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Full text of "Uniform crime reports for the United States"

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UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume VIII — Number 1 
FIRST QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1937 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1937 



U. S.. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 
MAY 26 1936 



ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM CRIME RECORDS 

OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE 

(n) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover. Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, United States 
Department of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume 7 April 1936 Number 1 



CONTENTS 

Classification of offenses. 
Extent of rejiorting area. 
Monthly returns: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population (tabic 1). 

Daily average, offenses known to the police, 1936 (table 2). 

Daily average, offenses known to the police, 1931-3() (table 3). 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to locution (tables 
4,5). 

Data for individual cities (table 6) 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 7). 

Offenses known in the possessions (table 8). 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 9-9B). 
Annual returns: 

Offenses known and offenses cleared by arrest, 1935 (tables 10-12). 

Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1935 (tables 13-14A). 

Persons released (not held for prosecution), 1935 (tables 15, 15A). 

Percentage of offenses cleared by arrest, 1933-35 (table 16). 
Data comi)iled from fingerprint cards, 1936: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 17). 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 18, 19). 

Number and percentage with previous fingerprint records (tables 20, 21). 

Number with records showing previous convictions (tables 22, 23). 

Race distribution of persons arrested (tables 24-27). 

Classification of Offenses. 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to inchido 
those crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification 
occurring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known 
to the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prose- 
cuting or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the fol- 
lowing group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience 
to be tbose most generally and completely reported to the police: 
Criminal homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligcnt manslaughter, 
and (6) manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated 
assault; burglary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto 
theft. The figures contained herein include also the number of 
attempted crimes of the designated classes. Attempted murders, 
however, are reported as aggravated assaults. In other words, an 
attempted burglary or robbery, for example, is reported in the bulle- 
tin in the same manner as if the crime had been completed. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints wliicli upon investigation are learned to be groundless 
are not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in 
each group, there follows a brief definition of each classification. 

(1) 



1 . Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter — includes all 
felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include attempts 
to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental deaths, ib) 
Manslaughter by negligence — includes only those cases in which death is caused 
by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the person responsible 
for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for manslaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes steahng or taking anything of value from the person 
by force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe 
cracking, or anv unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceni/ — theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. 
(6) Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shop- 
lifting, or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, 
passing worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven away 
and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not include 
taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized 
use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information, which may throw some light on problems of crime 
and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compihng the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

Extent of Reporting Area. 

The number of police departments contributing one or more crime 
reports for the first 3 months of 1936 is shown in the following table. 
The information is presented for the cities divided according to size. 
The population figures employed are estimates as of Julyl, 1933, by 
the Bureau of the Census for all cities with population in excess of 
10,000. No estimates were available, however, for those with a 
smaller number of inhabitants and, accordingly, for them the figures 
fisted in the 1930 decennial census were used. 

The growth in the crime reporting area is evidenced by the follow- 
ing figures for the first 3 months of 1932-36. 



Year 


Cities 


Population 




Year 


Cities 


Population 


1932 


1,476 
1,561 
1,593 


49,368,231 
53, 295, 629 
61, 715, 079 


1935 -- 


1,833 
2,111 


62, 304, 616 


1933 


1936 


63, 766, 619 


1934 







The above comparison shows that during the first 3 months of 1936 
there was an increase of 278 cities as compared with 1935. 

In addition to the 2,111 city and village police departments which 
submitted crime reports during 1936, one or more reports were re- 
ceived during that period from 862 sheriffs and State police units and 
from 6 agencies in possessions of the United States. This makes a 
grand total of 2,979 agencies contributing crime reports during 1936. 



Population group 


Totul 
number 
of cities 
or towns 


Cities filing 
returns 


Total popu- 
lation 


Population represented 
in returns 


Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total 


983 


S.59 


87.4 


60, 2S I, 688 


57, 336. 429 


95.1 


1. Cities over 2.')0,000 

2. Cities 1(K),()00 to 250,000.. 

3 Cities SO,(KH) to 100,000 . . 


37 

57 

104 

191 

594 


36 

57 

94 

171 

501 


97.3 
100.0 
90.4 
89.5 
84.3 


29, 695, ,')(K) 
7,8.50.312 
6. 980, 4117 
6. 638, 5) t 
9,116,925 


29,415, 100 
7,850.312 
6. 325. 670 
5. 978, 777 
7, 766, 570 


99.1 

100.0 

90.6 


4 Cities 25,000 to 50,000 


90.1 


5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


85.2 







Note.— The above table does not include 1,252 cities and rural townships agpropiatinK a total popula- 
tion of 6,430,190. The cities included in this fi^'ure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, 
tihcreas the rural townships are of varying population groups. 

MONTHLY RETURNS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

In table 1 there is shown the number of offenses reported during 
the first 3 months of 1936 by the poUce departments of 1,667 cities 
with an aggregate population of 58,477,539. The figures are divided 
into 6 groups according to size of city and also include data showing 
the number of offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. The figures have 
been presented in this form in order that the data for indi\'ichial 
cities may be compared with the national averages for cities of 
approximately the same size. 

The compilation shows that more than 95 percent of the offenses 
reported consisted of crimes against property (larceny, burglary, auto 
theft, and robbery), wdiereas offenses against the person constituted 
4.6 percent of the crimes reported. The following percentage distri- 
bution contains figures for individual types of crimes. 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary... 
Auto theft. 



Rate per 
100,000 


Percent 


296.4 


100.0 


149.8 
72. 1 
45.3 


60.6 
24.3 
15.3 



Offense 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Rate per 
100,000 



15.3 
9.9 
1.6 
1.4 
1.0 



Percent 



Most of the police departments forwarding crime reports to the 
FBI divided offenses of larceny into two groups, those in which the 
value of the property stolen was $50 or more, and those in which the 
value was less than $50. Of the cities with more than 100,000 
inhabitants, 82 reported larceny data classified in accordance with 
the foregoing, and a separate compilation of that information is 
presented below. 





Larceny 


—theft 


Population group 


.$50 and over 
in value 


Tender $.50 
in value 


30 cities over 2.50,000; total population, 19,669,700: 

Number of otTenses known 


4, 525 
23.0 

1.718 
23.6 


27,430 


Rate per 1()0,0(JO 


139.5 


52 cities, 100,000 to 2.50,000; total population, 7,265,312: 

Number of olTenses known . 


12,860 


Rate per 100,000 - 


177.0 







The above compilation shows that the poHce departments in cities 
with more than 250,000 inhabitants reported lower rates for both 
larceny classes than the communities with from 100,000 to 250,000 
inhabitants. 

Table 1. — Offenses known to the police, January to March, inclusive, 1936; number 
and rates per 100,000, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

34 cities over 250,000; total population, 
28,682,600: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP II 

64 cities, 100,000 to 250,000;; total popu- 
lation, 7,496,212: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP III 

82 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total popu- 
lation, 5,588,309: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP IV 

144 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total popula- 
tion, 5,013,122: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP V 

435 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total popula- 
tion, 0,705,261: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP V( 

918 cities under 10,000; total population, 
4,992,035: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Total 1,667 cities; total popula- 
lation, 58,477,539: 
Number of offenses known__. 
Rate per 100,000 



Criminal 
homicide 



Mur- 
der, 
non- 
negli- 
gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



403 
1.4 



130 
1.7 



81 
1.4 



45 
0.9 



80 

1.2 



53 
1. 1 



792 

1.4 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



3G8 
1.4 



70 
0.9 



32 



33 

0.7 



47 
0.7 



26 
0.5 



2 576 
1.0 



Rape 



570 
2.0 



113 
1.5 



52 
0.9 



1.5 



SI 
1.2 



70 
1.4 



Rob- 
bery 



5,759 
20.1 



1, l.'-.4 
15.4 



755 
13.5 



448 
8.9 



499 

7.4 



326 
fi. 5 



963 
1.6 



8,941 
15.3 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



2,736 
9.5 



1,102 
14.7 



699 
12.5 



466 
9.3 



552 
8.2 



240 

4.8 



5,795 
9.9 



Bur- 
glary- 
break - 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



20, 148 

70.2 



7, 775 
103.7 



4,430 
79.3 



3,677 
73.3 



3,810 
56.8 



2,342 
40.9 



42, 182 
72.1 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



39, 138 
136.5 



15, 003 
200.1 



11, 130 
199.2 



8,583 
171.2 



8,958 
133.6 



4,769 
95.5 



87,581 
149.8 



Auto 
theft 



14,044 
49.0 



4,788 
63.9 



2,665 

47.7 



1,952 
38.9 



2,002 
29.9 



1,061 
21.3 



26, 512 
45.3 



1 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 32 cities with a 
total population of 26,954,400. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 1,665 cities with 
a total population of 56,749,339. 

Daily Average, Offenses Known to the Police, 1926. 

In table 2 there are presented data for the first quarter of 1936 
indicating the monthly variations in the number of offenses reported 
to the police departments of 88 cities "wdth a combined population of 
36,178,812. 



Tlio fio;iircs for ro})bery sliowod a dowmvard trend diirinp; tho first 
3 niontlis of tho year, whereas tho liguivs for rape and aji'gravated 
assault evidenced increases. The figures for the remaining offense 
classes showed irregidar variations. 

Table 2. — Daily average, offenses known to the police, 88 cities over 100,000, 

January to March, inclusive, 1936 

iTotal population, 36,178,812, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Alonth 



January 

February 

March. _ 

January to March 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



5.8 
5.7 
6.1 



5.9 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
npgli- 
gerice 



1 4.8 
3.8 
5.8 



4.8 



Rape 



6.9 
7.6 
8.1 

7.5 



Rob- 
ber V 



80.2 
78.1 
69.7 



76.0 



Aggra- 
vateil 

as- 
sault 



38.2 
40.6 
47.fi 



42.2 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



309.8 
289.3 
320.3 



306. 8 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



601.8 
561. 7 
619.2 



595.0 



Auto 
theft 



207. 8 
191 3 
220.7 



206.9 



' Daily averages for manslaughter by neglieence are based on reiiorls of 86 cities with a totnl population 
of 34,450,612. 

Daily Average, Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-36. 

Information concerning annual crime trends is of great significance 
to students of the crime problem. Such data are made available in 
table 3. The figures are based on the reports received from the police 
departments of 68 cities each with more than 100,000 inhabitants. 
The combined population of those cities in 1930 was 18,544,174. The 
latest available figures (estimated as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau 
of the Census) indicate that the population of those cities has increased 
to 19,063,102. In interpreting the crime figures presented in table 3 
consideration should be given to the population change wliich has 
occurred in the cities represented. 

The compilation shows a decrease in the number of cases of murder 
and nonnogligent manslaughter but does not show a corresponding 
decrease in the number of offenses of aggravated assault. Generally, 
it may be expected that the figures for those two types of crimes would 
show similar trends. The figures for murder and nonnegligent man- 
slaughter represent willful felonious homicides, and it should be noted 
that much of the decrease shown for the first c^uarter of 1936 may be 
attributable to the fact that during 1935 it was determined that some 
police departments had been including homicides which were excusable 
in character. Instances of this sort, such as the killing of a felon who 
was resisting arrest by a police ofiicer, and killing in self-defense by 
private individuals htive doubtless been more generally excluded from 
the crime reports during the first quarter of 1936, with a resultant 
decrease in tlie number of felonious homicides reported. 

During the 6-year period covered by the compilation, there have 
been genertd decreases in the number of robberies and auto thefts 
reported, and the reductions have been quite substantitd. With refer- 
ence to burglary and larceny, it may be noted that the figures evidence 
an irregular variation, although the figures for the first quarter of 
1936 show a decrease as compared witli the corresponding period of 
1935. 



The cases listed under the heading of "manslaughter by negligence" 
consist largely of automobile fatalities, and it will be observed that 
the figure for the first quarter of 1936 is substantially lower than for 
preceding periods. This should be treated as due to a change in the 
procedure employed in scoring violations of this type rather than as 
a decrease in the number of offenses committed. In 1934 it was ascer- 
tained that quite a number of the police departments had listed as 
actual offenses of negligent manslaughter all cases of automobile fatali- 
ties, whereas in recent periods considerable stress has been placed upon 
the fact that deaths resulting from automobile accidents should be 
carried under this classification only if the driver of the automobile 
was guilty of gross criminal negligence. 

The information included in table 3 is also graphically presented 
in figure 1. 

Table 3.— Daily average, offenses known to the police, 68 cities over 100,000, 

January to March, inclusive, 1931-36 

[Total population 19,063,102, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 

enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of oSenses known: 
1931 


357 
363 
380 
316 
343 
295 

4.0 
4.0 
4.2 
3.5 
3.8 
3.2 


352 
303 
229 
314 
226 
181 

3.9 
3.3 
2.5 
3.5 
2.5 
2.0 


276 
286 
305 
301 
336 
311 

3.1 
3.1 
3.4 
3.3 
3.7 
3.4 


5,694 
5,234 
5,168 
3,946 
3,657 
3,138 

63.3 
57.5 
57.4 
43.8 
40.6 
34.5 


2,213 
1,953 
2,278 
2,146 
2,145 
2,182 

24.6 
21.5 
25.3 
23.8 
23.8 
24.0 


17, 520 
19, 213 
19, 903 

18, 671 
18, 571 
16, 097 

194.7 
211.1 
212.1 
207.5 
206.3 
176.9 


36, 612 
36, 556 

38, 711 

39, 724 

40, 683 
36, 963 

406.8 
401.7 
430.1 
441.4 
452.0 
406.2 


21, 560 


1932 


18, 492 


1933 


16, 993 


1934 


14, 077 


1935.- 


14, 474 


1936 


11,471 


Daily average: 

1931 


239.6 


1932 


203.2 


1933 


188.8 


1934 


156.4 


1935 


160.8 


1936 - -- 


126.1 







Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

In table 4 there is presented information regarding the nmnber of 
police departments whose reports were employed in the preparation 
of figures representing crime rates for the individual States. This in- 
formation is included here in order to show the number of such con- 
tributors according to size of city, and it is believed it will be helpful 
in evaluating the crune data for individual States, since table 1 has 
indicated that there is a noticeable tendency for the large cities to 
report higher crune rates than the smaller communities. It should 
be further observed that in several instances the number of records 
entering into the construction of State rates is quite limited. In 
some cases the figures for individual States are based on reports from 
only four or five police departments. Obviously, the crmie rates 
based on such a limited number of records may differ considerably 
from the figures which would result if reports were available from all 
urban communities in the State. 

In table 5 there are presented the crime rates for the individual 
States, together with figures for nine geographic divisions of the 
country. 



ANNUAL CRIME TRENDS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 

I FOR CITIES OF 100,000 POPULATION AND OVER 68 CITIES i POPULATION 19,063,102 

PERIOD COVERED -JANUARY I, TO MARCH 31, INCLUSIVE, 1931-1936 



UJ 

< 

(E 

UJ 

> 
«* 

>- 
_l 

< 

a 



sa 

400 
300 

200 



100 
90 
80 
70 

60 
50 
40 

30 
20 





^BURGLARY - BREAKING OR ENTERING 



.AGGRAVATED ASSAULT 



MURDER - NONNEGLIGENT MANSLAUGHTER" 



^ 



RAPE 



-1931- -1932- -1933- 



- 1934- 



1935- 



-1936- 



FlGURE 1. 



65836°— 36 2 



8 

Table 4. — Number of cities in each State ijicluded in the tabulation of uniform 
crime reports, January to March, inclusive, 1936 



Division and State 



Population 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 168 cities; total population, 
5,351,483 

J,Iiddle Atlantic: 440 cities; total population, 
18,097,399. 

East North Central: 416 cities; total popula- 
tion, 15,497,260 

West North Central: 188 cities; total popula- 
tion, 4,357,907 

South Atlantic: i 102 cities; total population, 
3,789,950 

East South Central: 48 cities; total population, 
1,731,860 

■West South Central: 92 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,177,973 

Mountain: 67 cities; total population, 1,106,017. 

Pacific: 146cities; total population, 5,367,690..-. 

New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

West North Central: 

Minnesota . 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Atlantic: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

AVest Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi . 

West South Central: 

Arkansas.- 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



Over 
250,000 



100,000 

to 
250,000 



50,000 

to 
100,000 



12 
10 



10 



21 

22 

6 

10 



4 

6 

11 

3 
2 
6 
8 
3 



25,000 

to 
50,000 



22 
27 
45 
10 
14 



9 

4 
11 

1 
1 



10 
3 

7 

10 



14 
6 

11 
6 

8 



10,000 

to 
25,000 



57 
120 
96 
50 
25 



16 

20 
1?. 
38 

6 
3 
2 
35 
4 
8 

43 

29 
48 

28 
14 
25 
17 
12 

11 

6 



5 

G 

12 



9 

4 

25 



Less 
than 
10,000 



67 

256 

234 

114 

46 

23 

50 
46 
82 



36 
3 
5 

87 

57 

112 

71 
25 
52 
64 
22 

47 

18 

15 

5 

3 

9 

17 

3 
2 

9 
9 
8 
2 
4 
9 

9 
6 
<i 
2 

4 

7 

21 

18 

7 
7 
3 

11 
1 
3 

11 
3 

5 

10 
67 



Total 



1 Includes District of Columbia. 



Table 5. — Rate per 100,000, offenses known to the police, January to March^ 

inclusii'c, 1D36 



Division and State 



GEOGUAPHIC DIVISION 



New England. 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central- 
West North Central.. 

South Atlantic' 

East South Central-.. 

West South Central. . 

Mountain 

Pacific - 

New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire.. 

Vermont- 

Massachusetts — 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio- 

Indiana. 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Atlantic: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina... 
South Carolina.. 

Georgia 

Florida , 

East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma.. 

Texas 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona. 

Utah 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



' Includes report of District of Columbia. 



Murder, 






Aggra- 
vated 


Burglary — 






nonnegli- 


Rape 


Rob- 


breaking 


Larceny- 


.\uto 


gent man- 


bery 


or enter- 


theft 


theft 


slaughter 








ing 






0.2 


1.3 


3.8 


2.4 


61.0 


91.4 


40.0 


.9 


1.8 


7.5 


7.9 


30.2 


52.0 


26.6 


1.0 


1.5 


24.5 


7.4 


74.9 


146.4 


38.1 


.9 


1. 1 


13.8 


3.7 


66.1 


176.6 


49.7 


•1.0 


2.0 


23.2 


37.0 


124.8 


291.1 


68.3 


4.9 


.9 


28.2 


31.8 


132. 9 


200.5 


58.8 


3.4 


1.4 


19.2 


19. 2 


118.6 


331.3 


60.1 


2.4 


1.5 


15.2 


4.7 


97.1 


271.5 


64.5 


1.0 


2.6 


15. 5 


6.0 


132.2 


276.5 


97.7 


.4 


.4 


5.8 


4. 1 


57.3 


82.5 


54.0 





2.8 


1.1 


.6 


51.4 


62.0 


7.8 





5.0 








10.0 


23.7 


13.7 


.2 


1.5 


4.2 


2.8 


61.5 


86.2 


44.3 








1.3 


1.9 


34.7 


98.8 


14.4 


2 


.6 


4.3 


1.4 


80.5 


118.6 


43.8 


.9 


1.9 


4.3 


6.9 


18.7 


42.5 


23.5 


.(') 


1.7 


9.0 


12.4 


69.1 


101.4 


:i3. 


1.0 


1.7 


13.0 


7.8 


35.9 


49.8 


30.0 


1.0 


.9 


18.2 


8.0 


78.4 


188.7 


48.1 


1.6 


1.0 


17.1 


9.1 


84.4 


184.0 


56.5 


1.2 


.9 


43.2 


8.1 


9i8.0 


89.7 


28.3 


.fi 


3.4 


16.6 


7.2 


51.6 


181.1 


40.9 


. 5 


1. 1 


2.9 


1.7 


26.6 


101.8 


17.4 


.5 


.5 


10.6 


2.1 


66.5 


97.2 


63.5 


.3 


1.0 


8.9 


1.6 


61.0 


163.2 


43.4 


1.4 


1.4 


17.4 


7.2 


64.5 


251.4 


40.2 


1.9 





11.4 


3.8 


78. 9 


117.8 


22.8 


1.9 


9.3 


10.2 





48. 1 


117.6 


65.7 


.5 


.5 


13.9 


1.2 


36. 


117.7 


69.2 


1.7 


.8 


20. 3 


4.9 


97.6 


272.8 


35.3 


1.7 


.8 


3.3 


10.9 


56.9 


128. 9 


53.6 


1.0 


2. 1 


19.6 


2.6 


72.0 


107. 2 


,50.3 


4.5 


4.5 


19.1 


60.2 


141.8 


404. 8 


72.7 


2.6 


1.4 


10.6 


17.8 


82.3 


186.0 


35.0 


7.2 


1.0 


18.2 


131.6 


139. 5 


250. 5 


65.5 


4.2 





1.5.8 


37.4 


.30.8 


420.7 


11.6 


6.2 


.4 


10.9 


25. 


11,5. 1 


411.9 


.50.7 


8.9 


1.4 


36.0 


45.7 


259.1 


489.4 


101.0 


2.8 


.8 


29.8 


31.7 


161.0 


252.0 


54.5 


7.6 


1.3 


39.6 


41.3 


133.3 


128.6 


78.9 


3.7 


.6 


16. 8 


21.4 


121.6 


256. n 


4M.4 


5.2 





8.7 


26.2 


47.2 


110.2 


16.6 


1.4 


. 7 


26.3 


25.6 


123. 3 


314. 5 


40.9 


4.1 


1.3 


13.8 


28.4 


68.4 


142.7 


43.6 


2.1 


1.4 


26.7 


9.1 


113.7 


307. 3 


3,5.6 


3.8 


1.4 


IK. 


18.6 


141. 1 


421.2 


77.9 


2.1 


2.1 


4.3 


3.2 


48.0 


232.8 


21.4 


3.2 


3.2 


7.9 


7.9 


52.2 


177.3 


34.8 


1.6 


1.6 


6.6 


4.9 


.54.4 


245. 5 


34.6 


2.6 


1.8 


1.5.6 


3.0 


103. 3 


268.1 


44.7 








12.8 


1.8 


118.8 


380.2 


:14.7 


3.8 


1.0 


39.2 


13.4 


154.8 


395.7 


216.9 


1.6 


1.0 


12.0 


3.1 


97.1 


225. 5 


74.1 


2.6 





15.7 


13.1 


88.8 


342.3 


101.9 


1.5 


.2 


11.5 


6.1 


169.8 


264.3 


76.4 


.4 


.4 


25.0 


2.2 


1,55. 4 


321.4 


68.3 


.9 


3.3 


15.2 


6.4 


121.9 


274.0 


105.3 



Data for Individual Cities. 

Crime data for States and for the entire Nation are essential to indi- 
viduals and oro;anizations studying tlio problem of crime from the 
viewpoint of a State or of the entire country, and compilations designed 
to present such information are included in this bulletin. However, 



10 



the handling of crime is largely a problem to be solved by each indi- 
vidual city and a maximum degree of success wiU be obtained if the 
public generally is informed concerning the nature and extent of the 
local crime problem. In order to make such data readily available 
to interested individuals and civic organizations there is presented 
in the following table the number of offenses reported hj the poUce 
departments of individual cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants 
during the fu-st quarter of 1936. 

It doubtless will be desirable for a local community to make a com- 
parison between its figures and the average figures for cities with 
approximately the same population. Such average figures may be 
found in table 1. It is hkewise important to consider whether the 
amount of known crime in a given city is increasing or decreasing in 
comparison with prior periods. Figures for the first quarter of 1934 
and 1935 may be found in volume V, number 1 and volume VI, num- 
ber 1, respectively, of this publication. 

It is suggested that comparisons between the figures of two or more 
individual cities should be made with great caution, because there 
may be present a large number of peculiar local conditions which 
may cause the crime rate in a community to be above or below average. 
More thought should be given to the question whether the amount of 
known crime approximates a satisfactory standard for the individual 
community, considering all of the local factors affecting the problem 
which may be operative in other communities to a greater or lesser 
degree. It should definitely be remembered that on the whole, 
crime is a community problem chargeable to the entire community 
rather than to law-enforcement officials only. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenseg. On the other hand, the crime reporting man- 
ual has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports and the 
figures received are included in this bulletin only if they apparently 
have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of the manual, 
and the individual department has so indicated. 

Table 6. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to March, inclusive, 1936 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y. 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala... 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn... 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass... 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



1 
3 

9 

11 

2 



(2) 



51 
11 

18 
2 



Rape 



16 

2 

25 



8 

2 

11 



{') 



29 
9 
5 
4 



Rob- 
bery 



32 

3 

174 

56 

54 

10 

35 

8 

35 

36 

40 

1,967 

73 

279 

100 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



(0 



34 

11 

9 

39 

40 

1 

46 

6 

41 

35 



352 
71 
42 
28 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



267 
110 
624 
469 
308 
101 
188 
74 
119 
120 
215 
,100 
285 
534 
507 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



71 

16 

163 

141 

212 

46 

58 

17 

66 

0) 

40 

744 

146 

48 

142 



Under 

$50 



330 

140 
691 
774 
468 
161 
293 
100 
70 
218 
346 

2,475 
963 

1,983 
724 



Auto 
theft 



62 

86 

424 

128 

695 

60 

210 

105 

£7 

49 

96 

915 

188 

624 

243 



' Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 
'Not reported. 



11 



Table 6. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to March, inclusive, 

1936 — Continued 



City 



Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio -. 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich --. 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N.J. 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa _-- 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Miuss 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Hartford, Conn... 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Kansas City, Kans 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass... 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N.Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J — 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif.. 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Somerville, Mass 

South Bend, Ind 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C 

Waterbury, Conn 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del 

Worcester, Mass 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio 



Murder, 
uonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



10 



10 

1 
13 



1 

5 
2 
2 
1 

U 

10 

9 
2 

9 
1 
24 
6 
2 



20 

11 

2 

4 

15 
2 



23 

85 
7 



5 
2 
3 
3 
22 



3 

6 
2 
15 
1 
3 
8 
1 
1 



12 



I{apo 



1 

3 

12 



2 
2 
1 
7 
2 
4 
1 
3 
81 
3 



1 
4 
1 
8 
168 
4 
5 
1 
1 
2 



30 

18 

2 



14 



11 
2 
2 
5 
3 
4 
1 
2 



liob- 
bery 



53 

17 

50 

31 

3()S 

7 

12 
14 
10 
14 

4 

29 
12 
24 
33 

7 



78 

109 

44 

00 

19 

16 

296 

70 

3 

1 

156 

70 

4 

60 

61 

54 

4 

7 

55 

350 

37 

58 

68 

38 

18 

4 

170 

303 

92 

5 

10 

39 

8 

151 

48 

21 

97 

19 

87 

8 

57 

2 

15 

25 

4 

14 

5 

8 

52 

52 

4 

247 

4 

6 

3 

5 

2 

63 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



81 

25 

12 

4 

181 



7 
13 
6 
5 
2 
32 
2 
8 

32 

5 

5 

42 

58 

26 

9 

11 

13 

94 

71 



137 

148 

16 

8 

96 

116 

1 

5 

133 

564 

62 

32 

22 

3 

23 

8 

203 

45 

9 

8 

6 

213 

10 

66 

12 

5 

72 

7 

56 

14 

24 



2 

18 
4 
4 



11 
25 
18 

2 
72 

1 

5 
12 

4 

10 
30 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



426 

162 

301 

133 

776 

81 

103 

71 

91 

71 
101 
156 

94 
252 

79 
119 
171 
541 
501 
280 
209 
165 
300 
2, 082 
635 

79 
129 
435 
452 
138 
324 
121 
298 

93 
256 
253 
574 
262 
380 
230 

61 
149 
107 
631 
423 
573 
108 

30 
370 
190 
431 
305 
169 
422 

00 
437 

82 
923 

42 

87 
139 

81 
120 
146 
102 
373 
194 

81 
721 

75 
117 

06 
I S3 

31 
173 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



48 

8 

86 

8 

171 

28 

17 

8 

13 

9 

7 

41 

15 

15 

5 



40 

100 

(') 

161 

(') 

40 

68 

091 

121 

7 

23 
07 
39 
48 
85 
102 
87 
15 
29 
102 

11 

48 

15 

6 

12 

9 

229 

139 

143 

16 

22 

129 

32 

0) 

52 

35 

215 

32 

(') 
17 
88 
13 
33 
45 
26 
19 
12 
44 

102 
48 
18 

294 
14 
16 
32 
54 

13 



Under 
$50 



2,049 
534 

488 

332 

3, 573 

153 

89 
244 

71 
200 

40 
350 
219 
096 

84 

202 

323 

1,028 

1,180 

698 

207 

120 

408 

2, 425 

695 

52 
171 
169 
363 
594 
312 
145 
769 
168 
235 
251 
1,889 
518 
930 
579 
114 

40 

37 
541 
200 
905 
221 

9 J 

1,039 

320 

2, 329 

312 

348 

683 

167 

1,785 

97 
771 

00 

86 
450 
218 
216 
162 
172 
(2) 
4.39 

92 
1,481 

44 
497 
111 

59 

27 
300 



Auto 
theft 



339 

100 

140 

129 

751 

24 

37 

31 

76 

108 

42 

100 

45 

82 

48 

47 

89 

253 

313 

85 

41 

143 

139 

1,695 

193 

19 

36 

125 

214 

89 

509 

ISO 

255 

19 

148 

236 

1,576 

84 

291 

69 

108 

88 

69 

556 

335 

239 

39 

34 

223 

123 

328 

183 

136 

358 

157 

909 

44 

371 

35 

57 

58 

63 

89 

57 

21 

215 

61 

36 

592 

62 

34 

62 

114 

46 

235 



• Larcenies not separately reported. 
2 Not reported. 



Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



12 



Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1936. 

Available data concerning the amount of crime committed in rural 
portions of the United States are presented in table 7. As indicated, 
the compilation is based on reports received from 539 sheriffs, 12 State 
police units, and 98 police agencies in villages (places with less than 
2,500 inhabitants). For comparative purposes the following tabula- 
tion indicates the percentage distribution of urban and rural crimes: 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary. -_ 
Auto theft. 



Percent 


Urban 


Rural 


100.0 


100.0 


50.6 
24.3 
15.3 


45.2 
30.6 
10.1 



OlTense 



Robbery 

A ssault 

Rape 

Murder 

Negligent manslaughter 



Percent 



Urban Rural 



5.2 
3.3 

.5 
.5 
.3 



4.9 
5.2 
1.8 
1.2 
1.0 



The above comparison indicates that 9.2 percent of the rural crimes 
consisted of offenses against the person (homicide, rape, and aggra- 
vated assault), whereas 4.6 percent of the urban crimes were of those 
types. Part of the difference in the proportion of reported crimes 
against the person may be due to the fact that some of the reports 
representing rural cruues indicate the possibility that they were limited 
to instances in which arrests were made. Incompleteness of this sort 
in the reports of rural crhnes would naturally tend to increase the 
percentage of reported crimes against the person in view of the fact 
that such offenses are more generally followed by arrests than are 
offenses against property. 

Table 7. — Offenses known, January to March 1936, inclusive, as reported by 539 
sheriffs, 12 State police units, and 98 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
break - 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 

theft 


Offenses known.v 


168 


135 


247 


654 


698 


4,110 


6,091 


1,361 







Offenses Known in the Possessions of the United States. 

In table 8 there are shown available data concerning the number 
of offenses known to law-enforcement agencies in the possessions of 
the United States. The tabulation includes reports from Hawaii 
County, Honolulu (city and county). Territory of Hawaii; the Canal 
Zone; and Puerto Rico. The figures are based on both urban and 
rural areas and the population figures from the 1930 decennial census 
are indicated in the table. 

With reference to the figures presented for the Canal Zone, it 
should be noted that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has been 
advised that less than one-third of the persons arrested for offenses 



13 

committed in the Canal Zone are residents thereof. It appears, 
therefore, that a large ])roportion of tlie crime committed in the 
Canal Zone is attributable to transients and other nonresidents. 



T.\BLB 8. — Number of offenses known in United Stales possessions, January to 

March, 1936 

[Population figures from Federal Census, Apr. 1, 1930] 





Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


I^arceny— 
theft 




Jurisdiction reporting 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Over 

$50 


Under 
$50 


Auto 
theft 


Hawaii: 

Hawaii County, popula- 
tion, 73,325; number of 
ofTenses known 


2 

1 

1 
91 


6 
34 


5 
3 

1 
10 


4 

1 
14 


1 
8 

485 


2 

325 

22 

120 


1 
33 

1 
47 


33 
463 

49 
931 


3 


Honolulu, city and county, 
copulation, 202,923; num- 
ber of offenses known 

Isthmus of Panama: 

Canal Zone, population, 
39,367; number of oflenses 
known 


83 
6 


Puerto Rico: 

Population, 1,543,913; num- 
ber of oflenses known. . . . 


33 



Data from Supplementary Offense Reports. 

Supplementary offense reports are distributed to the police depart- 
ments of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. The report 
forms provide for the listing of more detailed information concerning 
the major offenses committed. In tables 9, 9-A, and 9-B are pre- 
sented data compiled from the supplementary reports received from 
the police departments of 3G cities with an aggregate population of 
13,069,897. Table 9 reveals that of 3,228 robberies reported, 60.7 
percent were committed on city highways. In addition, 34.4 percent 
were robberies of commercial establislmients. Only 1.9 percent (60) 
of the 3,228 robberies reported occurred in private residences (see 
p. 2 for an explanation of the technical difference between robbery 
and burglary). 

In the 36 cities represented in table 9, 12,245 burglaries were com- 
mitted during the first c[uarter of 1936. Slightly less than half of 
them were burglaries of dwelling places. More than three-fourths 
(77.5 percent) of the 12,245 burglaries were committed during the 
night. However, 36 percent of the burglaries of residences occurred 
during the day, whereas only 9.6 percent of burglaries of other places 
were committed in the daytime. The comparatively large propor- 
tion of daylight burglaries of residences is probably due to the fact 
that in urban communities residences are frequently unoccupied 
during the daytime. 

In table 9, 20,691 larcenies are listed and of them 274 were cases 
of pocket-picking and 787 were instances of purse-snatching. The 
remaining 19,630 rei)resent miscellaneous larcenies exclusive of auto 
thefts. 



14 



Table 9. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to March, 
inclusive, 1936; 36 cities over 100,000 

[Total population, 13,069,897, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Rape: 

Forcible 


98 
65 


Larceny— theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen) : 
Over $50 




Statutory-, - _ 






2,689 
12, 709 


Total 


163 


$5 to $50 




Under iSS 


5,293 


Robbery: 

Highway . 


1,959 

855 

214 

40 

60 

1 

99 


Total. 


20, 691 




Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 
Pocket-picking 




Oil station _ _. . 




Chain store - - - . 




Residence . 


274 


Bank . 


Purse-snatching 


787 


Miscellaneous . 


All other 


19, 630 




Total 




Total 


3,228 


20, 691 








Burglary — breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 


3,827 
2,156 

5,658 
604 




All other (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day .__ 




Total 


12, 245 





The figures presented in table 9-A show that there were 5,671 
automobiles reported stolen during the first quarter of 1936 by the 
police departments of the 36 cities represented. Stolen automobiles 
recovered during the period numbered 5,442, wliich is 96 percent of 
the nmnber stolen. 

Table 9-A. — Recoveries o^ stolen automobiles, January to March, inclusive, 1936; 

36 cities over 100,000 

[Total population, 13,069,897, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 5, 671 

Number of automobiles recovered 5, 442 

Percentage recovered 96. 



In table 9-B is presented information concerning the value of 
property stolen and the value of property recovered during the first 
3 months of 1936. The value of property recovered ($2,242,512.77) 
constituted 60.3 percent of the value of property stolen ($3,717,413.29) 
during the first quarter of 1936. It will be noted that automobiles 
constitute 53.5 percent of the stolen property classified as to value. 
Exclusive of automobiles the value of property stolen during the first 
quarter of the year was $1,728,558.29, and the value of property re- 
covered was $374,382.77. 



15 

Table 9-B. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered vnth divi- 
sions as to type of property involved, January to March, inclusive, 1936: 36 
cities over 100,000 



[Total population. 13,069.897, as estimated July I. 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 


Type of property 


Value of 

properly 

stolen 


Value of 
property 
recovered 


Currt^iicv, notes, etc 


$405, 496. 55 

518, 780. 65 

75, 643. 20 

237, 107. 93 

1, 988, 855. 00 

491, 529. 96 


$48, 819. 45 


J ewelrv and urecious metals . . 


86, 006. 08 


Furs 


7,617. 15 


(^lothing.. _. 


54, 810. 97 


Locallv stolen automobiles ... 


1, 868, 130. 00 


Miscellaneous . . 


177, 129. 12 






Total - 


3.717,413.29 


2, 242, 512. 77 







658:16°— .^G- 



ANNUAL RETURNS, 1935 

The system of uniform crime reporting employed in compiling 
national police statistics provides for the preparation of annual 
reports to be forwarded to the FBI based on the number of offenses 
known, offenses cleared by arrest, the number of persons held for 
prosecution, and the number of persons arrested but later released 
without being caused to face criminal charges. Tabulations presented 
on the preceding pages are based on the monthly offense reports re- 
ceived during the first quarter of 1936. However, the following com- 
pilations represent information included in the annual reports re- 
ceived from police departments for the calendar year 1935. 

It should be noted that in the annual offense report the unit for 
scoring purposes is the offense, whereas in the report of persons 
arrested the unit is the individual involved. 

Offenses Known and Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1935. 

In table 10 there is shown the number of offenses reported for the 
calendar year 1935 by the police departments of 898 cities with an 
aggregate population of 33,023,732. The number of offenses dis- 
posed of by arrest is also shown in the table. The figures are also 
presented for the cities divided into six groups according to size. 

Under the system of uniform crime reporting, it is proper to score 
an ofl'ense as cleared when one of the offenders has been apprehended 
and made available for prosecution even though there were two or 
more jointly involved in the commission of the offense. In other 
words, the figures relative to the number of offenses ''cleared by arrest" 
represent the number of offenses in each of which at least one of the 
offenders has been apprehended and made available for prosecution. 
In addition, the figures include instances in which the offenses have 
been cleared by exceptional circumstances, such as the suicide of the 
offender, etc. Exceptional clearances are limited to instances in 
which the offender is known to the police but for reasons beyond the 
control of the police it is not possible to make him available for 
prosecution. 

Relative to the figures showing the percentage of offenses disposed 
of by arrest, it may be pertinent to note that there are instances in 
which the police clear the crimes by arresting the guilty individuals 
but they are unable to take credit for such clearances in their statistical 
reports due to the fact that it is not possible for them to produce 
proof that the individuals arrested were responsible for the crimes and 
because the persons arrested did not confess thereto, even though 
they had been convicted of one or more other violations. This factor 
would tend to cause the figures relative to offenses disposed of by 
arrest to be conservative. 

Table 10 discloses that the proportion of cleared cases is much 
larger for offenses against the person than for offenses against 
property. 

The annual offense reports for 1935 also include information con- 
cerning the number of offenses committed prior to 1935 which were 
disposed of by arrest during that year. This information is presented 
in table 11. 

16 



17 

The data in table 12 are presented in order to show the relationship 
between the number of offenses known, the number of offenses dis- 
posed of by arrest, and the number of persons held for ])iose(ution. 
In examininp; the figures in table 12 relative to the number of offenses 
cleared by arrest, it should be noted that they represent all offenses 
so disposed of during 1935 even though the offenses were committed 
prior to that year. In other words, the figures include the cleared 
cases listed in table 10 and those listed in table 11. The information 
presented in table 12 should be interpreted as follows: With reference 
to group I cities, of each 100 known offenses of murder and non- 
negligent manslaughter 82 were disposed of by arrest (including 
exceptional clearances). In connection with those cases 86 persons 
were arrested and held for prosecution. The tabulation shows that 
for all offense classes except criminal homicide, rape, and aggravated 
assault the number of persons charged was less than the number of 
offenses cleared by arrest. The figures for individual population 
groups disclose, however, certain variations from that general rela- 
tionship. 

With reference to the figures for manslaughter by negligence, it 
will be observed that the number of persons held for prosecution 
exceeds the number of known offenses. This is doubtless the result 
of the practice in many communities of taking into custody and 
charging with manslaughter the operator of an automobile which 
had been involved in a fatal accident. In a large number of those 
cases it is subsequently found that the driver of the vehicle was not 
guilty of criminal negligence, and no offense of that character is 
included in the report of known offenses. However, the person 
was arrested and made available to the authorities responsible for 
taking prosecutive action, and the circumstances have been repre- 
sented by entries showing that the operator of the vehicle was, taken 
into custody and made available for prosecution. 

Portions of the data appearing in table 12 are also presented 
graphically in figure 2. 



18 



Table 10. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and percentage of offenses 
cleared by arrest, 1935, by -population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GKOUP I 

23 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 14, 240,400: 

Number of offenses known 

Number of offenses cleared by 

arrest 

Percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest .-- 

GROUP n 

36 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 5,098,915: 

Number of offenses known 

Number of offenses cleared by 

arrest - . 

Percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest 

GROUP HI 

59 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 3,949,298: 

Number of offenses known 

Number of offenses cleared by 

arrest 

Percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest i 

GROUP IV 

97 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total pop- 
ulation, 3, 377,970: 

Number of offenses known 

Number of offenses cleared by 

arrest 

Percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest 

GROUP V 

244 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 3,778,574: 

Number of offenses known 

Number of offenses cleared by 

arrest 

Percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest 

GROUP VI 

439 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 2,578,575: 

Number of offenses known 

Number of offenses cleared by 

arrest- 

Percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest--- 

Total, 898 cities; total population, 
33,023,732: 

Number of offenses known 

Number of offenses cleared by 

arrest- - 

Percentage of offenses cleared 
by arrest 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



997 

785 
78.7 



329 
289 

87.8 



198 

173 

B7.4 



123 

108 
87.8 



127 

108 

85.0 



79 

69 

87.3 

1,853 
1,532 

82.7 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



631 

397 

62.9 



282 

200 

70.9 



144 

130 

90.3 



113 

106 

93.8 



117 
103 

88.0 



95 

80 

84.2 

1,382 

1,016 

73.5 



Rape 



1,157 

734 

63.4 



392 
336 

85.7 



195 

179 

91.8 



203 

182 
89.7 



260 

237 

91.2 



168 

153 

91.1 

2,375 

1,821 

76.7 



Rob- 
bery 



18, 164 

7,273 

40.0 



2,824 

1,032 

36.5 



1,717 

596 

34.7 



1,461 

482 

33.0 



1,001 

329 

32.9 



594 

259 

43.6 

25, 761 

9,971 

38.7 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



6,990 

4,155 

59.4 



2,755 

1,913 

69.4 



2,106 

1.805 

85.7 



1,070 
918 

85.8 



961 
852 

88.7 



469 
412 



14, 351 

10, 055 

70.1 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


mg 




56, 686 


119, 720 


18,643 


29, 212 


32.9 


24.4 


21, 925 


51, 145 


5,855 


11, 664 


26.7 


22.8 


13, 277 


33, 166 


3,241 


7,989 


24.4 


24.1 


10, 994 


26, 981 


3.036 


7,767 


27.6 


28.8 


9,866 


24, 291 


2,748 


6,943 


27.9 


28.6 


5,772 


12, 028 


1,616 


4,110 


28.0 


34.2 


118,520 


267, 331 


35, 139 


67, 685 


29.6 


25.3 



Auto 
theft 



41, 732 

5,337 

12.8 



15,090 

3,015 

20. a 



7,914 

1,323 

16.7 



6,853 

1,349 

19.7 



5,510 

1,147 
20.8 



2,388 

721 

30.2 

79, 487 

12, 892 

16.2 



19 

Table 1 1 . — Number of offenses cleared by arrest during 1.03' which were reported 

during some prior year as not cleared 



Population group 



Oroup I 

Oroup II 

Group III 

Group IV.... 

Group V... 

Group VI 

Total, groups I-VI 



Criminal 
hoiiiicide 



Murder, 
nonnes;- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



36 
3 
5 
3 
3 
4 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



54 



Rape 



37 



51 



Rob- 
bery 



,604 
11 
34 
27 
35 
17 



1,728 



Agpra- 
viited 

as- 
sault 



46 
2 

35 
5 
2 
2 



92 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



1,631 
;75 
]4'J 
140 
191 
51 



2,337 



Lar- 

cenv— 

theft 



1,260 
127 

384 

205 

204 

51 



2,231 



Auto 
theft 



127 
63 
42 
52 
59 
21 



354 



20 



RELATION BETWEEN OFFENSES 
KNOWN, OFFENSES CLEARED, 
AND PERSONS CHARGED 
(HELD FOR PROSECUTION) 



1935 



MURDER, N0NNE6LIGENT MANSLAUGHTER 




OFFENSES KNOWN 



OFFENSES CLEARED 



PERSONS CHARGED 




AGGRAVATED ASSAULT 




OFFENSES CLEARED 
PERSONS CHARGED 

BURGLARY 





OFFENSES KNOWN 
OFFENSES CLEARED 
PERSONS CHARGED 

L ARCENY 

OFFENSES KNOWN 
OFFENSES CLEARED 
PERSONS CHARGED 

A UTO THEF T 

OFFENSES KNOWN 
OFFENSES CLEARea 
PERSONS CHARGED 




100.0 


85 6 


90 8 


100 


70 7 


70 7 


100 


4 1 5 


29 8 


100 


3 1 6 


20 5 


100.0 


26.2 


22 6 


100.0 


1 6,7 


1 3.0 



Figure 2. 



21 



Table 12. — Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged (held 
for prosecution) , 1935. Number per 100 known offenses. 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 

23 cities over 250.000; total popula- 
tion, 14,240,400: 

Offenses known... 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged... 

GROUP II 

36 cities, 100,000 to 2.50,000; total 
population, .'i,0!)8,91.5: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP rii 

59 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 3,949,298: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP IV 

97 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total pop- 
ulation. 3,377,970: 

Offenses known.. 

Oflensf.s cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP V 

244 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total pop- 
ulation, 3,778,574: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

GROUP VI 

439 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 2,.578,.'")75: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

TOTAL, GROUPS I- VI 

898 cities; total population, 33,- 
023,732: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



100. 
82.3 
86.1 



100.0 

88.8 
99. 1 



100.0 
89.9 
92.9 



100.0 

90.2 

105. 7 



100.0 
87.4 
91.3 



100.0 
92.4 
86.1 



100.0 
85.6 
90. S 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 

negli- 
gence 



100.0 

63. 1 

133. 1 



100.0 
70.9 
89.4 



100.0 
91.0 
97.2 



100.0 
94.7 
96.5 



100.0 
88.0 
91.5 



100.0 
8.5.3 
85.3 



100.0 

73.8 

110.6 



Rape 



100.0 
66. 6 
70.9 



100.0 

85.7 
88.5 



100.0 
94.4 
97.4 



100.0 
90.6 
99.5 



100.0 

93.5 

105.0 



100.0 
91.7 
93.5 



!00. 
7S. 8 
S3. 7 



Ri.b- 
berv 



100.0 
43. 4 

25. 5 



100.0 
36.9 
43.6 



100,0 
36.7 
32.6 



100.0 
34.8 
34.4 



100.0 
36.4 
44.1 



100.0 

46.5 
52.9 



100. 
41.5 
29.8 



.•V gL' ni- 
val ed 

as- 
sault 



100. 

m. I 

.58. 8 



100.0 
f)9. 5 
65. 8 



100.0 

87.4 
89.3 



100.0 

86.3 
87.9 



100.0 

88.9 
100. 5 



100 

88. :{ 
94. 2 



100.0 
70.7 
70.7 



Bur- 
glary— 
t)reak- 
ing or 
enter- 
int' 



100.0 
35.8 
18.9 



100.0 

27. 5 
20. 1 



100.0 
25. 5 
20.2 



100.0 
28.9 
23.2 



100.0 
29.8 
24.8 



100.0 

28.9 

■y.. 8 



100.0 
31.6 
20.5 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



100.0 
25. 5 
21.7 



100.0 
23. 1 

20.7 



100.0 
25. 2 
21^9 



100.0 
29. 5 
25. 3 



100.0 
29.4 
25. 7 



100.0 

;«. 6 
28.0 



100.0 
26. 2 
22.6 



Auto 
theft 



100.0 

12.8 
10.4 



100.0 
20.3 
14.9 



100.0 
17.4 
12.5 



100.0 

17.6 
15.5 



100.0 
21.9 
17.8 



100.0 
31. 1 
27.6 



100.0 
16.7 
13.0 



22 

Persons Charged (Held for Prosecution), 1935. 

The preceding tabulations based on annual reports submitted by 
police departments have been set out for the purpose of indicating 
the relationship between the number of actual offenses committed 
and police effectiveness in detecting the offenders and presenting 
them to the proper authorities for prosecution. In addition, there 
has been prepared a tabulation showing the number of persons made 
available by the poUce for prosecution.^ This information is pre- 
sented in table 14. In some instances it was found that separate 
figures were not available for persons charged with violation of road 
and driving laws, parking violations, and violations of other traffic 
and motor vehicle laws. Therefore, the classification ''traffic and 
motor vehicle laws" includes all persons charged with those types of 
violations, and a separate compilation of those data is presented in 
table 14-A for instances in which detailed figures were submitted. 

The percentage relationship of the number of persons charged with 
all types of violations is shown in table 13. It wiU be found upon 
examination of the figures presented in tables 13 and 14 that of the 
total number of persons held for prosecution, 2,344,728 (81.1 percent) 
were charged with the following offenses: TraflSc and motor vehicle 
laws, 1,577,596 (54.6 percent); drunkenness, 533,609 (18.5 percent); 
disorderly conduct, 157,274 (5.4 percent); vagrancy, 76,249 (2.6 
percent). This relationship may vary slightly for individual popu- 
lation groups. 

Persons charged for the more serious types of violations are shown 
in the table as follows: 

Murder 1, 682 Stolen property (receiving, 

Manslaughter by negligence. _ 1,529 etc.) 3,874 

Robbery 7,683 Forgery and counterfeiting 3,488 

Aggravated assault 10,149 Rape 1,989 

Burglary 24,354 Narcotic drug laws 2,621 

Larceny 60,301 Weapons (carrying, etc.) 5,956 

Autotheft 10,302 

Embezzlement and fraud 7, 488 



Total 141,416 



The table is based on reports of 898 cities having a total population 
of 33,023,732, or more than one-quarter of the population of the 
coimtrv. 

The tables relative to the number of persons held for prosecution 
and the number released without having been formally charged with 
the commission of an offense are based on reports showing the number 
of persons involved as distinguished from the number of charges 
placed against persons taken into custody. In other words, if on 
the occasion of a single arrest a person is charged vnih two diff'erent 
offenses of burglary, he nevertheless would be shown in table 14 as 
one person held for prosecution for burglary. 



23 

With reference to the data for vagrancy and disorderly conduct, it 
is of some significance to note that it is the practice of some law- 
enforcement agencies to place such charges in cases of arrests for 
])rostitution and other forms of cojumercialized vice. In view thereof, 
the figures in the table for the latter type of violation are probably 
quite conservative. 

Examination of the reports indicated that in a few instances the 
figures for two or more ofl'ense classes had })oen combined. Such 
grouping of the data generally occurred in connection with the offense 
classes which were first included in the annual report of persons 
arrested for 1933. Since the number of instances in wliich data for 
two or more classes were combined was quite small, the unclassified 
figures were divided among the separate classes in the ratio in which 
data were reported by other cities in the same population group. 

Figure 3 shows graphically the number (per 100,000 inhabitants) 
of persons held for prosecution for some of the more serious types of 
crimes. 



Table 13. — Percentage distribution of persons charged {held for prosecution), 19S5 

[898 cities; total population, 33,023,732] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man- 
slaughter 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence . . . 

Robbery _ 

Aggravated assault 

O t her a-ssau I ts .._ 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft. - 

Autotheft... 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos- 
sessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 



Percent 



0.06 
.05 
.27 
.35 

1.51 
.84 

2.09 
.36 
.26 

.13 
.12 
.07 



Offense charged 



Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against the family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

All other offenses 

Total 



Percent 



1.24 

.28 

.09 

.21 

.64 

.79 

1.00 

54.56 

g. 44 

18.45 

2.64 

1.41 

7.14 



100.00 



24 



in 
rO 



3 
O 
LJ 
CO 
O 
CC 
Q. 

01 
O 



Q 

_J 
LlI 

X 

CO 

o 
if) 
a: 

UJ 
Q. 



CD 
< 

X 



o t 

O o 

o 



cc 

CD 



^^ 










25 



Table 14. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 1935; number and rates per 

100,000, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of tlie Census] 





Group I 


Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


1 




Offense charged 


o "^ 

o ^ 

.Si 

?5a 


2 b 

o 

si 

° 3 

2 o 
" c. 

CO 


gl 

O 3 
o — 
lO o 

HosT 

"gs 

"5 


3 a 

03 
■0 c. 

"a 

III 


„- 

!1 

•sis 

to '":. 

•^ 04 CO 


10 
10 

Ooo 

3 

m 0. 


in 

M 
■|| 




Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent 
manslaughter: 

Number of persons 
charged 


858 
6.0 

840 
5.9 

4,637 
32.6 

4,108 

28.8 

17, 764 
124.7 

10, 732 
75.4 

26,005 
182.6 

4,359 
30.0 

4,374 
30.7 

1, 876 
13.2 

1,379 
9.7 

820 
5.8 

25, 652 
180.1 

3, 725 
26.2 

1,704 
12.0 

2,816 
19.8 

8,711 
61.2 

6,137 
43.1 

7,416 
52.1 


326 
6.4 

252 
4.9 

1,230 
24.1 

1,813 
35.6 

9,252 
181.5 

4,404 

86.4 

10, 588 
207.7 

3 2, 253 
45.6 

1,101 
21.6 

833 
16.3 

625 
12.3 

347 
6.8 

6,506 
127.6 

1,731 
33.9 

537 
10.5 

1,047 
20.5 

« 4, 495 
92.6 

« 6, 563 
135.2 

5,046 
99.0 


184 
4.7 

140 
3.0 

559 
14.2 

1,880 
47.6 

4,487 
113.6 

2,677 
67.8 

7,268 
184.0 

986 
25.0 

618 
15.6 

332 
8.4 

434 
11.0 

190 
4.8 

1,751 
44.3 

894 
22.6 

153 
3.9 

782 
19.8 

1,400 
35.7 

3,203 

81.1 

3,789 
95.9 


130 
3.8 

109 
3.2 

502 
14.9 

940 
27.8 

5,736 
169.8 

2,546 
75.4 

6,821 
201.9 

1,065 
31.5 

578 
17.1 

314 
9.3 

350 
10.4 

202 
6.0 

1,217 
36.0 

897 
26.6 

110 
3.4 

523 
15.5 

1,861 
55.1 

3,068 
90.8 

3,889 
11.5.1 


116 
3.1 

107 
2.8 

441 

11.7 

966 
25.6 

4,073 

107.8 

2,447 

64.8 

1 6, 248 
166.5 

979 
25.9 

561 

14.8 

329 

8.7 

415 
11.0 

273 
7.2 

527 
13.9 

653 
17.3 

59 
1.6 

475 
12.6 

1,374 
36.4 

2,396 

6.3.4 

4,924 
130,3 


68 
2.6 

81 
3.1 

314 
12.2 

442 
17.1 

2,442 
94.7 

1,548 
60.0 

3,371 
130.7 

660 
25.6 

258 
10.0 

190 
7.4 

285 
11.1 

157 
6.1 

281 
10.9 

335 
13.0 

52 
2.0 

313 
12.1 

644 
25.0 

1,552 
60.2 

3,809 
147.7 


1 682 


Rate per 100,000 


5 I 


(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 
Number of persons 
charged 


1 529 


Rate per 100,000 


4 6 


Robbery: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


7,683 
23 3 


Aggravated assault: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


10, 149 
30 7 


Other assaults: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 __ 


43,754 
132 5 


Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 .-. 


24, 354 
73 7 


Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000... 


2 60, 301 

182 7 


Autotheft: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


< 10, 302 
31 3 


Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


7,488 
22 7 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, 
possessing: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


3,874 
11 7 


Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


3,488 
10 6 


Rape: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


1,989 
6 


Prostitution and commercialized 
vice: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


35, 934 
108 8 


Sex offenses (except rape and pros- 
titution): 

Number of persons charged - 

Rate per 100,000 


8,235 
24 9 


Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


2,621 
7 9 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of jjer.sons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


5,956 
18 


Offenses against family and children ; 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


« 18, 494 
56 4 


Liquor laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


• 22, 919 
69 9 


Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of i)er.sons charged 

Rate per 100,000 


28,873 
87.4 



See footnotes at end of table. 



26 

Table 14. — Persons charged {held for prosecution), 1935; number and rates per 
100,000, by population groups — Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rate per 100,000 



Group I 



o ''I 



.2 03 

.■S3 
" ft 



'853,339 
7, 229. 5 

83, 148 
583.9 

226, 595 
1, 591. 2 

39, 089 
274. 5 

21,816 
153.2 

105, 769 

742.7 



Group II 


Group 
III 


Group 
IV 


Group 
V 


Group 
VI 


2 a 
o 


2 a 

o 


2 a 

o 


2 c 

o 












o.od 
o l^ 


82 


ss 


§:s 


o ti 


°3 


o 3 


Ra 


o. 3 


I-CJ 


<=> ft 


o ft 


a ft 


O ft 


a> . 


2 o 


>o o 


<N o 


" o 


•a a 


^ ft 


ft 


ft 


a 


a o 


lO 




m => 




3-S 


.2o "^ 


.2°^. 


•2ofe 


•^ ^»o 


w C3 


-^ O 00 






■7^ O 00 




"go 


"ss 


"0.6; 


«f-- 


O o 


C^ lO 


f-HJO 


»o eo 


-* W M 


Ol ft 


CO 


o> 


r- 






n 


lO 


Oi 


OJ 


-^ 


8 305,402 


150, 792 


9 99, 704 


10 103, 053 


" 65, 306 


6, 599. 7 


3, 818. 2 


2, 983. 7 


2, 791. 


2, 567. 5 


26, 651 


14, 609 


10, 689 


14, 174 


8,003 


522.7 


369.9 


316.4 


375.1 


310.4 


104,900 


59, 485 


55, 515 


54, 261 


32, 853 


2, 057. 3 


1, 506. 2 


1, 643. 4 


1, 436. 


1, 274. 1 


17, 063 


7,930 


5, 249 


4,525 


2,393 


334.6 


200.8 


155.4 


119.8 


92.8 


6,882 


5,176 


3,370 


2,419 


1,103 


135.0 


131.1 


99.8 


64.0 


42.8 


37, 366 


22, 073 


20, 173 


1 13, 172 


7,994 


732.8 


558.9 


597.2 


350.4 


310.0 



3 
ft 
o 



» cc 



^ CO 



03 

o 



121,577, 596 
5, 266. 1 

157, 274 
476.2 

533, 609 
1,615.8 

76, 249 
230.9 

40, 766 
123.4 

13 206, 547 
625. 8 



1-13 The number of persons charged and the 
indicated below: 



rate are based on the reports from the number of cities 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 


243 
897 

35 
897 

35 


3, 753, 674 
32, 998, 832 

4,941,915 
32, 866, 732 

4, 855, 415 


6 


897 
20 
33 
96 


32, 780, 232 

11,803,600 

4, 627, 544 

3,341,570 


10.... 


239 
434 

881 
897 


3, 692, 274 


2 


7 


11 


2, 543, 645 


3 


8... 


12 

13 


29, 957, 831 


4 


9 


33, 003, 932 


5 













In table 14-A there is presented information regarding the number 
of persons made available for prosecution for committing the follow- 
ing types of offenses: Violation of road and driving laws, parking vio- 
lations, and other traffic and motor vehicle laws. The compilation is 
based on reports of a smaller number of pohce departments than is 
indicated in table 14. The figures in table 14-A have been Umited 
to those instances in which it appeared that the data for the above 
three classes had been properly compiled. In the reports which were 
excluded it appeared probable that the information had not been 
grouped in accordance with the procedure outlined. The nature of 
the violations which should be included in each of the classes included 
in table 14-A is as follows: 

Violation of road and driving laws includes violations of the 
regulations with respect to the proper handUng of a vehicle in order 
to prevent accidents. Examples are failure to obey traffic signal, 
improper speed, reckless driving, and operating with unsafe equipment. 

Parking violations include all types of ^iolations of parking 
regulations. 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws include violations not pro- 
vided for in separate offense classes. Examples of cases to be listed 



27 



lioro are failure to secure proper license for car or for drivin<ij, leaving 
scene of accident, lack of title, anil obscured or defective markers. 

Table 14-A. — Persons charged (held for prosecution), 19S5; number and rates per 

100,000, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Censusl 



Ofiense charged 



Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Parking violations: 

Number of persons charged 

Rate per 100,000 

Other trafflc and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons charged. 

Rale per 100,000 



Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


V 


VI 


1 


2A 


2<a 


2« 


2o 


tea 


a 


"3 


3 




■0.2 




,000 
pop 
010 


000 
pop 
309 


,000 
pop 
,070 


5 'S 

o'3 


3 rt 
■B 


> a 


S ^ 


O O) 


!Q 00 


S a 


a 


O C <2 






o 


CO o 


aS 

S CO 


to g CO 


MCCO 


2o" 




.sag 


citi 

00; 

1,04 


citi 
50,0 
ion, 


citi 
00,0 
ion, 


cit 
0,00 
ion, 


.t^ O CD 
O O CO 


OCT. 


0"-l 


C^ -J 




m »j 


-^ C^ CO 




00 




r-* 


.-H 


<N 


I— t 


IN 


■o 


Ol 


IN 


•* 


236. 145 


48,710 


31,741 


17,813 


36, 104 


25, 236 


2, 138. 3 


1,.W3. 4 


941.2 


560. 5 


1,050.5 


1,012.5 


448, 561 


164, 485 


75, 778 


56, 281 


43, 532 


15,235 


4, 061. 8 


5,211.8 


2, 247. 1 


1,770.9 


1, 266. 6 


611.3 


85, 581 


33, 627 


14, 683 


13. 663 


16, 445 


22, 104 


774.9 


1, 065. 5 


435.4 


429. 9 


478.5 


886.9 



3 

a 
o 
a 

5=»- 



".2 

CO w 

CO « 

■a 
*.» 

o 
E-1 



395, 749 
1,483.4 

803, 872 
3,013. 1 

186, 103 
697.6 



Persons Released {Not Held for Prosecution), 193.'). 

The annual reports of persons arrested received from police depart- 
ments throughout the United States include information concerning 
persons taken into custody who were later released with no formal 
charge having been placed against them. Data of this nature are 
presented in tables 15 and 15-A. The comi^ilations are based on the 
reports received from 472 cities with a combined population of 
13,798,293. The number of cities represented is smaller than in 
table 14 because some of the reports did not include data concerning 
persons released. In some instances the reports definitely indicated 
that information of this type was not available, and in other cases the 
entries relative to persons released were limited to so few oft'ense 
classes that it was assumed the figures were incomplete, and the 
reports were not employed in this tabulation. 

With reference to the classification "suspicion", it should be noted 
that if a person was taken into custody because it was suspected that 
he had been involved in the commission of a specific offense, his 
arrest and subsequent release without being held for prosecution 
should be listed opposite the offense class involved. Entries in 
table 15 opposite "suspicion" should be limited to instances in which 
persons were taken into custody because of circumstances which 
caused the police to beheve that they had been involved in criminal 
activities of some nature, although they were not taken into custody 
in connection with any specific offense. From an examination of the 
reports received it appears probable that in some instances the entries 
have been placed opposite "suspicion" when they would have been 
more properly listed opposite some other offense class, in accordance 
with the foregoing explanation. 

In table 15 data regarding violators of all types of traffic and motor 
vehicle laws (except driving while intoxicated) have been included in 
the class entitled "traffic and motor vehicle laws." In table 15-A 



28 



there is presented a tabulation which contains subdivisions in accord- 
ance with the nature of the violations concerned. 

The data presented in table 15 include instances in which persons 
were taken into custody and released by the poUce either because it 
was established that they were innocent of any wrong-doing, or 
because the police were unable to obtain sufficient evidence upon which 
to base criminal charges. In addition, the tabulation includes 
instances in which juveniles were arrested and subsequently released 
without being held for prosecution, even though it had been definitely 
estabUshed that they had committed certain offenses, because the 
complaining witnesses refused to proceed against them. There will, 
therefore, be included instances in which juvenile offenders were 
released to the custody of their parents without formal charges 
having been placed against them. Likewise, the compilation includes 
individuals who were taken into custody and released with a repri- 
mand or on the "golden-rule" principle, as is sometimes done in the 
case of violators of traffic and motor vehicle regulations. _ Persons 
summoned, notified, or cited to appear in court or at a poUce traffic 
bureau because of alleged violations, who failed to appear in response 
thereto, and who were not subsequently arrested, are also represented 
in table 15. 

Table 15. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1935; number and 
rates per 100,000, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide: 

(a) Murder and nonnegligent man 
slaughter: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

(6) Manslaughter by negligence: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Robbery: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Aggravated assault: 

Number f persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Other assaults: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Larceny— theft: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Auto theft: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 -- 

Embezzlement and fraud: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 - 

See footnotes at end of table. 



Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


I 


II 


HI 


IV 


v 


VI 


is 


o 


- 


- 


o 


o 




OOO 


oo 


o w 


O 00 




o<o 


oo 


o >o 


o«o 


o"- 


o^i 


o'T. 


o-^. 


.o-'» 


o''^- 


\a o 


■C CO 


Sgg 


IQ O 


(NO 


■^2 


(NO) 


C^ CO 




O '" 




to 


oc^ 


o« 


2« 


+-* ""1 


U rJH 


> a 


O H 


l§ 


s:- 


0<M 




O O 


,-ro 


.^" o 


o o 






S'-S 




















S C3 


■" cS 


rri C3 


S =3 


(» 03 


.2 "3 


CD d 


<i)3 


.2 3 


■23 


.t^ 3 


.t; a 


s ft 


'Zi a 


•^ ft 


•s ft 


o Q. 


o o 


■- o 


T, o 


'S o 


" o 


o 


c 


" ft 


^ ft 


ft 


S ft 


S2 ^ 














c» 




(N 


"^ 






79 


21 


35 


10 


4 


9 


1.7 


0.9 


1.9 


0.7 


0.2 


0.6 


158 


13 


32 


t 


16 


30 


3.4 


0.6 


1.7 


0.5 


0.7 


2.1 


395 


147 


139 


17 


85 


80 


8.4 


6.6 


7.4 


1.2 


4.0 


5.6 


827 


112 


78 


23 


45 


52 


17.6 


5.0 


4.1 


1.7 


2.1 


3.6 


3,112 


254 


264 


171 


272 


240 


66.3 

639 
13.6 

2,840 
60.6 

417 
8.9 

202 
4.3 


11.3 

337 

15. 1 

564 
25.2 

l,'-,8 
7.1 

34 
1.5 


14.0 

358 
19.0 

898 
47.6 

161 
8.5 

59 
3.1 


12.3 

100 
7.2 

313 
22.5 

46 
3.3 

14 
1.0 


12.6 

552 

25.7 

899 
41.8 

218 
10.1 

43 
2.0 


16.7 

301 
20.9 

717 
49.8 

120 
8.3 

40 
2.8 



3 

a 
o 

a 



o 



o 



158 
1.1 

256 
1.9 

863 
6.3 

1.137 
8.2 

4,313 
31.2 

2,287 
16.6 

6,231 
45.2 

1,120 
8.1 

392 
2.8 



29 

Table 15. — Persons released ivithont being held for prosecvHon, 1935; number and 
rates per 100,000, by population groups — Continued 



Offense charged 



Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
ing: 

Number of persons released - 

Rate per 100,000 --. 

Forgery and counterfeiting: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 -._ 

Rape: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 - 

Prostitution and commercialized vice: 

Number of persons released - 

Rate per 100,000 

Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution) : 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Narcotic drug laws: 

Number of persons released - - - 

Rate per 100,000 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Offenses against family and children: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000..- 

Liquor laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 __ 

Driving while intoxicated: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

TrafBc and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000... 

Disorderly conduct: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Drunkenness: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Vagrancy: 

Number of persons released... 

Rate per 100,000 

Gambling: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Suspicion: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

All other offenses: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 
I 



to 
o o 



S P. 
o o 

p. 

05 



156 
3.3 

153 
3.3 

147 
3.1 

7,984 
170.2 

152 
3.2 

45 
1.0 

214 
4.6 

82 



1,948 
41.5 

250 
5.3 

87,080 
1,191.4 

2,433 
51.9 

25,698 

584.7 

3,497 

74. G 

13, 135 
280,0 

64, 724 
1,380.0 

7,508 
160.1 



Group 
II 



S 



CO 
O (N 

§:" 

o c 
0.2 
2^ 

•— • Co 

•3 a 



58 
2.6 

45 
2.0 

22 
1.0 

114 
5.1 

27 
1.2 

7 
0.3 

42 
1.9 

40 



114 
5. 1 

73 
3.3 

97, 296 
4,345.9 

684 
30.6 

6,254 
279.3 

2,056 
91.8 

169 
7.5 

8 4, 810 
214.8 

4,788 
230.0 



Group 
III 



o . 

Si 

CO 



54 
2.9 

63 
3.3 

12 
0.6 

288 
15.3 

73 
3.9 

30 

1.6 

49 
2.6 

75 
4.0 

151 
8.0 

149 
7.9 

2 24,342 
1,339.0 

725 
38.4 

3,559 
188.5 

578 
30.6 

249 
13.2 

11,805 
625.2 

2,845 
150.7 



Group 
IV 



«.2 



19 
1.4 

27 
1.9 

12 
0.9 

62 
4.5 

36 
2.6 

32 
2.3 

26 
1.9 

29 
2.1 

60 
4.3 

100 

7.2 

20, 310 
1,460.7 

400 
28.8 

3,567 
256.5 

1,546 
111.2 

153 
11.0 

3,637 
261.6 

1,551 
111.6 



Group 
V 



5S 

ON 

Sa 
o o 



53 
2.5 

31 
1.4 

23 
1. 1 

44 
2.0 

43 
2.0 

10 
0.5 

54 
2.5 

141 
6.6 

107 
5.0 

107 
5.0 

3 25,980 
1, 229. 3 

1,058 
49.2 

4,611 
214.4 

2,066 
96. 1 

143 
6.6 

5,328 
247.7 



130. 1 



Group 
VI 






5 "3 

o Oi 
o 



46 
3.2 

37 
2.6 

18 
1.3 

48 
3.3 

59 
4.1 

12 
0.8 

27 
1.9 

195 
13.5 

78 
5.4 

123 
8.5 

< 24,458 
1,732.0 

1,058 
73.5 

3,622 
251.6 

3,369 
234.0 

81 
5.6 

2.460 
170.9 

1.255 
87.2 



•3 
a 

s. 
in 

8« 



« a 
o 



o 



386 
2.8 

356 
2.6 

234 

1.7 

8,540 
61.9 

390 
2.8 

136 
1.0 

412 
3.0 

562 
4.1 

2,458 
17.8 

802 

5.8 

5 279, 466 
2,388.3 

6,358 
46.1 

■47,311 
350.4 

13, 112 
95.0 

13, 930 

101.0 

» 92, 764 
673.3 

11 20,719 
151.9 



1-11 The number of persons released and the rate are based on the reports from the number of cities indi- 
cated below: 



Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


Footnote 


Cities 


Population 


1 . 


7 

27 

134 

238 


2, 728, 600 
1,817,808 
2, 113,457 
1,412, 117 


5. 

0. 

7. 

8 


463 

8 

471 

15 


11,701,242 
4, 394, 700 

13, 502, 693 
2,081,800 


9 


471 

135 
471 


13,641,293 


2 


10 


2,131,0,57 


3. 


11. 


13, 778, 493 


4 











30 



_ As previously indicated, some of the reports listed all types of 
violators of traffic laws (except driving while intoxicated) in a single 
figure. In table 15-A there are presented data for three types of 
violations of traffic and motor vehicle laws based on reports wliich 
were apparently correctly prepared in that respect. The nature of 
the violations included in each class is the same as indicated in the 
comment preceding table 14-A. 

Table 15-A. — Persons released without being held for prosecution, 1935; number 
and rates per 100,000, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Ofiense charged 



Road and driving laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 

Parking violations: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000- 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws: 

Number of persons released 

Rate per 100,000 



Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


Group 


I 


II 


III 


IV 


v 


VI 


o-a 


-*_» Oj o 


2i 


2« 


2h 


S 03 




000 

opul 

)6,00 


000 
opul 

,868 


000 

opul 

,400 


000 

opul 
,157 


und 
opul 
,542 


ove 
popu 
600 


s 100 

00; p 

2,0( 


3S 60, 
00; p 
1,817 


;s 25, 
0; p 

1,390 


I— I g 


So-' 


ities 
00; 

,728 


citie 
50,0 
ion, 


citi 
00,0 
ion. 


citi( 
0,00 
ion. 


cit 
5,00 
ion, 


ci 
0,00 
ion, 


oooq 


CM « 


1— < -M 


kO +j 


OCJ 4J 








t- 








t^ 


•"I 




■<J* 




IM 


14,728 


12, 115 


2,070 


5,940 


3,128 


3,245 


539.8 


586.4 


113.9 


427.2 


153.8 


232.0 


71, 328 


92, 866 


20, 015 


12, 382 


19, 940 


14, 280 


2, 614. 1 


4,495.0 


1, 101. 


890.5 


980.3 


1, 021. 1 


1,024 


1,143 


2,257 


1.988 


2,747 


4,052 


37.5 


55.3 


124.2 


143.0 


135.0 


289.7 



a 
o 
a,. 



CO ^ 



o a 

.r, Q 



03 

'3 



o 



41, 226 
360.5 

230,811 
2, 018. 4 

13,211 
115.5 



Percentage of Offenses Cleared by Arrest, 1933-35. 

In the presentation of data based on annual poHce reports sub- 
mitted to the F B I it has been felt desirable for comparative pur- 
poses to indicate the percentage of clearances durmg last year as 
compared with those for prior years. Accordingly, there is presented 
in table 16 the percentage of offenses cleared during the last 3 years. 
The tabulation is based on reports received from police departments 
of 35 cities, each having a population of more than 100,000. The data 
presented include all offenses cleared during the year for which the 
reports were submitted regardless of when the offenses were committed. 

An examination of the compilation shows that during 1935, as 
compared with 1934, there occurred an increase in the percentage of 
clearances for all offenses indicated except manslaughter by negligence, 
rape, and aggravated assault. It is significant to note that the per- 
centages for 1934 for all offenses are higher than in 1933. The lowest 
percentage of clearances for murder (77.3) occurred in 1933 with a 
steady increase for each of the following years, the percentage in 
1935 being 82.3. For offenses against property the percentage of 
clearances shows a steady increase from 1933 to 1935. Most signifi- 
cant of these changes is the increase in robbery from 29.3 percent in 
1933 to 47.8 percent in 1935. 



31 



Table 16. — Percentage of offenses cleared hy arrest, 1933-35 
[35 cities over 1(K),000, total population 13,970,105, as estimated July 1, 1033, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Year 



1933. 
1934. 
1935. 



Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter hy 
negli- 
gence 


77.3 
79.2 
82.3 


70.4 
76.7 
67.9 


73.9 
75.8 
68.0 


29.3 
35. 8 
47.8 


54.4 
5'J. 4 
58.2 


22.1 
29.3 
33.5 


1 21.8 
' 25.5 
125.9 



Auto 
theft 



2 12.6 
2 13.7 
2 15. 8 



' The data for larceny— theft arc based on reports of 34 citias with a total population of 13,556,905. 
' The data for auto theft are biised on reports of 33 cities with a total population of 9,887,405. 

DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

The fingerprint files of the FBI contain a large amount of valuable 
information concerning the personal characteristics and history of 
the individuals represented. During the first quarter of 1936, 
106,594 arrest records, as evidenced by fingerprint cards, were ex- 
amined for the purpose of obtaining data relative to the age, sex, race, 
and previous criminal history of the persons concerned. This 
tabulation was hmited to records reflecting arrests for violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances. In other words, records 
representing arrests for Federal violations and those representing 
commitments to any type of penal institution were excluded from this 
compilation. 

The tabulation of data from fingerprint cards obviously does not 
include all persons arrested, since there are individuals taken into 
custody for whom no fingerprint cards are forwarded to Wasliington. 
Furthermore, data pertaining to persons arrested should not be treated 
as information regarding the number of offenses committed, since 
two or more persons may be involved in the joint commission of a 
single oft'ense, and on the other hand one person may be arrested 
and charged -v^-ith the commission of several separate off'enses. 

During the first quarter of 1936 there were 1,434 persons arrested 
and charged with criminal homicide. In addition, the following 
serious offenses were among those charged: Robbery, 3,621; assault, 
6,053; burglary, 8,184; larceny (and related offenses), 20,831 ; forgery 
and counterfeiting, 1,634; rape, 1,035; violation of narcotic drug laws, 
980; unlawful possession of deadly weapons, 1,439; driving while 
intoxicated, 3,720; gambling, 1,611. 

Females were represented by 7,783 (7.3 percent) of the arrest 
records examined. Among the charges placed against females were: 
Larceny, 1,165; prostitution and commercialized vice, 781; drunken- 
ness, 675; vagrancy, 642; assault, 530; disorderly conduct, 438; 
violation of liquor laws, 376. In addition, 124 females were charged 
with criminal homicide and 146 with robbery. 



32 



Table 17. — Distribution of arrests by sex, Jan. 1-Mar. 31, 1936 



Oflense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud _ _ _ 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Number 



Total Male Female 



1,434 
3,621 
6,053 
8,184 

14, 131 

2, 486 

3,342 

872 

1,634 

1,035 

1,181 

1,278 

980 

1,439 

1,260 

2,687 

3,720 

572 

2 

1,027 

3,831 

12, 955 
9,617 
1,611 

14, 181 
1,361 
6,100 



106, 594 



1,310 
3,475 
5,523 
8,041 
12, 966 
2,438 
3,170 

784 
1,520 
1,035 

400 
1,056 

802 
1, 384 
1,222 
2,311 
3,627 

567 

2 

1,010 

3,393 

12, 280 

8,975 

1,516 

13,040 

1,248 

5,716 



98,811 



124 
146 
530 
143 
1,165 

48 
172 

88 
114 



781 

222 

178 

55 

38 

376 

93 

5 



17 
438 
675 
642 
95 
1,141 
113 
384 



7,783 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



1.3 
3.4 
5.7 
7.7 
13.3 
2.3 
3.1 

.8 
1.5 
1.0 
1.1 
1.2 

.9 



1.4 
1.2 
2.5 
3.5 
.5 

0) 
1.0 
3.6 

12.2 
9.0 
1.5 

13.3 
1.3 
5.7 



100.0 



1.3 
3.5 
5.6 
8.1 

13.1 

2.5 

3.2 

.8 

1.5 

1.1 

.4 

1.1 

.8 

1.4 

1.2 

2.4 

3.1 

.6 

(') 
1.0 
3.4 

12.4 
9.1 
1.5 

13.2 
1.3 
5.8 



100.0 



1.6 
1.9 

6.8 
1.8 
15.0 
.6 
2.2 
1.1 
1.5 



10.0 

2.9 

2.3 

.7 

.5 

4.8 

1.2 

.1 



.2 
5.6 
8.7 
8.2 
1.2 
14.7 
1.5 
4.9 



100.0 



1 Less than Yio of 1 percent. 

Examination of the ages of the persons arrested reveals a rapid 
increase from age 15 to age 19, the figures being as follows: 

Number 
Age: arrested 

15 619 

16 1,813 

17 2,850 

18 4,204 

19 4,552 

For ages from 20 to 24, the number arrested for a single age group 
varies from 4,100 to 5,028. The age groups in which arrests occurred 
most frequently were as follows: 

Number 
Aee: arrested 

22 5,028 

21 4,921 

23 4,781 

19 4,552 

It will be observed that there were more arrests for age 22 than for 
any other single age group. This is contrary to the figures for 1932- 
35, during which period 19-year-olds outnumbered those of other 



33 



ages. It may be of some significance, however, that the shift in tlic 
frequency of arrests to ages 21-23 was evidenced in the figures for the 
hist half'of 1935. 

The compihition disclosed that 18,757 (17.6 percent) of the persons 
arrested were less than 21 years old; 19,091 (17.9 percent) were be- 
tween the ages of 21 and 24; making a total of 37,848 (35.5 percent) 



NUMBER OF PERSONS ARRESTED 
AGES 16 TO 24 

DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT CARDS 
' JANUARY 1 — MARCH 31, 1936 




1,813 

2,850 

4,204 

4,552 

4,100 

4,921 

5,028 

4.781 

4,361 



Figure 4. 

less than 25 years old. In addition, there were 18,816 (17.7 percent) 
arrests of persons between the ages of 25 and 29. This makes a total 
of 56,664 (53.2 percent) less than 30 years of age. (With reference to 
the ages of persons represented by fingerprint cards received in the 
F B I, it should be observed that the number of arrest records is 
doubtless incomplete in the low^r age groups because in some juris- 
dictions the practice is not to fingerprint youthful individuals). 
Data for ages 16 to 24 are shown in figure 4. 



34 






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35 

Youthful individuals were most frequently charged with the follow- 
inc: offenses against ])roporty: llohbery, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft. Whereas persons under 25 years of ago constituted 35.5 per- 
cent of the total arrested, they numbered 44.6 percent of those 
charged with larceny, 56.3 percent of those charged with robbery, 
58.7 percent of those charged with burglary, and 70.7 percent of 
those charged with auto theft. 



Table 19.^ — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 

Jan. 1-Mar. 31, 1936 



Offense chargred 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud. 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

other sex offenses 

Narcot ic drug laws - --- 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.*. .-- 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations. 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling - 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total 


Number 
under 


Total 


Percent- 


number 


number 


age 


of 


under 


under 


persons 


21 years 
of age 


25 years 


21 years 


arrested 


of age 


of age 


1,434 


143 


386 


10. 


3,021 


1,018 


2,039 


2S. 1 


6,053 


650 


1,657 


10.7 


8,184 


3,095 


4, 806 


37.8 


14, 131 


3, 736 


6, 308 


26.4 


2,486 


1,187 


1,757 


47.7 


3,342 


196 


667 


5.9 


872 


145 


273 


16.6 


1,634 


261 


547 


16.0 


1,035 


262 


498 


25.3 


1,181 


89 


420 


7.5 


1,278 


196 


435 


15.3 


980 


48 


170 


4.9 


1,439 


243 


529 


16.9 


1,260 


56 


213 


4.4 


2,687 


183 


509 


6.8 


3.720 


153 


627 


4.1 


572 


85 


245 


14.9 


o 


1 


2 


50.0 


1,027 


174 


439 


16.9 


3,831 


550 


1, 262 


14.4 


12, 955 


683 


2,134 


5.3 


9,617 


1,319 


3,290 


13. 7 


1,611 


111 


332 


6.9 


14, 181 


2,548 


5,341 


18.0 


1,361 


208 


450 


15.3 


6,100 


. 1,417 


2,512 


23.2 


106, 594 


18, 757 


37, 848 


17.6 



Total per- 
centage 
under 
25 years 
of age 



26.9 
56.3 
27.4 
58.7 
44.6 
70.7 
20.0 
31.3 
33.5 
48.1 
35.6 
34.0 
17.3 
36.8 
16.9 
18.9 
16.9 
42.8 
lOO.O 
42.7 
32.9 
16.5 
34.2 
20.6 
37.7 
33.1 
41.2 



35.5 



More than 40 percent (42,991) of the persons arrested already had 
fingerprint cards on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. 
In addition, there were 2,153 records bearing notations indicating 
previous criminal histories of the persons concerned although the 
fingerprints had not previously been filed in the Bureau. This makes 
a total of 45,144 records containing information regarding the prior 
criminal activities of the persons arrested. The records disclosed 
that 32,304 (71.6 percent) of them had previously been convicted of 
one or more offenses. Tliis number constitutes 30.3 percent of the 
total of 106,594 arrest records examined. 



36 

Many of the persons have been previously convicted of major 
violations, as indicated by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 299 

Robbery 1,544 

Assault 1, 702 

Burglary 4, 150 

Larceny (and related offenses) 8, 595 

Forgery and counterfeiting 1, 105 

Rape 207 

Narcotic drug laws 691 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 450 

Driving while intoxicated 482 

Total 19,225 

It is of interest to note that 132 of the persons whose records showed 
convictions for criminal homicide were charged during the first 
quarter with the following violations: 

Criminal homicide 10 

Robbery 11 

Assault 34 

Burglary 14 

Larceny (and related oft'enses) 45 

Forgery and counterfeiting : 3 

Rape 2 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 11 

Driving while intoxicated 2 

Total '- 132 

As heretofore indicated, the records showed that 32,304 of the 
persons arrested had been previously convicted. The records of those 
persons showed a total of 89,780 prior convictions, an average of 
almost 3 per individual; 42,240 of the convictions were for major 
violations, and 47,540 for less serious infractions of the criminal laws. 

Table 20. — Number with previous fingerprint records, arrests, Jan. 1-Mar. 31, 1936 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Bm'glary— breaking or entering. 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, re- 
ceiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercial- 
ized vice 

other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, 
etc- 





Previous 


Total 


finger- 
print 




record 


1,434 


350 


3,621 


1.784 


6,053 


2, 065 


8,184 


3,305 


14, 131 


5,554 


2,486 


930 


3,342 


1,470 


872 


267 


1,634 


750 


1,035 


258 


1,181 


448 


1,278 


335 


980 


658 


1,439 


482 



OfTense charged 



Offenses against family and 

children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

other traffic and motor vehicle 

laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total 



1,260 

2,687 

3,720 

572 

2 

1,027 
3,831 

12, 955 
9,617 
1,611 

14, 181 
1,301 
6,100 



100, 594 



Previous 
finger- 
print 
record 



349 
828 
820 
165 



314 
1,514 
5,866 
5,258 

424 
5,920 

563 
2,314 



42, 991 



37 

Tahlh 21. — Percentage with -previous fingerprint recorth arrests, Jan. 1-Mar. SI, 

19,36 



Offense 



Narcotic drug laws. 

Vagrancy 

Robbery 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Drunlienness 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Suspicion 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Disorderly conduct 

Larceny— theft 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

All other olTenses 

Auto theft 

Assault 



Percent 


07. 1 


54.7 


4i).3 


45.9 


45.3 


44.0 


41.7 


40.4 


39.5 


39.3 


37.9 


37.9 


37.4 


34.1 



Offense 



Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Liquor laws.. 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos 

sessins 

Other trallic and motor vehicie laws 

Road and driving laws 

OlTonses against family and children 

Gambling 

Other sex offenses 

Rape 

Criminal homicide--. 

Driving while intoxicated 

Parking violations ' 



Percent 



33. 5 
30. H 

30. C 
30.6 
28.8 
27.7 
26.3 
26.2 
24.9 
24.4 
22.0 




1 Only 2 fingerprint cards were received representing arrests for violation of parking regulations. 



38 






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40 

Table 23. — Number of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, Jan. 1-Mar. 
31, 1936 



Oflense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault - 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. 
Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape- 



Prostitution and commercialized vice- 
Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc — 
Offenses against family and children- 
Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws-- 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Total. 



Number of 
records 

showing 1 
or more 

prior con- 
victions 



250 

1,289 

1,539 

2,621 

4,313 

662 

978 

205 

563 

191 

299 

232 

534 

375 

215 

549 

687 

117 



236 
1,124 
4,840 
3,879 

269 
4,153 

423 
1.861 



32,304 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
major 
offenses 



284 

1,944 

1,787 

4,300 

8,039 

941 

1,604 

286 

1,013 

213 

394 

300 

1,508 

614 

209 

400 

331 

80 



223 
1,087 
3,550 
4,349 

267 
5,658 

621 
2,338 



42,240 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
minor 
oflenses 



244 

1,124 

1,625 

2,268 

5,914 

461 

902 

294 

381 

173 

306 

327 

610 

329 

189 

669 

779 

111 



258 

2.020 

13, 067 

7,341 

219 
5,016 

432 
2,481 



47, 540 



Total num- 
ber of prior 
convictions 
disclosed 



528 
3,068 
3,412 
6, 568 
13, 953 
1.402 
2,50J 

580 
1,394 

386 

700 

627 
2,118 

843 

398 
1, 069 
1,110 

191 


481 

3,107 

16, 617 

11,690 

486 

10, 674 

1,053 

4,819 



89, 780 



Whites were represented by 78,093 of the records examined and 
Negroes by 23,745. The remaining races were represented as follows: 
Indian, 536; Chinese, 271 ; Japanese, 48; Mexican, 3,196; all other 705. 

The significance of the figures showing the number of Negroes 
arrested as compared with the number of whites can best be indicated 
in terms of the number of each in the general population of the 
country. Exclusive of those under 15 years of age, there were, 
according to the 1930 decennial census, 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 
foreign-born whites, and 64,365,193 native whites in the United 
States. Of each 100,000 Negroes, 295 were arrested and finger- 
printed during the first quarter of 1936, whereas the corresponding 
figure for native whites was 103, and for foreign-born whites 48. 
Figures for individual types of violations may be found in the follow- 
ing tabulation. It should be observed in connection with the fore- 
going data that the figure for native whites includes the immediate 
descendants of foreign-born individuals. Persons desiring to make 
a thorough study of the comparative amounts of crime committed 
by native whites and foreign-born whites should employ available 
compilations showing the number of instances in which offenders 
arc of foreign or mixed parentage. 



41 

Table 24. — Distribution of arrests according to race, Jan. 1-Mar. 31, 1936 



OSense charged 



Crimiriiil homicide --. 

Kohhery --- 

.\ssiuilt 

Hurjrlary — lireaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

.\uto theft --- 

Einbezzlcn'.ent and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess' 

ing --- - -- 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape.-- 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other se.K olTenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessine, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Roads and driving laws - 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws ... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy - 

Gambling 

Suspicion... 

Not stated 

.\11 other offenses 

Total 



Race 



White 



871 

2, .12() 

3, 376 
6, 9«i4 
9,541 
2, 109 
2,928 

610 
1,463 

753 

<K)6 
1,048 

588 

809 
1,050 
1,580 
3,226 

410 
1 

758 

2,702 

10, 585 

7,625 

832 

10, 110 

1,051 

4,671 



78, 093 



Negro 



503 

947 

2, 368 

1,948 

4,013 

294 

329 

238 
139 
211 
252 
205 
94 
551 
170 

1,077 
207 
127 
1 
214 
940 

1,672 

1,483 
691 

3,631 
244 

1,196 



23, 745 



In- 
dian 



8 
12 

40 
33 

50 
12 
12 

1 
7 
5 
3 
4 
4 
1 
6 
6 
38 
2 



5 
19 

128 
48 

1 
54 

9 
28 



536 



Chi- 
nese 



10 
3 
4 
1 
1 

1 
2 
2 
1 



180 
6 
1 



42 
6 



271 



Japa- 
nese 



10 



48 



Me.v 
ican 



42 

91 

188 

204 

4.59 

63 

58 

17 
17 
48 
12 
14 
84 
40 
29 
22 
224 
25 



42 
139 
533 
343 

13 
302 

49 
138 



3,196 



All 
others 



7 
45 
67 
32 
59 

7 
13 

4 

6 

15 

7 



30 
4 
2 

15 
8 



5 
30 
29 
107 
31 
77 

8 
63 



705 



Total 

all 
races 



1,434 
3, 621 
6, 053 
8, 184 
14, 131 
2, 486 
3,342 

872 
1,634 
1,035 
1, 181 
1,278 

980 
1,439 
1,260 
2,687 
3,720 

572 

2 

1.027 

.3,831 

12,955 

9,617 

1,611 

14, 181 

1,361 

6,100 



106. 594 



Table 25. — Number of arrests of Negroes and whites in proportion to the number of 
each in the general population of the country, Jan. 1-Mar. 31, 1936 



[Rate per 100,000 of population, excluding those under 15 years 


of age] 




Offense charged 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born white 


Negro 


Criminal homicide 


1.1 
3.4 
4.0 
8.4 
13.3 
3.0 
3.8 

.7 
2.0 
1.0 
1.3 
1.2 

.8 
1.0 
1.3 
1.9 
4.1 

.6 

1.0 
3.7 

14.4 
9.5 
1.0 

13.3 
1.4 
6.2 


0.9 

1.0 

4.9 

1.9 

4.6 

.3 

1.8 

1.0 

.8 

.6 

.6 

1.2 

.3 

.9 

1.2 

2.4 

1.6 

.2 


6 3 


Robbery 


11.8 


Assault . - - - 


29 4 


Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 


24.2 

49.9 

3.7 


Embezzlement and fraud 


4 1 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape - - - 


3.0 
1.7 
2.6 


Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 


3.1 
2 5 


Narcotic drug laws 


1.2 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc : 


6.9 


Offenses against family and children 


2.1 


Liquor laws 


13.4 


Driving while intoxicated. 


2.6 


Road and driving laws 


1.6 


Parking violations 


{') 


Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 


.4 
2.1 
6.6 
3.4 

.9 
4.7 

.5 
3.3 


2.7 


Disorderly conduct ■. 


11.7 


Drunkenness 


20.8 


Vagrancy 


18.4 


Gambling 


8.6 


Suspicion 


45.2 


Not stated.. 


3.0 


A.ll of ber nfffinsA"! . 


14.9 






Total.. 


103.4 


48.1 


295.4 







» Less than Ko of 1 per 100,000. 



42 



Table 26. — Number of native whites, number of foreign-born whites, and number of 
Negroes arrested and fingerprinted by age groups, Jan. 1-Mar. 31, 1936 





Number arrested 


Number of arrests per 100,000 
of the general population of 
the United States 


Age 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born 
white 


Negro 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born 
white 


Negro 


15 


412 
1,239 
1,936 
2,822 
3,130 
2,743 
3,192 
3,200 
3,061 
2,728 
11,740 
8,961 
7,775 
5,004 
3,372 
5,007 


2 

21 

39 

42 

51 

50 

66 

80 

93 

94 

538 

646 

927 

1,030 

978 

1,622 


164 

462 

724 

988 

1,000 

934 

1,096 

1,186 

1,158 

1,134 

4,740 

3,272 

2,893 

1,558 

1,002 

1,153 


20.8 

61.3 

99.3 

143.4 

167.5 

151.1 

174.3 

179.6 

178.9 

163.9 

155.4 

130.6 

118.7 

90.9 

70.9 

34.6 


5.2 
41.1 
59.8 
52.4 
56.8 
46.8 
56.6 
62.0 
64.5 
56.8 
52.7 
51,8 
56.8 
60.8 
62.5 
33.0 


68.2 


16 


179.3 


17 


295.5 


18 


367. 1 


19 


419.7 


20 


361.2 


21 


480. 1 


22 


475.6 


23 


493.8 


24 


487.8 


25-29 


442.3 


30-34 


378.5 


35-39 


324.7 


40-44 . 


226.6 


45-49 


159.0 


OverSO 


80.7 






Total 


66, 322 


6,279 


23, 464 


103.0 


48.0 


291.8 







Table 27. — Percentage distribution of arrests, by age, Jan. 1-Mar. 31, 1936 





Number arrested 


Percent 


Age 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born 
white 


Negro 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born 
white 


Negro 


15 and under 21 .. . 


12, 282 
12, 181 
11,740 
8,961 
7,775 
5,004 
3,372 
5,007 


205 
333 
538 
646 
927 

1,030 
978 

1,622 


4,272 
4,574 
4,740 
3,272 
2,893 
1,558 
1,002 
1,153 


18.5 

18.4 

17.7 

13.5 

11.7 

7.5 

5.1 

7.6 


3.3 
5.3 

8.6 
10.3 
14.7 
16.4 
15.6 
25.8 


18.2 


21-24 

25-29.. 

30-34 

35-39 

40-44 

45-49 

50 and over 


19.5 

20.2 

14.0 

12.3 

6.6 

4.3 

4.9 






Total 


66, 322 


6,279 


23,464 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 



At the end of March 1936 there were 5,800,815 fingerprint records 
and 6,928,321 index cards containing the names and ahases of indi- 
viduals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of each 
100 fingerprint cards received during the first 3 months of 1936, more 
than 54 were identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugitives 
numbering 1,460 were identified through fingerprint records during the 
same period, and the interested law-enforcement officials were imme- 
diately notified of the whereabouts of those fugitives. 

As of March 31, 1936, there were 9,624 police departments, peace 
officers, and law-enforcement agencies throughout the United States 
and foreign countries voluntarily contributing fingerprints to the 
FBI. 

O 



9? T :? 



A 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume VII — Number 2 
SECOND QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1936 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1936 



ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM CRIME RECORDS 

OF THE ! 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE 

(II) 



■'. cUFtR!NTFW')ENT OF DOCU?/! 

AUG , 1936 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
U. S. Department of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume 7 July 1936 Number 2 



CONTENTS 

Classification of offenses. 
Extent of reporting; area. 
Monthly retnrns : 

Offenses known to the police — cities tlivided according; to pojiulation (tal)le 
28). 

Daily averajie, offenses known to the police, 1936 (table 12!)). 

Daily average, offenses known to the police, 1931-36 (table 30). 

Offenses known to the polict — cities divided according to location (tables 31, 
32). 

Data for individual cities (table 33). 

Offenses known to slieriffs and State police (table 34). 

Offenses known in the possessions (table 35). 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 36-36B). 

Numl)er of police department employees, 1935 (tables 37, 3S). 

Relation between number of police employees and crime i-ates, 1935 (table 
39). 

Daily average, offenses known to the police — cities divided according to 
population 1933-35 (table 40). 
Annual returns : 

Offenses known, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons cliarged — cities 
divided according to location, 1935 (table 41). 
Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1936 : 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 42). 

Age distribution of pei*sons arrested (tables 43, 44). 

Number and percentage with previous fingerprint records (tables 45, 46). 

Number with records showing previous convictions (tables 47, 48). 

Race distribution of persons arrested (tables 49-52). 

Classification of Offenses. 

The term "offenses known to the pohce" is designed to inchide 
those crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform chissification 
occurring within the pohce jurisdiction, whether they become known 
to the pohce through reports of pohce officers, of citizens, of prose- 
cuting or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the fol- 
lowing group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience 
to be tliose most generally and completely reported to the police: 
Criminal homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent tnanslaughter, 
and (6) manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated as- 
sault; burglary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. 
The figures contained herein include also the number of attempted 
crimes of the designated classes. Attempted nuirders, however, are 
reported as aggravated assaults. In other words, an attempted bur- 
glary or robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same 
manner as if the crime had been completed. 

"Offenses known to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the pohce depart- 

(43) 



44 

ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless are 
not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in 
each group, there follows a brief definition of each classification. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter Includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 
deaths. (6) Manslaughter by negligence includes only those cases in which 
death is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the 
person responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for 
manslaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery .^Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person 
by force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, 
robbery armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault wnth intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisosing, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary foUov/ed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft {except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. 
(6) Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depend- 
ing upon the value of the property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shop- 
lifting, or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, 
passing worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or un- 
authorized use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

In publisliing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information, which may throw some light on problems of 
crime and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

Extent of Reporting Area. 

In the table wliich follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from wliich one or more crime reports have been re- 
ceived during the first 6 months of 1936. Information is presented for 
the cities divided according to size. The population figm-es employed 
are estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for cities 
with population in excess of 10,000. No estimates were available, 
however, for those with a smaller number of inhabitants and, accord- 
ingly, for them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census were used. 

The growth in the crime-reporting area is evidenced by the follow- 
ing figures for the first 6 months of 1932-36: 



Year 



1932 
1933 
1934 



Cities 



1.536 
1,606 
1,645 



Population 



52, 692, 749 
54, 208, 740 
62, 319, 945 



Year 



1935- 
1936_ 



Cities 



1,949 
2,189 



Population 



63, 270, 583 

64, 648, 798 



45 

The foregoing ooniparisoii shows that (hiring the (irst hall' of 1930 
there was an increase of 240 cities as coni])are(l with the coj-responding 
period of 1935, the popuhition represented for those cities being 
1,378,215. 

In addition to the 2,189 city and village police departments which 
submitted crime reports during 1936, one or more reports were re- 
ceived during that period from 925 sheriffs and State police organi- 
zations and from 7 agencies in possessions of the United States. 
This makes a grand total of 3,121 agencies contributing crime reports 
during 1936. 



Population group 



Total 

1. Cities over 250,000 

2. Cities 100,000 to 250,000 

3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000. 

4. Cities 25.000 to 50,000.. 

5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000.. 



Total 
iniiiiber 
of cities 
or towns 



983 



37 

57 
104 
191 
594 



Cities filing returns 



Number Percent 



874 



37 

57 

96 

172 

512 



88.9 



100.0 

100.0 

92.3 

90.1 

86.2 



Total pop- 
ulation 



60,281,688 



29, 695, 500 
7,850,312 
6, 980, 407 
6, 638, 544 
9, 116,925 



Population repre- 
sented in returns 



Number Percent 



57, 926, 429 



29, 695, 500 
7, 850, 312 
6, 454, 270 
6. 004, 977 
7, 921, 370 



96.1 



100.0 

100.0 

92.5 

90.5 

86.9 



Note. — The above table does not include 1,315 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 6,722,369. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 



46 
MONTHLY RETURNS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

In table 28 there are presented data showing the number of of- 
fenses reported during the first 6 months of 1936 by the poUce depart- 
ments of 1,637 cities having an aggregate population of 58,878,771. 
The information included in table 28 has been prepared to indicate 
the number of offenses loiown per 100,000 inhabitants for the cities 
divided into six groups according to size. The information has been 
presented in this manner in order that police administrators and 
interested individuals in a particular community can make a com- 
parison between its figures and the average figures for cities of ap- 
proximately the same number of inhabitants. 

An examination of the compilation discloses that in general crime 
rates are higher in those cities having the larger number of inliabi- 
tants. The figures show that offenses of larceny predominate, there 
being 177,516 such cases reported during the first 6 months of 1936, 
constituting more than one-half of all major offenses reported. More 
than 94 percent of the reported crimes were offenses against property 
(larceny, burglary, auto theft, and robbery), wdiereas offenses against 
the person constituted 5 2 percent of the crimes reported. A per- 
centage distribution of the offenses included in table 28 is shown 
herewith: 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary. _ _ 
Auto theft _ 



Rate per 
100,000 


Percent 


589.0 


100.0 


301.5 

137.1 

92.4 


51.2 
23.3 
15.7 



Offense 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Rape 

Murder 

M anslaughter 



Rate per 
100,000 



27.3 

22.0 

3.7 

2.8 

2.2 



Percent 



4.6 

3.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 



OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 

JANUARY TO JUNE, INCLUSIVE. 1936 

BASED ON REPORTS OF 1.637 CITIES POPULATION 58,679,771 

OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON 

NUMBER OF OFFENSES 
1.500 3,000 4.500 6,000 7.500 9.000 10.500 12.000 13,500 



MANSLAUGHTER BY NEGLIGENCE i,282 



Ml 1 D riir □ /including NONNEGLIGENT^ 
'-'2'^" I,. MANSLAUGHTER J 



RAPE 




Figure 5. 



47 

Most of the cities \vitli more tlian 100,000 inhabitants ma(h> a 
distinction in their rej)()its l)et\vcen tlie nunih(>i- of hii'cenies in whicli 
tlie vahie of property stt)U'n was nu)re than $50 and the cases in 
which the propeity was vahied at less than $50. A separate com- 
pilation of the information yields the following figures: 



Population group 



:il cities over 250,000: total population, 19,950,100: 

Kuniber of ollenses known 

KiUe per 100,000 , 

53 cities 1(K),000 to 250,000; total population, 7,371,812: 

Number of otTenses Ivnown 

Rate per 100.000 -._ 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and over 
in value 



9,082 
45. 5 

3, 465 
47.0 



Under $50 
in value 



53, 208 
316. S 

26, HOO 
363.5 



Of the 102,555 larcenies classified according to the value of the 
property stolen, 12,547 (12.2 percent) w^ere cases in which the value 
of property exceeded $50. 



OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 

JANUARY TO JUNE. INCLUSIVE, 1936 

BASED OIM REPORTS OP 1,6 37 CiTiES POPULATION 58,870,771 

OFFENSES AGAINST PRO'PERTY 




Figure C. 



48 

Table 28. — Offenses known to the 'police, January to June, inclusive, 1936; number 
and rates per 100,000, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



OROUP I 

35 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
lation, 28,963,000: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP II 

55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,602,712: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP III 

87 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 5,880,309: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP IV 

141 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total pop- 
ulation, 4,883,228: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP V 

436 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total pop- 
ulation, 6,756,637: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

GROUP VI 

883 cities under 10,000; total popula- 
tion, 4,792,885: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

Total 1,637 cities; total population, 
58,878,771: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



919 
3.2 



229 
3.0 



174 
3.0 



100 
2.0 



160 
2.4 



89 



1,671 
2.8 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1 866 
3.2 



138 
1.8 



96 
1.6 



57 
1.2 



86 
1.3 



39 

.8 



2 1, 282 
2.2 



Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


1, 326 
4.6 


10, 355 
35.8 


6,250 
21.6 


38, 362 
132.5 


251 
3.3 


2,010 

26.4 


2,378 
31.3 


14, 873 
195.6 


149 
2.5 


1,376 
23.4 


1, 677 
28.5 


8,887 
151.1 


141 
2.9 


760 
15.6 


872 
17.9 


6,942 
142 2 


188 
2.8 


997 
14.8 


1,238 
18.3 


7,304 
108.1 


136 
2.8 


550 
11.5 


511 
10.7 


4,353 
90.8 


2,191 
3.7 


16,048 
27.3 


12, 026 
22.0 


80,721 
137.1 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



79, 294 
273.8 



30. 739 
401.3 



22, 406 
381.0 



16, 943 
347.0 



19, 029 
281.6 



9, 105 
190.0 



177, 516 
301.5 



Auto 
theft 



29.331 
101.3 



9,254 
121.7 



5, 496 
93.5 



4,216 
86.3 



4,146 
61.4 



1,959 
40.9 



54, 402 
92.4 



1 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 33 cities with a 
total population of 27,234,800. 

2 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 1,635 cities with 
a total population of 57,150,571. 



49 

Daily Average, Offenses Known to the Police, 1936. 

In table 21) thoro aro pros(M\t(Ml data showinji; the daily average 
number of major oll'enses reported during the first G months of 1930 
to the police departments of 90 cities, each with over 100,000 inhabi- 
tants. The figures show a substantial decrease during the second 
quarter as compared with the first f[uarter of this year in the number 
of reported offenses of robbery and burglary, with a slight decrease 
in the number of larcenies. The number of olTenses reported for 
the remaining offense classes showed increases during the second 
fpiarter as compared with the first quarter of tliis year. 

Table 29. — Daily average, offenses known to the police, 90 cities over 100,000, 

January to June, inclusive, 1936 

[Total population, 36,56,5,712, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Month 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

January to March 

April to June 

January to June.. 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



6.0 
5.7 
6.6 
5.6 
6.1 
7.9 



6.1 
6.5 
6.3 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



5.0 
3.9 
5.9 
6.0 
6.4 
5.8 



5.0 
6.1 
5.5 



Rape 



6.9 

7.7 
8.2 
8.8 
9.4 
11. 1 



7.6 
9.7 

8.7 



Rob- 
bery 



82.7 
80.4 
71.4 
64.8 
55.0 
53.5 



78. I 
67.7 
67.9 



Aggra- 
vat«ii 

as- 
sault 



39.2 

41.7 
49.2 
43.8 
52.5 
57.9 



43.4 

51.4 
47.4 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



319.7 
297.9 
32(5.5 
301.2 
261. 1 
247.9 



315.0 
270. 
292.5 



Lar- 
ceny— 
theft 



617.3 
,577. 1 
628.7 
621.9 
593.4 
587.4 



608.3 
600. 8 
604.6 



Auto 
theft 



211.0 
196.4 
226.7 
230.6 
206.1 
200.5 



211.7 
212.3 
212.0 



1 Daily averages for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 88 cities with a total population 
of 34,837,512. 

Daily Average, Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-36, 

In order to make available data concerning the variation in the 
amount of crime from year to year, there are presented in table 30 
figures showing the number of major offenses reported during the 
first 6 months of each of the years 1931-36 to the pohce departments 
of 69 cities each with over 100,000 inhabitants. The combined popu- 
lation of those cities in 1930 was 18,714,176. The latest available 
figures (estimated as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census) 
indicate that the population of those cities has increased to 19,237,302. 
An examination of the figures discloses an uninterrupted decrease 
in the number of offenses of robbery and auto theft during the 
6-year period covered by the compilation. Kobberies decreased from 
10,832 in 1931 to 5,771 in 1936 and auto thefts from 46,586 in 1931 to 
23,062 in 1936. The number of burglaries and larcenies reported 
during the first 6 months of 1936 showed a decrease from the number 
reported during the same period of 1931, with irregular variations 
during intervening periods. A substantial increase is shown in the 
number of offenses of rape reported during 1936 as compared with 
1931, with a slight increase in the number of offenses of aggravated 
assaidt during 1936 as compared with 1931. 



85414°— 36- 



50 

It will be noted the compilation shows a substantial decrease in the 
number of homicides during 1935 and 1936 as compared with prior 
years. In connection with the decrease in the number of offenses of 
murder and nonnegligent manslaughter (willful felonious homicides), 
it is suggested that the decrease may be partially attributable to the 
fact that during 1935 it was ascertained that many police departments 
had been including as felonious homicides cases which were excusable 
in nature, such as the killing of a felon who was resisting arrest by a 
police officer. Such cases were subsequently excluded, together with 
instances of killing in self-defense by private individuals, in order 
that the published figures might represent felonious homicides. 

The cases listed under the heading of "manslaughter by negligence" 
consist largely of automobile fatalities, and it will be observed that 
the figures for 1935 and 1936 are considerably lower than for the 
4 preceding years. This is probably due largely to the fact that in 
1934 it was ascertained that quite a number of the police departments 
had listed as actual offenses of negligent manslaughter all cases of 
automobile fatalities. During 1934 considerable stress was placed 
upon the fact that deaths residting from automobile accidents should 
be carried under tliis classification only if the driver of the automobile 
was guilty of gross criminal negligence. The exclusion of many cases 
of deaths resulting from automobile accidents in which it was not 
thought that there was present a degree of negligence sufficient to 
warrant prosecution has undoubtedly played a large part in bringing 
about the reduced figures for 1935 and 1936. 

The information included in table 30 is also grapliically presented 
in figure 7. 

More comprehensive data concerning annual crime trends covering 
the years 1933-35 may be found in table 40 of this issue which shows 
the number of major oft'enses reported by the police departments of 
1,127 cities with division by population groups. 



Table 30. — Daily average, offenses known to the 'police, 69 cities over 100,000, 

January to June, inclusive, 1931-36 

[Total population 19,237,302, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Year 



Number of offenses known 

1931 

1932 

1933.... 

1934 

1935 

1936 

Daily average: 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934_.., 

1935 

1936 



Criminal homi- 
cide 


Rape 

680 
597 
662 
937 

787 
714 

3.2 
3.3 
3.7 
5.2 
4.3 
3.9 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


795 
767 
768 
721 
672 
608 

4.4 
4.2 
4.2 
4.0 
3.7 
3.3 


725 
651 
470 
608 
422 
383 

4.0 
3.0 
2.6 
3.4 
2,3 
2.1 


10, 832 
9,724 
9,150 
7,462 
7,328 
5,771 

59.8 
53.4 
50.6 
41.2 
40.5 
31. 7 


4,882 
4,344 
5, 131 
4,820 
4,823 
4,985 

27.0 
23,9 
28,3 
26.6 
26,6 
27,4 


35, 534 
38, 201 
37, 885 

36. 013 
36, 703 
30, 215 

196,3 
209,9 
209.3 
199.0 
202,8 
166.0 


76, 279 
75, 584 
80, 024 
79, 970 
83,056 
73, 861 

421.4 
415.3 
442.1 
441.8 
458.9 
405,8 



Auto 
theft 



46, 586 
38, 181 
34, 8.S9 
31, 735 
29, 541 
23,062 

257. 4 
209.8 
192.8 
175.3 
163.2 
126. 7 



51 



ANNUAL CRIME TRENDS 

OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 

FOR CITIES OF 100,000 POPULATION AND OVER 69 CITIES; POPULATION 19,237,302 

PERIOD COVERED - JANUARY I, TO JUNE 30, INCLUSIVE, 1931-1936 



500 
400 

300 
200 



UJ 

o 

<t 
a: 

UJ 

> 



> 
-I 



< 




LARCENY -THEFT 




BURGLARY- BREAKING OR ENTERING 




MURDER- NONNEGLIGENT MANSLAUGHTER 




I 

- 1931 - 



- 1932- 



- 1933 - 



-1934 - 



-1935 



- 1936- 



FlGURE 7, 



52 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

In table 31 there is presented information regarding the number 
of police departments whose reports were employed in the preparation 
of figures representing crime rates for the individual States, This 
information is included here in order to show the number of such 
contributors according to size of city, and it is believed it will be 
helpful in evaluating the crime data for individual States, since 
table 28 has indicated that there is a noticeable tendency for the 
large cities to report higher crime rates than the smaller communities. 
It should be further observed that in several instances the number of 
records entering into the construction of State rates is quite limited. 
In some cases the figures for individual States are based on reports 
from only four or five police departments. Obviously, the crime 
rates based on such a limited number of records may differ consider- 
ably from the figures which would result if reports were available 
from all urban communities in the State. 

In table 32 there are presented the crime rates for the individual 
States, together with figures for nine geographic divisions of the 
country. 



53 



Table 31. — A^utnber of cities in each Slate tjicliuled in the tabulation of uniform 
crime reports, January to June, inclusive, 1936 





Population 




Division and State 


Over 

250,000 


100,000 

to 
2,50,000 


50,000 
to 

lai.ooo 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total 


GEOGRArmc DIVISION 
















New England: 

lf>5 cities; total population, 5,528,905 

Middle Atlnntic: 

433 cities; total population, 18,096,663 

East North Central: 

406 cities; total population, 15,453,876 

\Ve«t North Central: 

187 cities; total population, 4,330,549 

South Atlantic: ' 

102 cities; total population, 4,197,924 

East South Central: 

40 cities; total population, 1,704,678.. 

West South Central: 

91 cities; total population, 3,080,683 

Mountain: 

67 cities; total population, 1,123,225 

Pacific: 

146 cities; total population, 5,362,268 


2 
6 
9 
3 
3 
3 
3 
1 
5 


12 
10 
10 
5 
6 
2 
5 
1 
4 


11 
21 
22 

7 

11 

3 

5 

1 

6 


22 
27 

46 
8 

13 
2 
6 
5 

12 


60 
120 

97 
48 
26 
15 
21 
14 
35 


58 

219 

222 

116 

43 

15 

51 

45 

84 


165 

433 

406 

187 

102 

40 

91 

67 

146 


New England: 

Maine _ - . . 






1 
1 


1 


6 

4 
2 
36 
4 
8 

42 
28 
50 

28 
13 
25 
19 
12 

11 
6 
6 
3 
4 
6 

12 


8 

6 
31 
3 
4 

87 

55 

107 

69 
20 
53 
59 

21 

48 

16 

16 

5 

3 

8 

20 

3 

1 
8 
9 
7 
2 
4 
9 

G 

4 
S 

5 

7 

23 

16 

7 
5 
3 

10 
2 
5 

10 
3 

5 

9 

70 


16 


New Hampshire 






n 


Vermont . 


"" " 




8 


Massachusetts. . . 


1 
1 


8 
.. 

4 
3 
3 

3 
4 
1 
2 

1 
1 


6 

2 

I 

5 

6 

10 

4 
2 

5 

8 
3 


11 
4 

6 

10 
10 

7 

14 

7 
11 

7 
7 


93 


Rhode Island 


14 


Connecticut . . . . 


23 


Middle Atlantic: 

New York 


3 

1 
2 

5 

1 
1 
1 
1 

o 


151 


New Jersey 


103 


Pennsylvania . 


179 


East North Central: 

Ohio 


123 


Indiana 


47 


Illinois . . . 


96 


Michigan 


96 


W isconsin 


44 


West North Central: 

Minnesota .. 


62 


Iowa 


3 
2 


3 
2 

1 
1 
_. 


29 


Missouri 


1 


27 


North Dakota 


9 


South Dakota 








8 


Nebraska . . 




1 
2 

1 


1 
1 


16 


Kansas 




36 


South Atlantic: 

Delaware 




4 


Maryland. 


1 




2 

4 
1 
1 
1 
1 
3 

1 


3 

5 
3 
8 

3' 

4 

4 
3 
2 
6 

2 
4 
6 
9 

2 
2 

2 
5 
1 

i" 

1 

8 

4 

23 


7 


Virginia 


3 


1 
3 
3 
2 
2 

1 


20 


West Virginia 




16 


North Carolina 






19 


South Carolina 






5 


Georgia 


1 


2' 


11 


Florida _ 


19 


East South Central: 

Kentucky.. . 


1 

■ 1 
1 


13 


Tennessee. 


10 


Alabama 


1 

1 

1 
1 

3 


1 

1 
2 
1 
2 

1 


10 


Mississippi 


7 


West South Central: 

Arkansas.. 






9 


LouL<^iana 


1 


3 


15 


Oklahoma.. 


32 


Texas 


2 


35 


Mountain: 

Montana... 


10 


Idaho 








7 


Wyoming 










5 


Colorado 


1 




1 


1 
1 
1 
1 


18 


New Mexico 


4 


Arizona 








6 


Utah 




1 




13 


Nevada 




4 


Pacific: 

Washington 


1 
1 
3 


2 




2 

1 
9 


18 


Oregon 


15 


California 


2 


6 


113 







> Includes District of Columbia. 



54 

Table 32. — Rate per 100,000, offenses known to the -police, January to June, inclusive, 

1936 



Division and State 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central 

West North Central 

South Atlantic i 

East South Central 

West South Central 

Mountain .-. 

Pacific 

New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio 

Indi<ma -- 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota.- 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Atlantic: 

Delaware. 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina... 

Georgia 

Florida 

East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

West South Central: 

Arkansas.. 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas. 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah.. 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



0.5 
2.0 
2.1 
2.1 
7.9 
10.9 
7.3 
3.7 
1.7 





1.5 
.6 
.2 
.5 

2.0 
1.6 

2.1 

2.6 
2.8 
2.4 
1.1 

.7 



.5 
4.1 
1.9 
2.0 
2.3 
2.5 

1.7 

3.4 

9.1 

5.2 

13.5 

7.2 

12.7 

10.1 

9.9 
12.8 
11.6 

4.4 

4.8 
8.3 
3.0 
8.6 

2.1 
2.7 
3.3 
4.3 


4.5 

2.8 

13.1 

2.2 
.4 

1.7 









Bur- 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


2.5 


6.9 


5. 1 


112.3 


4.2 


13.7 


16.9 


60.2 


3.6 


42.6 


15.7 


142.4 


2.2 


26.0 


9.0 


141.0 


4.0 


43.9 


79.3 


240. 1 


2.5 


52.2 


71.6 


244. 4 


3.1 


34.1 


44.6 


218.8 


4.4 


19.4 


9.6 


162.5 


5.3 


27.7 


13.8 


236. 3 


.8 


9.3 


5.3 


133.1 


3.1 


1.9 


7.5 


70.1 


7.4 


1.5 





26.6 


3.2 


7.7 


5.3 


111.9 





3.2 


4.8 


77.7 


1.3 


6.8 


4.8 


141.5 


4.7 


8.2 


15.2 


37.2 


3.2 


15.3 


25.0 


139.1 


3.5 


23.9 


16.6 


71.9 


2.7 


36.4 


17.7 


152.6 


3.4 


30. 1 


16.8 


157.1 


2.2 


71.4 


17.0 


180.4 


7.5 


28.4 


16.0 


102. 1 


2.7 


4.7 


3.4 


54.0 


2.1 


23.8 


5.3 


148.0 


1.9 


24.4 


3.9 


160.8 


3.0 


29.4 


17.0 


131.0 


1.9 


21.9 


4.8 


139.7 


4.0 


.7.9 


1.0 


81.4 


.7 


21.0 


5.6 


68. 9 


2.0 


31.2 


10.0 


192. 1 


.8 


8.4 


23.4 


108.9 


5.4 


33.1 


3.9 


132.0 


7.2 


34.9 


131.0 


201.9 


2.9 


23.8 


41.0 


158.2 


2.7 


33.6 


254.5 


226.7 





21.6 


58.3 


72.0 


3.9 


63.9 


64.1 


358.8 


1.4 


47.1 


100.4 


397.5 


1.9 


54.5 


75.2 


308.3 


3.3 


70.7 


93.9 


216.0 


1.8 


36.6 


45.0 


237.6 


2.9 


11.8 


44.8 


146. 2 


1.8 


44.7 


45.9 


227.0 


2.5 


23.9 


62,4 


131.4 


3.3 


41.8 


21.8 


215. 2 


3.5 


34.7 


45.2 


258.3 


3.2 


7.5 


9.6 


97.2 


4.1 


17.8 


8.2 


140.8 


6.6 


14.8 


4.9 


110.4 


4.9 


21.9 


7.1 


145.0 


3.9 


5.9 


15.7 


212.5 


6.0 


38.9 


23.9 


204.8 


3.3 


16.7 


10.2 


204.7 


2.6 


28.7 


15.7 


261.3 


.7 


20.8 


11.3 


320.3 


1.3 


47.5 


6.2 


285.6 


6.6 


26.9 


15.1 


214.2 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



206.2 
114.6 
314.9 
380.1 
540. 
393.4 
608.0 
454.0 
509.9 

192,1 
119.5 
56.1 
196.6 
206.5 
266.6 

94.6 
227.1 
105.9 

386.2 
364.6 
199.9 
403.4 
238.1 

219.2 
372.3 

548.4 
248.0 
290.7 
222.9 
525.6 

267.1 
217.4 
767.4 
356.0 
405.4 
740.5 
729.9 
732.2 

493.4 
266.4 
450.3 
388.0 

604.4 

255. 4 
559.5 
784.9 

004. 3 
390.9 
497.7 
401.2 
635. 4 
336.3 
474. 5 
642.8 

519. 3 
623.9 

405. 5 



Auto 
theft 



83.4 
59.4 
77.8 
101.3 
141.3 
113.9 
109. 9 
113.0 
188. 3 

114.5 
17.5 
17.7 
91.2 
28.6 
96.7 

51.7 
V7. 
66.9 

93.4 
116.5 
55.2 
89.5 
41.6 

121.3 
96.7 
84.7 
60.8 
157.8 
139.7 
68.5 

100.5 
112.3 
142.7 

78.5 
119.7 

30. 1 
174.2 
143.3 

123.2 

136.0 

87.3 

66.1 

83.3 
77.6 
61.8 

145.7 

70.5 

108.0 

84.0 

91.1 

74.8 

171.9 

156.7 

222.1 

146.3 
120.0 
204. 1 



Includes report of District of Columbia. 



55 

Data for Individual Cities. 

The miinher of offenses reported as having been committed (hiring 
the second tjiuirter of 193G is shown in table 33. Tiie compilation is 
limited to the reports received from police departments in cities with 
more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are presented here in 
order that interested individuals and organizations may have readily 
available up-to-date infornuxtion concerning the amount of crime 
committed in their communities. Police administrators and other 
interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the 
crime rates for their cities w'iiXx the average rates shown in table 28 of 
this publication. Similarly, they Avill doubtless desire to make com- 
parisons with the figures of their communities for prior periods in 
order to determine whether there has been an increase or decrease in 
the amount of crime committed. 

With reference to the possibility of comparing the amount of crime 
in one city with the amount of reported crime in other individual 
communities, it is suggested that such comparisons be made with a 
great deal of caution because differences in the figures may be due to 
a great variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a 
community is not chargeable to the police but is rather a charge 
against the entire community. The follo\ving is a list of some of the 
factors which might affect the amount of crime in a community: the 
composition of the population with reference particularly to age, sex, 
and race; the economic status and activities of the population; 
climate; educational, recreational, and religious facilities; the number 
of poHce employees per unit of population; the standards governing 
appointments to the police force; the policies of the prosecuting 
officials and the courts; the attitude of the public toward law-enforce- 
ment problems. Comparisons between the crime rates of individual 
cities should not be made without giving consideration to the above- 
mentioned factors. It should be noted that it is more important to 
determine whether the figures for a given community show increases 
or decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain 
whether the figures are above or below those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the 
data are compiled by different record departments operating under 
separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible 
that there may be variations in the practices employed in classifying 
complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime reporting 
manual has been distributed to all contributors of crime reports and 
the figures received are included in this bulletin only if they apparently 
have been compiled in accordance with the provisions of the manual, 
and the individual department has so indicated. 



56 

Table 33. — Number of offenses known to the 'police, April to June, inclusive, 1936 



City 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Buflalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N.J 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Hartford, Conn 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Kansas City, Kans 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N. J 

New Bedford, Mass.-. 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N.Y 

Norfolk, Va__,_ 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr.. 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R.I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif... 

Seranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Somerville, Mass 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



5 

1 

21 

22 

15 

3 

1 

4 



{') 



47 

14 

18 

3 

28 
9 

7 



10 



1 

20 

12 

9 

1 

5 



10 

12 

3 



13 

5 

3 

1 

10 

10 



1 

16 
96 
4 
4 
3 
7 



27 
13 



1 
1 

11 
1 

26 



Rape 



13 



10 

30 

1 

20 



(0 



14 
4 
3 
2 

46 
8 
8 
2 
8 
2 
6 



101 



2 
2 

8 

6 

12 



2 
2 
6 
2 
10 
3 
2 
3 



4 

86 

4 



2 
2 
6 

242 
1 
7 
3 



1 



32 

17 
1 



5 
9 
1 
15 
6 
4 
5 
3 
9 
3 



Rob- 
bery 



28 

6 

101 

115 

65 

43 

2 
39 

9 

15 

20 

17 

1,183 

119 

262 

126 

45 

24 

25 

39 

226 

11 

5 
15 

8 
10 

7 
30 
13 
15 
17 

1 

2 
58 
87 
35 
37 

6 

13 

176 

46 

2 

6 

110 

61 

6 
74 
59 
43 

Y 

33 

308 
22 
58 
47 
20 

5 

7 

124 

283 

92 

5 

8 
31 

5 
71 
58 
13 
74 

7 
89 

5 
46 

5 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



33 
10 
112 
4 
49 
36 



79 

2 

29 

21 

373 

89 

65 

50 

114 

23 

13 

1 

210 

1 

3 

7 

9 

10 



45 

5 

9 

32 

6 

16 

69 

63 

55 

14 

15 

12 

110 

125 

1 

2 

186 

228 

10 

25 

103 

99 

5 

3 

140 

657 

66 

29 

26 

15 

20 

6 

199 

32 

16 

13 

13 

199 

16 

111 

8 

11 

76 

10 

73 

11 

27 

2 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



240 

75 
692 
500 
416 
215 

89 
130 

63 
104 
146 
119 
3,236 
274 
512 
474 
363 

96 
196 
191 
752 

89 

98 

91 
122 

56 

88 
186 
114 
233 

64 
105 
146 
320 
414 
356 
170 

80 

223 

1,612 

585 

67 

90 
277 
199 
129 
459 
125 
267 

87 
196 
222 
747 
190 
316 
213 

41 
153 

96 
564 
364 
476 

88 

51 
315 
101 
436 
299 
193 
334 

45 
315 

92 
706 

45 



Larceny— theft 



$50 
and 
over 



59 

19 

157 

165 

88 

199 

33 

66 

15 

75 

0) 

17 

780 

140 

67 

125 

60 

19 

50 

9 

180 

16 

20 

14 

19 

9 

5 

48 

20 

19 

8 

13 

61 

101 

(') 

127 

(') 

48 

41 

570 

128 

6 

17 

13 

42 

54 

65 

158 

86 

17 

32 

78 

(') 

24 

42 

30 

8 

8 

4 

197 

178 

128 

32 

26 

97 

36 

(') 

72 

19 

158 

30 

(') 

9 

110 

10 



Under 
$50 



365 
178 
753 
647 
505 
553 
178 
531 
119 

85 

282 

261 

3,051 

913 

2,099 

821 

1,577 

614 

202 

414 

4, 299 

203 

134 

239 

80 
256 

81 
440 
307 
641 

87 
332 
304 
767 
959 
610 
192 
134 
348 
1,949 
708 

72 
216 
176 
158 
868 
228 
245 
820 
185 
253 
234 
1,830 
473 
702 
519 
104 

51 

46 
556 
236 
832 
228 
110 
950 
410 
2,632 
502 
319 
573 
153 
1,583 

86 
611 

67 



Auto 
theft 



69 

60 

281 

517 

HI 

695 

96 

193 

111 

64 

45 

129 

877 

221 

480 

232 

247 

120 

120 

116 

867 

44 

36 

46 

84 

62 

35 

135 

53 

55 

48 

57 

84 

276 

345 

98 

54 

98 

107 

1,673 

261 

37 

43 

66 

124 

122 

445 

142 

374 

42 

150 

178 

1,976 

102 

266 

50 

196 

60 

71 

596 

537 

168 

45 

53 

176 

100 

346 

132 

121 

208 

144 

806 

53 

299 

33 



' Larcenies not separately reported. 
* Not reported. 



Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



Table 33.- 



57 



-Number of offenses known to the police, April to June, inclusive, 
1936 — Continued 



City 



South Bend, Ind... 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass.. 

SjTacuse, N. V 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Tulsa, Okla.. 

riita.N. Y 

Washinpton, D. C. 
AVaterbury, Conn. . 

Wichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del_. 

Worcester, Mass 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio. 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 



17 
.... 



liaise 



1 

1 

13 

1 



10 
2 



14 
.... 



Rob- 
bery 



3 
1 

38 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



8 




14 


15 


3 


8 


/ 


9 


5 




3 


15 


68 


29 


29 


19 


1 


2 


190 


165 


3 




8 


1 



13 

3 

10 

42 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



65 
171 

90 

75 
130 
116 
304 
221 

42 
569 

37 
120 

59 
153 

27 
173 



Larceny— theft 



$50 
and 
over 



15 
44 
38 
25 

9 

45 

113 

51 

16 

225 

6 
18 
36 
55 

4 
19 



Under 
$50 



90 
450 
356 
196 
161 

89 

586 

434 

143 

1,350 

63 
406 
116 

62 

77 
272 



Auto 
theft 



61 
73 
66 
99 
64 
47 

232 
46 
17 

707 
71 
23 
52 

142 
77 

110 



Offenses Knoun to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1936. 
In compiling national crime data a distinction is made between 
crimes committed in urban communities and those in rural portions 
of the United States. The figures presented in the preceding tabula- 
tions in this publication represent crimes committed in urban com- 
munities (cities and villages with more than 2,500 inhabitants). 
Available data concerning crimes committed in rural portions of the 
United States are presented in table 34, which is based on reports 
received from 464 sheriffs, 90 pohce agencies in villages, and 4 State 
police organizations. For comparative purposes, there are presented 
below percentage distributions of rural and urban crimes: 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary. . . 
Auto theft. 



Percent 


Urban 


Rural 


100.0 


100.0 


51.2 
23.3 
15.7 


45.3 
29.9 
10.5 



Offense 



Robbery 

Assault 

Rape 

M urder 

Negligent manslaughter 



Percent 



Urban Rural 



4.6 

3.7 

0.6 

.5 

.4 



4.5 
5.4 
2.0 
1.3 
1. 1 



The above compilation discloses that 9.8 percent of the rural crimes 
were offenses against the person (homicide, rape, and aggravated 
assault), whereas only 5.2 percent of all crimes reported in urban areas 
were of those classifications. It will be noted that 51.2 percent of 
the urban crimes were larcenies, wdiereas only 45.3 percent of the 
rural crimes were larcenies. This may be due to the fact that some 
of the reports represeiiting rural crimes indicate the possibihty that 
they were limited to instances in which arrests w^ere made. Incom- 
pleteness of this sort in the reports of rural crimes will tend to increase 
the percentage of rural crimes against the person because such 
offenses are much more generally followed by arrests than are the 
less serious offenses against property. 

85414°— 36 3 



58 



Table 34. — Offenses known, January to June 1936, inclusive, as reported by J^6^. 
sheriffs, 4 State police organizations, and 90 village officers 





Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 

enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known,-. __. . 


332 


287 


523 


1,152 


1,377 


7,676 


11,601 


2,701 







Offenses Known in the Possessions of tlie United States. 

In table 35 there are shown available data concerning the number 
of offenses known to law-enforcement agencies in the possessions of 
the United States. The tabulation includes reports from Hawaii 
County, Honolulu (city and county), Territory of Hawaii; the Canal 
Zone ; and Puerto Rico. The figures are based on both urban and rural 
areas and the population figures from the 1930 decennial census are 
indicated in the table. 

With reference to the figures presented for the Canal Zone, it should 
be noted that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has been advised 
that less than one-third of the persons arrested for offenses committed 
in the Canal Zone are residents thereof. It appears, therefore, that 
a large proportion of the crime committed in the Canal Zone is attribu- 
table to transients and other nonresidents. 



Table 35. — Number of offenses known in United States possessions, January to 

June 1936 

[Population figures from Federal Census, Apr. 1, 1930] 





Criminal homi- 
cide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary- 
break - 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Larceny — 

theft 




Jurisdiction reporting 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Over 

$50 

1 
51 

6 
61 


Under 
$50 


Auto 
theft 


Hawaii: 

Hawaii County, popula- 
tion, 73,325; number of 
oflenses known..- . . 


3 
2 

2 

102 


12 

1 

63 


7 
5 

3 
34 


8 

3 

27 


3 
19 

4 
949 


9 
553 

39 
315 


64 
893 

110 
1,755 


3 


Honolulu, city and county, 
population, 202,923; num- 
ber of offenses known 

Isthmus of Panama: 

Canal Zone, population, 
39,367; number of offenses 
known . .- 


161 
18 


Puerto Rico: 

Population, 1,543,913; num- 
ber of oflenses known 


52 



59 



Data from Supplementary Offense Reports. 

Since Januiuy 1935 the Bureau has been distributing supplementary 
offense reports to cities witli over 100,000 inliabitants, wliich provide 
for Hstinc: more detailed information concerning the major offenses 
conmiittcd. In tables 36, 3()-A, and 36-3 there is presented informa- 
tion compiled from the supplementary offense reports submitted by 
39 cities having an aggregate population of 14,458,197. The period 
covered by the tables is from April to June,inclusive, of the current year. 

Examination of the figures in table 36 shows that of 2,572 robberies 
reported, 1,585 (61.6 percent) were conmaitted on city liighways and 
762 (29.6 percent) were robberies of commercial establishments. 
The 39 cities whose reports were em])loyed in table 36 reported 10,448 
burglaries. Slightly more than one-half of that number were bur- 
glaries of dwelling houses. 

With reference to the time of day the burglaries were perpetrated, 
it is sllow^l that more than 78 percent of the total reported were 
committed at night. However, it will be observed that 33.6 percent 
of the burglaries of residences occurred during the day, whereas only 
10 percent of such crimes committed in other places occurred in the 
daytime. 

Figures for larceny disclose that of a total of 22,091 cases there were 
5,532 in wliich the value of property stolen was less than $5. In 
2,776 of the cases the value of property stolen was in excess of $50. 
Furthermore, table 36 show^s with reference to the type of offense 
committed that 400 were cases of pocket-picking and 606 were 
instances of purse-snatching. 

Table 36. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, April to June, 
inclusive, 1936; 39 cities over 100,000 



[Total population, 14,458,197, as estimated July 1, I9:i:i, by the Bureau of the Census 




Classification 


Number 
of actual 
olfenses 


Classification 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Rape: 

Forcible 


153 
129 


Larceny— theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen): 
Over SSO 




Statutory . 






2 776 


Total 


282 


$5 to $50 


13 783 




Under $5 


5,532 


Robberv: 


1,585 
549 
167 
^6 
128 

97 


Total 


Highway 


22,091 


Commercial bouse 


Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of 
offense): 

Pocket -picking 


Oil station . j 




Chain store 




Residence 


400 


Bank 


Purse-snatching 


fiOfi 


M iscellaneous. 


All other 


21, 085 




Total 




Total.. 


2,572 


22,091 






Burglary — breaking or entering: 
Residence (liwelling): 

Committeil (luring night 


3,474 
1,754 

4,699 
521 




Committed during day _ 

All other (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night.- 

Committed during day 








Total 


10, 448 









60 

The figures presented in table 36-A show that the poHce depart- 
ments of the 39 cities submitting the supplementary offense reports 
during the second quarter of 1936 reported 6,357 automobiles stolen 
during that period, 6,023 being recovered. The percentage of recov- 
eries of stolen automobiles for the second quarter of 1936 is 94.7. 



Table 3Q- A.— Recoveries of stolen automobiles, April to June, inclusive, 1936; 39 

cities over 100,000 

[Total population, 14,458,197, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 6, 357 

Number of automobiles recovered 6, 023 

Percentage recovered 94. 7 

Table 36-B includes information regarding the value of property 
stolen and the value of property recovered during the period from 
April to June, inclusive, of the current year. The total value of 
property stolen was $3,616,545.59, and of that amount 62.1 percent 
($2,247,056.49) was recovered. The value of stolen automobiles con- 
stituted 54.1 percent of the total value of all property stolen, as 
reported for the 39 cities. Exclusive of automobiles, the value of 
property stolen was $1,658,459.94, whereas the value of property 
recovered was $408,546.24. 

Table 36-B. — Value cf property stolen and value of property recovered with divi- 
sions as to type of property involved, April to June, inclusive, 1936; 39 cities over 
100,000 

[Total population, 14,458,197 as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Miscellaneous 

Total. 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$429, 883. 55 

510, 166. 11 

39, 778. 28 

207, 177. % 

1, 958, 085. 65 

471, 454. (H 



3, 616, 545. 59 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



$61, 149. 48 

105, 341. 77 

6, 771. 28 

57, 985. 10 

1, 838, 510. 25 

177, 298. 61 



2, 247, 056. 49 



61 

Number of Police Department Employees, 1935. 

In tlie first and second (luartorly issues of tlio l)ulletin for last year, 
there were included tables sliovving tlie average number of police 
department employees, together with the number of such employees 
for each 1,000 inhabitants, based on reports from cities with a popu- 
lation in excess of 10,000 received by the FBI during 1934. A 
similar compilation based on reports forwarded to tlie FBI during 
1935 presenting data for individual cities with over 2,500 inhabitants 
is shown in table 38, and in table 37 may be found the average number 
of employees for six groups of cities di\'ided according to size. 



AVERAGE NUMBER OF 
POLICE DEPARTMENT EMPLOYEES. 1935 



NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES PER 1,000 INHABITANTS 
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 



2.5 



1 

37 CITIES - 


1 
POPULATION OVER 250,000 




57 CITIES — 


POPULATION 100,000 TO 250,0C 


50 
) 

> 








103 CITIES - 


POPULATION 50,000 TO 100,00 






186 CITIES — 


POPULATION 25,000 TO 60.00C 




) 


563 CITIES -7 


1 
POPULATION 10,000 TO 25,00( 




1,004 CITIES- 


1 
POPULATION 2^00 TO 10,000 




1 1 1 



Figure 8. 

The average number of employees per 1,000 inhabitants for cities 
in group 1, as shown in table 37, was obtained by ascertaining the 
total number of employees in the police departments of the 37 cities 
represented. The figure was then divided by the total population of 
those 37 cities. The data for the remaining groups of cities were 
compiled in a similar manner. Population figures employed were 
estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for all cities 
with population in excess of 10,000. No estimates were available, 
however, for those with a smaller number of inhabitants and, accord- 
ingly, for them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census were used. 

The information appearing in table 37 is also shown in chart 8. 



62 



Table 37. — Average number of police department employees, 19S5 



Population group 


Average 
number of 

police 
employees 


Average 
number of 
employees 

per 1,000 
inhabitants 


GROUP I 

37 cities over 250,000; total population, 29,695,500. 


C2, 372 
11,094 
8,726 
7,573 
8,390 
5,948 


2 1 


GROUP II 

57 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population, 7,850,312 


1 4 


GROUP III 

103 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total population, 6,889,307 . 


1.3 


GROUP IV 

186 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total population, 6,486,221 


1.2 


GROUP V 

563 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total population, 8,681,962 


1.0 


GROUP VI 

1,004 cities, 2,500 to 10,000; total population, 5,495,812. 


1. 1 







Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 1935 

CITIES WITH OVER 250,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Birmingham, Ala.. 
Los Angeles, Calif.. 

Oakland, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif 

Denver, Colo 

Washington, D . C . . 

Atlanta, Ga 

Chicago, 111 

Indianapolis, Ind... 

Louisville, Ky 

Nevr Orleans, La 

Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Detroit, Mich 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

St. Paul, Minn 

Kansas City, Mo... 

St. Louis, Mo 

Jersey City, N. J... 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



231 

2,646 

373 

1,361 

387 

1,398 

420 

6,467 

542 

436 

842 

1,896 

2,329 

3,843 

499 

321 

676 

2,290 

1,029 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



0.8 
2.0 
1.3 
2.1 

1.3 
2.8 
1.5 
1.9 
1.5 
1.4 
1.8 
2.3 
3.0 
2.3 
1.0 
1.2 
1.6 
2.8 
3.2 



City 



Nevrark, N.J 

Buffalo, N.Y... 
New York, N. Y 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Akron, Ohio 

Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cleveland, Ohio. 
Columbus, Ohio. 
Toledo, Ohio.... 
Portland, Oreg.. 
Philadelphia, Pa 
Pittsburgh, Pa.. 
Providence, R . I 
Memphis, Tenn. 

Dallas, Tex 

Houston, Tex... 
Seattle, Wash... 
Milwaukee, Wis. 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



1,296 

1,267 

18, 459 

454 

189 

627 

1,614 

324 

385 

417 

5, 119 

1,079 

533 

271 

261 

340 

593 

1,158 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



2.9 
2.2 
2.6 
L4 

.7 
L4 
1.8 
1.1 
1.3 
1.3 
2.6 
1.6 
2.1 
1.0 

.9 
1.1 
1.6 
1.9 



CITIES WITH 100,000 TO 250,000 INHABITANTS 



Long Beach, Calif.- 
San Diego, Calif... 
Bridgeport, Conn.. 

Hartford, Conn 

New Haven, Conn. 
Waterbury, Conn.. 
Wilmington, Del... 
Jacksonville, Fla... 

Miami, Fla 

Tampa, Fla 

Peoria, 111 

Evansville, Ind 

Fort Wayne, Ind... 

Gary, Ind 

South Bend, Ind... 
Des Moines, Iowa.. 
Kansas City, Eans. 



194 
223 
257 
420 
406 
190 
150 
180 
199 
113 
124 
146 
125 
130 
99 
150 
116 



1.2 


1.4 


1.7 


2.5 


2.5 


1.9 


1.4 


1.3 


1.8 


1.1 


1.1 


1.4 


1.0 


1.2 


.9 


1.0 


.9 



Wichita, Kans 

Cambridge, Mass 

Fall River, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass. 

Somerville, Mass 

Springfield, Mass 

Worcester, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Duluth, IMinn 

Omaha, Nebr _ _ 

Camden, N. J 

Elizabeth, N.J 

Paterson, N. J 

Trenton, N.J 



106 
228 
195 
172 
174 
220 
15] 
333 
400 
138 
211 
127 
265 
201 
205 
273 
233 



.9 

2.0 
1.7 
1.7 
1.7 
2.0 
1.4 
2.2 
2.0 
.8 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.7 
1.7 
2.0 
1.9 



63 



Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 19S5 — Continued 
{'ITIES WITH 100,000 TO 250,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Albany, N. Y.. 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Utica, N. Y 

Yonlcers, N. Y 

Canton, Ohio 

Dayton, Ohio 

Youucstown, Ohio... 
Oklahoma City, Okla 

Tulsa, Okla 

Erie, Pa 

Reading, Pa. -- 

Scranton, Pa 



AveraKe 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



3r* 
336 
168 
285 
74 
195 
169 
216 
132 
112 
160 
171 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



2.8 

1.6 

1.6 

2.0 

.7 

.9 

1.0 

1. I 

.9 

.9 

1.4 

1.2 



City 



Chattanooga, Tenn.. 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Nashville, Tenn 

El Paso, Tex-- 

Fort Worth, Tex 

San Antonio, Tex 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

Norfolk, Va 

Richmond, Va 

Spokane, Wash 

Tacoma, Wash 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



102 
128 
200 
81 
204 
217 
155 
250 
284 
127 
106 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



.8 
1.2 
1.3 

.8 
1.2 

.9 
1.1 
1.9 
1.5 
1. 1 
1.0 



CITIES WITH 50,000 TO 100,000 INHABITANTS 



Mobile, Ala. 

Montgomery, Ala 

Phoenix, Ariz 

Little Rock, Ark 

Berkeley, Calif 

Fresno, Calif 

Olendale, Calif 

Pasadena, Calif.. 

Sacramento, Calif 

San Jose, Calif 

Pueblo, Colo 

New Britain, Conn... 

Augusta, Ga 

Macon, Ga 

Savannah, Qa 

Berwyn, 111 

Cicero, III. 

Decatur, 111.. 

East St. Louis, 111 

Evanston, 111 

Oak Park, 111. 

Rockford.IlL 

Springfield. Ill 

East Chicago, Ind 

Hammond, Ind 

Terra Haute, Ind 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa.. 

Davenport, Iowa 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Topeka, Kans 

Covington, Ky 

Shrevei)ort, La- 

Portland, Maine 

Brockton, Mass 

Holyoke, Mass- 

Lawrence, Mass 

Maiden, Mass 

Medford, Mass 

Newton, Mass 

Pittsfield, Mass 

Quincy, Mass 

Dearborn, Mich 

Hamtramek, Mich... 
Highland Park, Mich 

Jackson, Mich 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Lansing, Mich , 

Pontiac, Mich 

Saginaw, Mich. 

Jackson, Miss.. 

St. Joseph, Mo 

Springfield, Mo 



102 

112 

71 

76 

66 

68 

70 

102 

118 

49 

44 

88 

92 

72 

162 

40 

69 

45 

55 

89 

75 

87 

90 

63 

75 

75 

55 

65 

92 

67 

62 

71 

127 

100 

94 

135 

109 

86 

132 

56 

141 

116 

94 

92 

57 

85 

75 

60 

79 

38 

103 

53 



1.4 

1.7 

1.4 

.9 

.8 

1.3 

1.0 

1.3 

1.2 

.8 

.9 

1.3 

1.5 

1.3 

1.9 

.8 

1.0 

.8 

.7 

1.3 

1.1 

1.0 

1.2 

1.1 

1.1 

1.2 

1.0 

1.1 

1.1 

1.0 

.9 

.9 

1.8 

1.6 

1.7 

1.6 

1.8 

1.4 

1.9 

1.1 

1.'9 

2.0 

1.6 

1.7 

1.0 

1.5 

.9 

.9 

.9 

.7 

1.3 

.9 



Lincoln, Nebr. 

Manchester, N. H. .-- 

Atlantic City, N. J 

Clifton. N.J. 

East Orange, N. J 

Hoboken, N. J 

Irvington, N.J 

Passaic, N. J 

Cnion City, N. J 

Binghamton, N. Y.. 

Mount Vernon, N. Y 

New Rochelle, N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y.... 

Schenectady, N. Y 

Troy, N. Y 

Asheville, N. C 

Charlotte, N. C 

Durham, N. C 

Greensboro, N. C 

Winston-Salem, N. C 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Springfield, Ohio 

Allentowr, Pa 

Altoona, Pa 

Bethlehem Borough, Pa 

Chester, Pa 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Johnstown, Pa 

Lancaste"-, Pa 

McKeesport, Pa 

Ui)per Darby Township, Pa 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa 

York, Pa 

Pawtucket, R. I 

Woonsocket, R. I - 

(Charleston, S. C 

Columbia, S. C 

Austin, Tex-. 

Beaumont, Tex 

Galveston, Tex 

Port Arthur, Tex 

Waco, Tex- 

Roanoke, Va-. 

Charleston, W. Va 

Huntington, W. Va 

Wheeling, AV. Va.. 

Kenosha, Wis 

Madison, AVis 

Racine, Wis - 



65 


.8 


117 


1.5 


224 


3.3 


51 


1.0 


111 


1.6 


181 


3.1 


62 


1.0 


106 


1.7 


118 


2.0 


115 


1.5 


128 


2.0 


139 


2.4 


116 


1.5 


175 


1.8 


181 


2.5 


56 


1.1 


96 


1. 1 


60 


1.0 


56 


1.0 


92 


1.2 


53 


.9 


38 


.7 


58 


.8 


51 


.7 


102 


1.0 


61 


.7 


57 


1.0 


55 


.9 


108 


1.3 


62 


.9 


53 


.9 


57 


1.0 


87 


1.6 


94 


1.1 


51 


.9 


131 


1.6 


83 


1.6 


142 


2.3 


75 


1.4 


62 


1.1 


55 


.9 


71 


1.3 


15 


.3 


53 


LO 


84 


L2 


70 


LI 


71 


.9 


77 


L2 


70 


L4 


66 


1.1 


66 


1.0 



64 



Table 38. — Nximber of police department employees, 1935 — Continued 

CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Gadsden, Ala 

Tucson, Ariz 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Alameda, Calif 

Alhambra, Calif 

Bakersfield, Calif 

Huntington Park, Calif 

Inglewood, Calif 

Riverside, Calif 

San Bernardino, Calif 

Santa Ana, Calif 

Santa Barbara, Calif 

Santa Monica, Calif 

Stockton, Calif... 

Colorado Springs, Colo 

Bristol, Conn 

Meriden, Conn 

Middletown, Conn 

New London, Conn 

Norwalk, Conn 

Stamford, Conn 

West Hartford Town, Conn.. 
West Haven Town, Conn — 

Orlando, Fla 

Pensacola, Fla 

St. Petersburg, Fla 

West Palm Beach, Fla 

Columbus, Ga 

Alton, 111 

Aurora, 111 

Belleville, 111 

Bloomington, 111 

Danville, 111 

Elgin, 111 

Galesburg, 111 

Joliet, 111 

Maywood, 111 

Moline, 111 

Quincy, 111 

Rock Island, 111 

Waukegan, 111 

Anderson, Ind 

Elkhart, Ind 

Kokomo, Ind 

Lafayette, Ind 

Michigan City, Ind 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Muncie, Ind 

New Albany, Ind 

Richmond, Ind 

Burlington, Iowa 

Clinton, Iowa 

Council Bluffs, Iowa 

Dubuque, Iowa 

Ottumwa, Iowa 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Ashland, Ky 

Lexington, Ky 

Newport, Ky 

Paducah, Ky 

Baton Rouge, La 

Monroe, La 

Bangor, Maine 

Lewiston, Maine 

Cumberland, Md 

Hagerstown, Md.. 

Arlington Town, Mass 

Beverly, Mass 

Brookline Town, Mass 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chicopee, Mass 

Everett, Mass 

Fltchburg, Mass 

Haverhill, Mass 

Revere, Mass 

Salem, Mass 

Taunton, Mass 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



27 


0.8 


38 


1.1 


22 


.7 


37 


1.0 


37 


1.1 


40 


1.5 


30 


1.1 


19 


.7 


30 


1.0 


32 


.8 


30 


.9 


40 


1.1 


40 


1.0 


55 


1.1 


35 


1.0 


32 


1.1 


111 


2.8 


17 


.7 


49 


1.6 


45 


1.2 


90 


1.9 


68 


2.5 


78 


3.0 


44 


1.5 


44 


1.4 


42 


1.0 


27 


.9 


69 


1.6 


32 


1.0 


45 


.9 


22 


.8 


32 


1.0 


31 


.8 


32 


.9 


30 


1.0 


47 


LI 


17 


.6 


24 


.7 


45 


LI 


23 


.6 


23 


.6 


41 


1.0 


38 


1.1 


29 


.9 


38 


1.4 


29 


1.0 


24 


.8 


60 


1.3 


15 


.6 


30 


.9 


23 


.8 


16 


.6 


26 


.6 


39 


.9 


14 


.5 


34 


.7 


30 


1.1 


25 


.8 


80 


1.7 


42 


1.4 


25 


.7 


35 


1.1 


34 


1.2 


42 


1.4 


38 


1.1 


41 


1.0 


33 


1.1 


55 


1.4 


51 


2.0 


131 


2.7 


71 


1.5 


52 


1.1 


71 


1.4 


56 


1.4 


76 


1.6 


46 


1.2 


76 


1.7 


53 


1.4 



City 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



Waltham, Mass 

Watertown Town, Mass 

Ann Arbor, Mich 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Bay City, Mich 

Muskegon, Mich. 

Port Huron, Mich 

Royal Oak, Mich 

Wyandotte, Mich 

Joplin, Mo 

University City, Mo 

Butte, Mont 

Great Falls, Mont 

Concord, N. H 

Nashua, N. H 

Belleville, N. J 

Bloomfield, N. J 

Garfield, N.J 

Hackensack, N. J 

Kearny, N. J 

Montclair,N. J 

New Brunswick, N. J 

North Bergen Township, N. J. 

Orange, N.J 

Perth Amboy, N. J 

Plainfleld, N. J 

West New York, N. J 

West Orange, N.J 

Woodbridge Township, N. J. 

Albuquerque, N. Mex 

Amsterdam, N. Y 

Auburn, N.Y 

Elmira, N. Y 

Jamestown, N. Y 

Kingston, N. Y 

Lackawanna, N. Y 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y 

Rome, N. Y 

Watertown, N. Y 

White Plains, N. Y 

High Point, N. C 

Raleigh, N. C 

Wilmington, N. C 

Fargo, N. Dak 

Barberton, Ohio .- 

East Cleveland, Ohio 

Elyria, Ohio 

Lima, Ohio 

Lorain, Ohio 

Mansfield, Ohio 

Marion, Ohio 

Massillon, Ohio 

Middletown, Ohio 

Newark, Ohio 

Norwood, Ohio 

Portsmouth, Ohio 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Warren, Ohio 

Zanesville, Ohio 

Enid, Okla 

Muskogee, Okla 

Salem, Oreg 

Aliquippa Borough, Pa 

Easton, Pa.. 

Hazleton, Pa 

Lebanon, Pa 

Lower Merion Township, Pa 

Nanticoke, Pa 

New Castle, Pa 

Norristown Borough, Pa 

Sharon, Pa 

Washington Borough, Pa 

Wilkinsburg Borough, Pa 

Williamsport, Pa 

Central Falls, R. I 

Cranston, R. I 

East Providence Town, R. I. - 



69 
48 
30 
53 
51 
44 
37 
22 
35 
24 
28 
25 
30 
22 
38 
32 
62 
35 
41 
150 
70 
43 
68 
63 
67 
62 
90 
41 
38 
27 
33 
44 
80 
54 
36 
42 
47 
54 
30 
36 
105 
36 
57 
45 
35 
14 
49 
21 
27 
33 
26 
16 
18 
29 
29 
31 
34 
37 
29 
28 
18 
31 
19 
19 
34 
22 
25 
100 
15 
42 
31 
21 
18 
16 
31 
35 
37 
27 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



6d 



Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 1935 — Continued 
CITIES WITH 25,000 TO 50,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



t'ity 



Newport, R. I 

Greenville, S. C 

Spartanburg, S. C... 
Sfoux Falls, S. Dak. 

Abilene, Tex 

Amarillo, Tex 

Brownsville, Tex 

Corpus Christi, Tex 

San Angelo, Tex 

Wichita Falls, Tex.. 

Ogden, Utah-. 

Burlington, Vt 

Danville, Va, 

Lynchburg, Va 

Newport News, Va. 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



62 
50 
40 
50 
21 
29 
13 
19 
20 
42 
34 
31 
35 
50 
46 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



2.2 

1.7 

1.3 

1.4 

.8 

.6 

.5 

.6 

.7 

.9 

.8 

1.2 

1.3 

1.2 

1.3 



City 



Petersburg, Va 

Portsmouth, Va 

Bellingham, Wash.. 

Everett, Wash 

Clarksburg, W. Va.. 
Parkersburg, W. Va 

Appleton, Wis 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Fond du Lac, Wis. . 

Green Bay, Wis 

La Crosse, Wis 

Oshkosh, Wis 

Sheboygan, Wis 

Superior, Wis 

West Allis, Wis 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



33 
40 
27 
29 
25 
22 
24 
20 
28 
39 
41 
43 
44 
64 
38 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



1.2 

.9 

.9 

.9 

.9 

.7 

.9 

.7 

1.0 

1.0 

1.0 

1.0 

1.1 

1.8 

1.0 



CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS 



Anniston, Ala 

Decatur, Ala... 

Dothan, Ala 

Fairfield, Ala. 

Florence, Ala — 

Huntsville, Ala 

Phenix City, Ala 

Selma, Ala 

Tuscaloosa, Ala 

Blytheville, Ark 

El Dorado, Ark-_ 

Hot Springs, Ark 

Jonesboro, Ark 

North Little Rock, Ark 

Pine Blufl, Ark 

Texarkana, .\rk 

Anaheim, Calif 

Beverly Hills, Calif 

Brawley, Calif 

Burbank, Calif 

Burlingame, Calif 

Compton, Calif 

Eureka, Calif 

Fullerton, Calif 

Modesto, Calif 

Monrovia, Calif 

Ontario, Calif 

Palo Alto, Calif 

Pomona, Calif 

Redlands, Calif 

Richmond, Calif 

Salinas, Calif 

San Leandro, Calif 

San Mateo, Calif 

Santa Cruz, Calif 

Santa Rosa, Calif 

South Gate, Calif 

South Pasadena, Calif 

Vallejo, Calif 

Ventura, Calif. 

Whittier, Calif. 

Boulder, Colo 

Fort Collins, Colo 

Grand Junction, Colo 

Greeley, Colo 

Trinidad, Colo 

Ansonia, Conn 

Danbury, Conn 

Derby, Conn 

East Hartford Town, Conn 
Naugatuck Borough, Conn. 

Norwich, Conn 

Stratford Town, Conn 

Wallingford, Conn 

Willimantic, Conn 

Daytona Beach, Fla 

85414°— 36 4 



18 
11 
14 
6 
8 
10 
8 
17 
18 
4 
11 
18 
10 
25 
12 
7 
12 
40 
11 
26 
15 
17 
19 
10 
16 
17 
15 
20 
16 
12 
28 
15 
10 
14 
16 
11 
20 
10 
13 
14 
13 
9 
7 
7 

10 
10 
12 
21 
10 
17 
30 
38 
15 
24 
21 
27 



0.8 

.6 

.8 

.5 

.7 

.8 

.6 

.9 

.8 

.4 

.6 

.8 

1.0 

1.2 

.6 

.6 

1.0 

2.0 

1.0 

1.4 

1.0 

1.2 

1.8 

.8 

1.1 

1.4 

1.0 

1.3 

.7 

.8 

1.4 

1.3 

.8 

1.0 

1.1 

1.0 

I'.O 

.7 

.9 

1.1 

.8 

.8 

.6 

.7 

.8 

.9 

.6 

.9 

.9 

.9 

2.1 

1.6 

.7 

2.1 

1.7 

1.5 



Gainesville, Fla 

Lakeland, Fla 

St. Augustine, Fla.. 

Sanford, Fla 

Tallahassee, Fla 

Albany, Ga 

Athens, Ga 

Brunswick, Ga 

Decatur, Ga 

La Grange, Ga 

Rome, Ga 

Thomasville, Ga 

Boise, Idaho 

Pocatello, Idaho 

Blue Island, 111 

Brookfield, 111 

Cairo, 111 

Calumet City, lU... 

Canton, 111 

Centralia, 111 

Champaign, 111 

Chicago Heights, 111 

East Moline, 111 

Elmhurst, 111 

Elmwood Park, 111.. 

Forest Park, 111 

Freeport, 111 

Harrisburg, 111 

Harvey, 111 

Highland Park. 111.. 

Jacksonville, 111 

Kankakee, 111 

Kewanee, 111 

La Grange, 111 

La Salle, III..-. 

Lincoln, 111 

Mattoon, 111 

Melrose Park, 111.... 
Mount Vernon, 111.. 

Ottawa, III 

Park Ridge, 111 

Pekin, 111. 

Sterling, 111 

Streator, 111 

Urbana,Ill 

West Frankfort, 111., 

Wilmette, 111 

Winnetka, 111 

Bedford, Ind... 

Bloomington, Ind... 

Connersville, Ind 

Crawfordsville, Ind. 

Elwood, Ind 

Frankfort, Ind 

Goshen, Ind 

Huntington, Ind 



12 
16 
14 

4 
11 
18 
19 
13 

9 
21 
20 

8 
18 
19 
18 
11 
12 
10 

7 

9 
16 
20 

7 
14 
10 
14 
17 

4 
14 
14 
15 
15 
15 
12 
10 

5 
12 
14 

6 
12 
12 
12 

6 
10 

8 

4 
14 
17 

9 
13 
10 
12 

9 
13 

5 
13 



1.1 
.8 

1.2 
.4 

1.0 

1.2 

1.0 
.9 
.6 

1.0 
.9 
.7 
.8 

1.1 

1.0 

1.0 
.9 
.8 
.6 
.7 
.8 
.9 
.7 
.9 
.8 
.9 
.8 
.3 
.8 

1.1 
.8 
. 7 
.9 

1.1 
.8 
.4 
.8 

1.2 
.5 
.8 

1.0 



. ( 
.6 
.3 

.8 

1.3 
.6 
.7 
.8 

1.2 
.8 

1.1 
.5 

1.0 



66 



Table 38. — Niimber of police department employees, 1935 — Continued 
CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Jeffersonville, Ind 

La Porte, Ind 

Logansport, Ind 

Marion, Ind 

New Castle, Ind 

Peru, Ind 

Shelbyville, Ind 

Vincennes, Ind 

Whiting, Ind 

Ames, Iowa 

Boone, Iowa 

Fort Dodge, Iowa 

Fort Madison, Iowa 

Iowa City, Iowa 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Marshalltown, Iowa 

Mason City, Iowa 

Muscatine, Iowa 

Newton, Iowa 

Oskaloosa, Iowa 

Arkansas City, Kans 

Atchison, Kans 

Chanute, Kans 

CoSeyville, Kans 

Dodge City, Kans 

El Dorado, Kans 

Emporia, Kans 

Fort Scott, Kans 

Independence, Kans 

Lawrence, Kans 

Leavenworth, Kans 

Manhattan, Kans 

Newton, Kans 

Parsons, Kans 

Pittsburg, Kans 

Salina, Kans 

Bowling Green, Ky 

Fort Thomas, Ky 

Frankfort, Ky 

Henderson, Ky 

Hopkinsville, Ky 

Owensboro, Ky 

Alexandria, La 

Bogalusa, La 

La Fayette, La. 

Lake Charles, La 

Auburn, Maine 

Augusta, Maine 

Biddeford, Maine 

South Portland, Maine 

Waterville, Maine 

Westbrook, Maine 

Annapolis, Md 

Frederick, Md 

Salisbury, Md 

Adams Town, Mass 

Amesbury Town, Mass 

Athol Town, Mass 

Attleboro, Mass 

Belmont Town, Mass 

Braintree Town, Mass 

Clinton, Mass 

Danvers Town, Mass 

Dedham Town, Mass 

Easthampton Town, Mass. 

Fairhaven Town, Mass 

Framinghara Town,Mass-- 

Gardner, Mass 

Gloucester, Mass 

Greenfield Town , Mass 

Leominster, Mass 

Marlborough, Mass 

Melrose, Mass 

Methuen Town, Mass 

Milford Town, Mass 

Milton Town, Mass 

Natick Town, Mass 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



10 

15 

21 

28 

14 

14 
5 

14 

20 
9 

10 

16 
7 

10 

15 
9 

21 

17 
8 
8 

10 

13 
7 

21 
9 

10 

10 
9 
8 

12 

21 
9 
5 

10 
11 
15 
16 
9 
13 
16 
13 
23 
27 
10 
8 
14 
15 
20 
17 
10 
11 
6 
14 
18 
14 
13 
9 
6 
27 
39 
18 
8 
11 
16 
13 
10 
23 
19 
40 
14 
25 
17 
36 
24 
13 
30 
15 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



.8 

.9 

1.1 

1.1 

1.0 

1.1 

.5 

.8 

1.8 

.8 

.8 

.7 

.5 

.6 

1.0 

.5 

.9 

1.0 

.6 

.8 

.7 

1.0 

.7 

1.3 

.8 

1.0 

.7 

.8 

.6 

.9 

1.2 

.9 

.4 

.7 

.6 

.7 

1.3 

.8 

1.1 

1.4 

1.2 

1.0 

1.1 

.7 

.5 



1.1 

1.0 

.7 

.7 

.5 

1.1 

1.2 

1.2 

1.0 

.7 

.6 

1.2 

1.7 

1.1 

.6 

.8 

1.0 

1.2 

.9 

1.0 

1.0 

1.6 

.9 

1.1 

1.1 

1.5 

1.1 

.9 

1.7 

1.1 



City 



Needham Town, Mass 

Newburyport, Mass 

North Adams, Mass 

Northampton, Mass. 

North Attleboro Town, Mass- 

Norwood Towti, Mass 

Peabody, Mass 

Plymouth, Mass.. 

SaugusTown, Mass 

Southbridge Town , Mass 

Stoneham Town, Mass 

Swanipscott Town, Mass 

Wakefield Town, Mass 

Webster Town, Mass 

Wellesley Town, Mass 

Westfield, Mass 

West SpringfieldTown, Mass 

Winchester Town, Mass 

Winthrop, Mass 

Woburn, Mass 

Adrian, Mich 

Alpena, Mich 

Benton Harbor, Mich 

Ecorse, Mich 

Escanaba, Mich 

rerndale,Mich 

Grosse Pointe Park, Mich — 

Holland, Mich 

Iron Mountain, Mich 

Ironwood, Mich -- 

Lincoln Park, Mich.. 

Marquette, Mich 

Menominee, Mich 

Monroe, Mich 

Mount Clemens, Mich 

Muskegon Heights, Mich 

Niles, Mich 

Owosso, Mich 

River Rouge, Mich 

Saulte Ste. Marie, Mich 

Traverse City, Mich 

Ypsilanti, Mich. 

Albert Lea, Minn... — 

Austin, Minn 

Brainerd, Minn 

Faribault, Minn 

Hibbing, Minn 

Mankato, Minn 

Rochester, Minn 

St. Cloud, Minn 

South St. Paul, Minn 

Virginia, Minn 

Winona, Minn 

Biloxi, Miss 

Clarksdale, Miss 

Columbus, Miss 

Greenville, Miss 

Greenwood, Miss 

Gulfport, Miss 

Hattiesburg, Miss 

Laurel, Miss 

McComb, Miss 

Natchez, Miss 

Vicksburg, Miss 

Cape Girardeau, Mo 

Hannibal, Mo 

Independence, Mo 

Jeflerson City, Mo 

Maplewood, Mo 

Moberly, Mo 

St. Charles, Mo 

Sedalia, Mo 

Webster Groves, Mo 

Anaconda, Mont 

Billings, Mont 

Helena, Mont 

Missoula, Mont 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



17 


1.5 


26 


1.7 


25 


1.2 


22 


.9 


15 


1.4 


20 


1.3 


44 


2.0 


13 


1.0 


13 


.8 


14 


1.0 


11 


1.1 


16 


1.5 


50 


3.0 


37 


2.8 


25 


2.0 


23 


1.2 


24 


1.4 


21 


1.6 


19 


1.1 


19 


1.0 


11 


.8 


8 


.7 


13 


.8 


18 


1.3 


11 


.7 


22 


.9 


34 


2.6 


9 


.6 


5 


.4 


14 


1.0 


12 


1.0 


10 


.7 


7 


.7 


19 


1.0 


11 


.8 


13 


.8 


9 


.8 


12 


.8 


26 


1.4 


11 


.8 


7 


.5 


15 


1.4 


6 


.6 


14 


1.1 


5 


.5 


8 


.6 


31 


2.0 


14 


1.0 


21 


LO 


18 


.8 


12 


1.1 


40 


3.3 


19 


.9 


9 


.6 


16 


1.5 


9 


.8 


13 


.9 


9 


.8 


14 


1.1 


15 


.8 


12 


.6 


7 


.7 


17 


1.3 


26 


1.1 


15 


.9 


23 


1.0 


14 


.9 


13 


.6 


35 


2.6 


10 


.7 


9 


.8 


12. 


.6 


15 


.8 


4 


.3 


15 


,9 


14 


1.2 


14 


.9 



67 



Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 1935 — Continued 
CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Beatrice, Nebr 

Fremont, Nebr 

Grand Island, Nebr 

Hastings, Nebr -. 

Norfolk, Nebr -.. 

North Platte, Nebr 

Reno, Nev.. 

Berlin, N.H 

Claremont Town, N. H 

Dover, N. H 

Keene, N. H 

Laconia, N. H 

Portsmouth, N. H 

Rochester, N. II 

Bridgeton, N. J.. 

Burlington, N. J.. 

Carteret, N. J.. 

ClitTside Park, N. J 

Collingswood, N. J 

Cranford Township, N. J 

Dover, N. J 

Englewood, N. J 

Gloucester, N. J — 

Harrison, N. J 

Hawthorne, N. J... 

Hillside Township, N.J 

Linden, N. J 

Lodi, N. J.. 

Long Branch, N. J 

Lyndhurst Township, N. J.. 
Maplewood Township, N. J . 

Millville, N. J 

Morristown, N. J — 

Neptune Township, N. J 

Nutley, N. J. 

Pensauken Township, N. J.. 

Phillipsburg, N. J 

Pleasantville, N. J 

Rahway, N. J 

Red Bank N.J 

Ridgefield Park, N.J 

Ridgewood, N. J 

Roselle, N. J 

Rutherford, N. J 

South Orange, N.J 

South River, N. J 

Summit, N.J 

Teaneck Townshij:), N.J 

Union Township, N. J 

Weehawken Township, N. J. 

Westfield. N. J 

Roswell, N. Mex 

Santa Fe, N. Mex 

Batavia, N. Y.. 

Beacon, N. Y 

Cohoes, N. Y 

Corning, N. Y 

Cortland, N. Y 

Dunkirk, N.Y 

Endicott, N. Y 

Floral Park, N. Y 

Freeport, N. Y 

Fulton, N.Y 

Geneva, N. Y 

Glen Cove, N. Y 

Glens Falls, N. Y 

Gloversville, N. Y 

Hempstead, N. Y. 

Herkimer, N. Y... 

Hornell, N.Y 

Hudson, N. Y 

Irondequoit Town, N.Y 

Ithaca, N. Y 

Johnson City, N. Y 

Johnstown, N. Y 

Kenmore, N. Y 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



6 

9 

21 

11 

10 

9 

28 

23 

6 

14 

27 

17 

19 

5 

12 

10 

18 

22 

16 

18 

9 

39 

17 

47 

9 

25 
49 
27 
39 
21 
40 
9 

22 
19 
30 
15 
15 
15 
23 
18 
15 
30 
17 
21 
35 
11 
26 
28 
25 
60 
27 
8 
8 
16 
14 
29 
14 
13 
19 
13 
18 
32 
17 
17 
32 
21 
19 
39 
12 
15 
17 
6 
18 
11 
8 
16 



Niunber 
per 1.000 
inhabi- 
tants 



.6 

.8 

1. 1 

.7 

.9 

. 7 

1.4 

1.1 

.5 

1.0 

1.9 

1.3 

1.3 

.5 

.8 

.9 

1.3 

1.3 

1.2 

1.5 

.9 

2.1 

1.2 

3.0 

. 7 

1.3 

2.3 

2.2 

2.0 

1.1 

1.7 

.6 

1.4 

1.7 

1.3 

.8 

.8 

1.2 

1.4 

1.5 

1.4 



City 



1.7 
1.5 



1.6 

.7 

.7 

.9 

1.2 

1.2 

.9 

.8 

1.1 

.8 

1.6 

1.9 

1.4 

1.0 

2.6 

1. 1 

.8 

2.3 

1.1 

.9 

1.4 

.3 

.8 

.8 

.7 

.9 



Little Falls, N. Y 

Lockport, N. Y.. 

Lynbrook, N. Y 

Mamaroneck, N. Y 

Massena, N. Y 

Middletown, N. Y 

North Tonawanda, N. Y, 

Ogdensburg, N. Y. 

Olean, N. Y 

Oneida, N. Y 

Oneonta, N. Y... 

Ossining, N. Y 

Oswego, N. Y 

Peekskill, N. Y 

Plattsburg, N. Y 

Port Chester, N. Y 

Port Jervis, N. Y 

Rensselaer, N. Y 

Rockville Centre, N.Y. 
Saratoga Springs, N. Y-. 

Tonawanda, N. Y 

Concord, N. C _. 

Gastonia, N. C 

Goldsboro, N. C 

Kinston, N. C 

Rocky Mount, N. C 

Salisbury, N. C 

Shelby, N.C 

Thomasville, N. C 

Wilson, N.C 

Bismarck, N. Dak 

Grand Forks, N. Dak... 

Minot, N. Dak-. 

Alliance, Ohio 

Ashland, Ohio 

AshtabuJa, Ohio.. 

Bellaire, Ohio 

Bucyrus, Ohio 

Cambridge, Ohio 

Campbell, Ohio 

Chillicothe, Ohio 

Coshocton, Ohio 

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio... 

East Liverpool, Ohio 

Euclid, Ohio.. 

Findlay, Ohio 

Fostoria, Ohio 

Fremont, Ohio 

Garfield Heights, Ohio.. 

Ironton, Ohio 

Lancaster, Ohio. 

Marietta, Ohio 

Martins Ferry, Ohio 

New Philadelphia, Ohio 

Niles, Ohio 

Painesville, Ohio 

Parma Village, Ohio 

Piqua, Ohio 

Salem, Ohio 

Sandusky, Ohio 

Shaker Heights, Ohio... 

Struthers, Ohio 

Tiffin, Ohio 

Wooster, Ohio 

Xenia, Ohio 

Ada, Okla. 

Ardmoro, Okla.._ 

Bartlesville, Okla 

Chickasha, Okla. 

McAIester, Okla 

Okmulgee, Okla.. 

Ponca City, Okla 

Sapulpa, Okla.. 

Shawnee, Okla 

Wewoka, Okla 

Astoria, Oreg 



Average 


Number 


number 


per I.IKH) 


of em- 


inhabi- 


ployees 


tants 


8 


.7 


25 


1.1 


30 


2.3 


26 


2.0 


9 


.8 


22 


1.0 


26 


1.3 


13 


.8 


19 


.9 


10 


.9 


12 


.9 


18 


1. 1 


22 


1.0 


21 


1.2 


11 


.8 


38 


1.6 


19 


1.8 


15 


1.3 


32 


2.1 


20 


1.5 


19 


1.5 


17 


1.4 


20 


1.1 


14 


.9 


16 


1.4 


20 


.9 


15 


.9 


10 


.8 


8 


.7 


17 


1.3 


6 


.5 


18 


1.0 


14 


.8 


15 


.6 


9 


.8 


17 


.7 


9 


.7 


8 


.8 


8 


.5 


12 


.8 


17 


.9 


8 


.7 


9 


.4 


6 


.3 


23 


1.6 


12 


.6 


7 


.5 


8 


.6 


13 


.7 


U 


.7 


11 


.6 


12 


.8 


10 


.7 


6 


.5 


/ 


.4 


7 


.6 


9 


.6 


9 


.6 


6 


.6 


17 


. ( 


24 


1.2 


8 


.7 


12 


.7 


7 


.6 


6 


.6 


12 


1.0 


15 


.9 


12 


.8 


12 


.8 


10 


.8 


15 


.9 


15 


.8 


9 


.9 


18 


.7 


5 


.4 


10 


1.0 



68 



Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 1935 — Continued 
CITIES WITH 10,000 TO 25,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



Eugene, Oreg -.- 

Klamath Falls, Oreg 

Medford, Oreg.. 

Abington Township, Pa... 

Ambridge, Pa 

Arnold, Pa 

Beaver Palls, Pa.. 

Bellevue, Pa 

Berwick, Pa.. 

Braddock, Pa 

Bradford, Pa 

Bristol Borough, Pa 

Butler, Pa 

Cannonsburg Borough, Pa_ 

Carlisle Borough, Pa 

Carnegie Borough, Pa 

Chambersburg Borough, Pa.. 

Charleroi Borough, Pa 

C heltenham Township, Pa. . . 

Clairton, Pa 

Coatesville, Pa 

Connellsville, Pa 

Conshohocken Borough, Pa._ 

Coraopolis Borough, Pa 

Dickson City Borough, Pa... 

Donora Borough, Pa 

Dormont Borough, Pa 

DuBois, Pa... 

Dunmore Borough, Pa 

Duquesne, Pa 

Ellwood City Borough, Pa. . . 

Farrell Borough, Pa 

Franklin, Pa 

Greensburg, Pa 

Hanover Borough, Pa 

Haverford Township, Pa 

Homestead, Pa 

Jeannette Borough, Pa 

Kingston Borough, Pa 

Latrobe Borough, Pa 

Lewistown Borough, Pa 

Mahanoy City Borough, Pa. 
McK ees Rocks Borough, Pa. 

Meadville, Pa 

Monessen, Pa 

Mount Carmel Borough, Pa, 
Mt. Lebanon Township, Pa. 

Munhall Borough, Pa 

New Kensington Borough, 

Pa 

North Braddock Borough, 

Pa 
Oil City,'Pa".'"""I"""I^ 

Old Forge Borough, Pa 

Olyphant Borough, Pa 

Phoenixville Borough, Pa 

Pittston, Pa 

Plains Township, Pa 

Plymouth Borough, Pa 

Pottstown Borough, Pa 

Pottsville, Pa 

Shamokin Borough, Pa 

Steelton Borough, Pa 

Stowe Township, Pa _ 

Sunbury, Pa 

Swissvale, Pa 

Tamaqua Borough, Pa 

Taylor Borough, Pa 

Turtle Creek Borough, Pa. . . 

Uniontown, Pa 

Vandergrift Borough, Pa 

Warren Borough, Pa 

Waynesboro Borough; Pa 

West Chester Borough, Pa_.. 



12 
13 

7 
25 
13 

6 

10 
12 

6 
24 
17 

6 
20 



9 

9 

7 
28 
16 
14 
13 

6 
10 

7 

9 

9 

5 

17 
21 

9 
13 

9 
15 

5 
36 
25 

6 
15 

8 

8 

4 

30 
10 
15 

7 
16 
22 

16 

18 

15 

5 

6 

8 

20 

9 

15 

16 

24 

9 

8 

12 

5 

17 

3 

5 

11 

20 

4 

9 

5 

30 



Number 


per 1,000 


inhabi- 


tants 


.6 


.7 


.6 


1.2 


.6 


.5 


.6 


1.1 


.5 


1.2 


.9 



City 



.5 

.8 

.5 

.6 

.7 

.6 

.6 

1.7 

1.0 

1.0 

1.0 

.5 

.9 

.6 

.6 

.6 

.4 

.7 

1.0 

.7 

.9 

.9 

.9 

.4 

1.5 

1.2 

.4 

.7 

.7 

.6 

.3 

1.6 

.6 

.7 

.4 

1.0 

1.6 



1.1 

.7 
.4 
.6 
.7 
1.1 
.5 



1.0 
.4 
.6 
.9 
.3 

1.0 
.2 
.5 

1.0 

1.0 
.3 
.6 
.5 

2.4 



Bristol Tovm, R. I. 

Cumberland Town, R. I 

North Providence Town, 

R.I -- 

Warwick, R. I 

Westerly Town, R. I 

West Warwick Town, R. I_ 

Anderson, S. C 

Florence, S. C 

Greenwood, S. C 

.Aberdeen, S. Dak 

Huron, S. Dak 

Mitchell, S. Dak 

Rapid City, S. Dak 

Watertown, S. Dak 

Bristol, Tenn 

Jackson, Tenn 

Johnson City, Tenn 

King.sport, Tenn 

Big Spring, Tex 

Brownwood, Tex 

Cleburne. Tex 

Corsicana, Tex 

Del Rio, Tex 

Denison, Tex 

Greenville, Tex 

Harlingen, Tex 

Lubbock, Tex 

Marshall, Tex 

Pampa, Tex 

Paris, Tex 

Sherman, Tex 

Sweetwater, Tex 

Temple, Tex 

Texarkana, Tex 

Tyler, Tex.. 

Provo, Utah 

Rutland, Vt 

Alexandria, Va 

Charlottesville, Va 

Hopewell, Va 

Staunton, Va 

Suffolk, Va 

Wixichester, Va 

Aberdeen, Wash 

Bremerton, Wash 

Hoquiam, Wash 

Longview, Wash 

Olympia, Wash 

Port Angeles, Wash 

Vancouver, Wash 

Walla Walla, Wash 

Wenatchee, Wash 

Yakima, Wash 

Bluefleld, W. Va 

Fairmont, W. Va 

Morgantown, W. Va 

Moundsville, W. Va 

Ashland, Wis 

Beloit, Wis. 

Cudahy, Wis 

Janesville, Wis 

Manitowoc, Wis 

Marinette, Wis 

Shore wood Village, Wis 

South Milwaukee, Wis 

Stevens Point, Wis 

Two Rivers, Wis 

Watertown, Wis 

Waukesha, Wis 

Wausau, Wis 

Wauwatosa, Wis 

Casper, Wyo 

Cheyenne, Wyo 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



7 
6 

4 
23 
10 
10 
23 
16 
17 
18 
11 
10 

9 



20 

21 

13 

5 

9 

9 

13 

7 

10 

11 

8 

17 

9 

6 

12 

13 

9 

11 

13 

17 

7 

14 

31 

22 

15 

15 

13 

11 

17 

9 

8 

6 

10 

7 

11 

14 

14 

25 

14 

18 

8 

6 

9 

21 

10 

13 

18 

9 

14 

10 

3 

8 

9 

15 

21 

26 

16 

14 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



69 

Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 1935. — Continued 

CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS 



City 



Cullman, Alu 

Deiuopolis, Ala 

Fort Payne, Ala 

Homewood, Ala 

Lanett. Ala 

Russell ville, Ala. 

Sheffield, Ala 

Sylacauga, Ala 

Tarrant City, Ala 

Bisbee, Ariz 

Douglas, Ariz 

Olobe, Ariz - 

Miami, Ariz 

Nogales, Ariz 

Prescott, Ariz 

Winslow, Ariz 

Batesville, Ark 

Helena, Ark 

Hope, Ark 

Marianna, Ark 

Newport, Ark 

Rogers, Ark 

Searcy, Ark 

Stamps, Ark_ 

Stuttgart, Ark 

Albany, Calif 

Antioch, Calif 

Arcadia, Calif 

Azusa, Calif 

BeU, Calif 

Calexico, Calif 

Chico, Calif 

Chino, Calif 

Chula Vista, Calif 

Claremont, Calif 

Coalinga, Calif 

Colton, Calif_ 

Corona, Calif 

Coronado, Calif 

Culver City, Calif 

Daly City, Calif 

Dinuba, Calif 

Dunsmuir, Calif 

El Centro, Calif 

El Ccrrito, Calif 

El Segundo, Calif 

Escondido, Calif 

Fillmore, Calif 

Fort Bragg, Calif 

Glendora, Calif.. 

Hawthorne, Calif 

Hay ward, Calif 

Hermosa Beach, Calif.. 

La Verne, Calif 

Lodi, Calif 

Lompoc, Calif--. 

Los Gatos, Calif 

Lynwood, Calif. 

Madera, Calif 

Maysville, Calif.. 

Maywood, Calif..- 

Mill Valley, Calif- 

Montebello, Calif 

Monterey, Calif.. 

Monterey Park, Calif.. 
Mountain View, Calif. 

Napa, Calif 

National City, Calif.... 

Needles, Calif.. 

Oceanside, Calif 

Orange, Calif 

Oroville, Calif.... 

Pacific Grove, Calif 

Petaluma. Calif 

Piedmont, Calif. 

Pittsburg, Calif , 

Porter viUe, Calif 



•2 
6 

U 
5 

10 
5 

22 

14 

10 
3 
4 

16 
5 
9 
3 
3 
2 
3 
9 
6 
7 
4 

3 
4 

11 

7 
6 
4 
9 

11 



9 

2 

4 

10 

4 

4 

8 

20 

9 

5 



Average 


Number 


number 


per 1.000 


of em- 


inliabi- 


ployees 


lants 


4 


1.4 


3 


.7 


7 


2.1 


5 


.8 


ti 


1.2 


2 


.(■) 


() 


1.0 


(i 


1.5 


ti 


.S 





. / 


10 


1.0 


5 


, 1 


4 


.5 


11 


1.8 


« 


1.5 


I 


1.8 


3 


. t 


(i 


. 1 





1.0 





1.4 


.') 


1. 1 


4 


1.1 





1.5 


2 


.7 


3 


.0 


5 


.() 


3 


.8 


11 


2.1 



.0 
1.0 

.9 

.6 
1.6 
4.0 
1.8 
1.2 

. 7 
4.1 
2.5 
1.3 
1.0 
1.5 
1.9 
1.3 
2.6 

.9 
1.0 

. 7 
1.1 
1.4 
1. 1 
1.5 
1.4 

.9 
1. 1 
1.3 
1.5 
1.3 
1.2 

.9 
1.0 
1.6 
1.2 
1.1 

.9 
M 
1.2 

.6 
]. 1 
1.2 
1.9 

. 7 
1.0 
2.1 

.9 

.9 



City 



Redding, Calif. 

Redondo Beach, Calif 

Redwood City, Calif 

Roseville, Calif 

San An.selmo, Calif 

San Bruno, Calif 

San Fernando, Calif - 

San Gabriel, Calif 

San Marino, Calif 

San Rafael, Calif 

Santa Maria, Calif... 

Santa Paula, Calif - 

Sausalito, Calif 

Sierra Madre, Calif 

Signal Hill, Calif 

South San Francisco, Calif. 

Sunnyvale, Calif 

Taft, Calif 

Torrance, Calif 

Tracy, Calif 

Tulare, CaUf .-. 

Upland, Calif 

Visalia, Calif 

Watsonville, Calif... - 

Woodland, Calif 

Alamosa, Colo 

Canon City, Colo 

Durango, Colo 

Englewood, Colo 

Fort Morgan, Colo... 

La Junta, Colo 

Longmont, Colo 

Loveland, Colo 

Montrose, Colo 

Rocky Ford, Colo 

Salida, Colo 

Sterling, Colo 

Danielson, Conn 

Groton Borough, Conn 

Putnam, Conn 

Southington, Conn 

Winsted, Conn 

Dover, Del 

Newark, Del 

New Castle, Del 

Avon Park, Fla 

Bradenton, Fla 

Clearwater, Fla 

Coral Gables, Fla 

Fort Lauderdale, Fla 

Fort Pierce, Fla 

Hollywood, Fla 

Kissimmee, Fla... 

Leesburg, Fla 

Miami Beach, Fla... 

Ocala, Fla 

Sarasota, Fla 

Winter Haven, Fla 

Americus, Ga 

Cartersville, Oa 

Dalton, Ga. 

Elherton, Ga 

Quitman, Ga 

Blackfoot, Idaho 

Emmett, Idaho 

Idaho Falls, Idaho 

Moscow, Idaho 

Nampa, Idaho 

Twin Falls, Idaho 

Anna, 111. 

Barrington, 111 

Batavia, 111 

Beardstown, 111 

Bellwood,Ill 

Belvidere, 111 

Bushnell, 111 

Carlia ville. 111... 



Average 


Number 


number 


per 1,000 


of em- 


inhabi- 


ployees 


tants 


5 


1.2 


12 


1.3 


11 


1.2 


/ 


1.1 


4 


.9 


9 


2.5 


11 


1.5 


10 


1.4 


IG 


4.3 


10 


1.2 


C 


.9 


5 


. 7 


4 


1.9 


4 


1.1 


5 


1.7 


t 


1.1 





1.6 


3 


.9 


12 


1.7 


6 


1.6 


8 


1.3 


5 


1.1 


7 


1.0 


9 


1.1 


6 


1.1 


4 


.8 


3 


.5 


5 


.9 


5 


.6 


5 


1.1 


4 


.6 


6 


1.0 


4 


.7 


3 


.8 


3 


.9 


3 


.6 


4 


.6 


2 


.5 


6 


1.5 


12 


1.6 


14 


2.7 


1 


.9 


i 


1.5 


15 


.8 


3 


. 7 


3 


.9 


4 


.7 


10 


1.3 


10 


1.8 


8 


.9 


5 


1.0 


6 


2.1 


3 


.9 


4 


1.0 


39 


6.0 


9 


1.2 


6 


.7 


6 


.8 


7 


.8 


4 


.8 


7 


.9 


5 


1.1 


4 


1.0 


3 


.9 


2 


.7 


10 


LI 


3 


.7 


7 


.9 


8 


.9 


2 


.6 


3 


.0 


4 


.8 


7 


1.1 


10 


2.0 


6 


.7 


3 


LI 


3 


.7 



70 



Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 19S5 — Continued 
CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Carbondale, 111 

Carmi, 111. 

Carterville, 111 

Clinton, 111 

DeKalb, 111 

Des Plaines, HI 

Dixon, 111 

Dolton, 111 

Downers Grove, 111. _ 

Duquoin, 111 

Dwight, lU 

East Alton, 111 

East Peoria, 111 

Edwardsville, 111 

Flora, 111 

Gillespie, 111 

Glencoe, 111 

Glen Ellyn, 111 

Highland, 111 

Highwood, 111 

Hillsboro, 111 

Hinsdale, 111 

Homewood, 111 

Hoopeston, HI 

Johnston City, 111 

Kenilworth, 111 

Lake Forest, 111 

Lemont, 111 

Litchfield, 111 

Lombard, 111 

Lyons, 111 

Macomb, 111 

Madison, 111 

Mount Carmel, 111.-. 

Naperville, 111 

Normal, 111 

North Chicago, Ill._. 

Pana, 111 

Paris, 111 

Peoria Heights, 111. . . 

Peru, 111 

Pinckneyville, 111 

Pontiac, 111 

River Forest, 111 

Riverside, 111 

Robinson, 111 

Rochelle, ni 

Silvis, 111 

Taylorville, 111 

Venice, 111 

Villa Park, 111 

Watseka, 111 

Westville, 111 

Wheaton, 111 

Zion, 111- 

Attica, Ind-. -._ 

Auburn, Ind 

Beech Grove, Ind 

Bicknell, Ind _. 

Bluflton, Ind_ 

Boonville, Ind 

Brazil, Ind 

Clinton, Ind 

Columbus, Ind 

Franklin, Ind 

Greencastle, Ind 

Hartford City, Ind.. 
Huntingburg, Ind... 

Jasonville, Ind 

Kendallvilb, Ind.... 
Lawrenceburg, Ind.. 

Lebanon, Ind 

Linton, Ind 

Madison, Ind 

Martinsville, Ind. . . 

Mitchell, Ind 

Mount Vernon, Ind. 



.\verage 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



5 
2 
2 
5 
9 
9 
8 
4 
8 
5 
3 
3 
9 
6 
4 
7 

10 

25 
3 
9 
4 

10 
4 
3 
4 
9 

14 
2 
4 
7 
3 
9 
9 
3 
7 
C 
5 
4 
7 

11 
5 
2 
4 

16 

10 
8 
4 
2 

5 

7 
5 
4 
2 
8 
6 
4 
3 
5 
4 



5 
5 
10 
4 
5 
3 
1 
2 
4 
5 
4 
4 
5 
3 
3 
3 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



.7 

.7 

.7 

.8 

1.1 

1.0 

.8 

1.4 

.9 

. 7 

1.2 

.7 

1.8 

1.0 

.9 

1.4 

1.6 

3.3 

.9 

2.5 

.9 

1.4 

1.2 

.5 

.7 

3.6 

2.1 

.8 

.6 

1.1 

.6 

1.1 

1.2 

.4 

L4 

.9 

.6 

. 7 

.8 

3.4 

.5 

.7 

.5 

1.8 

1.5 

2.2 

1.1 



1.3 
.8 

1.3 
.5 

1.1 

1.0 

1.1 
.6 

1.4 
.8 

1.2 
.5 
.6 
.6 

1.0 
. 7 

1.1 
.5 
.3 
.6 
.7 

1.2 
.6 
.8 
.8 
.6 
.9 
.6 



City 



Noblesville, Ind 

Petersburg, Ind 

Salem, Ind 

Sullivan, Ind 

Valparaiso, Ind 

Wabash, Ind 

West Lafayette, Ind. . . 

Winchester, Ind 

Algona, Iowa 

Atlantic, Iowa 

Belle Plaine, Iowa 

Centerville, Iowa 

Charles City, Iowa 

Clarinda, Iowa 

Clarion, Iowa 

Creston, Iowa 

Decorah, Iowa 

Fairfield, Iowa 

Mount Pleasant, Iowa. 

Shenandoah, Iowa 

Spencer, Iowa 

Washington, Iowa 

Webster City, Iowa 

Abilene, Kans 

.\ugusta, Kans 

Baxter Springs, Kans. . 

Caney, Kans 

Concordia, Kans 

Eureka, Kans 

Garden City, Kans 

Garnett, Kans 

Goodland, Kans 

Great Bend, Kans 

Hays, Kans 

Herington, Kans 

Hoisington, Kans 

Holton, Kans 

lola, Kans 

Junction City, Kans. .. 

Kingman, Kans 

Liberal, Kans 

Marysville, Kans 

McPherson, Kans 

Osawatomie, Kans 

Ottawa, Kans 

Pratt, Kans _ . 

Wellington, Kans 

Winfield, Kans 

Catlettsburg, Ky 

Danville, Ky 

Dayton, Ky 

Georgetown, Ky 

Glasgow, Ky 

Harrodsburg, Ky 

Jenkins, Ky 

Lebanon, Ky 

Ludlow Ky 

Winchester, Ky 

Haynesville, La 

Homer, La 

Natchitoches, La _ 

New Iberia, La 

Pineville, La 

Tallulah, La 

Bath, Maine 

Belfast, Maine 

Calais, Maine 

Fort Fairfield, Maine. 

Gardiner, Maine 

Old Town, Maine 

Rockland, Maine 

Saco, Maine 

Frostburg, Md 

Takoma Park, Md 

Abington, Mass 

Andover, Mass -. 



Average 


Number 


number 


per 1,000 


of em- 


inhabi- 


ployees 


tants 


4 


.8 


2 


.8 


3 


.9 


3 


.6 


8 


1.0 


8 


.9 


5 


1.0 


3 


.7 


3 


.8 


3 


.5 


3 


.9 


6 


.7 


5 


.6 


3 


.6 


5 


1.9 


6 


.7 


4 


.9 


3 


.5 


4 


1.1 


4 


.6 


3 


.6 


6 


1.2 


8 


1.1 


3 


.5 


6 


1.5 


4 


.9 


4 


L4 


4 


.7 


3 


A 


5 


.8 


3 


1.1 


3 


.8 


4 


. 1 


3 


.6 


2 


A 


2 


.7 


2 


. / 


6 


.8 


fi 


A 


4 


1.5 


4 


.% 


3 




6 


l.C 


3 




4 


.6 


4 


. I. 


8 


c 


4 


.i 


7 


l.C 


5 


A 


5 


l.i 


( 


1.4 


5 


1.2 


4 


1.: 


4 


A 


6 


. 


2 


A 


3 


l.C 


8 


\A 


6 


. 


2 


A 


4 


1. ; 


8 


< 


3 


.( 


/ 


1.; 


5 


l.S 


8 


1.' 


17 


2.: 


35 


3.< 


5 




4 


. 


t 


1. 


6 


i.( 


11 


1. 



71 



Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 1936 — Continued 
CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Auburn, Mass 

Ayer, Mass 

Barnstable, Mass 

Bridgewater, Mass.. 

Canton, Mass 

Dalton, Mass 

Dartmouth, Mass 

Franklin, Mass 

Great Barrington, Mass 

Hinpham, Mass - 

Hudson, Mass 

Ipswich, Mass — 

Lexington, Mass 

Ludlow, Mass 

Marblehead, Mass 

Middleborough, Mass 

Montague, Mass. 

Nantucket, Mass. 

North Andover, Miass 

Northbridge, Mass - 

Orange, 3V ass.. 

Palmer, Mass 

Randolph, Mass 

Reading, Mass 

Rockland, Mass 

Rockport, Mass 

Somerset, Mass. 

South Hadley, Mass 

Stoughton, Mass 

Uxbridge, Mass 

Walpole, Mass. 

Ware, Mass 

Winchendon, Mass 

Albion, Mich 

Alma, Mich 

Belding, Mich 

Berkley, Mich 

Bessemer, Mich 

Big Rapids, Mich 

Birmingham, Mich. 

Cadillac, Mich 

Caro, Mich 

Centerline, Mich 

Charlotte, Mich 

Cheboygan, Mich 

Clawson, Mich 

Coldwater, Mich 

Crystal Falls, Mich 

Dowagiac, Mich 

Durand, Mich 

East Detroit, Mich 

East Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

East Lansing, Mich.. 

Eaton Rapids, Mich 

Gladstone, Mich 

Grand Haven, Mich 

Grand Ledge, Mich 

(ireenville, Mich 

Grosse Pointe, Mich — 

Grosse Pointe Farms, Mich- 
Hancock, Mich 

Hastings, Mich 

Howell, Mich... 

Ionia, Mich 

Iron River, Mich 

Ishpeming, Mich 

Kingsford, Mich 

Lapeer, Alich. 

Laurium, Mich... 

Ludington, Mich 

Manistee, Mich 

Manisticjue, Mich 

Marine City, Mich 

Marshall, Mich 

Melvindale, Mich — 

Midland, Mich. 

Mount Pleasant, Mich 



Average 


Number 


number 


per 1,000 


of em- 


inhabi- 


ployees 


tants 


10 


1.6 


3 


1.0 


17 


2.3 


9 


1.0 


fi 


1.0 


2 


.5 


16 


1.8 


C 


.9 


6 


1.0 


11 


1.7 


7 


.8 


10 


1.8 


16 


1.7 


9 


1.0 


23 


2.7 


9 


1.0 


4 


.5 


5 


1.4 


5 


.7 


14 


1.4 


11 


2. 1 


12 


1.3 


4 


.6 


18 


l.S 


5 


.7 


5 


1.4 


3 


.6 


5 


.7 


6 


.7 


7 


1.1 


9 


1.2 


4 


.5 


10 


1.6 


4 


.5 


4 


.6 


1 


.2 


6 


1.1 


/ 


1.7 


6 


1.3 


15 


1.6 


6 


.6 


6 


2.3 


4 


1.5 


4 


.8 


3 


.6 


3 


.9 


8 


1.2 


5 


1.7 


3 


.5 


1 


.3 





1.0 


5 


1.2 


4 


.9 


3 


1.1 


3 


.6 


5 


.6 


5 


1.4 


3 


.6 


15 


2.9 


in 


4.5 


5 


.9 


2 


.4 


3 


.8 


3 


.5 


3 


.6 


8 


.9 


4 


.7 


2 


.4 


3 


.6 


6 


.7 


5 


.6 


7 


1.3 


'1 


.0 


4 


.8 


i 


1.7 


4 


.5 


4 


.8 




Munising, Mich.. 

Negaunee, Mich 

Northville, Mich 

Norway, Mich 

Petosky, Mich 

Pleasant Ridge, Mich 

Plymouth, Mich 

Rochester, Mich 

Roseville, Mich 

St. Clair, Mich 

St. Clair Shores, Mich 

St. Joseph, Mich. 

South Haven, Mich 

Sturgis, Mich 

Three Rivers, Mich 

Trenton, Mich 

Wakefield, Mich 

Wayne, Mich 

Alexandria, Minn 

Anoka, Minn 

Bemidji, Minn 

Blue Earth, Minn 

Chisholm, Minn 

Crookston, M inn 

Crosby, Minn 

Detroit Lakes, Minn 

East Grand Forks, Minn. 

Edina, Minn 

Ely, Minn 

Eveleth, Minn 

Fairmont, Minn. 

Fergus Falls, M inn 

GUbert, Minn 

Grand Rapids, Minn 

Hastings, Minn 

International Falls, Minn 

Lake City, Minn 

Litchfield, Minn 

Little Falls, Minn 

Marshall, Minn 

Montevideo, Minn 

Nashwauk, Minn 

New Ulm, Minn 

Northfield, Minn 

North Mankato, Minn 

Owatonna, Minn 

Pipestone, Minn 

Proctorknott, Minn 

Red Wing, Minn 

Robbinsdale, Minn 

Sauk Center, Minn 

Sauk Rapids, Minn. 

Sleepy Eye, Minn 

Thief River Falls, Minn. . 

Tracy, Minn... 

Two Harbors, Minn 

Wadena, Minn 

Waseca, Minn 

Worthington, Minn 

Aurora, Mo 

Boonville, Mo 

Cameron, Mo 

Carrollton, Mo 

Carthage, iMo 

Clayton, Mo 

Clinton, Mo 

DeSoto, Mo 

Excelsior Springs, Mo 

Higginsville, Mo 

Kirkwood, Mo.. — 

Marceline, Mo , 

Marshall, Mo 

Maryville, Mo 

Monett, Mo 

Nevada, Mo 

Washington, Mo.. 

Bozeman, Mont 



Average 


Number 


number 


per 1,000 


of em- 


inhabi- 


ployees 


tants 


3 


.8 


8 


1.2 


7 


2.7 


3 


.7 


i 


.7 





2.1 


/ 


1.6 


1 


.3 


5 


.7 


3 


.9 


9 


1.3 


7 


.8 


4 


.8 


7 


1.0 


7 


1.0 


7 


1.7 


6 


1.6 


5 


1.5 


3 


.8 


3 


.6 


6 


.8 


2 


.7 


14 


1.7 


6 


.9 


3 


.9 


4 


1.1 


5 


1.7 


3 


1.0 


24 


3.9 


20 


2.7 


4 


.7 


4 


.4 


5 


1.8 


3 


.9 


4 


.8 


4 


.8 


3 


.9 


9 


.7 


5 


1.0 


3 


.9 


3 


.7 


6 


2.3 


4 


.5 


3 


.7 


4 


1.4 


8 


1.0 


3 


.9 


1 


.4 


9 


.9 


4 


.9 


3 


1.1 


1 


.4 


3 


1.2 


3 


.7 


2 


.8 


5 


1.1 


4 


1.6 


3 


.8 


3 


.8 


3 


.8 


4 


.6 


3 


.9 


3 


.7 


5 


.5 


20 


2.1 


5 


.9 


3 


.6 


5 


1.1 


3 


.9 


9 


L6 


3 


.8 


5 


.6 


4 


.8 


4 


1.0 


8 


1.1 


4 


.7 


6 


.9 



72 



Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 1935 — Continued 
CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Havre, Mont 

Kalispell, Mont 

Lewistown, Mont 

Livingston, Mont 

Roundup, Mont 

Alliance, Nebr 

Aurora, Nebr 

Chadron, Nebr 

Fairbury, Nebr 

Falls City, Nebr 

Kearney, Nebr 

McCook, Nebr 

Nebraska City, Nebr 

Scottsbluff, Nebr 

Schuyler, Nebr 

Wahoo, Nebr 

York, Nebr 

Boulder City, Nev 

Elko,Nev 

Las Vegas, Nev 

Sparks, Nev 

Derry Town, N. H 

Exeter, N. H 

Littleton, N. H 

Milford, N. H 

Newport, N. H 

Petersboro, N. H 

Somersworth, N. H 

Audubon, N. J 

Bernardsville, N. J 

Bogota, N. J 

Boonton, N. J 

Bound Brook, N. J 

Bradley Beach, N. J 

Butler, N.J 

Cape May, N. J 

Carlstadt, N. J 

Clementon, N.J 

Dunellen, N. J 

Edgewater, N.J 

Fairlawn, N. J 

Fairview, N. J 

Flemington, N. J 

Fort Lee, N. J 

Freehold, N. J 

Garwood, N. J 

Glassboro, N. J --- 

Glen Ridge, N. J 

Glen Rock, N.J 

Guttenberg, N. J 

Hackettstown, N.J 

Haddonfleld, N. J 

Haddon Heights, N. J. _ . 

Hammonton, N.J 

Hasbrouck Heights, N.J. 

Highland Park, N. J 

Hightstown, N. J 

Keyport, N. J 

Leonia, N. J 

Madison, N. J 

Manville, N. J 

Margate City, N. J 

Maywood, N. J 

Merchantville, N. J 

Metuchen, N. J 

Middlesex, N. J 

New Milford, N. J 

Newton, N. J 

Northfield, N. J 

North Plainfleld, N. J--. 

Ocean City, N. J 

Penns Grove, N. J.. 

Pitman, N. J 

Pompton Lakes, N.J — 

Prospect Park, N. J 

Ramsey, N. J... — 

Rockaway, N. J 

Roselle Park, N. J 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



6 
4 
7 
6 
1 
5 
3 
3 
4 
6 
6 
3 
4 
8 
4 
2 

5 
10 

3 
12 

6 

5 



5 

6 
11 
13 

5 
11 

6 

8 
11 

5 

9 

9 

1 

5 

24 
12 
U 

2 
25 

4 

9 

3 
21 

7 
11 

2 

16 
10 

5 

12 
10 

5 

5 
13 
10 

3 
15 



14 
7 

14 
3 
9 

29 
6 
7 
8 
8 
6 
4 

10 



.9 

. 7 

1.3 

.9 

.4 

.7 

1.1 

.7 

.6 

1.0 

. 7 

.4 

.6 

.9 

1.5 

.7 

.9 

1.1 

.9 

2.3 

1.3 

1.0 

1.4 

1.8 

1.7 

1.1 

2.4 



City 



1.5 
.9 
1.1 
3.3 
1.5 
3.4 
1.7 
.4 



1.0 
5.9 
2.0 
1.2 

.7 
2.9 

.6 
2.7 



2.9 
1.6 
1.7 

.7 
1.8 
1.9 

.7 
2.1 
1.2 
1.7 
1.0 
2.4 
1.3 

.6 
5.1 
1.8 
2.2 
1.2 
4.0 
2.7 
2.6 
1.1 

.9 
5.2 
1.0 
1.3 
2.6 
1.4 
1.8 
1.3 

1.1 



Salem, N. J 

Sayreville, N. J 

Secaucus, N.J 

Somerville, N. J 

South Plainfleld, N.J 

Tenafly,N. J 

Verona, N.J 

Vineland, N. J 

Westwood, N. J 

Wildwood, N. J 

Woodbury, N. J 

Wood Ridge, N. J 

Carlsbad, N. M 

Clovis, N.M 

Deming, N. M 

Raton, N. Mex 

Albion, N.Y 

Amityville, N. Y 

Babylon, N.Y 

Bronxville, N. Y 

Canandaigua, N. Y 

Canastota, N.Y 

Canisteo, N. Y, 

Canton, N. Y 

Catskill,N. Y 

Cedarhurst, N. Y 

Depew, N. Y 

Dobbs Ferry, N. Y 

Dolgeville, N. Y 

East Rochester, N. Y 

East Rockaway, N. Y 

Ellen ville, N. Y 

Elmsford, N. Y 

Farmingdale, N. Y 

Fort Edward, N.Y- - _ 

Fort Plain, N. Y 

Frankfort, N.Y 

Fredonia, N. Y 

Garden City, N. Y 

Goshen, N.Y 

Gowanda, N. Y 

Greenport, N. Y 

Hamburg, N. Y 

Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Haverstraw, N. Y 

Highland Falls, N. Y 

Hudson Falls, N. Y 

Ilion, N. Y 

Irvington, N. Y _-- 

Lake Placid, N. Y 

Lancaster, N. Y 

Larchmont, N. Y 

Lawrence, N. Y 

Liberty, N. Y 

Lindenhurst, N. Y 

Long Beach, N. Y 

Lowville, N. Y 

Malone, N.Y 

Mechanicville, N. Y 

Medina, N.Y 

Monticello, N. Y 

Newark, N.Y 

North Pelham, N. Y 

Northport, N. Y 

North Tarry town, N. Y. .. 

Norwich, N. Y 

Nyack,N. Y.. 

Owego, N. Y --. 

Patchogue, N. Y 

Pelham Manor, N. Y 

Penn Yan, N. Y 

Perry,N.Y 

Pleasantville, N.Y 

Rye,N.Y 

Salamanca, N. Y 

Saranac Lake, N. Y 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



15 
11 

S 

u 

12 

12 

8 

14 

13 

8 

4 

7 

3 

3 

5 

11 

8 

21 

9 

4 

2 

4 

6 

14 

6 

9 

4 

3 

12 
6 
6 
6 
2 
9 
3 
5 
30 
5 
4 
6 
5 
II 
7 
2 
5 
6 
9 
6 
5 
16 
27 
6 
6 
50 
4 



6 

4 
13 
14 

4 
16 

7 
15 

4 
14 
22 

4 

3 
13 
31 
14 

6 



1.0 
.9 
1.7 
1.3 
1.6 
1.9 
1.7 
L6 
L6 
2.6 
1.6 
1.6 
1.1 
.9 
.9 
.5 
1.0 
2.5 
1.8 
3.3 
1.2 
.9 
.8 
L4 
1.2 
2.8 
.9 
1.6 
1.2 
.5 
2.8 
1.8 
2.0 
1.8 
.5 
3.3 
.7 
.9 
4.2 
1.7 
1.3 
3.0 
1.0 
1.5 
1.2 
.7 
.8 
.6 
2.9 
2.0 
.7 
3.0 
8.9 
L8 
1.5 
8.6 
1.2 
.8 
.8 
1.0 
1.2 
1.7 
2.9 
1.6 
2.2 
.8 
2.8 
.8 
2.0 
4.5 
.8 
.7 
2.9 
3.6 
1.5 
.7 



73 



Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 1935 — Continued 
CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Saupcrties, N. Y 

Searsdale, N. Y.. 

Scotia, N. Y 

Sea ClifT, N. Y... 

Seneca Falls, N. Y 

Solvay, N. Y 

SprinK Valley, N. Y 

Sprinsville, N. Y 

SufTern, N. Y.-_ 

Tarrytown, N. Y 

Tuckahoe, N. Y 

Tupper Lake, N. Y 

Walden, N. Y.... 

Warsaw, N.Y 

Watkins, Glen, N. Y 

Waverly, N. Y 

Wellsville, N. Y.. 

West Haverstraw, N. Y 

WhitehaU, N. Y 

Asheboro, N. C 

Forest City, N. C 

Hendersouville, N. C 

Le.xington, N. C 

Lumberton, N. C... 

Mount Airy, N. C 

Mount Olive, N. C 

Reids villa, N. C 

Southern Pines, N. C 

Washinfjton, N. C 

Devils Lake, N. Dak 

Dickinson, N. Dak.. 

Jamestown, N. Dak 

Mandan, N. Dak 

Valley Citv, N. Dak_ 

Willi.<;ton, N. Dak 

Barnesville, Ohio 

Bedford, Ohio 

Bellefontaine, Ohio 

Bellevue, Ohio 

Bridgeport, Ohio 

Bryan, Ohio 

Carey, Ohio 

Celina, Ohio 

Cheviot, Ohio 

Circleville, Ohio 

Conneaut, Ohio. 

Crestline, Ohio. 

Crooksviile, Ohio 

Defiance, Ohio... 

Delaware, Ohio 

Delphos, Ohio... 

Dennison, Ohio. 

Dover, Ohio. 

East Palestine, Ohio 

Eaton, Ohio.- 

Fair|)ort Harbor, Ohio 

Franklin, Ohio.. 

Gallon, Ohio 

Geneva, Ohio 

Oirard, Ohio... 

Olouster, Ohio... 

Grandview Heights, Ohio. 

Greenville, Ohio. 

Hillsboro, Ohio 

Hubbard, Ohio 

Jackson, Ohio 

Kent, Ohio 

Kenton, Ohio 

Lebanon, Ohio.. 

Lisbon, Ohio 

Lockland, Ohio 

Logan, Ohio 

Maple Heights, Ohio 

Maumee, Ohio 

Miamisburg, Ohio 

Minerva, Ohio 



.\verage 


Number 


number 


per 1,00(1 


of em- 


inhabi- 


ployees 


tants 


5 


1.2 


22 


2.3 


8 


1.1 


5 


1.4 


4 


.(', 


14 


l.h 


6 


!..'■> 


3 


1.2 


11 


2.1) 


17 


2. .5 


14 


2.3 


4 


.8 


9 


2.1 


3 


.9 


2 


. ( 


4 


. ( 


4 


. / 


7 


2.5 


3 


.f, 


4 


.8 


4 


1.0 


8 


1.6 


8 


.8 


6 


1.4 


8 


1.3 


2 


. ( 


10 


1.4 


3 


1.2 


7 


1.0 


3 


.0 


6 


1.2 


6 


.7 


3 


.6 


4 


.8 


3 


.6 


3 


.7 


4 


.6 


4 


.4 


7 


1.1 


3 


.6 


4 


.9 


3 


1.1 


2 


.4 


I 


.9 


5 


.7 


fi 


.6 


fi 


1.4 


1 


.3 


4 


.5 


6 


.8 


4 


. 1 


5 


1.1 


8 


.8 


2 


.4 


2 


.6 


6 


1.2 


2 


.4 


5 


. 7 


5 


1,3 


7 


.7 


1 


.3 


5 


.8 


4 


.6 


6 


l.,5 


3 


.7 


3 


.5 


t 


.8 


6 


.8 


2 


.6 


2 


.6 


6 


1.1 


3 


..'■) 


7 


1.2 


4 


.9 


4 


.7 


2 


.7 



City 



Mingo Junction, Ohio .. 

Montpelier, Ohio 

Mount Healthy, Ohio 

Mount Vernon, Ohio _. 

New Boston, Ohio 

North Canton, Ohio 

North College Hill, Ohio 

Norwalk, Ohio 

Oakwood, Ohio 

Oberlin, Ohio 

Pomeroy, Ohio 

Port Clinton, Ohio 

Ravenna, Ohio.. 

Reading, Ohio. 

Itocky River, Ohio 

St. Bernard, Ohio. 

St. Marys, Ohio.. 

Sebring, Ohio 

Shadvside, Ohio 

Shelby, Ohio 

Sidney, Ohio 

South Euclid, Ohio 

Tippecanoe City, Ohio 

Toronto, Ohio 

Troy, Ohio... 

Uhrichsville, Ohio 

Urbana, Ohio 

Van Wert, Ohio 

Wadsworth, Ohio 

Washington Court House, 

Ohio 

Wellston, Ohio 

Westerville, Ohio 

Wilmington, Ohio 

Wyoming, Ohio 

Alva, Okla 

Blackwell, Okla 

Bristow, Okla 

Chandler, Okla 

Claremore, Okla 

Commerce, Okla _ 

Cushing, Okla 

Drumright, Okla 

Duncan, Okla 

Durant, Okla... 

Edmond, Okla 

Elk City, Okla 

El Reno, Okla 

Frederick, Okla 

Guthrie, Okla 

Henryetta, Okla 

Hobart, Okla 

Uoldenville, Okla 

Hominy, Okla 

Hugo, Okla 

Kingfisher, Okla 

Mangum, Okla 

Marlow, Okla 

Maud, Okla 

Miami, Okla 

Norman, Okla 

Pawhuska, Okla 

Pawnee, Okla 

Stillwater, Okla 

Tonkawa, Okla 

Vinita, Okla 

Albany, Oreg 

Ashland, Oreg.. 

Bend, Oreg 

Burns, Oreg 

Corvallis, Oreg 

Hood River, Oreg 

La Grande, Oreg.. 

Marshfield, Oreg 

The Dalles, Oreg 

Ambler, Pa 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



3 
5 

11 
2 
6 
5 

15 
4 
4 
3 
4 
8 
7 

12 
3 
2 
3 
5 
5 
4 
5 
4 
6 
5 
6 
5 
4 

5 
4 
2 
4 
12 
3 
6 
4 
3 
4 
2 



4 
4 
3 

10 
5 
9 
5 
7 
5 
3 
3 
5 
4 
3 
2 
6 

10 
7 
2 
6 
5 
5 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



1.2 

.5 
.8 
.5 

1.9 
.8 

1.4 
.6 

2.3 
.9 

1.1 
.7 
.5 

1.4 

1.2 

1.6 
.6 
.5 
.7 
.8 
.5 
.9 

2.0 
.6 
.7 
.8 
.8 
.6 
.7 

.6 
.8 
.7 
.8 

3.2 
.6 
.6 
.6 

1.1 

1.1 
.8 
.8 
.4 
.8 
.5 

1.1 
.5 

1.1 

1.1 
.9 
.6 

1.4 
.7 
.9 
.6 

1.8 
.8 

1.0 
.5 
. 7 

1.0 

1.2 
.8 
.9 

1.5 

1.2 
.9 

1. 1 
.6 

1.5 
.5 

1.1 
.6 

1.5 

1.2 
.8 



74 



Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 1935 — Continued 
CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Apollo, Pa 

Ashley, Pa 

Avalon, Pa 

Bangor, Pa 

Barnesboro, Pa 

Beaver, Pa 

Bedford, Pa 

Bellefonte, Pa 

Blairsvllle, Pa 

Boyertown, Pa 

Brentwood, Pa 

Brockway, Pa 

Brookville, Pa 

Camp Hill, Pa 

Catasauqua, Pa 

Clearfield, Pa 

Clymer, Pa 

Coaldale, Pa 

Corry, Pa 

Dale, Pa 

Dallastown, Pa 

Danville, Pa 

Derry, Pa 

Doylestown, Pa 

Dupont, Pa 

Duryea, Pa 

East Conemaugh, Pa... 
East McKeesport, Pa__. 
East Stroudsburg, Pa... 

Ebensburg, Pa... .- 

Edge wood, Pa 

Edwardsv'lle, Pa 

Elizabethtown, Pa 

Emails, Pa 

Ephrata, Pa 

Ford City, Pa 

Forest City, Pa 

Fountain Hill, Pa 

Freedom, Pa 

Freeport, Pa 

Oallitzin, Pa 

Glenolden, Pa 

Oreencastle, Pa 

Greenville, Pa 

Grove City, Pa 

Hellertown, Pa 

Hollidaysburg, Pa 

Honesdale, Pa 

Huntingdon, Pa 

Indiana, Pa 

Irwin, Pa 

Jenkintown, Pa 

Kittanning, Pa 

Kutztown, Pa 

Lansdale, Pa 

Lansdowne, Pa 

Leechburg, Pa 

Lehighton, Pa 

Lititz, Pa 

Lock Haven, Pa 

Luzerne, Pa 

McAdoo, Pa 

McDonald, Pa 

Marcus Hook, Pa 

Masontown, Pa 

Mechanicsburg, Pa 

Midland, Pa 

Milton, Pa 

Monaca, Pa 

Mount Joy, Pa 

Mount Penn, Pa 

Mount Pleasant, Pa 

Nanty Glo, Pa 

Nazareth, Pa.-. 

New Cumberland, Pa.. 

Northampton, Pa 

North Bellevemon, Pa- 
North East, Pa 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



1 

4 
12 

4 

3 

4 

2 

3 

3 

2 

6 

1 

2 

3 

5 

3 

2 

3 

5 

3 

2 

3 

3 

3 

4 

4 

9 

3 

2 

2 

19 

5 
2 

15 
3 
4 

13 
4 
2 
1 
3 
5 
1 
4 
3 
4 
9 
4 
3 
7 
3 

17 
6 
2 
4 

11 
1 
4 
3 
7 
4 
3 
2 
5 
3 
4 
6 
3 
3 
2 
2 
3 
2 
4 
2 
3 
1 
3 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



.3 

.6 

2.0 

.7 

.9 

.7 

.7 

.6 

.6 

.5 

1.1 

.4 

.5 

1.0 

1.0 

.3 

.7 

.4 

.7 

.9 

. 7 

.4 

1.0 

.7 

.8 

.5 

1.8 

1.0 

.3 

.7 

2.1 

.6 

.5 

2.3 

.6 

.7 

2.5 

.9 

.6 

.4 

.9 

1.1 

.4 

.5 

.5 

1.0 

1.5 

.7 

.4 

. 7 

.1) 



.5 
1.2 
.2 
.6 
.7 
.7 
.6 
.6 
.0 
1.0 
.8 
.7 
1.0 
.4 
.0 
.7 
. 7 
.5 
.4 



City 



Oakmont, Pa 

Palmerton, Pa 

Patton, Pa 

Pen Argyl, Pa 

Portage, Pa 

Punxsutawney, Pa 

Rankin, Pa 

Reynoldsville, Pa 

Ridgway, Pa 

Roaring Spring, Pa 

Rochester, Pa 

St. Clair, Pa 

St. Marys, Pa 

Sayre, Pa 

Sharpsburg, Pa 

Sharpsville, Pa 

Shillington, Pa 

Shippensburg, Pa 

Slatington, Pa 

South Connellsville, Pa. 

South Fork, Pa 

Spangler, Pa 

Spring City, Pa 

Springdale, Pa 

State College, Pa 

Stroudsburg, Pa 

Summit Hill, Pa 

Swarthmore, Pa 

Throop, Pa 

Titus ville, Pa 

Trafford, Pa 

Tyrone, Pa 

LTpland, Pa 

Waynesburg, Pa 

Weatherly, Pa 

Westmont, Pa. _ 

West Newton, Pa 

West Pittston, Pa 

West Reading, Pa 

West view, Pa 

West York, Pa 

Wilmerding, Pa 

Windber, Pa 

Wyomissing, Pa 

Yeadon, Pa 

Youngwood, Pa 

Barrington, R. I 

Burrillville, R. I 

East Greenwich, R. I... 

Eau Claire, S. C 

Marion, S. C _. 

Newberry, S. C 

York, S. C 

Hot Springs, S. Dak 

Lead, S. Dak 

Mobridge, S. Dak 

Yankton, S. Dak 

Alcoa, Tenn 

Cleveland, Tenn 

Covington, Tenn 

Elizabethton, Tenn 

Breckenridge, Tex 

Bryan, Tex 

Burkburnett, Tex 

Cisco, Tex 

Coleman, Tex 

Eastland, Tex 

Electra, Tex 

Jasper, Tex 

Kerrville, Tex 

McKinney, Tex 

Mexia, Tex 

Midland, Tex 

Mineral Wells, Tex 

Mineola, Tex 

Plainview, Tex 

Ranger, Tex,. 

Stamford, Tex 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 




7 
1 
3 
7 
4 
12 
2 
3 
2 



3 
3 
8 
2 
4 
3 
6 
1 
1 
1 
2 
4 
1 
3 
2 
6 
7 
7 
3 
3 
2 
2 
1 
4 
1 
6 
11 
5 
2 

6 
3 
5 

12 
2 
3 
3 
6 
2 
3 
9 
4 
7 
4 
3 
5 
2 
6 
3 
7 
5 
8 
3 
7 
3 
3 
8 
2 
5 

13 
3 
2 
6 
2 
6 
5 
4 



Number 
per 1.000 
inhabi- 
tants 



1.2 
. 5 
.6 

1. 1 
.6 

1. 1 

1.8 
.5 
.4 

1.0 
.6 
.7 
.8 

1.0 



75 



Table 38. — Number of police department employees, 1935 — Continued 
CITIES WITH LESS THAN 10,000 INHABITANTS— Continued 



City 



Victoria, Tex 

Weslaco, Tex 

American Fork, Utah... 
Bingham Canyon, Utah 

Brigham City, Utah 

Eureka, Utah 

Helper, Utah 

Logan, Utah 

Murray, Utah 

Nephi, Utah 

Park City, Utah 

Price, Utah 

Richfield, Utah. 

Springville, Utah 

Tooele, Utah 

Bennington Village, Vt. 

Brattleboro, Vt 

Montpelier, Vt 

Newport, Vt 

Proctor, Vt 

St. Albans, Vt.. 

St. Johnsbury, Vt 

Springfield, Vt 

Windsor, Vt 

Winooski, Vt. 

Covington, Va 

Franklin, Va 

Qalax, V^a 

Hampton, Va 

Harrisonburg, Va 

Norton, Va 

Salem, Va ^ 

Waynesboro, Va 

Anacortes, Wash... 

Centralia, Wash 

Cle Elum, Wash 

Colfax, Wash 

Kelso, Wash 

Puyallup, Wash 

Benwood, W. Va _ 

Buckhannon, W. Va 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



3 
3 
2 
3 

4 
3 
4 

7 
4 
3 
4 
4 
4 
3 
3 

11 
4 

10 
9 
1 
3 
8 
5 
4 
3 
4 
5 
4 
9 
9 
4 
6 
8 
3 
8 
4 
3 
4 
5 
7 
3 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



.4 
.6 

.7 

.9 

.8 

1.0 

1.5 



1.2 

.9 

1.0 

1.3 

.8 

.6 

1.5 

.5 

1.3 

1.8 

.4 

.4 

1.0 

1.0 

1.1 

.6 

.6 

1.7 

1.6 

1.4 

1.2 

1.3 

1.2 



.7 

1.7 

.7 



City 



Chester, W. Va 

FoUansbee, W. Va 

Qrafton, W. Va 

Hinton, W. Va 

HoUidays Cove, W. Va. 

Keyser, W. Va 

Logan, W. Va 

McMechen, W. Va 

St. Albans, W^ Va 

South Charleston, W. Va 

Wellsburg, W. Va 

Weston, W.Va,._ 

Williamson, W. Va. 

Antigo, Wis 

Burlington, Wis 

Chippewa Falls, Wis 

Columbus, Wis 

Edgerton, Wis 

Fort Atkinson, Wis 

JetTerson, Wis 

Kaukauna, Wis 

Ladysmith, Wis 

Menomonie, Wis 

Merrill, Wis 

Monroe, Wis 

Neenah, Wis 

Oconto, Wis.- 

Reedsburg, Wis.. 

Rhinelander, Wis 

Sparta, Wis 

Sturgeon Bay, Wis 

Tomah, Wis 

Tomahawk, Wis 

Viroqua, Wis 

Waupun, Wis 

West Bend, Wis 

West Milwaukee, Wis — 

Whitefish Bay, Wis- 

Wisconsin Rapids, Wis. _ 

Laramie, Wyo 

Sheridan, Wyo 



Average 
number 
of em- 
ployees 



1 
3 
7 
4 
8 
3 
5 
2 
3 
3 
3 
5 
10 
5 
5 
9 
5 
3 
4 
5 
5 
2 
5 
7 
6 
9 
2 
3 
4 
5 
4 
3 
2 
4 
3 
5 
11 
13 
10 
6 



Number 
per 1,000 
inhabi- 
tants 



.3 
.6 
.9 
.6 

1.8 
.5 

1.1 
.5 
.9 
.5 
.5 
.6 

1.1 
.6 

1.2 
.9 

2.0 

1.0 
.7 

1.9 
.8 
.6 
.9 
.8 

1.2 

1.0 
.4 

1.0 
.5 

1.0 
.8 
.9 
.7 

1.4 
.5 

1.1 

2.6 

2.4 

1.1 
.7 
.8 



Relation Between Average Crime Rates and Average Number of Police 
Employees, 

In table 39 there is shown the relation between average crime rates 
and the average number of police employees based on data received 
for 1935 from the police departments of 88 cities, each with more 
than 100,000 inhabitants. The tabulation discloses that cities having 
the larger number of police employees in comparison with the popu- 
lation area policed generally have the lower crime rates. 

The figures presented in table 39 represent the averages of the indi- 
vidual rates (both crime rates and police personnel rates) for the sev- 
eral cities. 

The number of poHce employees per 1 ,000 inhabitants for the cities 
represented varies from 3.0 to 0.7. The compilation shows that 24 
cities having an average of 2.3 police employees per 1,000 inhab- 
itants had 4 murders reported during 1935 for each 100,000 inhabit- 
ants, whereas 19 cities having an average of 0.9 pohce employees per 
1,000 inhabitants had more than 9 murders reported for each 100,000 
inhabitants. In addition, those cities having an average of 2.3 police 
employees per 1,000 inhabitants had 51 robberies and 313 offenses 
of burglary reported for each 100,000 inhabitants as compared with 
93 robberies and 485 burglaries reported by cities with an average of 



76 



only 0.9 police employees per 1,000 inhabitants. Although there are 
exceptions, a similar trend is shown for other types of offenses. 

Information concerning the number of police employees in individ- 
ual cities may be found in table 38. 

Table 39. — Relation between average crime rates and average number of police 
employees, cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, 1935 





Average 
number of 
police em- 
ployees per 

1,000 in- 
habitants 




Average mimber of offenses per 


100,000 inhabitants 




Group 


Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent man- 
slaughter 


Robbery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny— theft 


Auto 

theft 




Over $50 


Under 
$50 


I 

n 

ni__ 

IV 


2.3 

1.6 

1.2 

.9 


3.9 
8.8 
9.3 
9.4 


50.9 
67.7 
88.5 
93.2 


36.3 
74.5 
51.4 
65.6 


313.4 
435.9 
502.5 
484.7 


86.9 

96.4 

135.2 

86.4 


591.3 
728.6 
916.7 
952.7 


283.4 
298.5 
338.5 
309.8 


i-n 


1.9 

1.1 


6.3 
9.4 


59.1 

90.7 


55.0 
58.0 


373.4 
494.3 


80.0 
96.4 


577.1 
774.3 


284.8 


III-IV 


325.2 



All cities represented in the above tabulations have populations in excess of 100,000. The arrangement 
into groups was based on the number of police employees per 1,000 inhabitants (descending order). 

Group I consists of 24 cities. 

Group II consists of 23 cities. 

Group III consists of 22 cities. 

Group IV consists of 19 cities. 

The number of cities varies slightly among the groups, because it was believed desirable that depart- 
ments having identical police personnel figures be allocated to the same group. 

Annual Crime Trends — Cities Divided According to Size. 

Table 30 contains information concerning annual crime trends in 
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, as reflected by figures 
reported for the first 6 months of the period 1931-36. In order to 
make available more comprehensive data concerning variations in 
the amount of crime, there are presented in table 40 compilations 
covering the calendar years 1933, 1934, and 1935, based on reports 
received from the police departments of 1,127 cities with a combined 
population of 43,920,736. In general, the figures in table 40 reflect 
trends similar to those shown in table 30. 

With reference to the figures in table 40 representing the reports of 
1,127 police departments, the compilation shows marked decreases 
in robbery and auto theft. For robbery the figures decreased from 
45,925 in 1933 to 33,747 in 1935, a decrease of 12,178 (26.5 percent). 
Similarly, the auto theft figures decreased from 141,603 in 1933 to 
104,434' in 1935, a decrease of 37,169 (26.2 percent). Substantial 
decreases were shown for homicide, aggravated assault, and burglary. 
In the figures for larceny, there was a decrease wliich is so slight as 
to be without particular significance. On the other hand, there was 
a 15.7 percent increase in the reported number of offenses of rape. 

The compilation also presents figures for the cities divided into 
six groups according to size, which indicate in general that the major 
portion of the reduction in crime occurred in the cities with more 
than 100,000 inhabitants. This is doubtless related to the fact that 
table 28 of this publication shows that cities with more than 100,000 
inhabitants generally have more crime than the smaller communities. 
However, it may be noted that in some of the population groups 
representing smaller communities there were substantial reductions. 



77 

The compilation is in terms of the number of offenses known to 
have been committed, which is generally recognized as the best index 
of the amount of crime. Such measures as the number of persons 
arrested are subject to the limitation that there are crimes committed 
for winch no persons are arrested, with the result that there may 
possibly be an increase in crimes committed even though data relative 
to the number of persons arrested reflect a decline. On the other 
hand, it is entirely possible that figures representing the number of 
persons arrested may reflect an increase, whereas the number of 
crimes conunitted during the same period may have been reduced 
due to the activity of the police. 

With reference to the hgures showing a decline in the number of 
cases of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, it should be noted 
that cases of justifiable or excusable killing are not included in these 
figures. In other words, it is enth\4y possible that tabulations which 
include justifiable and excusable killings may show no decrease in 
homicide, whereas there may actually have been a decrease in the 
number of cases of felonious killings. However, it should be noted 
that during 1935 it was ascertained that some police departments 
had been improperly including cases of excusable homicide in their 
reports. These were subsequently eliminated from the records. It 
is possible that some of the decrease in the number of wilful homi- 
cides sllO^\^l in the figures for 1935 is due to the fact that excusable 
homicides were eliminated from the figures for that year, whereas some 
of them may have been included in the figures for prior years. 

Table 40. — Daily average, offenses known to the police, January to December, 

inclusive, 1933-35 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Year and population group 



GROUP I 

28 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 1»,317,7U0: 
Numlier of offenses known: 

1933.. 

1934.... 

1935 

Daily average: 

1933 

1934.. 

1935 

GROUP II 

49 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 6,905,212: 
Number of offenses known: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

Daily average: 

1933 

1934... 

1935 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1,734 
1,572 
1,371 

4.8 
4.3 
3.8 



497 
642 
481 

1.4 
1.5 
1.3 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1,284 
891 
929 

3.5 
2.4 
2.5 



258 
275 
353 

0.7 

.8 

1.0 



Kape 



1,115 
1,184 
1,305 

3.1 
3.2 
3.7 



381 
458 
4G0 

1.0 
1.3 
1.3 



Rob- 
bery 



31,129 
28, 027 
22, 0U4 

8.i. 3 
7ti. 8 
W> 3 



4, 802 
5,010 
4, 302 

13.2 
13.7 
11.8 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



10,080 

10,210 

9, 073 

29.3 
28. 
20.5 



4, 218 
4, 092 
3,702 

11.0 
11.2 
10.3 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



79,912 
79,581 
09, 684 

218.9 
218.0 
190.9 



30, 393 
30. 772 
29, 538 

83. 3 
84.3 
80.9 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



149,254 
116,8:58 
143, 878 

408.9 
402.3 
394. 2 



62, 658 
03, 903 
64, 634 

171.7 
175.2 
177.1 



Auto 
theft 



80, 643 
65, 446 
50,866 

220.9 
179.3 
139.4 



25, 196 
24, 602 
20, 852 

69.0 
67.4 
57.1 



78 

Table 40. — Daily average, offenses known to the police, January to December, 

inclusive, 1933-35. — Continued 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Year and population group 



GROUP ni 

79 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 5,354,036: 
Number of oSenses known: 

1933... 

1934 

1935..-. 

Daily average: 

1933 

1934 

1935... 

GROUP IV 

140 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 4.951,189: 
Number of offenses known: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

Daily average: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

GROUP V 

350 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 5,436,267: 

Number of offenses known: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

Daily average: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

GROUP VI 

481 cities under 10,000; total popu- 
lation, 2,956,332: 

Number of offenses known: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

Daily average: 

1933 

1934. 

1935 

TOTAL, GROUPS I-VI 

1,127 cities; total population, 
43,920,736: 

Number of offenses known: 

1933 

1934. 

1935 

Daily average: 

1933 

1934 

1935 



Criminal homicide 
















Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slauph- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


332 
398 
334 


191 
202 
226 


261 

267 
257 


4,088 
3,542 
3,089 


3,573 
3,643 
3,281 


19, 254 
18, 652 
18, 710 


45, 855 
47, 685 
45, 482 


0.9 

1.1 

.9 


0.5 
.6 
.6 


0.7 
.7 

.7 


11.2 
9.7 

8.5 


9.8 

10.0 

9.0 


52.8 
51.1 
51.3 


125.6 
130.6 
124.6 


248 
239 
215 


143 
192 
165 


242 
260 
271 


2,559 
2, 2G3 
2,011 


1,956 

2,274 
2,066 


16,498 
16, 400 
15, 670 


37, 537 
40, 124 
39, 024 


0.7 

.7 
.6 


0.4 
.5 
.5 


0.7 
.7 

.7 


7.0 
6.2 
5.5 


5.4 
6.2 
5.7 


45.2 
44.9 
42.9 


102.8 
109.9 
106.9 


210 
236 
201 


148 
185 
169 


313 

276 
354 


2,327 
1,918 
1,662 


1,968 
1,906 
1,742 


14, 409 
13, 423 
13,431 


32, 885 
33, 023 
32, 350 


0.6 
.6 
.6 


0.4 
.5 
.5 


0.9 

.8 

1.0 


6.4 
5.3 

4.6 


5.4 
5.4 

4.8 


39.5 
36.8 
36.8 


90.1 
90.5 
88.6 


110 

107 
102 


73 
59 
90 


188 
158 
185 


1,020 
703 
679 


705 
716 
611 


7,107 
6,657 
6,397 


13, 648 
13, 4S6 
13, 541 


0.3 
.3 
.3 


0.2 
.2 
.2 


0.5 
.4 
.5 


2.8 
2.1 
1.9 


1.9 
2.0 

1.7 


19.5 
18.2 
17.5 


37.4 
36.9 
37.1 


3,131 
3,094 
2,704 


2,097 
1,804 
1,932 


2,500 
2,603 
2,892 


45, 925 
41, 523 
33, 747 


23, 100 
22, 901 
21, 135 


167, 573 
165, 485 
153, 430 


341,837 
345, 119 
338, 909 


8.6 

8.5 
7.4 


5.7 
4.9 
5.3 


6.8 
7.1 
7.9 


125.8 

113.8 

92.5 


63.3 
62.7 
57.9 


459.1 
453.4 
420.4 


936. 5 
945.5 
928.5 



Auto 
theft 



14, 314 
14, 193 
12, 510 

39.2 
38.9 
34.3 



10, 405 

10, 328 

9,534 

28.5 
28.3 
26.1 



8,102 
8,311 
7,881 

22.2 

22.8 
21.6 



2,943 
2,865 
2,791 

8.1 
7.8 
7.6 



141, 603 
125, 745 
104, 434 

388.0 
344.5 
280.1 



79 

ANNUAL RETURNS, 1935 

Annual reports for 1935 reccivecl from contributing police depart- 
ments included information concerning the number of known of- 
fenses, the number disposetl of by arrest, and the number of persons 
arrested and held for prosecution. Tabulations based on the data 
included in those reports were presented in volume VII, number 1 of 
this publication. 

For the six States represented by the largest number of contributors 
of annual reports there are presented in the following table figures 
showing the relation between the number of known offenses, the 
number cleared by arrest, and the number of persons held for prosecu- 
tion. Under the system of uniform crime reporting, it is proper to 
score an offense as cleared when one of the offenders has been appre- 
hended and made available for prosecution, even though there were 
two or more jointly involved in the commission of the offense. In 
other words, the figures relative to the number of oft'enses "cleared by 
arrest" represent the number of offenses in each of which at least 
one of the offenders has been apprehended and made available for 
prosecution. In addition, the figures include instances in which the 
off"enses have been clearecl by exceptional cu-cumstances, such as the 
suicide of the offender, etc. It should further be noted that the 
figures relative to the number of cleared cases include all offenses 
disposed of by arrest during the calendar year, 1935, even though 
some of the offenses may have been committed in 1934 or some prior 
year. Similarly, the figures relative to the number of persons charged 
represent individuals arrested and made available for prosecution 
during 1935 even though some of the offenses for which they were 
arrested may have been committed in some prior year. The figures 
concerning the number of known offenses represent offenses com- 
mitted, or first known to the police, during the calendar year 1935. 

The information presented in table 41 should be interpreted as 
follows. With reference to the data for California, of each 100 known 
offenses of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, 87 w'ere disposed 
of by arrest (including exceptional clearances). In connection with 
those cases, 96 persons were arrested and held for prosecution. 

Similar figures based on reports received from the police depart- 
ments of 898 cities may be found in table 12 of volume VII, number 1, 
of this publication. 



80 

Table 41. — Offenses hnoion, offenses cleared by arrest, and persons charged [held 
for prosecution) , 1935. Number per 100 known offenses 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census 



State 



CALIFORNIA 

71 cities; total population, 2,162,002: 

Offenses known, 

Offenses cleared by arrest. 

Persons charged 



MICHIGAN 

cecities; total population, 3,055,123: 

Offenses known. _ 

Offenses cleared by arrest. 

Persons charged 



NEW JERSEY 

66 cities; total population, 1,033,469: 

Offenses known... 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 

NEW YORK 

118 cities; total population, 
3,032,605: 

Offenses known 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



OHIO 

76cities; total population, 3,629,273: 

Offenses known...... 

Offenses cleared by arrest. 

Persons charged 



PENNSYLVANIA 

64 cities; total population, 1,307,181 

Offenses known.... 

Offenses cleared by arrest 

Persons charged 



Criminal 
homicide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



100.0 
87.3 
96.4 



100.0 

96.1 

104.9 



100.0 

94.3 

100.0 



100.0 
93.7 
73.4 



100.0 

87.7 
91.9 



100.0 
90.0 
85.0 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



100.0 
37.9 
70. 1 



100.0 
95.3 
96.9 



100.0 
91.7 

87.5 



100,0 
90.6 
96.5 



100.0 
63.9 

79.9 



100.0 

94.4 

107.4 



Rape 



100.0 

84.7 
95.5 



100.0 
50.3 
31.1 



100.0 

95.8 

100. 



100.0 

96.6 

115.2 



100.0 
74.5 
87.0 



100.0 

95.1 

101.2 



Rob- 
bery 



100.0 
39.4 
46.4 



100.0 
34.3 
22.0 



100.0 
40.9 
52.9 



100.0 
50.4 
52.3 



100.0 
35.6 

27.0 



100.0 
50.0 
51.0 



Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 



100.0 
84.5 
79.2 



100.0 
60.6 
23.0 



100.0 

95.7 
107.9 



100.0 

89.8 

109.7 



100.0 
57.5 
47.9 



100.0 
77.6 
79.9 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



100.0 
32.1 
18.3 



100.0 
39.6 
13.2 



100.0 
31.3 
26.2 



100.0 
30.2 
20.0 



100.0 
27.3 
16.8 



100.0 
30.0 
25.7 



Lar- 
ceny^ 
theft 



100.0 
19.6 
14.3 



100.0 
22.3 
10.9 



100.0 
30.9 
28.9 



100.0 
31.7 
32.3 



100.0 
24.2 

14.1 



100.0 
33.4 
32.0 



Auto 
theft 



100.0 

10.9 

8.0 



100.0 

16.4 

6.1 



100.0 
30.6 
29.5 



100.0 
17.3 
12.4 



100.0 
17.1 
11.3 



100.0 
21.6 
18.0 



81 



DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

During the first 6 montiis of 1936, the FBI examined 219,868 arrest 
records as evidenced by fingeri)riiit cards, in order to obtain data 
concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal history of the 
persons represented. The nimiber of fingerprint records examined 
was considerablv hirgcr than for the corresponding periods of prior 
years, which were as follows: 1935—189,500; 1934—173,768. The 
compilation has been limited to instances of arrests for violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances. In other words, fingerprint 
cards representing arrests for violations of Federal laws or representing 
commitments to penal institutions have been excluded from tliis 
tabulation. 

The increase in the number of arrest records examined should not 
be construed as reflecting an increase in the amount of crime, nor 
necessarily as an increase in the number of persons arrested, since it 
quite probably is at least partially the residt of an increase in the 
number of local agencies contributing fingerprint records to the 
Identification Division of the FBI. The tabulation of data from 
fingerprint cards obviously does not include all persons arrested, 
since there are individuals taken into custody for whom no fingerprint 
cards are forwarded to Washington. Furthermore, data pertaining 
to persons arrested should not be treated as information regarding 
the number of offenses committed, since two or more persons may be 
involved in the joint commission of a single offense, and on the other 
hand one person may be arrested and charged with the commission of 
several separate offenses. 

During the first 6 months of 1936 records representing arrests on 
serious charges were as follows: 



Forgery and counterfeiting 3, 131 

Rape 2, 369 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 034 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 2, 862 

Driving while intoxicated 8, 605 

Gambling 3, 104 



Criminal homicide 2, 999 

Robbery 6, 718 

Assault 12, 976 

Burglary 15, 563 

Larceny (except avito theft) 27, 334 

Auto theft 5, 279 

Embezzlement and fraud 6, 852 

Stolen property (receiving, 

etc.) 1,731 

Of the 219,868 arrest records examined during the first 6 months of 
the year, 16,092 (7.3 percent) represented females. Among the 
charges placed against females were: Larceny, 2,265; prostitiition and 
commercialized vice, 1,673; drunkenness, 1,546; vagrancy, 1,235; 
assault, 1,154; disorderly conduct, 1,071 ; violation of liquor laws, 697. 
In addition, 297 women were charged with criminal homicide and 
309 with robbery. 



82 



Table 42. — Distribidion of arretis by fiex, Jan. 1-June 30, 1906 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Kobbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buyinsi, receiving, possessin: 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct --- 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Number 



Total 



2,999 

6,718 

12,976 

15, 563 

27, 334 

5,279 

6,852 

1,731 

3,131 

2,369 

2,504 

3,004 

2,034 

2,862 

2,741 

5,182 

8,605 

1,387 

5 

2,368 

8,779 

30,016 

18, 141 

3,104 

27, 170 

2,714 

14, 300 



219, 868 



Male 



2,702 

6,409 

11,822 

15, 279 

25, 069 

5,193 

6,520 

1,566 

2,921 

2,369 

831 

2, 538 

1,672 

2,768 

2,647 

4,4'85 

8,394 

1,367 

5 

2,325 

7,708 

28, 470 

16. 906 

2,882 

24, 886 

2,508 

13, 534 



203, 776 



Female 



297 
309 

1,154 
284 

2,265 

86 

332 

165 

210 



1,673 

466 

362 

94 

94 

697 

211 

20 



43 

1,071 

1,546 

1, 235 

222 

2,284 

206 

766 



16, 092 



Percent 



Total 



1.4 
3.1 
5.9 
7.1 

12.4 

2.4 

3.1 

.8 

1.4 

1.1 

1.1 

1.4 

.9 

1.3 

1.2 

2.4 

3.9 

.6 

(') 
1.1 
4.0 

13.6 
8.3 
1.4 

12.4 
1.2 
6.5 



100.0 



Male 



1.3 
3.1 

5.8 
7.5 

12.3 

2.5 

3.2 

.8 

1.4 

1.2 

.4 

1.2 

.8 

1.4 

1.3 

2.2 

4.1 

.7 

0) 
1.1 
3.8 

14.0 
8.3 
1.4 

12.3 
1.2 
6.7 



100.0 



Female 



1.8 
1.9 
7.2 
1.8 
14.1 
.5 
2.1 
1.0 
1.3 



10.4 

2.9 

2.2 

.6 

.6 

4.3 

1.3 

.1 



.3 

6.6 
9.6 
7.7 
1.4 
14.2 
1.3 
4.8 



100.0 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 percent. 



Examination of the ages of persons arrested reveals a rapid increase 
from age 15 to 19, the figures being as follows: 

P^cTQ- Number arrested 

"l5 1,270 

16 3, 850 

17 5,905 

18 8,671 

19 9, 249 

For ages from 20 to 24, the number arrested for a single age group 
varies from 8,254 to 9,983. The age groups in which arrests occurred 
most frequently were as follows: 

^gg. Number arrested 

"21 9, 983 

22 9, 861 

23 9, 530 

19 9,249 

It will be observed that there were more arrests for age 21 than for 
any other single age group. Tliis is contrary to the figures for 1932-35 
during which period 19-year-olds outnumbered those of other ages. 



83 

It may be of some significance, however, that the shift in the fre- 
fliiency of arrests to ages 21-23 was evidenced in the figures for the 
lasthfilf of 1935. 

The conipihUion disclosed that 38,513 (17.5 percent) of the persons 
arrested were less than 21 years old; 38,132 (17.3 percent) were 
between the ages of 21 and 24; making a total of 76,645 (34.9 percent) 



NUMBER OF PERSONS ARRESTED 
AGES 16 TO 24 

DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT CARDS 
JANUARY I — JUNE 30, 1936 




3,850 
5,9 05 
8, 6 71 
9,2 49 
8,254 

9,983 
9,86 I 
9,530 
8.758 



Figure 9. 

less than 25 years old. In addition, there were 38,556 (17.5 percent) 
arrests of persons between the ages of 25 and 29. This makes a total 
of 115,201 (52.4 percent) less than 30 years of age. (With reference 
to the ages of persons represented by fingerprint cards received in the 
FBI, it should be borne in mind that the number of arrest records 
is doubtless incomplete in the lower age groups because in some juris- 
dictions the practice is not to fingerprint youthful individuals.) 



84 



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85 

Youths woro most froquoutly chiirgcd with oH'onscs of rohhoiy, 
burghiry, hiroony, and auto theft. For all erinios 70,045 persons 
under 25 were arrested, thus eonstituting 34.9 percent of the total of 
219,808 arrest records exanuTicd. TTowfn^er, youths under 25 num- 
bered 54.5 percent of those charged with robbery; 58.2 percent of 
those charged with burglary, 44.0 percent of those charged with 
larceny, and 71.5 percent of those charged with auto theft. 

Table 44. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age' 

Jan. l~June SO, 1936 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide.-. _-. 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering... 

Larceny — theft _- 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos 

sessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.. 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other trafDc and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total num- 
ber of 
persons 
arrested 



2,999 

G,718 

12,976 

15,503 

27, 334 

5,279 

6,852 

1,731 
3,131 
2,369 
2,504 
3,004 
2, 034 
2, 862 
2,741 
5,182 
8, 605 
1,387 
5 
2, 368 
8,779 

30,016 

18, 141 
3,104 

27, 170 
2,714 

14, 300 



219, 868 



Number 

umler 21 

years of age 



302 
1,788 
1, 422 
5,969 
7, 280 
2, 545 

495 

273 

472 

575 

218 

431 

111 

478 

108 

380 

326 

224 

1 

413 

1,202 

1,471 

2,759 

250 

5, 118 

416 

3,474 



38, 513 



Total num- 
ber under 
25 years 
of age 



837 
3, 661 
3, 577 
9,057 
12,204 
3, 770 
1,438 

541 

979 

1, 097 

857 

929 

379 

994 

451 

1,024 

1,381 

598 

2 

964 

2,853 

4,588 

0,400 

009 

10, 398 

884 

6,107 



76, 645 



Percentage 

under 21 

years of age 



10.1 
26. 6 
11.0 
38. 4 
26.7 
48.2 
7.2 

15.8 
15.1 
24.3 

8.7 
14.3 

5.5 
10.7 

3.9 

7.3 

3.8 
16.1 
20.0 
17.4 
13. 

4. 
15. 

8. 
IS. 
15. 
24. 



17.5 



Total per- 
centage 
under 25 

years of age 



27.9 
54.5 
27. C 
58.2 
44.6 
71.5 
21.0 

31.2 
31.3 
46.3 
34.2 
30.9 
18.6 
34.7 
16.5 
19.8 
16.0 
43.1 
20.0 
40.7 
32.5 
15.3 
35.3 
21.6 
38.3 
32.6 
42.7 



34.9 



During the first months of 1930, 40 percent (88,045) of the persons 
arrested already had fingerprint cards on file in the Identification 
Division of the FBI. In addition, there w^ere 4,008 records bearing 
notations indicating previous criminal histories of the persons con- 
cerned, although the fingerj)rints had not previously been filed in the 
Bureau. This makes a total of 92,713 records containing information 
regarding the prior criminal activities of the persons arrested. The 
records disclosed that 00,857 (72.1 percent) had previously been con- 
victed of one or more oft'enses. This number constitutes 30.4 percent 
of 219,808 arrest records examined. 



86 

Many of the persons have been previously convicted of major 
violations, as indicated by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 656 

Robbery 3, 060 

Assault 3, 669 

Burglary 8, 539 

Larceny (and related offenses) 17, 381 

Forgery and counterfeiting 2, 128 

Rape 442 

Narcotic drug laws 1, 450 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 914 

Driving while intoxicated 1, 125 

Total 39,364 

It is of interest to note that 286 of the persons whose records show 
convictions for criminal homicide were charged during the first 6 
months of 1936 with the following violations: 

Criminal homicide 18 

Robbery 19 

Assault 70 

Burglary 35 

Larceny (and related offenses) 102 

Forgery and counterfeiting 6 

Rape 5 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 21 

Driving while intoxicated 10 

Total 286 

As heretofore indicated the records showed that 66,857 of the 
persons arrested had been previously convicted. The records of 
those persons showed 192,345 prior convictions, an average of almost 
three per individual; 87,122 of the convictions were for major viola- 
tions, and 105,223 for less serious infractions of the criminal laws. 

Table 45. — Number with -previous finger-print records, arrests, Jan. 1- June SO, 1936 



Offense charged 




Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor-vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total.. 



2,999 

6,718 

12, 976 

15, 563 

27, 334 

5,279 

6,852 

1,731 

3,131 

2,369 

2,504 

3,004 

2,034 

2,862 

2,741 

5, 182 

8, 605 

1,387 

5 

2,368 

8,779 

30, 016 

18, 141 

3,104 

27, 170 

2,714 

14, 300 



219, 868 



Previous 

fingerprint 

record 



746 
3,299 
4,363 
6,299 

10, 794 
2,005 
2,996 

513 
1,465 

616 
1,014 

797 
1,308 

938 

782 
1,602 
2,006 

368 
1 

748 

3,352 

13, 357 

9,696 

779 

11, 508 
1,137 
5,556 



88,045 



87 



Table 46. — Percentage with previous fingerprint records, arrests, 

Jan. 1-June SO, 1936 



Offense 



Narcotic drug laws. 

Vagrancy.- 

Robbery.. 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Drunkenness 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Suspicion 

Burglary —breaking or entering 

Prostitution and commercialized vice.. 

Larceny— theft 

All other offenses 

Disorderly conduct 

Auto theft 

Assault - -- 



Percent 



64.3 
53.4 
49. 1 
46.8 
44.5 
43.7 
42.4 
40.5 
40.5 
39.5 
38.9 
38.2 
38.0 
33.6 



Offense 



Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Liquor laws 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos 

sessing 

Offenses against family and children.-. 

Other sex offen.ses 

lioad and driving laws 

Rape.- 

Gambling 

Crimin;xl homicide 

Driving while intoxicated 

Parking violations ' 



Percent 



32.8 
31.6 
30.9 

29.6 
28.5 
26.5 
26.5 
26.0 
25. 1 
24.9 
23.3 
20.0 



' Only 5 fingerprint cards were received representing arrests for violation of parking regulations. 



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90 



Table 4S. — Numher of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, Jan. 1— 
June 30, 1936 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide . 

Robbery. 

Assault- - 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft _-. 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape. 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws .__ 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 1 



Number of 
records show- 
ing one or 
more prior 
convictions 



530 
2,421 
3,229 
5,010 
8,487 
1,449 
2,019 

388 
1,076 

441 

684 

583 
1,035 

730 

492 
1,057 
1, 463 

257 
1 

554 

2, 576 

11,350 

7,231 

488 
8,173 

841 
4,292 



66, 857 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions 
of major 
offenses 



623 

3,696 

3,977 

8,518 

16,011 

2, 114 

3,377 

584 

1,975 

534 

893 

743 

2,867 

1,006 

621 

717 

851 

196 

2 

526 

2,636 

8,144 

8,233 

501 

11,446 

1,273 

5,158 



87, 122 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions 
of minor 
offenses 



1, 



484 

2,201 

3,538 

4,445 

12,116 

1,125 

1,947 

463 

797 

390 

731 

697 

,127 

648 

463 

1,278 

1,806 

2C2 

1 

632 

4,799 

33, 872 

14, 156 

417 

10, 260 

907 

5,661 



105, 223 



Total num- 
ber of prior 
convictions 
disclosed 



1,107 

5,897 

7,515 

12, 963 

28, 127 

3,239 

5,324 

1,047 

2,772 

924 

1,624 

1,440 

3,994 

1,654 

984 

1,995 

2,657 

458 

3 

1,158 

7,435 

42,016 

22, 389 

918 

21, 706 

2,180 

10,819 



192, 345 



Whites were represented by 160,104 of the records examined and 
Negroes by 49,925. The remaining races were represented as follows: 
Indian, 1,203; Chinese, 587; Japanese, 111 ; Mexican, 6,727; all others, 
1,211. 

The significance of the figures showing the number of Negroes 
arrested as compared with the number of whites can best be indicated 
in terms of the number of each in the general population of the country. 
Exclusive of those under 15 years of age, there were, according to the 
1930 decennial census, 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 foreign-born 
whites, and 64,365,193 native whites in the United States. Of each 
100,000 Negroes, 621 were arrested and fingerprinted during the first 
6 months of 1936, whereas the corresponding figure for native whites 
was 212, and for foreign-born whites 99. Figures for individual 
types of violations may be found in the following tabulations. It 
should be observed in connection with the foregoing data that the 
figure for native whites includes the immediate descendants of foreign- 
born individuals. Persons desiring to make a thorough study of the 
comparative amounts of crime committed by native whites and foreign 
born whites should employ available compilations showing the number 
of instances in which offenders are of foreign or niLxed parentage. 



91 



Table 49. — Distribution cf arrests according to race, Jan. 1-June 30, 19S6 





Race 


Total 


Offense charged 


White 


Negro 


Indian 


Chi- 
nese 


Jap- 
anese 


Mex- 
ican 


All 
others 


all 
races 


Criminal homicide 


1.757 
4,081 
7,101 
11,333 
IS, 744 
4, 467 
5, 921 

1,237 

2, 767 
1,712 
1,827 
2,423 
1,152 
1,565 
2,304 

3, 093 
7, 43S 
1,002 

3 
1,716 
5,999 

24, 352 

13, 804 
1,597 

19, 332 
2, 106 

10, 671 


1,111 
1,770 
5,232 
3,728 
7, 593 
643 
732 

451 

301 

4S9 

614 

495 

271 

1, 134 

351 

2,013 

518 

301 

2 

525 

2,327 

3,859 

3,423 

1, 373 

7,007 

496 

3, 166 


21 
24 

83 
50 
109 
24 
26 

8 
17 
20 
15 
11 

5 

3 
11 
17 
74 

8 


7 
3 
13 
5 
9 
1 
4 

3 
3 

8 
1 
2 
405 
12 
1 
2 
1 
1 


2 

"16" 

7 
1 
3 

1 
3 
2 
1 
1 
4 
4 

"22' 
1 


80 
177 
402 
375 
782 
130 
143 

25 
29 

105 
36 
54 

142 
98 
08 
54 

521 
59 


21 
63 
135 
72 
90 
13 
23 

6 
11 
33 
10 

18 
55 
46 
6 
3 
31 
15 


2, 999 


Rohhery..- .- 


6,718 


\ssault 


12,976 


Burglary — breaking or entering 


15, 563 


Larceny — theft 


27, 334 


Autotheft - 


5,279 


Embezzlement and fraud 


6,852 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
iiig 


1, 731 


Forgery and counterfeiting . 


3, 131 


Rape 


2, 369 


Prostitution and commercialized vice -. 

Other sex offenses . .. 


2. 504 
3,004 


Narcotic drug laws.. 


2,034 


Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 


2,862 


Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 


2,741 
5,182 


Driving while intoxicated-. - -- 


8, ()05 


Road and driving laws. 


1,387 


Parkinir violations 


5 


<Hher tradic and motor vehicle laws 

DLsorderly conduct -. 


11 
64 

331 

85 

1 

103 
20 
62 


20 

67 
U 


4 

5 
19 
5 
9 
2 


100 

336 

1,387 

654 

20 
570 

77 
303 


12 

48 
63 

150 
37 

145 
15 
90 


2, 368 
8, 779 


Drunkenness . 


30, 016 


Vagrancy.- 

(Jambling .- 

Suspicion- _- 


IS, 141 

3, 104 

27, 170 


Not stated 


2,714 


.\11 other offenses 


3 


5 


14,300 






Total 


160, 104 


49, 925 


1,203 


587 


111 


6,727 


1,211 


219, 868 







Table 50. — Number of arrests of Negroes and xohitcs in -proportion to the number of 
each in the general population of the country, Jan. 1-June 30, 1936, rate per 
100,000 of population 

[Excluding those under 15 years of age] 



Offenso charged 



Criminal homicide. 

Robbery - -- 

.\ssault 

Biuglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft - 

.\uto theft - 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children -.- 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws - --- 

Parking violations. 

Other tradic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct— -.- 

Drunkenness - -.- 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion - 

Not stated -.- - 

All other offenses - 

Total - 



Native 
white 



(') 



2.2 
6.4 
8.5 
16.0 
26. 1 
6.4 
7.6 
1.5 
3.8 
2.2 
2.6 
2.9 
1.6 
2.0 
2.9 
3.7 
9.6 
1.4 

2.3 

8.1 
31.5 
17.4 

1.9 
25.6 

2.9 
14.6 



211.9 



Foreign- 
born white 



1.8 
1.8 
10.1 
3.6 
9.6 

.8 
3.6 
2.0 
1.4 
1.5 
1.0 
2.6 

.4 
1.8 
2.5 
4.7 
4.0 

.4 



1.0 
4.6 
15.0 
6.3 
1.8 
8.8 
1.2 
7.1 



99.3 



Negro 



(') 



13.8 

22.0 

65.1 

46.4 

94.4 

8.0 

9.1 

,5.6 

3.7 

6.1 

7.6 

6.2 

3.4 

14.1 

4.4 

25.0 

6.4 

3.7 

6.5 
28.9 
48.0 
42.6 
17.1 
87.1 

6.2 
39.4 



620.9 



Less than Ho of 1 per hundred thousand. 



92 

Table 51. — Number of native whites, number of foreign-born whites and nuynbei 
of Negroes arrested and fingerprinted by age groups, Jan. 1-June 30, 1936 



Age 


NiiTTiber arrested 


Number of arrests per 100,000 of the 
general population of the United 
States 




Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born white 


Negro 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born white 


Negro 


15 


847 

2,611 

4,050 

5,767 

6,257 

5,541 

6,577 

6,258 

6,076 

5,488 

23, 773 

18, 413 

15,810 

10, 380 

7,134 

10, 529 


7 

43 

62 

85 

91 

102 

119 

161 

173 

1S8 

1,052 

1, 206 

1,877 

2,211 

2,050 

3.449 


341 
1,016 
1, 4'i5 
2,070 
2,121 
1,913 
2,207 
2, 388 
2, 398 
2,284 
10, 097 
6, 973 
6,207 
3,325 
2,087 
2,427 


42.8 
129.2 
207.8 
293. 1 
334.8 
305.1 
359. 2 
351.2 
355.1 
329.7 
314.8 
268.3 
241.3 
188.6 
149.9 

72.7 


18.2 

84.2 

95.0 

106.1 

101.4 

95.4 

102.1 

124.8 

120.0 

113.6 

103.0 

103.9 

115.0 

130.5 

131.0 

70.2 


141.8 


16 


394.2 


17-. 


606.2 


18 


769. 1 


19 


890.2 


20 


739.9 


21 


966.7 


22 - 


957.5 


23 - 


1,022 6 


24 


982.5 


25-29 


942. 1 


30-34 


806.6 


35-39 


696.7 


40-44 - 


483.7 


45^9 . . 


331.2 


50 and over- 


169.9 






Total 


135,511 


12, 966 


49, 339 


210.8 


99.3 


614.6 







Table 52. — Percentage distribution of arrests, by age, Jan. l~June 30, 1936 





Numl)er arrested 


Percent 


Age 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born white 


Negro 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born white 


Negro 


15 and under 21 


25, 073 
24. 399 
23, 773 
18,413 
15,810 
10, 380 
7, 134 
10, 529 


390 

641 
1,052 
1,296 
1,877 
2,211 
2,050 
3,449 


8,946 
9, 277 
10, 097 
6,973 
6,207 
3, 325 
2,087 
2,427 


18.5 

18.0 

17.5 

13.6 

11.7 

7.7 

5.3 

7.7 


3.0 
4.9 
8.1 
10.0 
14.5 
17.1 
15.8 
26.6 


18. 1 


21-24 


18.8 


25-29 


20.5 


30-34 .- - - 


14.1 


35-39 

40-44 


12.6 

6.8 


45-49 

50 and over, _ 


4.2 
4.9 






Total 


135,511 


12, 966 


49, 339 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







At the end of June 1936 there were 6,094,916 fingerprint records 
and 7,205,485 index cards containing the names and aliases of indi- 
viduals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of each 
100 fingerprint cards received during the first 6 months of 1936, 
more than 55 were identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugi- 
tives numbering 2,881 were identified through fingerprint records 
during this same period, and interested law enforcement officials 
were immediately notified of the whereabouts of those fugitives. 

As of June 30, 1936, there were 9,904 police departments, peace 
officers, and law enforcement agencies throughout the United States 
and foreign countries voluntarily contributing fingerprints to the FBI. 



o 



^35.=?, .To ^. 



y^ 



J 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume VII — Number 3 
THIRD QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1936 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C. 




I 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1936 



;PER1NTENDENT OF ^ 



ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM CRIME RECORDS 

OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE 

(11) 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U. S. Department 

of Justice, Washington, D. C. 



Volume 7 October 1936 Number 3 



CONTENTS 

Classification of offenses. 
Extent of reporting area. 
Monthly returns: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population (table 
53). 

Daily average, offenses known to the police, 1936 (table 54). 

Daily average, offenses known to the police, 1931-36 (table 55). 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location (tables 56> 
57, 62). 

Data for individual cities (table 5S). 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 59). 

Offenses known in the possessions (table 60). 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 6 1-6 IB). 
Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1936: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 63). 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 64, 65). 

Number and percentage with previous fingerprint records (tables 66, 67). 

Number with records showing previous convictions (tables 68, 69). 

Race distribution of persons arrested (tables 70-73) . 

Classification of Offenses. 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring ^\dthin the police jurisdiction, whether they become loiown to 
the poHce through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave offenses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) 
manslaughter by negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; 
burglary — -breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggrav^ated assaults. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bidletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Oftenscs laiown to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless 
are not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in 
each group, there follows a brief definition of each classification. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter — includes 
all felonious homicides except those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 
deaths. (6) Manslaughter by negligence — includes only those cases in which 

(93) 



94 

death is caused by culpable negligence which is so clearly evident that if the person 
responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for 
manslaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbenj.' — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglary followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny — theft (except auto theft.)— (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. (6) 
Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shop- 
lifting, or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, 
passing worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not 
include taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unau- 
thorized use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information, which may tlirow some light on problems of crime 
and cruninal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

Extent of Reporting Area. 

In the table wliich follows there is shown the number of police 
departments from wliich one or more crime reports have been received 
during the first 9 months of 1936. Information is presented for the 
cities divided according to size. The population figures employed are 
estimates as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for cities with 
population in excess of 10,000. No estimates were available, however, 
for those with a smaller number of inhabitants and, accordingly, for 
them the figures listed in the 1930 decennial census were used. 

The growth in the crime reporting area is evidenced by the follow- 
ing figures for the first 9 months of 1932-36: 



Year 


Cities 


Population 


Year 


Cities 


Population 


1932 


1,546 
1,638 
1,727 


52, 802, 362 
62, 041, 342 
62, 391, 056 


1935 


2,050 
2,271 


64, 012, 959 


1933 


1936 


65, 319, 548 


1934 







The foregoing comparison shows that during the first 9 months 
of 1936 there was an increase of 221 cities as compared with the 
corresponding period of 1935, the population represented for those 
cities being 1,306,589. 

In addition to the 2,271 city and village pohce departments which 
submitted crime reports during 1936, one or more reports were 
received during that period from 1,055 sheriffs and State police organi- 
zations and from 10 agencies in possessions of the United States. 
This makes a grand total of 3,336 agencies contributing crime reports 
during 1936. 



95 



Population group 


Total 
number 

of 
cities or 

towns 


Cities filing 
returns 


Total popu- 
lation 


Population represented 
in returns 




Number 


Percent 


Number 


Percent 


Total --- 


983 


886 


89.4 


60,281,688 


58, 291, 329 


96.7 






1. Cities over 250,000 .-. 


37 

57 

104 

191 

594 


37 

57 

99 

175 

518 


100.0 

100.0 

95.2 

91.6 

87.2 


29, 695, 500 
7,850,312 
6, 980, 407 
6, 638, 544 
9,116,925 


29, 695, 500 
7,850,312 
6, 645, 870 
6, 087, 577 
8,012,070 


100.0 


2 Cities 100,000 to 250,000 


100 


3. Cities 50,000 to 100,000.. 


95. 2 


4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000 

5. Cities 10,000 to 25,000 


91.7 
87.9 







Note. — The above table does not include 1,385 cities and rural townships aggregating a total poinilation 
of 7,028,219. The cities included in this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 



MONTHLY RETURNS 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

Table 53 shows the number of offenses reported for the first 9 
months of the calendar year 1936 by the police departments of 1,618 
cities with a total population of 58,820,588. The figures are also 
shown for the cities divided into six groups according to size. Police 
administrators and others can thus compare their local crime rates 
with the national averages for cities of the same approximate popu- 
lation. 

The compilation discloses that cities with more than 100,000 
inhabitants generally have higher crime rates than the smaller com- 
munities. In fact, with a few exceptions, the crime rates for all six 
groups vary directly with the size of the cities. 

More than half of the offenses reported were larcenies. Offenses 
against property (robbery, burglary, larceny, and auto theft) ac- 
counted for 95 percent of the crimes included in the tabulation. The 
remaming 5 percent consisted of murders, negligent manslaughter, 
rapes, and aggravated assaults. A percentage distribution of the 
offenses included in table 53 is shown herewith: 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary, _ 
Auto theft- 



Rate per 
100,000 



977.8 



610.7 

228.2 
151.6 



Percent 



100.0 



52.2 
23.3 
15.5 



Oflense 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Rate per 
100,000 



39.4 

34.0 

6.0 

4.5 

3.6 



Percent 



4.0 

3.5 

.6 

.5 

.4 



OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 

JANUARY TO SEPTEMBER, INCLUSIVE, 1936 
^ASEO ON REPORTS OF 1,618 CITIES — POPULATION 58,820,588 

OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON 

NUMBER OF OFFENSES 
2000 <.000 fejQOO SjOOO lOjOOQ 12.000 14,000 I6J300 I8X)00 ZOjOOO 22000 24^0 00 




Figure 10. 
(96) 



97 

Most of the cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants made a 
distinction in their reports between the number of hircenies in wliich 
the vahie of property stolen was more than $50 and the cases in which 
the proiMM'ty was vahied at less than $50. A separate compilation 
of the information yields the following figures: 



Population group 



32 cities over 250,000; total population, 20,322,200: 

Number of otTenses known 

Rate per 100,000 

52 cities, 100.000 to 250,000; total population, 7,215,612: 

Number of otTenses known .- 

Rate per 100,000 



Larceny — theft 



$50 and over 
in value 



13.086 

08.8 

4,943 

G8. 5 



Under .$50 
in value 



88,204 
434.0 

39. 425 
546.4 



Of the 146,558 larcenies classified according to the value of the 
property stolen, 18,929 (12.9 percent) were cases in which the value 
of property exceeded $50. 



OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 

JANUARY TO SEPTEMBER, INCLUSIVE, 1936 

BASED ON REPORTS OF 1,618 CITIES - POPULATION, 58,820,588 

OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY 



75,000 



NUMBER OF OFFENSES 
150.000 



225.000 



300,000 



ROBBERY 

^H|| 23,200 

AUTO THEFT 








|^|^H||||[^m| 78,295 


BURGLARY 




Hj^l^BB^^^^^^^H '*7,88o 


LARCENY (except auto theft) 


fH^f^^^^/Z/^^^^^^/^BB^^^B^BB^^K^^^ 263,855 





Figure 11. 



98 



Table 53. — Offenses known to the police, January to September, inclusive, 1936; 
number and rates per 100,000, by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GROUP I 



35 cities over 250,000; total popu- 
lation, 28,963,000: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP II 

55 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,602,712: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP HI 

88 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 5,952,309: 
Number of offenses known . 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP IV 

144 cities. 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 4,997,810: 
Number of offenses known . 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP V 

423 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 6,572,199: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



GROUP VI 



total 



873 cities under 10,000; 
population, 4,732,558: 
Number of offenses known 
Rate per 100,000 



Total 1,618 cities; total 
population, 58,820,588: 
Number of offenses 
known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



1,468 
5.1 



362 

4.8 



279 
4.7 



165 
3.3 



229 
3.5 



165 
3.5 



2,668 
4.5 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1 1, 326 
4.9 



230 
3.0 



141 
2.4 



111 
2.2 



122 
1.9 



91 
1.9 



< 2, 021 
3.5 



Rape 



2,076 
7.2 



395 
5.2 



266 
4.5 



250 
5.0 



329 
5.0 



214 
4.5 



3,530 
6.0 



Rob- 
bery 



14, 688 
50.7 



2,871 
37.8 



2,194 
36.9 



1,237 
24.8 



1,392 
21.2 



818 
17.3 



23,200 
39.4 



Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 



10, 013 
34.6 



3,744 
49.2 



3 1,980 
33.7 



1,580 
31.6 



1,767 
26.9 



864 
18.3 



« 19, 948 
34.0 



Bur- 
glary-- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



2 53, 937 
247.3 



22, 014 
289.6 



13, 495 

226.7 



11,161 
223.3 



10, 676 
162.4 



6,597 
139.4 



117,880 
228.2 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



2 114,709 
526.0 



46, 790 
615.4 



34, 670 

582.5 



26, 520 
530.6 



27, 441 
417.5 



13, 725 
290.0 



i 263, 865 
510.7 



Auto 
theft 



2 39, 567 
181.4 



13,723 
180.5 



9,400 
157.9 



6,302 
126.1 



6,190 
94.2 



3,113 
65.8 



6 78, 295 
151.5 



1 The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 33 cities with 
a total population of 27,234,800. 

2 The number of offenses and rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 34 cities 
with a total population of 21,808,700. 

3 The number of offenses and rate for aggravated assault are based on reports of 87 cities with a total pop- 
ulation of 5,873,609. 

* The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 1,616 cities with 
a total population of 57,092,388. 

6 The number of offenses and rate for aggravated assault are based on reports of 1,617 cities with a total 
population of 58,741,888. 

6 The number of offenses and rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 1,617 cities 
with a total population of 51,666,288. 



99 

Daily Average, Offenses Known to the Police, 1936. 

Monthly variations in the number of ofTenses committed are shown 
in table 54. In most instances the fluctuations are similar to those 
which have been evidenced in prior years. Murder and aggravated 
assault were most frequently committed in the third quarter of the 
year. On the other hand, robbery reached its lowest point in the 
third quarter, and burglary was lower in the second and tliird periods 
than in the first quarter. Larceny and auto theft, however, reached 
iiigh points in the third quarter of the year. 

Table 54. — Daily average, offenses known to the police, 90 cities over 100,000, 

January to September, inclusive, 1936 

[Total population, 36,505,712, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Month 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

January to September 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent 
man- 
slaughter 



6.0 

5.7 
6.5 
5.6 
6.1 
7.7 
7.5 
8.1 
6.9 



6.1 
6.5 
7.5 
6.7 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1 5.0 
3.9 
6.0 
6.0 
6.4 
6.0 
5.8 
5.7 
6.1 



5.0 
6.1 
5.9 
5.7 



Rape 



6.9 
7.7 
8.2 
8.8 
9.4 
11.1 
10.0 
9.8 
9.4 



7.6 
9.7 
9.7 
9.0 



Rob- 
bery 



82.7 
80.4 
71.4 
64.8 
55.0 
53.5 
50.3 
56.6 
62.6 



78.1 
57.7 
56.5 
64.1 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



39.2 
41.7 
49.2 
43.8 
52.5 
57.2 
54.6 
57.7 
55.6 



43.4 
51.2 
56.0 
50.2 



Bur- 
glary— 
breaking 

or 
entering 



2 313.4 
292.1 
319.6 
292.4 
253.4 
239.4 
237.9 
263.9 
283.1 



308.7 
261.6 
261.4 
277.2 



Larceny — 
theft 



2 594. 1 
556.3 
603.5 
601.6 
571.9 
575.6 
562.9 
596.8 
642.7 



585.2 
582.9 
600.3 
589.4 



Auto 
theft 



2 193. 1 
182.4 
206.9 
206.0 
186.7 
179.3 
182.2 
204.8 
208.6 



194.4 
190.6 
198.4 
194.5 



' Daily averages for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 88 cities with a total population of 
34,a37,512. 

2 Daily averages for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 89 cities with a total population 
of 29,411,412. 

Daily Average, Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-36. 

In order to make available data concerning the variation in the 
amount of crime from year to year, there are presented in table 55 
figures showing the number of major offenses reported during the first 
9 months of each of the years 1931-36 to the police departments of 
69 cities each with over 100,000 inhabitants. The combined popula- 
tion of those cities in 1930 was 18,714,176. The latest available 
figures (estimated as of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census) 
indicate that the population of those cities has increased to 19,237,302. 

The compilation shows marked and miinterrupted decreases in the 
number of robberies and auto thefts. Robberies decreased from 
14,716 in 1931 to 8,325 in 1936, a drop of 43.4 percent. Similarly, 
auto thefts decreased from 64,738 in 1931 to 34,859 in 1936, a reduc- 
tion amounting to 46.2 percent. The table shows that burglaries have 
decreased 22.5 percent from the peak reached in 1933. 

Larcenies reached a high point in 1935, there being 123,321 such 
cases reported in the cities represented, but in 1930 larcenies dropped 
to 112,602. 



104149°— 36- 



100 

Variations in the number of aggravated assaults have been rather 
irregular. In 1936 the number of such crimes exceeded the annual 
number for all other years covered by the table except 1933. 

Offenses of rape showed a marked increase in 1935 and the number 
for 1936 is almost as large. 

It will be noted the compilation shows a substantial decrease in the 
number of homicides during 1935 and 1936 as compared with prior 
years. In connection with the decrease in the number of offenses of 
murder and nonnegligent manslaughter (willful felonious homicides) 
it is suggested that the decrease may be partially attributable to the 
fact that during 1935 it w^as ascertained that many police departments 
had been including as felonious homicides cases wliich were excusable 
in nature, such as the killing of a felon who was resisting arrest by a 
police officer. Such cases were subsequently excluded, together with 
instances of lolling in self-defense by private individuals, in order that 
the published figures might represent felonious homicides. 

The cases listed under the heading of "manslaughter by negligence" 
consist largely of automobile fatalities, and it will be observed that the 
figures for 1935 and 1936 are considerably lower than for the four preced- 
ing years. This is probably due largely to the fact that in 1934 it was 
ascertained that c^uite a number of the police departments had Listed 
as actual offenses of negligent manslaughter all cases of automobile 
fatalities. During 1934 considerable stress was placed upon the fact 
that deaths resulting from automobile accidents should be carried 
under this classification only if the driver of the automobile was guilty 
of gross criminal negligence. The exclusion of many cases of deaths 
resulting from automobile accidents in which it was not thought that 
there was present a degree of negligence sufficient to warrant prosecu- 
tion has imdoubtedly played a large part in brmging about the reduced 
figures for 1935 and 1936. 



Table 5.5. — Daily average, offenses known to the -police, 69 cities over 100,000, 
January to September, inclusive, 1931—36 

[Total population 19,237,302, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal 
homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 




Year 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Number of offenses known: 
1931 


1,168 
1,198 
1,262 
1,144 
1,017 
979 

4.2 
4.4 
4.6 
4.2 
3.7 
3.6 


1,026 
786 
882 
616 
581 
587 

3.8 
2.9 
3.2 
2.3 
2.1 
2.1 


914 
947 
985 
970 
1,219 
1,169 

3.3 
3.5 
3.6 
3.6 
4.5 
4.3 


14, 716 
14,011 
13, 564 
11, 184 
9,546 
8,325 

53.9 
51.1 
49.7 
41.0 
35.0 
30.4 


7,779 
7,044 
8,725 
7,934 
7,520 
7,991 

28.5 
25.7 
32.0 
29.1 
27.5 
29.2 


51, 784 
56, 831 
58, 018 
54, 849 
52. 153 
44,992 

189.7 
207.4 
212.5 
200.9 
191.0 
164.2 


113,352 
116, 845 

122, 926 
120, 629 

123, 321 
112, 602 

415.2 
426.4 
450.3 
441.9 
451.7 
411.0 


64, 738 


1932 


54, 793 


19,33 


52, 013 


1934 ... 


48, 336 


1935 


41, 995 


1936 


34, 859 


Daily averatre: 

1931 ... 


237.1 


1932 


200.0 


1933 . 


190.5 


1934 


177.1 


1935 

1936 


153.8 
127.2 



101 

Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

In table 56 there is presented information regarding the number of 
pohce departments whose reports were employed in the preparation 
of figures representing crime rates for the individual States. This 
inft)rniation is included here in order to show the number of such 
contributors according to size of city, and it is believed it will be 
helpful in evaluating the crime data for individual States, since tabic 
53 has indicated that there is a noticeable tendency for the large 
cities to report higher crime rates than the smaller communities. It 
should be further observed that in several instances the number of 
records entering into the construction of State rates is quite limited. 
In some cases the figures for individual States are based on reports 
from only two or tliree police departments. Obviously, the crime 
rates based on such a Imiited number of records may differ consider- 
ably from the figures which would residt if reports were available 
from all urban communities in the State. 

In table 57 there are presented the crime rates for the individual 
States, together with figures for nme geographic divisions of the 
coimtry. 



102 



Table 56. — Number of cities in each State included in the tabulation of uniform crime 
reports, January to September, inclusive, 1936 





Population 




Division and State 


Over 

250,000 


100,000 

to 
250,000 


50,000 

to 
100,000 


25,000 

to 
50,000 


10,000 

to 
25,000 


Less 
than 
10,000 


Total 


GEOGRAPBIC DIVISION 

New Enjiland: 155 citins; total population, 
5,365,913 . 


2 

6 

9 

3 

3 

3 

3 
1 
5 


12 
10 
10 

5 
6 
o 

5 

1 
4 


10 

22 

24 

7 

9 

2 

C 
2 

6 

1 
1 


23 
25 
47 

8 
14 

3 

8 
5 

11 

1 
1 


54 

121 

97 

49 

24 

16 

15 
12 
35 

5 
4 
2 
33 
4 
6 

42 

28 
51 

29 
11 
26 
19 
12 

11 
5 
9 
2 
5 
6 

11 


54 
245 
219 
123 

44 
16 

52 

41 
79 

5 
6 
6 
30 
3 
4 

86 

52 

107 

64 
24 
52 
55 
24 

53 
16 
17 
5 
3 
10 
19 

3 
1 
8 
9 
8 
1 
4 
10 

5 
6 
5 

6 

4 

24 

18 

7 
6 
3 
8 
1 
6 
9 
1 

5 

6 

68 


155 
429 
406 
195 


Mid<lle Atlantic: 429 cities; total population, 
18,091,192 


East North Central: 406 cities; total popula- 
tion, 15,665,345 


West North Central: 195 cities; total popula- 
tion, 4,387,506 


South Atlantic:! 100 cities; total population, 
4,101.100 


100 


East South Central: 42 cities; total population, 

1,687.374 


42 


West South Central: 89 cities; total population, 
3,105,876 


89 


Mountain: 62 cities; total population, 1,109,581_ 
Pacific: 140 cities; total population, 5,306,701... 
New England: 

Maine 


62 

140 

12 


New Hampshire 






12 


Vermont .. .. 






8 


Massachusetts... . _. .. 


1 
1 


8 
-- 

4 
3 
3 

3 
4 
1 
2 

1 

1 


5 
2 

1 

5 

6 

11 

4 
2 
7 
8 
3 


11 
4 
6 

10 
9 
6 

15 
7 

12 
5 
8 


88 


Rhode Island . .. 


14 


Connecticut . 


21 


Middle Atlantic: 


3 

1 
2 

5 

1 
1 
1 
1 

2 


150 


New Jersey 


99 


Pennsylvania 


180 


East North Central: 

Ohio ... . 


120 


Indiana 


49 


Illinois .... 


99 


Michigan 


90 


Wisconsin 


48 


West North Central: 

Minnesota .. 


67 


Iowa 


3 
2 


3 
2 

1 
1 
-. 


28 




1 


31 


North Dakota 


8 


South Dakota . . 








9 


Nebraska.- ... 




1 
2 

1 


1 
1 


18 


Kansas 




34 


South Atlantic: 

Delaware 




4 


Maryland ... .. 


1 




2 
4 
1 

\ 
1 
3 

2 


3 
4 
2 

7 
.- 

4 

4 
3 
3 
6 

1 
2 
4 
8 

1 
2 
2 
5 
1 

.. 

8 

4 

23 


7 




2 


1 
3 

2 

1 
2 

1 


19 


West Virginia _ 




15 


North Carolina. .. _. 






19 


South Carolina 






3 




1 


-- 


12 


Florida . . ... 


20 


East South Central: 

Kentucky .. _ .. . 


1 
1 
1 


13 


Tennessee . . 


12 


Alabama . ... ... .. .. 




1 

1 
2 
2 
3 

1 


10 


Mississippi 




1 

1 
1 
_- 


7 


West South Central: 

Arkansas 






9 


Louisiana 


1 


2' 
3 


10 


Oklahoma . ..... 


32 


Texas 

Montana -. .......... 


2 


38 
9 


Idaho . 








8 


Wyoming . . . 










5 


Colorado 

New Mexico.. ... .. 


1 




1 


1 
1 
1 
1 


16 
3 


Arizona 






1 


8 


Utah 




1 


11 


Nevada 




2 


Pacific: 


1 
1 
3 


2 




2 
1 

8 


18 


Oregon 


12 


California . . . 


2 


6 


110 







» Includes District of Columbia. 



103 

Table 57. — Rale per 100,000, offenses known to the police, January to September, 

inclusive, 1936 



Division and State 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England. 

Middle Atlantic'.. 

East North Central 

\Vest North Central 

South Atlantic 2 3 

East South Central 

West South Central 

Mountain 

Pacific 

New England: 

Maine 

New Uampshire 

Vermont- 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York* 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas. 

South Atlantic: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina' 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida.. 

East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi.. 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas.. 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon... 

California 



Murder, 






non neg- 




Rob- 
bery 


ligent 
man- 


Rape 


slaughter 






0.7 


4. 1 


10.4 


3.0 


6.6 


19.8 


3.6 


6.2 


60.7 


2.8 


3.7 


37.4 


13.0 


6.8 


63.1 


1.5.5 


4.0 


77.0 


12.5 


5.1 


46.8 


6.6 


7.2 


37.8 


2.6 


1. 1 


40.6 


.5 


3.8 


13.1 





5.2 


3.1 


1.5 


7.4 


4.4 


.8 


4.9 


11.2 


.3 


.3 


6.3 


.8 


3.2 


11.4 


3.1 


7.2 


11.4 


2.5 


5.8 


23.6 


3.1 


5.7 


34.8 


4.7 


4.4 


55.2 


4.9 


5.5 


44.0 


4.0 


4.5 


96.2 


2.1 


12.8 


41.6 


1.0 


3.3 


8.6 


1.0 


3.4 


35.5 


1.2 


3.1 


38.5 


5.6 


4.1 


40.8 


2.3 


2.3 


25.1 


1.8 


16.2 


27.9 


3.4 


1.1 


28.9 


2.4 


3.6 


42.8 


5.0 


.8 


12.6 


5.4 


7.2 


44.3 


13.8 


10.0 


55.0 


7.2 


5.7 


30.7 


23.0 


6.9 


47.9 


12.0 





36.1 


22.1 


6.6 


91.7 


17.0 


2.7 


65.7 


12.3 


4.5 


88.2 


17.5 


4.4 


93.9 


19.7 


3.1 


52.7 


7.3 


2.9 


22.8 


7.4 


3.1 


.53.9 


13.5 


3.3 


31.8 


7.9 


5.0 


61.2 


14.2 


6.0 


46.7 


2.5 


^ 3.8 


24.2 


2.6 


7.9 


25.0 


3.3 


6.6 


16.5 


6.8 


7.5 


35.0 


4.7 





16.4 


12.8 


12.8 


83.7 


5.0 


5.5 


33.8 


20.2 


12.1 


64.6 


2.7 


1.2 


33.6 


1.4 


2.3 


69.7 


2.7 


9.6 


38.9 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



8.0 
26.3 
27.2 
15.6 
149. 9 
113.4 
67.9 
15.8 
20.6 

8.4 
8.3 


7. 7 

(i. 2 

10.3 

23.5 
41.6 
25.3 

28.8 
33.5 
29.2 
28.7 
5.0 

10. 1 
9.5 

27.0 
6.8 
2.7 

11.2 

15.5 

35.2 

7.0 

197.8 

67.8 
368.0 

14.0 

97.4 
160.3 

123.2 
151.5 

51.7 
73.5 

89.8 
91.0 
36.9 
68.1 

14.0 
10.5 
6.6 
10.6 
18.7 
39.9 
15.5 
36.3 

16.0 
10. 1 
22.6 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



175.1 
126.9 
212.7 
213.7 
357. 3 
360. 
318. 1 
276.5 
343.4 

200. 
131.9 
70.8 
176. 3 
124.1 
211.6 

118.3 
194.4 
104.0 

236.5 
228.3 
254.0 
161.1 
92.2 

229.8 
231.8 
196. 3 
213.4 
149.3 
104.3 
293. 

168.3 
187.7 
386.2 
223. 1 
364.6 
139.3 
507.2 
590.4 

448.4 
298.2 
374.7 
241.0 

322.0 
184.1 
330.5 
367.0 

148.7 

248.9 

169. 

221 

359. 

386. 

375. 



529.0 

463.2 
443.8 
308.7 



Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 



327.7 
237.0 
495.3 
574. 9 
809.5 
598. 1 
859.0 
724.6 
744.9 

333.6 
207.5 
98.8 
314.5 
327.4 
411.8 

295.4 
348.8 
153. 4 

609.7 
545.9 
310.8 
657.5 
393.7 

341.1 

554.9 
812.0 
394.8 
405. 1 
344.5 
793.5 

435.4 

325. 7 

1, 128. 1 

585.4 

640.4 

1, 326. 1 

1,041.5 

1,045.8 

754. 6 
407.5 
689.9 
573.8 

784.0 

303.6 

835. 1 

1, 074. 2 

901.3 
642. 8 
833.8 
590. 7 

1, 069. 9 
832.2 
737.7 

1, 498. 1 

774.2 
988.2 
712.9 



Auto 
theft 



128.9 
101.0 
121.3 
153.6 
213.8 
172.9 
159.7 
228.1 
290.4 

199.9 
30.8 
44.3 

141.8 
54.3 

140.7 

86.4 
114.1 
104.7 

147.1 
176.8 

86.5 
138.2 

73.9 

190.5 
149.6 
126.5 
90. 1 
184. 4 
197.2 
109.6 

159. 1 
177.3 
202.6 
127.8 
171.9 
72.2 
234.7 
208.7 

194.1 
198.8 
123.5 
107.3 

84.2 
114 6 

88.4 
211.9 

101.7 
179.1 
141.7 
156.7 
126.1 
563.6 
264.7 
537.0 

259.1 
195.6 
306.9 



I The rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on the reports of 428 cities with a total population 
of 10,936,892. 
> Includes report of District of Columbia. 

' The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 99 cities with a total population of 3,220,400. 
< The rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 49 cities. 
• The rate for aggravated assault is based on reports of 18 cities. 



104 

Data for Individual Cities. 

The number of offenses reported as having been committed during 
the third quarter of 1936 is shown in table 58. The compilation is 
limited to the reports received from police departments in cities with 
more than 100,000 inhabitants. Such data are presented here in order 
that interested individuals and organizations may have readily avail- 
able up-to-date information concerning the amount of crime com- 
mitted in their communities. Police administrators and other inter- 
ested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare the crime 
rates for their cities with the average rates shown in table 53 of this 
publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to make compari- 
sons with the figures of their communities for prior periods in order 
to determine whether there has been an increase or decrease in the 
amount of crime committed. 

With reference to the possibility of comparing the amount of crime 
in one city with the amount of reported crime in other individual com- 
munities, it is suggested that such comparisons be made with a great 
deal of caution, because differences in the figures may be due to a 
great variety of factors. The amount of crime committed in a com- 
munity is not chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against 
the entire community. The followmg is a list of some of the factors 
which might aft'ect the amount of crime in a community: The com- 
position of the population with reference particularly to age, sex, and 
race; the economic status and activities of the population; climate; 
educational, recreational, and religious facilities; the number of 
police employees per unit of population; the standards governing 
appointments to the police force ; the policies of the prosecuting offi- 
cials and the courts; the attitude of the public toward law-enforcement 
problems. Comparisons between the crime rates of individual cities 
should not be made without giving consideration to the above-men- 
tioned factors. It should be noted that it is more important to 
determine whether the figures for a given community show increases 
or decreases in the amount of crime committed than to ascertain 
whether the figures are above or below those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual com- 
munities it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that 
the data are compiled by different record departments operating 
under separate and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely 
possible that there may be variations in the practices employed in 
classifying complaints of offenses. On the other hand, the crime 
reporting manual has been distributed to all contributors of crime 
reports and the figures received are included in this bulletin only if 
they apparently have been compiled in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the manual, and the individual department has so indicated. 



105 

Table 58. — Number of offenses known to the police, July to September, inclusive, 

1936 



City 



Akron, Ohio. 

Albany, N. Y. 

Atlanta, Qa 

Baltimore, Md.. 

Birmingham, Ala 

Boston, Mass.- 

Bridgeport, Conn 

BufTalo, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Dallas, Tex 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Elizabeth, N.J 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

Evansville, Ind 

Fall River, Mass 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Gary, Ind... 

Grand Rapids, Mich.. 

Hartford, Conn 

Houston, Tex 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Kansas City, Kans 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Miami, Fla 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newark, N.J 

New Bedford, Mass... 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

NewYork, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

Oakland, Calif 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 

Omaha, Nebr 

Paterson, N. J 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 

Providence, R. I 

Reading, Pa 

Richmond, Va.. 

Rochester, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

St. Paul, Minn 

Salt Lake City, Utah.. 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif... 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

Somerville, Mass 

South Bend, Ind 

Spokane, Wash 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



3 

1 

33 

16 

21 

4 

1 

3 



(2) 



2 
3 

64 

17 

28 

5 

34 

11 

9 

2 

26 



20 
8 
5 



7 
1 
18 
6 
1 



10 
5 
3 
1 

12 
5 



1 

24 
98 
7 
1 
5 
2 
1 



32 
8 
4 
1 
1 
6 
3 

19 
1 
3 
8 
5 
6 



Rape 



11 
1 

11 

17 
3 

U 



(2) 



11 

1 
4 

7 

66 
13 
10 
3 
10 



5 
1 

120 



2 
4 
8 
3 
3 
16 
1 
8 
2 
6 
2 
8 
7 



/ 

73 

9 



4 
1 
5 
200 
3 
11 
4 



3 
3 

48 

19 

2 

1 



8 
4 
9 
12 
2 
3 
2 
5 
3 
2 



1 



Rob- 
bery 



40 

1 

133 

101 

54 

37 

3 

20 



30 

30 

49 

1, 167 

143 

243 

82 

36 

37 

37 

12 

281 

10 

12 

9 

13 

7 

4 

15 

12 

12 

21 

2 

3 

59 
81 
39 
38 
3 

29 

159 

83 



5 
97 
35 

6 
46 
47 
48 

1 

6 
19 
264 
40 
51 
25 
19 
16 

3 

111 

299 

78 

5 

4 
51 

6 
112 
65 
23 
69 
15 
68 

3 
57 

3 

9 
29 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



35 
8 
113 
14 
48 
26 



52 

1 

63 

14 

470 

137 

56 

39 

73 

54 

10 

8 

314 



2 
4 

8 
11 



42 

4 

15 

31 

7 

12 

80 

116 

59 

17 

23 

15 

79 

146 

1 

1 

219 

340 

21 

27 

114 

156 

6 

2 

114 

694 

66 

44 

55 

12 

24 

16 

230 

24 

12 

7 

8 

211 

15 

111 

24 

8 

75 

8 

55 

13 

18 

2 

2 

18 



Bur- 


Larceny— theft 


glary— 






break- 
ing or 


$50 
and 
over 


Under 


entering 


$50 


227 


62 


350 


69 


29 


170 


704 


173 


933 


468 


166 


652 


449 


69 


584 


240 


183 


490 


54 


36 


190 


170 


73 


441 


68 


15 


140 


56 


55 


83 


170 


(') 


253 


163 


27 


406 


3,079 


844 


3,128 


544 


191 


1,132 


681 


84 


2,451 


442 


130 


829 


465 


64 


1,544 


161 


32 


533 


213 


80 


241 


161 


20 


409 


788 


217 


4,433 


59 


32 


187 


67 


16 


102 


82 


12 


251 


104 


21 


94 


63 


15 


277 


94 


10 


94 


147 


48 


528 


69 


23 


285 


334 


26 


646 


62 


10 


83 


172 


24 


394 


200 


50 


298 


343 


59 


771 


404 


120 


1,038 


321 


131 


617 


204 


(') 


257 


102 


33 


138 


226 


83 


404 


1,465 


536 


2,026 


526 


139 


837 


55 


14 


79 


101 


17 


209 


240 


14 


198 


336 


44 


206 


130 


68 


894 


463 


73 


204 


106 


(') 


363 


225 


94 


600 


105 


17 


247 


182 


36 


276 


171 


46 


184 


551 


('} 


1,718 


171 


29 


407 


327 


57 


683 


160 


40 


627 


3S 


13 


93 


97 


17 


58 


74 


12 


52 


487 


177 


446 


291 


135 


246 


534 


171 


949 


125 


10 


199 


68 


24 


125 


401 


109 


936 


160 


42 


424 


401 


(') 


2,640 


367 


66 


500 


256 


22 


324 


318 


160 


586 


41 


30 


168 


259 


(') 


1,550 


63 


16 


95 


685 


138 


006 


45 


13 


72 


45 


12 


68 


169 


69 


423 



Auto 
theft 



70 

69 

258 

538 

143 

664 

79 

215 

99 

44 

59 

110 

878 

212 

536 

275 

277 

98 

169 

116 

820 

38 

42 

44 

58 

80 

32 

102 

94 

91 

51 

72 

65 

324 

379 

70 

65 

102 

151 

1,741 

242 

43 

41 

73 

86 

139 

588 

197 

347 

43 

114 

148 

2,075 

80 

218 

64 

151 

57 

65 

550 

625 

207 

77 

22 

142 

90 

378 

131 

140 

242 

140 

801 

56 

502 

48 

48 

110 



' Larcenies not separately reported. 
' Not reported. 



Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 



Table 58. 



106 



-Number of offenses known to the police, July to September, inclusive, 
1936 — Continued 



City 



Springfield, Mass... 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N.J 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C_. 
Waterbury, Conn_. 

Wicliita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del.-. 

Worcester, Mass 

Yonkers, N. Y 

Youngstown, Ohio_ 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



6 

1 

19 



Rape 



9 
6 
4 
7 
30 



Rob- 
bery 



5 

6 

5 

61 

15 

30 

1 

178 



3 

5 
1 

1 
51 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



14 
6 



19 
39 

17 
8 
2 
166 
1 
3 

11 
5 
6 

25 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 



111 
132 
116 

73 
245 

91 
230 

29 
590 

60 

95 

65 
161 

56 
133 



Larceny— theft 



$50 and 
over 



27 
45 

5 

25 
103 
16 
80 
12 
291 

8 
17 
37 
50 

2 
15 



Under 
$50 



303 

250 

170 

123 

631 

116 

453 

123 

1,580 

54 

404 

159 

62 

76 

275 



Auto 
theft 



69 

104 
64 
26 

378 
55 
47 
23 

732 
62 
39 
64 

130 
50 

170 



Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1936. 

In compiling national crime data the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion distinguishes between urban and rural crimes. The figures pre- 
sented in the preceding tables are based on reports from a large ma- 
jority of the agencies policmg urban areas (places wdth 2,500 or 
more inhabitants). Comprehensive data regarding rural crimes 
are not yet available, but the information on hand is shown in table 
59, which is based on reports from 421 sheriffs, 86 police agencies in 
rural villages, and 4 State police organizations. For comparative 
purposes there are presented below percentage distributions of rural and 
urban crimes (the urban data are based on figures shown in table 53): 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary. -. 
Auto theft- 



Percent 


Urban 


Rural 


100.0 


100.0 


52.2 
23.3 
15.5 


46.4 
30.0 
10.2 



Offense 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Percent 



Urban 


Rural 


4.0 


4.9 


3.5 


3.8 


.6 


2.3 


.5 


1.3 


.4 


1.1 



The above comparison discloses that whereas only 5 percent of the 
urban crimes are offenses against the person (murder, negligent man- 
slaughter, rape, and aggravated assault), 8.5 percent of the rural 
crimes reported fall within those classes. This may be due to the 
fact that some of the reports representing rural crimes indicate the 
possibility that they were limited to instances in wliich arrests were 
made. Incompleteness of tliis sort in the reports of rural crimes wiU 
tend to increase the percentage of rural crimes against the person 
because such offenses are much more generally followed by arrests 
than are the less serious offenses against property. 



107 

Table 59. — Offenses Arnou'n, January to September 1936, inclusive, as reported by 
421 sheriffs, 4 State police organizations, and 86 village officers 





Criminal homi- 
cide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 






Murder, 

nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known 


382 


467 


803 


1,349 


1,740 


10,668 


16, 498 


3,613 







Offenses Known in the Possessions of the United States. 

In table 60 there are shown avaihxble data concerning the number 
of offenses known to hiw-enforcement agencies in the possessions of 
the United States. The tabulation includes reports from Hawaii 
County, Honolulu (city and county), Territory of Hawaii; the Canal 
Zone; and Puerto Rico. The figures are based on both urban and 
rural areas and the population figures from the 1930 decennial census 
are indicated in the table. 

With reference to the figures presented for the Canal Zone, it should 
be noted that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has been advised 
that less than one-third of the persons arrested for offenses committed 
in the Canal Zone are residents thereof. It appears, therefore, that a 
large proportion of the crime committed in the Canal Zone is attribut- 
able to transients and other nonresidents. 

Table 60. — Number of offenses known in United States possessions, January to 

September 1936 

[Population figures from Federal Census, Apr. 1, 1930] 





Criminal homi- 
cide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary — 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 




Jurisdiction reporting 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Over 

$50 


Under 
$50 


Auto 
theft 


Hawaii: 

Hawaii County, popula- 
tion "3,325; number of 
offenses known 


3 

4 

2 

254 


23 

1 
89 


8 
11 

3 

55 


12 

5 
38 


4 
36 

10 
1,403 


13 

754 

62 

562 


83 

8 
94 


97 
1,300 

178 
2, 614 


4 


Honolulu, city and county, 
Dopulation 202,923; num- 
ber of offenses known 

Isthmus of Panama: 

Canal Zone, population 
39,367; number of offenses 
known 


230 

23 


Puerto Rico: 

Population 1,543,913; num- 
, ber of offenses known 


75 



Data From Supplementary Offense Reports. 

More detailed information concerning major offenses is obtained 
from the police departments of cities over 100,000 in population. 
Usable reports containing such information were received from 42 
police departments during the third quarter of 1936, and the data 
are presented in the following compilations. 

104149°— 36 3 



108 

Table 61 reveals that over one-half of the rapes reported were 
forcible in nature. Of the 2,338 robberies listed, 1,528 (65.4 percent) 
occurred on city highways, and 635 (27.2 percent) in various types 
of business houses. 

The table includes 11,421 burglaries, 5,957 (52.2 percent) of which 
were in residences. Of the total of 11,421 burglaries, 2,765 (24.2 per- 
cent) were committed during the day. However, with reference to 
residence burglaries alone, it is shown that 37.2 percent occurred 
during the daytime. 

Thirteen percent of the larcenies listed were cases in which the 
property stolen exceeded $50 in value. The value was from $5 to 
$50 in 62.8 percent of the cases, and under $5 in the remaining 
24.2 percent of the larcenies. The compilation also shows that 1.9 
percent of the larcenies were cases of pocket-picking and that 2.2 
percent were instances of purse-snatching. 



Table 61. — Number of known offenses loith divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of 'property stolen, July to September, 
inclusive, 1936; 1^2 cities over 100,000 

[Total population, 14,784,831, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 



Rape: 

Forcible 

Statutory 

Total 

Robbery: 

Highway 

Commercial house 

Oil station 

Chain store 

Residence 

Bank 

Miscellaneous 

Total 

Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 
Committed during day,. 
All other (store, oflBce, etc.): 
Committed during night 
Committed during day.. 

Total 



Number 
of actual 
offenses 



171 
154 



325 



1,528 

493 

123 

17 

66 

2 

109 



2,338 



3,742 
2,215 

4,914 
550 



11,421 



Classification 



Larceny — theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen): 

Over $50 

$5 to $50- 

Under $5 

Total 

Larceny — theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 

Pocket-picking 

Purse-snatching 

Another- 

Total 



Number 
of actual 
ofienses 



3,089 

14, 946 

6,761 



23.796 



444 
525 

22,827 



23,796 



The figures presented in table 61-A show that the police depart- 
ments of the 42 cities submitting the supplementary offense reports 
during the tliird quarter of 1936 reported 6,318 automobiles stolen 
during that period, 5,893 being recovered. The percent of recoveries 
of stolen automobiles for the tliird quarter of 1936 is 93.3. 



Table 61-A. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, July to September, inclusive, 1936; 

42 cities over 100,000 

[Total population, 14,784,831, as estimated July 1, 1933, _y the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen. 6,318 

Number of automobiles recovered 5, 893 

Percentage recovered 93. 3 



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In table 61-B may be found information concerning the value of 
property stolen and the value of property recovered during the third 
quarter of 1936, as reported by 42 police departments. The total 
value of property stolen was $3,640,240.23. Property recovered 
amounted to $2,374,728.15 (65.2 percent). Automobiles constitute 
a large portion of the property represented in table 61-B. Exclusive 
of automobiles, the value of property stolen was $1,543,115.23, and 
the value of recoveries was $440,240.15 (28.5 percent). 

Table 61— B. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, July to September, inclusive, 1936; 4^ cities over 
100,000 

[Total population, 14.784,831, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
M isceUaneous 

Total 



Value of property 
stolen 



$426, 152. 35 

365, 247. 21 

48, 272. 45 

199, 032. 65 

2, 097, 125. 00 

504, 410. 57 



3, 640, 240. 23 



Value of property 
recovered 



$90, 891. 01 

115, 956. 99 

7, 217. 00 

50, 132. 42 

1, 934, 488. 00 

176, 042. 73 



2, 374, 728. 15 



Percent 
recovered 



21.3 
31.7 
15.0 
25.2 
92.2 
34.9 



65.2 



Annual Crime Trends — Cities Divided According to Location. 

In the issue of this bulletin for the second quarter of 1936, there 
was presented a tabulation reflecting annual crime trends in 1,127 
cities during 1933-35. In that compilation (table 40) the data were 
shown for the cities divided into six groups according to size. In the 
following compilation (table 62) the figures for the same 1,127 cities 
are shown with a subdivision of the cities into 9 groups according 
to geographic location. 

As mentioned in connection with table 40, the figures representing 
the reports of the total of 1,127 police departments show marked 
decreases in robbery and auto theft. The robbery decrease amounted 
to 26.5 percent and the reduction in auto thefts was 26.2 percent. 
There were substantial decreases in the number of homicides, aggra- 
vated assaults, and burglaries reported. The decrease for larceny 
was so slight as to be without significance. On the other hand, 
reported offenses of rape showed an increase of 15.7 percent. 

Examination of the figures for the nine geographic divisions of the 
country reveals that there were decreases in robbery and auto theft 
in all sections. It is generally true that the portions of the country 
which reported the highest robbery and auto theft rates in 1933 have 
shown the largest decreases since then. For burglary all sections 
reported decreases, except the East South Central States. Larceny 
changes were in most instances not very large. The New England, 
East North Central, and Pacific States reported reductions in offenses 
of this type, but the figures for the remaining sections of the country 
reflected increases. With reference to aggravated assault, the West 
South Central, Mountain, and Pacific States reported increases, 
whereas the remaining divisions reported decreases. With the excep- 
tion of the South Atlantic and the West South Central States, aU 
sections of the country reported increases in the number of rapes com- 
mitted. Most of the nine divisions reported decreases in the number 
of offenses of murder, the reductions being particularly large in the 
East North Central, West North Central, and Pacific States. 



Ill 



With reference to the figures showing a dechnc in the number of 
cases of murder and nonneghgent manshuighter, it should be noted 
that cases of justifiable or excusable killing are not included in these 
figures. In other words, it is entirely possible that tabulations 
which include justifiable and excusable killings nuiy show no decrease 
in homicide, whereas there may actually have been a decrease in the 
number of cases of felonious killing. However, it should be noted 
that during 1935 it was ascertained that some pohce departments had 
been improperly including cases of excusable homicide in their reports. 
These were subsequently eliminated from the records. It is possible 
that some of the decrease in the number of willful homicides shown 
in the figures for 1935 is due to the fact that excusable homicides were 
ehmina1x?d from the figures for that year, whereas some of them may 
have been included in the figures for prior years. 

Table 62. — Offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 1933-36; 

number and rates by geographic diinsions 

[Population as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 





Criminal homi- 
cide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 




Year and geographic division 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


.A.utO 
theft 


NEW ENGLAND 

127 cities; total population, 4,920,574: 
Number of oflenses known: 
1933 - - . 


89 
66 
63 

1.8 
1.3 
1.3 

366 
308 
337 

4. 1 
3.5 
3.8 

888 
878 
731 

6.4 
6.4 
5.3 

239 
243 
171 

6.1 
6.2 
4.4 


138 
134 
122 

2.8 
2.7 
2.5 

841 
444 

454 

9.5 
5.0 
5.1 

425 
471 
476 

3.1 
3.4 
3.5 

47 

72 

100 

1.2 
1.8 
2.6 


269 
348 
342 

5.5 
7. 1 ■ 
7.0 

456 
490 
509 

5. 1 
5.5 
5.7 

893 

832 

1,087 

6.5 
6.0 
7.9 

174 
233 
205 

4.6 
6.0 
5.3 


1,290 

1,438 

985 

26.2 
29.2 
20.0 

4.082 
3,443 
3,036 

46.0 
38.8 
34.2 

24,210 
22, 381 
17,528 

175.5 
162.3 
127.1 

4,103 
3,357 
2,838 

105.3 
86.2 
72.9 


816 
742 
648 

16.6 
15.1 
13.2 

3, 456 
3,025 
2,670 

38.9 
34. 1 
30.1 

6. 3.52 
6, 112 
5,523 

46.1 
44.3 
40.0 

950 
826 
825 

24.4 
21.2 
21.2 


14, 439 
14, 109 
13, 504 

293.4 
286.7 
274.4 

20, 535 
19, 907 
18, 988 

231.3 
224.2 
21.3. 9 

.'■)4,04I 
53,821 
49, 044 

391.8 
390.2 
355.6 

14, 649 
13, 833 
13,272 

376.0 
355. 1 
340.7 


28,558 
27, 270 
23,984 

580.4 
554.2 

487.4 

29, 226 

30, 489 
30, 086 

329.2 
343.4 
338.8 

117,424 
112,397 
109, 008 

851.4 
815.0 
790.4 

32, 394 
32, 994 
33,540 

a31.6 

847.0 
861.0 


13, 531 


1934 _ . 


12, 824 


1935 ... - 


11, 130 


Rate per 100,000: 

1933. 


275.0 


1934 


260.6 


1935 


226.2 


MIDDLE ATLANTIC 

279 cities; total population, 8,879,110: 
Number of offenses known: 

1933 

1934 .. . 


14, 562 

15, 727 


1935 - 


14, 180 


Rate per 100,000: 
1933 


164.0 


1934 


177.1 


1935. 


159.7 


EAST NORTH CENTRAL 

302 cities; total population, 13,791,712: 
Number of offenses known: 

1933- 


50,850 


1934 ... 


37, 456 


1935 


27, 161 


Rate per 100,000: 

1933 


368.7 


1934 


271.6 


1935 


196.9 


•WEST NORTH CENTRAL 

114 cities; total population, 3,895,581: 
Number of offenses known: 

1933 


15, 407 


1934 . 


13,238 


1935 


11,345 


Rate per 100,000: 

1933 


395.5 


1934. 


339.8 


1935 


291.2 



112 

Table 62. — Offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 1933-35; 
number and rates by geographic divisions — Continued 



Year and geographic division 



SOUTH ATLANTIC 

73 cities; total population, 3,559,102: 
Number of oflenses known: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

Rate per 100,000: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 

22 cities; total population, 1,481,825: 
Number of offenses known: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

Rate per 100,000: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 

50 cities; total population, 2,928,781: 
Number of offenses known: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

Rate per 100,000: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

MOUNTAIN 

38 cities; total population, 942,030: 
Number of oflenses known: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

Rate per 100,000: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

TACIFIC 

122qities; total population, 3,522,021: 
Number of offenses known: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

Rate per 100,000: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

TOTAL 

1,127 cities; total population, 
43,920,736: 

Number of oflenses known: 

1933 

1934 

1935 

Rate per 100,000: 

1933 

1934 - 

1935 



Criminal homi- 
cide 



Murder, 
nonneg 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



r.OS 
553 
464 

14.1 
15.5 
13.0 



373 
406 
353 

25.2 

27.4 
23.8 



471 
451 
406 

16.1 
15.4 
13.9 



62 
52 
71 

6.6 
5.5 

7.5 



140 
137 
108 

4.0 
3.9 
3.1 



3,131 
3,094 
2,704 

7.1 
7.0 
6.2 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



226 
204 

189 

6.3 
5.7 
5.3 



112 
139 
209 

7.6 

9.4 

14.1 



147 
142 
161 

5.0 

4.8 
5.5 



15 
34 
37 

1.6 
3.6 
3.9 



146 
164 
184 

4.1 
4.7 
5.2 



2,097 
1,804 
1,932 

4.8 
4.1 
4.4 



Rape 



271 
239 
236 

7.6 
6.7 

6.6 



58 
58 
62 

3.9 
3.9 

4.2 



163 
165 
144 

5.6 
5.6 
4.9 



53 
53 
75 

5.6 
5.6 
8.0 



163 
185 
232 

4.6 
5.3 
6.6 



2,5C0 
2,603 
2,892 

5.7 
5.9 
6.6 



Rob- 
bery 



3,092 
2,830 
2,534 

86.9 
79.5 
71.2 



1,900 
2,021 
1,871 

128.2 
136.4 
126.3 



2,818 
2,482 
2,213 

96.2 

84.7 
75.6 



1,047 

1,133 

895 

111.1 

120.3 

95.0 



3,383 

2,438 
1,847 

96.1 
69.2 
52.4 



45, 925 
41,523 
33, 747 

104. 6 
94.5 
76.8 



Aggra- 
vated 
as- 
sault 



5,391 
5,804 
5,266 

151.5 
163.1 
148.0 



3,181 
2,806 
2,456 

214.7 

189.4 
165.7 



1,936 
2,410 
2,526 

66.1 
82.3 
86.2 



185 
221 
232 

19.6 
23.5 
24.6 



833 

955 
989 

23.7 

27.1 
28.1 



23, 100 
22, 901 
21, 135 

52.6 
52.1 
48.1 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



15, 672 
15, 143 
15, 266 

440.3 
425.5 
428.9 



7,877 
8,959 
8,052 

531.6 
604.6 
543.4 



16, 163 
15, 293 
14, 438 

551.9 
522.2 
493.0 



6,031 
6,149 
5,077 

640.2 
652.7 
538.9 



18, 166 
18,271 
15, 789 

515.8 
518.8 
448.3 



167, 573 
165, 485 
153, 430 

381.5 
376.8 
349.3 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



34, 583 
36, 576 
40, 235 

971.7 
1,027.7 
1, 130. 5 



9,177 

10, 385 

9,984 

619.3 
700.8 
673.8 



33, 769 
37,212 
37, 159 

1,153.0 
1, 270. 6 
1, 268. 8 



11, 199 
12, 832 
11, 462 

1, 188. 8 
1, 362. 2 
1, 216. 7 



45, 507 
44, 964 
43, 451 

1, 292. 1 
1,276.7 
1,233.7 



341, 837 
345, 119 
338, 909 

778.3 
785.8 
771.6 



Auto 
theft 



12,314 
11,721 
10, 724 

346.0 
329.3 
301.3 



4,608 
4,693 
4,369 

311.0 
316.7 
294.8 



12, 298 

12, 173 

8,989 

419.9 
415.6 
306.9 



3,844 
4,309 
3,380 

408.1 
457.4 
358.8 



14, 189 
13, 604 
13, 156 

402.9 
386.3 
373.5 



141,603 
125, 745 
104, 434 

322.4 
286.3 
237.8 



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DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 



During the first 9 months of 1936 the FBI examined 343,132 
arrest records as evidenced by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain 
data concerning the age, sex, race, and previous criminal liistory of 
the persons represented. The number of fingerprint records examined 
was considerably larger than for the corresponding periods of prior 
years, which were as follows: 1935—292,530; 1934—260,506. The 
compilation has been limited to instances of arrests for violations of 
State laws and municipal ordinances. In other w^ords, fingerprint 
cards representing arrests for violations of Federal laws or represent- 
ing commitments to any type of penal institution have been excluded 
from this tabulation. 

The increase in the number of arrest records examined should not 
be construed as reflecting an increase in the amount of crime, nor 
necessarily as an increase in the number of persons arrested, since it 
quite probably is at least partially the result of an increase in the 
number of local agencies contributing fingerprint records to the 
Identification Division of the FBI. The tabulation of data from 
fingerprint cards obviously does not include all persons arrested, 
since there are individuals taken into custody for whom no finger- 
print cards are forwarded to Wasliington. Furthermore, data per- 
taming to persons arrested should not be treated as information 
regarding the number of ofi^enses committed, since two or more 
persons may be involved in the joint commission of a single offense, 
and on the other hand one person may be arrested and charged with 
the commission of several separate oft'enses. 

Despite the increase in the number of arrest records examined 
during 1936, there was a decrease in the number of records reflecting 
arrests for murder, robbery, and burglary, as compared with the same 
period of 1935. Arrests for murder, robbery, assault, burglary, lar- 
ceny, and auto theft constituted 31.2 percent of the arrest records 
examined during the first 9 months of 1936, whereas, arrests for 
those types of offenses numbered 37.1 percent of all arrests for the 
first 9 months of 1935. Notwithstanding the decrease referred to 
above, there were numerous arrests for major violations during the 
first 9 months of 1936 as reflected by the following figures: 



Criminal homicide 4, 862 

Robbery 9, 763 

Assault 21, 180 

Burglary 22, 352 

Larceny (except auto theft) 40, 492 

Auto theft 8, 35 1 

Embezzlement and fraud 10, 560 



Stolen property (receiving, etc.)- 2, 425 

Forgery and counterfeiting 4, 732 

Rape_l 3, 851 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 881 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 4, 450 

Driving while intoxicated 13, 691 

Gambling 4, 452 



(114) 



115 

Of the total of 343,132 arrest records exaimned, 25,411 (7.4 percent) 
represented females. The proportion of females arrested during the 
first 9 months of 1936 shows a slight increase over tl>e figures for the 
corresponding periods of i)rior >a^ars. The figures for 1935 and 1934 
were 6.9 and 7.0 percent, respectively. 

Women were found to be most frequently arrested for larceny, 
3,429 (13.5 percent) of the total of 25,411 being charged with that 
type of violation. Other olfenses frequently charged against females 
were as follows: 

Prostitution aiul commercial- 
ized vice 2, 590 

Drunkenness 2, 808 

Vagrancy 2, 016 

In addition, 500 women were charged with criminal homicide and 456 
with robbery. 



Assault .. 1, 904 

Disorderly conduct 1, 746 

Violation of liquor laws 1, 000 



Table 63. — Distribution of arrests by sex Jan. 1-Sept. 80, 1936 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting- _ _ _. 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses . 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other trafBc and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

AU other oflenses 

Total 



Number 



Total 



4,862 

9,763 

21, 180 

22, 3.';2 

40, 492 

8,351 

10, 560 

2,425 

4,732 

3,851 

3,777 

5,073 

2,881 

4,450 

4,233 

7,325 

13, 691 
2,411 

10 
4,068 

14, 255 
52, 698 
27, 217 

4,452 
40, 537 

4,234 
23,252 



343, 132 



IMale 



4,362 

9,307 

19, 276 

21, 925 
37, 0R3 

8,203 

10, 052 

2,204 

4,428 

3.851 

1,181 

4,279 

2,345 

4,283 

4,107 

6,325 

13, 350 

2,380 

10 

3,982 

12, 509 

49, 890 

2.5, 201 

4, 105 

37, 152 

3,925 

22, 026 



317, 721 



Female 



500 

4.56 
1,904 

427 
3,429 

148 
508 
221 
304 



2, .596 
794 
536 
167 
126 

1,000 

341 

31 



86 
1,746 
2,808 
2,016 

347 
3,385 

309 
1,226 



25,411 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



1.4 

2.9 
6.2 
6.5 
11.8 
2. 
3. 



4 

1 

.7 

1.4 

1.1 

1. 1 
1.5 

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1.3 
1.2 

2. 1 
4.0 



(') 
1.2 
4.2 

15.4 
7.9 
1.3 

11.8 
1.2 
6.8 



100.0 



4 

9 

1 

9 

7 

6 

2 

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1.4 

1.2 

.4 

1.3 

. 7 

1.3 

1.3 

2.0 

4.2 

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0) 

1.3 

3.9 

1.5.7 

7.9 

1.3 

11.7 

1.2 

6.9 



100.0 



2.0 

1.8 

7.5 

1.7 

13.5 

.6 
2.0 

.9 
1.2 


10.2 
3. 1 
2.1 

.7 

.5 
3.9 
1.3 

.1 


.3 
6.9 
11.1 
7.9 
1.4 
13.3 
1.2 
4.8 



100.0 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 percent. 



116 



The table showing the ages of persons arrested indicates that there 
were more arrests for age 21 than for any other single age group. 
The compilation disclosed that 59,954 (17.5 percent) of the persons 
arrested were less than 21 years old ; 58,408 (17.0 percent) were between 
the ages of 21 and 24; maldng a total of 118,362 (34.5 percent) less 
than 25 years old. In addition, there were 59,044 (17.2 percent) 



NUMBER OF PERSONS ARRESTED 
AGES 16 TO 24 



DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT CARDS 
JANUARY 1 - SEPTEMBER 30, 1936 



2/500 



4,000 



6,000 



8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 



5,980 




Figure 14. 



persons arrested between the ages of 25 and 29. This makes a total 
of 177,406 (51,7 percent) less than 30 years of age. (With reference 
to the ages of persons represented by fingerprint cards received at 
the F B I, it should be borne in mind that the number of arrest 
records is doubtless incomplete in the lower age groups, because in 
some jurisdictions the practice is not to fingerprint youthful 
individuals.) 






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118 



Youths were most frequently charged with offenses of robbery, 
burglary, larceny, and auto theft. For all crimes 118,362 persons 
under 25 were arrested, thus constituting 34.5 percent of the total 
of 343,132 arrest records examined. However, youths under 25 
numbered 53.7 percent of those charged with robbery, 58.5 percent 
of those charged with burglary, 45.4 percent of those charged with 
larceny, and 70.6 percent of those charged with auto theft. 

Table 65. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 

Jan. 1-Sept. 30, 1936 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 1 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess 

ing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

other sex ofTenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations.- 

other trafQc and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total 

number 

of persons 

arrested 



4,862 

9,763 

21, 180 

22, 352 
40, 492 

8,351 
10, 560 

2,425 

4,732 

3,851 

3,777 

5,073 

2,881 

4,450 

4,233 

7,325 

13, 691 

2,411 

10 

4,068 

14, 255 

62, 698 

27, 217 

4,452 

40, 537 

4,234 

23, 252 



343, 132 



Number 

under 21 

years of 

age 



526 
2,622 
2,307 
8,660 
11,081 
3,944 

777 

376 

696 

943 

334 

693 

160 

708 

158 

539 

560 

410 

1 

734 

2,037 

2,341 

4,454 

372 

8,041 

668 

5,812 



59, 954 



Total 
number 
under 25 

years of 
age 



1,377 
5,243 
5,738 
13, 087 
18, 368 
5,892 
2,260 

754 
1,455 
1,799 
1,293 
1,503 

544 
1, 508 

692 
1,448 
2,247 
1,054 
3 
1,668 
4,672 
7,461 
9,869 

957 

15, 831 

1,391 

10, 248 



118, 362 



Percentage 

under 21 

years of 

age 



10.8 
26.9 
10.9 
38.7 
27.4 
47.2 
7.4 

15.5 
14.7 
24.5 

8.8 
13.7 

5.6 
15.9 

3.7 

7.4 

4.1 
17.0 
10.0 
18.0 
14.3 

4.4 
16.4 

8.4 
19.8 
15.8 
25.0 



17.5 



Total per- 
centage 
under 25 
years of 
age 



28.3 
53.7 
27.1 
58.5 
45.4 
70.6 
21.4 

31.1 
30.7 
46.7 
34.2 
29.6 
18.9 
33.9 
16.3 
19.8 
16.4 
43.7 
30.0 
41.0 
32.8 
14.2 
36.3 
21.5 
39.1 
32.9 
44.1 



34.5 



During the first 9 months of 1936, 39.5 percent (135,618) of the 
persons arrested already had fingerprint cards on file in the Identifica- 
tion Division of the FBI. In addition, there were 7,572 records 
bearing notations indicating previous criminal histories of the persons 
concerned, although the fingerprints had not previously been filed in 
the Bureau. This makes a total of 143,190 records containing in- 
formation regarding the prior criminal activities of the persons ar- 
rested. The records disclosed that 103,703 (72.4 percent) had 
previously been convicted of one or more offenses. This number 
constitutes 30.2 percent of the 343,132 arrest records examined. 

Many of the persons had been previously convicted of major 
violations as indicated by the following figures: 



Criminal homicide 1, 033 

Robbery 4, 554 

Assault 5, 683 

Burglary 12, 945 

Larceny (and related offenses) _ _ 26, 479 

Forgery and counterfeiting 3, 260 



Rape 674 

Narcotic drug laws 2, 207 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 1,405 

Driving while intoxicated 1, 929 

Total 60,169 



119 

Tlio records of 34 of the persons charp;ed \nth criminal lioinicide 
durint; the lirst 9 months of 193G disclosed that they had heeii pre- 
viously convicted of homicide. In general, the tabulation indicates 
a tendency for recidivists to repeat the same typo of crime. 

As heretofore indicated, the records show that 103,703 of the persons 
arrested hail been previously convicted. The records of those persons 
disclosed 299,418 prior convictions, an average of almost three per 
individual; 132,630 of the convictions were for major violations, and 
166,788 were for less serious infractions of the criminal laws. 

Tablk 66. — Number with previous fingerprint records, arrests, Jan 



m. 1-Sept 


SO, 1936 




Previous 


Total 


fingerprint 




record 


4,862 


1,162 


9,763 


4,782 


21, 180 


7,033 


22, 352 


9,110 


40, 492 


15, 922 


8,351 


3, 278 


10, 560 


4, 656 


2,425 


720 


4,732 


2,251 


3,851 


998 


3,777 


1,494 


5,073 


1,364 


2,881 


1,856 


4,450 


1,456 


4,233 


1,209 


7,325 


2,313 


13, 691 


3, 359 


2,411 


633 


10 


2 


4,068 


1,294 


14, 255 


5,268 


52, 698 


22, 615 


27, 217 


■ 14,194 


4,452 


1,143 


40, 537 


16,906 


4,234 


1,733 


23, 252 


8,867 


343, 132 


135, 618 



O&ense charged 



Criminal homicide --- --- 

Robbery 

Assault - --- -. 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape.-- -- - 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic druglaws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws _ 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion -. 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Table 67. — Percentage with previous fingerprint records, arrests, Jan. 1-Sepi. 30, 

1936 



Offense 



Narcotic drug laws 

Vagrancy 

Robbery 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Drunkenness 

Suspicion 

Burglary— breaking or enterin?- 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

I-arceny— theft 

Auto theft.. 

All other offenses 

Disorderly conduct 

Assault 



Percent 



64.4 

52. 2 ■ 

49.0 

47.6 

44.1 

42.9 

41.7 

40.8 

39.6 

39.3 

39.3 

38.1 

37.0 

33.2 



Offense 



Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Liquor laws 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos 

sessing 

Offenses against family and children 

other sex offenses 

Road and driving laws 

Rape 

Gambling-.. 

Driving while intoxicated 

Criminal homicide 

Parking violations i.. 



Percent 



32.7 
31.8 
31.6 

29.7 
28.6 
26.9 
26.3 
25.9 
25.7 
24.5 
23.9 
20.0 



' Only 10 fingerprint cards were received representing arrests for violation of parking regulationa 



120 



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122 



Table 69. — Number of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, Jan. 1—Sept. 
SO, 19S6 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Number of 
records show- 
ing one or 
more prior 
convictions 



827 
3,563 
5, 238 
7,208 
12, 508 
2,391 
3,183 

537 
1,679 

727 
1,012 
1,010 
1,500 
1,160 

744 
1,553 
2,481 

443 
2 

946 

4,065 

19, 469 

10, 633 

697 

11,965 

1,277 

6,885 



103, 703 



Number of 
prior convic- 
tions of major 
offenses 



954 
5,494 
6,380 

12, 277 
23, 533 

3,423 
5,256 

818 
2,983 

883 
1,267 
1,227 
4,151 
1,560 

764 
1,125 
1,542 

356 
3 

925 
4,209 

13, 586 
12, 314 

732 

16, 782 

1,865 

8,221 



132, 630 



Number of 
prior convic- 
tions of minor 
offenses 



710 
3,416 
5,962 
6,572 
17, 583 
1,899 
3,007 

608 
1,313 

595 
1,113 
1,253 
1,689 
1,137 

665 
1,863 
3,100 

466 

2 

1,073 

7,692 

57, 854 

21, 059 

597 

15. 141 

1,322 

9,097 



166, 788 



Total num- 
ber of prior 
convictions 
disclosed 



1,664 

8,910 

12,342 

18, 849 

41,116 

5,322 

8,263 

1,426 

4,296 

1,478 

2,380 

2,480 

5,840 

2,697 

1,429 

2,988 

4,642 

822 

5 

1,998 

11,901 

71, 440 

33, 373 

1,329 

31, 923 

3,187 

17, 318 



299, 418 



Whites were represented by 247,499 of the records examined and 
Negroes by 78,873. The remaining races were represented as follows: 
Indian, 1,912; Chinese, 778; Japanese, 173; Mexican, 12,169; all 
others, 1,728. 

The significance of the figures showing the number of Negroes 
arrested as compared with the number of whites can best be indicated 
in terms of the number of each in the general population of the coun- 
try. Exclusive of those under 15 years of age, there were, according 
to the 1930 decennial census, 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 foreign- 
born wliites, and 64,365,193 native whites in the United States. Of 
each 100,000 Negroes, 981 were arrested and fingerprinted during 
the first 9 months of 1936, whereas the corresponding figure for native 
whites was 324 and for foreign-born whites 151. Figur'^o for indi- 
vidual tj^pes of violations may be found in the following tabulations. 
It should be observed in connection with the foregoing data that the 
figure for native whites includes the immediate descendants of foreign- 
born individuals. Persons desiring to make a thorough study of the 
comparative amounts of crime committed by native whites and 
foreign-born whites should employ available compilations showing 
the number of instances in which offenders are of foreign or mixed 
parentage. 



123 

Table 70. — Distribution of arrests according to race, Jan. 1-Sept. 30, 1936 



O flense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft.. 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess 

ing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape - ■ 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws — 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

OfTenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traflSc and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Race 

















Total, 
















all 


White 


Negro 


Indian 


Chi- 
nese 


Jap- 
anese 


Mex- 
ican 


All 
others 


races 


2,801 


1,857 


27 


11 


3 


134 


29 


4,862 


6,703 


2,651 


37 


3 


1 


279 


89 


9,763 


11,463 


8,639 


123 


20 


12 


701 


222 


21,180 


16, 024 


5,576 


79 


10 


2 


553 


108 


22, 352 


27, 620 


11,380 


181 


15 


7 


1,146 


143 


40, 492 


6,973 


1,112 


33 


1 


1 


211 


20 


8,351 


9,010 


1,196 


53 


5 


5 


260 


31 


10, 500 


1,714 


646 


8 


6 


1 


41 


9 


2,425 


4,187 


446 


27 


5 


3 


45 


19 


4,732 


2,821 


768 


36 


9 


4 


160 


53 


3, 851 


2,714 


976 


18 


1 


1 


53 


14 


3,777 


4,108 


810 


21 


3 


3 


102 


20 


5,073 


1,653 


419 


5 


519 


5 


209 


71 


2,881 


2,424 


1,788 


5 


18 


4 


141 


70 


4, 450 


3, 553 


550 


15 


1 




108 


6 


4,233 


4,267 


2,951 


26 


2 




76 


3 


7,325 


11,822 


877 


119 


1 


27 


803 


42 


13, 691 


1,705 


546 


13 


1 


3 


115 


28 


2,411 


6 
2,869 


4 
980 












10 


14 


1 


7 


178 


19 


4,068 


9,591 


3,848 


104 


7 


7 


623 


75 


14, 255 


42, 143 


6,297 


546 


8 


49 


3,549 


106 


52, 698 


20, 319 


5,490 


146 


24 


5 


1.039 


194 


27, 217 


2,216 


2,071 


1 


79 


9 


32 


44 


4,452 


28, 320 


10, 941 


170 


21 


3 


910 


172 


40, 537 


3,249 
17,224 


814 
5,240 


26 
79 






125 
576 


20 
115 


4,234 


7 


11 


23,252 


247, 499 


78, 873 


1,912 


778 


173 


12. 169 


1,728 


343, 132 



Table 71. — Number of arrests of Negroes and whites in -pro-portion to the number 
of each in the general population of the country Jan. 1-Sept. 30, 1936, rate per 
100,000 of population (excluding those under 15 years of age) 



Oflense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery - 

Assault 

Burglary — breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 

Autotheft 

Em bezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc.. 

Offenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations.. 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct. 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling — 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses ^ 

Total 



Native 
white 



3.5 

9.2 

13.7 

22.6 

38.5 

10.0 

11.6 

2.0 

5.8 

3.7 

3.9 

5.0 

2.3 

3.0 

4.6 

5.2 

15.5 

2.5 



(■) 



3.9 
12.9 
50.8 
25.8 

2.7 
37.5 

4.5 
23.7 



324.4 



Foreign- 
born 
white 



3.0 
2.6 

16.4 
5.4 

14.5 
1.3 
5.3 
2.7 
1.9 
2.2 
1.4 
4.5 
.7 
2.7 
3.5 
6.2 
6.1 
.7 



(0 



1.6 
7.8 

24.0 
9.2 
2.5 

12.4 
1.8 

10.8 



151.0 



Negro 



23.1 

33.0 

107.4 

69.3 

141.5 

13.8 

14.9 

8.0 

5.5 

9.6 

12.1 

10.1 

5.2 

22.2 

6.8 

36.7 

10.9 



0) 



12.2 
47.9 
78.3 
68.3 
25.8 
136.1 
10.1 
65.2 



980.9 



1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per hundred thousand. 



124 



Table 72. — Number of native whites, number of foreign-horn whites, and number of 
Negroes arrested and fingerprinted by age groups, Jan. 1-Sept. 30, 1936 



Age 


Number arrested 


Number of arrests per 100,000 of the 
general population of the United 
States 




Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born white 


Negro 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born white 


Negro 


15 


1,279 

4,018 

6,144 

9,027 

9,500 

8, 532 

9,928 

9,616 

9,051 

8,355 

35, 821 

27, 776 

24, 155 

16, 471 

11,283 

16, 430 


14 

81 

87 

128 

131 

160 

177 

234 

260 

275 

1, 5.50 

1,987 

2,849 

3,373 

3,108 

5, 293 


559 
1,629 
2,412 
3,2.33 
3, 407 
2,974 
3,473 
3,775 
3,745 
3,574 
15, 685 
10, 947 
9,731 
5, 509 
3,373 
3,809 


64.6 
198.9 
315.2 
458.8 
508.3 
469.9 
542.1 
539.7 
529.0 
502.0 
474.3 
404.7 
368.7 
299.2 
237.1 
113.5 


36.4 
158.6 
133. 3 
159.8 
145.9 
149.6 
151.9 
181.4 
180.4 
166.2 
151.8 
159.4 
174.6 
199.1 
198.6 
107.7 


232.5 


16 


632.1 


17 


984.6 


18 


1,201.3 


19 


1,430.0 


20 


1,150.3 


21 


1,521.2 


22 J 


1,513.7 


23 


1,597.1 


24 


1, 537. 5 


25-29 


1, 463. 4 


30-34 


1, 266. 3 


35-39 . 


1, 092. 3 


40-44 - . - 


801.4 


45-49 


535.3 


50 and over. . _ ._ 


266.6 






Total 


207, 386 


19, 707 


77, 835 


322.3 


150.8 


968.0 







Table 73. — Percentage distribution of arrests by age, of native ivhites, foreign-born 
whites, and Negroes, Jan. 1-Sept. 30, 1936 





Number arrested 


Percent 


Age 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born white 


Negro 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born white 


Negro 


15 and under 21 


38, 500 
36, 950 
35, 821 
27, 776 
24, 155 
16, 471 
11,283 
16, 430 


601 
946 
1,550 
1,987 
2,849 
3,373 
3,108 
5,293 


14, 214 

14, 567 

15, 685 
10, 947 

9,731 
5,509 
3,373 
3,809 


18.6 

17.8 

17.3 

13.4 

11.7 

7.9 

5.4 

7.9 


3.0 
4.8 
7.9 
10.1 
14.4 
17.1 
15.8 
26.9 


18.3 


21-24 

25-29 


18.7 
20.1 


30-34 - --- 


14.1 


35-39 


12.5 


40-44 


7.1 


45-49 - 


4.3 


50 and over 


4.9 






Total 


207, 386 


19, 707 


77, 835 


100.0 


100.0 


100.0 







At the end of September, 1936, there were 6,389,766 fingerprint 
records and 7,464,111 index cards containing the names and ahases 
of individuals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. Of 
each 100 fingerprint cards received during the first 9 months of 1936, 
more than 53 were identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugi- 
tives numbering 4,396 were identified through fingerprint records 
during this same period, and interested law-enforcement officials 
were immediately notified of the whereabouts of those fugitives. 

As of September 30, 1936, there were 10,070 police departments, 
peace officers, and law-enforcement agencies throughout the United 
States and foreign countries voluntarily contributing fingerprints to 
the FBI. 

O 



-^ 91)53, :d A^ 



UNIFORM 
CRIME REPORTS 

FOR THE UNITED STATES 
AND ITS POSSESSIONS 



Volume VII — Number 4 
FOURTH QUARTERLY BULLETIN, 1936 



Issued by the 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 

United States Department of Justice 

Washington, D. C, 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1937 



ADVISORY 
COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM CRIME RECORDS 

OF THE 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHIEFS OF POLICE 

(II) 



^' S. SUPCRINTFNOFNT OF Df>r.f'P/rr.!re 
•"-"i J: 1937 



UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
U. S. Department of Justice, Washington, D. C. 

Volume 7 January 1937 Number 4 

CONTENTS 

Classification of offenses. 
Extent of reporting area. 
Monthly returns: 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to population (table 
74). 

Daily average, offenses known to the police, 1936 (table 75). 

Daily average, offenses known to the police, 1931-36 (table 76). 

Offenses known to the police — cities divided according to location (tables 
77-79). 

Data for individual cities over 25,000 in population (table 80). 

Offenses known to sheriffs and State police (table 81). 

Offenses known in the possessions (table 82). 

Data from supplementary offense reports (tables 83-86). 
Data compiled from fingerprint cards, 1936: 

Sex distribution of persons arrested (table 87). 

Age distribution of persons arrested (tables 88-91). 

Number and percentage with previous fingerprint records (tables 92, 93). 

Number with records showing previous convictions (tables 94-97). 

Race distribution of persons arrested (tables 98-103). 
Index to Volume 7. 

Classification of Offenses. 

The term "offenses known to the police" is designed to include those 
crimes designated as part I classes of the uniform classification occur- 
ring within the police jurisdiction, whether they become known to 
the police through reports of police officers, of citizens, of prosecuting 
or court officials, or otherwise. They are confined to the following 
group of seven classes of grave oft'enses, shown by experience to be 
those most generally and completely reported to the police: Criminal 
homicide, including (a) murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and (6) 
manslaughter b^ negligence; rape; robbery; aggravated assault; 
burglary — breaking or entering; larceny — theft; and auto theft. The 
figures contained herein include also the number of attempted crimes 
of the designated classes. Attempted murders, however, are reported 
as aggravated assaidts. In other words, an attempted burglary or 
robbery, for example, is reported in the bulletin in the same manner 
as if the crime had been completed. 

"Oft'enses loiown to the police" include, therefore, all of the above 
offenses, including attempts, which are reported by the police depart- 
ments of contributing cities and not merely arrests or cleared cases. 
Complaints which upon investigation are learned to be groundless 
are not included in the tabulations which follow. 

In order to indicate more clearly the types of offenses included in 
each group, there follows a brief definition of each classification. 

1. Criminal homicide. — (a) MnT-dci and nonnegligent manslaughter — includes 
all felonious homicidps e-^v.i.pt those caused by negligence. Does not include 
attempts to kill, assaults to kill, justifiable homicides, suicides, or accidental 

(125) 



126 



deaths. (&) Manslaughter by negUgence — includes only those cases in which 
death is caused by culpable negUgence which is so clearly evident that if the person 
responsible for the death were apprehended he would be prosecuted for man- 
slaughter. 

2. Rape. — Includes forcible rape, statutory rape, assault to rape, and attempted 
rape. 

3. Robbery. — Includes stealing or taking anything of value from the person by 
force or violence or by putting in fear, such as highway robbery, stick-ups, robbery 
armed. Includes assault to rob and attempt to rob. 

4. Aggravated assault. — Includes assault with intent to kill; assault by shooting, 
cutting, stabbing, maiming, poisoning, scalding, or by use of acids. Does not 
include simple assault, assault and battery, fighting, etc. 

5. Burglary — breaking or entering. — Includes burglary, housebreaking, safe 
cracking, or any unlawful entry to commit a felony or theft. Includes attempted 
burglary and assault to commit a burglary. Burglar^' followed by a larceny is 
entered here and is not counted again under larceny. 

6. Larceny— theft (except auto theft). — (a) Fifty dollars and over in value. (6) 
Under $50 in value — includes in one of the above subclassifications, depending 
upon the value of the property stolen, pocket-picking, purse-snatching, shop- 
lifting, or any stealing of property or thing of value which is not taken by force 
and violence or by fraud. Does not Include embezzlement, "con" games, forgery, 
passing worthless checks, etc. 

7. Auto theft. — Includes all cases where a motor vehicle is stolen or driven 
away and abandoned, including the so-called "joy-riding" thefts. Does not include 
taking for temporary use when actually returned by the taker, or unauthorized 
use by those having lawful access to the vehicle. 

In publishing the data sent in by chiefs of police in different cities, 
the FBI does not vouch for their accuracy. They are given out as 
current information which may throw some light on problems of crime 
and criminal-law enforcement. 

In compiling the tables, returns which were apparently incomplete 
or otherwise defective were excluded. 

Extent of Reporting Area. 

In the table which follows there is 8ho^vn the number of police de- 
partments from which one or more crime reports were received during 
the calendar year 1936. Information is presented for the cities divided 
according to size. The population figures employed are estimates as 
of July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census for cities with population 
in excess of 10,000. No estimates were available, however, for those 
with a smaller number of inhabitants, and, accordingly, for them the 
figures listed in the 1930 decennial census were used. 



Population group 



Total 

1. Cities over 250,000 

Cities 100,000 to 250,000, 
Cities 50,000 to 100,000.. 

4. Cities 25,000 to 50,000... 

6. Cities 10,000 to 25,000... 



Total 
number 
of cities 
or towns 



9S3 



87 

67 

104 

191 

694 



Cities filing returns 



Number 



803 



87 

67 

99 

177 

623 



Percent 



90.8 



100.0 

100.0 

95.2 

92.7 

88.0 



Total 
population 



60, 281, S88 



29, 695, 500 
7,850,312 
6, 980, 407 
6, 638, 544 
9, 116, 925 



Population repre- 
sented in returns 



Number 



68, 443, 839 



29, 696, 600 
7,850,312 
6, 645, 870 
6, 168, 177 
8, 083, 480 



Percent 



97.0 



Note.— The above table does not include 1,425 cities and rural townships aggregating a total population 
of 7,196,091. The cities Included In this figure are those of less than 10,000 population filing returns, whereas 
the rural townships are of varying population groups. 



127 

The g:rowth in the crime reporting area is evidenced by the following 
figures for 1930 36: 



Year 


Number 
of cities 


Population 


Year 


Number 
of cities 


Population 


1930 


1.127 
1.511 
1.578 
1,658 


45.929,965 
51.145.734 
53. 212. 230 
62, 357, 2G2 


1354 


1.799 
2.156 
2.318 


62, 757, 643 
64.615.330 
65.639,430 


1931 


1935 


1932 


1936 


1933 









The foregoing comparison shows that during 1936 there was an in- 
crease of 162 cities as compared with 1935. 

In addition to the 2,318 city and village police departments which 
submitted crime reports during 1936, one or more reports were received 
during that year from 1,103 sheriffs and State police organizations and 
from 10 agencies in possessions of the United States. This makes a 
grand total of 3.431 agencies contributing crime reports during 1936. 



128 
MONTHLY RETURNS 



Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Population. 

In table 74 tliere is presented information concerning the number 
of crimes reported during the calendar year 1936 by the police depart- 
ments of 1,658 cities with a total population of 60,372,091. All of the 
cities represented are classified <is urban in character by the Bureau 
of the Census, and all sections of the United States are represented. 
The figures are also shown for the cities divided into six groups 
according to size. 

The compilation reveals in general that the larger cities have higher 
crime rates than the smaller communities. However, only for the 
offense of robbery does the crime rate vary directly in accordance with 
the size of city. 

More than^ one-half (52.5 percent) of the crimes reported were 
larcenies; 22.8 percent were burglaries; 15.7 percent were auto thefts; 
and 4.1 percent were robberies. This makes a total of 95.1 percent 
which were crimes against property. The remaining offenses repre- 
sented in the tabulation were crimes against the person. It should be 
noted that although homicides represented less than 1 percent of the 
crimes listed, there were 6,872 such crimes reported by the police 
departments represented. Similarly, although robberies constituted 
only 4.1 percent of the total crimes shown m the table, there were 
33,603 offenses of that type reported. A percentage distribution of 
the offenses included in table 74 is herewith presented: 



Offense 



Total 

Larceny 

Burglary. -- 
Auto theft. 



Rate per 
100,000 


Per<>ent 


1, 363. 2 


100.0 


716.7 
311.5 
213.7 


52.5 
22.8 
15.7 



Offense 



Robbery 

Aggravated assault 

Rape 

Murder 

Manslaughter 



Rate per 
100,000 



5.5.7 

<fi.2 

7.9 

6.2 

5.3 



Percent 



4.1 

3.4 

.6 

.5 
.4 



r 



OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, INCLUSIVE, 1936 
BASED ON REPORTS OF 1.658 CITIES - POPULATION, 60,372,091 

OFFENSES AGAINST THE PERSON 



6,000 



NUMBER OF OFFENSES 

10,000 16,000 20,000 



25,000 



80,000 



MANSLAUGHTER BY NEGLIGENCE 
3,136 

MURDER C'^^^^^; 



'INCLUDING NONNEGLIGENT 

.1ANSLAUGHTER 
■ I 
3.736 




) 






27,830 



Figure 15. 



129 

Most of the cities with more than 100,000 inha])itaiit3 made a 
distinction in their reports between the number of hirccnies in which 
the value of property stolen was more than $50 and the cases in which 
the property was valued at less than $50. A separate compilation of 
the mformation yields the following figures: 



Population group 



S3 cities over 250,000; total population, 20,734,800: 

Number of olTenses known. 

Rate per 100,000 

63 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total population, 7,339,712 

Number of ofifenses known.. 

Rate per 100,000... 



Larceny-theft 



$50 and 

over In 

value 



20, 833 
100.5 

7,013 
05.5 



Under 
$50 in 
value 



125, 612 
COS. 8 

Sf), 989 
770,4 



Of the 210,447 larcenies classified according to the value of property 
stolen, 27,846 (13.2 percent) were cases in which the value of the 
property exceeded $50. 



OFFENSES KNOWN TO THE POLICE 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, INCLUSIVE, 1936 
BASED ON REPORTS OF 1,658 CITIES - POPULATION, 60,372,091 

OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY 



100,000 



NUMBER OF OFFENSES 

200,000 300,09^0 



400,000 



ROBBERY 

33,603 
AUTO THEFT 




361,398 



Figure 16. 



130 



Table 74. — Offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 1938; 
number and rates per 100,000 by population groups 

[Population as estimated July 3, 1933, bj' the Bureau of the Census] 



Population group 



GPOUP I 

86 cities over 250,000; total popula- 
tion, 29,375,600: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP n 

66 cities, 100,000 to 250,000; total 
population, 7,726,812: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 1C0,000 



GROUP in 

04 cities, 50,000 to 100,000; total 
population, 6,294,609: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP IV 

159 cities, 25,000 to 50,000; total 
population, 5,517,040: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000... 



GROUP V 

428 cities, 10,000 to 25,000; total 
population, 6,600,495: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



GROUP VI 

885 cities under 10,000; total popula- 
tion, 4,797,535: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Total 1,658 cities; total population, 
60.372,091: 

Number of offenses known 

Rate per 100,000 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 

nonneg- 
ligcnt 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



2,054 
7.0 



491 
6.4 



441 
7.0 



215 
3.9 



312 
4.7 



223 
4.6 



8,736 
6.2 



Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 



1 2,014 
7.3 



381 
4.9 



260 
4.1 



165 
3.0 



184 
2.8 



132 
2.8 



« 3,136 
5.3 



Rape 



2,761 
9.4 



503 
6.5 



6.3 



372 



434 
6.5 



292 
6.1 



4,758 
7.9 



Rob- 
bery 



21, 207 
72.2 



4,178 
54.1 



3,290 
52.3 



1,871 
33.9 



1,870 
28.1 



1,187 
24.7 



33, 603 

55.7 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



13, 222 
45.0 



5,339 
69, 1 



8 3, 670 

57.4 



2,166 
39.3 



2,343 
35.2 



1,190 
24.8 



» 27, 830 
46.2 



Bur- 
glary — 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



» 74, 796 
336.6 



80, 431 
393. S 



20, 374 
323. 7 



16, 352 
296. 4 



14, 761 
221.6 



9,081 
189.3 



• 165, 795 
311.5 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



2163,894 
737.6 



67. 379 
872.0 



60, 364 
800.1 



40, 625 
736.4 



40, 095 
602.0 



19,041 
396.9 



« 381, 398 
716.7 



Auto 
theft 



« 56. 852 
255.8 



19, 858 
257.0 



13, 759 
218.6 



9,955 
180.4 



9,010 
135.3 



4.299 
89.6 



« 113, 733 
213.7 



I The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 34 cities with a 
total population of 27,647,400. 

' The number of offenses and rate for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 35 cities with 
a total populai ion of 22,221,300. 

' The nrmiber of offenses and rate for aggravated assault are based on reports of 93 cities with a total popu- 
lation of 6,215,009. 

• The number of offenses and rate for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 1,656 cities with a 
total population of 68,643,891. 

• The number of offenses and rate for aggravated assault are based on reports of 1,657 cities with a total 
population of 00,293,391. 

• The number of offenses and rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 1,657 cities 
with a total population of 53,217,791. 



131 

Daily Average, Offenses Known to the Police, 1936. 

Monthly variations in the number of crimes reported are indicated 
in table 75, which is based on the reports received from the pohce 
departments of 92 cities with, an aggregate population of 37,102,412. 

The table discloses that offenses of murder, aggravated assault, and 
rape were most frequently committed during the third quarter of the 
year, whereas, offenses designated as manslaughter by negligence 
occurred most frequently during the fourth quarter. 

The trend for offenses against property is somewhat different from 
that shown for crimes against the person, as indicated in the preceding 
paragraph. Offenses of robbery and burglary wore committed most 
frequently during the first and fourth quarters of the year, with both 
robbery and burglary reaching low points during July. It is interest- 
ing to note that for robbery the figures decrease from January to July 
without interruption, and for each of the remaining months show 
increases. For larceny and auto theft, the figures are considerably 
higher during the fourth quarter than during the remaining portions 
of the year, and the figures for the third quarter are considerably in 
excess of those for the first half of the year. 



Table 75. — Daily average, offenses known to the police, 92 cities over 100,000, 

January to December, inclusive, 1936 

[Total population, 37,102,412, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Month 



January , 

February 

March 

April , 

May.- 

June 

July-. 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

January to March 

April to June 

July to September 

October to December. 
January to December 



Criminal homicide 



Murder, 
Donneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaughter 



6.0 

5.7 
6.6 
5.7 
6.3 

7.8 
7.7 
8.5 
7.1 
6.8 
7.4 
7.8 



6.1 
6.6 
7.7 
7.3 
7.0 



Man- 
slaughter 
by negli- 
gence 



15.4 
4.1 
6.2 
6.3 
6.5 
6.2 
6.0 
6.0 
6.3 
7,2 
8.4 
9.8 



5.3 
6.3 
6.1 
8.5 
6.5 



Rape 



6.9 

7.7 

8.2 

8.9 

9.4 

11.1 

10.0 

10.1 

9.5 

8.5 

8.8 

8.0 



7.6 
9.8 
9.9 
8.4 
8.9 



Rob- 
bery 



84.9 
82.4 
72.6 
66.0 
56.3 
54.5 
51.5 
57.4 
63.8 
67.0 
80.1 
96.5 



79.9 
58.9 
67.5 
81.2 
69.4 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



40.0 
42.2 
49.7 
44.1 
52.8 
57.4 
54 9 
57.9 
59.9 
52.3 
48.9 
48.3 



44.0 

51.4 
67.5 
49.8 
50.7 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
entering 



'318.3 
296.7 
324.4 
29B.3 
257.6 
244.1 
242.1 
268.5 
286.4 
278.5 
297.7 
339.3 



313.6 
265.9 
265. 4 
305.3 
287.5 



Lar- 
ceny — 
theft 



'600.4 
504.4 
611.0 
609,3 
581. 
585.6 
572.3 
606. 6 
652.1 
727,3 
719.8 
749.8 



592.5 
591.8 
609. 9 
732.5 
631.9 



Auto 
theft 



> 196. 4 
186.8 
211.1 
210.9 
192.2 
185.5 
187.2 
211.2 
214.3 
228.4 
240.8 
249.7 



198.2 
196.2 
204.1 
239. ft 
209.6 



' Dally averages for manslaughter by negligence are based on reports of 90 cities with a total population o 
35,374,212. 

» Dallv averages for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on reports of 91 cities with a total population 
of 29,948,112. 

Daily Average, Offenses Known to the Police, 1931-36. 

Information concerning annual variations in the amount of crime 
during the past 6 years may be found in table 76. Tlic compilation 
is based on reports received from the police departments of 74 cities 
with a combined population of 21,023,312. 

In general, the compilation reveals decreases in all types of crime 
during the 6-year period, with the exception of rape, aggravated 
assault, and larceny. In comparing the number of crimes reported 

123976°— 37 2 



132 




FiGUEE 17. 



133 



during 1936 with the fio;iires for 1935, it will bo noted that increases 
were shown for manslaughter by negligence, rape, and aggravated 
assault, and that there was a reduction of only six cases of murder 
and nonnegligent manslaughter. Since 1931 there has been a yearly 
increase in the number of reported offenses of rape. During 1936 
there was an increase of 85 such cases (5.3 percent), as compared 
with 1935, and the amount of increase is 279 (19.9 percent) when the 
1936 figures are compared with those for 1934. Similarly, the data 
for aggravated assault indicate that the figure for 1936 is the highest 
reported durmg the 6-year period, with the exception of 1933. Com- 
paring the figures for 1935 and 1936 reveals an increase of 902 (8.4 
percent) during 1936. 

A comparison of the 1935-36 figures for offenses against property 
reveals decreases in all cases, and the decreases are more substantial 
when a comparison is made of the data for 1934 and 1936. The 
extent of the reductions in crimes against property during the past 
2 years is shown in the following tabulation: 



Offense 



Robliery.. 
Burglary.. 
Larceny... 
Auto theft. 



Amount of decrease 



1935-36 



849 
8,166 
8,581 
8,287 



1934-36 



3,618 
15, 614 
10, 852 
18,547 



Percent of decrease 



1935-38 



6.0 
10.7 

4.8 
13.3 



1934-36 



21.3 

18.7 

6.0 

25.5 



In connection with the figures in table 76 revealing substantial 
reductions in many cases, it is of significance to note that the com- 
bined population of the 74 cities represented was 20,476,346 in 1930, 
whereas, the latest available figures (estimated as of July 1, 19 3, by 
the Bureau of the Census) indicates that the population of those 
cities has increased to 21,023,312. 

It will be noted the compilation shows a substantial decrease in the 
number of homicides during 1935 and 1936 as compared with prior 
years. In connection with the decrease in the number of offenses of 
murder and nonnegligent manslaughter (willful felonious homicides), 
it is suggested that the decrease may be partially attributable to the 
fact that during 1935 it was ascertained that many police depart- 
ments had been including as felonious homicides cases which were 
excusable in nature, such as the killing of a felon who was resisting 
arrest by a police officer. Such cases were subseq^uently excluded, 
together wdth instances of Idlling in self-defense by private individuals, 
in order that the published figures might represent felonious homicides. 

The cases listed under the heading ''manslaughter by negligence" 
consists largely of automobile fatalities, and it will be observed that 
the figures for 1934-36 are considerably lower than for the 3 preceding 
years. This is probably largely due to the fact that in 1934 it was 
ascertained that quite a number of the police departments had listed 
as actual offenses of negligent manslaughter all cases of automobile 
fatalities. During 1934 considerable stress was placed upon the fact 
that deaths resulting from automobile accidents should be carried 
under this classification only if the driver of the automobile was 
guilty of gross criminal negligence. The exclusion of many deaths 



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135 



resulting from automobile accidents, in which it was not thought that 
there was present a degree of negligence sufficient to warrant prose- 
cution, has undoubtedly i)layed a large part in bringing about the 
reduced figures for the 3^eare subsequent to 1933. 

Table 76. — Daily average, offenses known to the police, 74 cities over 100,000, 
January to December, inclusive, 1931-36 

[Total population 21,023,312, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Year 



Number of oflTenses known 

1931 

1932.. 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

Daily average: 

1931. 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 



Criminal homicide 


















Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 


Bur- 
glary- 


Lar- 






Murder, 


Man- 


Rape 


vated 


breaking 


ceny- 


nonnegli- 


slaughter 




assault 


or enter- 


theft 


gent man- 


by negli- 








ing 




slaughter 


gence 












1,649 


1,524 


1,279 


21, 999 


11, 174 


79, 465 


106, 043 


1,656 


1,179 


1,308 


20,880 


9,825 


84, 878 


169, 173 


1,778 


1,401 


1,324 


20, 025 


12, 104 


87, 846 


181,325 


1,643 


955 


1,403 


17,017 


11,282 


83, 459 


181,974 


1,455 


959 


1,597 


14, 248 


10, 765 


76,001 


179, 703 


1,449 


1,021 


1,682 


13, 399 


11,667 


67, 845 


171, 122 


4.5 


4.2 


3.5 


60.3 


30.6 


217.7 


454.9 


4.6 


3.2 


3.6 


57.0 


26.8 


231.9 


462.2 


4.9 


3.8 


3.6 


54.9 


33.2 


240.7 


496.8 


4.5 


2.6 


3.8 


46.6 


30.9 


228.7 


498.6 


4.0 


2.6 


4.4 


39.0 


29.5 


208.2 


492.3 


4.0 


2.8 


4.6 


36.6 


31.9 


185.4 


467.6 



Auto 
theft 



96,300 
82,154 
78, 727 
72, 666 
62, 406 
64,119 

263.8 
224.5 
215.7 
199.1 
171.0 
147.9 



Offenses Known to the Police — Cities Divided According to Location. 

In table 77 there is presented information regarding the number of 
police departments whose reports were employed in the preparation 
of figures representing crime rates for the individual States. This 
information is included here in order to show the number of such 
contributors according to size of city, and it is believed it will be 
helpful in evaluating the crime data for individual States, since table 
74 has indicated that there is a noticeable tendencj^ for the large cities 
to report higher crime rates than the smaller communities. It should 
bo further observed that in several instances the number of records 
entering into the construction of State rates is quite limited. In 
some cases the figures for individual States are based on reports from 
only three or four police departments. Obviously, the crime rates 
based on such a limited number of records may differ considerably 
from the figures which would result if reports were available for all 
urban communities in the State. 

In table 78 there are presented the crime rates for the individual 
States, together with figures for nine geographic divisions of the 
country. 

In table 79 may be found crime rates for the nine geographic divi- 
sions of the country, with the cities in each division being segregated 
into six groups according to size. This information is presented in 
order to make possible comparisons between the figures for an indi- 
vidual community and the average figures for cities of the same size 
which are located in the same section of the United States. 



136 



Table 77. — Number of cities in each State included in the tahidalion of uniform 
crime reports, January to Decemher, inclusive, 1936 



Division and State 



GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England: 1G3 cities; total population, 
5,502,337 

Middle Atlantic; 437 cities; total population, 
18,312,462 

East North Central; 427 cities; total popula- 
tion, 15,974,707_..- 

West North Central; 197 cities; total popula- 
tion, 4,878,048 

South Atlantic; ' 101 cities; total population, 
4,313,706 

East South Central; 40 cities; total population, 
1,723,841 

West South Central; 93 cities; total popula- 
tion, 3,248,839 

Mountain; 65 cities; total population, 1,179,202. 

Pacific; 132 cities; total population, 5,238.951__. 

New England: 

Maine 

New Hampshire 

Vermont — 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic: 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio — — . 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan 

Wisconsin -.- 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

■ North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas -_ 

South Atlantic: 

Delaware 

INIaryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina — 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee... 

Alabama 

Mississipni 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico.. 

Arizona 

Utah 

Nevada 

Pacific: 

Washington 

Oregon 

California 



Population 



Over 
250, 000 



100, 000 

to 
250. 000 



12 
11 



10 



50, 000 

to 
100, 000 



10 
22 

25 

7 

13 



5 

6 

11 

4 
3 



25, 000 

to 
50, 000 



25 

28 

51 

11 

14 

3 

10 

fi 

11 

1 
1 
1 
11 
4 
7 

10 

10 
8 

15 
S 



10, 000 

to 
25, 000 



68 

118 

102 

47 

22 

15 

19 
14 
33 

6 
4 
2 

35 
4 

7 

41 

27 
£0 

30 
11 
29 
19 
13 

10 
5 
7 
3 
5 
6 

11 



8 

4 

21 



Less 
than 
10, 000 



56 

252 

230 

123 

46 

14 

50 

41 
73 

7 
6 
6 
31 
3 
3 

88 

54 

110 

69 
27 
5! 
58 
25 

53 
16 
16 
5 
4 
11 
18 

3 

1 

10 

11 



4 
10 

5 
5 
4 



5 

6 

24 

16 

5 
5 
3 
10 
1 
5 
9 
3 

5 

5 

63 



Total 



103 

437 

427 

197 

104 

40 

93 

65 

132 

15 
12 
9 
91 
14 
22 

151 
102 
184 

126 
54 

102 
95 
50 

66 
31 
29 
9 
10 
19 
33 

4 
7 
21 
17 
19 
3 
13 
19 

12 

11 

9 



13 
33 
39 

9 
7 
5 

18 
4 
7 

11 
4 

18 

U 

103 



1 Includes District of Columbia. 



13; 



Table 78. — Rate per 100,000, offenses known to the police, January to December, 

inclusive, 1930, by Slates 



Division and State 


Murder, 

nonnegli- 
gont man- 
slaughter 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Lar- 
ceny- 
theft 


Auto 
theft 


GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION 

New England. 


1.0 

4.0 

4.8 

4.4 

17.5 

21.3 

17.1 

7.5 

3.5 

2.1 
0.5 
2.2 
0.9 
0.7 
1.4 

4.0 
3.6 
4.2 

6.5 
5.5 
5.4 
2.9 
1.2 

1.4 
1.2 
8.5 
2.9 
1.8 
4.1 
4.3 

5.9 
7.4 
18.0 
10.3 
27.6 
15.9 
31.8 
21.4 

14.7 
25.2 
27.5 
10.7 

11.0 
18.1 
10.0 
19.8 

3.1 
3.0 
0.6 
7.5 
7.3 

17.5 
5.5 

13.1 

3.0 
1.6 
3.8 


5.8 
8.4 
8.5 
4.7 
9.0 
5.5 
6.2 
9.2 
10.1 

4.2 
6.8 
11.8 
7.1 
0.7 
4.4 

9.2 

6.8 
7.5 

6.2 
7.6 
6.2 
16.6 
5.7 

4.5 
4.4 
5.3 
2.9 
17.5 
1.4 
4.3 

0.8 
9.7 
12.3 
6.7 
8.7 
6.2 
8.9 
3.7 

6.2 
5.6 
4.3 
6.5 

4.5 
4.1 
6.1 
7.1 

4.7 

10.5 

8.2 

9.6 

5.5 

18.3 

6.4 

10.5 

2.0 

3.0 

12.5 


14.9 
26.8 
84.0 
52.9 
88.1 
107.4 
63.8 
56.4 
61.8 

17.5 
4.7 

10.1 

16.5 
7.4 

15.2 

15.7 
32.0 
46.1 

82.3 
63.6 
131.1 
55.7 
11.8 

49.6 
51.1 
59.7 
38.0 
32.4 
39.6 
59.8 

10.7 
66.6 
79.1 
41.9 
60.3 
38.6 
122.8 
100.1 

124.1 

139.2 

71.1 

38.1 

78.5 
43.9 
78.0 
65.4 

50.4 
19.8 
23.1 
53.7 
34.7 
116.7 
55.5 
75.8 

59.9 

104.2 

57.7 


10.5 
35. 5 
36.4 
19.1 
3 102.9 
143.3 
89.0 
23. 
28.2 

10.8 
9.4 
1.1 

10.5 

8.4 

12.8 

31.1 

57.7 
34.3 

37.9 
44.5 
39.9 
37.4 
7.2 

14.9 
12.1 
27.9 
6.7 
4.4 
14.3 
20.3 

43.5 

9.0 

201.7 

93.8 

» 458. 6 

102.7 

132.6 

208.0 

128.9 

207.5 

95.7 

79.1 

105.5 

121.0 

51.7 

88.2 

17.3 
15.0 
0.0 
17.5 
30.0 
50.7 
20.9 
39.2 

21.8 
14.0 
31.0 


237.3 
1 174.6 
2i)0.4 
294.0 
478.7 
480.0 
432.2 
3S3.5 
472.3 

274.7 
182.0 
127.0 
235. 7 
170.0 
293.4 

« 158. 6 
259.4 
147.0 

328.7 
301.8 
342.9 
220.9 
131.3 

344.9 
290.2 
264.1 
308.8 
204.2 
140.4 
402.7 

223.0 
245.0 
525.4 
290.8 
447.6 
150.3 
718.5 
787.2 

591.5 
408.6 
481.2 
409.3 

445.1 
2.37.5 
440.5 
506.7 

217.9 
296.3 
238.9 
317.3 
438.7 
537.8 
503. 2 
509.6 

615.9 
030.7 
425.6 


455. 2 
1 328. 2 

691.3 

808.5 
1,128.9 

781.7 
1,217.9 
1,012.5 
1, 002. 4 

4.33. 
283.1 
383.3 
435. 1 
452. 5 
567.1 

< 399. 1 
482. 3 
216.3 

800. 
755.2 
430. 
908.0 
554.6 

574.4 
805.9 
981.9 
545.4 
598.7 
480. 2 
1, 158. 2 

629.7 

459.2 

1,031.7 

787.5 

740.6 

1, 623. 4 

1,474.9 

1, 486. 9 

914.0 

577.8 
922.0 
757.3 

1, 148. 1 

484,3 

1,315.9 

1, 484. 8 

1,218.7 
770.0 
1,112.3 
827.2 
1, 480. 1 
1,231.5 
1, 028. 2 
1, 518. 

1,119.2 
1, 433, 8 
1,011.1 


181.1 


Middle Atlantic - 


> 150. 2 


East North Central ... 


109.2 


West North Central 


226.9 


South Atlantic ' 


286.9 


East South Central 


241.1 


West South Central 


214.9 


Mountain 


316.3 


Pacific 


409.5 


New England: 

Maine -. 


205.1 


New Hampshire 


40.7 


Vermont 


89.4 


Massachusetts 


204,6 


Rhode Island.. 


79.9 


Connecticut 


191.2 


Middle Atlantic: 

New Yorlc 


« 129. 6 


New Jersey 


175.2 


Pennsylvania 


152.0 


East North Central: 

Ohio 


209.9 


Indiana . 


245 6 


Illinois 


116 6 


Michigan 


190.0 


Wisconsin 


105.8 


West North Central: 

Minnesota . 


296 5 


Iowa 


197 5 


Missouri 


209. 1 


North Dakota 


143.5 


South Dakota 


253 3 


Nebraska ... 


249.6 


Kansas.. 


158.1 


South Atlantic: 

Delaware 


230.3 


Maryland .. 


254 5 


Virginia 


258.7 


West Virginia 


180.6 




270 9 


South Carolina . 


132.4 




291.1 


Florida 


258.1 


East South Central: 

Kentucky 


200 5 




280.6 


Alaljama 


200.6 


Mississippi _ 


129 1 


West South Central: 

Arkansas 


133 1 


Louisiana 


154.4 


Oklahoma 


123.2 


Texas 


280.0 


Mountain: 

Montana 


306.0 


Idaho 


243.6 


Wyoming . 


184 6 


Colorado 


208.3 


New Mexico 


144.4 


Arizona 


776.3 


Utah 


377.7 


Nevada 


525.2 


Pacific: 

Washington . 


370.5 


Oregon 


275.8 


California 


431.7 







• The rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on the reports of 436 cities with a total population 
of 11,1.58,102. 

' Includes report of District of Columbia. 

' The rate for aggravated assault is based on the reports of 103 cities with a total population of 4,235,006. 

• The rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are ba.sed on reports of 150 cities. 

• The rate for aggravated assault is based on reports of 18 cities. 



138 



Table 79.^Rate per 100,000, offenses known to the police, January to December, 
inclusive, 1936, by geographic divisions and population groups 



Geographic Division and population 
group 



NEW ENGLAND 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC 
Group I - 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

EAST NORTH CENTRAL 
Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI -. 

WEST NORTH CENTRAL 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

SOUTH ATLANTIC 

Group I ' 

Group II - 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

EAST SOUTH CENTRAL 

Group I 

Group II 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V - 

Group VI 

WEST SOUTH CENTRAL 

Group I - 

Group II -- 

Group III 

Group IV 

Group V 

Group VI 

MOUNTAIN 

Group I.- 

Group II 

Group III , 

Group IV. 

Group V , 

Group VI 

PACIFIC 

Group I 

Group II , 

Group III. 

Group IV 

Group V. 

Group VI 



Murder, 
nonnegli- 
gent raan- 
slaugliter 



1.1 
1.0 
1.5 
.8 
.7 
1.7 



6.9 
3.8 
1.8 
1.1 
2.9 
2.7 



15.5 
16.9 
22.1 
14.8 
17.1 
23.0 



18.9 
31.6 
17.9 
15.3 
21.9 
27.9 



24.7 
11.8 
15.3 
8.9 
19.9 
14.0 



9.5 
4.2 
17.6 
6.3 
6.5 
4.7 



3.9 
8.9 
2.4 
1.7 
2.8 
8.4 



Rape 



9.4 
8.8 
6.2 
7.3 
6.5 
5.5 



10.0 
8.0 
7.2 
6.8 
6.3 
6.4 



11.6 
6.6 
8.0 
9.6 
6.6 
5.0 



5.3 
3.7 
6.8 
11.6 
6.7 
4.9 



6.3 
7.6 
8.8 
2.4 
9.3 
5.5 



7.2 
6.9 
15.7 
9.2 
9.4 
9.9 



12.6 
6.3 
7.1 
6.5 
6.6 
0.1 



Rob- 
bery 



20.8 
12.2 
15.3 
17.5 
11.0 
12.6 



30.0 
26.1 
31.1 
19.3 
17.3 
15.0 



120.5 
62.5 
62.4 
35.9 
85.9 
28.2 



61.4 
65.6 
60.7 
55.9 
34.5 
23.8 



129.0 
102.2 
68.3 
42.7 
38.5 
44.3 



123.5 

115.1 

124.5 

96.6 

62.6 

42.6 



60.6 
94.0 
49.6 
40.4 
52.6 
43.3 



60.7 
68.0 
118.4 
59.3 
40.7 
27.6 



75.3 
48,9 
78.8 
31.1 
29.2 
27.7 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



16.9 

10.4 

6.0 

10.0 

8.9 

7.0 



38. 
41. 
39. 
26. 
25. 
16. 



46.5 
56.8 
25.3 
18.2 
12.0 
16.9 



26.7 
17.4 
17.4 
11.9 

12.4 
6.7 



58.8 
306.5 
8 160. 
208.7 
262.5 
132.6 



152.9 

194.2 

158.2 

64.1 

96.4 

76.6 



100.9 
66.7 

146.4 
67.4 
96.6 
61.5 



22.2 
25.0 
41.1 
24.8 
16.9 
18.5 



80.3 
28.0 
41.6 
23.2 
9.1 
25.3 



Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 



143.8 
320.9 
238.8 
292. 
176.6 
157.1 



1 150. 2 
255. e 
227.1 
200.6 
148.5 
117.0 



330.5 
324.8 
272.4 
254.3 
203.2 
108. 3 



287.6 
336.1 
391.6 
287.1 
308.9 
177.8 



483.5 
734.6 
414.1 
393.0 
290.4 
291.9 



627.5 
390.6 
341.2 
458.0 
215.2 
337.4 



398.9 
549.8 
487.6 
370.5 
358.1 
270.3 



358.1 
651.9 
553.8 
359. 5 
301.7 
266.1 



608.9 
428.3 
607.7 
512.6 
853. 5 
335.5 



Larceny — 
theft 



3Ca9 
689.0 
495.5 
476.5 
359.3 
236.7 



» 296. 3 
421.6 
403.7 
391.7 
306.1 
219.0 



766.2 
830. 8 
690.9 
670.3 
504.4 
301.3 



794.6 
843.2 
916.1 
946.0 
1,016.2 
415.0 



962.8 

1,619.8 

1,221.0 

1, 274. 3 

804.6 

480.6 



910.1 
817.8 
634.5 
688.4 
619.8 
518.3 



1, 206. 1 
1, 472. 3 
1, 370. 1 
1,034.3 
1, 135. 6 
594.1 



542.3 
1, 02.5. 
1, 410. 
1, 448. 3 
1, 3.50. 1 

744.1 



1, 006. 1 
1,011.8 
1, 473. 9 
1,051.4 
1, 170. 4 
862.3 



Auto 
theft 



304.0 
228.2 
154.6 
143.9 
68.0 
53.1 



1 185. 3 

199.6 

178.4 

130.2 

93.9 

51.0 



171.2 
2R5.9 
191.0 
178.7 
115.1 
74.9 



273. 1 
237.7 
245.3 
195.2 
210.2 
89.4 



387.3 
300.3 
222. 4 
216! 
169.1 
126.7 



226.4 
454.3 
221.0 
175. 9 
148. 6 
88.6 



286.1 
236.9 
191.8 
132.8 
133.1 
97.9 



218.3 
397.4 
829.7 
380. 7 
270.4 
141.2 



483.4 
834.2 
895.3 
284.5 
291.6 
234.4 



1 The rates for burglary, larceny, and auto theft are based on the reports of 5 cities. 

' Includes the District of Columbia. 

• The rate for aggravated assault is based on reporf.s of 12 citle». 



139 

Data for Indiiidiial Cities With More Than 25,000 Inhabitants. 

The miinber of offenses reported as liavinp: been ooniniitted during 
the calemhxr year 1936 is shown in table 80. Tlie conii)ihiti()n lias been 
expanded so as to inchule the reports received from ])olice departments 
in cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants (since 1934 this tabulation 
has been hmited to the fig:ures received from police departments of 
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants). Such data are included 
here in order that interested individuals and organizations may have 
readily available up-to-date information concerning the amount of 
crime conmiitted in their communities. Police administrators and 
other interested individuals will probably find it desirable to compare 
the crime rates of their cities with the average rates shown in tables 
74 and 79 of this publication. Similarly, they will doubtless desire to 
make comparisons with the figures for their commimities for prior 
periods, in order to detennine Avhether there has been an increase or 
a decrease in the amount of crime committed. 

With reference to the possibility of comparing the amount of crime 
in one city with the amount of reported crime in other individual com- 
munities, it is suggested that such comparisons be made with a great 
deal of caution, because differences in the figures may be due to a great 
variety of factors. Tlie amount of crime committed in a community 
is not chargeable to the police but is rather a charge against the entire 
community. The following is a list of some of the factors which might 
affect the amount of crime in a community: The composition of the 
population with reference particularly to a^e, sex, and race; the eco- 
nomic status and activities of the population; climate; educational, 
recreational, and religious facilities; the number of police employees 
per unit of population; the standards governing appointments to the 
police force; the policies of the prosecuting officials and the courts; 
the attitude of the public toward law enforcement problems. Com- 
parisons between the crime rates of individual cities should not be 
made without giving consideration to the above-mentioned factors. 
It should be noted that it is more important to determine whether the 
figures for a given community show increases or decreases in the amount 
of crime committed than to ascertain whether the figures are above or 
below those of some other community. 

In examining a compilation of crime figures for individual communi- 
ties it should be borne in mind that in view of the fact that the data 
are compiled by different record departments operating imder separate 
and distinct administrative systems, it is entirely possible that there 
may be variations in the practices employed in classifying complaints 
of offenses. On the other hand, the crime reporting manual has been 
distributed to all contributors of crime reports and the figures re- 
ceived are included in this bulletin only if they apparently have been 
compiled in accordance with the provisions of the manual, and the 
individual department has so indicated. 



123976°— 37- 



140 



Table 80. — Nmnber of offenses known to the police, Januanj to December, inclusive, 

1936, cities over 25,000 in 'population 



City 



Abilene, Tex 

Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y 

Albuquerque, N. Max 

Alhambra, Calif 

Aliquippa, Pa - 

Allcntown, Pa -.. 

Alton, 111 

Altoona, Pa 

Amarillo, Tex 

Amsterdam, N. Y... 

Anderson, Ind 

Ann Arbor, Mich 

Arlington, Mass 

Asheville, N. C 

Atlanta, Ga 

Atlantic City, N. J 

Augusta, Oa 

Auburn, N. Y.'. 

Aurora, 111.. 

Austin, Tex 

Bakersfleld, Calif.... 

Baltimore, Md 

Bangor, Maine.. _ 

Barberton, Ohio 

Baton Kouge, La 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Bay City, Mich. 

Beaumont, Tex 

Belleville, 111 

Belleville, N.J 

Bellingham, Wash 

Berkeley, Calif 

Berivyn, 111 

Bethlehem, Pa 

Beverly, Mass 

Binghamton, N. Y 

Birmingham, Ala 

Bloonifield, N. J 

Bloomington, 111 

Boston, Mass 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Bristol, Conn 

Brockton, Mass 

Brookline, Mass 

Brownsville, I'ex 

BufTnlo, N. Y 

Burlington, Iowa 

Burlington, Vt 

Butte, Mont 

Cambridge, Mass 

Camden, N. J._ 

Canton, Ohio 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Central Falls, R. I.. 

Charleston, S. C 

Charleston. W. Va 

Charlotte, N. C. 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chelsea, Mass 

Chester, Pa 

Chicago, 111 

Chicopee, Mass 

Cicero, 111 

Cinc-innati, Ohio 

Cleieland, Ohio 

Cleveland Heights, Ohio. 

Clifton, N.J 

Clinton, Iowa 

Colorado Springs, Colo... 

Coluuibia, S. C 

Columbus, Oa 

Columbus, Ohio 

Coun.'il Blufs, Iowa 

Covingron, Ky- 

Cranston, R. I_. 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
11 gent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



13 
5 
2 



14 

118 

4 

20 



11 
8 

60 
1 



2 

70 



11 



(») 



2 
11 
55 



Ifj 

221 

1 



61 
86 



11 
6 

14 
1 
3 



Rape 



1 

33 

2 

1 



4 

30 
7 

11 
1 
2 
1 
3 

85 
2 
1 



10 
3 
] 
6 
2 
5 
3 
3 
8 
1 



71 
1 



6 
2 
4 
43 
1 
6 
1 

12 
22 



6 

4 

198 

4 

3 

50 

35 

11 

8 

5 

6 

8 

3 

12 

1 

3 

2 



Rob- 
bery 



3 
159 

16 
7 
2 
7 

17 

14 
6 
4 
2 

22 
8 



38 

600 

79 

33 

3 

16 

31 

25 

693 

3 

2 

11 

10 

2 

8 

17 



4 

18 
24 
76 

2 

7 

227 

10 

41 

201 

23 

2 
22 

9 



159 

6 

9 

36 

27 

101 

133 

13 

4 

38 

27 

104 

145 

14 

20 

.5, 895 

2 

64 

497 

1, 123 

23 

24 

15 

6 

8 

19 

485 

30 

172 

4 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



22 

132 

40 



11 

4 

47 

1 

58 

3 

4 

1 

3 

368 

375 

124 

125 

1 

2 

43 

16 

38 

5 



35 
2 
2 

89 
1 
2 
1 

11 



22 

1 

5 

171 



11 

140 
2 



222 

6 

1 

1 

13 

163 

111 

6 

2 

8 

63 

239 

(') 
10 
41 
1,589 



7 

394 

210 

1 

6 



4 

133 

44 

144 

2 

88 

1 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



78 

1,061 

317 

130 

321 

49 

122 

124 

113 

98 

39 

50 

21 

102 

164 

2,960 

667 

506 

25 

81 

550 

171 

2,103 

99 

31 

167 

145 

120 

182 

68 

44 

82 

194 



58 

27 

108 

1,829 

129 

205 

1,057 

371 

60 

178 

227 

87 

609 

41 

61 

71 

301 

322 

557 



20 
135 
224 

623 

662 

316 

100 

13, 772 

59 

133 

1,794 

2,507 

101 

104 

66 

103 

24 

197 

1,888 

65 

206 

41 



Larceny— 


theft 


Over 


Under 


$50 


$50 


9 


232 


279 


1,492 


84 


682 


32 


367 


4 


198 


6 


53 


29 


281 


25 


184 


13 


104 


46 


98 


9 


75 


17 


73 


52 


146 


11 


122 


65 


178 


728 


3,682 


361 


1,314 


48 


969 


9 


134 


33 


129 


145 


1,617 


62 


570 


691 


2,803 


42 


318 


3 


20 


20 


235 


28 


440 


29 


480 


35 


117 


3 


12 




10 


10 


206 


30 


839 


3 


86 


21 


54 


3 


64 


24 


242 


443 


2,713 


11 


172 


46 


243 


795 


2,081 


161 


728 


13 


61 


65 


402 


58 


143 


5 


112 


286 


1,083 


6 


111 


11 


248 


53 


288 


70 


519 


254 


322 


(') 


909 


58 


376 


4 


106 


187 


1,108 


(0 


906 


08 


402 


129 


1,435 


21 


189 


26 


193 


3, 302 


11, 069 


12 


117 


28 


48 


691 


4,453 


277 


9,217 


21 


277 


16 


118 


70 


152 


22 


503 


55 


526 


30 


481 


673 


3,270 


59 


442 


155 


207 


39 


178 



Auto 
theft 



45 

300 

284 

60 

71 

24 

165 

101 

74 

58 

24 

109 

17 

22 

136 

1,268 

218 

81 

17 

49 

185 

174 

2,133 

120 

6 

20 

109 

130 

99 

9 

8 

27 

71 

11 

86 

20 

159 

603 

42 

131 

2,911 

332 

5 

105 

180 

6 

923 

29 

41 

200 

460 

277 

242 

110 

10 

60 

196 

340 

468 

105 

151 

3,527 

29 

66 

946 

2,172 

43 

39 

13 

67 

29 

79 

962 

43 

143 

24 



i"or footnotes see end of table. 



141 



Table 80. — Number of offenses known to (he police, January to December, mclusive, 
19S6, cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 



Cumberland, Md 

DullHs, Tex--- - 

Danville, III - 

Danville, Va 

Davenport. Iowa 

Dayton, Onio 

Dearborn, Mich. 

Decatur, 111 

Denver, Colo 

De.s Moines, Iowa - 

Detroit, Mich 

Dub'.Kjuo, Iowa 

Duluth, Minn 

East Chicago, Ind 

East Cleveland, Ohio 

Easton, Pa — - 

East Oranpe, N. J 

East Providence, R. I... 

East St. Louis, III 

Eau Claire, Wis 

Elgin, 111 

Elizabeth, N. J 

Elkhart, Ind 

Elmira, N. Y. 

El Paso, Tex 

Elyrla, Ohio 

Enid, Okla 

Erie, Pa 

Evanston, 111 

Evansvllle, Ind 

Everett, Mass 

Everett, Wash 

Fall River, Mas3 

Fargo, N. Dak_- 

fitchburg. Mass 
lint, Mich 

Fond du Lac, Wis 

Fort Smith, Ark. 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Fresno, Calif 

Gadsden, Ala 

Galesburg, III 

Gary, Ind 

Olendale, Calif 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Great Falls, ^lont. 

Green Bay, Wis 

Greensboro, N. O 

Greenville, S. O. 

Hackeasack, N. J 

Hagerstown, Md 

Hamilton, Ohio 

Hammond, Ind 

Hamtramck, Mich 

Harrisburg, Pa 

Hartford, Conn 

Haverhill, Mass.. 

Highland Park, Mich... 

High Point, N. C 

BoDoken, N. J 

Houston, Tex 

Huntington, W. Va 

Huntington Park, Calif. 

Hutchinson, Kans 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Inglewood, Calif 

Irvington, N. J 

"ackson, Mich 

ackson. Miss 

acksonvi''e, Fla 

Jamestown, N. Y 
ohnstown. Pa 

Jollet, 111.... 

Joplin, Mo 

^alamaz.oo, Mich 

Kansas City, Kans 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



105 
2 
7 



27 



6 
28 

4 
66 



12 



1 

'20" 



1 
1 
1 

11 
1 
2 
4 
2 
4 



8 
2 
26 
1 
6 
2 
9 



4 
10 
1 
1 
2 



1 
1 
4 
1 

1 
S 
2 
70 
10 
2 



38 



1 
8 
31 
1 
1 
3 
1 
1 
8 



Rape 



21 
1 
b 
2 
2 

a 
1 

21 
3 

417 
1 



21 
2 



4 

11 
1 
7 



13 
4 

12 
8 



12 



40 



1 

16 

2 

4 



h 
4 

18 
2 
1 



6 
7 
1 
2.5 
12 
4 
1 
21 
2 
3 
3 
3 
4 
3 
1 



2 
2 

10 



Rob- 
bery 



2 

214 

31 

30 

12 

111 

26 

41 

178 

110 

1,204 

5 
36 
18 
12 

4 

8 

2 
92 

3 

4 
3£ 

4 
11 
fil 

6 

6 
36 
81 
49 
16 

9 
19 
17 

2 
95 

2 
21 
46 
73 
78 
18 
19 
101 
12 
26 
11 

1 
28 
10 

7 

6 

33 

29 

146 

46 


10 
44 
11 
10 
271 
66 
16 
13 
401 

3 
11 

8 

15 

177 

9 

20 

77 

30 

187 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



1 
320 

3 
115 



146 

8 

14 

65 

20 

942 



3 
42 



1 
3 
3 
147 
1 
1 

20 
6 
1 

84 



2 

29 

26 

30 

10 

1 

2 

2 



169 

1 

11 

13 

88 

15 

6 

1 

137 



20 




91 

8 

32 

2 

4 

19 

13 

45 

42 

1 

6 

186 

7 

251 

131 

2 

4 

287 

4 

2 

12 

45 

181 



1 

18 
5 
5 

60 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



60 

1, 780 

104 

141 

227 

608 

165 

234 

1,050 

666 

3, 152 



303 

6S 

156 

61 

242 

98 

107 

23 

65 

353 

1(18 

Ml 

417 

45 

86 

433 

207 

233 

185 

139 

870 

141 

87 

671 

62 

81 

351 

1,160 

423 

41 

86 

251 

345 

547 

61 

98 

177 

59 

62 

26 

82 

181 

252 

270 

70:', 

212 

401 

119 

122 

1,655 

408 

241 

50 

1, 7'.)3 

101 

283 

174 

270 

1 , 28'J 

7U 

70 

^0 

204 

218 

751 



Larceny- 
theft 



Over 

$50 



20 

233 

4 

36 

24 

68 

37 

65 

318 

68 

796 

17 

125 

18 

9 
18 
36 

6 
75 

6 
21 
79 
21 
20 
45 
16 
14 
68 
61 
42 
31 
10 
81 
60 

8 
184 
10 
13 
76 
85 
104 
60 
10 
33 
35 
09 
49 

8 
77 
16 

6 
16 



80 
83 
86 

194 
32 
91 
30 
48 

340 

408 

37 

4 

672 

20 

60 

18 

(') 

605 

12 

15 

14 

(') 

63 
(') 



Under 
$50 



254 

7,449 

339 

420 

577 

2,412 

424 

323 

1,272 

1.645 

17, 132 

2,58 

769 

119 

226 

82 

131 

152 

192 

44 

151 

433 

863 

243 

955 

110 

282 

324 

371 

1,012 

265 

448 

296 

223 

189 

1,887 

90 

140 

1,186 

2,825 

879 

104 

146 

340 

732 

1,4(H3 

606 

233 

129 

404 

105 

206 

351 

319 

525 

505 

1, 304 
124 
330 
212 

49 
3, 075 
700 
168 
608 
3, 794 
157 
210 
653 
678 

2, 721 
130 
115 
141 
650 

1,033 
916 



Auto 
theft 



66 

1,156 

78 

80 

80 

651 

145 

100 

040 

657 

3,347 

47 

149 

91 

39 

8 

60 

21 

294 

25 

34 

153 

22 

67 

183 

30 

17 

299 

43 

370 

43 

88 

170 

69 

69 

474 

68 

68 

320 

300 

354 

75 

78 

203 

243 

274 

81 

133 

179 

103 

46 

61 

108 

105 

176 

216 

327 

108 

132 

64 

66 

1,142 

224 

124 

84 

1,447 

81 

70 

118 

119 

882 

49 

147 

73 

186 

206 

236 



For footnotes see end of table. 



142 



Table 80.— Number of offenses knoum to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1936, cities over 25,000 in popuiaizon— Continued 



City 



Pa. 



Kansas City, Mo 

Kearny, N. J--- 

Kenosha, Wis 

Kingston, N. Y 

Knoxville, Tenn 

Kokomo, Ind 

Lackawanna, N. Y-- 

La Crosse, Wis 

La Fayette, Ind 

Lakewood, Ohio 

Lancaster, Pa 

Lansing, Mich 

Lawrence, Mass 

Lexington, Ky 

Lima, Ohio. 

Lincoln, Nebr 

Little Rock, Ark 

Long Beach, Calif-. - 

Lorain, Ohio 

Los Angeles, Calif... 

Louisville, Ky 

Lowell, Mass 

Lower Merion Twp., 

Lynchburg, Va 

Lynn, Mass. — 

Macon, Ga_ 

Madison, Wis 

Manchester, N. H. 

Mansfield, Ohio.. 

Marion, Ohio — 

Massillon, Ohio 

Maywood, IIL. -- 

McKeesport, Pa.. 

Medford, Mass. 

Memphis, Tenn 

Meriden, Conn. 

Meridian, Miss.. 

Miami, Fla 

Michigan City, Ind 

Mlddletown, Conn 

Middletown, Ohio... 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis, Minn 

Mishawaka, Ind 

Mobile, Ala 

Moline, 111 -• 

Monroe, La 

Mount Vernon, N. Y 

Muskegon, Mich 

Muskogee, Okla. 

Nashua, N. H. 

Nashville, Tenn.. 

New Albany, Ind 

Newark , N. J 

Newark, Ohio 

New Bedford, Mass. 

New Britain, Conn. 

New Brunswick, N. J 

Newburgh, N. Y 

New Castle, Pa.. 

New Haven, Conn 

New London, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

Newport, Ky 

Newport, R. I --- 

Newport News, Va 

New Rochelle, N. Y 

Newton, Mass 

New York City, N. Y 

Niagara Falls, N. Y 

Norfolk, Va 

North Bergen Twp., N. J. 

Norristown, Pa.. 

Norwood, Ohio 

Oakland, Calif 

Oak Park, 111 ■ 



Murder, 
nonneg- 

ligent 

man 
slaugh- 
ter 



56 



Rape 



1 

31 
2 
1 
1 



10 
3 



70 

34 

2 



23 



56 



2 
23 



11 



23 
1 
4 
3 



53 

2 

31 



1 
2 
1 
89 
8 
1 
9 



5 

364 

1 

25 



1 



14 
1 
3 
1 
1 
5 

10 
2 
3 
2 
2 

5 
3 
3 
1 



Rob- 
bery 



4 

17 

1 

317 

21 

1 

2 

1 

9 

6 

7 

7 

7 

5 

5 

1 

7 

1 

16 



4 
6 
3 
2 
38 
13 



6 

2 

13 

5 



21 
2 



771 
2 

3 
4 



28 
2 



Aggra- 
vated 
assault 



434 

6 

2 

1 
60 
14 

9 
16 

2 
21 

1 
23 

3 
62 
10 
17 
73 
84 

18 
962 
320 

8 
■ 7 

9 

23 

55 

24 
3 

11 
8 

29 

12 

52 

6 

506 

9 

22 
257 

30 



18 

30 

268 

2 
49 
16 
21 

6 

6 
53 

2 

247 

13 

184 

4 



23 



2 
5 

69 
1 

33 
1 
1 



Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 



7 

11 

229 

6 

13 

124 

49 

16 

385 

425 

o 



40 

12 

93 

4 

4 

2 

2 

13 

4 

95 



707 



5 
,058 
19 
21 
28 
65 
81 



167 
5 
2 
1 
1 
23 



449 

16 

495 

5 



8 
32 


IS 
12 


12 


15 


4 


6 


41 


6 


27 


15 


4 


1 


160 


505 


61 


58 


7 


1 


33 


80 


6 


56 


2 




1,240 


2,561 


15 


48 


139 


244 


1 


10 


i 


12 


e 


6 


221 


139 


47 


3 



Larceny- 
theft 



Over 

$50 



1,209 
51 
54 
33 
493 
107 
35 
51 
47 
242 
109 
101 
127 
389 
202 
116 
471 
967 
141 
7,089 
2,308 
265 
89 
69 
423 
323 
152 
111 
116 
103 
79 
60 
80 
228 
1,211 
132 
260 
1,391 
76 
35 
132 
524 
1,721 
78 
165 
77 
106 
C9 
134 
256 
117 
549 
51 
993 
69 
372 
199 
135 
41 
96 
837 
60 
815 
178 
68 
215 
75 
134 
2,536 
271 
885 
92 
64 
74 
1,405 
237 



Under 
$50 



1,036 
15 
13 

6 

148 

14 

13 

8 

7 

25 
34 
74 
70 
88 
32 
41 

(') 

245 

41 

2,590 

575 

39 

26 

13 

78 

38 

93 

26 

47 

22 

30 

2 

70 

20 

116 

18 

56 

227 

26 

8 

26 

230 

306 

19 

49 

22 

12 

18 

24 

21 

8 

(') 

9 

389 

14 

76 

24 

19 

13 

6 

147 

13 

316 

44 

13 

41 

39 

8 

53 



11 
18 
16 
217 
46 



Auto 
theft 



1,485 
32 
140 
4 
542 
319 
93 
219 
152 
130 
280 
366 
119 
1,160 
402 
361 
1,166 
1,578 
320 
9,156 
3,120 
354 
22 
398 
815 
700 
406 
241 
346 
319 
52 



116 
297 
786 
153 
260 
1,096 
72 
32 
454 
3,341 
940 
136 
214 
229 
358 
61 
321 
493 
140 
1,492 
221 
3,140 
303 
803 
488 
170 
106 
185 
1,137 
156 
850 
196 
121 
121 
80 
227 
7,172 
362 
1,929 
84 
46 
144 
3,263 

an 



1,612 
33 
31 
18 
457 
130 
27 
71 
32 
60 
57 
151 
233 
142 
122 
237 
103 
621 
63 
7,201 
971 
169 
39 
162 
184 
172 
128 
30 
80 
82 
60 
8 
124 
37 
356 
36 
24 
572 
40 
20 
85 
532 
2,162 
43 
157 
56 
43 
36 
108 
67 
15 
765 
67 
1,356 
70 
169 
138 
174 
28 
117 
663 
50 
754 
85 
18 
100 
78 
60 
7,701 
173 
361 
41 
HI 
24 
1,053 
77 



For footnotes see end of table. 



143 



Table 80. — Xuviber of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1036', cities over 25,000 in population — Continued 



City 


Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 

or 
entering 


Larceny- 
theft 


Auto 


Over 

$.50 


Under 
$50 


theft 


Ogden. Utah 


21 

12 

2 

4 


4 


1 
1 
1 
2 
4 
1 
2 
16 
20 
7 


20 

I'.l.T 

103 

14 

6 

5 

12 

10 

10 

27 

27 

50 

8 

30 

7 

617 

82 

1,122 

6 

8 

44 

17 

7 

22 

397 

20 

47 

1 

16 

39 

29 

12 

6 

26 

23 

16 

179 

4 

37 

25 

30 

1 

16 

204 

27 

60 

440 

231 

16 

3 

13 

98 

1 

341 

17 

48 

369 

17 

1 

15 

27 

11 

17 

21 

«02 

4 

2 

48 

114 

11 

14 

42 

93 

102 

13 


8 

141 

40 

58 

45 

1 
17 

1 

14 
10 
49 
92 

43' 

73 

849 

35 

156 

2 

7 

15 

46 

5 

9 

50 

21 

176 

10 

36 

7 

11 

4 

7 

32 

6 

'""768' 

6 

68 

54 

9 

2 

1 

138 

21 

33 

372 

67 

23 

15 

1 

36 

15 

295 

16 

32 

242 

14 

7 

26 

10 

22 

18 

53 

91 

6 

""m 

21 
1 

4 

n 

69 

6 

31 


263 

778 

188 

86 

155 

52 

108 

109 

77 

285 

225 

517 

84 

368 

132 

2, 367 
391 

1,454 
93 
85 
176 
75 
56 
339 

2, 251 
178 
255 
54 
442 
175 
129 
87 
110 
235 
227 
119 

1.498 

149 

92 

609 

115 

32 

45 

824 

167 

535 

1,797 

1,,306 

281 

106 

96 

940 

63 

1, 496 
171 
209 

1,377 
223 
119 
176 
208 
239 
295 
336 

3. 089 

27 

80 

374 

409 

63 

176 

278 

643 

359 

420 


66 
167 
36 
17 
24 
12 
21 
9 
61 
30 
48 
66 
114 
26 
43 
813 
159 
673 
17 
48 
76 
18 
4 
(') 
666 
70 
65 
27 
79 
62 
3 
39 
23 
114 
19 
16 
441 
9 
88 
143 
17 
9 
8 
145 
66 
113 
(') 
267 
67 
32 
19 
109 
18 
707 
8 
126 
(') 
28 
7 
41 
66 
214 
116 
61 
476 
8 
17 
86 
36 
60 
42 
76 
235 
8 
137 


683 

3.051 
441 
100 
151 
181 
142 
165 
137 
960 
188 
222 
662 
156 
682 

2,144 
862 

1,101 
192 
86 
358 
226 
827 
340 

3,876 
636 
768 
268 
891 
368 
67 
134 
820 
497 
292 
1,58 

4,084 
2.51 
682 

1,829 

254 

206 

41 

1, 986 

1,001 

941 

10.548 

1,815 
769 
183 
162 

1,369 
201 

2,607 
370 
704 

6.901 
892 
238 
626 
283 

1,820 
205 
376 

2,927 

60 

2,54 

1,187 

280 

80 

259 

330 

1,847 
874 

1,268 


243 


Oklahoma City, Okla 

Omalia, Nebr 


223 
607 


Orance. N. J 


39 


Orlando, B'la 


68 


Oshkosh, Wis 


28 


tt um \va, Iowa 


1 
7 
1 
2 
6 
6 


35 


Paducah, Kv 


129 


Parkersburg, W. Va 


61 


Pasadena, Calif 


212 


Passaic, N. J -. 


218 


Paterson, N. J 


293 


Pawtiicket, R. L 


100 


Peoria. Ill - 


6 

9 

112 

14 

42 


7 

10 

148 

14 

71 

3 

5 

2' 

6 
1 
8 
2 
13 
7 
2 
2 
7 

1 

13 
8 

33' 

3 
4 

11 
1 
2 


301 


Petersburg, Va . 


19 


Philadelphia, Pa ..- 


2,409 


Phoenix, Ariz 


725 


Pittsburgh, Pa 


2,284 


Pittsfleld, Mass 


55 


Plainfleld, N. J 


2 
3 
7 
1 

1 
6 


47 


Pontiac, Mich 


278 


Port Arthur, Tex .. 


86 


Port Huron, Mich 


64 


Portland, Maine 


261 


Portland, Greg 


856 


Portsmouth, Ohio .. 


110 


Portsmouth. Va -. 


6 
3 
2 

4 


67 


Poughkeepsle, N. Y 


84 


Providence, R. I 


258 


Pueblo, Colo 


123 


Qulncy, 111 


66 


Quincy, Mass 




85 


Racine, Wis 




77 


Reading. Pa 


8 


161 


Revere, Mass . 


81 


Richmond, Ind 


2 
29 


54 


Richmond, Va 


686 


Riverside, Calif 


60 


Roanoke, Va 


15 
6 


153 


Rochester, N. Y.. 


470 


Rock Island, 111 


109 


Rome, N. Y 


1 


60 


Royal Oak, Mich 


35 


Sacramento, Calif 


8 
4 
2 

72 
2 
4 


8 

6 
2 

65 

25 

1 

1 

1 

10 

20" 

, 2 
14 
21 
8 
1 
2 
7 
1 

8" 

4 

1 


643 


Baglnaw, Mich 


173 


Bt. Joseph, Mo 


194 


St. Louis, Mo 


1,431 


St. Paul, Minn 


669 


St. Petersburg, Fla 


93 


Salem, Mass 


126 


Salem, Oreg 


1 
6 
4 

34 


80 


Salt Lake City, Utah 


873 


San Angelo, Tex 


82 


San Antonio, Tex 


1,120 


Ban Bernardino, Calif 


90 


San Diego, Calif ... 


9 
22 


674 


Ban Francisco, Calif 


3,561 


San Jose, Calif 


263 


Santa Ana, Calif 




66 


Banta Barbara, Calif 




149 


Santa Monica, Calif 


2 
13 

1 


194 


Savannah, Qa 


73 


Schenectady, N. Y 


143 


Scranton, Pa 


230 


Seattle, Wash.. 


12 
1 
1 

16 


1,780 


Sharon, Pa 


82 


Bhebovgan, Wis 


47 


Shreveport, La 


189 


SloiLt CItv, Iowa ... 


241 


Bioux Falls, S. Dak 


1 
1 
2 

1 

1 


2 
2 
1 
2 


193 


Somerville, Mass 


162 


South Bend, Ind .. .. 


212 


Spokane. Wash 


362 


Springfield, 111 


280 


Fprlngfleld, Mass 




6 


278 



For footnotes see end of table. 



144 



Table 80. — Number of offenses known to the police, January to December, inclusive, 
1936, cities over 25,000 in population- — Continued 



City 



Bprlngfleld, Mo 

Springfield, Ohio... 

Stamford, Conn .„ 

Steubenville, Ohio 

Superior, Wis._ 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Toledo, Ohio... 

Topeka, Kans. 

Trenton, N. J.. 

Tucson, Ariz. 

Tulsa, Okla 

Union City, N. J.. 

University City, Mo 

Upper Darby Township, Pa.. 

Utica, N. Y. 

Waco, Tex 

Waltham, Mass 

Warren, Ohio 

Washington, D. 

Washington, Pa 

Waterbury, Conn 

Waterloo, Iowa 

Watertown, Mass 

Watertown, N. Y 

Waukegan, 111- 

West Allis, Wis 

West Hartford, Conn. 

West Haven, Conn. 

West Orange, N. J 

West Palm Beach, Fla 

Wheeling, W. Va 

White Plains, N. Y 

Wichita, Kans 

Wichita Falls, Tex 

Wilkes-Barre, Pa 

Wr.kinsburg, Pa 

Wilmington, Del 

Wilmington, N. O 

Winston-Salem, N. C ... 

Woodbridge Township, N. J. 

Woonsocket, R. I 

Worcester, Mass 

Wyandotte. Mich 

Yonkers, N. Y 

York, Pa 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Zanesville, Ohio. 



Murder, 
nonneg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 



2 
8 

16 
1 

10 
2 
2 
5 

13 



63 
2 



11 



11 
2 



Rape 



80 
1 



8 
32 

3 
10 

6 
14 



1 

10 
9 
7 
1 
3 
69 



10 
1 



8 

"io' 



1 

8 
4 
3 
6 
1 
1 
3 
21 
4 



8 

1 

10 



Rob- 
bery 



34 
27 
10 
19 
14 
31 
40 

a2 

65 

289 

46 

50 

42 

156 

2 

11 

4 

9 

17 

14 

14 

861 

6 

7 

12 

2 



10 
4 
2 
3 
2 
3 

22 

2 

25 

13 

32 

9 

18 

35 

40 

6 

1 

15 
7 
6 
4 
230 
4 



Aggra- 
vated 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 


Larceny- 
theft 






assault 


or 
entering 


Over 

$50 


Under 
$50 


5 


177 


49 


821 


29 


271 


(1) 


633 


2 


78 


51 


175 


1 


112 


15 


217 




108 


14 


212 


25 


430 


117 


930 


2 


502 


48 


700 


78 


378 


137 


556 


12 


116 


30 


454 


126 


1,174 


186 


2,800 


7 


357 


49 


740 


113 


460 


107 


625 


21 


122 


66 


189 


71 


921 


316 


2,020 




2 


16 


62 


3 


84 


41 


188 


42 


60 


18 


37 


6 


183 


58 


507 


136 


260 


64 


711 


2 


125 


24 


259 


11 


87 


18 


145 


624 


2,637 


1,196 


6,172 


8 


00 


14 


101 


3 


208 


60 


224 


4 


99 


3 


423 


3 


78 


11 


101 


2 


111 


33 


471 


27 


70 


61 


179 


6 


48 


18 


389 




31 


12 


24 




45 


8 


5 


1 


46 


19 


00 




223 


161 


075 


6 


163 


52 


82 


10 


36 


39 


104 


10 


461 


70 


1,879 


52 


189 


36 


1,033 


23 


103 


45 


185 


14 


104 


10 


70 


46 


251 


141 


565 


299 


132 


89 


202 


(2) 


519 


84 


908 


11 


107 


6 


118 


2 


129 


9 


172 


22 


628 


221 


246 


1 


48 




87 


34 


141 


14 


234 


3 


35 


16 


27 


121 


621 


63 


1,144 


6 


52 


19 


170 



Auto 
theft 



101 

103 

80 

64 

39 

504 

254 

120 

92 

1,074 

233 

376 

145 

230 

121 

26 

93 

131 

90 

83 

72 

2,768 

54 

280 

68 

31 

38 

70 

33 

18 

1 

13 

63 

66 

38 

123 

89 

154 

50 

256 

128 

225 

23 

31 

532 

11 

220 

103 

718 

56 



1 Larcenies not separately reported. Figure listed includes both major and minor larcenies. 
• Not reported. 

Offenses Known to Sheriffs, State Police, and Other Rural Officers, 1936. 
In compiling national crime data, the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion distinguishes between urban and rural crimes. The figures pre- 
sented in the preceding tables are based on reports from a large major- 
ity of the agencies policing urban areas (places with 2,500 or more 
inhabitants). Comprehensive data regarding rural crimes are not yet 
available, but the information on hand is shown in table 81. which ia 
based on reports from 400 sheriffSjSO police agencies in rural villages, 
and 6 State police organizations. For comparative purposes, there are 
presented below percentage distributions of rural and urban crimes 
(the urban data are based on figures shown in table 74): 



145 



Offense 


Percent 


Offense 


Percent 


Urban 


Rural 


Urban 


Rural 


Total 


100.0 


100.0 


Robbery 


4.1 

3.4 

.6 

.6 

.4 


4 2 






4.8 
2.1 


Larceny 


52.6 
22.8 
15.7 


4fi. 7 
29.6 
10.3 


Rape. 


Burglary 


Murder 


1 1 


Auto theft 


Manslaughter 


I a 









The above comparison discloses that whereas only 4.9 percent of the 
urban crimes are ofl'enscs against the person (murder, negligent man- 
slaughter, rape, and aggravated assault), 9.2 percent of the rural 
crimes reported fall within those classes. This may be due to the fact 
that some of the reports representing rural crimes indicate the possi- 
bility that they were limited to instances in which arrests were made. 
Incompleteness of this sort in the reports of rural crimes will tend to 
increase the percentage of rural crimes against the person because such 
ofi'enses are much more generally followed by arrests than are the less 
serious offenses against property. 



Table 81. — Offenses known, January to December 19S6, 
400 sheriffs, 6 State police organizations, and SO 


inclusive, as reported by 
village officers 




Criminal homicide 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 

assault 


Bur- 
glary- 
breaking 
or enter- 
ing 


Larceny- 
theft 






Murder, 
normeg- 
ligent 
man- 
slaugh- 
ter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Auto 
theft 


Offenses known 


667 


630 


1,099 


2,135 


2,454 


15, 189 


23,897 


6,294 







Offenses Known in the Possessions of the United States. 

In table 82 there are shown available data concerning the number 
of offenses known to law-enforcement agencies in the possessions of 
the United States. The tabulation includes reports from Hawaii 
County, Honolulu (city and county), Territory of Hawaii; the Canal 
Zone; and Puerto Rico. The figures are based on both urban and 
rural areas and the population figures from the 1930 decennial census 
are indicated in the table. 

With reference to the figures presented for the Canal Zone, it should 
be noted that the Fedenu Bureau of Investigation has been advised 
that less than one-third of the persons arrested for offenses committed 
in the Canal Zone are residents thereof. It appears, therefore, that a 
large proportion of the crime committed in the Canal Zone is attrib- 
utable to transients and other nonresidents. 



146 



Table 82. — Number of offenses hnown in United States possessions, 
January to December 1936. 

[Population figures from Federal Census, Apr. 1, 1930] 





Criminal 
homicie 


Rape 


Rob- 
bery 


Aggra- 
vated 
assault 


Bur- 
glary— 
break- 
ing or 
enter- 
ing 


Larceny — 
theft 




Jurisdicbion reporting 


Murder, 

non- 
negligent 

man- 
slaughter 


Man- 
slaugh- 
ter by 
negli- 
gence 


Over 
$50 


Under 
$50 


Auto 
theft 


Hawaii: 

Hawaii County, popula- 
tion, 73,325; number of 
offenses known 


B 

4 

3 
831 


27 

3 
121 


8 
13 

4 

82 


14 

8 
48 


T 
46 

Ifi 
1,940 


22 

982 

81 
750 


3 
124 

12 
112 


143 

1,686 

240 
3,565 


10 


Honolulu, city and county, 
population, 202,923; num- 
ber of offenses known 

Isthmus of Panama: 

Canal Zone, population, 
39,367; number of offenses 
known. 


272 
81 


Puerto Rico: 

Population, 1,543,913; num- 
ber of offenses known 


84 



Data from Supplementary Offense Reports. 

In tables 83-86 there is presented the more detailed information 
concerning major offenses included in the reports received from the 
police departments of 41 cities with an aggregate population of 
14,467,797. The period covered is the calendar year 1936. 

Table 83 reveals that more than one-half of the rapes reported were 
forcible in nature. Of the 11,222 robberies reported, 7,105 (63.3 
percent) were committed on city highways, and 3,526 (31.4 percent) 
were rooberies of commercial establishments. 

The 41 police departments represented in the tabulation reported 
46,864 burglaries, one-half of which were committed in dwelling 
houses. With reference to the time of day the burglaries were per- 
petrated, it is shown that 77 percent were committed during the night, 
and 23 percent during the daytime. With reference to residences, 
however, the proportion of daytime burglaries was larger, amounting 
to 37 percent. 

The figures for larceny disclose that 12.7 percent were cases in 
which the property stolen exceeded $50 in value. In 61.9 percent of 
the cases the value of the property stolen was from $5 to $50^ and was 
less than $5 in the remaining 25.4 percent of the larcenies. The 
tabulation also reflects that 1.6 percent of the thefts were cases of 
pocket-pielving and that 3 percent were instances of purse-snatching. 



147 



Table S3. — Number of known offenses with divisions as to the nature of the criminal 
act, time and place of commission, and value of property stolen, January to Decem- 
ber, inclusive, 19S6; 41 cities over 100,000 

(Total population, 14,467,797, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Clawlflcatlon 


Number 
of actual 
offenses 


Classification 


Number 
of actiial 
offenses 


Rape: 

Forcible 


582 
453 


Larceny— theft (except auto theft) 
(grouped according to value of article 
stolen): 
Over $50 




Statutory .. 






l** 009 


Total 


1,035 


$5 to $50 . . 


59,013 
24, 254 




Under $5 


Robbery: 

Highway 


7, 105 
2,641 
699 
181 
246 
5 
345 


Total 


05, 336 




Larceny— theft (grouped as to type of 
offense) : 
Pocket-plcking 


Oil station 




Chain store 




Residence 


1,602 


Bank 


Purse-snatching . . 


2 873 


Miscellaneous 


All other.. 


00, 961 




Total 


Total 


11,222 


95, 336 








Burglary— breaking or entering: 
Residence (dwelling): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 


15,006 
8,693 

21, 105 
2,056 




All other (store, office, etc.): 

Committed during night 

Committed during day 








Total 


46.864 









The figures presented in table 84 show that the police departments 
of the 41 cities represented reported 26,226 automobiles stolen during 
the year, of which 24,755 were recovered. The percentage of recov- 
eries of stolen automobiles amounts to 94.4. 

Table 84. — Recoveries of stolen automobiles, January to December, inclusive, 19S6; 

41 cities over 100,000 
(Total population, 14,467,797, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 

Number of automobiles stolen 26, 226 

Number of automobiles recovered 24, 755 

Percentage recovered 94. 4 

The value of property stolen and the value of property recovered are 
shown in table 85, as reported by 41 poKce departments. The total 
value of property stolen was $15,672,857.86. Property recovered was 
valued at $9,864,398.50 (62.9 percent). Automobiles constitute a 
large portion of the property represented in table 85. Exclusive of 
automobiles, the value of property stolen was $7,018,791.71, and the 
value of recoveries was $1,701,609.75 (24.2 percent). 

Table 85. — Value of property stolen and value of property recovered with divisions 
as to type of property involved, January to December, inclusive, 19S6; 41 cities over 
100,000 

(Total population, 14,467,797, as estimated July 1, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Type of property 



Currency, notes, etc 

Jewelry and precious metals 

Furs 

Clothing 

Locally stolen automobiles.. 
Mlscelkueoua 

Total 



Value of prop- 
erty stolen 



$1, 794, 436. 35 

1, 946, 008. 81 

270, 234. 43 

954, 970. 99 

8. 6.54, 006. 16 

2, 043, 175. 13 



15, 672, 857. 86 



Value of prop- 
erty recovered 



$276, 433, 70 

403, 003. 53 

32, 921. 43 

251,191.67 

8, 1G2, 788. 75 

738, 059. 42 



9, 864, 398. 50 



Percent 

recovered 



19.4 
20.7 
11.8 
26.3 
94.3 
86.1 



62.9 



148 



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149 

Tlio value of property stolen in connection with offenses of robbery, 
burglary, larceny, and auto theft is shown for individual types of 
crimes in table SG. It should be noted that this compilation is based 
on the reports of 40 police departments, whereas, tables 83-85 were 
based on reports from 41 departments. 

The average value of property stolen per offense is lowest for larceny 
and highest for auto theft. In connection with this tabulation, it 
should be noted that the figures representing the number of actual 
offenses include attem])ted crimes in which no thefts occurred and for 
which no property values are shown. This naturally has the effect 
of reducing the average property loss per offense. 



Value of property stolen, by type of crime, January to December, inclu- 
sive, 1936; 40 cities over 100,000 



Table 86 

[Total population, 14,189,897, as estimated July I, 1933, by the Bureau of the Census] 



Classification 



Number 
of actual 
offenses 



Value of 
property stolen 



Average 

value per 

offense 



Eobbery 

Burglary 

Larceny-theft. 
Auto theft 

Total... 



10,991 
45, 660 
93,253 
25,657 



$1, 535, 132. 89 
2, 838, 120. 89 
2, 931, 18). 38 
8,021,016.65 



175. 461 



15, 325, 451. 81 



$139. 67 

62.29 

31. 13 

312. 62 



87.34 



AVERAGE VALUE OF PROPERTY 
STOLEN PER OFFENSE 

(automobiles not included) 

JANUARY TO DECEMBER, INCLUSIVE, 1936 

BASED ON REPORTS OF 40 CITIES - POPULATION, 14,139,897 

OFFENSES AGAINST PROPERTY 

VALUE OF PROPERTY STOLEN PER OFFENSE 
60 79 100 123 




175 



Figure 20. 



150 

DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT RECORDS 

During 1936 the FBI examined 461,589 arrest records as evidenced 
by fingerprint cards, in order to obtain data concerning the age, sex, 
race, and previous criminal history of the persons represented. The 
number of fingerprint records examined was considerably larger than for 
prior years, which were as follows: 1935 — 392,251; 1934 — 343,582. 
The compilation has been limited to instances of arrests for violations 
of State laws and municipal ordinances. In other words, fingerprint 
cards representing arrests for violations of Federal laws or represent- 
ing commitments to any type of penal institution have been excluded 
from this tabulation. 

The increase in the number of arrest records examined should not 
be construed as reflecting an increase in the amount of crime, nor 
necessarily as an increase in the number of persons arrested, since it 
quite probably is at least partially the result of an increase in the 
number of local agencies contributing fingerprint records to the 
Identification Division of the FBI. The tabulation of data from 
fingerprint cards obviously does not include all persons arrested, since 
there are individuals taken into custody for whom no fingerprint cards 
are forwarded to Washington. Furthermore, data pertaining to 
persons arrested should not be treated as information regarding the 
number of offenses committed, since two or more persons may be 
involved in the joint commission of a single offense, and on the other 
hand one person may be arrested and charged with the commission of 
several separate offenses. 

Despite the increase in the number of arrest records examined 
during 1936, there was a decrease in the number of records reflecting 
arrests for murder, robbery, and burglary, as compared with 1935. 
Arrests for murder, robbery, assault, burglary, larceny, and auto 
theft constituted 31.1 percent of the arrest records examined during 
1936, whereas, arrests for those types of offenses numbered 36.6 per- 
cent of all arrests during 1935. Notwithstanding the decrease 
referred to above, there were numerous arrests for major violations 
during 1936, as reflected by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 6, 767 

Robbery 13, 215 

Assault 27, 934 

Burglary 29, 686 

Larceny (except auto theft) 64,733 

Auto theft 11, 398 

Embezzlement and fraud 14, 410 

Stolen property (receiving, etc.) 3, 233 

Forgery and counterfeiting 6, 451 

Rape 6, 132 

Narcotic drug laws 3, 896 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 6, 019 

Driving while mtoxicated 19, 028 

Gambling 6, 874 

Arson 821 

Total 208, 597 

Of the total of 461,589 arrest records examined, 33,670 (7.3 percent) 
represented females. The proportion of females arrested during 
1936 shows a slight increase over the figures for prior years. For 
1935 and 1934 the percentage was 6.9 each year. 



151 

Women were found to be most frequently arrested for larceny, 
4,0G4 (13.9 percent) of the total of 33,670 being charged with that type 
of violation. Other offenses frequently charged against females were 
as follows: 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 3, 421 

Drunkenness 3, 805 

Vagrancy. __ 2, 774 

Assault 2, 426 

Disorderly conduct 2, 354 

Violation of liquor laws 1, 278 

In addition, 679 women were charged with criminal homicide and 637 
with robbery. 

Table 87. — Distribution of Arrests by Sex, Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 19S6 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Arson 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc... 

OfTenses against family and children 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws. 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total 



Number 



Total 



6,767 

13.218 

27, 934 

29, 686 

54,733 

11,398 

14,410 

3,233 

6, 451 

821 

5,132 

4,873 

6,713 

8,896 

6,019 

6.686 

9,537 

19, 028 

3,284 

11 

5,849 

19, 098 

72, 729 

37, 057 

6,874 

53,029 

5. 599 

28, 927 



461, 589 



Male 



6,088 

12, 578 

25, 508 

29, 126 

50, 069 

11,189 

13, 737 

2,952 

6,046 

747 

5,132 

1,452 

5,644 

3,182 

5,806 

5,527 

8,259 

18, 555 

3,239 

11 

5,736 

16,744 

68,924 

34, 283 

5,445 

49, 298 

5,225 

27,417 



427,919 



Female 



679 
637 

,426 
560 

,664 
209 
673 
281 
405 
74 



3,421 

1,069 

714 

213 

159 

1,278 

473 

46 



113 
2,354 
3,805 
2,774 

429 
4,331 

374 
1,610 



33, 670 



Percent 



Total Male Female 



1.6 
2.9 
6.1 
6.4 
11.9 
2.6 
3.1 

.7 
1.4 

.2 
1.1 
1.1 
1.5 

.8 
1.3 
1.2 
2.1 
4.1 

.7 

(■? 
1.3 

4.1 

15.7 

8.0 

1.3 

11.6 

1.2 

6.2 



100.0 



100.0 



1.4 


2.0 


2.9 


1.0 


6.0 


7.3 


6.8 


1.7 


11.8 


13. J 


2.6 


3.2 


2.0 


.7 


.8 


1.4 
.2 


'J 


1.2 


.0 


.3 


10.3 


1.3 


3.3 


.7 


2.1 


1.4 


.6 


1.3 


.5 


1.9 


3.8 


4.3 


1.4 


:8 


.1 


(•) 


.0 


1.3 


.8 


3.9 


7.0 


16.2 


11.3 


8.0 


8.3 


1.3 


1.3 


11.6 


12.0 


1.2 


1.1 


6.4 


4.8 



100.0 



I Less than Ho of 1 percent. 



152 



The table showing the ages of persons arrested indicates that there 
were more arrests for age 22 than for any other single age group. 
This is contrary to the figures for 1932-35, during which period 
persons 19 years old outnumbered those of other ages. It is of interest 
to note, however, that the shift in the frequency of arrests to ages 
21-22 was first e^ddenced in the figures for the last half of 1935. 
During 1936 the age groups in which arrests occurred most frequently 
were as follows: 



Age: 



Number 
arrested 



22 20, 519 

21 20, 395 

19 19, 250 

23 19, 245 

The compilation disclosed that 80,358 (17.4 percent) of the persons 
arrested were less than 21 years old; 78,394 (17.0 percent) were 
between the ages of 21 and 24- making a total of 158,752 (34.4 percent) 
less than 25 years old. In addition, there were 79,111 (17.1 percent) 
persons arrested between the ages of 25 and 29. This makes a total 
of 237,863 (51.5 percent) less than 30 years of age. (With reference 
to the ages of persons represented by fingerprint cards received at 
the FBI, it should be borne in mind that the number of arrest 
records is doubtless incomplete in the lower age groups, because in 
some jurisdictions the practice is not to fingerprint youthful indi- 
viduals.) 



1 



NUMBER OF PERSONS ARRESTED 
AGES 16 TO 24 

DATA COMPILED FROM FINGERPRINT CARDS 
JANUARY I - DECEMBER 31, 1936 



ifioo 4,000 epoo e,ooo io,ooo lapoo upoo ie,ooo lapoo zopoo 22poo 




FlOUKE 21. 



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1,757 

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2,238 

108 
1,112 


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2,528 
1,162 
3, 510 
219 
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4,350 
2,878 
6,512 
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2,303 


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1,134 

1,228 

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1, 559 
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1,598 


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c 


> 

.a 



Assault 

Burglary- breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 

posse^ng 

Forgery and coonterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized 

vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessins, etc. _ . 
Offenses against family and children . 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicJe laws.. 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Van"ancy 

Gambling.. 

Suspicion 

Not staled 

All other offenses 






154 

Youths were most frequently charged with offenses of robbery, 
burglary, larceny, and auto theft. For all crimes 158,752 persons 
under 25 were arrested, thus constituting 34.4 percent of the total 
of 461,589 arrest records examined. However, youths under 25 
numbered 53.2 percent of those charged with robbery, 58.7 percent 
of those charged with burglary, 45.4 percent of those charged with 
larceny, and 70.8 percent of those charged with auto theft. 



Table 89. — Number and percentage of arrests of persons under 25 years of age, 

male and female, Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1936 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Bobbery.. 

Assault.. 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzlement and fraud.. 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos- 
sessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

"Liiquor laws 

'driving while Intoxicated 

load and driving laws 

Parking violations 

^ther traffic and motor vehicle laws 

pisorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated „ 

All other offenses 

Total 



Total 

number of 

persons 

arrested 



6,767 
13,215 
27, 934 
29, 686 
64, 733 
n, 398 
14, 410 

8,233 

6,451 

6,132 

4.873 

6,713 

3,898 

6,019 

6,686 

9,637 

19,028 

8,284 

11 

6,849 

19, 098 

72,729 

37, 057 

6,874 

63, 629 

6,599 

29,748 



461,589 



Number 

under 21 

years of 

age 



743 
3,538 
3,012 
11, 699 
14, 932 
6,472 
1,060 

500 

936 

1,239 

426 

927 

227 

983 

223 

699 

796 

670 

1 

1,028 

2,760 

3,188 

6,087 

478 

10, 731 

864 

7,339 



80,358 



Total 

number 

under 25 

years of 

age 



1,927 
7,034 
7,503 
17, 423 
24, 845 
8,071 
8,128 

1,006 

2,002 

2,400 

1,672 

2,012 

747 

2,091 

964 

1,936 

8,162 

1,432 

8 

2,342 

6,286 

10,294 

13, 491 
1,260 

20,981 
1,845 

12, 895 



158, 752 



Percentage 

under 21 

years of 

age 



11.0 
26.8 
10.8 
39.1 
27.3 
48.0 
7.4 

15.5 
14,6 
24.1 

8.7 
13.8 

6.8 
16.3 

8.9 

7.3 

4.2 
17.4 

9.1 
17.6 
14.6 

4.4 
16.4 

8.1 
20.0 
15.4 
24.7 



17.4 



Total 

percentage 

under 25 

years of 

age 



28.5 
63.2 
26.9 
58.7 
45.4 
70.8 
21.7 

31.1 
81.0 
46.8 
84.3 
80.0 
19.2 
34.7 
17.0 
20.3 
16.8 
43.6 
27.3 
40.0 
82.9 
14.2 
36.4 
21.6 
89.1 
33.0 
43.3 



84.4 



155 

The ago distribution of males urrestod was sul)stantially the same 
as that for all persons roprcsontod in the compilation. This is due 
to the fact that men were represented by more than 92 percent of the 
arrest records examined. For fcnuiles, the lar^^est number of arrests 
occurred at ag:e 22. In tliis respect the age distribution of females 
arrested was the same as that for all persons involved. However, 
the proportion of females arrested between the ages of 21 and 20 was 
45.2 percent, wlicrcas, for all persons represented in the tabulation, 
onl}- 34.1 percent were within those ago groups. Similarly, of all 
persons represented in the tabulation, 51.5 percent were less than 30 
years of age, but 62.2 percent of the females arrested were less than 
30 venrs old. 



156 



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158 

During 1936, 39.7 percent (183,140) of the persons arrested already 
had fingerprint cards on file in the Identification Division of the 
FBI. In addition, there were 9,996 records bearing notations indi- 
cating previous criminal histories of the persons concerned, although 
the fingerprints had not previously been filed in the Bureau. TMs 
makes a total of 193,136 records containing information regarding 
the prior criminal activities of the persons arrested. The records dis- 
closed that 139,707 (72.3 percent) had previously been convicted of 
one or more offenses. This number constitutes 30.3 percent of the 
461,589 arrest records examined. 

Many of the persons had been previously convicted of major viola- 
tions, as indicated by the following figures: 

Criminal homicide 1, 351 

Robbery 6, 054 

Assault 7, 615 

Burglary 17, 332 

Larceny (and related offenses) 35, 705 

Forgery and counterfeiting 4, 454 

Rape 918 

Narcotic drug laws 3, 034 

Weapons (carrying, etc.) 1, 860 

Drivmg while intoxicated 2, 681 

Total 81,004 

The records of 39 of the persons charged with criminal homicide 
during 1936 disclosed that they had been previously convicted of 
homicide. In general, the tabulation indicates a tendency for recidi- 
vists to repeat the same type of crime. 

As heretofore indicated, the records show that 139,707 of the per- 
sons arrested had been previously convicted. The records of those 
persons disclosed 403,001 prior convictions, an average of almost 
three per individual; 178,286 of the convictions were for major viola- 
tions, and 224,715 were for less serious infractions of the cruninal 
laws. 

Of the 33,670 females arrested, only 28.4 percent had previous 
fingerprint cards on file, as compared mth 39.7 percent for all persons 
represented in the tabulation. Similarly, females represented only 
4.6 percent of the 139,707 previous convictions found in the records. 
Since women represented 7.3 percent of the total persons whose arrest 
records were examined during the year, the percentage of women 
among those whose records showed previous convictions is com- 
paratively low. 



159 



Table 92. — Number wilh Previous Fingerprint Records — Arrests, Jan. 1-Dec. 

31, 1930 



Oflense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery... 

Assault .- 

Burglury— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Autotheft 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, 

possessing 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

Prostitution and commercialized 

vice --- -- 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws. 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc. 
Offenses against family and chil- 
dren 

Liquor laws... - 

Driving while Intoxicated 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations 

Other traCflc and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness- 

Vagrancy — 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 

Total— 



Total 



Number 
arrested 



6,767 
13, 215 
27, 034 
29, 086 
64, 733 
11, 398 
14, 410 

3,233 
0, 4.51 
6,132 

4,873 
6,713 
8,896 
6,019 

6,686 

9,537 
19,028 

3,284 
11 

6,849 
19,098 
72, 729 
87, 057 

5,874 
53, 629 

6,599 
29, 748 



461, 589 



Number 
with jirevi- 
ous finger- 
print rec- 
ord 



1,602 
6,461 
0, 398 
12,341 
21,633 
4,455 
6,386 

986 
3,102 
1,321 

1,060 
1,800 
2,511 
1,980 

1,673 
8,106 
4,715 
866 
3 
1,813 
7,038 

80, 012 

19, 351 
1,643 

22, 526 
2,335 

11,323 



183, 140 



Male 



Number 
arrested 



fl.OSS 
12, 578 
25, 508 
29,120 
50, 059 
11, 189 
13, 737 

2,952 
6,046 
5,132 

1, 452 
6,644 
8,182 
5,808 

6,527 

8, 259 
18, 555 

8, 239 
11 

5,730 
16, 744 
68,924 
84,283 

6,445 
49, 298 

6,225 
28, 164 



427, 919 



Number 
with previ- 
ous finger- 
priut rec- 
ord 



1, 518 
6, 236 
8, 927 
12, 198 
20, 399 
4,407 
6,173 

932 
3,017 
1,321 

574 
1, 5.57 
2,167 
1,937 

1, 653 
2,847 
4,C14 
860 
3 
1,788 
6,424 

29, o8l> 

18, 335 
1,492 

21,371 
2, 247 

11, 002 



173, 581 



Female 



Number 
arrested 



679 
637 

2, 426 
6(10 

4, 664 
209 
673 

281 

405 



3,421 

1, 069 

714 

213 



1,59 
1,278 

473 

45 



113 
2,354 
3, 805 
2,774 

429 
4,331 

374 
1,584 



33, 670 



Number 
with previ- 
ous finger- 
print rec- 
ord 



84 

225 

471 

143 

1, 234 

48 
213 

64 
85 



1,886 

243 

344 

43 

23 

259 

101 

6 



25 

614 

1,330 

1,016 

51 

1,155 

88 

321 



9,562 



Table 93. — Percentage with previous fingerprint records, arrests, male and female, 

Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1936 



Offense 



Narcotic drug laws 

Vagrancy 

Robbery 

Forgery and coimterfeiting 

Embezzlement and fraud 

Drunkenness... 

Suspicion 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Larceny- theft. 

Auto theft 

All other offenses 

Disorderly conduct 

Assault 



Percent 



64.6 
63.2 
48.9 
48.1 
44.3 
42.6 
42.0 
41.6 
40.2 
89.6 
89.1 
38.1 
36.9 
83.6 



Offense 



Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Liquor laws 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos- 
sessing 

Offenses apinst family and children 

Parking violations ' 

Other sex offenses 

Road and driving laws... 

Gambling 

Rape. 

Driving while intoxicated 

Criminal homicide 



Percent 



32.9 
32.6 
31.0 

30.5 
29.4 
27.3 
26.8 
2f>. 4 
2(1 3 
25. 7 
24.8 
23.7 



• Only 11 fingerprint cards were received representing arrests for violation of parking regulations. 



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C o ?? d rt 3 S 



166 



Table 97. — Numher of cases in which fingerprint records show one or more prior 
convictions, and the total of prior convictions disclosed by the records, male and 
female, Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1936 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery -- 

Assault 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft - - 

Embezzlement and fraud - 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. 
Forgery and counterfeiting. 

Rape. 



Prostitution and commercialized vice- 
Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws.. 

Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children.. 

Liquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated 

Road and driving laws. 

Parlring violations 

Other traffic and motor vehicle laws... 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness — 

Vagrancy 

Gambling 

Suspicion 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Total. 



Number of 

records 
showing one 
or more prior 

convictions 



1,123 

4,838 
6,968 
6,758 

16, 940 

3,252 

4,364 

745 

2,349 

900 

1,326 

1,310 

2,047 

1,565 

1,030 

2,109 

3,457 

604 

3 

1,309 

5,407 

26, 343 

14, 427 
922 

15, 979 
1,745 
8,827 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
major 
offenses 



139, 707 



1,287 

7,471 

8,394 

16, 522 

31,812 

4,666 

7,120 

1,104 

4,206 

1,170 

1,626 

1,585 

6,669 

2,089 

1,056 

1,542 

2,155 

488 

3 

1,281 

5,568 

18, 308 

16, 642 

1,014 

22,356 

2,588 

10, 564 



Number of 
prior con- 
victions of 
minor 
offenses 



178, 286 



4,776 

7,941 

9,015 

23, 657 

2,601 

4,167 

842 

1,761 

787 

1,396 

1,538 

2,309 

1,531 

900 

2,565 

4,298 

626 

3 

1,434 

10,164 

77, 564 

29, 262 

788 

20, 299 

1,859 

11,636 



Total num- 
ber of prior 
convictions 
disclosed 



224, 715 



2,283 

12, 247 

16, 335 

25, 537 

55, 469 

7,267 

11, 287 

1,948 

5,967 

1,957 

3,022 

3,123 

7,978 

3,620 

1,956 

4,107 

6,453 

1,114 

6 

2,715 

15, 732 

95, 872 

45,904 

1,802 

42, 655 

4,447 

22, 200 



403, 001 



Whites were represented by 333,922 of the records examined and 
Negroes by 104,998. The remaining races w^ere represented as follows: 
Indian, 2,592; Chinese, 1,057; Japanese, 243; Mexican, 16,465; all 
others, 2,312. 

The significance of the figures showing the number of Negroes 
arrested as compared with the number of whites can best be indicated 
in terms of the number of each in the general population of the 
country. Exclusive of those under 15 years' of age, there were accord- 
ing to the 1930 decennial census, 8,041,014 Negroes, 13,069,192 
foreign-born whites, and 64,365,193 native w^hites in the United 
States. Of each 100,000 Negroes, 1,306 were arrested and finger- 
printed during 1936, whereas the corresponding figure for native 
w^hites was 438, and for foreign-born wliites 199. Figures for individual 
types of violations may be found in the following tabulations. It 
should be observed in connection with the foregoing data that the 
figure for native whites includes the immediate descendants of foreign- 
born individuals. Persons desiring to make a thorough study of the 
comparative amounts of crime committed by native whites and for- 
eign-born whites should employ available compilations showing the 
number of instances in which offenders are of foreign or mixed 
parentage. 



1G7 



Table 98. — Dislribuiion of arrests according to race, male and female, Jan. 1- 

Dec. 31, 1936 





Race 


Total 


Offense charged 


AVhIto 


Xegro 


Indi- 
an 


Chi- 
nese 


Jap- 
anese 


Mex- 
ican 


All 
Others 


all 
races 


Criminal homicide 


3,972 
9.073 
1.5.167 
21.328 
37,415 
9,408 
12, 322 

2, 298 
6, 0S2 

3. 704 
8,490 
6,443 
2, 224 
3. 252 
4,717 
5, 435 

16, 362 

2,320 
6 

4,132 
13, 003 
58. 070 
27, 963 

2,979 
37, 572 

4,274 
23, 193 


2,619 
8,590 

ll,3i;0 
7. 391 

15, 3.54 
1,671 
1,021 

850 

032 
1, 031 
1,270 
1, 079 

593 
2, 440 

792 
3,938 
1,337 

755 
6 
1,411 
6,023 
8,525 
7.272 
2,672 
14, 29S 
1,114 
6,549 


37 

49 

158 

100 

248 

47 

64 

12 

43 
46 
23 
20 
7 
9 

20 

32 

161 

18 


12 

5 
32 
14 

17 

9 

6 

12 

3 

4 

698 

21 

1 

6 

1 

2 


6 

2 

16 

5 

8 
o 

** 

8 

1 
6 
4 
1 
4 
8 
4 

"'"32' 
3 


177 
307 
915 
716 
1,494 
279 
840 

49 

61 

204 

68 
127 
2.H1 
199 
148 
118 
l.OSO 
151 


44 
123 
280 
134 
197 
29 
40 

16 

22 
72 
18 
30 
85 
94 
10 
9 
65 
37 


6,767 


Eobbory 


13.215 


Assault . 


27, 934 


Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny — theft 


29,686 
64, 733 


Autotheft 


11,398 


Embezzlement and fraud.. 

Btolen property; buying, receiving, pos- 
se<^sing .. 


14,410 
8,233 


Forcerv and counterfeit inc 


6,451 


Rape 


8,182 


Prostitution and commercialized vice. 

Other sex offenses .. 


4.873 
6,713 


Narcotic drug laws 


3,898 


Weanons' carrvine. Dossesslne, etc 


6,019 


Oflonse.s against fam ly and children 

Liquor laws .. 


6,680 
9,537 


Dr ving whUe intoxicated . 


19, 028 


Rop.d and driving laws 


8,i84 




11 


Other traflBc and motor veliicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 


22 
131 
763 
193 
2 
238 

84 
112 


2 
11 

12 

82 

108 

31 


9 

8 
77 

9 
14 

3 


244 

823 

6,143 

1,345 

43 

1,230 

1.53 

700 


29 

99 

139 

243 

66 
257 

24 
104 


6,849 
19, 098 


Drunkenness 


72, 729 


Vacrancv - 


37,057 


Gamblliiff - .-- 


6,874 


SusDicion 


53,629 


Not stated ... 


6,699 


All other offenses 


10 


14 


29, 748 






Total - 


333, 922 


104, 998 


2,592 


1,057 


243 


16, 465 


2,312 


461, 589 







Table 99. — Distribution of arrests according to race, male, Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1936 





Race 


Total 


OfTense charged 


White 


Negro 


Indi- 
an 


Chi- 
nese 


Jap- 
anese 


Mex- 
ican 


AU 
others 


all 
races 


Criminal homicide 


8,738 
8,750 
14, 624 
20, 9,58 
34,856 
9,308 
11,818 

2,165 

6,363 

8,764 

1,-019 

4,687 

1,704 

8,177 

4,684 

4, 990 

16, 9:11 

2,282 

6 

4,051 

11,650 

65, 398 

26,036 

2,891 

84, 640 

4,019 

21,029 


2,080 
8,305 
9,500 
7,216 
13, 375 
1,632 
1,463 

706 

656 

1,031 

892 

779 

445 

2,302 

707 

8,121 

1,809 

750 

6 

1,3S5 

4,072 

7,698 

i,596 

2,832 

13,003 

1,005 

6,182 


85 
45 

162 
95 

237 
46 
63 

12 

41 

43 

4 

22 
6 
9 

20 

27 
158 

14 


12 
6 

82 

14 

17 

2 

9 

7 

6 

12 

8 

4 

692 

21 

\ 

1 
2 


6 
3 
16 
6 
6 
2 
8 

1 
6 
4 

X 
4 
8 
4 

"'32" 
3 


173 
849 
905 
706 
1,427 
271 
340 

46 

64 

204 

24 

120 

244 

199 

145 

103 

1,071 

151 


44 

122 
279 
132 
151 
28 
86 

16 
21 
72 

9 

23 
83 
94 
10 

9 
63 
37 


6,083 


Robbery .. 


12, 578 


Assault 


25, 508 


Burglary — breaking or entering 


29, 126 


Larceny — theft 


60, 060 


Auto theft 


11,189 


Embezzlement and fraud 


13, 737 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, pos- 
sessing . 


2,953 


Forgery and counterfeiting 


6,046 


Rgpo . ._■., 


6,182 


Prostitution and commercialized vice 

Other sex offenses . -.... 


1,452 
6,644 


Narcotic drug laws -« __ 


8,182 


^ V©flDons* ciirrvlne. possessine. etc 


6,806 


)flenses against family and ohildren 

Llauor laws 


6,627 
8, 259 


Dr vlng while Intoxicated 


18, 655 


load and driving laws 

^arklnc violations 


3,239 
11 


)ther IrafTic and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 


21 
120 
694 
169 
2 
200 

82 
106 


2 
10 
12 

31 

107 

31 


9 
8 

77 
9 

14 
3 


2,39 

791 

6,010 

1, 239 

43 

1,188 

148 

666 


29 

93 
135 
213 

56 
227 

21 
167 


8, 736 
16,741 


Drunkenness ..... 


68, 924 


Vagrancy 


34, 283 


Gambling 


6,445 


Suspicion 


49. 298 


Not stated . .... .... 


6,225 


All other offenses 


10 


14 


28, 164 






Total 


313,438 


02, 807 


2,371 


1,047 


241 


15, 801 


2,164 


427,919 







168 



Table 100. — Di&trihution of arrests according to race, female, Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1938 





Race 


Total 


Offense charged 


White 


Negro 


Indi- 
an 


Chi- 
nese 


Jap- 
anese 


Mex- 
ican 


All 
others 


all 
races 


Criminal homicide 


234 
323 
543 
368 
2,559 
160 
504 

133 

319 


439 

291 
1,860 

175 

1,979 

39 

158 

144 
76 


2 
4 
6 
5 
11 
1 
1 






4 

18 
10 
10 
67 
8 
6 

3 

7 


46 


679 


Robbery 






637 


Assault 






2,426 
660 


Burglary — brealiing or entering 






Larceny — theft - 




2 


4,664 
209 


Autotheft 


Embezzlement and fraud . 






673 


Stolen property; buying, receiving, possess- 
ing . . --.._. 






281 


Forgery and counterfeiting 


2 






405 


Rape- - 









Prostitution and commercialized vice 


2,471 
758 
520 
75 
133 
445 
431 
38 


878 
300 
148 
138 

25 
817 

28 
5 


19 
4 
1 






44 

7 

37 


9 
2 
2 


3,421 


Other sex offenses . . 






1,069 
714 


Narcotic drug laws 


6 




Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 


213 


Offenses against family and children 








1 
10 

e 


2" 


159 


Liquor laws 


6 
3 
2 


1 




1 278 


Driving while intoxicated 


473 


Road and driving laws 






45 


Parking violations, ._. 













Other traffic and motor vehicle laws 


81 
1,353 
2,672 
1,927 

88 

2,932 

255 

1,164 


26 
951 
927 
676 
340 
1,295 
109 
367 


1 

11 
69 
34 

32' 
2 
6 






5 

32 
133 
106 


g- 

4 
30 


113 




1 




2 354 


Drunlsenness 


3,805 

2,774 

429 




1 
1 




Gambling 


Suspicion 




42 

5 

40 


30 
3 

7 


4,331 

874 


Not stated 






All other oflenses... 






1,584 








Total 


20, 484 


12, 191 


221 


10 


2 


604 


158 


33 670 







Table 101. — Number of arrests of Negroes and whites in proportion to the number 
of each in the general population of the country, male and female, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 
1936, rate per 100,000 of population {excluding those under 15 years of age) 



Offense charged 



Criminal homicide 

Robbery 

Assault- - 

Burglary— breaking or entering 

Larceny— theft 

Auto theft 

Embezzelement and fraud 

Stolen property; buying, receiving, possessing. 

Forgery and counterfeiting 

Rape 

prostitution and commercialized vice.- 

Other sex offenses 

Narcotic drug laws 

■Weapons; carrying, possessing, etc 

Offenses against family and children 

tifquor laws 

Driving while intoxicated-.. 

Road and driving laws 

Parking violations ..• 

Other tralBc and motor vehicle laws 

Disorderly conduct 

Drunkenness 

Vagrancy... 

Gambling 

Suspicion... 

Not stated 

All other offenses 



Native 
white 



5.0 



Total. 



(*) 



12. 

18. 

80. 

52. 

13. 

15. 
2. 

7.9 
5.0 
4.9 
6.7 
3.2 
4.1 
6.2 
6.7 

21.7 
3.3 



6.7 
17.5 
69.1 
35.8 

3.6 
50.1 

6.0 
80.5 



Foreign- 
born white 



4.2 
3.3 

21.6 
7.2 

19.4 
1.8 
7.0 
3.5 
2.4 
2.9 
1.8 
5.7 
0.9 
8.5 
4.6 
7.7 
8.2 
1.0 



(•) 



437.9 



2.4 
10.6 
81.6 
12.6 

3.3 
16.1 

2.3 
14.3 



199.4 



Negro 



31.3 
44.7 
141.3 
91.9 
190.9 
19.8 
20.2 
10.6 

7.9 
12.8 
15.8 
13.4 

7.4 
30.3 

9.8 
49.0 
16.6 

9.4 

0.1 
17.5 
62.5 
106.0 
90.4 
33.2 
177.8 
13.9 
81.4 



1, 305. 8 



•Less than Ho of 1 per 100,000. 



1G9 



Table 102. — Number of native tvhiles, number of foreign-born lohiles and number <tf 
Negroes arrested and fingerprinted by age groups, male and female, Jan. 1-Dec. 
SI, 1936 



Age 



16 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

2.'5-29 

80-34 

35-39 

40-44 

45^9 

60 and over 

Total 



Number arrested 



Native 
white 



1,753 
6,486 
8,180 
12. 100 
12, 805 
11,425 
13, 323 
13, 049 
12, 041 
11, 305 
48, 006 
37, 763 
82, 719 
22, 526 
15, 162 
22,290 



279, 933 



ForelKti- 
boiu white 



19 

115 

128 

170 

188 

209 

24S 

809 

347 

35.i 

1,998 

2,654 

8,752 

4,400 

4,112 

6,953 



26,013 



Negro 



735 
2,187 
8, 255 
4, 293 
4,854 
3,905 
4,566 
6,028 
4,944 
4,708 
20, 850 
14,644 
13, 031 
7,257 
4,431 
6,067 



Numher of arrests per 100,000 of the 
Keneral population of the United 
States 



103, 576 



Native 
white 



88.5 
271.5 
419.6 
614.9 
685.1 
629.2 
727.5 
732.4 
703.7 
679.3 
635. 6 
650.2 
499.4 
409.2 
813.7 
154.0 



435.4 



Foreign- 
born white 



49.4 
225. 3 
193.0 
212.3 
209.4 
195.5 
212.9 
239. 6 
240.8 
214.6 
195. 
212.9 
229.9 
263. 3 
262.7 
141.6 



199.2 



Negro 



305.7 
848.8 



1, 828 
1, 595 
1,911. 

1, 533. 
2, 000 

2, 016, 
2, 108. 
2, 051. 
1,945.3 
1, 693. 9 
1, 462. 7 
1, 055. 7 

703.3 
854.8 



1, 290. 3 



Table 103. — Percentage distribution of arrests by age, of native whites, foreign- 
bant, whites and Negroes, male and female, Jan. 1-Dec. SI, 1936 





Number arrested 


Percent 


Age 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born white 


Negro 


Native 
white 


Foreign- 
born white 


Negro 


15 and under 21 . 


61, 749 
49, 718 

48, 006 
87, 763 
82, 719 
22, 526 
16, 162 
22, 290 


827 
1,259 
1,998 
2,654 
8. 762 
4,460 
4,112 
6,958 


18,989 

19, 306. 

20, 850 

14, 644 

13, 031 

7,257 

4,431 

6,067 


18.8 

17.8 

17.1 

13.5 

11.7 

8.0 

6.4 

8.0 


3.2 

4.8 
7.7 
10.3 
14.4 
17.1 
15.8 
20.8 


18.3 
18.6 
20.2 
14.1 
19 fl 


21-24 


26-29 -. 


80-34 


85-39 


40-44 . -- 


7.0 
4.8 
4.9 


45-49 


60 and over 




Total 


279, 933 


26,018 


103, 575 


100.0 


100.0 


inn n 







At the end of December 1936, there were 6,082,609 fingerprint 
records and 7,798,946 index cards containing the names and aliases 
of individuals on file in the Identification Division of the FBI. 
Of each 100 fingerprint cards received during 1936, more than 53 
were identified with those on file in the Bureau. Fugitives number- 
ing 5,942 were identified through fingerprint records during this same 
period, and interested law-enforcement officials were immediately 
notified of the whereabouts of these fugitives. 

As of December 31, 1930, there were 10,229 police departments, 
peace officers, and law-enforcement agencies throughout the United 
States and foreign countries voluntaiilv contributing fingerprints to 
the FBI. 



INDEX TO VOLUME VII, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS 

[All references are to page numbers] 

Age of offenders. (See Arrests.) 

Annual crime trends: Page 

Cities grouped by location 110-113 

Cities grouped by size 5-6, 49-50, 76-78, 99-100, 131-135 

Arrests — based on fingerprint records 31-42, 81-92, 114-124, 150-169 

Age of offenders 32-35, 42, 82-85, 92, 116-118, 124, 152-155 

Race of offenders 40-42, 90-92, 122-124, 166-169 

Recidivism 35-40,85-90, 118-122, 158-166 

Sex of offenders 31-32, 81-82, 115, 151 

Arrests. {See Persons charged and persons released.) 

Arson 151 

Classification of offenses 1-2, 43-44, 93-94, 125-126 

Cleared by arrest, offenses 16-21, 30-31 

For selected States 79-80 

Convictions, previous. {See Arrests — recidivism.) 

Crimes. {See Arrests, offenses, persons charged, and persons released.) 

Crime rates, relation to number of police employees 75-76 

Employees, number of police 61-75 

Number of, and relation to crime rates 75-76 

Fingerprint records 31-42, 81-92, 114-124, 150-169 

Offenses known to the police: 

Annual variations 5-6, 49-50, 76-78, 99-100, 110-113, 131-135 

Cities grouped by location... 6-9, 52-54, 101-103, 135-137 

Cities grouped by location and size 138 

Cities grouped by size __ 3-4, 46-48, 96-98, 128^130 

Cleared by arrest 16-21, 30-31 

Cleared by arrest for selected States 79-80 

Divided as to time and place and value of property stolen 13-14, 

59, 107-108, 146-149 
Individual cities over 100,000 in population.. 9-11, 55-57, 104-106, 139-144 

Individual cities over 25,000 in population 139-144 

Monthly variations 4-5, 49, 99, 131-132 

Possessions of the United States 12-13, 58, 107, 145-146 

Rural areas 12, 57-58, 106-107, 144-145 

Persons charged (held for prosecution) 20-27 

For selected States 79-80 

Persons released (not held for prosecution) 27-30 

Police department employees 61-75 

Possessions of the United States, offenses in 12-13, 58, 107, 145-146 

Property^ value stolen and recovered 14r-15, 60, 108-110, 147-149 

Prosecution, persons held for. {See Persons charged.) 
Race of offenders. {See Arrests.) 
Recidivism. {See Arrests.) 

Rural crime data 12, 57-58, 106-107, 144-145 

Reporting area, extent of 2-3, 44-45, 94-95, 126-127 

Sex of offenders. {See Arrests.) 

Sheriffs' reports 12, 57-58, 106-107, 144-145 

State crime rates. {See Offenses known — cities grouped bv location.) 

State police reports 12, 57-58, 106-107, 144-145 

Trends, annual crime: 

Cities grouped by location 110-113 

Cities grouped by size 5-6, 49-50, 76-78, 99-100, 131-135 

Trends, monthly crime 4-5, 49, 99, 131-132 

Value of property stolen and recovered 14-15, 60, 108-110, 147-149 

(170) 
O 



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