NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES
3 3433 08179803 9
F^lm^A U ^fV \'\'^^
UNDER THE STARS AP
iiES OE Four Years Service
OGLETHORPES, OF AUGUSTA, GEORGI
Chronicle Printing Company
For the gratification of my old comrades and in grate-
ful memory of their constant kindness during all our
years of comradeship tliese records have been written.
The writer claims no special qualification for the task
save as it may lie in the fact that no other survivor of the
Company has so large a fund of material from which to
draw for such a purpose. In addition to a war journal,
whose entries cover all my four years service, nearly every
letter written by me from camp in those eventful years
has been preserved. Whatever lack, therefore, these pages
may possess on other lines, they furnish at least a truth-
ful portrait of what I saw and felt as a soldier. It has
beeen my purpose to picture the lights rather than the
shadows of our soldier Hfe. War is a terribly serious bus-
iness and yet camp life has its humor as well as its
pathos, its comedy as w^ell as its tragedy, its sunshine as
well as its shadows.
As Co. B, of the Oglethorpes was an outgrowth of the
original organization, its muster roll before and after
reorganization, with a condensed sketch of its war ser-
vice has been given. For this information I am indebted
to the kindness of Mr. Frank H. Miller and Mr. Brad
6 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
Merry, as I am to the former also for data pertaining ta
the early history of the Oglethorpes.
Aside from the motive already named, there is another
which has had some influence in inducing me to publish
these memories. In the generation that has grown up
since the '6o's, there is a disposition to undervalue the
merits of the "Old South" and to discount the patriot-
ism and the courage, the sacrifice and the suffering of
those, who wore the grey. If these pages shall recall to
my old comrades with any degree of pleasure, the lights
and shadows of our soldier life, or shall bring to tlie
younger generation, to whom the Old South is not even
a memory, a truer conception of ''the tender grace of a
day that is dead" I shall be more than repaid for the
labor involved in their preparation.
Early History of the Oglethorpcs 7
Off to the War 9
The Laurel Hill Retreat 15
Donning- the Gre}^ 17
My First March 21
My First Skirmish 23
My First Picket- Dut>' 29
My First Battle 30
A Night Stampede .' 33
Three Little Confederates 36
A Change of Base 38
A Tramp With Stonewall Jackson 43
Aunt Hannah 48
A Ride With Belle Boyd, the Confederate Spy . . . . 50
Home Again 55
Roster of Oglethorpe Infantry 56
Service with 12th Ga. Battalion.
A "Little Long" 62
I2th Ga. Flag 63
Col. Hogeland's War Diary 65
The Parson and t^e Gravy 71
A Study in Insect Life 80
Fire and Fall Back 86
Skirmishing for Pie 87
Steed and the Sugar 88
Our Camp Poet 91
Dal ton and Atlanta Campaign 97
Stripe^- 'in the Wrong Side 107
A Twilight Prayer Meeting 109
Tom Howard's Squirrel Bead T12
"Jim, Touch Off No. 1" 114
A Summer Day on the Firing Line 117
Saved frouT Death by a Bible 123
Battle of Kennesaw 130
Under Two Flags 137
Saved from a Northern Prison by a Novel 142
A Slave's Loyalty [48
A Christmas Day U'ith Forrest [55
Gen. Bate as a Poet and Wit 166
Pat Cleburne as an Orator 168
''Who Ate the Dog?" 171
Courage Sublime 17*^
The Closing Campaign.
An Arctic Ride 182
A Sad Home Coming 187
Our Last Battle 190
Roster Co. A, 63rd Ga 204
Oglethorpe Infantry Co. B 214
Roster Co. A, 9th Ga., Co. C, 2^, Ga. S. S 319
One of My Heroes 225
Ben Hill and the Dog 229
The Rebel Chaplain and the Dying Boy in Blue . . . .236
EARLY HISTORY OF THE OGLETHORPES.
On a winter's clcy in '51, in the old Capital at Mi!-
ledgeville, Ga., Howell Cobb, then Governor of Georgia,
gave his official ?r::i-:uion to an Act of the General As-
sembly incorporating a new military organization in the
City of Augusta. If he had been told that ten years from
that date he would be wearing the wreath of a Brigadiei-
General in actual war and that the Company, to whic,-
his signature had given legal existence would be camped
on Virginia soil, attached to the command of an ofificer,
who will go down into history as one of the greatest cap-
tains of the ages, he would have smiled at the statement
as the outgrowth of a distempered fancy. And yet such
a prophecy v/ould have found literal fulfilment.
In honor of the founder of the Georgia Colony the
Company was named the Oglethorpe Infantry. Hon.
Andrew^ J. Miller, Avas its first com^mander. Represent-
ing some of the best blood of one of the most cultured
cities of the Old South, the company, by its proficiency
in drill and its military bearing soon gained a distin-
guished position among the citizen soldiery of the State.
On the death of Capt. Miller in 1856, Judge Ebenezer
Starnes was chosen to succeed him. He, in time, was fol-
8 rXDER THE STARS AND BARS.
lowed by John K. Jackson, afterwards a Brigadier Gen-
eral in the Confederate Army. During the captaincy of
the last named, the volunteer companies of the State
were ordered into camp at Milledgeville, Ga., by Gov.
Herschel V. Johnson. Capt. Jackson, on account of ill-
ness in his family, could not attend and the Oglethorpes
were commanded by Lieut. J. O. Clark. In the military
drill and review, that occurred during the encampment
the Oglethorpes presented the best marching front of
any company present. Mr. Frank H. Miller, then Ordel-
ly Sergeant, attributes their success on this line, in part
at least to the fact that nature had failed to endow him
v/ith a full share of what my fatherwasw ont to term "leg-
ability," and his shortenend step, as Company Guide,
rendered it an easier task for his comrades marching in
column of companies to preserve their alignment.
On the organization of the Independent Volunteer
Battalion in 1857, Capt. Jackson was elected Lieut. Col.,
and Lieut. J. O. Clark succeeded to the captaincy, retain-
ing the position until the Company was mustered into
ihe Confederate service in 1861. Of the original roll as
organized in 185 1, if my information is correct, only Mr.
William Richards now survives. Capt. Horton B.
Adams, who died during "the present year (1899) was the
last surviving member of the original roll, who retained
active connection with the Company from its organiza-
tion until its enlistment in the Confederate Army.
OFF TO THE WAR.
Prof. Toseph T. Derry,, who served with the Ogle-
thorpes from their enlistment until his capture at Ken-
nesaw Mountain; in July, 1864, has kindly furnished the
following sketch of their war service prior to my con-
nection with the Company:
''Followinof the lead of four of her sister States Geor-
gia passed an ordinance of 'Secession,' Jan. 19, 1861.
Gov. Brown ordered the seizure of all Federal property
within the limits of the State, and on Jan. 24 the volun-
teer companies of Augusta, consisting of the Oglethorpe
Infantry, CHnch Rifles, Irish Volunteers, Montgomery
Guards. Washington Artillery, Richmond Hussars, and
two companies of 'Minute Men,' afterwards organized
into the Walker Light Infantry, with a company of
infantry from Edgefield, So. Ca., and two hundred
m.ounted m^en from Burke county, marched up to the
Augusta Arsenal and demanded its surrender,
Capt. Elzey. afterwards a Brigadier General in the
Confederate Army, was in command, and having only
a small force in the barracks, he promptly complied with
ORGANIZATION OF FIRST GA. REGIMENT.
The efforts to secure a peaceable separation from the
Union having failed, the Augusta companies promptly
offered their services to the Confederacy. The Ogle-
Ihorpes and Walker Light Infantry were the first two
10 UNDER THE '^ TARS AND BARS.
accepted. On March i8, 1861, the Usts for the Ogle-
thorpes were opened at their armory on Reynolds
street. SterHng- C. Eve was the first to enroll his name,
and Virginius G. Hitt w^as the second.
As the Company had in its ranks a larger number
than would be accepted, married men were excluded,
except as commissioned officers. In the closing days of
March, orders were received from the War Department
for these two companies to rendezvous at Macon, Ga.
On April ist they were escorted to the Central R. R.
Depot by all the volunteer companies of Augusta, while
the entire city, apparently, turned out to witness their
departure and to bid them God speed on their mission.
On April 3rd the First A^olunteer Regiment of Ga.
was organized with the following corps of field officers:
Colonel, James N. Ramsey, Columbus, Ga.
Lieut. Colonel, James O. Clark, Augusta, Ga.
Major, Geo. H. Thompson, Atlanta, Ga.
Adjutant, James W. Anderson, Newnan, Ga.
Quartermaster, Andrew Dunn, Forsythe, Ga.
Commissary, Geo. A. Cunningham, Augusta, (ia.
The enlistment dated from March 18, 01. and the reg-
iment was composed of the following companies:
A. Newnan Guards, Capt. Geo. M. Hanvey.
B. Southern Guards, Capt. F. S. Wilkins.
C. Southern Right Guards, Capt. Jno. A. Hauser.
D. Oglethorpe Infantry, Capt. Horton B. Adams
E. Washington Rifies, Capt. S. A. H. Jones.
F. Gate City Guards, Capt. W. L. Ezzarci.
G. Bainbridge Independents, Capt. Jno. W. Evans.
H. Dahlonega Volunteers, Capt. Alfred Harris.
I. Walker Light Infantry, Capt. S. H. Crump.
K. Quitman Guards, Capt. J. S. Pinkard.
The patriotism of Augusta is evidenced by the fact
that in this, the first regiment organized, she had larger
representation than any city in the State. On the date of
its organization Gov. Brown reviewed the regiment and
delivered an address that aroused much enthusiasm. A
few days later we left for Pensacola, via Montgomery,
Ala., then the Capital of the new Confederacy. Between
Garland and Evergreen, Ala., there was a gap of sixteen
miles, over which the boys had to take the peoples' route
as there was no railway connection. It was their first
march and as their feet grew^ sore and their untried mus-
cles wearied by the unaccustomed strain upon them,
they began to ask the citizens they met: "How far to
Evergreen?" "After you pass the next hill and reach the
rise of another it will be five miles," said one. This point
reached, another was asked the question. "Six miles,"
he said. Tramping along the dusty highway, another
traveler was met, "How far to ." "For the Lord's
sake," said Tom Eve, "don't inquire again. The road
gets longer every time you ask."
12 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
AN AMENDMENT TO THE TABLE OF LONG
While not germane to the matter under discussion my
friend, Joe Derry will pardon I know a slight interrup-
tion in his story, suggested by the incident just related.
Passing through the piney woods of Richmond county
som years ago the writer stopped at a country home to
secure proper direction as to his route. A lady came to
the door and in answer to my questions, said she was
unable to give the information, but suggested that I
might be enlightened at the next house. "How far is
the next house?" I asked. "About twict out o' sight,"
she replied, and I went on my way with at least the sat-
isfaction of haAang secured for the "table of long meas-
ure." that had worried me in my school boy days, an
amendment, that in originality if not in definiteness, was
literally "out o' sight."
"Straggling into Evergreen, next morning, we reached
Pensacola by rail that evening, spent a day in the town
and then sailed down the beautiful bay, past the navy
yard at Warrenton, and so close to Fort Pickens that its
guns could have blown us out of the water. Landing near
Fort Barrancas, we marched to our camping place, half
a mile beyond and near the magazine. Our stay here was
marked by no special incident, the time being spent in
drilling, regimental and picket duty, unloading powdei
from a sloop and filling sand bags to strengthen the from
of Fort Barrancas.
About the last of May, orders were received for the
transfer of the regiment to \ irginia. Steaming back to
Pensacola, the Oglethorpes were met by a delegation
from the CHnch Rifies, 5tli Gsi. Reg., by whom they
were conducted to the quarters of that company and roy •
ally entertained until our departure next day. The pleas-
ure of the occasion was marred, however, by the death
of Bugler Parkins, of the Clinch, caused by the bite of a
small ground-rattlesnake. On reaching Augusta the
Company received an ovation as great as that accorded
them on their departure for Pensacola. Three days in
Augusta and then we were off for Richmond, where we
met wirh a very hearty reception. At our camp we were
reviewed by President Davis and Gov. Letcher, both ot
whom addressed the regiment. About the middle of
June we were off for Staunton by rail, stopping at
Waynesboro to partake of a bountiful feast prepared for
us by the ladies and served on rough pine tables in pic-
(Col. C.H. Withrow, then a resident of Waynesboro,
recalls the incident and says that he was strongly im-
pressed with the appetite shown by the boys on that
occasion, that the presence of beauty did not prevent
tliem from doing ample justice to the spread.)
"At Staunton the regiment was entertained by a con-
cert, in which the children of the Blind Asylum sang
patriotic Southern airs. A few da}s later we were on tlie
march to re-inforce Garnett at Laurel Hill. About mid-
14 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
day of the first day's march the patriotism of the Virginia
ladies manifested itself again in a bountiful feast pre-
].ared for us in a beautiful grove, while from a rock near
by there gushed forth a bold spring of almost ice-cold
water. A night or two afterward, we camped at the foot
of Cheat Mountain, in a beautiful valley, at the Southern
•end of which some tim^e later we were stationed tor sev-
eral months, confronting a Federal force under Gen.
Reynolds on Cheat Mountain. A young lady living near
our camping- ground entertained us with Southern
songs, with a melodeon accompaniment, some of the
boys singing- with her. Two nights later, at Beverly, we
encountered a fearful storm, which blew down every
tent and repeated that interesting performance every
time we put them up.
Reaching Laurel Hill we found that service in West
Virginia was far more serious business that at Pensacola.
Picket duty was heavy and soon became dangerous.
McLellan with 20,000 men, began his advance early in
July. To oppose this force Garnett had only 4,500 men,
:-nany of whom were in the hospital. Exposure had pro-
duced much sickness and here occurred the first deatli
among the Oglethorpes, that of Dillard Adams, a good
soldier and a true man. On July 7th Gen. Morris took
position m our front with 8,000 men, while McLellan,
with the remainder of his force advanced on Rich Moun-
tain, held by Col. Pegram with 1,300 of Garnett's com-
mand. On July 8th the ist Ga. moved out in front of
i^aurel Hill to feel the enemy's position. We soon
in countered their skirmishers, who after shelling woods,
attempted to seize a small round hill in front of Beling-
lon. Lieut. Col. J. O. Clark quickly deployed his men
cind exclaiming, "Up the hill, boys, and remember you
are Georgians," led a gallant charge, which drove the
enemy back with some loss. Skirmishing continued until
Tuly nth, when Garnett learned that Rich Mountain had
been captured by Rosecranz.
THE LAUREL HILL RETREAT.
The capture of Pegram's position and of a large part
of his force necessitated the evacuation of Laurel Hill,
and Garnett began his retreat towards Beverly; sixteen
miles distant. After two-thirds of the distance had been
covered he was falsely informed that the enemv had
already occupied that place, and retracing his steps
almost to his abandoned camp, he turned off towards
Beverly, crossing, by an almost inmpassable road, over
Cheat Mountain into the Cheat River valley and
intending by turning the mountains at their Northern
end to regain his communications. On July 13th we
were overtaken by the Federails between Kalers and Cor-
iicks fords. The 1st Ga. and 23rd Va., with a section of
artillery under Lieut. Lanier, and a cavalry force under
Capt. Smith, were formed into a rear guard to protect
the wagon train. At Carrick's Ford the 23rd Va. suffered
considerably and a part of the wagon train was cap-
16 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
tiired. The larger part of six companies of the ist Ga,
and including the Oglethorpes, failed to hear the order
to retire and held their position until the enemy had
passed. Cut off from the main force and with no avenue
of escape except the pathless mountains, that hemmed
them in, they wandered for three days with nothing to
appease their hunger except the inner bark O'f the laurel
trees. On tlie third day, famished and worn out, they
stopped to rest, when Evan Howell proposed that he
and anotlier member of the regiment would go forward
and endeavor to Jind an outlet or a pilot to lead them to
an inhabited section. He fortunately met witli a moun-
taineer named Parsons, who took them to his home,
called in his neighbors, killed a number of beeves to
feed the famished men and then piloted them safelv to
Gen. Garnett, who was with tlie main column, had
been killed, after passing Carrick's Ford, while with-
drawing his rear guard and his force under Ramsey and
Taliaferro marched all night and succeeded in passing
the Pv.ed House and turning the mountain before Gen.
Hill, wdio was sent by McLellan to intercept them, had
reached that poiir. They w^ere now on fairly good roads,
in friendly, country and at Petersburg, W. Va., the peo-
ple turned out en masse to feed the exhausted Confed-
erates. Fro tliis point they retired l^y easy marches to
Monterey. The campaign, undertaken with a small force,
to hold an unfriendly section, had proven an expensive
DONNING THE GREY.
About midday on Dec. 20, i860, the writer sat in an
audience room in Macon, Ga., listening to an address
delivered by Hon. Howell Cobb to the Cotton Planters'
Convention, then in session in that city. After all these
years my memory retains no trace of that address in
either theme or outline. I do recall, however, an inter-
ruption in its delivery, remembered, possibly, because
it threw a crimson tint over the years that followed it, and
for the further reason that if there had been no occasion
for such an interruption, these records might never have
been written. While Mr. Cobb was speaking, a messen-
ger entered the hall and handed him a telegram. He
broke the seal, glanced over its contents and then read
the following message to the audience: "The South
Carolina Convention has just passed the Ordinance of
Secession from the Union." From that moment the
''Cotton Planters' Convention " was no longer in it. The
audience became a howling mob. That night there was
a torchlight procession with brass band accompani-
ments. The streets were packed with a solid mass of
excited, fevered, yelling humanity. The people were
simply wild for Southern independence and the scene
w^as probably duplicated in every Southern city.
IS UNDER THE STARS AXD BARS.
In the early months in '6i, when all hope of a peace-
Tul separation had passed, the war fever attacked first th-
towns and cities where the people were in constant touch
with each other and where t'he daily press kept the pub-
"lic pulse at more than normal beat. As the demand for
•troops increased, the infection spread to quiet country
places with their monthly church service and their week-
ly mail. And so in due time it reached the community in
Vvhich T lived, a community of quiet, well-to-do farmers,
'whose knowledge of Jomini and the art of war was
"decidedly limited. A military organization of thirty of
Jorty men was, riiowever, effected and Mr, John D. Mon-
^in, the only member who knew the difference bteween
"'^shoulder arms" and "charge bayonet," was elected cap-
tain. Our weekly drills at the academy grounds were
ironfined largely to marching in single rank to the music
of a rustic drummer and fifer, v/ho seemed in blissful
ignorance of anything but ''slow time." There was a
-short-legged Frenchman in the company, whose num-
^ber was "32" and, who in counting off, always respond-
-ed with ''dirty too." A year or two later those of us, who
had seen actual service, could probably have made the
same response without impairing in the least our repu-
itation for veracity. As there was not sufficient material
in the community to form a full company, my brother
and myself, with D. W. Mongin, A. J. and J. H. Rhodes,
made application to the Oglethorpe Infantry, ist Ga.
i^egimerit, then at Laurel Hill, Va., for admission into its
DOXXING THE GREY. 19
ranks, and were accepted. Leaving Augusta July 31,
1 86 1, in company with George Pournelle and Ginnie
Hitt, who were returning 'from a ten days' furlough, we
stopped over in Richmond a day and visited the Con-
federate Congress then in session. Sitting in the gallery
of the Senate Chamber looking down upon Alex Steph-
ens in the chair and Bob Toombs, Ben Hill, E. A. Nisbet
R. M. T. Hunter and other worthies in the Hall, Luke
Lane, an old college classmate, wrote on the fly leaf of
the pocket diary, from which these records are partly
taken a sort of preface, closing it with these words :
"Llere's hoping that every Yankee may find a bloody
grave;" and Ginnie Hitt, sitting by, wrote beneath it:
"Amen, say L" Luke appended my initials to the senti-
ment, but as it was stronger than my inclinations
prompted me to endorse, I erased them. We visited also
the prison hospital where the Federals wounded at Ma-
nassas, w^ere being cared for. It was my first contact with
''grim visaged w\ir."
To a strippling boy, reared in a quiet country home
and in a community in which there had never occurred
a serioiis personal difficulty, I had neither inherited nor
acquired any taste for carnage or bloodshed, and the
scene was not a pleasant one. And yet the battlefield
unfortunately soon dulls our natural sensibilities and be-
gets an indifference to suffering that would shock us in
On reaching Monterey, Va., where the Oglethorpes
UXDER THE STARS AND BARS.
were recuperating from the hardships of the ''Laurel
Hill Retreat," we found every tent occupied and wc
remained at the village inn until quarters could be pro-
vided. I rem^enber that I slept, or tried to sleep, on the
bare floor of our room as a sort of preparation for the
life on which I was entering. In this connection I recall
another fact, a peculiarity of this tavern, and that was
its capacity for the utilization of green apples as an article
of pubHc diet. My experience with hostelries is not
claimed to be at all extensive, but among tliose whose
hospitality I have had the good or bad fortune to enjoy,
or endure, this particular inn, on the line named, cer-
tainly "took the dilapidated linen from the lonely shrub."
We were treated to apples baked and stewed and fried,
to apple tarts and custards and dumplings, to apple but-
ter and it would probably be no exaggeration to say,
''there were others." After paying our bill Dan Mongin
remarked, "When green apple sea-son plays out this hotel
is going to suspend." In verification of his prophecy,
when we passed through Monterey en route to join
Stonwall Jackson in December, its doors were closed, its
lights were gone and all its halls deserted. Whether its
demise was due to the green apple theory, I am unable
My first month in cam.p was devoid of incident, its mo-
notony being varied only by squad drill, guard duty, for-
aging for maple syrup and other edibles among t!ie
Dutch farmers of that section and digging graves for
DONNING THE GREY. 21
tlie unfortunate victims of the campaign just ended. One
of the graves which the v/riter helped to dig in very hard
clav. was appropriated by a burial squad from' another
-egiment for one oi their own dead. I am not lawyer
enough to say whether the act was petty larceny, forci-
ble entry and detainer, or what an old colored friend of
mine once diagnosed as "legal mischievous" with the
accent on the second syllable.
MY FIRST MARCH.
On Sept. 7, '6i, Sterling Eve, Ginnie Hitt, Dan Mon-
gin and the writer, not having been favored with the
confidence of Gen. Lee as to his military plans, went into
the country on a foraging expedition. This trip was
probabl} inspired by a triumph in the culinary line
achieved by Dr. Hitt and George Pournelle in supply-
ing our table with two varieties of dumpling, apple and
huckleberry, on the same day. We had no bag, in which
to boil the dumpling and were forced to use the mess
towel as a substitute. How long it had been subjected
to its ordinary uses before being utilized in this way I do
not now recall. Dr. Hitt remembers, however, or says he
does, that the entire outer surface of the dumplings was
towel-marked. The nature of the mark referred to is left
without further discussion to the imagination of the
reader. In this connection I recall another incident in the
culinary line, which m^ay be as well recorded here as
elsewhere, ^.bout twenty vears after the war I met Dr.
22 UKDEE THE STAKS AND BAES.
Hitt in Augusta and taking something from my pocket.
1 handed it to him. and asked if he could give me any
information as to its character. He examined it very
carefully by sight, touch and smell, and then said very
confidently: ''Oh, yes, I knoAV what that it. It is a stone
taken from a deer's liver." His diagnosis was not "reas-
onably" correct. The article under examination was a
Confederate biscuit baked in our camp at Jacksonboro,
Tenn., in 1863, sent to my father's family as a specimen
and preserved during all those years. If I had taken the
precaution to have imm'ersed it in insect powder it
would probably at this date have been still in the ring,
though possibly a little disfigured. A few years after Dr.
Hitt's examination, I found that it had —
''Like an insubstantial pageant faded
Leaving not a wrack" —
but only a little dust behind.
On our return from the foraging tour with a good
supply of potatoes, onions and maple syrup, we found
the camp deserted — a camp favored with the purest
mountain air and the finest spring water, and yet where
Dan Mongin wrote to his father for brandy to counter-
act the effects of malaria. The entire force at ]\Ionterey
had been ordered to report to Gen. Henry R. Jackson
on Green Brier River, and had broken camp two hours
before our arrival. After resting an hour we began
the tramp, trudging over the mountain roads for eight
miles in the mud and rain and stopping for the night at
DONNING THE GBEY. 23
the residence of a Col. Campbell in Crab Bottom'. Here
we had the pleasure of meeting the first two heroines of
the war, Miss McLeod and Miss Kerr. They had ridden
seventy miles on horseback without an escort to notifv
Cen. Garnett of McLellan's approach. My first day's
march, t'hoitgli a short one, had broken m.e down so
thoroughly that I was compelled to tax the kindness of
a 3rd Arkansas Regiment wagoner for a ride next day-
The entry in my journal for that date begins with these
\vords: ''Took the road with a heavy heart and a heavier
load." Three years later, under the hardening process of
camp life I was enabled to march, on Hood's tramp to
Nashville and back to Corinth, Miss., twenty miles a day
continuously and rode only one of the eight hundred
miles covered in that campaign. During my two days
experience as an ''Arkansas Traveler" I think I heard
more expletive, unadulterated "cussin" from' the driver
of that wagon than it has ever been my misfortune to lis-
ten to. His capacity in this line seemed to be not only
double barreled, but of the magazine gun variety. If he
had failed to pass his examination in the school of
profanity I have never seen a man who was entitled to
a diploma. I appreciated the ride, but was glad to reach
our new camp, since it relieved me of his presence.
MY FIRST SKIRMISH.
Gen. Jackson's force on the Green Brier consisted of
the 1st and 12th Ga., the 3rd Ark. and the 23rd and 37tk
^4 UNDER THE STARS AND HARS.
Va. Regiments. Ten or twelve miles northwest of us, on
Cheat Mountain, lay a Federal force of 5,000 men under
Gen. Reynolds. Gen. Lee had planned an attack to be
made on this force on the morning of Sept. 12th, two
days after our arrival at the Green Brier. On the even-
ing of the nth an advance guard of ninety men from
tlie 1st and 12th Ga. under com-mand of Lieut. Dawson
Avas formed with instructions to flank, by a night march,
the Federal picket, secure a position in their rear, cap-
ture them and thus prevent notice to Gen. Reynolds of
the intended attack. For this guard there were detailed
from the Oglethorpes, Wilberforce Daniel, Joe Derry,
Tom Burgess, W. H. Clark and the writer. Leaving
camp at 7:30 p. m., under the pilotage of a citizen of
that section we reached a position within half a mile o!
the Federal camp about sunrise, after a fatiguing march
in the rain and mud, being compelled to draw ourselves
up the slippery mountain side by the undergrowth that
lay in our route. Soon after reaching our place of am-
bush we heard the drums beat for "Guard Mount" and
then the bands began to play "Annie Laurie," "Run,
Nigger Run," and "Jordan is a Hard Road to Trabble,"
were three of the selections rendered. The first suggested
pleasant memories of our far away homes; the second,
the possibility that in a little while there might be a
practical illustration of the refrain, while the tramp we
had just taken satisfied us that "Jorda-n" was not the
onlv hard road to travel. The selection of these airs re-
DOXNING THE GREY. 25
calls the singular fact that in actual service military
bands do not as a rule play national or military music.
The writer had other opportunities than the one named
of hearing- Federal bands during his term of service, but
does not recall a single instance in which a national air
was rendered. Lulled by the music and overcome by
fatigue and loss of sleep, I fell into a doze, from which I
was awakened by the accidental discharge of a gun in
the hands of one of the guard. A Federal sergeant from
the picket post, hearing the noise, came down the road
to investigate. On reaching a point opposite the left of
our line he heard the ominous click of the rifle hammers
and started in full run for his camp. Six or eight balls
crashed through him and the poor fellow fell dead in the
road. Attracted by the firing, about twenty-five of the
Federal pickets came hurriedly down the road and on
seeing their dead comrade fired a volley into the woods,
which concealed us, but failed to do any execution.
''Charge!" sang out our commander, and vs^e broke for
the road. Before reaching it, the pickets had scattered
into the woods beyond. Tom Burgess, as he leaped into
the road saw one of them rise from a stump behind
which he had been hiding, and run. Tom' raised his rifle,
took deliberate aim and fired. As he fell. Torn pointed
his finger at him and said, "Got you." I was standing
only a few feet from Tom and it has always been a mat-
ler of gratification to me that my gun had been fired
before reaching the road and that T had no opportunity
26 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
to reload. At ^uch close range it would have been almost
impossible to haA-e missed my man, and whatever mv
feeling at the tim.e may have been it would have been a
source of life-long regret to me to know positively that
"some mother's hoy" had fallen by my hand, even in
Avar. Seveial others were killed as they ran through the
woods. No member of the guard received even a scratch,
and the afTair had more the appearance of a rabbit hunt
than a skirmish. After the firing 'had ceased, Lieut. Daw-
son, feeling that it was unsafe to remain so near the Fed-
eral camp wdth so small a force, reformed the guard and
we began our m.arch down the mountain. We were ex-
pecting to meet the reserve picket of the enemy and '.v.
a sharp curve in the road were confronted by a column
of troops marching in fours and only a hundred yards
away. One of the guard sang out, "Here they are boys,'^
and the firing began. Three men were shot dowm and
seeing that we w'ere outnumbered, Dawson gave the
command: "Fall below the road." Believing that implicit
obedience to orders was the first requisite of a soldier, I
responded with considerable promptness. The fire slack-
ened a moment and then came the order: "Charge 'em."
Up into the road we clambered again, when we discover-
ed that we were fighting our own regiment, and "Cease
firin'g, we are Georgians," rang out from nearly a hund-
red throats. Ed Johnson, then in command of the 12th
Ga., afterwards a Major General, was riding towards the
head of the column and hearing our cry, sang out: "They
do:n^ning the grey. 2T
are liars, boys. Pop it to 'em! Pop it to 'em." The mistake
was soon discovered, however, and the firing ceased.
Three m^en had been killed and a number wounded by
this mutual and unfortunate error. After the skirmish
had ended and order had been restored, Dr. Hitt told
me that he had drawn a bead, squirrel or otherwise, on
my anatomy, and was in the act of firing when Col. Ed
Johnson, in his anxiety to reach the front, rode directly
between us and possibly saved him the horror of having
killed a comrade and messmate. One of the victims of
that encounter, Felder, of the Houston Guards, told his
mess on leaving camp that he w^ould be killed, a presenti-
ment trhat was unfortunately too true. Another poor fel-
low was shot through the thigh, the ball cutting an artery.
He lay there until the blood ran down the road for a
distance of fifteen feet. The sight caused another soldier
to have a nervous chill and "he begged piteously to be
xA.fter the w^ounded had been cared for, the guard was
reform.ed in front of the brigade and we were marched
back to a position in front of the Federal camp to await
the attack on its rear by the 3rd Ark. and the 23rd Va.
Why this attack was never made seems to be a sort of
unsolved problem. Gen. Lee is said to have made a ver-
bal explanation to President Davis, but if there has
been any published statement of the reason I have failed
to see it. As the attack on the rear had for some reason
failed to materialize. Gen. Jackson, after remaining on
ihe mountain for four days, returned to his old camp.
28 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
In connection with this, my first skirmish I am glad
to have the opportunity of paying deserved tribute to a
comrade, who has since passed over the river, but who,
on that day, as on every other in which I had the honor
to serve with him in time of peril, was conspicuous for
his courage and his cool indifiference to danger. When
the order was given to fall below the road in order to
secure some protection from the rocks and trees, Will
Daniel refused to do so and kept his exposed position,
coolly loading and firing until the skirmish was over.
In devotion to the cause, for which he fought, in readi-
ness to accept the gravest personal risks, in apparently
absolute unconsciousness of danger, he was every inch
And now^ what were my own sensations in this, my
first baptism of lire? A candid confession is said to be
good for the soul, but whether it would be good for the
reputation in this particular case is another matter. Un-
der the law of testimony a witness is not compelled to
incriminate himself. Besides, after the lapse of nearly
forty years, my memory can not be expected to retain
very accurately such minor details. I will only say, there-
fore, that while the excitement produced by the crack of
the rifles and the hiss of the minies did in some degree
lessen the sense of personal danger, I have been able,
even in my limited experience as a traveler, to find quite
i* number of places that were to me equally as pleasant
iis being- under fire even for the first time. I speak, of
POXNING THE GREY. 29
course, only for myself. Men's tastes dififer in this as
widely perhaps as in other matters, and I do not claim
that mine was a imiversal or even a common experience.
I only claim that while I had been curious to know how
I would feel under such circumstances, my curiosity was
satisfied in a little while, in a very little while. This niav
have been due to the fact that my temperament is con-
servative and that I did not care to be an extremist even
in a little matter of this kind — possibly, ah, yes, possibly.
MY FIRST PICKET DUTY.
For several miles in our front, the road leading to-
wards Cheat Mountain ran through a narrow valley and
then crossing the river, wound up the mountain side. On
an outpost near this road my first picket service was ren-
dered. From an aesthetic, rather than a military poinc
of view the scenery from this post was really enchant-
ing. Just beyond the river lay a range of mountains
broken in its contour by a partial gap. In its rear and
forming a background, rose a loftier range, the whole
constituting in appearance a mammoth alcove. The fol-
iage of the forest growth, that studded the slopes from
base to summit, alchemized by the autumn frosts had
changed its hues to gold and crimson and with its l^leiid-
ed tints forming to the eye an immense boquet, the pic-
ture was worthy an artist's brush and has lingered in
my memory during all these years. But the scene
changes. Night comes on cold and drizzlv and starless
30 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
No fire is allowed by the officer of the guard. Standhig
alone on an outpost in Egyptian darkness and numbed
with cold, while the muffled patter of the rain drops on
the fallen leaves continually suggests the stealthy foot-
fall of an approaching foe, I reach the conclusion that
it subjects a man to some inconvenience to die for his
A few nights afterwards the picket at this post was
attacked by the enemy and driven in. As they retired un-
der fire Joe Derry was knocked down by a buck and ball
cartridge that riddled his cap and grazed his scalp but
inflicted no wound. When they had rallied on the reserve
post and Joe had opportunity to take his bearings he
found that while unwilling to remain and extend to his
Northern friends any social courtesies, he had been
kind enough to leave with them a lock of his hair. The
clipping was made without pecuniary charge, but Joe
has probably preferred since to patronize a professional
barber even at the expense of his bank account.
MY FIRST BATTLE. '
On Oct. 3rd, '61, Gen. Reynolds, thinking, possibly,
that military etiquette required that he should return the
call we had made him on Sept. 12th, came down, attend-
ed by his entire force and knocked at the door of our
outer picket posts in the early morning hours with the
evident purpose of making an informal visit to our camp.
The knock was loud enough to arouse Col. Ed. Johnson,
DOXXIXG THE GREY. 31
who went out and took command of the pickets in per-
son in order that the reception given our visitors migh:
be sufficiently warm and cordial. Under his personal
direction every foot of the Federal advance was stub-
bornly contested. A little fellow belonging to our regi-
ment finally grew tired of falling back and running up
to Johnson said: "Colonel, let's charge 'em'," Johnson,
with that peculiar nervous twitching of the lip that char-
acterized him in battle, commended the little fellow for
his grit, but did not think it good military judgment to
charge an entire army of five thousand men with a
squad of fifty pickets. By 8 a. m. Gen. Reynolds had
taken po?ition in our front and his artillery had opened
onour Hue. The main attack was expected on our right,
and to its defence the ist and 12th Ga. were assigned.
Forming into line and lying down to escape the shci
and shells from the Federal batteries, we awaited the
attack. .\ nervous officer in the regiment kept walking
up and down the line saying: "Keep cool, boys, keep
cool," until Lieut. Ben Simmons of the Oglethorpes,
suggested to him that he was wasting his breath, that
the boys were cool. Gen. Jackson came down to our
position to overlook the field, and while there a courier
rode up and said: "General, the wagoners are cutting the
traces and running off with the horses." The General
grew very much excited and turning to his son, Harry
Jackson, said, "Go up there, Henry and shoot the first
wagoner that cuts a trace or leaves his team." Harry
32 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
galloped off, trying to get his pistol from the holster
After the cannonade had lasted several hours an infant-
ry attack was made on our left and was repulsed. Then
Gen. Reynolds ordered an assault on our right. As the
attacking column debouched from the woods on the fur-
ther bank of the shallow Green Brier, we were doubk-
• juicked to the front to oppose their passage. Just then
Shoemaker's Va. Battery began to throw grape shot into
nieir ranks and the men refused to cross The officer.-
stormed at them and rode their horses into the ranks in
the effort to force them to advance, but without avail.
The column fell back to the road where they were joincl
by their right wing and by i p. m. the entire force was
making tracks for Cheat Mountain. Thus ended my sec-
ond lesson in "Jomini." or my first battle, if battle it
can be called. The losses on both sides, probobly, did
not aggregate two hundred. The official report of the
engagement was, however, so elaborate that it was sub-
jected to criticism and ridicule by the m'Crciless pen of
Tno. 'M. Daniel, of the Richmond Examiner. It was re-
ported that he said that there were more casualties from
overwork and exhaustion in setting up type for that re-
port t'h^tn from shot and shell in the battle.
Among the wounded that day was a member of the
Bainbridge company of our regiment, who had been
shot down in the early morning as the pickets w^ere retir-
ing before the Federal advance and, whose comrades
were forced to leave him where he fell. As the Union
DONNING THE GKEY. 3^
troops passed him again (mi their return a surgeon was
asked as to the propriety of taking him along as a pris-
oner. "No," said he. ''Give him a canteen of water. He'll
be dead in a few nours." The wounded man looked up at
him- and quoting, as Dr. Mclntyre would say, very lib-
erally from profane history, told him that he didn't in-
tend to die. They left him, nevertheless, and when, at 3
o'clock next morning, he was brought into camp, both
of our surgeons pronounced his wound fatal. He dis-
sented very strongly from their opinions, was sent to the
hospital and came out a well man, saved largely, as I
believe, by his dogged determination not to die.
A NIGHT STAMPEDE.
There are panics commercial and panics military,
bearing no special relation to each other and yet pro-
duced possibly by similar causes. One is attributed to a
lack of confident:e in others; the other is possibly due
to a want of the same mental condition in regard to our-
selves. In war fear as well as courage is contagious. The
conspicuous bravery of a single soldier has sometim-es
steadied a wavering line, while one man's inability to face
ihe music has begun a rearward movement that ended
in a rout. Gen. Dick Taylor says that in Jackson's Val-
ley Campaign he one day quieted the nervousness of his
men under a heav}- fire by standing ont he breastworks
and coolly striking a match on the heel of his boot to
light a cigar. His apparent indifference to the danger
34 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
was probably feigned but it produced the desired result.
Heroism in battle and out of it is probably not so much
ihe result of what is term.ed personal courage as it is the
effect of lofty pride of character, backed and strengthen-
ed by a God-like sense of duty. Napoleon once ordered
one of his colonels to charg-e a battery that was playing
havoc with his lines. The officer turned pale as the order
came from his commander's lips, but he went to his post
promptly and led the charge and Napoleon said to his
.-raff: ''That's a brave man, he feels the danger, but is
willing to face it." There are tim'es, however, in war,
when men, from some cause, real or imaginary, losr^
their self-control and give way to an unreasonable and
unreasoning fear, when the instinct of self-preservation
is uppermost and patriotism and pride alike lose their
power. A few occasions of this kind I recall in my term
of service. One of them occurred on the night of Oct.
26, '61, at Green Brier River. A picket from one of the
outposts came in and reported the presence of a body of
Federal troops near his post. Two companies from the
1st and I2'th Ga. and 37th Va. each, were aroused from
sleep and sent out to capture or disperse these disturbers
of our dreams. Few occasions in war test a man's nerves
more thoroughly tiha»n being suddenly awakened at night
by an alafm'. I have known men at such a time to suffer
from nervous chills and on one occasion it brought on a
member of the regiment an attack of cholera morbus.
As this v/as the only instance within my observation
DONNING THE GREY. 35
when such a result was produced, I am not prepared,
without further evidence, to recommend it to the medical
profession either as an emetic or an aperient.
The six companies, including the Oglethorpes, had
passed the last vidette post and crossing Green Brier
River had begun the ascent of the mountain beyond.
We had reached the point where the enemy had been
seen and the location was an ideal one for an ambuscade.
The dense forest growth overarching the road, shut out
the starlight and we were unable to see six feet in our
front. The head of the column had passed a sharp bend
in the road and was doubling back, after the manner
of mountain highways, when a soldier near the front
stepped on a stick and it broke with a sharp snapping
sound resembling the click of a rifle hammer. Some one
in his rear, not knowing that the column had changed
direction, and mistaking the sound for evidence of an
ambush, said: ''Look out boys," and stepped to the side
of the road. The next file followed suit and the move-
ment increased in volumn and force as it came down the
line, until the hurried tramp of feet sounded like a cav-
alry charge, as most of the men thought it was. For a
few minutes everything was in confusion and panic
reigned supreme. There was an undefined dread in everv
man's mind of a danger whose character and extent was
hidden by the darkness. Several guns were fired, but
fortunately there were no casualties save a few skinned
iioses from too sudden contact with the undergrowth
36 UNDER THE STAES AND BARS.
that walled in the road. Order was tinally restored and
the command proceeded on its mission, but failed to
locate an enemy, w"hich had probably never existed ex-
cept in the perverted vision of a nervous picket.
THREE LITTLE CONFEDERATES.
Thomas Nelson Page has written very charmingly of
•'Two Little Confederates," but an incident that occurred
during our stay at Green Brier shows that "there were
others." On Nov. 14, '61, three Virginia boys living in
vicinity of our camp, and all under fifteen years of age,
w^ere out squirrel hunting on the Green Bank road^
which led partly in the direction of the Federal camp on
Cheat Mountain. Rambling through the woods in search
of game, they came in sight of Yankee soldier, who was
out on a similar errand, or possibly on an independent
scouting expedition. As he was a "stranger" they decided
to "take him in." He had laid aside his gun and cartridge'
box and was sitting by a tree eating his lunch. Slipping
up noiselessly in his rear they captured his arms and
then presenting their squirrel rifles they offered to serve
as an 'honorary escort to our camp. He was rather loth to
comply with the request of his youthful captors, but th'-
nmzzles of their guns were very persuasive, and with true
Virginia pluck, they marched their mortified prisoner to
Gen. Jackson's quarters. I regret that I failed to preserve
the names of those three brave little Confederates.
But few other incidents worthv of record in tliesc
DONXING THE GREY. 37
memories occurred during our stay on the Green Brier.
On Nov. 17 there was a hotly contested snow ball fight
between the ist and 12th Ga. Regiments, resulting in a
drawn battle. Two days later at 2 a. m., in response to
the rattle of musketry at the picket post, w^e were arous-
ed and marshalled into line in the wintry night air to
repel an expected attack on. our camp. It was on this
occasion that the cholera morbus incident, to which
allusion has been made, occurred. The alarm proved
groundless, as the pickets had mistaken an old grey
mare and her colt for a body of the enemy. As the ani-
mal was clothed in grey, the Confederate color, the mis-
take was all the less excusable.
A CHANGE OF BASE.
For some weeks rumors, or ''grape vine" bulletins, as
they were called, had been afloat in camp that our regi-
ment was to be transferred to coast service. To boys
reared in the milder climate of Georgia the ta^te we were
having of a Virginia winter rendered these rumors very
palatable. And when, on Nov. 21, orders came to break
camp we felt rather confident that we were bidding a
long farewell to "Traveler's Repose" and Northwest
A'irginia, and were off for Georgia. The baggage wag-
ons, of which the ist Ga. had at that stage of the war,
enough, in Gen. Loring's opinion, to equip a division,
were loaded and went their way. All the afternoon we
lay around the dismantled camp awaiting order to ''fol-
low pursuit," as a friend of mine O'uce said, but they fail-
ed to come. Night settled down cold and cheerless, with
our tents and blankets ten miles away, and we had to
make the best of it. My bedfellow and I slept on an
oilcloth, covered with an overcoat, and tied our four
feet up together in a flannel shirt. Next day we crossed
Allegheny Mountain and after three days' march, buoy-
ed with the hope of spending the winter under a warmer
sun, we reluctantly turned our faces Northward again,
A CHANGE OF BASE. 39
with the feehng in our hearts if not voiced upon our
''O, ever thus from childhood's hour
I've seen my fondest hopes decay."
After a week's march my feet grew very sore and as
I Hmped through Harrisonburg, a sweet-faced Virginia
matron, with music in her voice and the Hght of heaven
in her eye, beckoned to me from the window where s'he
was sitting and gave me a nice pair of woollen socks.
Passing through Newtown, Middletown, Kernstown anJ
a number of other towns in a section made famous af-
terwards by Jackson's Valley Campaign, we reached
Winchester Dec. 8, 1861. A few days later a supply of
l^lankets contributed by the good laches of Augusta, was
received by the Oglethorpes. One of the contributors
had no blankets, and in heu of them, donated a hand-
some crumb-cloth, which like Joseph's coat, was of
many colors, red and green being the prevailing tints.
In the distribution this fell to Elmore Dunbar, the wag
of the Company. Not needing it as a blanket he took it
to a tailor in Winchester, had it transformed into a full
suit, cap, coat and pants, and donning it had an innum-
erable company of gamins, white and black, following
in his wake all over the town.
He and Harrison Foster were messmates. There was
no discount on either of them as soldiers. Enlisting at
the first call to arms, they were always among the first
40 UXDEit THE STARS AXD BAliS.
to toe the line at every beat of the longroll and in the
closing months of the war, when 'hope of success had
well nigh passed and so many w^ere dropping by the
wayside, they held out bravely and manfully to the end.
But as cooks they were not a brilliant success. One even-
ing Harrison had gathered a few brush to make a fire,
when he called on Dunbar to assist in his preparations
for the evening meal, an appeal, to which the latter failed
to respond. "Well," said Harrison, ''if you don't help, I'll
swear I won't cook any supper." "All right," said
Dunbar, ''My supper's cooked." and fishing out of
iiis coattail pocket an antiquated biscuit of uncertain
age, he began to nibble. "Well," said Harrison, "T won't
build any fire. You'll have to freeze," and Dunbar gently
drew from his haversack an old-fashioned silk
beaver hat, that he had worn in the march up the valley
and quietly placed it on the fire as liis contribution to the
A SOLILOQUY— (NOT HAMLET'S.)
Among the original members enlisting with the Ogle-
thorpes, was one H — H — , who, in civil life, w^as so
scrupulously careful w^ith his dress that in these latter
days he would have passed a creditable examination as
a dude. Camp life is not specially conducive to personal
neatness and eight month's service had left to him on
this line only the memory of better days. Returning from
\A^inchester one night in a condition not promotive of
A CHANGE or BASE. 41
mental equilibriunj. he failed to find his tent and speni
the nif^ht around the camp fire He awoke next morn-
ing v/ith his head in a camp kettle and his clothing soiled
and blackened by contact with the cooking utensils, that
had been his only bed-fellows. Running his hand
through his matted locks and surveying his discolore 1
uniform he was overheard to indulge in the following
soliloquy: ''Is this the gay and fascinating H — H — , that
once perambulated the streets of Augusta in faultless
attire? When I think of what I am. and what I used to
v.^as. T feel myself blamed badly treated without suffi-
"LIABLE TO DISAPPINTMENTS."
On a Saturday afternoon in my boyhood days, in com-
pany with a schoolmate, I was rambling through the
woods in the enjoyment of the hebdomadal relief from
the restraints of the school room and the unpalatable
mysteries of the ihree R's taught with a hickory attach-
ment. Reaching a country bathinghouse half-filled with
water and used by a neighboring colored Baptist church
for baptismal purposes, we proceeded to draw off the
water in order to catch the tadpoles that were enjoying
their otium cum' dignitate on its mud-lined bottom. On
the next day the preacher and congregation assembled
at the place to administer the rite of baptism to a num-
ber of applicants for membership. Owing to our tadpole
imnt of the preceding day, they found that unlike the
i-2 UNDER THE STARS ANL BARS.
place mentioned in the Scriptures, tliere was not "much
••.vater there," and they were compelled to defer the cere-
mony to a more convenient season. In dismissing- the
congregation the colored brother took occasion to re-
mark that ''We are liable, brethren, to disappintments
in this life.'" On Christmas day in '61, in our camp, near
Winchester, the mess to which the writer belonged
found sad occasion to verify the truth if not the orthog-
raphy of our dusky brother's observation. With a lauda-
ble desire to celebrate the day in appropriate style we
had arranged with a colored caterer to supply our mess
table with the proverbial turkey and such other adjuncts
as the depleted condition of our financial bureau would
permit. The day dawned and in the early morning hours
our appetites for the coming feast were whetted by an
cggnog kindly furnished the entire company by Lieu:.
J. V. H. Allen. The Christmas sun passed its meridian
and traveled on toward its setting with no Joshua to
stay its course. The appointed dinner hour came, as all
iippointed times do, but the proverbial turkey came not,
with adjuncts or without. With our gastronomic hopes
knocked finally into pi, but not mince pie, we sat down
at last to our hardtack and bacon, lamenting in our hearts
the uncertainty of "aught that wades, or soars, or shines
beneath the stars." Vv'hcther the roost, from which our
Cc.terer expected !o supply our larder was too w^ell guard-
ed on the preceding night, or whether the rating given
our mess by the comm'crcial agencies was unsatisfactory
A CHANGE OF BASE. 4a
has remained through all these years an unsolved prob-
A TRAMP WITH STONEWALL JACKSON.
After our arrival in Winchester the "grape vine" ser-
vice was again brought into requisition and rumors were
current that we were going into winter quarters. But this
was not "Stonewall Jackson's Way." His headquarters
were in Winchester. Bath and Roanney, in his depart-
ment, were occupied by Federal troops and he deter-
mined to oust them. On Jan. i, '62, our division, with
Ashby's cavalry, began the march to Bath. It was a
bright, warm day, with a touch of spring in the air. On
the evening of the 3rd it began to snow and for thirty-
one days the sun did not show his face again. If any
reader of these memories should be disposed to ques-
tion the accuracy of this statement, I can only say that it
is so written in the chronicles of the First Georgia Reg-
iment as recorded in my journal for the month named.
That evening the wagons failed to reach our camp
and our supper was confined to a single course — parched
corn. Not relishing a repetition of the menu for break-
fast, I dropped out of the ranks soon after the march
began and tramping across the freshly fallen snow to a
residence not far from the roadside, I found a trio of
pretty Virginia girls engineering the first cooking stove
1 had ever seen. Reared in a country home and accas-
tomed to rely for my daily bread on the culinary skill of
44 UXDER THE STARS AXD BARS.
old "Aunt Hannah," t'he presiding genius of an old-
fashioned kitchen fire place six feet wide, where, with
the tact born of long experience, she piled the ruddy
coals on the biscuit oven lid, or fried in a skillet the
home-made sausage and spare rib w4th home made lard,
or broiled on a gridiron the juicy beefsteak, or piled th ;
burning ''chunks" under the mammoth kettle that hung
from the crane, while from its cavernous depths the air
was laden with the- aroma of ham and cabbage, this in-
novation on old-time methods was something of a revela-
tion. But its novelty did not diminish the relish with
which I hid away in my empty anatomy the steaming
pan cakes dished out by fair and shapely hands to a
squad of hung'ry soldier, one of whom, as Bill Arp would
say, I was glad to be which.
On the morning of Jan. 4th we v/ere halted in front of
Bath, while a portion of the division was deployed on the
left of the road for an attack upon the enemy. As the
line of battle advanced through the snow, over a moun-
tain ridge, and in plain view of us, Capt. Sam Crump,
who had seen service in Mexico, said: ''Well, boys, the
ball will open now in fifteen minutes." I was only a
stripling boy, with but limited experience as a soldier,
and I remem.ber with what reverent respect and im-
plicit faith I received the utterance. Bvit the ball did not
open. The Federals retired without resistance to Han-
cock, Md., six miles away, and we hurried forward in
pursuit. Reaching the hills overlooking the Potomac
A CHANGE OF BASE. 45
and the town after dark, we were standing in the road
awaiting orders when a sndden tiash illuminated the
lieavens and the regiment sank as one man into the
snow. We thought we had struck a masked battery, biit
it was our own guns throwing grape shot into the
woods in front. After standing an hour or two in the
snow withou fire we bivouacked and I slept, or tried to
sleep, on three rails with their ends resting on a stump.
AVe had built a fire of rails, a favorite army fuel in those
days. I do not remember from what species of timber
rhey were made, but I do recall the fact that it was a
popping variety when subjected to heat. All throug'h the
night our sleep Vv'as disturbed by the necessity of rising
at frequent intervals to extinguish our burning blankets,
and one man had his cap nearly burned from his head
before it awoke him.
Next morning Turner Ashby went over imder flag of
truce to demand the surrender of the town. During hi>
absence on this mission it was rumored that he had been
lield as a prisoner and his cavalry were preparing to
-torm the town to secure his release. The report proved
a fake and he returned, bringing Gen. Lander's refusal
to comply. An artillery duel ensued. The Federal guns
had to be elevated to reach our position and their bcills
striking the frozen ground would rebound Some of the
boys, who had played "town ball" at school would pre-
tend to catch them, and would sing out: "Caught Wv.n
out," when another would reply: "Don't count, "twas
46 T XDER THE STARS AND BARS.
second bounce." It seemed more like a frolic than a
fight. That night I laid aside my shoes and found them
next morning filled with snow, while my blanket was
covered with an inch or two of the same white mantle.
Water was scarce and I tried to secure enough for a cup
of coffee by melting snow in a tin cup, but found it a
On the morning of the 7th the force was withdrawn
to operate against Romney. The weather at this time re-
calls an old riiyme learned in my boyhood, which fits the
case better than any description I could give and which
"First she blew,
Then she snew.
And then she thew,
And then she friz."
The roads were as slick as glass. The horses had to be
rough-shod and the wheels roug'h-locked with chains to
cut the frozen sleet and snow in descending the hills, and
even with these precautions the horses would fall and be
dragged to the bottom of the descent before a halt could
be made. Twelve horses would be hitched to a single
piece of artillery and details were made from each com-
pany to push the wagons up the hills. To men not inured
to such hardships the experience was a pretty rough one
and the criticisms of the winter campaign made by some
of them would not look well in a Sundav school book.
A CHANGE OF BASE. 47
Osborne Stone's Presbyterian training- would not allow
liim to nse any cuss words, but I remember that his
"dog--on-its" were frequent and emphatic. On January
8 we reached the "Cross Roads," and those who were
}-ronounced by the surgeons unfit for further winter ser-
vice were returned to Winchester. With them went the
writer, to worry for four weeks with typhoid fever, while
the command went on to Rom'uey. Of the Romney trip
1 can not speak from personal knowledge, but from the
accounts given by those who can, it was a repetition of
the return from Hancock with its hardships, perhaps
Jackson accomplished his purpose, to drive the enemy
from his department, though at the expense of a good
deal of exposure and suffering to his men.
ASHBY AND JACKSON.
As hard as the service was, I am glad to have had the
opportunity of sharing it with such a man as Turner
Ashby. He was then a colonel of cavalry. Mounted on
his milk white steed, with the form of an athlete; coal
black hair, a silky brown beard reaching nearly to his
Avaist and a velvety, steel-grey eye, he was, in soul as
well as body, an ideal cavelier. His command embraced
some of the best blood of Virginia and he and they were
^-t types of the Old South, worthy representatives of a
civilization, that in culture, courtesy and courage, in
48 XJNDEE THE STARS AND BARS.
honor and in honesty, the past had never equalled and
the future will never repeat.
Jackson had not then developed the military genius
that afterwards rendered him« so famous. The campaign
furnished but little field for generalship, but it gave evi-
dence of one trait in his character — to halt at no obstacle
m the accomplishment of a purpose to benefit the cau^e
ior which he fought. In personal appearance and bearing
he and Ashby differed widely. Without grace as a rider^
and indifferently mounted, there was notliing in his ap-
pearance to indicate or foreshadow the height to which
lie afterw^ards attained. And yet I can but cherish with
pride the recollection that in this campaign I had the
privilege of serving under one, who in the blood-stained
years that followed "went down to a soldiers grave with
the love of the whole world, and the name of "Stonewall
In iliis connection my heart prompts me to pay its
earnest tribute to one, whose memory the sketch above
'.-ecalls. Dear old Aunt Hannah. How her name brings
l)ack to my heart and life today the glamour of the old^
old days, that will never com.e again — days when to me
a barefoot boy, life seemed a long and happy holiday. I
can sec her now, her head crowned with a checkered
liandkerchief, her arms bared to the elbows, her spec-
tacles set primly on her nose, while from her kindly
A CHANGE OF BASE. 49
eyes there shone the hght of a pure white soul within.
She was only an iiumble slave, and yet her love for me
was scarcely less than that my father and mother bore
me and when on a summer's day in '6i my brother and
myself left the old homestead to take our humble places
under a new born flag, there was not a dry eye on the
whole plantation and old Aunt Hannah wept in grief as
pure and deep as if the clods were falling on an only
Long years have come and gone since she was laid
away in the narrow house appointed for all the living.
No marble headstone marks the spot, yet I am sure the
humble mound that lies above her sleeping dust, covers
a heart as honest and as faithful, as patient and as gentle,
as kindly and as true as any that rest beneath the proud-
est monument that art could fashion, or affection buy.
She reared a large family of sons and daughters, Rev.
Charles T. Walker, the ''Black Spurgeon," among them,
transmitting to them all a character for honesty and vir-
tue marked even in those, the better days of the repub-
Wisely or otherwisely, in the order of Providence, or in
the order of Napoleon's "heavier battalions," we have
in this good year of our Lord not only a New South, but
a new type of Aunt Hannah. The old is, I fear, a lost
Pleiad, whose light will shine no more on land, or sea».
00 UNDER THE STARS AND BARSj
A RIDE WITH BELLE BOYD, THE CONFEDER-
On a page of the writer's scrap book, underneath a
roll of the Oglethorpes and in friendly contact with the
parole granted me at Johnston's surrender, is a slip of
paper pocket-worn, and yellow with age, which reads as
follows: ''AVinchester, Va., Mar i, 1862. Pass W. A.
Clark and brother today on Valley Road. By order Maj.
Gen. T. J. Jackson. M. M. Sibert, Captain and Provost
Marshall." Thereby hangs the following tale: On my
return to Winchester, after the tramp to Hancock, I had
secured lodgings at the home of a Mrs. Polk^ where for
nearly four weeks, I lay with my pulses throbbing with
fever. From that sick bed two incidents come back vivid-
ly today over the waste of years that have intervened.
My hostess, whose kindness I shall never forget, had a
daughter, Nellie, who, as a rustic friend of mine would
say, was s-omething of a *'musicianer." Patriotic songs
were all the rage and one evening as I lay on my bed
restless from fever and trying to sleep, she began in the
parlor below to sing the "Bonnie Blue Flag." The copy
used had, I think, eleven verses, and in my nervous con-
dition the entertainment seemed endless. Just as I had
congratulated myself on its conclusion, a young gentle-
man called and insisted on a repetition of the program
with his vocal accompaniment, and she was kind enough
to comply, without skipping a verse. I can not recall a
-musical entertainment that my condition forced me to
A CHAKGE OF BASE. 5j
appreciate less though cheerfully acquitting her of any
malice aforethought in the matter.
As I lay on my bed during all those weeks and looked
on the white-mantled hills that environed the town I
remember distinctly how intensely my parched lips
craved the cooling touch of the pure white snow. But
like Tantalus, I was forced day after day to gaze on a
luxury I could not enjoy, for the medical science of that
day said nay. Tempora mutantur, and doctors change
Before I had recovered sufficiently to leave my bed
Stonewall Jackson decided to evacuate Winchester and
ordered all the convalescent sick to be moved. Having
no desire to complete my recovery in a Federal prison
my brother secured the pass above referred to and seats
in the hack to Strasburg. There were nine passengers
and among them was Belle Boyd, the Confederate Spy.
Her home was in Martinsburg and her father a Major
in the Confederate army. Her mother had forced her to
leave home on the approach of the Federal army. On its
first visit to Martinsburg she had remained there. Hav-
ing a soldier friend in the hospital and uncertain as to
the treatment he would receive from the enemy, she had
taken tw^o of her father's servants to the hospital with a
stretcher, had him placed upon it and walked by his side
through the streets to her home with a loaded pistol in
her hand to protect him from insult or injury at their
hands. A few days later a Federal soldier attempted tc^
62 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
place a Union flag over the door of her home and she
persuaded him to desist by the use of a leaden argument
from her pistol. Another attempt to remove a Confed-
erate flag that waved over the mantel in her parlor met
v^ith a similar counter-irritant, and she was molested no
further. Fortunately or unfortunately as the case may
be, neither of her shots hit their mark. In view of these
facts her mother thought it prudent to send her away
before the Union forces occupied the town again, and she
was en route to the home of a relative in Front Royal.
To protect myself from the chilly air during the stage
ride I was wearing a woollen visor knitted for my broth-
er by Miss Lucy Meredith, of Winchester, and covering
my head and throat, leaving only my eyes exposed. With
a woman's instinct she saw tha't I was too weak to sit
up and arranged to give me possession of an entire seat,
improvised a pillow of a red scarf she was wearing on
her shoulders and in every way possible contributed to
my ease and comfort. On reaching Strasburg she aided
my brother in getting me into the hotel, arranged a
lounge in the parlor for me, brought my supper and en-
tertained me dunng the meal, refusing to eat anything
herself until I had finished. After supper she sat by me
and talked to me for an hour, and then, thinking I was
weary, she moved the lamp in a corner of the room
shading it from my eyes with her scarf, so that I might
sleep. After all these years my memory retains some in-
cidents of that conversation. I remember that she told
A CHANGE OF BASE. 53
Hie something of her child Hfe; that when a httle girl
she had been a member of Dave Strother's party in his
tour through Virginia, which he described so charming-
ly 'n the early numbers of Harper's Magazine over the
nom de plume of "Porte Crayon;" that Gen. Lander,
wlio commanded the Federal troops, that we had driven
from- Bath into Maryland, was an old sweetheart of her's;
that Dave Strother was a member of his staff, and she
intended to cut his acquaintance.
I remember that slie said further that she had
been hurt by a remark made to her that day
by a soldier about the seeming boldness of Virginia girls;
that soldiers mistook kindness and the expression of a
desire to serve ihem for boldness; that she intended
coming to Georgia after the war to get married She left
on the next train for her destination, and I saw her no
more. S'he had impressed me as one of kindest and gen-
tlest of women and yet a year or two later she forded the
Potomac alone in a storm at midnight to carry important
information to her brother in Stuart's cavalry. Perhap*s
with woman as well as man
"The bravest are the tenderest,
The loving are the daring."
If necessity had required it I believe she would have
led the charge of Pickett's Division at Gettysburg with-
out a tremor.
In the years that followed she became a noted spy,
54 UNDER THE STARS AND Bx\RS.
going into the Federal lines and securing information,
which she sent or carried to the Confederate army. She
was finally arrested and sent to Washington as a prisoner.
It was reported that she married the Federal officer, to
whose oversight she had been entrusted and that he
joined the Confederate army. Some of her methods as
a spy subjected her to harsh and hostile criticism, but in
grateful memory of her kindness to one, who was only a
private soldier, without rank or social prestige, one who
had no claim upon her service save that in an humi'ble
way he had tried to serve the cause she loved and in that
service had grown sick and helpless, her name has never
passed m.y lips except in tones of fervent gratitude and
As my service as a soldier on Virginia soil was now
about to end and as that service carried me afterwards
into six other states of the Confederacy, in four of them
lengthening into months or years, it may not be amiss
to say in this connection that judged by that experience,
Virginia stood above them all in kindly feeling and hos-
pitable treatment to the Confedereate soldier. Furnish-
ing to the army perhaps a larger quota of her sons than
any other State, her territory tracked by tlie tread of hos-
tile armies for four bloody years, her homes destroyed
and her fields laid waste, her generous kindness and her
active sympathy for the suffering soldier never wavered
to tihe end.
A cha:n^ge of base. 55
While the South as a whole gave to the world the
highest type of civilization it had ever known, Virginia,
as I believe, stood at its head, the capstone in the fairest-
structure the sun has gilded since the morning stars
sang together, anc. garlanding its summit like a glisten-
ing coronal, bright with the light of immortality stands
the name and fame of Robert Edward Lee.
The 1st Ga. Regiment was the only infantr}^ organiza-
tion from this State mustered out at the expiration of its
first year's service. The Conscript Act became effective
in the spring of '62, and succeeding regiments, whose
terms expired later were under its provision retained in
the service. On the return of the com'mand from Rom-
ney the 1st Ga. was ordered to Tennessee. Going by rait
to Lynchburg, a railroad accident occasioned some de-
lay at that point and as their time would have expired in
a few days they were sent to Augusta to be mustered
My brother, knowing that I would not be strong
enough to rejoin the command before its term of service
ended, decided to take me directly home. And so by
stage and rail, with tiresome delays at every junction,
in the deepening twilight of a fair spring day, weak and
we3,ry, I came in sight of the old homestead once more.
Over the joy and gladness of such a meeting after an
absence, every day of which had seem.ed to those T had
r,v UNDER THE STARS AND BAKs.
left behind, an age of agony and dread, it is meet thiit the
mantle of silence should fall. The halo that came to fath-
ers and mothers hearts in those old days when their
"boys'' came home from' the war. seemed like a breath
from Heaven. It was sacred then and to me it is sacred
still. Loving lips, that gave me glad welcome that spring
day have long been cold and silent, and eyes that shone
through misty tears are dim in death. Some time in the
coming months or years, I know not when, and yet in
God's good time, in weakness and in weariness at even-
tide on some spring day again, it may be, I shall. I trust,
go "home again;" not to the old homestead hallowed as
it is by a mother's love and a father's prayers, and yet to
find hard by the River of Life from lips long silent, a
Vv-elcome just as loving in "a city, whose builder and
maker is (iod."
ROSTER OF OGLETHORPE INFANTRY,
Co. D, 1st Ba. Regt
Capt. J. O. Clarke, promoted Lieut. Col. ist Ga. Ri^g.
Capt. Horton B. Adams.
1st Sieut. J. V. H. Allen.
2d Lieut. Geo. W. Crane.
3d Lieut. S. B. Simmons.
Tst Serg. A. J. Setze.
2(\ Serg. W. S. Holmes.
2,(.\ Serg. S. C. Foreman.
-Itii Serg. L. A. Picquet.
A CHANGE OF BASE. o?
1st Corp. O. M. Stone.
2d Corp. Jesse W. Rankin.
3d Corp. Chas H. Roberts.
4th Corp. Burt O. Miller.
Alfred M. Averill.
.-\. E. Andrews.
A. W. Bailey.
E. A. Beall.
A. W. Blanchard.
R. M. Booker.
Jno. M. Bunch.
Milton A. Brown.
A. J. Burroughs.
H. A. Cherry.
H. B. Clark.
E W. Clark.
Wm. H. Clark.
Walter A. Clark.
AV. J. Cloyd.
Jno. R. Coffin.
E. E. Clayton.
C S. Crag.
58 UJ^DEB, THE STAKS AND BARS.
J. B. Crumpton.
Joseph T. Derry.
T. J. Doughty.
C. W. Doughty.
W. R. Doyle.
B. B. Doyle,
Jno. P. Duncan.
S. H. Dye.
E. A. Dunbar.
Geo. W. Evans.
Robert C. Eve.
Sterling C. Eve.
L. F. Flming.
H. Clay Foster.
W. Harrison Foster.
John P. Foster.
J. P. Goodrich.
C. M. Goodwin.
W. A. Griffin.
A. G. Hall.
E. H. Hall.
J. J. Harrell.
Frank M. Hight.
A CHANGE or BASE. 59"-
Jno. C. Hill.
Jno. T. Himgerford.
V. G. Hitt.
H. B. Jackson.
W. F. Jackson.
A. M. Jackson.
Whit G. Johnson.
W. H. Jones.
W. E. Jones.
G. A. Jones.
W. H. Kennedy.
W. T. Lamar.
Geo. G. Leonhardt.
D. W. Little.
P. E. Love.
A. D. Marshall
C. O. Marshall.
Geo. W. McLaughlin.
C. E. McCarthy.
J. T. McGran.
D. W. Mongin.
R. B. Morris.
W. B. Morris.
Z. B. Morris.
W. J. Miller.
«60 UNDEli THE STARS AND BARS.
Geo. D. Mosher.
M. C. Murphey.
W. E. Peay.
J. T. Newberry.
F. M. Pope.
Geo. P. Ponmelle.
W. P. Ramsey.
J. T. Ratcriff.
J. PI. ReviU.
A. J. Rhodes.
J. A. Rhodes.
J. P. Roberts.
J. C Roebuck.
W. A. Roll.
J. W. Rigsby.
S H. Sheppard.
L W. Shed.
L. W. Stroud.
Fred W. Sioy.
Jno. W. Sroy.
Thomas J. Tutt.
J. E. Thomas.
Geo. J. Verdery.
R W. Verderv.
A CHANGE or BASE. 61
G. F. Wing-.
B. H. Watkins.
C. D. Waklns.
Jas. E. Wilson.
Jas. D. Wilson.
Walter A. Wiley.
Wm. T. Williams
W. T. Winr...
REORGANIZATION WITH 12th GA. BATTAL-
On May i, 1862, the Oglethorpes were re-organized
at Camp Jackson, on the Games Road, near Augusta,
Ga., as an artillery company under Capt. J. V. H. Allen.
Three other companies from the ist Ga. Regiment, and
the "DeKalb Rifles" from Stone Mountain, joined us
and the 12th Ga. Battalion was formed, with Major
Henr)'- D Capers as commander. We rem'ained at this
camp drilling for two months, and our parade ground
became a favorite afternoon resort for the young ladies
A "LITTLE LONG."
Among the fair visitors, w4io honored us by their pres-
ence, v;ere the Misses Long, two pretty and attractive
girls, who were guests at the Savage Place, near our
quarters. Miles Turpin, one of the companv v/its, fell a
victim to the charms of the younger one, who in physi-
cal make-up was rather petite. When his attack had
reached the acute e-tage, he was being joked about it one
day and gave vent to his feelings in the following re-
vised version of Goldsmith's familiar lines:
REORGANIZATION WITH 12th GA. BATT'K. 63
I want but little here below,
But Vv-ant "that little I-ong."
Miles was not the only wit in the Company. Every
"branch in Phil Schley's family tree must have shed puns
as an ordinary tree sheds leaves when touched by the
breath of winter. Lon Fleming was crossing the grounds
at Camp Jackson one day with a cha:*r slung over his
left shoulder, w^hen he was hailed by Phil "Lon, you are
most cheerful man I've seen today." "Yes," said Lon,
"over the left " Lest some of my readers may fail to see
the point, it may be prudent to say that w^hen Phil and I
were boys, "chair" in the piney woods was pronounced
"cheer." This w^as not one of Phil's best nor, perhaps,
one of his worst. It would probably grade about "strict
low^ middling." Aside .from this hereditary punning pro-
pensity, from which my old comrade has reasonably re-
covered, I am glad to recall his unfailing good humor
and his readiness to meet the dangers and hardships of
the service bravely and without a murmer.
THE I2th GA. BATTALION FLAG.
On July 4th, '62, Miss Pinkie Evans, of Augusta,
presented to the battalion a beautiful silk battle flag
made, it was said, from her mother's wedding robe. Her
patriotic address in making the presentation was re-
sponded to by Maj. Capers, who accepted the colors for
As the Oglethorpes were transferred from the battal-
64 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
ion in the fall of 1862, we had no opportunity of fic^hting:
under their banner save at the skirmish at Huntsville,
Tennessee. It was afterwards bravely borne on many a
bloody battlefield, under Evans and Gordon in Maryland
and Virginia. Seven color-bearers were shot down un-
der its silken folds. During the second heavy bombard-
ment of Fort Sumter, lasting from Oct. 26 to Dec. 6,
1863, the I2th Ga. Battalionformed a part of its garrison.
On Oct. 31st the feg of the fort was shot down and was
replaced by Serg. Graham, Will Hitt and Bob Swain, of
Augusta, then serving wdth the 12th Ga. Batt. It was
shot down again on the same day and its staff so badly
shattered that it could not be hoisted. The same brave
men went up on the parapet, amid the storm of solid
shot and shell and raised their own 12th Ga. flag. When
the Confederate line was broken at Cedar Creek, Serg.
Hopps of Crump's company, bore this flag, and disdain-
ing to. tly, he held his ground alone, waving his colors
defiantly at tlie advancing line of blue until he was
killed. Afred Wallen, of the same company, a beardless
boy, but a brave one, saw him fall and running back at
the risk of his own life, tore the flag from its staff and
brought it in safety to his command It is said these
colors w-ere not surrendered at Appomatox, but were
returned to their fair donor unstained save by the blood
of the gallant Baker and King and Stallings and Hopps,
who in the shock of battle had g-one dow^n to death under
their silken folds.
REORGANIZATION WITH 12th GA. BATT'N. 6;>
OFF TO THE FRONT
Bueli was threatening Chattanooga, and Maj. Capers-
Avas ordered to report with his battalion to Gen. Mc-
Cown at that point Leaving Augusta July 5th in two
special trains, we were detained at Ringgold, Ga., for a
day or two by a collision with a freight train, which re-
sulted in the death of ten or twelve men and fifteen or
twenty horses, and in injuries more or less serious to a
larger number. Reaching Chattanooga July 8, we re-
mained there ten days and were then transferred by N,
& C. R. R. to a point near Shell Mound, Ala. Picketing
here for two we^ks in front of Buell's army we returned
to Chattanooga Aug. i, and on the next day left for
Knoxville wit'h the intention, I suppose, of accompanying:
Kirby Smith's army into Kentucky. Two days at Knox-
ville and we are off for Clinton. En route a courier
brings information that the enemy has attacked our
forces at Tazewell, twenty miles away, and we are order-
ed to hurry forward to reinforce Gen. Stevenson at that,
point. An hour later another dispatch is received that the
attack has been repulsed and we are sidetracked at Clin-
ton to aid in the capture or dispersion of the 7th Tenn:.
Federal regiment, then occupying a fortified camp near
COL. HOGELAND AND HIS WAR DIARY.
How strangely human events sometimes shape them-
selves without apparent effort to control them Sitting
66 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
in my home some weeks ago in the dreamy haze of an
October Sunday afternoon, there chanced to fall under
my eye in the editorial column of a Sunday school paper
the statement that Col. Alexander Hogeland of Louis-
willc, Ky., had visited Nashville, Tenn., in the interest of
rthe "Curfew Law." Other items in the column caused a
momentary disturbance of my brain cells, then passed
away to be recalled no more. But this one lingered in
my memory and would not down, for thereby hangs the
The expedition against the Federal force at Hunts-
ville was commanded by Col. Gracie, of- Alabama, and
consisted of the 12th Ga. Battalion, a portion of an Ala-
bama regiment, and a few cavalry. Leaving Clinton at 4
p. m., Aug. 12, we camped near Jacksonboro on the
night of the 13th and on the morning of the 14th started
for Huntsville by a rough mountain path that crossed a
spur of the Cumberland range. After a toilsome tramp
we halted at 9 p. m. and after an hour's rest were again on
the march. The path is narrow and the overarching trees
shut out every ray of starlight. Groping along in the
dark we follow the tramp of the feet in front, reaching
out occasionally to touch the file just ahead, lest our ears
have deceived us Our pathway passes on the edge of a
precipitous bluff and my brother in Crump's company
loses his footing and topples over it. The fall fails to dis-
able him, but he loses his hat and in the darkness is
unable to recover it. Hatless he rejoins the command
REORGANIZATIOlSr AVITH 12th GA. BATT'N. 67
and the procession moves on. Just before daylight we
bait for another rest. At 5 a. m. we resume the march
and in the early morning reach the vicinity of the Fed-
eral camp. Deploying into line of battle we advance
through a belt of woodland and entering a cornfield be-
yond, our right is fired upon by the Federal pickets. As
we drive them in a scattering fire is kept up until we
come in sight of their camp and near it a rude log foit
built upon the crest of a tall hill, over whose precipitous
slope the forest trees have been felled, making an al-
most impassable abattis. While arrangements are being
made for an attack upon the fort, Tom Tutt and the
writer, who are both on the color guard, see a thin line
four or five hundred yards to our right, near a church,
and whom we take to be the pickets, who had been re-
sisting our advance. Tom, whose rule is to shoot at
everything in sight, selects his man and fires and the
writer follows suit. We load and fire again. After a few
rounds I become convinced that it is a portion of Capt.
Crump's company, which had been detached and sent
to t'he right and in which I have two brothers. As Tom
raises his gun again I said, "Hold on, Tom, you are
shooting at your o •* n company. ' ' He made no reply and
continued firing until the order to advance was given A
deep gully lay partially in cur front and as its passage
caused some confusion in the ranks, we halted to reform
the line. Crump's company was hurrying forward to join
us and befoTe they had reached their position in line Col.
68 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
Gracie gave the command, "Charge." From underneath
the head logs of the fort the Belgian rifles were barking
at us and the heavy balls they carried whistled by us Uke
young shells. We were waiting for Crump, and Gracie,
ignorant of the cause of the delay, shouted: ''What is
the matter with the 12th Ga. Battalion?" Just then a
ione cavadryman passed the line on foot and with drawn
sabre made his way towards the fort with the evident
intention of capturing the whole business himself.
Crump's company came up at a "double quick" and the
whole line moved forward with a yell. Sergeant Harwell,
our color-bearer, had never been under fire and the boys,
uncertain as to his grit, had asked Tom Tutt, who did
not know what fear meant, to take the colors when the
charge began. Tom made the effort to seize them, hut
Harwell, a tall, gaunt man, and brother of two honored
Methodist preachers, declined to give them up and bore
them forward bravely. As we advanced the fire from the
fort suddenly ceased and we thought they were waiting
to see the whites of our eyes. Reaching the steep ascent
we climbed up over logs and brush until the fort was
gained. Lieut. Joe Taliaferro, of Augusta, was the first
to enter, and with his sword cut down the floating flag.
The fort was empty — not a Yankee to be seen. Under
cover of the thick forest growth in their rear they had
hied to other haunts, under the idea, perhaps, that
"He who fights and runs away,
Will live to fight another day."
REORGANIZATION WITH 12Tn GA. BATT'N. 00
Their camp, located just below the fort gave ample
evidence of their hasty exit Our attack was something
of a "surprise party" and their unfinished morning meal
was boiling, baking and frying on the camp fires. We
were unexpected and uninvited guests and vet our recep-
tion was warm, although unfriendly Our all-night tramp
enabled us to do full justice to the breakfast they had
prepared, as well as the sugar cured hams and other sup-
plies their commissary had kindly left for our use. We
appropriated an ample outfit of blankets, canteens,
haversacks, etc., and burned what we could not carry
The skirmish on our side, and probably on theirs wa^
almost bloodless. W. W. Bussey, of the Oglethorpes,
and Garyhan, of Crump's company, were slightly
wounded. I recall no other casualty except the killing of
a nice horse ridden by Col. Oracle.
And now what has all this to do with the item I read
in a Sunday school paper? Sim.ply this: Among the assets
and effects secured that day by the ^yriter from the of^-
cer's tent and administered upon without "Letter's Tes-
tamentary" was a pocket diary belonging to Capt. Alex-
ander Hogeland, of the loth Indiana Regt. On reading
the paragraph referred to, the coincidence in names sug-
gested the possibility that Col. Alexander Hogeland, of
Louisville, Ky., "Father of the Curfew," might have been
Capt. Alexander Hogeland, of the loth Ind. Regt., whose
property had been in my possession for thirty-seven
70 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
years. To test the matter, I wrote Col. Hogeland and
from his reply the following extract is taken: "Your
deeply interesting favor of the 4th inst received and for
the information it contains accept my hearty thanks I
am the identical person referred to in your letter. Was
first lieutenant Co. D, loth Indiana Regiment in the
West Virginia campaign and aftenvards Captain of Co.
G. In May, '62, was made lieutenant-colonel of 7th East
Tennessee Regim'cnt, commanded by Col. Wm. Cliff,
and stationed at Huntsville, Tenn., in August, '62. We
lost everything on the occasion you refer to and this is
the first information I have received as to the where-
abouts of my effects. I am very glad to avail myself of
your proffer to return my diary and enclose herewith
necessary postage." Col. Hogeland's diary was duly re-
turned to him and in acknowledging its receipt he took
occasion to thank me for looking him up after all these
years and assured me that he would endeavor to return
that kindness by visiting Augusta in the early future and
giving the citizens of tlhis goodly city the benefit of the
"Curfew Law." It will furnish additional evidence of the
truthfulness of the opening statement in this sketch if the
capture of a war diary nearly forty years ago, should
result in the adoption of a "Curfew" ordinance in Au-
In illustration of the adage that "Every dog has his
day," it may not be amiss to say that Col. Hogeland's
escapade from Fort Cliff at the instance of four com-
REORGANIZATION WITH 12th GA. HATT'N. 71
panics of the old First Georgia Regiment, was only par-
tial compensation for the loo-mile rim mvicle by those
self-same companies from Laurel Hill, Va., in '6i, with
Capt. Hogeland's regiment as one of the exciting causes.
On our return from Huntsville, Joe Derry and J. W.
Lindsay, of the Oglethorpes, unable to keep pace with
the command, straggled and were captured by ''bush-
whackers " Joe was exchanged a few days, later, Lind-
say preferrng to remain a prisoner. After a short stay at
Clinton we moved up to Jacksboro and remained
there until Oct. 9th, guarding Bragg's line of communi-
cations. Our service at this place was uneventful. BuelFs
army had retreated into Kentucky and there wras nothing
to disturb our "otium cum dignitate" save a moderate
amount of picket duty and the one subject ever upper-
most in the soldier's mind — "rations." The following inci-
dents of our stay at this camp furnish some illustrations
of this fact:
THE PARSON AND THE GRAVY.
A continuous diet of salt bacon had made the boys
ravenous for fresh meat and as war has no tendency to
strengthen respect for property rights where a soldier's
appetite is involved, they were not, as a rule, very scrupu-
lous as to the methods adopted to procure a supply. The
means most in use at the date referred to were known in
camp parlance as 'flip ups." As no encyclopedia of my
72 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS
acquaintance describes this mechanical contrivance and
its specifications have never encumbered the records of
the patent office, it may not be amiss to say that it con-
sisted of a bent sapling, a slip noose with a trigger at-
tachment and a bait of corn. The unsuspecting porker,
tempted by the bait, sprang the trigger and the sapling
freed from its confinement, sought to resume its normal
position, while the shote caught in the noose and par-
tially suspended in the air gave noisy notice that the
game v/as up.
On one occasion the catch, by right of discovery or
otherwise, fell to a mess, of which Parson H — , a min-
ister of the Presbyterian persuasion, was a member.
When dinner was served that day a dish of smoking
pork chops was passed to the Parson, but he declined
with the remark that his conscience did not allow him
to eat stolen meat. As the meal progressed the fragrant
odor from the dish struck his olfactories with increasing-
ly tempting force and he finally passed up his tin plate
and said: "Pll take a little of the gravy if you please."
He had made a brave fight for principle and his final
compromise \vas probably due to the fact that Paul's
vow, ''If meat make my brother to ofifend I will eat no
flesh while the world standth," failed to include gravy in
its inhibtion. He may have been furthr influenced by the
reflection that his refusal to indulge could not possibly
restore the porker to life again. As Jim Wilson said,
" 'Twas Greece (grease), but living Greece no more."
REORG.SKIZATIOX WITH 12tii GA. liATT'X. 73
This incident recalls the fact that Jim and the writer
had on this subject the same scruples as the Parson, and
in order to place ourselves on the line of strongest resis-
tence we entered into an agreement with each other
binding ourselves to total abstinence from all meat of
questionable origin until mutually released from* the
obligation. The compact was religiously observed until
Hood's campaign in Tennessee in the winter of'64.
Transportation was scarce and rations were scarcer. On
one occasion two ears of corn were issued to each sold-
ier. Some wag in the company, probably Elmore Dun-
bar, seeing that horse rations w^ere being furnished sang
out, "come and get your fodder." On another occasion
beef was issued but no bread. We had neither lard to fry
nor salt to season, but our digestive apparatus was not
then fastidious as to condiments. It was unimportant
whether it was taken ''cum grano salis" or v;ithout, so
the void was filled.
A fire was built of dried limbs from a brush pile and
the beef placed in a shallow frying pan to stew, Frank
Stone being the chef de cuisine. The mess sat around
with anxious faces and whetted appetites. Finally one of
them, in shifting his position, struck the end of a limb on
which the pan was resting and dumped the whole bus-
iness into the dirt and ashes. The catastrophe placed us
rather than the beef in a stew and we went to bed sup-
Under such conditions it is, perhaps, but natural that
74 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
the case should be re-opened, a new trial granted and a
verdict rendered to follow Paul's other injunction,
"Whatsoever is set before you, eat, asking- no questions
for conscience sake."
I can not recall positively that either of us ever in-
dulged even as to gravy, but I think I can say that neith-
er of us was particepts criminis in the act of impress-
ment. If Sfuiltv, we were onlv accessories after the fact.
During our si-.ay at Jacksboro t'he farmers in ^hat
section were making sorghum syrup, which most of them
called ''them molasses." Near one of our picket posts
lived a Baptist minister named Lindsay, from whose bet-
ter half we purchased vegetables and other edibles. On
one occassion I was unable to make exact change and
left owing her 12 1-2 cents in Confederate money. Two
weeks later I was on picket againand paid her the bal-
ance due. She was so much surprised that a soldier
should have the moral sense to recognize and meet such
an obligation that she formed a very exalted estim'ate of
my honesty and when I afterwards went to buy some of
"them molasses" she requested her husband to take it
from a barrel she had reserved for her own use "for/'
he said "she likes 'em powerful thick." I had occasion to
regret her kindness, for it was so thick that it v/as with
difficulty that I could get it either into or out of my can-
teen, and in view of her partiality I did not have the heart
Ki:OHGANIZATION WITH 12th GA. BATT'N. 75
to suggest that a thinner grade would be preferred. She
was a kind and motherly soul, and yet some of the sold-
iers would steal from her. To prevent or minimize their
depredations she cooped a noisy rooster undernearth her
bedroom as a sort of watch dog to notify her of any mid-
night foragers A few mornings afterwards she awoke to
find, aside from other losses, that her feathered sentinel
had been caught asleep upon his post by som'C soldier,
who was chicken-mouthed, if he was not chicken-hearted.
Rations as one of the sinews of war, deserve something
more than incidental mention in these memories and as
no more favorable opportunity may occur, it may be as
well to give them more extended notice in connection
with the incident just related.
Confederate rations during the early years of the war
were as I recollect them, not only fair in quality but am-
ple in quantity. As evidence of this fact I remember that
the boys were sometimes so^ indifferent when rations
hour arrived that it was difficult to induce them' to draw
their allowance promptly. Charles Catlin was our com-
pany commissary and I can hear now his clear, sharp
tones as they rang out on the frosty evening air among
the Virginia mountains in '6i, "Come up and get your
beef. Are you going to keep a man standing out here in
the cold all night?"
As the war progressed the resources of the Confeder-
76 UXDER THE STARS AND BARS.
acy, limited to its own production by the cordon of hos-
tile gunboats that girded its ports, became more and
more heavily taxed and its larder grew leaner and leaner.
But little wheat was raised in the Gulf States and few
beeves except in Texas. We were reduced largely to meal
and bacon rations, and the supply of these sometimes
recalled the instructions in regard to loading a squirrel
rifle given by its owner to a friend to whom he had loan-
ed it: "Put in very little powder, if any." Cooking squads
were detailed from each company and once a day the
wagons would drive up and issue three small corn pones
to each man. Some of the boys, whose hunger was
chronic, would begin on theirs and never stop until the
last pone had been eaten.
Bob Winter belo^ngcd to this class and eight or ten
hours after his daily rations had disappeared Dick Mor-
ris would draw a pone or half a pone from, his haversack
and say, "Bob, here's some bread if you want it," and
Bob would reply, "Dick, I don't want to take it if you
need it," and Dick would answer, "Bob, I've told you a
thousand times that I wouldn't give you anything that I
wanted,''' and Bob would succumb and so would the
When our changes of base were rapid the squads
would cook up tw^o or three days' rations and in hot
weather the bread would mould and when broken open
the fungus growth looked very much like cobweb. Some
of the pones had also the appearance of slow convales-
REOKGANIZATION WITH 12tii GA. BATT'N. 77
cence from chill and fever. Under such conditions it could
-hardly be considered very palatable except upon the idea
of a rustic friend of mine, who, in commending the vir-
tues of India CholagogTie, was asked as to its palatability.
"O," said he "it's very palatable, but the meanest stuff
to take you ever saw."
Most of the boys had left well-to-do homes to enter the
service and while they bore privation and hunger with-
out a murmur, there would sometimes come into their
hard lives a craving for the good things they had left
behind. Gathered about the camp-fire, cold and tired and
hungry, they would discuss the dish that each liked best
and their lips would grow tremulous as they thought of
the day when hope would become realization. Joe Derry,
I remember, could never be weaned away from the
memory of his mother' nice mince pies and black-berry
jam. I can see his eyes dance now as he magnified their
merits. Bob Winter's ultimate thule in the gastronomic
line was sliced potaitoe pie, while Jim Thomas would
never tire of singing the praises of 'possum* baked with
potatoes. Louis Picquet said to him one day, *'Ji"^> i^ I
ever get home again I am going to have one dinner of
'possum and 'taters if it kills me " But it was left to the
epicurean taste of John Henry Casey to reach the acme
of these unsatisfied longings when, recognizing the val-
ue of quantity as well as quality he declared that nothing
less would satisfy him than "a chicken pie big enough to
trot a horse and buggy around on.''
78 UNDER THE STxiRS AND BARS.
But for extending this ration sketch to an irrational
length I might have said something of the May Pop
leaves that we cooked for "greens" in North Georgia, of
the half hardened corn transformed into meal by means
of an improvised grater prepared by driving nails
through the side of a tin canteen, of the pork issued to us
in Tennessee with the hair still on it, of the hog skins
that we ate at Inka, Miss., and of many other such
things, but they would probably fail to interest the read-
er as they did the actors in those far off days.
TRANSFERRED TO THE COAST.
Our enlistment as artillery had so far proven a delusion
and a snare. The Confederacy had no guns with which
to equip us and we had found no oppoi^tunity to capture
any. During our stay at Jacksboro Capt. Allen suc-
ceeded in securing from the War Department the trans-
fer of the Oglethorpes to the 2nd South Carolina Artil-
lery, then in ser^ace at Charleston. Oct. 9, '62, at 6 p.
m. we fell into line, gave three cheers for our late com-
panions in arms and as the setting sun crimsoned with
its last rays the lofty summit of the Cumberland, we filetl
out of the village to the tune of
"We are sons of old Aunt Dinah,
And we go where we've amind to
And we stay where we're inclined to,
And we don't care a cent."
and- our sojourn in Jacksonboro was a thing of the past.
Reaching Augusta Oct, 13, we were dismissed until
the 23rd, when we went into camp at the Bush Ground,
near the city. Why we did not proceed at once to our
command in Charleston has always been to the writer an
unsolved problern. We remained in Augusta until Dec.
80 UNDER THE STAES xVNI) BARS.
9, when orders were received to report to Gen . H . W .
Mercer, at Savannah. Col. Geo. A. Gordon, hi com-
mand of the 13th Ga. Battahon was endeavoring to raise
it to a regiment. As he lacked two companies and as the
Oglcthorpes had 120 men on its roll an effort was made
to divide the company. On Dec. 11 a vote was taken,
the result showing a majority against division. Dec 15
we w^ere formally attached to the 63rd Ga. Regiment,
rankinpf as Co. A. Our quarters were located just in tiie
rear of Thunderbolt Battery and here w^e remained for
more t'lian twelve months in the discharge of semi-gar-
A STUDY IN INSECT LIFE.
The period covered by our service on the coast foim-
cd a sort of oasis in our military life. The Federal gun-
boats were kind enough to extend social courtesies to us
only at long range and longer intervals. We fought and
bled, it is true, but not on the firing line. The foes that
troubled us most, were the fleas and sand fles and mos-
quitoes that infested that sections. They never failed to
open the spring campaign promptly and from their
attacks by night and day no vigilance on the picket line
could furnish even slight immunity. If the old time
practice of venesection as a therapeutic agent was cor-
rect in theory our hygienic condition ought to have been
comparatively perfect. During the "flea season" it was
not an unu<=uai occurrence for the bovs after fruitless
TRANSFERRED TO THE COAST. 8l
efforts to reach the land of dreams, to rise from their
coucliCS, divest themselves of their liickory shirts and
break the silence of the midnight air by vigorously
threshing them against a convenient tree in the hope of
finding temporary "surcease of sorrow" from this ever-
present affliction. It was said that if a handfuU of sand
were picked up half of it would jump away. I can not
vouch for the absolute correctness of this statement, but
I do know that I killed, by actual count, one hundred
and twenty fleas in a single blanket on which I had slept
the preceding night and I can not recall that the morn-
ing was specially favorable for that species of game
either. I remember further that as we had in camp no
''Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals," I
corked up an average specimen of these insects to see
how long he would live without his daily rations. At the
end of two weeks he had grown a trifle thin, but was still
a very lively corpse. But these were not the only "ills,
that made calamity of so long a life," for as Moore
might have said, if his environment had been different,
"Oft in the stilly night.
Ere sltimber's chain had bound me,
I felt the awful bite *
Of 'skeeters buzzing 'round me."
Their bills were presented on the first day of the
day of the month and, unfortunately, on every other
day. At our picket stations on Wilmington and White
marsh Islands and at the "Spindles" on the river where
82 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
:the voimg alligators amnsed themselves by crawling- up
'On the bank and stealing our rations^ there was a larger
variety known as gallinippers, from whose attacks the
folds of a blanket thrown over onr faces was not fui!
Bnt there were still others. On dress parade in the
afternoons, while the regiment was tanding at ''parade
rest" and no soldier was allowed to move hand or foot
imtil Richter's band, playing Capt. Sheppards Quick
step, had completed its daily traimp to the left of the line
and back to its position on tlie right, the sandflies seem-
ed to be aware of our helplessness and "in prejudice of
good order and military discipline" were especially vic-
ious in their attack upon every exposed part of our
anatomy. Capt. C. ^y. Howard, T remember, was ac-
customed to fill his ears with cotton as a partial protec-
tion. T have seen Charlie Goetchius, while on the offtcers'
line in front of the regiment, squirm and shiver in sucli
apparent agony tliat the veins in his neck seem.ed readv
to burst. Xeither v.histling minies, nor shrieking shells,
nor forced marches with no meal in the barrel nor oil in
the cruse ever seemed to disturb his equanimity in the
slightest degree. Quietly and modestly and bravely he
met them all. But the sandfly brigade was a little too
much for him
In addition to these discomforts, the salt water marsh,
near whicli we were camped, never failed to produce a
full crop of chills and fever as well as of that peculiar
TRANSFERRED TO THE COAST. 83
Species of crabs known as "fiddlers. ' ' Gen . Early was once
advised by one of his couriers that the Yankees were in
his rear. "Rear the d — 1," said old Jubal. "Vyq g-ot no
rear. I'm front all round." These fiddlers seemed to he
in the same happy condition. Their physical conforma-
tion was such that no mattre from what side they were
approached, they retired in am exacth^ oppsite direction
without the necessity of changing front. But of the
chills. Of the one hundred and fifteen men in our ranks
only three escaped an attack of this disease. The writer
was fortunately one of the three. One man liad fifty-
three chills before a furlough was allowed him. Quinine
was scarce and boneset tea and flannel bandages saturat-
ed with turpentine were used as substitutes. Whiskey was
sometimes issued as a preventative, In pursuance of a
resolution formed on entering the service I never tasted
the whiskey and as soon as my habit on this line became
known, I was not subjected to the trouble of looking up
applicants for the extra ration. The dearth in medical
supplies recalls other facts showing the straits to which
the Confederacy was reduced on other lines by the
blockade oi its ports. Letters written in '63, and now in
my possession, show that my brother, then Assistant
Surgeon at Tallahassee, Fla., could not purchase in that
place a pair of suspenders nor a shirt collar — ^that my
mess could not buy an oven in Savannah, though willing
to pay $30 for it and that I ordered shoes for Capt. Pic-
quet, and other members of the company from a Mr.
84 UNDER THE 8TAKS AND BARS.
Campbell at Richmond Factory, as no suitable ones
could be had in Savannah.
Our service at Thunderbolt was entirely devoid of
any exciting incident or episode in a martial way. If the
company fired a single shot at a Yankee during our stay
I can not recall it. On one occasion 8 or lo voluteers
from each reg'iment stationed there were wanted for "a
secret and dangerous expedition," as it was termed in
the order There vvas a ready response from the Ogle-
thorpes for the entire number wanted from the regiment.
Among those voluteers I recall the names of W. J.
Steed, J. E. Wilson, R. B. Morris, J. C. Kirkpatrick and
F. T. Stone. We never knew whether it was a contem-
plated attack on Fort Pulaski or the capture of a Fed-
eral gunboat; as ''^•e expedition failed to materialize.
April i8, '63, Flenry Wombke oi the Oglethorpes, was
drowned while bathing in W'iwsrw Sound, and on July
12, '63, John Ouincy Adams, while returning from picke-.
at the Spindles Avas accidentally shot by George Mosher,
who had gone up on the boat to kill alligators.
Some official changes took place in the company dur-
ing our stay at this camp. To fill the vacancy occasioned
by the resignation of Lieut. W. G. Johnson, Charles T.
Goetchlus was elected, but I have no record of the date.
On July 5, '63, the death of Major John R. Giles resulted
in the promo'tion on July 12, of Capt J. V. H. Allen to
that field office in the regiment. Louis Picquet became
captain of the company, and on July 14, Geo. W. Mc-
Laughlin was elected Jr. 2nd. Lieut.
TRANSFERRED TO THE COAST. 85
As a part of the "res gestae" of our soldier life at
Thunderbolt, the following incident may be of some
SOAP AND WATER.
My earliest recollections of Thunderbolt is associated
with a fruitless effort to mix turpentine soap and salt
water. We had reached the place tired and dusty and
dirty. As soon as the ranks were broken, the boys divest-
ed themselves of their clothing and soaping their bodies
thoroughly plunged into the salt water for a bath. The
result may be imagined. The dirt and dust accumulated
in streaks, which no amount of scrubbing could dislodge
for it stuck closer than a postage stamp.
A SUGARED TONGUE.
Col. Geo. A. Gordon was a pleasant, persuasive
speaker and in his address to t'he company urging its
division so as to complete the quota necessary for a regi-
mental organization he held out to us a temjpting array
of promises as to our treatment if his wishes were com-
plied with. An Irish member of his old company heard
the speech and in commenting on it said. "Faith, the
sugar on his tongue is an inch thick."
The Oglethorpes, though serving as infantry, had re-
tained their artillery organization and Gordon in his plea
for a division, said that the incorporation of such an or-
ganization into an infantry regiment would be an
86 UNDEE THE STARS AND BARS.
anomaly — ^that we would be "nyther fish, flesh nor fowl,"
giving the English pronunciation to the woTd "neither."
Some time afterward the Colonel was making his Sun-
day morning inspection of quarters and had reached
Elmore Dunbar's tent. As some of Dunbar's mess were
sick, he had hoisted a yellow handkerchief over the tent
and with a piece of charcoal had placed on its front the
sign, "Wayside Home.'' Gordon saluted as he came up,
and then noticing the sign said, "Sergeant, what is your
bill of fare today," "Nyther fish, flesh nor fowl," said
Dunbar, and the Colonel smiled and went his way.
EIRE AND EALL BACK
The monotony of garrison duty and our comparative
exemption from danger during our stay at Thunderbolt,
developed the spirit of mischief in the boys to an inor-
dinate degree and no opportunity for its exercise was al-
lowed to go unimproved. Bob Lassiter, while ofT duty
one day, was taking a nap on a "bunk" in his cabin. H-s
unhosed feet protruded from the widow, probably with
a view to fumigation by the salt sea breeze. Jim Mc-
Laughlin passed by and taking- in the situation called
Jim Thomas. Twisting and greasing a strip of paper they
placed it gently between Bob's unsuspecting toes, fired
the ends and then made themselves scarce in that local-
ity. As the lambent flame "lipped the Southern strand" '
of Bo])'s pedal extremities, he, doubless, felt in the lan-
guage of Henrv Timrod, "Strange tropic warm^th and
TRANSFERRED TO THE COAST. 87
hints of summer .soas" and probably clieamcd of "A Hot
Time m the Old Town" that day. Bui if so his dreantS
were short-lived With a yell of pain he fell back on the
floor of his cabin. an<l then,
He hoilv hurried to and fro,
To find the author of his woe:
The search was vain for chance was slim
To fasten guilt on either Jim.
SKIRMISHING FOR PIE
Dessert was not a standing item on our armv bill of
fare and when, by chance or otherwise, our menu cul-
minated in such a course. iPxOderation in our indulgence
vvas one of the lost arts. One dav in '63, W. J. Steed and
T. Avith several other comrades chanced to be in Savan-
nah at the dinner hour. Our rations for a long time had
known no change from the daily round of corn bread
and fat bacon, and we decided to vary this monotony by
a m.eal at the Screven House. The first course was dis-
posed of and dessert was laid before us. Steed finished
his but his appetite for pie was still unsatisfied. Calling a
waiter he said, "Bring me some more pie." ''We furnish
only one piece," said the waiter.
The first course plates had not been remJoved from the
table, irut simply shoved aside. The waiter passed on and
Steed pushed the dessert plate from him and gently
draaving the other back in his front, awaited results. An-
other waiter passed and thinking Steed had not been
88 UNDER THE STAKS AXD BAES.
served, brought him another piece of pie This being
disposed of the program was again repeated and still
another waiter supplied dessert. The shifting process
was continued until his comimissary department could
hold no more and he was forced to retire upon the laurels
he had won in the field of gastronomic diplomacy.
STEED AND THE SUGAR
Mv friend's penchant for pie may have had its influence
in the origin of a problem in the company, which like
the squaring of the circle has never received a satisfac-
tory solution. He held during his term of service the
office of commissary sergeant for the company, a posi-
tion in which it was difficult at any time and impossible
when rations were scarce, to give entire satisfaction.
These difficulties in his case were, perhaps, enlianced by
the peculiarities of his poetic temperamxnt, which caus-
ed him to live among the stars and gave him a distaste
for the bread and meat side of life, except possibly as to
pie. Try as faithfully as he would to show strict impar-
tiality in the distribution, there was sometimes a dim
suspicion that tlie bone in the beef fell oftener to other
messes than his own and that the scanty rations of sugar
issued weekly were heaped a little higher v/hen his mess
had in contemplation a pie or pudding on the following-
day. These suspicions finally culminated in au inquiry,
which became a proverb of daily use; an inquiry, which
formed the concluding argument in every camp dis-
TKANSFE^RED TO THE COAST. 89
cussion, whether on a disputed point in military tactics or
on the rcconciHation of geological revelation with the
Mosaic cosmogony; an inquiry with which Jim' Mc-
Laughlin and Jim Fleming still salute their former com-
missary: ''What has that to do with Steed and the
Of course there was never any foundaion for such a
feeling and prol^ably never any real suspicion of favor-
itism in the matter. These things formed the minor key
of our soldier life and served as they were intended, to
f'nliven its sometimes dull monotony. My friend, and I
am glad to have been honored so long by his friendship,
will pardon, I know, in the gentleness of his heart a
revival of these memories. Aside from the faithful dis-
charge of the difficult duties of his position, it gives me
pleasure to add my willing testimony to the silent wit-
ness of his armless sleeve, thast on the firing line and in
all the sphere of duty, to which the service called him,
he was every inch a soldier.
"BUTTER ON MY GREENS."
For the convenience and comfort of the soldiers going
to and returning from their commands, "Wayside
Homes" were established at different points in the Con-
federacy where free lunches were served by the fair and
willing hands of patriotic young ladies living in the vicin-
ity. A uniform of grey was the only passport needed.
One of these "Homes" was located at Millen, Ga. De-
tained there on one occasion, en route to my command
90 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
at Thunderbolt I was glad to accept their hospitality.
Seated at the table enjoying the spread they had pre-
pared one of these fair waiting maids approached me
and asked if I woidd take some butter on my "greens/*
My gastronomic record as a soldier had been like Jos-
eph's coat, "of many colors.'' I had eaten almost everv^-
thing from "cush" and "slapjacks'' to raw corn and
uncooked bacon. I had made up dough on the top of a
stump for a tray and cooked it on a piece of split hickory
for an oven. I had eaten salt meat to which the govern-
ment had good title, and fresh meat to which neither I
nor the government had any title, good or bad. But but-
ter on "greens" was a combination new to m.y exper-
ience and as my digestive outfit had, during my scliool
days, been troubled with a dyspeptic trend. I felt com-
pelled to decline such an addition to a dish that had been
boiled with fat bacon.
Notwithstanding the absence of my friend Steed the
supply of pie that day was short, and with a degree of
self-denial, for which I can not now account. I asked for
none A soldier next me at the table, however, hied his
application and when our winsome waitress returned,
she handed the desert to me and left my neighbor pieless.
I could not recall her fair young face as one I had ever
ever seen before, and I had always been noted for my
lack of personal comeliness. I was at a lo-ss therefore to
un<lerstand why the unsolicited discrimination in my fa-
vor had been made. A few minutes later the problem
TRAXSFERKED TO THE COAST. 'Jt
was soived. Standing on the porch after the meal had
ended, this self-same m^aiden approached me a little
timidly and asked, ''When did you hear from your broth-
er Sammie?" She and my younger brother, it seemed,
had been schoolmates, and, as I learned afterwards,,
"sweethearts" as well, and the pie business was no long-
er a mystery.
If she still lives as maid or matron and this sketch
should meet her eye, it gives me pleasure to assure her
that the fragrance of her kindly deed though based upon
no merit of my own, still lingers lovingly in my memory,
like the echo of "faint, fairy footfalls dow^i blossoming
pUR CAMP POET.
"Dropping into poetry" has not been a peculiarity
confined to that singular creation of Dickens' fancy.
* 'Silag Wef g. ' ' While not a contagious disease, it is said
that a majority of men sufifer fro^m it at some period in
life. Like measles and whooping cough it usually comes
early, is rarely faital and complete recovery, as a rule,
furnishes exemption from further attacks, without vacci-
nation. Under these conditions it is but natural that the
Oglethorpes should have had a poet in their ranks. In
fact we had two, James E. Wilson and W. J. Steed,
who has already figured somewhat in these memories,
and w'ho was called Phunie, for short. The latter was,
however, only an ex-poet, not ex-officio, nor ex-cathe-
92 UNDER THE STARS AND BAES.
dra, but ex-post facto. His attack had been light, very
light, a sort of poetical varioloid. He had recovered and
so far as the record shows, there had been no relapse.
On the first appearance of the symptoms he had mount-
ed his "Pegasus," which consisted of a stack of barrels
in rear of his father's barn, and after an hour's mental
labor, he rose and reported progress, but did not ask
leave to sit again. The results are summed up in the fol-
lowing poetic gem :
"Here sits Phunie on a barrel,
With his feet on another barrel."
He has always claimed that while the superficial read-
er might find in these lines an apparent lack of artistic
finish, with some possible defects as to metre and an un-
fortunate blending of anapestic and iambic verse, the
rhyme Avas absolutely perfect. I have been unable to dis-
cover in them the rhythmic and liquid cadence that
marks Buchannan Reade's "Drifting," or the perfection
in measure attributed by Poe to Byron's "Ode" to his
sister, yet my tender regard for my old comrade disin-
clines me to take issue with him as to the merits of this,
the sole offspring of his poetic genius. My inability to
find it in any collection of poetical quotations has induc-
ed m'C to insert it here with the hope of rescuing it from
a fate of possibly undeserved oblivion.
Jim Wilson's case was different His was a chronic
attack. "Pie lisped in numbers for the numbers came."
TRANSFEERED TO THE COAST. 93
As a poet he was not only a daisy, but, as Tom Pilcher
would say, he was a regular geranium. T regret that my
memory has retained, with a single exception, only frag-
ments of his many wooings of the muse.
A young lady friend, Miss Eve, of Nashville, asked
from Jim a christening contribution to an album* she had
just purchased. He was equal to the occasion. The man
and the hour had met. He was in it from start to finish.
He filled every page in the book with original verse. I
recall now only the following stanza :
''Newton, the man of meditation,
The searcher after hidden cause,
Who first discovered gravitation
And ciphered out attractions law^s.
Could not, with all his cogitation.
Find rules to govern woman's jaws."
But his special forte was parody. A competitive exam^
ination was ordered at Thunderbolt in '63 to fill the posi-
tion of second sergeant in the company. After studying
Hardee's Tactics for a week Jim relieved his feelings in
the following impromptu efifort:
Tell me not the mournful numbers
From a ''shoulder" to a "prime,"
For I murmur in my slumbers
Make two "motions in one time."
The Oglethorpes, though serving as infantry had
clung tenaciously to their artillery organization and to
•^4 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
the red stripes and chevrons which marked the heavier
arm of the service. On our assignment to Gordon's reg-
iment, the Colonel had made a very stro^ng appeal to us
to divide the company and to discard our artillery trim-
mings. At the next Sunday morning inspection Jim's
tent bore a placard with this inscription, intended for the
''You may cheat or bamboozle us as much as you \\'\\\
P>ut the sign of artillery will hang round us still."
Probably his masterpiece was a parody on "Mary-
land." written at Jacksonboro, Tenn., on the eve of our
transfer from the 12th Ga. Battalion. That the reader
may understand the personal allusion in the verses it is
necessary to say that Edgar Derry, Jim Russell, Ed
Clayton and Alph Rogers had been detailed by Col.
Capers to fill certain stafif positions with the battalion;
that Miles Turpin was company drummer and Stowe —
whose camp sobriquet was ''Calline," was fifer; that in
the skirmish at Huntsville, Tenn , W. W. Bussey, who
was known in camp as "Busky," had been shot in the
temple; that before the final charge on the fort, Col.
Capers in crossing a ditch had mired in its bottom and
had found some difficulty in extricating himself; that
the war horse of the male persuasion ridden by Col.
Oracle had been killed in. the skirmish and that Ran-
dolph was Secretary of War. When the transfer had
^been effected it was uncertain whether the detailed men
TRANSFERRED TO THE COAST. 96
would retain their position or would return to the com-
pany, and the following verses were written by Jim as an
appeal to them to go with us :
Come 'tis the red dawn of the day,
Here's your mule,
Come, details, join our proud array,
Here's your mule,
With Clayton panting for the fray,
With Rogers urging oin that bay,
With Derry bold and Russell gay,
Here's your mule. Oh! Here's your mule.
Come for your limbs are stout and strong,
Here's your mule.
Come for your loafing does you wrong,
Here's your mule.
Come with your muskets light and long,
Rejoin the crowd where you belong,
And help us sing this merry song,
Here's your mule, Oh! Here's your mule.
Dear fellows break your ofBce chains.
Here's 3^our mule.
The "Web-feet" should not call in vain.
Here's your mule.
But if it goes against the grain,
"Sick furlough" is the proud refrain.
By which you may get off again,
Here's your mule. Oh! Here's your mule.
96 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
We trust you will not from us scud,
Here's your mule.
And nip your glor\- in the bud,
Here's your mule.
Remember ''Busky" bathed in blood,
Remember Capers stuck in mud,
And gallant Grade's dying stud.
Here's your mule. Oh! Here's your mule.
Ah, though you may awhile stay mum,
Here's your mule.
To "Calline's'' fife and Turpin's drum.
Here's your mule.
When orders com.e from Randolph grum.
You will not then be deaf nor dumb,
Ah, then we know you'll come, you'll come,
Plere's your mule, Oh! Here's your mule.
And now in conclusion, I am unwilling that my friend^
Jim Wilson should be judged solely by these rhymes. If
any allusion in them sounds harshly to ears polite, it
must be remembered that they were intended, only for
soldiers eyes and ears. The son of a Presbyterian mis-
sionary to India, he was an educated Christian gef.'de-
man, one of the brightest and wittiest men I ha/c ever
known, as brave as Julius Caesar and as tiue to the flag
for which he fought as any man who wore the grev,
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPATrxX.
Our service on the coast ended April 28, 1864. ^^^
April 23 orders were received transferring our regiment
to Gen. A. R. Wright's Brigade, Army of Northern Vir-
ginia. Gen. H. W. Mercer in command, had been order-
ed to report for duty to Gen. Johnston at Dalton, Ga
As Gordon and Mercer were both Savannah men and
their war service to that date had thrown them together,
they succeeded in inducing the War Department to
change our orders and assign us to Johnston's Army.
April 28 we left Savannah, reaching Dalton at 3 a. m..
April 30, and on May 4 were attached to Gen. W. K.
T. Walker's division, three miles east of Dalton. On May
7 Sherman opened his Atlanta campaign and for one
• hundred days the rattle of musketry, the roar of
cannon, the shrieking of shells and the zip of minies,
grew very familiar to us, if not very amusing. Our first
sight of the enemy was at Rocky Face Ridge, May 9.
Our pickets were driven in and cur trenches shelled, caus-
ing some casualties in the regiment, but none in the
Oglethorpes. Lieut. Reddick of Co. B, w^hile reading a
newspaper in rear of the trenches was killed by a Feder-
al sharpshooter. No assault was made on our position,,
98 UNDEK THE STARS AND BAliS.
but at three other points in Johnston's Hne efforts were
made to carry the trenches, though the attacks were all
repulsed. On the same day Sherman, probably anticipat-
ing such a result, began his flanking plan of campaign
by sending McPherson through Snake Creek Gap to
threaten Johnston's line of communications at Resaca.
The Federal superiority in numbers at a ratio of nearly
two to one, enabled Sherman to cover Johnston's entire
front and gave him besides a large force with which to
conduct his flanking opertions, a policy he pursued per-
sistently and successfully to the end of the campaign. As
it is not my purpose to give the general features of this
'Campaign, but simply to record the share borne in it by
the 63rd Ga. regiment, I can, perhaps best subserve that
purpose by furnishing the following condensed extracts
from my "War Diary" for that period, elaborating after-
Avard any special features or incidents that may seem to
jnerit more extended notice.
May 10. Left trenches i a. m., marched to a point ^
■miles from Resaca. (11). ^larched to Resaca and re-
turned. (12). Marched to a position one mile above Cal-
houn. (13). Quiet. Being unwell, on invitation of Lieut.
Daniel spent the night with Rev. L S. Hopkins and him-
self at tlie house of his mother in Calhoun.
14. Battle of Resaca. Rejoined command on its way
to the front. Walker's division held in reserve until 12 m-.
Then ordered up to reinforce Stewart's division. Ex-
posed to heavy artilliery fire while crossing pontoon
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 99
bridg-e at Resaca. Heavy fighting in our front. Enemy
repulsed. lo p. m , marched back through Calhoun to
15. In line of battle. Jackson's brigade charged enemy's
line at the Ferry but were repulsed. 10 p. m., returned to
16. Marched to Tanner's Ferry. Heavy skirmishing
between Steven's brigade and the enemy. Junius T.
Steed of the Oglethorpes, wounded. Slept on our arms.
17. At I a. m. aroused and ordered to fall back to
AdTirsville. Remained in line of battle until 12 p. m.
18. Fell back four miles below Kingston.
19. Advanced and took position 2 miles from Kings-
ton. Under fire from sharpshooters and skirmishers li.
L Hill killed and T. F. Burbanks wounded. 12 or 15
casualties in regiment. Retired to Cass station and form-
ed line of battle. Johnston's battle order issued.
20. At I a. m. crossed the Etowah and fell back to
within two miles of Altoona.
21-22. Quiet. (23). Marched five miles in the direc-
tion of Dallas.
24. Aroused at daylight and marched 15 miles, camp-
ing near Powder Springs.
25. At I a. m. marched four miles back. At 2 p. m.
moved forw^ard a mile and formed line of battle. After
night moved three miles and bivouacked.
26. At 3 a. m. went formard and took position in rear
of Stewart's division. Skirmishing in front all day.
o-rtj^/r* -Ji^ LTll
100 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS
2y. Mo'ved to the left near Dallas and then a mile or
i^m> to the right. H. B. Jackson wounded. Oglethorpes
and Co. I thrown out as skirmishishers. At ii p. m.
]")rigade ordered away, leaving us on skirmish line with-
28. Skirmishing all day. Capt. Picquet wounded in le£),
A. W. McCurdy in head.
29. At 4 p. m. relieved from duty on skirmish line and
rejoined regiment on Ellsbury Ridge.
30-June I. Quiet. (2). Heavy rain. Division moved
four miles to the right in reair of Stevenson, slippery
3. Quiet day. At 11 p. m. moved ofY to the right-
lackson's brigade and a portion of ours detached in the
darkness, lost their way and forced to lie over till morn-
4. Rejoined division and built 1)reast\vorks. Ogle-
thorps and Co. Ct on picket. Skirmishing with the ene-
my. At 12 13. m. relieved by Wheeler's cavalry and told
10 'git," as our army had fallen back. Overtook regiment
after five male tramp over muddiest road I ever saw.
Moved 3 miles further and took position in rear of Gist's
brigade. (6-7). Quiet.
8. Brigade on picket. 63d Ga. in reserve.
9-1 1. Quiet, and rain, rain, rain.
12. On picket. Wet time.
13. Brigade on picket. Skirirfishing between the lines.
14. Quiet. (15). Brigade on picket. Shelled by Federal
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 101
batteries. Lowry's pickets retired leaving our flank ex-
posed. Took position on left of Cleburne's division. At
1 1 p. m. moved to the rear of Lowry's brigade.
t6. Shelled by the enemy. Some casualties in regiment
17. Moved several times, built breastworks.
18. Six companies from regiment sent out to reinforce
skirmishers. Heavy fighting between the lines all day.
Carroll, Casey, Knox, Miller and Smith wounded. 25
casualties in other companies of the regiment. Relieved
at 8 p. m. Moved 21-2 miles towards Marietta.
19. Moved up to the summit of a ridge as a picket re-
serve. At night moved down in rear of breastworks and
then half mile to the right and had orders to fortify but
20. Dug trenches on Kennesaw line of defence. Heavy
skirmishing and artillery firing on our right.
21. Remained in the trenches. Skirmishing in our
22. Artillery duel betw^een the enemy and our batter-
ries on Kennesaw. Six companies from our regiment
sent out on picket line.
23. Skirmishing on picket line all day. No casualties
in Oglethorpes. Relieved at 8 p. m.
24-25. Artillery firing and skirmishing.
26. AV. A. Dabney wounded last night in arm while
asleep. Seven companies and a detail of 47 men from the
Oglethorpes sent out from the legiment on picket line.
27. Battle of Kennesaw began at 8 a. m. and ended at
J 02 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
II :30. Enemy repulsed all along the line, with heavy loss.
Oglet'horpes lost twenty-three in killed, w^ounded and
captured. Loss in regiment 88.
28-July I. Quiet. (2) At 10 p. m. right wing of the army
fell back to a position 5 miles below Marietta.
3. Federal army lined up in our front.
4. Some indication of a general engagement. Yankees
seem disposed to celebrate the day with their artillery.
Co. A with five other companies from the regiment on
picket. Heard some excellent music by the Federal
5. Army retired to a position near the Chattahoochee.
6. Entrenched and moved to the left.
7. Quiet. (8). Co. A with five others on picket.
9. Retired and crossed river to rejoin brigade.
10. Johnston's entire army crossed the Chattahoochee
11. Having been quite unwell for several days, through
advice of Lieut. Daniel and Dr. Cumming I went to Di-
vision Hospital. On the 15th was sent by Medical Board
to Atlanta. On the 17th went to hospital at Oxford, Ga.
I did not rejoin my command again until Aug. i8th.
During my absence Gen. Johnston had been superseded
by Gen. Hood as commander of the Army of Tennessee,
the battles of Peach Tree Creek and Atlanta had been
fought, Gen. W. H. T. Walker, our division commander
had been killed and our brigade had been transferred to
Pat Cleburne's division. In the battle of Peach Tree
THE DALTOX AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGX. 103
Creek July 20th, our regiment was only partially en-
gaged and suffered but little loss. Eugene Verdery and
Henry Booth of the Oglethorpes were wounded. The for-
mer had volunteered for service on the skirmish line that
day and while driving in the enemy's picket line received
a wound in the head, which caused him to spin around
like a top.
In the battle of Atlanta, July 22, the regiment was in
the thick of the fight and lost more heavily. Of the Ogle-
thorpes. S. M. Guy was killed. Ob. Rooks was mortally
w^ounded, M. H. Crowder lost a leg, R. W. Lassiter an
arm, Jim McLaughlin the bridge of his nose, while
George Leonhardt, John Bynum, Clay Foster, Hugh
Ogilby, Jo^hn Quinn and J. O. Wiley were otherwise
wounded. After my return to the company, near East
Point, on the i8th the regiment was sent to the picket
line on the 19th and when relieved on the morning of
the 20th, was placed on the resen^e line, where we re-
mained until the 30th. At 2 a. m. that day we were
aroused and ordered to ''fall in," but did not move until
daylight, when we shifted position 3 or 4 miles to the
left. At II p. m'. we w^ere again on the march and after
a fatiguing night tramp reached Jonesboro about day-
I'ght on the 3Tst.
BATTLE OF JONESBORO.
After investing and bombarding Atlanta for a month,
Sherman had begun his fiankng tactics again by sending
104 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
five of his corps to seize the M. & W. Road at Jonesboro,
and Hardee, with liis o>vn liuI Lee's cc'rps, had been sent
iovvn to checkmate the movement After resting a few
hours we were formed in Hne of battle across an old
field with only Lowry's brigade on our left. For the onlv
time in my experience as a soldier, the plan of battle was
read to our co-mmand. Lee's corps and tw^o divisions of
Hardee's were to artack the enemy in front w'hile Cle-
burne's division, to which we belonged, were to ad-
vance, then wdieel to the right and attack in flank. Lying
lor several hours under a hot August sun awaiting orders
to advance, I remember that, being uncertain as to my
fate in the coming fight, and unwilling to allow^ the let-
ters in my pos'session to fall into the enemy's hands, I
lore them up, leaving only one for the identification of
my bod.y in case of my death. At 2 p. m. we were ordered
forward. Crossing the open field and advancing through.
a piece of w^oodland, a battery of artillery opened on us
but their shot flew high. Sol Foreman of the Ogletliorpes,
was struck by a piece of shell, but there was no other
casualty in the company. After advancing nearly a mile
we struck a boggy svvsimp aaid on its farthest edge Flint
river. Will Daniel plunged in aud turning to me said,
"*Come on sergeant." Lie had gone but a little way when
the w^ater reached his arm pits and sword in hand lie
swam across. Knowing that my cartridges would be use-
less if I followed suit, I ran up the stream and found dry
passage on a loq- that lav across it. Reaching- the crest of
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 105
the hill beyond, we halted to reform the line. The horse
ridden by Col. Olmstead, our brigade commander, had
mired in the swamp, our regiment was without a field
officer and Will Daniel offered to taike command of the
brigade in the final charge, which we all felt to be ahead
of us. The hill on which we stoad had been occupied by
Federal cavalry and artillery, who had retired as we ap-
proached, the roar of battle giving evidence of a fierce
engagement on our right, came to us over the hills and
valleys; Capt. Dickson of Cleburne's staff, with his
^iorse all afoam, his coat and vest discarded and the per-
spiration trickling from his face, was riding from point
to point in. the line giving his final orders and the sultry
simimer air smelled viciously of powder and lead. At this
juncture a courier from Cleburne dashed up with orders
for us to retire. ¥/e had gone some distance beyond the
point intended and had become entirely detached from
the line on our right. The attack in the enemy's front
had failed to dislodge them and our two brigades could
hardly have accomplished much against five corps of the
enemy. By dusk we had resumed our original position
iind our regiment was placed on the picket line. On
Sept. I, Lee's corps returned to Atlanta and Hardee wa'S
left wdth his two divisions to face an enemy whose
strengh was five times his own. Relieved from' picket by
a detail of Chcatha.m's division, we were placed in the
trenches vacated by Lee's corps. At 3 p. m. the enem.v
massed heavily in front of Lewis' Ky., and Govans' Ark.
106 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
brigades and assaulted in three lines of ba'ttle. but were
repulsed. They then formed in column of companies,
making ten lines of battle, and renewed the attack. Our
breastworks at this point were inferior and were manned
only by a line in single rank .
With such odds the issue could not long re-
main in doubt. Govans' line was broken and a
pafrt of his brigade was captured. No assault was made
on the line held by us, though we were subjected to a
heavy fire from their skirmish line. At lo p. m., Hardee
evacuated his position and at daylight on the 2nd. occu-
pied another, near Lovejoy Station. Sherman secured a
foothold on the M. & W. Road atnd Hood, compelled to
give up Atlanta, formed a junction with Hardee on the
The enemy had again taken position in our front arnfl
skirmishing was kept up until the Sth, when they were
recalled by Sherman and the Dalton and Atlanta cam-
paigfii was ended.
FURTHER MEMORIES OF THE CAMPAIGN.
The following incidents oscillating as they do "from
grave to gay," a;nd marked perhaps as much by comedy
as by tragedy, will probably be of more interest to the
reader of these records than the details just ended:
"TWO AND A DOG."
At the da-te of our transfer from the coast to Jo-hnston's
army, our uniforms were in fairly good condition and
THE DAI.TOX AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 107
bore in almost cvcrv case the insignia of rank heUl ])y
the wearer. The writer's jacket had on its sleeves the reg-
ulation chevrons of an o^rderly sergeant, three bars or
.-tripes with lozenge or diamond above them. Tlje troops
who had followed the fortunes of the Western army from
Shiloh to Chickamauga were not so well clad and had,
ID a large extent discarded their official insignia. For
this reason they were disposed tO' guy us as bandbox
soldiers. Passing some of these veterans one day on the
march one of them noticed my chevrons and sang out to
his comrades: "Look there, boys. I've often hearn of
''two and a dog" but I'll be blamed if there ain't "three
and a dog." I reckon that's the way they play kyards on
the coast." The laugh that followed convinced me Ihr^t my
lack of familiarity with the mysteries of the card :al>Ie
Avas not shared hv tho'se who lieard the jest.
STRIPES ON THE WRONG SIDE.
While we suffered from deficiencies on other lines in
the summer of '64, there was certainly no lack of rain\
weather during that campaign. The roads over which we
tramped were composed largely of a red, adhesive clay.
The writer's physical conformation gave him some righ^
to be classed with the knock-k^eed species of the genus
homo, and in marching over the wet clay hills,, the red
pigment began at his ankles and by successive contact,
traveled gradually up the inside seams of his grey trous-
ers until those scams and an inch- wide space on either
108 U:NrDEIl THE STAES AND 15ARS.
side were covered for almost their entire length. Passing
one da}' a division resting by the roadside, one of them
noticed the peculiar condition of my bifurca/ted garment,
and sang out to me: "Hello, my friend; you've got the
stripe on the wrong side of your pants." I could not denv
the soft imjpeachment and enjoyed the laugh raised at
mv expense as much as did my comrades.
A CLOSE SHAVE.
The battle of Resaca began May 14, '64 Walker's
division, to v.diich we belonged, was held in reserve dur-
ing the morning and at 12 m., as the fighting grew
fiercer, we were ordered up to reinforce Stewart's divis-
ion in our front. A pontoon bridge had been laid across
the Oostenaula river and a courier stationed on its bank
:o hurry the men across, as the railroad embankment on
the other side would protect them from the fire of a Fed-
eral battery, which had secured the exact range of the
road over which we were passing. As we approached the
bridge Capt. Martin, commanding the company next in
our front, halted the column a moment to hear what the
courier was saying. As the march was resumed, a solid
shot from the battery struck directly in a fde of fours in
Martin's company killing two and wounding a third, not
maire than ten feet from where I stood. The time occu-
pied in the halt would have about sufficed to- have cov-
ered the intervening distance, and certainly saved the
lives of som.e of the Oglethorpes and possibly my own.
THE D ALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 109
Crossing the river, Gen. W. H. T. Walker passed us
going to the front and as he rode by, another shot from
the battery struck immediately behind him, 1:;arely miss-
ing his horse. Glancing around a(t the dust it had raised
and turning to us with a smile on his fa'ce, he said, "Go
it boots," aind galloped on to the head of the division.
On this, as well as on every other occasion when under
fire, he seemed not only absolutely indifferent to danger,
but really to enjoy its presence. Gen Cabell, in recalling
his association with Gen. Walker in the '6o's, said that
battle ab.vays brought to his eyes an unusual glitter and
that he thought him the bravest man he had ever known;
A hero in three wars, severely wounded at Okeecho-
bee, Fla., and at Mohno Del Rey and Chapultpec, Mex.,
he fell at last gallantly leading his division at the battle of
Atlanta, July 22, '64, and I am sure no battle soil on
God's green earth in all the ages v^as ever stained by
braver or by nobler blood than Williatn Henry Walker's.
A TWILIGHT PRAYER MEETING.
On May 19, '64, Sherman and Johnston were fronting
each other near Kingston, Ga. In the skirmishing that
day the Oglethorpes had suffered some casualties, among
them' one that saddened all the company. Hugh Legare
Hill, son of Hon. Joshua Hill, a beardless boy, had been
shot through the head and instantly killed He had join-
ed us some months before at Thunderbolt and becom-
ing restive under the inaction oi coast service, had ap-
110 UXDER THE STAES AND KAT^S.
plied for a transfer to Johnston's army. Chafing under
the delay brong'ht on by military red tape in such mat-
ters, and anxious to secure a place on the firing line he
had urged the officers to press the matter as he wanted
to reach his new command in time for the opening of the
spring campaign. Before the papers were returned our
regiment was ordered to Dalton and the transfer was
Poor Legare! The spring campaign had not yet drifted
into summer before his bright young life, that knew no
other season, but its spring, had found its sad and sud-
den ending on the firing line, a place for which he long-
ed so ardently and met so bravely.
In the evening of that day we occupied a line near
Cass Station, a line chosen by Johnston for a general
and decisive engagement with Sherman's army. The Fa-
bian policy, that had marked the campaign from its
opening, was to be ended. The gage of battle was thrown
down and Atlanta's fate was to be settled before another
sunset. Every arrangement for the coming conflict was
made and the men ready and anxious for the fray were
iesting on their arms. At the twilight hour two mem-
bers of the Oglethorpes left their places in the ranks
and retired to a quiet spot in the forest not far away to
talk with God. No' church spire raised its lofty summit
heavenward. Under the open sky in one of "God's first
temples," as dusk was deepening into night, they kneeled
together and eacli in turn, in tones of earnest supplica-
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. Ill
tion, asked for God's protecting caire upon themselves
and on their comu'ades in the coming battle and for His
blessing on the llag for which they fought and prayed.
And when their prayers were ended, they pledged each
other that if it was the fate of either one to fall, the other
Avould act a brother's part aoid give such aid and comfon
as he could.
Returning to Their places in the line, they wrapped
I heir worn, grey blankets around them and lay down un-
der the starlight to pass in calm and quiet sleep, the
night before the battle. I have attended many larger
prayer meetings since that day; I have heard many peti-
tions to a Throne of Grace, clothed in more cultured
phrase, and yet but few that seemed more earnest or filled
with simpler trust in God.
Under the urgent protest of Hood and Polk, Joe
Johnston's plans were changed and the promised battle
beside the Etowah was never fought. I know not what
the issue would have been, personal or national. I know
that if the hundred and fifty thousand men marshalled
upon that field on that May day had met in deadly strife,
the shadows would have fallen on m.any a Northern and
many a Southern home. And yet somehow I can but feel
that if that evening's bloody promise had been fulfilled
and in the gathering twilight at its close our cormpany
roll was called to mark the living and the dead, my friend
and comrade, Steed, and I, whose humble prayers
had broken the silence of the evening air to reach no
112 U^DER THE STAK8 AND BARS.
other ears but ours and God's, would in in His kindly
])rovidence have answered, "Here."
TOM HOWARD'S SQUIRREL BEAD.
On May 2S, '64. we were on skirmish line near Dallas.
Ga. The remainder of the brigade had left the trenches
in our rear to reinforce some other point in the line and
the pickets were holding the fort alone. A Federal sharp-
shooter had secured a concealed position at short range
:uid was picking ofi the men in a way highly satisfactory
:o himself, perhaps, but decidedly unpleasant to us. We
Jiad been on duty all the night before and worn out from
loss of sleep, I sat down with my back to a tree as a pro-
tection from careless bullets and fell asleep Will Daniel,
in a similar position and for like reasons, was dozing at
•the next tree twenty feet away. A courier came down
the line and waking me asked for the officer in com-
mand. I pointed to Will and as the courier laid his hand
on Will's shoulder to wake him-, a ball crashed through
his knee, causing him to scream with pain. A little while
before Louis Picquet had received the wound that cost
him his leg, and a little later McCurdy of our company,
fell with a ball through his head.
Tom Howard had been watching the progress of
events and they seemed to him entirely too one-sided.
Gripping his rifle more tightly and with the peculiar
flash that came to his eyes when excited, he said, "Boys
if I can get a squirrel bead on that fellow I can stop his
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 115
racket." Slipping- from tree to tree until he located the
picket by the smoke of his gun, he drew his squirrel bead
and fired. This time the yell of pain came from the other
side, and Tom, with his eyes dancing and his face all
aglow, turned to us and said, "Boys, I got him. I heard
him holler." Tom<'s bead had stopped the racket.
''WHEN THIS CRUEIv WAR IS OVER."
Tom was one of the "characters" in the company.
Brave amd generous, hill of life and humor and always
ready for duty, he would sometimes grow a little home-
sick. One day, Ab Mitchell, sitting on the edge of the
trenches, began to sing, "When this cruel war is over."
So fa-r as I know, Ab. had never taken first prize at a
singing school, but as Tom listened, the plaintive melo-
dy of the air and the undertone of sadness in the verses
carried him back to his old home in Oglethorpe. Every
feature of the old plantation life rose vividly before him.
He heard the "watch dog's honest bark bay deep-mouth-
ed welcome" as he drew near home. He slaked his thirst
from the "old oaken bucket thait hung in the well." He
heard the lowing cows and saw the playful gambol of his
blooded stock cantering across the barn yard. He saw
the bloom'ing cotton fields and heard the rustling of the
waving co-rn. But last and best of all, he felt the pressure
of tiny arms about his neck, the touch of loving lips upon
his own and then his dream was over. With tears in th,
heart if not in .his eye, he thought of the life that lay be-
114 UXDEK THE STARS AND BARS.
before him; of the weary months or years that woukl
come and go before these old familiar scenes would glad-
den his eyes again, and he could stand it no longer. Ris-
ing suddenly he seized his old rifle and turning to the
singer, he said, "Ab Mitchell, if you sing another line of
that song, I'll blow your blamed head off." And the con-
cert ended without an encore.
"JIM, TOUCH OFF NO. i."
During this campaign, ^lajor Bledsoe of Missouri,
com^manded a battalion of artillery in Cleburne's divis-
ion. A veteran of two wars, combining in his person-
ality both the Southern and Western types, tall and
gaunt, with no trace of Beau Bnmimellism in his phy-
sical or mental make-up, he was as stubborn a fighter
as the struggle produced on either side, and yet away
from the battlefield he was as gentle and as genial as a
woman. So accurate were his gunners and so effective
Iheir fire, that it was said that no Federal battery had
•ever planted itself in range of his guns, when they were
As he sat by his battery one day in Alay, '64, reading
a newspaper, a stranger approached him and said, "Ma-
jor, where are the Yankees?" Raising his eyes from the
paper a moment he turned to one of his gunners and
said: "Jim, touch off No. i." and resimicd his readin;::.
^'Jini" pulled the lanyard, there was a puff of smoke, the
earth trembled from the concussion and the six-pound
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CxiMPAIGN. llo
messenger sped on its mission of death. As it reached its
mark, which had been hidden by the undergrowth in
front, the "blue coats" were seen scattering in every
direction. The stranger was answered.
As I may have no further occasion to refer to Major
Bledsoe in these records, an incident or two occurring
some months later ma}^ not be amiss in this connection.
On October 29, '64, near Courtland, Ala., on our trip
to Nashville, a grey fox crossed our line of march,
passing between two of the regiments. The Major was
riding by and spurring his horse to full speed, he gave
chase, trying at every step to disengage his pistol front
the holster for a shot at the animal. I think he failed to
secure the "brush." The Reynard tribe must have been
numerous in that section, for on reaching our camping
place that evening, we found Pat Cleburne and his entire
ftafY chasing another fox through an old field.
After the retreat from Nashville our division was or-
jered to North Carolina and in the transfer the trip from
Selma to Montgomery, Ala., was made by steamer. The
boat was old and slow, and the voyag-e monotonous.
To enliven it, the boys, for lack of better game, would
try their marksmanship on every buzzard that in silent
dignity sat perched on the tall dead pines that Kned the
river bank. Major Bledsoe was with us, and constituting
.'limself a "lookout" for the game, he entered into the
-^port with all the zest and ardor of a boy. He was prob-
ably no blood kin to "Jim Bludsoe" of Prairie Belle
116 UNDER THE STABS AND BARS.
fame, but under similar conditions I believe that I'kf*
'Jim" he would, regardless of his own fate, have
"Held her nozzle to the bank,
Till the last g-aloot was ashore."
Mention has been made of a panic that occurred on a
night march near Green Brier river, Va., in '6i. A sim-
ilar stampede occurred on the night of May 25. '64, near
Powder Springs, Ga. We were in reserve and were shift-
ing position to the right. The night was dark and none
of us knew the object of the movement or our destina-
tion. Tramping along quieth^ under a moonless sky over
n country road darkly shaded by a heavy forest growth,
a sudden rumbling was heard, increafsing in volume as
it approached and then the colum^n in front dimly seen
in the starlight, swayed to the right and there was a unan-
imous movement to get out of the way and to get ([uickly.
One man, thoroughly demoralized, broke through the
woods at full speed in the darkness, ran into a tree, that
stood in his pathway, and dislocated his knee cap. Most
of the men thought the enemy's cavalry were charging
down the road upon them and they took to the woods
and did not stand upon the order of their going. The
rumbling was caused by the hurried tramp of feet as the
men left the ro«d. It was simply a causeless stampede
and no one knew how it began. It was said that a de^r
THE D ALTON AXD ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 117
ran across the road in front of the column, but I can not
vouch for the correctness of this explanation.
I do not know how it may have been with others, but
to the writer the expectation of meetintr an unseen enemy
in the dark, with no means of ascertaining his numbers
or location, was never a pleasant sensation. It would
have modified the feeling, perhaps, if I had borne in
mind always the advice of a Confederate general to his
men to "remember that the other side is as badly scared
as you are."
A SUMMER DAY ON THE FIRLXG LIXE.
It was a day in June, but neither a perfect nor a rare
June day. For two Aveeks and more it had rained almos:
continuously. Every day or twO' Jabe Poyner, the w^eath-
er prophet of the company, had said, ''Well boys, Vai< is
ihe clearing up shower." And still it rained and rained
and rained until Poyner's reputation on this line had
;"^one where the woodbine twineth. In the early morn'ng
of ihe 1 8th there was another of Jabe's clearing up
showers and at its close the boys were King on th(d wet
ground, a hundred yards in rear of the breastworks,
awaiting orders. They had amused themselves for a
lime by shooting pebbles at each other, when Bill Byrd's
foot was struck and he said, "Boys, don't shoot so hard —
ihat one hurt." Looking down at his foot, he found that,
mother partner had entered the game as it had been hi:
by a minnie ball from the skirmish line.
118 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
The firing had begun at daylight and was growing
heavier. At 8 a. m. six companies of the regiment were
ordered to the front to reinforce our skirmish h.ne, which
>vas being pressed back. "Over the breastworks, Ogle-
thorpes," sang out Lieut. Daniel, and we went over
with a yell. Advancing and deploying under fire, we
'■cached a position within 250 yards of the Federal line
nnd having no rifle pits, we availed ourselves of such
I-rotection as the larger forest trees afforded. Selecting a
post oak, I had been there only a little while when the
man on my right, belonging to another company, was
shot down. The woods were very thick in my front and
not relishing the idea of being killed with such limited
opportunity of returning the favor, I shifted my position
to the leeward side of a red oak, twenty or thirty feet to
the left w'here the woods were more open and a Federal
rifle pit in front was only partially hidden from my view.
The diameter of the tree about covered my own and
there for twelve hours, in a drizzling rain, I cultivated
the acquaintance of that oak more earnestly perhajjs
than I had ever fostered a personal friendship. For that
day at least it was "my own familiar friend in whom I
trusted," and if on bidding it adieu, I had met the owner,
my prayer to him would have been.
Woodman spare that tree,
Mar not its noble shape,
Today it sheltered me
From "minnie" and from "grape."
THE DALTOK AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 119
All day long le^dtii messengers were knocking at the
door of my improvised breastwork in search of my long
and lank anatomy. It was barked and scarred and torn
from the rooit to twenty feet above my head. Twice the
bark was knocked into my eyes and once a ball striking
at the foot of the tree filled them with dirt. On one of
these occasions I must have flinched a little as George
Harrison, who was cultivating friendly relations with the
next tree on my right, turned anxiously and asked if I
The Federal line as a rule stuck rather closely to their
pits and not feeling authorized to waste my ammunition
I fired only when there was a blue target in sight. Some
of the boys, less careful of their cartridges expended So
or 90 rounds during' the day. John Carroll, ten feet to
my left, kept firing when I could see no game, and I said
to him, "John, what are you shooting at?" "Well," he
said, "they are down that way." Before the day was
ended some of them "down that way" had shot him
through the thigh, and the poor fellow died of the wound.
In addition to the incessant infantry fire, which made
small lead mines of the friendly oaks, the Federal artil-
lery, not wishing to be lacking in social attentions, com-
plimented us at short intervals with volleys of grape.
These came over us like the whir of a covey of over-
grown partridges, but fortunately flew high, causing
more nervousness than execution.
Ninety thousand rounds of ammunition were fired on
120 UNDER THE STARS AND B\RS.
Hardee's line alone that day and our friends on the other
side expended probably an equal or larg-er number There
was no intermission for lunch. Our rations were nearlv
half a mile a\vay and the Northern exposure of the route
towards them, somehow dulled our appetites There are
several incidents that come back ven^ vividly today from
that twelve hours' flight in the woods.
A SQUIRREL HUNT UNDER DIFFICULTIES.
One of these incidents furnished an exhibition or cool-
ness under fire and indifference to danger that had no
parallel in all my term of service. About midday I heard
several shots fired a short distance in my rear. Fearing
that soime excited soldier might fire wildly and shoot me
in the back, 1 turned to investigate, and saw a member
of the regiment standing in an exposed position and
coolly and deliberately firing, not ait the enemy, but at
a squirrel he had discovered in the branches of the tree
above our heads. Grape shot were tearing the limbs from
I heir sockets, minies were making music in the air, or
striking the oaks with a dull, dull thud, but tha<t soldier,
was oblivious to everything save a determination to have
fried squirrel for supper. If I knew his name 1 cannot
now recall it, nor do' I remember whether the squirrel
was included in the casualties of that day.
JIM THOMAS' DILEMMA.
During the afternoon Jim and a Yankee picket had
been taking alternate shots at each other and it was the
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 121
Yankee's time to shoot. Jim was nestling- up to the
Southern side of his tree and thinking possibly of all the
meanness he had ever committed in orcer to feel as small
as passible, when a cannon ball crashed through the tree,
cutting oft' its top and sending it by force of gravity, ip.
:he direction of his head. He was in a dilemma. If he re-
mained where he was he was liable to be crushed to death
by the falling timber, and if he left his cover the picket
would probably kill him. Under ordinary circumstances
Jim may not ha/ve been averse to taking a "horn," but in
this dilemma he was undecided which horn to take,
whether to bear the ills he had or fly to others," that un-
fortunately he knew too well.
"All things come to him who waits," but in this case
ihere was something coming that Jim didn't care to wait
for. Doing perhaps the rapidest thinking of his life he
<lecided if he had to shuffle off this mortal coil, he would
do so in a soldierly way, and leaving the protection of
his tree he gave his antagonist a fair shot. Fortunately
the aim was bad and Jim lived to laugh over his deliver-
ance from a sea of troubles.
A POOR GUN OR A POOR GUNNER.
Obliquelv to the right of my position in the line, and
about 250 yards distant as I estimated it, there was a
shallovv^ ravine or valley and 20 or 30 feet beyond, on its
further slope, a Yankee rifle pit. For reasons which read-
ilv occurred to the writer at the time and which will
122 UXDEll THE STARS AND BARS
probably suggest themselves to the reader, I did not
take the trouble to verify my estimate of the distance by
stepping it. About the center of this depression in the
land was a very large tree — a pine, as I recollect it. On
the farther side of this tree and hidden by it entirely from
my view for the larger part of the day was a six-foot
Yankee soldier, an officer probably, for he had no gun
in his hand. During the afternoon, to protect himself
from the fire of other skirmishers on my right, he had
' inched" around the tree until his body from his knee
upward was in plain and unobstructed view of my posi-
lion. It was drizzling rain and his shoulders were pro-
tected by a blue blanket thrown across them. It was the
fairest, prettiest shot I had enjoyed during the day and'
fearing that he would change his position, I aim-ed at hi*^
breast rather hurriedly and fired. The shot failed even to
scare him for he didn't move an inch. Reloading as rap-
idly as I could, I steadied the gun against the red oak
and with as deliberate aim as I had ever taken at a squir-
rel in my boyhood I fired again. And still he moved not.
Reloading again I took even longer aim and when the
smoke cleared from the muzzle of the gun he had disap -
yeared. I do not think that he was either killed or dis-
abled as in such event I would have seen him carried to
the rear. I am glad to believe that my third shot simply
convinced him thaft a change of base was desirable and
that he acted upon that conviction while the smoke
obstructed ni}- vision.
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 125
And now in at least partial extenuation of what seem-
ed very poor m^arkmanship it may not be amiss to say
that the weapon used was an Austrian rifle and was con-
sidered a very inferior gun. With an Enfield or Spring-
field rifle I think I could have made a better record, pro-
vided always that my nerves had not been rendered un-
steady by the necessity for dodging- minies for six or
eight hours. George Harrison, who took care of the tree
nearest me on the right has always insisted that I did
redeem my reputation on that day, but with so many
guns in possible range of the same point it was impos-
sible for him to have known definitely whose shot was
effective. Such a result, if positively settled, would be to
me now only an unpleasant memory and while in the
discharge of my duty as a Confederate soldier and in
justice to the cause, for which I fought, I lost no oppor-
tunty and spared no efifort to lessen the number of effec-
tives o-n the other side, it has been agratification to me
to have no positive knowledge that my efforts were ever
SAVED FROM DEATH BY A BIBLE.
Evan H. Lawrence, of Morgan county, and a mem-
ber of the Oglethorpes, occupied that day a position
about 20 feet to my left. He had in his left breast pocket
and covering his heart, a Bible. During the day a minie
ball struck the book and passing partly through, stop-
ped at the 7th verse of the 52d chapter of Isiah. But for
124 UNDER THE STARS AXD BARS
rhe protection furnished by the bt>ok it would probably
have produced a fatal wound. He told me afterwards
that the subject matter of that special chapter had been
m his thoughts all day. He survived the war, entered
the ministry of the Baptist church and preached his first
sermon from the text named above: "How beautiful
upon the mountains are the feet of Him that bringeth
g^ood tidings, that publisheth peace," etc. I am satisfied
that the incident and the peculiar significance of the text
had a controlling influence in the selection of his life
Avork after the war. He fought a good fight, both as a
soldier and a Christian, and I feel assured, has received
his certificate of promotion in the ranks of the army
At 8 p. m. \vc were relieved and returned to the
trenches. Twelve hours' continuous fighting had render-
ed us hungry for rest as well as food, but our rations of
both were destined to be short. The beef issued to us
had been slaughtered so long and was so badly tainted
that even a soldier's appetite had to reject it. Only the
tallow or fat could be used and this was stuck on the
end of a ramrod, placed in the flame until the outer sur-
face was scorched and was then eaten with arelish that
the rarest dainties of a royal ttable would not bring to
me now. After a hasty lunch we were again on the tramp.
The roads were very muddy, the march was obstructed
by wagons in front and we made only 21-2 miles in four
hours. There were frepuent halts and at one of them
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 125
Will Daniel and the writer, standing side by side in the
mud, both fell asleep. After a time the company moved
on, but tieither of us awoke until jostled by other troops
n passing us. This incideint recalls the fact that on a
forced march in Tennessee afterwards, I slept walking.
The nap must have been a short one, but that 1 lost con-
isciousness was proven by the fact that 1 dreamed of a
\oung lady three hundred miles away.
A little after midnight we were halted on the crest of a
ridge and thoroughly worn out we lay down to rest, in-
voking in our hearts if not upon our lips, blessings on.
the man that invented sleep.
INCIDENTS ON THE KENNESAW LINE.
On. the next day, 19th, we were on reserve picket all
day in the rain, but fortunately with no fighting to do.
Relieved at midnight, we retired behind the trenches, as
the writer hoped, for much-needed rest and sleep. My
only blanket had been thoroughly soaked by the rain
and knowing Gen. Johnston's predilection for changing
base at night, I was in doubt whether to take the chance
of securing such sleep as I could get in a wet blanket,
or to build a fire, dry the blanket and fall into the arms
of Morpheus like a gentleman. I chose the latter course,
spent an hour in t'he drying process and then lay down,
hopeful of a good night's rest. I had just fitted my angu-
lar frame to the inequalities of the ground, when the
ominous "Fall in," Fall in,,' fell like another weit blanket
156 UNDEE THE STAES AND BARS.
on m-y heart and hopes. Out into th.e mud and darkness
we tramped, not knoAving whither we went and caring,
perhaps as Httle. We were finally halted near the base of
Kennesaw Mountain and on the line we were to occupy
for the next two weeks. Before cismissing the company
Will Daniel said, ''An attack is expected on this line at
daylight tomorrow, and I have orders to fortify it. I am
tired and I am going to sleep. You can entrench or not,
as you choose, but I want you to distinctly understand
that you have got to hold this line in the morning, breast-
works or no b r east works. '-
Only one man remained awake to fortify and he dug
his trench in the wrong direction. Fortunately the ex-
pected attack did not materialize next day and we found
ample opportunity to entrench before it came on the
SLEEPING UNDER DIFFICULTIES.
The ground through which our trenches ran sloped
upwards in our rear and as we were in range of the Fed-
eral skirmish line, the balls that missed the breastworks
would strike the soil 20 or 30 feet back of them. On the
night of June 25 I was sleeping under a shelter made o^
oark stripped from chestnut trees, with Will Dabney as
bedfellow. About midnight I was awakened by his groan-
ng and found that he had been wounded while asleep,
the ball entering his arm above the elbow and stopping
at the bone without breaking it. W. J Steed was accus-
THE DALTON AND xVTLAXTA CAMPAIGN. 12 T
-tomed to use his shoes and socks as a pillow for his head,
n habit growing possibly out of his daily effort as com-
-nissary to make both ends meet He was a little surprised
one morning to find that a minie ball had passed through
his improvised pillow without disturbing his sleep. Geo.
McLaughlin found one moirning a minie imbedded in
the heel of the shoe he had laid aside for the night. These
'^ases might indicate that our Northern friends were rath-
er partial to that kind of in-shoe-rance, but I am satis-
fied that GeoTge and "Phunie" would have preferred a
The fire from the skirmish line was so heavy one
morning and the bahs were flying airound so carelessly
tnat the company was ordered into the trenches. Frank
Stone and I had not finished our breakfast and as Will
Daniel had a personal interest in the meal, we secured
his consent to continue our culinary operations. I was
sitting by the lire cutting up a piece of beef for hash,
when one of those careless minies struck my right arm
near the wrist, ventilating the sleeve of my jacket and
partially disabling my arm for ten days. As a souvenir of
4hat temporary interruption to the hash business I have
that minie filed away among other war curios.
THE VICTIM OF MISPLACED CONFIDENCE
Our stay at Kennesaw was marked by another spuirrel
aicident differing somewhat from that of June i8, already
referred to. A short distance in the rear of our position
128 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
G Confederate battery had been planted and between this
and the enemy's batteries there were frequent artillery
duels. So frequent were these engagements and so accus-
Tomed did we become to the noise of the guns that if
asleep it failed to awake us, although our battery was only
^eventy-five yards away. On one of these occasions we
were ordered into the trenches for protection from the
shells. Sitting in the ditch with our faces turned rear-
ward, some one in the ranks spied a squirrel in the
branches of a tree standing near our battery. He was ap-
]:>arently crazed by the noise of the guns and the shriek
of the shells flying around him. One of the Oglethorpes
.^^ang out to him, "Come down in the trenches — you'll
be killed up there." I don't think the squirrel heard him,
but the words hard barely left his lips, when the little
animal ran down the tree, struck a bee line for the
trenches and leaped in among the men. As he made his
way down the line, some one stamped on him and put an
end to his race fo'r life. I regretted his fate, not only on
account of his grey uniform, but for the reason that if he
was really seeking protection he had found himself the
victim of nidsplaced confidence.
On the evening of June 26, Will Daniel said to me,
"Furnish 47 men for picket duty tonight. Lieutenants
Blanchard and McLaughlin will go with them. As tliis is
a detail, you will remam with the remnant of the com •
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 129
pany in the trenches." As Gen. Sherman had not favoied
lis with his confidence, neither of us knew how much,
exemption from that service meant for both of us on the
morrow. In detaiUng non-commissioaied officers for this
('etachment, Corp. L. A. R Reab asked to be excused
upon the ground that he had received that day an outfit
of outer and under clothing — ^that by changing the old
garments for the new after a thorough ablution he had
succeeded in ridding himself of a camp affliction techni-
cally known as ''pediculus corporis," but usually char-
acterized by a less euphonious title — that picket service
in the pits would certainly bring on a renewal of the at-
tack, from which he desired most earnestly to have at
Vast a few days immunity. While he had my sympathy,.
I was unable to consider his excuse a valid one, and re-
f'-rred him to his commanding ofificer, who also declinecT
to relieve him. It was possibly fortunate that he failed
as he was captured next day and v/as kept a prisoner
until the close of the war, securing in this way exempt-
ion from further risk in battle and perhaps a longer leas-.-
In this connection it may not be amiss to ^ay that the
Oglethorpes were, perhaps, as cleanly as any company
in the service and yet during the last year of the war T
do not think a single member was free of this affliction
for a single day. It was simply a physical impossibility
to get rid of it. Discussing this matter with my friend,
W. J. Steed some time since, I made the statement that
130 T^NDEK THE STARS AND BARS.
during our trip to Nashville in the winter of '64, when
we had no opportunity to change our underclo'thing for
a month or more, it was our custom before retiring at
liight, to take our flannel or hickory shirts, close the
.neck and Avrist, suspend them over a blazing fire and
-hold them there until the air was filled with the odor of
frying meat. Steed's reply was, "I think a good deal jf
\vou, old fellow, but I advise you never to make that
statement to any one who has not unlimited confidence
n your veracity." And yet I make it here with as full
conviction of its absolute truthfulness as any statement I
have ever made in any presence.
And now, bidding the ''pediculus corporis" adieu witl.
a great deal of pleasure, I ask the rea;der's attention to
PA1TLE OF KENNESAW
The 47 men detailed for picket on the evening of the
.26th, went to their posts v/ith seven other companies
from the regiment, with no premonition of what was in
store for them on the coming day. There was the usual
desultory firing during the night, but the sunrise salute
on the 27th was not confined to a single gun. Every bat-
tery fronting Hardee's corps and French's div^ision, join-
el in the chorus. The cannonade was heavy and continu-
ous until 8 a. m., when the Feclcial bugles sounded th^
advance. As the assaulting column approached our skir-
mish line, the pickets covering the divisions of Cheath-
THE DxVLTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 131
am, Cleburne and French retired to the trenches, where
the enemy met with a bloody and disastrous repulse. Iti
Walker's front their approach was hidden from view bv
a dense forest growth, except on the extreme right ad-
joining French, where the pits running across an open
field, were held by Co. C, of our regiment. This com-
pany had retired with French's pickets, leaving a vacancy
in the line. The Oglethorpes were in reserve, and Maj.
Allen, misled by Capt. Buckner as to the situation and
ignorant of the fact that the attacking column had already
reached our skirmish line, ordered the company into fill
the gap. Gallantly led by Lieutenants Blanchard and
McLaughlin, they advanced at a double quick step and
on reaching the open field were met by a murderous fire
both from the front and flank, for French's deserted pits
Vv'ere already occupied by the enemy. The woods to the
l^ft and front were swarming with blue coats. On a por
lion of the line held by Co. K, they had reached the pit>
and a hand to hand conflict ensued. Men fought with
clubbed muskets. A short-legged Irishman of that com-
pany, with the unusual name of John Smith, had his
gun seized by a stalwart Yankee and there was a strug-
gle for its possession. The little son of Erin was game,
but he w^as overmatched in strength and shoving his op-
ponent backward as the gun was wrenched from' his
i.ands, he said, "To with you and the gun too."
Lieut. George A. Bailie, of Co. B, had his ear grazed by
a minie and his antagonist, twenty feet away, reloaded
132 UNDEE THE STARS AND BAKS.
to fire again; having no weapon but his sword, Lieut.
B. decided to emulate David in his contest with GoUath.
and picking up a stone he threw it, striking his foe square-
ly between the e}es and placing him hors de combat
for a time at least. Further up the line and near the va-
cant pits, another member of the regiment, whose name
is not recalled, stood loading and firing as rapidly as his
leeth could tear the cartridges and his hands could ram
fhem home. His face v/as cold and pallid and bloodless,
but not from fear. Blackened with powder stain, through
which the perspiration trickled in streams^ his eyes
flashed defiance with every Hash from his gun, while dis-
daining the protection of the pits he stood there a perfect
demon of war, with no thought save to kill.
And what of the Oglethorpcs? They had picked up
something too hot to hold. Attacked both in front and
flank by largely superior num-bers they were in a verit
able hornet's nest. They fought bravely to hold their
position, but the odds were too great and George Mc-
Laug'hlin, seeing that it was wholesale death or capture,
iang out, "Save yourselves, boys." The place was tvOO
hot to hold and almost to let go. For two or three hund-
red yards to the rear was am open field sloping upwards.
To retire through this bullet swept as it was at short
range, was simply to court death. Obliquely to the rear
was a piece of woodland from which some protection
could be gained. Most of the men made a break for this.
Some of them xan squarely into the arms of the enemy
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 1:^3
who had possession of the woods, and were captured.
Some failed to leave the pits in time and were taken pris-
oners there. Some ran the gauntlet safely, while some
brought to the rear in frame or limb a perpetual souvenir
of that warm day. With the first volley as they entered
the open field, Lieut Blanchard was wounded and W J.
Steed fell by his side with a ball through his lungs.
A moment later A. M. Hilzheim, who had joined us only
a day before, had received a fatal wound, and Wyart
Chamblin had fallen with a shattered leg. When the order
to retire was given, W. J. Steed, John Weigle and Char-
]'e Eayliss attempted to make their way to the rear
through the open field. Steed had gone but a little way
when a ball crashed through his hand. As he slung it in
pain, another shattered his elbow and he fell. As he lay
;here sufifering agony from three wounds a fourth ball
broke the same arm near the shoulder. A little way off
Charlie Eayliss lay dead and John Weigle had fallen
with a broken thigh. The Federal line was re-formed in
rear of the pits and Steed and Weigle were ordered to
come in and surender. They replied that they were un-
able to go in, but that if litter bearers were sent out they
•ould be carried in. Just then a shell from one of French's
batteries burst over the Federal line and they took to the
*voods without the ceremony of a formal dismissal.
Steed and Weigle took advantage of a temporary lull in
the firing and renewed their efforts to escape. Steed was
so weakened by loss of blood from his four wounds that
134 CJKDER THE STAKS AND BAR?^^
he could only rise, stagger a little way and fall, then
rest for a time and renew the effort, while Weigle was
forced to crawl *and drag his wounded limb. In the ef-
fort he was shot in the other leg, butwas finally reached
by the littler bearers and taken to the rear, one of them
being fatally wounded as they bore him- off. After re-
peated efforts, occupying an hour or more, Steed reach-
ed the haven and swooned away. In this condition he
was found and rescued. He still lives, but an armless
sleeve furnishes constant reminder of the terrible exper-
ience of that June day. Weigle, poor fellow, a model
soldier and a brave, true man, died from his wounds.
And now, though it is due to the truth of history, I
regret to record the fact, that while these comrades of
mine, who had been shot down on the soil of their own
State for defending their homes and firesides, were mak-
ing in bitter agony their heroic struggle for life. Federa^
soldiers, schooled in Sherman's creed that ''War is hell"
atid that "the humanities of life have no place" amid its
horrors, concealed behind trees and under the shelter of
rifle pits, were trying to murder these men as they lay
maimed and mangled and bleeding and helpless upon
the ground. It is not a pleasant picture, and I am glad
to be able to shift the reader's attention to another that
blooms out in striking and refreshing contrast to this
product of Northern civilization. At the same hour and
less than a mile away, the attack of Palmer's corps on
Cleburne's and Cheatham's divisions met with a bloody
THE 1) ALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 135
repulse and as the Union line retired, exploding shells
or paper wrapping from the rifle cartridges, fired the
woods where the Federal dead and \vounded lay. "Cease
firing," rang out from brave Pat Cleburne's lips, and
tilie rugged heroes of Granbury, Govan and Lowry,
dropped their arms and leaping the breastworks they
hurried out under the summer sun and the fiercer hear
cf the blazing woods to rescue and save their fallen and
helpless foes. Comment is unnecessary and if it were, as
a reconstructed citizen of a reconstructed union, I have
no heart to make it.
In addition to the casualties already named Ab.
Mitchell of the Oglethorpes, lost an arm. and W. W.
Bussey, W. R. Morris, Bob Prather, Billy Pardue, Ben
Rowland, and Randall Reeves were otherwise wounded.
L. A. R. Reab, Joe Derry, Willie Eve, Geo. Harrison,
Bud Howard, \V. Chamblin, Jabe Marshall, Polk Thom-
as, John Cofitin and Lott were captured. George Pour-
nelle's fate was never positively known. Those who es-
caped thought he was captured and those who were cap-
tured thought he escaped. He was the last to leave his
pit, was probably killed there and falling in it was thus
concealed from the view of other members of the com-
pany. He was my friend and messmate, brave and kind
and true. Three years' comradeship had drawn us very
close together and the mystery of his death has always
The pickets were rallied by Major Allen on a line
136 UNDEK THE STARS AND BARS.
nearer our trenches, but the Federals made no further
efifort to advance. The brave stand made by our regi-
ment on the skirmish line checked the assaulting colum'n
and by 11:30 the battle had ended. Sherman had lost
3,000 and Johnston only 630, one-eighth O'f it falling on
the 63rd Ga. Gen. W. H. T. Walker complimented the
regiment on its gallantr\', but suggested that it be tem-
pered with a little more discretion.
ROLL CALL AFTER BATTLE.
Few scenes in a soldier's life are touched with sadder
interest than the first roll call after a battle. As Orderly
sergeant of the Oglethorpes I had to call its roll, per-
haps a thousand times, and yet I do not now remember
one that touched my heart more deeply than that which
closed that summer day at Kennesaw. The voices of
uventv-two of those who had so promptly answered to
:be call of duty a few short hours before, were hushed
and silent when their names were called. Som'C with Fed-
eral bayonets guarding them, were tramping to orison
dens, perhaps to slow and lingering death. Some with
mangled form and limb were suffering more than death,
while some w"ith v\diite cold faces turned toward the
stars, were ans -v ering roll call on the other shore. Stand-
ing beside the breastworks on that summer evening,
under the shadow of grim and silent Kennesaw, with
twilight deepening into night, there were shadows on
all our hearts as well, shadows that stretched beyond us
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 137
and fell on hearts and hearthstones far away, shadows
that rest there sti'l and never will be lifted.
UNDER TWO FLAGS.
Some tune in '63 there came to the regiment a young-
and beardless boy, "'the only son of his mother and she
was a widow." Tim^id and shrinking, he was assigned to
a company in wiiich he had neither friend nor acquaint-
ance, and he soon grew homesick and despondent. He
had been my brother's schoolboy friend and in pity for
his loneliness I made an effort to secure his transfer to
the Oglethorpe's. His captain declined to approve the
papers and the effort failed. Frail and unfitted to endure
t])c hardships of a soldier's life, he nevertheless bore up
bravely under the constant toil and danger of the Dalton
and Atlanta campaigrj until the battle of Kennesaw was
fought. His comiany was on the skirmish line that day
and suffered heavily. When the Federal line had been re-
])ulsed and in the hush of the twilight air the roll wa^
called, he was reported "missing," a word that carried
with it to many a lonely home a world of agony in those
Two hours later a member of his company came to me
and said, "Dick is lying dead between the picket lines. If
1 can get two others, will you go with us to find the body
and bring it in?" Prowling around at night between
two hostile skirmish lines in constant expectation of
being shot by either side was not a pleasant duty, but I
138 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
thought of his widowed mother and, and told him I
would go. He went away to secure other help, but learn-
ed in some way that he had been mistaken; that the dead
soldier lying cold out under the starlight was not Dick,
but another member of the regiment. A few days later
we abandoned the Kennesaw line and I heard no more
of my boy friend raitil the war had ended. Then I learn-
ed through returning prisoners that he had been captur-
ed at Kennesaw; that under the bitter cruelties of prison
life he had grown sick and helpless and was slowly dy-
ing; that in his weakness and under the inhuman policy
of Grant and Lincoln, hopeless of release by exchange^
he was offered a chance of renewed life if he would con-
sent to serve against the Indians, who were giving trou-
ble in the far West. Lee's shadowy line was growing
thinner day by day. Hood's reckless raid on Nashville
had ended in disaster and the end had nearly come. With
the shadow of the grave resting on every prison wall
and more, perhaps, from love of mother than of life, he
yielded. But the seeds of death were sown too deeply in
his boyish frame. The prison horrors, that merit, but find
no place on Lincoln's monument, nor Grant's mauso-
leum, had done their work. A few short months and
somewhere under the Western sky, far from home and
kindred, the prairie grass was weaving in the summer
sunshine, its creeping tendrils over his lonely grave.
Poor, gentle-hearted Dick! Deaths were common, sad-
ly common in those old days but the memorv^ of his fate
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 139
has never been recalled in all these years without a sen^e
of sadness and of sorrow. M}^ heart has never judged
him save in pity and in kindness always, for I am sura
few mounds of earth have lain above a purer or a s^ent-
AN UN-DRESS PARADE.
In active service, brass bands and "dress parades" fell
largely into "innocuous desuetude." When a band was
seen going to the rear it vv'as considered prima facie evi-
dence that there was a fight on hand, while an order for
dress parade dispelled any apprehension of an early
engagement. I recall one instance, however, of an un-
dress parade on the firing line and withaut a brass band
In the early days of July, '64, the Northern and South-
ern banks of the Chattahoochee formed for a time the
skirmish lines of Johnston's and Sherman's armies. One
day some of our pickets established with their oppon-
ents on the other side a self-appointed truce. No firing
was to be done during its existence, and proper notice
was to be given of its termination. The weather wa&
warm and a squad of Yankee pickets relying upon the
honor of their Southern foes, decided to take a swim in
the river. Stripping themselves to the bathing suit fur-
nished by nature, they plunged in and were enjoying the
bath immensely. The Confederate ofhcer of the day be-
coming apprised of the temporary cessation of hostili-
140 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
ties, sent a courier down with orders to stop the truce
and renew the firing at once. The bathers were in plain
view and in easy range of our rifle pits. Notice was given
them of the orders and they begged to be allowed time
to dress and resume their positions in their own pits. The
courtesy was accorded, but their toilets were not made
in either slow or common time. There was a hasty run
on the bank, a hurried leap into the pits and then the
crack of the rifles announced the end of the truce and of
the undress parade a:s well.
On the same line, on another day, two opposing pick-
ets, who had been taking alternate shots at each other,
finally agreed on ai challenge given by one and accepted
by the other, to leave the protection of their pits and fight
to a finish. The .s;urgling waters of the Chattahoochee
lay between them. Standing on either bank, in full view
of each other and without protection, thev loaded and
fired until one was killed.
It was simply a life thrown recklessly away,
without reason, and with no possible good to
the cause for which he fought. Some weeks later Bob
Swain, who had been transferred to our company from
the I2th Ga. Battalion and to whom reference has al-
ready been made in connection with the raising of Fort
Sumter's fallen flag, was on the skirmish line at Lovejoy
Station. The Yankee pickets were probably six hundred
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 141
yards away, but they kept up a continuous fire and their
balls would frequently strike the head logs of our rifle
pits. So anxious was Bob to avail himself of every op-
portunity to secure a shot and so utterly reckless of dan-
ger, that he refused to enter the pit and remained in an
exposed position until he was shot through the head and
Picket firing in war, except when rendered necessary
by an attempted advance by one side or the other, is in
my opinion, simply legalized murder. The losses sus-
tained in this way can never affect the final result. "Only
a picket or two now and then" does not count *'in the
news of the battle," but "in some little cot on the moun-
tain" the shadow of lifelong grief falls just afs heavily on
the lonely wife or mother as if the victim had hallowed
by his life blood a victory that changed the fate of a
WATERMELON AS A PERSUADER.
During the summer of '64, Aaron Rhodes of the Ogle-
thorpes, fell sick and was sent to the hospital at Greens-
boro, Ga. Dr. H. V. M. Miller, the "Demosthenes of
the mountains," and an ante-bellum professor in the
Medical College at Augusta, Ga., was the surgeon in
Aaron's father secured for him a leave of absence to vis-
it his home and at its expiration went to Greensboro to
procure an extension, as he was still unfit for duty. Dr.
142 UNDER THE STARS ANL RARS.
Miller told him that k was impossible to grant the re-
quest, as strict orders had just been received to allow nu
further leaves; that the instructions were imperative and
gave him no discretion whatever. Mr. Rhodes argued
.and pleaded, but the Doctor's decision was positive and
final. At the close of the interview, Mr. R. gave the
assurance that his son would be sent up at once, and
then in taking his leave said, "By the way. Doctor, I
brought you those Richmond county melons I promised
you when I was here last and they are now at the depot
for you." ''Ah; thank you," said the Doctor, "and by the
way, please say to Aaron, that after reconsidering the
matter, he can remain at home as long as he wishes, or
until able to return to duty." And Aaron's melancholy
days were not "the saddest of the year." .
SAVED FROM A NORTHERN PRISON BY A
In July '64, the writer passed through his first and only
experience eitJier as prisoner or an inmate of a ho'Spital.
Sherman was nearing Atlanta and his pickets lined the
northern bank of the Chattahoochee. I had been sick for
several days and Dr. Gumming, acting assistant surgeon,
insisted that I should go to the rear. With me there went
from the division hospital to Atlanta a boy soldier, who
did not seem to be over 14 years of age, and I do not
think he was as tall as his gun. If not the original of Dr.
Ticknor's "Little Giiifen of Tennessee," he was certamly
THE DrNLTOX AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 143
his counterpart for he was "utter Lazarus, heels to head."
Atlanta was only a distributing hospital. The sick were
"being shipped to points on the Atlanta and West Point
Road. Reports from- that section were anything but
favorable Si^k and wounded *.\ ere said to be "dying like
sheep." Having no special desire to die in that way or
in any other way, if possible to avoid it, I asked assign-
ment to some hospital on the Georgia Railroad. "AH
full," said the surgeon. ''No room anywhere except on
Atlanta and West Point Road . Train leaves at 7 o'clock
in the morning. Report here at that hour." As I had fully
determined n- t to go on that road I reported at 8 o'clock
instead of 7, and a few hours later I was pleasantly quar-
tered in the hospital at Oxford, Ga., where I had spent
two years of college life. Four years before, almost to a
day, I had left its classic halls little dreaming that I
should return to its familiar scenes in sickness and in
weariness, a victim of grim visaged war. For many
months the college exercises had been suspended and
the chapel, recitation and literary society halls were
being utilized as hospital wards. At the time of my ar-
rival the ladies and older citizens, who had not been
absorbed by the war, felt some apprehensions of a raid
into the village by Sherman's cavalry, which was only
forty miles avvay. Among these ladies, however, there
was one to whom the expectation of such an event
brought no feeling of anxiety. Born and reared in the
North, she felt assured that no Union soldier's vandal
144 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
hand would molest any of her possessions. Asked by one
of her neighbors what she proposed to do in the event oi
their coming she replied, "They'll never trouble me or
mine. I am just going to sit down and see the salvation
of the Lord." How it looked when she saw it, will appear
a little further on.
The old college chapel where I had attended morn-
ing and evening prayer during my college course had
been converted into a hospital dining room. On July 22,
a few days after my arrival, the convalescents were tak-
ing their midday meal in this room when the clatter of a
horse's feet was heard. There was some commotion out-
side and the men hurriedly left the table to investigate
its cause. It required but a few minutes to size up the
situation. A few feet from the door on a horse covered
with foam sat a. red-headed Yankee in blue uniform and
with full equipment. The expected raid had materialized
and Garrard's division of Federal cavalry had possession
of the town. Most of the convalescents returned hastily
to their quarters without finishing their dinner, The
Vv^riter, not knowing when or where his next meal would
be taken returned to the table and replenished his com*-
missary department to its fullest capacity. The raiders
scattered through the village, pillaging to some extent
private residences, destroying government cotton and
in this way burning the home of Mr. Irvine, an old citi-
zen of the place. In due time they reached the premises
of the ladv. to whom reference has already been made.
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 145
Her husband was not at hom'C. He was an honored min-
ister of the Methodist church and was considered the
champion snorer of the conference to which he belonged.
It was said that his family had become so accustomed to
the sonorous exercise of his talent in this line that dur-
ing his absence from home at night, they were forced to
substitute the grinding of a cofifee mill to secure sleep. I
am not prepared, however, to vouch for the absolute
accuracy of this statement. Whether on this occasion he
had received intimation of the enemy's approach, and
emulating the example of other male citizens of the vil-
lage, had made himself conveniently absent, I do not
now recall. His wife, possibly relying on the fact that she
was Northern born, or on providential interposition, for
exemption fro'mi any war indemnity that her blue-coated
guests might be disposed to exact, received them cour-
teously and as long as their levy was confined to chick-
ens from the barnyard or hams from the smoke house
she managed to maintam her equilibrium. But when, in
addition to these minor depredations, they bridled her
pet family horse and led him forth to ''jine the cavalry,"
patience ceased to be a virtue. This crowning indignity
furnished the straw that fractured the spinal column of
the proverbial camel. She rose, in her righteous wrath
and in plain and vigorous English she gave them her
opinion of the Yankee army in general, and of her un-
welcom'e guests in particular. Her indignant protest was
unavailing. The stable was thenceforth tenantless, and
146 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
as Tennyson might have said, she mourned for the tramp
of a vanished horse and the sound of a neigh that was
At 3 p. m. the convalescents were farmed into line
with orders to report to the provost marshal. We had
marched but a little way, when a Federal colonel ordered
us to disband until 5 p. m. I had borrowed the novel
*'Maca;ria" from a Miss Harrison in the village and decid-
ed to spend the interval in completing its perusal. I re-
tired to my cot in the college chapel, but somehow the
book did not interest me. Visions of a Federal prison
peered at me from every page and I gave it up. Having
mad^ an engagemenit to take tea with Mr. Harrison's
famdly that evening, I concluded, if allowed to leave the
building, to return the book. Going down to reconnoiter
I saw one of our men walk up the street without being
halted, and with as indifferent air as I could assume, I
Reaching Mr. Harrison's house I found the family
anxious and excited. Mr. H., to avoid capture, had con-
cealed himself in the garden. I expressed my regrets to
Mrs. H. that 1 was unable to keep my engagement, as
I had another, which was a little more pressing. She in^
sisted that I remain with them until the hour for leaving
and I sat down to meditate on the fate that the future
had in store for me. VvHien a l:'■o^• T had nften sung the
old hymn containing the words:
"Sweet prospects, sweet birds and sweet flowers,"
THE DALTOX AND ATLxVNTA CAMPAIGN. 147
but the prospect that loomed up before me that summer
afternoon had no f.avor of sugar or honey and, as I now
recall it, not even a trace of sorghum^ molasses to shade
its bitterness. As T sat there on the piazza, a Federal bri-
gade passed in a short distance of the house followed by
a crowd of contrabands. One of the soldiers came in and
took a ham. from the pantry without taking the tr:>uble
to a-sk for it. Others passed through the 3^ard on other
errands. Nothing was said to me and I made no special
effort to attract their attention. I was saying nothing,
but I was doing some pretty tall thinking. The idea had
occurred to me, either, as Judge Longstreet has said, by
"internal suggestion or the bias of jurisprudence," that
if I remained quietly where I was, I might be overlooked
and I decided to make the experiment. At 5 p. m. the
squad of convalescents was re-formed and marched ofif
under guard, passing within a short distance of where I
sat. Possibly I felt that my place was properly a:mong
them, but T felt no^ disposition to halt them' in order to
secure it and rny heart grew lighter as the line grew dim
in the distance and finally vanished. I have sometimes
been accused of being absent-minded, but on that occas-
ion I had reason to be grateful for being absent-bodied.
At nightfall I returned to my hospital cot and slept
the sleep of the just. I was in no hurry to rise next morn-
ing until at 9 a. m., some one came in and reported that
all the raiders had shaken the dust of Oxford from their
feet. My escape was due to ''Macaria" and for that reason
148 UNDER THE STAES AND BARS.
I have always felt kindly towards the book and its auth-
or. In my condition a Northern prison would have
meant for me slow .-eath and an unmarked grave and
these records would have been unwritten or penned by
A SLAVES LOYALTY.
On the saini-e day Col. H. D. Capers of the i^th Ga.
Battalion, was in Oxford recuperating from a wound
received in Virginia. Being advised of the approach of
Garrard's division, he leaped through a rear window of
his residence and taking a country road proceded to
change his base at double-quick step. Learning of his
escape a squad of cavalry started in pursuit and on reach-
ing a fork in the road they asked a negro standing by
which route Col. Capers bad taken. The slave, faithful to
his master's friend, intenitionally misinformed them and
before the error was discovered the colonel was safely
This act of faithfulness recalls the unswerving loyalty
of the race during the horrors of a four years' struggle,
whose issue meant their freedom. Suggesting as it does
the ties of friendship between master and servant in the
old slave days, it furnishes a reason for the kindly inter-
est the South still feels in the remnant of a class that
is fading from the earth and may account for the further
fact that on this institution, despite its faults, there rested
for a hundred years Heaven's benediction and the smile
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 140
ONE AGAINST THREE THOUSAND.
Rumors of the raid had been current for several days
before its occurrence, and a Mr. Jones, a citizen of Cov-
ington, Ga., whose hatred of everything- bhie had been
inflamed by reports of outrages comm-itted by Sherman's
army, pledged himself to kill the first Federal soldier
who approached his home. Learning that Garrard's divis-
ion had reached the town, he loaded his squirrel rifle and
taking his stand in front of the court house he awaited
his opportunity. He had been on post but a little while
when a Federal cavalryman approached with a squad of
convalescents captured at the hospital. Jones allowed
him to come within close range and then raised his rifle.
The Yankee shouted to him: "Don't shoot," but his pur-
pose was not to be changed and his victim dropped from
the saddle. Reloading his rifle and changing his position
to another street a second squad of prisoners came by
and again his rifle brought down its game. Reloading the
third time he intercepted a platoon of cavalry and fired
into it, wounding two of them. They captured him, shoe
himi to death and then beat out his brains with the butts
of their rifles. He doubtless anticipated such a fate and
went coolly to certain death with no hope of fame and
with only the satisfaction of getting two for one.
Geo. Daniel, a Confederate quartermaster, chanced to
be at home on furlough in Covington on the same day.
He had been out bird hunting that morning and on his
return was captured by the Yankees, who enraged by
150 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS
the killing of two of their men by Jones, determined to
shoot Daniel simply because he was found wdth a gun in
his hand. His protest that he was out for no hostile pur-
pose availed him nothing. He was ordered to face his
executioners and an effort was made to bind a handker-
chief over his eyes. He drew it away and said, "No, a
Confederate soldier can face death without being blind-
folded." The rifles rang out and he fell, another victim to
the humane influence of Northern civilization.
A BRAVE CAROLINA MAIDEN.
During my stay at the Oxford hospital a number of
ladies who had refugeed from Charleston, So. Ca., were
making their hom'e in the village. Among them was a
Miss Fair, a beautiful girl with a wealth of wavy brown
hair. An ardent Southerner and anxious to benefit the
cause she loved, she had determined to visit Sherman's
armv around Atlanta as a spy, bringing out such infor-
mation as she would be able to procure.
The raven locks were sacrificed. the face
and handh were died, a cracker bonnet and
homespun dress were donned and supplied with
a basket of parched ground peas she tramped aroimd the
Federal camps, keeping her eyes and ears open. Making
the trip safely, she returned to Oxford and mailed a let-
ter to Gov. Brown, giving him the information she had
obtained as to Sherman's force and plans. When Gar-
rard's division entered Oxford, this letter was in the post
THE DALTON AND ATLANTA CAMrAIGN. 151
office and was captured with other mail matter. It was
read by the raiders after they left the town and a squad
was sent back to search for the fair writer, but fortunate-
ly she was securely hidden in the attic of Mr. River's
home, while her father was concealed in a well on the
premises. Few braver acts have been recorded of grim
visaged warriors than the daring feat accomplished by
this fair-faced daughter of the South.
A GEORGIA "HOSS."
While the raiders were in possession of the town, one
of them belongmg" to a Michigan regiment rode up to
the gate of the home where this girl was staying. The
lady of the house was sitting on the porch and the cav-
alryman saluted her with the remark, "See what a fine
Georgia "ho'ss" I have." ''Yes," she replied, "one you
stole I suppose." Turning to her ten-year-old son stand-
ing by the soldier said, "Here, boy, hold this "hoss."
"I'd see you at the d--l first," replied the little Confed-
erate. This boy, now a middle-aged man, tells me that
it was his first and last use of improper language in the
presence of his Christian mother, and that for some reas-
on she failed on that occasion to administer even a mild
As we marched more than 800 miles in this camixiign,
and as a record of these movements would propably inter-
est only my old comrades, the general reader has my
cheerful permission to skip the following condensed ex-
tracts from my journal and to turn his or her attention
to the special incidents which succeed them. On Sept. 8,
^64, two days after the enemy had abandoned our front
at Lovejoy Staition, we moved up to a i>ositio'n one mile
above Jonesboro, remaining there ten days. On the i8th
we moved to Fairburn and on the 19th to Palmetto,
where we fortified our position and remained until the
:29th. Gen. Mercer having bcjn assigned to another field
of duty, Gen. Smith, on the 2-^ih, assumed command of
our brigade. On the 26th President Davis reviewed the
army and on the 28th Gen. Hardee, having asked to be
relieved, took leave of his old corps and Gen. Cheatham
was made corps commander. On the 29th we began our
northward march for the purpose of destroying Sher-
man's line of communication, passing by easy stages of
ten to twenty miles a day, over the ground we had tra-
versed in the recent campaign and reaching the vicinity
of Dalton, Ga., on Oct. 13th. Here we destroyed three
NASH7ILLE CAMPAIGN. 153
miles of railroad track, burning the cross-ties and bend-
ing- the rails by laying them across the burning ties and
twisting them aro!md the trees thait stood near the track.
After capturing the garrisons ait Dalton and Tilton, and
tearing up a section of the E. T. & Ga. R. R., we left on
the 14th for Gadsden, Ala., en route to Nashville. Hood
had decided to abandon the plan of campaign mapped
out by President Davis and himself and to advance into
Paissing through Villajnow, Lafayette, Alpine and Blue
Pond, we arrived at Gadsden Oct. 20th. Resting here a
day we are off again and for four days are tramping
over the arid stretches of Sand Mountain, reaching tiie
vicinity of Decatur, Ala., on the evening of the 26th. My
journal for that day has this entry: "March delayed by
bridge falling in. Very muddy tramp after nightfall.
Slept under a corn crib." Two days later it has this en-
try : "Two ears of corn issued to ea.ch man as rations."
Decatur was occupied by a Federal force and after
some skirmishing on the 27th and 28th we resumed our
march, passing through Conrtland on the 30th, Tuscum-
bia on the 31st and camping near the Tennessee river 011
the evening of that day. Here we remained until Nov
13th, when we crossed the river on a pontoon bridge and
camped near Florence. On the T4th we fortified our po-
sition and on the 19th Hood began his march to initer-
cept Schofield in his effort to unite with Thomas at Nash-
ville. Our brigade was detached to ferry the wagon train
154 U2s^DER THE STARS AND BARS.
across the river and on the 20th we tramped 12 or .4
miles through a driving- snowstorm' in a bitterly cold
wind to reach Cheatham's Ferry. I recall the fact that my
face became so thoroughly chilled that the snow that fell
on it failed to melt. After a week's work at the ferry, we
left on the 28th in charge of thewag'on train to rejoin
our command. On Dec. ist we struck the Nashville turn-
pike and on the 2d received oair first information of the
battle of Franklin, which had occurred Nov. 30, and in
which our division had suffered so heavily. Passing
throug^h Columbia and Spring Hill on the 3d and Frank-
lin and the battle ground in its front on the 4th we re-
joined our division near Nashville on the 5th. Next day
the Oglethorpes were on the pickcft line, were relieved
on the /th and on the 8th our brigade was ordered to
report to Gen. Forrest near Murfreesboro. Under For-
rest's direction the 9th and loth were spent in tearing up
railroad track en^:ased in snow and sleet, terribly cold
Two days' rest with the theiTnometer at 9 degrees and
on the 13th we are again destroying railroad track near
Lavergne. On the morning of the 15th our brigade and
Palmer's started out under Forrest to capture a Federal
supply train. Fording Stone river and marching 10 or 12
miles in the direction of Mufreesboro Forrest is halted
by an order from Hood to hold himself in readiness to
go to his aid, as the battle of Nashville was in progress.
Next day we moved back to the Nashville turnpike to
XASIIVILLE CAMPAIGN. 155
await the issue at Xashville. During the night Forrest
received news of Hood's defeat and with it orders to
form a junction with the retreating army at Columbia.
As the details of our march to that point, of our assign-
ment to tile rear guard and of the retreat to Corinth,
Miss., will be given in succeeding sketches, it is unneces-
sary to duplicate them here.
A CHRISTMAS DAY WITH FORREST.
It was the winter of 64, and to those of us who wore the
grey it was likewise the "winter of our discontent." The
hopes of the Confederacy were on the wane. The clouds
that hung above it had no silver lining, free or otherwise.
Sherman w-as "marching througli Georgia," leaving in
his wake the ashes of many a Southern home. Hood's
reckless raid on Nashville had ended in disaster and his
ragged battalions were making tracks for the Tennessee
river, (some of them, with bare feet) at a quickstep known
to Confederate tactics as "double distance on half ra-
tions.*' The morale of the army was shattered if not de-
stroyed. If the soliloquy of a gaunt Tennesseean as he
rose from a fall in the mud on the retreat fairly repre-
sented tlie sentiment of his comrades, it was badly shat-
tered. ITe is reported to have said: "Ain't we in a
of a fix, a one-eyed president, a one-legged general and
a one-horse Confederacy."
The Oglethorpes had fortunaitely escaped the butchery
at Franklin against which Forrest had so strongly
156 U:NrDER THE STARS AND BARS.
protested. As this immunity was due to our having been
detained with Smith's brigade to ferry a salt train across
the Tennessee river, salt had literally "saved our bacon.''
After rejoining- the army, we had been again detached
to operate under Forrest near Murfreesboro and in this
wfay had missed the rout at Nashville. Aside from these
immimities the campaign had been one of exceptional
hardships. The weather was bitterly cold and our ward-
I'obes were not excessively heavy. The writer wore a
thin fatigue jacket, with no overcoat and slept under a
single blanket with the thermometer at nine degrees
above zero. For a week prior to the retreat we had been
engaged in the pleasant paistime of handling with un-
gloved hands, railroad ties and rails encased in sleet and
snow. In addition to these hardships our commissary
•department was but illy supplied. And yet I cannot recall
a single complaint made by a soldier during that cam-
paign. It is my deliberate conviction, based upon this and
similar evidence, that the Confederate soldier fought
harder on shorter rations and grumbled less under great-
er privations than any. soldier in history. The battle of
Nashville opened on the morning of December 15th and
for two days, thirty miles away, we listened to the thun-
der of the artillery and anxiously awaited the issue. At
I a. m. Dec. 17th we were aroused to begin the longest,
hardest forced march of our four years' service. Colum-
bia, the point of junction with Hood's retreating army,
is sixty miles away and we have to make it in forty-eight
NASHNILLE CAMPAIGN. 157
hours or run the risk of almost certain capture by a force
ten times our own. It is cold, dark a^d raining — a dreary
combination. The roads are a mass of mud and before
we have tramped a mile one of my shoe strings breaks,
leaving the shoe imbedded six inches deep in the yield-
ing soil. Fishing it out, I resume the march with one
bare foot, but the rocks in the mud cut and bruise it at
every step and I am forced to stop for repairs. Taking the
strap from my rolled blanket, slits are cut in the flaps of
the shoe, the strap is buckled around so as to hold it in
place, and I hurry forward to rejoin my command. For
tweny-one hours we plow wearily through the mud,
camping at lo p. m. after marching 35 miles. Dr. Mc-
Intyre, in one of his Lyceum lectures, says that he had
no proper appreciation of either absolute silence or ab-
solute darkness until he stood within the central cham-
ber of the V/yandotte cavern. If he had tramped with
Forrest that winter day he would probably have added
to his experience an adequate conception of absolute
Five hours' rest and we are again on the march, buc
with slower step, for the strain of the previous day has
told on the boys. In the early morning we halt to rest
and I breakfast on an ear of corn picked up by the road-
side, smearing it with black grease scraped from the bot-
tom of m}'- frying pan. About midday Forest dismounts
a number his cavalry and gives up his own horse for a
time to help the "barefoot" brigade along. By 10 p. mi.
158 UNDER THE STAES AXD BARS.
we liave made 25 miles and are completely fagged. O-nly
five of the thirty Oglethorpes reach cam.p that night,
Dick ?.lorris., the vvriter, and three others whose names
I do not recall. Dick is short-limbed, but he has the grit
and the habit of getting there. On reaching Columbia
we are assigned to tlic rear guard under Forrest and
Walthall, who are instructed by Hood to sacrifice every
man in the command if necessary to ensure the safety of
his army. Manning trenches half filled with snow and
holding the enemv in check for a few days so as to give
Hood a fair start in the race, we begin our retreat Dec.
22 and on Christmas Eve camp near Pulaski, Tenn.
Coiled up in a single blanket on the cold, bare ground,
no visions of Santa Clans nor hopes of a Chrismas menu
on the morrow brighten our dreams.
Early Christmas morning we are gathered around the
camp fire awating orders to march. Frank Stone, tall and
thin, so thin that Charlie Goetchius had advised him al-
ways to present a side view to the enemy, as a minie ball
would never reach his anatomy in that position, ambles
up on a horse he had secured from one of the cav?.lry.
Frank had tried manfully to keep up with the proces-
sion. Flalf sick, his shoes v;orn soleless and his feet lacer-
ated and bleeding, he had marched when every step was
agony and had crawled over the rocky portions of the
road on his hands and knees until human nature could
endure no m.ore. Fortunately one of Forrest's cavalry
gave him a lift that saved him from a Northern prison.
NASHVILLE CAMPAIGN- 159
Frank had no sackile and to supply that need the boy:
had piled his steed with blankets to a depth of five or
six inches. As he rode up his eye fell on a lot of cooking
utensils tha^t had to be left for lack of transpo-rtation. and
turning to Will Daniel he said. ''Lieutenant, hadn't T
better take along soine of these?" Gen. Forrest was
standing a few feet away, grave atid silent. Attracted by
Frank's question, he turned and inspecting the blanket
outfit for a moment he said, "I think you've got a
sight more now than you're entitled to." Frank made no
reply, but the criticism was thoroughly unjust for no
truer, braver soldier wore the grey.
The bugle soimds and we are again on the march.
About midday we halt on the summit of ai ridge with an
old line of breastworks skirting its crest. Glad to ha\^e a
rest we adjust ourselves to take advantage of the respite,
when the om.inous 'Tall in." "Fall in" comes down the
line. The ranks are hastily formed, the trenches are man-
ned and Alorton's battery is planted a short distance in
their rear and coimmanding the road. Our regiment is
placed as a support for the battery and as we line up,
Forrest passes us on foot going to the front in a halt
bent position. Reaching the trenches he watches the ad-
vance of the enemy for a few minutes and then hurries
to the rear. In a mom.ent we hear the clatter of a horse's
feet and the "Wizard of the Saddle" dashes by at half
speed, riding magnificently, his martial figure as straight
as an arrow and looking six inches taller than his wont, a
160 UNDEE THE STAES AND BARS.
very god of war, yelling as he reaches the waiting ranks :
"Charge!" "Charge!" "CHARGE!" Over the breast-
Avorks flashes a line of grey and down the slope they
sweep, yelling at every step. The captain commanding
our regiment is undecided as to his duty, but finally or-
ders us to retain our position in the rear ofthe battery.
Just then Gen. Featherston rides up, "What regiment is
this?" "63rd Ga." "What are you doing here?" "Sup-
porting this battery." "Battery the d — 1. Get over them
brea'stworks and get quick," and we "get." But the skir-
mish is soon over. The Yankees have fled, leaving a
piece of artillery and a number of horses in our posses-
We hold our position until late in the afternoon, when
"Red" Jackson, with his cavalry, relieves us and we re-
sume the march. As we are filing off the enemy reap-
pears and the cavalry carbines are waking the echoes.
We are directly in the line of fire and the hiss of the min-
ies does not make pleasant music to march by. But Jack-
son repels the attack and we have no further trouble with
our friends, the enemy. Night com'cs on and if there was
ever a darker or more starless one I can not place it.
Tramping, tramping in the cold and mud and darkness,
companiies and regiments are all commingled and no
one knows where he is, or where he ought to be. Too
dark to see the file next in front, we walk by faith and
not by sight. Elmore Dunbar was carrying the colors
and but for his occasional whistling imitation of the
NASHVILLE CAMPAIGN. 161
bu^ele call in order to let us know ''where he was at," our
regiment would liave lost in the darkness all semblance
of its organization. I can not well conceive how a larger
sh-^re of unadulterated physical comfort could have
been compressed into the five solid hours for which we
kept it up.
At IT p. tH'. we are ordered to halt, and camp near
Sugar Creek. The sound never was more welcome, nor
fell more sweetly on our ears than on that Christmas
night. Dinnerless and supperless and completely worn
out we hailed it wnth almost rapture for it brought the
|;romise of rest and sleep. Of all the Christmas days
that have come to me in life, only this stands out in
gloomy prominence as utterly wanting in every element
of the season's cheer and gladness. Yet looking back-
ward through the mists of more than thirty years, recall-
ing all its dangers and discomforts, its toil and weariness
and hunger, I would not if I could blot that day's record
from my memory, for o'er its somber shadows fell and
falls today the liglrt that comes to every true heart in the
path of duty; while gilding all its gloom there comes
across the waste of years a vision of the knig'htly Forrest,
the bravest of the brave, for as he rode the lines that day,
the light of battle in his eye and the thunderous
"Charge!" upon his lips he rode into my heart as well,
the impersonation of chivalry, and rides there still.
162 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
CLOSlxN^G DAYS OF THE CAMPAIGN.
Early on the morning of the 26th the Federal cavalry
came within range of our camp during a dense fog. A
volley scattered "them and our cavalry drove them back
for two miles.
Holding our position, for two hours, and no furth-
er advance being made by the enemy, v/e resumed the
march, camping at night near Lexington. A march of 12
males on the 27th brought us to the Tennes'see river,
which had already been crossed by Hood with his army
and wagon train. During the night, in expectation of an
atitack by the enemy, we were moved into a line of
breastworks which had been vacated by Loring's divis-
ion, but we had seen the last of our blue-coated friends
for that campaign. Crossing the river on the 28th we
found on its Southern bank and near the end of the pon-
toon bridge, 10 or 12 dead mules, and among them three
or four grey specimens of that much abused animal. I
had heard when a boy that a grey mule never died, that
they were gifted with a sort of equine immortality. And
now this dogmia of my early days found its complete
subversion, for these were not only dead, but as Gen.
Jno. C. Brown said to us in North Carolina afterwards,
when asked as to President Lincoln's death, they were
'Very dead." Unable to resist the force of this absolute
demonstration of the fact, I have always believed since
that a grey m^ule could die, though if further personal
NASHVILLE CAMPAIGN. 163
evidence were demanded I would be unable to produce
After crossing the river and without stopping to
hold apost-niortern examination on these faithful ani-
mals, wlio robed in grey had died in the cause, we se"" out
to rejoin our division at Corinth, Miss. Passing through
Tuscumbia Bartow and Cherokee, we reached Birns-
ville. Miss., on the evening of Dec. 3i9t. Here in the
waning hours of the dying year, after tramping eighi
hundred miles in absolute health I lay down and had an
old-fashioned Burke county chill. Lying by a log-heap
fire through the long watches of the winter night, my
changes of base in the effort to keep the chilly side of
my body next to the blazing logs were almost continu-
ous. My old comrade Joe Warren, whose stalwart frame
in company with Jim Thomas, Bill Jones and Eph
Thompson graced the leading "file of fours" in this cam-
paign, was wont to say that a certain brand of whiskey
had "a bad far'well." So' the closing year had for the
writer at least "a bad far'well." The New Year found me
.unable to travel. Lying over until Jan. 26.^ in company
with several other invalids, I secured a seat on top of a
dilapidated box car. We had ridden only a mile, when
the conductor fearing the concern would collapse and
kill us all, kindly invited us to step down and out. Com-
plying with some degree of reluctance I shouldered my
gun and after a tramp of fifteen miles rejoined my com-
mand at Corinth, Miss., where the shattered remnant of
Hood's army had gathered.
164 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS
SOME INCIDENTS OF THE CAMPAIGN.
"GO OFF AND WASH YOURSELVES."
After the death of Gen. W. H. T. Walker, in July,
'64, our brigade was assigned to Pat Cleburne's division.
In his younger days he had, served in the English army
and had probably imbibed his ideas of military discipline
from* that service. On Sept. 26, '64, near Jonesboro, Ga.,
the army was reviewed by President Davis and in the
afternoon of tliat day our regiment was ordered to ap-
pear at Cleburne's headquarters for inspection. The men
had received no intimation of the order and some of
the companies were not in a very cleanly condition either
as to dress or arms. Soap was scarce and but little time
had been spent on their toilets. The inspection proceded
without comment from Cleburne until the company com-
manded by Capt. Joe Polhill of Louisville. Ga., was
reached. Cleburne looked over the ranks wath his keen
Iris'h eyes as Capt. Dixon inspected the arms, and then
in a tone indicating some degree of disgust, said, "At-
tention company! Shoulder arms. Close order, march.
Right face. Forward by file right — march. Go off and
wash yourselves," and the regiment was ordered back
to its quarters. Will Daniel, jealous of the reputation of
the Oglethorpe's, who had not been inspected, addressed
a note to Gen. Cleburne protesting against the implied
reflection on his company, to which the General replied
that no reflection was intended where no inspection was
made. Ip justice to Capt. Polhill and his company it is
NASHVILLE CAMPAIGA. 165
only proper to sa-y that at a subsequent inspection next
day they redeemed their reputation.
PARTING WITH HARDEE.
On the /lisplacement of Gen. Johnston in July, 64.
Gen. Hairdee, as the ranking Heutenant general in the
Army of Tennessee, felt aggrieved at the promotion of
Gen. Hood above him. but Was too patriotic to ask for
an assignment to other fields while his lineis were fac'ng
the enemy. At the close of the campaign he did prefer
this request and on Sept. 28 took leave of his old corps.
Many of them had followed him from' Shiloh to Jones-
boro. His almost unbroken success as brigade, division
a-nd corps commander had given him the title of the
''Old Reliable." Even af Missionary Ridge his corps
held its line and on a portion of it, at the suggestion of
Gen. Alfred Gumming, made a counter charge, driving
the enemy from their front. At Ringgold Gap and in
every assault upon his lines during the Dalton and At-
lanta Campaign Hardee had repulsed the attacking col-
umn, with the single exception of Jonesboro, where ten
lines of battle had been massed against Govan's thinlv
manned trenches. For these reasons his old corps w^as
loth to give him up. On the evening before his depar-
ture large numbers of his command went over to bid
him good-bye. In a simple and touching address he ex-
pressed his deep regret at parting from those with whom
he had been associated so long, but said that he would
166 UNDEK THE STARS AND BAES.
be with them in spirit if not in person and hoped they
would always sustain the reputation they had so gallant-
ly won. "1 leave you," said he, ''but I leave you in good
liands, Frank Cheatham's. Frank and Pat go well to-
gether. If Frank fails you, you have Pat to fall back
upon . " Just then a soldier, who had climbed a tree and
was sitting on a limb 20 feet from the ground, sang out,
"Yes, General, and Crazy Bill ain't far off," alluding to
Gen. Bate. The scene was a very affecting one and after
speeches by Gen Gist and Gen. Capers of So. Ca., closed
with appropriate music rendered by the band.
GEN. BATE AS A POET AND WIT.
The allusion to Gen. Bate in the preceding incident
recalls an address made by him Oct. 21, '64, at Gadsden,
Ala., where we had halted for a day on our trip to Nash-
ville. On the evening of that day the officers were sere-
naded by the army bands and responses were made by
Beauregard, Cleburne, Clayton and Baite. The last spark-
led with eloquence and wit and was the gem of the even-
ing. Gov. Brown of Georgia, had issued an order exemp-
ing a goodly numiber of citizens of conscript age in each
county from military service for the purpose of raising
provisions for the army, sorg'hum being named as one
of the products to be so used. This order had created a
feeling of resentment in the minds of those at the front
and Gen. Bate, in voicing this sentiment, and in criti-
cism of Gov. Brown's action, impromptued the following
parody on Campbell's downfall of Poland:
NASHYTT.LE CAMPAIGN. 167
"What tlio' destruction sweep these lovely plains,
V/'iio cares for liberty while sorghum yet remains?
V/ith that sweet name we wave our knives on high,
And swear to cut it while we live and suck it till we die.'*
Gen. Hate's bravery as an officer equalled his wit as
a speaker, but his division had been unfortunate in sev-
eral engai,cments and other troops were disposed to guy
it, saluting it ^is it passed them with, "Lie down Bate, we
are gwine to bust a cap" ot scoirch a feather," and such
like sallies o? so-called wit. Our regim-ent had indulged
hi this pastime to some extent and this fact seems to
have come to the knowledge of the General. At the bat-
tle of Bentonvillc in March, '65, we were assigned to
Bates' corps. In the early morning an assault was mede
on Govan's brigade, on our immediate left, and as we
were without breastworks we were ordered to lie down.
As we had not been on the firing line for some time and
the vvhistle of the minies had grown a little unfamiliar,
we obeyed the order very promptly, lying as flat as pos-
sible without imbedding ourselves in the ground, and in
in the case of Frank Stone and the writer this was pret-
ty flat. Gen. Bate rode up to our line and asked, "What
command is this?'' "63rd Ga.," was the reply. "Why,
boys, you lie mighty close. I came very near riding over
you without seeing yo.i. Never tell Bate to lie down any
more," and wo cidn"t.
168 UNDER THE STARS AXD BARS.
PAT CLEBURNE AS AN ORATOR.
Gen. Cleburne was a better lighter than speaker, and
yet his oratory was sometimes very effective. Of his ad-
dress on the occasion above referred to I recall but a
single sentiment uttered by him. After referring to the
outrages committed by Northern troops on Southern soil
he said, '"I am not fighting for right, I am fighting for
vengeance." Of another address delivered by him on
th«j same day 1 retain a more vivid recollection. Two
soldiers of our brigade had appropriated a hog belong-
ing to some citizen living near Gadsden, and tlie matter
was reported to Gen. Cleburne. The brigade was order-
ed oiTt and formed into a hollow square facing inwards.
The two culprits were brought in under guard and
pjaced in the center of the square and then Cleburne and
his staff rode in. With the culprits before him and in
■•"lie presence and hearing of the entire brigade he for
fifteen mmutes al-used and bemeaned and shamed them
until I think they were thoroughly reformed on that par-
ticular line ot moral depravity. On the march, some days
later, :he rnad \ were traveling changed direction
abrupt]} to the right. A corn field lay on that side and
a number of the beys, with the view of shortening their
tramp that da}^ leaped the tence and took the hypothen-
use of the triangle rather than walk the longer distance
represented by *:he other two sides. Gen Cleburne, who
was riding at the head of the division, probably suspect-
ed such a result and. when he had reached the corner of
NASHVILLE CAMPAIGN. 169
the field uluu ihey would come out he at-; pcd his horse
and quietly awaited their coming. As they reached the
road, sing-lv or in pairs, the General gave them a brief
but pointed lecture on the sin of straggling, and to im-
press it more forcibly on their memories he told them
in his suave Irish way that they could each take a rail
from the fence aiod carry it on their shoulders for the
next half mile. It was a new, but not a pleasant form of
traiveling by rail. If nw memory is not at fault one of the
Oglethorpes "had the honor of membership in the rail
squad that day, and probably has still a feeling recollec-
tion of the incident. He was something of a vocalist in
those days and was wont to enliven the march with the
tender strains of ''Faded Flowers," "The Midnight
Train," "Benny Havens Hb," and other popular musi-
cal selections, but on that day his lyre was voiceless and
all its music hushed.
This incident has no reference to Gen. John B. Hood,
whose strategy in this campaiign was apparently con-
spicuous only by its absence. It refers only to Private
Hood of the Oglethorpes, who joined our ranks in '63
or '64, probably at Thunderbolt. As I recadl his personal-
ity, he was an undergroAvn youth of sallow complexion
and uncertain age. On our march to Nashville he grew
sick or tired, and stopped at the home of a citizen to re-
cuperate. Some days later a squad of Yankee soldiers
170 UNDER THE STARS AN^D BARS.
stopped at the house, and Hood, deeming prudence the
better part of valor, dropped his grey uniform and don-
ning a suit belonging to the son of his host, passed him-
self off as a member of the family. While chatting with
the visitors one of them' said to him, "Well, Bud, haven't
they g'ot you in the army yet?" "No, sir," said Hood,
'and they ain't agoing to either." "That's right, my boy,"^
and with Hood's assurance that he had no idea of "jin-
ing," they bade him good-bye and went their way. Some
weeks later he rejoined us, congratulating himself on the
success of his strategy.
A LUCKY FIND.
While ferrying the army train across the Tennessee
river, the flat in charge of Sergeant S. C. Foreman of the
Oglethorpes, brought in a box or case containing three
hundred pounds of nice dr}' salted bacon. It was reported
to me that they had found it floating down the river and
supposed it had been thrown in by the Federal garrison
at Florence to prevent its capture by Hood's army. I
swallowed the story and some of the meat and had no
occasion to question t'he corre'ctness of the information
until Sam Woods told me in '98 that he found it lying m
shallow water near the river bank, and George Mc-
Lausfhlin afterwards intimated that it was stolen from
the wagon train. Whatever may have been the method
by which it came into our possession I remember that it
was divided among the members of the company as ex-
NASHVILLE CAMPAIGN. 171
tra ratio'ns. I recall the further fact that my mess secured
thait afternoon a large wash pot and a supply of corn
and boiled up a peck or two of "lye hominy." On the
next day we began our march to rejoin the army and
for 17 miles, in addition to my gun, bayonet, cartridge
box and forty rounds of cartridges, heavy blanket, tent
fly and haversack with two day's rations, I carried 6 or
or Spounds of this bacon and a bucket of the hominy.
The aggregate weight must have been 50 or 60 pounds^
a pretty fair load for a "light weight."
"WHO ATE THE DOG."
This inquiry, while not invested with the sam'C degree
of mystery, nor enjoying as large a measure of noto-
riety as "Who struck Billy Patterson?" nevertheless
e'choed on many a hillside a«nd enlivened many a camp
fire on our trip to Nashville. The incident which gave
rise to it occtu^red soon after we left the Tennessee river
on this ill-fated rramp. To prevent depredations upon
the property of citizens along the route of our march, a
provost guard had been formed, in command of which
was placed an ofticer now living not a thousand miles
fro'm Augusta, but who shall be nameless here, partly
out of respect to his feelings and partly out of regard for
my own. He has warned me that a different course would
be followed by an aggravated case of assault and bat-
tery and 1 do not care to put the courts to unnecessary
172 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
vStringent orders were issued by Gen. Smith to a<rrest
any man found in possession of fresh m-eat, for which he
could give no satisfactory account. Several arrests had
been made and the captured meat had been confiscated
and appropriated by the provost guard tO' their own use,
benefit and behoof. To the men engaged in these depre-
dations, justified in their eyes by the shortness of their
rations, these captures became a little monotonous and
they determined to find some means of retaliaition. One
day a soldier was seen tramping through the woods with
a suspicious looking sack swinging from his shoulder
and one of the guard ordered him to halt. Instead of
obeying the command he gave leg bail and the guard
started in pursiiii.
The forager encumbered with the weight of
his plunder finally dropped it and made his escape. The
sack was found to contain, apparently, a leg of mutton
nicely dressed, which was turned over to tbe officer in
In view of this tempting addition to the bill of fare, a
brother officer, who has sinice turned his sword into a
spatula and is as well versed now in drugs as he was then
in tactics, w-as an invited guest at the midday meal that
day. Ample justice w^as done to the menu by all con-
cerned and all went merry as a marriage bell until the
command had halted for the night and the men, wearied
by the day's march, were resting aroimd their camp fires.
And then a change came o'er the spirit of their dream.
NASHVILLE CAMPAIGN. 173
From one end of the camp, up through the stiUness of
the evening air, i^iere rose a cry, that hke of noise oi
many waiters, rang and reverberated to its farthest
bounds, "Who ate t'he dog?" And as its echoes died
away, froni' another camp fire in the same stentorian
tones there came the answer, "Lieut ," naming
the officer of the provost guard. And on through the
tntire evening, at brief intervals and without the stimu-
lus of an encore the program was repeated. And now as
there flitted across the mental vision of the ofihcer afore-
said the memo'ry of the mutton chops that had seemed so
savory and toothsome, there came to him a dim sus-
picion that he had been the victim of misplaced confi-
dence. Was it mutton or was it dog? As he debated the
question pro and con, he was forced to admit with
Shakespeare that "all that glitters is not gold," and with
Longfellow, that "things are not what they seems" and
with Whittier that —
"Of all sad thoughts of tongue or pen,
The saiddest are these, it might have been" — a dog.
And now if the spirit of Poe will pardon me,
A.11 this dark and dread suspicion
Of such canine deglutition,
As it crossed his mental vision
Leading not tO' height elysian.
Made him sad and made him sadder,
Made him mad and made him madder,
And his soul from out its shadow
Shall be lifted, nevermore.
174 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
For weeks and months, and indeed until the war clos-
ed, this canine ghost would never down. He was not al-
lowed to forget it. He was taunted and barked at and
dogged so constantly that no Lethean waters could wash
out the maddening memory. And the bitterness of it all
was that the perpetra'tors of the joke would give no in-
timation as to the special breed thait graced his table that
winter day, whether
"Mongrel, puppy, whelp or hound
Or cur of low degree."
The size of the ham ]M-ecluded the possibility of its
having been a bench-legged fice, but there was the tor-
turing reflection that it might have been what Mark
Twain has termed the Ishmael of his race, the "yaller
dog," who if Mark is to be credited, has been "cursed in
all his generations and relations in his kindred by con-
sanguinity and affinity and in his heirs and assigns —
cursed with endless liunger with perpe'tual fear with
perennial laziness with hopeless mange, with incessant
flea's and with his tail betvv^een his legs."
These unpleasant reflections were, however, not con-
fined to the officer in command of the provost guard. A
part of the meat- bad been sent to brigade headquarters
and it was said that an aide on the general's staff, who
had eaten very freely of the dish, suffered on learning of
its origin so serious a gastric disturbance that he vom-
NASHVILLE CAMPAIGN. 175
ited, as a colored brorher once put it, from Genesis to
"I know not how the truth may be,
I tell the tale as 'twas told to me."
Regretting my mability, for reasons already stated, to
answer this inquiry more definitely, I can only say in
conclusion as I heard Bob Toombs once say in another
connection, "In spite of compromises, concessions and
constitutions this question still marches onward for its
solution," wdio ate the dog?
WHERE IS THE OVEN?
Army life is not specially conducive to personal clean-
liness, nor to a high regard for the minor proprieties of
life. A young lady visiting Camp McKenzie, near Augus-
ta, Ga., during the Spa^nish-American war, was shocked
by seeing a soldier drop a piece of bread upon the
ground and after picking it up resume its mastication.
If this sketch should meet her eye, that feeling will
probably be reawakened and intensified:
During the later years of the Confederate war wash
basins in camp were an unknown quantity. The morn-
ing ablution, if performed at all, was managed by pour-
ine water on the hands from a canteen. Lieut. Blanchard,
I remember, always held his hands in cup shape until
they were filled and then dropped one, spiUing all the
liquid and washing his face with the moistened palm of
the other. In the bitter cold -and constant marching of
176 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
the Nashville campaign I am satisfied that some of the
boys did not wash their faces nor comb their hair at less
than weekly intervals. As evidence of the infrequency of
''bath tnb nights" far reasons stated, I recall the fact
that I lost a calico handkerchief and thought I had drop-
ped it on the march. Some weeks afterwards in remov-
ing my outer clothing for the first time after its disap-
pearance, I fotmd it hidden away underneath the back of
my vest. On our return to Corinth, Miss., my mess took
their underclothing to a lady to be washed and as they
had been wearing it a month or more without change,
they apologized for its condition. No apology is neces-
seray," she said, "I have washed so^me for Forrest's cav-
alry that was so stiffened with dirt that they were able to
How we managed to keep our pedal extremities in a
cleanly condition I do not recall save in a single instance
and this, it is perhaps not amiss to say, was an excep-
tional case and not a company custotm. A m-ember of
the Oglethorpes one day began his preparations for the
midday meal. One of the cooking utensils was missing
and he sang out, "Where is the oven?" A messmate
some distance away shouted back, "Can't you wait tii
I finish washing my feet in it?" I am not prepared to tes-
tify as to the flavor of the bread that day as fortunately,
I was not a member of that particular mess.
NASHVILLE CAMPAIGN. 17T
Tt has been my purpose in these re-
cords to present the truth, the whole truth
and nothing but the truth. It has not been
my purpose to do any wrong, express or impled,
to any member of either of the human or the canine
race. In justice therefore to the truth of history and to the
"yaller dog" as well, it is perhaps proper to say that since
penning the preceding "dog" sketch, a,n old comrade
has informed me that the "mutton (?) ham" to which
allusion was made in that sketch, had its origin in the
anatomy of a "brindle" dog and not of one, who as
Mark Twain says, "slinks through life in a diagonal dog
tmt as if in doubt which end is entitled to the prece-
dence." My comrade claams to speak from personal
knowledge and not from hearsay testimony, and as his-
statement lias not been induced by the fear of punish-
m-ent or the hope of reward, its credibility can not be
impeached. He says that the dog in question had grown
old in the service of his master and on account of age
and meritorious service had been placed on the retired-
list with full pay as to rations, personal care, etc.; that,
in the enjoyment of the otium cum dignitate attendant
upon these conditions he had grown "fat" if not fair and
forty"; that in an evil hour he was enticed away from
the retirement of nis home a'nd with malice aforethought
slaughtered in cold blood while his juicy hams were
nicely dressed to tickle the palaites of the provost guard.
17 5 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
As the yaller dog- has already had assigned to him a.^
many of the ills thst flesh is heir to as he can reasonably
bear, it ^Ives me pleasure to make this amende honor-
able and to relieve him in this special instance of any
of the ''white man's burden" even a's an involuntary par-
ticeps criminis in the transaction under consideration.
Before giving- final dismissal to the subject it may not
be amiss to say for the l^enefit of the hospitable host and
the appreciative guest at thait midday meal that if, as
-physiologists contend, every atom of our physical or-
•ganism undergoes a complete metamorphosis in every
seven years of our existence, it sho'uld comfort them to
know that 28 years and seven months ago by exact cal-
culation, the last lingering trace of canine flavor in their
muscles, bones and blood and epidermis likewise had
Gone glimmering through the dream
Of things that were, a schoolboy's tale,
riie wonder of an hour.
In concluding these reminiscences of the Nashville
-campaign, a campaign so fraught with disaster to our
<^ause, I am glad to throw over them at their close the
glamour of an incident that in its display of infinite cour-
age gilds with its gloiry even the gloom of defeat. In a
subsequent sketch I shall have occasio'n to pay some
tribute to the conspicuous gallantry of the color-bearer
of the First Florida regiment in our last charge at Btn-
tonville. Under the inspiration of the "Rebel Yell" and
NASHVILLE CAMPAIGN. 179
the contagious enthusiasm and excitement of a charo;e
men may have made reputations for courage they would
not sustain when subjected to the test of "simply stand-
ing and dying at ease." This man, however, George Reg-
ister by name, was tried in both furnaces and came out
The incident referred to occurred at the battle c>f
Franklin, Nov. 30, '64. The failure of a staff ofTficer to
promptly deliver Hood's order to Cheatham at Spring
Hill had allowed Sc'hofield to escape when the interposi-
tioin of a single division across his front would have re-
sulted in the capture of his army and would have ensur-
ed the success oi the campaign. And now the Federal
army lay at Franklin heavily entrenched while Hood,
fretting over the blunder, determined to retrieve it by
an assault upon their works. Forrest protested that it
would be a useless sacrifice of life, would pro'bably end m
failure and offered to flank Schofield out of his position
in two hours if furnished a single division of infantry to
co-operate with his cavalry. Hood could not be argued
out of his purpose to fight and ordered his army into
line. Cleburne rode down his lines as his division filed
into position and passing an old friend, a captain in the
ranks, he noticed that he v^-as barefooted and that his feet
were bleeduig. Stoi)ping and dismounting he asked the
captain to pull oil his boots and then requested him to
try them on his own feet. In reply tO' the captain's pro-
test he said, 'T am tired wearing boots and can do with-
180 LTNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
out them," and then he rode away to lead his last charge.
Gen. Granbury, commanding a Texas brigade in Cle-
burne's division, rode out in front of his men and said,
"Boys, two hours work this evening wall shorten the
war two yeairs . " Two hours later, on that short No-
vember afternoon, the very flower of Plood's army lay
dead or dying in front of the Federal breastworks.
Among them lay Cleburne, Granbury, Adams, Gist,
Strahl and Carter, six general offices, a» larger number
than fell in three day's fig'hting at Gettysburg, or any
battle field in the four years' struggle.
Under the murderous leaden hail that swept the open
field over which they passed, the First Florida Regi-
ment was ordered to lie down to secure some immunity
from the fire that was rapidly thinning their ranks. The
entire regiment sank to the ground, save one of their
number. The color-bearer, unwilling to lower his flag,
yet willing to show his foe how a brave man could die,
refused to avail himself of the partial protection which
a change in position would bring, and standing erect,
calmly faced the storm of shot and shell; faced it unmov-
ed, while seven of the eight color guards lying at his
feet were killed or wounded; fated it unflnchingly while
the staff he held in his brave right hand was tliree times
shattered by hostile shot; faced it without a tremor while
the folds of his tattered flag were thirty times rent and
torn by hissing minies or shrieking shell ; faced it calmly
until the blessedness of night had come to end the car-
NASHYILLE CAMPAIGN. 181
nivail of death, and stood there at its close the very incar-
nation of courage and yet without the smell of fire on
his g-armenits or the mark of shot or shell on his grey-
I know not whether he still survives. I know not
whether his radiant deed has found a fitting recognition
save in the memory of surviving comrades. But living
or dead, famous or forgotten, my hat goes off to you
today, George Register, in loving admiration of a
heroism that in soldierly devotion to the colors that you
bore, crowns you an im»mortal and rises to the region
of the morallv sublime.
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN.
A weeks' stay in the vicinity of Corinth, Miss., aaid or-
ders were received for the transfer of Stewart's and
Cheatham's corps to the East to aid Hardee in an efifort
to prevent a junction of the armies of Grant and Sher-
AN ARCTIC RIDE.
Transportation by rail was furliished only to the sick
and barefooted, who were ordered to report at Corinth
at dayhght, Jan. loth. Weakened by an attack of chill
and fever I joined the sick squad, which left campt at i
a. m., tramped through the mud and rain, waded several
streams and reached Corinth in the early morning with
our clothing wet to our knees. In this condition, with no
opportunity to dry our drenched garments, we rode in a
box car without lire on a cold winter day from 8 a. m.
until 3 p. m. The car was crov^^ded and the heating ar-
ramgements were confined to such exercise as we could
take in the limited space we were forced to occupy. I had
never been taught to "trip the light fantastic toe" and
the figures I cut that day were more continuous than
graceful. At 3 p. m. I told the Oglethorpes. who were
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN. 183
with me, John Kirkpatrick and Will Dabney among
them, I remember, that while I was willing to die in a
soldierly way in battle, I did not propose to freeze to
deaith, and suggested that in order to secure an oppor-
tunity to thaw, we stop at the next station, which chanc-
ed to be Baldwin, Miss. The motion was carried unani-
mously, though not by a rising vote, as we already oc-
cupied from necessity a standing position, our car hav-
ing no furniture except a floor and a door. To give the
reader sonie gauge of the condition of the railroads in
that section at that stage of the war, it is only necessary
to say that we had traveled only 31 miles in 7 hours-
We v/ere kindly received by a Mr. Kent, an old citizen
of Baldwin, who regretted his inability to furnish us any-
thing but shelter and fire, as he had been foraged upon
by Yankees and Confederates alike until there was very
little meal in the barrel or oil in the cruse and ''no proph-
et in all the land to bless the scanty store." When the
evening meal was ready, however, he came to our room
and with an apology to my comrades for failing to in-
clude them in the invitation, he pressed the writer to
share his humble fare. Whether this discrimination in my
favor was due to my good looks, my winning ways or
the appearance of chronic hunger in my face, has re-
mained to this day an unsolved problem. And yet what-
ever may have been the right solution, it gives me pleas-
ure through this humble record to waft back over the
waste of years my earnest appreciation of his kindness
to a sick and underfed Confederate.
184 UNDEli THE STARS AND BARS.
CLEANED UP FINANCL\LEY.
No train passed next morning and we tramped down
tlie railroad for 12 miles, stopping at Saltillo for the
nip-ht. None of us were well, the weather was cold and
tx) avoid sleeping on the damp, bare ground we began
to reconnoiter for better lodging. By reason possibly of
the favorable impression made by the writer on our host
at Baldwin, I was made spokesman for the occasion.
Knocking at the residence of a Mrs. B. I stated our con-
dition in as impressive language as I could command
amd em-phasized our desire to avoid the exposure of
sleeping on the cold, damp ground. To this she replied
that she was a widow, living there alone, that she knew
nothing of us, and that while she disliked to turn off Con-
federate soldiers, she could not feel that it would be
proper or prudent for her to entertain a cotmpany of ut-
ter strangers. "Well, madame," I replied, 'T appreciate
your position and if you feel the slightest hesitanicy, we
will not insist." ''WaJk in sir," she replied.. "You can
stay." She told me afterwards that if I had pressed my
appeal she would have turned us away, but that my fail-
ure to do so convinced her that we were gentlemen. It
may be as well to confess that I had anticipated such an
objection and had framed my reply to meet it.
During the evening she told us with quivering lips, of
the death of her solder boy in Virginia, of her sad mis-
sion in visiting the battle field to recover his body and
lay it away in the old family burying ground, and spoke
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN. 185
so feelingly of her attachment to our cause that on re-
tiring to our room I remem«ber that we entertained some
fears that a;n ofler of compensation for our entertainment
might ofiend her. The sum total of our financial assets,
as I recollect it, was a $20 Confederate bill owned by
Will Dabney. On taking our leave next morning we ten-
dered it in payment of our bill, thinking, of course, that
she would decline it with thanks, but we had reckoned
without our host or at least without our hostess. She
accepted it with the remark that it would exactly square
the account, and we were turned out on the cold charity
•of the world without a cent.
'Twas the last O'f our assets.
Gone glimmering alone.
All its blue-backed companions
Were wasted and gone,
No bill of its kindred
Nor greenback was night,'
Not even a "shinplaster"
To spend for pie.
In justice to our kind-hearted hostess, and lest some
reader should imagine that her charges were really ex-
travagant, it is proper to say that she had given live
liungry soldiers a sumptuous supper and breakfast, had
lodged us on snowy feather beds ajud had accepted in
payment what was equivalent to one dollar 01* less in
^ood money. If the condition of our finances needs any
186 UNDEK THE STARS AND BAES.
explanation it nray be found in the fact that our last pay-
day had oiccurred just 12 months and ten days before.
^; * * :ii H= *
But I am spinning out these little incidents at toa
great length. Resuming our march we were overtaken
by our command and tramped with it to Tupelo-, where
we remained 12 days. On January 25th we boarded the
cars for Meridian, but the train was overloaded and we
traveled only 18 miles in 12 hours, not very rapid transit.
In order to lighten the load two cars were detached and
in one of them Lieut. Goetchius and ten of the Ogle-
thors, including the writer chanced to be passengers.
After two days' tram}) through the "Prairie Lands" of
Mississippi, our squad secured transportation, rejoining
our command at Meridian, Jan. 29. Thence by rail to
McDowell's Landing, by boat to Demopolis, by rail to
Selma and by boat to Montgomery, reaching that place
I p. m., Feb. ist. The preceding night was a very cold
one and as we were deck passengers and no heating
arrangements had been provided, a fire was built of fat
pine on a pile of railroad iron . Frank Lamar, I remem-
ber, sat on the leeward side of the fire with the black
smoke pouring into his face all night, and next day
could have played the role of negro minstrel without the
use of burnt cork. The writer kept his temperature above
the freezing point by volunteering as an aid to the fire-
man in the engine room.
Leaving Montgomery Feb. 2d, we reached Columbus>
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN. 187
Ga., late in the afternoon and on our arrival were met
by a delega'tion ot laicies, who greeted us with a speech,
a song and a supper. My journal, I regret to say, records
the fact that the supper w^as last but not least in the de-
gree of appreciation meted out to the trio by the boys.
Passing through Macon Feb. 3d, we arrived at Midway
at 2 a. m. of the 4th and remained there a day drawing
clothing and blankets. Leaving the railroad we marched
through Milledgeville on the 5fh, but did not stop to in-
vestigate the condition of Gov. Brown's "collard patch."
Reaching Mayfield on the 7th we boarded the cars again,
lay over at Gamak and arrived at Augusta on the even-
ing of the 8th, the brigade going into camp near Ham'-
burg and the Oglethorpes remaining with friends and
relatives in the city.
A SAD HOME-GOMING.
Sixteen miles away, embowered in a grove of oak and
elm, lay the home I had left, 'holding within the sacred
shadow of its wa-Us all that I loved best on earth. For
nearly two months no tidings had come to me from
them. We had been so constantly on the move that the
letters written had never reached me. The latest mes-
sage received had told me of my father's illness, but its
tone gave me hope of his early recovery. Our passage
through Augitsta gave me the privilege of revisiting the
old homestead, but it was a) sad home-coming. Twice
since I had left it last the family circle had been br jkea
188 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
and the shadow <ji death had fallen on its hearthstone.
A few short months before in the autumnal haze of a
September day, as sweet a sister as brother ever owned
had breathed out her young life just as she was budding
into womanhood. And now only a week before I entered
its portals again my father, worn out by the added bur-
dens imposed by the absorption of younger physicians
in the military scr\dce, had been laid away beneath the
shadow of the trees in the city of the dead. The reader
will pardon, I trust, the filiail tribute to his worth that
comes unbidden from my heart today. Beyond and above
any partial judgnient born of the love I bore him, I have
always thought him the best and purest man I have ever
known. It may be that no human life can claim perfec-
tion and yet if his knew aught of fault or blemish in all
the 3'ears from boyhood to the grave, no human eye
could see it. In lofty purpose and in lowly, unremitting
faithfulness to duty he lived above the common plane of
men, serving his generation by the will of God, doing
justly, loving mercy, walking humbly in all the paths his
Master's feet had trod and dying in the noontide of his
usefulness, he left to those who loved him, a name as
pure and stainless as the snows that winter's breath have
heaped upon his grave.
* ^- * * * *
After ten days' rest at home, in company with eiglit
comrades of the Oglethorpes, I left A-ugusta Feb. 20 to
rejoin my command in upper South Carolina, reaching
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN. 189
it after six days' tramp, near Pomaria. I recall only two
or three incidents of that trip, that are seemingly worthy
of record in these pages. The night of Feb. 21 was spent
near the residence of Air. Johnson Bland, who kindly
sent to cur bivouac an ample supply of edibles for our
even/ing meal. After they had been disposed of, the ne-
gro messenger, who "had brought the supplies, entertain-
ed us with a lealrned disquisition on a species of ghosts,
which he termed "hanks." Harrison Foster, with his
usual taste for scientific research, wanted to know how
the presence of these hanks could be detected and was
informed that if in traveling at night he felt the sudden
touch of a warm breath of air on his face he might rest
assured that it was a "hank." Possibly to test the sin-
cerity of his conviction on the subject or to guard our
slumbers from the disturbing influence of an inroad of
these restless spirits of the night, Harrison gave the
negro a gun and posted him as a lone sentry in an adja-
The next night was spent at the residence of Major
Bearing. The family were all away and Mr. Smith, who
had charge of the plantation, kindly gave us the use of
the dwelling for the night. It was very handsomely fur-
nished and to the credit of our squad I desire to record
the fact that while silver forks and spoons were lying
loosely around the dining room, not one of them dis-
appeared when we took our departure. There were no
Ben Butlers among us. Two nights later we slept in a
190 UNDER THE STAKS AND BARS.
Universalist church, said to be haunted, not by "hanks,"
but by the ghost of its former pastor, Mr. Stitch. My
journal recor<iS the further fact that on the evening be-
fore we rejoined our command the entire squad suffered
from an aggravated attack of the "bhies " In whatever
way the fact may be accoumted for, there is but one oth-
er similar entry for the four years' service. An hour or
two after reaching the camp of our regiment we began
the march for Chester, reaching that place March 5th.
Remaining there until the loth we left by rail for Char-
lotte, but by reason of an accident, failed to arrive at our
destination until the evening O'f the nth. On the 12th
we moved on to Salisbury, remained there until the 17th,
when the train took us to Smithfield. A march of 16
miles on the i8th enabled us to rejoin our corps near
OUR LAST CATTLE.
During the Confederate Reunion in Atlanta, Ga., in
"98, a man with kindly eyes and grizzled beard approach-
ed me with extended hand and said, ''Do you know me?'"
His face seemed familiar, but I was forced to confess
that I could not exactly place him. "Do you know where
I saw you last?" I was compelled to admit that I was
still in the dark as to his identity. "Well," said he, "it
Avas behind the biggest kind of a pine." "Now I know
you, Sam Woods," said L That pine supplied the miss-
ing link in my memory and furnished likewise a link in
the present sketch.
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN. 191
Our junctici) with Hardee's force had placed us a^ain
ander Joe Johnston — the s?ime Joe whose displacement
at Atlanta had perhaps as much to do with the collapse
of the Confederacy as the failure of Pickett's charge at
Gettysburo;. the Joe of whom Bill Arp said he would
walk ten miles on a rainy night to look into his hazel
eyes and feel the grip of his soldier hand — ^the Joe of
whom Capt. Picquet said, as he rode by us on his met-
tled bay at the Ija'ttle of Resaca, "Boys, I always feel
safer when that man is around" — the same Joe who,
when asked by Col. Geo. A. Gordon at Dalton how he
inanaged to nianoeuver an army in the woods in battle,
replied, ''Well, Colonel, I have to depend largely on my
corps commanders; they rely on the Major Generals,
who in turn depend on the brigadiers, the brigadiers on
the Colonels, the Colonels on the Captains, but," said
he, ''thank God, we all have to rely on the private at
By 10 a. m., March 19th, the day after our arrival at
Bentonville, we were in line of battle, fronting a large
part of Sherman's army. Our regiment depleted by sick-
ness and death and capture and possibly "French leave"
as we came through Georgia, had only a hundred men
in its ranks — the Oglethorpes only nineteen. We hsd no
field of^cer and, as I remember, only one captain, one
lieutenant and an orderly sergeant for the ten companies.
At one stage in the fight that followed the orderly ser-
geant was the ranking oflficer in the regiment.
l92 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
Soon after taking our position, near the extreme right
of the Hne, an assault was made by the enemy and was
repulsed. About midday Gen. Bate, commanding our
corps, gave the &rder to advance. In our front and gently
sloping upwards for three hundred yards was an old field
dotted Avith second growth pines, and two hundred and
fifty yards beyonrl its higliest point on the descending
slope lay the Federal breastworks awaiting us Closing
in to the left as we advanced, we passed over the bodies
of the enemy who had been killed in the assault and
whose faces, from exposure to the sun, had turned al-
most black. Reaching the top of the slope we came in
view of the Federal line and if our eyes had been closed
our ears would have given us ample evidence of the
fact. The rattle of the Enfields and the hiss of the minies
marked the renewal of our acquaintance with our old
antagonists of the.Dalton and Atlanta campaign. Down
the slope we charged until half the distance had been
covered and the enemy's line is only a hundred yards
away. The "zips" of the manies get thicker and thicker
and the line partially demoralized by the heavy fire sud-
denly halts. Frank Stone is carrying the colors (Cle-
burne's division flag — a blue field with white circle in the
center) and he a:nd I jump for the same pine. It is only
six inches thick and will cover neither of us fully, but we
divide its protective capacity fairly. Fifteen or twentv
feet to my left there is an exclamation of pain and as I
turn to look Jim Beasley clasps his hand to his face as
the blood spurts from his cheek.
THE CLOSING CxiMPAlGN. U^3
Aly cartridge box has been vlraw!! to the front of my
body for convenience in loading as well as for protection
and as T look to the front again a ball strikes it, and
strikes so hard 'that it forces from me an involuntary
grunt. Frank hears it and turns to me quickly, "Are ycni
hurt?" I said I believed not and proceed to investigate.
The ball passing through the leather and tin had struck
the leaden end of a cartridge and being in that way de-
flected had passed out the right side of the box instead
of through my body. Thirty or forty feet to the right tlie
gallant color-bearer of the First Florida, whose heroism
at Franklin has already received notice in these records,
is making his way alone towards the breastworks at half
speed, with his flag held aloft, fifty yards in front of the
halted ranks. Inspired by his example or recovering from
the temporary panic, t'he line moves forward again, and
the enemy desert their breastworks and make for the
rear at a double-quick. Leaping the entrenchments, a
hatchet, fr)'ing pan and Enfield rifle lie right in my pa.tli.
Sticking the pan and hatchet in my belt, I drop my Aus-
trian gun and seizing the Enfield I see across the ravine
a group of the enemy running up the hill. Aiming at the
center of the squad I send one of their own balls after
them, but the cartridge is faulty and fails to reach its
mark. We pursue them for half a mile and the disordered
ranks are halted to be re-formed. Capt Hanley, formerly
of Cleburne's staff, calls for volunteer skirmishers and
Jo'hn Kirkpatrick is first to respond. Turning to me he
194 UXDEK THE STARS AND BAKS
says, ''Come on Walter." The writer is not advertising-
for that sort of a job, but the call is a personal one atnd
not caring to let the boys know how badly scared I am,
I step out of the ranks. Will Dabney, though laboring
under a presentiment that he was to be killed that day,
joins us, as do others whose names are not recalled.
Deploying and advancing through the woods we a>re
soon in range of the minies again. Lieut. Hunter, a little
to our left, is struck and tumbles forward on his head.
Will calls out to mc that Hunter is killed, but he is mis-
taken. The lieutenant regains his feet and finds that the
wound is confined to his canteen. Advancing further I
find a lady's gaiter and a glass preserve dish dropped by
the enemy and probabl}' stolen froim some Southern
home. Capt. Matt Hopkins, of Olmstead's regiment,
picks up a book similarly dropped, but does not carry it
long before a minie knocks it from his ha'nd. The line of
battle follows in our wake but before it reaches us a ball
strikes John Miller, passing directly through his body,
and he turned to the color-bearer and said, "Frank, I'm
killed." Frank replied, 'T hope not John." The line
presses on and John lies down under the pines to die.
In a little while Frank is disabled by a wound in the
side and turns the colors over to Billy Morris. The regi-
ment reaches the position occupied by the skirmish line
and under heavy tire we are ordered to lie down. Sam
Woods and the writer seek the shelter of a large pine
and wliile kneeling together behind it a minie passes
THE CL08INC4 CAMPAIGN. 195
through Sam's hand and thigh and he Umps to the rear.
Advancing again, we are halted just before night by a
pond or lagoon in our front. A friendly log lies near its
edge and we lie down behind it. A Federal batterv open
on us and the color-bearer of Olmsteard's ist Ga. regi-
ment is knocked six or eight feet and dis^mbowled by a
solid shot as it plows through the ranks. As the litter-
bearers are carrying off another wounded man from the
same regiment he begs piteously for his haversack,
which has been left behind. They are under fire and re-
fuse to halt . One of the Oglethorpes, in pity for the poor
fellow, leaves the protection of his log and running up
the line secures the haversack, takes it to him, then has-
tens back to his position.
Night comes on, the firing ceases and the fight is end-
ed. We have driven the enemy more than a mile, have
captured a number of prisoners and have suffered con>
paratively little loss. Of the 19 Oglethorpes only one has
been killed and three wounded, though thirteen others
bear on their bodies, clothing or equipment marks of
the enemy's fire, some of them in three or four places.
Frank Stone, in addition to the wound in his side and
a hole through his sleeve, has a chew of tobacco taken
off by a ball that passes through his pocket. John
Kirkpatrick has his canteen ventilated, Sol Foreman and
Will Dabney find the meal in their haversacks seasoned
with mimes instead of salt, and the writer, in addition to
the demoralization of his cartridge box, finds a hole in
190 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
his haversack and thirteen in his folded blanket, all
probably made by a single ball. Relieved from our posi-
tion in. the line by Harrison's regiment, by the aid of
torches we find Jolm Miller's body and near it a naked
arm taken off at tlie elbow by a cannon ball. Placing
them on a blanket, John Kirkpatrick Will Dabney, the
writer and another comrade carry them nearly half a
mile to an open field and give them as decent burial as
War's casualties, alas, are not all counted on the bat-
tlefield. From dread suspense that comes between the
battle and the published list of slain and wounded, from
the wearing agony of a separation that seems so endless,
and the weary watching for footsteps that never come
ag'ain, they fall on gentle he'arts in lonely homes far re-
moved from the smoke and din of musketry and can-
non, not suddenly, perhaps, but sometimes just as surely
as if by deadly missile on the tiring line. John was an
only child and far away in his Georgia home his stricken
parents rendered childless by his death, mourned in their
loneliness for "the touch of a vanished hand" until bro-
ken hearted they, too, were laid away in the narrow
house appointed for all the living.
On the following day the remainder of Sherman's
afnw came up and two divisions secured a position in
our rear, but were driven back. A regiment of Texas
cavalry made a successful charge in this engagement,
holding- their ])ridie reins in their mouths aiud a navy
THE CI.OSING CAMPAKiX. 107
pistol in each hand. A gallant son of Gen Hardee went
in with them as a volunteer and was killed in the charg-e.
( )nr division was not engaged, there being only skir-
mishing in our front. Harrison Foster and Billy Morris
were on the picket line and under a misapprehensicwi of
an order of Gen. Bate, who was riding over tihe line witli
his crutches strapped to his saddle, they advanced to a
point within close range of the Yankee trenches. Sul)-
jected to a heavy fire, they took refuge behind a pile of
rails. While lying there Billy was struck in the face and
the pain of the wound led him to think that he was
severely hurt. An investigation, however, showed that a
minie ball had shattered a rail and had driven a splinter
into the flesh. There was renewed skirmishing- on the
2 1 St, but as a company our last gun had been fired.
Johnston, finding his force of less than 20,000 men too
small to cope with Sherman's entire army, evacuated his
position on the 22d and retired to the vicinity of Smith-
field. Here we remained until April loth, when under
an Act of the Confederate Congress, the army was re-
org'anized. The numbers in each military organization
had become so reduced that it was found necessary to
consolidate divisions into brigades, brigades into reg-
iments and regim'cnts into battalions. The ist, 57th and
63rd Ga. were merged into the First Volunteer Regiment
of Ga., the 54th Ga. forming a battalion. The Oglethorper
alone of the ten companies of our regiment, retained
their separate and original organization . Lieut. Wilber-
198 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
force Daniel was made captain, with Charles T. Goetch-
lus and Geo. W. McLaughlin as first and second lieuten-
ants. Lieut. A. W. Blanchard was promoted to the
captaincy of Co. K, formed of companies E, F, a'nd G,
and the writer, at Capt. Blanchard's request, was made
an officer in the same company, Will Dabney being also
transferred and given the position of orderly sergeant.
I am' gla-d to be able to say to the credit of the Ogle—
thorpes, that the consolidation not only failed to reduce
the rank of any of their officers, as was the case in other
companies, but that it resulted in the promotion of them
all and in addition to this another company in the new
regiment was practically officered by them.
As soon as the re-organization had been completed
we began our southward march, pasing through Ral-
eigh and Chapel Hill and reaching the vicinity of Greens-
boro on April i6th. Appomatox had become history, and
a truce of ten days was agreed upon by Johnston and
Sherman, with a view to ending the war. On the 17th
and 1 8th rumors were current that the army was to be
surrendered and numbers of the troops left their com-
mands, unwilling to submit to the seeming humiliation.
To stop this movement Johnston issued an order inform-
ing the army that negotiations for peace were going on
between the governments, and on April 28th the terms
of the Alilitary Convention, agreed to on the 26th were
published. Lee's surrender had shattered the last hope
of Confederate success and a prolongation of the strug-
THE CLOSIl^G CAMPAIGN. 199
gle would have been a useless and criminal sacrifice of
A report of President's Lincoln assassination had
reached our camp and a number of us went over one
night to the quarters of Gen. John C. Brown, our divis-
ion commander, to ascertain the correctness of the ru-
mor. To the question, "Is Lincoln dead?" he replied,
"Yes, he's very dead." "Well, General, what do you
propose to do when you get home?" "I am going to join
the Quakers," he said, "My fighting days are over." On
May 2d our paroles arrived and were signed up and on
the 3rd we began our march for Georgia, making the
trip of 230 miles in 11 days. In evidence of South Caro-
lina's loyalty to the cause, even in its dying hours, I re-
call the fact that while passing through its teritory on
our homeward march, no man or woman refused to ac-
cept Confederate money for any purchase made by us.
"Representing nothing on God's green earth,
And naught in the waters below it,"
in Carolina, at least,
"Like our dream of success — it passed."
Reaching Augusta May 13th, we divided the teams
allowed us for transportation and with one dollar and
twenty cents in silver paid us at Greensboro for fifteen
months' service, we bade our comrades in arms a tender
200 UNDER THE STAKS AND BAHS.
and affectionate f^.iewell, broke ramks for the last time,
and turned orr weary steps homeward.
The flac: we had followed for four years was furled
forever and the Southern Confederacy was a thing of
the past .
1 would be doin.^ violence to the expressed wishes of
an old comrade and messmate, one whose friendship for
me was born at the camp fire, and was strengthened and
intensified by common hardship and danger, if I were
to close these records without adding a word in behalf
of the cause for which w^ fought. Were these four
wasted years? Was the war on the part of the South only
a wicked rebellion, as our Northen friends have been
pleased to term it?
Speaking only for myself as a humble unit in the four
years' struggle, and yet feeling assured that I fairly rep-
resent a vast majority of my Confederate comrades, I
can say that 1 never kneeled at my mother's knee. in
childhood with a deeper sense of duty nor a purer feel-
ing of devotion than impelled me when, with her tear-
wet kiss upon my boyish lips, I left the old homestead
to take my humble station under the "Stars and Bars."
I can say further that looking backward over the record
of the years, that Providence has kindly granted me, no
four of them come back to me with a deeper sense of
satisfaction than those whioh marked mv sei-vice as a
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN. l'OI
Confederate soldier. The convictions formed in those old
days of the absolute righteousness of the cause for which
we fought have only strengthened with the passing
years. While the South failed in its purpose to secure
separate national existence I have never felt that in the
struggle it had anything to regret but failure. Despite
the tremondous odds against which it fought, despite
the fact that it entered the contestt without an army,
without a navy, without military supplies, wnth the sen-
timent of its border States hopelessly divided, and wdth
the sympathies of the world against it, but for the loss
of its ablest Western leader in his first battle, it would
not, as I believe, have had even failure to regret. If Al-
bert Sidney Johnston had not fallen on that fateful Apnl
Sabbath when Grant's demoralized and beaten legions
were cowering under the river bank at Shiloh, he would,
in my belief, have duplicated in the West, Lee's victories
in the East and Appom'atox and Greensboro would have
had no place in Southern -history. Even in '64. if Presi-
dent Davis had heeded the appeals of Gov. Brown and
Gen Johnston, of Howell Cobb and Joe Wlieeler, Sher-
man's constant apprehension during the Dalton and At-
lanta campaign would have become a reality. Forrest,
the greatest cavalry lea'der o'f the war, and, in the opin-
ions of Lee, Johnston and Sherman, the most brilliant
genius developed by it, would have been turned loose on
Sherman's rear; Atlanta would never have have fallen,
Lincoln would have failed of re-election and the "re-
202 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
construction" that followed in the wake of the war would
have been confined to the geography of the country,
rather than to Southern State governments at the. hands
of carpet-baggers. Lincoln expected such a result and
bent every energy to end the war before the peace senti-
ment of the North could find expression in the election
of McClellan. The failure to utilize Forrest's genius in
the destruction of Sherman's communication, the remov-
al of Johnston and the resultant fall of Atlanta, turned
the tide and the Confederacy was doomed.
Defeat brought with it some measure of humiliation,
and yet it is pleasant to remember that our short-lived
republic stands in history todsjy "without a blot upon its
honor and with no unrighteous blood upon its hands."
With its territory scorched and scarred by a foe, in whose
military lexicon the word ''humanity" found no pl^^ce, the
South struck no blow below the belt. It fought wi'-h
rifles, not with firebrands, and made its war upon armed
foes, not upon helpless women and children. It had no
brutal Shermans, nor Sheridans, nor Butlers, nor Hun-
ters in its ranks, but it is pleasant to know that it left
to the world the legacy of a Lee and a Stonewall Jack-
son, whose military record stands unmarred by the faint-
est shadow of a stain and unparalleled in Anglo Saxon
history. While the North fought, not for the flag, not
through sympathy for the slave, but by the admission of
Lincoln himself, just as surely for commercial greed as
if the dollar mark had been woven into everv banner
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN. 203
that led its hosts to battle, it is a pleasant reflection that
the South sought only to free itself from an alliance that
had become offensive and dangerous to its liberties. And
while Lincoln has been canonized as a martyred saint, I
am glad to know that Jefferson Davis or Robert E. Lee
would have suffered a thousand martyrdoms before they
would have penned a proclamation deliberately intended
not only to beggar a whole people but to subject inno-
cent and helpless Avomen and children to the horrors of
a servile insurrection.
And so I feel assured that when in coming years pos-
terity, unblinded by prejudice or passion, shall give to
all the claimants in the Pantheon of Fame their just and
proper meed, as high in purest patriotism as any rebel
that fell at Lexington or starved at Valley Forge, as
high in lofty courage as any hero that rode with Cardi-
digan at Balaclava or marched with Ney at Waterloo, or
fell beneath the shadow of the spears with brave Leoni-
das, will stand the rebel soldier of the South, clad in his
tattered grey, beneath whose faded folds is shrined the
Stars and Bars of an invisible republic, that lives in his-
tory only as a memory .
W4 U]SrDEK THE STAKS AND BARS.
ROSTER OF THE "OGLETHORPES," 1862-1865.
Co. B, i^th Ga. Battalion. Co. A, J6rd Ga. Reg.
Capt. J. \ . H. Allen — Promoted Major 63rd Ga. July,
Capt. Louis A. Picquet — Wounded May 28. '64, leg
Capt. Wilberforce Da'niel — Died in 1898.
Lieut. W. G. Johnson — Died since the war.
Lieut. *A. W. Blanchard — Wounded June 27, '64, pro^
moted Capt. Co. K, ist Ga., 1865.
Lieut. C. T. Goetchius — Living in Augusta, Ga., 1900.
Lieut. Geo. W. McLaughlin — Living in Augusta., Ga.,
ist Serg. *W. A. Clark — Promoted ist Lieut. Co. K,
1st Ga., April 10, '65.
2d. Serg. '''O. M. Stone — ^Promoted ist Lieut. 66th
26. Serg. J. \\ . Stoy — Capturevil July 23. 64, near At-
3d Serg. \\ . H. Clark — Promoted x\sst. Surgeon, C.
S. A., March, '63.
3d Serg. E. A. Dunbar — Promoted ensign, 1864.
3d Serg. R. B. Morris — Living in Augusta, Ga., 1900.
4th Serg. Jno. C. Hill — Living in Augusta, Ga., 1900.
5th Serg. S. C. Foreman — Wounded Jonesboro, Aug.
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN. 205
Com. Serg. *W. J. Steed — Wounded June 27, '64,
1st Corp. "^'Burt O. Miller — Promoted Lieut. 47tli Ga.,
May 5, '64.
1st Corp. Geo. (j. Leonhardt — Wounded Atlanta. July
2d Corp. E. Thompson.
:i^^ Corp. B. B. Fort son — ^Promoted ensign, died near
Tuscumbia, Nov. 6, '64.
4th Corp. *L. A. R. Reab — ^Captured at Kennesaw,
June 27, '64.
5th Corp. J. H. Warren — Living in Virginia, 1900.
6th Corp. W. LI. Foster — Living in Augusta, Ga.,
7th Corp. W. H. Pardue — Wounded at Kennesaw,
June 27, '64.
*John Q. Adams — Wounded accidentally, Thunder-
bolt, July 12, '63.
W. F. Alexander — Living in Oglethorpe Co., 1900.
R. H. Allen — Living in Burke Co., 1900.
J. K. Arrington — Living in Alabam.a, 1900.
Philip Backus — Died since the war.
C. T. Bayhss — Killed at Kennesaw, June 2y, '64.
*Jas. A. Beasley — Wounded at Bentonville, March
206 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
C. W. Beatty — Died of disease, Aug. 31, '63.
*D. C. Blount.
Geo. W. Bouchillon — Died since the war.
Jas. W. Bones.
Henry Booth — Wounded Peaich Tree Creek, July 20,
*T. F. Burbank — Wounded near Kingston, May 19,
*W. W. Bussey — Wounded Huntsville, Aug. 11, '62,
?.nd Kennesaw, June 2^ , '64.
*J. L. Bynum — Wounded Atlanta, July 22, '64.
Wm. Byrd — Living in Columbia Co., 1898.
H. T. Campfield — Living in Augusta, Ga., 1900.
Jno. A. Carroll — Wounded June 18, '64, died of
J. H. Casey — Wounded June 18, '64, died of disease
Andy Chamblin — Died since the war.
W. L. Chamblin — Wounded and captured, Kennesaw,
June 2.y, 64, leg amputated.
H. A. Cherry — Died since the war.
H. C. Clary — Living in Augusta, Ga., 1900.
E. F. Clayton — Transferred to 12th Ga. Batt., killed
March 25, '65.
W. A. Cobb.
*J. R. Coffin — Captured, Kennesaw, June 27, '64.
W. S. Coffin.
THE CLOSIXG CAMPAIGN. 207
W. C. Colbert — Died since the war.
W. C. Corley.
A. N. Cox — Transferred to 24th So. Ca., June, '64.
H. C. Cox — Transferred to 24tli So. Ca., June, '64.
C. M. Crane — Promoted Q. M. Serg. ist Ga., Apr. '65.
Floyd Crockett — Died since the war.
H. M. Cumming — Acting Asst. Surgeon 63d Ga., '64.
M. B. Crocker — Died of disease in hospital July 20,
Miles H. Crowder — Wounded, Atlanta, July 22, '64,
*Wm. A. Dabney — Wounded, Kennesaw, June 25,
'64, promoted ist Serg. Co K, ist Ga., April 10, '65.
Jno. B. Daniel — Living in Atlanta, Ga., 1900.
John M. Dent — Living in W^aynesboro, Ga., 1900.
'''Joseph T. Derry — Captured, Huntsville, Aug. '62,
captured, Kennesaw, June 2y, '64.
*Edgar R. Derry — Ordnance Serg. 12th Ga. Bat.
Wm. F. Doyle — Died since the war.
J. R. Edwards.
J. L. Eubanks — Died since the v^ar.
R. R. Evans — Living in Atlanta, Ga., 1900.
R. C. Eve — Promoted Asst. Surgeon, C. S. A.
*W. R. Eve — Captured at Kennesaw, June 27, '64.
J. L. Fleming — Living in Augusta, Ga., 1900.
L. F. Fleming — Disabled in R. R. ajccident, July 5,
208 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
W. T. Flannigan.
H. Clay FosJter — Wounded, Atlanta, July 22, '64.
J. A. Garnett — Died of disease, Atlanta, June 19, '64.
C. G. Goodrich — Living in Augusta. Ga., 1900.
J. H. Goodrich.
Jno. C. Guedron — Died since the war.
Wm. Guedron— Died since the war.
Jno. A. Grant — Living in Atlanta, Ga., 1900.
S. M. Guy — Killed at Atlanta, July 22, '64.
S. H. Hardeman.
C. A. Harper — Died since the war.
J. E. Harper — Died since the war.
'•'Geo. A. Harrison — Captured, Kennesaw, June 2.y, '64.
R. W. Heard — Wounded, Kennesaw, June 29, '64.
J. T. Heaird — Died since the war.
W. M. Heath — Died of disease, June, '64.
Geo. S. Heindel — Died since the war.
B. T. Hill — Died since the war.
H. L. Hill — Killed near Kingston, May 19, '64.
A. M. Hilz'heim — Fatally wounded and captured, June
*V. G. Hitt — Promoted Asst. Surgeon in '62.
H. W. Holt — Transferred to Co. K, 63d Ga., Aug. '64.
T. J. Howard — Living in Lexington, Ga., 1900.
*W. T. Howard — Captured, Kennesaw, June 27, '64.
F. T. Hudson.
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN. 209
J. T. Hungerford — I^ied since the war.
J. H. Ivey.
H. B. Jackson — Wounded near fJallas, May 27. '64.
J. A. Jones — Living in Texas, 1900.
W. H. Jones — Living in Columibia Co.. igoo.
M. S. Keain — Died since the war.
Jno. C. Kirkpatrick — Living near Atlanta, Ga., 1900.
Cephas P. Knox — ^Fatally wounded near KennesaWr
June 18, '64.
W. T. Lamar — Living in Augusta, Ga., 1900.
Frank Lamar — Died since the war.
R. N. Lamar — 'Promoted Lieut, of Cavah-y, Jan. 10,
E. H. Lawrence — Died since the war.
J. W. Lindsey — Captured, Huntsville, Aug. 11, '62.
D. W. Little — Died since the war.
M. S. Lockhart — Wounded near Kennesaw, June 19^
E. J. Lott — Fatally wounded and captured, June 27,
T. E. Lovell — Died since the war.
A. T. Lyo]i — Company bugler.
A. D. Marshall — Captured, Kennesaw, June 2y, '64.
C. O. Marshall — Transferred and promoted Lieut.. '64.
Jno. T. May — Transferred to 12th Ga. Batt.
J. P. Marshall — Living in 1900.
T. W. McAfee — Living in Chattanooga, 1900.
210 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
A. V\'. McCnrdv — Wcnnded near Dallas, May 28, died
J. T. AIcGran — Died since the war.
*J. K. P. McLaughlin — Wounded, Atlanta, July 22,
L. H. McTyre.
J. M. Miles.
T. A. Miles.
Jno. T. Miller — Wounded June 18, '64, near Ken-
nesaiw, killed at Bentonville, March 19, '65.
G. T. Minis.
*A. L. Mitchell— Wounded June zy, '64, at Kennesaw.
Geo. K. Moore — Died since the war.
"^W. B. Morris — Wounded June 27, '64, Kennesaw.
Geo. D. IMosher — Living in Savannah, 1900.
St. John Nimmo — Transferred to Barnwell's Battery.
A. J. Norton — Missing near Murfreesboro, Dec. '64.
*H. J. Ogilsby— Wounded July ^22., '64, Atlanta.
*J. H. Osborne — Promoted Serg. Major ist Ga.,
F. C. O'Driscoll.
S. A. Parish — Living in 1900."
J. O. Parks.
J. H. Patton.
J. F. Phillips — Missing June 16, '64, died in prison.
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN. 211
J. C. Pierson — Transferred to 5th Ga., June, '64.
A. O. Pharr — Died since the war.
A. Poullain — Transferred to 7th Ga. Cavalry.
T. N. Poullain — Died of disease Nov. 12, '63.
Geo. P. Pournelle — Missing June 27, '64, Kennesaw,
Jabe Poyner — Living in Oglethorpe Co., 1898.
R. A. Pratther — Living in 1898.
W. H. Prouty — Died since the war.
W. H. Pullin.
R. A. Quinn — Wounded July 22, '64, Atlanta.
R. Quinn, Jr.
J. T. Ratclifif — Died of disease Nov. 5, '64, Tuscombia.
R. R. Reeves — Living in Columbia Co., 1900.
*W. H. Reeves — Wounded June 27, '64, Kennesaw.
Aaron Rhodes — Living in 1900.
J. Z. Roebuck — Died since the war.
Jere Rooks — Living in Richmond Co.^ 1900.
Obe Rooks — Fatally wounded July 22, '64, Atlanta.
B. F. Rowland — Wounded June 27, '64, Kennesaw.
W. Radford — Living in Columbia Co., 1900.
J. J. Russell — Living in Atlanta, Ga., 1900.
A. M. Rodgers — Died since the war.
J. B. RogeVs — ^D^ied since the war.
Geo. D. Rice — Died since the war.
J. M. Savage — Missing in Tennessee, Dec, '64.
212 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
W. N. Save — Living in Atlanta, 1900.
R. Stokes Sayre.
P. A. Schley — Living in Richmond Co., 1900.
J. L. Shanklin.
C. D. Sellars.
W. A. Sims — Died since the war.
M. C. Smith — Died since the war.
W. J. Smith — Wounded June 18, '64, near Kennesaw.
J. T. Steed — Wounded M^ay 15, '64, died of disease,
Oct. 10, 6'4.
Stevens — Died in '63, Thunderbolt.
Geo. R. Sibley— O. M. Serg. 12th Ga. Batt.
A. W. Shaw — Died since the war.
*F. L Stone — Wounded March 19, '65, Bentonville,
promoted ensig-n, '65.
F. M. Stringer — Died since the war.
J J. Stanford.
Robert Swain — Transterred to Co. K, 63d Ga., killed
Sept. 3d. '64, Lovejoy Station.
Elijah Stowe — Company hfer.
Ployd Thomas — Captured June zy, '64, Kennesaw.
J. E. Thomas — Died since the war.
Whit Thomas — Living in Ridhmond Co., 1900.
Jas. Thompson — Died of disease in '65, Montgomery.
R. F. Tompkins.
J. W. Tucker — Missing Dec. i, '64. near Murfrees-
THE CLOSING CAMPAIGN. 213
*Miles Turpin--CQmpany cirnnimer.
*Geo. J. Verderv — Living in North Augusta, 1900.
*Eugene F. \'erderv — Wounded J^dy 20, '64, Peach
R. W. Verderv —Died since the war.
J. C. Welch — Died of disease, Dec. '64
R. A. Welch — Living in Richmond Co., 1900.
John Weigle — Wounded June 27, '64, Kennesaw, died
of wound July 13.
W. H. Warren-— Died since the war.
J. W\ W^hite — Died since the war.
G. 'W. Whittaker — Living in Richmond Co , 1900.
J. W. Whittaker.
J. O. Wiley — Wounded July 22, '64, Atlanta.
J. E. Wilson — Died Since the war.
R. T. Winter — Living in Richmond Co., 1900.
S. F. Woods — Wo'unded March 19, '65, Bentonville.
H. Womke — Drowned April 18, '63, Thunderbolt.
J. F. Wren.
W. T. Williams — Died since the war.
S. M. Vv'ynn — ^Died since the war.
Wynn — Died '62, Knoxville, Tenn.
*In addition to those registered above as survivors in
1900, those marked with an asterisk are known or re-
ported to me as still living. I regret my inability to
secure a complete list of the survivor's.
OGLETHORPE INFANTRY, CO. B.
When the Oglethorpes offered their services to the
Confederate government in '6i the married men in its
ranks were, by a vote of the Company, excluded from the
enhstment except as commissioned officers. After the
departure of the Company for the seat of war the mem-
bers, who were left behind, effected a nev/ organization
and were known c^s "Co. B." Their purpose w^as fo or-
ganize for home defence, but in November, '6i, they
were ordered to Savannah by Gov. Brown, and were
assigned to the 9th Regiment Ga. State troops, then in
process of formation. Gen. \V. H. T. Walker had thrown
up his commission in Virginia because President Davis
had seen fit to take from him the brigade he had organ-
ized and had assigned to its command his brother-in-law,
Dick Taylor, who was subordinate in rank to every
Colonel in the brigade. Gen. Walker could not brook
what he deemed a pure case of nepotism, and on his re-
turn to Georgia he was placed in command of the bri-
gade of State troops, to wdiich the Oglethorpes, as Co.
A, 9th Ga.. had been assigned. The Company, on ac-
count of their proficiency in the manual of arms and in
company evolution, became a sort of pet of Gen. Walk-
er's and W'hen his quarters were visited by ladies from
OGLETHORPE INFANTRY, CO. B. 215
Savannah the Oglelhcrpes were ordered out to drill for
the benefit of ^lis fair guests. Mr. Frank H. Miller, who
was a lieutenant in the company and afterwards adjutant
of the regiment, by Gen. Walker's appointment, relates
a characteristic incident that occurred during the Gen-
eral's service at Savannah as his commanding ofificer.
One of his men had "run the blockade," had spent the
night in Savannah and while hustling back to camp in
the early morning hours, was overhauled by the sergeant
in charge of the guard at the General's quarters. The
soldier did not relish the idea of being placed under ar-
rest for his escapade and backing himself against a tree
he drew his knife and threatened to carve up any man
who laid hands on liim. The noise awakened Gen. Walk-
er, who was sleeping in a' tent near by, and rushing out
endeshabille, he shouted, "What the d — 1 is the matter
out here?" The sergeant, who seemed to be suffering
with a nervous chill, stammered out, "He won't be ar-
rested. General. He says he'll kill anybody that touches
him." The General rushed up to the man and said, "Give
me that knife, sir." The soldier handed it over with a
smile on his face and the General saw as he took it that
t"ne weapon was entirely bladeless. Turning to the ser-
geant he said, "Turn that man loose. I won't have any
man arrested who can back out a whole guard with a
knife that hasn't got a blade in it." And the "blockade
runner" went scot free.
In May, '62, their six months term of service havincr
216 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
expired, the company was mustered out at Augusta. A
majority of its members soon effected a re- organization
for regular Confederate service and the new company
vvas ordered to Corinth, Miss., and for a time was al-
igned to the 5th Ga. Regiment, then serving in the bri-
gade of Gen. John K. Jackson. Before leaving this camp
the 2d Battalion Ga. Sharpshooters was organized, under
under the ccmmand of Major Jesse J. Cox, of Alabama,
and the Oglethorpes became Co. C of that famous or-
ganization known in the Army of Tennessee, as ''Cox's
Wild Cats." For the remaining years of the war this bat-
talion was identified with every movement and did gal-
lant service in e\'c.'-y engagement of the Western Army.
As ".Sharp-shooters" it fell to their lot to serve almost
continuously on the skirmish line, opening every battle
in whicli their division wa^ engaged. Transferred from
Tupelo to Chattanooga in the summer of '62, they took
part in Bragg's Kentucky campaign and at its close were
s+ationed for a time at Knoxville and then at Bridgeport,
rejoining Bragg again in time to participate in the battle
of Murfreesboro, Dec. 31, '62. During that engagemeni,
at Gen. Polk's request, the battalion, w^ith Jackson's bri-
gade, was temporarily detached from Hardee's corps
and was sent into the famous cedar thicket where they
were exposed to the concentrated tire of Rosecranz's
parked artillerya nd lost half their number. Among the
casualties sustained by the Oglethorpes was the loss of
their gallant commader, Capt. E. W. Ansley, and the
OGLETHORPE INFA:XTKY, CO. B. "217
brave color-bearer of the battalion, Edward H. Hall.
Lieut. M. G. Hester succeeded to the captaincy and the
colors were given to Geo. F. Bass of the Oglethorpes,
who seem to have furnished all the ensigns for the bat-
talion-. During the Kentucky campaign the colors had
been borne by Corporal M. V. Calvin, and after the
.transfer of Bass to another command, they were entrust-
ed to another Oglethorpe, Wm. Mulherin, who carried
them with marked gallantry until his capture at the bat-
tle of Nashville, in the winter of '64.
Thrpugh the battles of Chickamauga and Missionary
Ridge, with Johnston, through the hundred days from
Dalton to Atlanta, and with Hood ait Franklin and
Nashville, the ',VVild Cats" sustained their hard-earned
reputation as a fighting organization, closing up their
soldierly record with the surrender of Johnston's army
at Greensboro in April, '65, at which date Lieut. George
P. Butler was in command of the Ogiethorpes. A num^
ber of the gallant survivors of the company are still liv-
ing in or near Augusta, among them, Orderly Sergeant
"VVm. K. Thompson, Serg. M. V. Calvin, Corp. Brad
.Merry, Corp. W. H. Miller, Musician W. B. White,
Evans Morgan, W. H. Hendrix and W. D. Shaw.
' SHIPS THAT DID NOT PASS IN THE NIGHT.
Brad Merry's name recalls an incident that occurred
at the Charleston Reunion in 1899. Brad and the writer
had agreed to make the homeward trip together. On
218 UNDER THE STAES AND BARtS.
reaching the train I failed to meet him. The coaches were
crowded, but I finally secured a seat with a stranger, who
after the formation of a railroad acquaintance, proved
to be Rev. T. P. Cleveland, living near Atlanta. After a
pleasant chat about our mutual friends in Atlanta and
elsewhere, I strolled through the train in search of my
friend Brad. Finding him in a forward coach, I chanced
to say, with no special reason for making the statement,
that I had a seat with a Rev. Mr. Cleveland. "What's his
full name?" asked Brad, with a look of interest. "T. P.*'
I replied. "Tom Cleveland! Why there isn't a rgan in
the world I'd rather see. We were old schoolmates.
Where is he?" Taking him back to my coach I said,
"Mr. Cleveland, here's an old friend of yours. Brad Mer-
ry." The m^eeting was a very joyous one. As the glamour
of the old days came over them and with glowing faces
and happy hearts they talked of the long ago, a lady
stepped across the aisle and said, "Didn't I hear this
gentleman call you Mr. Brad Merry?" "You certainly
did, madam," said Brad. "Why, Mr. Merry, I know
you. Your battalion was camped near my father's house
for a long time and you and your comrades came over
nearly every evening and sang for us. W^e had mighty
pleasant times together in those old war days." Brad's
smile reached from his chin to the back of his neck as he
grasped her hand and said, "I am delighted to see you
again. I remember you distinctly. Your father had three
girls, Virginia. Alabama and Tennessee." "Well," said
OGLETHORPE INrA:N^TRY, CO. B. 219
she, "this is Virginia," and pointing across the aisle to
her sister, "there's Alabama." The ride to Augusta was
no longer tiresome or tedious. In the renewal of their
old time acquaintance and the revival of so many per-
sonal memories the hours sped swiftly and when I left
the train Brad was using all his persuasive power to
induce the entire party to stop over at Berzelia and
brighten for a time his Pinetucky home.
They were strangers to m'C, but I enjoyed their happi-
ness and was glad to have been the unconscious instru-
ment in bringing them together again. But for the acci-
dent of my finding that special seat vacant, these four
ships would have "passed in the night," possibly to hail
each other no more until with wearied sail they cast their
final anchor in the harbor that lies beyond the sunset.
OGLETPJORPE INFANTRY, CO. B.
(Company A, Ninth Regiment Georgia State Troops.)
Edwin W. Ansley, Captain.
Frank H. Miller, First Lieutenant.
Thomas II. Holleyman, Second Lieutenant.
M. G. Hester, Third Lieutenant.
Ed. F. Kinchley, Commissary.
W. C. Sibley, Secretary and Treasurer.
G. E. Boulineau, Orderly.
G. W. Hersey, Second Sergeant.
220 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS
S. A. Verdery, Third Sergeant.
Ed. E. Dortic, Fourth Sergeant.
Vv^ A. Paul, First Corporal.
J. M. Weems, Second Corporal.
W. FI. Frazer, Third Corporal.
James Heney. Fourth Corporal.
P>ruckner, J. D.
Butler, G. P.
Bailie, G. A.
Butt, Wm. P.
Calvin, M. V.
Cress, J. G.
CheesborO'Ugli, C. M.
DuBose, Robt. M.
Davis, Jas. S.
Duvall, R. B.
Davies, Jo'hn N.
Day, John H.
Fleming, Peter L.
Gartrell, Jas. M.
OGLETHORPE INFANTRY, CO. 15. 221
Henry, Jacob A.
Hi-tt, Dan W.
Hubbard, Jas. C.
Jonas, Chas H.
Kenner, Jas. H.
Lane, Lucius A.
Marshall, Jno. D.
Ntinn, Tom P.
Norris, W. B.
Nelson, Tom C.
Niblett, Jas. M.
Parker, Gustave A.
Ph'inizy, Thos. A.
Richmond, H. P.
Shackleford, J. H.
Shaw, Alfred W.
Simmons, R. R.
Smythe, Wm. W.
222 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
Shaw, Wm. A.
Tant, Wm. D.
Tuttle, Dan W.
Thompson, Wm. K.
White, Wm. B.
Wiley, Landly J.
Wingfield, W. J.
Woodard; C. B.
Youngblood, Sam. M.
Young, Jas. R.
MUSTER ROLL OF OGLETHORPE INFANTRY,
COMPANY C, 2d GA. SHARPSHOOTERS.
Captain, Edwin W. Ansley.
First Lieutenant, M. G. Hester.
Second Lieutenant, Jas. M. Weem^s.
Third Lieutenant, E. E. Dortic.
First Sergeant, Wm. K. Thompson.
Second Sergeant, Walter H. Frazer.
Third Sergeant, Geo. P. Butler.
Fourth Sero^eant, Wm. A. Griffin.
OGLETHOKPE INFANTRY, CO. B. 223
Fifth Sergeant, J. D. Marshall.
First Corporal, W. H. Miller.
Second C'orporal, Thos. O'Hara.
Thi'rd (Jorporal, Bradford Merry.
Fourth Corporal, M. V. Calvin.
Secretary, Henry P. Richmond.
Music ans, W. B. White, E. A. Young.
Ancierson, W. F. E.
Bruckner, J. D.
Bunch, G. M.
Bass Geo. F.
Boddie, John S.
Boulineau, W. A.
Cheesborough, C. M.
Carroll, J. R.
Duke, J. B.
Duke, John F.
Duke, B. F.
Duvall, R. B.
Epps, W. D.
Fowler, J. C.
Gardiner, TI. N.
Hall, E. H.
Hall, A. G.
224 TNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
Henclrix. W. H.
Hinton. G. \V.
Lamback, Geo. F.
Mathis, J. T.
Nelson, T. C.
Peppers, J. M.
Peppers, A. H.
Roberts, Chas. P.
Shaw, A. \Y.
Shaw, W. D.
Stephens, E. A.
Talbot, J. M.
Tuttle, D. W.
Wise, T. C.
Young, J. R.
OGLETHORPE INFANTRY, CO. B. 22.>
As this is my fiist, and will probably be my last at-
tempt at autJhorship, in deference to the possibly too
partial judgment of friends, I have ventured to include
in the volum'ne two additional sketches in no way con-
nected with the memories, which precede them. Yield-
ing to the same kindly criticism I have added also a war
poem, intended to perpetuate an incident whose hardly
paralleled pathos has not, I trust, been marred by the
poetic dress in which I have attempted to preserve it.
ONE OF MY HEROES.
Personal courage, when from the lack of selfisih ends,
it rises to the plane of real chivalry, has always met with
willing homage from the hearts of men. I do not know
that he'ro-worship has entered largely into my own men-
tal or moral makeup, and yet for thirty years and more
my heart has paid its silent and yet earnest tribute to
one, who in unadulterated grit and innate chivalry was
the peer of any man I have ever known. I have called
him my hero, but he was mine, perhaps, only by right of
discovery. I found him in a little Florida village in the
winter of '66. There was nothing in his appearance to-
indicate the hero. No title, civil or military added digni-
ty to his name. So far as I know no stars or bars had
gilded the old grey uniform he had laid aside with Lee's-
surrender. He was simply plain Bob Harrison. Of his
lineage or earthly history I learned but little. 1 know
226 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
that he was the son of a Methodist minister who, some
years before, had moved to Florida from South Carolina,
and who, by right of apostolical succession, was not only
a good preacher but a good fisherman as well. I know,
further, that in one of the battles in Virginia my friend
had been shot through the lungs and had been left upon
t^e battlefield to die.
The surgeons in their hurried rounds passed by on
the other side, declining to waste their time on one, who
in a few short hours would be beyond the reach of hu-
man aid. Despairing of any relief from them, he had tied
liis handkerchief around his chest to staunch the life
blood that was ebbing away, and through the long, long
lonely night had waited for death or help to come. On
tile morrow the burial corps had found him still living,
and in the hospital he was nursed back to partial 'health
.again. The press had placed his name among the dead,
and far away in his Southern home loving ones mourned
for him until one summer's day his feeble footsteps on
the walk and his pallid arms about their necks brought
to their hearts a resurrection just as real as that which
gladdened Mary and Martha at the tomb of Lazarus.
Of his service as a soldier I know no more than I have
written. My claim* for him is based upon incidents that
occurred when the war had ended and his record as a
soldier had been made up.
At the date and in the section of which I write the
tide of lawlessness that followed in the wake of war had
OGLETHORPE INFANTRY, CO. B. 227
not yet reached its ebb. During my stay a party of toug-hs
came to the village and for a week or more terrorized
the place. An effort was made to secure their arrest by
civil process, but from lack of nerve in the ofBcers, or
failure to secure a posse, the effort failed and the gang
was having its own sweet will without let or hindrance.
At this juncture Bob Harrison rode into the village one
day from (his country home. The lady, at whose board-
ing house these men were stopping, told him of their
misdoings. He was living six miles away and had no
personal grievance against them. His wounded lung had
never healed and frequent hemorrhages from it had paled
tlie color in his cheeks and weakened a body none too
strong when in perfect health. But the appeal stirred
the chivalry of ihis nature and he did not hesitate a mo-
ment. He went to them' and in vigorous English de-
nounced their conduct as ungentlemanly and dishonor-
able and told them it must stop.
That afternoon a challenge came to him to meet them
at a designaited place next morning to answer for the
insult he had given. He rode in before breakfast and at
the appointed hour he was promptly on hand armed with
a brace of pistols and a bowie knife. For three 'hours he
offered satisfaction in any shape they chose to take it, and
with any weapon they might select, but his nerve had
cowed them and the offer was declined. Then he said to
their leader, "Yo'U have been making threats against my
friend, Charlie P — for some fancied wrong:. He has a
928 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
wife and children to mourn bini if he falls. I have none.
I stand in his shoes today and any satisfaction you claim
from him you can get from me here and now." The bully
failed to press his claim. The gang soon left the village
and quiet reigned again.
A short time prior to this incident a young lady had
made her home in the village — a stranger, without rela-
tives or friends. A citizen of the place taking advantage
of her unprotected condition, began to circulate rumors
reflecting on her character. Tliese reports reached Bob
Harrison's ears. She was bound to him by no ties of
blood or special friendship, but her helplessness was
claim enough. He called on the author of the slander
and asked to see him privately. The man showed him
into a room and Bob locked the door and put the key
in his pocket. "Now, Mr — ," he said, "you have circu-
lated slanders about Miss — . She has no relative here to
protect her and I have come to put a stop to it. I don't
propose to take any advantage of you. I am going to
lay these two pistols on this table. You will stand with
your face to that wall and I will stand with my face to
this. When I give the word if you can secure a pistol
first you are at liberty to shoot. If I get one first, I am
going to shoot. You have got to do that or you have got
to sit down at this table and sign a "lie bill." The man
looked into Bob's eyes a moment and said, "T'll sign the
lie bill," and Miss — 's name was safe from slanderous
tongues from that day on.
OGLETHORPE INFANTRY, CO. B. 229
In neither of these cases did he have the shg-htest per-
His conduct was prompted solely by the ch.vai-
ry of the man. He impressed me as ordinarily one of the
gentlest and mildest mannered of men and yet I believe
he would have led a forlorn hope to certain death with-
out a tremor.
With the close of winter I returned to my Georgia
home and over the gulf of silence that has intervened
since that spring day in '(^y, no tidings have come to me
of my friend, Bob Harrison. If he still lives my heart
goes out in tender greeting to him today, and if he
sleeps beneath the daisies I trust this little tribute to his
worth will cause the sod that lies above him to press
none the less lightly over his manly heart.
BEN HILL AND THE DOG.
Just fifty years ago in the unceiled, unpainted and
largely unfurnished rooms of an ''Old Field School,"
holding a blue-backed speller in my boyish hands, i sat
with a row of barefoot urchins on a plain pine bench
and watched with sleepy eyes the mellow sunshine creep-
ing all too slowly towards the 12 o'clock mark cut by
the teacher into the school room floor. This primitive
timepiece that marked the boundary line between school
hours and the midday intermission, known in schoolboy
vernacular as "playtime," was never patented, although
230 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
it had the happy facuhy of never running down and
never needing repairs. To the student of today reveling
in the luxuriant appointments of the present public
school system there may come sometimes a touch of
pity for the simple methods and the meagre equipment
of the old field school, whose teachers in addition to the
inconvenience of having to ''board around," were some-
times forced to receive partial compensation for their
work in homemade "socks." Such of my readers as may
be disposed to discredit the free and unlimited knitting
of socks as a circulating medium for the payment of
school salaries, are respectfully referred to my friend,
W. J. Steed, for the historical accuracy of this state,
And yet — and yet, minimizing as we may the limited
advantages of those old school days in the '40's, and
magnifying as we do the wondrous advance in educa-
tional methods and appliances in all grades from the
kindergarten to the university, the fact remains that
"there were giants in those days" who seem to have no
successors. Examples might be multiplied both in our
state and national life, but I give only two. The places of
George F. Pierce in the pulpit and of Benjamin H. Hill
in the forum and on the hustings have never been filled.
It may be true that Dame Nature requires after the pro.
duction of great men a period of repose and rest, and if
my limited observation is not at fault she is enjoying a
good long nap. Whatever may have been the explana.
OGLETHORPE INFANTRY, CO. B. 231
tion O'f the fact mentioned, the privilege of hearing these
men in their palmy clays, of feeling tihe "cold chills"
creep up tlie spmal colnmn as they soared to the em.
pyrean heights of impassioned oratory, of losing con-
sciousness of time and place and environment under the
magic spell of their almost superhuman eloquence, fur-
nished some measure of compensation for the meagre
advantages, on educational lines, of the last generation.
The writer's first opportunity to hear Ben Hill occurr.
ed at Mount Moriah camp ground, in Jefferson county,
in the presidential campaign of 1856. On the disintegra-
tion of the O'ld Whig party Mr. Hill had aligned himself
with its residuary legattee, the American party, and was
canvassing the State as an elector on the Fillmore ticket.
He was 33 years of age, just in the rosy prime of a su.
perb physical and intellectual manhood. I was only a boy
and knew nothing of parties or party politics, but I re-
member that for three hours and more he held the rapt
and untiring interest and attention of that vast audience.
At the close of the speech Major Stapleton announced
that a messenger had been sent to Mr. Stephens asking
a division of time with Mr. Hill a/t the former's appoint-
ment in Burke county, on the next day. Mr, Hill was
sitting on the pulpit steps, and when the announcement
closed he said, "Yes, I ain not afraid to meet "Little
Aleck," nor big Aleck, nor big Bob added to them," al-
luding to Mr. Toombs. Mr. Stephens did not consent,
but met Mr. Hill afterwards at Lexington, Ga., in the
232 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
same campaign. Out of this debate grew Mr. Stephens'
challenge and Mr. Hill's refusal to accept it, an incident
which had large influence in ending the reign of the code
duello in Georgia.
Two years later I had the privilege of hearing Mr. Hill
again in the State campaign for governor. A joint can-
vass of the State had been in progress, but after a few
discussions Governor Brown found that he was no match
for Mr. Hill on the "stump," and he wisely cancelled
further engagements. In giving his reasons for such
action he said that Mr. Hill was too much of a sophist,
that he could make the worse appear the better cause,
and to enforce the point he related the "pig and puppy"
anecdote, a favorite illustration with political speakers in
those days. In the speech I refer to, delivered at Cov-
ington, Ga., Mr. Hill gave his opponent the benefit of a
statement of the reasons he had assigned for his with-
drawal, with the anecdote included, and then with the
smile that always gave premonition of a -happy retort, he
said, "And now, fellow-citizens, in this campaign I have
made no effort to make anything out of anybody but
Mr. Brown, and if I have made nothing better than a
pig or a puppy it was the best I could do with the ma^
terial I had to work upon."
^ ]\Ir. Hill never employed the anecdote argument in his
speeches, but if used against him no man of his time or
perhaps of any other time was able to turn its edge more
readily or more effectively on his opponent I recall only
OGLETHORPE INFANTRY, CO. B, 233
one passage from the address and as it has not been
preserved in his published speeches I give it in illustra-
tion of his style a*t that date. After disposing of his op-
ponent and the State campaign he turned his attention
to national issues and in urging his audience to resist
Northern encroachments on their rights closed a burst
of impassioned oratory with these word^: "Has the
spirit of Southern chivalry folded its wings for an eter-
nal sleep in the grave of Calhoun? Shall the breezes,
v/hich blow from- the 'cowpens' where the infant days oi
Jackson were spent, now fan the brows of a nation of
slaves? Rise, freemen of Georgia! Arise in your might.
Shake off this Delilah of party for she is an harlot and
will betray you to your destruction. Arise! drive back
the invader from your thresholds, or like Samson of old.
pull down the pillars of the temple and perish in one
common ruin." Its effect upon the audience may be in-
ferred from the fact that it has lingered in my memory
more than forty years. I heard Mr. Hill no more until
some years after the war His nerve in putting an end to
the seizure of cotton by Federal agents in the South in
'65, his ''Davis Hajl" and "Bush Arbor" speeches and
his "Notes on the Situation" had given him the very
highest place in Southern esteem and affection. And
then came his acceptance of an interest in the State Road
Lease and his speech at the "Delano Banquet," which
placed him under the ban of popular distrust and post-
poned the day when Southern character and Southern
234 UNDEB THE STARS AND BARS.
history was to find its brave and complete vindication at
his hands in the halls of Cong-ress. During this shadowed
period in his life I heard him several times in Atlanta,
and on one of these occasions occurred the incident
which forms the title oif this sketch. Chafing under the
criticisms and abuse to which he had been subjected he
boldly defended the consistency of his record and point-
ed proudly to the da)' in '65 when the lips of every pub-
lic man in Georgia were sealed except his own. ''And
now," my friends." said h.e, 'Svhen the lion of military
government had prostrate Georgia in its cruel grasp,
these men, who are now decrying me, were hiding away
in quiet places afraid to face him. But when largely
through my persistent efforts his clutch was loosened
snd he was recalled to his den in Washington, the whole
Mongrel, puppy, whelp and hound.
And cur of low degree,
left their hiding places and came out barking-, not at the
lion, but at me, yelping, "Radical!" ''Radical!" "Radi-
cal!" The words had barely left his lips when a huge dog
standing in the centre of the aisle, began barking loudly
and vigorously, with ihis eyes fixed on Mr. Hill. I do not
know^ that the speaker, in imitation of a certain mmis-
ter's reputed habit of inserting, "Cry here," at the close
of the pathetic passages in his manuscript, had inserted
"Bark here'' in his notes, but 1 do know that the im-
OGLETHORPE USTEANTRY, CO. B. 235
promptu illustration titted in so pertinently that the
storm of applause, that greeted it, would have lifted the
roof if such a result had been possible. For several minu-
tes there was perfect pandemonium. As the wave of
sound rolled and swelled and rose and fell to rise in
larger volume than before the speaker faced the audience
with the shadow of a smile upon his face and when the
last ripple of applause had died away he said: ''My
iriends, I meant no reflection on that dog."
I have had the privilege of hearing Toombs, Stephens,
Johnson and Howell Cobb, the first two, a number of
times. I claim no ability to make intelligent comparison
among these distinguished Georgians. But basing an es-
timate simply upon their effect upon myself and upon
others as I have observed it, I should say that while in
epigra(mmatic force, in the ability to pack thought into
limited space, Mr. Toombs had no equal among them,
yet in effective oratory, in the power to sway am au-
dience at his w"ill, whether in the domain of ice-cold logic
or in the higher realms where only angels soar, Mr. Hill
probably towered above them all. The peroration to his
appeal for the pardon of Wm. A. Choice had few equals
in all the range of English forensic literature. It has not
been preserved, and in the forty years that have elapsed
since its delivery, my memory retains but a single sent-
ence, and with that I close this sketch: "Even from the
lips of the murdered man, a voice comes back to us to-
day, as soft as evening zeypihyrs through an orange
36 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
grove and as. warm as an angel's heart. 'Forgive him^
save him, for he knew no-t what he did.' "
THE REBEL CHAPLAIN AND THE DYING BOY
The touching incident recorded in the following
verses occurred on a bloody Western battlefield in the
old war days in the '6o's. Rev. J. B. McFerrin, formerly
of Nashville, Tenn., and now in Heaven, an able and
'honored minister of the Methodist church, and for four
years a Confederate chaplahi in the army of Tennessee,
was the Christian hero of this tenderly pathetic story.
His untiring devotion to the sick and wounded amid the
dangers and hardships of camp and field are gratefully
remembered by his surviving comrades, while his gentle
kindness to a stricken foe, will be embalmed in the lov-
ing memory of every veteran of both the ''Blue and
'Twas evening on the battle field;
O'er trampled plain, with carnage red
The lines in blue were forced to yield.
Leaving their dying and their dead.
All day 'mid storm of shot and shell.
With smoking crest, war's crimson tide
Had left its victims where they fell,
Nor heeding if they lived or died.
OGLETHOEPE INFANTRY, CO. B. ii3T
And now the cannon's roar was dumb,
The "Rebel Yell" was hushed and still;
The shrieking sliell, the bursting bomb
Were silent all on plain and hill.
From out the lines of faded grey
To where the battle's shock was spent,
A rebel chaplain made 'his way.
On mercy's kindly mission bent.
He kneeled beside a stricken foe,
Whose life was ebbing fast aiway,
And then in gentle wards and low,
He asked if he might read and pray?
"No, no," the wounded man replied,
"My throat is parched, my lips are dry,"
And in his agony he cried
"Oh, give me water, or I'll die."
The chaplain hurried o'er the strand
And in the stream his cup he dips,
Then hastening back, witli gentle hand
He pressed it to his waiting lips.
"Now shall I read?" he asked again,
While bleak winds blew across the wold,
"No," said the soldier in his pain,
"I'm growing cold, I'm growing cold."
238 UNDER THE STARS AND BARS.
Then in the wintry twilig-ht air
His "coat of grey" the chaplain drew,
Leaving his own chilled body bare,
To warm the dying boy in blue.
The soldier turned with softened look,
With quivering lip, and moistened eye.
And said: "If you, in all tihat book
Can find for me the reasons why,
A rebel chaplain such as you.
Should show the kindness you have shown
To one who wears the Union blue,
I'll hear them gladly, ever\^ one,"
In tender tones the good man read
Of love and life beyond the grave,
And then in earnest prayer he plead
That God would pity, heal and save.
Above the "Blue" — above the "Grey"
Shone no Cathedral's lofty spire,
Yet I am sure the songs that day
Were chanted by an Angel Choir.
The evening darkened into night,
The shadows fell on wold acid strand,
But in their hearts gleamed softer light
Than ever shone on sea or land.
OGLETHORPE INFANTRY, CO. B. 239
And ere the wimtry night was o'er.
Beyond the sunset's purpled hue,
Tlie stars rose on a fairer shore
To greet the dying boy in blue.
Long years have come and gone since then,
Long years the good man lived to bless
With kindly deed, his fellow men,
And then to die in perfect peace.
And when in Heaven's eternal day,
They met before His throne of light,
There was no blue, there was no grey.
For both were robed in God's own white.