose own dynasty lasted until 1874, and that of the 
Kalakauas until 1893, what has been builded? 

Unknown to them that Kamehameha the Great was dead in 
Hawaii, that very year the New England missionaries left Bos- 
ton for the "Sandwich Islands," as Hawaii was then known. 
They reached Hawaii in 1820 and were given a welcome. They 
brought with them the printing press as well as the Bible. They 
erected churches and schoolhouses, and created a written lan- 
guage and printed it on their missionary presses, the first ever 
brought into the Pacific. They shaped the laws of the chiefs 
and gave them the semblance of laws of civilized countries. They 
reshaped the parliamentary procedure; they established trade re- 
lations between Hawaiia and foreign countries, and aided the 
king and his councillors to estabhsh diplomatic relations with 
other nations. 

Hawaii became the mecca of shipping and its trade grew in 
importance. Close relations were maintained between Hawaii 
and the United States early in the missionary days; Hawaiians 
served in the Civil War, as they did in the Spanish War and 
the World War just concluded. Commerce became an all-impor- 
tant thing, and during the Kamehameha dynasty a Reciprocity 
Treaty was urged between Hawaii and America, which was 
finally consitmmaied during the reign of Kalakaua. 

Destiny drove the Islands on into the safe harbor of the United 
States, a remarkable little nation, whose independence had been 
safeguarded by the United States throughout many tempestuous 
decades. The Hawaiian flag, which Kamehameha the Great 
gazed upon over the fort which he established more ihan a cen- 



HAWAII'S MOMENTOUS NIGHT 81 

tury ago in Honolulu, still floats over the Islands, but now as the 
territorial flag. 

Hawaii, as a whole, has been absorbed into the Greater Re- 
public, just as Kamehameha absorbed the lesser kingdoms and 
welded them into an empire. 

There is some question as to the exact age of Kamehameha 
the Great, and particularly the year of his birth. The nalive 
historian Kamakau stated half a century ago that Kamehameha 
was born in 1736, hence at his death in 1819 he must have been 
83 years old. This would make him 43 at the date of Captain 
Cock's arrival at Hawaii in 1778, and 58 when Vancouver visited 
the Islands in 1794. According to this date His Majesty must 
have been 78 years old when his son Kamehameha III, Kaui- 
keaouh, was born on March 17, 1814. With all deference to 
Kamakau's intimate knowledge of ancient Hawaiian history, his 
selection of 1736 as the birth year of Kamehameha -must be in 
error. It would be a more correct statement to say Kamehameha 
was born in 1753. This would make him 25 when Cook arrived. 

.-\s death approached Kamehameha he called to the high chief- 
lain Ulumaheihei Hoapili, eldest son of Kameeiamoku, and 
whispered to him: 

"Thou must conceal my bones; the family that concealed 
my father, Keoua's, bones, betrayed the hiding place." And so 
Hoapili. assisted by his younger half-brother, Hoolulu, carried 
out the wish of the great leader, whose burial cave is one of 
the unsolved mysteries of Hawaiian history. 

Kamehameha was justly entitled to the title of Great. He is 
justly entitled to a place among leaders of the civilized nations 
as a great general and a wise sovereign. 



CHAPTER V 



BUILDER OF A SEA EMPIRE 



BATTLE OF THE NUUANU 

FIREARMS played a conspicuous part in the destiny of 
the Hawaiian group about the time the American republic 
was enjoying its first years of independence under Presi- 
dent George Washington. Had it not been for these scientific 
engines of destruction of human life, the title of "Napoleon of 
the Pacific" may not have been added to the list of soubriquets 
which history has attached to this remarkable Hawaiian leader. 
He came from one district of a large kingdom, and overthrew all 
other districts, and then island by island until he became monarch 
of all, aided in his last battle by white men who used modern 
weapons, against which the opponents' spearmen were as pigmies. 
In 1795 Kamehameha, flushed with victories over all the Isl- 
and of Hawaii and on the Islands of Maui and Molokai, came 
to the Island of Oahu with a vast fleet of outrigger war canoes, 
called the "Peleleu Fleet," containing seasoned veterans of his 
many wars, prepared to launch a vigorous ofifensive against the 
warriors of King Kalanikupule. He had mustered the largest 
and best-equipped army, and since known to have been the most 
powerful ever mobilized in the entire Pacific region. In his 
service were sixteen foreigners, of whom John Young and Isaac 
Davis were two Englishmen who had seen service as officers 
aboard British merchant vessels, and who were retained by Ka- 
mehameha for his own service shortly after they reached the 
shores of Hawaii. 

After the visits of Captains Cook and Vancouver and other 
foreigners, Kamehameha, with keen military foresight, secured 
several cannons from visiting vessels. The artillery division 



BUILDER OF A SEA EMPIRE 85 

was in command of Young and Davis, assisted by one Peter An- 
derson. Kamehameha's combined force numbered nearly 16,000 
men, according to best traditions. The army landed upon the 
shore of Waikiki, near Honolulu, where, in a grove of cocoanuts, 
some of which are reputed to be standing there today, Kameha- 
meha established his court and his headquarters. 

Kamehameha recognized the necessity for an uninterrupted 
food supply, and he immediately established taro fields, planted 
potatoes on the hill Ualakaa in Manoa Valley, and prepared for 
his campaign. 

In April, 1795, Kamehameha was ready, and moved a portion 
of his army over the long stretch which now comprises the dis- 
tricts of Waikiki, Pawaa, Makiki, until he concentrated his van- 
guard at the foot of Nuuanu Valley . 

Kalanikupule made his first stand in the valley at LaimJ, near 
the present Oahu Country Club golf links. The Oahu warriors 
made a desperate resistance until the Chief Kaina, a prominent 
Hawaiian who had sailed to China and knew of the great lands 
beyond the isles of Kamehameha, who had been discovered a 
traitor to Kamehameha, was mortally wounded by a cannon ball. 
The death of Kaina broke down the morale of the Oahuans, and 
they gave way and were steadily pursued and pressed by Ka- 
mehameha's victorious forces. In time the Oahuans, who had 
lost heavily, their women fighting as Amazons and being slaugh- 
tered with the men, retreated until they reached the gap in the 
mountains known as the Nuuanu Pali, one of the most beautiful 
of all mountain places in Hawaii, a gap which divides the island 
in half, permitting one to gaze out upon windward Oahu as 
though from an airplane, and in reverse to gaze back upon the 
city of Honolulu and the ocean beyond. On the windward side 
there was a sheer precipice drop of a thousand feet. The resist- 
less fury of the pursuing troops of Kamehameha gave no alter- 
native to the brave little army of Oahuans, now hewn down by 
spear, battle-axe, slings and muskets to a shattered fragment. 
The army was cut to pieces. The survivors were pressed back 
to the edge of the precipice. The thousands of warrior:; of Ka- 



84 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

mehameha pressed on, and gradually the survivors were forced 
over the brink to fearful death a thousand feet below. 

Many escaped up the ridges on either side of the gap, and 
among them were the defeated king attended by a small detach- 
ment of his warriors. For months he was hunted in the Koolau 
mountains until he was captured in a cave above Waipio and 
brought down and offered in sacrifice to the conqueror's war 
god at Moanalua. His brother. Koolaukani, escaped to the Isl- 
and of Kauai. 

This battle made Kamehameha master of all the islands ex- 
cept Kauai, and that was brought under his domination to such 
an extent that the king of that isle dared not oppose his will. 

In 1810 the great chieftain completed the conquest, when 
Kauai was humbled and all the islands were consolidated into 
a single empire, with himself as the monarch of what were then 
known as the Sandwich Islands, and later as the Hawaiian Isl- 
ands. 

Kamehameha's dynasty ruled the Islands until the death of 
King Lunalilo in 1874, when, by legislative selection, the High 
Chief David Kalakaua was named sovereign, his dynasty ruling 
until 1893, when the monarchy was overthrown and a republic 
set up, which was succeeded in 1898 by the Territory of Hawaii, 
resulting from the adoption of a Joint Resolution of Annexa- 
tion by the American Congress on July 6, 1898, and signed the 
following day by President William McKinley. In June, 1900, 
under the provisions of the Organic Act, provided for in the 
Joint Resolution, and which was Hawaii's territorial constitu- 
tion, Hawaii assumed its status as a Territory, with Sanford 
B Dole appointed as Governor by President McKinley. succeed- 
ing himself as President of the Hawaiian Republic, Kameha- 
meha the Great died on May 8, 1819. at Kailua, Kona, Island 
of Hawaii, his old capital, but the bruial place of his bones re- 
mains a profound secret, known possibly to but two persons in 
all Hawaii. 

The first New England missionaries who came to the Ha- 
waiian Islands in 1820, were not entirely disabused of the idea 
that Chrisiantty had been presented to the great Kamehameha 



BUILDER OF A SEA EMPIRE 85 

and his chiefs before they arrived. There are records showing 
positively that Chrisitanity was discussed by Kamehameha with 
visitors. The voyage of Captain Cleveland to Hawaii, about 
1803, was notable for several things, one of which is the state- 
ment that he brought the first horses to Hawaii, as a present 
to Kamehameha. At the request of John Young he landed a 
mare and foal at Kawaihae, Hawaii, June 24, 1803. Two horses 
remaining were taken over to Lahaina and there presented to 
the King. 

One other circumstance is related by Captain Cleveland that 
is of vital importance in the history of Christianity in Hawaii. 
Very little credit has been given to the early foreign residents 
in Hawaii, prior to the missionary advent, for their influence in 
the abolition of the tabu system, and if Cleveland is to be cred- 
ited, the first Protestant clergyman resident in Hawaii was an 
English Episcopalian. Captain Cleveland's account is quoted in 
full: 

"As our intercourse with these Islands increased, the danger 
of a temporary residence on shore ceased. Among others who 
at this early period took advantage of it was a Mr, Howell, 
commonly called Padre Howell, who soon ingratiated himself 
into favor with the King, and being struck with his superiority 
of intellect, conceived that it would not be difficult to induce him 
to abandon his idolatrous worship and substitute one of ration- 
ality. Acordingly, he lost no opportunity, after acquiring a suf- 
ficient knowledge of the language, to convince the Chief of the 
incapacity for good or evil of his gods, and of the power and 
wisdom and goodness of the Supreme Maker and Ruler of the 
Universe, whom he worshipped. 

"The first, that of the impotency of the idols, was without 
difficulty admitted, but the second, not being tangible, could not 
be comprehended. His mind, however, appeared to be dwelling 
on the subject with increased attention after each conversation. 
At length, one day, while walking together, the King unusually 
thoughtful, and Howell auguring favorably from it, the silence 
was broken by the King's observing, 'You say your God is pow- 
erful, wise, good, and that He will shield from harm those who 



86 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

truly worship and adore Him?' This being assented to, then 
said the King, 'Give me proof by going and throwing yourself 
from yonder precipice, and while falling call upon your God to 
shield you, and if you escape unharmed, I will then embrace the 
worship of your God.' It may be unnecessary to say that Howell 
failed to give the desired test, and the King remained uncon- 
verted." 
Vancouver wrote that Howell resided with Kamehameha. 



CHAPTER VI 



LINKS BINDING ENGLAND AND HAWAII 



CONQUEROR LEANED TOWARD BRITAIN 

WITH the visit of the Prince of Wales to Honolulu in 1920 
the time was appropriate to Hawaii's historians and 
paragraphers to turn back the pages of history and review 
some of the events that linked Hawaii and Great Britain in the 
past, the evident effort of English navigators to secure a large 
measure of English influence in the direction of Hawaii's af- 
fairs, even to securing a cession of the Hawaiian Islands to the 
British crown. 

From the day that Captain Cook's ships sailed into Hawaiian 
waters in 1778 until the little brig Thaddeus, flying the American 
flag, sailed into the same waters and landed American mission- 
aries, there was a steadily growing influence of Great Britain, 
and this continued until a day when Daniel Webster, theoreti- 
cally pointing his finger toward the Great Powers, advised them 
to keep their hands off Hawaii, and from that day English influ- 
ence in the Islands waned, but in that time England gave to Ha- 
waii much that was to the country's benefit. 

Gut of the archives of the Territory, which are now classified 
and stored in the Archives building in Honolulu, Robert C. 
Lydecker, librarian of the Archives, himself an authority on 
Hawaiian historical matters, brought to the attention of the 
Prince of Wales, during that memorable visit, a sketchy com- 
pilation of English influence in Hawaii. To him I am indebted 
for much that relates to this interesting period of Hawaii's his- 
tory, for in all that time there was much of discovery, of ro- 
mance, adventure and tragedy, or international complications, 
and there were times when English guns were unmuzzled on the 



88 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

decks of frigates and trained upon Honolulu. And it is re- 
lated, also, that on an occasion in the 40's when this happened an 
American warship loosed her anchor cables and swung into posi- 
tion, with guns cleared for action, so that she was in a position 
to dominate the decks of the British vessel. Honolulu was pos- 
sibly saved a bombardment by the action of the intrepid American 
commander. 

This connection between England and Hawaii, so these archives 
compiled by Lydecker relate, begins with the name by which the 
Islands were first known to the world, and until a comparative 
recent time so set down on the maps, a name derived from the 
title of a nobleman of Great Britain, the Earl of Sandwich, who 
at the time of Captain Cook's rediscovery of them in 1778, was 
the First Lord of the British Admiralty and in whose honor 
Cook called them the Sandwich Islands. Since that time England 
has played a part in the country's history second only to the 
United States. 

History records Captain Cook as the discoverer of the Islands, 
and in the sense of making them known to the world this is cor- 
rect, but over two centuries before his visit, a Spanish navigator, 
said to be Don Juan Gaetano, as recorded in documents in the 
Archives of Spain, copies of which are on file in the Hawaiian 
Archives, discovered and charted them in 1555. 

Following Cook, the second great Englishman to stamp his 
name indelibly on Hawaii's history was Captain George Van- 
couver, who had been sent out by the British government to re- 
ceive the cession of Nootka Sound and the country round about, 
from a Commissioner of Spain, and to make a survey of the 
Northwest Coast. 

This officer reached the Island of Hawaii March 2, 1792, from 
which place he proceeded on his mission. This, however, was 
not Vancouver's first visit. He had been in Hawaii with Captain 
Cook as one of his midshipmen. 

Returning to the Islands, he anchored off Kawaihae, Island of 
Hawaii, February 14, 1793, where he landed a bull and a cow, 
the first ever seen by the natives, and later the balance of his 
stock, consisting of five cows and three sheep. After a stay of 



LINKS BINDING ENGLAND AND HAWAII 89 

several weeks he again sailed from Waimea in the early part of 
April for the Northwest Coast. Returning for his last visit, he 
anchored off Hilo, January 9, 1794. 

These three visits formed an era in the history of the Islands. 
He was a wise and generous benefactor to the Hawaiian people. 
He sowed the seed of the religion of Jesus Christ, thereby pav- 
ing the way for the American missionaries. 

One of the most important events connected with his last visit 
was the so-called session by Kamehameha I, of a portion of the 
Island of Hawaii to the British Crown. Vancouver, in an auto- 
graph letter dated March 2, 1794, which is on file in the Archives, 
says the whole of the island, but at that time Kamehameha ruled 
only over the districts of Kona, Kohala and Hamakua, the latter 
of which he had only recently conquered. He was at war with 
the chiefs of Hilo, Puna and Kau districts, and it was not until 
some time after Vancouver left that he was in undisputed pos- 
session of the whole island. 

The interpretation put on this cession by Kamehameha and 
Vancouver was wide apart, the latter considering it an absolute 
surrender of his sovereignty by Kamehameha. This, Kameha- 
meha had no idea of doing. Protection from without was his 
object, and he had no intention of surrendering the control of 
internal affairs. This was also the attitude taken by the British 
government regarding it, as is expressed in a letter from the 
Earl of Liverpool now in the Hawaiian Archives, which is one 
of respect to the King's independence, with an implied promise 
of friendly protection in case of foreign aggression. 

These visits of Vancouver were of lasting benefit to Hawaii. 
He gave Kamehameha and the chiefs wise and friendly counsel. 
He endeavored to bring about a lasting peace between Hawaii 
and the leeward islands, and left under the impression that he 
had settled conditions by which it would be brought about. 

Vancouver in His Voyage, Volume 5, page 82, says: "I was 
very much concerned to find that my earnest endeavors to bring 
about a reconciliation and to establish peace among these Islands 
had proved unsuccessful. The mutual distrust that continued to 
exist among the people of the several islands, which I had fore- 



90 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

seen to be the greatest difficulty there was to combat, and which 
I had apprehended would be an insurmountable obstacle, had 
proved fatal to the attainment of this desirable object." This 
was not to be, however, until some sixteen years later, when 
Kamehameha became king of the whole group. 

Before leaving, Vancouver had laid the keel of the first vessel 
ever built in the Islands, a small sloop called the "Britannia," and 
promised, the King to send him a vessel suitable for cruising 
among the Islands, in accordance with which, though not until 
three years after Kamehameha's death. Captain Keat, on behalf 
of the British government, presented the vessel to Liholiho 
(Kamehameha II), May 1, 1822, It was named the "Prince 
Regent," and came to an untimely end only a few months later 
on the east side of Oahu island. 

The British government was the first to be represented in 
Hawaii by a full-fledged consul, though the United Stales had 
had a commercial agent and acting consul for five years prior to 
the arrival of the British consul. Captain Richard Carlton, who, 
with his wife and her sister, arrived at Honolulu April 16, 1825, 
the ladies being the first European women to become residents 
of Honolulu. 

Liholiho, who had succeeded to the throne on the death of his 
father in 1819, decided in September, 1823, to visit England and 
the United States. In this he was actuated partly by curiosity 
to see foreign lands and partly to secure protection for his coun- 
try from foreign aggression, especially against Russia, subjects 
of that country having been particularly aggressive, erecting a 
block-house, mounting a few guns and hoisting the Russian flag 
at Honolulu in 1815, also throwing up breastworks and mounting 
cannon at Hanalei, Kauai, over which the Russian colors were 
displayed. 

The King embarked in an English whaleship, the "L'Aigle," 
accompanied by Kamamalu, the queen; by the High Chief Boki 
and his wife, the High Chiefess Liliha ; by Governor Kekuanaoa, 
Kapihe, Manuia and James Young. They sailed from Honolulu 
September 27, 1823, amid the sad forebodings of the people, 
which later events justified. 



LINKS BINDING ENGLAND AND HAWAII 91 

The vessel put into Rio Janeiro for a short period, where the 
British consul-general gave a ball for their entertainment, and the 
Emperor, Dom Pedro, treated them with distinguished attention. 

Landing at Portsmouth, May 22, 1824, the party were taken in 
charge by the Honorable F. Byng, who had been appointed by 
the government to attend the royal set, and quarters were pro- 
vided for them at Osborne's Hotel, London, where, according 
to Jarves, Bingham in his history, says the Adelphian, the appear- 
ance of the travelers was somewhat novel to the residents of 
that city. 

Kamamalu exhibited herself in loose trousers and a long bed 
gown of colored velveteen, Liliha being in a similar costume. 
Suitable dresses were soon provided, however, the tailors soon 
fitted out the males in the newest cut, and Parisian modistes 
gowned the ladies in accordance with the Court fashion of the 
day. Corsets for the first time encircled their ample waists, and 
the London fair sex, in their rage for the strangers, sought pat- 
terns of the turbans that graced the brow of the queen. The 
royal company received every attention from the English nobil- 
ity, were feasted and flattered, and taken to see all the sights 
and shows of London. 

On June 12, Manuia, the steward, was attacked by measles. 
The next day the king sickened, and by the 19th all the party 
were afflicted with the same disease. The inferior chiefs soon 
recovered, but the queen rapidly grew worse, and in spite of the 
best medical attendance she died on the Sth of July. This sad 
event so affected the king that he sank rapidly and expired on the 
morning of the 14th. The survivors were treated with great kind- 
ness and were received by King George IV at Windsor Castle, 
September 16. It was at this audience that the king confirmed 
Lord Liverpool's letter in reference to the independence of the 
Hawaiian sovereign, telling the chiefs he would protect the 
Islands from foreign aggression, but all internal affairs were in 
their own hands, to be managed as they saw fit. 

The frigate "Blonde," commanded by Lord Byron, cousin of 
the poet, whom he had lately succeeded to the title, was ordered 
to convey the remains of the king and queen and the survivors 



92 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

liome. During the voyage Liliha and Kekuanaoa were baptized 
at their own request by the chaplain. Lord Byron standing as 
sponsor. 

On the 6th of May, 1825, the "Blonde" arrived at Honolulu, 
after touching at Lahaina on the 4th, and soon the air was filled 
by the wailing of the populace and the gloomy roar of the 
minute guns. 

On the succeeding day the chiefs gave an audience to Lord 
Byron and his officers, at which the gifts of King George IV, to 
the heads of the nation, were presented. 

The young king, Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III), was clothed 
to his great satisfaction in a rich suit of Windsor uniform with 
chapeau and sword. 

Lord Byron was a worthy follower of Vancouver and won the 
gratitude and respect of both the natives and the better class of 
foreigners. Alexander, in his Brief History of the Hawaiian 
Islands, states: "If he had left here a suitable representative of 
his government, imbued with his own humane and enlightened 
views, the subsequent history of the Islands would have been 
very dififerent," having reference to Captain Charlton, the British 
consul, who was dismissed by his government when his actions 
in Hawaii became known to it. 

Lord Byron drew up the first laws printed and published in 
Honolulu, being regulations for the harbor of Honolulu. He 
made a survey of the bay at Hilo, Island of Hawaii, whch was 
afterwards called "Byron's Bay," although more popularly known 
as Hilo Bay, and by his advice the chiefs began more active meas- 
ures for suppression of vices which were destroying their race, 
and for promoting education. The American missionaries, who 
were still more or less under suspicion, were indebted to him for 
removing the last doubts as to their mission and motives; telling 
the natives that these people taught the same religion as that 
recommended to them by Vancouver, teachers of which he had 
promised to send them on his return to England, if possible. 

To the door of Richard Charlton, the British consul, who had 
been a thorn in the side of the Hawaiian government during the 
whole of his residence in the islands may be laid the forced ces- 




KaTiivliaiHcim II— Lihulilin,— s-.ii of tin' htvih 
infliu'ucpil by (Jiii'i'tt Ki)iiliiini]iiiii, i^iisi'i 



LINKS BINDING ENGLAND AND HAWAII 93 

sion of the islands to Lord George Paulet, of Great Britain, 
in 1843. 

The Enghsh governinent had ever been willing that these 
islands should rise and prosper under their native dynasty. Mr. 
Charlton had constantly urged a contrary policy, indirectly if 
nor directly, by representing the native rulers as wholly unfit 
for governing. On many occasions he treated then with indig- 
nity, threatening their lives and using language unpardonable for 
its violence and unreasonableness. Had he been a dispassionate, 
shrewd man, possibly he could have effected greater injury than 
he did, but by 1833 his natural character had been forcibly dis- 
closed and his influence began to wane. Disappointed by this 
very natural consequence, he zealously lent himself to the injury 
of the nation, opposing all that it favored and nursing every 
case which could generate discord or involve the rulers. By 
1842 matters had reached such a stage, not only with Charlton, 
but with France, that an Embassy was appointed April 8th of 
that year, to the United States and the courts of Great Britain 
and France, to negotiate new treaties and obtain guarantees of 
the independence of the kingdom. 

As soon as these facts became known, Mr. Charlton, fearing 
the results of the embassy upon his own office, left the country 
surreptitiously, September 26, 1842, for London, via Mexico, to 
lay his complaints before the British government, sending back 
a threatening letter to the king in which he informed him that 
he had appointed Alexander Simpson as acting consiil, an ap- 
pointment the Hawaiian government refused to recognize. 

At Mazatlan he fell in with Lord George Paulet, commanding 
the British frigate "Carysfort," and by misrepresentation, so 
prejudiced the mind of this officer, that the grievous blunder 
he committed a few months later followed as a natural result. 
In later years none saw this more clearly than Lord George him- 
self. Mr. Charlton's career was terminated by his own act. He 
had no sooner arrived in London than he was removed from 
office under circumstance of disgrace. 

The Earl of Aberdeen considered the final act of his diplomacy 
as intemperate, improper and ill-judged, calculated to do great 



94 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

mischief and to produce in the minds of the king and his advisers 
a resentful feeling, not only against Mr. Charlton, but against 
the British government and its subjects. The Earl's sentiments 
are authentic and clearly show that it was no part of the policy 
of England, that her commissioned officers should insult and 
browbeat even the weakest of nations. 

Meanwhile Mr. Simpson had sent despatches to the coast, 
representing that the persons and property of his countrymen 
were in danger, which induced Rear Admiral Richard Thomas, 
commander-in-chief of the British forces in the Pacific, to order 
the "Carysfort" to Honolulu to investigate. 

The "Carysfort" arrived on the 10th of February, 1843, and 
• Mr. Simpson immediately went on board to concert measures 
with Lord George, whose entire acquiescence in his plans, tends 
to show that the seed planted by Charlton at Mazatlan was soon 
on fertile ground, and on being watered by Simpson, to full 
fruition. The authorities on shore suspected there ^vas no 
friendly feeling from the withholding of the usual salute. Dr. 
Gerrit P. Judd, an American, who called officially on the part 
of liie Hawaiian government, and the consuls of the United 
States and France were informed that they could not be received. 

The king, who was absent on Maui when the "Carysfort" 
arrived, reached Honolulu on February 16th and on the 17th 
received a peremptory letter from Paulet, inclosing six demands 
with the threat that if they were not complied with by four 
o'clock, p. m., of the next day "immediate coercive steps would 
be taken." The next morning, February 18th, the frigate clear- 
ed for action and her battery was brought to bear on the town. 

Excited by the gross injustice of the demands the first im- 
pulses of the king and his council were to resist. In this they 
were sustained by the entire foreign population, but wiser coun- 
sel finaliy prevailed and before the hour set for hostilities had 
arrived, a letter was sent on board the "Carysfort" informed 
Lord Paulet that ambassador* had been sent to England with 
full powers to settle these very difficulties, but nevertheless the 



LINKS BINDING ENGLAND AND HAWAII 95 

king would comply with his demands under protest and appeal 
to the British government for justice. 

On the morning of the 25th the king and premier signed the 
provisional cession to Lord George Paulet "subject to the deci- 
sion of the British government after the receipt of full informa- 
tion from both parties." It is to the lasting credit of England, 
that when this information was received, her decision was in 
favor of the king's contentions. 

The act of cession was publicly read from the ramparts of the 
fort at three o'clock p. m. of the same date and a proclamation 
providing for a commission for the government of the islands 
issued by Lord Paulet and the British colors hoisted over the 
fort. At the same time the flag over the British consulate was - 
struck. By a strange coincidence it chanced that the clay was 
the 49th anniversary of Kamehameha's cession to Vancouver. 

The commission took over the government as far as foreigners 
were concerned, the native population being left under the con- 
trol of the king and chiefs, and ruled with an iron hand in the 
most arbitrary manner, as if it had been settled that the islands 
would permanently remain as a British colony. Every Hawaiian 
flag that could be found was destroyed. Fearing seizure of the 
national archives. Dr. Judd concealed them in a royal tomb. "In 
this abode of death," says Jan-es, "surrounded by the former 
sovereigns of Hawaii, and using the coffin of Kaahumanu (favor- 
ite queen of Kamehameha the Great), for a table, for many 
weeks he nightly found an unsuspected asylum for his labors in 
behalf of the kingdom." 

The tomb referred to is now under the mound of lawn and 
flowers in the grounds of the territorial capitol, formerly the 
royal palace, at Honolulu. It is directly in front of and a couple 
of hundred feet distant from the building where the archives 
are now housed for all time. 

Word of Paulet's actions having reached Admiral Thomas, at 
Valparaiso, he proceeded in all haste to the islands, arriving in 
his flagship, the "Dublin," July 26th. Hardly had the ship come 
to anchor before the admiral in the most courteous terms solicit- 



96 , UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

ed an interview with the king, and in a few hours it became 
known that he had come to restore the independence of the 
islands. The joy of the natives and of the foreigners was un- 
bounded, and the mortification of the Simpson party extreme. 

A proclamation was issued by the admiral, in which he de- 
clared in the name of his sovereign, that he did not accept the 
Provisional Cession of the Hawaiian Islands, and that "Her 
Majesty sincerely desires King Kamehameha III, to be treated 
as an independent sovereign, leaving the administration of justice 
in his own hands." 

At an interview with the king on the 27th the terms of the 
restoration were agreed upon and July 3Ist appointed as the 
time for the world to witness England, in the person of her 
gallant and worthy officer, restoring to the petty sovereign of the 
Hawaiian Islands his prerogatives and his dominions. 

All open space on the plains east of the town, since called 
"Thomas Square," was selected, two pavilions erected, and thither 
poured the entire population of Honolulu, with the exception of 
a few who sympathized with the commander of the "Carysfort," 
to witness the restoration of the flag. 

At 10 o'clock a. m. marines of the "Dublin," "Carysfort" and 
"Hazard" being drawn up in line with a battery of field pieces 
on their right, the king, escorted by his own troops, arrived on 
the groimd. As the royal Hawaiian standard was hoisted on the 
flagstaff a salute of 21 guns was fired by the field battery after 
which the national colors were raised over the fort and on 
Punchbowl hill. This ceremony was delayed a few days as there 
were no Hawaiian flags available, they, as previously mentioned, 
having all been destroyed by order of Paulet, and it was neces- 
sary to have new ones made, which was done, by the admiral's 
order, on the "Dublin." 

Thus did a great and magnanimous nation honor itself in 
doing justice to a weak and puny one, and at length, on Novem- 
ber 2S, 1843, united with France in a joint declaration recog- 
nizing the independence of the islands. 



LINKS BINDING ENGLAND AND HAWAII 97 

In the annals of Hawaiian history the name of Robert Chrich- 
ton Wyllie looms up in bold relief. A man of independent for- 
tune, the Laird of Hazelback in Scotland, he was a tower of 
strength during the formative period of constitutional govern- 
ment. 

He arrived, as a visitor, on February 3, 1844, with General 
William Miller, who had been appointed the successor of the 
disgraced Charlton, to represent the British government, and for 
a period of eight months acted as British pro-consul during a 
visit of General Miller to Tahiti, during which time he so won 
the confidence and respect of all with whom he was brought in 
contact that on the formation of the departments in March, 1845, 
he was invited by the king to accept the portfolio of Minister of 
Foreign Affairs and never was a more judicious and fortunate, 
for Hawaii, appointment made. 

From the day he took office, March 26, 1845, to the day of 
his death, October 19, 1865, his sole ambition was to serve the 
king and the Hawaiian people. A shrewd diplomatist, he brought 
the country safely through many a trying period. Not only his 
services but his fortune were at the king's disposal and on several 
occasions he came to the rescue of the government when funds 
were needed. On taking office he became an Hawaiian subject, 
and none exceeded him in loyalty. He materially strengthened 
the government by bringiiig into its councils a gentleman of ex- 
tensive acquaintance abroad and of enlarged views. For a 
period of over 20 years he served the country of his adoption 
with wholehearted zeal, and it is fitting that he rests in the royal 
mausoleum with the sovereigns, whom in life he served so well. 

Prince Albert of Hawaii, named after England's Prince Con- 
sort, son of Kamehamcha IV, and Queen Emma, and heir to 
the throne, was baptized August 23, 1862, four days before his 
death, according to the English Episcopal liturgy, thereby mark- 
ing a departure from the church established by the American 
missionaries. He was called the Prince of Hawaii, and was its 
crown prince. 



98 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Her Majesty Queen Victoria, who had previously consented 
to be godmother, the Prince of Wales and Prince Lot Kameha- 
meha were the sponsors. It had been the intention to defer the 
baptism of the young prince until the arrival of the Bishop of 
Honolulu who was sobn expected, but the serious condition he 
was in would admit of no delay. Bishop Staley, accompanied by 
other clergymen, arrived from England, October 11, 1862, from 
which time the establishment in Hawaii of the Church of Eng- 
land dates. A temporary cathedral was erected and several 
schools established. In May, 1865, Queen Emma sailed in H. 
B. M.'s shtp-of-war "Clio" for Panama on her way to England 
where she received every attention and was treated with much 
kindness. In fact, the Dean of Westminster, who conducted 
many personages about the abby, in his memoirs said that the 
one royal personage who showed more interest in what she was 
being shown, and who also exhibited a surprising knowledge of 
what was in Westminster Abbey, was Queen Emma of Hawaii. 

While the "Clio" was in port awaiting the embarkation of the 
queen, a number of her midshipmen on a lark, removed the 
shield from the United States legation and carried it aboard ship 
where it was later found and the commander. Captain Tourneur 
called upon Mr. McBride, the American minister, to express his 
regrets and to make such amends as Mr. McBride might sug- 
gest, the result being that the captain made a second call accom- 
panied by the midshipman, among whom was Charles Beresford. 
The middies replaced the shield, apologized to the minister and 
thanked him for his leniency and the matter ended with the 
best feelings on both sides. The author of the prank, Charles 
Beresford, later became Lord Charles Beresford, one of Eng- 
land's greatest naval fighters, always a friend of America. 

In February, 1899, Lord Charles Beresford, then an admiral, 
passed through Honolulu on his return home from a doplimatic 
mission to China. During the Voyage from the Orient to Hono- 
lulu on the steamer America Maru, he told Robert Lydecker, a 
Honolulan, all about this lark. He said that he always got the 
credit for this prank but said he had nothing to do with it. 



LINKS BINDING ENGLAND AND HAWAII 99 

The arrival of the Prince of Wales in Honolulu in 1920, mark- 
ed the second visit of a member of England's royal family to 
Hawaiian shores, the first being that of Alfred Ernest Albert, 
Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria. The duke 
arrived at Honolulu July 21, 1869, on H. B. M.'s ship-of-war 
"Galatea." It remained in port 12 days and the duke was en- 
tertained in a style befitting his high rank, notwithstanding he 
had expressed a desire to be received only as the captain of the 
"Galatea." He was given an old-fashioned Hawaiian "hookupu," 
a custom of paying tribute by the presentation of gifts, includ- 
ing ornaments and products of the soil and sea, even to a Equal- 
ing pig. 

King David Kalakaua set out on a trip of the world in 1881, 
reaching London July 6 of that year. He was presented to the 
queen at Windsor Castle on the 11th and left on the 24th, having 
been lavishly entertained by royalty and the nobility meanwhile. 
The next members of Hawaii's royal family to visit England 
were Queen Kapiolani, consort of King Kalakaua, and the Prin- 
cess Liliuokalani (afterwards Queen Liliuokalani), who, in 1887 
attended Queen Victoria's jubilee as guests of Her Majesty. 
Probably there was no place, other than in England, and her 
possessions, where Queen Victoria's jubilee was celebrated to 
a greater extent than in Honolulu. England was ever a 
just, generous and great friend of Hawaii, and its subjects had 
abundant reason to rejoice with Britons in the celebration of 
their beloved queen's 50th anniversary of her accession to the 
throne. 

Ten years later, in 1897, Hawaii, then a Republic, was again 
represented at the British court, the occasion being the Victoria 
Diamond Jubilee, in the person of Hon. S. M. Damon, Minister 
of Finance, who was commissioned Envoy Extraordinary by 
President Sanford B. Dole, to convey his felicitations to Her 
Majesty. 

Diplomatic relations ceased between Hawaii and Great Britain 
on the former's annexation to the United States. In addition 
to the events related there are carefully filed away in the Archives 



100 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

of Hawaii, a number of autograph letters of Queen Victoria. 
Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, thanks Queen Liliuokalani on 
behalf of the princess and himself, for her letter of sympathy 
on the death of their son. His Royal Highness the Duke of 
Clarence and Avondale, and the signatures of many of Eng- 
land's prime ministers, beginning with that of the Earl of Liver- 
pool in 1812, are inscribed on a number of diplomatic documents 
testifying to the close and cordial relationship that existed be- 
tween the two countries in the past. 



CHAPTER VII 



PIRATES SOUGHT LAIR I\ HAWAII 



DIED IN THEIR BOOTS 

TALES of the "Spanish Main", of bucanneers who roamed 
the seas iii cjiicst of bullion and jewel-laden ships, and who 
condemned mariners and their passengers to "walk the 
plank", almost always ranged the Atlantic, the Carribean Sea and 
along the shores of South America, but to Honolulu in 1818, a 
year before Kamehameha the Great died and two years before 
the missionaries arrived, a vessel came up over the southern 
horizen towards Hawaii with a strange flag at the peak and a 
crew that aroused suspicion, for they actually were pirates, and 
in the vessel when it anchored off Hawaii was the loot of cities 
of South America, including much gold church plate. Some 
encrusted with jewels. 

There may have been other instances of pirate visitations, but 
as the Hawaiians then recorded no happenings in writing, and 
the missionaries in their time were too engrossed in their re- 
ligious labors assigned to them, much of the adventure and ro- 
mance of those olden days has been lost, even to scrutinizing his- 
torians. 

This strange vessel sailed along the Hawaiian shore early in 
the year 1818, and put in at the bay of Kealakekau, where Cap- 
tain Cook was slain in 1779, its flag never having been seen in the 
Islands before, and new even to the few foreigners residing in 
the archipelago. Upon the stern was painied the name "Victory." 
Upon the decks were a wild and unkempt looking set of men, who 
spoke Spanish for the most part, but their chief was an English- 
man whom they called Turner. He was reticent, even secretive 
about the business which caused him to call at Hawaii. He re- 



102 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

fused to say where he was from or whither he was bound, but 
merely said he wanted fresh provisions and water. Kaniehameha 
gave the orders that replenished the diminished stores on board 
and thereafter the crew was permitted to go ashore. They 
roamed first over the district of Kona, accepted and abused 
the hospitably of the Hawaiians. The sailors brought rum 
ashore and from their pockets drew forth gold and silver moneys 
and often brought to the beach church plate which included 
candelabra, beads, crucifixes, cups and various Roman Catholic 
Church ornaments. As barter, many of these ornaments passed 
into the hands of the Hawaiians, to whom, however, the value 
was largely in Iheir oddity and glitler, for they knew little of 
the value of gold or silver, for no metals were mined in the 
islands. 

Foreign residents in Kona became suspicious of the character 
of the visitors and the nature of their voyage, and it was shrewd- 
ly suspected that the vessel had been captured and that her crew 
were simply a party of buccaneers from the "Spanish Main," 
as the coast of South America was then called. The sailors, in- 
toxicated, confirmed these suspicions. 

The captain wanted to leave but the lawless crew laughed 
when ordered aboard. They could not be induced to leave the 
pleasant land and its almost perennial summer. Turner was 
apparently the only navigator, but he urged return to the ship in 
vain. 

Months passed by until one morning a Spanish brig from Val- 
paraiso arrived at Kealakekua and her boats immediately boarded 
and took possession of the Victory. The captors found an 
empty prize, for Turner and his crew fled to the shore, first 
stripping the vessel of vahiables. From imperfect narratives of 
the "Victory's" visit, and as H. L. Sheldon, a Hawaiian chroni- 
cler of several decades ago, was able to learn, the captain of the 
visiting ship from Chile was probably a Frenchman, as he was 
called Buchard. He communicated with Kaniehameha the Great 
and informed him that the \'ictory's crew were pirates, who, 
during the war between Peru and Chile, both states then strugg- 
ling against Spain to win their independence, had pillaged a town 



PIRATES SOUGHT LAIR 103 

on the coast and sacreligiously stripped the churches of their 
holy furniture. 

The king was, in his way, a firm upholder of religious forms 
and usages, and consequently, he readily acceded to Buchard's re- 
quest and sent out couriers among the people, and in a short 
time all the buccaneers, with the exception of Turner and the 
first officer, a Spaniard, were captured in their hiding places 
and taken aboard the war vessel in irons. The greater part of 
the church ornaments were also recovered and delivered to the 
Frenchman by order of the king. The whole transaction, in the 
opinion of Sheldon, proves Kamehameha to have been a man of 
extraordinary prudence and character for a born savage, in fact, 
one of nature's noblemen. 

Turner is said to have escaped from the Islands by a passing 
vessel, but the Spaniard was not so lucky. He was heard of on 
Kauai as living under the protection of the high chief there. 
Buchard sailed for Kauai. A message from Kamehameha caused 
the chief to yield up the fugitive. Buchard held a drum-head 
court martial on the beach at Waimea, and Jn a short time the sec- 
ond in command of the pirate ship was hanged and his body 
buried on the spot. The war vessel sailed away for the Spanish 
Main and that was the last heard of her. No doubt among the 
Peruvian or Chilean records may be found the beginning and 
ending of this tale. In Hawaii only the middle of the tale 
was known. 



CHAPTER VIII 



CIVILIZATION CROSSES THRESHOLD 



PIONEERING FOR CHRISTIANITY 

PIONEERING for Christianity's sake had been a dominant 
trait of the Thurston and Goodale families, whese des- 
cendants reside in Hawaii, since shortly after the Pilgrim 
fathers established their coloiiy in New England in 1620. Rob- 
ert Goodale sailed from Europe out into an almost unknown 
sea and arrived safely at Salem, Massachusetts, in 1634. 

Nearly (wo centuries later, Asa Thurston sailed out of the port 
of Boston in the brig Thaddeus, accompanied by his bride, Lucy 
Goodale Thurston. He sailed over little known seas into the 
remote Pacific and set foot at Kailua, Island of Hawaii, the 
very first missionary from America, to meet the Hawaiian race 
in their native isles. Nearly three-quarters of a century later 
their grandson was the dominant pioneer in establishing a re- 
public upon the foundation from which the throne of Hawaii 
bad been thrust aside, soon to enter the sisterhood of states and 
territories of the United States of America. 

Il fell to the lot of Rev. Asa Thurston to be designated as the 
missionary who should land at Kailua from the Thaddeus, ac- 
companied by his wife, immediately after Liholiho, (Kamehameha 
II) gave permission to the missionaries to preach the message 
of Christ to liis people in place of the pagan religion which he, 
aided by Hewahewa the high priest, had overthrown before the 
missionaries were known even to be an their way to the Sand- 
wich Islands. By a strange coincidence, almost at the lime the 
little brig Thaddeus with its band of devout Americans sailed 
from Boston in October, 1819, to preach the gospel, the old re- 
ligion of the Hawaiians was being destroyed by ruler and chiefs. 



CIVILIZATION CROSSES THRESHOLD 105 

The tabus which were the most powerful factors of con'.rol used 
by the kings and chiefs and high priests over the people, had 
been set aside, broken beyond power of restoration. 

With Rev. Asa Thurston on that eventful voyage from New 
England around Cape Horn to the great island of the smoking 
volcanos of Matma Loa and Kilanea, was Rev. Hiram Bingham 
I, who remained aboard the Thaddeus after Mr. Thurston went 
ashore at Kailua, and a week later, on April 19, anniversary of 
the Battle of Lexington, went ashore at Honolulu lo begin his 
ministry among the natives of Oahu Island. Both men had been 
ordained at Goshen, Connecticut, just a week before the Thad- 
deus sailed. Thurston was previously a member of the senior 
class at Andover Theological institution, and had only recently be- 
come an accepted missionary of the American Board of Connnis- 
sioners of Foreign Missions, for the "Sandwich Islaiids." 

Rev. Asa Thurston was born at Fitchburg, Massachusetts, 
October 12, 1787, and received his higher education at Yale, 
1816, and his theological training at .Xndover. He arrived at 
Kailua, April 12, 1820, and there, principally, for forty years 
he lived and labored in the cause of Christianity, where his share 
of ihe translation of the Bible into Hawaiian was equal to 18 
books. In 1863 he made a visit to California and died in Hono- 
lulu March 11, 1868. 

His wife, Lucy Goodale Thurston, had a prominent share in 
her husband's great work in Hawaii. She was born at Marl- 
borough, Massachusetts, October 29, 1795, the very year that 
Kamehameha the Great fought his great batllc in Nuuaiui \"ai- 
ley, and finished his conquest of the Islands at the Xuuanu Pali. 
She married Mr, Thurslon October 12, 1819, and lived in the 
Hawaiian Islands for 56 years, making two visits to the L'nited 
States for health. She died at Honolulu October U, 1876. 

It is to Lucy Goodale Thurston that much apperiaining to 
her husband's work as a missionary in the Hawaiian Islands is 
best known. Of devout training, of unusual intelligent and per- 
ceptive mind, with a faculty for committing the daily occur- 
rences of their lives in Hawaii lo paper, her memoirs form one 
of the most interesting descriptions of life in Hawaii. Her let- 



106 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

ters and notes show the gradual evolution of the Hawaiian peo-' 
pie emerging from the ruins of their self- destroyed religion into 
the great white and enduring light of Christianity, in which 
her own life was intimately interwoven. 

Mrs. Thurston did not fail in recognizing the capabilities of 
the Hawaiian people they came to leach. She had fulsome 
praise for those who were prominent and conspicuous in their own 
element, even though they still cling to the vestiges of their former 
religion. She had only kind words for those who were stricken 
with the white man's vices. Hers seemed to be a helpful hand 
extended toward the men and women of the Hawaiian race, no 
matter what rank or station in life they held. 

Hers was truly a Christian mind of the mold of the Christian 
martyrs of the Roman era, for when it was suggested to her that 
a field of Christian labor was open in Hawaii she felt that there 
was her life work. Her meeting with Asa Thurston, the young 
missionary chosen to enter this field, solved the problem, and 
her great opportunity came. 

It was in a literal sense that she left comfortable houses and 
friends and dear relatives in New England for Christ's sake, 
said Rev. Walter Frear, on October 26, 1876, during a memorin! 
discourse in the Fort Street church, Honolulu. At the time she 
left New England she had no thought of the mild and healthful 
breezes, the grand mountains and volcanoes, no anticipation of 
the delightful homes and genial society that in later years gave 
the Hawaiian Islands charm. She left a land and home to which 
she was endeared to go by a long and dangerous voyage, to one 
of the most remote and least known parts of the globe, among 
an alien people. 

She left home, as a writer said of their voyage, in anticipation 
of protracted and perilous conflict with pagan rites, human sac- 
rifices and bloody altars, for no intimation had been received 
that the idols and altars of superstition had been overthrown. 
She gave up all in a Christian consciousness, free from all levity, 
in which Christ had first placed in her thoughts, and to her it was 
a heavenly call. It was a heroism to be expected of a descendent 
of ancestors who had also braved unknown perils that they 



CIVILIZATION CROSSES THRESHOLD 107 

might live their religion in freedom. It was the bravery of a 
daughter of an American who had taken down his musket 
the day the battle of Lexington was fought and who enlisted 
before the sun set that memorable April 19, 1775 in Captain 
Howe's company at Marlborough and marched to Cambridge 
and there did duty in the inspired uprising of the Americans 
who fought for a great and enduring principle. 

In her long life, for she was 81 when she died, and a day over 
the 57th anniversary of her marriage, she had doubled Cape 
Horn five limes, traveled over 90,000 miles by sea, passed 
through perils and sicknesses, and yet Providence suffered her 
to be the last to die in the Hawaiian Islands of all that worthy 
band who sailed in the brig Thaddeus on the 23rd of October, 
1819, and landed the following April at Kailua. 

For all her hardships, giving up of cullure and ease, her name 
became a familiar one to a large part of the best people in 
America, and she was known and held in honor over a large 
part of the Christian world. She made a noble place in the grand 
history of missions, and her memory occupies a high niche in the 
missionary fame. 

There was a sympathetic, Christian trend to the thoughts and 
actions of Asa and Lucy Thurston in their contact with ilie 
Hawaiians. Even when Mrs. Thurston was made the object 
of unseemly attentions by a priest of the old regime, dne who 
ill-favored the building of a new religion, Mrs. Thurston, in 
referring to this bitter phase of their early ministry at Kaihin, 
does not speak harshly of him. .'\nd her husband, to whom she 
fled for protection, interceded with the chiefs who decreed the 
priest should die. In later years the priest became a convert to 
Christianity and appealed for pardon to those he had attempted 
to harm. 

Of Opukahia, the young Hawaiian who was largely respon- 
sible for the fact that today Hawaii is one of the most advanced 
Christian and "brotherhood of man" communities in the world, 
she had fulsome praise. In the opening chapter of her memoirs 
is this little gem of history: 



108 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

"Hawaii was first discovered to the civilized world in 1778. 
In the same year Kamehameha fought, a soldier, under his uncle 
Kalaniopuu, king of several districts on one individual island. 

"In the year 1810, all the Islands of the group became one 
united kingdom under Kamehameha the Great. In the same year, 
in America, Opukahaia became theoretically the first Hawaiian 
convert to Christianity. They boih lived after this, the one 
eight, ihe other nine years. Kamehameha in his last sickness, 
askeil about the white man's God. But in the language of the 
narrator, 'They no tell him'. 

"Opukahaia died young, with a hope full of immortality. 
His prayers, tears and appeals for his poor countrymen, as 
described in his memoir concerning his voyage to New England, 
his desire that the Hawaiian people should 'see the light' of 
the gospel and civilization, and his request finally being acceded 
to by devout men of New England, did more for them than he 
could have done in llie longest life of most devoted labors. The 
church was newly aroused to send a mission to those, who. for 
long, dismal ages, had been enshrouded in all the darkness of 
nature." 

There is a popular belief prevailing, even in Hawaii, that the 
first missionaries came to a land whose people knew not the 
Anglo-Saxon, or where civilized comforts were totally lacking, 
but Mrs. Thurston herself corrects this impression, for not only 
did the young king, Kamehameha II, on occasion wear Civilized 
apparel, patterned, as a rule, after those of English naval officers, 
but there were many civilized pieces of furniture already on 
Hawaii, and strange to relate, nearly all of Chinese origin, inili- 
eating that traders calling at Hawaii, had been in China and gave 
to the king and chiefs tables and chairs and other non-heathen 
furnishings for domiciles, in exchange for food and feather 
capes. There were also while men, English and Americans, 
resident among the Hawaiians, occupying high places in Ka- 
meliameha"s court since 1790. 

But this is the manner in which Rev. Asa Thurston, his wife 
anil few other members of the mission stepped ashore on April 
12, 1820. 




"BOSK OF Till'; E'AtTFlC" 

Mary Ann TrMKity:ii. B.'i'kU-y, »hi)iii Kiiin K:tiiivliaim.lift IV 

ilesigiiiit.'.i "The Raso of tlic I'iii-ilii-." as the 

most bcaiiliful wOMiaii uf hi- reign. 



mmmm'ii'^^'^^m 



CIVILIZATION CROSSES THRESHOLD 109 

"After various consultations, 14 days after reaching the Is- 
lands, permission simply for one year was obtained from tlie 
king for all the missionaries to land upon his shores. Two gen- 
tlemen with tlieir wives, and two native youths were to stop at 
Kaiiua. The rest of the mission were to pass on forthwith to 
Honolulu. 

"Such an early separation was unexpected and painful. But 
Iroad views of usefulness were to be taken and private feelings 
sacrificed. At evening twilight we suntk-red ourselves from 
close family ties from the dear old brig, and from civilization! 
we went ashore and entered, as our home, an abode of the most 
uncouth and humble character. It was a thatched hut, with one 
room, having two windows made simply by cutting away the 
thatch, leaving bare poles. On the ground for the feet was a 
layer of grass, then of mats. Here we found our effects from 
the Thaddeus; hut no arrangement of them coukl be made till 
the house was thoroughly cleansed. 

"On the bo-xes and tnmks, as they were scattered about the 
room, we formed a circle. We listened to a jxtrtion of the scrip- 
, ture. sang a hymn, and knelt in prayer. The simple fact speaks 
for itself. 

"It was the first family altar ever reared on this group of 
Islands to ihe worship of Jehovah!" 

Then they learned of the foreign furniture the ne.xt day, for 
for Kamamahi, Queen of Kamehameha II, loaned them "two 
high post bedsteads of Chinese manufacture." Then three days 
after landing "King Liholiho (Kamehameha II) gave us a 
large circular table of Chinese workmanship, having six 
drawers, which became a very eligible dining table. In that 
manner it was generally used for 20 years until a family of 
children had arisen and been dispersed. Since which lime it has 
30 years graced a parlor, every year becoming more and more 
valuable for its antiquify, and as having been a roya! present of 
one of the most interesting periods of our lives." 

Mrs. Thurston presided at the first sewing circle ever or- 
ganized in Hawaii or in the Pacific, or possibly west of the 
Mississippi River. On Monday, April 3, 1820, while the Thad- 



no UNDE'R HAWAIIAN SKIES 

deus was enroute from Kawaihae to Kailua, she says "the first 
sewing circle was formed that the sun ever looked down upon in 
this Hawaiian realm. Kalakua, queen dowager, was directress. 
She requested all the seven white ladies to take seats with them 
on the masts on the deck of the Thaddeus. Mrs. Holman and 
Mrs. Ruggles were executive officers, to ply the scissors and pre- 
pare the work. As the sisters were very much in the habit of 
journaiizing every one was a self constituted recording secretary. 
The four native women of distinction were furnished with calico 
patchwork to sew— a new employment to them. "The dress was 
made in the fashion of 1819." 

The joy in seeing the land of their future labors was great. 
After sailing 157 days the party beheld looming up before them 
on March 30, 1820, the long-looked for Island of Hawaii. "As 
we approached the northern shore joy sparkled in everj- eye, 
gratitude and hope seemed to fill every heart. The ship anchored. 
Captain Blanchard sent an officer, accompanied by Hopu and 
Honolii, two of the Hawaiian youths aboard, brought back from 
New England to learn the state of the Islands and the residence 
of the king. Then, as Hunewell hastily came back over the side, 
they learned these astonishing facts from his agitated lips: 

"Kaniehameha is dead; his son LihoHho is king: the kapus 
arc abolished; the images are burned; the temples are destroyed. 
There has been war. Now there is peace!" 

Everything, seemingly had been prepared by Providence for 
their coming. They learned that it was in October, 1S19, that 
the flames were h'ghted to consume the sacred relics of the great 
feudal system; the high priesl, Hewahewa, was even the first 
to apply the torch. 

It was a difficult position in which King LihoHho was placed 
when the missionaries sent their letter ashore to him from the 
American Board of Missions, asking permission to establish the 
white man's religion. Mrs. Thurston said the king had put down 
one religion and in doing it his throne tottered. It was a grave 
question for him to accept a new one. But in the end he gave 
permission and became one of the first listeners to the words of 
the new religion. 



CIVILIZATION CROSSES THRESHOLD 111 

Mr. Thurston was a man of action. Within a few days some 
of the party decided that the hard Hfe ahead was not of their 
liking. "On two of our number 'Tekel' had been written," 
writes Mrs. Thurston. "They had been weighed in the balance 
and found wanting. The wife said she never would be willing 
to exercise that degree of self-denial which was called for by a 
situation among this people." They left the mission and soon 
returned to New England. The Thurstons never faltered. In 
writing for more aid, Mr. Thurston showed his sturdy, pioneer- 
ing and Christian fibre, when he said: 

"We want men and women who have souls; who are crucified 
to the world and the world to them; who have their eyes and 
their hearts fixed on the Glory of God in the salvation of the 
heathen; who will be willing to sacrifice every interest but 
Christ's; who will cheerfully and constantly labor to promote 
His cause." 

The first time Mr. Thurston preached before the king through 
an interpreter, was from these words: "I have a message from 
God unto thee." The king listened with attention. When prayer 
was offered he and the suite all knelt before the white man's 
God. 

The king's orders were that none but those of rank should he 
taught. For many months the king was foremo=,t ns a student, 
but had lapses. Some of the queens were ariibitions. The 
king was solicitous to have his litiie brother apiily hmself and 
threatened chastisement if he ne^rlectvl hi>; lessons. ITe to'd 
him he must have learning for nil th? family, to make him wise 
and able to rule. The lessons stood him in great stead for the 
child became Kamehamelia III, who gave a constitufion to his 
people and divided his feudal lands among all the subjects. 

The Thurstons went to Maui and then to Honolulu in 1820 
by command of the king. They were met by Rev. Hiram Bing- 
ham and occupied a thatched hut in Honolulu on December 21, 
1820. In one window shutter of their cottage was a single pane 
of glass, probably the first through which the sun ever sent its 
rays into a dark Hawaiian hut. Mr. Thurston had a common 
dining chair to which he attached arms and rockers, and with 



112 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

saw and jackknife also made a settee. There was also a high 
post bed. At this time they had called in the person of the 
commander of a Russian warship, among them being a chap- 
lain of the Greek Church. 

It was difficult to persuade the king to permit the erection of a 
wooden house in his realm. The missionaries asked many times, 
but as Kamehameha the Great never permitted such a house, 
neither would he. He acceded finally to the request and there 
was erected the frame house still standing on King Street almost 
within the shadow of Kawaiahao church, occupied as a mission 
museum. 

It was in 1821 that the king visited the Thurston cottage in 
Honolulu, attired, says Mr. Thurston, "like a gentleman, with 
ruffled shirt, silk vest, pantaloons and coat. How he moved 
among his subjects with all the nobility of a king!" 

She writes at some length of the completion of the two-story 
wooden house in Honolulu into which the missionaries moved 
and where afterwards many of the missionary children were born. 

She refers with extreme pleasure to the formation of a Ha- 
waiian alphabet and the printed page. "In one year and nine 
months afler the missionaries left the Thaddeus, a Hawaiian 
spelling book was issued from the press. The chiefs received it 
with interest; the scholars with enthusiasm. A door was now 
opened which allowed learning to become general." 

The Thurstous returned to Kailua in 1823, there to take up 
their permanent work. There were 3000 people in the village 
and within 20 miles were 20,000 people. It had been the favorite 
abode of kings. They built a large house, for those days. Mrs. 
Thurston laugh her schools in the reception room for the Ha- 
waiians. A church had been built by the Governor and there 
Mr. Thurston preached. There was a cave near by called Lania- 
kea, signifying the broad heavens. Being near the Thurston 
house the same name was given to their establishment. 

The first sabbath school was established here in 1825. Old 
chiefs and young ones, and children were the pupils. 



CIVILIZATION CROSSES THRESHOLD 113 

There were sad times, however, as when Mrs. Ehzabeth 
Edwards Bishop, her associate, died, and she also had sad news 
from home in Massachusetts. 

And so their work went on year by year, the Hawaiians accept- 
ing Christianity gradually and education liberally. In 1840 the 
Thurstons and their family sailed back to New England, and 
relumed to Hawaii about 1842, taking up their abode once more 
in Kailua. .Their oldest son, Asa G. Thurston, died in 1855. 

Rev, Asa Thurston, who became known as Father Thurston, 
entered into his rest in Honolulu on March 11, 1868, aged 80 
years and five months. He and his wife had lived together 
48 years and five months. His final iUness was excruciating to 
his family and his body and mind were so worn with pain that 
he barely knew his family. He was so weak he could not move 
in bed. 

In the spring of 1876 Mrs. Thurston was suddenly attacked 
with a heart disease. She breathed with difficulty during six 
weary months when she was compelled to sit upright in a chair 
day and night. She patiently lingered but her protracted suflfer- 
ings, sometimes compelled her by extremity of weariness to cry, 
"O, Lord, how long?" Faithful friends cheered her painful 
pathway to the grave. Amid these distresses she completed her 
selection of papers to be published after her death. She passed 
away in Honolulu, October 13, 1876. 

Her faith had been strong and firm in Christ. Her hope had 
all along been anchored within the veil. She had trusted fully 
in the God of her salvation. She was endowed with a mind of 
unusual strength which seems to have been imparted to her 
children and granJchildren. 

Spanning a half century from the landing of the Thurston 
missionaries in Kailua their grandson, Lorrin A. Thurston, 
picked up the threads of their work and carried it on in a modern 
way in a modern Hawaii. Public service was the dominant trait 
in Lorrin Thurston. Educated to the law he became identified 
with governmental service in Hawaii. In the reign of Kalakaua 
he became minister of the interior where he first manifested the 
passion for developing public works. It was in the deepening 



114 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

of a harbor or channel bar, building roads into new districts, 
such as up Punchbowl and over the Pali. The strong Amer- 
icanism of Asa and Lucy Thurston was a part of L. A. Thurston's 
code. It fell upon him, therefore, when inevitable destiny dic- 
tated that the Hawaiian monarchy founded by Kamehameha the 
Great should fall, to give advice to those who appeared to find 
it equitable that the Queen should be removed from her thrown 
in 1893 and a repubhc set up. Immediately the .Americans 
selected Lorrin Thurston to be one of the commissioners to go 
to Washington post haste to request the American government 
to acknowledge the government. 

There followed vicissitudes when the request was later denied 
by President Cleveland and Mr. Thurston found himself then 
a minister, with his passports handed (o him by the American 
state department. There followed a counter revolution of the 
Hawaiians in 1895, which failed. Mr. Thurston was a minister 
of the new Hawaiian republic to foreign capitals. Just as Asa 
Thurston had endeavored to assist in guiding the monarchy of 
Liholiho so Lorrin Thurston continued this work to create for 
the new Hawaii a stable support from the Powers. 

Annexation became his slogan and he remained in Washington 
to fight the request through. The Spanish War came. There 
were those in Hawaii who sought to declare a state of neutrality 
on the part of Hawaii. Here again the strong Americanism of 
the Asa Thurston and Lucy Goodale Thurston of New England, 
strong Americans always, cropped up. He challenged the 
judgment and singleness of purpose of those who were declared 
annexatio'nsts ?.rd yet wanted to be neutral, when Americans 
needed the support of Hawaii's Americans to provide a haven 
for the transports en route from San Francisco to Manila. He 
wrote to Honolulu from Washington: 

"The world knows that five years ago we founded a govern- 
ment 'to exist until union with the United States' was accomp- 
lished; that we have since 'signed, sealed and delivered' the title 
deeds, and that all that remains to complete the transaction is 
acceptance by the U. S. Everything that Hawaii can do to 
make it American territory has been done. You take all the 



CIVILIZATION CROSSES THRESHOLD 115 

benefits of American connection as long as there is no danger 
in sight. Our opportunity now is to demonstrate by deed as 
well as by word that we appreciate the kindly treatment and 
enormous financial benefits which have been conferred on us by 
the American people and that no technicalities of law will be 
invoked against American interests in Hawaii." 

Annexation of Hawaii to the United States by a joint resolu- 
tion of annexation was carried through, Hawaii became a terri- 
tory of the United States, a member of the sisterhood of states 
and territories, the educational and religious outpost of America 
in the Pacific, the "mehing pot of nations," where East met 
West, and in all this the grandson of Asa and Lucy Thurston 
has played a prominent part. 

The years 1634. 1775. 1820, 1893, 1895 and 1898, have bulked 
large in the family history of the Goodales and Thurstons. 



CHAPTER IX 



MISSION CRUSADER OP THK PACIFIC 



HIRAM BINGHAM 



HAWAII, the mid-sea dominion of the American Republic, 
become great as a religious, educational, commercial and 
agricultural center of the western world's activities, loy- 
ally American, guardian of the great republic and its militant 
sentinel in the Pacific, strangely enough learned its first rudi- 
ments of Americanism thundered by missionaries from the pulpit. 

Americanism was taught throiigli the Bible. The word of God 
had been the foundation stone of the republic-to-be, brought to 
New England's shores by devout Pilgrims from the Old World. 
As New England progressed in its trend toward democracy the 
Bible was the guiding factor. When the Thirteen Original Colo- 
nies were welded into a republican nation, the Bible and its wis- 
dom prevailed in the councils of the men who made the republic 
of the United States possible. 

New England produced the devout and patriotic American 
who determined that the feeble call of Opukahaia, the young 
Hawaiian who had gone to New England on a trading vessel, 
escaping from the watchful eye of his priest uncle at the Ha- 
waiian temple of Napoopoo, Hawaii, should not be unanswered, 
(grouped beside a haystack earnest young Americans, devoting 
their lives to the ministry, decided that a call had come for for- 
eign missions, and in October, 1819, the first band of American 
missionaries sailed out of the harbor for the Hawaiian Islands, 
called then Sandwich Islands, named by Captain James Cook, the 
explorer, in 1778. 

One of the most outstanding names in that little band of New 
England missionaries and their wives is Hiram Bingham. 




Boki iin,! Liliha, Hiuvaiiau eliiof a»i\ ,-lii,'f,>ss, who 
at PiinnliuH, Honolulu, to Bov, Uirnin Biti)jliau 
to thf cause of Christian oilui'iition for ;i 
ill tlie Islands. 



MISSION CRUSADERS OF PACIFIC 117 

Young, devout, a fluent speaker, versed in every page of the 
Bible, a theologian, he was a man of vision, who yielded up the 
comforts of a pastorage that would have been his in New Eng- 
land near his family and friends, to sail to a land which was 
called heathen by all. Rev. Asa Thurston and Rev. Hiram Bing- 
ham, were the ordained missionaries of the little group. 

Destiny ordained that the ruler of the Hawaiian Islands, Ka- 
mehameha II, should permit Asa Thurston to step ashore at 
Kailua, Hawaii, on April 11, 1820, and a week later, April 19, 
that Rev. Hiram Bingham, should come ashore at Honolulu, 
there to begin a work to be taken up later by his son. Rev. Hiram 
Bingham II, who followed the pioneer instinct of his father, 
went from Hawaii as a missionary to the South Seas and labor- 
ed among the Gilbert Islanders and gave them a Bible, eventual- 
ly, in their own language. Hiram Bingham III did not become 
a minister of the gospel, but the pioneering blood was strong in 
him and after becoming a professor at Yale, explored the regions 
of Peru where the Incas hundreds of years ago reigned in gold- 
en glory. 

It was a small region, comparatively to which Rev. Hiram 
Bingham came. Father Alexander, Rev. W. P. Alexander, was 
once asked what justification could a missionary give for spend- 
ing his life in converting the people of a small island community 
when there remained coniinenis of unenlightened millions. He 
replied that a farm of a few acres was all that one man could 
cultivate, and a small farm might he as valuable on an island 
as on a continent. 

Lorrin A. TliiirsLon, a grandson of Father Asa Thnrston, a 
co-worker with Hiram Bingham, said at the unveiling of the 
Bingham monument in Punahou Academy grounds that "some 
men are remembered for what they have said ; others for what 
they have done." 

What Hiram Bingham said has already passed from the mem- 
ory of nearly all men. What he did, added Mr. Thurston, will 
stand as a monument to his memory as long as old Rock Hill 
stands sentinel over the scene of his work. 



118 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

It was at Punahou that Hiram Bingham developed much of liis 
work and there his home stood and there the rock stands today, 
and it was there he continued to receive the "lordly" allowance 
from American Board of Missions of from $250 to $400 a year 
to clothe and feed himself and wife and babies. 

Hiram Bingham was a benefactor to the Hawaiian Islands. 
His life was a series of historic deeds accomplished in the name 
of Christ. He came to Hawaii with his wife, and missionary 
associates. Sanniel Whitney and Samuel Ruggles, teachers; 
Elisha Loomis, printer; David Chamberlain, farmer, and their 
wives. Rev. Asa Thurston and Dr. Holman with their wives 
remained at Kailua. The others came to Honolulu. 

Having received reluctant permission of Kamehameha II to 
spend one year with his missionary associates in the islands, Mr. 
Bingham earnestly began to win the confidence of the high chiefs 
and their people, which confidence he never afterward forfeited. 
He began at once to learn their language, to aid in reducing it to 
writing, and to establish schools among the people. His wife, 
Sybil Moseley Bingham, mother of Hiram Bingham II, opened 
the first school in Honolulu in May, 1820. 

It was the privilege of Rev. Hiram Bingham to prepare the 
first manuscript for the first printing ever done on these shores. 
In his "History of The Sandwich Islands" he says: 

"On the 7th of January, 1822, a year and eight months from 
the time of our receiving the governmental permission to enter 
the field and teach the people, we commenced printing the lan- 
guage, in order to give them letters, libraries and the living 
oracles of their own (ongue, that the nation might read and un- 
derstand the wonderful works of God," and he adds, "it was 
like laying the cornerstone of an important edifice for the nation." 

For eighteen months thereafter, he continued, as other duties 
would permit, to furnish material for the printed page, to per- 
form the duties of literary head of the mission press in Hono- 
lulu and to aid in the promotion of Christian education. 

When he arrived in Honolulu April 19, 1829, Governor Boki 
was in another part of the island but came to him two days later. 



MISSION CRUSADERS OF PACIFIC 119 

Boki was then given over to pleasure, but three months later he 
asked Hiram Bingham at the close of a service to make inquiries 
concerning the text of the sermon, "Behold the Lamb of God 
Taketh Away the Sin of the World," and expressed a wish to 
understand the Bible. He was given daily instruction by Mr. 
Bingham. 

Nine years later he gave to his beloved teacher the land of 
Punahou, including Rocky Hill and stretching from the summit 
of Round Top to King street, supplemented by fish ponds, salt 
beds and coral flats, all more or less valuable. This gift was 
made in 1829, the year in which Boki sailed away to the South 
Seas on the fatal expedition from which he never returned. 
Upon the great acres he and his wife Liltha gave to^Mr. Bing- 
ham, the great educational institution of Oahu College, later call- 
ed Punahou Academy, was developed to be one of the most im- 
portant educational factors west of the Missouri river. 
' In August, 1840, Rev. Hiram Bingham gazed for the last 
time from the makai door of his little home on the Punahou 
grounds upon the great estate and its group of school buildings, 
and then departed for America, on the long voyage back to New 
England by way of Cape Horn. Upon the site of the humble 
cottage today stands a rock of Punahou in which a plate has 
been set bearing this inscription; 

"On this Spot 

Stood the Home of 

Rev. Hiram Bingham 

Who Gave This Broad Estate 

To the Cause of 

Christian Education," 

Rev. Hiram Bingham was born at Bennington, Vermont, Octo- 
ber 30, 1789, and was graduated from Middlebury College, 1816; 
Andover Seminary, 1819, and was ordained at Goshen, Conn., in 
September, 1819, with Rev. Asa Thurston, just before the first 
band of missionaries sailed from Boston for Hawaii, October, 
1819. He married at Honolulu, April 19, 1820, and preached the 
first sermon here immediately afterward. 



120 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

He was the first pastor of the_first church in Honolulu (Ka- 
waiahao), although his official pastorate of the church dates from 
1825 to 1840. He was prominent in the creation of a written 
language, and translation of the Bible and school books, and 
was a trusted adviser of the king and chiefs in their complica- 
tions with foreigners. He returned to the United States in 
1841 and died at New Haven, Connecticut, November 11, 1869. 

Rev. Hiram Bingham's first wife was Sybil Moseley of Cana- 
daigua, N. Y., born at Westfield, Mass., September 14, 1792. 
She was married to Mr. Bingham, October 11, 1819, and came 
here with her husband and lived here 21 years. She died at 
Easthampton, Massachusetts, February 27, 1848. Tliey had 
seven children, of whom Rev. Hiram Bingham II, became best 
known for he continued in missionary work in Hawaii and the 
South Seas. 

Hiram Bingham I married again in 1852, his second wife be- 
ing Miss N. E. Morse of New Haven. She died August 31, 1878. 

Rev. Hiram Bingham II was born in 1831 in the little frame 
mission house in King street that was brought from New England 
around Cape Horn, and set up in 1821, and the first nine 
years of his boyhood were spent there. He had to walk four 
miles to and from school each day, across a hot and dusty plain, 
now known as Makiki district, attending the first school in Ha- 
waii. It was there that his mother had gathered stones and 
raised them into a wall and planted the first night blooming 
cereus to beautify it, a plant which now covers thousands of feel 
of stone wall and one of the most beautiful sights, when in 
bloom, in Hawaii. 

He was sent to New England early in life and completed his 
education at Yale and Andover and then offered his services to 
the American Board of Missions. The Gilbert Islands were 
chosen as his field. He and his young wife sailed on the first 
missionary packet, the Morning Star, from Boston to Apiang in 
1857. The Gilbert Group lies near the Equator, where the 
mercury never drops below 7(>. Their food consisted of fish, 
cocoanuts and pandanus. Once a year the Morning Star brought 



MISSION CRUSADERS OF PACIFIC 121 

supplies, though her most valued cargo was the maiibag. Their 
first precious letters for which they had waited a year were eaten 
by natives before they could even see the envelopes. 

For ten years the Binghams labored there. Then, broken in 
health, they returned to America to recuperate. As soon as pos- 
sible they again declared themselves ready to return to their 
beloved people, and again the Morning Star was to carry them 
on their long tedious voyage, but no captain was available. Then, 
someone said to Dr. Bingham, "Why couldn't you take com- 
mand?" He considered the matter. Navigation had been his 
hobby. At Yale he was authority on sailing in the Sound. He 
had been thrice around Cape Horn, so he agreed to undertake 
the command. 

The voyage was successful, and after reaching the Gilbert 
Islands he continued to command the Morning Star for a year 
on her voyages among the islands and back to Honolulu, carrying 
supplies and the Gospel to the missions. Later he had a tiny 
boat in which he sailed from island to island in the Gilbert group. 
During the long years in that lonely mission he translated the 
New Testament after reducing the Gilbertese language to writing. 

After a second breakdown he was obliged to leave Apiang, 
never to return, but at the age of 52, while in Honolulu, he trans- 
lated from the original Hebrew the Old Testament into Gil- 
bertese. Later he made for the Gilberts a complete dictionary of 
12,000 words, having collected these, word by word, from the na- 
tives from the time of his first going among them. 

"Gilbertese," the written tongue of the Gilbert Islands, is the 
work of one man. 

When Dr. Bingham went out to the Gilbert group, he soon 
found out that one of the chief difficulties before him in his mis- 
sion was the fact that the islanders had no written language. 
Accordingly, he set about to supply the deficiency and to build a 
lang:uage, being obliged to collect his own vocabulary and con- 
struct his own grammar. 

The good doctor experienced much difficulty in finding a Gil- 
bertese equivalent for "prayer," a circumstance that led him into 
a ludicrous mistake. The word he did use meant "to practice 



122 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

incantations," a meaning precisely the opposite of what the mis- 
sionary intended to convey. 

He had the New Testament about three-quarters translated 
when, by reason of ill-health, he was compelled to return to this 
country. Ten years later, however, when he had gone back to 
the Gilberts, he was persuaded to undertake the task of trans- 
lating the Old Testament into the new language. At that time 
he was quite advanced in years, and the work involved a direct 
translation from the Hebrew, with which the doctor had not been 
familiar for a long time. 

In 1890 he was enabled to read the proof of the last chapter 
of the last book of the Bible as done into Gilbertese. 

Even this laborious task did not end the missionary's labors. 
He started to write a Gilbertese dictionary. When it was ready 
for publication, a messenger to whom the work was entmsted 
for delivery to the printer lost the manuscript, and the work had 
to be done all over again. 

His hfe was often in danger in the Gilbert Islands. At one 
time he and his wife sat in a hut surrounded by natives who had 
sworn to kill them. The missionary and his wife sat calm and 
collected, preserving a demeanor in the face of their tormentors 
that was characteristic of the persecuted Christians of the Roman 
era. Their demeanor finally won their captors over and they 
were released. Doctor Bingham, despite his devout manner, his 
Christian life, his saintly appearance, was possessed of a courage 
that would have won him decorations of kings if displayed upon 
the battlefield. 

In the year of his death he received a letter from the Gilbert 
Evangelical Association, thanking him for raising them out of 
heathen darkness. They held a celebration of his jubilee at 
Apiang, when 200 Christian delegates gathered to honor the name 
of Bingham. Such was the fruit of the lifework of Rev. Hiram 
Bingham II. 

A tablet erected to the memory of Dr. Bingham and wife, un- 
veiled in Kawaiahao Church in May, 1915, reads; 



MISSION CRUSADERS OF PACIFIC 123 

"In Loving Memory of 
Rev. Hiram Bingham, D. D. 

1831-1908 

Missionary to the Gilbert Islands 

Navigator, Lexicographer and 

Translator of the Bible into the 

Gilbertese 

His Wife 

Clarissa Brewster Bingham 

1834-1903 

His Faithful Co-Worker 

Spreading the Gospel Among the 

Isles of the Sea" 

Prof. Hiram Bingham III, grandson of the first Hiram Bing- 
ham, first missionary to Honolulu, professor at Yale Univer- 
sity, explorer in South America and discoverer of many lost 
Inca cities, and during the great war a major in the bureau of 
aeronautics of the army, at Washington, D. C, is devoting his 
life to work at New Haven, where his grandfather lived for 
many years. 

Rev. Hiram Bingham I was much in evidence at the court of 
Kamehameha 111, particularly during the regency when the 
king was a boy, and met all the foreigners who visited the 
palace. He frequently clashed with the visitors and in some 
instances was told that missionary zeal, when applied too earnest- 
ly to governmental administration, was in error. 

Commodore Downes, commanding the U, S. frigate Potomac, 
had a sharp discussion in Honolulu in 1832, and severely criti- 
cized the divine. Mr. Bingham, however, lived in a trying 
period in Honolulu's history and missionary zeal and stead- 
fastness were the main weapons he had at his command to stem 
the tide of debauchery which flooded Hawaii from visiting whale 
and trading ships. 




Queen Kamamalu, consort of Kamclinmeiia II, fir.'t rova! llai 
woman to visit a eivilizp,! tourt, who ciLea in London, July, 1 




Laiij[iioroiis ciisf, nitli iiiiisk- ami fr:ij;r:Liit ijarliiriilH, »:i- ty|iii-:il nf tli." 
Hawaii of "other davs," pave Hawaii a iliarjii of ln)s[)itaHt,v tliat 
was tlic tiiciui! of poota niiri foiiiiioscrs. 



LINKING OL,D WITH NEW HAWAII 125 

The prayer book had already been in Hawaii. Many English- 
men were among the attendants upon Kamehameha the Great, 
as advisers in the meetings of the king and chiefs with foreign 
traders; as mihtary experts in the introduction of firearms, 
soon to sweep away the once formidable spears of an ancient 
day; as progenitors of men and women who were later to play 
more or less prominent parts in the history of the kingdom . 

The Englishmen, sailors or otherwise, were Church of Eng- 
land men as a rule. Wherever their ships went out into the 
Seven Seas, the prayer book went with them. 

At least one such prayer book is in Honolulu today, the prop- 
erty of a descendent of an Englishman who rose to high rank 
among the Hawaiiaiis and became a trusted Ueutenant of Ka- 
mehameha. While no records appear to exist, yet there is un- 
derstood by descendents of these earlier white men among the 
Hawaiians, to be a certainty that these Englishmen told the 
ruler and the chiefs what was contained in the prayer book 
and that the prayers and supplications within its covers were 
offered to the Christian God. 

Opukahaia, the Hawaiian youth who went to New England and 
learned of the Christian God pleaded with Americans to send 
people who would tell his race about this God. Other Hawaii- 
ans instructed the first missionary band in simple phrases in Ha- 
waiian before they reached Hawaii, the first wedge in the latter 
effort to create an alphabet and then the printed Hawaiian page 
from the crude little Ramage press carried on the Thaddeus 
to Honolulu in April, 1820. 

When the Thaddeus stood off the shores of Hawaii, there 
were consuhations among the chiefs. They were mighty chiefs 
in those days, all men of war, versed in military strategy of a 
high type, for battles then were fought hand to hand, by spears 
and herculean physical dominance over an enemy. Of high- 
born rank, feudal lords who yielded fealty to an absolute mon- 
archy, their thoughts were always to defeat an enemy and repel 
strangers from the shores. They were men whom the king 
trusted with even the future of his monarchy. Some had grown 



126 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

lip with Kamehanieha from boyhood; others had taught him the 
arts of war. Among all the men who were at his side in his 
battles and his efforts to solidify the islands into a single gov- 
ernment, two were destined to be memorialized upon the Hawaii- 
an coat-of-arms, the warrior princes who devoted their lives to 
preparing the young Kamehanieha to be great among his race. 

It was quite natural among some of the missionaries of tlie 
early invasion of Hawaii to record their daily doings and com- 
ments in journals, later to be enlarged into book form. They 
were often men of the "fire and brimstone" type, devout and 
zealous Christians, whose sole thought was that they were sent 
into a heathen land and their duty was principally to convert 
the people to Christianity. Zealous daily hves, ordered almost 
hour by hour according to the Scriptures, made them intolerant 
of religious and morat beliefs that were not in accord with their 
own. Some chroniclers, apparently, forgot that they were deal- 
ing with a people who had overthrown their own gods and 
burned their temples and had destroyed the kapu, the ancient 
feudal power of the priesthixid and the kings and chiefs over 
the common people, and, apparently had them waited with eager 
ears the Christian gospel. 

To some of these missionaries, the Hawaiians, because they 
were not clothed as New Englanders were clothed, were savages. 
Because they strayed away from the Christian beliefs imperfectly 
taught them, they were exconnnunicated. Even the missionaries 
record in their journals that the missionaries themselves did not 
fully understand the Hawaiian language and failed to convey the 
inner and deeper meaning of phrases of the Bible, and when the 
natives shook their heads because the key word had been omitted, 
some chose to smite the Hawaiian character with blasts of fire 
and brimstone. 

There were mistakes on both sides. The Hawaiians made 
theirs, the missionaries theirs. In reports to Boston the mis- 
sionaries may often have enlarged upon the faults of the Ha- 
waiian people and exaggerated them from molehills into moun- 
tains, in the clear, ice-like intellectual language with which most 



LINKING OLD WITH NEW HAWAII 127 

of them were gifted. Some Hawaiians fell from the righteous 
paths into the easier ones of living, and remained apart from 
missionary teachings. Too often some of this class were taken 
too seriously by the listening Hawaiian race, listening to the 
gospel as it was preached by many New England lips, and then 
turned deaf ears to the Christian pleadings because of a few 
backsliders. 

As the Hawaiian language became a printed and written one, 
the missionaries more conversant with Hawaiian speech and 
the Hawaiians with English the two races understood each other 
better, and the whole nation eventually marched under the Chris- 
tian banner within a surprisingly short period of time. 

But all this would not have been accomplished had it not been 
for a number of Hawaiian men and women of high chiefly rank, 
who, with their idols and temples burned behind them by their 
own orders were more receptive lo the teachings of Christ as 
they came from Rev. Asa Thurston and Rev. Hiram Bingham 
and other missionary helpers, than the rank and file of the nation. 
The Hawaiians as a race were deeply religious and after the 
death of Kamehameha the Great in May, 1819, and the destruc- 
tion of idols and temples in November of the same year, they 
were at a loss for a religion. Theirs was destroyed by order of 
their own rulers. There was nothing to- replace it, except for 
what might come to them from beyond the seas. 

It was just in this pre-missionary year, and the one in which 
the missionaries arrived, wlien the hand of God seemed hover- 
ing over these isles in the Lazy Latitudes of the Pacific, that 
certain Hawaiian chiefs and chiefesses rose and blazed the trail 
for the introduction of Christianity and of education. 

Had it not been for their influence in favor of the missionaries 
because they brought an experiment in religion with them, the 
mission work might never have advanced as easily as it did. 
Because it was an experiment was one of the reasons why there 
were frequent lapses from the teachings of the missionaries 
The experiment to some of the Hawaiians was a failure. 



128 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

The feudal system was so perfect and powerful that the Ha- 
waiians were used to being ordered to do this or that, and when 
the chiefs sent out word to Hsten to the new reUgion they tried 
it. Some of the missionaries were too eager in their introduc- 
tion not to understand that the natives were regarding their 
work, their religion as an experiment, and not the settled thing 
the missionaries told themselves, hence a bit of the intolerance 
of the Hawaiians' customs and habits they expressed in their 
writings. 

In the end the missionaries and the Hawaiians were both 
justified in having struck hammer blows to drive the new religion 
into Hawaii. Within ten years through the efforts of the chiefs 
the Hawaiian nation had been transformed from idol worship- 
pers to Christian followers. 

Who were all these great chiefs, without whom the introduc- 
tion of Christianity would not have been accompHshed? 

The greatest of all was Kaahumanu, the haughty queen and 
Amazon who accompanied the mighty Kamehameha the Great 
into battle, his real sweetheart. She possessed a strong character. 
In childhood and in womanhood she had never been curbed. 
Hers was a dominant will, but tempered with consideration. Her 
life through the war made her the severe woman when it came 
to pimishment. She was kind to the just, severe to those whom 
she felt were at fault. 

At first, when Kaahumanu saw the missionaries or met them 
it was with a cold and haughty reserve, and if she had to take 
their hands she either gave them the tips of her fingers or her 
little finger, a protest against accepting closer relations with 
them. 

Came the rebellion on Ka a of ( eorge Kaumualii {Hume- 
luime) who had returned to tl e h ds on the Thaddeus from 
New England, with whom tt e m so ar es apparently had trials, 
but who really instilled in the m ds of the missionaries the need 
of establishing a station on Kaua here his father ruled as the 
last king of a conquered province. 



UNKING OLD WITH NEW HAWAII 129 

Having been in foreign lands, and observed the methods of 
government obtaining there, Kaumualii desired to establish such 
a form of government on his own island, hence his rebellion 
against the authority of Liholiho, Kamehameha II. It was a 
bloody war. 

Kaahumanu, as regent ruled the islands with Liholiho, having 
been given authority as guardian or co-regent with Kamehameha 
II. She gave the young king, a few months after Kamehameha 
the Great's death in 1819, no peace until he anmiled the religion 
of his fathers by publicly eating with his queens. Strange to 
relate, however, Kaahumanu, ahhough one who overthrew the 
ancient religion and paving the way for an easy entry of Chris- 
tianity into Hawaii, did not become a convert until 1825. After 
her conversion she became as warm in her affections for the 
missionaries as she was before cold and contemptuous, says 
Sheldon Dibble, the missionary author. One of the first intima- 
tions of a change of disposition in Kaahumanu, he continues, 
was gathered from a letter written by her from Kauai, the scene 
of the war, in which she expressed a strong desire for the re- 
formation of her people and for their eternal salvation. For six 
months previous since the sailing of Kamehameha II for England 
(1823), a gradual advance had been made by the chiefs as a 
body, in correcting the morals of the people and in leading them 
to attend schools and to the oral instruction of the missionaries. 

Kamehameha II advised the chiefs to attend these instruc- 
tions during his absence. Many of the chiefs had taken advan- 
tage of his advice, those at least who were seriously disposed, 
such as Kalanimoku, Kaumualii, Pila and others. Proclamations 
had been made on different islands, enjoining observance of the 
Sabbath and encouraging the people to learn to read. Some 
houses of worship and schoolhouses had been erected by their 
order. In April, a month before the Kauai war, the principal 
chiefs had called a meeting of the people of Oahu to proclaim 
in a formal manner their united resolution to receive instruc- 
tion themselves, to observe the Sabbath, worship God, obey His 
law, and to promote knowledge among the people. 



130 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Kaahumanu, it seems, concurred in this resolution, though 
nothing was observed in her deportment giving evidence of a 
change of heart till several months afterward. In the meantime 
progress had been made in printing and in preparing a class of 
young persons who might be able to collect schools and teach the 
art of reading. 

In the famous letter of Kaahumanu accepting the Christian 
faith, expressing her great love for her people, she proposed to 
make a tour of all the islands in person to exhort her subjects 
to turn to God. On her arrival at Honolulu her zeal was un- 
abated, is Dibble's comment. She attended the female prayer 
meeting and expressed her feelings with earnestness and with 
tears. The sentiment of her heart from the first and through life 
was, "Lord, what wilt thou have me to do?" 

Then she gave her strict attention to the direction of the gov- 
ernment, and with zeal visited each island and almost every vil- 
lage, encouraging the people to take up the new religion, attend 
schools, and improve the public works. 

To the missionaries, to Christianity itself, the conversion of 
Kaahumanu, of which there began to be a marked evidence early 
in the year 1825, was an important era in the history of the mis- 
sion. Her conversion tore away the veil of hindrance. The 
people followed her example. Her strong will, her commanding 
presence, the fact that she was the favorite of the great Kameha- 
meha I, the additional fact that she had followed the armies in 
Kamehameha's campaigns, and had personal prowess, commend- 
ed her action to her people, and at last the work of the mission- 
aries was over more or less smooth paths with the rocks of oppo- 
sition removed. The missionaries themselves gave her credit 
for having accomplished something that would have taken them 
years to overcome. In Kawaiahao Church, the old Hawaiian 
church in Honolulu, erected on the spot where the first sermon 
was preached in 1820, is a beautiful marble tablet placed by 
the missionary descendants to memorialize her great work of 
assisting in the conversion of the Hawaiian race to Christianity. 



LINKING OLD WITH NEW HAWAII 131 

Kamamalu, consort of LihoHho, Kamehanieha II, who was also 
his half-sister, {one of the strange characteristics of the inter- 
marriage of members of the royal and chiefly families), was 
among the first to greet the missionaries. She was gracious to 
the women of the first band and undertook their guidance in 
acquainting them with the customs of the court. 

Kaumualii, governor of Kauai and once king of that island, 
embraced Christianity and aided the establishment of the station 
on his island, being assisted in this by his son George, who had 
come around the Horn aboard the Thaddeus, It was a strange 
fatality that it should fall to his lot to give physical assistance 
and guidance to the missionaries in carrying the gospel to Ka- 
uai, and that he should later become passive in accepting Chris- 
tianity and being guided by its precepts. Governor Kaumualii 
was able to speak a little in English and this facihtated the mis- 
sion work. In fact, he was the only chief that could speak Eng- 
hsh. His acceptance of Christianity was intense and he was 
known to swim the Waialua river, Kauai, holding the Bible in 
one hand, studying it as he stroked the water. 

Hoapili (Ulumahiehie), son of Kamceiaumoku by Kealiiuka- 
hekili, was a cousin of Kaahumanu. He was a firm supporter 
of the Christian religion. He was the father of Lihha, the beau- 
tiful chiefess who gave the land to Punahou to the cause of 
education. Her husband, Eoki, was insistant in the presentation 
of this great area of land, but it was Liliha's. It was placed in 
the keeping of the Binghams the title however being vested in 
the American Board of Missions which he represented and by 
them was transferred later to Punahou College founded in the 
early 40's of last century, becoming the first educational institu- 
tion west of the Missouri River. 

No monument has j-et been erected to the memory of Liliha 
and Boki for the great impetus which they, as full blooded Ha- 
waiians who had emerged from the shattered religion of the Ha- 
waiians, gave to the new religion and the course of education. 



132 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Within Punahou's land such a monument, or tablet placed 
upon the historic, and possibly legendary stone of Pohakuloa, 
would be most appropriate. 

Hoapili's second wife was Kalakua Kaheiheimalie (w), one of 
Kamehameha I's widows. To them came the honor of being the 
first Hawaiian couple to be married by the missionaries, being 
united in marriage by Rev. W. Richards, October 19, 1823. They 
ever afterwards called themselves Hoapili kane and Hoapili wa- 
hine, or the Hawaiian equivalent of Mr. and Mrs. Hoapili. The 
chief Hoapili was an Hawaiian astrologer. 

Queen Kinau (Kaahunianu II), who became premier of the 
kingdom after the death of Kaahumanu, was not only active in 
the affairs of the government, but like her mother Kalakua Ka- 
heiheimalie (Mrs. Hoapili), was a zealous supporter of the 
Christian faith. 

It was Kalaninioku, the great general and trusted lieutenant 
of Kamehameha the Great, the brother of Kaahumanu, who first 
met the missionaries aboard the Thaddeus in April, 1820, and 
sailed with them to Kailua to confer with the king, and was 
responsible in no small degree for the decision of the king to 
permit the missionaries to land. He embraced Christianity soon, 
for he became a pupil of little Daniel Chamberlain, the seven- 
year-old son of missionary Daniel Chamberlain. 

It fell to Kalanimoku and Hoapili, as governor of Maui, in 
1823, to put down the rebellion in Kauai when George Kaumu- 
alii, who had been educated at Cornwall, Connecticut, led the 
rebels, Kalanimoku was hard pressed by the rebels when the news 
reached Oahu and Hoapili came from Maui to Honolulu with 
ships and soldiers and reinforced his command and sailed for 
Kauai. 

The first effects of Christianity and education were felt at 
this time for in conferring with Rev. Mr. Richards, through 
David Malo, a native teacher, destined to become one of Hawaii's 
foremost historians, Hoapili learned that war could and should 
be conducted in a humane manner. Before the missionaries' 
arrival war was butchery, prisoners being slaughtered at will. 



LINKING OLD WITH NEW HAWAII 133 

Richards gave advice and instructions as to conducting the war 
— that no persons except those evidently opposing and in arms 
should be attacked; that the weak and defenseless such as aged 
persons, women and children, ought by no means to be molested, 
and that quarter should be given to enemies when asked, and 
captives treated with mercy. Hoapili led the armies in person, 
and required the older Kalanimoku to remain with the reserves 
and to protect the women and children. 

When Hoapili's army was ready to attack, Hoapili, who had 
spent the previous night in a lonely vigil watching and trying to 
read the stars, asked that a prayer be said to be offered "to the 
true god." A Society Islander was found in the ranks who could 
pray in the Christian manner. The missionaries' efforts had 
already fallen on fruitful ground. Hoapili called upon the 
armies to stand steadily in the face oE the rebel foe, as there was 
no retreat. God, he said, was on his side and the side of his sol- 
diers, and as God aided the Israelites, so He would aid His 
children of Hawaii. Unfortunately, after the Kauaians had been 
routed Hoapili was unable to control the soldiers and many ex- 
cesses, following the ancient fashion, were committed. 

Kamehameha II, who in 1820 had given permission to the 
missionaries to land in Hawaii, decided to visit England, and em- 
barked on the L'Aigle, Captain Starbuck, November 27, 1823. 
He was true to his early convictions that it was right that the 
white man's God should become the Supreme Being of the Ha- 
waiians, for as his vessel was about to sail, he gave explicit, 
positive and distinct orders to his chiefs and people lo listen to 
the instructions of the missionaries, and educate themselves dur- 
ing his absence. The subjects chose to take these words to 
heart and they applied themselves to acquiring the knowledge of 
which the white men had to impart. Alas, the king and his queen 
never returned except in their caskets. They arrived in London, 
in May, 1824. In a few weeks they were taken ill with measles 
and lung fever, which proved fatal. The queen died early in 
July and the king shortly afterward. The British government 
sent a frigate, the Blonde, commanded by Lord Bryon, brother of 
the poet, to Hawaii bearing the bodies. 



134 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Sheldon Dibble, while exceptionally critical of the Hawaiian 
at times, does not fail to also give praise. Among those he men- 
tions are John li, who learned quickly, and later became a power 
in the g-overnment, even to becoming a judge. 

The first individual baptized in the islands was Keopuolani, 
the friend and a patron of the missionaries at Lahaina. She 
was the mother of the king and a chief of blood of the highest 
rank. On her dying couch she requested baptism, which was not 
withheld. 

The Hawaiians played principal roles in the establishment of 
Christianity upon the ruins of their old and somewhat meaning- 
less religion. Tlie missionaries found on their arrival that under 
Providence, the mere contact of an imperfect civilization of pre- 
missionary days had decided the preliminary contest in favor of 
the Bible men, while it had undoubtedly also facilitated the re- 
mainder of their task by leading the aborigines, according to 
the general principles of human nature, to consider Christianity 
as an important element in the envied superiority of the strang- 
ers. This is the opinion of Sir George Sitnpson, governor-in- 
chief of the Hudson Bay Company's territories, who visited Ho- 
nolulu in 1841. 

As a curious contrast with all this, the missionaries had brought 
with them from Boston, positive orders never to countenance 
the maxim, that civilization ought to precede Christianity. But 
the force of circumstances was more than a match for theories. 
It was not Christianity but civilization to make uninstructed 
women wear something more certain than the scanty pa-u ; it 
was not Christianity but civilization to make unconverted men 
rest on the first day of the week. 

The missionaries on arrival experienced something more than 
negative encouragement. 

They were met, in fact, by ready-made evidence of a disposi- 
tion in high places to regard the religion of the foreigners with 
favor. This attitude lessened the difficulties which the mission- 
aries expected to experience, but they had many to overcome by 
bitter experiences. Their blows against the social and domestic 



LINKING OLP WITH NEW HAWAII 135 

relations of the Hawaiians almost raised a barrier against the 
missionaries, but as time went on the reforms so estabhshed be- 
came ingrained and accepted as a matter of fact. 

The missionaries worked upon fertile minds. For generations, 
for centuries the Hawaiians, without the printed word to assist 
them in preserving records of history, genealogies, the intricate 
rules of their feudal government and the tabu and the tenets of 
their own religion, had to depend upon their memories. Their 
minds were the hbraries of the Hawaiian nation. Genealogies, 
intricate as they were, could be told by most of the chiefly fami- 
lies with ease. It is the same today. State the name of a person, 
and mention that of his father or mother, and immediately a 
person will trace back the ancestry through many generations, 
sometimes almost back, it would seem, to the time when Juan 
Gaetano, the Spanish explorer visited Hawaii. 

Such, then, were the minds upon which the missionaries began 
to plant the seeds of the gospel and education, and such were the 
minds which quickly grasped the meaning of the teachings of 
Christ, despite the difficulties of mutual lack of command of the 
two languages. 

Christians the world over have much to thank to the able and 
powerful chiefs of Kamehameha's era for the early Christianizing 
of the Hawaiian Islands. 



CHAPTEE XI 



ENTIRE NATION GOES TO SCHOOL 



PURITAN-BARBARIC SOIL TILLING 

REPLETE as were the closely written journals of the firsr 
missionaries to the Hawaiian Islands with details of theii 
voyage from Boston in the little brig Thaddeus, in 1819- 
1820, of their prayers, the gales and the calms, the sighting of 
whales and porpoises and finally of the great burning mountain 
of Mauna Loa, on the Island of Hawaii, that memorable morning 
of March 30, 1820; of the first sight they had of the natives, 
cf the visits of the great chief Kalanimoku, one of the Kameha- 
meha the Great's powerful supporters, of the establishment of 
the Christian Mission ashore at Kailua and Honolulu, few of the 
missionaries even mention the fact that there were children 
aboard the Thaddeus and that a child became one of the deciding 
factors in the permission which the king, Liholiho, or Kameha- 
meha II, gave to the missionaries to land and reside and teach 
the riev.- religion. 

One of the strangest omissions in these remarkable journals 
in which the pious thoughts of the writers were indited, family 
affairs mentioned, discussions held as to how the missionaries 
should live and carry on the work to which they had dedicated 
their lives, was that concerning' the five little children of Daniel 
Chamberlain, the New England farmer from Brookfield, Massa- 
chusetts, who had thrown his lot with the ordained ministers, 
and, with his wife and family of little ones, had sailed for far- 
away Hawaii, to instruct the Hawaiians in modern methods of 
agriculture. 

The Hawaiians looked upon the fair, white children with deep 
interest. They were the first white children they had ever seen. 



ENTIRE NATION GOES TO SCHOOL 137 

When the great chief, Kalanimoko, went aboard the brig to go 
from Kawaiahae to Kailua to see the king and present the request 
of the missionaries to land, the chief's wife and two of the 
widowed queens of Kamehameha the Great were more inter- 
ested in the Chamberlain children, and particularly Nancy, a 
tiny little tot, than even in the new patchwork which Mrs. Tliurs- 
lon and Mrs. Bingham prepared fpr the Hawaiian women to 
sew, their very first sewing with needle and thread. 

Upon the deck of the Thaddeus where stood Kalanimoku, 
diessed, as Daniel Chamberlain says, as a gentleman in the Ameri- 
can fashion, and bearing himself majestically and graciously, and 
also the queens and women of high rank of Hawaii, there proba- 
bly entered the thoughts which later had weight with the king in 
his decision to permit the missionaries to land. 

There was probably a suggestion to the king from some of his 
own people, or possibly from some of the white men already 
living on the Islands and opposed to the missionaries coming 
among them, that the missionaries intended robbing them of 
their lands. 

"If the strangers are come to rob us, why did they bring iheir 
women and their children?" queried one high chief. "To rob 
would mean they niifjht be killed. They would not, then, have 
brought their women and children." 

The suggestion was powerful in the decision which followed, 
and is probably also duo to the strange liking which the king 
and queens and chiefs manifested for Nancy, the two-year-old 
child of the Chamberlains. They fondled it, when they were 
permitted ashore, and a queen asked Mrs. Chamberlain to give 
her the child. 

To refuse might sacrifice the very mission itself and cause 
all to be turned back from the islands. To give assent meant 
the parting from her dear morsel of childhood, giving it over to 
women who had not the knowledge of bringing up children 
which the missionary women believed they should have, and 
would mean the child would be taken from under their parental 
protection and love into the thatched and dark hut of the Ha- 
waiian people, he be brought up — well, no one even ventured a 



138 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

solution. Mrs. Chamberlain remained silent. They finally per- 
mitled the queens to take the child with them and for two days 
Mrs. Chamberlain, agonized, but fortified by her Christian spirit, 
prayed and prayed and then came the queens with the tiny white 
burden and deposited it with the mother, at the same time pre- 
senting the missionaries with food. 

For months the missionaries partook of the food which was 
brought as a hookupu for Kancy. And ever afterward the 
Hawaiians treated the missionaries with kindness and consider- 
ation and the king and chiefs gave them all their protection, even 
interposing between many of the white men living on the islands 
in their efforts to cause the missionaries to leave. 

Just as the children were important factors in the King's 
favorable decision, they were also a factor in the decision of 
Daniel Chamberlain and his wife to return to New England. It 
was felt that ihey would lie better served for their future in their 
homeland. 

Daniel Chamberlain w^a a. Xew England farmer, of inde- 
pendent means, but of a deeply religious turn of mind. He too. 
felt the call of the Hawaiians as vojced through Opukahaia, the 
young Hawaiian of Napoopoo. Hawaii, who had gone to New 
England in a trading vessel a decade or more before and be- 
sought many people to send evangelists to his native isles. He 
was only a farmer and not an ordained minister. The mission 
was made up of ordained ministers. Rev. Asa Thurston and Rev. 
Hiram Bingham; Daniel Chamberlain, a farmer and teacher; 
a physician, Dr. Holman, Messrs. Whitney and Ruggles, teach- 
ers; even to Mr. Loomis, a printer, who set up a Ramage press 
which was taken to Hawaii in the Thaddeus in 1820, and printed 
the first Hawaiian words on January 7, 1822. 

Chamberlain discovered that while there was fertile soil and 
thousands of acres of lands to till, modern agricultural methods 
did not take hold upon the people, and his efforts to introduce 
New England methods were largely in vain. The people were 
set upon learning the a, b, c's of the white strangers; listening 
to the words of wisdom from the Bible, the odd phraseology of 
the old testament and scriptures strangely paralleling that of the 



ENTIRE NATION GOES TO SCHOOL 139 

language employed by the king, chiefs and priests. This being so, 
the words, tlie text, the stories tlescribed, fell upon fertile minds 
and were easily understood. Daniel Chamberlain's instructions 
in agriculture were not. 

The Hawaiian nation was going through the strangest era 
of all its hisiory, an era which spelled unrest and uncertainty, 
the era when men and women were still wondering at the sudden 
destruction of the idols and temples and the breaking down of 
the formidable and terrible kapus. 

The great Kamehameha was dead a year when the missionaries 
arrived. The astonishing rapidily with which the religious fabric 
was torn to shreds just when the missionaries sailed out of 
Boston for land all unknown to ihem, caused the Hawaiian^ to 
wonder at their freedom from cruel punishments for violations 
of the tabus. They permitted their own lands to overgrow with 
weeds. They could not be brought back to cuUivation. They 
listened to the missionaries, men and women, and even the chil- 
dren telling them of the white man's Jehovah, but to them was 
their own great Supreme Being, returned. 

There were white men in the Islands and a negro, named 
Allen, to whom Daniel Chamberlain refers as having gardens in 
which they raised squashes and other vegetables, but as to farm- 
ing there was little of that. lie does refer to what he terms the 
finest herds of cattle he had see:i. and some exceptionally fine 
and gentle horses. 

The whole nation had sudileidv 'gone lo school." The entire 
nation, men, women and children, became students. The king 
ordered it, and little Daniel Chamberlain, only six years of age, 
bright and intelligent, who had received speciaj instruction 
aboard the Thaddeus from Rev. Afa Thurston, seemed a prodigy 
of intellect to the Hawaiians. The great chief Kalanimokn, one 
of Kamehameha the Great's leadiiifr generals, a hardened fighter 
and a brother of Queen Kaalnimanu, became a companinn of 
little Daniel Chamberlain, and a^k'.- 1 that he be his teacher. 

Then this strange pair, a white child .scarcely seven years of 
age, and the fighting, scarred general who led armies in savage 
battles ]X)red over the 'books which lillle Daniel produced for 



140 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

lessons and the warrior, at whose beck and call had come thou- 
sands of armed warriors, patiently learned his a, b, c's from the 
child. Kamehameha III, likewise, received instruction from a 
boy and also from the elders, and became a wise monarch. 

Daniel CJiamberlain's journal remained in New England until 
three or four years ago. His descendants had copies of it made 
and sent these to the Hawaiian Board of Missions at Honolulu 
for preservation. The journal follows much the trend of record 
found in the journals o! Hiram Bingham and Asa Thurston and 
Lucy T'lurston, but there are frequent reference? to things tl'e 
ordained ministers did not touch upon. 

The Chamberlain family had a hard experience for a while 
aboard the Thaddeus, for their stateroom was only five and a half 
feet square and was piled high with their boxes, and the children 
became ill. He said he often wished he were back in Brookfield 
with his friends, "but I can say in truth, that as yet I have had 
no desire to go back. I consider it an unspeakable privilege that 
I am allowed thus to administer comforts to those who are labor- 
ing in the cause of Christ. I have reason to be daily thankful 
that Mrs. C. is so calm and contented. She appears to be as 
contented as she ever did at home on our old farm." 

His room was next that of Hiram Bingham, "an excellent 
neighbor indeed." 

He gave a high estimate of Mrs. Bingham, whom lie said, 
prophetically, was destined to become famous in the land of 
their adoption. He wrote: 

"I think she is peculiarly calculated for a missionary's wife; 
indeed, I think her to be another Harriet Newel!, and I have 
reason to believe from present appearances that we have a num- 
ber belonging to the familv." Daniel Chamberlain moralized 
over the work ahead of him, the difficulties of the voyage and 
gave frequent thought to the comforts of the home he had left 
for a great principle, and then lie thanked God for privileging 
him to go upon this mission. 

"O. how pleasant it would be to spend an evening, as I fre- 
quently have, with some dear friends at Brookfield; how sweet 
their memory still." 




bowl lO.OUO f e p 
above the lu ggc 
Bboren of Maui. 
Within it grows th 
irkublj- w p i r 
"Silver Swoni i. 
Hiilpahatn 
bcautifii!. 




II. R. II. I'rim-,' Kiii:iii. ^un -f II. R. H. Riitli K.^'liki^liiiil ;iti.| llij; 



ENTIRE NATION GOES TO SCHOOL 141 

Then came the great day, which was March 30, 1820, when 
the Island of Hawaii was discovered about 1 o'clock in the 
morning. "It appeared at first like a cloud at sunrise. The 
mountains exhibited a sublime, majestic scene, the top being far 
above the clouds entirely covered with snow. We sailed along 
perhaps fifty miles and kept generally to three miles off the 
shore. All eyes were fixed on ihe shore, eyeing the little villages 
which appeared like cocks of hay without much order. 

"The wind dying away a little past noon the captain (Blanch- 
ard), sent Mr. Hunnewell, one of the officers and five men on 
shore to make inquiry respecting the state of affairs on the island 
and to learn where the king resided. They returned in about 
two hours with the news that Kaniehanieha was dead and that 
his son had peaceably taken the throne; that the priests had 
burned their idol gods and that their men and women were now 
permitted to eat together which before was prohibited; that 
women were allowed to eat the same food as men. Joy beamed 
on every countenance when we were made acquainted with what 
God wrought." 

Then came the long wait to get in touch with the king, the 
journey from Kawaihae to Kailua where the king resided. The 
design of the mission was made known to Kalaninioku : the 
women seemed to express much joy; the chief gave no direct 
opinion on the subject, but said he must first see the king. 

Christianity was almost in the balance in those days. The king. 
says Daniel Chamberlain in his journal, sent hogs, fruits, and 
other foods to the boat. 

The white man's spelling book was in use even before the 
missionaries were given permission to land. "The queens and 
the chief's wife take much notice of Daniel," he records on 
April 3. "He got out his spelling book today and has been 
trying to teach them the alphabet; they were much pleased with 
the idea and appeared desirous of learning. 

Chamberlain made a tour of the country about this time. He 
and Captain Blanchard secured permission, and accompanied by 
many Hawaiians went up the mountain to shoot cattle. They 
first traveled about three miles over lava and then ten or twelve 



142 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

miles uphill. He remarked how astonishing it was the way 
fruits and vines grew. His farmer's mind was caught by the 
remarkable fertility of the soil. He saw plenty of cocoanuts, 
breadfruits, bananas, sugar cane and orange trees. "The soil 
is by far the richest I ever saw, with good springs of water," he 
wrote. "I should suppose a man might live here by working one 
day in a week. We saw tracks of cattle but found none." 

The Thaddeus set sail for Honolulu after Rev. Asa Thurston 
and wife and one other family had been left at Kailua. Then 
came another wait to be given permission to land at Honolulu. 
He paid a high tribute to Rev, Asa Thurston and his wife, Lucy 
Goodale Thurston, saying that the former appeared to be a man 
whose "heart is sincerely engaged in missionary works ; prudent, 
industrious, economical and persevering; his wife, as far as I 
can judge, possesses in a high degree all the qualifications neces- 
sary to fill the station in hfe in which she is called to act; her 
natural deportment is pleasing and becoming a Christian, her 
education good and her piety ardent." 

He was interested in the livestock at Honolulu. He saw many 
goats, which were all fat. What horses he saw exceeded his 
expectations and are gentle to ride, he added. He saw a lot of 
cattle belonging to the king and chiefs, and "I can truthfully say 
that they were superior in beauty and exceeded in fatness any lot 
of cattle I ever saw on Cog's Hill. I observed one bull larger 
than any I ever saw raised in America and as handsome as a 
picture. Here are thousands of acres of land, ready to plow, 
uncultivated, covered with grass only which would produce 
cane, cotton or corn." 

As a matter of fact the cultivation methods for the crops of 
the Islands, more or less tropical, were all good. Mr. Chamber- 
Iain's New England methods were not in accord with the products 
growing in Hawaii. Therefore, he sailed for America, in 
1823, and never returned, passing away in 1883 in his home town. 
It was not until about 1833, when the Islands had become 
Christianized, that farming methods of America began to make 
headway. 

Mr. Chamberlain apparently had little time to write in his 



ENTIRE NATION GOES TO SCHOOL 143 

journal for he began to skip many days and even weeks before 
he took up his pen again. 

Then came the problem of the selection of a site for his house. 
He began to dig a well nearby, and after laboring this way for 
some time in the heat of day, expressed a desire for half a mug 
"of good cider, although I very seldom think of cider." 

There came a parting in this year of 1820, when it seemed 
desirable for members of the mission to go to Kauai to see King 
Tamoree, or Kaumualii, as his son George Tamoree, or Kaumu- 
alii, had come from Boston with the missionaries and he was anx- 
ious to see his royal father. Brothers Whitney and Ruggles were 
chosen to go. George Kaumualii had been a thorn in the side of 
the missionaries. For some reason they felt he was a backshder, 
and in the summer he openly declared himself to be one. The 
missionaries labored with him and bespoke him to be a Christian, 
but without avail. The missionary attaches went to Kauai. 
There were anxious weeks awaiting their return. They came 
back. The king and his son had embraced. The king sent Mr. 
Bingham hogs and fruits. 

At that time there was one Tahiti spelling book at the mission 
which was used constantly to best advantage, the children even 
attempting to teach the natives through this medium. At this 
time Captain Chamberlain and his family lived in the house of 
Captain Winship of Bosion, Rev. Hiram Bingham and wife 
living about 40 rods away. They hoped some day to have a 
house in which all could live and have but one cooking estab- 
lishment instead of two. The group of missionary houses were 
near what is now King street, only a short stone's throw from 
Kawaiahao church. 

The Chamberlains had to buy very little meat as this was sup- 
plied them largely by the inhabitants and some of the white resi- 
dents. He feared the influence of the white men, feared an 
effort to discourage the natives from accepting the new religion, 
although there were times when the Botany Bay men, criminals 
of England, who came to the Islands, sorely tried the patience 
of the gentle missionaries. 

"There are some here from Botany Bay who would injure us 



144 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

if they could, and some from other parts of the world who would 
rather we would stay away," writes Captain Chamberlain. "The 
white people here generally appear friendly to our object; they 
have manifested it by giving $300 to educate orphan children," 

Even in that day the safety of Honolulu harbor or Hanarurah, 
as he spells it, was a question. Chamberlain wrote that Honolulu 
has as safe a harbor as the world affords, although it is some- 
what difficult to enter. There was a considerable strong fort at 
the entrance of this harbor, fortified with about thirty cannon, 
some of them 32-pounders. 

Modern agriculture and aboriculture had made progress in 
Honolulu, however, before Captain Chamberlain's arrival, for 
he refers to a Spaniard named Marini (called Manini by the 
Hawaiians), who lived a few rods from him, who had a fine 
vineyard of grapes, and made excellent wine. His melons were 
superior to those in America. Squash, cabbages, cucumbers and 
sweet potatoes were plentiful and could be had at any season 
of the year. There was a black man named Allen, he said, who 
had been on Oahu about ten years and had become a man of 
property through his industry. He was remarkably kind to the 
missionaries, supplying them with meat or something to eat every 
day since they arrived. His family liked poi, the principal food 
of the natives. He says that Allen was a first rate cook as he had 
lived in a first rale Boston boarding house and had been a steward 
aboard vessels. 

Captain Chamberlain's first mention of real trouble in Hono- 
lulu was that of the pursuit of a seaman deserter from the brig 
Pedlar, from New York, Captain Meek, commander. The man 
was ship's carpenter and according to Chamberlain "was prob- 
ably influenced by some one ashore to desert from the brig.'' 

He tells how men were sent into the country, searching houses 
there and in the village and finally how his tools were found 
aboard a native brig under the captain's berth. The man was 
captured. The man, acording to Chamberlain, said Captain 
Adams, a resident of HonoUdu, had influenced him to run away. 
Adams denied the charge and a quarrel ensued, the village be- 
came a bedlam of uproar, and the governor and chief disap- 



ENTIRE NATION GOES TO SCHOOL 145 

proved of the conduct of Captain Meek and a Captain Pigot, and 
a cry went up to burn Pigot's goods ashore. 

The quarrel prompted Chamberlain to write: "It is a shame 
that those who pretend to be first rate gentlemen should come 
here and fight and get drunk before this poor, ignorant people. 
I wonder that they do not drive away every white man from 
the island." 

The home life of the Chamberlains appears to be well ordered 
and happy. 

They had a neighbor, a Mr. Elswell, a very sociable, agreeable 
person, who was clerk to Captain Babcock, employed by a firm 
in Boston. The family was bringing up two native boys and 
the Chamberlain boys taught them English and the Scriptures. 
He regrets that so many boys should be upon the streets of the 
village growing up in ignorance and vice, because of lack of 
teachers and moralizes on the situation, wondering how many in 
their comfortable homes in New England thought of the needs 
of the people so far away. 

Finally came Messrs. Whitney and Ruggles back from Kauai, 
bringing presents from Kaumualii, the king, who thanked them 
for bringing his son back from America. He sent many presents, 
a pig for each of the missionaries and other edibles. The king 
manifested much interest in the new religion and gave the mis- 
sionaries every opportunity to spread the gospel among his 
people. He wanted Whitney to remain behind. It is said of 
this king, later, that when he went to bathe in his swimming pool, 
so deep was his interest in religion, that he swam with one hand 
and held the Bible in the other before his eyes. 

The H. C. of L. was a problem then, as they thought in ihose 
days, in Honolulu. Chamberlain would have been horrified at 
the prices charged for everything in Honolulu in this hectic 
year of 1922. He refers to "considerable business done in this 
place, as ships are often calling for provisions and water; there 
are a number of stores in the village, or houses where goods are 
kept for sale. Goods are sold at extravagant prices; a small 
porridge pot sells for five dollars and spiders for three dollars; 



146 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

poor New England rum for a dollar, copper plate or cheap calico 
would sell as well as any goods that could be sent here." 

Then he discusses the manner in which the missionaries 
arrived and were received with kindness by the natives, some- 
thing they had not really expected, "How different from what 
we expected," he writes. "Instead of being surrounded with, 
and insulted by outcasts from Botany Bay and lawless savages, 
God has shut their mouths and raised up many kind friends so 
that we can truly say that the Lord helped us. We were often 
told while in America that the natives would butcher us as soon 
as we landed here, but as yet we see nothing of this ; I should 
not be afraid to send Daniel to any part of the island alone. I 
feel there is much danger of forgetting to acknowledge God 
while we sit in the sunshine of prosperity and have so little to 
try us." 

Yet there was longing expressed by Chamberlain for his old 
New England home. "Could I this morning look into the sanc- 
tuary where I formerly attended and where God has in the past 
wrought such wonders for that church undoubtedly I would 
glance from seat to seat and pew to pew to see who is there 
and who is absent, but I must bid farewell to that much loved 
church and my eyes will see it no more." In two more years 
he was back in his home, never again to return to Hawaii. 

The Chamberlain home in the mission yard, next to the old 
frame mission house was not built by him, but by Capt. Levi 
Chamberlain who came to Honolulu in a later band of mission- 
aries. They were not relatives. He made progress with tlie 
Hawaiian governor, who seemed to want to know something 
of the new religion and received daily instruction. He compares 
this attitude to that of only a year ago before the missionaries 
came, when it was death to break a tabu or religious rule; death 
to bring certain kind of food into the house where a priest had 
been ; death for men and woman to use the same first or for 
women to take a spark of fire and use where a man had kindled 
it. In fact, he said, messengers of death stood at every door, 
at every home, at every corner. Every man was watching his 
neighbor. 



ENTIRE NATION GOES TO SCHOOL 147 

The missionary women had much work to do in addition to 
teaching and helping Hawaiian women to a knowledge of white 
women's ways. Captain Chamberlain refers to her ironing and 
doing up "some fine shirts and oiher clothes," and "for a native 
sea captain he dresses like an American." 

Then in the end of his journal Captain Chamberlain refers to 
an incident which each missionary refers to indefinitely, but 
never gives full details. This was the backsliding of some of 
their own white people, some who came on the brig Thaddeus. 
He refers to the desertion of the physician and his wife from the 
mission, for a physician was absolutely needed for the care of 
their health. 

"I doubt not Brother Whitney was faithful in admonishing 
the doctor and his wife to desert from their rash, and I may say, 
wicked design. I had hoped that I should not be under the pain- 
ful necessity of recording in this little journal the faults of a 
brother of this little church; to say the least of it, the conduct of 
the doctor and his wife has caused the hearts of some to bleed 
already. I leave the subject to some abler pen; my friends will 
sooner or later be favored with the particulars." 

Then Brothers Whitney and Ruggles received permission from 
Rev. Asa Thurston and Rev. Hiram Bingham to go to Kauai in 
response to King Kaumualii's pleadings. His own son Nathan 
accompanied them. 

He refers to the first excommunication in Honolulu. It was a 
letter of excommunication delivered to Tennoe, a young Ha- 
waiian who had returned from America on the brig Thaddens. 
He was a source of anxiety on the voyage; he backslid on reach- 
ing Honolulu and pleadings were unn.vailing. The letter finally 
had to be sent, with deep regret. This was in 1821. 

Chamberlain's little son Daniel went to Kailua to be with the 
Thurstons and it was there that the great warrior chief, Kala- 
nimoku, became the friend of the little fellow, the latter the 
teacher, the former the pupil. 

From all accounts Mrs. Daniel Chamberlain must have been 
a remarkable woman. Few woinen shared greater vicissitudes 
of fortune. Born with the .A.merican Republic in 1787, at the 



148 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

age of 10 years she removed to the wilds of New York where 
her father purchased of the Indians the land on which now 
stands the large and wealthy city of Syracuse. Exposure and 
hardships carried away most of the company, including her 
father and mother, and she was finally returned to her earlier 
home and comfort. At the age of 32, with a family of five chil- 
dren, she sailed for Hawaii. Of this band she was the last 
survivor, passing away at Quincy, Massachusetts, June 27, 1879, 
ihree years after the death of Mrs. Asa Thurston. 

At the time of her death a biography was compiled of the 
Chamberlains and their arrival and stay in Hawaii. After wit- 
nessing the strangely clad women of Hawaii for the first time 
they went on to Honolulu, says the chronicler, "the stronghold 
of Satan, then, because wicked men from Christian lands were 
there, and great opposition was made by them to landing of the 
mission. The contest was strong and Satan was vanquished." 

Perhaps a more earnest, devout and prayerful set of mission- 
aries has never been sent out of the United States than this first 
band of which the seven Chamberlains were a conspicuous ele- 
ment. The Hawaiians served Mrs. Chamberlain freely and in- 
telligently, for, although not much older than the other women 
of the mission, she had had more practical experience in family 
affairs and was almost the "mother of the mission," ns Mr. 
Chamberlain was "superintendent of Secular Affairs." 

Perhaps the most certain factor in deciding the Chamberlains 
to leave Hawaii was the fact that he was stricken with brain 
fever. He was very sick and his recovery slow and doubtful. 
He was advised to go to a cooler climate. The mountains of 
Hawaii Island were first talked of for it was a long long voyage 
home and Mrs. Chamberlain would be left unprotected with her 
family if he should die at sea. The situation was urgent and 
the family embarked for home on the brig Pearl, March 20, 
1823. They bade a painful adieu "to that dear spot where we 
had been permitted to labor with those dear faithful servants of 
the Lord." They were accompanied aboard by the mission 
family and Rev. Hiram Bingham made a feeling and excellent 
address. 



ENTIRE NATION GOES TO SCHOOL 149 

Mrs. Chamberlain cherished the memory of the mission to the 
last of her 92 years. Mr. Chamberlain was better in health when 
he reached a colder climate. Six months from the time they 
sailed from Honolulu they arrived again at Boston. Mr. Cham- 
berlain recovered to some extent bnt not fully. He died years 
afterward in Westboro, ilassachusetts. 

It is related of the arrival of the brig Thaddeus off the coast 
of Hawaii, especially in biographies of the Chamberlains that 
the first scene of Kawaihae which greeted this little band was a 
bevy of nude Hawaiians, men and women, swimming with sav- 
age curiosity about the little brig. The New England probity of 
conduct rose to the surface. Terror stricken the women of the 
mission fled to the hold of ihe vessel. 

It was due to the rare intellect of Mrs. Chamberlain, her 
Christian faith and firmness, her good health and rare intervals 
of discouragement, and her good counsel that the mission re- 
mained in Hawaii, for there wery times during the first year 
when it was thought it might have to be abandoned. 

Of the five children of the Chamberlains, Daniel Chamber- 
lain, the youthful teacher of the chief, Kalanimoku, died in Au- 
burndale, Massachusetts, in 1884. He was associated with his 
brother Nathan in business in Boston. In 1845 Dexter Cham- 
berlain built the first machine for planing iron made in the U. S. 
and shipped it to Worcester, Massachusetts. He was one of 
the pioneers in forming the Republican party. He labored in 
the Free Soil Republican campaigns of 1848, 1856 and 1860. 
The name American Republican was always dear to him as the 
most patriotic title the party could have. He was instrumental 
in having the city of Boston purchase its first steam fire engine. 



CHAPTER XII 



PICTURE ROCKS TO PRINTED PAGES 



PRINTING PRESS BECOMES HISTORIC 

BARDS there were in ancient Hawaii as well as professed 
orators, just as the tribe of bards and orators is a conspic- 
uous element among the Hawaiians of today, but in the 
ancient day these geniuses held office as hereditary privileges. 

There was no actual, tangible literature in the Hawaiian lan- 
guage, either written or printed, before the advent of the first 
band of American missionaries in the year 1820. The professed 
orators in those alphabetless days were engaged to plead cases, 
and in all national negotiations, their counsel was sought. The 
latter, some of whom were blind, were the repositories of the 
historical and sacred songs. The sole occupation of these bards, 
so Rev. H. H. Parker, who was pastor of the famed Kawaiahao 
church in Honolulu for 60 years, says was the preservation of 
these songs (meles), for which purpose they repeated them by 
rote from an early age until they were indelibly fixed in the 
memories. The language was very figurative, often approaching 
the sublime, their imagery well described and highly beautiful. 
From these poets or bards have come the oral stories of the 
passing of ships by the Islands many generations back, and the 
landing of foreigners long before tlie discovery of the Islands 
by Captain James Cook, R. N., in 1778. 

The first printing press at the Hawaiian Islands was imported 
by the American missionaries and landed from the brig Thad- 
deus in April, 1820. In style it was not unlike that used by 
Benjamin Franklin. It was set up in a thatched house not very 
far from the old frame Mission House that now stands on King 
street, Honolulu, not far from Kawaiahao church, but not put 



PICTURE ROCKS TO PRINTED PAGES 151 

into actual operation until the afternoon of January 7, 1822. 

At this inauguration, it is said, there were present Kalanimoku, 
a high chief of the first rank, who had been one of Kamehameha 
the Great's closest advisers, with liis retinue, and some other 
chiefs and their people, and also Hiram Bingham, Elisha Loomis, 
the Mission printer, James Hunnewell and Captains William 
Henry and Masters, all of the foreigners being Americans. Mr. 
Loomis set up the first lesson of a spelling book or primer, called 
"Pa-pa." Kalanimoku was instructed how to work the press and 
struck off the second impression and Mr. Hunnewell the third. 
The last mentioned impression was given by Mr. Hunnewell to 
the American Board of Missions anc! was placed in the mission 
collection in Boston. It is a sheet four by six inches, having 
twelve lines, each line having five separate syllables of two letters. 

This certainly was the first printing done at the Hawaiian 
Islands, probably the first on the shores of the North Pacific 
Ocean. A month laler Mr. Bingham received a letter from 
Governor Kuakini (John Adams) of Hawaii, who had succeeded 
in mastering the contents of the first printed sheet. Epistolary 
correspondence was soon commenced in the Hawaiian language 
and opportunity was given for the birth of Hawaiian literature. 

It was a herculean work that followed. From the statistics 
returned from January, 1822, to March, 1830, it is learned that 
22 books, amounting to 387,000 copies and 10,287,000 pages, had 
been added to the literature of these Islands. This matter was 
printed in Honolulu, while 3,345,000 pages of Hawaiian reading 
matter and school books had been printed in the United States. 

In 1834, on February 14, the first newspaper appeared in 
Hawaii. It was printed in Hawaii ami published by the La- 
hainaluna Seminary, its name being Lama Hawaii (Hawaiian 
Light). The initial paper was followed by the Kuma Hawaii 
(Hawaiian Teacher) in the same year and from the same press. 
The mission, at this period was busily engaged in producing 
school books for the schools and reading books for the instruc- 
tion of ihe people at large, for the whole nation, old and young, 
had gone to school and the trend of Hawaiian thought wis di- 
re<tcd in the channels of progress. 



152 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

By far the larger part of the great mass of printed matter 
issued at Honolulu in the fifty years subsequent to the arrival of 
Christian teachers was in the form of religious works and school 
books. Later, works of a secular nature began to issue from 
the native press and become popular. The stories of Washington, 
Lincoln, Grant ; of Victoria, Napoleon, Napier and others of the 
world's distinguished men and women have been read by the 
Hawaiian in his native tongue. The "Pioneer Boy," a story of 
Lincoln, was translated and published in book form for the Ha- 
waiian readers and Robinson Crusoe has also found its readers 
in the Hawaiian Islands. 

Publications in English were heralded by the production of 
the first newspaper in that language, the Sandwich Island Ga- 
zette, which was printed at Honolulu from 1836 to 1839. This 
was followed by the Mirror and Commercial Gazette, which 
existed for but a brief period. On June 6, 1840, the first number 
of the newspaper, "Polynesian," edited by James Jackson Jarvis, 
appeared. The paper lived a year and a half, when the editor de- 
parted Honolulu. In 1844 Mr. Jarvis relumed and revived the 
Polynesian as the official organ of the Government, he continu- 
ing as editor until 1848, when he again left the Islands. He was 
succeeded by other editors and finally, in 1860, by Abram For- 
nander, the eminent historian of the Hawaiian Islands. In 1863 
the office and press were leased by him and the paper was con- 
tinued independently by him until finally discontinued in 1864, 
during all this time presenting a mass of remarkable historical 
data. 

The Friend, which justly claims to be the oldest paper in the 
Pacific, was first issued in 1843 by Rev. S. C. Damon, and is a 
valued publication to this day, always having been a monthly 
magazine. 

In July, 1856, the Pacific Commercial Advertiser appeared 
under the editorship of Henry M. Whitney. This paper, issued 
weekly, has been a most powerful factor in making the history 
of the newspaper prestige in Hawaii, as did also the Hawaiian 
Gazette which first appeared in 1868 as a weekly. The Advertiser 
continued without a break through the Kamehameha and Kala- 



PICTURE ROCKS TO PRINTED PAGES 153 

kaua regimes of rulership, through the overthrow of the mon- 
archy in 1893 and then through the years of the RepubHc from 
1893 to 1900 and today holds its place as a modem daily news- 
paper in every respect with Associated Press and other news 
received daily by wireless and cable from all parts of the world, 
with papers of metropolitan cities. In 1866, Editor Whitney re- 
jected the request of Mark Twain to be a reporter on the ground 
that the paper couldn't afford a reporter and because Mark Twain 
appeared to be lazy. He had not yet acquired fame. 

Its rival in the daily news field is the Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 
a combination of two former afternoon papers, now controlled 
by a group of men who stand for what is best in civic life. 

The president of the Honolulu Advertiser is Lorrin Thurston, 
grandson of Rev. Asa Thurston, the first missionary to step on 
the shores of Hawaii. The president of The Star-Bulletin, 
F, C. Atherton, is of missionary descent, and both are strong, 
fearless men, each a fighter, in his own way, for the right and 
for civic betterment and virtue. 

The making of many books on the history of the Hawaiian is 
very noticeable. Events taking place in Hawaii have heen 
fraught with such intense interest to the outer world, almost 
from the very start, that the result has been that more books have 
been written about Hawaii than of any other group in the 
Pacific. 

The transitional stage between the old unlettered state and 
that of a civilized community is passed and the Hawaiian stands 
forth now a notable representative of the influence of .Xnierican 
methods of civilization. The literature of his native land, scant 
as it is. has been the medium of bringing him and his surround- 
ings into the notice of a world much larger than his own ; that 
world is revealed to him with all its advantages and the call is 
to press forward to the things that are before him. 

The falling away of the native language, by reason of disuse 
and corruption, will be regretted perhaps to some extent, but 
the induction of this people into the great possibilities presented 
by the more universal English language tend to broaden and 
develop the Hawaiian mind. 



154 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Like the soul of John Brown, that "is still marching on," that 
little Ramage press, when it was purchased and sent aboard the 
missionary brig Thaddeus at Boston in 1819, to be sent to Hono- 
lulu, seemed possessed of a soul, and a destiny to pioneer the 
first printed words in remote, uncivilized lands. What became 
of this first missionary press, is oflen asked. 

E. O. Hall, of the missionary forces in Hawaii, who was one 
cf the early missionary printers, endorses the accuracy of the 
statement, which, however, has sometimes been questioned, that 
it was this press that he took to Oregon in 1839, the one that is 
now preserved in the slate museum at Salem, Oregon. 

"When I arrived in Honolulu in 1835, the press had been laid 
aside, and the office belonging to the A. B. C. F. M. (American 
Board Commissioners for Foreign Missions), had been supplied 
with several large and improved presses," said Mr. Hall in 
1875. "It was probably brought out when the mission was estab- 
lished in 1820. When I visited Oregon, in 1839, I took it with 
me. I have always regarded it as the first printing press intro- 
duced into American Territory west of the Rocky Mountains, 
and as such, it richly deserves the careful preservation it is likely 
to receive from the now flourishing State of Oregon. As a relic 
of American civilization and Christianity, it is symbolical of the 
age in which we live, and quite as worthy of 'profound interest' 
as captured cannons or flaunting battle-flags." 

It seemed that this little Ramage press was destined for great 
things, even as the Liberty Bell in Philadelphia has been sent 
around to difTerent cities that it might serve as an inspiration 
for greater patriotism and devotion to the American Republic. 
In Oregon it was used to aid in a work of first printing for 
the Nez Perce and other Indian tribes, and first used at the 
Lapwai or Clearwater Station. It was there that Mr. Hall 
printed on this press, in the summer, autumn and winter of 1839, 
for Rev. Henry J. Spaulding, several small works in the Kez 
Perce language, and among these were a school book, a hymn 
book with prayers and translations of the New Testament. 

The Whitman massacre of November 29, 1847, having driven 
the surviving missionaries from their fields of labor, the press 



PICTURE ROCKS TO PRINTED PAGES 155 

was left among the Indians, who, being friendly to Mr. Spauld- 
ing, preserved it and the type intact. Early in 1848 it was sent 
to the Salem valley. Charles Putnam, an iinmigrant printer, was 
employed by a minister to set the type and print the "American 
and Unionist" on the press. The first number was issued at 
Union City, February 5, 1846. The widow of Mr. Spaulding 
made a request that the press be preserved, if possible, by the 
state. It cannot be doubted but that this venerable relic will 
always be regarded in the same light as the sword of Washington, 
the Declaration of Independence, for its service was such that it 
created civilization out of Paganism in the mid-Pacific. 



CHAPTER XIII 



SWEET CHARM OF LEGENDS AND FOLKLORE 



SUBTLE IMAGERY OF ISLANDERS 

OXE of the real embracing charms pf a visit to tlie Ha- 
waiian Islands is the opportunity to come into intimate 
contact with a treasure house of legendary lore, for the 
Hawaiian race, before its association with the Anglo-Saxon, had 
no written history, having dependence upon mouth to mouth 
record of its beginning, its history, its military achievements, its 
traditions and its mythology. Like all aboriginal races the Ha- 
waiians believed in gods of many kinds, and there became inter- 
woven about these gods, and goddesses too, strange and fantastic 
tales, until there was developed a rare treasure-hoard of myths 
and folklore of unusual literary enchantment. 

In speaking in his own language and in describing the beauties 
of nature, the Hawaiian gives poetic expression to his thoughts, 
clothing them in beautiful figurative language. 

A visit to the Hawaiian Islands, these Isles of Perpetual Sum- 
mer, brings the traveler into an atmosphere of hospitality and a 
subtropical wealth of beauty to be found nowhere else in the 
world. 

To me the legends relating to the ancient Hawaiians are always 
a source of inspiration, replete with the sweetness of fairy tales 
of our childhood, the dignity of the Sagas of the Noresmen, the 
dulcet intoxication of the tales of Persia, and the sonorous, boom- 
ing intonation of the Indian. 

Xo one who reads about the Hawaiian Islands or visits them 
should feel that the subject is exhausted until some of these tales 
are read. Therefore, I have grouped a few of these I consider 
are typical of the imagery and poetic beauty of tales that have 
an exotic charm. 




H gl (_! f H pi K 



1 t Hgl tl f Kt li, 

f I ]-l b tl Kala a I Th 

Qu t 1 abl t t 

tl !■ I K t I 1 

t t I K 1 1 




rriiL.TSs l.ik.4iko, sistrr "f (^lu 
l,niiii>k!i1:iiii mill iiii.IIiit of h<': 
tifiil I'rin.-.-n.H Kaiiiliini. ■■ X'v 
liaii." luT Waikiki lioiiK', «n, 
ri'iiili'/voiis fur royal, i-ili/.ui ;i 
liiiviil Hix'ii'tv ill KaNik.'ui. 



CHARM OF LEGENDS AND FOLKLORE 
LEGEND OF KAHUILAOKALANI 



"THE FLYING FIRE GOD" 

KAHUILAOKALANI, the Lightning of Heaven, was a 
high chief from an unknown world. He was a god by 
birth from his father Kulukahikapo, which means the 
name of the night before the new moon, and his mother Paika- 
lani, which means Upholding the Heavens. These gods came to 
the isle of Lanai from Kahiki, the East whence came the dawn of 
day. 

At the time these gods arrived there lived two men upon La- 
nai, father and son. Kumumahanahana, or Warmth, the father, 
and Pakeaiilani, or soft white tapa, the son, were sent away to 
Lanai by Olepau, which is the name of the tenth day of the 
moon, with the idea that the gods would consume them for some 
wrong they had committed. The rendezvous of these gods was 
at Lanai and only these two men lived upon the isle. 

And while they were there in their loneliness, the thought 
came to them that they must cook some paha for food. Paha 
is the name of a plant, the leaf of which is used for food during 
a time of famine, also called kapala. And when the paha was 
cooked and seasoned ready to eat, their first thought was to 
offer a prayer to the gods before they partook of their meal. 
And these were the words of their prayer: 

God, bere is the food; 
God above and below 
The great God and small gods. 
The God that came from Kahiki, 
Enter and partake; make things grow and live; 
Wo Hod oar house welcome ytya, 
From me, Pakeaulani, and 
Mj father Kumumahanahana; 
We were sent here to be destroyed by the Gods, 
But fortunately by the mercy of the gods we live; 
Dig, dig for the kapu (tabu) and the kapu bo yours, 
Dig, dig for freedom and the freedom be ours. 



158 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

After they partook of their meal of paha, they lay down to 
sleep and the next day and the days following they prayed to 
the gods. And this made Kahuilaokalani, known also as Kalai- 
pahoa, love them and he showed great liking for the two lonely 
ones. 

And from that time on Pakeaulani's knowledge of his super- 
natural power became established. In the night called Ka-ne, 
being the seventeenth night of the moon by the ancient Hawaii- 
an calendar, a prophet named Pa'ao arrived from Kabiki, the 
mysterious East upon the half shell of a cocoanut, cut lengtli- 
wise to be the shape of a canoe, and used for the drinking of 
awa, an intoxicating beverage obtained from the root of the awa, 
the only intoxicant known to the Hawaiians of old, but more of 
a narcotic. This draught was given the Hawaiian warriors after 
a battle to rest them and calm their nerves. With this tiny canoe 
Pa'ao commanded Pakeaulani to go forth and bring the water of 
Pilimoe, now called the Flying Water of Moaula at Halawa, 
upon the isle of Molokai. These falls are noted for their magni- 
ficent beauty, which always attract the eyes of strangers. Its 
mountain background is rich in a superb garb of deep green and 
purple. One almost covets the beauty of green ferns fringing 
the edge of the water at Moaula. 

Pakeaulani went to fetch the water and also the all black pig 
of Kalae, Puaahiwa o Kalae, as commanded by the prophet 
Pa'ao. 

"And this duty performed," said Pa'ao, "will show you the 
road that will enlighten you to the supernatural power and beauty 
of God." 

From that time on Pakeaulani was in command of much super- 
natural power which enabled him to perform many strange 
things, and to prepare well for the difficult journey that he was 
commanded to take, for Pa'ao's instruction Tvas of great help. 
The command of Palao, the prophet, was: "Go thou to Molokai 
and get the water of Pilimoe, pour it in a container made of the 
leaf of the Piialii, the lavendar taro, and also bring the Hiwa, 
the all-black pig of Kalae. Bring thou them and place them be- 



CHARM OF LEGENDS AND FOLKLORE 159 

fore me and I will show you the way that will give you the knowl- 
edge, and unto your children and their children forever." 

This journey was a very long one and he sailed upon a great 
double canoe that had ten bowsprits and it is written in this nar- 
rative that Pakeaulani was the discoverer of the god's hidden 
water of Pilimoe, now known as the beautiful falls of Moaula 
at Halawa, Molokai. And on this voyage of Pakeaulani in 
search of the water, much suffering and fatigue were endured, 
for he was deprived of much-wanted water while he was upon 
this ocean highway. 

Finally he arrived at Molokai and sought the beautiful falls 
and is said to have been the first man to have discovered the 
secret waters. Having no cup he picked a leaf of the taro and 
formed it into a cup and dipped it into the waters of Pilimoe. 
This part of his mission fulfilled, he looked for the all-black pig 
of Kalae. He discovered it and wrapped it in soft Pili grass, 
called Pilimakaukai, which was used to weave capes as a pro- 
tection while traveling in canoes. 

Then, with his taro cup filled with the secret water of Pilimoe, 
and the all-black pig of Kalae he started homeward for Lanai 
in his canoe, and one could see that Pakeaulani was already 
using his supernatural power in the speed with which his canoe 
sped over the waves. But all this time the little pig was squealing 
for his feet were aching. Its legs had been tied with Lai Ku- 
kanawao, a curly leaf, and it struggled for freedom. In the 
struggles it spilt the water from the taro leaf, and Pakeaulani 
discovered this loss upon reaching Lanai. So he turned his 
canoe back toward Molokai again according to the old saying, 
"Off to Molokai on the ocean road." But these journeys were 
very hard. Each time he returned from Molokai the pig, still 
stru^ling and squealing and attempting to gain its freedom 
overturned the cup of water and each time Pakeaulani went 
back to the falls for more. 

After that he concluded to bring the water in his mouth, and 
with this idea in mind, he turned his canoe once more towards 
Molokai, and again visited the falls of Moaula, carrying also 



160 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

the Hiwa pig in his arms. He then proceeded to fill his mouth 
with water and then started for Lanai. Just as he had landed 
successfully upon the beach of Lanai, the pig gave a terrific 
kick and went over the canoe into a pool of salt water. Pakeau- 
lani leaped into the water after the pig to save it as it was float- 
ing on the water with its legs still tied, and in this effort he forgot 
about the sacred water in his mouth and swallowed it, and not 
until he had saved the pig did he think of the water. He sat 
down and wept for he had been in a temper with the pig and by 
mistake had swallowed the long-sought- for water that Pa'ao 
the prophet had commanded him to fetch. 

Anxiously, he walked home to consult with his father, Kumu- 
mahanahana, whom he had not seen for many a day and mght. 
On the night of Kupau, being the tenth night of the moon, he 
arrived at his home at Kahalapalaoa, and discovered that his 
father had been weeping morn and night over the long absence 
of his beloved son. The meeting of father and son was affec- 
tionate, and it took hours before their tears were held that they 
might talk. 

"How is your journey?" asked the father of Pakeaulanl. The 
son replied, "I have not fulfilled the command. I have returned 
with only the pig of Hiwa, but the water I have not brought." 

The next night they had Apukuai Lauanae, or prayer, calling 
all the gods to come nearer to them to listen and to grant their 
supplication. They entreated the gods to aid them. The gods 
answered their prayer, and Pakeaulani prepared for his next 
journey back to the isle of Molokai. 

The prophet again commanded Pakeaulani. "Go thou to Mo- 
lokai, together with the puaa Hiwa (all-black pig). You must 
land upon Molokai between Kaunakakai and Kamalo. There 
you will see a small hill named Lehelehenui, or Big Lip, well 
known to the Molokaians by that name. From this place you 
are to watch the procession of gods as they pass, and watch for 
the right moment, and then would come to him the supernatural 
power. 

On the night of Akua, gods' night, being the fourteenth night 
of the moon, Pakeaulani wrapped the little pig with the pilima- 



CHARM OF LEGENDS AND FOLKLORE 161 

kaukai grass, and together they laid down and slept on the way- 
side of the road at the foot of the hill called I^belehenui, wait- 
ing with his calabash {ipupalu hookala kupua kau), filled with 
a relish of fish and awa root as an offering to the god Kalai- 
pahoa. He had rested but a moment when suddenly there ap- 
peared a great giant, of immense height and size, with a war 
club ill his hand. He had a very fierce appearance and a terrify- 
ing expression ; "one that would cause the timid, brackish-water 
drinking people of Napili to flee for their lives," according to 
an old Hawaiian saying about cowards. 

But as frightful as Kalai-pahoa made himself to appear, there 
was not a quiver or sign of fear shown or felt by Pakeaulani, 
He was equal to the giant in strength and will power. 

Quietly and patiently, without a sound or motion, he watched 
the long procession of gods as they formed and started to march. 
It was a majestic sight and all seemed in good spirits. It took 
the greater part of the night before all could pass the place 
where Pakeaulani and the little black pig were resting. It was 
dawn when it ended. The morning star gave brightness and 
light to the traveling gods. Pakeaulani raised himself from his 
sleeping position, and discarded his pilimakauakaihu cloak. He 
placed the pig before him and took off the pili grass that covered 
it. Then he gave the pig a good squeezing so that it began to 
squeal from pain. 

Kalai-pahoa and the prophet, who were walking by, heard it 
squeal. Kalai-pahoa said to the prophet: "I hear a pig crying 
at this early dawn." "Yes, the pig has much to do," replied the 
prophet. At this time the procession was a good distance apart 
from Pakeaulani, so he stood up, and with all his might and 
strength gave the pig another hard squeeze, so that the pig of 
Hiwa squealed even louder than before. 

At that moment the procession of the gods had marched to 
the top of Maunaloa, on Molokai, and there stood in a circle, and 
at the center stood Kauilaokalani, called by the people Kalai- 
pahoa. Then Pakeaulani, with his new power, transformed all 
the gods into a great forest of trees. On that day the 
people of Molokai were more than surprised when they 



162 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

saw this forest of trees growing upon the summit of the mount. 
The people took their stone adzes and began to hew the trees 
down. When they came to Kalai-pahoa in the center they found 
that the sap was red liice human blood. Every person that the 
sap touched was killed or died immediately, for this sap was a 
deadly poison, and it was because of this that Kauilaokalani was 
called Kalai-pahoa, meaning hewn with a stone adze. 

Most of the population of Molokai was destroyed by the sap 
from this deadly tree. The chiefs and high priests treasured the 
wood of the tree because of its supernatural powers. It was 
also beneficial as a medicine when properly used and given by 
the kahunas, or doctors. 

After that episode Pakeaulani was in full possession of super- 
natural power, and on the night of Maule (faint), that is, the 
twenty-ninth night of the moon, the Prophet Pa'ao returned to 
the Island of Hawaii to build for himself a heiau, (altar), at 
Kohala, at Upolii, adjoining the village of Honoipu, and this 
heiau was called Mookini, and is still standing today. 

Kamehameha the Great valued the god Kalai-pahoa, and it is 
said that through this god he gained much strength and power 
in bringing the group of islands together, called "mokupuni o 
Hawaii nei." 

From this tree of Kalai-pahoa an idol was hewn and worship- 
ped, and it is said in the traditions of the Hawaiians that the 
, influence of this idol has built up kingdoms and has overthrown 
them. For the kahunas the idol was the means of their liveli- 
hood. He could scrape the poisonous wood, and by taking the 
powder thus scraped and mixing it with cocoanut and awa, 
placing it in a half cocoanut shell cup, the kahuna could, with 
his supernatural power, send it wherever he wished to destroy 
or to protect. 

Sometimes it took the form of a ball of fire and lighted the 
way as it sped through space. Therefore, it was also called 
Akua ahi lele, or "The Flying Fire God." It was also used by 
the kahunas as an immediate heart poison, placed in food or 
drink to carry out a heinous design. It is said to be absolutely 
tasteless, the victim never suspecting its presence. 



CHARM OF LEGENDS AND FOLKLORE 163 

The sacred Water of Moaula, and the little all-black pig? 
Oh, Pakeaulani, with his supernatural power, finally brought 
them both safely to Lanai. 



LEGEND OF KAHALAOPUNA 



BEAUTIFUL TABU MAIDEN OF MANOA 

THE superstitious dread of the elements in the native Ha- 
waiian mind has from olden times to now, created a my- 
riad of legendary lore-talk, and to them, the rain, the wind, 
the beautiful rainbow, the grumblings of mother earth, which are 
attributed to the fiery goddess Pete, have strange and mystic 
meanings and warnings. 

Thus their imaginative minds associated the wind, the rain and 
the rainbow, which are always to be seen upon the summits of 
the mountains overhanging Manoa valley, with strange peoples, 
princes and princesses, and tales of tragedy and love. 

The legend of the beautiful Princess Kahalaopuna, the "tabued" 
maiden whose beauty and love were reserved for a prince of 
the plains in the valley below, who wanted and waited through 
the long years for the day upon which he could claim her as his 
own, is symbolic of the elements which never cease clinging and 
swirhng about the summits of the rich verdure-clothed moun- 
tains. 

Many ages ago there lived in this valley a maiden named Ka- 
halaopuna, who was the most beautiful creature upon the islands, 
and she was named after the fragrant jandanus flower, the hala, 
which grows so luxuriantly in Puna, Hawaii, and is the most 
noted in the group, therefore her name, "Ka-hala-o-puna." When 
but a babe the high priest came to the hut in which dwelt father, 
mother and babe, and "tabued" the maiden, thus prescribing the 
limits of her daily life to the hut and to the woods close about, 
no eyes, but those of her parents, the priests and the servants 
should gaze upon her; whoever dared to look upon her without 



164 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

authority of the priests, was immediately put to death. A prince 
of Koolau valley was chosen as her future husband; he was to 
be a mighty chief over his people. For years he loved the maiden 
from afar, sending to her down the path of Aihualama into Ma- 
noa over the summits from Koolau to her every morning, as the 
sunshine crept into her leafy hut, tokens of his love and affec- 
tion, fish, poi, fruits, beautiful "leis" for the neck, made of strung 
flowers, and tapa, or clothing, and each day when the servants 
returned from their mission of love, they would report to him of 
her unrivalled beauty. 

Whenever she came forth from her hut, the rainbow would 
arch itself over her head as a halo, following her from place to 
place as she went to gather flowers for her leis; thus her lover 
prince could watch from afar off, and picture her loveliness as 
she wandered about the valley. 

But there were two old ugly men who lived in this .valley, 
brothers, who were envious of the prince's good fortune, and 
jealously watched the retinues of servants, as each day they 
toiled up the mountain slopes to lay at her feet the prince's 
love tokens. They were two Makoles. Finally, one day, 
knowing that the prince was dwelling at Waikiki on the 
seashore, so that he could be nearer his maiden love and 
watch her rainbow guardian the better, they conspired to make 
the prince jealous. So they scratched their necks and adorned 
themselves with lehua leis, and with great merriment went down 
the valley to Waikiki, where the prince was watching the sea 
sports, for it was the day of the festival of the surf-racing and 
canoeing, for it was a great thing for all to ride upon the noted 
surf called "Ka-lehua-wehe" surf, the two budding surfs and 
the third which opens out its sprays like the lehua blossom itself. 
They had never seen the maiden, for the "tabu" prevented them 
from approaching her hut, but that made their errand the easier. 
The people saw them, and said, "Why, you ugly Makoles, where 
did you get those love tokens?" and they said, "The beautiful 
maiden Kahalaopuna gave them to us," and "Who scratched your 
necks?" and they replied, "Why, Kahalaopuna did that." 

The prince, hearing their replies, started up, his blood flushed 



CHARM OF LEGENDS AND FOLKLORE 165 

with anger that the princess should have deceived him thus. He 
said he would go and kill her, as she had violated the "tabu," He 
sprang away with fleet foot from the crowd of awe-stricken 
natives, crossed taro fields, through thickets, up and down hill, 
until he reached a grove, where he quickly cut a long liala stalk, 
from which hung pendant a knob of small nuts, bunched and 
hard. With his hala he intended to slay the girl for her supposed 
infidelity. He hurried up the valley and soon reached her hut, 
being guided all the way by the arching rainbow. 

She had just returned from the bath, her hair hanging about 
her shoulders and covering her like a mantle. Her tresses gar- 
landed with delicate yellow ilima leis. He walked up to her 
saying "Aloha," and asked if she would go to the bath. The 
instant she saw him she knew it was her princely lover by his 
high-born manner and splendid carriage. She, however, asked 
him if he would not partake of food, as is customary among the 
natives, "Will not my lord partake of food before he bathes?" 
she inquired, sweetly. He rudely refused her offer of food, and 
said "Follow me," and with wonder depicted upon her face, and 
her eyes filled with tears, she followed him into the mountain. 
They came to a large rock, and turning suddenly upon her, he 
struck her with the knobbed hala. He hastily buried her and 
started down the mountain ; but as soon as he went away, one of 
her guardian gods, in the shape of an owl, flew down, and with 
claws and wings, opened the grave, and brought the maiden 
to life. Seeing the prince slowly wending his way down the 
valley, she followed and called him, and then sat upon a rock. 
He looked back as he heard her chanting, thus : 

"O, my sweetheart of the uplands of Kahoiwai 

Amid the thickets of tlio nildwood. 
The wildwood laden with fragrance. 

O, my sweetheart with the savage mood of the shark; 
Like unto a shark is thy l«ve and jealousy for others 

To return and destroy me. 
I have done no wrong, my awcetheart, my sweetheart 

With the breath of the wiliwili blossom, 
For when it is in bloom the sharks do bite 

My sweetheart, oh my sweetheart." 



166 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

The prince retraced his steps to the rock and again he struck 
her and apparently killed her,, burying her once more. Again the 
owl flew down and opened up her grave once more, bringing her 
to life. Six times did the prince strike her and bury her, and 
six times did the little owl rescue her, until with claws and 
wings worn out, and with his strength all departed, the little 
owl was unable to rescue her. Then he flew away to an eminence 
overhanging the valley, and moaned and hooted for the loss of 
the maiden, and to this day the simple natives believe the owls 
which congregate there every night, come there for the purpose 
of moaning over the death of the princess, and the open graves 
which were caused by the owl rescuing the girl from the grave, 
are said to be the reason for so many ravines converging into 
the valley. When the father of the maiden heard of her tragic 
end, he became enraged, and tore his clothing and his hair, and 
so violent did he become, so full of wrath and curses, that he 
was transformed into the wind, called Ka-hau-kani (the noisy 
cold), which howls and swirls down the valley. The mother 
became grief-stricken and wept without ceasing for her depart- 
ed child, until she was turned into the rain, called the Kaua-kua- 
hine {the gray rain), almost a constant downpour even to this 
day. For their sins, the two ugly Makoles were changed into 
two barren knolls, the only unsightly hills in the valley. The 
princess' spirit is said to be hovering about the hills whenever 
the rainbow appears high above the summits and peaks of the 
wind and rain-swept mountains. 

And so this beautiful valley became known as the Valley of 
Sunshine and Tears. 



CHARM OF LEGENDS AND FOLKLORE 

LEGEND OF "PU-AHUULA" 



KIHANUILULUMOKU, EEL GODDESS OF POOL OF 

THE FEATHER CAPES 

MANOA VALLEY, the deep, recessed, verdant, rainbow 
valley beyond Honolulu, where Queen Kaahumanu 
ended her days in peace at Kapuka-o-maomao (the green 
gateway to the valley) and where once Hawaiians dwelt by thou- 
sands, is the motive for many of the most beautiful legends of 
the Hawaiians. One of the prettiest from this treasure-house 
of myths and legends, tells of "Pu-Ahuula (cluster of feather 
cape), the home of the beautiful eel queen of Manoa. 

Ages and ages ago there lived in this lovely valley a beautiful 
mermaid queen. Her name was Kihanuilulumoku-wahine, and 
her home was a wonderful, sparkling spring. *She is known 
also as the "King-maker." 

This queen was more than a mermaid and more than a queen. 
She was a companion of the gods and her heme, the spring, had 
been created by them. She had the powers, also, of a goddess, 
and could change her form whenever she so willed. 

Sometimes while she was at the spring she appeared as a 
silvery eel. When she wished to hold her royal court, or disclose 
her royal lineage, she appeared in the form of a huge lizard, the 
Queen Moo, whose body was covered with the yellow feathers of 
the royal mamo bird. And then again she was the beautiful chu 
(auburn) woman with a briUiant complexion that reminded one 
of the magenta-hued ohia, or mountain-apple blossoms. She 
was a queen who blossomed like a flower. At these times her 
ehu, or sunburnt brown hair was wonderfully beautiful and 
wavy. She was so gloriously fair that she caused the lehua 
blossoms to burst forth in bloom, and the hinano; maile and 
ginger perfume to permeate the air, and the birds to sing most 
sweetly. The brilliant sun threw out such gorgeous rays that 
human beings were overcome by the beauty of the princess and 
became speechless with admiration. 



168 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

She had a beautiful palace for her home. This was the spring 
that nestled at the foot of the crags and was shaded by hau 
trees. And this spring. It was called "Pu-Ahuula" because 
gorgeous royal feather capes covered its sides and the bottom. 
Think of a spring whose sparkling waters reflected the brilliant 
reds and yellows of the royal feather capes ! It was surely a 
home for a queen. The water of the spring was called Huelani 
(the wafer bottle that held the queen). 

But she was content with a life of idleness spent in playful 
sport. She had a garden farther up the valley at the foot of the 
mountains in one of the ravines called Waaloa, or Long Canoe, 
because of its shape, resembling a native outrigger canoe upon 
the ocean. A few nights before full moon she always realized 
her duty to her people. It was the time to plant, if such planting 
was to receive the favor cf the gods. At these times with her 
retinue of mermaids and little menehunes (gnomes), and strange, 
obedient little elves, she would visit the gardens. While there 
they would plant taro, sweet potatoes, bananas, hoio, bamboos, 
ki plants, hala, gingers, lehuas and numerous other plants and 
trees. This was an important ceremony and was accompanied 
by chants or prayers to the gods. Then she would order her 
gardeners to irrigate the plants while she and her maidens be- 
sported themselves in the pool. 

This is how she happily spent her hours near the waterfalls 
of na-niu-a-po ("the waterfall of the cocoanut trees of night"), 
with the god of the Bubbling Springs and her mermaids at the 
garden of the Long Canoe for Food. There she rested before 
returning to "Pu-Ahuula, her palace in the spring at the foot 
of the knoll called "Pua ka Lehua." 

Hina, the Mother of Mist, her grandmother; and Kane, the 
God of Waters, heard her prayers and caused everything to grow 
abundantly. 

The spirit of the Goddess of the Glittering Capes has not left 
this beautiful valley. She still touches the plants with her magic 
hands and beams upon them with her glorious eyes. That is 
why, even today, the flowers are all so beautiful and fragrant in 
Manoa, the Valley of Rainbows. 



CHARM OF LEGENDS AND FOLKLORE .169 

The lehua of Pu-Ahuula is in blossom; 
The tabu queen of tbe verdant hills 
And the bubbling epriags, 

Thou art UHe the laya of the sun 

That Bhines on the water: 
Beautiful, most beautiful, art thou, 

Mermaid Queen (kiha moi wahine) 

The Mother of Kings. 

And here is the prayer that was chanted that the gods would 
favor the land and cause Nature to make plants and food-bearing 
things grow abundantly. It is said that the people of the valley 
could hear the retinue of Kiha singing as the chant was wafted 
on the soft winds that blew across the mountains, and the people, 
listening, would say, "Kiha is planting in her garden. 

THE PLANTING PRAYER 

Moon of the night of Hua 

That brings fruit and food to tbe plants, 
For God and manl 
Here is the kato plant 
The life of the land, 

1 give to the earth, Honua; 

Here is the sweet potato branch 
I plant for thee and me; 

Here is the shoot of sugar-cane, 

So sweet to taste and eat. 

The emblem of desire's encceas; 

I place it in the earth. Mother Earth — 

O Moon of the night of Hua, 

Let it grow and bear for me and mine. 

Keep the plants green and alive 

Until Mahealani, the Full Moon, comes; 

For when Mahealani is here 

Kulu, the Moon of Moisture will follow 

And the plants will show a bud; 

Then comea Kalaukulua, thy companion, 

To the plants they will bring two shoots, 

And help thee, Hua, to bear the fruit. 



170 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

So Kane, God of Water, 

And Hina, Mother of Mists, 

Send youT Aloha down to us in moonlit mists, 

Let it sweep along the hillside. 

Keep the new growth a-growing 

That your people from the night will live. 

Then there was the fervent prayer of the priest of Kiha that 
the abundant food that came from Kiha's planting be sanctified. 
And here is the way they chanted : 

The prayer of the priest is before 

The sound that startles the earth 

And the flash of light above, and the flash of light below to the 

Foster Child of the season (Hanaiaka-malama). 

To the working hand; to the active one; to the 

Silver sword on the mountain. 

To mischievous Kanaloa, the God that has flown to Heaven; 

To the cold regions and the descendents of Kane. 

To the women who prune the plants 

Wloae names are "Pruning the Top," "Pruning Before One" 

And "Pruning Everywhere." 

The name of this court is "Slow and Awkward." 

And the name of the prayer is "Passing Time." 

It strikes you and it strikes me. 

And rumbles along with the moment. 

With tears of love 

Uli watches the prayers of the inattentive one 

Who hopes for a brighter day. 

A question — 

Who is the divine presence of this higher altitude! 

The dark reflection of the heavens. 

The reflection of that some one. 

That reflection of coppery red. 

Of Ku of the great clouds. 

Of Ku of the long clouds. 

Of Ka of the short clouds. 

Of Ku of the ogling winking red clouds of the heaTens. 

God-man of the mountains, companion of the forest trees. 

Who pours down rain and causes the waters to flow 

That belong to thy chiefly companions, 

And makes the verdant hills to grow. 

thou noise of the sprinkling waters, 

Ku that breaketh slumber. 



CHARM OF LEGENDS AND FOLKLORE 171 

Of the Fire ot Search, Discovery, Oblivion, 

And if thou findest a fault, one must pay; 

But love will seek and reeeive wliat it sought for. 

Here ia the water — it ia the voice. 

Lono of the night — 

O Lono of the day — 

O Lono of the meeting of the ways — 

Do not he provoked with me, O Lono, 

Lono of the roving eyes that fly; .. 

Thou fliest to the dark blue sea. 

Thou fliest to the white foaming sea. 

To the dark sands, and the black sands, 

And become like the moon to the whispering sanda. 

To sight, to search, to comfort, 

To melt, to tremble, to swell. 

And to the spreading one that sleeps on the red sands — [death] — 

To the red one with open claws and sharp teeth, 

To the child of that one far off, who clings on the cliffs. 

To the gust of wind at night, 

To the tears that flow. 

To the mouth that speaks like chieftains in numbers. 

To the forgiving heart. 

To the place where words are kept, 

To forwardness and sharp thrusts. 

To the child of Ihe circle, 

To the women of the bowl of speech — 

child of the great life 

Here is the food: 

O Ku, O Lono, O Kane, [trinity] 

O Lono of the dark elouda. 

Here is the food. 

Even to this day the natives never go unattended to the spring 
and ravine of Waaloa for fear that in going alone they may 
happen to reach the cool waters when Kiha is there and engaged 
in her ceremonies, and for the fear that the goddess may resent 
the intrusion and thrust the interloper down the sleep path. 
The natives believe that in the descent they will be seriously in- 
jured. 

Thus does the superstition of the past prevail in this day, but 
it is a superstition based upon a firm l)e!ief in fairies and elves 
and gnomes and also gods and goddesses that roam the isles 
by moonlight and the nights that are dark as cavern depths. 



CHAPTER XIV 



TRAGEDY MARKED DISCOVERY OF 
HONOLULU HARBOR 

SERENE and beautiful, particularly in early morning when 
the sun peeps over picturesque Diamond Head and tints 
the clouds with rose hues, and at eventide, whfn the sun, a 
glorious molten ball is sinking below the horizon amid a fiery 
glory reflected gorgeously in the sky, the harbor of Honolulu 
lives up to the expressive soubriquet given this haven for ships by 
Dr. Serene Bishop, scientist-missionary of Hawaii — "The Para- 
dise of the Pacific." 

Tragedy marked the discovery, in 1794, that there was a chan- 
nel for ships and a harbor within the reefs at Honolulu, a few 
miles distant from the bay of Waikiki, where, up to that time all 
ships had been brought to anchor. Waikiki was the favored 
residence of the king and chiefs. Honolulu was a mere strag- 
gling village, unimportant even to the chiefs up to that time. 

In November, 1794, the harbor of Honolulu, known to early 
Hawaiians as Ke Awa o Kou (the harbor of Kou) was discov- 
ered by Captain Brown of the British ship Butterworth, and 
called by him Fair Haven. It was first entered by the schooner 
Jackall, her tender, followed shortly after by the Prince Le Boo 
and Lady Washington. This was subsequent to Vancouver's 
last visit to the Islands, and some six months prior to Kameha- 
meha's conquest of Oahu by the overthrow of Kalanikupule 
and his brave co-defenders in the celebrated battle of Nuuanu 
in 1795. 

Although Captain Brown, together with another captain and 
the greater part of the crews of the Jackall and Le Boo were 
massacred, his discovery remained and the location soon 
appeared .upon the sailing charts of every British master who 
left an English port for the Pacific. 





s 




IS 


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Wi 




i 

i 


m 


1 


wi 


i 


3 


M 


1 


E 


^s 




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III 111,- far iv.-MH,.s of l»Miitiful ^Uinoa Vallin 

wliirli Iliiwiiiian^ h:,v<- ].f-i.k->\ uilli i;".ls 

niKl KO'I'I''"-''". ix 'li'X I"">1 "f "Wiii;^- 

kekiiii"— "\V;il.T of ll.o Ooil"— ttlii) 

nns Kiinalon, its creator. 



jp^B|nip^^Bwsr*S?«T''"' 



TRAGEDY IN HONOLULU HARBOR 173 

Captain Broughton of the British discovery ship, Providence, 
is accredited with making the first survey of this port on his 
first visit to the then Sandwich Islands, in 1796. He was fol- 
lowed in similar work by Captain Kotzebue of the Russian 
Frigate Rurick, and again by Lieut. Maiden of H. B. M. S. 
Blonde, in 1825. Other national visitors have, from time to 
time, verified or corrected the records of these pioneers, and 
since the establishment of the survey department of the Hawaiian 
government various surveys have been made defining the harbor 
and channel and locating the bar. 

After annexation, in 1898, the United States government 
undertook the widening and deepening cf the channel and simi- 
larly the harbor itself until today it is one of the most advan- 
tageously arranged harbors in the world, deep enough to pro- 
vide for the largest merchant steamers or ships of war in the 
Pacific. Millions of dollars liave been spent by the territorial 
government in constructing modern wharves and slips and pri- 
vate companies have installed dry docks and patent coal handling 
plants and fuel oil pipe lines. 

To Captain Brown belongs the discovery of Honolulu harbor, 
just as the right of discovery of the Hawaiian Islands went to 
his distinguished predecessor. Captain James Cook, Royal Navy. 
Also, like Cook, he forfeited his life in the development of his 
discovery. 

Waikiki bay possessed the only location for the anchorage of 
vessels and for securing supplies of water and provisions, for 
the anchor holds were certain and there was a sand beach where 
small boats from the ships could land. After 1794, however, 
Waikiki was largely supplanted by Honolulu for harbor purposes. 

Waikiki Bay, long a favorite with the Hawaiian chiefs of the 
ancient regimes as a place of residence where their war canoes 
were lined along the sandy beach, where surfing sports engaged 
their attention on gala days and where the early traders and 
men-of-war dropped anchor, lost its prestige the moment Hono- 
lulu harbor was discovered, but what it lost as a trading port 
it gained as a recreation place, and Waikiki today stands pre- 
eminent among bathing resorts of the world. 



174 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Sir George Simpson, governor-in-chief of tlie Hudson Bay 
Company's territories, which included the Hawaiian Islands, 
who visited Honolulu officially in 1841, referring tc Brown in 
his book, "An Overland Journey Around the World," said that 
he met death without having, like his predecessor. Captain Cook, 
done anything to provoke it, being murdered for the sake of 
booty, by the savage tenants of the very spot which he said was 
fitted to be not only the metropolis of Polynesia, but also the 
emporium of the Pacific. 

Brown's foresight and his farsight were not wrong. Honolulu 
today stands as the "Crossroads of the Pacific," the metropolis 
of the great ocean, the greatest military and naval outpost of 
the United States, of which it is now a part, and the most im- 
portant shipping port between the American and Asian conti- 
nents. 

Honolulu is prepared today to stand the test of Captain 
Brown's hopes with its series of modern piers and slips; its big 
wharf sheds; its coaling and oil fueling plants; its drydocks; 
its floating coal conveyors; its iron works and repair ec|uipment 
adjacent to the shores; its great nests of fuel oil tanks; its quar- 
antine pier and quarantine island strategically located on the 
outer side of the harbor to combat the introduction of disease 
from foreign lands; its deep and ever increasing harbor area; 
its lighthouse; its fortifications; its army and navy wharves and 
great storehouses located nearby; its sugar-handling appliances 
where nearly 400,000 tons of sugar from the fertile fields of 
Oahu and other islands are loaded annually into the holds of 
steamers. 

Millions and millions of dollars have been expended in devel- 
oping Honolulu channel and harbor to meet demands of changes 
in marine architecture. With light depth in the days when 
forests of sailing ship masts almost clogged the harbor it has 
been deepened and widened to permit the greatest draught ves- 
sels in the Pacific, whether merchant marine or naval, to enter 
and dock. 

Honolulu's harbor, landlocked on the leeward side of the 



TRAGEDY IN HONOLULU HARBOR 175 

island with mountain ranges, and with little or no tide move- 
ment, is the safest in the world. 

Looked at askance by foreign shipping companies as an un- 
hkely port of call for years, it is now recommended from every 
British steamship office in the world as a port where coal, fuel 
oil, water, supplies and repairs may be had and quick dispatch 
obtained. 

Sir George Simpson's account of his approach to Honolulu 
harbor throws a light on the methods of bringing vessels into the 
harbor in a day when steam tugs were unknown and when towing 
power was principally in the rippling muscles of Hawaiians who 
literally towed the vessels up the channel by wading along the 
coral shores. 

"On coming in sight of Honolulu," says Sir George, "we had 
made signals for a pilot by hoisting our colors and very shortly 
two came off to us, Reynolds, an American, boarding the Joseph 
Peabody, and 'Old Adams,' an English tar who has lived on the 
island these 30 or 40 years, and appears to have been appointed 
to his post by a British man-of-war, taking the Cowlitz in his 
charge. 'Old Adams,' who knows his work well, is very tenacious 
of his official dignity; and we are told that when he was last 
autumn piloting the Vincennes, he flared up at some interference 
or other on the part of Commodore Wilkes, called his boat along- 
side and left the vessel, and her commander's superior Judg- 
ment to boot, in the lurch. 

"The harbor, which is capable of containing about 40 vessels, 
appears to owe its existence to the peculiar habits of theTitho- 
phyte. The coral reefs, such as generally gird the Polynesian 
islands, though they are less continuous in this group than else- 
where, form a natural breakwater, while a gap in the work of 
the submarine architects is wide enough for the passage of ships 
without being so wide as materially to diminish the amount and 
value of shelter. Generally, though, as Sir Edward Belcher has 
shown, not universally, such openings are to be found only on 
the leeward sides of the islands, while their precise position on 
the same is said to be commonly, if not exclusively, opposite to 
the mouths of streams, the temperature of the fresh water being 



176 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

supposed to be too low for the taste and health of the Httle 
builders. 

"With both these conditions the harbor of Honolulu literally 
complies. To say nothing of its being on the southerly coast of 
the island, it receives a brook that has just escaped from the 
almost frigid atmosphere of the mountains, formed, as it is, from 
the nitmberless cascades which rush down the sides of the valley 
of Nuuanu, or Great Cold, in the very rear of the town. Whether 
or not the proximity of cold water satisfactorily explains the 
phenomenon in question, the antipathy of the insect to that ele- 
ment seems to be a matter of fact beyond denial or doubt. It is 
almost entirely within 30 degrees of latitude, on either side of the 
equator, within the range, in fact, of the trade-winds, that the 
labors of the lithophyte abound ; while, even within such assigned 
hmits, they are far more widely spread in the Asiatic section of 
the ocean, on which the current flows from the south, than OQ 
its American section, on which the current comes down from 
the Arctic seas. 

"As the entrance to the basin is too intricate to be attempted 
with anything but a fair wind, we were reluctantly obliged to 
wait for the sea breeze, which generally blows in the morning 
from a little before sunrise to about 9 o'clock, and we accordingly 
anchored for the night in the outer roads. 

"We had just anchored in front of a large and flourishing 
town into which the enterprise of the English race had attracted 
upwards of 8000 comparatively civilized natives, and, on the self 
same day, the 11th of February, but in the year 1779, did Cook 
return to Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii, after what appeared to be 
his final departure, to seal, ere a week should have elapsed, his 
discovery with his blood. 

"On the morning of the t2th we were all bestirring betimes. 
While the vessel was preparing to enter the harbor before a fair 
wind, we took a more careful look at the town, observing in par- 
ticular a fort well provided, to all appearance, with guns, and 
admirably situated for commanding the narrow and intricate 
passage; and, in the event of hostilities, we could not help think- 
ing that even the most formidable visitor would be wise, while 



TRAGEDY IN HOJSiOLULU HARBOR 177 

on the safe side of the reef, to begin by smashing so ugly a cus- 
tomer into silence. But the harbor is said to have worse enemies 
to dread than shot and shells. In consequence of the gradual 
rising of the Islands, to which I have already alluded, the open- 
ing of the reef is supposed to be diminishing in depth, while the 
Nuuanu brook is neutralizing its depth by washing down moun- 
tain mud," 

Then came the unique privilege of being towed into the harbor 
by natives. "On entering the channel," he continues, "whose 
breadth did not exceed twice the len^h of the Cowlitz, we could 
almost have touched with an oar a crowd of natives, who were 
elbowing each other on the reef up to their middles in water, all 
the while jabbering and shouting and bellowing in their out- 
landish language, which, by reason of the numerical superiority 
of its vowels, and the softness and indistinctness of the conso- 
nants, resembled rather a continuous howl than an articulate 
language. On our handing out a hawser to these fellows, who, 
if sufficiently numerous, could, I verily believe, tow a vessel 
swimming, we were speedily hauled close to the wharf; and, after 
mooring our ship and saluting the town, we prepared to go 
ashore." 

Strange to say, however, that although Honolulu was the 
town, shipping men referred to the harbor as "Brown's Harbor." 

Sir George had a vision of a Panama Canal and a great increase 
in maritime commerce and growing importance of Honolulu as 
a port of call for the ships of all nations plying upon the Pacific. 

"When the ports of Japan are opened," he said, "and the two 
oceans are connected by means of a navigable canal, so as to 
place the group in the direct route between Europe and the 
United States on one hand, and the whole Eastern Asia on the 
other, then will the trade in question expand in amount and 
variety, till it has rendered Oahu the emporium of at least the 
Pacific Ocean, for the products, natural and artificial, of every 
corner of the globe. 

"Then will Honolulu be one of the ports of the world, one of 
those exchanges to which nature herself grants in perpetuity a 
more than royal charter. 



178 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

"If these anticipations — and even now they are not dreams — 
be ever realized, the internal resources of the Islands will find 
the readiest and amplest development in the increase of domestic 
consumption, and the demands of foreign commerce. The 
Sandwich Islands will become the West Indies of all the less 
favored climes from California to Japan. 

"The commerce of this ocean will be niled and conducted by 
England, aided and rivaled only by her own republican offspring 
of America ; and the merchants of these two nations, the most 
enterprising merchants of the most powerful nations that the 
world has ever seen, must decide the destinies of this sea of seas." 

In three years, 1836 to 1839, Honolulu was visited by 369 
vessels, and for years afterwards, until the Civil War, the harbor 
frequently resembled a forest, while scores of ships were anchored 
here at one time. In those days ships remained here weeks at 
a time. Today steamers arrive with cargoes ranging from 3000 
to 12,000 tons. They are discharged in from one to three and 
four days and are gone, after taking away thousands of tons of 
sugar, pineapples and bananas. Honolulu has few vessels at 
anchor in its harbor for long except when repairs are under way, 
but it is busier even than in the days when flotillas of sailing ships 
made port. Today sailing ships are so few in the harbor as to be 
almost curiosities. The full-rigged ship is already a curiosity. 
The schooner holds a small place, but only as a lumber carrier. 

Warships continued to anchor in Waikiki Bay until the 50' s, 
when it was found possible to bring them into Honolulu harbor. 

There are meager accounts of the dawning of Hawaii's mari- 
time period, for newspapers were not published in Honolulu 
until 1836. In the early days all vessels belonged to the king 
and the principal chiefs, and such was their ambition and anxiety 
to possess foreign vessels, said Prof. W. D. Alexander, the his- 
torian, once, that fabulous prices, in several instances, were paid 
by them for vessels suited for inter-island traffic. Until the Bill 
of Rights was granted by Kamehameha III, in 1840, His Majes- 
ty's common subjects dare not presume to own anything so cov- 
eted by their superiors. 

The first vessel for inter-island service, with Honolulu harbor 



TRAGEDY IN HONOLULU HARBOR 179 

as its home base later on, was for the king's use, which in the 
first instance was decidedly warlike, since the Beretane, the first 
vessel built at these islands (on Hawaii in 1793), through the 
aid of Vancouver's mechanics, shortly after launching, was em- 
ployed in the naval combat with Kahekili's war canoes off Ko- 
hala coast. Other vessels were doubtless built owing to the war 
success of the Beretane. There were brigs and other small sail- 
ing craft in inter-island service for years, but many were lost 
on the reefs through incompetency and drunkenness of the native 
commanders and crews, as well as by white masters. 

The original of steam coasting service in the Hawaiian Islands, 
with Honolulu as the base, is credited to the steamer Constitution, 
which arrived here January 24, 1852, from San Francisco, and 
was the first of a steamship line to run between two island ports 
under a five year contract for a monopoly conceded by the gov- 
ernment to one Howard. But the steamer proved too unwieldly 
for inter-island trade, being a 600-ton propeller. After making 
one trip to Lahaina and back, she returned to San Francisco. 

On November 12, 1853, the side-wheel steamer S. B. Wheeler, 
Ellis, commander, arrived from San Francisco to enter the island 
trade under the auspices of the Hawaiian Steam Navigation Co., 
of San Francisco. On entering upon the local service her name 
was changed to the Akamai, and with the exception of an oc- 
casional trip to Kauai confined her services to Maui. She, how- 
ever, was too small and too old and after a year's buffetting with 
fate, made her memorable last trip on September 25, 1854. She 
took 450 passengers, 19 horses, several princes and her guards 
were almost awash. She was struck by a storm and nearly 
foundered but was finally gotten to Lahaina. She was con- 
demned and broken up there. 

The legislature of 1854 confirmed the charter of the Hawaiian 
Steam Navigation Co., but it failed to keep its contract. In 1858 
another group took the old company and the Kilauea was con- 
structed at Boston of 414 tons burden, arriving here June 28, 
1860, after a long passage of 175 days. She was called "our 
own vessel." The service commenced July 18, 1860, by a trip to 
Kauai. The Kilauea was often laid up for repairs. She was 



180 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

sent, in 1871, to Ocean Island, where she brought off the officers 
and crew of the U. S. S. Saginaw, which had been wrecked. 
For eighteen years the Kilauea did splendid service. She was 
sold and resold and auctioned off, ran on reefs, was brought off, 
repaired and put on other island runs. She was owned by the 
government and private concerns. She came to a peaceful end 
in Honolulu harbor. 

With the passage of the Reciprocity Treaty in 1876, a new era 
in the steam coasting service of the Hawaiian Islands dawned, 
for the treaty gave impetus to the agricultural value of the 
Islands. Prior to that time trade had languished. To the energy 
and enterprise of the late S. G. Wilder is due not a little of the 
credit for the rapid advancement made in this direction and the 
growth of the Wilder Steamship Co., from his assumption of the 
steamer Likelike. Then came the steamers Kilauea, Hou, Mo- 
kohi, Lehua, and the Kinau built in 1883 and still running. 

Closely allied in energy and enterprise and in harmonious 
rivalry was the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Co., whose head 
and front was T. R. Foster. They had many vessels, adding as 
occasion demanded, including the James Makee, C. R. Bishop, 
Iwalani, W. G. Hall, Waialeale, Pele, Kaimiloa, nearly all built 
in the 80's, some still running tn inter-island trade, some sold to 
mainland companies, some having gone to Davy Jones' locker. 

Wilder and the other inter-island companies merged many 
years ago and now the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company 
operates a splendid fleet of up-to-date steamers, with a modern 
coaling plant and floating drydock for merchant marine in 
general. 

Into the harbor of Honolulu today come the great steamers of 
the Matson Navigation Company, the majority of stock being 
owned in the Hawaiian Islands, with the steamers Matsonia, 
Maui, Wilhelmina, Manoa, Lurline, Enterprise, Hyades, Manu- 
lani and Manuka! bringing huge cargoes, taking out capacity 
holds full of sugar and pineapples, the first six being popular 
passenger-carrying steamers, especially built for the Hawaiian 
service out of San Francisco. They also give an extension 
service to Hilo, Hawaii, where the tourists board motor cars and 



TRAGEDY IN HONOLULU HARBOR 181 

are whirled over thirty-two miles of roadway to the brink of the 
roaring volcano of Kilauea, the most remarkable physical wonder 
of the world. 

The Oceanic Steamship Company operates from San Fran- 
cisco to Sydney via Honolulu with two steamers, the Ventura 
and Sonoma. 

The Canadian-Australian Steamship Company operates palatial 
steamers between Vancouver to Sydney via Honolulu, the 
Niagara and Makura. 

The Toyo Kisen Kaisha (Japanese) operates a fleet of huge 
and palatial liners between San Francisco and Yokohama, via 
Honolulu. 

The Pacific Mail Steamship Company operates many giant 
U. S. Shipping Board liners on the San Francisco-Honolulu- 
Orient run, giving a de luxe service to Hawaii. 

The China Mail Steamship Company operates between San 
Francisco and the Orient, via Honolulu, with the liners China 
and Nanking, although being foreign vessels they do not carry 
passengers between Honolulu and San Francisco. 

The Los Angeles Steamship Company operates two splendid 
passenger liners — the City of Honolulu and the City of Los An- 
geles — between Los Angeles and Honolulu. 

The Canadian Pacific Company proposes to have its transpacific 
liners call at Honolulu one way, the "Empress" boats, beginning 
in the fall of 1922. 

The United States war department maintains its transports on 
steady calls to Honolulu. 

The United States naval transports call regularly, although 
making their port of call at Pearl Harbor Naval Station instead 
of Honolulu. Pearl Harbor naval station's great 1000-foot naval 
drydock, as Secretary of the Navy Daniels declared in dedicating 
it in August, 1919, will be used for commercial vessels as well 
as by those of the navy. 

Toward the last of the reigns of the Kamehameha's Honolulu 
began to be regarded as traveler's paradise, although steamer 
service between California and the Islands was infrequent, but 
Mark Twain arrived at Honolulu in 1866 and his letters to San 



182 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Francisco papers penned in his best trend of humor told of a 
semi-tropical country with an opera bouffe monarchy, which 
attracted attention all over the civihzed world. Travelers began 
to come^writers, investigators, scientists, wealthy people who 
found it a pleasure to bask in the royal sunshine. 

But it remained for Kalakaua's reign, the passage of the Reci- 
procity Treaty, the addition of more and faster steamers, to 
make Honolulu harbof a magnet for travelers. San Franciscans 
voyaged to Hawaii in large numbers and were identified with the 
brilliant social life of the Hawaiian capital. 

Warships of America, England, Germany, Russia and France 
visited more frequently. They anchored in Naval Row. Life in 
the harbor was gay with these war vessels, usually on commissions 
of peace. There were teas and receptions and balls aboard. On 
gala nights aboard warships the harbor was gay with rowboats 
carrying men and women with guitars and ukuleles, who sang 
and played. It was then a Honolulu such as travelers dreamed 
they would find. 

But warships came on more serious missions. Their guns 
were ready if need be. There was the Japanese cruiser Naniwa 
in the 90's with Captain Togo, famous later in the Japan-Russo 
war, in command, who came with a demand upon the Hawaiian 
Republic. There were American warships in the port at the 
time of the overthrow of the monarchy and at the revolution 
of '95 from which were landed marines and bluejackets armed 
with rifles and gatlings. There was no actual clash between Japan 
and Hawaii, but the Hawaiian government paid an indemnity of 
$75,000 on the advice of the American government at Washing- 
ton. 

King Kalakaua's boathouse fronted the harbor during his 
reign, a rendezvous for merry gatherings. The wharves of those 
older days were heUer-skelter as to position and accessibility but 
considered sufficient for the times, but all now replaced by modern 
wharves, equal to those of any Pacific port. 

Hawaii once had a navy — one vessel — the old Kaimiloa, which 
made one voyage to the South Seas, and finally returned to rot 
in Naval row. Those were days of romance and adventure, 



TRAGEDY IN HONOLULU HARBOR 183 

when "Bully Hayes" types of seafaring men came into the 
harbor, when pretty sailing yachts arrived from strange seas 
and often with strange men aboard, sometimes looking over the 
field to determine how opium could be landed. But Honolulu 
has always been a peaceful sort of harbor, a real haven fol- 
vessels in distress, a port which is well guarded against intro- 
duction of epidemics — a port where all vessels may find pro- 
vender, and be repaired, if need be, the facilities for ship hand- 
ling being efficient. 

Honolulu harbor is prepared today for any demands made 
upon it by the shipping of the world. 



CHAPTER XV 



IN VAN OF MORAL ACHIEVEMENTS. 



CONQUERS WORLD'S ENEMY. 

WHEN Mark Twain wrote his beautiful prose poem of 
Hawaii — "No other land could so longingly and be- 
seechingly haunt me sleeping and waking, through half 
a lifetime, as that one has done" — he recorded the experi' 
ence of nearly every person who has visited these Islands of 
idyllic charm. Their power to grip the heart is difficult to 
analyse, for it is a complex puzzle, in which Nature's heauty and 
solemn grandeur, man's fascinating influence, and the romance 
of a history unparalleled elsewhere, furnish each a vital quota. 

Take for example the most obvious source of the unique effect 
which Hawaii produces upon the mind of the most casual 
observer — its scenery. Two characteristics at once stand forth 
preeminently. The first of these is the variety, and the second 
its distinctiveness. No two of the Islands are alike, either in 
configuration, in mountain mass, in canyon formation or in 
water supply. 

Kauai's magnificent Waimea Canyon, whose colors rival those 
of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, and contrast so vividly 
with the luxuriant vegetation of its companion valley of Olokele ; 
Maui's Ditch Trail, and Kohala's mighty chasms, all products of 
like process, are yet stamped each with an individuality so 
fully its own that memory cannot refuse them. For mountain 
lovers this quality of iinlikeness is an increasing delight, while 
the impossibility of keeping trails open where the vegetation is 
dense and pedestrians few, gives to every hike the excitement of 
a new discovery. 



IN VAN OF MORAL ACHIEVEMENTS 185 

The summit marshes of Waialeale, on Kauai, where is re- 
corded the heaviest rainfall in the world; and Kaumakou, on 
Molokai, are in the strongest contrast with the dry barrenness of 
Haleakala {"Temple of the Sun"), on Maui, the largest extinct 
volcano in the world; Hualalai and Mauna Kea, grand, lofty, 
extinct volcanoes on Hawaii Island. The absence of venemous 
reptiles, the lack of creatures of which to be afraid in this great 
outdoors, the kindly cHmate which knows no extremes help to 
deepen the impression of Nature's friendliness which fairly 
breathes the spirit of Aloha. 

Man, the summit word of Nature, is in closest accord with 
these manifestations of good will. The Hawaiian always was 
and still is a lover of men as men. From the first day of his 
contact with foreigners he played the part of a generous host. 
His welcome knew no race distinctions. He implanted the ideal 
of hospitality in the hearts of all who came to sojourn here. 
He has given his land, his toil, his nationality and himself to 
others. Hence he is slowly merging his blood into the common 
life of the human family. 

Away back in the old days when his civilization was all his 
own product, his social system, while marked by semi-savage, 
or barbaric customs out of which no stern nature was present 
to help him, had its redeeming features. He was always a good 
sport and his games which unfortunately have almost all died 
out, called both for skill and splendid muscular development. 

When foreigners brought their blessings and their curses, he 
reacted to them both nobly and fatally. One of these curses 
was drink and it did not take long for thoughtful men among 
the Hawaiians to recognize that this poison held for him racial 
death. 

Hence his nation has the credit of having enacted the first 
prohibitory law ever promulgated on earth by a human govern- 
ment. Its author was the great Kamehameha, the unifier of his 
people and farsighted statesmen, who more than a century ago 
attached a penalty to the selling or drinking of intoxicants. He 
decreed that the offender be stripped of all his property, real, 
personal and mixed, and be driven from his village with a loin 



186 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

cloth as his sole possession. Later, foreign nations forced liquor 
upon Hawaii, and their emissaries so tempted the chiefs to its 
use that one by one the great families which once guided the 
people, succumbed to the poison and the very life of the race was 
sapped. 

Another achievement which marks the Hawaii as sui generis 
was his destruction of his own ancient religion when he became 
conscious of its lack of helpful power. 

Nothing like this had ever taken place in recorded history. 
People sometimes exclaim against missionaries because, as they 
allege, they rob men of their primitive faith, but in Hawaii people 
cast away their idols and abolished their tabus before mission- 
aries reached their shore. They were ready to welcome the 
higher teaching and in less than two generations they adopted 
Christianity. Missionaries landed in 1820. Forty-three years 
later the tidings went forth to the world that the Hawaiian na- 
tion was the first graduate of modern Christian missions." 

The manner of this adoption was another manifestation of 
Hawaiian individuality. For the first new interest developed 
by the people was a passion for education. "If learing is bad 
we will keep the people from it; if it is good we will share it 
with all," said the chiefs. 

They found it so exhilirating that within a few years the entire 
nation began to go to school. 

The next step followed naturally, ' For the teachers were 
learning from contact with the people to become convincing 
preachers, and after eighteen years of patient instruction the 
nation was ripe for a harvest. This accelerated movement to- 
wards Christianity came like one of the mighty flows of lava 
from the volcano of Mauna Loa. It spread from village to 
village and from island to island until the whole nation was 
shaken during the two years 1839-1840 and of the entire popu- 
lation no less than fifteen per cent were added to the churches. 

It was entirely consistent with such wholeheartedness that 
royalty itself should exhibit public spirit. The first of Hawaii's 
Christian rulers was a woman, the Queen-regent Kaahumanu, 
the favorite wife of Kamehameha the Great. For years she was 



IN VAN OF MORAL ACHIEVEMENTS 187 

the real as well as an ideal sovereign during the boyhood of 
Kamehameha II. The second was a man, Kamehameha III 
( Kauikeouli ) . 

Precedent elsewhere in the human family demanded the 
wresting of a Magna Charta, or a Bill of Rights, from the king, 
but that was not Hawaii's way. Kamehameha III actually gave 
away two-thirds of the royal domain, his personal property, one- 
third to the chiefs and the other one-third to the people so that 
in the kingdom every subject now otifned his o'ltt land. 

This king also limited his power by giving the nation a consti- 
tution and by admitting the people to a share in the government. 

Step by step the outward manifestation of Christian civiliza- 
tion, appeared. Not only were the valleys and hillsides dotted 
with churches whose spires pointed heavenward, but welfare 
organizations of many types; hospitals, homes for every descrip- 
tion of unfortunates, kindergartens and settlements began to 
flourish wherever needed. 

Even the criminal was not forgotten and Hawaii's wisdom in 
dealing with men and women who lapsed from virtue or into 
lawlessness became known on the American mainland. One 
prison reformer attracted here to study the island system of re- 
habilitation was much interested in what he saw at Oahu Prison 
and was particularly impressed with the custom in vogue {for 
domestic servants were few then) of allowing prisoners to go 
out to private houses for work in house or yard in daytime. 
"And what do you do," he asked the jailor, "if a prisoner fails 
to return at night?" "We lock him out," was the triumphant 
reply. The outcome of this spirit has been the erection of a 
territorial prison in Honohdu which some experts pronounce 
the last word in penology anent places of detention. 

Probably no mission land in the world can parallel Hawaii for 
the unique emergence from the strictly missionary era into a 
period of growth of Christian civilization dominated by the 
children of missionaries. Many circumstances entered as causes 
into the trend of affairs which kept in the Islands or recalled 
thither a very large contingent of missionary children, who, 
being forced into industrial pursuits, addressed themselves to 



! 188 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

f - the task of constructing a commonwealth upon Christian prin- 

i ciples, 

L ■ The future historians will record the judgment that this second 

I generation builded as permanently as the first. Without them 

the labors of their predecessors would largely have been wasted. 

;- They stood behind the Hawaiian sovereigns in their fight for 

good government. 

When the change from absolute kingship to popular sov- 
ereignty became necessary they were among the leaders who 
effected a peaceful revolution, not only without bloodshed, but 
practically without bitterness, of which there would have been 
none but for the blunders of a well meaning and friendly Amer- 
ican administ ration. 

Meantime, under the leadership of this second generation and 
of a number of other virile spirits that had drifted to Hawaii, 
agriculture was becoming a most fascinating pursuit. 

In Hawaii products which bulk large industrially are few. 
The infant among those that count is tobacco whose output value 
in 1919 was but $24,000. Much tribulation has fostered coffee 
until a crop in 1920 was valued approximately at $1,500,000. 
Pineapples have proved a lusty and fast growing giant, beginning 
in 1901 with 2,000 cases of the canned product and ending 
twenty years later with some 6,000,000 cases and enlisting in 
the neighborhood of 70,000 acres of land. The staple product of 
Hawaii — cane sugar — demands 200,000 acres for its cultivation, 
and from which have been harvested as high as 600,000 tons. 

These figures hide behind them a story of increasing comrade- 
ship with Nature, developed through exhaustive scientific ex- 
perimentation. For illustration, Hawaii cites through her sugar 
industry whose plantations pool their research interests in its 
Planters' Experiment Station, the upkeep of which has been 
$200,000 annually, which maintains agricultural, chemical, 
entymological, forestry and pathological departments in charge 
of most highly trained experts. 

Furthermore, Hawaii has long been practicing bona fide 
.Americanization. For many years, decades before Annexation, 
her people celebrated the Fourth of July as though it were her 



s- - -= ? « 




IN VAN OF MORAL ACHIEVEMENTS 189 

own chief national holiday. Some of her sons enlisted in the 
army of the North in the Civil War and made brilliant records. 
She contributed General S. C. Armstrong and the basic idea of 
the Hampton Institute of education to the solution of the negro 
problem, America's gravest social question. 

In an article I wrote on the leprosy problem in Hawaii, under 
the title of "The Miracle of Molokai," I told how, after fifty 
years of segregation and care of the lepers of Hawaii, and these 
included representatives of practically all races dwelling in the 
Isles, of experiments with various remedies, how only three or 
four years back Dr. Harry T. HoUman, United States Public 
Health Service, in charge of the Kalihi examining hospital for 
leper suspects, worked out a formula from Chaulmoogra oil, 
which was perfected in the laboratories of the University of 
Hawaii by Miss Alice Ball, a student chemist. Chaulmoogra 
oil, in its crude form, had been administered to the lepers before 
over a series of decades. 

It was repugnant to them, nauseating and with minds in oppo- 
sition and with diet not a fixed schedule, the oil was almost a 
failure. HoIIman's specific produced favorable results. In the 
laboratories more work was done to perfect the formula. Miss 
Ball died in the midst of the experiments. 

Dr. Arthur L. Dean, president of the University of Hawaii, 
a chemist of note, took up the work. He went beyond even 
what Dr. Hollman hoped for in the separation of the fatty acids 
of the oil. The specific was made easy to take. It was finally 
reduced from liquid form into capsules, the sting and nausua of 
the original oil utterly removed. The lepers cooperated with 
enthusiasm. with the United States Public Health surgeons and 
with the Territorial Board of Health. Improvements were 
noticeable. In time the board of health paroled former patients. 
Never before in the history of leprosy had this been done. Some 
have remained outside, cured as far as "cure" goes. 

Even with this astonishing miracle, the doctors were only 
elated, and did not say, "We have found a cure." They do not 
know the word cure in their vocabulary. "The disease has been 
arrested," they say. So wonderful have been the results that the 



190 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

specific prepared by Dr. Dean was used only the beginning of 
this year {1922) in a drastic and original and daring way — 

DIRECTLY INTO THE VEINS ! 

Molokai Settlement, a little peninsula with towering moun- 
tains behind the plain, has two villages — Kalaupapa and Kala- 
wao, where the lepers have been immured, hundreds of them, 
where Catholic Sisters and Brothers and board of health em- 
ployes labor to ease the sufferings of the afflicted ones. Grad- 
ually, the Chaulmoogra oil is effecting cures. Many are paroled. 
The colony is being reduced constantly. Kalihi hospital, at 
Honolulu, no longer sends lepers to Molokai. The doctors check 
the disease there. 

In ten years, say the health authorities, Molokai may only be 
a historic name. 

And over there in Kalawao there works a man, Brother Joseph 
Dutton, a Catholic lay brother, who has been at Kalawao in 
charge of the Baldwin Home for Boys for forty years. He has 
never left the Settlement since he went there and has been to 
Kalaupapa but few times. 

We was a Wisconsin young man who entered the Civil War, 
in the Union Army and became a lieutenant, an aide to several 
generals, among them General Granger. After the war he served 
with the federal government for years and particularly at Mem- 
phis. 

For penance for what he says was a "loose life" at Memphis, 
when he indulged in worldly pleasures, he suddenly decided to 
renounce the world, and went to a monastery, and learning of 
Molokai, asked to be sent there to aid the sufferers. His request 
was granted. 

Brother Dutton is a lovable man, now nearly eighty years of 
age. He works day and night. He is a tireless reader and 
numbers among his correspondents some 500 people on the main- 
land. He receives no pay. He lives only to do good to hrs fellow 
man. The venerable brother is a worthy successor to the martyr 
Father Damien, who contracted and died of the disease while 
priest for the lepers. Brother Dutton is one of the world's heroes. 



IN VAN OF MORAL ACHIEVEMENTS 191 

Hawaii, if it contributed little else to the world, is entitled to 
the fervent prayers of mankind for its discovery of the method 
by which leprosy, world-old, may be checked and destroyed. 



CHAPTER XVI 



GREATEST SWORDSMAN OF PACIFIC 



CAPT. AHIA'S DUEL 

FROM the heights of Puowaina (Punchbowl Hall), behind 
Honolulu, from the sheltering groves of cocoanut trees and 
from every point of vantage in Honolulu that great day 
back in the 40's of last century, thousands of Hawaiians and 
even the white residents of the city, focused their eyes upon a 
foreign frigate thai rode at anchor off Waikiki, watching with 

undivided attention two flags that hung limply against the masts. 

Suddenly, when the foreign flag dropped and fluttered, gxins 
boomed upon Punchbowl Hill and the islanders knew that Ha- 
waii's honor had been upheld by the mightiest swordman of 
Polynesia and one of Europe's master fencers had been humbled. 

Upon the deck of the British warship that day stood Captain 
Ahia, captain of the Mamalahoa Guard at the old Honolulu fort 
and a master-at-arms to Kauikeouli (Kamehameha HI), king 
of Hawaii, and opposing him was an admiral of the British navy. 
They feinteii, thrust and parried, each "feeling the blade" and 
awaiting an opening through the other's defence, while British 
and Hawaiians stood in deep ranks around the master swords- 
men of two countries. 

When it was over the Hawaiian captain was declared victor 
in the presence of the king. The latter believed that his officer 
would be victor, for had not Ahia been followed from the coral 
shores of Oahu to His Britannic Majesty's ship by the prayers of 
the king's astrologer and had not the king himself sent the Ha- 
waiian aboard pledged to win? 

Of all the annals of the fighting warriors of the Hawaiian - 
nation none approaches in dramatic and historic interest this 



GREATEST SWORDSMAN OF PACIFIC 193 

fencing duel fought by Captain Ahia and the British admiral, a 
contest which became possible only when the admiral had cau- 
tiously inquired of Kamehanieha III if such a contest could not 
be arranged. The duel has never heretofore been recorded in 
print. 

Ahia was the most famous sword handler of the Hawaiian 
monarchy. The art, brought to its zenith by him, was apparent- 
ly lost at his death, and skillful swordsmanship and fame to Ha- 
waii came only again when Victor Houston, a part-Hawaiian on 
his mother's side, son of Admiral Houston of the United States 
Navy, went to Annapolis and became the most famous swords- 
man of the academy and later of the navy. 

Little is known of this fencing contest except by the word of 
mouth narrative of a nephew of Captain Ahia, who related the 
incident to me only a year ago. George Pekelo Kalawaia Ahia, 
who long ago passed four score years, now approaching ninety, 
until recently a resident of the picturesque Mormon village of Laie, 
Oahu, and now a successful homesteader on Hawaii, was a boy 
" at the time of the contest, and a constant companion of his hero 
uncle. From this uncle, he, too, learned the rudiments of mili- 
tary drill. In a way, George Pekelo Kalawaia Ahia, and his 
cousin, Abraham Ahia, may be termed the first Boy Scouts of 
the Pacific for the sovereign after watching the little fellows. 
play at being soldiers one day down in the fort, ordered little 
uniforms for them and asked them to drill for him whenever 
he visited the place. 

It was while George was a small boy that the foreign admiral 
visited Honolulu and the fencing contest was held. George was 
like the small boy of any period in history or of any race, for 
he "followed the crowd" that glorious day. He knew of the 
arrangement for signalling with flags to designate the victor, 
and he heard the guns boom on Punchbowl Hill. Was he not 
the son of an officer of the Hawaiian guard and did he not hear 
the story of the contest related by Ahia's fellow officers, and 
did be not also actually hear Captain Ahia tell of the famous 
meeting with the admiral? But George always thought Ahia 



194 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

killed the admiral, and he cannot now recall the name of the 
warship. 

George's memory, however, is still keen. He walks as upright 
as a man of fifty or sixty. His reminiscences of the reign of Ka- 
mehameha III are deep with romantic interest. He himself was 
the son of Kalawaia and of Liloa, the latter being the sister of 
Captain Ahia, George was "brought up" by Ahia in the fort in 
his younger days, the fort which half a century and more ago 
was demolished. There were many well-known officer in the 
fort in the 40's, Kauiliokamoa and Kahoohuiimoku and Maikai, 
the latter a major on the staff, and aide to Kauikeouli. His son, 
who became Major Maikai, also was an aide on the staff of King 
Kalakaua. 

The fort was always of interest to Kamehameha. He visited 
it often and the guard turned out in his honor and so did the 
small boys. When he was told that the boys were Ahia's, the 
king smiled and said : 

"Well, the kingdom is well protected." 

Ahia showed the boys something of his fencing art. They saw 
him fence with other Hawaiian officers, but it was always Ahia 
who won. Ahia became great throughout the kingdom because 
of his prowess with the sword and rapier. 

Young chiefs and princes came to the fort to watch the little 
boys drill and to see Captain Ahia wield his famous sword, and 
His Majesty laughed heartily when his "Boy Soldiers" drilled. 
Those were great days for young George. 

"Those boys are going to be brave soldiers, just like their 
fathers," the boys heard the king remark. 

The boys were very close to the king, they thought, for they 
were the sons and relatives of men high in the service of the 
king, and George says he was named for Capt. George Beckley, 
one of Kamehameha the Great's English officers. 

Then there was Paakai, the astrologer of the king, who was 
much in evidence. 

One day there sailed up from the horizon a great English war- 
ship which dropped its anchor in the Bay of Waikiki and the 
admiral came ashore and paid his respects to the king. It soon 



GREATEST SWORDSMAN OF PACIFIC 195 

became known that the admiral was a master hand at fencing. 
He remarked to Kamehameha that he had heard many of the 
Hawaiian officers were experts in the use of the sword and knew 
the art of fencing. Before returning to his ship the admiral 
said he would like to cross swords with the king's best swords- 
man. 

The suggestion amounted to a challenge. No one in all Ha- 
waii received the challenge with more avidity than the king 
himself. He was proud of the record of Ahia in whom he 
placed the utmost confidence, for Ahia had measured swords 
with many visitors from Europe and had always shown his skill. 
The knowledge that there was a brilliant swordsman in Hawaii 
had been carried back to many naval bases of Europe, for Ha- 
waii was visited in those early days by the frigates of England, 
France, Russia and America. George Pekelo assumes that the 
British admiral already knew of Ahia's prowess when he arrived 
at Honolulu. 

A message was sent from the palace to the fort summoning 
all the officers before the king. They responded in a body. 

"I have called you all to come before me and you have quickly 
obeyed," remarked the monarch. After a pause he spoke again: 

"Who of you will be willing to go aboard the warship and 
..^ fence with the master swordsman there?" 

No one replied- 

The king turned to Captain Ahia. 

"Ahia, will you consent to fence this foreigner?" 

"I will go, your Majesty," replied the captain of the Mamala- 
hoa Guard. "Are we to play lightly, or will it be for life and 
death ?" 

Ahia had come down from a period in Hawaii's history when 
sword and spear contests meant life or death. 

Kauikeouli was taken aback at his captain's query, and yet 
desiring that there should be a meeting between these two men, 
he repeated the words of Ahia to the admiral, saying that the 
Hawaiian apparently wished to fight until one or the other was 
wounded. The admiral replied, so George Pekelo's narrative 
continues : 



196 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

"That is the rule of fencing," 

"Then the king, the lord of Ahia," says George Pekelo, "turn- 
ed to his master-at-arms and said : 'The admiral says that is the 
rule.' " 

The bridge was crossed, and the contest was arranged, but 
the king spoke again to Ahia: 

"Do you consent to fence this foreigner under these condi- 
tions?" 

"Yes," replied Ahia. 

Kauikeouli was thoughtful for a moment and then thanked 
Ahia by saying, "He naniia ua ae mai la oe?" (It is grand that 
you have consented). Ahia was still clinging to the idea that 
the contest would be one for blood when he attracted his sover- 
eign's attention again remarking : "This art was learned for life 
or death." 

Where would the contest take place? The king asked the ad- 
miral for advice. The mariner suggested the deck of the war- 
ship. Pekelo believes the admiral felt this would be safe in 
case any accident happened to Ahia, the idol of the Hawaiians. 
Turning to Ahia the king gave final authority to his captain to 
enter the contest. 

"You will fence on board the ship at nine o'clock tomorrow 
morning; I will be there to witness." 

The king called Kauili-o-ka-ntoa and Kaaipuaa, another officer : 

"Get the guns on Punchbowl ready," he commanded. 

Guns were mounted on the top of Puowaina and in the fort 
but he wanted only the guns on the hill used to announce vic- 
tory in the coming contest between the champion of all Polynesia 
and the acknowledged peer of any swordsman in Europe. Ka- 
uikeouli called his courtiers and said: 

"Apopo hora 9, a i ole bora 10 paha, e lanakila a haulepio ai 
o Hawaii nei; aia ia ma ka lima o Ahia." — ("Tomorrow at 9 
o'clock, and perhaps at 10 o'clock, Hawaii will be either victorious 
or defeated; it is all in the hand of Ahia"). 

It was enough to cause any soldier to fight to the death for 
the honor of his country. A spokesman for the courtiers replied : 

"E ola mau o Hawaii aole e make; e ola oe i ke akua o ka 



GREATEST SWORDSMAN OF PACIFIC 197 

honua nei ; e ola i ke akua o ka lani ; e ola ko kanaka ; amama ua 
noa." — (Long live Hawaii, she shall not die; live thou, a god of 
the earth; and live, the Almighty God of the heavens; and let 
thy man live; amen). 

It was arranged that when the king should leave the land and 
go aboard the warship both the crown flag and the merchant 
flag of Hawaii should be raised aboard the ship. Then the kii^ 
spoke to Kaaikapuaa, the officer of artillery: 

"Watch the flag of Hawaii ; if it is hauled down half mast then 
you will know Hawaii is defeated by the foreigner, and the 
ship's gun will be fired. If the ship's flag is hauled down half 
mast then you will know that Hawaii is victorious. Then you 
must fire the guns on Puowaina." 

His Majesty, his court, Captain Ahia, and other officers were 
received with honors aboard the warship the next morning. It 
was a bright, sunny, typically Hawaiian day. The king was 
given a place of vantage from which to view the contest. Around 
him were his staff and courtiers. The ship's officers were group- 
ed opposite while the crew occupied places up the rat-lines and 
on the spars, for they, too, knew the skill of their chief. 

The admiral and Ahia both removed their coats and turned 
back their sleeves to give free play to arm and wrist. The 
weapons were measured and handed the contestants. 

"Who will have the honor of the first stroke?" inquired the 
captain. His Majesty rephed : 

"You, admiral, shall have the first stroke, according to our 
compact." 

Ahia asked again about the first stroke, whereupon the ad- 
miral is reported to have replied ; "We will both advance at the 
same time ; I strike and you defend ; you strike and I defend ; all 
according to the rules." 

This is George Pekelo's recollection of the passage of words 
■ as he heard them all afterwards related by the officers in the 
fort, for the discussion of the contest was not a nine-day's wonder 
in Hawaii. It was spoken of for years. 

Then the weapons flashed in the sun and both thrust to "feel 
the blade." The foreigner lunged and Ahia parried. Ten times 



198 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

the blades whipped each other. The admiral lunged and thrust 
and each effort was parried. The admiral had used what the 
Hawaiians called the "English method," but, says George Pekelo, 
Ahia had been taught this method by Capt. George Beckley, the 
Englishman, whose daughter, later on, he had married. The 
fencers rested. 

"Are you afraid?" asked the king of Ahia. The Hawaiian 
shook his head, whereupon the king is said to have added : "Thou 
must not fear." 

"Na kaua ka ai o keia la," said Ahia. (The game belongs this 
day to us.) The king smiled. 

Again the swords were brought into play and ten strokes made 
the blades sing. They were strokes of the French method. As 
king asked of Ahia: "What kind of a sword is his?" Ahia told 
before, Ahia parried them, and with ease. They rested. The 
king asked of Ahia: "What kind of a sword is his?" He told 
of the new method and said he had no fear of the result. 

At this time the people ashort saw both flags up, but the foreign 
flag was hanging limp. With the superstitious intuition of the 
race the people felt this was a good omen for Hawaii. 

More strokes followed after the rest and the Teuton style of 
fencing passed in review before the spectators. The foreigner 
is said to have become angry and impatient for none of his strokes 
had made an impression upon the Hawaiian. At no time was he 
able to break down Ahia's giiard. Aliia spoke qujetly to the 
king and expressed his belief that the admiral was weakening 
in his offense, and concluded in poetic Hawaiian : 

"O, heavenly one, the game this hour, is ours." 

The swords struck and sung and the fencing become more 
violent. The feet struck the deck more forcibly as each shifted 
, in offense and defense, but it was not until the Spanish method 
was employed that Ahia's sword passed through the Briton's 
guard and the Hawaiian's weapon inflicted a wound upon the - 
admiral's breast. The foreigner fell forward. 

Immediately the foreign flag was lowered. The crowds saw 
the ensign flutter downward and soon Captain Kaaipuaa's guns 
on Punchbowl spake their message of victory to the thousands in 




Kamoliameha IV (Alexaniier loiani Liholiho), polislioil soi-icty iii! 

whose rppcptions ami levees were iriily royal. Ho was elegant 

of milliner. His queen, Emiiin, was nil aecoiuiilishcil 



GREATEST SWORDSMAN OF PACIFIC 199 

Honolulu, the boom being heard out on the Plains, in Nuuanu 
Valley and down toward Moanalua. And all the time Ahia was 
fencing the astrologer ashore was praying. He was the grand 
uncle of Ahia. 

It was one of the greatest days in the reign of King Kaineha- 
meha III, and Hawaii became noted then in those days as "The 
Land of the Swordsman." 

That Ahia should have known so many methods was due to 
the catholicity of foreigners dwelling in Honolulu at that time. 
From Captain Beckley he learned the English method ; from 
Jose, a Spaniard in Captain Beckley 's employ, lie learneil the 
Spanish method. French warships had come here and from 
officers he learned their art and perfected even what he had 
learned until his wrist was more stipple and his eye more certain 
than those of any adversaries he met. 

Prince Kinau (Liliulani), who was a familiar figure on the 
parade ground of the old Honolulu fort, as a youth, to teach his 
friends while they were drilling as "boy scouts," was the son of 
Princess Ruth Keelikolani and the High Chief William Pitt 
Leleiohoku I. 

He was one of the most ambitious and promising of the young 
princes of the Kamehameha realm. It is believed by old Ha- 
waiians today that had he lived he would have become a real and 
constructive leader of the Hawaiian people. He had a splendid 
physique and a magnetic personality. The glance of his eyes 
made him friends everywhere. The words of the song everybody 
in Hawaii knows today, composed in his honor then, runs: 

"E Liliulani e, noho nani mai." — ("Oh, Liliulani, thou who 
sits in splendor"). 

This young prince, possibly through influence of others, be- 
came obsessed with the idea of obtaining as much chiefly holdings 
as possible from the king. On the occasion of his birthday 
anniversary he asked the king to let him have all the lands whose 
names began with "Wai," meaning water, such as Waimea (Ha- 
waii), Waianae (Oahu), Waikapu (Maui), Wailuku, Waihee, 
Waialua (Oahu), Waikane (Oahu) and so on. 

When the chiefs heard of this remarkable request, for those 



200 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

were the days of feudal ownership vested in the king, and lands 
such as these held important rights upon the land, they reminded 
the sovereign that this was asking too much, particularly as the 
prince, who was only seventeen, was also very wealthy in his 
own right. He was always known as the Prince of Kona. His 
request was refused. 

After his death all his people and a noted priest made the 
accusation that he had been poisoned, and the whole of Kona was 
enraged over his death, because such news had been whispered 
about. 



CHAPTER XVII 



THE "GREAT MAHELE" OF KAMEHAMEHA III 



MONARCH YIELDS HIS RIGHTS 

MONARCH of all he surveyed after the Battle of Nuuanu 
and particularly after the king of Kauai lowered his 
kahili to Kamehameha the Great in 1810, Kamehameha 
the Great was the Conqueror in reality. He regarded all the 
lands of the Islands as his, to deal with as he chose. He was 
supreme in authority. He was the State. 

Feudal rights were those of the King. The chiefs, even the 
greatest of them all, were subject to his will even to the places 
of their abodes. There was no written law. Only an unwritten 
constitution was extant. The king apportioned lands to his 
chiefs according to their rank and services. They must serve 
him with their spears, and their fish ponds and taro fields must 
give a portion of the yields to the sovereign. He appointed 
Governors to replace the old system of district chieftains, and 
these appointed tax collectors. Justice must be dispensed and 
these Governors, acting for the king, were the judges. 

The king created a sort of council, comprising the four great 
Kona chiefs who had raised him to the throne. They were the 
twin brothers Kameeiaumoke and Kamanawa, their half-brother, 
Keeauraoku, and Keaweheuhi. These, with Kalanimoku, the 
custodian or treasurer, were regarded as the supreme council. 
At this time both John Young and Isaac Davis, the two foreign- 
ers who had been detained in the Islands, and who had married 
into noble Hawaiian families, were understood to be permitted 
to give advice, particularly as foreign ships and mariners were 
beginning to call at the Islands. When the king knew death 
was approaching he selected Kaahumanu, his favorite queen, 



202 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

to be the kuhina nui, or premier, although his direct heir was 
his son, Liholiho, or Kamehameha I [. The contrast between the 
mighty, intelleclual Kamehameha I, and his less energetic, less 
wise, less warrior-like son, were too great for even the Con- 
queror not to notice. Kaahumanu was vested with the power 
of veto, to check Liholiho's authority as king. 

The Council of Chiefs acted when Kamehameha II left the 
Islands to visit England in 1823, to decide upon the regency, 
and later, when news of his death came from London, in 1825, 
to decide upon the succession to the throne, when Kauikeouli. 
son of Keopuolani, the "Queen Mother," was selected as king. 
The council made a treaty wiih Commodore Catesby Jones, 
U. S. N., in 1826. In 1827 the Council authorized the publica- 
tion of laws in 1827, when the Mission press was used to placard 
them, the first being a law relating to port dues, 

Kamehameha III was a mere youth when called to the throne 
and for years a Regency was necessary, with the Council of Chiefs 
acting in his authority. In later years the Council of Chiefs 
became the House of Nobles, or upper house of the Island parlia- 
ment. The common people, says Professor Alexander, had no 
political rights of any kind up to 1839. 

As the Islands came into the ken of other nations and became 
a center of shipping, and as foreigners came to reside in the 
Islands, it was seen that the old feudal system could not endure. 
It was an anachronism. The Council sent to the United States 
in 1836 for a legal adviser and instructor in civil government. 
This effort failed and Mr. Richards, of the mission circle, was 
chosen in 1838 to be adviser and interpreter. He was released 
by the American Mission and in 1839 entered upon his duties 
by delivering a series of lectures on the science of government to 
the king and his court at Lahaina in 1839. 

About this time the first code of laws and the Declaration of 
Rights were drawn up, the first preliminary draft being made 
by a native graduate of Lahainaluna school, established under 
the mission on Maui, the formation of section by section being 
directed by the king. This document, which was something after 
the order of the Magna Charta, although procured in peace, was 



"GREAT MEHELE" OF KAMEHAMEHA III 203 

read to the king and chiefs who spent days and weeks discussing 
it, while it was re-written and re-drawn. The revised draft was 
read and accepted, and on a third reading was approved with ail 
amendments by the king and published June 7, 1839, forming a 
pamphlet of twenty-four pages. 

The first Constitution was drawn up in 1840 in a similar man- 
ner and approved by the general Council of Chiefs. It was then 
signed by the king and the premier, Kekauluohi, the mother of 
King Lunalilo, and proclaimed October 8, 1840. 

Step by step Hawaii was passing from feudalism to constitu- 
tionalism. The influence of the Bible and the American Declara- 
tion of Independence shows in the Declaration of Rights. Pro- 
fessor Alexander says the Constitution was written first in Ha- 
waiian and shows unmistakeable influence of the Hawaiians in 
drawing it up. 

For the first time foreigners in the Islands felt that they were 
secure in personal rights, for there was now a written code, 
whereas previously matters of life and death rested with the 
king and his Council. The Declaration of Rights guaranteed 
religious liberty, and priests, ministers, pastors and communicants 
of all faiths were free to carry on their sect work in the Islands. 

But no lands could be conveyed without the consent of the 
king. Land forfeited for non-payment of taxes reverted to him 
alone. He had the direction of government property and 
of the various taxes. He was to make treaties and receive am- 
bassadors, and was commander-in-chief of the armies, and he 
had power to make war in times of emergency, in the absence of 
the chiefs, or when they could not be assembled, and above all he 
should be the chief judge of the Supreme Court. 

In the discourse on the change from the old to the new system. 
Professor Alexander has traced the movement with a skillful 
pen. The singular office of kuhina nui, or premier, he says, was 
continued, the premier's office to be "the same as that of Kaahu- 
fnanu by the will of Kamehameha I." All business should be 
done by the premier under the authority of the king. "The king 
shall not act without the knowledge of the premier, nor the 
premier without the knowledge of the king, and the veto of the 



""'*^F^'' 



2(W UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

king on the acts of the premier shall arrest the business," so said 
this remarkable document. The four governorships authorized 
by Kamehameha I were perpetuated, covering the islands of 
Oahu, Kauai, Maui and Hawaii. 

Here enters the Hawaiian parHament with the House of Nobles, 
composed of fourteen hereditary nobles, together with the king 
and premier, and a number of Representatives to be chosen by 
the people. The two houses could sit separately or consult to- 
gether at their discretion. A Supreme Court was established, 
consisting of the king and premier and four judges, to be ap- 
pointed by the legislature. It was simply and loosely drawn 
throughout, but it was a beginning. 

On November 28, 1S43, France and Great Britain acknowledged 
the existence in the "Sandwich Islands" of a government capable 
of providing for the regularity of its relations with foreign na- 
tions." On May 20, 1845, the Legislature was formally opened 
for the first time by the king in person, with appropriate cere- 
monies, which were retained until the monarchy passed in 1893. 

On June 20, 1851, a joint resolution was passed by both houses 
of the L,egislature, and approved by the king, providing for the 
appointmnt of a commission to revise the existing Constitution. 
The king chose Dr. G. P. Judd, the Nobles John li, and the 
representatives Chief Justice Lee. The new draft was submitted 
to the Legislature by Judge Lee and was finally approved by 
both houses of the Legislature June 14, 1852, and went into effect 
December 6, 1852. 

The office of Kuhina Nui was retained as a kind of vice-king, 
out of deference to the feelings of the chiefs. 

For the succeeding twelve years the Constitution worked as 
well as could be expected, remarks Professor Alexander. There 
was considerable friction between the two houses, however, 
principally on money bills. During this time the brothers, Alex- 
ander and Lot, of the royal family, both of whom became kings, 
were jealous of the American influence in the government and 
never approved of the radical changes made during the reign of 
Kamehameha III, beheving them to be unsuited to their people. 

Immediately after the death of Kamehameha IV, on Novem- 




Que..- Kinma, 


wife 


of 


K; 


hanieliii IV. 


S!ie 


Wi 


!LS 


^nnil<laui:litcr 


of 


the 


. 1 


Chief Hoohili;, 


who 


co: 




the bones of K 


;iitieli 


.nni. 


L'ha 


Great. 










inin..lian.,.|,!i 111 (Kauiki-iiouli), 
who gnvo hia subjects a Bill of 
Ri^litii, their first t^oiistilutiun, 
their jirsl liimls, when he siKidl 
away the niicient feudal system 
anil KAvo Hnwaii a morlern legis- 
lative 



"GREAT MEHELE" OF KAMEHAMEHA III 205 

ber 30, 1863, Prince Lot Kamehameha was proclaimed king under 
the title of Kamehameha V. For a year the Legislature was 
not convened, for he had declared before he assumed the crown 
that he would never take the oath to maintain the Constitution, 
He called for a constitutional convention, and made a tour of the 
Islands explaining and defending the changes which he desired 
to make in the Constitution. Like Louis of France, he believed 
"I am the State." The convention met and discussed a new 
constitution but failed to produce anything, and the king declared 
it to be abrogated, and on August 20, 1864, Kamehameha pro- 
claimed a new Constitution upon his own authority, which was 
submitted to without resistance and continued in force for 23 
years. It was a coup d'etat. 

There were fewer changes in the Constitution than anticipated. 
It was a mere revision of the Constitution of 1852. The useless 
office of Kuhina Nui was abolished and due provision made for 
a Regency in case of the minority of the heir to the throne or of 
the absence of the monarch from the Islands. The number of 
Nobles was limited to twenty, and Representatives to be not less 
than twenty-four nor more than forty. Each voter was re- 
quired to own property worth above all incumbrances $150. The 
voter was also required, if born since 1840, to know how to read 
and write. Judges could not be removed without a two-thirds 
majority of the Legislature, for good cause shown to the satis- 
faction of the king. The powers of the Privy Council were di- 
minished. 

In the opinion of Alexander, the election of Lunalilo to be 
king (the last of the Kamehamehas) was in great part due to the 
popular disapproval of the arbitrary rule of Kamehameha V. 
The most important change in the Constitution under Lunalilo 
was the abrogation of the property qualification of voters. An- 
other was requiring the Legislature to sit separately in two houses 
instead of jointly. In July, 1874, while Kalakaua was king, the 
first amendment was duly ratified, but the second one lost. 

The legislative session of 1884 saw a law passed giving the 
king sole power to appoint district Judges through his appointees, 
the governors, and without the advice of the Judges of the Su- 



206 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

preme Court. At the elections in 1886 almost all the candidates 
of the royalist party were office holders. The personal inter- 
ference of the king in politics is said to have been carried to an 
extreme unheard of before, while the constitutional precedents 
of former reigns were wholly disregarded. Alexander expressed 
the opinion that the government was in a fair way to revert to 
despotism, when a revolution broke in 1887, and Kalakua was 
compelled, in heu, of losing his crown, to sign and proclaim a 
new Constitution. This put an end to personal government for 
it made the ministry responsible only to the people through the 
L,egislature and widened the suffrage to include foreigners, who 
were practically debarred from naturalization under the existing 
Constitution. 

One anicle of the E>ec]ara;ion of Rights that reaii, "The 
king's private lands and other property are inviolable," was 
dropped. The king's veto power was limited. The Legislature 
could over-ride his veto. Foreigners were given the right to 
vote. A new and most important article was added as follows; 
"Wherever by this Constitution any act is to be done or per- 
formed by the king or sovereign, it shall, unless otherwise ex- 
pressed, mean that such act shall be done and performed by the 
sovereign by and with the advice and consent of the Cabinet." 

Queen Liliuokalani attempted to change the Constitution to 
give personal power back to the sovereign and she prorogued 
the Legislature, this act sounding the knell of her queenship and 
of the monarchy of Hawaii, for on January 17, 1893, the monarchy 
was declared at an end and a republican form' of government was 
set up, under the title of Provisional Government of Hawaii. 
The American flag was hoisted and a commission was sent to 
Washington to ask that the Islands be taken into the American 
Union. President Harrison approved, but as he went out of 
office shortly afterward. President Cleveland took a counter view 
of the situation and ordered the American flag lowered. The 
Hawaiian flag was again hoisted. 



"GREAT MEHELE" OF KAMEHAMEHA III 207 

The United States government disapproved of the course pur- 
sued in Hawaii, but nothing came of the situation until on July 
6, 1898, Congress passed a Joint Resolution of Annexation which 
was signed the following day by President McKinley, thereby 
declaring that Hawaii had been annexed to the United States and 
a territorial government was to be established. Sanford B, Dole 
was then President of Hawaii and in 1900 he was appointed by 
President McKinley as Hawaii's first territorial governor. 



CHAPTER XVIII 



GOLDEN COURT OF THE KAMEHAMEHAS 



REGAL DAYS OF HONOLULU 

STREETS that were hard with crushed lava of a dark hue, 
and coral that was white, shaded by trees transplanted 
from various parts of the tropical world — pines from Nor- 
folk island, the kukui (candle-nut), from Hawaii's own forests, 
the tamarind, the kamani with its great spreading limbs and big 
leaves; monkey-pods which stretched umbrellas of foliage far 
out over the streets and gardens; the rubber tree from South 
America ; the algaroba from Mexico, first planted in Honolulu 
by Father Bachelot, a Catholic priest in 1828, the trunk of the 
parent tree still revered in the Catholic cathedral premises; the 
China rose-tree, whose crimson flowers are in bloom the year 
round ; the lichee nut from China ; the mango from India ; the 
avocado whose luscious fruit comes with the spring; the bread- 
fruit from Tahiai; the cocoanut, some tall some short; the koa, 
hard and more beautiful than polished mahogany when cut and 
fashioned, but gradually disappearing from Honolulu and from 
the forests even as sandal wood has utterly disappeared ; with 
myriads of flowering shrubs, the oleander, the hibiscus, today 
represented in Hawaii by nearly 8000 cross-plantings; the guava, 
orange, citron, fig, papaia, whose delicious fruit was long neg- 
lected as a breakfast appetizer — all these trees made Honolulu 
a garden beautiful back in the days of Kamehameha IV and V, 
when Honolulu was emerging from its former feudalism and 
coming into contact with commerce, and soon to gain a foothold 
as a great sugar producing country, the basis of all prosperity 
in Hawaii. 



GOLDEN COURT OF KAMEHAMEHAS 209 

This was the setting of Honolulu in the golden reigns of 
Kamehameha- IV and V, when Queen Emma, beautiful consort 
of Kamehameha IV, became known as a most gracious sovereign 
and wife, whose nobility of character, her knowledge and de- 
meanor won for her the ecomiums of praise from Queen Vic- 
toria and dignitaries of England when Emma visited London. 

In those days the gardens were quaint, fragrant and homey; 
^he cottages were sheltered beneath the shade of the trees, and 
all had wide verandas (lanais), where the families spent many 
hours of the day and evening. The doors were always open ; 
there was always welcome. Water from mountain springs made 
the gardens luxuriant, and though near the sea, nearly all cottages 
had coral-built plunge baths. 

Kamehameha IV, a son of the Queen Regent Kinau, who was 
premier of the kingdom many years during the reign of Kame- 
hameha III, and grandson of Kamehameha I, was born in 1834. 
In 1856 he married Emma Rooke Naea, daughter by an Hawaiian 
high chief of Fanny Young, who was a daughter of John Young, a 
pilgrim father of Hawaii, who landed in Hawaii in 1790, and was 
detained by Kamehameha the Great. He became a close friend of 
the warrior-monarch and became the companion, philosopher, 
chaplain and, finally, a lieutenant-general of his patron. Queen 
Emma was the great granddaughter of Kealiimaikai, younger 
brother of Kamehameha I. Kamehameha IV died in 1864. 

Kamehameha V was born in 1830, also a son of Kinau. He 
died at Honolulu, unmarried and without an heir, in December, 
1872. His failure to designate an heir threw the rulership into 
the legislature, which selected Liuialilo, of the Kamehameha 
line, as king. He reigned but a year, had no heirs, failed, also, 
to designate his successor and once more threw the selection of 
a king into the legislature, each action being one more move 
toward the final dissolution of the monarchy during the reign of 
Liliuokalani in 1893. 

The Kamehamehas had leaned toward the British and had 
their line been continued the history of these islands may have 
been another story. The Kalakaua dynasty did not incline so 
thoroughly in the direction of England, but more toward Amer- 



210 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

ica, for it was Kalakaua who personally sought at Washington 
a Reciprocity Treaty under which eventually the great prosperity 
of the Islands came. 

The hopes of the Hawaiians for the perpetuation of the mon- 
archy, and certainly of the line of the Kamehamehas, were blasted 
by the death of the little prince of Hawaii (Ka Haku o Hawaii) 
Albert Edward, the Polynesian Prince of Wales. The Hawaiians 
were deeply saddened by his death when he was only a mere child. 
Undoubtedly the passing of this brown-skinned boy had a great 
influence in the destiny of the Hawaiian Islands, and, inferentially, 
may have had much to do with the kingdom coming into the 
American Union as a territory. The Prince of Hawaii was the 
only son of Alexander Liholiho (Kamehameha IV) and his con- 
sort. Queen Emma. His death hastened, the natives believe, that 
of the king who was broken-hearted over the tragedy. After 
their deaths. Queen was ever afterward known as Kaleleonalani 
(The Departin'i^ Spirit of the Heavens). 

Kamehameha V is said to have been the most kingly monarch 
who occupied the throne of Hawaii. He believed in royalty; 
was manly, dignified, sensible and physically great— character- 
istics which distinguished him from his subjects and gave him 
much influence over them. He gave attention to all public matters, 
was friendly to the Americans, and favored every measure that 
tended to increase the commercial life of his country, and to make 
the capital city of Honolulu attractive to foreigners. 

His first act, on assuming the royal power, was to refuse to 
take oath to the existing constitution of the kingdom. 

Previous to 1840 the government had been an absolute mon- 
archy, dispensed by a king and a council of chiefs. In that year 
the American missionaries induced Kamehameha III to sign a 
bill of rights of the people and the chiefs and to approve of a 
constitution by which the absolute rule and irresponsible authority 
of a throne was to be exchanged for a government of which the 
legislative power was vested in a king, a house of nobles, and 
a house of representatives elected by the people. In 1852 the 
same king assented to a constitution of a more democratic char- 
acter, which gave to each branch of the government a check 



' GOLDEN COURT OF KAMEHAMEHAS 211 

upon the other and granted suffrage to all men who had attained 
twenty years. 

Kamehameha V disbelieved in the theory that all men are born ' 
free and equal. He understood the nature of his own people 
better than many who theorized for them. He wished to give 
his office more importance in the administration of the govern- 
ment, and to limit the popular suffrage by a qualification of 
personal income, and certain intellectual acquirements, to be 
possessed by the elector and by the representative. He therefore 
refused to take the oath when he came to the throne, but called a 
convention to aher the constitution. In brief, he declared, like 
Louis of France, "I Am The State." 

The convention made a spirited and determined opposition 
to his wishes. After five weeks of discussion the king lost pa- 
tience and made known his intention in a remarkable address. 
He insisted that it was clear to him, if universal suffrage were 
permitted, the government would soon lose its monarchial char- 
acter. He was a prophet. This actually occurred decades later. 
Therefore, he abrogated the constitution and said: "I will give 
you a new constitution." 

The convention was dissolved. Within a week the king an- 
nounced a new constitution which remained the fundamental 
law of the land until a change was forced from Kalakaua in 
1887, another in 1889, and all constitutions were abrogated in 
1893 when the throne was overturned. 

The new constitution announced that "the kingdom is his."' 
and centralized all political power into the hands of the king; 
made his person sacred, his ministers responsible; he ignored 
the theory of "free and equal" birthright ; and prescribed properly 
and certain educational accomplishments for a voter. 

In the reign of Kamehameha many public improvements were 
launched, such as public buildings, but these improvements 
reached their zenith in the reign of Kalakaua. His government 
was animated by a spirit of enterprise befitting a larger sphere. 

But what constituted the golden days of the reigns of the last 
of the Kamehamehas? It was the isolated life of the people, far 
away from other worlds, without wireless and telegraph, without 



212 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

telephones and automobiles, but there was an air of contentment. 
Life went on slowly and charmingly. There was a plentitucle of 
provender from sea and land. Everything revolved about the 
court. And here was a typical ceremony of the opening of the 
parliament or legislature in the time of Kamehameha V; as 
described by William R. Bliss: 

The Parliament of Paradise meets in Honolulu on the last day 
of April in each alternate April. Its meeting is an event which 
astonishes the natives and gives the white people an opportunity 
to air their well preserved fashions in the splendor of a royal 
court. 

A stranger can see that something unusual is at hand, from 
the street sights. National, consular and society flags are flying 
from the hundred flagstaffs which adorn the city. Natives 
dressed in clean cottons, their hair sleek with cocoanut oil, their 
heads adorned with strings of yellow mimosa-blossoms, are 
shuffhng along the sidewalks, and, mounted on shying ponies, 
are loping through the streets. I encounter men in uniforms 
rushing furiously toward the palace. Sauntering along the 
street, under an umbrella to shield me from the tropical sun, I 
meet white women in black silks and darker women in white 
muslins wending their way to the courthouse — a large square 
coral building on Fort street (now a part of the American 
Factors, Ltd.) Its second story is the legislative hall until the 
new parliament buildings are completed. At other times, it is 
the chamber of the supreme court of the kingdom. 

Spectators, admitted by tickets, occupy seats in the center of 
the hall — the whites in front, the natives in the rear. In this 
throng I recognized the oldest missionary and the latest invalid, 
from the States, and between these two extremities, I see repre- 
sented all the gossip and fashion of Honolulu. In front are 
seated the nobles and representatives comprising the legislature — 
a curious mixture of Hawaiian and Anglo-Saxon men, of which 
the Hawaiians are decidedly the best looking. On the right of 
the rostrum are the ladies of the court, most of them Yankee 
girls once. On the left sits the black-clothed minister of the 
United States, the British and French commissioners, the officers 



GOLDEN COURT OF KAMEHAMEHAS 213 

of the British frigate "Scout," now in port, and the consular 
corps, all in gold lace, gilt buttons, swords, and whatever else 
adds pomp and circumstance to the occasion. There is an apothe- 
cary, consul for Austria ; a whaleman's agent, consul for Italy ; 
an auctioneer, consul for Chili. 

At 12 o'clock exactly the king leaves lolani Palace on King 
street, and a salute is commenced at the battery on Punchbowl 
Hill. In company with his chamberlain — a white- man — he enters 
a brouche drawn by four horses' and is escorted by his staff on 
horseback, and by the Hawaiian army which consists of two 
companies of natives with a company of whites sandwiched be- 
tween them. 

Now the procession has turned from King street into Fort 
street! for we who are waiting can hear the band playing the 
favorite air, "Ten Thousand Miles Away," which has aroused 
the town from its sleep many a morning lately. Soon we hear the 
strains of "God Save the King," expressed with an extra quan- 
tity of base drum, and we know that the king is alighting from 
his carriage in front of the courthouse. 

In a few minutes the marshal of the kingdom enters and 
throws over the chair of state the royal mantle, or mamo. This 
is one of the treasures of the crown. It was the war-cloak of 
Kamehameha I, made of bright yellow feathers taken from a 
bird called the mamo, which was found only in the mountains. 
As each bird furnished but two feathers for it, one from under 
each wing, the birds required to supply the material were innum- 
erable. It is four feet long and spreads eleven feet at the bottom. 
Nine generations of chiefs were occupied in making it. (It is 
now in the Bishop Museum in a hermetically sealed case, and 
Open for the view of travelers once a month.) Of course every- 
body looks at this historical mantle with interest, but not for 
long; for now there enter four native men in dark broadcloth 
overcoats and capes, and black silk hats of stovepipe style, bear- 
ing the royal kahilis — emblems of the royal presence. These are 
long staffs, whose upper part, for two or three feet from the top, 
is covered with brilliant bird feathers of various colors, fixed at 
right angles to it, looking like a gay chimney-sweep's brush. 



214 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

These four men with kahilis erect, stand at the four corners of 
the rostrum ; when now enters the chancellor head of the supreme 
court of the kingdom (a New England born gentleman) ; ihen 
the King, Kamehameha V; then, at a respectful distance, the 
ministers and staff officers — all white men in brilliant uniforms. 

I cannot repress a smile at the appearance of these civilized 
men, caparisoned with barbaric glory ! There is our American- 
born banker, a scarlet ribbon around his neck, from which hangs 
the sparkling insignia of Hawaiian knighthood. There is the 
little minister of finance, an excellent American-bom dentist. 
There is the tall, scheming minister of foreign affairs, also 
minister of the navy that is yet to be, and of war not yet de- 
clared, once an American lawyer. There is the dignified minister 
of the interior, general manager and police supervisor of the 
kingdom, once a crusty Scotch physician. There is the attorney- 
genera! of the crown, who recently went to New England and 
married a wife. All these are in cocked hats and blue broad- 
cloth, with gilt bands, laces and decoratitns ; their rapiers buckled 
at their sides, and they themselves appearing to be very uncom- 
fortable. 

When the King enters the hall the audience rises and every 
eye is turned upon him. He looks like a King; large, tall, broad- 
shouldered, dignified, portly, self-possessed. He is faultlessly 
attired in a blue dress coat with gilt buttons, black trousers, white 
vest and white kid gloves. He walks deliberately to the chair, 
like a man who understands what is expected of him. After a 
prayer in Hawaiian, by the archdeacon of the Episcopal church, 
the assembly rises to its feet while the king stands up and reads 
from a page in a velvet folio his speech to the legislature, in the 
Hawaiian tongue. Then he turns the page and reads the same 
in English. He congratulates the legislature on the permanent 
establishment of steam communication between the Islands and 
California, and the Australian Colonies, considering the money 
devoted to that object wisely expended. He says that agricul- 
ture is the life of the nation, and has repaid those who have pur- 
sued it during the past two years; that, since their adjournment, 
he has signed a treaty of amity and commerce with the Emperor 



GOLDEN COURT OF KAMEHAMEHAS 215 

of Japan; that the proposed Treaty of Reciprocity with the 
United States has not been ratified. He informs them of the 
death of Queen Kalama, wife of Kamehameha III, and with the 
customary generalities about education, justice, peace and pros- 
perity, he concludes with the words, "We do now declare the 
legislature of the Kingdom opened" — "Ke kukala ia ku nei ua 
weheia keia Ahaolelo Kau Kanawai o ke Aupuni." 

Then he retires to an adjoining room, where he receives the 
congratulations of those who have a right to receive them. 
Entering his carriage, he is driven at full speed to the palace ; 
the natives crowding along the sidewalks after bim, saying to 
each other, "Ka Moi! Ka Moi!" — "The King! The King!" and 
his four kahili -hearers running by the side of the carriage, each 
one trying to keep his place by the wheel. The staff officers 
gallop pell-mell after him; the immense army marches leisurely 
back to its quarters, following the noise band; and the legislature 
adjourns until the morrow. So Bliss wrote of a colorful historic 
function Hawaii nei. 

That describes a typical official day in Honolulu during the 
reigns of the Kamehamehas. It was so during the reign of King 
Kalakaua. He was kingly, dignified, soft-voiced, speaking in the 
purest English, suave, polished, courteous, and who in time was 
surrounded by those who loved the little opera-bouffe court, and 
Hawaii was lauded to the skies by travelers, poets, writers, 
musicians. All were golden days. 

The court life of the Kamehamehas commanded the admira- 
tion of distinguished royal guests of foreign nations when a 
coterie of beautiful Hawaiian women comprised the train of 

Queen Emma, whose charm of manner and face caused many a 
heart-flutter among the foreigners who were guests of the mon- 
arch. Of all that galaxy of Hawaiian beauty only one or two re- 
main alive in this year of 1922, and like Empress Eugenie, the 
most beautiful woman upon a European throne in her time, 
these survivors have become obscure as time and politics have 
changed the trend of their lives and careers. Of all who gath- 
ered about the court of Kamehameha IV as court ladies, only the 
High Chiefess Kekaniau Pratt survives. 



216 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

The days of the reigns of Kamehameha IV and V, viewed 
from the present time, may be regarded as indolent ones, but 
it was a period when every beau and belle, every matron and 
maid had been measured, weighed, appraised and set in place in 
the social circle. There was much warm social life in Honolulu. 
Men and women from all nations formed the social community. 
The sentiment of Honolulu society was the sentiment of the 
songs which Cora sang to David Copperfield — "generally to 
the effect, that, whatever was the matter, we ought always to 
dance." It was pleasing to see with what enjoyment both white 
and Hawaiian Honolulu tripped the light fantastic toe ; whether 
the occasion was to be a reception of the officers of a visiting 
frigate, the christening of a new hotel, a fire company's jubilee, 
the marrage of a belle, or a birthday anniversary, the host on 
the latter occasion, commencing it with a picnic in the country 
and ending with an exhaustive dance in town. A king at hand 
was the leader of society. Queen-Dowager Emma was next, 
who sometimes summoned society to dance at her pleasant home 
in Nuuanu, called by the everlasting name of Hanatakamalama. 
Next were the cabinet ministers and so on down the line. 

On (he arrival of a war ship the officers were presented to the 
king at his palace, always at noonday, when the sunlight glistens 
with best effect upon the resplendent gold of scabbards, buttons, 
epaulets and laces. The visit is soon returned by the king, 
attended by his staff and cabinet, by the governor and his staff. 
The wives must also go. Good wines are always in the lockers 
of the frigate, and good dancers in her wardroom. The frigate 
mans her yards, fires a royal salute, gives her guests to eat and 
to drink and sends them ashore with noisy courtesies. The 
officers of the ship are now welcome to the hospitalities of so- 
ciety. 

On a succeeding day two or three foreign consuls may 
be seen pulling off quietly in a boat to visit the frigate, take a 
drink, and receive a salute; after which they return as quietly 
to their shops and relate the adventure. Until the 19th amend- 
ment was adopted the best cocktails were always to be mixed 
in the cabin of the captain and in the wardroom of the frigates. 



GOLDEN COURT OF KAMEHAMEHAS 217 

then tile steam wooden-walled warships, and until recently the 
leviathan steel battlecruisers of the modern day. 

"Steamer day" was the most important day of all, for the mails 
came, and for a few days the town was agog with interest, the 
latest gossip, and then gradually eased down to await the next 
mail steamer. 



CHAPTER XIX 



MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 



COURT OF BOHEMIANS. 

THOSE were bright-hued decades of Hawaii when Kame- 
hameha III reigned, back in the Ws and 50*s of last cen- 
tury, the years of the full skirts made from brocaded Chi- 
nese silks and satins brought to Honolulu by traders; the days 
of the odd shaped holoku (mother-hubbard) with the leg-o'- 
mutton sleeves ; the days when the shoulders of the women. 
especially those of the royal court and of society, were draped 
with Chinese shawls and the coiffures were surmounted by high- 
backed Spanish tortoise-shell combs brought from Mexico an'i 
South America, and because of the combs and mantillas and bro- 
cades it was a court savoring much of Spanish and Chinese in- 
fluence in the modes. In the early part of his reign the era of the 
Ancient tapa {fiber cloth) covering for women was passing and 
they were yielding to the insistent call of civilization's decrees in 
raiment. It was a period when the men rode vaquero-style with 
tasseled sashes of brilliant colors, embroidered silk shirts, broad- 
brimmed hats, and jingling spurs, for the Spanish saddles were 
incomplete without these accouterments, even to the whip stocks. 
It was a lavender-scented period when Kamehameha IV and 
his lovely queen, Emma Kaleleonalani, occupied the throne. 
Royalty felt the influence of the British court and its require- 
ments for the conduct of the social functions, the era when the 
Victorian influence pervaded civilization's realm. Both Kameha- 
meha IV and V, aside from their own personal manner, had 
acquired a polish in foreign lands, for they had traveled abroad 
with Dr. G. P. Judd, who was a high official in the courts of the 
Kamehamehas. Queen Emma, particularly, leaned toward the 



MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 219 

English and as a result the court was greatly Anglicized. Both 
rulers, Kamehameha IV and Queen Emma, presided with dig- 
nity and it was considered elegant. Low bows and obeisances, 
quiet dignity in the throne room during receptions and levees were 
charming features of this royal conrt of the Pacific, but it was 
also a merry one. This, of course, is the social side of the reign. 
The cares of state, the administration of government, the 
troubles that beset a throne and a crowned head, were other 
matters, a part of history with the rough corners still un- 
smoothed. Kamehameha IV was the suave, elegant niler. The 
balls were brilliant in his reign because of the galaxy of Hawaiian 
beauties, his court being noted for its beautiful women. 

His brother, Kamehameha V, was the stately and dignified 
ruler who brought to his court all the pomp and ceremony that 
were existent in courts abroad. He was the diplomat and a stern 
ruler, yet, like all Hawaiian monarchs, given to asserting much of 
his authority in public and exercising all the perogatives of his 
rank. 

But the exotic flower of royal life came to full blossom in the 
reign of King Kalakaua — "Rex" as he was familiarly referred to — 
for it was then that Hawaii became the mecca of travelers and 
Honolulu became a capital of more importance to the world and 
the home of the American navy in the western sea. That in itself 
brought an unusual amount of social life into the kingdom and 
particularly into the court. Artists brought their palettes from 
Europe and America to Honolulu ; writers came with their pens 
and paper to record their thoughts of the charm of life in the 
miniature kingdom ; musicians from abroad caught the soft, 
golden melodies of Hawaii nei in the web of their compositions; 
diplomats brought the elements of statecraft to Honolulu and 
watched the intriques behind the palace doors. 

It was a reign of joys and sorrows, of splendor and tawdriness, 
for adventurers wormed their way into society, but it was a 
reign which was more or less briUiant and the festivities at the 
palace, for a new palace was built for Kalakaua and his formal 
coronation years after bis accession, were costly but splendid 
functions lasting for days. Kalakaua had toured the world and 



220 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

visited dozens of royal capitals, and must have a coronation of 
his own. To Honolulu, on February 12, 1883, came envoys extra- 
ordinary from brother kings, sent especially to be present at this 
first formal coronation ceremony in the mid-sea Polynesian king- 
dom, for Kalakaua had a real crown placed upon his head, one 
that was fashioned in Paris, as were the glittering orders an'd 
decorations that were employed much as orders and decorations 
were employed abroad. He was an extravagant monarch. 

So, on the brighter side of Kalakaua's reign, the balls and re- 
ceptions at the palace, upon the decks of warships, the garden 
parties at Princess Likelike's home at Ainahau, Waikiki, where 
Robert Louis Stevenson used to visit so often in later jears, was 
the side that appealed to visitors to Honolulu. 

How many admirals today came to Honolulu then as middies; 
how many distinguished men and women of letters, the arts, 
persons of wealth and culture, came here, ever afterwards to be 
all animation when Hawaii was mentioned when Hawaii was 
only a lingering, sweet memory — 

"Ua ohi pakahi ia aku nei e ka po" — 
"The night has taken them one by one," 



YESTERDAYS OF HAWAII NEI 

DAYS of the long ago golden era of the Kamehameha and 
Kalakaua regimes of Hawaii nei, when the latchstrings 
of hospitable homes of Hawaiians and haoles (white- 
foreigners) alike hung outside never-locked doors, seem very far _ 
away to kamaainas today. Kamaainas lived in those delightful 
days and nights and revelled in an atmosphere which breathed 
of good cheer and royal times, for decades ago when royalty was 
atop the social whirl and held sway in these fair isles of the 
Pacific there was open sesame to the pretentious residences of 
Nuuanu's aristocratic avenue — the bungalows upon The Plains, 
or the small, possibly ungainly, but cozy little vine-embowered 
homes of the Hawaiians rising in the midst of green taro patches. 




KamoliamfliiL V, llu' most stiili'Iy of iill ITauniiiiii nionar.lis, win 
"I am ttio Stall'," niiil iiliri>>!;iti'il tlie Cimslitiitioti firaiiti'il 1 







Qiipcii Kii]iiuliiiiJ, the beautiful consort of Kinj; Kalakaua, whose 

iiiojiiiiiieiil (if uurlliy .lorils is Uip Kapioliini Jlntcriiify 

Honip ill Honolulu. 



MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 221 

Many may be the links connecting a kamaaina today with his 
wished-for-again monarchial past of Honolulu. Some may be 
withered flowers preserved between the leaves of books through 
the decades, as reminders of receptions in an afternoon, a luau in 
the evening, a picnic or a gorgeous entertainment at a country 
home of a wealthy and hospitable Hawaiian one week, or of a 
■ haole the next. 

Often the memories recall long horseback rides home in moon- 
lit evenings when the kamaaina was a young girl, when romance 
and love overshadowed all else in life and when the companion 
was a dashing naval officer, an American middy perchance, who 
today may be an admiral, and only recently the quarterdeck com- 
panion of British royalty and the peerage. The memories may 
recall many dashing officers or the gallant blades of the town 
prone to compose songs in English and in Hawaiian dedicated to 
the daughters of Hawaii nei, later to be set to music by Hawaiian 
musicians and then to cascade in melodies down the ages for 
others to hear and to make Hawaiian music — the sweet languor- 
ous, slow, deep-toned melodies with their accompaniments of 
strumming guitars and tinkling ukuleles — the music that ever 
haunts the memory. 

There are many names associated with the rare hospitality of 
those former days, particularly during the reign of King Kala- 
kaua from 1874 to 1891. There was John A. Cummins, of Wai- 
manalo; Edwin Boyd of Maunawili; the Princess Likelike, wife 
of A. S. Oeghorn, and before them Captain Meek, "The Lord of 
Lihue Ranch;" the Robinsons and Holls of Halemano and Oahu 
nui. There was Captain Makee and his family, mostly charming 
daughters, and the two sons, at "Ulupalakua" upon the slopes of 
the ancient crater of Haleakala, a beantiful home and an atmos- 
phere of open hospitality in what visitors called "A Garden of 
Eden" — "Ulupalakua" — where many young men who had 
dropped off from sailing ships at Maui ports, found a cordial 
welcome and work. Many of them today are prosperous citizens. 
Naval men, whose vessels anchored off Lahaina, never felt they 
had really seen Maui until they had dined at "Ulupalakua," where 
the door panels were decorated by distinguished artists who were 



222 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

entertained there. There was Col. Samuel Parker, the friend of 
Kalakaua, the "feudal lord" of Mana, Island of Hawaii. Hi^ 
wonderful home high up on the slopes of Mauna Kea was known 
from Europe to Asia, for there was always generous, openhearted 
hospitality at Mana, where the lord and master spent lavishly to 
entertain guests. 

Then over on Kauai, the Garden Isle, there were the Sinclair?, 
Gays and the Aubrey Robinsons, the Rices and Wikoxes, inon- 
archs for a time of all they surveyed on the beautiful island 
whose hospitality has never ceased even to this day. 

Not alone were the few conspicuous ones whose lavish hos- 
pitality gave them fame, the only ones who were hospitable. 
Many were the tales of hospitality carried back to New England 
by Ihe captains and officers of whaling ships. The homes of 
Honolulans generally were open to them for early Sunday morn- 
ing breakfasts. The captains rode out to these homes taking 
with them pickled tongues and sounds and other edibles from the 
ships' stores, brought around the Horn from New England. 
Upon the tables were eggs and chickens added to the offerings 
of the guests. These were the nine o'clock breakfasts that be- 
came popular, a charming custom that is still adhered to by many 
kamaainas,, for kamaainas in this day enjoy a Sunday mornina; 
repast with Sanford B. Dole at his delightful home at Diamond 
Head. 

When John Cummins, who was a part-Hawaiian of very dis- 
tinguished appearance, entertained, it was upon a vast scale. 
His sugar plantation covered a part of the Waimanalo plain. 
There was his private race course and his stables filled with fast 
trotters, pacers, and runners. There were many cottages near 
his own home, a group for the men guests and another group 
for the women. Sometimes there would be fifty, sometimes a 
hundred guests, most of whom left Honolulu at four o'clock in 
the morning on horseback. Arriving at Waimanalo they found 
tables groaning with the best food that land and sea produced. 
It was a merry party, lasting several days. There would be a 
fancy ball possibly, or a series of tableaux, always the hula. 



MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 223 

music from morning till late at night and plenty to drink, but 
the host never touched a drop. 

Mr. Cummins on one occasion opened the Kapiolani race track 
on a March 17, his birthday, and gave a luau and a race meet to 
which all the town was bidden and when his own swift horses, 
many of which came from the stables of Lorillard, the New York 
and Florida tobacco king, and many from the stables of Leland 
Stanford, of CaHfornia, were the prize winners of the day, for 
they seldom could be beaten. 

Another hospitable ranch on the Koolau side was Maunawili, 
home of Edwin Boyd, Upon her return from a party there one 
time Princess (afterwards Queen) Liliuokalani rode ahead of 
her cavalcade up the Pali Road and hummed and hummed and 
finally burst into song, a sweet melody that was new to the ears 
of her party. It was upon that ride home, accompanied by Mr, 
and Mrs, C. B. Wilson and Mr. and Mrs. Ned Bush that 
"Aloha Oe" had its beginnings, the most beautiful of all Ha- 
waiian songs, the one that brings tears to the eyes of Honolulans 
abroad, and inspires a desire in foreigners to visit isles which 
produce such melodies. 

When royalty rode to Waimanalo or Maunawili or to country 
parties they were accompanied by pa-u riders, a herald on horse- 
back preceding the whole party an hour to announce their 
coming. It was a gay cavalcade when the king's party rode, the 
women riders wearing brilliant-colored pa-us, as required by 
Queen Kapiolani. She was a beautiful and graceful woman. 

This recalls the days when Captain Meek controlled Lihue and 
Wahiawa on t)ahu under lease from the government. He raised 
thorough-bred horses and his daughters rode the finest in the land. 
The Meek animals were known all over the Islands, especially his 
white horse called "Pu-a," His oldest daughter Eliza was often 
seen riding the horse through the streets of Honolulu garbed in 
a wonderful pa-u, with a dozen or more followers riding behind 
her wearing the same color of garment. Eli Meek, his son, was 
a magnificent horseman and the beau of the day. His youngest 
daughter, Becky, married Horatio Crabbe, chamberlain of K,i- 
mehameha and Lunalilo. 



224 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Kamehameha III (Kauikeouli), although a king, was one of 
the first ranchers in the islands, owning the largest on the Big 
Island, from the top of Mauna Kea to the sea. He had William 
Beckley for his partner and afterwards Olohana Davis. Beckley 
carried his own portion independently, calling it "Little Mexico," 
where he raised thoroughbred horses. This was at Wairaea, 
and a portion of this is now the famous Parker Ranch, and 
famed long ago for Colonel "Sam's" lavish hospitality. "Billy" 
Cornwell and Prince David Kawananakoa owned the last string 
of horses during the days of the monarchy, and made Waikapu, 
Maui, the former's home, famous. 

Many were the homes of large hospitaHty in and near Hono- 
lulu. J. I. Dowsett was one of the princes of hospitality, at his 
country place at Puuioa, near the present naval station, and also 
at Leilchua (now (he great military post of Schofield Barracks!, 
after he purchased the ranch from King Kalakawa, and at his old 
home at "Hauhaukoi," Palama, where there were garden parties, 
balls, receptions and poi suppers and luaus and dances afterwards. 
The Leilehua home was formerly King Kalakaua's shooting box, 
and in later years it was the first headquarters of the commanding 
officer of Schofield Barracks, the big United States division post. 

In the old days Ford Island, in Pearl Harbor, was owned by 
Dr. Seth Porter Ford, the physician of Kamehameha IV and 
Princess Royal Victoria Kamamalu, and he entertained there, 
while later John li entertained royally there for his ward, the 
Princess Victoria. In subsequent years "Cabbie" Brown made 
Ford Island the rendezvous of good fellowship, and it was there 
that the Chiefs of Hawaii had their initiations until Uncle Sam 
stepped in, bought the island and converted it into Luke Field, 
the greatest army and navy aviation base in the Pacific today. 

Up at "Ahipuu," where the home of George Sherman is now 
located near the Oahu Country Club, John Cummins also enter- 
tained lavishly, but was particularly noted for the reason that it 
was there a picnic was given for the Duke of Edinburgh in 1869. 
There are four principal events in Hawaii — Discovery of Ha- 
waii by Captain Cook — Landing of the Missionaries in 1820 — 
The smallpox in 1853, and the visit of the Duke of Edinburgh in 



MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 225 

1869. Everything else dwindles into insignificance, but to the 
Hawaiians these four events radiate as the cardinal pmnts of the 
compass of time. 

Down at Kualoa, oh Windward Oahu, Col. C. H. Judd enter- 
tained in fine style. At Waialua, Liliuokalani had a country seat 
and where she as the wife of Governor John Dominis entertained. 
At Esbank, Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Wilder brought within its hos- 
pitable door guests who found a charming welcome, where 
they danced and attended receptions and partook of wonderful 
refreshments. "Sweet Home" in Nuuanu entertained often. 
Queen Emma had a home at Kalaekao. near Ewa, where she 
entertained exclusively the members of Hawaiian royahy and her 
friends of the British colony. She also entertained very ex- 
clusively at her home at Nuuanu and Beretania, called Rooke 
House, where the Liberty Theater and auto park are now located. 
Hawaiian families and the British colony were always her favored 
guests, but the grandest functions she gave during the Hfe ot 
her consort Kamehameha IV, were always at Hanaiakamalama, 
now the home of the Daughters of Hawaii. The two homes of 
Mr. and Mrs. C. Afong, in Nuuanu and Waikiki, were the ren- 
dezvous .of the navy and exclusive society, where balls and dinner 
parties were frequent and brilliant. During his service as Privy 
Councillor of the Hawaiian Government and afterwards as Chi- 
nese consul, he was a lavish entertainer. Mrs, Afong was part 
Hawaiian and part American. Her father, A. H. Fayerweather, 
of New York and Connecticut, was the first white sugar planter 
in Hawaii. Her mother was Mary Beckley, daughter of Capt. 
George Beckley, the English friend and military adviser of Ka- 
mehameha the Great. 

Dr. John McGrew, called the "Father of Annexation," was 
also among the hospitable entertainers during the Lunalilo and 
Kalakaua regimes, his wife being considered one of the best 
gowned haole women of Honolulu, 

The old English families, the Montgomerys and the McKib- 
bins, were exclusive entertainers, their tennis parties being fea- 
tures. The beautiful Neuman girls were all belles. 

There was "Old Plantation," the home of the Wards, where 



226 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

an exclusive hospitality was dispensed as it is today. The home 
of Major Wodehouse, the British Commissioner, was notable for 
its functions, and his galaxy of beautiful daughters. 

There were the Walker girls of Nuuanu, who were belles of 
that day. The Widemann girls were lavish entertainers. 

The visitor to Hawaii in the days of Kalakaua found a rare 
and charming atmosphere of hospitality here and it was little 
wonder that writers, explorers, scientists, painters, travelers and 
wealthy men from San Francisco and New York, owners of 
palatial yachts should come to Honolulu to meet and know the 
king and partake of the wonderful hospitality of that era, and it 
is little wonder that naval officers, whether of the American, 
British, French, Russian navies, longed for assignment to the Pa- 
cific so that now and then their ships could drop their anchors in 
Naval Row, across the harbor, for they knew that cordial "welcome 
awaited them ashore not only in the palace of the king and the 
homes of (he hospitable, but from among the fairest of Hawaii's 
maidens, and a flower given to the sweetheart of that day, brings 
up sweet memories when it is found again after many decades 
between the leaves of a forgotten book. 



GIDDY PALACE AND QUARTERDECK DAYS 

NOW and then when kamaaina Honofulans straighten up 
shelves of old books or clean out ancient decks a flood of 
memories flows before them when an ornate "Carte de 
Danse," adorned with the familiar crown of the Hawaiian mon- 
archy resting upon a tasscled pillow and surrounded by orna- 
mental borders of elaborate design and coloring, comes to view. 
This was of the age when the jessamine scent was borne on 
the breezes everywhere at eventide. At four in the afternoon the 
maidens strung leis of starry jessamine buds that resembled 
pearls, which gradually opened in their hair when they wore the 
fragrant decorations at a ball in the evening. 
The little dance card was intended, when the palace chamber- 



MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 227 

lain ordered it printed, to be of permanent value and he prob- 
ably had a fomantic idea stored away that in long days to come 
some of the belles and beaux attending the ball that night in the 
palace with the king and his queen viewing the formal throng in 
the brilliant throne-room, might come across the card again and 
dream over the joyous and thrilling incidents of this night of the 
past. It was printed on heavy card and folded. Upon the cover 
was the date, probably October 28, 1889, and upon the back cover 
within the gorgeous border was the crown above the familiar 
"KIK" surrounded by Kamehameha Ill's motto — "Ua mau ke 
ea o ka aina i ka pono" ("The life of the land reposes in right- 
eousness"). 

But within! Ah, within! If the cover and the date recall 
terpsichorean memories to a belle or beau of that day, now per- 
haps a matron who has passed the half century of life, or a formal 
man of business, a captain of industry, perchance a retired capi- 
talist, the two narrow pages within reveal a story of romance 
and adventure and perhaps of love — all that went with the bril- 
liancy of a gay revel in the palace throne room, when officers 
of the navy and marine corps, perhaps of both the American and 
British navies, were ashore in their full dress. uniforms all aglitter 
with gold lace (a dashing corps of men in those days when the 
marine officers were described as "very gay fellows" and the 
navy "dashing"). 

There is the "Order of D.ances" on one page and opposite, 
"engagements." How old fashioned and pleasurable the pretty 
souvenir Carte de Danse numbers read. But where is the ."Fox 
Trot," the "One Step," the "Hesitation," the "Ragtime?" 

The tiny ornate pages recall, however, the music of Strauss — 
"The Blue Danube" — and other ravishing waltzes, those dreamy 
waltzes when people danced for the sheer love of the beauty in 
dancing, and had no idea of giving acrobatic exhibitions. There 
was the old-time Lancers, such as was danced half and three- 
quarters of a century and more ago in America and England, 
at the old army posts under the shadow of Old Glory and the 
Union Jack, when old as well as young laughed and cantered to 



228 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

the "right" and to the "left" to the stentorian commands of the 
"caller." 

Do you remember, you matrons and staid old business men of 
today, when you were rolHcking young women and dashing young 
gentlemen of the golden Kalakaua reign, or of the brilliant days 
of the Kamehameha re^me, when you basked in the sunshine of 
the royal court, opera bouffe though some cynics term it — when 
you received in the Kalakaua days a great big envelope embossed 
with a golden crown and within it a great big card in gold 
lettering reading like this? 

The Chamberlain of the Household 
Is Commanded by 
HIS MAJESTY 

To invite Miss To a Ball 

At lolani Palace on 

the 28th Day of October, at 8 o'clock 

Full Dress. 
Then that evening was received a Carte de Danse. There came 
the Lancers danced to the music of the white- coated musicians 
of the Royal Hawaiian Band, and an officer had already come 
up, sought your carte and pencilled upon it "Barnett." Let's 
see, yes, he's Major-General Barnett, head of the marine corps 
today, with a brilliant war record, but in 1889 he was dapper 
Lieut. "Georgie" Barnett, of the old wooden man-o'-war Iroquois 
and today a major-general in the marine corps and as dashing 
as ever despite the flow of years. Then came the waltz music, 
"1001 Nights," and near it was a pencilled "Sim" (or it may have 
been back in 1887) or further back, but no matter. "Billy" 
Sims, the directing admiral of the American fleet overseas in 
the World War, friend of King George, pencilled his name on 
the Carte de Danse of many a Honolulu belle and danced well! 
Many dowagers of Honolulu today recall "Billy" Sims as a 
dashing beau. The Polka (one has to say it twice to recall there 
ever was such a dance), music, "Dragoons," and the name 
"Blandin." Jovial Ensign Blandin, of the Alert and Nipsic, 
who went down with the Maine in Havana harbor. There is 
the "York" with Paymaster Harry Webster's name attachel. 





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MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 229 

The girls doted on Harry for he was a wonderful dancer. The 
Waltz again, whirled to the delightful music of the "Mikado," 
for Gilbert and Sullivan were then in their heyday of popularity. 
Opposite is the name "Hilary P. Jones," now an admiral in the 
highest rank, but then an ensign, who came here with the Nipsic 
after the Samoan disaster. But his fame rests on the fact that 
he brought the "two-step" to Honolulu and inducted the girls 
into its mysteries 

Can you remember, girls of the Monarchy, ihe Schottische 
played to the tune of ''Fifteen Dollars," and the waltz again 
played to the divine melody of "The Gypsy Baron," a melody 
which is as much Hawaiian as any real Hawaiian melody? The 
"Gypsy Baron," with its dreamy, entrancing air made a Hawaiian 
moonlight night one never to be forgotten, especially if it was a 
ball at the palace and in addition to the dash and gayety of the 
navy and marine corps officers as there was added the brilliancy 
of the diplomatic corps and the court attaches and ladies of the 
court. 

There were other balls in other months and other years, and 
there were officers coming and remaining awhile and going away 
on cruises again, but coming back until they were kamaainas 
and, let it be said softly and gently, the return of the warships 
was eagerly awaited by the island sweethearts, haole and Ha- 
waiian alike. 

There are old women in Honolulu today, grandmothers, who 
recall the days when Admiral Wilkes came to Honolulu with his 
American frigate, a three-decker, and they danced aboard, going 
to the ship in hoop skirts and low neck waists in the afternoon, 
and when they left the ships they were met ashore by native run- 
ners and two wheeled carts in which they were placed and 
escorted to their homes, their uniformed beaux from the ship 
trotting alongside. 

Then came the later days of the Lackawanna, the Tuscarora, 
the Mohican, the Wachussetts, the Portsmouth, the Vandalia, all 
of the American navy, and the Champion with Captain Rooke and 
his group of fine officers, and the Reindeer and the Espiegle and 
many other warships flying the Union Jack of Queen Victoria's 



230 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

day. And then came French and Russian warships, warships 
from all over the world, even the Argentine officers of visiting 
cruisers from that nation becoming great beaux, while the Italian 
warships always had a member of royalty aboard, which pre- 
saged many wonderful receptions and dances ashore and royal 
times aboard for the girls. 

There was just as much interest among the girls of the Kala- 
kaua period in going aboard a warship to dance away an after- 
noon or an evening on ihe quarterdeck as in going to a ball at 
the Palace. At the old Boat Landing on Queen street the girls 
and their chaperons were met by junior officers in launches or 
the ship's big boats rowed by sturdy bluejackets, and escorted to 
the warship anchored in "Naval Row" across the harbor, far 
away from the down town throng. The warships were not too 
distant, however, for immediately a warship dropped her anchor 
in the row a telephone was put aboard, and hour after hour, 
the belles of Honolulu conversed over the wire with the officers 
and made their engagements for dinner parties, horseback rides, 
dips at the beach, picnics and all manner of good times. Often 
the king would go aboard to attend the afternoon dances, attired 
in white flannels and attended by Prince David, Prince Knhio and 
his chamberlain. Col. C. P. laukea, who, in his day was also one 
of the gallants of the period, who, as an envoy extraordinary, 
visited every court in Europe, or Col. James H. Robertson or 
young Purvis. 

The dances on the quarterdeck were ever- to- be- remembered 
occasions. From 2 to 5 :30 the ship's band played and the officers 
attended strictly to the business of entertaining and doing it 
royally, serving ices and salads, and there was always a great 
punchbowl, for aboard each warship was a past master In the 
art of concocting the most wonderful punch ever tasted. 

There were later days when the U. S. S. Charleston was here, 
when the admiral, captain and officers not only gave balls on the 
quarterdeck of the ships, but entertained formally ashore at the 
Royal Hawaiian Hotel. Admiral Kimberley and his officers en- 
tertained aboard the Vandalia in 1888, and the admiral and 
officers of the flagship Mohican entertained later on, but the 



MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 231 

Wachussetts was here in 1883, and established a reputation for 
exceptional hospitality. 

When the Tuscarora, the Lackawanna and Portsmouth and 
Benicia came here in tlie 70's, Admiral Belknap, then a captain, 
became one of Honolulu's great friends, and among the junior 
officers were William Whiting, later admiral, who married a 
Honolulu belle; ElHcot, a middy, now an admiral, and Admiral 
Fletcher came as a junior in the 80's and walked to Nuuanu 
cemetery in the funeral procession of Queen Emma. He re- 
turned to Honolulu in 1919 as a rear admiral and in command 
of Pearl Harbor Naval Station. There was Admiral Brown 
with his aid, Lieulenant Blow, during Liliuokalani's ascension, 
and Admiral Hugh Rodman and Victor Blue, and Major "Tippy" 
Kane, and "Dearie" Miller, dashing "blades" of the marine corp?. 

The "townies" grouped together in the old and famous "Maile 
Club" and entertained the officers ashore at dances in the old 
Royal Hawaiian Hotel. 

The beaux of that early day were "Jimmy" Dowsett, Harry 
Whitney, "Jack" Dowsett, "Bonnie" Monsarrat, "Cabbie" 
Brown, H. R. Macfarlane, Arthur Richardson, Cecil Brown, 
Col. Sam Parker, Bruce Cartwright and many others, many of 
them as dapper today as then. Later on the "lownies" that were 
always welcome aboard were "Ned" Dowsett, Faxon Bishop, 
Ed. Tenney, Dr. George Herbert, Sam, "Kauka," and Jamie 
Wilder, "Tommy" Cummins, "Willie" Graham, Captain Haley, 
Captain Smythe, Francis Hatch. Curtis laukea, Jimmie Boyd, 
Antone Rosa, Sam Maikai, "Johnnie" Walker, Herman Focke, 
Henry McGrew, Dr. C. B. Wood, genial Paul Neumann, whose 
house was the "home of the navy," Tony Afong, Paul Tsenberg, 
Harry von Holt, "Joe" Carter, Mark Robinson, "Mannie" 
Phillips, Sam Louison, Sam Monsarrat, Carl Wideman, the Wodc- 
house boys, Mclnerny boys, George Potter and Montgomery 
Mather, the "dude." Many of them are still in Hawaii, white- 
haired, and full of reminiscences of the "golden days." 

The finding of an old carte de danse recalls many pleasing 
memories of old palace and quarterdeck days in Hawaii nei, anJ 
brings to mind the poem which a naval officer, popular in those 



232 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

days, wrote when his vessel had sailed out of old Honolulu harbor 
leaving all the entrancing Honolulu days and nights, the strum 
of the guitar and tinkle of the ukulele behind, for he, too, was 
sad when he said : 

"The breeze blows down Nuuanu's vale. 

And wafts us o'er the swelling tide; 

The jessamine scent borne on the wind 

Conies to us fainter from the shore; 

Nuuanu's vale is growing dim. 

The harbor's past — we're on the sea. 

Abeam are breakers rolling in 

Upon the Beach at Waikiki ; 

Leahi's peak looms 'gainst the sky. 

Fair Honolulu's lost to view; 

We'll oft recall these isles gone by 

And all the fair ones that we knew; 

Dark eyes their witching glances cast. 

Sweet voices sang in the lanai 

Of moonlit rays and hours past 

'Neath tropic skies in happiness. 

Fill up your glasses, let us drink 

To all our friends we've left behind, 

God speed to you and all your race. 

For dearer friends we'll never meet. 



LAMENT OF THE KAMAAINA 

ISOLATION was, after all, the dominating charm of Hawaii, 
of Honolulu, in those old days before the cable linked the 
Islands with the news of the great round world; before wire- 
less mysteriously bound them closer not only to the mainland of 
America, but with the romantic and little known isles of the 
South Seas, where primitive life may still be found; before fast 
steamers replaced the beautifully built, long, rakish vessels with 
masts and sails, whose every detail breathed the spirit of adven- 



MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 233 

ture and voyages to strange lands, and long sojourns apart from 
civilized realms. 

Honolulu today is a city much like any other city of its size, 
either inland or on the fringe of the coast. It is modern in its 
paved streets, its clanging trolley cars, its traffic police, its office 
buildings and hotels, its "movies," and its politics. Even the 
waterfront has changed to what is considered the last thing in 
wharf arrangements, bunkering and oiling of ships, and loading 
and unloading cargoes. 

The life at famous Waikiki Beach is similar to that at Palm 
Beach and Del Monte, for Dame Fashion has extended her realm 
from Paris and New York to Honolulu. The stores resemble 
those in San Francisco. The automobiles are like those every- 
where else, and the rates and routes are similar. 

Is it any wonder that a kamaaina (old inhabitant) laments the 
"old days" — the "good old days?" 

Isolation, after all, was coupled with the abundant tropical 
verdure, and the fine Hawaiian race was then unspoiled by too 
close contact with all the world. 

A week or two weeks went by in those old days between 
arrivals of stow steamers from the States. Used to living apart 
from the rest of the world, the nonarrival of steamers did not 
particularly aimoy, irritate or embarrass any one, resident or 
traveler. Travelers in those days were travelers, not tourists. 
Their voyages and cruises had been planned with elaborate care 
and they came here for a sojourn. It was not then a trip. It 
was a Journey and they "sojourned" in the charming mid-pacific 
Eden. They came to remain weeks, enjoying the slow, but pleas- 
ant and interesting life when royalty presided in the present-day. 
capitol, and all things, official and social, revolved around the 
king's and the queen's plans, and stayed months. 

Old time wooden warships of many nations remained many 
weeks. The officers became a real part of the island life. They 
made life-long friends. They came, many of them, as "middies" 
or lieutenants, and often returned in later years as captains and 
admirals to receive the same old hospitable aloha as in the past. 
This past was not always away back in the days of the Kameha- 



234 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

meha's but generally in the latter days of the Kalakaua and 
Liliuokalani reigns and the changing days of the Republic of 
Hawaii. 

Those were the days when writers and painters, poets and 
diplomats, explorers and scientists delighted to leave the busy 
mainland behind them and sail across sapphire seas to Honoluhi, 
a romantic land, which lived Up to their expectations, for they 
found a charm in the life of the royal court, and the hospitable 
homes of the haoles (white residents) and the Hawaiians alike. 
They reveled in the horseback trips to the Pali and out to Wai- 
manalo where John Cummins, gallant Hawaiian gentleman, 
entertained. 

Those were the days when the island steamers were small, but 
the passengers found pleasant companionship when they went 
to dreamy old Hilo and rode horseback or went in stages up to 
Kilauea volcano, where, upon the rim overlooking the seething 
caldron of lava, they found the hotel to be a log cabin with a 
"modern" addition, consisting of a frame section. Another 
charming visit then was a trip to Mana, high up on the slopes of 
Mauna Kea on Hawaii Island, where house parties were given 
by genial Col. Sam Parker, close friend of royalty and Hawaii's 
bon vivant. 

The pleasures of those days were long drawn out. The auto 
had not come to annihilate time and distance. What the travelers 
saw in the old days they saw long and drank in and absorbed 
the atmosphere of old Hawaii nei, which prompted the writing 
of many books on Hawaii, tributes of a rare character to the 
beauty and charm of the Islands. 

The hotels were the rendezvous of all who came here as well 
as the resident population. The Hawaiian Band — it was "royal" 
in those days — was an interlocking feature of everyday life, with 
picturesque Capt. Henri Berger, who was sent to Hawaii by 
Emperor William of Germany in 1872, to organize the Hawaiian 
Band, always wielding his baton at the palace, at the wharf and 
aboard warships. 

The isolation of Hawaii drew Robert Louis Stevenson, Charles 



MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 235 

Warren Stoddard, Mark Twain and many preeminent writers 
to bask in the sunlight of its picturesque life. 

It was a pleasure in the old days to wait for a steamer for days 
and days, and then to hear the siren whistle down town blow three 
long blasts. Honolulu got slowly into motion. In two hours 
the old Rio Janeiro, or the City of Peking, long, narrow, rakish 
looking steamers with towering masts and sharp bows, would 
turn in from the deep sea and start up the channel. 

Those were the days of countless hacks. Those were the days 
of Pain's mule cars, little rolling compartments drawn by dimin- 
utive mules — cars which stopped opposite the meat shop while 
milady went in and got her package of meat and then resumed 
her seat and was trundled on homeward. 

Those were the days when the old Bell manual telephone sys- 
tem was one which had a real male "central," who had only to 
throw a switch and all bells in residences jangled and "central" 
announced that the Rio Janeiro was "coming in." Those weri; 
the days when Mrs. Ledyard Lansdel would telephone to central 
and say that if anybody rang her up in the afternoon please tell 
her she was over at Mrs. Castle Helemai's until 4:30 and to ring 
her up there. "Central" was awfully obhging in those days, and 
kept the social calendar moving. A concert was to be given that 
evening in the old Opera House by a singer just arrived, say, 
from Australia. The manager told "central" and "central" 
opened up all phones and informed the town that the performance 
would start at 7:30 and so on. Today Honolulu is a city of auto- 
matic telephon'is and cables and radio systems which keep Ha- 
waii in constant touch with the outside world. 

So, when the steamer came up the channel, hacks joggled over 
the uneven streets toward the "Pacific Mail wharf," the most im- 
portant wharf in those days. It was about on the site of the 
huge present day piers, 6, 7 and part of 8, only it was buiU parallel 
with the shore. It was long, low, saggy and the dirt of ages 
clung to it, but the people in the old days had a lot of affection 
for "Pacific Mail wharf." 

The boat came up to the dock. The Hawaiian Band was 
always there and played it in. Everybody on the wharf wanted 



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236 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

to show hospitality to every traveler aboard the ship. Strangers 
they might have been all their lives, these travelers from Akron, 
or St. Louis, or Council Bluffs, or London or New York, to the 
people on the dock, but that didn't matter. Often a stranger 
found himself in a hack with a couple of Honolulans, might 
liave been men, and might have been young women, it didn't 
matter— on the way Co the Royal Hawaiian hotel- And how the 
old hotel leaped into life after a somnolent seven days or two 
weeks. From the dock the Honolulans flowed into the hotel, and 
many into the cool basement barroom for Scotch and soda, and 
other things, too, and that night the band gave a concert in the 
bandstand in front of the hotel and the new people danced whh 
"old friends" of a few hours, all Honolulans. The navy officers 
came up from their ships moored in old "Naval Row" and spent 
a pleasant evening, and plans were made by all for picnics and 
horseback rides, or bathing parties out at Long Branch or Sans 
Souci or the Inn. and dinner parties on home lanais or aboard 
the warships. Oh, they were real days, were those old days. 

And how the San Francisco newspapers were read. Every- 
body went to the post office soon after the "boat" was in. It was 
the town's gossip rendezvous. Everybody in town met every- 
body else there, unless it was at the fishmarket, "Louis" and 
others sorted the mail. The townspeople sat around and 
watched the proceeding, and sometimes pitched in and helped. 
The women, haoles and Hawaiians alike, of the highest in society 
and others not so high, wearing holokus (loose Hawaiian gowns) 
and lauhala (leaf) hats to keep the sun off their complexions 
(in the case of the haoles). The holoku was the thing to wear 
then to do shopping or to go to the post office. But, how things 
have changed. A haole woman, kamaaina though she may be, 
seldom comes to town in a holoku, and even Hawaiian women 
are enveloping their forms in creations from New York and 
San Francisco, and the lauhala hat has gone lo the millinery 
discard. 

Everybody went over to the bookstore and bought a "file" of 
the latest "Frisco papers." Sometimes it might be seven days 




thi; Eiiglisli Kpisi'opy] Cliur.- 



.1. I.IWIIIJIM I. UUlfllilip^VPVH 



MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 237 

and sometimes ten, and then the town sat down to read and read 
for days. 

Today the San Francisco "files" come as usual, but very few 
in comparison with the old days for newspapers receive its nightly 
grist of radio and cable news from every part of the world and 
lays it in interesting form before the town the following morn- 
ing while it is at breakfast. The "files" therefore have been 
stripped of their cream of news by the radio and cable digest 
made up in San Francisco and "wired" here, for Honolulu's 
newspapers are metropolitan in all details. 

Every element of life here has been changed by the departure 
from the old isolated charm of a former hasteless day. The 
malihini looks for a certain charm that he has read of or dreamed 
of should be a part of Hawaii and misses it. But after all, it 
was merely isolation. 

And so it will be soon with all isles of the Pacific. 



ANCIENT AND MODERN KINGLY SYMBOLS 

gcT TNEASY lies the head that wears the crown" was a 
\^ phrase that apparently made a deep impression upon 
King Kaiakaua, tirst because he had risen to the throne 
by election of the legislature, and there was no crown in fact, and 
second because he was impressed with the knowledge that the 
Hawaiians had for too many centuries been governed by rulers 
who were born to the purple. He was a high chief under the old 
feudal system, but that did not alter the fact that there was just 
a something lacking in his kingship that irked him. 

His tour of the world in 1881 when he visited and was received 
with royal honors at all capitals of monarchs. further impressed 
him with the necessity of staging a coronation that would reflect 
all the glitter of royal symbols of the Old World. 

It was arranged by the legislature sitting in 1881 that there 
be a formal crowning and it was set for February 12, 1883, 
the ninth anniversary of his election as king. 



238 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

The function was not held without considerable opposition on 
the part of the white residents, and when the coronation actually 
took place, many people, Hawaiians and haoles alike, decided to 
remain aloof. 

On the forenoon of that day, upon a pavilion especially built 
and now used as a bandstand in the capitol grounds, the King 
and his consort, Kapiolani, were formally crowned. Like Na- 
poleon, Kalakaua received the crown from the Chancellor, Chief 
Justice A. F. Judd, and placed the bauble upon his head and 
likewise placed another upon the head of his queen. 

Similarly, thi newly made and gorgeous Sword of State, the 
Royal Feather Mantle of Kamehameha I, the Ring of Kingly 
Dignity, the Sceptre of Kingly Power and Justice, were be- 
stowed upon ihe king. 

It was a regril function in the presence of a gathering of officials 
representing America, Great Britain, France, Germany, Sweden 
and Norway, Japan, Portugal, The Netherlands, Belgium, Den- 
mark, Mexico, Russia, the officials of the kingdom, officers of 
American, British, French warships, including H. B. M, Mutine; 
U. S. S. Wachusset, U, S. S. Lackawanna, French warship 
Limier. 

There was a ghttering display of uniforms and gold lace, 
swords and trappings. The ladies were robed in beautiful 
toilettes, many with long trains and cut low at the neck ; there 
was a guard ol honor for the procession from the palace to the 
pavilion and return, and immediately following the placing of the 
crowns, guns boomed in salute from shore and ship batteries. 

The mantle was a wonderful robe, declared to have been that 
worn by the mighty Kamehameha I composed of at least 5000 
feathers of the O-o bird. 

The crown of Kalakaua was composed of a fillet of gold one 
inch in width, set on each edge with 120 small diamonds. Mid- 
way in the fillet were set 20 opals, aUernating with eight emeralds 
and as many rubies, save at the back, where there were set in 
the place of the emeralds and the rubies six well cut jewels of a 
deep reddish black, highly polished. At the front and back, and 
on each side the dullet was surmounted by a golden Maltese 



MERRY DAYS OF KALAKAUA, REX 239 

cross, in the arms of which were set forty-eight diamonds, eacli 
arm having three. In the center of the cross in front was a 
magnificent diamond of about six carats weight, and on the 
sides others a little smaller. A splendid carbuncle glowed in the 
center of the cross at the back. There were other fillings of gold 
and studdings of jewels, making it gorgeous enough to have been 
placed upon a royal head of a European sovereign. Springing 
from the fillet over the crimson cap of velvet, were eight bars 
of gold, each uniting under the globe, the bars being emblematical 
of the union of the eight islands under one rule. Surmounting 
the globe was a maltese cross set with brilliant diamonds. 

The night of the overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani in January, 
1893, the crowns became the prey of the newly organized "regu- 
lar" army of the Provisional Government, composed of men more 
or less rough. Officers discovered the men gambling in the 
basement and i;sing stones. Until he was told in a whisper by 
one of the men that these had been pried from the crown, which 
had lain in a room in the upper part of the palace, he had no 
knowledge thai the crown was available. The soldiers had 
looted the royal crown and were playing dice for their possession. 

Two-thirds of the gems were recovered, but a sergeant, an 
Irishman, later said he had the largest diamond and had sent it 
to "his girl" in an Indiana town, explaining that it was just a 
Hawaiian stone. Whether his sweetheart ever discovered that 
she possessed the largest jewel of the Crown of Hawaii has 
never become known. 

The "Puloulou" or tabu stick used at the coronation, symbol- 
izing the protection that the laws afford all, and marking the 
limits of approach of the king's subjects, was the tusk of a 
narwhal seven feet long, bearing a golden globe. Hanging from 
the globe was a plate of gold bearing the Hawaiian coat-of-arms, 
above which was a miniature of the Hawaiian crown, engraved 
with the national motto of Hawaii, in Hawaiian, meaning, "The 
Life of the Land Reposes in Righteousness." It was shown in 
public at the state funeral obsequies for the late Prince Jonah 
Kuhio Kalanianaole in January, 1922, and is now in the Bishop 
Museum. 



240 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

His Majesty on this occasion wore the white uniform of the 
Guards, with a white helmet and plume of red, white and bim;. 
His breast whs adorned with the glittering orders of many 
powerful royal governments. 

Nearly four thousand persons watched the ceremony from 
seats and the same number watched from other points. 

At the time of the coronation the government had authorized 
the erection of a palace that the king might be houspd in a 
manner appropriate to the high rank to which he had been chosen 
by Nobles and Representatives. It was the first and last corona- 
tion in Hawaii. 



CHAPTER XX 



GAUNT REBELLION STALKED THE ISLANDS 



REVOLT OVERTURNS ANCIENT THRONE 

THE gaunt specter of revolution stalked through Hawaii, 
but aside from the first revolt captained by George Hume- 
hume, a dissatisfied prince of Kauai in the early days of 
the reign of Kamehameha II, and against the sovereignty of the 
son of the Conqueror, most of the revolutions were almost blood- 
less. The first revolt against constituted authority, almost a 
hundred years ago, was that of one prince toward another, the 
last of tribal warfares, the conclusion of sanquinary conflicts 
for the supremacy of one prince or chief over another. 

It was nearly seventy years before revolution again came into 
the midst of a people now conversant only with the ways of peace, 
their earlier warlike ardor leavened by long contact with pros- 
perity and the lulling influence of happy living in a land of 
plenty, where the sea and land easily gave sustenance to the 
isolated inhabitants. 

Kaumualii, the principal chief of Kauai and husband of Queen 
Kaahumanu, died in May, 1824, and a dispute arose about the 
division of territory which led to an unhappy and bloody contest — 
the first and last battle since the introduction of Christianity. 
After the death of Kaumualii the government of the little island 
was given by a council of the chiefs to Kahalaia, nephew of the 
great chief Kalanimoku. a young man, and according to Sheldon 
Dibble, poorly equipped for his duties. 

The people of Kauai manifested their displeasure and insub- 
ordination by various acts, particularly by the wanton destruc- 
tion of public property. Two weeks later Kalanimoku arrived 



242 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

at Kauai from Honolulu, accompanied by Kekauluohi, the "Queen 
Mother" and Premier. 

The rebels planned to seize both at night and to take their 
lives. The scheme might have prevailed but the visitors, unaware 
of the plot, departed the day previous to the appointed time. 
Then the chiefs called upon the people to settle their affairs. 
Kalanimoku greatly desired his nephew to be retained in office. 
There was objection by certain chiefs. 

In the meantime the insurgents had gained over to their side 
Humehume (George Kaumualii), who, it will be recalled spent 
sometime in the Cornwell school in Connecticut and returned 
to his father with the first American missionaries aboard the 
brig Thaddeus in 1820. He was promised the chieftainship of 
the island if he would espouse the insurgent cause. He had two 
brass field pieces. He yielded to the request. The rebels at- 
tempted to take the fort at Waimea, but failed. 

Kalanimoku despatched a vessel to Oahu for help. The mis- 
sionaries also left Kauai for safety. The vessel went on to 
Maui where the principal chiefs were residing. Hoapili, gover- 
nor of Maui, collected soldiers and sent them to Kauai. The 
missionaries called the attention of the governor and chiefs to 
Christian belief in war being conducted humanely as possible. 
The chiefs agreed to this principle. 

On arrival of the forces at Kauai, Kalanimoku offered to take 
the leadership and direct the armies in person. Hoapili refused, 
deciding to lead them himself. The Sabbath came and Hoapili 
gave orders that the day should not be violated by warfare. The 
following day when the forces were drawn up in battle array, 
Hoapili commanded silence till a prayer should be offered to the 
true God. Search was made for one who knew enough to pray, 
and at length a Society Islander was found who could offer the 
prayers. Hoapili then shouted: 

"Soldiers, attend ! There is no place for us to retreat ! No 
Oahu, no Maui, no Hawaii. Oahu is before us, Maui is before 
us, Hawaii is before us; those Islands will remain to us only as 
we press forward and conquer. If we turn our backs it is death ! 
If some shall fall, mind not their bodies, but press forward! Be 



GAUNT REBELLION STALKS ISLANDS 243 

of good courage for God is on our side. If captives are taken 
deal mercifully with them — such is the advice of our teachers. 
If balls whiz by you they are not a cause of fear, but if bayonets 
are thrust at your breasts then there may be some cause for firm- 
ness and courage. Forward, forward, even unto death !" Almost 
Napoleonic in cryptic utterance and grandiloquence. 

They rushed into battle. The field pieces were poorly manned 
by the Kauaians and were captured. The enemy were panic 
struck. They fled. The lust of battle ruled the pursuers. The 
blood of conquerors boiled in their veins. Hoapili lost control 
of his victorious warrior-soldiers. They caught and cut down 
the fugitives. No quarter was asked. None was given. No 
mercy was shown to captives. The unarmed and the aged were 
slain indiscriminately. The unhappy Humehunie wandered for 
weeks in the woods subsisting on roots, until, nearly famished 
and naked, he surrendered to the victorious chiefs who showed 
him no mercy. The government was committed to Keikioewa, 
the immediate guardian of the young king. All engaged in the 
rebellion who remained alive were distributed on other islands. 

Whether a smouldering revolt during the reign of Kameha- 
meha III was extinguished, concluding with the mysterious death 
of the promoter, may never be exactly known, for only the 
young man's royal brothers and relatives were aware of the 
supposed revolutionary exploit, but that the young man should 
have died so soon following the revolution that he was drilling 
groups of Hawaiians, aroused considerable discussion and lent 
color to the idea of a possible revolt with the object of removing 
Kamehameha III and the elevation of the young leader. 

He was Moses, the elder brother of Prince Lot Kamehameha 
(afterwards Kamehameha V), and Prince -Alexander {after* 
wards Kamehameha IV). They were all nephews of Kameha- 
meha III. 

Moses assembled an army of young Hawaiians and drilled 
them at Koolau, Oahu Island, the purpose being, when the drill- 
ing was observed by others, to depart on a voyage of conquest to 
Tahiti, to add the Society Islands to the Hawaiian kingdom. 
Whatever may have been the public statement at the time that he 



r' 



244 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

planned to go to Tahiti in ships and great canoes, his purpose 
was probably questioned by his royal brothers, for evidently 
they believed he had an ulterior design, and that ihe amazing 
plot to seize the crown. At any rate he was taken ill and died. 

The young man was the son of Governor Kekuanaoa, one of 
the brilliant minds among the Hawaiians of the early days of their 
civilization. His mother was Kinau, Premier and Regent, and the 
daughter of Kamehameha I. 

High Chief David Kalakaua was elected king of Hawaii by 
the legislature in February, 1874, following the death of King 
Lunalilo, last of the Kamehameha line who had failed to name 
his successor. The selection of a niler was thrown into the legis- 
lature, their hall then being the building on Queen street, near 
Fort, in Honolulu, now used as a warehouse by the American 
Factors, Ltd. Queen Emma, widow of Kamehameha IV, was 
an aspirant, she being backed principally by the English residents 
of the Islands. It was a lining up in a sense, of Americans and 
English, on opposing sides, the Americans favoring Kalakaua. 

When the result of the election was announced by Representa- 
tive John Cummins to the multitude waiting outside, when he 
said, "We have lost out." He stepped out and went to the harbor 
landing, entered a boat and was rowed over to the U. S. S. Tus- 
carora, and asked Captain, afterward Admiral Belknap, to land 
bluejackets and marines to stop what he feared would be a san- 
guinary riot. 

In the meantime, George Bell, who headed the Queenites, led 
his faction against the legislators and with sticks the lawmakers 
were beaten. Their carriages were broken. The mob had 
broken loose. They surged toward the door of the hall, and it 
was there that the stalwart young Sanford B. Dole, who was 
president of Hawaii later on, stood, a powerful man then, and 
barred entrance. Kalakaua and his adherents were hurried from 
the hall to the royal palace. It was a mob rule of a few liours, 
but anger swept the opponents of Kalakaua for some time. 

It was not because they did not consider him fit to be a king, 
nor because he was not noble enough, but because they felt it 
was a presumptious thing for any high chief to assume to sit upon 



GAUNT REBELLION STALKS ISLANDS 245 

the throne when Princess Ruth KeelikolanJ, Princess Pauahi 
Bishop and Queen Emma were alive and available for rulership. 
That was the Hawaiian viewpoint. Had they been dead they 
would have considered that Kalakaua was preeminently eligible 
for selection to wear the crown. 

Minister Henry A, Pierce's report to Washington of the 
election of Kalakaua as king and the rioting that began immed- 
iately the news reached outside, is graphic. He says the com- 
mittee of the legislature appointed to wait upon Kalakaua and 
inform him of his selection was mobbed and wounded. 

The rioters assaulted the courthouse, broke the windows, 
forced in the rear doors and gained entrance to rooms. The 
offices of the attorney-general were sacked and gutted and the 
papers thrown into the street. 

The assembly room furniture was smashed and the legislators 
were assaulted and many rendered senseless. Cries were heard, 
"Fire the town!" The police removed their badges and joined 
the rioters. 

The minister says he received requests to land a force from 
the U. S. S. Tuscarora and the Portsmouth. In ten minutes' 
time Commander Belknap and 150 men were ashore and at the 
courthouse and took possession, dispersing the mob. 

With remarkable foresight, Minister Pierce, who was a friend 
of the Hawaiians, saw the day when Hawaii would be part of 
the United States, for his advice to Washington was sound when 
he wrote on February 17, 1874: "Hereafter a United States 
vessel of war should always be stationed at these Islands under 
a system of reliefs. A time may arrive when the United States 
government will find it necessary for the interests of our na- 
tion and its resident citizens here to take possession of the 
country by military occupation." 

This happened twenty-four years later, and American warships 
were kept almost constantly on the "Hawaiian station," following 
the receipt of Pierce's letter at Washington. Today, Oahu is 
America's malta, with a naval station second to none under the 
American flag. 



246 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Notwithstanding the general progress of the Islands under 
King Kalakaua, the plotting of a few idle place hunters, strength- 
ened by the utterances of newly established native newspapers, 
calculated, il is said, to arouse race prejudices, there developed 
a small party of malcontents, under the leadership of Robert W. 
Wilcox, who, with about 150 followers, made an attempt on 
July 30, 1889, to overthrow the government and Kalakaua, if 
that was necessary. They surprised Honolulu by taking pos- 
session of the Palace grounds, its guns and ammunition at early 
dawn, but were surprised in turn at the absence of the King and 
the armed force of the Honolulu rifles and volunteers, composed 
principally of white residents, gathered to oppose and dislodge 
them. The King had been warned the night before by Kahelawai, 
a captain. The King ordered the cannon balls chained and the 
guns rendered useless. 

After a day of battle and anxiety, resulting in a loss to the 
insurgents of six killed and twelve wounded, Wilcox and his 
followers surrendered. 

In the trials at the October term of the Supreme Court Wilcox 
stated that his plans were to obtain possession of the palace and 
the king; have him sign a new constitution which he (Wilcox) 
had prepared, giving rights to the people (the Hawaiians) and 
restoring power to the king which the constitutional changes of 
1887 had taken from him, and turn out the ministry. In all these 
plans he claimed with amazing audacity to have had royal sanc- 
tion. At the trial before a native jury he was acquitted by 
them, under the ancient belief that "the king can do no wrong"; 
hence, found no treasonable act in carrying out his behests. 

Wilcox had been one of several Hawaiian youths who had 
been sent abroad by the Hawaiian government to foreign schools 
for higher education. He went to Italy and went through the 
Italian West Point, and this experience gave him the glamor of 
military prowness, which he really did not possess, in the eyes of 
the natives, for his picturesque uniforms were enough to make 
him a grand figure. 

It is said, on excellent authority, today, that Princess (after- 
wards) Queen Liliuokalani, was behind the Wilcox movement. 



GAUNT REBELLION STALKS ISLANDS 247 

in the hope that she would be selected to rule instead of her 
brother, whom she considered weak and compromising. She 
was headstrong, wilful, and as regent, had tasted the joys of 
rulership and would have gone to extremes, even to deposing her 
brother, to take the reigns completely in her own hands. 

This wilfulness was strong during her brief rule of two years 
from 1891 to 1893, when she attempted to abrogate the Consti- 
tution which led to her downfall. 

The white residents claim that the Constitution of 1887 did 
not go far enough and that there continued five years of abuses. 
The opening months of Liliuokalani's reign gave birth to the 
hope for fair hopes for the government, but it developed that the 
queen had all the despotic instincts of a ruler of ancient times. 
She was determined to govern by herself, and not through a 
ministry, unless it be one that would yield to her personal bidding. 
She did not wish to consult the will of the people, and in a 
measure, felt humiliated under the terms of the constitution 
wrested from her brother in 1887. 

Her selection of cabinets appeared to be without an appro- 
priate regard for the effects produced upon the people. The 
Americans felt that the Queen had thrown down the gage of 
battle, and were watchful for fear their rights in the king- 
dom would be jeopardized. The Queen attempted to dictate 
to her cabinets. Then, finding they were not as pliant as she 
desired, resignations were forced, cabinet after cabinet was ap- 
pointed and resigned. On this January day the Queen at- 
tempted to exercise personal influence with the members of the 
legislature. She did not add tears to her entreaties of the legis- 
lators to lean to her cause, for she boasted to the end of her 
long, stormy life, that she never shed tears. 

On January 12, 1893, the Wilcox cabinet was voted out of 
office on a Want of Confidence resolution. The next cabinet 
made matters worse. This was the Parker, Peterson, Colburn, 
Cornwell cabinet. There was general indignation. Saturday, 
January 14, dawned clear and beautiful and no one dreamed 
that it was to be one of the most eventful days in Hawaiian 
history. The prorogation of the legislature by the Queen was to 



248 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

take place at noon, and the members opposed to the new cabinet, 
though they absented themselves from the ceremony, had no 
idea of attempting anything against the ministry. It did not seem 
that the Queen, after gaining much for which she had been 
striving, would imperil her position, by violating the constitution, 
and yet she did. 

Saturday afternoon between 1 and 2 o'clock the community 
was startled by the information that a coup d'etat was in progress 
and Ihat the Queen was endeavoring to force her cabinet to sign 
a new Constitution which she then proposed to promulgate im- 
mediately to the people. It was almost too amazing to believe. 

The political changes of the past few days, the renewed vote 
of Want of Confidence, the secret attempt, as it was alleged, 
made by the Queen to secure the overthrow of her ministers, 
her secret interviews, the signing of the opium and lottery bills, 
coupled with the rabid talk of certain of the members of the 
house, had produced a feeling of great unrest in the community. 
There were forebodings of "worse to come." On Saturday 
morning it was freely stated that a new Constitution was to be 
promulgated in the afternoon. At a meeting of the business men 
reference was made to this possibility, but hardly believed, until 
afternoon when doubt was transformed into certainty. 

A member of the cabinet took counsel outside the cabinet and 
he was advised not to sign the proposed Constitution. Also, to 
decline to resign. 

In the afternoon Hui Kalaina (a native Hawaiian political 
society), marched over to the palace to present a new Constitu- 
tion to ihe Queen with the petition that the same be promulgated. 
It was all prearranged and the Queen affected to be quite aston- 
ished, it is alleged. 

A crowd of Hawaiians had gathered about the palace gates 
and the grounds near the front flight of steps to the palace. 
The Queen retired to the blue room and summoned the ministers, 
who repaired at once to the palace. She at once presented them 
with the draft of the new Constitution, demanded their signa- 
tures, and declared her intention to promulgate the document at 
once. Attorney- General Peterson and Minister of the Interior 



GAUNT REBELLION STALKS ISLANDS 249 

Colbum refused. Ministers Parker and Cornwell reluctantly 
joined their fellow ministers. 

The cabinet advised the Queen not to violate the law, but she 
could not be dissuaded from her mad course. She struck the 
table with her clenched fist and announced her intention to 
promulgate the constitution. 

The ministers retired to the government building across the 
street and sent word to the business men. Leading citizens of 
every political faith met at W. O. Smith's office. It was agreed 
by all to resist this encroachment upon their liberties. A mes- 
sage to this effect was sent to the Queen. The ministers returned 
to the palace and tried to persuade her to withdraw from her 
revolutionary steps already taken. The Queen then hesitated. 
Since 1887 white men had fanned opposition to the new Consti- 
tution and e^ed the royal ones to a feeling that they had been 
imposed on. Annexation was the goal. 

There was a long conference in the blue room. Finally, in 
bitterness, she consented to give up her project, or at least make 
a temporary postponement. She was angry when she returned to 
the throne room at 4 p. m. where she made an extraordinary 
speech before the Hui Kalaina and most of the members of the 
legislature. She said that obstacles had prevented her from 
promulgating the new Constitution. She added that she was 
obliged to postpone it a few days. She went to the front balcony 
and addressed the multitude, saying, on account "of the perfidy" 
of her ministers she was unable to grant the new Constitution. 

The whites (haoles) claimed that the Queen's Constitution de- 
prived the people of all choice in the selection of the House of 
Nobles, the cabinet system was abolished and the choice and 
removal of ministers vested solely in the Queen. White men were 
to be deprived of their franchise except those married to Ha- 
waiian women. 

The Queen's "revolution" had momentarily failed. Now a 
counter revolution was in process of organization. A Com- 
mittee of Safety was organized and the matter given over to 
their consideration. The committee did not delay in the per- 
formance of duties entrusted to it. The committee adjourned 



250 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

to meet Sunday morning. Then the situation was fully dis- 
cussed. The public was asked to confirm the selection of the 

Committee of Safety, which it did. It was authorized to take 
steps that might seem necessary to further public welfare and 
secure the rights of the people from aggression once and for all. 

It was ihe unanimous sentiment among the committee members 
that a proclamation should be issued abrogating the monarchy, 
and a provisional government established. 

Monday morning it was decided to ask the United States min- 
ister to have troops landed from American warships in Hawaiian 
waters, on the ground it was necessary for the protection of 
property, and a request to that effect was forwarded by the 
minister. 

The Queen's party, meanwhile, was not idle, and began to 
cast about for a means of averting the catastrophe which seemed 
to threaten the throne. The Queen patched up a peace with her 
ministers. A secret meeting was held at the attorney-general's 
office on Sunday. Marshal C. B. Wilson, an appointee of the 
royal government, then proposed to arrest the Committee of 
Thirteen, but Paul Neuman opposed this plan. The Hawaiians 
decided to call a counter mass meeting for Monday. A "By Au- 
thority Notice" was drafted to be signed by the Queen and cabinet, 
announcing that the plan to abrogate the Constitution was aban- 
doned. 

At 2 p. m., Monday, January 16, the Honolulu Rifies Armory 
was the scene of the largest and most important mass meeting 
of citizens ever held in Hawaii. Hon. W. C. Wilder, chairman 
of the Committee of Safety was chairman. The report of the 
special committee was read, rehearsing the entire situation and 
recommended certain resolutions to be adopted, stating that 
efforts to avert the impending catastrophe had been in vain, the 
concluding sections condemning and denouncing the Queen's 
attitude and actions and ratifying the course of action followed 
and to devise ways and means to meet future contingencies di- 
rected at tlieir liberties. 

Meanwhile, in Palace Square, the Hawaiians held their counter 
mass meeting, A resolution was adopted accepting the royal 



GAUNT REBELLION STALKS ISLANDS 251 

assurance she would no longer seek a new constitution by revolu- 
tionary means. At the same time the meeting loyally cheered 
the Queen's attempt to carry out her coup d'etat. 

While ihe Committee of Safety was in session, tlie business 
section was electrified by a shot that was fired on Fort street, 
followed by the startling news that Captain Good had shot a 
policeman. The committee hastened to the Government building. 
The shot fired on Fort street precipitated the revolution. 

Good was ordnance officer. He was gathering up guns and 
ammunition at dififerent stores for the Committee of Safety. 
The gims and ammunition had been brought out from E. O. 
Hall's hardware store and packed in a wagon. Policemen had 
been watching this action. As the wagon came away from the 
rear entrance a policeman caught the reigns and called, "Halt." 
He blew his whistle and four or five other policemen reinforced 
him. Captain Good warned the policeman. The driver used his 
whip on an officer. Two men on a street car drew revolvers and 
covered two of the police officers. An officer ran toward Good 
and put his hand behind him, the action being interpreted as an 
act to draw his revolver. Captain Good instantly fired and shot 
the officer. This ended the effort to capture the arms and am- 
munition. 

Meanwhile, the Committee of Safety, with the members af the 
Provisional Government proceeded to the Government building. 
Judge Sanford B. Dole, of the Supreme Court, and Henry E. 
Cooper, leading the way. Inquiry was made for the ministers 
but they could not be found. Mr. Cooper made a demand upon 
Mr. Hassinger, chief clerk of the Interior Office for possession 
of the building, and the demand was immediately complied with. 

The committee proceeded to the public entrance and read to 
the crowd a proclamation, which rehearsed many acts during 
the reigns of Kalakaua and Liliuokalani, alleged to have been 
opposed to public weal, detailing in particular the Queen's efTorts 
to abrogate the Constitution, and announcing ihe steps taken by 
the citizens, the concluding portions being as follows: 
"We, the citizens and residents of the Hawaiian Islands, or- 



252 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

ganized and acting for the public safety and common good, 

liereby proclaim as follows: 

"The Hawaiian monarchial system of government is hereby 
abrogated. 

"A Provisional government for the control and management 
of public affairs and the protection of the public peace is hereby 
established, to exist until terms of union with the United States 
of America have been negotiated and agreed upon. 

"Such provisional government shall consist of an executive 
council of four members, who are declared to be S. B. Dole, J. 
A. King, P. C. Jones, W. O. Smith, who shall administer the 
executive departments of the government, the first named acting 
as president and chairman of such council and administering 
the department of foreign affars," etc., etc., etc. The advisory 
council was named, consisting of fourteen members. 

"All officers under the existing government," the proclamation 
went on, "are hereby requested to continue to exercise their 
functions and perform the duties of their respective offices with 
the exception of the following named persons: 

"Queen Liliuokalani, Charles B. Wilson, Marshall ; Samuel 
Parker, Minister of Foreign Affairs; W. H. Cornwell, Minister 
of Finance; John F. Colburn, Minister of the Interior; Arthur 
P. Peterson, Attorney-General, who are hereby removed from 
office." 

This was dated January 17, 1893. Monarchy was at end in 
Hawaii. 

Queen Liliuokalani and her cabinet noted a protest, saying 
she yielded to "the superior force of the United States of Amer- 
ica whose Minister Plenipotentiary, His Excellency John L. 
Stevens, has caused Unted States troops to be landed at Honolulu 
and declared that he would support the said Provisional Govern- 
ment," 

"Now to avoid any collision of armed forces, and perhaps the 
loss of life, I do under this protest and impelled by said force 
yield my authority until such time as the Government of the 
United States shall upon the facts being presented to it undo the 
action of its representative and reinstate me in authority which 




Her Royiil Ilij-liriess tjiioi-n LilLiiokal:iiii. Inst sdviTcijin uf Uiv Hawaii 

Islaiiils, sister of Kiiin Kiiiakaiin. Desliiiv f-\ivv Iut tiv.i yoars o( 

rul,.r«)ii|., wlieri licr liirmi,. was overturned nii.l white resi.li'iits 

«e! up a I'roviaiotinl tioviTiiriiont, junl later a Re|iiil.li.-. Her 

stormy eareer oiuleil in 1017, when sh.' ilie.i nt Wiish- 

ingUm riaee, aii.l was iieeordcl a state funeral 

by the nnvyriiment. 



■:^:^ 




M tli.> ti.'ii^.liilii iioli.'f stitlioii, ill his Itiiliaii uuit'orjii. ][,' n-:L.-< c-<iii- 
<i,UHi l.y (lio HnH-:,iinn a.-vcrnTiiom iit tli,. Iliilh.ii H:.r fcllvuc 
Hi; Hii- !i,.l.l in cii^to.ly }.v Ccn. Joliri So|.cr^ tlicii Miusliiil o( tlic 
KniLibtii-, in <u„.,ii:,na „f llif .sl^ilimi. 



""^^ 



GAUNT REBELLION STALKS ISLANDS 253 

I claim as the Constitutional Sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands." 
This was also dated January 17. 

The forces landed were those of the U. S. Cruiser Boston, com- 
manded by Capt. G. C. Wiltse, U. S. N. 

A commission of five men immediately left for San Francisco 
on the little steamer Claudine, went to Washington, laid the 
situation before President Harrison, whose government recog- 
nized the Provisional Government of Hawaii. A few months 
later this action was repudiated by President Cleveland who 
ordered the Almerican flag hauled down. Then the Hawaiian 
Republic was established with Sanford B. Dole as President. 

What were the Queen's real motives in her extraordinary 
movements that fateful January of 1893? What were her feel- 
ings in after years when she had ample opportunity to reflect 
over culminating incidents that led to her overthrow? 

The writer knows from her own lips that she believed that 
there had been an undercurrent working against her, interfering 
even with the best efforts of her rulership, to undermine it and 
even to urge on people to cause her to become antagonistic toward 
the haoles, particularly those of American extraction, and finally, 
her own coup was in reality that directed in a mysterious, under- 
handed method by those who really wanted her off the throne, 
that monarchy might be destroyed and a republican government 
set up, 

I have before me some books, each entitled "Message," "1893,' 
both of which were sent to the auction room in 1921 from 
Washington Place, the private residence of the late Queen. In- 
spection of these books immediattly after llie auctioneer's ham- 
mer fell, disclosed many pencilled and penned comments and 
annotations on page margins, and indicate that she was affronted 
by many of the statements which Paramount Commissioner 
James Blount, sent to Honolulu in 1893 by President Cleveland 
to ascertain the facts of the overthrow, had made about her. 

The "Message" contains "An Interview with Sereno Bishop, 
Tuesday, April 12, 1893." Dr. Bishop was a missionary. Here 
is the dialogue between Commissioner Blount and Dr. Bishop: 



254 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Question — "What do you mean by the attempt to promulgate 
a constitution by unlawful means?" 

Answer — "I means that she presented such a Constitution to 
her ministers and tliey demurred. She used violent language 
toward them." 

On the margin is Liliuokalani's pencilled comment and uncler- 
scorings of "used violent language." — "Not true." 

"They fled," the answer goes on, and the Queen has pencilled 
"Not so." 

And now here is possibly the crux of the whole tragic situ- 
ation that focused so rapidly toward January 17, 1893. I doubt 
whether this statement has ever before been seen or known, 
but to me it represents the secret thoughts of Liliuokalani as 
she lived in the retirement of Washington Place, where she had 
years of opportunity to reflect. To me, her reading of this 
book and her occasional pencillings, tells her real feelin|;s. and 
possibly were meant to represent what she considered to be the 
truth. The auction room was a strange place to reveal the heart 
of this deposed sovereign. 

Here is the extract: 

Dr. Bishop is continuing his statement: 

"She added U livs her intenlioii to promulgate that constitu- 
tion in a short time." 

On the margin is this pencilled comment of Liliuokalani's: 

"True — but at the request of my people!" 

Dr. Bishop later added : 

"I heard she was under the influence of kahunas." She notes 
on the margin — "Untrue." 

In one of these two volumes is a letter from Minister Stevens, 
dated Honoluhi, Januarj' 18. 1893 {the day after the overthrow) 
addressed to Secretary of State Foster at Washington, in which 
he describes the action of the bluejackets landed from the 
Boston and gives reasons. The Queen has pencilled "false" to 
this statement on the margin against a certain paragraph, as 
follows : "The Queen and her palace favorite gave their warm- 
est support to the lottery bill and signed it at once. She was to 



GAUNT REBELLION STALKS ISLANDS 255 

be immediately compensated by being allowed to promulgate a 
new constitution." 

Below, there is a passage that says the Queen appeared :ii 
the throne room before the judges and other officials "in an ex- 
treme passion of anger." Her comment is, "False." Continu- 
ing, this sentence goes on, "and avowed her purpose to post- 
pone her revolutionary constitution for a brief period and then 
went upon the balcony and spoke n'tth great passion in the same 
strain" (the underscorings being Liliiiokalani's). 

On the margin is a lengthy pencilled comment, but the printer 
in putting many pamphlets together into this one volume, cut the 
edges and cut away the top line, leaving a disconnected line, but 
the readable portions says: 

"Wanted their own wicked actions to be a success. There was 
no danger whatever from the Hawaiians and we were all aston- 
ished to see the troops landed which showed that," and here the 
printer again cut into her pencilling, but the second line con- 
cludes "possession of these islands would be given to the United 
States," 

This pencilled remark of the Queen seems peculiarly apt 
when considered with this sentence in a letter from Minister 
Stevens, dated Honolulu, February 14, 5 p. m., 1893, at the 
United States legation, addressed to Secretary of State Foster, 
at Washington; the Queen underscoring certain words: 

"The Hau-aiian pear is naze fully ripe, and this is the golden 
hour for the United States to pluck it." 

A foregn diplomat in Honolulu, when Minister Stevens ar- 
rived to represent the United States, said to friends that Stevens 
always made trouble wherever he went and he would make 
trouble in Hawaii. He assisted, in the opinion of the Queen and 
Hawaiians. 

Destiny, however, had a hand in the great political game of 
chess in mid-Pacific. He moved the pawns, for it was evident 
that Hawaii sooner or later must come under the protection of 
the United States. 

History must now record, 30 years from the year the mon- 
archy was overthrown, that United States Minister John L. 



256 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Stevens, always disliked by the Hawaiians, played the role of h 
meddler in Hawaiian politics, as his messages to Secretary of 
State John W. Foster, then in President Harrison's cabinet, 
clearly show. He desired the government of the monarchy to 
fall and to have Hawaii annexed to the United States. His 
letters were filled with bitter invectives against the Hawaiian 
royalties and the Hawaiians and any person who sided with 
the royal cause. In a report in November 20, 1892, he said that 
"one or two courses seems to me absolutely necessary to be fol- 
lowed, either bold and vigorous measures for annexation, or a 
'customs union'." He expressed the belief the former would be 
"cheaper in the end." Again he said: "I cannot refrain from 
expressing the opinion with emphasis that the golden hour is 
near at hand." 

He informed Washington that the monarchy cost too much, 
was an anachronism, and an obstruction to prosperity and that 
a Governor, appointed by Washington, at $5,000 a year, would 
be better for the Islands. He continually expressed fear of Eng- 
land and belabored any person of English or part-English blood 
as a menace to American interests and plans. "The Princess 
heir apparent has always been and is likely always to be, under 
English influence," he said, and then made many disrespectful 
statements in regard to many of Honolulu's influential English 
residents. He referred to "adventurers, impecunious ad irre- 
pressible mob of hoodlums who were behind the British. Later 
he referred to Princes David and Kuhio (the latter Hawaii's 
delegate in Congress for twenty years) with considerable dis- 
respect, in this language : 

"The last named — the two princes — are harmless young per- 
sons, of little account, not chiefs by blood, but they were made 
princes by the late King Kalakaua without any constitutional 
right or power to do so." Both the princes were high chiefs, 
as a matter of fact, their mother being the High Chiefess Kinoike, 
and she the granddaughter of King Kamualii, of Kauai. Her 
sister, Queen Kapiolan!, before her marriage to Kalakaua and 
before he was king, was the widow of the High Chief Nama- 
kaeha, uncle of Queen Emma, consort of Kamehameha IV. 



GAUNT REBELLION STALKS ISLANDS 257 

"The Hawaiian pear is now fully ripe and this is the golden 
hour for the United States to pluck it," was another sentence in 
an official letter. 

Independently of the Stevens campaign for annexation under 
the guise of his official capacity as representative of the Amer- 
ican government, the American residents, Americans born in 
Hawaii, were gradually reaching the conclusion that a change 
in government was necessary. Theirs was a different stand- 
point for their rights were menaced by the royal administration. 
These residents had high principles and it must have been with 
a heart- wrench that they finally took the fatal step and de- 
throned the queen. But they never stooped to the detraction of 
the Hawaiians tliat Minister Stevens indulged in, which is one 
blot on the official connection between Hawaii and America in 
pre-annexation days. 

As early as March 8, 1892, a year before the dethronement, 
Stevens wrote to Secretary of State Foster: "I ask for the fol- 
lowing instructions of the Department of State on the following; 
If the government here should be surprised and overturned by 
an orderly and peaceful revolutionary movement, largely of 
native Hawaiians, and a provisional or republican government 
organized and proclaimed, would the United States minister aiid 
naval commander here be justified in responding affirmatively 
to the call of the members of the reinoved government to re- 
store them to power or replace them in possession of the govern- 
ment buildings? Or should they confine themselves exclusively 
to the preservation of American property. I have information. 
which I deem reliable, that there is an organized revolutionary 
party in the Islands, composed largely of native Hawaiians and 
a considerable number of whites and half white, led by indi- 
viduals of the latter two classes . . . with the ultimate view 
of annexation to the United States ... I still incline to 
the belief the revolutionary attempt will not be made as long as 
there is a United States force in the harbor of Honolulu." The 
Boston left Honolulu in January, 1893, and the revolution took 
place. However, this was brought on by the Queen's rash de- 
termination to change the Constitution. 



258 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Seething resentment, amazement over the absolute destruction 
of the throne, the realization that certain acts in monarchy 
administration had led up to the fateful January 17, 1893, and 
in a few hours changed the ancient feudal, nionarchial system 
into a modern republic, was not easily extinguished. Smoldering 
feelings were kept alive for the next two years. The uncer- 
tainty as to what the United States government would do, the 
fact that two presidents of the United States had taken opposite 
views as to the situation in Hawaii, gave the Hawaiians hope 
that something would happen that would abrogate the republic 
and reestablish the monarchy. 

It was only natural that Hawaiians, who had formerly held 
high offices; Hawaiians who held no offices at all, but believed in 
the monarchy and the sovereign ; haoles, who had always favored 
the "royalist" party, should discuss the situation. Treason is 
interpreted as anything that tends to aim at the existing govern- 
ment, but what was more natural that discussions, often heated, 
should result from even ordinary, commonplace meetings upon 
the street and the hope be expressed that the Queen would be 
restored to the throne. 

At any rate there was a "royaltist uprising" which was speed- 
ily put down by the republic, in which citizens were organized 
into "Citizen's Guards," armed and sent into the field. ThL' 
betrayal of the "royalist" cause, by which officials of the republic 
were made cognizant of the move, thereby permitting them to 
place their own forces in strategic positions, checkmated the 
Hawaiians almost before they fired the torch of rebellion. There 
was a skirmish at night near Diamond Head when one of the 
republic's men — Charles Carter — scion of a prominent family, 
was killed. The monarchists fied and scattered into the valleys 
and mountains of Palolo, Manoa and TantaKis, there to be hunted 
down. Anns that had been expected from abroad, to be landed 
secretly somewhere on the Oahuan coast did not entirely ma- 
terialize, for there again the royalists were betrayed. 

Wholesale arrests followed, including Queen Liliuokalani, 
Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole, her cousin, and prominent 
Hawaiians and haole sympathizers alike. A military court was 



GAUNT REBELLION STALKS ISLANDS 259 

established and those arrested were brought before it charged 
with treason and large numbers were sentenced to prison terms 
and to pay heavy fines, some of the haoles "being exiled. 

It was a bitter experience for dire failure was recorded of the 
movement. Among those convicted was Prince Kalanianaole, 
who spent a year in prison, and although a political prisoner, 
was obliged to wear the prison stripes of a common criminal. 
Despite this, six years later, on his return from a world tour, 
he was chosen the standard bearer of the Republican party, and 
for twenty years was delegate from Hawaii in the Congress of 
the United States, until his death, January 7, 1922. 

Arrangements had been made in San Francisco in Novem- 
ber, 1894, by an agent from Honolulu, for the purchase and 
shipment of arms and ammunition for the royalists. The 
schooner Wahlberg brought and landed, or transferred to the 
coasting steamer Waimanalo, then owned by John Cummins, :i 
wealthy landed Hawaiian and close friend of the Queen, eighty 
pistols, 288 Winchesters and 50,000 cartridges. Some of the 
shipment was landed and buried in the sand at Rabbit Island, 
Koolau, Oahu, December 20, 1894. On New Year's day the 
balance of the cargo was transferred. The arms were to have 
been landed at the old fishmarket in Honolulu, but the police 
frustrated this attempt. It was designed to make an attack upon 
the government buildings that night. The arms were landed 
in the neighborhood of Bertelman's place at Diamond Head, 
which was a sort of meeting place for the rebels. The Rabbit 
Island supplies were also brought over and added. 

The plan was for the Hawaiians at midnight to rise and 
march upon the sleeping city. On the night of January 6, 1895, 
the Hawaiians were called to Kaalawai, Diamond Head, eastern 
extremity of Honolulu. The guns were brought forth and 
cleaned. Some foreigners strolling near Diamond Head were 
detained. The telephone station at Diamond Had was seized as 
a precautionary measure. 

The marshal of the republic was advised about dusk of the 
proposed rising. Police under Deputy Marshal A. M. Brown 
and Capt. Waipa Parker were despatched to Diamond Head. 



'.f534'-'*f ' ■■"■^ , iiii.yppitipppp^»«P«piP"ff^»»l[p^|] 



260 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 



GAUNT REBELLION STALKS ISLANDS 261 

scribing henceforth to the Republic of Hawaii. She asked 
clemency for those who aided in the revolt. 

The Queen, however, was placed on trial charged with "mis- 
prision of treason," on February 5, and five days later her case 
was concluded. Liliuokalani was held prisoner in the old palace, 
and later was permitted to reside at Washington Place, enjoying 
freedom, conditionally. 

Communication between the Queen and outsiders was for- 
bidden and all food and raiment searched when taken to the 
palace. But, concealed in poi, were little messages wrapped in 
tin-foil. So she kept in touch with the outside world. 

Since then, events moved forward rapidly. Three years later, 
on January 6, 1898, Congress passed the Joint Resolution of 
Annexation and Hawaii became, the following day, an integral 
part of the United States of America. 

The Hawaiians are exceptionally loyal American citizens. Even 
more so than in many parts of continental United States, The 
Hawaiians, under the provisions of the Organic Act, which was 
■ framed for the organization of Hawaii's territorial government, 
automatically became citizens of the United States. They are 
advanced by education, which has been compulsory for seventy 
years, by merging with the other races, and equally prominent in 
island affairs as their haole (white) neighbors. There are prac- 
tically no distinctions. The Hawaiians are not regarded as a 
race or class apart. They are among the best citizens of Ha- 
waii, hold offices with others, take part in all civic affairs and 
industry. 

In the World War the Hawaiians showed their loyalty by 
enlisting by scores before the draft. They garrisoned the 
island forts while the regulars were sent away to war. Many 
lost their lives on European battlefields, fighting under the 
American or British colors. The Hawaiians have emerged from 
the melting pot as citizens more loyally and more fit for the 
franchise than millions of immigrants residing on the American 
mainland. 



262 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

The Queen, in her later days, was beloved by all AmericanK, 
and showed her devotion to America, when she sponsored the 
organization of the 32nd United States Infantry at Schofield 
Barracks, by presenting a silk regimental flag bearing her motto, 
and this regiment, in the United States army, is now called "The 
Queen's Own." 



CHAPTER XXI 



HAWAII'S PREPAREDNESS, AMERICA'S BULWARK 



MALTA OF THE PACIFIC 

WHEN Balboa looked out on the vast Pacific Ocean for 
the first time, and realized the ambition of years, and 
visions of conquest a dor ial occupancy of long stretches 
of golden shores flitted across his mind peopling the Isles of 
a wonderful sea with men in armor and establishing the gay life 
of Feudal lords, little did he dream that in a far future day a 
group of islands lying far beyond the horizon would be to that 
ocean as the Isle of Malta is to the "Mother of Seas." It re- 
mained for another sailor of fortune to spread the sails above 
his galleon, and set his course westward in the hope of discover- 
ing a shore shining with gold and embowered in tropical loveli- 
ness, for it was Juan Gaetano who found, so tradition tell us, 
the lava-bound shores of Hawaii island. History does not tell 
us that Gaetano landed with men in armor and arquebuses and 
established the first foreign military camp in Hawaii, but in all 
probabihty he did. 

Again in 1778 Captain James Cook, of the Royal British Navy 
dropped his anchor off the beautiful bay of Kealakekua and 
once more men of a foreign nation landed with guns and estab- 
lished an armed camp. One hundred and forty years later saw 
established on the shores of Pearl Harbor within easy cannon 
distance of Honolulu, the greatest naval and military camp 
ever strategically placed by the great American Republic, for in 
June, 1918, the drydock of Pearl Harbor Naval Station was 
completed and the great yard formally opened as a base for the 
handling of warship fleets of the United States and their defense 
by the nearby fortifications which already command the admira- 



264 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

tion of militarists, with Joseph Daniels, former secretary of the 
Navy, the principal participant in the ceremonies. 

In 1911 the channel which connects the open sea with the 
inner lochs of Pearl Harbor was formally opened, and the 
event celebrated as one of the important advances of the United 
States in its plan of preparedness in making the Hawaiian 
Islands a military outpost to make safeguard against hostile 
fleets, the entire Pacific coast. Of such importance was the cele- 
bration of the opening of this channel that the Navy Department 
sent war vessels to participate in the demonstration and sent 
the cruiser California up the channel to safe anchorage opposite 
the present naval yard. The cruiser was skilfully guided up the 
four and a half mile channel thereby demonstrating that for all 
future time, that any warship of the American Navy may easily 
negotiate the water way. It was a historical event for Hono- 
lulu. On the quarter deck of the California were many distin- 
guished personages, including Her Majesty Queen Liliuokalani, 
the former sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands and Hon, Sanford 
B. Dole, president of the first and only Republic of Hawaii; 
the Governor of Hawaii and the military and naval commanders 
in Hawaii. 

A document was recently found in a camphorwood chesf 
stored in the Archives Building of the Territory of Hawaii in 
Honolulu, which was written aboard the famous old wooden 
frigate Constitution — the "Old Ironsides" of prose and poetry — 
by Lieut. I. W. Curtis, U. S. N., addressed to Hon. G, P. Judd, 
Minister of Foreign Aflfairs of the Hawaiian Kingdom, in which 
the naval officer unfolded a plan to fortify Pearl Harbor, as 
well as Honolulu. He dwelt upon the importance of Martel 
towers, Paixhan guns of the caliber for ten-inch shells and 
sixty-pound shot. 

"Allow me to call your attention to the importance of Pearl 
Harbor," wrote the officer, "the perfect security of the harbor, 
the excellence of its water, the perfect ease with which it can 
be made one of the finest places in the islands, all of which com- 
bine to make it a great consideration. While the harbor was 
clearing out, fortifications could be built, troops could be drilled. 



HAWAII AMERICA'S BULWARK 265 

the forts might be garrisoned, government storehouses built. 
The amount of money to be expended will be but a feather in 
comparison with the almost incalculable amount of wealth that 
will result upon the completion of these objects." 

Not a single line of that report has been disregarded by the 
later-day naval officials. Every word has shown that Lieuten- 
ant Curtis had a grasp of the situation which would seem tinged 
v/ith prophecy. While the channel had been clearing, fortifica- 
tions have been built by the army on a reservation adjoining the 
naval reservation, fortifications which mount twelve and fourteen- 
inch guns while another had been constructed for large caliber 
mortars of the most powerful and modem-typed, troops are 
drilled all over the Island of Oahu in four separate army posts, 
and the garrisons gradually being increased until twenty-five 
thousand men are sometime to be stationed on the Island of 
Oahu alone, exclusive of the naval and marine force which is to 
be maintained. 

The announcement of the decision of President Roosevelt to 
increase activity at Pearl Harbor was commented on by every 
influential newspaper in the United States, and all were favorable 
to the project, but many fell into error in stating that Pearl 
Harbor came under the domination of the American govern- 
ment with annexation in 1898. That was not true, for in 1876, 
under President Grant, Pearl Harbor was ceded to the United 
States, President Cleveland renewed the treaty in 1887 for 
seven years. Since the renewal of the treaty Pearl Harbor has 
been the subject of many detailed reports by engineer officers 
and high officials of the navy. The determination of Congress 
to appropriate millions for the establishment of a naval base 
there was not sudden nor due to immediate necessity for defense, 
but 'to a carefully drawn plan which was decades in the making. 
The value of the harbot has never been denied, and it has 
now become, what the prophetic pen of a British naval officer 
announced over a hundred years ago would be "The greatest 
naval base of the Pacific Ocean." 

Little did the national lawmakers dream when they passed the 
joint resolution of Congress in July, 1898, annexing the Hawaii- 



266 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

an Islands to the United States, that by that act they laid the 
basis of the future base at Pearl Harbor, a station which will 
be regarded by those powers which concede that the Hawaiian 
Islands are the "Key to the Pacific," and Pearl Harbor the very 
center of armed protection to the Pacific Coast of the Ameri- 
can Republic. But there is the navy yard in reality not eight 
miles from Honolulu arising above a once desolate, lantana- 
covered stretch of coral and lava surface bordering upon the 
wonderful Pearl lochs. Within a cable's length of the moorings 
of the battleships are the gates of one of the finest types of 
drydocks in the world, whose capacity — while not as great as 
it should be — will be far in excess of the bulk of the greatest 
superdreadnaught for years to come, for the size of the Panama 
Canal and locks will have a bearing upon the size of future war- 
ships and compel nations to keep them down to a certain length. 
The American people little realize what has been done at Pearl 
Harbor, and little will they realize the importance of the harbor 
imtil American warships are placed on guard against a hostile 
fleet, and then its inestimable value will be given a practical 
demonstration, for out of that harbor in the middle of the Pa- 
cific, the very crossroads of the vast breadth of the sea on which 
border the nations of the two Americas, Asia and the great 
continents of the South Seas, may issue fleets absolute in their 
power and equipment to intercept armed squadrons whose aim 
is the long and poorly protected Pacific slope, a harbor to which 
its own maimed and unsupplied warships may retire for repairs, 
equipment, reinforcements and supplies. 

The millions and millions of people living under the Ameri- 
can flag may not comprehend the value of the millions of dol- 
lars being expended in and near those lochs, for the navy de- 
partment has been carrying on its work silently, but surely, 
working beneath the waters of the channel and lochs, to deepen 
where necessary, to fill in where navigation demanded, to widen 
and straighten the channel and reduce the shallowness of the bar 
at the sea entrance, working with the mechanical arms of the 
dredging machines which have dug out and crushed the flint- 
like coral formation for years, night and day, until where 



HAWAII AMERICA'S BULWARK 2Q 

only the diminutive gunboat Petrel was able to steam into Pearl 
Harbor in January, 1903, and anchor safely on the broad bosom 
of the inner harbor, battleships and cruisers now navigate and 
anchor in the deepest of deep water opposite the 1,000- foot 
drydock. This vast work under water gives no approximate 
idea of how the milHons have been spent or how the hundreds of 
American citizens have been laboring incessantly. 

Pearl Harbor is a magnificent rendezvous in the Mid-Pacific 
for the American navy, and the wisdom of its creation, in the 
light of events making the Pacific Ocean the one in which world 
powers are competing for commercial and military mastery, be- 
comes clearer and clearer the more one studies the situation. 
Hawaii is so situated in the Pacific that it is the natural center 
for converging transoceanic lines, whether from the Panama ship 
canal, or American, Australian, or Asiatic ports bordering on 
the Pacific. By the creation of a great naval force in this ocean, 
the American mainland will practically command the Pacific 
against any Asiatic or other power. Pearl Harbor will be a pro- 
tection for billions in national values. It will add to the equip- 
ment of the United States for the enterprises of peace as well 
as the necessities of war. The establishment of a powerful fleet 
at the Hawaiian Islands makes an oversea attack on any part 
of the American coast too dangerous to be attempted. 

Diamond Head, the picturesque crater- prom otory rising barrier- 
like at the eastern side of Honolulu, is a fortress, the most 
unique in the world, for the crater is used for military purposes 
as well as its slopes. This is Fort Ruger. 

The famous Waikiki beach is also flanked by a 14-inch gtin 
fortress — Fort De Russey. At the entrance to Honolulu harbor 
is Fort Armstrong, named after Hawaii's Civil War general. At 
the entrance to Pearl Harbor is Fort Kamehameha, named in 
honor of Kamehameha the Great. At the western extremity of 
Honolulu is Hawaiian Department headquarters, named after 
General Shafter, leader of America's troops in Cuba in 1898. 

Twenty miles away on the plains of Leilehua, in the center of 
the pineapple country is Schofield Barracks, named in honor of 



uiiwwmwiflPinfmQKiilVinP9P9PP^yiMWJM^w.Ui^ H' 'if«!«il! 



268 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

the general who took command of Richmond in April, 1865, 
after Lee's surrender. 

Hawaii has been referred to as the Gibraltar of the Pacific, 
but it is in reality the Malta of the Pacific. The Hawaii of the 
old monarchy days has passed. The picturesque royal country 
which attracted diplomats, writers, artists and distinguished per- 
sonages from every clime, has succumbed to the law of destiny 
and has been replaced by a practical American government, but 
tlie beautiful, romantic, moonlit nights still remain and the strum 
and tinkle of the guitar and ukulele are still heard beneath the 
swaying palms as the Hawaiian sob out their ear-haunting melo- 
dies of the Paradise of the Pacific — a land of content and peace. 




i>iin.ls of the overthrow of tlic Haivniian iiionnifhy in ]Si):! wpii- 
lieiileii tn-Piily voars lator, when Saiifonl B. ]>(ili; (loftj iiii.i fi.riii.r 
quetii Liliuuknlani (right) ivere iiliotograplioil together. Mr. Dole 
hecnim^ president tlic ilay the Queen was deposeil. Beliimi Ihein, 
Cajit. Heuri Berger, famous Hoyal Hawaiian Ban<l leader for forty 



i 



CHAPTER XXII 



THE CROSSROADS OF ADVENTURE 



WHERE EAST MEETS WEST 

FOR nearly a quarter of a century it has been my good for- 
tune to be assigned to the waterfront "beat" of Honolulu 
as a newspaper representative, and in that time I have in- 
terviewed hundreds upon hundreds of the world's celebrities, 
either aboard the steamers as they arrive off Honolulu harbor 
from the Seven Seas, or after they reach shore. 

Seldom have I missed a celebrity. I have listened to the hopes of 
patriots, the tales of travelers, the braggadocio of "bucko" mates 
of South Sea trading ships, stories of heroism from war corres- 
pondents, plans of nations as told by admirals, generals, diplomats 
and plotters. Of this interesting life I wrote the following on the 
anniversary of my twentieth year with The Honolulu Advertiser : 

As the old sailor types of Robert Louis Stevenson's "Treasure 
Island" days have disappeared from the Pacific along with the 
great picturesque fleets of canvas-topped sailing vessels of Amer- 
ica's golden maritime era; just as the stately, rakish old steamers 
Rio Janeiro, City of Peking, Australia, Zealandia and Alameda 
have been thrust aside by the mar\els of the genius of modern 
marine architects, so I am reminded more and more by experi- 
ence that most of the former carefree swashbuckling, adventur- 
ous "soldier of fortune" newspapermen of the Hawaiian Islands 
have been absorbed in the swirl of modern "business efficiency," 
and that the old era of news reporting is gone. They were be- 
ginning to pass even when the Hawaiian throne tottered and 
crashed in 1893 and a republic was set up on the ruins of a pic- 
turesque monarchy. 



270 ■ UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

All these phases of swift and certain, and even lamented, 
changes from romance and adventure to cold-blooded gathering 
of news events today which lacks adventure, romance or pic- 
turesqueness or even the elements of fine old Bohemianism in 
its truest sense, are most pertinent to me on this anniversary. 
For just twenty years ago today — November 16, 1899 — I joined, 
the reportorial staff of the Honolulu Pacific Commercial Adver- 
tiser under Walter G. Smith, editor, who had taken charge only 
the day before, an editor who was the heart and soul of a swash- 
buckling, adventurous newspaperman, whose career ranged from 
filibuster in Mexico to war correspondent in the Far East, and 
whose pen was poised to mould the destinies of Hawaii during 
the next decade. 

Like the old, bearded sea captain of the days of sails, who 
to day has become a mere watchman at a wharf from sunset to 
dawn, but who formerly roamed strange seas in search of whales, 
traded down in the Lazy Latitudes of the South Seas, "black- 
birded" maybe, and met with marvelous adventures, so too, 
have the newspapermen of the former day become mere cogs in 
the modern newspaper machinery in Honolulu, as elsewhere, for 
the wireless, cable, fast-traveling ocean liners have removed 
Hawaii from its old-time isolation and left newspaper life more 
or less a mere mechanical duty, just as a glass of champagne is 
dead when the zip and effervescence have flattened. 

So appear to me the changes in twenty years of newspaper 
Kfe in Honolulu. When I received my first assignment that day 
from Walter G. Smith, to ascertain from the "captains of indus- 
try" of Hawaii's sugar realm how a great money surplus then 
lying idle in the Republic of Hawaii treasury (we became a full- 
fledged territory of the United States in 1900) should be spent, 
it was almost as though Captain Kidd had directed me to order 
the captives up from the hold and make them walk the plank. 

There was just that element of adventure in "Walter G." that 
made the most commonplace "detail" to his staff appear to 
have come right out of the realms of the swashbuckHng world. 
His tales of his filibustering experience in Lower California, his 
fund of battle stories of the China-Japan war of 1894 when he 



THE CROSSROADS OF ADVENTURE 271 

became the associate of the greatest of all Japanese generals and 
statesmen; his fights with irate readers of his Southern California 
papers, and his gun handHng, made his office a hallowed one, 
and impressed us all with the idea that adventure, romance and 
real gingery "newspaper stuff" were lying about on every hand. 
They were — then. 

Honolulu was isolated, though it was a crossroads port for 
steamers from the Far East, the South Seas, the Occident, 
South America. Travelers passed and repassed or remained 
here to bask in the entertaining and "different" life of Hono- 
lulu. Diplomats and princes of foreign states were frequent 
visitors. Honolulu was a center of real news. Interviews in 
those days were real ones and statements of "important" persons 
often had their effect upon a world outside, for the world was 
receptive of the opinions of men who stood out above their fel- 
low men ; it had not reached a stage when Bolshevism set up a 
false standard for men to live by or could and would sneer at 
great and distingtiished men and minimize their words. 

Twenty years ago when I made my debut in Honolulu news- 
paper life (and I have continued on the same paper to present 
with two intervals when 1 held public and semi-public offices and 
even then on leave of absence from my paper), Hawaii was on 
the threshold of the most important change in her political status, 
for within a year she dropped her nationality and independent 
status as a republic which had been created upon the ruins of 
a monarchy, to become a territory of the United States. 

It was the beginning of the certain protection afforded by the 
American Union, but also of the loss of an individuality, for, 
ruled down from Washington, Hawaii's officials from among her 
own people became fewer in number with a resulting increase of 
"mainlanders," dubbed in those early days "carpetbaggers." This 
is not a criticism of the officials themselves, but of a system which 
has outlived its usefulness in a free republic of the people. 

Washington still clings to the old, threadbare idea and pohcy 
that "to the victor belongs the spoils," and political debts of 
incoming Presidents are paid off in lucrative offices in Hawaii 



272 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

lo those in various states of the Union who helped the men in 
office at Washington get their positions. 

In fact, that section of the Constitution providing for terri- 
tories, is now obsolete and should be eliminated. There will 
be no more territories. Hawaii and Alaska are the last ones, 
Hawaii, because of its too-large population from the Orient, 
may never be a state. A freer method of "home rule" govern- 
ment should be accorded the delegates from the two territories 
and each should be allowed a vote on the floor of Congress, and 
the judges and other officials should be of Hawaii, at least, and 
not from "Alalousippi." Hawaii, too long, has been "Forgotten 
Island"' with Washington, D. C, 

That day, November 16, 1899, was- just upon the eve of a his- 
torical transition period. Memories of men and women were 
still keen to political changes of '93 and '95 ; the rancor stirred by 
the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy was still a live and 
painful subject and Hawaiians were still resentful against those 
they accused of treason to the island nation. Progressive .Ameri- 
cans were still hopeful that iheir decision would prove a God- 
send lo Hawaii in the long run, for the eyes of jealous foreign 
nations had been ease toward the Hawaiian Islands, and plans, 
undoubtedly, were projected in many foreign capitals to train 
the guns of their warships upon the Hawaiian capital and take 
forcible possession of the Islands. 

When I look back over the twenty years that have elapsed 
since first I look pad and pencil and recorded my first day's notes, 
my fancy marshals stirring events, the building of vast agricul- 
tural enterprises, distinguished men and women, an array of 
interviews with world-known personages — generajs, admirals, 
statesmen, peers, princes and potentates, war correspondents, 
revolutionists, adventurers, sculptors, captains of industry, 
crooks, athletes, writers, actors, painters, lecturers, musicians, 
sea captanis, "bucko" mates, adventurers, "fly-by-night" visitors, 
crooked sellers of mining stocks, men and women of varied 
nationalities, of all hues under the sun, for all of these have come 
under my eye and pencil in the daily routine of a newspaper life 
in Honolulu which has lasted through a generation. 



THE CROSSROADS OF ADVENTUf^ 273 

But gone are those early days of romance and adventure. 
Honolulu then was picturesque, for there were among us titled 
persons of the old royal regime who had been forcibly deposed 
from their high offices. It had a scattering of foreign peoples, 
just enough leaven to make one certain that here was a pic- 
turesque comer of the Eight Seas. It was not then crowded 
with foreign peoples, who today outnumber the original popula- 
tion. 

Twenty and even fifteen years ago, Hawaii was thoroughly 
isolated — just a group of isles far away from civilization's cen- 
ters. Six years at least intervened in the reception of news of 
the outside world. There were no cables, no wireless, no auto- 
mobiles, no fast steamers. We were a drowsy ukulele land. 

The seven and eight-day steamers brought the "latest news" 
from San Francisco. "Steamer day" was an important factor in 
Honolulu life. The electric company's whistle sounded the 
steamer's approach. Two hours later the vessel would be at the 
wharf. The town was aroused. Tram cars carried heavy loads 
harborward. Horses were hitched to buggies and the rest of the 
town moved wharfward. The Hawaiian Band usually "played" 
a steamer in. It was a time when people met and gossiped while 
waiting for the steamer to tie up. The smart set and every other 
set met on common ground at the waterfront. Steamers did not 
bring many people in those days, but quality made up for quantity. 
They were whisked up to the picturesque Hawaiian Hotel, and a 
dance that night on its lanais drew the townsfolk to meet the 
strangers. 

Then, everybody went to the postoffice. The modern innova- 
tion of having letters delivered at one's home was not known 
here. All Honolulu met at the postoffice, and so, friendships 
were held close. The letter delivery system has broken many a 
friendship ; the automobile and electric trolley lines, giving people 
opportunity to live in the far suburbs, have further aided in the 
breaking of oldtime friendship ties. Only the office boy or the 
box owner go to the postoffice now. 

How did we get the news in those days ? A steamer came off 
port, maybe in day or night. In a launch, or sometimes in a 



274 * UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

rowboat, we met the steamer otT port. We either boarded her or 
had files of newspapers thrown overboard to us. Back to the 
wharf and office. Each reporter was given a paper. The news 
items were reduced to "telegraph brevities." We worked some- 
times far into the night and the next morning The Advertiser 
proudly blossomed out with the "latest news of the world" — 
eight and nine days old. 

Sometimes we had to go ont in a gale. The launch or pilot 
boat heaved and slogged in the waves. Oftentimes we were out 
nearly all night, soaked to the skin, with the editorial staff patient- 
ly wailing for the reporters to return with their precious "latest 
newspapers." 

There was always competition with other papers. Oftentimes 
there were new newspaper files on board. Frenzied search was 
instituted from stateroom to stateroom to locate stray papers or 
pieces of them. 

What a contrast of today with news received several times a 
night by cable, radio, telephone, from the uttermost parts of the 
outer world, from the other islands, from other parts of this 
island, a thoroughly comprehensive digest of the news of the 
day which is presented to The Advertiser's readers at the break- 
fast table in true metropolitan style. In fact visitors to Honolulu 
have marvelled at the enterprise of The Advertiser and its splen- 
did presentation of news, just as though it were published in New 
York, Boston, Chicago or San Francisco, for its presses give out 
thousands of copies an hour, often in color tones — all quite 
up-to-date. 

There were crack sailing vessels in those days which made 
clipper- fast voyages. They came from the coast with lumber; 
from the South Seas with guano and copra , from South America 
with. nitrates ; from San Francisco with general merchandise and 
provisions : from England and Scotland and Germany with fer- 
tilizers, fabrics and liquors; from China and Japan with silks 
and sake and soyo and Oriental curios; from Australia and New 
Zealand and Samoa with mutton and beef and mats. 

Honolulu harbor was often a "forest of masts." The vessels 
remained here weeks at a time. The masters were personal 



THE CROSSROADS OF ADVENTURE 275 

friends of the best families and they entertained aboard extensive- 
ly. They were men who had been "running" down to Honolulu 
for decades. Their friendships were lasting ones. They dined 
in the homes of the old families and the old families dined aboard. 

As big steamers began to replace the sailing vessels this won- 
derful aggregation of ship masters and mates disappeared. The 
old friend ashore died and the friendships became few. New 
men, different from the old types, occupied the masters' cabins 
and were little contact between the old population and the sailing 
ship's cozy diningroom. Only the customs men and quarantine 
officers and ship's agents go aboard nowadays and once in a 
■while an old friend turns up. 

The tales that those old sailors reeled off! They were stories 
of South Seas islands and trading; tales of mutinies on the high 
seas and drastic methods of suppressing such uprisings; of pur- 
suit of whales; of old bucko mates who were generally accredited 
with close relationship with near-pirates; of opium smuggling 
and of smugglers; of typhoons and hurricanes, shipwrecks and 
life on lonely islands awaiting a passing ship; of strange car- 
goes of merchandise and sometimes human beings; days when 
ship cabins were filled with curious things collected in every 
part of the world. 

But the fast and big steamers have driven them out. The estab- 
lishment of the cable brought Honolulu into news contact with 
the outside world. 

There was no longer anticipation as to what might have occur- 
red in the world. Everybody got it the "next morning." That 
took the adventurous element out of life here. Came then the 
auto and that changed the aspect of the city. Suburbs were un- 
known in those early days. Our little world for news getting 
was nearly all "down town." or within easy reach. WaikikUwas 
far away and dreamy in those days, with a long stretch of beach 
and few homes and bungalows. 

The suburbs of today were the far country of the early days 
of this century, but a country where it was pleasant to have 
picnics and luaus. When we newspapermen wanted to locate 
any man in town it was easy to get him. The telephone of that 



'■ '* !".'■ ■-?»I|»iBPP)B^pspBirilWS."«ip>™« ■.'™i?P^ 



276 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

day was a sort of clearing house. Mrs, Jones goes to Mrs. 









L^rrruii 



*^ 



THE CROSSROADS OF ADVENTURE 277 

with brilliant lecturers ; have interviewed castaway sailors rescued 
and en route home. I have met and interviewed princes of India, 
soldiers of fortune, revoUitionists, Pershing, Taft, Funston, 
small of stature, but one of the biggest generals ever stationed in 
Honolulu, and hundreds upon hundreds of other well known men 
and women. The Prince of Wales, Lord Xorthcliffe, prime 
ministers, great singers. Calve, Melba, Schuman-Heink, with 
Kubelik, Paderewski, Heifeitz; with Jellicoe. lord of battles — 
the list covers the world. 

Locally, I wonder how many marriages in the past twenty years 
I missed "writing up," beginning away back there in 1899? I 
wonder how many births later on I recorded. I wonder how 
many divorces 1 was called upon to record and "write up." It 
has been a pleasure to "write up" these weddings, for it took me 
into many hospitable homes. It has been a pleasure to write 
obituaries. The word "pleasure" may sound strange but it is 
true, for these obituaries, replete with splendid deeds of fine life 
work of many of our citizens, men and women alike, were obitu- 
aries of lives well spent, of self-sacrificing, of educating, of 
devotion to the interests of others. There have been many splen- 
did men and women of Honolulu, Hawaiian and haole alike, 
whose biographies were unusual. 

The late Queen Liliuokalani was, all in all, a remarkable 
woman, and I had many chats with her at Washington Place 
and in my own home. She was among the first of the royalties 
in the world since the French revolution to lose her crown, but 
destiny was behind this lamentable necessity. I saw her that 
November day in 1917 when she breathed her last [as I did also 
the last royal prince of Hawaii, Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalaniana- 
ole, January 7, 1922]. 

I have followed the fortunes of politicians, of men of indus- 
try, doctors and lawyers, educators and agriculturists and scien- 
tists, written of their work and their hopes and their discoveries 
in their particular fields. I have watched the city grow from a 
large, contented town with unpaved streets to a city with modem 
wharves, paved streets, electric trolleys, big office and hotel build- 
ings. 



278 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

But with all this progress there has disappeared the peculiar 
and delightful charm of old Honolulu, the atmosphere of Ha- 
waii nei of the olden time. The streets have been straightened 
and old trees have come down ; historic buildings have been razed 
to be replaced by something modern in which not an iota of local 
architectural atmosphere, or architecture typical of Hawaii, is 
apparent. Just such a building as would sit on State street or 
Arapahoe street or Main street in any city. Trees, gardens, sea 
bathing beach, people connected with the golden era of the Ha- 
waiian monarchy, al! have disappeared under the march of events. 
Even the mountains, once picnic rendezvous, are forest reserves 
with kapu signs, or fenced in lots for private homes, and no 
stretch of sea beach can be called public. 

The climate of Hawaii is still here. It is the ever alluring 
charm of Hawaii nei. Times and peoples and life have altered, 
merged with other life ; Hawaiian melodies, the tinkle of the uku- 
lele and the strum of (he guitar have nearly been replaced by the 
jangling, banging "jazz"; autos whizz by at breaking speed; 
trolley cars clang in the soft Hawaiian moonlight ; ancient co- 
coanut groves come down ; cafeterias and Boston restaurants have 
replaced the old time "coffee saloon"; traffic policemen regulate 
your movements day and night on the streets; fashion dictates 
serges and woolens in place of the old time spotless and cool 
ducks and linens ; Waldorf-Astoria gowns have almost shamed 
the picturesque Hawaiian holoku out of street appearance; work- 
men have unionized; hours of labor are set; the old time hack- 
men, save one, have passed out of existence; only one prince of 
the old regime remains alive [this prince, Kuhio, died in 1922 1 ; 
the Throne Room's beautiful koa woods have been painted 
white, and the old "Boat Landing," a romantic meeting place in 
the old days when warships anchored in "Naval Row," is a 
launch wharf. 

The adventurous life we newspaper men used to lead is chang- 
ed. Just when the change came I cannot recall. It altered our 
semi-Bohemian kind of hfe. Just picking up news hap-hazardly, 
and yet with a wealth of human interest always turning up in it, 
has become a business-like system, with regular hours. 



THE CROSSROADS OF ADVENTURE 279 

Individuality still survives, but ,is not essential, judging; by 
the business-like city editors of the modem regime, for few of 
the men are as old as some of us who have survived the old days 
of Honolulu journalism. 

It is no time to lament over the "good old days" of the roman- 
tic long ago of Honolulu. Modern newspaper systems don't 
permit reflecting over "old times." They want the news of to- 
day. But everything to me in Hawaii is "yesterday." I am 
proud of Hawaii's "yesterday." 

But like the pipe-smoking old sailor watchman on the wharf 
today, who was master of a clipper ship a quarter of a century 
and more ago, who likes to let his thoughts go back to the palmy 
days of his mariner life, so does the newspaper man of an old 
and picturesque regime. 



THE CROSSROADS OF ADVENTURE 279 

Individuality still survives, but ,is not essential, judging by 
the business-like city editors of the modern regime, for few of 
the men are as old as some of us who have survived the old days 

of Honolulu journalism. 

It is no time to lament over the "good old days" of the roman- 
tic long ago of Honolulu. Modern newspaper systems don't 
permit reflecting over "old times." They want the news of to- 
day. But everything to me in Hawaii is "yesterday." I am 
proud of Hawaii's "yesterday." 

But like the pipe-smoking old sailor watchman on the wharf 
today, who was master of a clipper ship a quarter of a century 
and more ago, who likes to let his thoughts go back to the palmy 
days of his mariner life, so does the newspaper man of an old 
and picturesque regime. 



CHAPTER XXIII 



ISLES OF ALOHA LAND 



GEOGRAPHY OF THE GROUP 

IN the days of '49 when Americans suddenly discovered that 
California was the modern El Dorado and there was a rush 
from the four corners of the earth to share its riches from 
mounlains, valleys, gulclies and rivers, the Hawaiian Islands 
sprang equally into prominence as a provider for California. 
Corn and wheat, potatoes and flour and many other products of 
the soil were shipped to the Golden State. Hawaii thrived on 
her sudden prosperity as an exporter of products that today are 
now mostly imported from the mainland as Hawaii's great agri- 
cultural areas are devoted now principally to sugar cane and 
pineapples. 

In the days of '49 it was a tedious voy^e of weeks on a sail- 
ing vessel between San Francisco and Honolulu. Steamers be- 
gan to stir the waters of the Pacific and gradually the time was 
cut down from weeks to nine and ten days, then eight then seven, 
and today the voyage over the beautiful ocean, sparkling in the 
rays of the sun, for Hawaii is in the "sunshine belt" steamship 
routes, is made in six days as an average on the many liners that 
now ply regularly between California and Hawaii. 

It is a voyage never to be forgotten. The comforts of modem 
travel are at the command of the traveler. It is now a satin- 
slippered trip from anywhere on the American mainland down to 
Hawaii, up to the Volcano and almost any place in the islands, 
whether it be in the wondrous Waimea Canyon of Kauai, with 
its gloriaus colorings so like those of the Grand Canyon of 
Arizona ; or to the edge of the active, roaring, magnificent Hale- 
maumau crater in Kilauea volcano. The voyage is through a 



ISLES OF ALOHA LAND 281 

series of days that breathe of the soft, balmy climate of Hawaii. 
As the miles diminish the air becomes more balmy and then the 
steamer itself comes into this zone of the trade winds blowii^ 
down from the Arctic Ocean through Behring Strait. 

Passing over the verdure- tipped summits of the great moun- 
tain ranges the trade wind stirs the foliage of the mountain slopes 
and of the plains and wafts gentle zephyrs over the bathing 
beaches, so that in Honolulu the homes are built with great wide 
doors and wide living verandas, or lanais, as the Hawaiians call 
them, and there, half in the open the people are found by the 
travelers to be living a life of sovereign ease. 

The Hawaiian group extends from 18° 50', to 22° 20' North 
Latitude, and 154° 53', to 160° 15' West Longitude. They are 
about 2080 miles west and southwest of San Francisco, six days 
by steamer from the Golden Gate and 8 to 10 days steamer dis- 
tance from Japan. 

The group consists of eight principal islands — Hawaii, Maui, 
Molokai, Oahu, Kauai, Niihau, Lanai, Kahooiawe and several 
small islets. Nihoa is an interesting but tiny islet about 120 
miles northwest of Kauai. 

By Act of Congress and by proclamation of President Roose- 
velt, many dots of islets to the westward extending as far as 
Midway Island, on which is located the cable relay station of the 
Commercial Pacific (Mackay) Cable Co., the islands there are 
called the Bird Reservation and are under the jurisdiction of the 
mayor of Honolulu. These islets include Lysiansky, Necker, 
French Frigate Shoals, Pearl and Hermes Reef, Laysan, Ocean 
and Midway Islands. 

To south of Honolulu a few hundred miles and seven days 
travel by power fishing sampan, are the Palmyra Islands, once 
supposed to be governed by Great Britain, but certainly now un- 
der the United States and owned by Judge H. E. Cooper of Hono- 
lulu. There are 50 islets in the group, and now being developed 
by a company for copra and the fish which abound in these walers. 
The islands were bought for $750.00, Recently (he navy accom- 
plished a feat when it sent a small Eagle Boat with a seaplane on 
its deck to Palmyra. The islands were surveyed by boat and 



282 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

by seaplane and it was determined that in case of necessity the 
isles afford opportunity for a built-up harbor and naval base. 

Other small islands which form part of the Hawaiian group 
proper, are Mihoa known as Bird Island; Lehua, a small islet 
off the northern point of Kauai, having an elevation of 1000 feet. 
Molokini is an extinct volcano, lying in the channel midway be- 
tween Maui and Kahoolawe. Kaula, the smallest islet of the 
group, is situated seven miles southwest from Niihau. Of the 
larger islands only eight are inhabited. Kahoolawe once aban- 
doned, is now a cattle ranch owned by the Baldwin sugar plant- 
ers of Maui. 

These islands present a variety of soil, climate and natural 
productions. Sugar is the staple product, the output in a banner 
year which the war interrupted, being close to 600,000 tons. Rice 
at one time second in importance, has fallen far down the list, 
while pineapples, which a quarter of a century ago were mostly 
a garden product, now lake second place, with a pack in 1921 of 
6,000,000 cases of canned pines, finding a market in every part 
of the world and regarded as the most delicious pine product 
on any market. 

The Hawaiian pine has achieved a prominence in the market 
which is phenomenal, and as a result the pineapple factories in 
Honolulu and other islands are enormous plants. Bananas are 
also a profitable export as well as rice. Coffee is holding its 
own despite difficulties of labor in handling the crop and the low 
price. Tobacco is a fine product but the growers have expe- 
rienced difficulties in marketing. Hawaiian coffee is pronounced 
one of the finest products of the world, and for many years the 
War Department took the largest part of the crop for use in its 
army. Coffee is raised principally in the Kona district of Ha- 
waii island, hence the name "Kona Coffee." 

Among the other natural products in the Islands are indigo 
and sumac. There are many medicinal plants indigenous to the 
islands, and an almost endless variety of fibrous plants. The 
soil and climate render the growth and perfecting of every plant, 
shrub and fruit common to sub-tropical countries, while on the 
higher elevations of Hawaii and Maui the fruits, cereals and 



ISLES OF ALOHA LAND 283 

grasses of the temperate zone do well. Citrous fruits grow to 
perfection, as do also lo<juat, mango, tamarind, ohia or mountain 
apple; breadfruit, papaya, or pawpaw of the West Indies; avo- 
cado or alligator pear ; pineapples, native strawberry, raspberry, 
thinibleberries growing near the volcano ; ohelo or native huckle- 
berry, also growing largely near the volcano. 

There are several varieties of forest trees producing hmiber 
for furniture and building, including the koa, which takes a 
wonderful polish and from which are made all manner of curios, 
platters, calabashes; ohia, a hard timber which is used for floor- 
ing. Sandalwood, once plentiful, has been exhausted. 

The native grasses have been almost exterminated by cattle, 
sheep and goats. Their place has been taken by imported grasses. 
The government has proclaimed forest reserves and is fencing 
much of this area and planting new trees. Goats are yet a 
menace to trees and shrub growth. 

Game once abundant in the islands, is not so plentiful, due to 
the rapid population expansion in the islands, the cultivation of 
valleys and mountain slopes for sugar cane, pineapples and the 
gradual use of mountain tops for dwellings. Peacocks were once 
common on Maui, but not now, Turkey, pheasants, California 
quail, plover, ducks were once plentiful, but today pheasants are 
imported from Japan and China and are no longer as wild as 
hunters would prefer. Small herds of deer are yet to be found 
on Molokai which is not so densely populated as the other islands. 
Wild goats, wild cattle and wild hogs still afford good shooting 
on various islands, particularly on Hawaii, Maui and Molokai. 

The waters surrounding these islands abound in fish, but with 
the increase of population, the decrease in erazinu lands for cattle 
and sheep, the fishing business has grown rapidly. Japanese 
control 90 percent of all fishing in the Islands. They use sam- 
pans exactly like those in Japan, most of them equipped with 
powerful gasoline engines, .^s the fishing fleels are enlarge I 
and the fishing is done on a wholesale scale the water close ' ^ 
the islands are found less advantageous for fishing. Sampans 
now go out hundreds of miles, remaining a week or two weeks, 
returning with their ice-filled holds chockahlock with fish, prin- 



284 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

cipally the ulua, mullet and many kinds of fish that are so bril- 
liantly colored, so bizarre of shape, that they arc called "Painted 
fishes, "and most of the species are to be seen in the wonderful 
aquarium in Honolulu. Now the rich fishing grounds around 
Palmyra Islands, five days' sampan trip, are invaded to supply 
Honolulu markets. 

Hawaii, the largest island, is 90 miles long by 73 miles broad; 
and contains scenery of the sublimest and grandest character. 
It is interesting as the island where the great circumnavigator. 
Captain Cook, was killed February 14, 1779, just one year and 
29 days after his original discovery of the islands. An obelisk 
has been erected to his memory at Kawaaloa, where he fell. The 
last British naval crew to visit the place and attend to repairs 
was that of the light cruiser Calcutta, in March, 1922. Hawaii 
was also the birthplace of the conqueror, Kamehameha I. A fine 
statue has been erected to his memory by the Hawaiian Govern- 
ment in Kohala (like the one in Honolulu), to commemorate his 
nobility of character and statesmanship. 

The Island of Hawaii possesses many rare features of interest. 
Amongst them is the famous "City of Refuge," at Hoiiaunau, 
not far distant from Kealakekua Bay where so much history was 
recorded. This most interesting relic of pagan days is a large 
enclosure, walled with massive stones accurately fitted together. 
Within these walls any one who had committed a crime was safe 
from the immediate vetigeance of others and was entitled to a 
fair hearing of his case by the attendant priests who lived In 
the city. 

By far this is the most historical place in Hawaii, related in- 
dissolubly with the lives of some of Hawaii's greatest men and 
women. There was the dwelling of Keawe, after whom the 
"Hale o Keawe," at the north end of the Puuhonua east wall was 
named. The terraces today indicating the site of this house are 
situated at the northern end of the Puuhonua mauka wall. Orig- 
inally there were three terraces, not four as at present, for the 
Hale Keawe and the great walls, torn down by tidal waves and 
other causes, have been rebuilt by the Bishop Estate in as near 
the original form as knowledge of venerable men can indicate 




Goiliicss IVIo's liiTv, roariiii;, sci'tliing, ever-ai^tivc irntor •<{ 
(iroii^o ol^ KvLTla-slirifi Firol. in Kiljuioii Vnl.'an.i. is . 
the aux'-iiisiiiriiig H(ii>ct!K-les of tlio woJid. 



ISLES OF ALOHA LAND 285 

their original appearance. About tlie middle o£ the lower was 
a kauila wood gate, opposite the door of the Hale o Keawe. On 
the second, or middle terrace, offerings were made — a human 
being, a pig and a bunch of bananas constituting a single offer- 
ing. On the highest platform the house (hale) was situated. 
Keawe was one of (he greatest kings of Hawaii, and contrary to 
usual custom, his bones were buried in this site. 

Upon the reefs or causeways from the shore to the point of 
the City of Refuge which projecis into a little bay, the fugitives 
could pass. There are orifices in the lava today which show 
where the standards of the kahilis stood. On reaching the stand- 
ards the fugitives were safe. The City of Refuge is remarkable 
for the immense size of the stones used, wonderment being ex- 
pressed by visitors as to how the Hawaiians raised them into posi- 
tion without mechanical aids. The principal motif, apparently, 
in the construciion of the great walls of the Puuhonua was im- 
pressive bulk. Surrounding the wall were hideous idols in ancient 
times. The temple, like others throughout the islands, includ- 
ing idols, were destroyed by royal proclamation in 1819. 

A splendid motor road now connects Honaunau with other 
towns, so that a visit to this rare place is no longer difficult. One 
sits in a motor on the entire circuit of the Island of Hawaii. 

In the vicinity of Kealakekua and Kilauea, the latler the 
former royal headqiiarters and the first mission of the mission- 
aries in 1820, are numerous caves in many of which were secretly 
buried the bones of high chiefs and kings. There is an air of 
sepulchral quiet about the bay of Kealakckua, and superstition 
still holds sway there. No Hawaiian evinces curiosity to peer 
into the caves piercing the lofty cliff. Rare feather cloaks, muu- 
muus, canoes, ancient implements are in these caves. No one 
touches them. The ascent is almost impos.sible. The government 
protects these tombs of the great. 

The chief attraction of this island is the volcano of Kilauea, 
the largest active volcano in the world. The approach to it is 
picturesque in the extreme. The great crater is three miles 
across. In the center of the crater is a pit, called Hale-mau-mau 
("House of Fire"), and that is the volcano, belching its lava 

10 



286 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

upward, always upward, sometimes overflowing the pit into the 
great crater, always a fascinating and awesome sight, its fires 
never quenched. A motor road connects the seaport city of Hilo 
with the volcano, where the Volcano House, a modern hotel 
houses visitors. From its verandas the activities of the pit, 
three miles distant can always be observed. 

Kilauea volcano and all the extinct craters around the forests 
of native trees and the beautiful fern groves are now a part of the 
Hawaiian National Park, looked after by the Bureau of National 
Parks of the Department of the Interior, at Washington. The 
volcano is to Hawaii what the geysers are to the Yellowstone. 

Many steamers each week call at ports of Hawaii from Hono- 
lulu. The Inter-Island company has a fine steamer on this run 
for tourists, and in 1923 will have a steamer with a capacity of 
350 passengers, large and commodious as any ocean liner, to 
carry passengers on the "Volcano run," making two trips a week. 
The Matson Navigation Company makes visits with its big hners 
to Hilo. The Los Angeles Steamship Company, with two huge 
steamers, will call at Hilo from Los Angeles to Honolulu. The 
Admiral Line of Seattle, proposes to put a fast passenger liner 
on a similar run. 

Any of these routes are convenient and enables visitors to see 
much of the varied scenery and many wonders of nature on the 
island. 

A railroad line running out of Hilo, passes along the Hamakua 
coast, crossing dozens of gulches, going through tunnels, hang- 
ing over precipices above the wave-lashed shores, a railway trip 
that is a series of sharp surprises every mile. It also runs in 
another direction to Glenwood, within eight miles of the Vol- 
cano House. 

The volcanic system of Hawaii is grand, the gigantic peak of 
^fauna Kea, snow-capped, rising to an altitude of 13,805 feet, 
the sister peak of Mauna Loa piercing the air with its shining 
crest at 13,600 feet. Mauna Loa is intermittently active, craters 
breaking out on its slopes in unexpected places and sometimes 
pouring lava across the government roads, one being as late as 



ISLES OF ALOHA LAND 287 

1920, called the AUka Flow. Kilauea crater is 4000 feet above 
sea level. 

Hilo is a lovely city, crouched on a gently rising slope from a 
crescent shaped bay, formerly known as Byron's Bay, named 
after Lord Byron, the English navigator, who visited it in the 
frigate Blonde. It is a city almost covered with trees and other 
verdure. Near it are sugar plantations. It lias hotels, fine public 
buildings and enterprise. 

Maui, the second largest island, is 48 miles long and 30 miles 
broad. It is famous in Hawaiian history and though much of 
its glory and romance has departed, giving place to utilitarian 
industry and enterprise, yet it possesses points of interest to the 
lover of nature that are peculiar to itself. On the western half 
of the island the Valley of lao is of great interest and beauty and 
is referred to as the Yosemite of Hawaii. 

The eastern half of the island rises to the height of 10,000 
feet, and on the summit is the great crater of Hale-a-ka-la 
{"House of the Sun"), the largest extinct crater in the world. 
This wonderful crater is about 24 miles in circumference, with 
walls rising 2000 feet, and abounds with volcanic scenery of the 
most varied description. Recent research in the bed of the vol- 
cano shows that it was in ancient times used for the construction 
of heiaus (temples), and for domiciliary purposes and possibly 
was the scene of fierce battles, as great quantities of spear heads 
and other implements of warfare were unearthed about 1920. 

The ascent of Haleakala, made by motor to Olinda and thence 
by horseback to the summit where a rest house awaits the over- 
night visitors, for sunset and sunrise are the great features of 
this remarkable visit to the roof of the world. 

Maui is a vast island of sugar plantations and beautiful 
gulches and scenery. The Baldwins own much of the sugar 
development and have beautified the islands in a pro bono publico 
spirit, the spirit that was passed on to his public -spirited sons 
by H. P. Baldwin, father of the clan. The community life on 
Maui is pleasant. 

Kahului is the principal port for ocean going steamers, and 
at Lahaina, on the opposite side of the island is a landing for 



288 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

inter-island steamers. Lahaina was anciently the home of kings 
and chiefs. Its bays were favorable for canoe fleets and today 
the United States navy uses Lahaina bay as a rendezvous for 
its submarine fleets and destroyers and for naval maneuvers. 
Mala Bay wharf, completed in 1922, permits steamers to range 
alongside, an improvement over the old transfer in small boats 
from steamer to landing and vice versa. 

Kauai, the most northerly of the eight islands forming group 
proper, is the most beautiful. Its scenery lacks the stupendous 
grandeur of the mountains and gorges of Hawaii, and there are 
no vast plains as on the Islands of Maui and Oahu. But its 
central peak is the oldest probably of any of the islands, and 
has been worn down by the elements until its outlines are all 
softly moulded and the many valleys which radiate from it are 
cloihed with an abundant vegetation, amongst which are to be 
found trees and plants peculiar to the island. 

Kauai was the first to really recognize the automobile as a 
permanent transportation feature and built a road skirting the 
shore much of the way, but through hills and plains, that con- 
nected the principal towns from Waimea, near which are the 
famous Barking Sands and the wonderful Waimea Canyon with 
its Grand Canyon of the Arizona likeness in vivid colors to 
Lihue, the county seat, and then on to Hanalei where is found 
the most beautiful bay that tourists ever gazed upon. On the 
northwest side is the Na Pali clifTs and precipices, and this part 
of the island is devoid of a road. These cliffs are coHossal and 
wonderful. The wall of rock extends some distance inland. 

Visits to Kauai, called "The Garden Island," reveal scenery 
that is different from other islands. It has often been referred 
to as the baronial isle, for the Wilcoxes, the Gays, Robinsons, 
Knudsens, Rices, who are among the wealthiest of all Hawaii's 
sugar planters and ranchers, cultured folk, who have ploughed 
the soil, covered the ranges with cattle and horses, built fine 
homes, established gardens such as that on the summit of Kiikui- 
olono ("The Torch of Lono"), where Alexander McBryde car- 
ried his hobby into creating wonderful gardens and vistas until 
it has become a second Golden Gate Park, and all open to the 



ISLES OF ALOHA LAND 289 

public, live lives of luxurious and cultured ease. In fact, the 
Kauai planters are noted for the openhandediiess with which 
they have devoted their wealth to public enterprises and needs, 
hospitals, schools, roads, libraries, and even in Honolulu, on 
Oahu, where they have established buildings for the Salvation 
Army, children's hospital, for the aged and incurable sick, for 
Christian service. 

It is a community island siich as people of other lands, with 
their thoughts on the Hawaiian Islands, expect to find in the isles 
— planters of wealth whose culture is an asset to the community. 

Kauai has shown how successful homesteading can be made, 
where Hawaiians and Forluguese and Anglo-Saxons have left 
their desks in the cities and towns and turned to tlie soil for a 
future and succeeded in small farming and in pineapple growing. 

Kauai has seaports where inter-island steamers call many times 
a week from Honolulu, Ocean-going steamers anchor at Port 
Allen (Eleele), and carry away huge cargoes of raw sugar to 
the American mainland. The United States Government has 
recognized tiie importance of Kauai as an industrial center and 
has constructed a breakwater at Xawiliwili, the seaport for Lihue. 

There are picturesque waterfalls, and the famous Barking 
or Whispering Sands, that set in motion on their slopes give 
forth a peculiar sound such as a small dog's bark. There are 
gloomy caverns to explore; there is the famous "Spouting 
Horn" at Koloa, a vent in a lava apron over the sea through 
which waves send up geysers to a height of 80 and 100 feet. 
Everywhere there is the old style, generous hospitality on Kauai. 
This island contains 350,000 acres, and is 22 miles in length by 
25 miles in width. Upon the summit of Mount Waialcale, high 
up in the clouds, there is a morass and there is recorded the great- 
est rainfall year in and year out in the Islands and parallels the 
greatest precipitation in other parts of the world. 

Molokai, northward of Maui, is not as frequently visited as 
other islands, ahhough it presents some of the most beautiful 
rugged and wild scenery in the group. It is an island of con- 
trasts. The western end is bleak and barren. The eastern end 
is green and beautiful, with waterfalls dropping hundreds of feet 



290 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

into the ocean. It has some quaint Hawaiian villages in almost 
inaccessible valleys, reached principally by boats from steamers 
which anchor some distance out. There are still many grass 
houses on Molokai. 

Under the provisions of the Hawaiian Rehabilitation Act, or 
Hawaiian Homes Act, passed by Congress in 1921, some favored 
sections of Molokai were selected by the territorial government 
on which to try the experiment of putting the Hawaiians back 
upon the soil that they may attempt to rehabilitate their fortunes, 
develop their families into sturdy children and the hope is that 
the Hawaiian race may be increased rather than continue to de- 
crease at its present alarming rate. Hawaiians of full blood are 
to be permitted to take lands. Water is being developed in 
tunnels and wells to supply the acres. Small farming will be 
featured and the Hawaiians are to build their homes and make 
their living. It is one of the most remarkable forms of rehabili- 
tation of a race attempted for aborigines. 

The principal ports on southern Molokai are Kaunakakai, 
which will be the "Homes" pori, and Pukoo. There arc large 
ranches on the island. 

Contrary to general belief Molokai is not the leper island. On 
a small peninsula, that of Kalawao, jutting out a long almost 
flat land into the sea, bounded on the land side by collossal, 
almost impassible cliffs, is the settlement, absolutely apart from 
the remainder of the island. It has possibly an area of about five 
percent of all Molokai. There is the settlement established half 
a century ago for the isolation and treatment of lepers, a home 
until they passed away. The world was electrified about four 
years ago by the announcement of a new method of treatment 
of leprosy, the treatment and specific of Chaulmoogra oil being 
planned by Ct. Harry T. Hollman, then of the U. S. Public 
Health Service. Not being a laboratorian he was assisted in the 
preparation of the specific, the separation of the fatty acids by 
Miss Alice Ball, a young woman from America, who used the 
laboratories of the University of Hawaii for this work. The 
Chaulmoogra oil, in its original state, was nauseating to the 



ISLES OF ALOHA LAND 291 

leper victims. The Hawaiians, not exhibiting the stamina neces- 
sary to make a harsh treatment effective, rebelled under the 
old treatment. None grew well. They died lepers. The new 
specific was pleasanter. It was experimented with at the Kalihi 
Hospital in Honolulu, where suspects arc held until their cases 
are determined. If they are lepers they are sent across the chan- 
nel to Molokai. The specific in a few months began to tell the 
story. There was improvement. The disease in many was ar- 
rested. The disfiguring marks were obliterated. In two years 
the board of health announced that many were to be paroled. 
This was done. The new treatment had begun to conquer. 

Arthur L. Dean, president of the University of Hawaii, a 
chemist of exceptional ability, developed the specific more and 
more, and to him is largely ascribed much of the honor of find- 
ing a medicine that would effect almost a cure. The physicians 
fight shy of the word "cure," but scores of leper victims have 
been paroled. It was tried with those in the Molokai Settle- 
ment. Confirmed lepers responded to the treatment. They have 
been sent back to Honolulu and other islands under parole, able 
again to mix with their fellowman. In ten years, claim some 
authorities, the Leper Settlement will no longer be needed as 
within that time it is believed the specific will be so highly de- 
veloped that it will actually effect cures. The very latest method 
of attempting to purge sy.slcms of the dread taint is to inject 
the fluid directly into the veins, a heroic treatment, but effective. 
Hawaii has led the world in scientific treatment of this disease 
and the world is now following the Hollman-Dean method. 

Brother Joseph Dutton, the lay brother of the Catholic faith, 
who has been forty years in Molokai Settlement devoting him- 
self day and night to the patients, is a heroic figure in the world, 
and is regarded as "The Saint of Molokai," He was an officer 
in the Union Army during the Civil War, and is now doing 
penance and expects to die on Molokai, but he has never become 
afflicted with the taint. 

Molokai is 40 miles long and seven broad and contains 200.000 
acres. 

Lanai to the south and west of Maui, is, like the small island 



292 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Niihau, a short distance from Kauai, wholly given up to agri- 
cultural and ranching activities of one person. The Baldwins 
of Maui now control the island and making it the "model ranch 
of the Pacific." With sheep and cattle at one time running wild 
on the island, trees and grass became scant and the winds blew 
away much of the soil. It is now being reclaimed. Upon this 
island are treasure hoards of picture rocks, upon which are queer 
and unknown carvings, which are being studied by scientists 
of the Bishop Museum. They key to the pictographs has not 
yet been found. Possibly, the key may be found, and the story 
of Hawaii's creation may then be told. The island contains about 
100,000 acres. 

Oahu, considered the principal island of the group, because 
Honolulu, the capital city is located on the leeward shore and has 
the finest harbor in the group, is devoted largely to the growing 
of sugar cane, pineapples, rice, sisal, taro, from which the na- 
tional dish, poi, is made; and bananas, while there are many 
big cattle ranches. It has a railroad line skirting the southern 
and western shore from Honolulu to Kahuku, where it connects 
with another running from Kahuku to Kahana, through the 
Mormon Settlement sugar plantation at Laie. 

Kamehameha Highway, named after the great king who, by the 
Battle of Nuuanu, effected the conquest of the entire group, be- 
gins in Honolulu, passes up through the beautiful Nuuanu Valley 
to Nuuanu Pali (cHff), where a gap almost on the backbone 
of the mountain range, gives the visitor there an airplane view 
of the northern part of the island, a wonderful view that is 
described by eminent travelers to be unequalled. There is a 
sheer drop of a thousand feet. Beyond are the rolling hills and 
the shore and the great ocean beyond, and miles upon miles of 
agricultural country are revealed below and far beyond. From 
this point one sees the Pali road, concrete, winding down the 
side of the mountain to the plains, for Kamehameha Highway 
passes on along the shore through pretty villages, the great Libby- 
McNeill & Libby pineapple cannery, through picturesque fish- 
ing villages, with many ranches and pineapple fields and rice 
fields on the inward side from the shore. It passes along to 



ISLES OF ALOHA LAND 293 

Waialua, where the beautiful Haleiwa hotel is located, the half- 
way house and where travelers have luncheon as a rule. From 
Haleiwa the highway passes up through the middle of the land 
between two mountain ranges toward Honolulu, passing through 
vast sugar cane plantations and upon the plains of Wahiawa 
the tens of thousands of acres of pineapple fields where the pine- 
apple was first developed as a commercial fruit. 

At Wahiawa plains is Schofield Barracks, the U. S. Army's 
great divisional army post, arranged for a garrison of 15,000 
soldiers, with barracks and oflicers' quarters and other buildings 
of the most modern type. Through gulches and more pineapple 
fields the highway continues until one sees Pearl Harbor Naval 
Station, on the southern side of the island, and beyond the city 
of Honolulu with its majestic background of Diamond Head, 
for the Kamehameha Highway is a belt road, 94 miles long, 
forming one of the most picturesque motor drives to be found 
anywhere. 

In Honolulu are the offices of the territorial government of 
all the United States departmental representatives, of the mayor 
and the county government. All the great business houses of the 
territory, the plantation agencies, the banks and trust company, 
the big hotels and the great system of wharves are located, for 
the bulk of cargoes are discharged at Honolulu and the bulk of 
the exports pass through Honolulu. Oahu has an area of 600 
square miles. 

The former royal palace houses the governor of Hawaii, the 
attorney-general, territorial auditor and superintendent of public 
works and land boards. The old throne room, preserved as it 
was in monarchy days, is his formal reception hall for distin- 
guished visitors. It is also the House of Representatives, the 
Senate chamber occupying what was formerly the royal state 
dining room. The old government house is now the territorial 
circuit court building. Facing on Palace square, and opposite the 
old palace, is the new United States or Federal building, for all 
United States bureaus in Honolulu, completed and occupied in 
April, 1922, and costing above a million dollars, an attractive 
structure designed after the California-Spanish mission types. 



294 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

During the reign of King Kalakaua that monarch had an 
ambition to be Primate of the Pacific by bringing into his king- 
dom the Samoan, Gilbert and Tonga groups. At his direction 
the Hawaiian government despatched an embassy accredited to 
the Kings of Samoan and Tonga on December 26, 1886. The 
mission consisted of Hon. J. E. Bush, minister plenipotentiary 
and high commissioner, and H. F. Poor, secretary of legation. 
The mission failed, and quite disastrously. 

The Hawaiian Islands are the most conspicuous objects in 
the Pacific Ocean. They are all mountainous, and from a 
scientific standpoint, of volcano origin. From their highest sum- 
mits, down to the lowest depths to which excavations have been 
made, the soil is found to be lava in various stages of decomposi- 
tion. It all seems to be melted earth, fused in volcanic furnaces, 
which has been poured out in vast masses, forming mountains 
of Konahuanui, 3.100 feet high on Oahu; Waialeale, 8,000 feet 
on Kauai ; Haleakala, 10,200 feet on Maui ; Hualalai, 9,000 feet ; 
Mauna Loa, 13,760 feet, and Mauna Kea, 13,950 feet on Hawaii. 

Volcano action has ceased in all islands except on Hawaii, at 
Kilauea and on Mauna Loa, and there opportunity is given to 
see the island still in process of formation and building up, foot 
by foot. 

And how do these verdant islands, looking like little pin dots 
upon the sapphire seas appear to the travelers as their steamers 
approach the islands after a six-day voyage from the Golden 
Gate? 

There in the early dawn appears the hazy outline of Haleakala 
upon Maui, then loom the rugged coasts of Molokai and beyond 
the winking light of the Makapuu Point lighthouse, on the east- 
ernmost extremity of Oahu, a signal to all steamers to veer to 
the south to round the coast of Oahu toward Koko Head, then 
Diamond Head and finally on rounding this there bursts into 
view the city of Honolulu nestling 'down under groves of 
tropical trees and bordering the beach and stretching far up 
into the valleys and upon the hillsides. As the morning sun 
gleans upon the Island of Oahu the traveler discovers a wild 
and even grotesque landscape. From coral and volcanic crags, 



ISLES OF ALOHA LAND 295 

as white as cream into which the sea has drilled great fissures, 
colored and ridged by volcanic scars, sloped up into peaks above 
the clouds. Between the sharp fold of these hills, green valleys 
come down, opening upon the ocean, where smooth beaches 
break the surf. Now and then as the vessel passes by Waikiki 
Beach one may see bronze-hued men standing upon surf-boards, 
and shooting toward the beach upon a huge pillow, the ancient 
aquatic paslime of the Hawaiians, and the mightiest of the surf- 
riders may be Duke Kahanamoku, himself, the greatest swim- 
ming marvel of the world, out for a morning dip in the ocean. 
Then are seen cocoanut groves and then modern buildings, two 
or three coast defense fortifications, their guns screened by 
foliage; then a long coral reef near the harbor entrance, and 
behind this the quiet harbor and its ships at wharves, and be- 
yond are the big business blocks, the public buildings, the flag- 
staffs and spires of Honolulu. 

As the vessel approaches the wharf the traveler sees first a 
swarm of brown-skinned Hawaiian boys diving for coins, each 
an embryo Duke Kahanamoku, then throngs of people and then 
floating softly on the breeze across the intervening space come 
the soft sweet strains of "Aloha Oe" — Hawaii's welcome to the 
stranger. 



CHAPTER XXIV 



PASSING OF PICTURESQUE MONARCHY 



HAWAIIAJ^ THRONE GONE FOREVER 

FATE and Destiny, hand in hand, hoth waited through the 
centuries of barbaric rule when kings and queens and great 
chiefs passed in succession, and then through the ten decades 
of civihzed days from the time that the great Kamehameha 
became monarch of all Hawaii to that fateful day of January 
17, 1893, when the throne was toppled over, the monarchy abro- 
gated and a provisional government, later proclaimed a republic, 
was set up. Fate and destiny participated in this dissolution of 
the wonderful fabric of government so patiently and apparently 
so strongly woven. From republic, independent, to territory of 
the United States, with complete entry into the sisterhood of 
states and territories, was but another step. 

Monarchy died that January day, 1893, when Queen Liliuo- 
kalaiii, wrongly interpreting her own personal position in the 
affairs of government, desired to abrogate the Constitution of 
1889, when King Kalakaua aliuost lost his throne, and to sub- 
stitute one which gave her the personal powers of a sovereign, 
such as were enjoyed by rulers of Hawaii before a constitution 
was given to the people by Kamehameha III. 

Americans, as well as residents of Honolulu who were of 
other nationahties, joined hands in this block of the Queen's 
plans, when she liad prepared to prorogue the Hawaiian legis- 
lature, and quietly but firmly dispossessed her on the throne and 
declared the kingdom at an end. 

Liliuokalani sought her throne again in 1895 when an abortive 
revolution planned by many of her people, aided by many white 
men, was nipped in the bud with only one or two casualties, and 



PASSING OF PICTURESQUE MONARCHY 297 

the Queen was imprisoned for a time. She sought the United 
States to restore her throne and the crown lands, but neither 
were ever restored to her and she died in lier own home, Wash- 
ington Place, Honolulu, on November 11, 1917, honored and 
revered by Hawaiians and strangers alike, given many oilicial 
courtesies from the United States and other g-overnments during 
her long term of retirement. Her funeral was a state ceremony, 
and she was taken to the royal mausoleum from lolani Palace, 
just as though she had died there in the purple. With her passed 
the monarchy, and monarchy was finally and ever removed from 
even sentimental hope when on January 7, 1922, Prince Jonah 
Kuhio Kalanianaole, cousin of Queen Liliuokalani, sole sur- 
viving titular representative of the monarchy period, and who 
had been Hawaii's delegate to the U. S. Congress at Washing- 
ton for twenty years, died at his home at "Pualeilaiii," Waikiki, 
Honolulu. 

It happened that in my profession as newspaper reporter with 
the Honolulu Advertiser, I was privileged to be in the roy-d 
homes of death, and personally witnessed the closing of the eyes 
of both Liliuokalani and Kalanianaole to things earthly, and 
assisted in many ways in the preparations for the royal stale 
funerals. 

Having been in Hawaii a quarter of a century, making a hobby 
of things Hawaiian and knowing the former members of royalty 
intimately, I put my whole heart and sentiment into all my writ- 
ings, for I handled both deaths and funerals exclusively. So 
favorable were the comments on these stories and particularly 
for those concerning Prince Kuhio, letters reaching the editor 
of my paper from many people on the mainland praising the 
stories, that I am flattered to feel they must have been worth 
while, as they tolled the death knell of monarchy. May I be par- 
doned for quoting from a letter from Rudolph G. Leeds, edhor, 
"The Richmond (Va.) Palladium," February 7, 1922, to the 
editor of The Advertiser, as follows: 

"A friend of mine, visiting in your wonderful city, sent me a copy of 
The Advertiser containing Albert P. Tayloi 
Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole. To my 



298 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

masterly newspaper articles that I have observed in recent 
other was the account of some Associated Press man of th 
and burial of our unknonn dead soldier some months ago at Washington. 
Please convey to Mr. Taylor for me the appreciation of a fellow news- 
paperman for the masterful, dramatic and sympathetic maQoer in which 
he handled the oens end of the passing of a prominent and very fine 
character. With congratulations to The Advertiser in possessing such a 
craftsman as Mr. Taylor, etc., etc." 

"Liliuokalani is Dying" is the heading for the story which I 
wrote in Washington Place the night before Her Majesty died, 
the end comin.^ the following morning, Sunday, November 11, 
just as The Advertiser with my story appeared on the streets. 



"LILIUOKALANI IS DYING" 



FINAL, movements In the national tr.igedy of the passii^ 
of the old Hawaii, the breaking of all the links which 
bound the picturesque group of islands lying within the 
lazy latitudes of the Pacific, to its bizarre past with its wealth rf 
traditions, its strange supremacy in that vast ocean discovered 
by Balboa, and lines of stalwart kings and queens, sovereigns 
supreme over a progressive empire which had its origin in the 
dim and misty age of myth, are leaving few sands in the hour 
glass of destiny, for a queen is dying, and with her is dying the 
pomp and circumstance of sceptered rule, the sinking into obliv- 
ion of another aboriginal race whose fate it was to be whelmed 
in the progress of the white man's civilization. 

Liliuokalani is dying — 

The Queen is dead, long " 

No, the sentence is finished; the nation's life has run its span 
of the centuries; the queen's race is ended; there will be no 
other queen, no other king, no throne of their forefathers to 
remain as a monument of form of an ancient civilization, a su- 
preme race amid the Seven Seas; for Liliuokalani, queen of the 
Hawaiian Islands, shorn these twenty-four years of her crown 
and scepter, lies in the final throes of a life which has reached 
its three score and ten, and ten more years than the allotted term 



PASSING OF PICTURESQUE MONARCHY 299 

of life; lies vacant-eyed, yet conscious of the passing throng of 
subjects who gave her in the glory of other days the homage 
of a devoted people. She lies almost within the shadow of the 
architectural pile raised to symbolize the power and might of her 
rule of the golden days when Hawaii was a nation, independent 
among independent nations, the equal of vast powers, as poten- 
tates are equal, yet menaced by insidious diplomatic thrusts, as 
nation after nation, tempted by the glitter of territorial aggran- 
dizement, played it as a pawn upon the chess board of Earth, 
engulfed by master moves, removed from the criss-crossed area 
by loss of its independence and cast into oblivion — its race done, 
its monarchial need useless — and lost amid the menace of war's 
ghastly debacle save perliaps for a few lines upon History's 
pages. 

Born to the purple, reared among the glories of the Kameha- 
meha dynasty and amid the circumstance so exalted in the Old 
World courts of royalty, herself sister of a reigning king, and 
finally wielded of the scepter upon a throne set amid the cocoa- 
nut grove whose plumed heights nodded over coral shore*;, 
Liliuokalani early learned the truth of the adage, "Uneasy lies 
the head that wears the crown," for two brief years upon the 
exalted heights of an ancient tlirone brought her only the cup of 
despair, the wresting of scepter and crown from her keeping, 
and the narrow confines of chambers for a prison that once 
were hers as reigning monarch. 

Strange it is that this old mansion of Colonial days' splendor, 
the home of her earlier uncrowned life, so near that great palace, 
its tenant should be struggling for life itself, symbolizing even 
the struggle for existence of her race against the white man's 
all -enveloping mastery of the earth. 

Fair Hawaii rose to its zenith in the reign of Kalakaua, her 
royal brother, the "Merry Monarch," and her own glorious days 
when the touch of a newer civilization had tempered the wonder- 
ful civilization of the ancient Hawaiians, when the lanes of com- 
merce focused in Hawaii, when its sunny fields became golden 
in tassled sugar cane, and it became the veritable cross-roads of 
the Pacific, its future to be unveiled as "America's Gibraltar 



300 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

of the Pacific," a khaki-clad outpost for the great American 
RepubHc, and the Mehing Pot of the Nations. She reigned as 
undisputed sovereign but a brief span ; but the seeds of diplo- 
matic tares had been sown, international sappers mined its pohti- 
cal parapets, and bloodless revolution cast down her throne and 
upraised the banner of Republic's sovereignty, and she became 
prisoner within her architectural pile. 

Guards patrolled her door, armed, barring her exit, where once 
smart sentries had saluted and obeyed her slightest command. 
She gazed from windows upon the free world outside, a silent, 
suffering monarch, whose people endeavored to mass at arms by 
counter revolution and restore the throne to its glory. Foiled 
and thrown into prisons, tried and banished, her subjects were 
scattered and the enterprise to reestablish empire failed utterly 
and the proud queen faced accusers before military courts, which 
convicted her of treason. ■ None of the terrors of close confine- 
ment was suffered, for she signed her abdication entirely, relin- 
quished her sovereign rights and became free but throneless— 
but not homeless, for the beautiful mansion of her husband, the 
prince consort, became her palace. It was strangely named, this 
noble pile, so reminiscent of the Old South, named in the honor 
of the great American who sacrificed everything for a free na- 
tion — and in his honor was named Washington Place, today the 
center of all that is left of the royal days, tonight the home of 
Death, 

For the queen is dyings 

For seventy years the mansion has sheltered high chiefs, and 
rulers, a mansion gay with life and pomp and circumstance; 
where beautiful polished woods, art pieces from the four corners 
of the earth, and semi-barbaric kahilis (standards surmounted 
by cylindrical creations of rare feathers), symbols of kingly 
rule, symbolic of tabu supremacy, still create the appearance of a 
palace drawing room, for it is in these rooms that Her Majesty 
has received audiences, and received the obeisance of her loyal 
subjects, and yet all truly loyal to the great American Republic. 

But all the passing show is nearing its end, and soon the pomp 
and panoply of reigning days will be turned to the pageantry of 




' Jolliili ]<l 



For 



irnivMii's Hi-ri>Knt.> to 0.ii>;ri>ss. Grnn.lson of tlic 
Ki»>r nf Kaiijii of foiiilal times, lie was .leitio- 
crnlii- mill Hiihip.l tlie s<iiil>ri()uet of tlu> 



i-'I 






n 










fti4 



^"tHlH 



PASSING OF PICTURESQUE MONARCHY 301 

semi-barbaric days as the dynasty ends, the end of all dynasties 
in fair Hawaii, the closing chapter of the strange, almost un- 
exampled system of rule of wonderful kings of the past — 
For Liliuokalani is dying. 

"KALANIANAOLE PASSES" 

Today, the Torch of Hawaii is extinguished. Sleep, sleep, 
sleep, the Hawaiians sing over the casket of their beloved prince. 
Never have Hawaiian voices blended more sweetly, with sobs in 
every note, as they have over their alii, for they realize that im- 
personated in him, their nation is pau. 

Out of the living nations into that long, ever- lengthening 
column of dead nations, Hawaii is now added. It takes its place 
at the foot of the hst, at the head of which are Ninevah, Chaldea, 
Phoenicia, Carthage, powerful nations of old, among them some- 
where, say historians, the progenitors of the Hawaiian race, for 
whence came the temple formations, the custom of the purifica- 
tion of the temple, the ritual of the priesthood, the dread tabu, 
the power of rulership accorded the chieftains, the designs of 
the beautiful robes and helmets? 

Hawaii's monarchy will be buried today when the casket con- 
taining the mortal body of the late Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalani- 
anaole is sealed within the Kalakaua dynasty crpyt in the royal 
mausoleum. More than the actual interment of the late alii of 
the Hawaiian race is being removed from the land of the living 
and conveyed across the dark river of Death to the hazy beyond. 
The monarchy of a hundred years, the lesser kingdoms and prin- 
cipalities that existed for ages before the coming of the bearers 
of the word of Christ, the remarkable, colorful, stately ancient 
regime, and the modern successor to the solidified monarchy 
established by Kamehameha the Conqueror, greatest of all Ha- 
waiians, will be a milestone of the past when the crypt is closed 
and the last dirge is sung, the final chanting and wailing become 
mere ghostly refrains, and the stately, lofty, bizarre and strange- 
looking feather kahilis, symbols of rule and power of mighty 
chieftains of the past are set for the last time. 



302 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

All Hawaii today will realize that the last titular representative 
of all monarchy in Hawaii, of all the past regimes that go far 
back into the hazy, misty, legendary eras, is to be buried today 
with pomp and circumstance, not only as a prince of Hawaii, but 
as "The Prince of the People," for upon his casket formed of 
the beautiful woods that come from the forests of Hawaii Island, 
the same forests that have furnished the caskets for a century 
of kings and queens, princes and princesses, chiefs and chiefesses, 
reposes a beautiful silver plate inscribed, "Ke Aln Makaainana" 
— "The Alii of the Citizens." 

With him, therefore, is buried all that remains of the mon- 
archy. Remain then only the memories that Hawaiians cherisii 
of the era of monarchy, for many still remember Kauikeouli 
(Kamehameha HI), Kamehameha IV, Kamehameha V, Queen 
Emma, Lunalilo, King Kalakaua, Queen Kapiolani, Queen Lili- 
uokalani, Prince Leieiohoku, Princess Likelike, Princess Kaiu- 
lani, Prince Kawananakoa. Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole 
is the last. Monarchy is pau. The last connecting link which 
the Hawaiians today had with their monarchy is gone. Is it the 
death knell of the cohesion of the Hawaiian people? 

Are memories a sufficient link that will not break with the 
coming of years and render the Hawaiians a people submerged 
in their own country, inundated by the flood of peoples from the 
Seven Seas? 

To the sweet, heart -throbbing melody of "Aloha Oe," to the 
stately, sonorous notes of "Hawaii Ponoi," amid the sobbing high- 
keyed cry of oUs with tears as accompaniments, and surrounded 
by a forest of gorgeous- colored royal feather kahilis, symbols 
of ancient royalty in Hawaii nei, the late Prince Jonah Kuhio 
Kalanianaole, last titular prince of all dynasties in these Isles of 
the mid-sea, was laid to final rest in the royal mausoleum grounds 
yesterday. 

Late titular prince of his line, Hawaii's representative in the 
American Congress for two decades, grandson of an island king, 
created a prince of the crown by King Kalakaua, more lately 
and affectionately known as "The AlH of the Citizens," Prince 



PASSING OF PICTURESQUE MONARCH'^ 303 

Kalanianaole was buried yesterday with all the pomp, the cere- 
mony, the pageantry which has marked the final rites over kings 
and queens, princes and princesses, chiefs and chiefesses of 
Hawaii in the past which extends back into the haze of legendary 
history. 

A state funeral was accorded this "Prince of the People." 
The governments of the United States and of the Territory of 
Hawaii united in paying the highest tributes of respect to the 

Alii: 

Clothed in the wonderful feather akuulas (capes) of his 
dynasty, and with all the symbols of princely origin surrounding 
him, even as they did Kamehameha the Great, Prince Kalanian- 
aole was accorded the homage of all citizens of Honolulu. Thou- 
sands marched before his catafalque up the old familiar funeral 
route to the royal mausoleum. Tens of thousands lined the 
streets. Alhed governments, those which fought shoulder to 
shoulder, were represented officially at the funeral services in 
the old throne room of the former royal palace and followed the 
catafalque to the mausoleum. An admiral of the navy and a 
general of the army representing the navy and war departments 
of the United States government paid official homage to the 
prince-delegate. The Hawaiian people paid their homage in 
wailing, in chanting in the old, old style, and in the singing of 
sweet, soft melodies of today, that only Hawaiians can sing. He 
went to his eternal rest, amid a commingling of ancient and 
modern funeral rites that could only be intermingled in Hawaii 
net, where the past still lives, where memory still keeps green 
the day of monarchy, memories that now, with the passing of 
the only connecting royal link between today and yesterday, will 
wither, and like old age, totter to oblivion. 

The kahilis will be taken apart when the day comes to take 
them down from the mausoleum. The fra/nVi- standards of koa 
and kou wood, of human bones jointed, will be stacked in dark 
corners. The gilded tabu hall may find its way to a museum. 
The ahuulas will be protected from destruction sealed in case.*. 
The orders and decorations of the bygone monarchy regimes, 
glittering baubles of royal supremacy, will be carefully placed 



304 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

apart from the world, also possibly to go to a museum, where 
already are stored the crown that was forcibly removed when a 
new government came into power, when the throne was over- 
turned. The crown and the scepter that fell are now mere relics. 
At 10:46 o'clock in the forenoon the first minute gun was 
fired from a gun of an American battery in the palace yard. 
At 1 :45 o'clock in the afternoon the royal casket was in the 
crypt. "Ainha Oe" had been played and all had stood at atten- 
tion as "Hawaii Ponoi," the national anthem was concluded and 
the last chant was chanted. The clergy concluded their service, 
the benediction was pronounced. The princess widow was 
alone with her dead husband. 

When the sun peered over Leahi {Diamond Head) the palace 
grounds began to fill. Women in holokus, men in black, girls in 
white, came to their stations. The palace itself began to fill as 
watches for the bier arrived. Guardsmen clanked by with rifles 
atrail and sabers rattling. The old royal dais was decorated. 
The curtains and their gilt trimmings were suspended from the 
gilded coronet pedestal, long ago replaced by the American 
Eagle. Under soft Hawaiian skies all Honolulu moved toward 
the palace. The sea seemed more blue than ever and washed 
softly upon the beach, even at Pualeilani at Waikiki, as though 
each succeeding wave came to inquire for the prince who had 
lived so long by the shore. 

Through the windows the sunlight grew stronger. Rays 
touched the rose-colored tops of kahilis and spread a refulgent, 
rosy hue over the ceiling. The rays touched and seemed to caress 
the poHshed sides of the koa casket. 

A bust of King Kalakaua was paced upon the dais and from 
that marble the eyes seemed again to gaze softly upon the scene 
before him as his living eyes, so his surviving subjects today 
say, had gazed in the heyday of monarchy, when the same throne 
room was filled with brilliant assemblages, beautiful women of 
the islands and Anglo-Saxon races present all in toilettes that 
spoke of Paris, men of official life, officers of foreign navies, 
travelers, writers, singers and painters. 



PASSING OF PICTURESQUE MONARCHY 305 

The eyes gazed, however, out from the bust upon a different 
scene, the end of all that Kalakaua himself had hoped would 
survive, for there before him, dead, was the last representative 
of the monarchy itself. 

Everything within the throne room was funereal but truly 
royal. The kahilis were like those of Kamehameha the Great's 
day. The ahuulas were the same. There were many persons there 
who had known the throne room when it was all agiitter witii 
royal functions, for there was Col. Curtis laukea, chamberlain 
formerly of kings and queens, attending to the details of this 
state funeral as he had attended the state funerals in the past, 
including that of Queen Liliuokalani, Prince Kawananakoa aii'.l 
so on back through the Kalakaua dynasty. He prepared the 
kingly orders that had laid upon the breast of the alii for escort 
in the funeral cortege. 

Began the services under the Episcopal bishop and clergy and 
choir. The kahilis swayed with their holders. The throng wa:^ 
silent. From outside came the dull thud of drumbeats as organi- 
zations took stations. There were sharp commands of military 
officers. From overhead came the whir of a squadron of air- 
planes which seemed to be aloft to receive ihe sou! of the dead 
alii and convey it to his home in the skies amid tho Torches of 
Iwikauikaua of his chiefly line. 

"I am the Resurrection and the Life" came the sonorous word.j 
from Bishop La Mothe as he opened the religious service amid 
the symbols of barbaric Hawaii, 

"Peace, perfect peace," sang the choir ever so softly, so 
sweetly. 

The benediction was pronounced. 

The tabu stick was lifted from its standard. The clergy move<l 
out to the corridor. The kahiiis were in motion. The chiefs 
lifted the casket from the bier. The last titular prince, in death, 
passed out of the once royal throne room. 

Far ahead it was known that the military and naval section 
was in motion and organizations fell into line, all save those 
Hawaiian organizations grouped and ready for the signal, but 



306 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

waiting that the Hawaiians might catch a last gh'mpse of the 
casket being borne from the palace, to see for the last time the 
grouping of kahilis about a royal catafalque, to watch the 
torches which were symbohc of the prince's line — to see the bril- 
liant ahuulas and the chiefs for the last time perform such a 
royal function. 

Boom! The first minute gun was fired. Came the roll of 
muffled drums. Came the whir of airplanes. The Poolas 
(stevedores drawing the catafalque by hand), faced about look- 
ing towards the catafalque. 

Boom! Another gun shattered the air and the smoke drifted 
lazily around the palace toward the catafalque. From some- 
where came the stately, measured notes of the "Dear March in 
Saul." The Hawaiian band fell into line and played a sweet 
processional — "My Sailor Boy." Threading through these 
notes came the thin wail of a Hawaiian i 



Finally, into the mausoleum grounds the Hawaiian societies 
passed followed by the catafalque. The entrance to the crypt 
was clothed with maile and hala. The catafalque was hfted and 
carried to the steps. Even as the band played the chanting of 
Hawaiians went on ceaselessly. Christian vestments and bar- 
baric robes strangely intermingled at the crypt entrance. The 
household attendants gazed with hopeless eyes as the casket 
descended the steps. Flanked by tabu sticks, surrounded by 
kahilis, the casket was borne into the crypt, followed by the 
widow and other mourners. Bishop La Mothe read the final 
lines of the service. Two tabu sticks from Pualeilani, indicative 
of the prince's A/oi-ship in the Daughters and Sons of Hawaiian 
Warriors' society, were carried beside the princess. 

"Earth to earth, ashes to ashes," said the bishop. "Abide with 
me," sang the choir. Once more came wailing, some chanting. 
Then all ceased. Prince Kalanianaole was buried with his dy- 



PASSING OF PICTURESQUE MONARCHY 307 

nasty. The princess' tears flowed unrestricted. The plaintive 
notes of "Aloha Oe," composed by the late Queen Liliuokalani, 
came softly from the Hawaiian band. Then the more stentorian 
measure of "Hawaii Ponoi." 

The tomb of the Kaniehamehas beyond was silent. 
Silence soon enveloped the Kalakaua tomb. 
Hawaiian monarchy was bnried for all time. 



CHAPTER XXV 

HAWAII'S TWO SWEETEST MELODIES 



"ALOHA OE" — "ALOHA TO HAWAII" 

NO MELODY in all the world has such a sympathetic, 
heart-throbbing, yearning, plaintive appeal as those 
which reach the ear of the traveler in Hawaii, from the 
guitar, the ukulele and the rich, sonorous ear-haunting notes 
sung by the native Hawaiians, and chief among all these lan- 
gourous, sweet songs are "Aloha Oe," composed by the late 
Queen Liliuokalani, and "A Song to Hawaii," or "Aloha to 
Hawaii," as it is sometimes called, composed by Joseph D. Red- 
ding, a former president of the Bohemian Club of San Fran- 
cisco, who has never yet set foot upon the shores of Hawaii. 

Whether "Aloha Oe" is played and sung as a steamer from 
abroad approaches the Honolulu dock, as a welcome to home- 
ward bound islanders or strangers about to taste the joys of the 
"Rainbow Isles," or whether it is played as a steamer in leaving, 
when all aboard are bedeAed with floral wreaths, or leis as the 
Hawaiians call them, as a sympathetic "au revoir," or whether 
at the funeral of a royal personage when it is sung in a sob- 
bingly-plaintive way, or whether it is heard in distant lands by 
islanders far away from home, when it causes tears to well into 
one's eyes, the queen's composition commands attention. Its 
notes cause hearts to throb and minds to reflect and lips to cease 
until it is finished. 

And it is true of "Joe" Redding's beautiful song dedicated to 
Hawaii, for both are songs that will never die among the Ha- 
waiians, songs that will ever live as memories of the days when 
Hawaii was a monarchy and had its little opera-bouffe royal 
court, a miniature St. James in a colorful setting in mid-sea. 



HAWAII'S TWO SWEETEST MELODIES 309 

for they are songs that are reminiscent of the days of queens 
and kings, of princesses and princes, of balls and receptions and 
levees at the royal palace in Honolulu and aboard visiting war- 
ships, and of wonderful moonlit nights in cocoanut groves or 
near the wave-caressed beach at Waikiki when ukuleles and 
guitars are softly musical. 

Just how these two famous songs came to be written has 
never before been fully told, and the origin of both is excep- 
tionally interesting, for both came upon the spur of the moment 
and both were dedicated to royal incidents. 

King Kalakaua was elected to the throne of Hawaii in 1874. 
His sisters were made princesses of the realm and Liliuokalam 
was designated by Kalakaua as the heir apparent to the throne 
after the death of her brother, Prince Leleiohoku, who was a 
poet and a musician. Seven or eight years later, about 1881 or 
1882, Princess Liliuokalani (she became queen in 1891), went by 
horseback one day across the island of Oahu from Honolulu to 
Maunawili ranch, passing through the famous Nuuanu Pali, 
from which one gains the most superb view of the windward side 
of the island lying thousands of feet below and beyond. The 
ranch was owned by Edwin Boyd, who was the king's cham- 
berlain. In the party of Liliuokalani were Princess Likelike, 
her sister, Col. James Boyd, and Mr. and Mrs. Charles B. Wilson, 
Mr. Wilson later becoming the marshal of the kingdom under 
Queen Liliuokalani, and when the queen was imprisoned after 
the abortive attempt in 1895 to restore her to the throne Mrs. 
Wilson shared her imprisonment as a lady-in-waiting. 

They spent a delightful day at Maunawili and then started 
homeward. Colonel Boyd, at the last moment, was called back 
to the ranch to receive a lei from one of the pretty Hawaiian 
girls standing at the ranch gate, whereupon Princess Likelike, 
being impatient, called to Mr. Wilson to accompany her and 
started away at a fast gallop. They were followed at some dis- 
tance by Liliuokalani, Mrs. Wilson and Colonel "Jinimie" Boyd, 
and their retinue. The group finally merged and then, as Mr. 
Wilson now tells the story, Liliuokalani hummed a melody which 
was Hawaiian in its composition. In a way it had a familiar 



310 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

note now and then to him. The princess kept humming and 
humming, and finally after they had passed through the Nuuanu 
Pali and stopped at an orange grove at Kahuilanawai, where 
there was a spring and all had dismounted, Mr. Wilson expressed 
curiosity about the song. She said it was just something that 
was running through her head, and continued to hum it. Then 
Wilson recognized a trace of an old song, "The Lone Rock by 
the Sea," which is a basis of "Aloha Oe." 

When the party reached Washington Place, which was the 
private home of Princess Liliuokalani, and at present the guber- 
natorial mansion of the governors of Hawaii, a guitar was 
picked up and as Liliuokalani hummed an accompaniment was 
improvised and soon all the party was singing what Liliuokalani 
said was the chorus. It was pretty and absorbing with the 
languorous atmosphere of Hawaiian musical melodies. 

The following day the princess had put down her "hum- 
ming" upon paper and soon there appeared the music and words 
of what was later titled "Aloha Oe." 

The princess gave Mr. Wilson the words in Hawaiian and 
asked him to translate them into English, she to do likewise 
and then compare notes. 

They found they were very much alike, but passed both trans- 
lations over to Rollin Dagget, the United States minister to 
Hawaii, for his opinion. 

He looked at them and asked Liliuokalani if she believed she 
had interpreted all the sentiment in her own words. She replied 
in the affirmative, whereupon Mr. Daggett said that if that was 
the case, then her words should stand. This was satisfactory 
to all, and thereupon "Aloha Oe" was adopted and is now the 
foremost musical composition of Hawaii. Captain Henri Berger, 
then bandmaster of the famous Royal Hawaiian Band, who held 
that position for forty-four years, went over the music and 
made the finished copy. 

Mr. Wilson later sent the music and words to Martin Gray, 
of San Francisco, who published the composition. 

But underlying all the composition the words "One Fond Em- 
brace, Until We Meet Again," always sung so plaintively, had 



HAWAII'S TWO SWEETEST MELODIES 311 

a real meaning, for they referred to the incident at the gate at 
Maunawili, when Colonel Boyd gallantly had returned to kiss 
the pretty maid who had given him a lei. "One Fond Embrace,"' 
that was given, aye and more, and "Until We Meet Again," was 
evident in the reluctance of the dashing colonel to leave. That 
incident, Liliuokalani preserved to posterity with her composi- 
tion strung together piece by piece, line by line, bar by bar, on 
that memorable horseback ride back over the Pali from Mauna- 
wili to Washington Place, When you hear "Aloha Oe" let 
your thoughts wonder to the scene at Maunawili ranch gate. 

But how came Joseph Redding, who never visited Hawaii, to 
compose a Hawaiian air that so truly reflected all the charming 
atmosphere of Hawaii? 

It was largely by association with a number of California's 
men and women who had visited Honolulu, who had known 
King Kalakaua and all his court and had been entertained by the 
royal family and others including "Ned" and Jimmie Dowsett, 
Col. Sam Parker, Col. "Billy" Cornwell, George Macfarlane, the 
Spreckels "boys," Bonnie Monsarratt, "Jack" Low, "Cabbie" 
Brown and many others in Honolulu, and had been so intimate 
in an its social affairs, that when they had returned to California, 
they told of their Hawaiian experiences so vividly and painted 
them in such glowing colors that Redding was able to under- 
stand Hawaii to the core. 

When ground-breaking exercises were held at the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition grounds in 1914 for the Hawaii building, the 
author of this volume was master of ceremonies that historical 
day. An atmosphere of Hawaii seemed to have permeated the 
spot and all the assemblage in which were numbers of members 
of the Bohemian club and their friends. There were many 
beautiful Hawaiian women present, all wearing fragrant leis, and 
Hawaiian musicians sang melodies of the isles. As the Bo- 
hemian club members entered the enclosure, came the plaintive, 
softly-alluring strains of "A Song to Hawaii," and when it 
was finished, when the thoughts of nearly all present were 2,000 
miles away in the sunny, semi-tropical isles of Hawaii, there 
was hardly a dry eye. And why? With such plaintive music 



312 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

is it any wonder that eyes should be wet when the words were 
these : 

"The wind from over the sea, 

Sings sweetly aloha to me; 
The waves as they fall upon the aand, 

Say aloha, and bid me to land. 
The m3Tiad flowcra in bloom, 

Waft aloha in ev'ry perfume; 
I read in each lovo-lit eye, 

A-io-ha, A-lohft nui oe." 

For years I wondered how such a song came to be composed 
and wrote Mr. Redding, who is not only a past president of San 
Francisco's most famous club, but is a well known attorney 
there, asking for the story. Here is his answer: 

"You ask me with reference to a song I wrote many years 
ago entitled 'Aloha,' or, as it is sometimes called, 'A Song to 
Hawaii.' 

"In the first place, I am sorry to say I have never been to the 
Islands, although I am on intimate terms with many of the 
charming people from that lovely part of the world. AH of my 
friends have been there, and I have always felt that I knew the 
atmosphere pretty well, 

"The song you mentioned was written at Judge Crocker's 
home in Sacramento, California, many years ago, just before the 
arrival of King Kalakaua from Honolulu in San Francisco on 
the occasion of his last visit, prior to his demise (1890). I was 
visiting Mrs. Harry Gillig, the daughter of Judge Crocker, at 
her home in Sacramento. The forthcoming visit of the king 
was brought up in conversation at breakfast. Either she ir 
Harry Gillig said to me: 'Joe, why do you not write a song for 
the Islands? Frank Unger will illuminate it and we can pre- 
sent it to the king when he reaches San Francisco.' 

"I went into the library after breakfast; shut the door; and 
wrote the music and the words in the course of the morning. 
It was a rough sketch, but Frank Unger took it and made a 
beautiful illuminated copy on parchment. It was presented to 
the king. As I recall it, the king had in his suite a number of 



HAWAII'S TWO SWEETEST MELODIES 313 

Hawaiian singers. I afterwards heard that they learned the 
music very quickly and commenced to sing it even before they 
returned to the Islands with the body of the king who died in 
San Francisco. This song was never published with my consent, 
and I never saw the manuscript after turning it over to Mr. 
Unger. It seems to have crept into the musical press, however, 
for I have seen one or two bastard editions of it — badly har- 
monized and in somewhat mongrel form." 

Mrs. Harry Gillig, whom lie mentions, was the former Miss 
Ainiee Crocker, who first married Porter Ash, and then later 
Harry Gillig. The Gilligs came to Honolulu and enjoyed the 
hospitality of the king and queen and the roya! court and Hono- 
lulu's society. Gillig possessed a beautiful singing voice and he 
often sang "Jo"^" Redding's song. Frank Unger was another 
member of the Bohemian Club, with an artistic sense, who often 
came to Honolulu and always was a favorite with the royal 
set. Then there was Clay Green, a Bohemian Club man, an 
author of poems, who also sang Hawaii's melodies. There was 
Gus Spreckcls, son of Claus Spreckels, the sugar baron, who 
was the most jovial of the Spreckels "boys." 

These formed a galaxy of "good fellows" who used to visit 
Hawaii during the reign of Kalakaua and lived in the '"Snow 
Cottage" near the palace. They were originally attracted here 
by Paul Neumann, the brilliant bon vivant, lawyer, attorney- 
general under Kalakaua and Liliuokalani, an early member of 
the Bohemian club, whose home was always the rendezvous 
for men of literary and musical attainments, for club men and 
for the navy, for his household was composed of a number of 
beautiful and brilhant daughters. And out of all this gay setting 
came the flow of melody and words that morning in the Crocker 
library in Sacramento when Redding composed this beautiful 
"Song to Hawaii." 

The galaxy of Californiaiis, having the entree to the palace 
and to the king, were doubly fortunate in having the homes of 
the old families thrown open to them. 



314 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Not alone are these two songs the most beautiful, but there is 
another of strange appeal to the senses. This is "Old Planta- 
tion," the words by Mrs. Mary Jane Fayerweather Montano, the 
music by David Nape, one of the best of a former coterie of 
composers of Hawaiian airs, while another softly alluring song 
of Mrs. Montano, was "Beautiful Kahana," dedicated to Mary 
E. Foster, of Hawaii, whose name has been lettered on the stern 
of a lumber schooner, plying between Puget Sound and Hono- 
lulu, for a quarter of a century. 



CHAPTER XXVI 



HAWAII'S FLAG DOMINATED THE OCEAN' 



MEMORIES OF WASHINGTON PALACE 

FOR near a century a flag of eight stripes, alternately white, 
red and blue, each representing an island of the Hawaiian 
group, with the English Jack in the upper left corner, 
forming one of the most beautiful and colorful flags that ever 
floated ill any breeze, waved over the Hawaiian Islands, mon- 
archy and republic alike, until the day in August, 1898, when 
Hawaii became merged with the United States, when Old Glory 
replaced it over the old royal palace in Honolulu, Yet the 
reverence of the islanders for their old flag is so sentimental 
that the legislature adopted it as the territorial standard. 

Captain George Beckley, an English sea captain who came 
to these islands about 1801, was undoubtedly the originator of 
the flag of Hawaii. He brought to the Island a vessel which 
was purchased by the chiefs and was called "Humehume" by 
the natives. He afterwards made numerous voyages between 
Hawaii and Mexico and also between Hawaii and China. Ac- 
cording to the family traditions he made the first Hawaiian flag 
about 1806 or 1807. The logbook of the captain, in which was 
recorded the fact that he had made the flag, was unfortunately 
lost by his descendents several decades ago. It is certain, accord- 
ing to family records, that he made this first flag into a child's 
frock which was worn by each one of his children in succession, 
'and was long preserved as an heirloom of the family. 

The Hawaiian flag received its English Jack — a St. George 
and St. Andrew's cross filled in with blue — very probably be- 
cause the designer was an Englishman, and probably because 
Kamehameha the Great had leaned toward the British govern- 



316 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

ment through his many dealings with Enghsh navigators begin- 
ning particularly with Captain Geoi^e Vancouver to whom he 
made what was at one time thought to be a cession of Hawaii to 
England. This may have influenced the use of the English 
Jack in the belief that with England extending a protecting wing 
over Hawaii, England should be represented in the flag, the Ha- 
waiian element being the eight stripes to represent that number 
of islands in the group. 

On the occasion of the birth of the Princess Nahienaena at 
Keauhou, Kona, Hawaii, in 1815. Captain Beckley was made a 
High Chief by Kamehameha, so that he might with impunity 
enter the sacred precincts of the grass house and present the 
royal infant with a roll of China silk, after which he went out- 
side and fired a salute of thirteen guns in her honor. 

When Captain Beckley entered the house he look the infant 
in his arms and the little one immediately clutched his whiskers 
with her tiny baby fingers. When Queen Keopuolani saw this she 
said to the king, "Look at the big sweetheart and the little s\veet- 
heart. George from henceforth you are Princess Nahienaena's 
name husband. He was called kciki (son) ever afterwards by 
the chiefs, and his daughter Maria was called "Kaiponui Kai- 
poliilii" after this incident, at her birth, it being a custom for 
Hawaians, very frequently, to name children after an incident, 
historical event, the names often having a beautiful and poetic 
figurative meaning. In this way much of the old history was 
conveyed generation to generation. 

Captain Beckley was the first commander of the Honolulu 
fort which was erected near the waterfront near the foot of 
what is now Fort street. It was built on the advice of the High 
Chief Kalaimoku, a general under Kamehameha, and who was 
a historical figure, later being the one to meet the first mission- 
aries on behalf of Kamehameha 11, in 1820. The fort was to 
command the harbor and its channel. It was begim in 1816 and ' 
completed in a year. It was nearly square, measuring three 
hundred yards on a side, with walls about twelve feet high and 
twenty feet thick and built of coral blocks hewn from the 
reefs, pierced with embrasures for cannon. It stood on the sea- 




»:,u:u, iiLi.iinn'liy, .IrsiKii,',! hy t)ie lliuli Clii.'f 
.■isii ■'( Kiiiiifliiiinoli:i III. A iiiD.lLn.'Htioii is ik.w 






of til,. Hri.-kw 



HAWAII'S FLAG DOMINATED THE OCEAN .^7 

ward side of Queen street and across the lower part of Fort 
street. About forty guns were mounted, consisting of six, eight 
and twelve pounders. It was placed under tlie direct command 
of Captain Beckley, whose soldiery were malo-clad natives of 
the warrior class which had been trained by Kamehameha the 
Great. To supplement this fort eight thirty-two pounders were 
afterwards mounted on Punchbowl hil! behind the city. 

Captain Beckley's oldest son, William Beckley was born at 
Keauhou, and was brought up with Kauikaeouli, afterwards 
Kamehameha III. His two oldest daughters were brought up 
by Queen Kaahumanu. This indicates the high esteem in 
which the EngHshman was held by Kamehameha, and also the 
probability that he would confide to his officer the task of designing 
a flag for Hawaii. Captain Beckley died in Honolulu in 1825. 

The national banner, adopted officially by Che legislative council 
was unfurled on May 25, 1845, differing very little from the 
former one. 

Captain John Dominis, of Boston, arrived in Honolulu April 
23, 1837, after having made several voyages to Honolulu from 
New England and New York, accompanied by his son John 
Owen Dominis, and decided to make his permanent home in the 
Islands. In 1842, a lawsuit of long standing between Captain 
Dominis and the British consul, Richard Charlton, destined to 
become an ill-favored figure in Hawaiian life, was terminated 
under which Captain Dominis came into possession of land on 
Beretania street, near the royal palace grounds, and began in 
that year the erection of a mansion, which was completed in 
1846, and today stands as a monument to the old-style archi- 
tecture, stalely and beautiful, and destined to be the home of the 
last sovereign of Hawaii and from which she was carried to her 
forefathers in the Royal Mausoleum in Nuuanu Valley. 

Isaac Adams, not an architect, but a builder, drew the plans 
and superintended the construction. Captain Dominis sailed 
for China on August 5, 1846, and never from that day was heard 
from, either he or his ship. He expected to bring home Chinese 
furniture for his mansion. The widow rented the home to 
Anthony TenEyck, United States commissioner. On February 



318 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

22, 1848, being a good and patriotic American, he wrote the 
royal government, that with the consent of Mrs. Dominis he had 
named the mansion "Washington Place," in honor of the illus- 
trious George Washington, and added, "Let it be hereafter 
designated in Hawaiian annals, and long may it remain in this 
distant isle of the Pacific, a memento of the eminent virtues of 
the "Father of His Country," and of the distinguished excel- 
lencies of its much lamented projector." This was addressed 
to His Excellency R. C. WyUie, Minister of Foreign Affairs. 
On the same date the minister replied, and wrote : 

"Your wish having been made known to the king, it has 
pleased His Majesty to order accordingly, and I venture to say 
that everyone near His Majesty (Kamehameha HI), cordially 
concurs in his desire to do every possible honor to the memory 
of one of the greatest and best of men that ever ennobled the 
race of mankind." 

Keoni Ana was then premier of the kingdom, and on that same 
historic day issued a "By Authority," or official notice that it 
had pleased His Majesty to approved of the name of Washing- 
ton Place for the Dominis mansion, "and to command that they 
retain that name in all time coming." 

On September, 1862, Lydia K. P. Kapaakea, a high chiefess, 
brother of the High Chief David Kalakaua, and John Owen 
Dominis were married and took up their residence at Wash- 
ington Place with Mother Dominis. The latter died in April 
25, 1889, and the property descended to her son, who was then 
Governor of Oahu, and his wife was Princess Liliuokalani, her 
brother, King Kalakaua, still being monarch. Governor Dominis, 
who became Prince Consort when Liliuokalani ascended the 
throne, died August 27, 1891, and the Queen came into full pos- 
session of the mansion. 

When she was deposed as queen in January, 1893, she retired 
to Washington Place and there lived out the remainder of her 
one-time stormy life, dying in November 11, 1917. There, in her 
retirement, she continued to receive her friends and visitors, and 
the Hawaiian people particularly, in semi-royal state. Her home 
was the rendezvous for the old "royal set" of Honolulu. It 



HAWAII'S FLAG DOMINATED THE OCEAN 319 

was a little kingdom and she was accorded all the honors and 
obeisances that are the privilege of a monarch to receive. The 
queen, educated, a composer of music, a writer herself, collected 
about her a numerous coterie of friends. Washington Place 
became the mecca of travelers visiting in Honolulu. To her came 
generals, admirals and dignitaries of the United States, accord- 
ing her the honors that she had received in the former day when 
she sat upon the throne. 

I saw the queen the morning she breathed her last in the httle 
front room, ofE the hallway, and the lanai, which had been her 
bedroom for years, and where she was devotedly attended by 
many of her people. For a week Washington Place had been 
filled with Hawaiians who gathered because they knew the end 
was near. Day and night they came. There was wailing, there 
was soft singing. The former court ladies, the former ofhcials, 
now old, even as she was approaching eighty, came to be with 
their sovereign in her last hours. From Washinglon Place, 
where royal burial honors had been accorded, she was removed 
to the royal palace by order of the Governor of Hawaii who 
officially announced that hers would be a royal funeral. 

Then the legislature was sought to purchase Washington 
Place as a mansion for the governors of Hawaii and this was 
carried out, and Washington Place is secure from the demands 
of business or otherwise, and has been renovated and is now the 
official home of the governors of Hawaii, the first to occupy it 
as such being Charles J. McCarthy and after him, Wallace R. 
Farrington. 

It was the earnest wish of Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole. 
her cousin, that Washington Place be purchased for this purpose 
to preserve it to posterity. The act of the Hawaiian legisla- 
ture was approved April 30, 1919. 

Over Washington Place floated the Hawaiian flag for three- 
quarters of a century, and over it the royal standard, the crown 
flag was often silhouetted against the sky. I saw the royal 
standard raised that sad morning in November, 1917, to the peak 
and then lowered to half-mast, for I performed this duty my- 
self. Only recently I had the honor to assist in the transfer of 



320 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

the royal standard and crown flags of the Hawaiian monarchy, 
which were hauled down from the Royal Palace in January, 
1893. when the monarchy was overthrown, to the Bishop Mu- 
seum as a safe place for these historic relics. They had been in 
possession of a resident of Honolulu, who was a lieutenant of 
the guard established by the Hawaiian provisional government. 
Intimately associated were the Hawaiian flag of monarchy 
days and Washington Place, and both have an unusually warm 
place in the hearts of all residents of Hawaii. 



CHAPTER XXVII 



LAST OF THE OLD GUARD 



SURVI\'ORS AliE FEW 

LIKE the fragments of the Grand Army of Napoleon, in long 
years after Waterloo, when now and then a former soldier 
of the "Little Corporal" would be pointed out by the older 
generation to the new, so are (he fragments of the old royal Ha- 
waiian courts few and far between. Out of all the bewildering 
galaxy of beautiful Hawaiian and haole women who graced the 
courts of the Kamehamehas and the Kalakauas, of the gallant 
beaux, the handsome men who were members of the staffs of those 
same Kamehamehas and the Kalakauas, but a straggling three or 
four remain alive today. 

Now and then at some public function which memorializes 
the birthday anniversary of a former sovereign, these survivors 
of the old guard are prominent figures. 

Queen Emma, widow of Kamehameha IV, she of the graceful 
manner which so charmed Queen Victoria, held her court when 
she was Dowager and Kamebameiia V sat upon the throne, for 
she was the "lady of the realm" and the hostess at the palace. 
Today, of this court, there survives Lucy Peabody, the grand- 
daughter of Isaac Davis, who was one of the white men who be- 
came a figure in Hawaii during the reign of Kamehameha I and 
one of the king's right-hand men, who married the High Chiefess 
Kahaanapilo, a genealogist of her day. 

There is Mrs. Jennie Smythe, one of the ladies in waiting to 
Queen Emma, daughter of Mrs. Kamaka Stillman. The latter, at 
98 years of age today, is a remarkable example of serenity, who 
has walked to the royai mausoleum behind the bodies of the aliis. 
Mrs. Smythe is also the great-great-granddaughter of Kahaopuo- 



322 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

lani, who was the foster mother of Kamehameha the Great who 
concealed the baby for years at the Pah Hulaana, of Kohala. 

There is also Mrs. Curtis P. laukea, who at the coronation of 
King Kalakaua and Queen Kapiolani in 1883 was a lady in wait- 
ing to the royal household, she being then the wife of Col. lau- 
kea, vice -chamberlain, an aide and court gentleman. Still sur- 
viving, and also a lady in waiting to Kalakaua and Kapiolani's 
household, and present that coronation day, is Mrs. Lucy Po- 
haialii, who was a relative of Kapiolani. 

As a lady in waiting that coronation day to Her Royal High- 
ness Princess Likelike, sister of King Kalakaua, was Miss Lizzie 
Coney, today Mrs. Elizabeth Renjes, who resides part of the 
time in New York and part in Germany. She is the aunt of 
the present Mrs. Jay Gould, of New York, whose mother was 
one of the "Coney girls," of Honolulu. She was Miss Ellen 
Coney, who married a Mr. Graham, and later married the Dutch 
artist, Hubart Vos, whose studio in New York is a mecca for art 
lovers. Her daughter Annie Graham, met young Jay Gould in 
New York and their marriage was a brilliant society event. 

Mrs. A. N. Tripp (Sally Tripp) was also a lady in waiting 
at that coronation, a member of the old Hawaiian gentry. Her 
husband was Captain Tripp, a ship master, later harbor master at 
Honolulu. During the Civil War he went on a mission from 
Honolulu to the Arctic to find the pirate steamer Shenandoah, of 
the Confederate States of America, which had wantonly destroyed 
most of the whaling fleet, and inform Commander Semmes that 
the war was over. He returned with scores of survivors of 
sunken vessels. 

Another survivor of the courts is Mrs. Emma Metcalf Beck- 
ley, afterwards Mrs. Nakuina, lady in waiting to Queen Kapiolani 
during the early part of this reign, her husband, the Chieftain 
F. W, Kahapula Beckley, being the king's chamberlain, and later 
governor of Kauai. She was afterwards the first and only 
woman judge appointed during the days of the republic, being 
judge of water rights, and is a recognized authority on Hawaiian 
history. 

Col. Curtis P. laukea is today as he was decades ago, the 



LAST OF THE OLD GUARD 323 

tall, stately, courtly, suave gentleman of the court and diplomat, 
whose life has been a succession of official duties associated with 
the monarchy, then with the Provisional Government, then with 
the Repuhlic, and later the Territory. He was a close friend of 
King Kalakaua who gave him important appointments, such as 
collector of the port, then vice-chamberlain and finally chamber- 
lain. He served also as chamberlain at the royal palace under 
Queen Liliuokalani. In the long years afterward, when Liliu- 
okalani was a citizen in private life, he became her business 
adviser and was again, in reality, her chamberlain. He was with 
her at the time of her death and supervised the arrangements 
for her state funeral as he did those for the late Prince Kalani- 
anaole, delegate to congress. 

His has been an interesting career, a picturesque one, for 
after all his royal service, later for the Republic, he served as 
Secretary of the Territory, under appointment of President 
Wilson, and now almost daily may be seen following a golf ball 
upon the Oahu Country Club course at Laimi, Nuuanu, Hono- 
lulu, traversing almost the area that Kamehameha did in 1795 
when he began battle with the opposing Oahuan army. 

Colonel laukea was born at Waimea, Hawaii, Dec. 13, 1855, 
son of J. W. laukea, who was district magistrate of Hamakua, 
Hawaii. He was reared In Honolulu under the direction of 
his uncle, a personal attendant of Kamehameha IV, and was 
educated, as a ward of the government, under Arch-deacon 
Mason, of the Anglican Church in Hawaii. In 1872, upon the 
death of King Kamehameha V, who had sent him to Lahaina to 
learn sugar- boiling, he went to Hilo, Hawaii, where his sister 
was residing. He was a very close friend of Prince Leieiohoku II, 
named by Kalakaua as heir apparent, the people often refering 
to them as Damon and Pythias. 

It was at Hilo that King Kalakaua, on his royal tour of the 
islands, saw this young friend of the chiefs and commanded 
him to resume his place at the royal palace. Here he remained 
in one capacity or another, until the overthrow of the monarchy 
in 1893. He was chief secretary of the department of foreign 
affairs in 1880, and in 1883 was sent as special envoy to the 



324 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

coronation of the Czar of Russia. After visiting the different 
courts of Europe, to which he had been accredited as Hawaiian 
envoy, he went to India and Japan to study the immigration 
question and to open negotiations for a labor convention be- 
tween Hawaii and the governments of those countries. In Japan 
his mission was notably successful, resulting in the admission of 
Japanese laborers to the sugar plantations of Hawaii. He was 
collector general of customs in 1884 and chamberlain of the 
king's household, crown land agent and commissioner in 1889. 

As chamberlain he was given special charge and care of the 
royal party, attending the jubilee of Queen Victoria in 1887, 
and which included Queen Kapiolani, Princess Liliuokalanj, 
Gov. Dominis and their several suites, and enroute the party 
visited President and Mrs. Cleveland at the White House. Later 
he was sent to London as secretary and aide-de-camp of the 
special embassy from the Republic of Hawaii on the occasion of 
the diamond jubilee of the Queen, in 1897. 

In 1898 he accompanied President and Mrs. Dole to Washing- 
ton on their visit to President and Mrs. McKinley, acting as 
secretary and military attache. Since 1909 he had been man- 
aging trustee and treasurer of the Liliuokalani Trust, and busi- 
ness representative of Her Majesty Liliuokalani. He was county 
sheriff during 1906-8. 

Among the many orders and foreign distinctions that have 
been conferred upon him are the grand cross and cordon of St. 
Stanislaus, conferred by the Emperor of Russia on the occasion 
of the coronation in 1883 ; officer of the French Legion of Honor, 
conferred by President Grevy of the Republic of France ; grand 
officer's cross of the Crown of Italy; grand cross and ribbon of 
the Order of Takovo, Servia; jubilee and diamond jubilee medals 
of Queen Victoria; grand officer of the Order of Rising Sun 
of Japan; knight commander of the Swedish Order of St. 
Olaf, and all of the Hawaiian orders and decorations instituted 
by King Kalakaua during the monarchy. 



LAST OF THE OLD GUARD 325 

There is also surviving, Mrs. Irene Kahalelaukoa-o-Kamamalu 
li Holloway, a court lady of Queen Liliuokalani. She is the 
daughter of the late Judge John li, one' of the first Hawaiians to 
receive an English education. 

Lastly, Mrs. Harry Webb (Lahilali), friend and companion 
of Liliuokalani, who was at her deathbed, and now a valued mem- 
ber of the staff at Bishop Museum. 



CHAPTER XXVIII 



HAWAIIAN COAT-OF-ARMS AND OLD HAWAIIAN 
FLAG 

The Hawaiian coat -of -arms, that used by the monarchy gov- 
ernment, has been preserved by the Territory of Hawaii, with 
needful changes, and forms a part of the territorial seal today. 
The coat-of-arms was originated during the reign of Katneha- 
meha III, who died in 1854, and was designed by his secretary, 
the distinguished High Chief Haalitio, who died in 1844. 

It was afterwards altered during the reign of King Kalakaua, 
who ascended the throne in 1874 and died in San Francisco in 
. January, 1891. 

In the original design appears a triangular flag, the ancient 
banner of the chiefs, always raised above the sail of a canoe. One 
conspicuous ornament of the crown was the taro leaf. The 
cross depending near the bottom of the latter design is one of 
Kalakaua's additions. 

The shield in the center is guarded by two men whose names 
are Kameeiamoku and Kamanawa, both high chiefs under the 
ancient regime. These men were twin brothers and mighty war- 
riors and generals, and were distinguished counsellors of Kame- 
hameha the Great, who died at Kailua, Hawaii, in 1819. Kame- 
eiamoku stands at the right and holds a kahili, or feathered staff, 
the emblem of state without which no royal court was complete. 

The large kahilis used for state occasions in olden or ancient 
times were from ten to thirty feet in height. They were made 
of choice feathers and carried by several men. Their latest use 
as symbols of royalty was during the state funeral obsequies in 
Honolulu last January, on the occasion of the funeral procession 
for the late Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole, who at the time of 
his death was completing twenty years of sen,-ice in Congress as 
Hawaii's delegate to Congress at Washington. 



HAWAIIAN COAT-OF-ARMS AND FLAG 327 

The feathers were sometimes arranged on slender branches at- 
tached to the staff, and extended about ten inches on either side. 
They were long and silky and obtained from many sources, the 
black ones from the tail of the O-o bird. 

There were also smaller kahilis used to brush away flies or 
Other winged insects. They were made of all sorts of gay 
feathers. 

Kamanawa stands on the left, holding a spear in his right 
hand, a sign of protection. 

The spears, or ihe pololu, were made of the wood of the kauila 
tree, the hardest native wood of the Island forests. Though dark 
reddish at first, it becomes nearly black with age. This wood 
was once considered sacred and many superstitions are connected 
with it. 

These two men, Kameeiamoku and Kamanawa, are dressed in 
their ceremonial garments, the long feather cloak and helmet. 

Such feather cloaks are rare and costly, and truly magnificent. 
They were made from the rich yellow feathers of three different 
binds— the O-o, Mamo and 0-u. These cloaks shown in the 
coat-of-arms extend to the ankles, but for a young prince they 
came only to the waist, or were even shorter. 

The foundation of the cloak is a line netting of native hemp, 
or olona, to which the feathers, overlapping each other, are skill- 
fully fastened, thus forming a perfectly smooth surface of a 
golden color. Sometimes a border of red is added. 

Most of the birds which produced these feathers were honey- 
suckers, and were caught by nets or sticky gum introduced among 
the branches of lehua or other flowering trees where the birds 
went to seek food. 

The 0-0 had a small tuft of feathers under each wing and on 
the breast. The yellow feathers of the O-u are on the head of 
the male. The Mamo, now considered extinct, gave the choicest 
feathers, of a deep yellow or orange color. It took thousands of 
these birds to make a complete cloak; and where possible, the 
birds were not destroyed, but were released after the feathers 
were taken. Sometimes a few of these birds were killed and 
cooked in Ti-leaves, providing a much relished dish for the king. 



328 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Yellow was the royal color, the chiefs and lesser dignitaries 
using red or other colors. The Apapane and curved-bill liwi fur- 
nished the red feathers. 

The finest feather cloak is now in the Bishop Museum. This 
is the original robe used by Kamehameha the Great, who died 
more than a century ago. This was afterwards used by the kings 
of Hawaii on state occasions. It is enclosed in a hermetically- 
sealed metal case at the Bishop Museum, Honohdu, which is 
opened once a month for the benefit of visitors, who see the cloak 
behind glass. There is also the cloak of Kaumuatii, the last in- 
dependent king of Kauai, who was the ancestor of the late Prince 
Kalanianaole, delegate to Congress, the last titular prince of the 
monarchy. 

The helmets were made of fine wicker work covered with bril- 
liant feathers. They were a gorgeous headdress, worn on festival 
occasions. 

In the coat-of-arms shield are two tabu sticks called louloii, 
made from kauila wood. These sticks are about four or five 
feet high, a large round knob at the top, which is often covered 
with white tapa (native cloth made from tree fibers reduced to 
pulp and then dried on smooth logs with beating sticks). 

If the king, in olden days, did not wish to be disturbed, a tabu 
(keep out) stick was placed at the door, and death was the pen- 
alty for disregarding the sign. In case the king beard of the 
disloyalty of a subject, he would order the labu slick to be taken 
during the night and placed in front of the man's door — a very 
strict command to remain within till further orders from the king. 
They were sacred and much feared by the people. 

At the top of the shield is the crown, having eight leaves, or 
points, also showing the mimber of inhabited islands (at that 
time). 

The St. George's cross tn the coat-of-arms was introduced by 
King Kalakaua, as perhaps, also, were the drawings in the little 
design in the center of the shield, between the flags. Two torches 
of kukui nuts cross each other, with a kahili fan in the middle. 
Two Torches of Iwikauikaua were the symbols of Kalakaua's 
family. The ancient torches were made of kukui nuts strung on 



HAWAIIAN COAT-OF-ARMS AND FLAG 329 

a slender slick and enclosed in a basket of ti-leaves, and were 
carried before kings in royal processions. 

"Ua mail ke ea o ka Aina i ka pono" are the words of the 
national motto on the scroll below the shield, meaning, "The life 
of the land is perpetnated in righteousness." These words were 
part of a speech delivered in the '40's by Kamehanieha III. 

In the year 1843, when the independence of the Islands was re- 
stored by Admiral Thomas of the British Navy, Kaiiiehameha 
made a brief and eloquent address to the people in Kawaiahao 
Church. He spoke of the restoration, the life of the nation 
being returned, and he trusted that it would be "established in 
righteousness," closing with the words of the above motto. 

In 1895 a seal with a newly-designed coat-of-arms was pre- 
pared for the Republic of Hawaii and adopted by the legislature. 
It contained the same motto, the bars of the Hawaiian flag and 
the tabu sticks, but in other respects is entirely different. The 
two standing figures were the Goddess of Liberty to the right, and 
the picture of the well-known Kamehanieha statue at the left. 

The coat-of-arms of the territory is considerably different, but 
the symbolic meanings are retained. 

The colored bars, red, white and blue, in the shield, repre- 
sent the Hawaiian flag. Th eight stripes give the number of the 
principal islands of the Hawaiian group. 

The name of Captain George Eeckley. an English shipmaster, 
who came to the Hawaiian Islands about 1800 and became at- 
tached to the service of Kamehanieha I, is associated with the 
designing of the Hawaiian flag. Captain Beckley was first com- 
mander of the fort established by Kamehameha at the foot of 
what is now Fort Street, near the site of piers 9 and 10, where 
the passenger steamers of the Matson fleet will be moored in the 
future. Captain Beckley was an Englisman. and because of this 
fact, and because Kamehameha leaned toward the British through 
the friendly aid given him in many matters by Captain Van- 
couver, the English navigator and explorer who was here last in 
1794, the Union Jack was placed in the corner. The eight stripes, 
or, as they were originally, seven, were possibly arranged after 



330 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

the fashion of the American flag, and the use of red, white and 
blue may have come from the American source. 

Captain Adams, a well-known English navigator, who was in 
the service of Kamehameha I. was the first to carry the Ha- 
waiian flag into foreign seas, about 1816. The improvement in 
the Hawaiian flag was made about 1845 by Captain Hunt, Eng- 
lish Navy. 



CHAPTER XXIX 



ONLY THRONE ROOM IX AMERICA 



SOCIAL LIFE IN HAWAII 

AMERICAN ideals of government have forbidden thrones, 
crowns, scepters, titles of nobility and other forms of 
royalty, while decades of self-government have created 
an aversion among the American electorate to rulers by right 
of succession, yet there is a throne, a throne room, a crown and 
scepter within the borders of the great American Republic, 
visited daily by Americans, principally tourists, who gaze with 
dreamy eyes upon the symbols of royalty which recall to the 
imagination, grand receptions, presentations, and gorgeous set- 
tings for the ruler's state appearance before his people. 

Where is this throne in democratic America? Where are 
displayed symbols of rule by divine right in this broad land 
freed from such rule by patriots of 1776? 

In all the vast area from Maine to California, from the 
Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, much of it a wilderness 
half a century ago, there is now not a single territory remaining. 
The sisterhood of states embraces every square foot of the land 
within these borders; but down in the sapphire-hued waters of 
the Pacific; in the region which was unknown until the navi- 
gators, Gaetano, Cook and Vancouver, sighted the shores of ibe 
Hawaiian Islands — Uncle Sam's baby territory born when the 
United States made a humanitarian appeal to arms in 1898. 

Not many years before that historical year — a year which 
marked an entire change in the policy of Uncle Sam's govern- 
ment — there had been a throne in the Hawaiian Islands, and 
upon the throne for a century rulers of two dynasties occupied 
the seat of power, held the sceptor and wore the crown of the 



332 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Kingdom of Hawaii. Only five years before the American 
armies began their long voyage across the Pacific to Manila, 
the last ruler of the Kalakaua dynasty had been deposed, the 
throne overturned; the crown placed in a secret place — the gems 
mysteriously lost — and a republic set up on the ancient ruins. 

But the throne room was closed and remained closed for a 
time. The dats upon which the queen's throne had rested for so 
long was left untouched. The heavy brocaded canopy which 
overhung it remained as it was when Queen Liliuokalani, in 
state, received the diplomats of other countries. Even the gilded 
crown which surmounted the canopy, symbolizing the ancient 
regime, held its place even when the President of the Republic 
presided at council. From gilded frames the oil portraits of 
former native rulers, starting with Kamehameha the Great, the 
"Napoleon of the Pacific," who founded the kingdom of Hawaii 
after conquering each island and welded them into a kingdom 
which won the admiration of the powers throughout its long 
career, down to Kalakaua, the merry monarch, who loved to 
play the sovereign according to rules laid down in the Palace 
of Buckingham and Potsdam, looked upon the scenes of dusky 
royalty. From huge frames there also looked upon the changes 
of government the portrait eyes of Louis Philippe of France, 
Marshal Blucher of Prussia, who made possible the later as- 
cension of Louis, and Alexander II of Russia. 

Came the day when, in the capitol of the United States the 
national lawmakers passed to record the Resolution of Annexa- 
tion — July 6, 1898 — under the provisions of which the Republic 
of Hawaii became a unit of the sisterhood of states and terri- 
tories of the United States. Came also the day — June 14, 1900 — 
when the Islands were erected into a Territory of the United 
States. And yet the throne room of the Kingdom of Hawaii 
retained the atmosphere of the days when kings and queens. 
princes and princesses, ministers of cabinets, ambassadors and 
plenipotentiaries, made Hawaii the favorite theme of great 
writers and poets, singers and players, of the days when it was 
a pawn of international diplomacy, but held strongly to American 
principles and protection by the stern announcement of Daniel 




s from jnslii-e iiJiil c>scii|ii[ig [jrisi.Tipia of iviir foiiml shelter iti tlic 
,-ictit City of Refuge iit Hoiiiuiriun. llawiiii isl... Heyoii.l 
(lUtrigKor fiiiioea rise the iimsaive iviills of 
the sai-red anii ailciit temple. 



ONLY THRONE ROOM IN AMERICA 333 

Webster to other nations to keep their hands off the "Paradise 
of the Pacific." 

Across the tall, stately windows, all of which can be thrown 
open upon the wide porticoes, as doorways, fall the heavy 
brocaded curtains just as they were draped during the reigns of 
Kalakaua and Liliuokalani, for their new palace was completed 
in 1886, replacing the less imposing structure of coral and frame, 
which had replaced the original palace of the early Kaniehamehas 
which was built according to the architectural ideals of that date 
— a huge low structure, with pointed roof sloping swiftly down 
to low eaves, thatched with pili grass, through which no drop 
of rain could permeate. The palace of Kalakaua was and is 
pretentious, a two-story square building superimposed upon a 
basement story and surrounded by stately portico columns of 
iron and cement, surmounted by attic and flagstaff towers, a 
building of beautiful lines, a combination of grace and stately 
lines, which has won the admiration of visitors, even from capi- 
tals filled with royal palaces. 

There were the state banquet ball, and the ba.sement offices, 
the well-equipped kitchens and pantries and wine cellars and 
the beautifully furnished private apartments of the royal family 
in the second story. The throne room was a hall of well bal- 
anced proportions, whose walls were pierced with many window- 
doors ; the ceiling plastered white and garnished with mouldings in 
which the Hawaiian coat-of-arms predominated. From the 
gilded ceilings were suspended beautiful chandeliers glittering 
with crystal pendants, replacas of chandeliers then hanging in 
palaces in European capitols. Above each window was a pair 
of crossed and gilded spears, symbols of the days when the 
Hawaiians battled with spears and javelins. Surroimding the 
room were high backed gilt and brocaded chairs, small editions 
of the chairs upon the throne. The etiquette of the Court of 
St. James prevailed in this throne room of the Hawaiians, and 
upon state occasions, when a reception, levee or ball was given, 
it fairly blazed with gold-trimmed uniforms, and costly gems 
worn by the fashionably gowned women, both Hawaiian and 
foreign. The famous Hawaiian band, directed from 1872 until 



334 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

1915 by a bandmaster sent from Prussia by Emperor William 
to King Kalakaua, played in an ornate bandstand in the grounds 
not far distant from the throne room. If the admiral of a fleet 
— and many foreign warships visited Honolulu in those merry, 
good old days — was received, the clank of swords rose above 
all other sounds, for the king and queen had extensive military 
staffs. 

But the days of royalty are gone; the empty dais and the 
canopy and the heavy window hangings and the oil portraits of 
the former dynasties, and the crossed spears are mute evidences 
that once upon a time kings and queens were wont to assert 
their sovereignty, within those silent walls. But above the 
canopy where once was a gilded crown, a gilded eagle is poised. 

Where the king and queen once presided at state dinners, the 
senate of Hawaii now holds its biennial sessions. Where the 
king slept in a big room above, the American governor of the 
territory, appointed by the President at Washington, now has 
his office; other former boudoirs and bedrooms are occupied as 
offices by the secretary of the territory, the attorney-general, 
the territorial auditor, the superintendent of public works, whose 
prosaic titles replaced the more glittering ones of Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, Minister of Finance and Minister of the Inter- 
ior; while down in the basement where the wine was kept cool, 
and the dishes were cleansed and the cooks prepared food, ter- 
ritorial officers administer their departments, while the stately 
throne room is given over every two years to sessions of the 
House of Representatives. 

Directly behind the dais is a hardwood door, covered with 
a heavy curtain. Through this door in the old days the king 
and queen entered directly from the robing room and stood upon 
the dais. Nowadays, when the House session is about to open, 
the door is opened and the curtains swept aside when the Speaker 
of the House makes his appearance and brings the gavel down 
upon his desk with an authoritative crash. He is a real king, 
however, and his word is almost absolute, which was not exactly 
the case with His Majesty. 

As time goes on, tender memories are recalled of the good old 



ONLY THRONE ROOM IN AMERICA 335 

days with its opera bouffe kingdom, its symbols of royalty, its 
gay life and the brilliant balls and receptions in the throne room, 
and, although Mark Twain said of the government of Hawaii 
of that period, that "It had the machinery of an ocean liner in 
a sardine box," there is a growing desire to retain the throne 
room as it was during the days of Kalakaua and Liliuokalani, 
and the legislature has passed acts requiring ail royal portraits of 
the Hawaiian rulers to be kept permanently upon the walls, and 
the hall otherwise undisturbed. 

Tourists flock to the throne room and roam over the palace, 
inspecting portraits, the beautiful koa (native wood) furnish- 
ings and the finishings and express surprise that away down in 
the middle of the Pacific was there so perfect a palace of royalty. 

So Americans who have little dreamed that there is yet a 
real throne in their great Republic, have only to place the Ha- 
waiian Islands in their "See America First" itinerary, step aboard 
a palatial ocean greyhound at San Francisco, sail two thousand 
miles westward in tiie direction of the romantic South Seas over 
sunkissed waters, turn to the right, and enter beautiful Honolulu 
harbor, the "Crossroads of the Pacific," 

The monarchy made its impress upon the people and their 
customs in the past, and many of these customs of habit and 
precedence liave not yet been overcome. 

With the change of the government and the setting up of a 
republic, the President of the Republic, Hon. Sanford B. Dole, 
became the arbiter of official social life in Hawaii. His wife 
was the social hostess of Hawaii; around them were the des- 
cendants of the early missionaries, New Englanders mainly. 
whose culture, educational and religious training have brought 
Hawaii to its high state of civilization in the past hundred years. 

There are as beautiful gowns seen in Hawaii as in our own 
cities. In former days, when Hawaii was an independent coun- 
try, silks and satins and the finer fabrics were easier to obtain 
than now. 

In the old days the opera house would be filled with beauti- 
fully gowned women, and men always wore conventional evening 



336 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

clothes. The formal affairs were and are characterized by such 
toilettes as are seen in London, Paris and Berlin. 

The army and the navy now form a large part of the pop- 
ulation of Honolulu ; their brilliant uniforms are seen at all formal 
affairs, in fact the assemblages in Honolulu are often far more 
brilliant than are to be met in mainland cities. 

The shops are filled with large assortments of fabrics suited 
to the climate. The stores are not of the "village type"; are 
far from being antiquated, and are quite as uptodate as those 
in big cities. Both men and women dress in excellent taste in 
Honolulu, but the man who wears limp clothing is not a pain- 
fully conspicuous object. 

The social code of Honolulu is yet strict, and formality de- 
mands a regard for the rules that have been found necessary 
for the common good of society everywhere. 

The stranger must yield references to entitle him to entry 
into the conservative circle of social Honolulu. The stranger, 
however, is not held aloof. Every opportunity is afforded 
wherever possible for the stranger to mingle on equal terms with 
the residents. The outdoor life favors such mingling, the life 
around the hotels, sea beaches, the homes with their wide-open 
porches, or "lanais" as the Islanders term them ; the town clubs 
and the country club; the army posts and navy station, the 
varied forms of public amusement, all tend to bring the stranger 
into the midst of the social life of the capitol. 

Trips to other islands on the little steamers cause friendships 
which mean week-end opportunities at some of the beautiful 
homes of the planters. Even the voyage from the coast to Hono- 
lulu in the splendid steamers which now ply across the smooth, 
sun-kissed expanse of ocean, makes opportunities for new friend- 
ships, which give social opportunities later on. 

There is much in Honolulu to give charm to luncheons, dinners 
and garden parties. The pleasant lanais, cool and airy, looking 
out into enchanting gardens, the wealth of flowers and ferns 
with which the tables may be garnished ; the palms and crotons, 
the hybiscus and orchids with which the house may be decorated. 



ONLY THRONE ROOM IN AMERICA 337 

are all possibilities in Honolulu, to be realized with very little 
trouble. 

In nine houses out of ten the Chinese or Japanese cook deserves 
the decoration of a cordon bleu; he is an artist whose salads and 
entrees, cakes and ices, are perfections. With all this there is a 
list of fresh fruits to draw upon that bewilder the stranger by 
its wonderful variety. 

While in many of the best houses in Honolulu wine was never 
served, a moral principle inherited from the early missionaries by 
ll-eir descendants — in others, it was an influence surviving from 
the old days of the monarchy This was also due to the number 
of Europeans living in Honolulu, who were, and are, among 
the most hospitable and delightful entertainers. Where a lunch- 
eon is given at a seaside villa, it is often preceded by a swim 
in the ocean. They reappear after the dip, again accoutcred in 
proper habilments, and as though they had just come in after a 
stroll in the garden. Moonlight swimming parties are common, for 
the water is always a comfortable temperature. 

Tlie garden party dinner served on the lanai ; moonlight motor 
trips, sometimes half around the island; dances at the beautiful 
country club, a dance or dinner party at one of the numerous 
army posts, or at the naval station, all combine to make a round 
of festivities of which Honolulu seems never to lack. 

There is the smart set; there is the conservative set; there is 
the royalty set ; there are many social circles in Honolulu. The 
home of the late Prince Kalanianaole was the scene of brilliant 
gatherings, where he was assisted by the Princess Kalanianaole, 
who was a high chiefess before her romantic marriage with the 
patriot prince. She still presides with charming dignity at "Pua- 
ieilani," Waikiki. 

Golf and polo are played all over the islands, tennis courts 
abound even at the remote villas of sugar planters far away from 
town ; the motor car is everywhere, even going now to the very 
edge of the living molten lava crater of Kilauea on the Island 
of Hawaii. There is now a fine 18-hole golf course on the brink 
of the volcano, the natural fissures, from which steam escapes, 
being covered withe wire-netting to save the balls. 



338 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Isolated as Honolulu may be geographically, its society other- 
wise, is in close touch with the great world, and is in no sense 
insular. It is ready to do its part with credit to the distinguished 
strangers whom it may receive, and its representatives are at 
home in any land wheresoever business or pleasure may take 
them. 



ERRATA 
(Due to liaste in prodiicinfj this book alieail nf time 
scliediiled. lypoffrapliical errors crept in. The 
publishers regret that the errors were not (iis- 
covereil in time for correction.) 
Page fA — S:iii\vell — assistant surgeon, not an en- 
listed man, 
Pajje 76 — 32ncl bne. read "older foster son, Kalei- 

mamahn." 
Paye 1 19 — Next td last line — '"Marrierl" sbn\ild 

read "arrived." 
Page 175— Kotzebue visit— read "ISie" instead of 

■■1825.'" 
I'ase 252-3— Illustration — Robert Wilcox — read 

■■!iW9" instead of -ISg.^": eliminate last 

two lines. 
Page 252 — lUustr.ation — shonld read "Her Majesty." 

not "Her Roval Highness." 
Page 263— Year "1918"' should read "1919." 
Page 348— Illustration — "Kawaihae" should read 

"Kailua." In second line read "Ahnena i 

Kamakahonu," 
Page 358— "[line, 1755," should read |une 30. 

1743." 
Page 399 — Kamehameiia V — Under "accession" 

change 1873 to 1863. 

Liinalilo— L"n<ler "birib." chan-e 1S73 to 

1838. 



CHAPTER XXX 



SURF-RIDING HAS BACKGROUND OF PAGAN 
RITES 

OLD Father Neptune is one of Hawaii's closest neighbors, 
one of its best-hked and in a sense one of the most helpful, 
for it is Neptune who has given the Hawaiians that rarest 
of aquatic sports — surf-riding with their great surf-boards and 
with their wonderful outrigger canoes. The vast ocean with its 
changing colors, increasing in alteration of hues the nearer one 
approaches the shore line, is always cool and inviting, and the 
Hawaiians, the ancients, created the sport that has made Waikiki 
Beach and all Hawaii famous the world over. 

No more picturesque scene is found in any waters than that 
seen almost daily at Waikiki, when bronze-skinned, stalwart 
youths of magnificent physical proportions toboggan in on the 
crest combers standing, kneeling or lying down upon their boards ; 
and it must be said that visitors to Hawaii become as proficient 
today in this exhilarating art, for it is an art. 

But I wonder how many devotees of surf-riding today, even 
including the young Hawaiians, know that behind that art of the 
sea is a mountain-high background of pagan prayers and of cere- 
monials by the ancient priesthood, participated in even by the 
kings and the great chiefs? 

It was a favorite pastime of the ancient Hawaiians and was 
one of their expressions of racing when chiefs and commoners 
put all their wealth into the proficiency of champion surfers. Often 
the kings and chiefs gathered upon the shore for festivals and 
staged surf-riding races, when there came two rivals, probably 
the best of that particular island, to display their prowess with 
the great boards. Oftentimes a famous surf-rider from another 
island was present and then the contest narrowed down to an ex- 



340 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

hibition of utmost skill, with the spectators on shore often di- 
vided into two factions, betting upon their favorites. 

Native legends abound with the exploits of those who attained 
distinction among their fellows by their skill and daring in this 
sport, indulged in alike by both sexes, and frequently, too, the 
gentler sex carried off the highest honors. These legendary ac- 
counts are usually interwoven with romantic incident, as in the 
abduction of Kalea, sister of Kawaokaohele, Mot (king) of Maui, 
by emissaries of Lo-Lale, chief of Lihue, in the Ewa district of 
Oahu; the exploit of Laieikawai and Halaaniani at Keeau, Puna, 
Hawaii; or for chieftain supremacy, as instanced in the contest 
between Umi and Paiea, in a surf-swimming match at Laupa- 
hoehoe, which the former was challenged to, and won, upon a 
wager of four double canoes ; also of Lonoikamakahiki, at Hana, 
Maui, and others. 

How early in the history of the race surf-riding became the 
science with them that it did is not known, though it is a well- 
acknowledged fact that, while other islanders may divide honors 
with Hawaiians for aquatic prowess in other respects, none at- 
tained, until recent years, the expertness of surf sport, which early 
visitors recognized as a national characteristic of the natives of 
this group. In recent years, however, through the efforts of the 
Outrider Club, at Honolulu, the art of surf-riding, which had 
nearly vanished, was revived. Young white men and women 
took up the sport and became proficient. Hawaiians again took 
it up and there ensued a keen rivalry, which is still in vogue at 
Waikiki Beach. Now the art of surfing has been acquired by 
travelers, and naturally photo-albums in thousands of parts of 
the world are adorned with pictures of the owners standing in 
front of their boards uplifted on the sandy beaches. 

It would be interesting to know exactly how the Hawaiians, 
over all others in the Pacific, developed this into a scientific sport. 
That it became national in character can be understood when we 
learn that it was identified, to some extent at least, with the cere- 
monies and superstitions of kahunaism (witchery, witch-doctor- 
ing), especially in preparation therefor, while the indulgence of 
the sport pandered to their gambling propensities. 



BACKGROUND OF PAGAN RITES 341 

Old Hawaiians who have told the story of surfing, as handed 
down in chants and by mouth to mouth, say that much valuable 
time was spent in ancient times in practising the sport. Neces- 
sary work for the maintenance of the family, such as farming, 
fishing, mat and /a /"o -making, and such other household duties 
required of them and needing attention, by either head of the 
family, was often neglected for the prosecution of the sport. 
Betting was made an accompaniment thereof, both by the chiefs 
and the common people, as was done in all other games, such as 
wrestling, foot-racing, quoits, checkers (konane), holua and sev- 
eral others known only to the ancient Hawaiians. Canoes, nests, 
fishing lines, tapas, swine, poultry and all other property were 
staked, and in some instances life itself was put up as wagers, 
the property changing hands, and personal liberty, and life itself, 
sacrificed according to the outcome of the match. 

There were only three kinds of trees known to be used for 
making boards for surf-riding, namely, the linlhvili. ulu, or bread- 
fruit, and koa, of the acacia family. The uninitiated were natur- 
ally careless, and indifferent as to the method of cutting the 
chosen tree, but among those who desired success upon their 
labors, rites were carefully observed. 

Upon the selection of a suitable tree a red fish called httmu was 
first procured, which was placed at its trunk. The tree was then 
cut down, after which a hole was dug at its root and the fish 
placed therein, with a prayer, as an offering in payment therefor. 
After this ceremony was performed, the tree trunk was chipped 
away from each side until reduced to a board approximately of 
the dimensions desired, when it was pulled down to the beach 
and placed in the halau (canoe-house) or other suitable place con- 
venient for its finishing work. 

Coral of the corrugate variety termed pohaku puna, which 
could be gathered in abundance at the sea beach, and a rough 
kind of stone called oahi, were the commonly used implements for 
reducing and smoothing the rough surfaces of the board until 
all marks of the stone adze were obliterated. As a finishing stain 
the root of the H plant (Cordyline tcrminalis) , called mole ki, or 
the pounded bark of the hukui (candle-nut) tree, called ItUi, was 



342 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

the mordant used for a paint made with the root of burned kukui 
nuts. This furnished a durable, glossy black finish, far prefer- 
able to that made with ashes of burned cane leaves or amau fern, 
which had neither body nor gloss. 

Before using the board there were other rites or ceremonies to 
be performed, for its dedication. As before, these were disre- 
garded by the common people, but among those who followed the 
making of surf-boards as a trade, they were religiously observed. 

There are two kinds of boards for surf-riding, one called the 
olo and the other a-la-ia, known also as onto. The olo was made 
of ■anliwUi, a very light, buoyant wood, some three fathoms long, 
two to three feet wide, and from six to eight inches thick along 
the middle of the board, lengthwise, but rounding toward the 
edges on both upper and lower sides. It is well known that the 
olo was only for the use of the chiefs, and forbidden the common 
people. They used the a-lO'ta, which was made of koa, or ulu. 
Its length and width was similar to the olo, except in thickness, 
it being but of one and a half to two inches thick along its center. 

The line of breakers is the place where the outer surf rises 
and breaks at deep sea. This is called the kulana nalu. Any 
place nearer or closer in where the surf rises and breaks again, 
as they sometimes do, is called the ahua, known also as kipapa 
or puao. 

There were only two kinds of surf for riding, one called the 
kakala, known also as lauloa, or long surf, and the ohu, some- 
times called the opuu. The former is a surf that rises, covering 
the whole distance from one end of a beach to the other. These 
at times form successive waves that roll in with high, threatening 
crest, finally falling over bodily. The first of a series of surf 
waves usually partake of this character, and is never taken by a 
rider, as will be mentioned later. The ohti is a very small comber 
that rises up without breaking, but of such strength that it sends 
the board on speedily toward the shore. This is considered the 
best, being low and smooth, and the riding easy. The lower por- 
tion of the breaker is called honua, or foundation, and the portion 
near a cresting wave is termed the muku side, while the distant or 
clear side, as some express it, is known as the lala. 



BACKGROUND OF PAGAN RITES 343 

During calm weather when there was no surf there were two 
ways of making or coaxing it practiced by the ancient Hawaiians, 
the generally adopted method being for a swimming party to take 
several strands of the sea convolvulus vine, and, swinging it 
around the head, lash it down unitedly upon the water until the 
desired result was obtained, at the same time chanting sonorously 
as follows: 

"Ho ae — ho ae alune i ka pohuehue, 
Ki apu nui lawe mai — 
Ea ipu iki waiho aku." 

The swimmer, taking position at the line of breakers, waits for 
the proper surf. As before mentioned, the first one is allowed 
to pass by. It is never ridden, for its front is rough. If the 
second comber is seen to be good it is sometimes taken, but 
usually the third or fourth is the best, both from the regularity 
of its breaking and the foam-calmed surface of the sea through 
the travel of its predecessor. 

In riding with the oh or thick board, on a big surf, the board 
is pointed landward and the rider, mounting it, paddles with his 
hands and impels with his feet to give the board a forward move- 
ment, and when it receives the momentum of the surf and begins 
to rush downward, the skilled rider will guide its course straight, 
or obliquely, apparently at will, according to the splendid char- 
acter of the surf-rider, to land himself high and dry on the beach 
or dismount when nearing it, as he may elect. 

In the use of the olo the rider had to swim out around the line 
of surf to obtain position, or be conveyed thither by canoe. To 
swim out through the surf with such a buoyant bulk was not 
possible, though it was sometimes done with the a-la-ia. Various 
positions were assumed in riding by the old-time experts. This 
skill died out and was only revived by the Outrigger Club. They 
stood, knelt, sat and now come in, one performer sitting astride 
the shoulders of a companion who stands on the board. 

There are certain surfs running to various islands that are 
famous for surf-riding. 

"Halehuawehe" is the name of the great surf off Waikiki, 



344 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

which attracted the chiefs of olden times and now often referred 
to as the "Queen surf," because it rolled toward the beach home 
of the late Queen Liliuokalani, now the home of the Princess 
Kalanianaole. 

Huia and Akua were surfs at Hilo, Hawaii, the latter off Cocoa- 
nut Island. Punahoa, a chiefess, was the noted rider of Hilo 
during the time of Hiiakaipoh. 

Kaloakaoma, a deep-sea surf at Keaau, Puna, Hawaii, famed 
through the feats of Laieikawai and Halaaniani, as also of Kii- 
akaipolt and Hopoe. 

"Huiha," at Kailua, Kona, Hawaii, was the favorite surf 
whereon the chiefs were wont to disport themselves. 

"Kaula" and "Katapu," at Heie, Keauhou, Kona, Hawaii, were 
surfs enjoyed by Kauikeaouli (Kamehameha III) and his sister, 
the Princess Nahienaena, whenever they visited this, their birth- 
place. 

"Puhele" and "Keantni," at Hana, Maui, and Uo, at Lahaina, 
Maui, were surfs for the exploits of chiefs of early days. 

"Makaiwa," at Kapaa, Kauai, famed through Moikeha, a noted 
chief of that island immortalized in old meles as follows : 

"Moikehs is contented with Kauai, 
Where the sun rises and sets; 
The bend of the Uakaina surf — 
The waving of the Kalukalu — 
Live and die at Kauai." 



UNMATCHED THOUGHTFULNESS AND ALOHA 

HOSPITALITY and thought fulness went hand in hand in 
ancient days, despite the belief of travelers today that the 
principal pastime of the Hawaiians of those days was war- 
fare. There were times when war was broken off and the people 
turned to peace. Hospitality was always a trait of the people, 
and although their command of the world's riches is perhaps not 
as great as in former times, when their monarchy was on the 



UNMATCHED THOUGHTFULNESS 345 

high crest of domuiation, their trait of hospitality is still one of 
the pleasant elements that foreign residents and travelers find in 
their contact with this race. 

For instance, near the volcano of Kilauea, on the Island of 
Hawaii, there were vast areas of ferns, a species of the fiiilu, 
which grew breast-high. The heart and root yielded cones of nu- 
tritions substance. Everywhere the land around the volcano is 
dotted with steam and heat fissures. 

A Hawaiian traveling across this land breaks the ferns and 
places the fern heart and root in the fissures. The heat cooks 
them. He is provided with food. Before leaving lie places other 
fern hearts and roots in the fissures (pukas) so that the next 
traveler will find nourishment. No Hawaiian could partake of 
the food and fail to provide for the next one to pass along. His 
conscience, his hospitality, his thoughtfulness would not permit 
him to do this good deed for another, although a perfect stranger. 
Seldom elsewhere in the world is such an example of thoughtful- 
ness for one's fellow being. It was the law of Pele, Goddess of 
Volcanoes. 

Even when the Hawaiians took away awa-root, they always 
planted a branch that the groves would not be diminished. The 
Hawaiians had this element of thoughtfulness to the nth degree. 

Can this example of thoughtfulness for others be matched in 
the civilized world? 

It is little wonder, then, that the word "Aloha" has such a depth 
of warm feeling, the Hawaiians' expression of love, sympathy, 
joy and sorrow, a word of many meanings. 

Aloha is synonymous with Hawaii, and perhaps is one of the 
Polynesian words which has traveled farthest into foreign lands 
and remained. 

Visitors to Hawaii are quickly attracted by the frequency of its 
use both by Hawaiians and haoles. It not only greets their ear 
in conversation and in the popular music of the band and glee 
clubs, but they find it worked in various articles of jewelry, souve- 
nirs and mottoes of home adornment. The word has equal value 
as one of welcome or as a farewell greeting. 

The word Aloha, however, is not of ancient Hawaiian use, in 



346 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

the sense it is now employed as a term of recognition or saluta- 
tion, and it is possible that the intercourse between Hawaiians 
and foreigners in the past 140 years is responsible for its use, if 
not coinage. There are many who incline to the belief that it is 
a contraction of the English word "Hello," the change to the 
Hawaiian method of pronunciation being obvious. For in- 
stance, the English word mosquito is pronounced by Hawaiians 
"makita." John Young, the Englishman who remained with 
Kamehameha the Great after arrival here on a merchantman, 
was called by the Hawaiians, "Olohana." It is believed this is 
a contraction of the sea phrase, "All Hands!" and possibly was 
extensively used by Young. The Hawaiians' ear got it as "Olo- 
hana." The Hawaiians refer to a pussy cat as "popoki," It is 
said the missionaries, while stroking a cat, said, "poor pussy," 
over and over, and the Hawaiians' nearest pronunciation was 
"popoki." 

The original definition of Aloha, however, is love. From this 
we have those attributes which love dominates, such as gratitude, 
affection, good-will, kindness, compassion, sympathy, grief, etc. 
In this sense its general use as a farewell is but the good-will 
expression at separation, and requires no special elasticity of the 
language to express the similar good-will feeling at meeting. 
Hawaiians, however, often greet an approaching party with the 
exclamation, "he mai," an abbreviation of "hele mai," meanii^ 
"come here." 

".■i-no-ai" was the ancient term of warm salutation, and "JVc- 
li-na" also had recognition and use in a similar sense, the latter, 
however, being used mostly as a reply to or in recognition of a 
salutation, inasmuch as it applies to the person of the house when 
addressed to a stranger. 

"Aloha" is the more modern and generally used term. It has 
a soft, sympathetic expressiveness which even a stranger in the 
Islands can easily understand and appreciate, and according to 
the length of time dwelt on the middle or accented syllable, so is 
the depth of feeling conveyed in the greeting. 



HAWAII'S FAR OUTER POSSESSIONS 



HAWAII'S FAR OUTER POSSESSIONS 

IF it so happens that a ship is wrecked on one of the numer- 
ous small islands considerably to west, southwest or south 
o{ the Hawaiian group, it is almost certain to be a part of 
the jurisdiction of the Mayor of Honolulu. He is mayor of 
Midway Island several hundred miles west of Hawaii where a 
cable station is located. He is mayor of the Palmyra Islands, 
hundreds of miles south, and now becoming a fishing base for 
Honolulu's markets. Now, under the announcement made by 
L. A. Thurston, of Honolulu, Kingman's Reef, was taken pos- 
session of on May 10, 1922, in the name of the United States 
of America, and the American flag raised. A power sampan 
took the Thurston party to Kingman's Reef, which heretofore, 
has been rather mythical and never set down correctly on charts. 
Thurston named it Leo Island. Washington, on receipt of the 
cabled news from Honolulu, where the news was first pub- 
lished in The Advertiser of May 20, 1922, expressed disbelief 
in the discovery or possession, suggesting the "finders" were on 
Fanning, Washington or Christmas Island. 

Mr. Thurston, however, took possession of the reef formerly 
known as Kingman's Reef, the resting place of many wrecks. He 
annexed the island to the United States as he did the Hawaiian 
Islands in 1898. 

The Islands to westward of the Hawaiian group are comprised 
in what is called the Hawaiian Bird Reservation, set aside by 
President Roosevelt, with laws promulgated to preserve the bird 
life therein. 

All these islands have formed part of the Hawaiian domain, 

Nihoa, or Bird Island, was taken possession of in 1822, an 
expedition for that purpose having been fitted out by direction of 
Queen Regent Kaahumanu and sent thither in charge of Capt, 
William Sumner. 

Laysan Island became Hawaiian territory May I, 1857, and on 
the 10th of the same month Lysiansky Island was added to Ka- 
meliameha's realm by Capt. John Paty. 



348 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Palmyra Island was originally taken possession of by Capt. 
Zeiias Bent, April 15, 1862, and proclaimed Hawaiian Territory 
in the reign of Kamehameha IV, as per "By Authority" notice 
in the Polynesian of June 21, 1862. Palmyra Island, however, 
was left much to itself, and after a time, was considered British. 
It was bought by Judge H, E, Cooper, of Honolulu for $750, and 
is now leased to a Honolulu fishing company. The British gov- 
ernment, through the captain of the British cruiser Calcutta, 
which was a visitor at Honolulu in March, 1922, made no claim 
to Palmyra. 

Ocean Island was acquired September 20, 1886, as per proc- 
lamation of James H. Boyd, empowered for such service during 
the reign of King Kalakaua. 

Necker Island was taken possession of May 27, 1894, by Capt. 
James A. King, on behalf of the Hawaiian government. 

French Frigate Shoal was acquired, also by Captain King, and 
proclaimed a part of Hawaii on July 13, 1895. 

Gardener Island, Mara or Moto Reef, Peari and Hermes Reef, 
Gambia Band, and Johnson or Cornwallis Island have also been 
claimed as Hawaiian possessions. 

Fanning Island, the site of the British All-Red cable station 
between Canada and New Zealand, is British, as are also Wash- 
ington and Christmas islands. 



CHAPTER XXXr 



THE SAINT OF MOLOKAI 



A VOICE FROM THE LEPER TOMB 

OUT of the silence of the Land of Living Dead where men 
and women have patiently waited for Death to claim 
toll, tragically realizing in the past that the gates to the 
outer world were dosed against egress because the fearful blast 
of leprosy had seared their limbs, has finally come a Voice, tike 
unto that which came out of the Wilderness, the voice of Brother 
Joseph Dutton, the martyr self-exiled lay brother who, for nearly 
40 years, has laved the unhealed sores of leprous wards of Ha- 
waii, who has finally unlocked his heart and revealed the reason 
of his life-long penance — "sowing wild oats" after he was mus- 
tered out of the army at the close of the Civil War. 

In the vigor of his manhood Brother Dutton arrived in Hono- 
lulu 36 years ago— July, 1886 — and asked permission to go to 
Molokai's leper settlement to nurse the stricken of Hawaii^ — 
without official position, without compensation. A Catholic, he 
was granted his strange request, for Catholics, priests and nuns, 
had long devoted themselves to soothing the desolate lives of 
the exiles to Molokai — then a "bourne whence no traveler ever 
returned." 

There, year after year and decade after decade. Brother Dut- 
ton labored at the Baldwin Honte for Boys, almost in the 
shadow of the picturesque stone church where Father Damien, 
the priest had labored for so many years and where he died. He 
was a victim of this strange, mysterious malady. 

Brother Dutton, educated, refined, veteran of the Civil War, 
a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, offered all his 
subsequent years to aid the sufferers of Molokai. His lips re- 



350 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

maiiied sealed concerning his reason for renouncing every-day 
life and a future among whole men, to imprison himself forever 
and remain absolutely apart from the throbbing flow of healthy 
mankind. 

In all his service at Molokai he has never left that tiny penin- 
sula. For years he has never passed out of the little village of 
Kalawao, miles distant from the seaport village of Kalaupapa, 
where the one steamer from Honolulu arrives only once a week 
with supplies and now and then more lepers. For years he has 
rarely absented himself from the compound of the Baldwin 
Home except to cross the road to enter the stone church, hal- 
lowed by Damien's martyrdom, to offer his devotions. 

For decades, legislatures and government officials have jour- 
neyed from Honolulu across the channel to Molokai's settlement, 
and asked the lepers to file their complaints, express their wants 
and offer their praises, if any. Always the visitors have called 
upon Brother Dutton. Always he was smiling, bright and even 
witty in conversation, always at ease among the healthy men he 
met at his compound every two years. Always they found him 
in his dungaree smock, and always they knew that during the 
long night before he had labored among his wards, dressing their 
sores and ministering to their ailments. 

Each year they saw his once black beard turning slightly grey 
and then greyer and finally white. They saw the patriarchal 
beard become sparce and his cheeks sunken, but they saw the 
same burning glow of animation in his eyes despite his 80 years 
of age. 

They saw his headquarters walled with books and magazines, 
for he is an inveterate reader — when he finds time — and always 
books flow in upon him from the outer world, from his admirers 
and well wishers in the Seven Seas, from people who are amazed 
at his devout and unflinching martyrdom. And always they see 
his desk littered with mail, stacks upon stacks of envelopes, and 
they see letters, piles of them, the product of his pen, waiting 
to be mailed to his hundreds of friends abroad. 

Brother Dutton is old-fashioned. He remembers the outer 
world as it was away back in the SO's. His implements are those 



THE SAINT OF MOLOKAI 351 

of that period. His letters are those of a literateur, the style 
of the literary geniuses of half a century ago, whose dictum was 
smooth, eloquent, their thoughts lofty. He is happy in corres- 
pondence with old friends and comrades of the Civil War. He 
is contented in correspondence with men of today, and be dis- 
cusses questions of the hour with power of expression and keen 
knowledge of events that astonishes those who know he is im- 
mured and apart from their world. 

. Brother Dutton wrote me a few years ago that he was then 
500 letters behind in his correspondence. I suggested that his 
friends in Honolulu would be happy to supply him with a type- 
writer machine to enable him to catch up. It was a suggestion 
I regretted for I had endeavored to bring this Knight of the 
Round Table, this chivalrous scourge of disease, into a modern 
world, and give him today's implements. He said he never used 
one— hoped never to be known to have touched one. An auto- 
mobile was almost an abhorrence to him and he hoped never 
to see one. 

Diplomatic and even insidious efforts have been artfully em- 
ployed for nearly 40 years to unbosom the secret that lies at the 
bottom of his determination to immure himself on Molokai. Of- 
ten I have led up to the topic, always with a degree of trepidation, 
only to be met by a master rapier thrust in the Queen's English, 
which shattered my own blade and rendered me peculiarly de- 
fenseless and ashamed against the stern determination written 
across his countenance. That secret was as securely locked 
as the secret of the Sphinx. 

And now, like a bolt from the bluest of soft Hawaiian skies. 
Brother Dutton, just replying to a letter I wrote him recently, 
in which I inquired after his health and some incidents in his 
life, sent me his latest photograph taken on bis 78th birthday, 
April, 1921, on the back of which, in his own delightful chiro- 
graphy, is an epic, for it is the martyr's story of his penance, the 
secret so long isolated. Here is what he wrote : 

"Am beginning 36th year of voluntary penance for some years of 
'soivinft wild oats' (as politely expre?ap(i), chiefly soon after the Civil 
1 of injuring any one else — no financial cntanglo- 



352 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

mentB — but, for evil of it all on 40th birthday ofEered to God rest of 
my life iu reparation — work — no pay. 

"So, you Bee, my life here has not been simply to help my neighbor, 
but to help my own soul. Joyfully yours, Joaeph Button." 

What particular incidents may have driven Joseph Button's 
soul to unrest and caused his vision to become conscious of the 
sufferings on Molokai, in those days when there appeared to be 
no remedy, no specific that would ease the torments of the 
afflicted, when the medical world had reached the conclusion that 
leprosy would always be leprosy. Brother Dutton offered his 
life and gave up the world outside to reside in Molokai to the end 
of his days. It was a martyrdom which has had few parallels. 

Ira B, Dutton was born in Janesville, Wisconsin, on April 27, 
1843. In July, 1886, he became Brother Joseph Dutton, lay- 
brother in the Catholic church to remain Joseph Dutton to his 
final hour. 

As Ira B. Dutton he enlisted in the Union Army in 1861 and 
soon became quartermaster-sergeant. He was a member of 
Company B, I3th Wisconsin Regiment, of which his friend D. H. 
Wood was captain. Wood and Dutton formed a friendship .n 
18S7 which lasted until Wood's death in 1912. 

Dutton became a second lieutenant in February, 1863, first 
lieutenant in February, 1865, and regimental quartermaster Match 
24, 1865, and unknown to him, he was recommended for ap- 
pointment as captain in the United States volunteers by Major 
Generals George H. Thomas. J. L. Donaldson, L. H. Rousseau 
and Robert S. Granger. Captain Dutton was on the staff of 
General Granger from June, 1864, to October, 1865. The war 
over, Dutton left the service after having performed a useful 
service in transferring the Union dead from battlefields to 
national cemeteries. 

If Brother Dutton "sowed wild oats" the closest companion 
of his youth and in later years, never knew it, for D. H. Wood, 
in writing in the National Tribune, Washington, in 1914, of 
"Comrade Dutton," said that he was "as a boy, clean, correct of 
speech and deportment, and evidently a lover of home and of 
his mother, who was his teacher and companion." He had few 



THE SAINT OF MOLOKAI 353 

companions but was reserved and dignified even in boyhood." 

The Grand Army of the Republic has never forgotten Comrade 
Joseph Dutton. At the 47th Encampment of the G. A. R. at 
Chattanooga in 1913, Ex-Comrade Dutton was lauded by com- 
rades of '61, and a beautiful American flag was voted by the 
encampment and sent to him. 

Early in June, last year, Brother Dutton sent me a photograph 
showing that beautiful G, A. R. flag being lowered to half-mast 
in front of his little office at Kalawao, on May 30, 1921 — Memo- 
rial Day — and he himself is seen handling the halyards. Behind 
the office and the fringe of leper boys one sees the towering 
precipices (palis) which form the background of the peninsula, 
or tongue of land, which comprises the settlement upon the island 
of Molokai — a precipice which is unscaleable to the inmates. 

It was at the 47th Grand Army encampment that the follow- 
ing resolution was unanimously adopted; 

"Besolved, that this 4Tth Annual Encampment of the Grand Armj- 
of the Bepublic assembled .it Chattanooga acknowledge the greeting of 
'Aloha' from the far Paeiflc from Brother Joseph Dutton, in charge of 
the Leper Settlement at Kalawao, and return his greeting and exten'l 
to him this tribute of our love and esteem, hoping the Great Commander 
may continue him on special detail for many years." 

On every national holiday and on Hawaiian holidays the pat- 
riotic Civil War veteran flies the G. A. R. flag from the Kalawao 
flagstaff, when it is saluted by the patriotic Americans there, 
for Hawaii being a territory of the United States, gives the status 
of Americans to all Hawaiians. They are all a patriotic people, 
and their courage and loyalty was shown by the large number 
who served America and Britain overseas during the World 
War. 

Concerning his correspondence and other matters, he wrote 
me recently: 

"About the Leper Settlement I shall aay I have always felt it up to 
me to touch those chords very gently; in personal letters I seldom men- 
lion the Settlement, Correspondents on the mainland are bright and in- 
teresting, mostly very affectionate, long-time friends, with many edi- 
fying mutual questions on tap, so the Leper Settlement is usually not 
reached at all. It's myself, however, to be always behind with this side 
of it. My unanswered letters are now about 500, piled up in and around 



3S4 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

my big desk here. About 50 keep on writing me whether or no. Some 
have 24 pages to a letter. Here is a package of letters of a dear old 
Sister— a nun in my boyhood town. Another in Milwaukee, the Mother 
(they are Sisters of Mercy), writea long letters of about 40 pages of 
beautiful handwriting. Then there are letters from Civil War comrades." 

Brother Dutton writes much at night by the light of his oil 
lamp, when his cares for the day are supposed to be ended. In 
a note on the back of a photograph just received from him he 
refers to his night work, when he said he hoped to write about 
several photographs adding: "not sure; it depends upon the nights 
— how much time and how wakeful!" 

Despite his 78 years of age, his handwriting is strangely beau- 
tiful, a fine Spencerian, as clear and firm as that of a girl of 20. 
In his letter to me about his work, in which it is evident he is 
writing just before dawn, he says: 

"The chickens are crowing; I must get my bath, change clothes and 
go to Mass (I don't mean Mass-achussetts). 

"Half of my nights is open for personal scribbling with dear old 
friends, and some not so very old. 

"Speaking of 'ofGcial reports,' sach relate simply to this Baldwin 
Home, my special charge. The charge grew on to me inavoidably. I 
came here to do penance, to work as a servant, and was permitted by 
Premier Walter Murray Gibson (premier in the cabinet of the late King 
Kalakana of Hawaii), president of the Board of Health, to come hera 
and work, as I stipulated, without pay. This wag in July, 18S6. The 
various ofKcials since then have respected that arrangement, but, in the 
ordinary sense, I have no official status. Having consented to take 
charge of the construction of this Home, when W. O. Smith was presi- 
dent of the Board of Health, in the '90's, taking on its operation natur- 
ally followed. 

"In the three years with Father Damien (who died in 1889) I was 
two days each week at Kalaopapa, but have not been there now for 
many years. The last time was on April 15, 1893 (nearly 30 years ago), 
to arrange Father Damien's effects for shipment to Louvain, Belgium, 
for the Museum (all were destroyed by the Germans in 1914). I was 
his eiecntOT. Have not been away from this Baldwin Home yard since 
that time, 23 years ago." (Brother Dutton wrote this letter to me sev- 
eral years ago, and the time has lengthened to nearly thirty years) 

"Ealaupapa," he resumes, "is, as you know, on the opposite side 
from here, of our little peninsula. 



THE SAINT OF MOLOKAI 

"It's a gay toTrn now — sports, etc. Our inmates, 
and are able, go thcie one evening 
tbe Brothers go along'." 

A life of self denial is led by Brother Dutton. He asks for. 
nothing, but gives much, all his time, all his kindness, his great 
heart bursting at all times to succor his suffering fellow man. 
His work hours are the twenty-four on the clock dial. He is 
available by day and by night. With absolute Spartan valor he 
takes each afflicted sufferer and makes clean the leprous sores, 
a daily, sometimes oftener, routine. He is amateur physician and 
surgeon to them, their teacher, friend, mentor, philosopher and 
adviser, for these children who have been infected with what 
has been believed to be an incurable disease. It is now being 
throttled by Chaulmoogra oil. 

There is a lofty majesty about the labor of Brother Dutton 
and his life's work at Kalawao. Serving as he began to serve 
40 years ago without pay, working as he began then, denying 
himself luxuries or even the opportunity to prepare himself for 
a visit back to the land of health and activity, the land with a 
future, he prefers to remain where he is, stirring never more 
than a mile away from his little village, apart from much that 
civilization affords. To show this Civil War veteran the latest 
invention of the army, Maj.-Gen. Charles Morton. U. S. A., 
commanding general of the American army in Hawaii, sent army 
airplanes from Honolulu to Molokai that Brother [>utton might 
be enlightened. The planes hovered and wheeled and "stunted" 
over the Settlement, a thought fulness of the commanding gen- 
eral which Brother Dutton appreciated, for he fought in a war 
60 years ago when airplanes were unknown. 

One day, years ago, Brother Dutton broke his routine. He 
left the village and wandered to the mountains, climbed half way 
up and there sat half a day until eventide smothered the sun in 
the western sea. 

The lepers wondered. Brother Dutton's apparent wish for 
solitude was respected. Why did he go there, has often been 
asked? Did he meditate over his past and think of his future? 
Did he pine for the haunts of civilized men? Did he reflect, even 



356 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

as Christ did upon the Mount, commune with his soul, fight his 
last battle of the desires of the flesh, when possibly the activities 
of life once again in the midst of his fellow men attracted him? 
■did he finally decide to give every last shred of his life to the 
cause he had accepted? 

It must have been the last, for from that day Brother Dutton 
has rarely stirred out of Kalawao. By day he sees only the 
little tongue of land called peninsula before him, a broken shore 
upon which the sea breaks ceaselessly, and beyond a tiny islet 
rising jaggedly out of the sea, and beyond that only the waste 
of waters called the Pacific, and nothing tangible beyond except 
rest for his sanctified soul. 



CHAPTER XXXII 



THE LAST WORD 



anson:s map published before cooks 
discovery 

Since the foregoing chapters were written, I found in the old 
Chamberlain mission library, where former Governor G. R. 
Carter has placed his splendid collection of books about Hawaii, a 
copy of a book published in London, in 1756, for D. Browne J. 
Osborn and J, Shipton, etc., etc., entitled, "A Voyage Round the 
World, in the Years MDCCXL, I, II, HI, IV, by George Anson, 
Esq., Now Lord Anson, Commander-in-chief of a Squadron of 
His Majesty's Ships, sent upon an Expedition lo the South Seas, 
Compiled from His Papers and Materials, by Richard Walter, 
M.A., Chaplain of His Majesty's Ship the Centurion, in that 
Expedition." 

This book was published twenty-three years before Captain 
Cook, R. N., discovered (?) the Hawaiian Islands, in 1778. 

A chart showing the track of the Centurion around the world 
is shown as a frontispiece, and off the coast of California are 
shown a group of six or seven little isles, approximately in the 
location of the present Hawaiian Islands. 

This chart was prepared from the records of the Anson expedi- 
tion, and shows that the Centurion sailed within a few leagues 
of the Hawaiian Islands, although the Centurion did not touch 
at them. 

The Isles of Hawaii (as afterwards known), were set down on 
this chart from a Spanish map which was captured by Captain 
Anson from a Spanish galleon. The map is also published in this 
remarkable book, and gives conclusive evidence that Cook had 



358 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

knowledge of the Hawaiian group when he sailed on his last 
and fatal voyage. 

The battle in which Anson captured the Spanish galleon, its 
vast treasure of a million and a half dollars and its maps and 
charts, was in June, 1755, the name of the Spanish galleon being 
the Nostra Signora de Cabadonga, commanded by General Don 
Jeronimo de Montero, a Portuguese. She had one hundred fifty 
men and thirty-six guns mounted for action. Commenting on 
the material found aboard the writer of the Anson journal says: 

"I shall only add that there was taken on board the galleon 
several draughts and journals; from some of which many of the 
particulars recited in the tenth chapter of the second book are 
collected. Among the rest there was found a chart of all tkn 
Ocean between the Philippines and the coast of Mexico, which 
was what was made use of by the galleon in her own navigation. 
A copy of this draught, corrected in some places by oun oif» 
observations, is here inserted, together with the route of the gal- 
leon traced thereon from her own journals. This is' the chart 
formerly referred to, in the account of the Manila trade. But 
to render it more complete, the observed variation of the needle is 
annexed to several parts, both of the Spanish and English track; 
which addition is of the greatest consequence, as no observations 
of this kind in the northern parts of the Pacific Ocean have yet 
to my knowledge been published." 



CHAPTER XXXIII 



KOTZEBUE'S REMARKABLE STATEMENTS 



RUSSIAN FOUND CIVILIZATION IN 1816 

Side by side with the Lord Anson volume appeared another, 
"Kotzebue's Voyage of Discovery," 1815-1818. written in 1820, 
and published in 1821, relating all the extremely enhghtening 
incidents of the visit of the Russian ship Rurick, with Lieutenant 
Kotzebue, in command, to the Hawaiian Islands, in 1816. 

There is an astonishing array of facts presented in the most 
graphic, interesting and charming manner by Kotzebue of his 
meetings with Kamehanieha the Great, whom he called "the cele- 
brated" and of the modern civilization which they obtained 
throughout the Islands four years in advance of the arrival of 
missionaries. 

Kotzebue found many one-story houses of white stone (coral) 
constructed in the European manner. The fashions of Europe 
were already in Honolulu, for John Young's wife (he was an 
Englishman and she an Hawaiian), wore a dress of European 
cut and made of costly China silks. 

Kamehameha the Great invited Kotzebue to a fine house which 
was furnished with a handsome table and chairs and there poured 
wine for his distinguished guest from St. Petersburg. 

Kamehameha had many handsome uniforms of European de- 
sign which he wore on different occasions. 

The impression has been prevalent that the first American 
pioneers in 1820 arrived in a land of savagery, with few, if any, 
elements of civiliation, and yet for more than a quarter of a 
century a large number of white men. Englishmen and Americans, 
had resided in the Islands, many in the service of the king, and 
ships of war and merchantment often dropped anchor and the 



360 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

officers were entertained by the king and he in turn by them 
aboard ships, thus affording this remarkable monarch an oppor- 
tunity to learn of European customs. 

Kotzebue confirms the fact of a large amount of civilization 
even to the fact that Kamehameha spoke English to an extent, and 
was quite familiar with the names of monarchs and affairs in 
other parts of the world. 

Kotzebue, sailing along the coast of Hawaii, came to Tocahai 
(Kawaiahae) Bay and there "we now saw Young's settlement 
of several houses built of white stone, after the European 
fashion." 

At Kailua, Kotzebue went ashore at the King's invitation, and 
went (o his settlement, where among straw houses were also 
houses of stone "after the European fashion." A number of 
Islanders, armed with muskets, were lined up on the shore. The 
king met the Russian near the landing place. 

"I now stood at the side of the celebrated Kamehameha, who 
had attracted the attention of all Europe, and who inspired me 
with the greatest confidence by his unreserved and friendly be- 
havior," the Russian wrote. In his palace "they offered us 
European chairs, very neatly made, and placed a mahogany 
table before us. Though the king has houses buih in European 
fashion, he prefers his simple dwelling," says Kotzebue. 

"Kamehameha's dress, which consisted of a white shirt, blue 
pantaloons, a red waistcoat and a colored neckcloth, surprised nic 
very much, for I had formed very different notions of the royal 
attire," continues the navigator. "He, however, sometimes 
dresses very splendidly, having several embroidered uniforms." 

Now, listen to this discussion of the Hawaiian kingdom and 
its affairs by this Kamehameha the Great, this ruler of an insular 
and isolated state, as recorded by Kotzebue: 

"I learn that you are the commander of a ship-of-war and are 
engaged in a voyage similar to those of Cook and Vancouver and 
consequently do not engaged in trade. It is therefore, my inten- 
tion, not to carry on any with you, but to provide you gratis with 
everything that my Islands produce. I now beg you to inform 
me, whether it is with the consent of your emperor that his sub- 



KOTZEBUE'S REMARKABLE STATEMENTS 361 

jecls began to disturb me in my old age? [referring to a Russian 
visit a short time before]. Since Kameliameha has been king of 
these Islands, no European has had cause to complain of having 
suffered injustice here. I have made my Islands an asylum for 
all nations, and honestly supplied with provisions every ship 
that desired them. Sometime ago there came from Sitka some 
Russians, a nation with whom I never had intercourse before. 
They were kindly received, but ill-rewarded me and threatened 
us with ships of war which were to conquer these Islands, but 
this shall not happen as long as Kamehameha lives!" 

Kotzebue says Kamehameha conversed, mainly through his 
interpreter, Cook, with a vivacity surprising at his age, asked 
various questions respecting Russia, and made observations. 

The navigator was witness to many evidences of Kameha- 
meha's desire to be of the big world, by the number of modern 
ships in his employ. He saw a large European barge at the 
shore, and later saw the little warship Kaahumanu. The king 
exerted himself to draw European shipwrights and paid them 
liberally for their instruction in boat building. 

This ruler, who believed in gods of wood and stone, who, 
when he bowed to the idols of his lieiau nearby, turned to Kotze- 
bue and said; "These are our gods, whom I worship; whether 
I do right or wrong, I do not know ; but I follow my faith, which 
cannot be wicked, as it commands me never to do wrong," caused 
Kotzebue to study this man with increasing admiration, "This 
declaration, from a savage, who had raised himself by his own 
native strength of minil to this degree of civilization, indicated 
much sound sense, and inspired me with a certain emotion." 

It was shortly after this time that Koizebue met Capt. George 
Beckley, the Englishman, in the train of Kamehameha, at Oalua, 
on this island. The High Chief Kalanimoku, Governor of the 
island, designated Beckley to accompany the navigator on a tour 
of Oahu. Kotzebue met Beckley at the new fort which John 
Young and Kalauimoku, built by order of Kamehameha ^t 
Honolulu, Beckley having been chosen as commandant. The 
Russian was halted in true fortress style by sentries. 

He also refers to Beckley's house at which he called, which was 



362 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

built of stone in modem style. The officers went to Moanalua and 
to the salt lake where Beckley, according to Kotzebue showed he 
had been used to shooting in Europe, for he spoke of the migra- 
tions of certain ducks, Kotzebue saying "this information, which I 
could not doubt, as Beckley, from his love of the chase, often 
remains for days on this lake, led me to suppose there must be 
some undiscovered land in about latitude 45 degrees whence 
these birds of passage came." 

On leaving Honolulu the Rurick saluted Kalauimoku with 
seven guns and Captain Beckley, at the fort, did not neglect to 
return this politeness. The European custom had that day, De- 
cember 14, 1816, been introduced into the Sandwich Islands. 

"It gave me much pleasure to be the first European who had 
exchanged salutes with a fort there, and when Honolulu has 
once become a flourishing city, people may say, the Russians have 
consecrated our fort, and its first shot was fired in honor of 
their Emperor, Alexander the First," said Kotzebue. 

The object of these quotations from Kotzebue's journal is to 
demonstrate the fact that Kamehameha the Great was a superior 
man, who was well acquainted with the ways of civilization, with 
the names of rulers and conditions in far off countries, with the 
use of civilized apparel; with modern houses and furnishings; 
with the ceremonials of foreign nations; was an advocate of a 
merchant marine for his kingdom; understood the English lan- 
guage ; had a European doctor and English advisers in military 
and naval science and navigation; that some of the Hawaiian 
women already used European costumes ; that silks and em- 
broideries and costly furnishings such as four poster beds had 
long been brought to Honolulu from China ; that on the walls of 
the homes of European residents there hung beautiful pictures, 
paintings for the most part, many of which were brought to 
Honolulu from Mexico, some even from the Spanish churches, 
and which today are being restored by artists because of their 
rare beauty, 

Reading between the Hues of the Kotzebue's book, Kotzebue 
innocently indicates that Kamehameha was a crafty and brilliant 
diplomat. Kotzebue was lulled into security by Kamehameha's 



KOTZEBUE'S REMARKABLE STATEMENTS 363 

splendid hospitality, but although he did not so understand, he 
was being watched constantly, for Kamehameha and his people 
had been seriously used by other Russians, particularly by a Dr. 
Scheffer. 

Therefore, Kamehameha did not see Kotzebue until he liad 
had many reports from his trusted lieutenants. When Kotzebue 
invited him to go aboard the Rurick, the King said he would like 
to make the visit, but his chiefs would not permit him; and 
when Kotzebue left Hawaii for Honolulu, he was accompanied 
by Manuia, a confidential messenger, ostensibly as guide, but 
actually to carry Kamehanieha's secret instrui;tions to Kalani- 
moku (Kaleimoku), Governor of Oahu, to keep close watch. 
When a boat approached the Rurick from shore, Manuia leaped 
overboard and met the boat, which turned and took him ashore, 
the quicker to see the Governor. In Honolulu were Kameha- 
meha's most trusted men — -Kalaninioku, John Young, Captain 
Beckley, who was made a tabu chief by the King; Captain Adams, 
and Kekuahanoha, of Moanalua. It is significant that Kotzebue 
was halted when he endeavored to enter the new fort, and that 
Beckley, or another man in the King's service, was always with 
the Russian. Kotzebue saw only what was pleasing and so 
wrote, but he was a Russian and was under observation every 
minute. Everything that Kamehameha did showed him the true 
diplomat, as keen as any in a foreign land. 

Kamehameha had even staged a sham battle between fighting 
forces to show their skill in the use of ancient and modem arms, 
himself able to catch many javelins and spears thrown at him as 
though in battle, but it was done with a purpose— to give Kot- 
zebue an idea that in the event of a clash between the Russians 
and Hawaiians, the latter were prepared to give a good account 
of themselves. But Kotzbue never dreamed that he was a sub- 
ject of suspicion, or that the mimic battle was staged, not as a 
mere entertainment, but for a real, deep diplomatic purpose. 

One observation made by Kamehameha at this time gives an 
insight into his mental attitude. He had entertained the Rus- 
sians at dinners in European style, and then partook of food 
himself in Hawaiian style. He remarked : "I have been watching 



364 . UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

the Russians eat; now you can watch Kamehameha eat. I will 
not change my mode of living." 



from 


Ihe editor. Last 


evening A. P. 


the w 


; at er front to 


meel 




while 


waiting for 


her 


to come into 


L the* 


!nd of Pier 7 


and 


gazed into the 



GONE ARE THE OLD DAYS 

THE passing of the old and the coming of the new is evi- 
denced particularly on the harborfront of Honolulu. As 
"waterfront reporter for a score of years I have seen the old 
pass and the new harbor, the equal of any in the world, come 
into existence, but the change has brought many sad memories, 
and so this little story written in The Advertiser, a year ago, 
tells my thoughts, but the editor had to make an explanation ; 
and here are both explanation and story : 

This story needs an eicplanalion 
T., as is bis duty, went down to 
vessel. It was the Eeuador and 
the channel, A. P. sat him down o 
dusk. He gazed for half an hour before the ship he awaited finally 

poked her nose into the harbor, and while he waited , Well, anyhow, 

when he came back to the office, he had a long sad look on hia face and 
it is possible that there were faint red blotches on his cheeks. A. P, T. 
grunted that there was nothing of an exciting nature on the Ecuador 
and, sitting down at his typewriter, he wept out the following: 



Gone is ray waterfront of long ago; gone is my romantic old-time 
harbor; gone are the days of the old ramshackly, low-lying wooden 
wharves and wide harbor; gone arc the little ialets bct09b the smooth 
waters and Rone is the old Naval Kow where sailing ships with tower- 
ing raasts once anchored by the dozens and lay idly at their anchors; 

Gone are the days of the rollicking old-time Hawaiian stevedors with 
lei-bedecked hata, with guitars and ukuleles near at hand to lighten 
their tasks, days when no alien competitors mingled to mar the Poly- 
nesian picture or abridge the aboriginee's labor supremacy; 

Gone are the days of the wooden-hulled ateiimers, long and narrow, 
with lofty rakish masts and wide-flung spars and sails that wind might 
aid steam in propelling them across the Lazy Latitudes of the Pacific 
from Occident to Orient and to the four corners of the earth. 




t fleet of isliiruls tiiat Ilea nncliDri'il in any ciic 
!o J[ark Twain wrote in liis Now Kritilaii.i hoiii 



AMERICA RECEIVED FIRST SALUTE 365 

Gone are the old "boat daya" with thcic little brightly-painted row 
boats, the "Aloha," "Lively," "Manu," "Emma," and so on; gone 
are the old, never- to-be-forgotti'n soft nights when serenaders with 
guitars and ukuleles drifted about the harbor with its tivinkliog lights 
spearing long paths in the undulating waters, singing their ear-haunting 
melodies, entrancing sailormen aboard warships and merchantmen alike; 
gone is the day of the old-time Hawaiian fishermen with his nets and 
outrigger canoe and his loads of fishes and his legends; 

Gone is the day o£ the old-time breezy, comrade-like purser of a former 
day, a gladhander and not a mere machine; gone are the days when the 
waterfront reporters scampered over an incoming steamer for a stray 
copy of a newspaper giving the very "latest news" of the outside 
world; gone is the day of Hawaii's isolation with its romance and charm 
locked within ila eoral-hound shores, long before the cable and radio 
made Alohaland into the all Amenean pattern of frigid and torrid zones; 

Gone are the good old "steamer da>s" down on the waterfront when 
"everybody" journeyed to the nharC in (he good old hacks of yester- 
day, when the ladies wore holokus and lei-adorned native lauhala hats, 
and the old Royal Hawaiian Band naa there and maybe a prince or two, 

ind all its "good old days," my liarbor of 



AMERICA RECEIVED FIRST SALUTE 

AMERICA'S national salute was first fired in the harbor 
of Honolulu on December 7, 1794. from the decks of the 
American Snow Lady Washington, commanded by Cap- 
tain Kendrick, and answered immediately by the gims of the 
British ship Jackall, commanded by Captain Brown, who earlier 
in the year discovered the Harbor of Honohdu. Within a feiv 
minutes after the first American national gun salute was fired, 
Captain Kendrick was dead, for a solid shot from the Jackall 
pierced the Lady Washington, killing Captain Kendrick as he 
sat at his table in the cabin. 

Bruce Cartwright, Jr., son of the Bruce Cartwright who was 
a beau Brummel of Honolulu for years and whose family had 
been prominent socially and officially in the reigns of the later 
Kamehamehas, particularly in that of Kamehameha IV and 



366 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Queen Emma, has but recently found an old ship journal, that 
of John Boit, Jr., covering a voyage around the world in 1795 
and 1796, with a visit to the island of Hawaii in December, 
1795. The grandfather of the present Cartwright was an im- 
portant figure in those days, and his grandmother was a beautiful 
woman, greatly admired in court circles. 

The journal sheds a new light on the massacre of Captain 
Brown and Captain Gordon and members of the crews, respec- 
tively of the ship Jackall and the tender Prince Le Boo, both 
British, by natives, following the tragic death of Captain Ken- 
drick. 

On arriving off Kohala, Hawaii island. Bolt's vessel was 
boarded by John Young, the Englishman, who had been 
detained by Kamehameha I from the American Snow Eleanora, 
commanded by Captain Metcalf, the latter being killed by the 
natives on another occasion. Young told him of the arrival in 
February, 1794, of the ship Jackal, Captain Brown, and tender 
Prince Le Boo, Captain Gordon. While making changes in the 
vessels, the chiefs of Oahu, so Young informed Boit, had "made 
him a formal present of the island of Whoahoo (Oahu), with 
all its contents, which he accordingly took possession", and that 
"On December 3, Captain John Kendrick, of the Snow Lady 
Washington, of Boston, arrived at Fairhaven, and met with a 
very friendly reception by Captain Brown, and on the 6th of ye 
same month in consequence of a long quarrel between the chiefs 
of Whoahoo and Atooi (Kauai), a battle was fought and was 
gained by the King of Whoahoo, by the assistance of Captain 
Kendrick, who immediately informed Captain Brown that on 
the morrow he should cause the flag (the flag) of the U. S. to 
be hoisted and fire a federal salute, which he beg'd might be 
answered by the two Englishmen, and Capt. Brown ordered three 
guns to be unshotted for that purpose and about ten next morning, 
the ship Jackall began to salute, that on coming to the third gun it 
was discover'd not to be so, so ye apron of ye 4th gun was 
taken off, which was fir'd, and being shotted with round and 
grape shot, it pierced the side of ye Lady Washingon and killed 
Captain Kendrick as he sat at his table. Shortly after the Snow 



AMERICA RECEIVED FIRST SALUTE 367 

put to sea bound for Canton. A few weeks after the unfor- 
tunate affair the chiefs of Whoahoo order'd a great quantity of 
hogs and vegetables to be brought to the landing place as a 
present to Captain Brown." 

The chiefs asked that the captain send their boats for the 
gifts. This action left the two captains aboard the ships alone. 
The crews were not massacred, but the ships boarded and the 
masters killed, apparently because of the death of Captain Ken- 
drick, who had aided the Oahuans in battle. The crews were 
put aboard with native guards, but the latter were overpowered 
and the vessels sailed for Canton. 

Boit remained in Hawaiian waters only a day or two and in 
that time gained enough information from John Young to write 
a tabloid history of the Islands. In this discussion with Young 
he learned that Kamehameha was a really great man and ruled 
his people with an iron hand, which was a necessity, for there 
were many unruly and traitorous chiefs, and Kamehameha's 
battles were to the death. Young informed him of tlie death 
of Tiana, an unruly and powerful chief, in the battle of the 
Nuuanu only the year before. Kamehameha had thousands of 
muskets and several cannon, was building modern ships at 
Oahu, and was at that moment assembling thousands of canoes 
at Oahu to invade Kauai, but Young was opposed to this 
invasion. 

Bolt's arrival at the Islands was at the time when history had 
just been made, when the battle of the Nuuanu had been fought, 
the harbor of Honolulu only recently discovered, but at a time 
when it was not known that the natives would be friendly to 
visiting ships, so Boit sailed away without making any other 
anchorages. 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF IMPORTANT EVENTS 
IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 

1555 Supposed discovery of the Hawaiian laland by Juan Gaetano, the 

Spanish navigator. 
1736 Kamehamcha the Great born. 
1740 FaleiholaDi, king of Oahu, on passage to Molokai, said to have 

sighted a strange ship. 
1752 Kalaniopuu, king of western Hawaii, ruling when Capt. Cook 

visited the Islands, born. 
1773 ETaahumanu bom at Kauiki, east Irlaui, of Keeaumoku, the great 

chief and general of Kamehameha, and Namahana, his wife, 

ex-queen of Maui. Kaahumanu became wife of Kamehameha 

and gave practical aid to the missionaries in establishing 

Christianity among hor people. 
1778 Discovery of Hawaiian Islands (Kauai and Oahu), by Capt. James 

Cook, British navy, in the ships Discovery and Kesolution, while 

enroute from South Seas to the Northwest Arctic Passage, 

anchoring oB Waimea, Kauai, Jan. 18. 

1778 On return voyage from the Northwest Passage Captain Cook dis- 

covered Island of Maui, Nov. 26, and Island of Hawaii, Dec. 1. 

1779 Capt. Cook anchored in Kealakekn Bay, Hawaii, January 17. 
Capt. Cook slain in a melee at Kaawaloa, Keelakekua Bay, Feb. 14. 
Ships Discovery and Resolution, commanded by Capts. King and 

Clerke, departed from Hawaii. 

1782 Kalaniopuu, king o* Hawaii, died in April, leaving the districts , 
of Kaui, Puna and Hilo to Kiwalao, his own son, and Kona, 
Kohala and Eaniakua, to Kamehameha bis nephew. 
Battle of Mokuhae, July, between Kamehameha and Kiwalao at 
Keomo, Hawaii; Kamehameha triumphed; Kiwalao slain by 
Keeaumoku; Kcoua, brother of Kiwalao, became king of Kan, 
and Kewaemauhili, king of Puna and Hilo. 
Kaahumanu is set apart as the wife of Kamehameha, at the age 

of eight years. 
Keaulumoku composed the mele, "Haui Ka Lanl," or a pro- 
phecy of the overthrow of Hawaii by Kamehameha I. Poet 
died 1784. 

1784 Captains Portlock and Diion, with the ships King George and 
Queen Charlotte, visit.Hawaii and Oahu, and inaugurate trade. 

1786 Commander La Perouse, with two French frigates, visits Lahaina, 
May 28. 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 369 

1787 Eaiana, a high chief, visits China with Lieut. Meais in the Nootka, 
returning Ihe foUowing year with Capt. Douglas, in the Iphi- 
genia, from Orogon. 
17Sd Kamehameha I iuvadea Maui and tvagea fierce battle with Prince 
Kalanikupule in mountain passes between Wailuku aud Olualu, 
Battle called Kapaniwai, from the bodies of the numerous slaia 
■which damned Joa Valley atream. 
Keawemauhilo slain by Eeoua in battle at Hito, Hawaii. 
First American ship, Eleanor, Capt. Metcalf, visits Islands. 

1790 February, massacre of 100 natives by Captain Metcalf off Olualu, 

Schooner Fair American, 26 tons, tender to the Eleanor, and com- 
manded by young son of Capt, Metcalf, cut off March 17, by 
Kameeiaumoku, an ally of Kamehameha, in which ho drowned 
young Metcalf and had the others, except Isaac Davis, killed. 

Same day, John Young, boatswain of the Eleanor, prevented by 
Kamehameha from rejoining his ship at Kealakokua. 

1791 Keel of first ve.ssel buill in Hawaiian Islands laid Feb. 1. 
Naval battle off Kohala, Hawaii, between Kamehameha and 

Kaeo, king of Kauai, and Kahekili, king of Oahu, in which 
the allies were repulsed. Battle called Kapuawahaulaula (the 
red-mouthed gun), from the victors using a snivel mounted in 
one of the war canoes. 

1792 March 3, Captain Vancouver in the Discovery and Chatham, tender, 

first visited the Islands and left cattle, sheop, etc. 
May 11, the Daedalua, store ship, visits Waimea, Oahu; Lieut. 

Hergest Mr Gooch and one seaman kitlei b> the natiie* 
Keoua was slain at Kawaiahai Hawaii bv Kceaumoku as he 

was landing to surrender to Kimehameha His bod\ nith sev 

eral of h s attendants were offered in sacnfi e at the temple 

juat then completed at that place 
Eamebameht I became sole ruler of all Hawai 

1793 Kamehnrehi tntcrtain. \ancomer an I hs offi ers with si a i 

battle at Hawaii March 4 
179* Januir^ 1' finni vwit of \ aneouver taking his departure from 
Kiuai m Mirch having touched at various porf 
Kahekih km;; of Oahu inl Mam diel Tt Waikiki Oahu ind 

Kalanikupule his son reigns 
Honolulu hirbor discoiered in December b\ Ciptam Brown of 
British ship Butterworth schooner Jackall tender to same first 
vessel to enter followed shortiv bv the Prmce Le Boo and 
Lad} Washington 
1795 Februar\ Kamehamel a subdues Maui I anai nnd Molokii 

\pril or Ma> Battle of Nuuanu Oahu fought in \allei in which 



370 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Kalanikupule, and Kaiana, Trho had seceded from the con- 
queror'a rantis to join in opposing him, were sla.in; thus Oahu 
fell into the hauda of Eamehameha and he established his head- 
quarters at Waikiki beach. 

1796 January, H. B. M. S. Providence, Captain Broughton, touched at 

EeataJtekua, and left the grape Tine. 
Eamehameha prepared to attack Kauai and Niihau and embarks 

for that purpose in a fleet of war canoes, but ia driven back 

to Oahu by a Tiolent wind. 
July, rebellion of Namakeha, brother of Kaiana, on Hawaii; 

Kamehameha returns from Oahu and aubdues the aame by 

the battle of Kipalaoa, Hilo, in which Namakeba is slain. 
July 30, Providence visits Niihau; massacre of the marines. This 

waa the last of auch destruction of life by the Hawaiians. 

1797 Liholiho (Kamehameha II), born on Hawaii, of Keopuolani, wife 

of Kamehameha I. 

1798 Work of digging out a fleet of war canoes known as Peleleu, 

commended; those were of a new kind, short and broad, capable 

of carrying many men. 
1801 Peleleu fleet arrives at Kawaiahae, Hawaii. 
1602 Peleleu arrives at Lahaina, Maui. 
Kameeiamoku died at Lahaina. 

1803 January 23, first horse in Hawaii landed from a Boston vessel. 
Peleleu fleet arrives at Oahu. 

1804 Eamehameha plans another attack on Kauai, and prepares a fleet 

of 21 schooners, but through appearance of a great pestilence 
called ahulau okuu (cholera), it was abandoned. 

Eeeaumoku, father of Kaahumanu, died. 

John Young named Governor of Hawaii Island. 

1808 Hawaiian flag said to have been designed; family traditions 

credit design to Capt. George Beckley, English navigator and 
military adviser to Kamehameha I. 

1809 Kaumualii, king of Kauai, visits Oahu to meet Kamehameha I, 

to whom he cedes hia island; hence the group became ono king- 
dom under Kamehameha I. 

1810 Isaac Davis died in April. 

1814 March 17, Kauikcaouli (Kamehameha III) born of Keopuolani, 
at Eailua. 

1815 Russian aettlers arrive at Kauai. 

1616 Princess Nahienaena born of Keopuolani. 

Building of fort at Honolulu commenced by Kalanimoku, finished 

following year; commanded by Capt. George Beckley. 
1819 May 8, Kamehameha the Great (I), died at Kailua, and Liholiho, 

as Kamehameha II assumes sovereignty. 




PriiicosB Berni.-,. I'auiihi Bisliop, wlu.se great wcnHli ami va-f acri's in 
IlawaiL nprc lipqucathe.l to catablish tlip KnTiieliaiiielia Srliciols for 
the e'lupntion of Hawaiian hoys anil girls. 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 371 

In October, Liholiho, urged bj Kaahumanu, breaks the tabus on 
the night of Kuakahi, by eating with the women, theretofore 
forbidden under penalty of death; all tabus overthrown, and 
proclamation issued by king to destroy all idols and temples; 
nation stripped of its religion. 

October, American missionaries sail from Boston in brig Thaddeus 
for Hawaiian Islands to spread gospel. 
IS20 Insurrection, January, on account of breaking of tabus, and 
battle at Kuamoo, Hawaii, succeeded by another at Waimea, 
Hawaii, in which rebellious leaders were killed and followers 
fled or surrendered. 

Pirat American missionaries arrive at Kailua, Hawaii, in brig 
ThaddeuB, from Boston. Eev. Asa Thurston and wife land at 
Kailua. 

April, first missionaries arrive at Honolulu, including Rev. Hiram 
Bingham I. 

Missionaries Rugglcs and Whitney sail for Kauai. 

December, first whaler, Mary, Capt. Allen, enters Honolulu harbor. 

Liholiho commences tour of the Islands, first to Maui, then to 
Oahu and Kauai. 

1821 Sept. 15, first house of Christian worship dedicated at Honolulu; 

site now occupied by Kawaiahao church, erected 1841. 

1822 January 7, printing first commenced in Hawaiian Islands. 

Eev. William Ellis, English missionary, arrives at Oahu, from 
Tahiti, accompanied by two visiting missionaries, in Prince 
Eegent, gunboat, a present from King George of England, to 
Liholiho. 

Idols burned by order of Kaahumanu, regent. 

August 22, departure of Eev. Mr. Ellis and companions for Tahiti. 

1823 Feb. 4, return of Eev, M. Ellis and family from Tahiti. 

April 23, arrival of the second company of American missionaries 

in the Thames, from New Haven, Conn- 
Mission established at Lahnina. 
Sept. 16, Keopuolani, "the queen mother," died at Lahaina, aged 

45 years. 
Nov. 27, Liholiho, Queen Kamaraalu and attendants sail for 

England in the English whalesbip L'Aigle leaving the kingdom 

in charge of Kaahumanu, as regent. 

1824 March 23, Keeaumoku, governor of Kauai, died. 

May 22, Hawaiian royal party landed at Portsmouth, England. 
May 26, Kaumalii, ex-king of Kauai died at Honolulu. 
Mission station established at Hilo. 

Queen Kamamalu died in London July S, and King Kamehameha 
n died there July 13. 



372 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Rebellion of George Humehume, on Kauai, in which Kiaimakani, 
the leader, was killed and his supporters fled. 

Eapiolani, high chiefess, descended into the volcano of Kilauea 
to defy the drend goddess Pole, goddesa of all volcanoes, who 
was supposed to dwell in Eilauea, there by flouting the super- 
stitious dread of the natives, one of the greatest acts of moral 
courage known. 
1825 Departure of Bev, Mr, Ellis and wife on the Eussell foe New 
Bedford. 

Chief Boki and hia companions return from England with the 
bodies of Kamehamcha II and Iiis queen in the English frigate 
Blonde, commanded by Lord Byron. 

First coffee and sugar plantationa commenced in Manoa Valley, 
Honolulu. 

1827 Feb. S, Kalanimoku died at Kailua. 

1828 March 30, third company of American missionaries arrived in tha 

Parthenia, from Boston. 
July 3, first meeting house at Honolulu dedicated. 
Boki and bis company sailed away from Honolulu and were lost. 
1830 Dec, 11, Kamehameha V was born. 

1832 June T, the fourth company of American missionaries arrived in 

the Averiek, from Boston, 
June 5, Kaahumanu died in Manoa Valley, aged 58 years. 
High Chiefess K^nau appointed premier (Kuhina Nui), in .Tune, 

1833 Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) assumes reins of government in 

March and confirms Kinau as premier (Kuhina Nui). 
Sixtb company of American missionaries arrived May 1. 
Bethel church at Honolulu built. 

1834 Fob. 9, Kamehameha IV (Alexander LihoHho) was born. 

Feb. 14, first newspaper printed in the Hawaiian Islands, called 
the Lama Hawaii, at Lahainaluna, Maui. 

Tbe newspaper Kumu Hawaii commenced at Honolulu. 
1833 Jan. 31, William C. Lnnalilo (afterwards King Lunalilo, 1873-4), 
born of Kanaina and Kekauluobi, 

Sugar planting commenced systematically at Koloa, Kauai. 

Prince Leleihoku and Princess Nahienaena were married. 

June 6, seventh company of missionaries arrived. 
1836 January 2, the Queen Dowager Emma was born. 

Female seminary at Wailuku, Maui, commenced. 

November 16, David Kalakaua (afterward King Kalakaua), bom 
at Honolulu, of Kapaakea and Keobokalole. 

December, Princess Nahienaena, wife of Leleihoku, died at Hono- 
lulu, aged 21 years. 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 573 

1837 Feb, 4, Kamchameha III and Kalama were married. 
Eighth company of miasionftries arrived. 

July 3, Rev. William Eichards resigns from the mission to join 

the Hanaiian government. 
The business of laying out the public streets of Honolulu was 

commenced. 
Nov. 7, remarkable rise and flow of the tide throughout the 

Islands. 

1838 August, the chiefs commence to study political economy with 

Mr. Bichards. 
Nov. 1, Princess Victoria Kamamalu was born of Kinau and Qov- 
ernor Kekuanaaa. 

1839 April 4, Premier Kinau died at Honolulu. 

April 5, Kekauluohi became premier (Kuhina Nui). 

May 10, the printing of the first edition of the Hawaiian Bible 

finished. 
July 9, French maii-o'-war I'Artcmise (Captain LoFlace) arrived. 

1840 School for young chiefs commenced at Honolulu, Mr. and Mrs. 

A. Cooke, teachers. 
January, Hoapili, governor of Maui, died. 
Stone meeting house at KawaJ%hao commenct^d. 
August 3, Eev. Hiram Bingham and family returned to the United 

States. 
September, U. S. Exploring expedition under Commodore Wilkes 

arrived. 
Oct. 8, Kamehameha III gives first written constitution to the 

people of the Hawaiian Islands. 

1841 Kapiolani died May 5, at Kaawaloa, Hawaii. 
May 9, ninth missionary company arrived. 

School for children of missionaries at Punahou, Honolulu, com- 
menced; now Oahu college; land given by Boki and Liliha for 
educatioi.at purpo,;.'^ 

1842 July 8, High Chief Haalilo and Rev. Mr. Richards sailed aa Com- 

missioners to the Courts of France, England, and the United 

States. 
Stone meeting house at Kawaiahao finished. 
Tenth missionary company arrived. 

1843 The United States consents lo the independence of the Hawaiian 

Islands. 

Establishment of Masonic Order in Honolulu. 

February 25, Lord George Paulet, of England, seized the Ha- 
waiian Islands and raised the English flag. 

July 31, sovereignty of the Islands restored by Admiral Thomaa, 
British navy, who repudiated action of Paulot. 



374 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

EstablisbmeAt of the Masonic order in Honolulu. 

Br. O. P. Judd, Ameiican, appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. 

The national motto of Hawaii, "Ua man ke ea o ka aina i ka 

pouo" — "The life of the land endureth in righteousneas, " was 

an utterance of Kamehameha III on Restoration Daj, JUI7 31, 

1843, in the Thanksgiving service in Eawaiahao Church. 

ISii Belgium consents to the independence of the Hawaiian Islands. 

Fifteenth company of missionaries arrives, November, on the 
Globe. 

First silk grown in Islands, 19T pounds — exported. 
1S15 Bobert Crichton Wjllie, appointed Minister of Foreign Belations. 

April 2, Representatives first chosen from the common people 
under the constitution of October, 18*0. 

Kekauluohi, the premier, died at Honolulu. 

John Young (Keoni Ana) appointed premier (Kuhina Nui). 

First eiport of coffee — 248 pounds. 

1846 Commissioners appointed to settla land claims. 

Dee. 10, Excelsior Lodge No. 1, 1. 0. 0. F., established, Honolulu. 

1847 Mr. Richards, Minister of Public Instruction died. 
Governor Euakini, of Hawaii, died. 

First appearance of Mormon missionaries at Honolulu, enroute 

to California. 
Sept. 11, Honolulu's first theater, "The Thespian," opened on 

Maunakea Street. 

1848 Leleihoku (William Pitt), husband of Ruth Keelikolani, Govern- 

ess of Hawaii, died. 
Twelfth company of missionaries arrived. 
First attempt at Beeiproeity with the United States made by 

J. J. Jarvew in behalf of Hawaiian Government^ first on Oct. 

26, with Ur. Buchanans, and second on Nov. 23, with Mr, 

Clayton, of the U. S. Government. 
1S49 Honolulu fort seized by Admiral Tromelin, of the French navy. 
Beef first exported from Islands — 158 barrels. 
Princes Royal Liholiho and Lott, accompanied by Dr. G. P. Judd, 

embarked for the U. S. 
1850 Hawaiian post office established by decree of Privy Council, 

Dee. 22. 
James Young, Eanehoa, died. 
First iron pipes for government waterworks arrived May 9, from 

Eaonaeha, widow of John Young, St., died. 

First fire engine ("Honolulu") initiated into service; Honolulu 
volunteer fire department organized. 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 375 

1851 Hawaiian MiSBionary Society oiganized. 
Court house at Honolulu bnUt. 

First whole oil and bone transshipped. 

First poatafie stamps, printed from type, issued Oct. 1. 

1852 First ice imported, a few tons, from San Francisco, sold at auc- 

tion, 25 cents paid. 
Eruption of Mauna Loa, February, with flow running toward 

Hilo, stopping, within seven miles of same in April. 
February, subject of Recipiocity Treaty with United States again 

mooted in Privy Council. 

1853 The small pox, mai puupuu li'lii, swept over the islands, destroying 

many lives. 
November H, steamer 8, H. Wheeler arrived from San Francisco 

and entered coastal and intei-island trade under name of 

Akamai. 
Koloa plantation, Kauai, has Urst steam engine, for mechanical 

purposes. 

1854 Fort at Lahaina demolished by order of the government. 
July 31, corner stone of Sailors' Home laid. 

Steamer Sea Bird arrived from the coast and entered inter-island 

Steamer West Point arrived in October to enter inter-ialand trade. 
December 15, Kamchameba in (Kauikeaouli), died, and Eameha- 

meha IV became sovereign. 
J855 Jan. 10, W. P. I.eleihoku, afterwards Prince, born. 

March, second effort for Reciprocity Treaty with United States, 

Hon. W. L. Lee, commissioner. A treaty was signed July 20 

by Uarcy (U. 8.) and Lee but not ratified. 
Paki, a high chief, died at Honolulu. 
Flour exported — 163 barrels. 
Eruption of Mauna Loa with flow again running towards and 

threatening Hilo. 

1856 Steamer Kalama wrecked on Kauai (Koloa). 

March, lava flow from Mauna Loa ceased, distance five miles 

from Hilo. 
Kamehameha IV and Emma Rooke unilcd in marriage. 
Sept. 1, Sailors' Home, Honolulu, opened. 

1857 Fort at Honolulu demolished by order of the Government. 
July, John Youn (Koena Ana), premier, died. Victoria Eama- 

malu appointed premier (Kuhina Nui). 
Governor John Adams (Kuakini), of Hawaii, died. 
David Malo, eminent Hawaiian historian, died. 

1858 May 20, the Prince of Hawaii (Ka Haku o Hawaii), born. 



376 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Rice first system atieally cultivated near Honolulu by Dr. S. P. 

Ford. 
1S59 February, ecuption of Moana Loa, with flow Tunning tonard 

WainanaJii. 
April 26, laying of corner stone of Odd Fellows' hall. 
July, first Civil Code published. 
Gas light first introduced into Honolulu. 
September 9, William Pitt Einau, son of Lelelhoku and Buth 

Keelikolani died at Kohaia, aged 17 years. 
Dec. 9, initial movement toward establishment of Episcopal 

church, from England. 
1860 February, Customs House built at Honolulu. 

May, arrival of Japanese embassy enroute to United States. 
July 17, corner stone of Queen's Hospital laid. 
Rev. R. Armstrong, minister of public instruction, died at Honolulu. 
1863 Falmyri Island, in lat. 5" 50' North, long. 161" 53' W., taken 

possession of by Capt. Z. Bent, for Eiamehameha IV and his 

successors, and subsequently declared by Royal proclamation 

to be a part of the Hawaiian domain. 
Death of Frinca of Hawaii, aged 4 years, 3 months. Funeral 

took place Sept. 7, 
Reformed Catholic Mission arrived at Honolulu, Oct. 11. 
1363 Nov. 30, His Majesty Kamchameha IV died, aged 29 years, and 

Prince Lot Kamehameha ascended the throne as Kamehameha V. 
1S64 March 20, Hon. H. £. Allen, accredited to Washington in behalf 

of a treaty, as Minister Plenipotentiary. 
Convention of delegates to amend the constitution called by the 

King, May 5. 
Convention dissolved and constitution abrogated, Aug. 13. 
New Constitution granted by the King, Aug. 21. 

1865 Hon. R. C. Wyllie, Minister of Foreign Relations, died, aged 67. 
Departure Of Queen Bnuna on a visit to United States and Europe. 

1866 Jan. 27, arrival of steamship Ajax from California, inaugurating 

monthly steam service. 
May 29, H. R. H. Princess Victoria Kamamalu died, aged 27 

years. 
Oct. 22, return of Queen Emma. 

1867 EfCort toward a Reciprocity Treaty with the United States re- 

newed. 

1868 Kaona rebellion at Kona and murder of Sheriff Neville. 
Great earthquake on Hawaii, with tidal wave at Eau, and consid- 
erable loss of life. 

April 7, eruption of Ma una Loa, with flow running through 
Eahuku to the south point of Hawaii. 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA :->77 

Nov. 4, His Highneas Mataio Kekuanaoa, father of the late 
Kings Kameiiameha IV and V, died, aged 75 years. 

1869 April 9, organization of first lodge of Good Templars— Ultima 

Thule No. 1, 
July 21, arrival of H. E. H. Alfred Ernest, Duke of Edinbuigh, 

in command of H. M. S. Galatea. 
Aug. 2, lighthouse at entrance to Honolulu harbor pernianenlly 

lighted. 

1870 April 4, fiftieth anniversary of the landing of the first mission- 

aries celebrated in Honolulu by a grand jubilee. 

April 19, arrival of the S. 8. Worga Wonga, pioneer vessel of the 
Australian and California lino of steamers from Sydney, con- 
necting at Honolulu with the Idaho. 

Present Hawaiian Band dates from this year under brief leader- 
ship of W, Northcott, 

Arrival of the Flying Squadron — British— from Victoria, eiiroute 
to Valparaiso. 

Death of Queen Dowager Kalama, consort of Kamebameha III, 
at Honolulu. 

1871 April 16, arrival of the Nevada, pioneer vessel of Webb's line 

of California and Australian slcamers, from Snn Francisco for 
Sydney, 
Sept. 14, loss of 33 ships of Arctic whaling fleet, only seven saved. 

1872 February, laying of corner stone of new government building. 
June, Capt. Henri Berger arrived from Oeimany to direct Royal 

Hawaiian Band. 
Opening of Royal Hawaiian hotel, built by the Hawaiian govern- 

Oct. 2, death of Laura F., wife of Dr. G. P. Judd, aged 68, one 

of the second band of missionaries. 
Dee. II, death of Kamehameha V, at Honolulu, aged 43 years, 

leaving throne vacant, without heir designated. 
Dee. 26, death of Mrs. M. P. liVhitney, one of the pioneer band 

of missionaries who arrived at the Islands in 1820. 

1873 Jan. 8, Prince W. C. Lunalilo as iting of the Hawaiian Island by 

special session of the Legislature. 
King Lunalilo takes the oath of office at Kawaiahao church. 
July, death of Dr. O. P. Judd. at Honolulu, aged 70 years, who 

arrived at the Islands in mission band of 1S28, and joined the 

government in IS42. 
Renewed effort for Reeiproeity Treaty with the United States, 

on the basis of a cession of Pearl harbor and river for a naval 



378 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

The Pearl Harbor cession offer is withdrawn by the Hawaiian 

government. 
Sept. T, emeute at the Boyal Household Barracks, and abolition 

of the armf, by Royal Command, Sept. 12. 
187* February 3, death of King Lunalilo at Honolulu, aged 39 years, 

leaving throne again vacant without heir designated. 
Feb. 12, election of Hon. David Kalahaua as King of Hawaii 

by a special session of the legislature. 
Biot at the Court House by anti-Kalakauaites wherein a number 

of Tepresentatives were severely hurt. Armed forces from 

American and English warships in port quelled disturbance. 
Feb. 13, Kalakaua takes oath of office at Kiuau Hale. 
Feb. 14, Prince W. P. Leleihoku proclaimed Prince Regent. 
June, passage of act allowing distillation of rum on sugar plan- 
tations. 
July 5, death of Mrs. C, wife of Bev. Daniel Dole, at Honolulu, 

who arrived in Hawaii in 1837. 
Oct., renewed effort for a Reciprocity Treaty with the United 

States, and Hons. E. H. Allen and H. A. P. Carter sent as 

commissioners to Washington on the 19th. 
Nov. 17, departure of Hia Majesty King Ealakaua on a visit to 

the United States in the V. S. S. Benecia, accompanied by 

Governora Dominis and Kapena. 
1675 Feb. 15, return of King Ealakaua and suite on the U. S. S. 

Pensacola. 
Aug., first typewriter machine introduced in Hawaii by Dilling- 
ham & Co. 
Oct. 19, arrival of the Caseo de Oama, pioneer vessel of the 

Pacific Hail line of steamers from San Franc bco for the 

Colonies. 
Nov., Hon. E. H. Allen returned to Washington on treaty business. 
Oct. 16, H. B. H. Princess Eaiulani born. 
Bemaina of Etng Lunalilo placed in mausoleum at Kawaiahao 

church expressly constructed by hia wish. 

1876 February, government forwarded an exhibit to the Philadelphia 

Centennial Exposition. 
Reciprocity Treaty between United States and Hawaiian King' 
dom ratified, permitting entry of Hawaiian raw sugar into 
United States free of duty, the first real impetus to the sugar 
industry in Hawaii, 

1877 July 23, the first telegraph and telephone line was constructed on 

Mani, connecting Haiku and Lahaina. 

1878 March 13, His Highness, C. Eanaina, father of King Lunalilo, died. 
Inter-Island steamer Likelike arrived at Honolulu. 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 379 

1879 The Kahului Railroad, from Kahului to Pai, opened. 
First steam fire engine imported. 

Cornerstone of lolaui Palace, laid December 31, under Maaonic 
auspices. King Kalakaua was a high Mason. 

1880 First artesian well bored at Honolulu. 

System of telephonic communication (Bell) established at Hono- 
lulu, between Palace and king's boathouse. First instrument 
now in Bishop Museum. 

1881 January 20, King Kalakaua set out on his tour of the world. 
April 9, cornerstone of the "Lunalilo Home," for aged and 

indigent Hawaiiana, laid; established under will of King Luna- 
lilo. 

Jubilee exercises held at Labainaluna, Maui, in commemoration 
of 50th Anniversary of establishment of the seminary. 

October 29, King Kalakaua returned from his journey around the 

November, great lava flow which reached Halai Hill, Hilo, before 
it stopped. 

1882 Postage stamps for the Postal Union were first issued in Hono- 

Jula 
Dec. 1, Eev. Titus Coan, early missionary, for many years pastor 
of Hilo Church (native), Hilo, died. 

1883 Feb., statue of Kamehameha the Great unveiled in Honolulu. 
Jan. 1, marine railway for docking vessels, opened. 

Feb. 12, formal coronation of King Kalakaua and Queen Kapio- 

lani took place at lolani Palace- 
April 21, first Y. M. C. A. building in Honolulu dedicated. 
H. E. H. Princess Kuth Kcelikolani, formerly Governess of 

Hawaii, of the Kamehameha dynasty, died, aged 65 years. 
Oct., the Oceanic S. S. C.'a steamer Alameda arrived on her first 

voyage between San Francisco and Honolulu. 
Inter-Island steamer Kinau arrived. Still in service in 1922. 
Dec, 16, the first installment of ' ' Kalakaua ' ' money arrived, 

dollars, halves, quarters and dimes. Now rarities, 

1884 Jan. 14, Kanakaua coinage put in circulation. 
Jan. 1, postal notes were issued. 

March, foundations laid of Hall of Records (Kapuiwa Hale), 
now board of health building. 

June 13, first Portuguese immigrants (917) arrived at Honolulu 
from Portugal and its islands. 

Kev. W. P. Alexander, for many years principal of Lahainaluna 
Seminary, died at Oakland, Cal., father of Prof, W. D. Alex- 
ander, the historian. 

Princess Bernice Pauah! Bishop, wife of Charles E. Bishop, 



3SG UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

banker, died. Her fortune was left to endow the Kamehameha 
Schoola for Bojb and Girls (Hawuitana), and tho Bishop 
Masenm. 
18S5 Feb. 5, foundations of new police station (Kalakaua Hale), laid. 
Queen Emma, widow of Kamehameha IV, died, April 25. 

1886 April 18, great fire in Honolulu, destroying million and a half of 

property. 

July 10, postal savings bank established. 

Sept. 21, Ocean Island became a dependency of the Hawaiian 
kingdom; noted for its guano fertilizer deposits, 

Oct., Rev. L. Lyons, for 54 years missionary at Waiuiea, Hawaii, 
died, 79 years. 

Nov. 16, Jubilee Anniversary of King Kalakaua 's birthday cele- 
brated. 

1887 Feb. 2, H. B. H. Princess Likelike {Mrs. Archibald Cleghorn) 

died, aged 36. 

Queen Kapiolani and Princess Liliuolcalanl set out on their visit 
to England to attend Queen Victoria's Jubilee. 

Great political mass meeting beli in Honolulu, June 30, to re- 
quest a new Constitution. Also asked dismissal of the Gibson 
ministry. 

July 7, New Constitution promulgated. New cabinet named 
July 1, W. L. Green, premier. 

Sept. 13, genera] elections to the first legislature under the new 
constitution were held. 

October 20, supplementary convention between the U. S. and His 
Majesty, the King of Hawaii, to limit the duration of the con- 
vention respecting the Commercial Reciprocity concluded Jan- 
uary 30, 1875, ratified by the King, and November 9, pro- 
claimed by President Cleveland. 

Hon. A. Fornander, fourth associate justice, died, aged 75 years. 

November 3, first legislative assembly under the new Constitu- 
tion meets at Honolulu. 

Sanford B. Dole appointed fourth associate justice, Hawaiian 
Supreme Court. 

Treaty of Reciprocity with the United States, eitended for seven 
years, with right of entrance to Pearl Harbor, for a coaling 
and repair base, for American warships. Since anneiation 
base is developed as one of greatest under American flag. 

1888 'First diffusion process plant for sugar manufacture received, 

introduced by Col. Z. S. Spalding for Makee Sugar Co., Kauai. 
January 21, Walter Murray Gibson, ei-minister of Foreign Affairs 

under Kalakaua, died at San Francisco. 
March 23, electric lighting of Honolulu streets established. 




daguerreotype of a 
! TL-igna of Kamehav 
the royal social set. 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 381 

Lighthouse at Barber's Point, Oahu, erected. 

Ground broken for street railway Bvatem {mule-drnwn), 

June 29, Mrs. W. P. Alexander, of the 1832 missionary arrivals, 

July 28, Samuel G. Wilder, one of Honolulu's most prominent 
citizens, promoter of steamship line and other enterprises, 
dies, aged 82 years, 

September 4, Oahu Steam Eailway franehiae granted to B. F. 
Dillingham and associates, on Oahu. Now a system connecting 
with the greatest sugar plantations on island, carrying all 
sugar and pineapples to city for shipment to Pacific Coast. 

Dec. 28, opening of street car system by Haivaiian Tramway Co. 

1889 March 1, parcels posts syatcm with TTnited States inaugurated. 
First turf for Oahu Railroad turned. 

April 15, death of Father Damien, Catholic priest, at (he Leper 

Settlement, Molokai, aged 49 years. 
April 24, death of Mrs. Mary Dominis, mother-inlaiv of Princess 

Liliuolialani, aged 86 years, resident of Honolulu since 1837. 
May 10, departure of Princess Kaiulani for England to finish her 

education. 
July 12, track laying for Hawaiian tramways completed; 12 miles. 
July 30, insurrection of K. W. Wilcor and party of malcontents 

quickly subdued; six insurgents hilled, twelve wounded, and 

remainder surrendered. 
August 12, first section of inter-island cable laid between Maui 

and Molokai. 
September 4, first trial over Oahu Railroad, called "Dillingham's 

Polly," now an example of farsightedness, 
Nov. 18, opening of Oahu Railroad to traffic between Honolulu 

and Aiea and Ewa; three trains daily. 

1890 April 2, cable laid between Oahu and Molokai, but its first mes- 

sage proved its last, owing (o inferior quality of cable. 

April 11, Rev. Hiram Bingham II completes his translation of the 
entire Bible into the Gilbert Tiilnn.l InnKungc. 

June 13, Reform party cabinet resigns on a tie "Want of Con- 
fidence" vote. 

Juno 27, first ostriches (three) introduced from California by 
Dr. G. Trousseau, followed a few months later by others from 
the British Colonies. 

November 25, departure of King Kalakaua on the U. S. 8. Charles- 
ton for San Francisco in search of health, a voyage from which 
he returned to Honolulu a few weeks later, dead; in his absence 
H. R. H. Princess Liliuokalani appointed Regent of the King- 
dom. 



382 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

December 28, official census of Islands taken under direction of 
Dr. C, T, Eodgera. 
1691 January 20, death of King Ealakaua in San Francisco, aged 54 
yeara. MasooB took cliarge of the body in cooperation with his 
suite. Uis remains brought back to Honolulu on the Charleston 
nine days later. State funeral held in Honolulu February 15th. 

January 29, Liliuokalani proclaimed Queen of the Hawaiian 
Islands. 

February 25, Cabinet resits at request of Queen, and a new 
ministery of her selection appointed. 

March 9, Princess Eaiulani, niece of queen, proclaimed heir 
apparent. 

May 8, last of the "mission band" of 1833 died, aged 88 years. 

Juno 3, cornerstone laid of Central Union Church. 

June 25, Semi-Centennial anniversary of founding of Oahu Col' 
lege celebrated. 

August 27, R. H. R. John Dominla, Prince Consort, died at Wash- 
ington Place, Honolulu, aged 60 years. 

November 1, H. A. P. Carter, Hawaiian Minister Resident at 
Washington, died, aged 56 years. 
1693 January 5, total loss, by fire, of American whaleship John P. 
West in Oahu-(Uo1okai channel. Crew, in boats, towed to port 
by passing vessel. 

January 11, Hawaiian Historical Society formed. 

February 3, Australian ballot system adopted. 

April 16, deepening of Honolulu harbor bar commenced. 

May 20, arrest of K. W. Wilcox, V. V. Ashford and sixteen others 
for conspiracy. After a slow trial Wilcox and live others 
committed. Ashford left the Islands. 

August 30, Lottery Bill introduced in Legislature for a twenty- 
five years' franchise. 

August 30, ' ' Want of Confidence ' ' resolution against cabinet 
carried by a vote of 31 to 10. 

September 12, new cabinet appointed with C. E. Macfarlnne, as 

September 15, a new "Want of Confidence" resolution fails by 
one vote. Protest entered and question being referred to 
Supreme Court (Hawaii), confirms President's ruling. 

September 20, completion of deepening harbor bar to 30 feet, at 
an eipenditure of $175,000. 

October 17, "Want of Confidence" resolution carries on a vote of 
31 to 15. 

Cornwell-Nawahi cabinet formed; rejected same day on vote of 
26 to 13. 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 383 

November 8, Wilcox-Jones cabinet appointed. 

December i, dedication of Central Union Church. 

December 27, cornerstone laid of Masonic Temple, corner Alakea 
and Hotel Blreets, the mecea of Shrinera from America in 
June, 1922, when J. S. ("Sunny Jim") McCandlesa, of Aloha 
Temple, Honolulu, was elected Imperial Potentate (at San 
Francisco), of all Shrinedom. 

December 31, opium license bill passed the House by large ma- 
jority. 

January 11, Lottery Bill passed on a vote of 23 to 20. 

January 12, on tho success of the lottery bill the cabinet ig voted 
out by a majority of nine. 

January 13, Parker-Cornwell, Colburn-PctcrBon cabinet appointed. 

January 14, the Queen sigiia the opium and lottery bills, and 
prorogues the Legislature. 

Same day, the Queen attempts to abrogate the Constitution and 
proclaims a new one, but is thwarted by her ministers. Citizens 
organize Committee of Safety. 

January 16, a mass meeting at the Armory confirms the Com- 
mittee of Safety organization and empower it "to devise such 
ways and means as may be necessary to secure the permanent 
maintenance of law and order and the protection of life, liberty 
and property in Hawaii. Marines from the U. S. S. Boston 
landed at 5 p. m. 

January 17, Committee of Safety takes possession of the Govern- 
ment building, and proclaimed the monarchial system of gov- 
ernment abrogated and a provisional government established in 
its stead till terms of union with the United States may be 
agreed upon. Besignation of Judge Sonford B. Dole from the 
Supreme bench to assume the head of affairs. 

January 19, special commissioners leave in steamer Claudine for 
Washington via San Francisco, to negotiate a Treaty of Annex- 
February 1, United States Minister Stevens, at request of Pro- 
visional Government, proclaims United States protectorate over 
Hawaii, pending results at Wiishington. American flag hoisted 
over the Government building. 

February 14, annexation treaty signed at Washington; sub- 
mitted to the Senate by President Harrison on the 17th. 

March 1, Bureau of Agriculture and Forestry established. 

March, Annexation Club organized. 

March 9, President Cleveland (Dem.) withdraws the Annexation 
Treaty from the Senate at Washington. 

March 27, arrival of the revenue cutter Bichard Rush from San 



384 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Pranciaco with President Cleveland's apecial commissioner 
Blount to investigate the situation. 

Com miss loner Blount orders the American flag lowered and the 
naval forces back to their warship. 

August 8, departure of Commlssiooer Blount for Wushington. 

October 20, opening of new macadamized road between Hilo and 
the volcano uf Kilauca, 32 miles distant. 

November 4, XJ. S. Minister Willis arrived, aeeredited to President 
Dole and the Provisional Government, and opens negotiations 
with Lilinokaidiii with a view of her reatoration. 

November 25, mass meeting in Honolulu protesting against 
President Cleveland's restoration of Liliuokalani, and pledging 
support to resist Ktlatks on Provisional Government contrary to 
usage of nations. 

December 14, U, 8. revenue cutter Corwin arrives with special 
despatches for Minister Willis; strong rumors of restoration of 
Liliuokalani follow. 

December IS, to relieve strain of political suspense President Dole 
enquires of, and prominent men wait on Minister Willis, for 
proposed plana. 

December 19, Minister Willis submits to President Dale that 
President Cleveland had assumed to arbitrate in behalf of 
Liliuokalani and concluded she was deposed through aid of 
United States forces; therefore, requested the Provisional Gov- 
ernment to restore the Queen her authority. 

December 23, President Dole replies to the demand of the United 
States through Minister Willis declining to accede, and refuting 
President Cleveland's right of self -assumed arbitorship: 

December 24, the Corwin departs for San Francisco with United 
States dispatches only. 

1894 January 14, celebration of first anniversary of establishment of 

the Provisional Government. 
May 27, Neckar Island taken possession of by Capt. J. A. King, 

on behalf of Hawaii. 
May 30, Constitutional Convention convened, concluding their 

labors on July 3. 

July 4, declaration of the new Republic by Hawaii, by President 

Dole in accordance with the new Constitution. 
July 14, S. N. Castle, a highly esteemed resident since 1837, dies. 
December 19, Eanehameha Qirls' School completed and opened. 

1895 January 1, Schooner Wahlberg, from San Francisco, transfers 

arms and ammunition to steamer Waimanalo to be smuggled 
ashore, which is carried out at Diamond Head, Honolulu. 
January 6, party of Hawaiians under leadership of Sam Nowlein 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 385 

and B. W. Wilcox are aurprised at dusk at Diamond Head arm- 
ing to overthrow the government and restore the Queen. A 
squad of police and citizens' guards are fired upon. G. L. 
Carter fell mortally wounded. 

January 7, death of C. L. Carter. Martial law proclaimed. 
Battle of Moiliili, Beeuring 33 prisoners; one of Capt. Zeigler's 
company wounded. 

January 9, Battle of Manoa Valley; three rebels killed, but night- 
fall enabled rebels to escape, 

January 14, Sam Nowlein and three aids captured in hiding. 
Wilcoi also found in Gshing hut at Kalihi. 

January 16, arrest of Liliuokalani who ia confined in the executive 
building, formerly the Boyal Palace. 

January 17, 'Military Commission for trial of those implicated in 
uprising. Sittings continued to end of February, 

January 24, Ez-Queen sends to President Dole an abdication and 
renunciation of all severely rights, admitting and declaring the 
Republic of Hawaii to be the lawful government, to which she 
certified her oath of allegiance. 

February 5, Liliuokalani appears before the Military Commission 
for trial charged with misprison of treason. 

February 27, sentence is passed on Liliuokalani, being found by 
the Commission "guilty as charged." 

March 1, Military Commission closes its labors, having considered 
190 cases, many of which plead guilty and but Bis acquitted. 

May 1, street letter boxes reestablished. 

First typesetting machine in Hawaii operated in "The Honolulu 
Advertiser" newspaper oflice. 

July 7, extension of Oahu Railroad to Waianae. 

July 13, French Frigate Shoals taken possession of by Capt. King 
for Republic of Hawaii, 

August IS, first case of Asiatic cholera discovered in Honolulu; 
believed to have been introduced from Orient by S. 8, Belgic; 
August 18, strict quarantine established, inter- island travel 
inderdicted. Later business practically suspended to stamp 
out disease. Expense, $60,000. 

Princess Ruth mansion, Emma street, purchased by Board of 
Education to be used for high school. 

Liliuokalani released from custody, but subject to certain re- 
Btrictions of movement. 

November 13, initial export shipment of 4S6 cases canned pine- 
apples. 
189§ February 7, reBtiictions on movements of Liliuokalani removed. 

April 21, Mokuaweoweo, the summit of the volcano of Mauna Loa, 



386 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

burat forth in activity for a brief spell, 
July 11, volcanic activity at Kilauea renewed. 
September 24, official census of Islands taken. 
October 23, Council of State votes a full pardon to Liliuokalani. 
November 5, opening night of the rebuilt muaic-hall, by Annis 

Montague-Turner and local amateurs, in opera of II Trovatore. 

1897 January 6, A. 8. Willis, U. S. Minister, died at Honolulu, aged 

54 years. 
March 20, several hundred Japanese immigrants, failing legal re- 

quirementa, denied right to land. 
May 5, Japaoeae cruiser Naniwa, commanded by Capt. (afterward 

famous Admiral) Togo, with special commisaioner arrives to 

investigate immigration matters. 
Jone 16, new Annexation Treaty negotiated at Washington, with 

President McKinley. 
September 8, special session of Senate called to ratify Treaty of 

Annexation, which on the 9th carried unanimously. 
November 9, return of Princess Kaiutani after an absence abroad 

of eight years. 

1898 January 6, President Dole leaves for Washington, D. C, in the 

interest of annexation. 

January IS, completion of Honolulu's new central fire station. 

March 4, return of President Dole, 

March 16, Treaty of Annexation withdrawn from the Senate, 

May 5, Representative Newlanda of Nevada introduced an annex- 
ation joint resolution in the House of Bepreaentalives. 

June 2, Dowager Queen Kapiolani presents the U. S, S. Charles- 
ton with a silk American flag in grateful remembrance of the 
honor shown King Ealakaua. 

June 6, Bed Cross Society organized by ladies of Honolulu. 

Jnne 9, first excursion train of Oahu Eailroad over their extension 
to Waialua, now a sugar estate, 

June 15, annexation resolution passed House of Beprescntatives 
on a vote of 209 to 91, The Senate confirmed the same July 6, 
by a vote of 42 to 21. 

July 7, Joint Besolution of Annexation signed at the White 
House by President Me Kin ley, 

August 3, arrival at Honolulu of Admiral Miller on TJ. S, S. 
Philadelphia, empowered with U. S. Minister Sewall to carry 
out the act of transfer. 

August 12, flag raising da.v. President Dole formally cedes juris- 
diction and property of the Hawaiian Government to the 
United States of America, Hawaiian flag hauled down in 
presence of American and Hawaiian government oflicials, 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 387 

American flag raised; marinea saluted. Hawaiian government, 
under the American 8ag, continues as a Bepublic until a Com- 
miBaion decides on the form of government for Hawaii. The 
interim government continued with President Dole governing 
until June 14, 1900, when Hawaii became a de facto territory 
of the United States. President of the United States appointed 
Sanford B. Dole as first Governor of th« Territory of Hawaii. 
In this year American troops enroute to Philippines, landed at 
Honolulu for rest; naval vessela called here for coal; the War 
Department established a military camp at Kapiolani Park and 
created the Military District of Hawaii, with regulars and vol- 
unteers in garrison. The Navy Department established a sta- 
tion at Honolulu, and prepared to create Pearl Harbor into 

Senators Morgan of Alabama, Cullom of Illinois, Representative 
Uitt, arrive to join with President Dole and Chief Justice 
Frear in framing the Organic Act for the government of Ha- 

Camp McKinley, military post, established at Kapiolani Park. 
Brig. Gen. Charles King, U. S. A., arrives to assume command 
of district. 
1S99 First case bubonic plague showed itself in Honolulu December 13 
and held away for three months. In the work of purifying 
city part of the eity, particularly Chinatown, was accidentally 
destroyed by fire, Januar 20, 1900, sweeping 38 acres. 
1900 Pioneer electric railway in Hawaii was Pacific Heights By. 
scenic route, Honolulu. Kegular rapid transit system of Hono- 
lulu Rapid Transit & Land Co., inaugurated Aug. 31, 1901. 

Juno 14, Hawaii became a de facto territory of the United States, 
with S. B. Dole as first governor. 

Wireless telegraphy introduced, but company (Marconi system), 
did not open for business until March 2, 1901. 
1902 Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaoie, titular prince of the former 
monarchy, elected delegate to U. S. Congress, as Republican. 

Dredging Pearl Harbor bar nt enlrancc, beginning of develop- 
ment of naval station, began February 19, 

U S Senatorial Commission begins investigation of affairs in 
re proposal to maki chinges in the Organic Act, particularly 
with reference to lands 

Transfer of Angliian church to Protestant Episcopal Church of 
America from His Lordship Bishop AUred Willis to Bishop 
Nichols, of California. Bishop Willis sailed for Tonga. 

Commeical Pacific Cable line landed at Waikiki, Honolulu, De- 
cember 28, by cableship Silvertown, connecting San Francisco 



388 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

with Honolulu. Meaaages eichanged immediately; greetings 
from President Eooaevelt and Clarence Mackay. Reception and 
ball in evening at Palace for officers of Silvertown, 
1903 January, S. S. Korea (Pacific Mail) niakea recorij between San 
Francisco and Honolulu in 4 days, 22 hours, 15 minutes. 

Legislature creiitcs county government, malting each island a 
county. 

Torrens Land Title system established. 

Jnly 31, Alexander Young Hotel opened. 

Sugar crop for year 437,991 tons. 

August 3, completion of dredging of Pearl Harbor bar. 

Gilbert Islanders sent back to their island by S. S. laleworth. 

Robert Wilcox, revolutionist, died. 

County Act by Legislature, framed, effective January 4, 1904, 
dividing islands into five counties, viz, Oahu, Maui, Kauai (with 
Niihau), and Hawaii (divided into East and West). Supreme 
Court declared one portion of the Act unconstitutional. 

Governor Dole leaves eiecutivcBhip of Territory, through appoint- 
roent by the President as federal judge. 

QeoTga B. Carter, secretary of the Territory, appointed governor. 
Inauguration November 23. A. L. C. Atkinson named as secre- 

May 13, new Industrial School for Boya opened at Wailee, Oahu. 
July 1, Torrens Act for registering and confirming titles to land, 

passed by Legislature, in effect. 
New Oceanic wharf conatrueted. Plana for excavation of slips 

for great wharves facing on Allen street. 
Old Odd Fellows' building being replaced by four-story brick 

structure to cost $70,000. 
Rapid Transit lines extended into suburbs. 

All islands produced banner sugar crop of 437,991 tons for ship- 
August 3, completion of deepening of Pearl Harbor bar; now 30 

feet deep at low tide, with width of 200 feet for 2,000 feet, 
October IS, crew of French bark Constable de Kichmont, wrecked 

on French Frigate Shoals, October 10, reach Niihau island. 
October 22, Schr. Julia E. Whalen, with supplies for Midway 

Island cable from Honolulu, wrecked on Midway Island. 
October, all Gilbert Islanders brought here years ago for planta- 
tion service, sent home by S. S. Isleworth. 
1907 Legislature provides for establishment of Agricultural College. 
Governor Carter resigns governorship, August 15. Judge W. F. 

Frear appointed and inaugurated tliat date. 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 389 

February 25, second lot of Filipinos for plantation field service 
arrive Nippon Maru; third shipment July. 

March, Los Angelea Chamber of Commerce eicuraion party arrives 
on S. 8. Ohio. 

ApriJ 27, Oahu Country Club, Honolulu, opens. 

May, first party of Congressmen from Washington visited Ha- 
waii to learn about Islands, $15,000 expenses paid by Legista- 

Juue, more immigrants from Madeira Islands arrive on S. S. 

Kumeric. 
Japanese government, by arrangement nith U. S., limits emigrants 

to Hawaii to 200 a month. 
Banner year in Hawaii's sugar crop, with 140,017 tons output. 
Pineapple industry assuming proportions. 
July 20, Commercial Club opens. 
Mnkapuu lighthouse under construction cast end of Oahu, to have 

moat powerful light in Pacific. 
Hawaii's koa lumber finds market on American mainland. 
February, $410,000 improvement in Honolulu harbor begun by 

War Department. 

1908 March, bids opened for Hilo breakwater. Construction com- 

menced September 12. 
Kahului harbor breakwater practically completed at private ex- 

Tobacco plantation established at Kona, Hawaii, by Jared Smith. 

May, Hawaiian Pineapple Growers' Association organized. 

July 16, famous Atlantic Fleet, Rear Admiral 8perry, reaches 
Honolulu on world cruise. 

September 2, Pacific Fleet arrives from San Francisco, Rear 
Admiral W. A. Swibburne, commanding. 

Hawaii presents Mark Twain with koa mantel piece on his birth- 
day in recognition of his friendly interest. 

September 11, now McKinley High School opened. 

Work begins on additional buildings for Fort Shafter, Honolulu. 

Dr. Robert Koch, world's eminent bacteriologist, stops at Hono- 
lulu; visits leper settlement on Molokai. 

1909 January 4, new municipal government of City and County of 

Honolulu inaugurated with J. J. Fern, its first mayor- 
Pier 7, Honolulu 's modern pier, finished. 
New royal mausoleum crypt for bodies of members of the Kala- 

kaua dynaatycompleted at cost of $25,000. 
Kauai completes twelve miles railroad £rom Makaweli to Koloa, 

company capitalized at $125,000, Runs through sugar plan- 

tationa. 



390 UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

Hilo Bailroad Company has completed fifteen milea (o Hakalau 
from Hilo along scenic Hamakua coast. 

Prof. T. A. Jaggar proposes that Massachuaetta Inatitute of Tech- 
nology establish obaervatory and laboratory for study of earth- 
quake and volcanic phenomena on brink of Kilauea volcano, 
Island of Hawaii, as being best location in world. Propoaition 
promised local aid. 

October 21, first lot of Bnasian immigrants from Siberia arrive, 
comprising fifty families. This and later experiments were not 
successful and plan was abandoned. 

Brig. Gen. John Perahing visited HoboIuIq; also John Burrrougha, 
famed naturalist. 

Lighthouse established and lighted at Makapuu Point, Oahu; 
Kalawao, Uolokai; Kailua, Hawaii. 

Angust 5, new University Club buildings opened at Ha ale lea 

New Methodist church and new Kaumakapili (native) church 
approaching completion. Mid-Pacific Institute completed. 

Memorial arcli erected at Kailua, Hawaii, in Toemory of first 
missionaries and of Opukahaia and his native Christian eom- 

Revenue cutter Thetia captures twenty-three Japanese bird poach- 
ers on Laysan Island, west of Hawaii (part of group). Value 
of plumage taken was $122,000. 

1910 April 15, second federal census of Hawaii taken under direction 

Dr. Victor S. Clark; total of 181,909 souls, as against 154,000 
in 1900. 
Dec. 31, "Bud" Mara introduces aviation at Moanalua, near 
Honolulu. 

1911 February, cholera outbreak controlled; under authority of U. S. 

Public Health Department, all banana plants in Honolulu cut 

down to prevent yellow fever entering city, on ground they 

were breeders of mosquitoes. 
Honolulu petitions that federal building be located on square 

opposite old royal palace, instead of on the Mahuka site, in 

business district. 
April 13, S. S. Orterio arrived from Portugal with 1,451 Spanish 

and Portuguese immigrants. 
Naval drydock work at Pearl Harbor naval station progressing; 

2,500 piles driven in coral floor of site for a firm foundation. 
February, "Pan-Pacific Travel Congress" launched to promote 

amity between countries in and bordering upon the Pacific. 
February 27, Schooner Moi Wahine and U. S. Lighthouse lender 

Kukui collide in Jilolokai channer, former sinking. All hands 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 391 

lost except Captain Sara Mana, who swam twenty miles to 

Lanai Island. 
Lava briek plant established at Kaimuki, Honolulu, capacity 

20,000 bricks per day. 
Rubber plantation at Naliiku, Maui, appears to be flouriahinf;, 

with 350,000 trees set out. 
MeKinley statue ia front of McKinlcy High School unveiled. 
Dr. Frank Ferret, of volcanic research renown, and Dr. E. 8. 

Shepherd, of the Carnegie Institute, Washington, study Kilauea 

volcano; secure temperature reading of molten lava, July 30, 

recording 1010 centigrade. 
May, Sheffield Choir, 200 voices, give concerts in Honolulu. 
June 18, French aviator JIasson makes successful monoplane 

flight, Sehofleld Barracks to Kapiolant Park, Honolulu, 6 a. va, 
June 22, residents observe Coronation Day in honor of King 

George V and Queen Mary. 
Sousa's Band gave two concerts at Honolulu. 

July 9, mass meeting passes resolutions favoring unlimited arbi- 
tration between England and United States; Dr. David Starr 

Jordan talks on International Peace. 
August 13, Duke P. Kahanamoku, of Hui Nalu club, makes two 

amateur swimming records; lOO yards, 55 2-5 seconds; 50 yards, 

24 1-5 seconds. 

1912 January 22, cornerstone of College of Hawaii laid; building com- 

pleted in July, cost $66,000. 

Library of Hawaii built at cost of $105,000. 
. Site being dredged on harbor front for Inter-Island Steam Navi- 
gation Company's floating drydock. 

June 2, Alice Mackintosh memorial bell tower of St. Andrew's 
Cathedral completed and dedicated by Bishop Eestarick. 

Fire department commences change from animal to motor equip- 

July 28, Federal Telegraph Co. (Poulson system), opened news 
service between Pacific Coast and Oahu. 

December 14, U. S. S. California first big warship to steam up 
newly dredged channel from sea to Pearl Harbor Naval Station. 

Duko P. Kahanamoku, Hawaii's champion swimmer, goes to 
Sweden, via New York, making the American team for the 
Olympic games at Stockholm. His 100-meter dash at Stockholm, 
July 0, won victory for America and gave him championship 
of the world; record time, 622-5 seconds. Broke own record 
at Hamburg and at other places. Accorded royal welcome at 
Honolulu and presented with house and lot at Waikiki. 

1913 February 17, Naval drydock. Pearl Harbor, collapsed when water 

pumped out; new plans for holding bottom discussed and ex- 



UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

porta sent by navy to Honolulu to determine new method con- 
st rnction. 

Big building year. 

Hilo railroad reachea its terminal goal, Paauilo, in Hamakua. 

January 30, bronze memorial unveiled at Oahu College on 74th 
birthday anniversary of late Gen. Samuel C. Armstrong, of 
Hawaii, Civil War general, and founder of Hampton Institute, 

June 28, Bcv. H. H. Parker completes 50th anniversary of occu- 
pancy of Kawaiahao church pulpit, Honolulu. 

Primary lawa effective at year 's electiona. 

March 17, Centenary of Karoohamelia III obBerved at Kawaiahao 
church; also at Keauhou, Kona, Hawaii, his birthplace, where 
a tablet was unveiled. Queen Liliuokalani and the High 
Chief esB Kekaniau Pratt attended both observances. 

Coffee crop for year large, estimated at 45,000 bags. 

Sugar output estimated at 620,000 tons, with low market price. 

May 27, Chamber of Commerce and Merchants' Association 
amalgamate, under namq of Chamber of Commerce. 
■ February 2, new Mateon Navigation Company steamer Matsonia 
arrives, five days, 4 hourj, 6 minutes. 

March, new Mataon steamer Manoa arrives. 

March 2, Capt. H. C. Houdlette, commanding the Oceanic S. S. 
Sierra, on arrival, rounded out its 100th voyage between San 
Francisco and Honolulu. 

German, refugee ships sought and received shelter in Honolulu 
harbor, German gunboat Geier was interned; sixteen merchant 
steamers also interned. Japanese battleship Hizcn, cruising off 
Honolulu, captured German schooner Aeolus, and burned and 
sank prize with copra cargo, outside three-mile limit. Vessel 
and eargo valued at $80,000. 

Mary Castle Trust truatees donate old Kawaiahao Seminary lot 
in Mission Center to Hawaiian Board of Missions for Mission 
Memorial building. 

August 2, Capt. Henri Berger'a 70th birthday honored by special 
band conceit, attended by high officials, when he was decorated 
with a gold badge in token of esteem for his 42 years of service 
as director of the old Royal Hawaiian Band. 

June 29, P. C, Jones resigns treasnrership of Oahu College after 

March 25, U. 8. Submarine F-4 sinks while entering the channel 
to Honolulu harbor from sea cruise. Efforla to raise the suh- 
miarinc were estraordinary and vessel was brought up from 
50 fathoms depth of water. She was in a broken, bruised con- 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 393 

ditioa and only boaea and other almost unidentifiable remains 
of the officers and crew were found. 

1915 December 6, S. S. Great Northern departs from Honolulu, 11 p. m., 

reaches San FranciBCo in record breaking trip, 3 days, IS hoara. 

1916 Year of road building on all island* 

Piers, S, 9 and 10 under construction at cost of $235,000, all con- 
crete piere and deeka. 

Kuhio wharf, Hilo, completed. Protected by breakwater. 

Inter-Island S. S. Co. installing second cooling plant. 

Coaling plant, with wharf, railroad and hoisting towers in opera- 
tion at Pearl Harbor naval station; 1,000-foot concrete wharf 
at head of drydock is ncaring completion at navy yard; naval 
high power radio station practically complete. 

United States accepts Civic Center site for Federal building, 
giving up original Mahuka site. To construct mill ion- dollar 
building, 

Cornwell ranch on Maul sold to H. W. Rice for $215,000. 

Prineevillo plantation property, Kauai, sold to Lihue Sugar Plan- 
tation for $250,000. 

Fifteen new buildings finished at Fort DeEussy, cost $100,000. 

Kilo Federal building, costing $200,000, almost completed. 

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, in view of high prices for 
sugar, evolved plan for bonus paymcnls to all employees, ofBce, 
mill and field. Estimated bonus payments $4,000,000, 

Government plans restoration of the more important ancient 
Hawaiian temples (heiaua) found worthy of preservation. 

Hme. Melba revisits Honolulu and gives concert. 

November 30-Deccmbcr 2, Maui holds its first county fair at 
Wailuku. 

February 4, interned Gorman steamora Holsatia, Setos, Pommern, 
Prinz Waldemar and others, set fire to by their German crews, 
and machinery wrecked. Gunboat Geier likewise wrecked. 
American bluejackets and marines save Geier from destruction. 
Captain Grasahof surrendered his vessel which was under pa- 
role. Officers and men taken to military posts for imprison- 

March 19, severe rain storm sweeps Oahu; 13.30 inches rain fall 
in 24 hours; roads badly damaged. 

June 5, former Mayor J. J. Fern (Dem.) reelected. 

Hawaii enters war by giving liberally to all calls for funds to 
conduct the war against Germany. First Liberty loan drive, 
in June, contributed $4,857,850, far above estimate; the second, 
in October, $8,060,800, going over allotment by $5,000,000. The 
army alone subscribed 41,269,150. Red Cross funds contributed 
totaled $233,291.25. 



UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

mont. Other merchant vcssols were Longmoon, Straotasekreter 

Kraetke, Gouverneur Jaeselilie and schooner Hermes; alao 

ateamer O. J. D. Ahlers, at Hilo. 
Gprman gunboat Geier, reponditioned, renaniBd U. S. S. Carl 

Scliurz, commissiuned and goes to Atlantic where later it was 

sunk in coUiBion with an American ship. 
Island of Lanai sold to F. F. nod H. A. Baldwin for $588,000 for 

a, cattle ranch. 
Hoyal Hawaiian hotel sold to Army and Navy "Y" for $230,000. 
Ainahau, onee home of PriftceaB Likelike a.nd Prioeeas Kaiulani, 

at Waikilii, sold and divided up into small building lots. 
Big building schedule underway in outer suburba and far into 

vttllojfB back of Honolulu. 
"Honolulu Hale," adjoining old post office on Merchant street, 

built of coral blocks, constructed in 18i3 as Hawaii's first 

exBCotive building, razed. 
April 13, new Mataon liner Maui given an ovation on ber maiden 

\.iyiiL'i; from Sau Friindsco. Soon attorward the Milui, Matsonia 



UNDER HAWAIIAN SKIES 

A[.ril 13— Prince of Wales arrives on H. B. M. S 
—Gov. C. J. McCarthy (Dem.) resigns office to accept Honolulu 
Cliniaber of Comiacrce represeatation at Washington. 

Wallace K. Farrington (Rep) named Governor by President 
Harding. 

July 9, Hawaiian Homes Act (Rehabilitation Act, passed by 
Congress, providing for Hawaiian Homes Commission at Hono- 
lulu, to set apart territorial lands for Hawaiians in "back to 
soil plan." This was life hope of Prince Kalanianaole, dele- 
gate to Congress. First experiments to be on Molokai. 

Eeclamation of Waikiki Swamps (Honolulu) comuieuced; pro- 
vides for drainage canal to open sea and filling in. 

T. H. Davies & Co., business block ($1,000,000), an art structure 
of nnnsuaUj attractive design completed. 

August, Pan-Paciflc Educational Conference convenes, to discuss 
possibilities and needs of education in the several countries, 
viewed from standpoint of their civilization, form of govern- 
ment, etc. Delegates present from many countries. 

September 19, S. S. Empire State makes tun from Yokohama to 
Honolulu in 8 days, 40 minutes. Following month Qoldeii State 
(Pacific Mail), made run in 7 days, 18 hours. 

Oysters planted at Pearl Harbor and Kaneohe Bay, Oahu; also 
rainbow trout eggs from Utahj Colorado, placed in Kauai island 

November 2, Schr. Carrier Dove wrecked at Kalau o Kalaau 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 395 

November ], copper pennieB, 5,000, imported hj banks because of 
sm&ll war tasea needa; first to 'he used here. 

1918 December 3, gale blowing 52 milea an hour struck Honolulu, 

lasting three d&ys, nprootiog thousands of algaroba trees, 
wrecking tclephoneelectrie wire poles. Damage estimated 
$500,000. 

1919 Hawaiian senate votes down female suffrage. 

April 21, Fifth Victory Loan drive raised 45,005,650, or $217,650 
above quota. 

April — Summary of Hawaii's share in various war loans, Red 
Cross, United War Work, etc., covering war objects, showed 
total of (34,000,000. 

April 30, fiftieth anniversary establishment Y. M. C. A. in Hono' 
luiu observed. 

June 11, Kamehameha Day, one hundredth anniversary of death 
of Kamehameha the Great observed with historical procession. 

July 3, two army seaplanes left Luke Field 9:10 a. m. with one 
bag mail, and arrived at Hilo 1 p. m., 190 milea. 

Bank of Honolulu owned by Irwin interests, sold to Honolulu 
capitalists. 

August 21, formal dedication Pearl Harbor Naval Station dry- 
dock, with Secretary of Navy Joseph us Daniels, principal 
speaker, afconipanied by Admiral Parke, engineer of dock. 
Said it would be available to merchant marine vessels. Daniels 
arrived on U. S. S. New York. 

Sept. 29, eruption of Mauna Loa, at elevation of 10,000 feet. 
Lava flowed rapidly down mountain, crossing government road 
in Eona district and fell into sea at Alika. Followed by tidal 
wave of Kona coast, October 2. Eruption ceased Nov. 11, 

October 31, Admiral Lord JelHcoe, hero of Jutland, visits Hono- 
lulu on H. B. M. S. New Zealand. 

Territory purchases Ala Moana property (Kowalo), to dredge 
ship slip anit build wharf for lumber carriers; purchase price 
$125,000. 

Territory purchases shore frontage at Kapiolani Park for War 
Memorial Park, cost $200,000. 
1920 — April 11, opening of huoilredth anniversary of arrival of first 
American missionaries in Hawaii; special guests from main- 
land representing missions, churches, colleges; included his- 
torical procession, historical Hawaiian pageant at Rocky Hill, 
Punahou, depicting old Hawaiian life, arrival of missionaries, 
education of Hawaiians, etc. Eminent mainland speakers at 
Kawaiahao church. Celebration lasted week. Prince of Wales 
was special guest at the Hawaiian Pageant, April 13. 



m 




"The wjjiil from over tlic sra, 
Siiiga swoetly Alohn to ini'; 
The waves ;is thoy fall on tlir s:i 
Say Alolia, aaii bi.i iiu. to hir..!," 



CHRONOLOGICAL DATA 397 

June 22, J. S. McCandless, Aloha Temple, Honolulu, new Imperial 

Potentate of all Shrinedom, returns home aecompanied by 2,000 

mainland Shrinera as honor guard. 
July 17 — Arrival of S. 8. Cit; of Los Angeles, inaugurating new 

Los Angeles Steamship Company service to Honolulu. Other 

liner, City of Honolulu. 



.\. p. TAYLOR 




Western 
Hawaii, 

al force 
" of 

dy of 

p aining 



that 
phoon 



H 



alifled 
as it 



should be told. 

He was born in St, Louis, Decem- 
ber 18, 1872; livea in Denver, to. 
ISifi; was almost the first boy to 
(.0 to Leadville, Colorado, 1876-1877, 
ivhoi 



pci i 



'-i 

ory Silver 
Party convention, St. Louia, 1896., 

Secretary to Hawaiian Annexation 
Commissioner at Washington, 1897- 
!tS. Arrived in Honolulu, August, 
1898. and was one of secretarial 
forec Kith the U. S. Senate Com- 
inisaion whieh gave Hawaii its Or-i 
ganic Act. In 1913-U represented! 
■Hawaii at Panama-Pacific Exposi- 
tion, 8nn Francisco; secretary Ha-| 
waii Promfltion Committee, Hono- 
lulu. 191.1-1917. With Honohilu Ad-| 
vertiser edilorial staff again from 
191 7. —MUlPnrltic ilaijazinr. 



RULERS OF HAWAII 



RULERS OF HAWAII 



KINGDOM OF HAWAII— KAMEHAMEHA DYNASTY 

Name. Birth. -Vceeasion, Doatli. 

Kamehamoha I Nov. — , 1736 1795 May 8, 1819 

Kamehameha II 1797 JIa.v 20, 1819 July 14, 1S24 

Kamehanicha III Aug, 11, 1813 June 6, 1825 Bee. 15, 1854 

Kamehameha iV Feb. 9, 1834 Jan. 11, 1855 Nov. 30, 1863 

Kamehameha V Dec. 11, 1830 Nov. 30. 1873 Dec. 11, 1872 

Lunalilo Jan. 31, 1873 Jan. 8, 1873 Feb. 3, 1874 

KINGDOM OF HAWAII— KALAK A UA DYNASTY 

David Kalakaua Nov. 16, 1836 Feb. 12, 1874 Jan. 20, 1891 

Liliuokalani Sept. 2, 1838 Jan. 29, 1891 Nov. 11, 1917 

Monarchy abrogated, January 17, 1893. 

Provisional Government established January 17, 1893. 
Republic of Hawaii established July 4, 1894. 

Hon. Sanford B. Dole named President of Hawaii January IT, 1893; 
again, July 4, 1894; retained Presidency to June 14, 1900. 

GOVERNORS OF HAWAII, TERBITOEY OP UNITED STATES, 
FROM JUNE, 1900 
Sanford B. Dole 

George R. Carter Appointed 

Walter F. Fcear by the 

Lucius E. Pinkham President of the 

Charles J. McCarthy United Stales 

Wallace E. Farrington (App't'd 1921)